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Sample records for myosin ii motor

  1. Dynamic instability of collective myosin II motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin-Fang; Wang, Zi-Qing; Li, Qi-Kun; Xing, Jian-Jun; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2016-11-01

    Some kinds of muscles can oscillate spontaneously, which is related to the dynamic instability of the collective motors. Based on the two-state ratchet model and with consideration of the motor stiffness, the dynamics of collective myosin II motors are studied. It is shown that when the motor stiffness is small, the velocity of the collective motors decreases monotonically with load increasing. When the motor stiffness becomes large, dynamic instability appears in the force-velocity relationship of the collective-motor transport. For a large enough motor stiffness, the zero-velocity point lies in the unstable range of the force-velocity curve, and the motor system becomes unstable before the motion is stopped, so spontaneous oscillations can be generated if the system is elastically coupled to its environment via a spring. The oscillation frequency is related to the motor stiffness, motor binding rate, spring stiffness, and the width of the ATP excitation interval. For a medium motor stiffness, the zero-velocity point lies outside the unstable range of the force-velocity curve, and the motion will be stopped before the instability occurs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11205123).

  2. Mechanical output of myosin II motors is regulated by myosin filament size and actin network mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stam, Samantha; Alberts, Jonathan; Gardel, Margaret; Munro, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    The interactions of bipolar myosin II filaments with actin arrays are a predominate means of generating forces in numerous physiological processes including muscle contraction and cell migration. However, how the spatiotemporal regulation of these forces depends on motor mechanochemistry, bipolar filament size, and local actin mechanics is unknown. Here, we simulate myosin II motors with an agent-based model in which the motors have been benchmarked against experimental measurements. Force generation occurs in two distinct regimes characterized either by stable tension maintenance or by stochastic buildup and release; transitions between these regimes occur by changes to duty ratio and myosin filament size. The time required for building force to stall scales inversely with the stiffness of a network and the actin gliding speed of a motor. Finally, myosin motors are predicted to contract a network toward stiffer regions, which is consistent with experimental observations. Our representation of myosin motors can be used to understand how their mechanical and biochemical properties influence their observed behavior in a variety of in vitro and in vivo contexts.

  3. Drosophila non-muscle myosin II motor activity determines the rate of tissue folding.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Claudia G; Heissler, Sarah M; Billington, Neil; Sellers, James R; Martin, Adam C

    2016-12-30

    Non-muscle cell contractility is critical for tissues to adopt shape changes. Although, the non-muscle myosin II holoenzyme (myosin) is a molecular motor that powers contraction of actin cytoskeleton networks, recent studies have questioned the importance of myosin motor activity cell and tissue shape changes. Here, combining the biochemical analysis of enzymatic and motile properties for purified myosin mutants with in vivo measurements of apical constriction for the same mutants, we show that in vivo constriction rate scales with myosin motor activity. We show that so-called phosphomimetic mutants of the Drosophila regulatory light chain (RLC) do not mimic the phosphorylated RLC state in vitro. The defect in the myosin motor activity in these mutants is evident in developing Drosophila embryos where tissue recoil following laser ablation is decreased compared to wild-type tissue. Overall, our data highlights that myosin activity is required for rapid cell contraction and tissue folding in developing Drosophila embryos.

  4. Life without double-headed non-muscle myosin II motor proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betapudi, Venkaiah

    2014-07-01

    Non-muscle myosin II motor proteins (myosin IIA, myosin IIB, and myosin IIC) belong to a class of molecular motor proteins that are known to transduce cellular free-energy into biological work more efficiently than man-made combustion engines. Nature has given a single myosin II motor protein for lower eukaryotes and multiple for mammals but none for plants in order to provide impetus for their life. These specialized nanomachines drive cellular activities necessary for embryogenesis, organogenesis, and immunity. However, these multifunctional myosin II motor proteins are believed to go awry due to unknown reasons and contribute for the onset and progression of many autosomal-dominant disorders, cataract, deafness, infertility, cancer, kidney, neuronal, and inflammatory diseases. Many pathogens like HIV, Dengue, hepatitis C, and Lymphoma viruses as well as Salmonella and Mycobacteria are now known to take hostage of these dedicated myosin II motor proteins for their efficient pathogenesis. Even after four decades since their discovery, we still have a limited knowledge of how these motor proteins drive cell migration and cytokinesis. We need to enrich our current knowledge on these fundamental cellular processes and develop novel therapeutic strategies to fix mutated myosin II motor proteins in pathological conditions. This is the time to think how to relieve the hijacked myosins from pathogens in order to provide a renewed impetus for patients’ life. Understanding how to steer these molecular motors in proliferating and differentiating stem cells will improve stem cell based-therapeutics development. Given the plethora of cellular activities non-muscle myosin motor proteins are involved in, their importance is apparent for human life.

  5. Life without double-headed non-muscle myosin II motor proteins

    PubMed Central

    Betapudi, Venkaiah

    2014-01-01

    Non-muscle myosin II motor proteins (myosin IIA, myosin IIB, and myosin IIC) belong to a class of molecular motor proteins that are known to transduce cellular free-energy into biological work more efficiently than man-made combustion engines. Nature has given a single myosin II motor protein for lower eukaryotes and multiple for mammals but none for plants in order to provide impetus for their life. These specialized nanomachines drive cellular activities necessary for embryogenesis, organogenesis, and immunity. However, these multifunctional myosin II motor proteins are believed to go awry due to unknown reasons and contribute for the onset and progression of many autosomal-dominant disorders, cataract, deafness, infertility, cancer, kidney, neuronal, and inflammatory diseases. Many pathogens like HIV, Dengue, hepatitis C, and Lymphoma viruses as well as Salmonella and Mycobacteria are now known to take hostage of these dedicated myosin II motor proteins for their efficient pathogenesis. Even after four decades since their discovery, we still have a limited knowledge of how these motor proteins drive cell migration and cytokinesis. We need to enrich our current knowledge on these fundamental cellular processes and develop novel therapeutic strategies to fix mutated myosin II motor proteins in pathological conditions. This is the time to think how to relieve the hijacked myosins from pathogens in order to provide a renewed impetus for patients' life. Understanding how to steer these molecular motors in proliferating and differentiating stem cells will improve stem cell based-therapeutics development. Given the plethora of cellular activities non-muscle myosin motor proteins are involved in, their importance is apparent for human life. PMID:25072053

  6. Measurements of Myosin-II Motor Activity During Cytokinesis in Fission Yeast.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qing; Pollard, Luther W; Lord, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Fission yeast myosin-II (Myo2p) represents the critical actin-based motor protein that drives actomyosin ring assembly and constriction during cytokinesis. We detail three different methods to measure Myo2p motor function. Actin-activated ATPases provide a readout of actomyosin ATPase motor activity in a bulk assay; actin filament motility assays reveal the speed and efficiency of myosin-driven actin filament gliding (when motors are anchored); myosin-bead motility assays reveal the speed and efficiency of myosin ensembles traveling along actin filaments (when actin is anchored). Collectively, these methods allow us to combine the standard in vivo approaches common to fission yeast with in vitro biochemical methods to learn more about the mechanistic action of myosin-II during cytokinesis.

  7. Drosophila non-muscle myosin II motor activity determines the rate of tissue folding

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Claudia G; Heissler, Sarah M; Billington, Neil; Sellers, James R; Martin, Adam C

    2016-01-01

    Non-muscle cell contractility is critical for tissues to adopt shape changes. Although, the non-muscle myosin II holoenzyme (myosin) is a molecular motor that powers contraction of actin cytoskeleton networks, recent studies have questioned the importance of myosin motor activity cell and tissue shape changes. Here, combining the biochemical analysis of enzymatic and motile properties for purified myosin mutants with in vivo measurements of apical constriction for the same mutants, we show that in vivo constriction rate scales with myosin motor activity. We show that so-called phosphomimetic mutants of the Drosophila regulatory light chain (RLC) do not mimic the phosphorylated RLC state in vitro. The defect in the myosin motor activity in these mutants is evident in developing Drosophila embryos where tissue recoil following laser ablation is decreased compared to wild-type tissue. Overall, our data highlights that myosin activity is required for rapid cell contraction and tissue folding in developing Drosophila embryos. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20828.001 PMID:28035903

  8. Myosin II Motor Activity in the Lateral Amygdala Is Required for Fear Memory Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, Cristin F.; Rubio, Maria D.; Young, Erica; Miller, Courtney; Rumbaugh, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    Learning induces dynamic changes to the actin cytoskeleton that are required to support memory formation. However, the molecular mechanisms that mediate filamentous actin (F-actin) dynamics during learning and memory are poorly understood. Myosin II motors are highly expressed in actin-rich growth structures including dendritic spines, and we have…

  9. UCS protein Rng3p is essential for myosin-II motor activity during cytokinesis in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Stark, Benjamin C; James, Michael L; Pollard, Luther W; Sirotkin, Vladimir; Lord, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    UCS proteins have been proposed to operate as co-chaperones that work with Hsp90 in the de novo folding of myosin motors. The fission yeast UCS protein Rng3p is essential for actomyosin ring assembly and cytokinesis. Here we investigated the role of Rng3p in fission yeast myosin-II (Myo2p) motor activity. Myo2p isolated from an arrested rng3-65 mutant was capable of binding actin, yet lacked stability and activity based on its expression levels and inactivity in ATPase and actin filament gliding assays. Myo2p isolated from a myo2-E1 mutant (a mutant hyper-sensitive to perturbation of Rng3p function) showed similar behavior in the same assays and exhibited an altered motor conformation based on limited proteolysis experiments. We propose that Rng3p is not required for the folding of motors per se, but instead works to ensure the activity of intrinsically unstable myosin-II motors. Rng3p is specific to conventional myosin-II and the actomyosin ring, and is not required for unconventional myosin motor function at other actin structures. However, artificial destabilization of myosin-I motors at endocytic actin patches (using a myo1-E1 mutant) led to recruitment of Rng3p to patches. Thus, while Rng3p is specific to myosin-II, UCS proteins are adaptable and can respond to changes in the stability of other myosin motors.

  10. The structural coupling between ATPase activation and recovery stroke in the myosin II motor

    SciTech Connect

    Koppole, Sampath; Smith, Jeremy C; Fischer, S.

    2007-07-01

    Before the myosin motor head can perform the next power stroke, it undergoes a large conformational transition in which the converter domain, bearing the lever arm, rotates {approx} 65{sup o}. Simultaneous with this 'recovery stroke', myosin activates its ATPase function by closing the Switch-2 loop over the bound ATP. This coupling between the motions of the converter domain and of the 40 {angstrom}-distant Switch-2 loop is essential to avoid unproductive ATP hydrolysis. The coupling mechanism is determined here by finding a series of optimized intermediates between crystallographic end structures of the recovery stroke (Dictyostelium discoideum), yielding movies of the transition at atomic detail. The successive formation of two hydrogen bonds by the Switch-2 loop is correlated with the successive see-saw motions of the relay and SH1 helices that hold the converter domain. SH1 helix and Switch-2 loop communicate via a highly conserved loop that wedges against the SH1-helix upon Switch-2 closing.

  11. Myosin II Dynamics during Embryo Morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasza, Karen

    2013-03-01

    During embryonic morphogenesis, the myosin II motor protein generates forces that help to shape tissues, organs, and the overall body form. In one dramatic example in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo, the epithelial tissue that will give rise to the body of the adult animal elongates more than two-fold along the head-to-tail axis in less than an hour. This elongation is accomplished primarily through directional rearrangements of cells within the plane of the tissue. Just prior to elongation, polarized assemblies of myosin II accumulate perpendicular to the elongation axis. The contractile forces generated by myosin activity orient cell movements along a common axis, promoting local cell rearrangements that contribute to global tissue elongation. The molecular and mechanical mechanisms by which myosin drives this massive change in embryo shape are poorly understood. To investigate these mechanisms, we generated a collection of transgenic flies expressing variants of myosin II with altered motor function and regulation. We found that variants that are predicted to have increased myosin activity cause defects in tissue elongation. Using biophysical approaches, we found that these myosin variants also have decreased turnover dynamics within cells. To explore the mechanisms by which molecular-level myosin dynamics are translated into tissue-level elongation, we are using time-lapse confocal imaging to observe cell movements in embryos with altered myosin activity. We are utilizing computational approaches to quantify the dynamics and directionality of myosin localization and cell rearrangements. These studies will help elucidate how myosin-generated forces control cell movements within tissues. This work is in collaboration with J. Zallen at the Sloan-Kettering Institute.

  12. Regulation of the actin-activated MgATPase activity of Acanthamoeba myosin II by phosphorylation of serine 639 in motor domain loop 2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiong; Lee, Duck-Yeon; Cai, Shutao; Yu, Shuhua; Shu, Shi; Levine, Rodney L; Korn, Edward D

    2013-01-02

    It had been proposed previously that only filamentous forms of Acanthamoeba myosin II have actin-activated MgATPase activity and that this activity is inhibited by phosphorylation of up to four serine residues in a repeating sequence in the C-terminal nonhelical tailpiece of the two heavy chains. We have reinvestigated these issues using recombinant WT and mutant myosins. Contrary to the earlier proposal, we show that two nonfilamentous forms of Acanthamoeba myosin II, heavy meromyosin and myosin subfragment 1, have actin-activated MgATPase that is down-regulated by phosphorylation. By mass spectroscopy, we identified five serines in the heavy chains that can be phosphorylated by a partially purified kinase preparation in vitro and also are phosphorylated in endogenous myosin isolated from the amoebae: four serines in the nonhelical tailpiece and Ser639 in loop 2 of the motor domain. S639A mutants of both subfragment 1 and full-length myosin had actin-activated MgATPase that was not inhibited by phosphorylation of the serines in the nonhelical tailpiece or their mutation to glutamic acid or aspartic acid. Conversely, S639D mutants of both subfragment 1 and full-length myosin were inactive, irrespective of the phosphorylation state of the serines in the nonhelical tailpiece. To our knowledge, this is the first example of regulation of the actin-activated MgATPase activity of any myosin by modification of surface loop 2.

  13. Myosin II Activity Softens Cells in Suspension

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chii J.; Ekpenyong, Andrew E.; Golfier, Stefan; Li, Wenhong; Chalut, Kevin J.; Otto, Oliver; Elgeti, Jens; Guck, Jochen; Lautenschläger, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    The cellular cytoskeleton is crucial for many cellular functions such as cell motility and wound healing, as well as other processes that require shape change or force generation. Actin is one cytoskeleton component that regulates cell mechanics. Important properties driving this regulation include the amount of actin, its level of cross-linking, and its coordination with the activity of specific molecular motors like myosin. While studies investigating the contribution of myosin activity to cell mechanics have been performed on cells attached to a substrate, we investigated mechanical properties of cells in suspension. To do this, we used multiple probes for cell mechanics including a microfluidic optical stretcher, a microfluidic microcirculation mimetic, and real-time deformability cytometry. We found that nonadherent blood cells, cells arrested in mitosis, and naturally adherent cells brought into suspension, stiffen and become more solidlike upon myosin inhibition across multiple timescales (milliseconds to minutes). Our results hold across several pharmacological and genetic perturbations targeting myosin. Our findings suggest that myosin II activity contributes to increased whole-cell compliance and fluidity. This finding is contrary to what has been reported for cells attached to a substrate, which stiffen via active myosin driven prestress. Our results establish the importance of myosin II as an active component in modulating suspended cell mechanics, with a functional role distinctly different from that for substrate-adhered cells. PMID:25902426

  14. Regulation of myosin II activity by actin architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weirich, Kimberly; Stam, Samantha; McCall, Patrick; Munro, Edwin; Gardel, Margaret

    2015-03-01

    Networks of actin filaments containing myosin II motors generate forces and motions that promote biological processes such as cell division, motility, and cargo transport. In cells, actin filaments are arranged in various structures from disordered meshworks to tight bundles. Clusters of myosin II motors, known as myosin filaments, crosslink and generate force on neighboring actin filaments. We hypothesized that the local actin architecture controls the magnitude and duration of force generated by myosin II motors. We used fluorescence imaging to directly measure the mobility of myosin II filaments on actin networks and bundles with varying actin filament polarity, orientation, spacing, and length. On unipolar bundles, myosin exhibits fast, unidirectional motion consistent with their unloaded gliding speed. On mixed polarity bundles, myosin speed is reduced by one order of magnitude and marked by direction switching and trapping. Increasing filament spacing and bundle flexibility reduces the duration of trapping and enhances the mobility of motors. Simulations indicate that stable trapping is a signature of large generated forces while increased mobility indicates force release. Our data underscore that the efficiency of force generation by myosin motors in an actin network depends sensitively on its architecture and suggests actin crosslinking proteins are tuned to optimize actomyosin contractility.

  15. Maximum limit to the number of myosin II motors participating in processive sliding of actin

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Khushboo; Puliyakodan, Mohammed Shabeel; Pandey, Vikas; Nath, Sunil; Elangovan, Ravikrishnan

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we analysed processive sliding and breakage of actin filaments at various heavy meromyosin (HMM) densities and ATP concentrations in IVMA. We observed that with addition of ATP solution, the actin filaments fragmented stochastically; we then determined mean length and velocity of surviving actin filaments post breakage. Average filament length decreased with increase in HMM density at constant ATP, and increased with increase in ATP concentration at constant HMM density. Using density of HMM molecules and length of actin, we estimated the number of HMM molecules per actin filament (N) that participate in processive sliding of actin. N is solely a function of ATP concentration: 88 ± 24 and 54 ± 22 HMM molecules (mean ± S.D.) at 2 mM and 0.1 mM ATP respectively. Processive sliding of actin filament was observed only when N lay within a minimum lower limit (Nmin) and a maximum upper limit (Nmax) to the number of HMM molecules. When N < Nmin the actin filament diffused away from the surface and processivity was lost and when N > Nmax the filament underwent breakage eventually and could not sustain processive sliding. We postulate this maximum upper limit arises due to increased number of strongly bound myosin heads. PMID:27554800

  16. A non-muscle myosin II motor links NR1 to retrograde trafficking and proteasomal degradation in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Vazhappilly, Rema; Wee, Karen Siaw-Ling; Sucher, Nikolaus J; Low, Chian-Ming

    2010-03-01

    Rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells have been shown to lack functional NMDA receptors; yet, these cells express NR1 subunits of the NMDA receptor. The reason for the lack of functional receptors has been attributed to the absence of significant levels of NR2 subunits to co-assemble with NR1. It is known that PC12 expresses very low levels of NR2C, with complete absence of other types of NR2 subunits. The purpose of the present study is to describe the molecular mechanism of trafficking and degradation of unassembled NR1 subunits in PC12 cells. The localization of NR1 subunits in PC12 cells were evaluated by immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation, which showed that NR1 was present in the endoplasmic reticulum and cis-middle compartments of the Golgi apparatus. Upon treatment with a proteasome inhibitor, MG132, the ubiquitinylated species of NR1 subunit were detected, suggesting that NR1 is being targeted for endoplasmic reticulum-associated proteasomal degradation. Our previous studies suggest that NR1 subunits from the Golgi do not proceed to trans-Golgi, hence they will require re-routing to the endoplasmic reticulum for degradation. Further investigations on the factors involved in the trafficking of NR1 from Golgi to endoplasmic reticulum were performed using co-immunoprecipitation and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. These revealed the co-association of NR1 with non-muscle myosin heavy chain II isoforms A and B. We also demonstrate the functional significance of this interaction through the use of a myosin inhibitor, blebbistatin, to disrupt brefeldin A-induced Golgi-to-endoplasmic reticulum trafficking of NR1. In conclusion, our results suggest that non-muscle myosin II is involved in the retrograde trafficking of NR1 subunits from the cis/middle-Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum for proteasomal degradation in PC12.

  17. Chaperone-enhanced purification of unconventional myosin 15, a molecular motor specialized for stereocilia protein trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Jonathan E.; Takagi, Yasuharu; Billington, Neil; Strub, Marie-Paule; Sellers, James R.; Friedman, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Unconventional myosin 15 is a molecular motor expressed in inner ear hair cells that transports protein cargos within developing mechanosensory stereocilia. Mutations of myosin 15 cause profound hearing loss in humans and mice; however, the properties of this motor and its regulation within the stereocilia organelle are unknown. To address these questions, we expressed a subfragment 1-like (S1) truncation of mouse myosin 15, comprising the predicted motor domain plus three light-chain binding sites. Following unsuccessful attempts to express functional myosin 15-S1 using the Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9)-baculovirus system, we discovered that coexpression of the muscle-myosin–specific chaperone UNC45B, in addition to the chaperone heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) significantly increased the yield of functional protein. Surprisingly, myosin 15-S1 did not bind calmodulin with high affinity. Instead, the IQ domains bound essential and regulatory light chains that are normally associated with class II myosins. We show that myosin 15-S1 is a barbed-end–directed motor that moves actin filaments in a gliding assay (∼430 nm·s−1 at 30 °C), using a power stroke of 7.9 nm. The maximum ATPase rate (kcat ∼6 s−1) was similar to the actin-detachment rate (kdet = 6.2 s−1) determined in single molecule optical trapping experiments, indicating that myosin 15-S1 was rate limited by transit through strongly actin-bound states, similar to other processive myosin motors. Our data further indicate that in addition to folding muscle myosin, UNC45B facilitates maturation of an unconventional myosin. We speculate that chaperone coexpression may be a simple method to optimize the purification of other myosin motors from Sf9 insect cells. PMID:25114250

  18. Multiple mechanisms for accumulation of myosin II filaments at the equator during cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Yumura, Shigehiko; Ueda, Masahiro; Sako, Yasushi; Kitanishi-Yumura, Toshiko; Yanagida, Toshio

    2008-12-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy revealed how individual bipolar myosin II filaments accumulate at the equatorial region in dividing Dictyostelium cells. Direct observation of individual filaments in live cells provided us with much convincing information. Myosin II filaments accumulated at the equatorial region by at least two independent mechanisms: (i) cortical flow, which is driven by myosin II motor activities and (ii) de novo association to the equatorial cortex. These two mechanisms were mutually redundant. At the same time, myosin II filaments underwent rapid turnover, repeating their association and dissociation with the actin cortex. Examination of the lifetime of mutant myosin filaments in the cortex revealed that the turnover mainly depended on heavy chain phosphorylation and that myosin motor activity accelerated the turnover. Double mutant myosin II deficient in both motor and phosphorylation still accumulated at the equatorial region, although they displayed no cortical flow and considerably slow turnover. Under this condition, the filaments stayed for a significantly longer time at the equatorial region than at the polar regions, indicating that there are still other mechanisms for myosin II accumulation such as binding partners or stabilizing activity of filaments in the equatorial cortex.

  19. Magnesium Modulates Actin Binding and ADP Release in Myosin Motors*

    PubMed Central

    Swenson, Anja M.; Trivedi, Darshan V.; Rauscher, Anna A.; Wang, Yuan; Takagi, Yasuharu; Palmer, Bradley M.; Málnási-Csizmadia, András; Debold, Edward P.; Yengo, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the magnesium dependence of five class II myosins, including fast skeletal muscle myosin, smooth muscle myosin, β-cardiac myosin (CMIIB), Dictyostelium myosin II (DdMII), and nonmuscle myosin IIA, as well as myosin V. We found that the myosins examined are inhibited in a Mg2+-dependent manner (0.3–9.0 mm free Mg2+) in both ATPase and motility assays, under conditions in which the ionic strength was held constant. We found that the ADP release rate constant is reduced by Mg2+ in myosin V, smooth muscle myosin, nonmuscle myosin IIA, CMIIB, and DdMII, although the ADP affinity is fairly insensitive to Mg2+ in fast skeletal muscle myosin, CMIIB, and DdMII. Single tryptophan probes in the switch I (Trp-239) and switch II (Trp-501) region of DdMII demonstrate these conserved regions of the active site are sensitive to Mg2+ coordination. Cardiac muscle fiber mechanic studies demonstrate cross-bridge attachment time is increased at higher Mg2+ concentrations, demonstrating that the ADP release rate constant is slowed by Mg2+ in the context of an activated muscle fiber. Direct measurements of phosphate release in myosin V demonstrate that Mg2+ reduces actin affinity in the M·ADP·Pi state, although it does not change the rate of phosphate release. Therefore, the Mg2+ inhibition of the actin-activated ATPase activity observed in class II myosins is likely the result of Mg2+-dependent alterations in actin binding. Overall, our results suggest that Mg2+ reduces the ADP release rate constant and rate of attachment to actin in both high and low duty ratio myosins. PMID:25006251

  20. Sensitivity of small myosin II ensembles from different isoforms to mechanical load and ATP concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Thorsten; Bartelheimer, Kathrin; Schwarz, Ulrich S.

    2016-11-01

    Based on a detailed crossbridge model for individual myosin II motors, we systematically study the influence of mechanical load and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration on small myosin II ensembles made from different isoforms. For skeletal and smooth muscle myosin II, which are often used in actomyosin gels that reconstitute cell contractility, fast forward movement is restricted to a small region of phase space with low mechanical load and high ATP concentration, which is also characterized by frequent ensemble detachment. At high load, these ensembles are stalled or move backwards, but forward motion can be restored by decreasing ATP concentration. In contrast, small ensembles of nonmuscle myosin II isoforms, which are found in the cytoskeleton of nonmuscle cells, are hardly affected by ATP concentration due to the slow kinetics of the bound states. For all isoforms, the thermodynamic efficiency of ensemble movement increases with decreasing ATP concentration, but this effect is weaker for the nonmuscle myosin II isoforms.

  1. Myosin-V: a class of unconventional molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Larson, R E

    1996-03-01

    In this review we focus on the biochemical and structural properties of the myosin-V class of unconventional myosins as an example of the diversity of molecular motors within the myosin superfamily. A member of this class was first identified as a novel calmodulin-binding protein in mammalian brain (Larson RE, Pitta DE and Ferro JA (1988). Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 21: 213-217). To date, the myosin-V class is represented by two molecules from yeast, one from nematodes, several from vertebrates (chickens, rats, mice and humans) and possibly one from plants. The domain structure of these myosins features a highly conserved head containing the ATP-hydrolysis and actin-binding sites, an extended neck composed of six tandem IQ-motifs which are sites for calmodulin binding and a large tail which has coiled-coil segments intercalated with globular regions of as yet unknown function. Biochemical studies on purified myosin-V from vertebrate brains and the description of myosin-V mutants in yeast and mice have made myosin-V one of the best characterized, unconventional myosin classes at the present time, surpassed only by the well-studied myosin-I class.

  2. How Actin Initiates the Motor Activity of Myosin

    PubMed Central

    Llinas, Paola; Isabet, Tatiana; Song, Lin; Ropars, Virginie; Zong, Bin; Benisty, Hannah; Sirigu, Serena; Morris, Carl; Kikuti, Carlos; Safer, Dan; Sweeney, H. Lee; Houdusse, Anne

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Fundamental to cellular processes are directional movements driven by molecular motors. A common theme for these and other molecular machines driven by ATP is that controlled release of hydrolysis products is essential to use the chemical energy efficiently. Mechanochemical transduction by myosin motors on actin is coupled to unknown structural changes that result in the sequential release of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and MgADP. We present here a myosin structure possessing an actin-binding interface and a tunnel (back door) that creates an escape route for Pi with a minimal rotation of the myosin lever arm that drives movements. We propose that this state represents the beginning of the powerstroke on actin, and that Pi translocation from the nucleotide pocket triggered by actin binding initiates myosin force generation. This elucidates how actin initiates force generation and movement, and may represent a strategy common to many molecular machines. PMID:25936506

  3. How actin initiates the motor activity of Myosin.

    PubMed

    Llinas, Paola; Isabet, Tatiana; Song, Lin; Ropars, Virginie; Zong, Bin; Benisty, Hannah; Sirigu, Serena; Morris, Carl; Kikuti, Carlos; Safer, Dan; Sweeney, H Lee; Houdusse, Anne

    2015-05-26

    Fundamental to cellular processes are directional movements driven by molecular motors. A common theme for these and other molecular machines driven by ATP is that controlled release of hydrolysis products is essential for using the chemical energy efficiently. Mechanochemical transduction by myosin motors on actin is coupled to unknown structural changes that result in the sequential release of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and MgADP. We present here a myosin structure possessing an actin-binding interface and a tunnel (back door) that creates an escape route for Pi with a minimal rotation of the myosin lever arm that drives movements. We propose that this state represents the beginning of the powerstroke on actin and that Pi translocation from the nucleotide pocket triggered by actin binding initiates myosin force generation. This elucidates how actin initiates force generation and movement and may represent a strategy common to many molecular machines.

  4. The non-linear elasticity of the muscle sarcomere and the compliance of myosin motors.

    PubMed

    Fusi, Luca; Brunello, Elisabetta; Reconditi, Massimo; Piazzesi, Gabriella; Lombardi, Vincenzo

    2014-03-01

    Force in striated muscle is due to attachment of the heads of the myosin, the molecular motors extending from the myosin filament, to the actin filament in each half-sarcomere, the functional unit where myosin motors act in parallel. Mechanical and X-ray structural evidence indicates that at the plateau of isometric contraction (force T0), less than half of the elastic strain of the half-sarcomere is due to the strain in the array of myosin motors (s), with the remainder being accounted for by the compliance of filaments acting as linear elastic elements in series with the motor array. Early during the development of isometric force, however, the half-sarcomere compliance has been found to be less than that expected from the linear elastic model assumed above, and this non-linearity may affect the estimate of s. This question is investigated here by applying nanometre-microsecond-resolution mechanics to single intact fibres from frog skeletal muscle at 4 °C, to record the mechanical properties of the half-sarcomere throughout the development of force in isometric contraction. The results are interpreted with mechanical models to estimate the compliance of the myosin motors. Our conclusions are as follows: (i) early during the development of an isometric tetanus, an elastic element is present in parallel with the myosin motors, with a compliance of ∼200 nm MPa(-1) (∼20 times larger than the compliance of the motor array at T0); and (ii) during isometric contraction, s is 1.66 ± 0.05 nm, which is not significantly different from the value estimated with the linear elastic model.

  5. Engineering controllable bidirectional molecular motors based on myosin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Nakamura, Muneaki; Schindler, Tony D; Parker, David; Bryant, Zev

    2012-02-19

    Cytoskeletal motors drive the transport of organelles and molecular cargoes within cells and have potential applications in molecular detection and diagnostic devices. Engineering molecular motors with controllable properties will allow selective perturbation of mechanical processes in living cells and provide optimized device components for tasks such as molecular sorting and directed assembly. Biological motors have previously been modified by introducing activation/deactivation switches that respond to metal ions and other signals. Here, we show that myosin motors can be engineered to reversibly change their direction of motion in response to a calcium signal. Building on previous protein engineering studies and guided by a structural model for the redirected power stroke of myosin VI, we have constructed bidirectional myosins through the rigid recombination of structural modules. The performance of the motors was confirmed using gliding filament assays and single fluorophore tracking. Our strategy, in which external signals trigger changes in the geometry and mechanics of myosin lever arms, should make it possible to achieve spatiotemporal control over a range of motor properties including processivity, stride size and branchpoint turning.

  6. Myosin-I molecular motors at a glance.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Betsy B; Ostap, E Michael

    2016-07-15

    Myosin-I molecular motors are proposed to play various cellular roles related to membrane dynamics and trafficking. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster, we review and illustrate the proposed cellular functions of metazoan myosin-I molecular motors by examining the structural, biochemical, mechanical and cell biological evidence for their proposed molecular roles. We highlight evidence for the roles of myosin-I isoforms in regulating membrane tension and actin architecture, powering plasma membrane and organelle deformation, participating in membrane trafficking, and functioning as a tension-sensitive dock or tether. Collectively, myosin-I motors have been implicated in increasingly complex cellular phenomena, yet how a single isoform accomplishes multiple types of molecular functions is still an active area of investigation. To fully understand the underlying physiology, it is now essential to piece together different approaches of biological investigation. This article will appeal to investigators who study immunology, metabolic diseases, endosomal trafficking, cell motility, cancer and kidney disease, and to those who are interested in how cellular membranes are coupled to the underlying actin cytoskeleton in a variety of different applications.

  7. Actin network architecture can determine myosin motor activity.

    PubMed

    Reymann, Anne-Cécile; Boujemaa-Paterski, Rajaa; Martiel, Jean-Louis; Guérin, Christophe; Cao, Wenxiang; Chin, Harvey F; De La Cruz, Enrique M; Théry, Manuel; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2012-06-08

    The organization of actin filaments into higher-ordered structures governs eukaryotic cell shape and movement. Global actin network size and architecture are maintained in a dynamic steady state through regulated assembly and disassembly. Here, we used experimentally defined actin structures in vitro to investigate how the activity of myosin motors depends on network architecture. Direct visualization of filaments revealed myosin-induced actin network deformation. During this reorganization, myosins selectively contracted and disassembled antiparallel actin structures, while parallel actin bundles remained unaffected. The local distribution of nucleation sites and the resulting orientation of actin filaments appeared to regulate the scalability of the contraction process. This "orientation selection" mechanism for selective contraction and disassembly suggests how the dynamics of the cellular actin cytoskeleton can be spatially controlled by actomyosin contractility.

  8. A millennial myosin census.

    PubMed

    Berg, J S; Powell, B C; Cheney, R E

    2001-04-01

    The past decade has seen a remarkable explosion in our knowledge of the size and diversity of the myosin superfamily. Since these actin-based motors are candidates to provide the molecular basis for many cellular movements, it is essential that motility researchers be aware of the complete set of myosins in a given organism. The availability of cDNA and/or draft genomic sequences from humans, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Arabidopsis thaliana, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Dictyostelium discoideum has allowed us to tentatively define and compare the sets of myosin genes in these organisms. This analysis has also led to the identification of several putative myosin genes that may be of general interest. In humans, for example, we find a total of 40 known or predicted myosin genes including two new myosins-I, three new class II (conventional) myosins, a second member of the class III/ninaC myosins, a gene similar to the class XV deafness myosin, and a novel myosin sharing at most 33% identity with other members of the superfamily. These myosins are in addition to the recently discovered class XVI myosin with N-terminal ankyrin repeats and two human genes with similarity to the class XVIII PDZ-myosin from mouse. We briefly describe these newly recognized myosins and extend our previous phylogenetic analysis of the myosin superfamily to include a comparison of the complete or nearly complete inventories of myosin genes from several experimentally important organisms.

  9. A role for myosin II in mammalian mitochondrial fission.

    PubMed

    Korobova, Farida; Gauvin, Timothy J; Higgs, Henry N

    2014-02-17

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles, undergoing both fission and fusion regularly in interphase cells. Mitochondrial fission is thought to be part of a quality-control mechanism whereby damaged mitochondrial components are segregated from healthy components in an individual mitochondrion, followed by mitochondrial fission and degradation of the damaged daughter mitochondrion. Fission also plays a role in apoptosis. Defects in mitochondrial dynamics can lead to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Mitochondrial fission requires the dynamin GTPase Drp1, which assembles in a ring around the mitochondrion and appears to constrict both outer and inner mitochondrial membranes. However, mechanisms controlling Drp1 assembly on mammalian mitochondria are unclear. Recent results show that actin polymerization, driven by the endoplasmic reticulum-bound formin protein INF2, stimulates Drp1 assembly at fission sites. Here, we show that myosin II also plays a role in fission. Chemical inhibition by blebbistatin or small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated suppression of myosin IIA or myosin IIB causes an increase in mitochondrial length in both control cells and cells expressing constitutively active INF2. Active myosin II accumulates in puncta on mitochondria in an actin- and INF2-dependent manner. In addition, myosin II inhibition decreases Drp1 association with mitochondria. Based on these results, we propose a mechanistic model in which INF2-mediated actin polymerization leads to myosin II recruitment and constriction at the fission site, enhancing subsequent Drp1 accumulation and fission.

  10. The principal motions involved in the coupling mechanism of the recovery stroke of the myosin motor

    SciTech Connect

    Mesentean, Sidonia; Koppole, Sampath; Smith, Jeremy C; Fischer, S.

    2006-12-01

    Muscle contraction is driven by a cycle of conformational changes in the myosin II head. After myosin binds ATP and releases from the actin fibril, myosin prepares for the next power stroke by rotating back the converter domain that carries the lever arm by {approx}60 degrees. This recovery stroke is coupled to the activation of myosin's ATPase by a mechanism that is essential for an efficient motor cycle. The mechanics of this coupling have been proposed to occur via two distinct and successive motions of the two helices that hold the converter domain: in a first phase a see-saw motion of the relay helix, followed by a piston/seesaw motion of the SH1 helix in a second phase. To test this model, we have determined the principal motions of these structural elements during equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of the crystallographic end states of the recovery stroke by using Principal Component Analysis. This reveals that the only principal motions of these two helices that make a large amplitude contribution towards the conformational change of the recovery stroke are indeed the predicted seesaw and piston motions.

  11. Purification and partial characterization of myosin II from rat testis.

    PubMed

    Dias, Decivaldo dos Santos; Coelho, Milton Vieira

    2007-10-01

    The intent, in this work, was to isolate rat testis myosin II. Testis 40,000 x g x 40' supernatant was frozen at -20 degrees C for 48 h and, after it was thawed and centrifuged. The precipitate, after washed twice, was enriched in three polypeptides bands: p205, p43 and one that migrated together with the front of the gel. These polypeptides were solubilized in pH 10.8 at 27 degrees C and separated in Sephacryl S-400 column. Three low weight polypeptides co-eluted together with p205. The p205 was marked with anti-myosin II, possess actin-stimulated Mg-ATPase activity and co-sedimented with F-actin in the absence, but not in the presence, of ATP. In the present study, we have been developing a method for purification of myosin II from rat testis.

  12. Biochemical and bioinformatic analysis of the myosin-XIX motor domain.

    PubMed

    Adikes, Rebecca C; Unrath, William C; Yengo, Christopher M; Quintero, Omar A

    2013-05-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics are dependent on both the microtubule and actin cytoskeletal systems. Evidence for the involvement of myosin motors has been described in many systems, and until recently a candidate mitochondrial myosin transport motor had not been described in vertebrates. Myosin-XIX (MYO19) was predicted to represent a novel class of myosin and had previously been shown to bind to mitochondria and increase mitochondrial network dynamics when ectopically expressed. Our analyses comparing ∼40 MYO19 orthologs to ∼2000 other myosin motor domain sequences identified instances of homology well-conserved within class XIX myosins that were not found in other myosin classes, suggesting MYO19-specific mechanochemistry. Steady-state biochemical analyses of the MYO19 motor domain indicate that Homo sapiens MYO19 is a functional motor. Insect cell-expressed constructs bound calmodulin as a light chain at the predicted stoichiometry and displayed actin-activated ATPase activity. MYO19 constructs demonstrated high actin affinity in the presence of ATP in actin-co-sedimentation assays, and translocated actin filaments in gliding assays. Expression of GFP-MYO19 containing a mutation impairing ATPase activity did not enhance mitochondrial network dynamics, as occurs with wild-type MYO19, indicating that myosin motor activity is required for mitochondrial motility. The measured biochemical properties of MYO19 suggest it is a high-duty ratio motor that could serve to transport mitochondria or anchor mitochondria, depending upon the cellular microenvironment.

  13. Myosin-II sets the optimal response time scale of chemotactic amoeba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hsin-Fang; Westendorf, Christian; Tarantola, Marco; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Beta, Carsten

    2014-03-01

    The response dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton to external chemical stimuli plays a fundamental role in numerous cellular functions. One of the key players that governs the dynamics of the actin network is the motor protein myosin-II. Here we investigate the role of myosin-II in the response of the actin system to external stimuli. We used a microfluidic device in combination with a photoactivatable chemoattractant to apply stimuli to individual cells with high temporal resolution. We directly compare the actin dynamics in Dictyostelium discodelium wild type (WT) cells to a knockout mutant that is deficient in myosin-II (MNL). Similar to the WT a small population of MNL cells showed self-sustained oscillations even in absence of external stimuli. The actin response of MNL cells to a short pulse of chemoattractant resembles WT during the first 15 sec but is significantly delayed afterward. The amplitude of the dominant peak in the power spectrum from the response time series of MNL cells to periodic stimuli with varying period showed a clear resonance peak at a forcing period of 36 sec, which is significantly delayed as compared to the resonance at 20 sec found for the WT. This shift indicates an important role of myosin-II in setting the response time scale of motile amoeba. Institute of Physics und Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24/25, 14476 Potsdam, Germany.

  14. Distinct and redundant roles of the non-muscle myosin II isoforms and functional domains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aibing; Ma, Xuefei; Conti, Mary Anne; Adelstein, Robert S

    2011-10-01

    We propose that the in vivo functions of NM II (non-muscle myosin II) can be divided between those that depend on the N-terminal globular motor domain and those less dependent on motor activity but more dependent on the C-terminal domain. The former, being more dependent on the kinetic properties of NM II to translocate actin filaments, are less amenable to substitution by different NM II isoforms, whereas the in vivo functions of the latter, which involve the structural properties of NM II to cross-link actin filaments, are more amenable to substitution. In light of this hypothesis, we examine the ability of NM II-A, as well as a motor-compromised form of NM II-B, to replace NM II-B and rescue neuroepithelial cell-cell adhesion defects and hydrocephalus in the brain of NM II-B-depleted mice. We also examine the ability of NM II-B as well as chimaeric forms of NM II (II-A head and II-B tail and vice versa) to substitute for NM II-A in cell-cell adhesions in II-A-ablated mice. However, we also show that certain functions, such as neuronal cell migration in the developing brain and vascularization of the mouse embryo and placenta, specifically require NM II-B and II-A respectively.

  15. The myosin X motor is optimized for movement on actin bundles

    PubMed Central

    Ropars, Virginie; Yang, Zhaohui; Isabet, Tatiana; Blanc, Florian; Zhou, Kaifeng; Lin, Tianming; Liu, Xiaoyan; Hissier, Pascale; Samazan, Frédéric; Amigues, Béatrice; Yang, Eric D.; Park, Hyokeun; Pylypenko, Olena; Cecchini, Marco; Sindelar, Charles V.; Sweeney, H. Lee; Houdusse, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Myosin X has features not found in other myosins. Its structure must underlie its unique ability to generate filopodia, which are essential for neuritogenesis, wound healing, cancer metastasis and some pathogenic infections. By determining high-resolution structures of key components of this motor, and characterizing the in vitro behaviour of the native dimer, we identify the features that explain the myosin X dimer behaviour. Single-molecule studies demonstrate that a native myosin X dimer moves on actin bundles with higher velocities and takes larger steps than on single actin filaments. The largest steps on actin bundles are larger than previously reported for artificially dimerized myosin X constructs or any other myosin. Our model and kinetic data explain why these large steps and high velocities can only occur on bundled filaments. Thus, myosin X functions as an antiparallel dimer in cells with a unique geometry optimized for movement on actin bundles. PMID:27580874

  16. Blebbistatin, a myosin II inhibitor, is photoinactivated by blue light.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Takeshi; Limouze, John; Combs, Christian A; Straight, Aaron F; Sellers, James R

    2005-01-18

    Blebbistatin is a small molecule inhibitor discovered in a screen for inhibitors of nonmuscle myosin IIA. Blebbistatin inhibits the actin-activated MgATPase activity and in vitro motility of class II myosins. In cells, it has been shown to inhibit contraction of the cytokinetic ring. Blebbistatin has some photochemical properties that may affect its behavior in cells. In particular, we have found that exposure to light at wavelengths below 488 nm rapidly inactivates the inhibitory action of blebbistatin using the in vitro motility of myosin as an assay. In addition, the inhibition of cytokinetic ring contraction can be reversed by exposure of the cells to blue light. This property may be useful in locally reversing the action of blebbistatin treatment in a cell. However, caution should be exercised as free radicals may be produced upon irradiation of blebbistatin that could result in cell damage.

  17. Mechanical coordination in motor ensembles revealed using engineered artificial myosin filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariadi, R. F.; Sommese, R. F.; Adhikari, A. S.; Taylor, R. E.; Sutton, S.; Spudich, J. A.; Sivaramakrishnan, S.

    2015-08-01

    The sarcomere of muscle is composed of tens of thousands of myosin motors that self-assemble into thick filaments and interact with surrounding actin-based thin filaments in a dense, near-crystalline hexagonal lattice. Together, these actin-myosin interactions enable large-scale movement and force generation, two primary attributes of muscle. Research on isolated fibres has provided considerable insight into the collective properties of muscle, but how actin-myosin interactions are coordinated in an ensemble remains poorly understood. Here, we show that artificial myosin filaments, engineered using a DNA nanotube scaffold, provide precise control over motor number, type and spacing. Using both dimeric myosin V- and myosin VI-labelled nanotubes, we find that neither myosin density nor spacing has a significant effect on the gliding speed of actin filaments. This observation supports a simple model of myosin ensembles as energy reservoirs that buffer individual stochastic events to bring about smooth, continuous motion. Furthermore, gliding speed increases with cross-bridge compliance, but is limited by Brownian effects. As a first step to reconstituting muscle motility, we demonstrate human β-cardiac myosin-driven gliding of actin filaments on DNA nanotubes.

  18. The principal motions involved in the coupling mechanism of the recovery stroke of the myosin motor.

    SciTech Connect

    Mesentean, Sidonia; Koppole, Sampath; Smith, Jeremy C; Fischer, S.

    2007-03-01

    Muscle contraction is driven by a cycle of conformational changes in the myosin II head. After myosin binds ATP and releases from the actin fibril, myosin prepares for the next power stroke by rotating back the converter domain that carries the lever arm by 60{sup o}. This recovery stroke is coupled to the activation of myosin ATPase by a mechanism that is essential for an efficient motor cycle. The mechanics of this coupling have been proposed to occur via two distinct and successive motions of the two helices that hold the converter domain: in a first phase a seesaw motion of the relay helix, followed by a piston-like motion of the SH1 helix in a second phase. To test this model, we have determined the principal motions of these structural elements during equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of the crystallographic end states of the recovery-stroke by using principal component analysis. This reveals that the only principal motions of these two helices that make a large-amplitude contribution towards the conformational change of the recovery stroke are indeed the predicted seesaw and piston motions. Moreover, the results demonstrate that the seesaw motion of the relay helix dominates in the dynamics of the pre-recovery stroke structure, but not in the dynamics of the post-recovery stroke structure, and vice versa for the piston motion of the SH1 helix. This is consistent with the order of the proposed two-phase model for the coupling mechanism of the recovery stroke. Molecular movies of these principal motions are available at http://www.iwr.uni-heidelberg.de/groups/biocomp/fischer.

  19. Harmonic force spectroscopy reveals a force-velocity curve from a single human beta cardiac myosin motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Jongmin; Nag, Suman; Vestergaard, Christian; Mortensen, Kim; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Spudich, James

    2014-03-01

    A muscle contracts rapidly under low load, but slowly under high load. Its molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated, however. During contraction, myosins in thick filaments interact with actin in thin filaments in the sarcomere, cycling between a strongly bound (force producing) state and a weakly bound (relaxed) state. Huxley et al. have previously proposed that the transition from the strong to the weak interaction can be modulated by a load. We use a new method we call ``harmonic force spectroscopy'' to extract a load-velocity curve from a single human beta cardiac myosin II motor. With a dual-beam optical trap, we hold an actin dumbbell over a myosin molecule anchored to the microscope stage that oscillates sinusoidally. Upon binding, the motor experiences an oscillatory load with a mean that is directed forward or backward, depending on binding location We find that the bound time at saturating [ATP] is exponentially correlated with the mean load, which is explained by Arrhenius transition theory. With a stroke size measurement, we obtained a load-velocity curve from a single myosin. We compare the curves for wild-type motors with mutants that cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathies, to understand the effects on the contractile cycle

  20. HDAC3-dependent Reversible Lysine Acetylation of Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms Modulates Their Enzymatic and Motor Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Samant, Sadhana A.; Courson, David S.; Sundaresan, Nagalingam R.; Pillai, Vinodkumar B.; Tan, Minjia; Zhao, Yingming; Shroff, Sanjeev G.; Rock, Ronald S.; Gupta, Mahesh P.

    2011-01-01

    Reversible lysine acetylation is a widespread post-translational modification controlling the activity of proteins in different subcellular compartments. We previously demonstrated that a class II histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC4, and a histone acetyltransferase, PCAF, associate with cardiac sarcomeres, and a class I and II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A, enhances contractile activity of myofilaments. In this study, we show that a class I HDAC, HDAC3, is also present at cardiac sarcomeres. By immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses, we found that HDAC3 was localized to the A band of sarcomeres and was capable of deacetylating myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. The motor domains of both cardiac α- and β-MHC isoforms were found to be reversibly acetylated. Biomechanical studies revealed that lysine acetylation significantly decreased the Km for the actin-activated ATPase activity of both α- and β-MHC isoforms. By an in vitro motility assay, we found that lysine acetylation increased the actin sliding velocity of α-myosin by 20% and β-myosin by 36%, compared to their respective non-acetylated isoforms. Moreover, myosin acetylation was found to be sensitive to cardiac stress. During induction of hypertrophy, myosin isoform acetylation increased progressively with duration of stress stimuli, independent of isoform shift, suggesting that lysine acetylation of myosin could be an early response of myofilaments to increase contractile performance of the heart. These studies provide the first evidence for localization of HDAC3 at myofilaments and uncover a novel mechanism modulating the motor activity of cardiac MHC isoforms. PMID:21177250

  1. HDAC3-dependent reversible lysine acetylation of cardiac myosin heavy chain isoforms modulates their enzymatic and motor activity.

    PubMed

    Samant, Sadhana A; Courson, David S; Sundaresan, Nagalingam R; Pillai, Vinodkumar B; Tan, Minjia; Zhao, Yingming; Shroff, Sanjeev G; Rock, Ronald S; Gupta, Mahesh P

    2011-02-18

    Reversible lysine acetylation is a widespread post-translational modification controlling the activity of proteins in different subcellular compartments. We previously demonstrated that a class II histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC4, and a histone acetyltransferase, PCAF, associate with cardiac sarcomeres, and a class I and II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A, enhances contractile activity of myofilaments. In this study, we show that a class I HDAC, HDAC3, is also present at cardiac sarcomeres. By immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses, we found that HDAC3 was localized to the A band of sarcomeres and was capable of deacetylating myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. The motor domains of both cardiac α- and β-MHC isoforms were found to be reversibly acetylated. Biomechanical studies revealed that lysine acetylation significantly decreased the K(m) for the actin-activated ATPase activity of both α- and β-MHC isoforms. By an in vitro motility assay, we found that lysine acetylation increased the actin sliding velocity of α-myosin by 20% and β-myosin by 36%, compared to their respective non-acetylated isoforms. Moreover, myosin acetylation was found to be sensitive to cardiac stress. During induction of hypertrophy, myosin isoform acetylation increased progressively with duration of stress stimuli, independent of isoform shift, suggesting that lysine acetylation of myosin could be an early response of myofilaments to increase contractile performance of the heart. These studies provide the first evidence for localization of HDAC3 at myofilaments and uncover a novel mechanism modulating the motor activity of cardiac MHC isoforms.

  2. Effects of filament rigidity in myosin II-induced actin network contractility and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weirich, Kimberly; Gardel, Margaret

    2014-03-01

    Cells change shape, deforming to move and divide. The dynamic protein scaffold that shapes the cell is the cortex, a disordered, thin network of actin filaments. Random, local stresses generated by myosin II in the network create cellular-scale deformations. Myosin induced buckling and severing of actin filaments has been shown to underlie the contractility of two-dimensional disordered actin networks. This non-linear elastic response of actin filaments is thought to be an essential symmetry breaking mechanism to produce robust contractility in disordered actomyosin networks. To test this idea, we explore the effects of an actin bundling protein fascin, a crosslinker which induces polarity specific bundling of actin filaments, to create a network of F-actin bundles. We investigate myosin-induced stresses in a network of randomly oriented actin filaments, confined to a thin sheet at a supported lipid bilayer surface through a crowding agent. We find fascin-bundled filaments are less prone to filament buckling and show increased filament sliding, causing the myosin activity to induce network reorganization rather than contraction. Thus, changes in the filament bending rigidity in motor-filament systems can drive the system between distinct states with unique dynamic and mechanical signatures.

  3. Strain Mediated Adaptation Is Key for Myosin Mechanochemistry: Discovering General Rules for Motor Activity.

    PubMed

    Jana, Biman; Onuchic, José N

    2016-08-01

    A structure-based model of myosin motor is built in the same spirit of our early work for kinesin-1 and Ncd towards physical understanding of its mechanochemical cycle. We find a structural adaptation of the motor head domain in post-powerstroke state that signals faster ADP release from it compared to the same from the motor head in the pre-powerstroke state. For dimeric myosin, an additional forward strain on the trailing head, originating from the postponed powerstroke state of the leading head in the waiting state of myosin, further increases the rate of ADP release. This coordination between the two heads is the essence of the processivity of the cycle. Our model provides a structural description of the powerstroke step of the cycle as an allosteric transition of the converter domain in response to the Pi release. Additionally, the variation in structural elements peripheral to catalytic motor domain is the deciding factor behind diverse directionalities of myosin motors (myosin V & VI). Finally, we observe that there are general rules for functional molecular motors across the different families. Allosteric structural adaptation of the catalytic motor head in different nucleotide states is crucial for mechanochemistry. Strain-mediated coordination between motor heads is essential for processivity and the variation of peripheral structural elements is essential for their diverse functionalities.

  4. Strain Mediated Adaptation Is Key for Myosin Mechanochemistry: Discovering General Rules for Motor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Biman; Onuchic, José N.

    2016-01-01

    A structure-based model of myosin motor is built in the same spirit of our early work for kinesin-1 and Ncd towards physical understanding of its mechanochemical cycle. We find a structural adaptation of the motor head domain in post-powerstroke state that signals faster ADP release from it compared to the same from the motor head in the pre-powerstroke state. For dimeric myosin, an additional forward strain on the trailing head, originating from the postponed powerstroke state of the leading head in the waiting state of myosin, further increases the rate of ADP release. This coordination between the two heads is the essence of the processivity of the cycle. Our model provides a structural description of the powerstroke step of the cycle as an allosteric transition of the converter domain in response to the Pi release. Additionally, the variation in structural elements peripheral to catalytic motor domain is the deciding factor behind diverse directionalities of myosin motors (myosin V & VI). Finally, we observe that there are general rules for functional molecular motors across the different families. Allosteric structural adaptation of the catalytic motor head in different nucleotide states is crucial for mechanochemistry. Strain-mediated coordination between motor heads is essential for processivity and the variation of peripheral structural elements is essential for their diverse functionalities. PMID:27494025

  5. Motor coupling through lipid membranes enhances transport velocities for ensembles of myosin Va

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Shane R.; Trybus, Kathleen M.; Warshaw, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Myosin Va is an actin-based molecular motor responsible for transport and positioning of a wide array of intracellular cargoes. Although myosin Va motors have been well characterized at the single-molecule level, physiological transport is carried out by ensembles of motors. Studies that explore the behavior of ensembles of molecular motors have used nonphysiological cargoes such as DNA linkers or glass beads, which do not reproduce one key aspect of vesicular systems—the fluid intermotor coupling of biological lipid membranes. Using a system of defined synthetic lipid vesicles (100- to 650-nm diameter) composed of either 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) (fluid at room temperature) or 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) (gel at room temperature) with a range of surface densities of myosin Va motors (32–125 motors per μm2), we demonstrate that the velocity of vesicle transport by ensembles of myosin Va is sensitive to properties of the cargo. Gel-state DPPC vesicles bound with multiple motors travel at velocities equal to or less than vesicles with a single myosin Va (∼450 nm/s), whereas surprisingly, ensembles of myosin Va are able to transport fluid-state DOPC vesicles at velocities significantly faster (>700 nm/s) than a single motor. To explain these data, we developed a Monte Carlo simulation that suggests that these reductions in velocity can be attributed to two distinct mechanisms of intermotor interference (i.e., load-dependent modulation of stepping kinetics and binding-site exclusion), whereas faster transport velocities are consistent with a model wherein the normal stepping behavior of the myosin is supplemented by the preferential detachment of the trailing motor from the actin track. PMID:25201964

  6. Increased association of dynamin II with myosin II in ras transformed NIH3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Soon-Jeong; Kim, Su-Gwan; Yoo, Jiyun; Han, Mi-Young; Park, Joo-Cheol; Kim, Heung-Joong; Kang, Seong-Soo; Choi, Baik-Dong; Jeong, Moon-Jin

    2006-08-01

    Dynamin has been implicated in the formation of nascent vesicles through both endocytic and secretory pathways. However, dynamin has recently been implicated in altering the cell membrane shape during cell migration associated with cytoskeleton-related proteins. Myosin II has been implicated in maintaining cell morphology and in cellular movement. Therefore, reciprocal immunoprecipitation was carried out to identify the potential relationship between dynamin II and myosin II. The dynamin II expression level was higher when co-expressed with myosin II in Ras transformed NIH3T3 cells than in normal NIH3T3 cells. Confocal microscopy also confirmed the interaction between these two proteins. Interestingly, exposing the NIH3T3 cells to platelet-derived growth factor altered the interaction and localization of these two proteins. The platelet-derived growth factor treatment induced lamellipodia and cell migration, and dynamin II interacted with myosin II. Grb2, a 24 kDa adaptor protein and an essential element of the Ras signaling pathway, was found to be associated with dynamin II and myosin II gene expression in the Ras transformed NIH3T3 cells. These results suggest that dynamin II acts as an intermediate messenger in the Ras signal transduction pathway leading to membrane ruffling and cell migration.

  7. Phospholipid-dependent regulation of the motor activity of myosin X.

    PubMed

    Umeki, Nobuhisa; Jung, Hyun Suk; Sakai, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Osamu; Ikebe, Reiko; Ikebe, Mitsuo

    2011-06-12

    Myosin X is involved in the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and protrusion of filopodia. Here we studied the molecular mechanism by which bovine myosin X is regulated. The globular tail domain inhibited the motor activity of myosin X in a Ca(2+)-independent manner. Structural analysis revealed that myosin X is monomeric and that the band 4.1-ezrin-radixin-moesin (FERM) and pleckstrin homology (PH) domains bind to the head intramolecularly, forming an inhibited conformation. Binding of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)) to the PH domain reversed the tail-induced inhibition and induced the formation of myosin X dimers. Consistently, disruption of the binding of PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) attenuated the translocation of myosin X to filopodial tips in cells. We propose the following mechanism: first, the tail inhibits the motor activity of myosin X by intramolecular head-tail interactions to form the folded conformation; second, phospholipid binding reverses the inhibition and disrupts the folded conformation, which induces dimer formation, thereby activating the mechanical and cargo transporter activity of myosin X.

  8. Axon extension in the fast and slow lanes: substratum-dependent engagement of myosin II functions.

    PubMed

    Ketschek, Andrea R; Jones, Steven L; Gallo, Gianluca

    2007-09-01

    Axon extension involves the coordinated regulation of the neuronal cytoskeleton. Actin filaments drive protrusion of filopodia and lamellipodia while microtubules invade the growth cone, thereby providing structural support for the nascent axon. Furthermore, in order for axons to extend the growth cone must attach to the substratum. Previous work indicates that myosin II activity inhibits the advance of microtubules into the periphery of growth cones, and myosin II has also been implicated in mediating integrin-dependent cell attachment. However, it is not clear how the functions of myosin II in regulating substratum attachment and microtubule advance are integrated during axon extension. We report that inhibition of myosin II function decreases the rate of axon extension on laminin, but surprisingly promotes extension rate on polylysine. The differential effects of myosin II inhibition on axon extension rate are attributable to myosin II having the primary function of mediating substratum attachment on laminin, but not on polylysine. Conversely, on polylysine the primary function of myosin II is to inhibit microtubule advance into growth cones. Thus, the substratum determines the role of myosin II in axon extension by controlling the functions of myosin II that contribute to extension.

  9. Nonmuscle myosin II isoforms coassemble in living cells.

    PubMed

    Beach, Jordan R; Shao, Lin; Remmert, Kirsten; Li, Dong; Betzig, Eric; Hammer, John A

    2014-05-19

    Nonmuscle myosin II (NM II) powers myriad developmental and cellular processes, including embryogenesis, cell migration, and cytokinesis [1]. To exert its functions, monomers of NM II assemble into bipolar filaments that produce a contractile force on the actin cytoskeleton. Mammalian cells express up to three isoforms of NM II (NM IIA, IIB, and IIC), each of which possesses distinct biophysical properties and supports unique as well as redundant cellular functions [2-8]. Despite previous efforts [9-13], it remains unclear whether NM II isoforms assemble in living cells to produce mixed (heterotypic) bipolar filaments or whether filaments consist entirely of a single isoform (homotypic). We addressed this question using fluorescently tagged versions of NM IIA, IIB, and IIC, isoform-specific immunostaining of the endogenous proteins, and two-color total internal reflection fluorescence structured-illumination microscopy, or TIRF-SIM, to visualize individual myosin II bipolar filaments inside cells. We show that NM II isoforms coassemble into heterotypic filaments in a variety of settings, including various types of stress fibers, individual filaments throughout the cell, and the contractile ring. We also show that the differential distribution of NM IIA and NM IIB typically seen in confocal micrographs of well-polarized cells is reflected in the composition of individual bipolar filaments. Interestingly, this differential distribution is less pronounced in freshly spread cells, arguing for the existence of a sorting mechanism acting over time. Together, our work argues that individual NM II isoforms are potentially performing both isoform-specific and isoform-redundant functions while coassembled with other NM II isoforms.

  10. Ankyrin domain of myosin 16 influences motor function and decreases protein phosphatase catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Kengyel, András; Bécsi, Bálint; Kónya, Zoltán; Sellers, James R; Erdődi, Ferenc; Nyitrai, Miklós

    2015-05-01

    The unconventional myosin 16 (Myo16), which may have a role in regulation of cell cycle and cell proliferation, can be found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. It has a unique, eight ankyrin repeat containing pre-motor domain, the so-called ankyrin domain (My16Ank). Ankyrin repeats are present in several other proteins, e.g., in the regulatory subunit (MYPT1) of the myosin phosphatase holoenzyme, which binds to the protein phosphatase-1 catalytic subunit (PP1c). My16Ank shows sequence similarity to MYPT1. In this work, the interactions of recombinant and isolated My16Ank were examined in vitro. To test the effects of My16Ank on myosin motor function, we used skeletal muscle myosin or nonmuscle myosin 2B. The results showed that My16Ank bound to skeletal muscle myosin (K D ≈ 2.4 µM) and the actin-activated ATPase activity of heavy meromyosin (HMM) was increased in the presence of My16Ank, suggesting that the ankyrin domain can modulate myosin motor activity. My16Ank showed no direct interaction with either globular or filamentous actin. We found, using a surface plasmon resonance-based binding technique, that My16Ank bound to PP1cα (K D ≈ 540 nM) and also to PP1cδ (K D ≈ 600 nM) and decreased its phosphatase activity towards the phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain. Our results suggest that one function of the ankyrin domain is probably to regulate the function of Myo16. It may influence the motor activity, and in complex with the PP1c isoforms, it can play an important role in the targeted dephosphorylation of certain, as yet unidentified, intracellular proteins.

  11. A small-molecule inhibitor of T. gondii motility induces the posttranslational modification of myosin light chain-1 and inhibits myosin motor activity.

    PubMed

    Heaslip, Aoife T; Leung, Jacqueline M; Carey, Kimberly L; Catti, Federica; Warshaw, David M; Westwood, Nicholas J; Ballif, Bryan A; Ward, Gary E

    2010-01-15

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that enters cells by a process of active penetration. Host cell penetration and parasite motility are driven by a myosin motor complex consisting of four known proteins: TgMyoA, an unconventional Class XIV myosin; TgMLC1, a myosin light chain; and two membrane-associated proteins, TgGAP45 and TgGAP50. Little is known about how the activity of the myosin motor complex is regulated. Here, we show that treatment of parasites with a recently identified small-molecule inhibitor of invasion and motility results in a rapid and irreversible change in the electrophoretic mobility of TgMLC1. While the precise nature of the TgMLC1 modification has not yet been established, it was mapped to the peptide Val46-Arg59. To determine if the TgMLC1 modification is responsible for the motility defect observed in parasites after compound treatment, the activity of myosin motor complexes from control and compound-treated parasites was compared in an in vitro motility assay. TgMyoA motor complexes containing the modified TgMLC1 showed significantly decreased motor activity compared to control complexes. This change in motor activity likely accounts for the motility defects seen in the parasites after compound treatment and provides the first evidence, in any species, that the mechanical activity of Class XIV myosins can be modulated by posttranslational modifications to their associated light chains.

  12. Coordinated recruitment of Spir actin nucleators and myosin V motors to Rab11 vesicle membranes

    PubMed Central

    Pylypenko, Olena; Welz, Tobias; Tittel, Janine; Kollmar, Martin; Chardon, Florian; Malherbe, Gilles; Weiss, Sabine; Michel, Carina Ida Luise; Samol-Wolf, Annette; Grasskamp, Andreas Till; Hume, Alistair; Goud, Bruno; Baron, Bruno; England, Patrick; Titus, Margaret A; Schwille, Petra; Weidemann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence for a coupling of actin assembly and myosin motor activity in cells. However, mechanisms for recruitment of actin nucleators and motors on specific membrane compartments remain unclear. Here we report how Spir actin nucleators and myosin V motors coordinate their specific membrane recruitment. The myosin V globular tail domain (MyoV-GTD) interacts directly with an evolutionarily conserved Spir sequence motif. We determined crystal structures of MyoVa-GTD bound either to the Spir-2 motif or to Rab11 and show that a Spir-2:MyoVa:Rab11 complex can form. The ternary complex architecture explains how Rab11 vesicles support coordinated F-actin nucleation and myosin force generation for vesicle transport and tethering. New insights are also provided into how myosin activation can be coupled with the generation of actin tracks. Since MyoV binds several Rab GTPases, synchronized nucleator and motor targeting could provide a common mechanism to control force generation and motility in different cellular processes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17523.001 PMID:27623148

  13. Coordinated recruitment of Spir actin nucleators and myosin V motors to Rab11 vesicle membranes.

    PubMed

    Pylypenko, Olena; Welz, Tobias; Tittel, Janine; Kollmar, Martin; Chardon, Florian; Malherbe, Gilles; Weiss, Sabine; Michel, Carina Ida Luise; Samol-Wolf, Annette; Grasskamp, Andreas Till; Hume, Alistair; Goud, Bruno; Baron, Bruno; England, Patrick; Titus, Margaret A; Schwille, Petra; Weidemann, Thomas; Houdusse, Anne; Kerkhoff, Eugen

    2016-09-13

    There is growing evidence for a coupling of actin assembly and myosin motor activity in cells. However, mechanisms for recruitment of actin nucleators and motors on specific membrane compartments remain unclear. Here we report how Spir actin nucleators and myosin V motors coordinate their specific membrane recruitment. The myosin V globular tail domain (MyoV-GTD) interacts directly with an evolutionarily conserved Spir sequence motif. We determined crystal structures of MyoVa-GTD bound either to the Spir-2 motif or to Rab11 and show that a Spir-2:MyoVa:Rab11 complex can form. The ternary complex architecture explains how Rab11 vesicles support coordinated F-actin nucleation and myosin force generation for vesicle transport and tethering. New insights are also provided into how myosin activation can be coupled with the generation of actin tracks. Since MyoV binds several Rab GTPases, synchronized nucleator and motor targeting could provide a common mechanism to control force generation and motility in different cellular processes.

  14. Myosin II-mediated cell shape changes and cell intercalation contribute to primitive streak formation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Feifei; Sang, Helen M.; Martin, René; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; MacDonald, Michael P; Weijer, Cornelis J

    2016-01-01

    Primitive streak formation in the chick embryo involves large scale highly coordinated flows of over 100.000 cells in the epiblast. These large scale tissue flows and deformations can be correlated with specific anisotropic cell behaviours in the forming mesendoderm through a combined light-sheet microscopy and computational analysis. Relevant behaviours include apical contraction, elongation along the apical-basal axis followed by ingression as well as asynchronous directional cell intercalation of small groups of mesendoderm cells. Cell intercalation is associated with sequential, directional contraction of apical junctions, the onset, localisation and direction of which correlate strongly with the appearance of active Myosin II cables in aligned apical junctions in neighbouring cells. Use of a class specific Myosin inhibitors and gene specific knockdowns show that apical contraction and intercalation are Myosin II dependent and also reveal critical roles for Myosin I and Myosin V family members in the assembly of junctional Myosin II cables. PMID:25812521

  15. A new role for myosin II in vesicle fission.

    PubMed

    Flores, Juan A; Balseiro-Gomez, Santiago; Cabeza, Jose M; Acosta, Jorge; Ramirez-Ponce, Pilar; Ales, Eva

    2014-01-01

    An endocytic vesicle is formed from a flat plasma membrane patch by a sequential process of invagination, bud formation and fission. The scission step requires the formation of a tubular membrane neck (the fission pore) that connects the endocytic vesicle with the plasma membrane. Progress in vesicle fission can be measured by the formation and closure of the fission pore. Live-cell imaging and sensitive biophysical measurements have provided various glimpses into the structure and behaviour of the fission pore. In the present study, the role of non-muscle myosin II (NM-2) in vesicle fission was tested by analyzing the kinetics of the fission pore with perforated-patch clamp capacitance measurements to detect single vesicle endocytosis with millisecond time resolution in peritoneal mast cells. Blebbistatin, a specific inhibitor of NM-2, dramatically increased the duration of the fission pore and also prevented closure during large endocytic events. Using the fluorescent markers FM1-43 and pHrodo Green dextran, we found that NM-2 inhibition greatly arrested vesicle fission in a late phase of the scission event when the pore reached a final diameter of ∼ 5 nm. Our results indicate that loss of the ATPase activity of myosin II drastically reduces the efficiency of membrane scission by making vesicle closure incomplete and suggest that NM-2 might be especially relevant in vesicle fission during compound endocytosis.

  16. A New Role for Myosin II in Vesicle Fission

    PubMed Central

    Cabeza, Jose M.; Acosta, Jorge; Ramirez-Ponce, Pilar; Ales, Eva

    2014-01-01

    An endocytic vesicle is formed from a flat plasma membrane patch by a sequential process of invagination, bud formation and fission. The scission step requires the formation of a tubular membrane neck (the fission pore) that connects the endocytic vesicle with the plasma membrane. Progress in vesicle fission can be measured by the formation and closure of the fission pore. Live-cell imaging and sensitive biophysical measurements have provided various glimpses into the structure and behaviour of the fission pore. In the present study, the role of non-muscle myosin II (NM-2) in vesicle fission was tested by analyzing the kinetics of the fission pore with perforated-patch clamp capacitance measurements to detect single vesicle endocytosis with millisecond time resolution in peritoneal mast cells. Blebbistatin, a specific inhibitor of NM-2, dramatically increased the duration of the fission pore and also prevented closure during large endocytic events. Using the fluorescent markers FM1-43 and pHrodo Green dextran, we found that NM-2 inhibition greatly arrested vesicle fission in a late phase of the scission event when the pore reached a final diameter of ∼ 5 nm. Our results indicate that loss of the ATPase activity of myosin II drastically reduces the efficiency of membrane scission by making vesicle closure incomplete and suggest that NM-2 might be especially relevant in vesicle fission during compound endocytosis. PMID:24959909

  17. Whole genome duplication events in plant evolution reconstructed and predicted using myosin motor proteins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The evolution of land plants is characterized by whole genome duplications (WGD), which drove species diversification and evolutionary novelties. Detecting these events is especially difficult if they date back to the origin of the plant kingdom. Established methods for reconstructing WGDs include intra- and inter-genome comparisons, KS age distribution analyses, and phylogenetic tree constructions. Results By analysing 67 completely sequenced plant genomes 775 myosins were identified and manually assembled. Phylogenetic trees of the myosin motor domains revealed orthologous and paralogous relationships and were consistent with recent species trees. Based on the myosin inventories and the phylogenetic trees, we have identified duplications of the entire myosin motor protein family at timings consistent with 23 WGDs, that had been reported before. We also predict 6 WGDs based on further protein family duplications. Notably, the myosin data support the two recently reported WGDs in the common ancestor of all extant angiosperms. We predict single WGDs in the Manihot esculenta and Nicotiana benthamiana lineages, two WGDs for Linum usitatissimum and Phoenix dactylifera, and a triplication or two WGDs for Gossypium raimondii. Our data show another myosin duplication in the ancestor of the angiosperms that could be either the result of a single gene duplication or a remnant of a WGD. Conclusions We have shown that the myosin inventories in angiosperms retain evidence of numerous WGDs that happened throughout plant evolution. In contrast to other protein families, many myosins are still present in extant species. They are closely related and have similar domain architectures, and their phylogenetic grouping follows the genome duplications. Because of its broad taxonomic sampling the dataset provides the basis for reliable future identification of further whole genome duplications. PMID:24053117

  18. Live-cell single-molecule labeling and analysis of myosin motors with quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Hatakeyama, Hiroyasu; Nakahata, Yoshihito; Yarimizu, Hirokazu; Kanzaki, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are a powerful tool for quantitatively analyzing dynamic cellular processes by single-particle tracking. However, tracking of intracellular molecules with QDs is limited by their inability to penetrate the plasma membrane and bind to specific molecules of interest. Although several techniques for overcoming these problems have been proposed, they are either complicated or inconvenient. To address this issue, in this study, we developed a simple, convenient, and nontoxic method for labeling intracellular molecules in cells using HaloTag technology and electroporation. We labeled intracellular myosin motors with this approach and tracked their movement within cells. By simultaneously imaging myosin movement and F-actin architecture, we observed that F-actin serves not only as a rail but also as a barrier for myosin movement. We analyzed the effect of insulin on the movement of several myosin motors, which have been suggested to regulate intracellular trafficking of the insulin-responsive glucose transporter GLUT4, but found no significant enhancement in myosin motor motility as a result of insulin treatment. Our approach expands the repertoire of proteins for which intracellular dynamics can be analyzed at the single-molecule level. PMID:28035048

  19. Comparison of biochemical and immunochemical properties of myosin II in taeniid parasites.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Rivera, M; Reyes-Torres, A; Reynoso-Ducoing, O; Flisser, A; Ambrosio, J R

    2006-07-01

    Type II myosins are highly conserved proteins, though differences have been observed among organisms, mainly in the filamentous region. Myosin isoforms have been identified in Taenia solium, a helminth parasite of public health importance in many developing countries. These isoforms are probably associated with the physiological requirements of each developmental stage of the parasite. In this paper we extend the characterization of myosin to several other Taenia species. Type II myosins were purified from the larvae (cysticerci) of Taenia solium, T. taeniaeformis and T. crassiceps and the adult stages of T. solium, T. taeniaeformis and T. saginata. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies against some of these myosins were specific at high dilutions but cross-reacted at low dilutions. ATPase activity was evaluated and kinetic values were calculated for each myosin. Homologous actin-myosin interactions increased both the affinity of myosin for ATP and the hydrolysis rate. The results indicate immunological and biochemical differences among taeniid myosins. This variability suggests that different isoforms are found not only in different taeniid species but also at different developmental stages. Further characterization of myosin isoforms should include determination of their amino acid composition.

  20. Highly selective inhibition of myosin motors provides the basis of potential therapeutic application

    PubMed Central

    Sirigu, Serena; Hartman, James J.; Ropars, Virginie; Clancy, Sheila; Wang, Xi; Chuang, Grace; Qian, Xiangping; Lu, Pu-Ping; Barrett, Edward; Rudolph, Karin; Royer, Christopher; Morgan, Bradley P.; Stura, Enrico A.; Malik, Fady I.; Houdusse, Anne M.

    2016-01-01

    Direct inhibition of smooth muscle myosin (SMM) is a potential means to treat hypercontractile smooth muscle diseases. The selective inhibitor CK-2018571 prevents strong binding to actin and promotes muscle relaxation in vitro and in vivo. The crystal structure of the SMM/drug complex reveals that CK-2018571 binds to a novel allosteric pocket that opens up during the “recovery stroke” transition necessary to reprime the motor. Trapped in an intermediate of this fast transition, SMM is inhibited with high selectivity compared with skeletal muscle myosin (IC50 = 9 nM and 11,300 nM, respectively), although all of the binding site residues are identical in these motors. This structure provides a starting point from which to design highly specific myosin modulators to treat several human diseases. It further illustrates the potential of targeting transition intermediates of molecular machines to develop exquisitely selective pharmacological agents. PMID:27815532

  1. Structural Insights into Functional Overlapping and Differentiation among Myosin V Motors*

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Andrey F. Z.; Trindade, Daniel M.; Tonoli, Celisa C. C.; de Giuseppe, Priscila O.; Assis, Leandro H. P.; Honorato, Rodrigo V.; de Oliveira, Paulo S. L.; Mahajan, Pravin; Burgess-Brown, Nicola A.; von Delft, Frank; Larson, Roy E.; Murakami, Mario T.

    2013-01-01

    Myosin V (MyoV) motors have been implicated in the intracellular transport of diverse cargoes including vesicles, organelles, RNA-protein complexes, and regulatory proteins. Here, we have solved the cargo-binding domain (CBD) structures of the three human MyoV paralogs (Va, Vb, and Vc), revealing subtle structural changes that drive functional differentiation and a novel redox mechanism controlling the CBD dimerization process, which is unique for the MyoVc subclass. Moreover, the cargo- and motor-binding sites were structurally assigned, indicating the conservation of residues involved in the recognition of adaptors for peroxisome transport and providing high resolution insights into motor domain inhibition by CBD. These results contribute to understanding the structural requirements for cargo transport, autoinhibition, and regulatory mechanisms in myosin V motors. PMID:24097982

  2. Structural insights into functional overlapping and differentiation among myosin V motors.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Andrey F Z; Trindade, Daniel M; Tonoli, Celisa C C; de Giuseppe, Priscila O; Assis, Leandro H P; Honorato, Rodrigo V; de Oliveira, Paulo S L; Mahajan, Pravin; Burgess-Brown, Nicola A; von Delft, Frank; Larson, Roy E; Murakami, Mario T

    2013-11-22

    Myosin V (MyoV) motors have been implicated in the intracellular transport of diverse cargoes including vesicles, organelles, RNA-protein complexes, and regulatory proteins. Here, we have solved the cargo-binding domain (CBD) structures of the three human MyoV paralogs (Va, Vb, and Vc), revealing subtle structural changes that drive functional differentiation and a novel redox mechanism controlling the CBD dimerization process, which is unique for the MyoVc subclass. Moreover, the cargo- and motor-binding sites were structurally assigned, indicating the conservation of residues involved in the recognition of adaptors for peroxisome transport and providing high resolution insights into motor domain inhibition by CBD. These results contribute to understanding the structural requirements for cargo transport, autoinhibition, and regulatory mechanisms in myosin V motors.

  3. Temperature effect on the chemomechanical regulation of substeps within the power stroke of a single Myosin II

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chenling; Chen, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Myosin IIs in the skeletal muscle are highly efficient nanoscale machines evolved in nature. Understanding how they function can not only bring insights into various biological processes but also provide guidelines to engineer synthetic nanoscale motors working in the vicinity of thermal noise. Though it was clearly demonstrated that the behavior of a skeletal muscle fiber, or that of a single myosin was strongly affected by the temperature, how exactly the temperature affects the kinetics of a single myosin is not fully understood. By adapting the newly developed transitional state model, which successfully explained the intriguing motor force regulation during skeletal muscle contraction, here we systematically explain how exactly the power stroke of a single myosin proceeds, with the consideration of the chemomechanical regulation of sub-steps within the stroke. The adapted theory is then utilized to investigate the temperature effect on various aspects of the power stroke. Our analysis suggests that, though swing rates, the isometric force, and the maximal stroke size all strongly vary with the temperature, the temperature can have a very small effect on the releasable elastic energy within the power stroke. PMID:26786569

  4. Space exploration by dendritic cells requires maintenance of myosin II activity by IP3 receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Solanes, Paola; Heuzé, Mélina L; Maurin, Mathieu; Bretou, Marine; Lautenschlaeger, Franziska; Maiuri, Paolo; Terriac, Emmanuel; Thoulouze, Maria-Isabel; Launay, Pierre; Piel, Matthieu; Vargas, Pablo; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria

    2015-03-12

    Dendritic cells (DCs) patrol the interstitial space of peripheral tissues. The mechanisms that regulate their migration in such constrained environment remain unknown. We here investigated the role of calcium in immature DCs migrating in confinement. We found that they displayed calcium oscillations that were independent of extracellular calcium and more frequently observed in DCs undergoing strong speed fluctuations. In these cells, calcium spikes were associated with fast motility phases. IP₃ receptors (IP₃Rs) channels, which allow calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum, were identified as required for immature DCs to migrate at fast speed. The IP₃R1 isoform was further shown to specifically regulate the locomotion persistence of immature DCs, that is, their capacity to maintain directional migration. This function of IP₃R1 results from its ability to control the phosphorylation levels of myosin II regulatory light chain (MLC) and the back/front polarization of the motor protein. We propose that by upholding myosin II activity, constitutive calcium release from the ER through IP₃R1 maintains DC polarity during migration in confinement, facilitating the exploration of their environment.

  5. Aberrant post-translational modifications compromise human myosin motor function in old age.

    PubMed

    Li, Meishan; Ogilvie, Hannah; Ochala, Julien; Artemenko, Konstantin; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Yagi, Naoto; Bergquist, Jonas; Larsson, Lars

    2015-04-01

    Novel experimental methods, including a modified single fiber in vitro motility assay, X-ray diffraction experiments, and mass spectrometry analyses, have been performed to unravel the molecular events underlying the aging-related impairment in human skeletal muscle function at the motor protein level. The effects of old age on the function of specific myosin isoforms extracted from single human muscle fiber segments, demonstrated a significant slowing of motility speed (P < 0.001) in old age in both type I and IIa myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms. The force-generating capacity of the type I and IIa MyHC isoforms was, on the other hand, not affected by old age. Similar effects were also observed when the myosin molecules extracted from muscle fibers were exposed to oxidative stress. X-ray diffraction experiments did not show any myofilament lattice spacing changes, but unraveled a more disordered filament organization in old age as shown by the greater widths of the 1, 0 equatorial reflections. Mass spectrometry (MS) analyses revealed eight age-specific myosin post-translational modifications (PTMs), in which two were located in the motor domain (carbonylation of Pro79 and Asn81) and six in the tail region (carbonylation of Asp900, Asp904, and Arg908; methylation of Glu1166; deamidation of Gln1164 and Asn1168). However, PTMs in the motor domain were only observed in the IIx MyHC isoform, suggesting PTMs in the rod region contributed to the observed disordering of myosin filaments and the slowing of motility speed. Hence, interventions that would specifically target these PTMs are warranted to reverse myosin dysfunction in old age.

  6. Molecular genetics of myosin motors in Arabidopsis. Final report, July 1, 1992--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Schiefelbein, J.

    1997-02-01

    The normal growth and development of plant cells depends on the precise organization and distribution of the cellular contents. The basic goal of this investigation was to define a group of the molecules that are involved in organizing and transporting plant cell components. Based largely on studies of animal and fungal cells, one of the molecules thought to be involved in intracellular trafficking in plants is the actin-based motor protein myosin. Therefore, the major aim of this study was to isolate and analyze plant genes encoding myosin proteins. The plant of choice for these experiments was Arabidopsis thaliana, which offers numerous advantages for molecular genetics research.

  7. Structural change and nucleotide dissociation of Myosin motor domain: dual go model simulation.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Fumiko; Kikuchi, Macoto

    2007-12-01

    We investigated the structural relaxation of myosin motor domain from the pre-power stroke state to the near-rigor state using molecular dynamics simulation of a coarse-grained protein model. To describe the spontaneous structural change, we propose a dual Gō-model-a variant of the Gō-like model that has two reference structures. The nucleotide dissociation process is also studied by introducing a coarse-grained nucleotide in the simulation. We found that the myosin structural relaxation toward the near-rigor conformation cannot be completed before the nucleotide dissociation. Moreover, the relaxation and the dissociation occurred cooperatively when the nucleotide was tightly bound to the myosin head. The result suggested that the primary role of the nucleotide is to suppress the structural relaxation.

  8. The movement of actin-myosin biomolecular linear motor under AC electric fields: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yongkuk; Famouri, Parviz

    2013-03-15

    The role of actin-myosin as a biomolecular linear motor is considered a transport system at nanoscale because of their size, efficiency and functionality. To utilize the ability to transport, it is essential to control the random movement of actin filaments (F-actin) on myosin coated substrate. In the presence of an alternating current (AC) electric field, the direction of F-actin movement is regulated by electro-orientation torque and, as a result, its movement is perpendicularly toward the electrode edges. Our data confirm such aligned movement is proportional to the strength of applied electric field. Interestingly, the aligned movement is found frequency-dependent and the electrothermal effect is observed by means of the velocity measurement of aligned F-actin movement. The findings in this study may provide constructive information for manipulating actin-myosin nanotransport system to build functional nanodevices in future work.

  9. Thermodynamic evidence of non-muscle myosin II-lipid-membrane interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Schewkunow, Vitali; Sharma, Karan P.; Diez, Gerold; Klemm, Anna H.; Sharma, Pal C.; Goldmann, Wolfgang H.

    2008-02-08

    A unique feature of protein networks in living cells is that they can generate their own force. Proteins such as non-muscle myosin II are an integral part of the cytoskeleton and have the capacity to convert the energy of ATP hydrolysis into directional movement. Non-muscle myosin II can move actin filaments against each other, and depending on the orientation of the filaments and the way in which they are linked together, it can produce contraction, bending, extension, and stiffening. Our measurements with differential scanning calorimetry showed that non-muscle myosin II inserts into negatively charged phospholipid membranes. Using lipid vesicles made of DMPG/DMPC at a molar ratio of 1:1 at 10 mg/ml in the presence of different non-muscle myosin II concentrations showed a variation of the main phase transition of the lipid vesicle at around 23 deg. C. With increasing concentrations of non-muscle myosin II the thermotropic properties of the lipid vesicle changed, which is indicative of protein-lipid interaction/insertion. We hypothesize that myosin tail binds to acidic phospholipids through an electrostatic interaction using the basic side groups of positive residues; the flexible, amphipathic helix then may partially penetrate into the bilayer to form an anchor. Using the stopped-flow method, we determined the binding affinity of non-muscle myosin II when anchored to lipid vesicles with actin, which was similar to a pure actin-non-muscle myosin II system. Insertion of myosin tail into the hydrophobic region of lipid membranes, a model known as the lever arm mechanism, might explain how its interaction with actin generates cellular movement.

  10. Mechanism and specificity of pentachloropseudilin-mediated inhibition of myosin motor activity.

    PubMed

    Chinthalapudi, Krishna; Taft, Manuel H; Martin, René; Heissler, Sarah M; Preller, Matthias; Hartmann, Falk K; Brandstaetter, Hemma; Kendrick-Jones, John; Tsiavaliaris, Georgios; Gutzeit, Herwig O; Fedorov, Roman; Buss, Folma; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; Coluccio, Lynne M; Manstein, Dietmar J

    2011-08-26

    Here, we report that the natural compound pentachloropseudilin (PClP) acts as a reversible and allosteric inhibitor of myosin ATPase and motor activity. IC(50) values are in the range from 1 to 5 μm for mammalian class-1 myosins and greater than 90 μm for class-2 and class-5 myosins, and no inhibition was observed with class-6 and class-7 myosins. We show that in mammalian cells, PClP selectively inhibits myosin-1c function. To elucidate the structural basis for PClP-induced allosteric coupling and isoform-specific differences in the inhibitory potency of the compound, we used a multifaceted approach combining direct functional, crystallographic, and in silico modeling studies. Our results indicate that allosteric inhibition by PClP is mediated by the combined effects of global changes in protein dynamics and direct communication between the catalytic and allosteric sites via a cascade of small conformational changes along a conserved communication pathway.

  11. Mechanism and Specificity of Pentachloropseudilin-mediated Inhibition of Myosin Motor Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Chinthalapudi, Krishna; Taft, Manuel H.; Martin, René; Heissler, Sarah M.; Preller, Matthias; Hartmann, Falk K.; Brandstaetter, Hemma; Kendrick-Jones, John; Tsiavaliaris, Georgios; Gutzeit, Herwig O.; Fedorov, Roman; Buss, Folma; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; Coluccio, Lynne M.; Manstein, Dietmar J.

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report that the natural compound pentachloropseudilin (PClP) acts as a reversible and allosteric inhibitor of myosin ATPase and motor activity. IC50 values are in the range from 1 to 5 μm for mammalian class-1 myosins and greater than 90 μm for class-2 and class-5 myosins, and no inhibition was observed with class-6 and class-7 myosins. We show that in mammalian cells, PClP selectively inhibits myosin-1c function. To elucidate the structural basis for PClP-induced allosteric coupling and isoform-specific differences in the inhibitory potency of the compound, we used a multifaceted approach combining direct functional, crystallographic, and in silico modeling studies. Our results indicate that allosteric inhibition by PClP is mediated by the combined effects of global changes in protein dynamics and direct communication between the catalytic and allosteric sites via a cascade of small conformational changes along a conserved communication pathway. PMID:21680745

  12. F-actin and myosin II accelerate catecholamine release from chromaffin granules

    PubMed Central

    Berberian, Khajak; Torres, Alexis J; Fang, Qinghua; Kisler, Kassandra

    2009-01-01

    The roles of non-muscle myosin II and cortical actin filaments in chromaffin granule exocytosis were studied by confocal fluorescence microscopy, amperometry, and cell-attached capacitance measurements. Fluorescence imaging indicated decreased mobility of granules near the plasma membrane following inhibition of myosin II function with Blebbistatin. Slower fusion pore expansion rates and longer fusion pore lifetimes were observed after inhibition of actin polymerization using Cytochalasin-D. Amperometric recordings revealed increased amperometric spike half-widths without change in quantal size after either myosin II inhibition or actin disruption. These results suggest that actin and myosin II facilitate release from individual chromaffin granules by accelerating dissociation of catecholamines from the intragranular matrix possibly through generation of mechanical forces. PMID:19158310

  13. ATP-dependent interplay between local and global conformational changes in the myosin motor.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Farooq Ahmad; Fischer, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    The ATPase active site of myosin is located at the core of the motor head. During the Lymn-Taylor actomyosin contractile cycle, small conformational changes in the active site upon ATP binding, ATP hydrolysis and ADP/Pi release are accompanied by large conformational transitions of the motor domains, such as opening and closing of the actin binding cleft and the movement of lever arm. Here, our previous computational studies of myosin are summarized in a comprehensive model at the level of atomic detail. Molecular movies show how the successive domain motions during the ATP induced actin dissociation and the recovery stroke are coupled with the precise positioning of the key catalytic groups in the active site. This leads to a precise timing of the activation of the ATPase function: it allows ATP hydrolysis only after unbinding from actin and the priming of the lever arm, both pre-requisites for an efficient functioning of the motor during the subsequent power stroke. These coupling mechanisms constitute essential principles of every myosin motor, of which the ATP-site can be seen as the central allosteric control unit. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Histone Deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)-dependent Reversible Lysine Acetylation of Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms Modulates Their Enzymatic and Motor Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Samant, Sadhana A.; Pillai, Vinodkumar B.; Sundaresan, Nagalingam R.; Shroff, Sanjeev G.; Gupta, Mahesh P.

    2015-01-01

    Reversible lysine acetylation is a widespread post-translational modification controlling the activity of proteins in different subcellular compartments. We previously demonstrated that a class II histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC4, and a histone acetyltransferase, p300/CREB-binding protein-associated factor, associate with cardiac sarcomeres and that a class I and II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A, enhances contractile activity of myofilaments. In this study we show that a class I HDAC, HDAC3, is also present at cardiac sarcomeres. By immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses, we found that HDAC3 was localized to A-band of sarcomeres and capable of deacetylating myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. The motor domains of both cardiac α- and β-MHC isoforms were found to be reversibly acetylated. Biomechanical studies revealed that lysine acetylation significantly decreased the Km for the actin-activated ATPase activity of MHC isoforms. By in vitro motility assay, we found that lysine acetylation increased the actin-sliding velocity of α-myosin by 20% and β-myosin by 36% compared with their respective non-acetylated isoforms. Moreover, myosin acetylation was found to be sensitive to cardiac stress. During induction of hypertrophy, myosin isoform acetylation increased progressively with duration of stress stimuli independently of isoform shift, suggesting that lysine acetylation of myosin could be an early response of myofilaments to increase contractile performance of the heart. These studies provide the first evidence for localization of HDAC3 at myofilaments and uncover a novel mechanism modulating the motor activity of cardiac MHC isoforms. PMID:25911107

  15. Histone Deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)-dependent Reversible Lysine Acetylation of Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms Modulates Their Enzymatic and Motor Activity.

    PubMed

    Samant, Sadhana A; Pillai, Vinodkumar B; Sundaresan, Nagalingam R; Shroff, Sanjeev G; Gupta, Mahesh P

    2015-06-19

    Reversible lysine acetylation is a widespread post-translational modification controlling the activity of proteins in different subcellular compartments. We previously demonstrated that a class II histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC4, and a histone acetyltransferase, p300/CREB-binding protein-associated factor, associate with cardiac sarcomeres and that a class I and II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A, enhances contractile activity of myofilaments. In this study we show that a class I HDAC, HDAC3, is also present at cardiac sarcomeres. By immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses, we found that HDAC3 was localized to A-band of sarcomeres and capable of deacetylating myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. The motor domains of both cardiac α- and β-MHC isoforms were found to be reversibly acetylated. Biomechanical studies revealed that lysine acetylation significantly decreased the Km for the actin-activated ATPase activity of MHC isoforms. By in vitro motility assay, we found that lysine acetylation increased the actin-sliding velocity of α-myosin by 20% and β-myosin by 36% compared with their respective non-acetylated isoforms. Moreover, myosin acetylation was found to be sensitive to cardiac stress. During induction of hypertrophy, myosin isoform acetylation increased progressively with duration of stress stimuli independently of isoform shift, suggesting that lysine acetylation of myosin could be an early response of myofilaments to increase contractile performance of the heart. These studies provide the first evidence for localization of HDAC3 at myofilaments and uncover a novel mechanism modulating the motor activity of cardiac MHC isoforms.

  16. Analysis of Myosin II Minifilament Orientation at Epithelial Zonula Adherens

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Magdalene; Liang, Xuan; Gomez, Guillermo A.

    2017-01-01

    Non-muscle myosin II (NMII) form bipolar filaments, which bind F-actin to exert cellular contractility during physiological processes (Vicente-Manzanares et al., 2009). Using a combinatorial approach to fluorescently label both N- and C-termini of the NMII heavy chain, recent works have demonstrated the ability to visualize NMII bipolar filaments at various subcellular localizations (Ebrahim et al., 2013; Beach et al., 2014). At the zonula adherens (ZA) of epithelia, NMII minifilaments bind the circumferential actin bundles in a pseudo-sarcomeric manner (Ebrahim et al., 2013), a conformation required to maintain junctional tension and tissue integrity (Ratheesh et al., 2012). By expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-NMIIA heavy chain and immunolabel it using a NMIIA C-terminus specific antibody, we were able to visualize the NMII minifilaments bound to F-actin bundles in Caco-2 cells (Michael et al., 2016), as previously reported (Ebrahim et al., 2013; Beach et al., 2014). In addition, we designed an FIJI/MATLAB analysis module to quantify the size, distance and alignment of these minifilaments with respect to junctional F-actin at the ZA. Measurements of the dispersion of minifilaments angles were proven to be a useful parameter that closely correlated to the extent of contractility at junctions (Michael et al., 2016). PMID:28251171

  17. Cargo Transport by Two Coupled Myosin Va Motors on Actin Filaments and Bundles.

    PubMed

    Ali, M Yusuf; Vilfan, Andrej; Trybus, Kathleen M; Warshaw, David M

    2016-11-15

    Myosin Va (myoVa) is a processive, actin-based molecular motor essential for intracellular cargo transport. When a cargo is transported by an ensemble of myoVa motors, each motor faces significant physical barriers and directional challenges created by the complex actin cytoskeleton, a network of actin filaments and actin bundles. The principles that govern the interaction of multiple motors attached to the same cargo are still poorly understood. To understand the mechanical interactions between multiple motors, we developed a simple in vitro model in which two individual myoVa motors labeled with different-colored Qdots are linked via a third Qdot that acts as a cargo. The velocity of this two-motor complex was reduced by 27% as compared to a single motor, whereas run length was increased by only 37%, much less than expected from multimotor transport models. Therefore, at low ATP, which allowed us to identify individual motor steps, we investigated the intermotor dynamics within the two-motor complex. The randomness of stepping leads to a buildup of tension in the linkage between motors-which in turn slows down the leading motor-and increases the frequency of backward steps and the detachment rate. We establish a direct relationship between the velocity reduction and the distribution of intermotor distances. The analysis of run lengths and dwell times for the two-motor complex, which has only one motor engaged with the actin track, reveals that half of the runs are terminated by almost simultaneous detachment of both motors. This finding challenges the assumptions of conventional multimotor models based on consecutive motor detachment. Similar, but even more drastic, results were observed with two-motor complexes on actin bundles, which showed a run length that was even shorter than that of a single motor.

  18. A Novel Positive Selection for Identifying Cold-Sensitive Myosin II Mutants in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, B.; Spudich, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    We developed a positive selection for myosin heavy chain mutants in Dictyostelium. This selection is based on the fact that brief exposure to azide causes wild-type cells to release from the substrate, whereas myosin null cells remain adherent. This procedure assays myosin function on a time scale of minutes and has therefore allowed us to select rapid-onset cold-sensitive mutants after random chemical mutagenesis of Dictyostelium cells. We developed a rapid technique for determining which mutations lie in sequences of the myosin gene that encode the head (motor) domain and localized 27 of 34 mutants to this domain. We recovered the appropriate sequences from five of the mutants and demonstrated that they retain their cold-sensitive properties when expressed from extrachromosomal plasmids. PMID:7498732

  19. Myosin II-dependent exclusion of CD45 from the site of Fcγ receptor activation during phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Shota; Kawauchi, Keiko; Sawada, Yasuhiro

    2012-09-21

    Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-mediated phagocytosis requires myosin II activity. Here we show that myosin II contributes to FcγR activation and subsequent F-actin assembly at the nascent phagocytic cup. Inhibition of myosin II attenuates phosphorylation of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) of FcγR and binding of Syk to the ITAM. Furthermore, FcγR clusters independently of myosin II activity at the phagocytic cup, from which the receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase CD45 is excluded depending on myosin II activity. These findings suggest that myosin II-dependent segregation of CD45 from FcγR facilitates phosphorylation of the ITAM and triggers phagocytosis.

  20. Dictyostelium myosin II G680V suppressors exhibit overlapping spectra of biochemical phenotypes including facilitated phosphate release.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Y; Nejad, M; Patterson, B

    1999-01-01

    We have biochemically characterized 13 intragenic suppressors of the G680V mutation of Dictyostelium myosin II. In the absence of the G680V mutation, the suppressors result in a number of deviant behaviors, most commonly an increase in the basal (actin-independent) ATPase of the motor. This phenotype is complementary to that of the G680V mutant and supports our proposal that the latter impairs phosphate release. Different subsets of the mutants also suffer from poor ATPase enhancement by 1 mg/ml actin, failure to release from actin in the presence of ATPgammaS (or ADP and salt), and excessive release from actin in the presence of ADP. The patterns of suppressor behaviors suggest that, in general, they are facilitating P(i)-releasing state(s) of the motor, but that different individual suppressors may secondarily perturb other states or actions of the motor. PMID:10471704

  1. Roles of an unconventional protein kinase and myosin II in amoeba osmotic shock responses.

    PubMed

    Betapudi, Venkaiah; Egelhoff, Thomas T

    2009-12-01

    The contractile vacuole (CV) is a dynamic organelle that enables Dictyostelium amoeba and other protist to maintain osmotic homeostasis by expelling excess water. In the present study, we have uncovered a mechanism that coordinates the mechanics of the CV with myosin II, regulated by VwkA, an unconventional protein kinase that is conserved in an array of protozoa. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-VwkA fusion proteins localize persistently to the CV during both filling and expulsion phases of water. In vwkA null cells, the established CV marker dajumin still localizes to the CV, but these structures are large, spherical and severely impaired for discharge. Furthermore, myosin II cortical localization and assembly are abnormal in vwkA null cells. Parallel analysis of wild-type cells treated with myosin II inhibitors or of myosin II null cells also results in enlarged CVs with impaired dynamics. We suggest that the myosin II cortical cytoskeleton, regulated by VwkA, serves a critical conserved role in the periodic contractions of the CV, as part of the osmotic protective mechanism of protozoa.

  2. Non-muscle myosin II heavy chain has a cryptic cell-adhesion domain.

    PubMed Central

    Grinnell, F; Ho, C H

    1995-01-01

    We have discovered a cryptic cell-adhesion domain in non-muscle myosin II heavy chain. A 205 kDa cell-adhesion-promoting polypeptide (p205) was extracted from BHK cells by Nonidet P-40 or Dounce homogenization. Adhesion to p205 was specifically inhibited by the peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro, indicating a role for the Arg-Gly-Asp cell-adhesion motif. Purified p205 was identified as non-muscle myosin II heavy chain, based on sequence analysis and on the cross-reactivity of p205 with anti-(bovine trachea myosin) antibodies. Further experiments showed that the heavy chain of purified myosin II has cell-adhesion-promoting activity in a cell-blotting assay, and cross-reacted with anti-p205 antibodies. Finally, the adhesion domain was located in the tail portion of myosin II heavy chain, where an Arg-Gly-Asp-containing sequence can be found. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7626021

  3. Purification of a protein phosphatase from Acanthamoeba that dephosphorylates and activates myosin II.

    PubMed

    McClure, J A; Korn, E D

    1983-12-10

    The actin-activated ATPase activity of myosin II from Acanthamoeba castellanii is inhibited by phosphorylation of 3 serine residues near the carboxyl end of the heavy chain of the molecule. We have purified a protein phosphatase from Acanthamoeba using myosin II as a substrate. This phosphatase has a molecular weight of 39,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and an isoelectric point in urea of 5.2. The enzyme also is active against other phosphoserine protein substrates such as turkey gizzard smooth muscle myosin light chain, but not against a synthetic phosphotyrosine protein substrate. It does not hydrolyze ATP or p-nitrophenol phosphate. No effector has been found to increase substantially the activity of the enzyme as isolated, but it is inhibited by ATP, pyrophosphate, and NaF. This inhibition is reduced in the presence of MnCl2. The Mg2+-dependent actin-activated ATPase of myosin II is activated by dephosphorylation of phosphorylated myosin II by the phosphatase. Its broad substrate specificity, molecular weight, and response to protein phosphatase inhibitors suggest that the Acanthamoeba protein phosphatase is a type 2A phosphatase (Cohen, P. (1982) Nature (Lond.) 206, 613-620).

  4. A genomic toolkit to investigate kinesin and myosin motor function in cells.

    PubMed

    Maliga, Zoltan; Junqueira, Magno; Toyoda, Yusuke; Ettinger, Andreas; Mora-Bermúdez, Felipe; Klemm, Robin W; Vasilj, Andrej; Guhr, Elaine; Ibarlucea-Benitez, Itziar; Poser, Ina; Bonifacio, Ezio; Huttner, Wieland B; Shevchenko, Andrej; Hyman, Anthony A

    2013-03-01

    Coordination of multiple kinesin and myosin motors is required for intracellular transport, cell motility and mitosis. However, comprehensive resources that allow systems analysis of the localization and interplay between motors in living cells do not exist. Here, we generated a library of 243 amino- and carboxy-terminally tagged mouse and human bacterial artificial chromosome transgenes to establish 227 stably transfected HeLa cell lines, 15 mouse embryonic stem cell lines and 1 transgenic mouse line. The cells were characterized by expression and localization analyses and further investigated by affinity-purification mass spectrometry, identifying 191 candidate protein-protein interactions. We illustrate the power of this resource in two ways. First, by characterizing a network of interactions that targets CEP170 to centrosomes, and second, by showing that kinesin light-chain heterodimers bind conventional kinesin in cells. Our work provides a set of validated resources and candidate molecular pathways to investigate motor protein function across cell lineages.

  5. Myosin chaperones☆

    PubMed Central

    Hellerschmied, Doris; Clausen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    The folding and assembly of myosin motor proteins is essential for most movement processes at the cellular, but also at the organism level. Importantly, myosins, which represent a very diverse family of proteins, require the activity of general and specialized folding factors to develop their full motor function. The activities of the myosin-specific UCS (UNC-45/Cro1/She4) chaperones range from assisting acto-myosin dependent transport processes to scaffolding multi-subunit chaperone complexes, which are required to assemble myofilaments. Recent structure–function studies revealed the structural organization of TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat)-containing and TPR-less UCS chaperones. The observed structural differences seem to reflect the specialized and remarkably versatile working mechanisms of myosin-directed chaperones, as will be discussed in this review. PMID:24440450

  6. Structural basis for drug-induced allosteric changes to human β-cardiac myosin motor activity

    PubMed Central

    Winkelmann, Donald A.; Forgacs, Eva; Miller, Matthew T.; Stock, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    Omecamtiv Mecarbil (OM) is a small molecule allosteric effector of cardiac myosin that is in clinical trials for treatment of systolic heart failure. A detailed kinetic analysis of cardiac myosin has shown that the drug accelerates phosphate release by shifting the equilibrium of the hydrolysis step towards products, leading to a faster transition from weak to strong actin-bound states. The structure of the human β-cardiac motor domain (cMD) with OM bound reveals a single OM-binding site nestled in a narrow cleft separating two domains of the human cMD where it interacts with the key residues that couple lever arm movement to the nucleotide state. In addition, OM induces allosteric changes in three strands of the β-sheet that provides the communication link between the actin-binding interface and the nucleotide pocket. The OM-binding interactions and allosteric changes form the structural basis for the kinetic and mechanical tuning of cardiac myosin. PMID:26246073

  7. Structural basis for drug-induced allosteric changes to human β-cardiac myosin motor activity.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Donald A; Forgacs, Eva; Miller, Matthew T; Stock, Ann M

    2015-08-06

    Omecamtiv Mecarbil (OM) is a small molecule allosteric effector of cardiac myosin that is in clinical trials for treatment of systolic heart failure. A detailed kinetic analysis of cardiac myosin has shown that the drug accelerates phosphate release by shifting the equilibrium of the hydrolysis step towards products, leading to a faster transition from weak to strong actin-bound states. The structure of the human β-cardiac motor domain (cMD) with OM bound reveals a single OM-binding site nestled in a narrow cleft separating two domains of the human cMD where it interacts with the key residues that couple lever arm movement to the nucleotide state. In addition, OM induces allosteric changes in three strands of the β-sheet that provides the communication link between the actin-binding interface and the nucleotide pocket. The OM-binding interactions and allosteric changes form the structural basis for the kinetic and mechanical tuning of cardiac myosin.

  8. Structural basis for drug-induced allosteric changes to human β-cardiac myosin motor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, Donald A.; Forgacs, Eva; Miller, Matthew T.; Stock, Ann M.

    2015-08-01

    Omecamtiv Mecarbil (OM) is a small molecule allosteric effector of cardiac myosin that is in clinical trials for treatment of systolic heart failure. A detailed kinetic analysis of cardiac myosin has shown that the drug accelerates phosphate release by shifting the equilibrium of the hydrolysis step towards products, leading to a faster transition from weak to strong actin-bound states. The structure of the human β-cardiac motor domain (cMD) with OM bound reveals a single OM-binding site nestled in a narrow cleft separating two domains of the human cMD where it interacts with the key residues that couple lever arm movement to the nucleotide state. In addition, OM induces allosteric changes in three strands of the β-sheet that provides the communication link between the actin-binding interface and the nucleotide pocket. The OM-binding interactions and allosteric changes form the structural basis for the kinetic and mechanical tuning of cardiac myosin.

  9. Multicomponent Analysis of Junctional Movements Regulated by Myosin II Isoforms at the Epithelial Zonula Adherens

    PubMed Central

    Smutny, Michael; Wu, Selwin K.; Gomez, Guillermo A.; Mangold, Sabine; Yap, Alpha S.; Hamilton, Nicholas A.

    2011-01-01

    The zonula adherens (ZA) of epithelial cells is a site of cell-cell adhesion where cellular forces are exerted and resisted. Increasing evidence indicates that E-cadherin adhesion molecules at the ZA serve to sense force applied on the junctions and coordinate cytoskeletal responses to those forces. Efforts to understand the role that cadherins play in mechanotransduction have been limited by the lack of assays to measure the impact of forces on the ZA. In this study we used 4D imaging of GFP-tagged E-cadherin to analyse the movement of the ZA. Junctions in confluent epithelial monolayers displayed prominent movements oriented orthogonal (perpendicular) to the ZA itself. Two components were identified in these movements: a relatively slow unidirectional (translational) component that could be readily fitted by least-squares regression analysis, upon which were superimposed more rapid oscillatory movements. Myosin IIB was a dominant factor responsible for driving the unilateral translational movements. In contrast, frequency spectrum analysis revealed that depletion of Myosin IIA increased the power of the oscillatory movements. This implies that Myosin IIA may serve to dampen oscillatory movements of the ZA. This extends our recent analysis of Myosin II at the ZA to demonstrate that Myosin IIA and Myosin IIB make distinct contributions to junctional movement at the ZA. PMID:21799860

  10. Myosin II transport, organization, and phosphorylation: evidence for cortical flow/solation-contraction coupling during cytokinesis and cell locomotion.

    PubMed Central

    DeBiasio, R L; LaRocca, G M; Post, P L; Taylor, D L

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of cytokinesis has been difficult to define because of the short duration and the temporal-spatial dynamics involved in the formation, activation, force production, and disappearance of the cleavage furrow. We have investigated the structural and chemical dynamics of myosin II in living Swiss 3T3 cells from prometaphase through the separation and migration of daughter cells. The structural and chemical dynamics of myosin II have been defined using the semiautomated, multimode light microscope, together with a fluorescent analogue of myosin II and a fluorescent biosensor of myosin II regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation at serine 19. The correlation of image data from live cells using different modes of light microscopy allowed interpretations not possible from single-mode investigations. Myosin II transported toward the equatorial plane from adjacent regions, forming three-dimensional fibers that spanned the volume of the equator during anaphase and telophase. A global phosphorylation of myosin II at serine 19 of the RLC was initiated at anaphase when cortical myosin II transport started. The phosphorylation of myosin II remained high near the equatorial plane through telophase and into cytokinesis, whereas the phosphorylation of myosin II at serine 19 of the RLC decreased at the poles. The timing and pattern of phosphorylation was the same as the shortening of myosin II-based fibers in the cleavage furrow. Myosin II-based fibers shortened and transported out of the cleavage furrow into the tails of the two daughter cells late in cytokinesis. The patterns of myosin II transport, phosphorylation, and shortening of fibers in the migrating daughter cells were similar to that previously defined for cells migrating in a wound in vitro. The temporal-spatial patterns and dynamics of myosin II transport, phosphorylation at serine 19 of the RLC, and the shortening and disappearance of myosin II-based fibers support the proposal that a combination of

  11. The molecular motor Myosin Va interacts with the cilia-centrosomal protein RPGRIP1L

    PubMed Central

    Assis, L. H. P.; Silva-Junior, R. M. P.; Dolce, L. G.; Alborghetti, M. R.; Honorato, R. V.; Nascimento, A. F. Z.; Melo-Hanchuk, T. D.; Trindade, D. M.; Tonoli, C. C. C.; Santos, C. T.; Oliveira, P. S. L.; Larson, R. E.; Kobarg, J.; Espreafico, E. M.; Giuseppe, P. O.; Murakami, M. T.

    2017-01-01

    Myosin Va (MyoVa) is an actin-based molecular motor abundantly found at the centrosome. However, the role of MyoVa at this organelle has been elusive due to the lack of evidence on interacting partners or functional data. Herein, we combined yeast two-hybrid screen, biochemical studies and cellular assays to demonstrate that MyoVa interacts with RPGRIP1L, a cilia-centrosomal protein that controls ciliary signaling and positioning. MyoVa binds to the C2 domains of RPGRIP1L via residues located near or in the Rab11a-binding site, a conserved site in the globular tail domain (GTD) from class V myosins. According to proximity ligation assays, MyoVa and RPGRIP1L can interact near the cilium base in ciliated RPE cells. Furthermore, we showed that RPE cells expressing dominant-negative constructs of MyoVa are mostly unciliated, providing the first experimental evidence about a possible link between this molecular motor and cilia-related processes. PMID:28266547

  12. Non-muscle myosin II in disease: mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Newell-Litwa, Karen A.; Horwitz, Rick; Lamers, Marcelo L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The actin motor protein non-muscle myosin II (NMII) acts as a master regulator of cell morphology, with a role in several essential cellular processes, including cell migration and post-synaptic dendritic spine plasticity in neurons. NMII also generates forces that alter biochemical signaling, by driving changes in interactions between actin-associated proteins that can ultimately regulate gene transcription. In addition to its roles in normal cellular physiology, NMII has recently emerged as a critical regulator of diverse, genetically complex diseases, including neuronal disorders, cancers and vascular disease. In the context of these disorders, NMII regulatory pathways can be directly mutated or indirectly altered by disease-causing mutations. NMII regulatory pathway genes are also increasingly found in disease-associated copy-number variants, particularly in neuronal disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. Furthermore, manipulation of NMII-mediated contractility regulates stem cell pluripotency and differentiation, thus highlighting the key role of NMII-based pharmaceuticals in the clinical success of stem cell therapies. In this Review, we discuss the emerging role of NMII activity and its regulation by kinases and microRNAs in the pathogenesis and prognosis of a diverse range of diseases, including neuronal disorders, cancer and vascular disease. We also address promising clinical applications and limitations of NMII-based inhibitors in the treatment of these diseases and the development of stem-cell-based therapies. PMID:26542704

  13. Non-muscle myosin II in disease: mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities.

    PubMed

    Newell-Litwa, Karen A; Horwitz, Rick; Lamers, Marcelo L

    2015-12-01

    The actin motor protein non-muscle myosin II (NMII) acts as a master regulator of cell morphology, with a role in several essential cellular processes, including cell migration and post-synaptic dendritic spine plasticity in neurons. NMII also generates forces that alter biochemical signaling, by driving changes in interactions between actin-associated proteins that can ultimately regulate gene transcription. In addition to its roles in normal cellular physiology, NMII has recently emerged as a critical regulator of diverse, genetically complex diseases, including neuronal disorders, cancers and vascular disease. In the context of these disorders, NMII regulatory pathways can be directly mutated or indirectly altered by disease-causing mutations. NMII regulatory pathway genes are also increasingly found in disease-associated copy-number variants, particularly in neuronal disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. Furthermore, manipulation of NMII-mediated contractility regulates stem cell pluripotency and differentiation, thus highlighting the key role of NMII-based pharmaceuticals in the clinical success of stem cell therapies. In this Review, we discuss the emerging role of NMII activity and its regulation by kinases and microRNAs in the pathogenesis and prognosis of a diverse range of diseases, including neuronal disorders, cancer and vascular disease. We also address promising clinical applications and limitations of NMII-based inhibitors in the treatment of these diseases and the development of stem-cell-based therapies.

  14. Phosphorylation of myosin II regulatory light chain is necessary for migration of HeLa cells but not for localization of myosin II at the leading edge.

    PubMed Central

    Fumoto, Katsumi; Uchimura, Takashi; Iwasaki, Takahiro; Ueda, Kozue; Hosoya, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the role of phosphorylated myosin II regulatory light chain (MRLC) in living cell migration, these mutant MRLCs were engineered and introduced into HeLa cells. The mutant MRLCs include an unphosphorylatable form, in which both Thr-18 and Ser-19 were substituted with Ala (AA-MRLC), and pseudophosphorylated forms, in which Thr-18 and Ser-19 were replaced with Ala and Asp, respectively (AD-MRLC), and both Thr-18 and Ser-19 were replaced with Asp (DD-MRLC). Mutant MRLC-expressing cell monolayers were mechanically stimulated by scratching, and the cells were forced to migrate in a given direction. In this wound-healing assay, the AA-MRLC-expressing cells migrated much more slowly than the wild-type MRLC-expressing cells. In the case of DD-MRLC- and AD-MRLC-expressing cells, no significant differences compared with wild-type MRLC-expressing cells were observed in their migration speed. Indirect immunofluorescence staining showed that the accumulation of endogenous diphosphorylated MRLC at the leading edge was not observed in AA-MRLC-expressing cells, although AA-MRLC was incorporated into myosin heavy chain and localized at the leading edge. In conclusion, we propose that the phosphorylation of MRLC is required to generate the driving force in the migration of the cells but not necessary for localization of myosin II at the leading edge. PMID:12429016

  15. Mechanism of IFN-γ-induced Endocytosis of Tight Junction Proteins: Myosin II-dependent Vacuolarization of the Apical Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Utech, Markus; Ivanov, Andrei I.; Samarin, Stanislav N.; Bruewer, Matthias; Turner, Jerrold R.; Mrsny, Randall J.; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma

    2005-01-01

    Disruption of epithelial barrier by proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ represents a major pathophysiological consequence of intestinal inflammation. We have previously shown that IFN-γ increases paracellular permeability in model T84 epithelial cells by inducing endocytosis of tight junction (TJ) proteins occludin, JAM-A, and claudin-1. The present study was designed to dissect mechanisms of IFN-γ-induced endocytosis of epithelial TJ proteins. IFN-γ treatment of T84 cells resulted in internalization of TJ proteins into large actin-coated vacuoles that originated from the apical plasma membrane and resembled the vacuolar apical compartment (VAC) previously observed in epithelial cells that lose cell polarity. The IFN-γ dependent formation of VACs required ATPase activity of a myosin II motor but was not dependent on rapid turnover of F-actin. In addition, activated myosin II was observed to colocalize with VACs after IFN-γ exposure. Pharmacological analyses revealed that formation of VACs and endocytosis of TJ proteins was mediated by Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) but not myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Furthermore, IFN-γ treatment resulted in activation of Rho GTPase and induced expressional up-regulation of ROCK. These results, for the first time, suggest that IFN-γ induces endocytosis of epithelial TJ proteins via RhoA/ROCK-mediated, myosin II-dependent formation of VACs. PMID:16055505

  16. Phosphorylation by casein kinase II affects the interaction of caldesmon with smooth muscle myosin and tropomyosin.

    PubMed Central

    Bogatcheva, N V; Vorotnikov, A V; Birukov, K G; Shirinsky, V P; Gusev, N B

    1993-01-01

    Smooth muscle caldesmon was phosphorylated by casein kinase II, and the effects of phosphorylation on the interaction of caldesmon and its chymotryptic peptides with myosin and tropomyosin were investigated. The N-terminal chymotryptic peptide of caldesmon of molecular mass 27 kDa interacted with myosin. Phosphorylation of Ser-73 catalysed by casein kinase II resulted in a 2-fold decrease in the affinity of the native caldesmon (or its 27 kDa N-terminal peptide) for smooth muscle myosin. At low ionic strength, caldesmon and its N-terminal peptides of molecular masses 25 and 27 kDa were retarded on a column of immobilized tropomyosin. Phosphorylation of Ser-73 led to a 2-4-fold decrease in the affinity of caldesmon (or its N-terminal peptides) for tropomyosin. Thus phosphorylation of Ser-73 catalysed by casein kinase II affects the interaction of caldesmon with both smooth muscle myosin and tropomyosin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8452532

  17. Probing muscle myosin motor action: x-ray (m3 and m6) interference measurements report motor domain not lever arm movement.

    PubMed

    Knupp, Carlo; Offer, Gerald; Ranatunga, K W; Squire, John M

    2009-07-10

    The key question in understanding how force and movement are produced in muscle concerns the nature of the cyclic interaction of myosin molecules with actin filaments. The lever arm of the globular head of each myosin molecule is thought in some way to swing axially on the actin-attached motor domain, thus propelling the actin filament past the myosin filament. Recent X-ray diffraction studies of vertebrate muscle, especially those involving the analysis of interference effects between myosin head arrays in the two halves of the thick filaments, have been claimed to prove that the lever arm moves at the same time as the sliding of actin and myosin filaments in response to muscle length or force steps. It was suggested that the sliding of myosin and actin filaments, the level of force produced and the lever arm angle are all directly coupled and that other models of lever arm movement will not fit the X-ray data. Here, we show that, in addition to interference across the A-band, which must be occurring, the observed meridional M3 and M6 X-ray intensity changes can all be explained very well by the changing diffraction effects during filament sliding caused by heads stereospecifically attached to actin moving axially relative to a population of detached or non-stereospecifically attached heads that remain fixed in position relative to the myosin filament backbone. Crucially, and contrary to previous interpretations, the X-ray interference results provide little direct information about the position of the myosin head lever arm; they are, in fact, reporting relative motor domain movements. The implications of the new interpretation are briefly assessed.

  18. Advances in quantum simulations of ATPase catalysis in the myosin motor.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Farooq Ahmad; Fischer, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    During its contraction cycle, the myosin motor catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP. Several combined quantum/classical mechanics (QM/MM) studies of this step have been published, which substantially contributed to our thinking about the catalytic mechanism. The methodological difficulties encountered over the years in the simulation of this complex reaction are now understood: (a) Polarization of the protein peptide groups surrounding the highly charged ATP(4-) cannot be neglected. (b) Some unsuspected protein groups need to be treated QM. (c) Interactions with the γ-phosphate versus the β-phosphate favor a concurrent versus a sequential mechanism, respectively. Thus, these practical aspects strongly influence the computed mechanism, and should be considered when studying other catalyzed phosphor-ester hydrolysis reactions, such as in ATPases or GTPases.

  19. The role of vertebrate nonmuscle Myosin II in development and human disease

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xuefei; Adelstein, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    Three different genes each located on a different chromosome encode the heavy chains of nonmuscle myosin II in humans and mice. This review explores the functional consequences of the presence of three isoforms during embryonic development and beyond. The roles of the various isoforms in cell division, cell-cell adhesion, blood vessel formation and neuronal cell migration are addressed in animal models and at the cellular level. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of nonmuscle myosin II during cardiac and brain development, and during closure of the neural tube and body wall. Questions addressed include the consequences on organ development, of lowering or ablating a particular isoform as well as the effect of substituting one isoform for another, all in vivo. Finally the roles of the three isoforms in human diseases such as cancer as well as in syndromes affecting a variety of organs in humans are reviewed. PMID:25098841

  20. Calcium-dependent regulation of the motor activity of recombinant full-length Physarum myosin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Kawamichi, Hozumi; Tanaka, Hideyuki; Yoshiyama, Shinji; Kohama, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Akio

    2012-08-01

    We successfully synthesized full-length and the mutant Physarum myosin and heavy meromyosin (HMM) constructs associated with Physarum regulatory light chain and essential light chain (PhELC) using Physarum myosin heavy chain in Sf-9 cells, and examined their Ca(2+)-mediated regulation. Ca(2+) inhibited the motility and ATPase activities of Physarum myosin and HMM. The Ca(2+) effect is also reversible at the in vitro motility of Physarum myosin. We demonstrated that full-length myosin increases the Ca(2+) inhibition more effectively than HMM. Furthermore, Ca(2+) did not affect the motility and ATPase activities of the mutant Physarum myosin with PhELC that lost Ca(2+)-binding ability. Therefore, we conclude that PhELC plays a critical role in Ca(2+)-dependent regulation of Physarum myosin.

  1. Intracellular photoactivation of caged cGMP induces myosin II and actin responses in motile cells.

    PubMed

    Pfannes, Eva K B; Anielski, Alexander; Gerhardt, Matthias; Beta, Carsten

    2013-12-01

    Cyclic GMP (cGMP) is a ubiquitous second messenger in eukaryotic cells. It is assumed to regulate the association of myosin II with the cytoskeleton of motile cells. When cells of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum are exposed to chemoattractants or to increased osmotic stress, intracellular cGMP levels rise, preceding the accumulation of myosin II in the cell cortex. To directly investigate the impact of intracellular cGMP on cytoskeletal dynamics in a living cell, we released cGMP inside the cell by laser-induced photo-cleavage of a caged precursor. With this approach, we could directly show in a live cell experiment that an increase in intracellular cGMP indeed induces myosin II to accumulate in the cortex. Unexpectedly, we observed for the first time that also the amount of filamentous actin in the cell cortex increases upon a rise in the cGMP concentration, independently of cAMP receptor activation and signaling. We discuss our results in the light of recent work on the cGMP signaling pathway and suggest possible links between cGMP signaling and the actin system.

  2. Magnesium impacts myosin V motor activity by altering key conformational changes in the mechanochemical cycle.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Darshan V; Muretta, Joseph M; Swenson, Anja M; Thomas, David D; Yengo, Christopher M

    2013-07-09

    We investigated how magnesium (Mg) impacts key conformational changes during the ADP binding/release steps in myosin V and how these alterations impact the actomyosin mechanochemical cycle. The conformation of the nucleotide binding pocket was examined with our established FRET system in which myosin V labeled with FlAsH in the upper 50 kDa domain participates in energy transfer with mant labeled nucleotides. We examined the maximum actin-activated ATPase activity of MV FlAsH at a range of free Mg concentrations (0.1-9 mM) and found that the highest activity occurs at low Mg (0.1-0.3 mM), while there is a 50-60% reduction in activity at high Mg (3-9 mM). The motor activity examined with the in vitro motility assay followed a similar Mg-dependence, and the trend was similar with dimeric myosin V. Transient kinetic FRET studies of mantdADP binding/release from actomyosin V FlAsH demonstrate that the transition between the weak and strong actomyosin.ADP states is coupled to movement of the upper 50 kDa domain and is dependent on Mg with the strong state stabilized by Mg. We find that the kinetics of the upper 50 kDa conformational change monitored by FRET correlates well with the ATPase and motility results over a wide range of Mg concentrations. Our results suggest the conformation of the upper 50 kDa domain is highly dynamic in the Mg free actomyosin.ADP state, which is in agreement with ADP binding being entropy driven in the absence of Mg. Overall, our results demonstrate that Mg is a key factor in coupling the nucleotide- and actin-binding regions. In addition, Mg concentrations in the physiological range can alter the structural transition that limits ADP dissociation from actomyosin V, which explains the impact of Mg on actin-activated ATPase activity and in vitro motility.

  3. Molecular consequences of the R453C hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutation on human β-cardiac myosin motor function

    PubMed Central

    Sommese, Ruth F.; Sung, Jongmin; Nag, Suman; Sutton, Shirley; Deacon, John C.; Choe, Elizabeth; Leinwand, Leslie A.; Ruppel, Kathleen; Spudich, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disorders are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is among the most frequently occurring inherited cardiac disorders. HCM is caused by mutations in the genes encoding the fundamental force-generating machinery of the cardiac muscle, including β-cardiac myosin. Here, we present a biomechanical analysis of the HCM-causing mutation, R453C, in the context of human β-cardiac myosin. We found that this mutation causes a ∼30% decrease in the maximum ATPase of the human β-cardiac subfragment 1, the motor domain of myosin, and a similar percent decrease in the in vitro velocity. The major change in the R453C human β-cardiac subfragment 1 is a 50% increase in the intrinsic force of the motor compared with wild type, with no appreciable change in the stroke size, as observed with a dual-beam optical trap. These results predict that the overall force of the ensemble of myosin molecules in the muscle should be higher in the R453C mutant compared with wild type. Loaded in vitro motility assay confirms that the net force in the ensemble is indeed increased. Overall, this study suggests that the R453C mutation should result in a hypercontractile state in the heart muscle. PMID:23798412

  4. Tyrosine phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of myosin II essential light chains of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites regulates their motility.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Moreno, Raúl; Pérez-Yépez, Eloy-Andrés; Villegas-Sepúlveda, Nicolás; Morales, Fernando O; Meza, Isaura

    2016-08-01

    Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites dwell in the human intestine as comensals although under still unclear circumstances become invasive and destroy the host tissues. For these activities, trophozoites relay on remarkable motility provided by the cytoskeleton organization. Amebic actin and some of its actin-associated proteins are well known, while components of the myosin II molecule, although predicted from the E. histolytica genome, need biochemical and functional characterization. Recently, an amebic essential light myosin II chain, named EhMLCI, was identified and reported to be phosphorylated in tyrosines. The phosphorylated form of the protein was associated with the soluble assembly incompetent conformation of the heavy myosin chains, while the non-phosphorylated protein was identified with filamentous heavy chains, organized in an assembly competent conformation. It was postulated that EhMLCI tyrosine phosphorylation could act as a negative regulator of myosin II activity by its phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycles. To test this hypothesis, we constructed an expression vector containing an EhMLCI DNA sequence where two tyrosine residues, with strong probability of phosphorylation and fall within the single EF-hand domain that interacts with the N-terminus of myosin II heavy chains, were replaced by phenylalanines. Transfected trophozoites, expressing the mutant MutEhMLCI protein cannot process it, thereby not incorporated into the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycles required for myosin II activity, results in motility defective trophozoites.

  5. Distribution and evolution of stable single α-helices (SAH domains) in myosin motor proteins

    PubMed Central

    Simm, Dominic; Hatje, Klas

    2017-01-01

    Stable single-alpha helices (SAHs) are versatile structural elements in many prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins acting as semi-flexible linkers and constant force springs. This way SAH-domains function as part of the lever of many different myosins. Canonical myosin levers consist of one or several IQ-motifs to which light chains such as calmodulin bind. SAH-domains provide flexibility in length and stiffness to the myosin levers, and may be particularly suited for myosins working in crowded cellular environments. Although the function of the SAH-domains in human class-6 and class-10 myosins has well been characterised, the distribution of the SAH-domain in all myosin subfamilies and across the eukaryotic tree of life remained elusive. Here, we analysed the largest available myosin sequence dataset consisting of 7919 manually annotated myosin sequences from 938 species representing all major eukaryotic branches using the SAH-prediction algorithm of Waggawagga, a recently developed tool for the identification of SAH-domains. With this approach we identified SAH-domains in more than one third of the supposed 79 myosin subfamilies. Depending on the myosin class, the presence of SAH-domains can range from a few to almost all class members indicating complex patterns of independent and taxon-specific SAH-domain gain and loss. PMID:28369123

  6. The Globular Tail Domain of Myosin-5a Functions as a Dimer in Regulating the Motor Activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Bo; Yao, Lin-Lin; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2016-06-24

    Myosin-5a contains two heavy chains, which are dimerized via the coiled-coil regions. Thus, myosin-5a comprises two heads and two globular tail domains (GTDs). The GTD is the inhibitory domain that binds to the head and inhibits its motor function. Although the two-headed structure is essential for the processive movement of myosin-5a along actin filaments, little is known about the role of GTD dimerization. Here, we investigated the effect of GTD dimerization on its inhibitory activity. We found that the potent inhibitory activity of the GTD is dependent on its dimerization by the preceding coiled-coil regions, indicating synergistic interactions between the two GTDs and the two heads of myosin-5a. Moreover, we found that alanine mutations of the two conserved basic residues at N-terminal extension of the GTD not only weaken the inhibitory activity of the GTD but also enhance the activation of myosin-5a by its cargo-binding protein melanophilin (Mlph). These results are consistent with the GTD forming a head to head dimer, in which the N-terminal extension of the GTD interacts with the Mlph-binding site in the counterpart GTD. The Mlph-binding site at the GTD-GTD interface must be exposed prior to the binding of Mlph. We therefore propose that the inhibited Myo5a is equilibrated between the folded state, in which the Mlph-binding site is buried, and the preactivated state, in which the Mlph-binding site is exposed, and that Mlph is able to bind to the Myo5a in preactivated state and activates its motor function.

  7. An increase or a decrease in myosin II phosphorylation inhibits macrophage motility

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Myosin II purified from mammalian non-muscle cells is phosphorylated on the 20-kD light chain subunit (MLC20) by the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent enzyme myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). The importance of MLC20 phosphorylation in regulating cell motility was investigated by introducing either antibodies to MLCK (MK-Ab) or a Ca2+/calmodulin- independent, constitutively active form of MLCK (MK-) into macrophages. The effects of these proteins on cell motility were then determined using a quantitative chemotaxis assay. Chemotaxis is significantly diminished in macrophages containing MK-Ab compared to macrophages containing control antibodies. Moreover, there is an inverse relationship between the number of cells that migrate and the amount of MK-Ab introduced into cells. Interestingly, there is also an inverse relationship between the number of cells that migrate and the amount of MK- introduced into cells. Other experiments demonstrated that MK-Ab decreased intracellular MLC20 phosphorylation while MK- increased MLC20 phosphorylation. MK- also increased the amount of myosin associated with the cytoskeleton. These data demonstrate that the regulation of MLCK is an important aspect of cell motility and suggest that MLC20 phosphorylation must be maintained within narrow limits during translational motility by mammalian cells. PMID:2071674

  8. Non-muscle Myosin II Isoforms Co-assemble in Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Jordan R.; Shao, Lin; Remmert, Kirsten; Li, Dong; Betzig, Eric; Hammer, John A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Non-muscle myosin II (NM II) powers myriad developmental and cellular processes, including embryogenesis, cell migration, and cytokinesis [1]. To exert its functions, monomers of NM II assemble into bipolar filaments that produce a contractile force on the actin cytoskeleton. Mammalian cells express up to three isoforms of NM II (NM IIA, IIB and IIC), each of which possesses distinct biophysical properties and supports unique, as well as redundant, cellular functions [2-8]. Despite previous efforts [9-13], it remains unclear if NM II isoforms assemble in living cells to produce mixed (heterotypic) bipolar filaments, or if filaments consist entirely of a single isoform (homotypic). We addressed this question using fluorescently-tagged versions of NM IIA, IIB and IIC, isoform-specific immunostaining of the endogenous proteins, and two-color total internal reflection fluorescence structured-illumination microscopy, or TIRF-SIM, to visualize individual myosin II bipolar filaments inside cells. We show that NM II isoforms co-assemble into heterotypic filaments in a variety of settings, including various types of stress fibers, individual filaments throughout the cell, and the contractile ring. We also show that the differential distribution of NM IIA and NM IIB typically seen in confocal micrographs of well-polarized cells is reflected in the composition of individual bipolar filaments. Interestingly, this differential distribution is less pronounced in freshly-spread cells, arguing for the existence of sorting mechanism acting over time. Together, our work argues that individual NM II isoforms are potentially performing both isoform-specific and isoform-redundant functions while co-assembled with other NM II isoforms. PMID:24814144

  9. Regulation of nonmuscle myosin II during 3-methylcholanthrene induced dedifferentiation of C2C12 myotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Sumit K.; Saha, Shekhar; Das, Provas; Das, Mahua R.; Jana, Siddhartha S.

    2014-08-01

    3-Methylcholanthrene (3MC) induces tumor formation at the site of injection in the hind leg of mice within 110 days. Recent reports reveal that the transformation of normal muscle cells to atypical cells is one of the causes for tumor formation, however the molecular mechanism behind this process is not well understood. Here, we show in an in vitro study that 3MC induces fragmentation of multinucleate myotubes into viable mononucleates. These mononucleates form colonies when they are seeded into soft agar, indicative of cellular transformation. Immunoblot analysis reveals that phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC{sub 20}) is 5.6±0.5 fold reduced in 3MC treated myotubes in comparison to vehicle treated myotubes during the fragmentation of myotubes. In contrast, levels of myogenic factors such as MyoD, Myogenin and cell cycle regulators such as Cyclin D, Cyclin E1 remain unchanged as assessed by real-time PCR array and reverse transcriptase PCR analysis, respectively. Interestingly, addition of the myosin light chain kinase inhibitor, ML-7, enhances the fragmentation, whereas phosphatase inhibitor perturbs the 3MC induced fragmentation of myotubes. These results suggest that decrease in RLC{sub 20} phosphorylation may be associated with the fragmentation step of dedifferentiation. - Highlights: • 3-Methylcholanthrene induces fragmentation of C2C12-myotubes. • Dedifferentiation can be divided into two steps – fragmentation and proliferation. • Fragmentation is associated with rearrangement of nonmuscle myosin II. • Genes associated with differentiation and proliferation are not altered during fragmentation. • Phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain is reduced during fragmentation.

  10. Unipolar distributions of junctional Myosin II identify cell stripe boundaries that drive cell intercalation throughout Drosophila axis extension

    PubMed Central

    Tetley, Robert J; Blanchard, Guy B; Fletcher, Alexander G; Adams, Richard J; Sanson, Bénédicte

    2016-01-01

    Convergence and extension movements elongate tissues during development. Drosophila germ-band extension (GBE) is one example, which requires active cell rearrangements driven by Myosin II planar polarisation. Here, we develop novel computational methods to analyse the spatiotemporal dynamics of Myosin II during GBE, at the scale of the tissue. We show that initial Myosin II bipolar cell polarization gives way to unipolar enrichment at parasegmental boundaries and two further boundaries within each parasegment, concomitant with a doubling of cell number as the tissue elongates. These boundaries are the primary sites of cell intercalation, behaving as mechanical barriers and providing a mechanism for how cells remain ordered during GBE. Enrichment at parasegment boundaries during GBE is independent of Wingless signaling, suggesting pair-rule gene control. Our results are consistent with recent work showing that a combinatorial code of Toll-like receptors downstream of pair-rule genes contributes to Myosin II polarization via local cell-cell interactions. We propose an updated cell-cell interaction model for Myosin II polarization that we tested in a vertex-based simulation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12094.001 PMID:27183005

  11. Stereocilia-staircase spacing is influenced by myosin III motors and their cargos espin-1 and espin-like.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Seham; Avenarius, Matthew R; Grati, M'hamed; Krey, Jocelyn F; Windsor, Alanna M; Sousa, Aurea D; Ballesteros, Angela; Cui, Runjia; Millis, Bryan A; Salles, Felipe T; Baird, Michelle A; Davidson, Michael W; Jones, Sherri M; Choi, Dongseok; Dong, Lijin; Raval, Manmeet H; Yengo, Christopher M; Barr-Gillespie, Peter G; Kachar, Bechara

    2016-03-01

    Hair cells tightly control the dimensions of their stereocilia, which are actin-rich protrusions with graded heights that mediate mechanotransduction in the inner ear. Two members of the myosin-III family, MYO3A and MYO3B, are thought to regulate stereocilia length by transporting cargos that control actin polymerization at stereocilia tips. We show that eliminating espin-1 (ESPN-1), an isoform of ESPN and a myosin-III cargo, dramatically alters the slope of the stereocilia staircase in a subset of hair cells. Furthermore, we show that espin-like (ESPNL), primarily present in developing stereocilia, is also a myosin-III cargo and is essential for normal hearing. ESPN-1 and ESPNL each bind MYO3A and MYO3B, but differentially influence how the two motors function. Consequently, functional properties of different motor-cargo combinations differentially affect molecular transport and the length of actin protrusions. This mechanism is used by hair cells to establish the required range of stereocilia lengths within a single cell.

  12. Stereocilia-staircase spacing is influenced by myosin III motors and their cargos espin-1 and espin-like

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahim, Seham; Avenarius, Matthew R.; Grati, M'hamed; Krey, Jocelyn F.; Windsor, Alanna M.; Sousa, Aurea D.; Ballesteros, Angela; Cui, Runjia; Millis, Bryan A.; Salles, Felipe T.; Baird, Michelle A.; Davidson, Michael W.; Jones, Sherri M.; Choi, Dongseok; Dong, Lijin; Raval, Manmeet H.; Yengo, Christopher M.; Barr-Gillespie, Peter G.; Kachar, Bechara

    2016-01-01

    Hair cells tightly control the dimensions of their stereocilia, which are actin-rich protrusions with graded heights that mediate mechanotransduction in the inner ear. Two members of the myosin-III family, MYO3A and MYO3B, are thought to regulate stereocilia length by transporting cargos that control actin polymerization at stereocilia tips. We show that eliminating espin-1 (ESPN-1), an isoform of ESPN and a myosin-III cargo, dramatically alters the slope of the stereocilia staircase in a subset of hair cells. Furthermore, we show that espin-like (ESPNL), primarily present in developing stereocilia, is also a myosin-III cargo and is essential for normal hearing. ESPN-1 and ESPNL each bind MYO3A and MYO3B, but differentially influence how the two motors function. Consequently, functional properties of different motor-cargo combinations differentially affect molecular transport and the length of actin protrusions. This mechanism is used by hair cells to establish the required range of stereocilia lengths within a single cell. PMID:26926603

  13. The neck region of the myosin motor domain acts as a lever arm to generate movement.

    PubMed Central

    Uyeda, T Q; Abramson, P D; Spudich, J A

    1996-01-01

    The myosin head consists of a globular catalytic domain that binds actin and hydrolyzes ATP and a neck domain that consists of essential and regulatory light chains bound to a long alpha-helical portion of the heavy chain. The swinging neck-level model assumes that a swinging motion of the neck relative to the catalytic domain is the origin of movement. This model predicts that the step size, and consequently the sliding velocity, are linearly related to the length of the neck. We have tested this point by characterizing a series of mutant Dictyostelium myosins that have different neck lengths. The 2xELCBS mutant has an extra binding site for essential light chain. The delta RLCBS mutant myosin has an internal deletion that removes the regulatory light chain binding site. The delta BLCBS mutant lacks both light chain binding sites. Wild-type myosin and these mutant myosins were subjected to the sliding filament in vitro motility assay. As expected, mutants with shorter necks move slower than wild-type myosin in vitro. Most significantly, a mutant with a longer neck moves faster than the wild type, and the sliding velocities of these myosins are linearly related to the neck length, as predicted by the swinging neck-lever model. A simple extrapolation to zero speed predicts that the fulcrum point is in the vicinity of the SH1-SH2 region in the catalytic domain. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8633089

  14. Motor-motor interactions in ensembles of muscle myosin: using theory to connect single molecule to ensemble measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walcott, Sam

    2013-03-01

    Interactions between the proteins actin and myosin drive muscle contraction. Properties of a single myosin interacting with an actin filament are largely known, but a trillion myosins work together in muscle. We are interested in how single-molecule properties relate to ensemble function. Myosin's reaction rates depend on force, so ensemble models keep track of both molecular state and force on each molecule. These models make subtle predictions, e.g. that myosin, when part of an ensemble, moves actin faster than when isolated. This acceleration arises because forces between molecules speed reaction kinetics. Experiments support this prediction and allow parameter estimates. A model based on this analysis describes experiments from single molecule to ensemble. In vivo, actin is regulated by proteins that, when present, cause the binding of one myosin to speed the binding of its neighbors; binding becomes cooperative. Although such interactions preclude the mean field approximation, a set of linear ODEs describes these ensembles under simplified experimental conditions. In these experiments cooperativity is strong, with the binding of one molecule affecting ten neighbors on either side. We progress toward a description of myosin ensembles under physiological conditions.

  15. Rho/Rho-dependent kinase affects locomotion and actin-myosin II activity of Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Kłopocka, W; Redowicz, M J

    2004-10-01

    The highly motile free-living unicellular organism Amoeba proteus has been widely used as a model to study cell motility. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its unique locomotion are still scarcely known. Recently, we have shown that blocking the amoebae's endogenous Rac- and Rho-like proteins led to distinct and irreversible changes in the appearance of these large migrating cells as well as to a significant inhibition of their locomotion. In order to elucidate the mechanism of the Rho pathway, we tested the effects of blocking the endogenous Rho-dependent kinase (ROCK) by anti-ROCK antibodies and Y-27632, (+)-(R)-trans-4-(1-aminoethyl)-N-(4-pyridyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide dihydrochloride, a specific inhibitor of ROCK, on migrating amoebae and the effect of the Rho and ROCK inhibition on the actin-activated Mg-ATPase of the cytosolic fraction of the amoebae. Amoebae microinjected with anti-ROCK inhibitors remained contracted and strongly attached to the glass surface and exhibited an atypical locomotion. Despite protruding many pseudopodia that were advancing in various directions, the amoebae could not effectively move. Immunofluorescence studies showed that ROCK-like protein was dispersed throughout the cytoplasm and was also found in the regions of actin-myosin II interaction during both isotonic and isometric contraction. The Mg-ATPase activity was about two- to threefold enhanced, indicating that blocking the Rho/Rho-dependent kinase activated myosin. It is possible then that in contrast to the vertebrate cells, the inactivation of Rho/Rho-dependent kinase in amoebae leads to the activation of myosin II and to the observed hypercontracted cells which cannot exert effective locomotion.

  16. The microcephaly protein Asp regulates neuroepithelium morphogenesis by controlling the spatial distribution of myosin II.

    PubMed

    Rujano, Maria A; Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Pennetier, Carole; le Dez, Gaelle; Basto, Renata

    2013-11-01

    Mutations in ASPM are the most frequent cause of microcephaly, a disorder characterized by reduced brain size at birth. ASPM is recognized as a major regulator of brain size, yet its role during neural development remains poorly understood. Moreover, the role of ASPM proteins in invertebrate brain morphogenesis has never been investigated. Here, we characterized the function of the Drosophila ASPM orthologue, Asp, and found that asp mutants present severe defects in brain size and neuroepithelium morphogenesis. We show that size reduction depends on the mitotic function of Asp, whereas regulation of tissue shape depends on an uncharacterized function. Asp interacts with myosin II regulating its polarized distribution along the apico-basal axis. In the absence of Asp, mislocalization of myosin II results in interkinetic nuclear migration and tissue architecture defects. We propose that Asp regulates neuroepithelium morphogenesis through myosin-II-mediated structural and mechanical processes to maintain force balance and tissue cohesiveness.

  17. Increased expression of nonmuscle myosin IIs is associated with 3MC-induced mouse tumor.

    PubMed

    Saha, Shekhar; Dey, Sumit K; Das, Provas; Jana, Siddhartha S

    2011-11-01

    Administration of the chemical carcinogen, 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC), in the hind leg induces the progressive formation of tumors in mice within 110 days. Previous reports suggest that transformation of muscle cells to atypical cells is one of the causes of tumor formation. Molecular events that lead to transformation of normal cells to atypical cells are not well understood. Here, we investigate the effect of 3MC on the expression of nonmuscle myosin IIs (NM IIs) which are known to be involved in cell migration, division and adhesion. Mass spectroscopy analysis reveals that tumor tissue contains 64.5% NM II-A, 34% II-B and only 1.5% II-C of total NM IIs, whereas these three isoforms of NM IIs are undetectable by mass spectroscopy in normal tissue associated with the tumor (NTAT) from the hind leg. Quantification of heavy chain mRNAs of NM II suggests that tumor tissue contains 25.7-fold and 19.03-fold more of NM II-A and II-B, respectively, compared with NTAT. Unlike NM II-B, which is detected only after tumor formation, II-A is detectable as early as day 7 after a second dose of 3MC. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy reveals that fibroblast cells which are sparsely distributed in normal tissue are densely populated but of atypical shape in the tumor. These findings suggest that transformation of fibroblasts or non-fibroblast cells to atypical, cancerous cells is associated with increased levels of NM II-A and NM II-B expression in the 3MC-induced tumor mouse model. 3MC-induced transformation is further demonstrated in C2C12 myotubes.

  18. Substrate stiffness regulates cadherin-dependent collective migration through myosin-II contractility

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Mei Rosa; Besser, Achim

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical microenvironment is known to influence single-cell migration; however, the extent to which mechanical cues affect collective migration of adherent cells is not well understood. We measured the effects of varying substrate compliance on individual cell migratory properties in an epithelial wound-healing assay. Increasing substrate stiffness increased collective cell migration speed, persistence, and directionality as well as the coordination of cell movements. Dynamic analysis revealed that wounding initiated a wave of motion coordination from the wound edge into the sheet. This was accompanied by a front-to-back gradient of myosin-II activation and establishment of cell polarity. The propagation was faster and farther reaching on stiff substrates, indicating that substrate stiffness affects the transmission of directional cues. Manipulation of myosin-II activity and cadherin–catenin complexes revealed that this transmission is mediated by coupling of contractile forces between neighboring cells. Thus, our findings suggest that the mechanical environment integrates in a feedback with cell contractility and cell–cell adhesion to regulate collective migration. PMID:23091067

  19. The role of myosin II in glioma invasion: A mathematical model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wanho; Lim, Sookkyung; Kim, Yangjin

    2017-01-01

    Gliomas are malignant tumors that are commonly observed in primary brain cancer. Glioma cells migrate through a dense network of normal cells in microenvironment and spread long distances within brain. In this paper we present a two-dimensional multiscale model in which a glioma cell is surrounded by normal cells and its migration is controlled by cell-mechanical components in the microenvironment via the regulation of myosin II in response to chemoattractants. Our simulation results show that the myosin II plays a key role in the deformation of the cell nucleus as the glioma cell passes through the narrow intercellular space smaller than its nuclear diameter. We also demonstrate that the coordination of biochemical and mechanical components within the cell enables a glioma cell to take the mode of amoeboid migration. This study sheds lights on the understanding of glioma infiltration through the narrow intercellular spaces and may provide a potential approach for the development of anti-invasion strategies via the injection of chemoattractants for localization. PMID:28166231

  20. Fibroblast Migration in 3D is Controlled by Haptotaxis in a Non-muscle Myosin II-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Arotzena, O; Borau, C; Movilla, N; Vicente-Manzanares, M; García-Aznar, J M

    2015-12-01

    Cell migration in 3D is a key process in many physiological and pathological processes. Although valuable knowledge has been accumulated through analysis of various 2D models, some of these insights are not directly applicable to migration in 3D. In this study, we have confined biomimetic hydrogels within microfluidic platforms in the presence of a chemoattractant (platelet-derived growth factor-BB). We have characterized the migratory responses of human fibroblasts within them, particularly focusing on the role of non-muscle myosin II. Our results indicate a prominent role for myosin II in the integration of chemotactic and haptotactic migratory responses of fibroblasts in 3D confined environments.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II Enable Javascript to view the ... PDF Open All Close All Description Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II is a progressive disorder that ...

  2. Characterization of sea urchin unconventional myosins and analysis of their patterns of expression during early embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, V; Seipel, S; Krendel, M; Bonder, E M

    2000-10-01

    Early sea urchin development requires a dynamic reorganization of both the actin cytoskeleton and cytoskeletal interactions with cellular membranes. These events may involve the activities of multiple members of the superfamily of myosin motor proteins. Using RT-PCR with degenerate myosin primers, we identified 11 myosin mRNAs expressed in unfertilized eggs and coelomocytes of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Seven of these sea urchin myosins belonged to myosin classes Igamma, II, V, VI, VII, IX, and amoeboid-type I, and the remaining four may be from novel classes. Sea urchin myosins-V, -VI, -VII, and amoeboid-type-I were either completely or partially cloned and their molecular structures characterized. Sea urchin myosins-V, -VI, -VII, and amoeboid-type-I shared a high degree of sequence identity with their respective family members from vertebrates and they retained their class-specific structure and domain organization. Analysis of expression of myosin-V, -VI, -VII, and amoeboid-type-I mRNAs during development revealed that each myosin mRNA displayed a distinct temporal pattern of expression, suggesting that myosins might be involved in specific events of early embryogenesis. Interestingly, the onset of gastrulation appeared to be a pivotal point in modulation of myosin mRNA expression. The presence of multiple myosin mRNAs in eggs and embryos provides insight into the potential involvement of multiple specific motor proteins in the actin-dependent events of embryo development.

  3. Evidence of a role for nonmuscle myosin II in herpes simplex virus type 1 egress.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Hans; Elliott, Gill; O'Hare, Peter

    2002-04-01

    After cell entry, herpes simplex virus (HSV) particles are transported through the host cell cytoplasm to nuclear pores. Following replication, newly synthesized virus particles are transported back to the cell periphery via a complex pathway including a cytoplasmic phase involving some form of unenveloped particle. These various transport processes are likely to make use of one or more components of the cellular cytoskeletal systems and associated motor proteins. Here we report that the HSV type 1 (HSV-1) major tegument protein, VP22, interacts with the actin-associated motor protein nonmuscle myosin IIA (NMIIA). HSV-1 infection resulted in reorganization of NMIIA, inducing retraction of NMIIA from the cell periphery and condensation into a spoke-like distribution around the nucleus along with a second effect of accumulation in a perinuclear cluster. VP22 did not appear to colocalize with the reorganized cagelike distribution of NMIIA. However, VP22 has been previously reported to localize in a perinuclear vesicular pattern, and significant overlap was observed between this pattern and the perinuclear clusters of NMIIA. Inhibition of the ATPase activity of NMIIA with the myosin-specific inhibitor butanedione monoxime impaired the formation of the perinuclear vesicular VP22 accumulations and also the release of virus into the extracellular medium while having much less effect on the yield of cell-associated virus. Virus infection frequently results in the induction of highly extended processes emanating from the infected cell, and we observed that VP22-containing particles line up along NMIIA-containing filaments which run through these protrusions.

  4. Impact of the Motor and Tail Domains of Class III Myosins on Regulating the Formation and Elongation of Actin Protrusions.

    PubMed

    Raval, Manmeet H; Quintero, Omar A; Weck, Meredith L; Unrath, William C; Gallagher, James W; Cui, Runjia; Kachar, Bechara; Tyska, Matthew J; Yengo, Christopher M

    2016-10-21

    Class III myosins (MYO3A and MYO3B) are proposed to function as transporters as well as length and ultrastructure regulators within stable actin-based protrusions such as stereocilia and calycal processes. MYO3A differs from MYO3B in that it contains an extended tail domain with an additional actin-binding motif. We examined how the properties of the motor and tail domains of human class III myosins impact their ability to enhance the formation and elongation of actin protrusions. Direct examination of the motor and enzymatic properties of human MYO3A and MYO3B revealed that MYO3A is a 2-fold faster motor with enhanced ATPase activity and actin affinity. A chimera in which the MYO3A tail was fused to the MYO3B motor demonstrated that motor activity correlates with formation and elongation of actin protrusions. We demonstrate that removal of individual exons (30-34) in the MYO3A tail does not prevent filopodia tip localization but abolishes the ability to enhance actin protrusion formation and elongation in COS7 cells. Interestingly, our results demonstrate that MYO3A slows filopodia dynamics and enhances filopodia lifetime in COS7 cells. We also demonstrate that MYO3A is more efficient than MYO3B at increasing formation and elongation of stable microvilli on the surface of cultured epithelial cells. We propose that the unique features of MYO3A, enhanced motor activity, and an extended tail with tail actin-binding motif, allow it to play an important role in stable actin protrusion length and ultrastructure maintenance.

  5. Contractility parameters of human β-cardiac myosin with the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutation R403Q show loss of motor function.

    PubMed

    Nag, Suman; Sommese, Ruth F; Ujfalusi, Zoltan; Combs, Ariana; Langer, Stephen; Sutton, Shirley; Leinwand, Leslie A; Geeves, Michael A; Ruppel, Kathleen M; Spudich, James A

    2015-10-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most frequently occurring inherited cardiovascular disease. It is caused by mutations in genes encoding the force-generating machinery of the cardiac sarcomere, including human β-cardiac myosin. We present a detailed characterization of the most debated HCM-causing mutation in human β-cardiac myosin, R403Q. Despite numerous studies, most performed with nonhuman or noncardiac myosin, there is no consensus about the mechanism of action of this mutation on the function of the enzyme. We use recombinant human β-cardiac myosin and new methodologies to characterize in vitro contractility parameters of the R403Q myosin compared to wild type. We extend our studies beyond pure actin filaments to include the interaction of myosin with regulated actin filaments containing tropomyosin and troponin. We find that, with pure actin, the intrinsic force generated by R403Q is ~15% lower than that generated by wild type. The unloaded velocity is, however, ~10% higher for R403Q myosin, resulting in a load-dependent velocity curve that has the characteristics of lower contractility at higher external loads compared to wild type. With regulated actin filaments, there is no increase in the unloaded velocity and the contractility of the R403Q myosin is lower than that of wild type at all loads. Unlike that with pure actin, the actin-activated adenosine triphosphatase activity for R403Q myosin with Ca(2+)-regulated actin filaments is ~30% lower than that for wild type, predicting a lower unloaded duty ratio of the motor. Overall, the contractility parameters studied fit with a loss of human β-cardiac myosin contractility as a result of the R403Q mutation.

  6. Contractility parameters of human β-cardiac myosin with the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutation R403Q show loss of motor function

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Suman; Sommese, Ruth F.; Ujfalusi, Zoltan; Combs, Ariana; Langer, Stephen; Sutton, Shirley; Leinwand, Leslie A.; Geeves, Michael A.; Ruppel, Kathleen M.; Spudich, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most frequently occurring inherited cardiovascular disease. It is caused by mutations in genes encoding the force-generating machinery of the cardiac sarcomere, including human β-cardiac myosin. We present a detailed characterization of the most debated HCM-causing mutation in human β-cardiac myosin, R403Q. Despite numerous studies, most performed with nonhuman or noncardiac myosin, there is no consensus about the mechanism of action of this mutation on the function of the enzyme. We use recombinant human β-cardiac myosin and new methodologies to characterize in vitro contractility parameters of the R403Q myosin compared to wild type. We extend our studies beyond pure actin filaments to include the interaction of myosin with regulated actin filaments containing tropomyosin and troponin. We find that, with pure actin, the intrinsic force generated by R403Q is ~15% lower than that generated by wild type. The unloaded velocity is, however, ~10% higher for R403Q myosin, resulting in a load-dependent velocity curve that has the characteristics of lower contractility at higher external loads compared to wild type. With regulated actin filaments, there is no increase in the unloaded velocity and the contractility of the R403Q myosin is lower than that of wild type at all loads. Unlike that with pure actin, the actin-activated adenosine triphosphatase activity for R403Q myosin with Ca2+-regulated actin filaments is ~30% lower than that for wild type, predicting a lower unloaded duty ratio of the motor. Overall, the contractility parameters studied fit with a loss of human β-cardiac myosin contractility as a result of the R403Q mutation. PMID:26601291

  7. Memory Disrupting Effects of Nonmuscle Myosin II Inhibition Depend on the Class of Abused Drug and Brain Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Sherri B.; Blouin, Ashley M.; Young, Erica J.; Rumbaugh, Gavin; Miller, Courtney A.

    2017-01-01

    Depolymerizing actin in the amygdala through nonmuscle myosin II inhibition (NMIIi) produces a selective, lasting, and retrieval-independent disruption of the storage of methamphetamine-associated memories. Here we report a similar disruption of memories associated with amphetamine, but not cocaine or morphine, by NMIIi. Reconsolidation appeared…

  8. Characterization of Amoeba proteus myosin VI immunoanalog.

    PubMed

    Dominik, Magdalena; Kłopocka, Wanda; Pomorski, Paweł; Kocik, Elzbieta; Redowicz, Maria Jolanta

    2005-07-01

    Amoeba proteus, the highly motile free-living unicellular organism, has been widely used as a model to study cell motility. However, molecular mechanisms underlying its unique locomotion and intracellular actin-based-only trafficking remain poorly understood. A search for myosin motors responsible for vesicular transport in these giant cells resulted in detection of 130-kDa protein interacting with several polyclonal antibodies against different tail regions of human and chicken myosin VI. This protein was binding to actin in the ATP-dependent manner, and immunoprecipitated with anti-myosin VI antibodies. In order to characterize its possible functions in vivo, its cellular distribution and colocalization with actin filaments and dynamin II during migration and pinocytosis were examined. In migrating amoebae, myosin VI immunoanalog localized to vesicular structures, particularly within the perinuclear and sub-plasma membrane areas, and colocalized with dynamin II immunoanalog and actin filaments. The colocalization was even more evident in pinocytotic cells as proteins concentrated within pinocytotic pseudopodia. Moreover, dynamin II and myosin VI immunoanalogs cosedimented with actin filaments, and were found on the same isolated vesicles. Blocking endogenous myosin VI immunoanalog with anti-myosin VI antibodies inhibited the rate of pseudopodia protrusion (about 19% decrease) and uroidal retraction (about 28% decrease) but did not affect cell morphology and the manner of cell migration. Treatment with anti-human dynamin II antibodies led to changes in directionality of amebae migration and affected the rate of only uroidal translocation (about 30% inhibition). These results indicate that myosin VI immunoanalog is expressed in protist Amoeba proteus and may be involved in vesicle translocation and cell locomotion.

  9. The class I myosin Myo1e regulates TLR4-triggered macrophage spreading, chemokine release and antigen presentation via MHC class II

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, Jens; Ouderkirk, Jessica L.; Krendel, Mira; Lang, Roland

    2014-01-01

    TLR-mediated recognition of microbial danger induces substantial changes in macrophage migration, adherence and phagocytosis. Recently, we described the LPS-regulated phosphorylation of many cytoskeleton-associated proteins by phosphoproteomics. The functional role of these cytoskeletal and motor proteins in innate immune cell responses is largely unexplored. Here, we first identified both long-tailed class I myosins Myo1e and Myo1f as important contributors to LPS-triggered macrophage spreading. Mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) deficient in Myo1e selectively secreted increased amounts of the chemokine CCL2. In addition, the cell surface expression of MHC class II (MHC-II) on both cell types was reduced in the absence of Myo1e. However, transcriptional changes in CCL2 and MHC-II were not observed in the absence of Myo1e, indicating that Myo1e regulates specific intracellular transport processes. The capacity of macrophages and DCs lacking Myo1e to stimulate antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell proliferation was impaired, consistent with the reduced MHC-II surface protein levels. Surprisingly, in Myo1e-deficient DCs, the proteolytic cleavage of endocytosed antigen was also increased. Together, our results provide evidence for a non-redundant function of the motor protein Myo1e in the regulation of TLR4-controlled, cytoskeleton-associated functional properties of macrophages and DCs, and in induction of a full MHC-II-restricted adaptive immune response. PMID:25263281

  10. Myosin Ib modulates the morphology and the protein transport within multi-vesicular sorting endosomes.

    PubMed

    Salas-Cortes, Laura; Ye, Fei; Tenza, Danièle; Wilhelm, Claire; Theos, Alexander; Louvard, Daniel; Raposo, Graça; Coudrier, Evelyne

    2005-10-15

    Members of at least four classes of myosin (I, II, V and VI) have been implicated in the dynamics of a large variety of organelles. Despite their common motor domain structure, some of these myosins, however, are non processive and cannot move organelles along the actin tracks. Here, we demonstrate in the human pigmented MNT-1 cell line that, (1) the overexpression of one of these myosins, myosin 1b, or the addition of cytochalasin D affects the morphology of the sorting multivesicular endosomes; (2) the overexpression of myosin 1b delays the processing of Pmel17 (the product of murine silver locus also named GP100), which occurs in these multivesicular endosomes; (3) myosin 1b associated with endosomes coimmunoprecipitates with Pmel17. All together, these observations suggest that myosin 1b controls the traffic of protein cargo in multivesicular endosomes most probably through its ability to modulate with actin the morphology of these sorting endosomes.

  11. Myosin II filament assemblies in the active lamella of fibroblasts: their morphogenesis and role in the formation of actin filament bundles

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The morphogenesis of myosin II structures in active lamella undergoing net protrusion was analyzed by correlative fluorescence and electron microscopy. In rat embryo fibroblasts (REF 52) microinjected with tetramethylrhodamine-myosin II, nascent myosin spots formed close to the active edge during periods of retraction and then elongated into wavy ribbons of uniform width. The spots and ribbons initially behaved as distinct structural entities but subsequently aligned with each other in a sarcomeric-like pattern. Electron microscopy established that the spots and ribbons consisted of bipolar minifilaments associated with each other at their head-containing ends and arranged in a single row in an "open" zig-zag conformation or as a "closed" parallel stack. Ribbons also contacted each other in a nonsarcomeric, network-like arrangement as described previously (Verkhovsky and Borisy, 1993. J. Cell Biol. 123:637-652). Myosin ribbons were particularly pronounced in REF 52 cells, but small ribbons and networks were found also in a range of other mammalian cells. At the edge of the cell, individual spots and open ribbons were associated with relatively disordered actin filaments. Further from the edge, myosin filament alignment increased in parallel with the development of actin bundles. In actin bundles, the actin cross-linking protein, alpha-actinin, was excluded from sites of myosin localization but concentrated in paired sites flanking each myosin ribbon, suggesting that myosin filament association may initiate a pathway for the formation of actin filament bundles. We propose that zig-zag assemblies of myosin II filaments induce the formation of actin bundles by pulling on an actin filament network and that co-alignment of actin and myosin filaments proceeds via folding of myosin II filament assemblies in an accordion-like fashion. PMID:7490299

  12. Tension regulates myosin dynamics during Drosophila embryonic wound repair.

    PubMed

    Kobb, Anna B; Zulueta-Coarasa, Teresa; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

    2017-02-15

    Embryos repair epithelial wounds rapidly in a process driven by collective cell movements. Upon wounding, actin and the molecular motor non-muscle myosin II are redistributed in the cells adjacent to the wound, forming a supracellular purse string around the lesion. Purse string contraction coordinates cell movements and drives rapid wound closure. By using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching in Drosophila embryos, we found that myosin turns over as the purse string contracts. Myosin turnover at the purse string was slower than in other actomyosin networks that had a lower level of contractility. Mathematical modelling suggested that myosin assembly and disassembly rates were both reduced by tension at the wound edge. We used laser ablation to show that tension at the purse string increased as wound closure progressed, and that the increase in tension was associated with reduced myosin turnover. Reducing purse string tension by laser-mediated severing resulted in increased turnover and loss of myosin. Finally, myosin motor activity was necessary for its stabilization around the wound and for rapid wound closure. Our results indicate that mechanical forces regulate myosin dynamics during embryonic wound repair.

  13. Myosin lever arm directs collective motion on cellular actin network.

    PubMed

    Hariadi, Rizal F; Cale, Mario; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj

    2014-03-18

    The molecular motor myosin teams up to drive muscle contraction, membrane traffic, and cell division in biological cells. Myosin function in cells emerges from the interaction of multiple motors tethered to a scaffold, with surrounding actin filaments organized into 3D networks. Despite the importance of myosin function, the influence of intermotor interactions on collective motion remains poorly understood. In this study, we used precisely engineered myosin assemblies to examine emergence in collective myosin movement. We report that tethering multiple myosin VI motors, but not myosin V motors, modifies their movement trajectories on keratocyte actin networks. Single myosin V and VI dimers display similar skewed trajectories, albeit in opposite directions, when traversing the keratocyte actin network. In contrast, tethering myosin VI motors, but not myosin V motors, progressively straightens the trajectories with increasing myosin number. Trajectory shape of multimotor scaffolds positively correlates with the stiffness of the myosin lever arm. Swapping the flexible myosin VI lever arm for the relatively rigid myosin V lever increases trajectory skewness, and vice versa. A simplified model of coupled motor movement demonstrates that the differences in flexural rigidity of the two myosin lever arms is sufficient to account for the differences in observed behavior of groups of myosin V and VI motors. In accordance with this model trajectory, shapes for scaffolds containing both myosin V and VI are dominated by the myosin with a stiffer lever arm. Our findings suggest that structural features unique to each myosin type may confer selective advantages in cellular functions.

  14. Myosin motor function: the ins and outs of actin-based membrane protrusions

    PubMed Central

    Nambiar, Rajalakshmi; McConnell, Russell E.

    2011-01-01

    Cells build plasma membrane protrusions supported by parallel bundles of F-actin to enable a wide variety of biological functions, ranging from motility to host defense. Filopodia, microvilli and stereocilia are three such protrusions that have been the focus of intense biological and biophysical investigation in recent years. While it is evident that actin dynamics play a significant role in the formation of these organelles, members of the myosin superfamily have also been implicated as key players in the maintenance of protrusion architecture and function. Based on a simple analysis of the physical forces that control protrusion formation and morphology, as well as our review of available data, we propose that myosins play two general roles within these structures: (1) as cargo transporters to move critical regulatory components toward distal tips and (2) as mediators of membrane-cytoskeleton adhesion. PMID:20107861

  15. Local pulsatile contractions are an intrinsic property of the myosin 2A motor in the cortical cytoskeleton of adherent cells

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Michelle A.; Billington, Neil; Wang, Aibing; Adelstein, Robert S.; Sellers, James R.; Fischer, Robert S.; Waterman, Clare M.

    2017-01-01

    The role of nonmuscle myosin 2 (NM2) pulsatile dynamics in generating contractile forces required for developmental morphogenesis has been characterized, but whether these pulsatile contractions are an intrinsic property of all actomyosin networks is not known. Here we used live-cell fluorescence imaging to show that transient, local assembly of NM2A “pulses” occurs in the cortical cytoskeleton of single adherent cells of mesenchymal, epithelial, and sarcoma origin, independent of developmental signaling cues and cell–cell or cell–ECM interactions. We show that pulses in the cortical cytoskeleton require Rho-associated kinase– or myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) activity, increases in cytosolic calcium, and NM2 ATPase activity. Surprisingly, we find that cortical cytoskeleton pulses specifically require the head domain of NM2A, as they do not occur with either NM2B or a 2B-head-2A-tail chimera. Our results thus suggest that pulsatile contractions in the cortical cytoskeleton are an intrinsic property of the NM2A motor that may mediate its role in homeostatic maintenance of tension in the cortical cytoskeleton of adherent cells. PMID:27881665

  16. Myosin II Isoform Co-assembly and Differential Regulation in Mammalian Systems

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Jordan R.; Hammer, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Non-muscle myosin 2 (NM2) is a major force-producing, actin-based motor in mammalian non-muscle cells, where it plays important roles in a broad range of fundamental biological processes, including cytokinesis, cell migration, and epithelial barrier function.. This breadth of function at the tissue and cellular levels suggests extensive diversity and differential regulation of NM2 bipolar filaments, the major, if not sole, functional form of NM2s in vivo. Previous in vitro, cellular and animal studies indicate that some of this diversity is supported by the existence of multiple NM2 isoforms. Moreover, two recent studies have shown that these isoforms can co-assemble to form heterotypic filaments, further expanding functional diversity. In addition to isoform co-assembly, cells may differentially regulate NM2 function via isoform-specific expression, RLC phosphorylation, MHC phosphorylation or regulation via binding partners. Here, we provide a brief summary of NM2 filament assembly, summarize the recent findings regarding NM2 isoform co-assembly, consider the mechanisms cells might utilize to differentially regulate NM2 isoforms, and review the data available to support these mechanisms. PMID:25655283

  17. Myosin phosphatase Fine-tunes Zebrafish Motoneuron Position during Axonogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Granato, Michael

    2016-01-01

    During embryogenesis the spinal cord shifts position along the anterior-posterior axis relative to adjacent tissues. How motor neurons whose cell bodies are located in the spinal cord while their axons reside in adjacent tissues compensate for such tissue shift is not well understood. Using live cell imaging in zebrafish, we show that as motor axons exit from the spinal cord and extend through extracellular matrix produced by adjacent notochord cells, these cells shift several cell diameters caudally. Despite this pronounced shift, individual motoneuron cell bodies stay aligned with their extending axons. We find that this alignment requires myosin phosphatase activity within motoneurons, and that mutations in the myosin phosphatase subunit mypt1 increase myosin phosphorylation causing a displacement between motoneuron cell bodies and their axons. Thus, we demonstrate that spinal motoneurons fine-tune their position during axonogenesis and we identify the myosin II regulatory network as a key regulator. PMID:27855159

  18. A role for non-muscle myosin II function in furrow maturation in the early zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Urven, Lance E; Yabe, Taijiro; Pelegri, Francisco

    2006-10-15

    Cytokinesis in early zebrafish embryos involves coordinated changes in the f-actin- and microtubule-based cytoskeleton, and the recruitment of adhesion junction components to the furrow. We show that exposure to inhibitors of non-muscle myosin II function does not affect furrow ingression during the early cleavage cycles but interferes with the recruitment of pericleavage f-actin and cortical beta-catenin aggregates to the furrow, as well as the remodeling of the furrow microtubule array. This remodeling is in turn required for the distal aggregation of the zebrafish germ plasm. Embryos with reduced myosin activity also exhibit at late stages of cytokinesis a stabilized contractile ring apparatus that appears as a ladder-like pattern of short f-actin cables, supporting a role for myosin function in the disassembly of the contractile ring after furrow formation. Our studies support a role for myosin function in furrow maturation that is independent of furrow ingression and which is essential for the recruitment of furrow components and the remodeling of the cytoskeleton during cytokinesis.

  19. The ultrastructural organization of actin and myosin II filaments in the contractile ring: new support for an old model of cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Henson, John H; Ditzler, Casey E; Germain, Aphnie; Irwin, Patrick M; Vogt, Eric T; Yang, Shucheng; Wu, Xufeng; Shuster, Charles B

    2017-03-01

    Despite recent advances in our understanding of the components and spatial regulation of the contractile ring (CR), the precise ultrastructure of actin and myosin II within the animal cell CR remains an unanswered question. We used superresolution light microscopy and platinum replica transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the structural organization of actin and myosin II in isolated cortical cytoskeletons prepared from dividing sea urchin embryos. Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy indicated that within the CR, actin and myosin II filaments were organized into tightly packed linear arrays oriented along the axis of constriction and restricted to a narrow zone within the furrow. In contrast, myosin II filaments in earlier stages of cytokinesis were organized into small, discrete, and regularly spaced clusters. TEM showed that actin within the CR formed a dense and anisotropic array of elongate, antiparallel filaments, whereas myosin II was organized into laterally associated, head-to-head filament chains highly reminiscent of mammalian cell stress fibers. Together these results not only support the canonical "purse-string" model for contractile ring constriction, but also suggest that the CR may be derived from foci of myosin II filaments in a manner similar to what has been demonstrated in fission yeast.

  20. An optimized micro-assay of myosin II ATPase activity based on the molybdenum blue method and its application in screening natural product inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Lin; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Guan-Jun; Kou, Jun-Ping; Yu, Bo-Yang

    2016-06-01

    Myosin II plays multiple roles in physiological and pathological functions through its ATPase activity. The present study was designed to optimize a micro-assay of myosin II ATPase activity based on molybdenum blue method, using a known myosin II ATPase inhibitor, blebbistatin. Several parameters were observed in the enzymatic reaction procedure, including the concentrations of the substrate (ATP) and calcium chloride, pH, and the reaction and incubation times. The proportion of coloration agent was also investigated. The sensitivity of this assay was compared with the malachite green method and bioluminescence method. Additionally, 20 natural compounds were studied for myosin II ATPase inhibitory activity using the optimized method. Our results showed that ATP at the concentration of 5 mmol·L(-1) and ammonium molybdate : stannous chloride at the ratio of 15 : 1 could greatly improve the sensitivity of this method. The IC50 of blebbistatin obtained by this method was consistent with literature. Compound 8 was screened with inhibitory activity on myosin II ATPase. The optimized method showed similar accuracy, lower detecting limit, and wider linear range, which could be a promising approach to screening myosin II ATPase inhibitors in vitro.

  1. Cofilin Regulates Nuclear Architecture through a Myosin-II Dependent Mechanotransduction Module

    PubMed Central

    Wiggan, O’Neil; Schroder, Bryce; Krapf, Diego; Bamburg, James R.; DeLuca, Jennifer G.

    2017-01-01

    Structural features of the nucleus including shape, size and deformability impact its function affecting normal cellular processes such as cell differentiation and pathological conditions such as tumor cell migration. Despite the fact that abnormal nuclear morphology has long been a defining characteristic for diseases such as cancer relatively little is known about the mechanisms that control normal nuclear architecture. Mounting evidence suggests close coupling between F-actin cytoskeletal organization and nuclear morphology however, mechanisms regulating this coupling are lacking. Here we identify that Cofilin/ADF-family F-actin remodeling proteins are essential for normal nuclear structure in different cell types. siRNA mediated silencing of Cofilin/ADF provokes striking nuclear defects including aberrant shapes, nuclear lamina disruption and reductions to peripheral heterochromatin. We provide evidence that these anomalies are primarily due to Rho kinase (ROCK) controlled excessive contractile myosin-II activity and not to elevated F-actin polymerization. Furthermore, we demonstrate a requirement for nuclear envelope LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complex proteins together with lamin A/C for nuclear aberrations induced by Cofilin/ADF loss. Our study elucidates a pivotal regulatory mechanism responsible for normal nuclear structure and which is expected to fundamentally influence nuclear function. PMID:28102353

  2. Cofilin Regulates Nuclear Architecture through a Myosin-II Dependent Mechanotransduction Module.

    PubMed

    Wiggan, O'Neil; Schroder, Bryce; Krapf, Diego; Bamburg, James R; DeLuca, Jennifer G

    2017-01-19

    Structural features of the nucleus including shape, size and deformability impact its function affecting normal cellular processes such as cell differentiation and pathological conditions such as tumor cell migration. Despite the fact that abnormal nuclear morphology has long been a defining characteristic for diseases such as cancer relatively little is known about the mechanisms that control normal nuclear architecture. Mounting evidence suggests close coupling between F-actin cytoskeletal organization and nuclear morphology however, mechanisms regulating this coupling are lacking. Here we identify that Cofilin/ADF-family F-actin remodeling proteins are essential for normal nuclear structure in different cell types. siRNA mediated silencing of Cofilin/ADF provokes striking nuclear defects including aberrant shapes, nuclear lamina disruption and reductions to peripheral heterochromatin. We provide evidence that these anomalies are primarily due to Rho kinase (ROCK) controlled excessive contractile myosin-II activity and not to elevated F-actin polymerization. Furthermore, we demonstrate a requirement for nuclear envelope LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complex proteins together with lamin A/C for nuclear aberrations induced by Cofilin/ADF loss. Our study elucidates a pivotal regulatory mechanism responsible for normal nuclear structure and which is expected to fundamentally influence nuclear function.

  3. The Relay/Converter Interface Influences Hydrolysis of ATP by Skeletal Muscle Myosin II.

    PubMed

    Bloemink, Marieke J; Melkani, Girish C; Bernstein, Sanford I; Geeves, Michael A

    2016-01-22

    The interface between relay and converter domain of muscle myosin is critical for optimal myosin performance. Using Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle S1, we performed a kinetic analysis of the effect of mutations in the converter and relay domain. Introduction of a mutation (R759E) in the converter domain inhibits the steady-state ATPase of myosin S1, whereas an additional mutation in the relay domain (N509K) is able to restore the ATPase toward wild-type values. The R759E S1 construct showed little effect on most steps of the actomyosin ATPase cycle. The exception was a 25-30% reduction in the rate constant of the hydrolysis step, the step coupled to the cross-bridge recovery stroke that involves a change in conformation at the relay/converter domain interface. Significantly, the double mutant restored the hydrolysis step to values similar to the wild-type myosin. Modeling the relay/converter interface suggests a possible interaction between converter residue 759 and relay residue 509 in the actin-detached conformation, which is lost in R759E but is restored in N509K/R759E. This detailed kinetic analysis of Drosophila myosin carrying the R759E mutation shows that the interface between the relay loop and converter domain is important for fine-tuning myosin kinetics, in particular ATP binding and hydrolysis.

  4. Remote control of myosin and kinesin motors using light-activated gearshifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Muneaki; Chen, Lu; Howes, Stuart C.; Schindler, Tony D.; Nogales, Eva; Bryant, Zev

    2014-09-01

    Cytoskeletal motors perform critical force generation and transport functions in eukaryotic cells. Engineered modifications of motor function provide direct tests of protein structure-function relationships and potential tools for controlling cellular processes or for harnessing molecular transport in artificial systems. Here, we report the design and characterization of a panel of cytoskeletal motors that reversibly change gears—speed up, slow down or switch directions—when exposed to blue light. Our genetically encoded structural designs incorporate a photoactive protein domain to enable light-dependent conformational changes in an engineered lever arm. Using in vitro motility assays, we demonstrate robust spatiotemporal control over motor function and characterize the kinetics of the optical gearshifting mechanism. We have used a modular approach to create optical gearshifting motors for both actin-based and microtubule-based transport.

  5. Mesenchymal chemotaxis requires selective inactivation of myosin II at the leading edge via a noncanonical PLCγ/PKCα pathway.

    PubMed

    Asokan, Sreeja B; Johnson, Heath E; Rahman, Anisur; King, Samantha J; Rotty, Jeremy D; Lebedeva, Irina P; Haugh, Jason M; Bear, James E

    2014-12-22

    Chemotaxis, migration toward soluble chemical cues, is critical for processes such as wound healing and immune surveillance and is exhibited by various cell types, from rapidly migrating leukocytes to slow-moving mesenchymal cells. To study mesenchymal chemotaxis, we observed cell migration in microfluidic chambers that generate stable gradients of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Surprisingly, we found that pathways implicated in amoeboid chemotaxis, such as PI3K and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, are dispensable for PDGF chemotaxis. Instead, we find that local inactivation of Myosin IIA, through a noncanonical Ser1/2 phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain, is essential. This site is phosphorylated by PKCα, which is activated by an intracellular gradient of diacylglycerol generated by PLCγ. Using a combination of live imaging and gradients of activators/inhibitors in the microfluidic chambers, we demonstrate that this signaling pathway and subsequent inhibition of Myosin II activity at the leading edge are required for mesenchymal chemotaxis.

  6. A Collapsin Response Mediator Protein 2 Isoform Controls Myosin II-Mediated Cell Migration and Matrix Assembly by Trapping ROCK II

    PubMed Central

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wait, Robin; Couchman, John R.; Wewer, Ulla M.

    2012-01-01

    Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) is known as a regulator of neuronal polarity and differentiation through microtubule assembly and trafficking. Here, we show that CRMP-2 is ubiquitously expressed and a splice variant (CRMP-2L), which is expressed mainly in epithelial cells among nonneuronal cells, regulates myosin II-mediated cellular functions, including cell migration. While the CRMP-2 short form (CRMP-2S) is recognized as a substrate of the Rho-GTP downstream kinase ROCK in neuronal cells, a CRMP-2 complex containing 2L not only bound the catalytic domain of ROCK II through two binding domains but also trapped and inhibited the kinase. CRMP-2L protein levels profoundly affected haptotactic migration and the actin-myosin cytoskeleton of carcinoma cells as well as nontransformed epithelial cell migration in a ROCK activity-dependent manner. Moreover, the ectopic expression of CRMP-2L but not -2S inhibited fibronectin matrix assembly in fibroblasts. Underlying these responses, CRMP-2L regulated the kinase activity of ROCK II but not ROCK I, independent of GTP-RhoA levels. This study provides a new insight into CRMP-2 as a controller of myosin II-mediated cellular functions through the inhibition of ROCK II in nonneuronal cells. PMID:22431514

  7. Release of Nonmuscle Myosin II from the Cytosolic Domain of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 2 Is Required for Target Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekharan, Unni M.; Dechert, Lisa; Davidson, Uchechukwu I.; Waitkus, Matthew; Mavrakis, Lori; Lyons, Katherine; Beach, Jordan R.; Li, Xiaoxia; Egelhoff, Thomas T.; Fox, Paul L.; DiCorleto, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) elicits its biological activities through activation of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1, also known as p55) and TNFR2 (also known as p75). The activities of both receptors are required for the TNF-α–induced proinflammatory response. The adaptor protein TNFR-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) is critical for either p55- or p75-mediated activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, as well as for target gene expression. Here, we identified nonmuscle myosin II (myosin) as a binding partner of p75. TNF-α–dependent signaling by p75 and induction of target gene expression persisted for substantially longer in cells deficient in myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC, a component of myosin) than in cells replete in myosin. In resting endothelial cells, myosin was bound constitutively to the intracellular region of p75, a region that overlaps with the TRAF2-binding domain, and TNF-α caused the rapid dissociation of myosin from p75. At early time points after exposure to TNF-α, p75 activated Rho-associated kinase 1 (ROCK1). Inhibition of ROCK1 activity blocked TNF-α–dependent phosphorylation of MRLC and the dissociation of myosin from p75. ROCK1-dependent release of myosin was necessary for the TNF-α–dependent recruitment of TRAF2 to p75 and for p75-specific activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling. Thus, our findings have revealed a previously uncharacterized, noncanonical regulatory function of myosin in cytokine signaling. PMID:23861542

  8. Cooperation between the two heads of smooth muscle myosin is essential for full activation of the motor function by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rong-Na; Mabuchi, Katsuhide; Li, Jing; Lu, Zekuan; Wang, Chih-Lueh Albert; Li, Xiang-dong

    2013-09-10

    The motor function of smooth muscle myosin (SmM) is regulated by phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain (RLC) bound to the neck region of the SmM heavy chain. It is generally accepted that unphosphorylated RLC induces interactions between the two heads and between the head and the tail, thus inhibiting the motor activity of SmM, whereas phosphorylation of RLC interrupts those interactions, thus reversing the inhibition and restoring the motor activity to the maximal value. One assumption of this model is that single-headed SmM is fully active regardless of phosphorylation. To re-evaluate this model, we produced a number of SmM constructs with coiled coils of various lengths and examined their structure and regulation. With these constructs we identified the segment in the coiled-coil key for the formation of a stable double-headed structure. In agreement with the current model, we found that the actin-activated ATPase activity of unphosphorylated SmM increased with shortening of the coiled-coil. However, contrary to the current model, we found that the actin-activated ATPase activity of phosphorylated SmM decreased with shortening coiled-coil and only the stable double-headed SmM was fully activated by phosphorylation. These results indicate that single-headed SmM is neither fully active nor fully inhibited. Based on our findings, we propose that cooperation between the two heads is essential, not only for the inhibition of unphosphorylated SmM, but also for the activation of phosphorylated SmM.

  9. Role of Nonmuscle Myosin II in Migration of Wharton's Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Sneha; Saha, Shekhar; Roy, Saheli; Das, Madhurima; Jana, Siddhartha S.

    2015-01-01

    It is the promise of regeneration and therapeutic applications that has sparked an interest in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Following infusion, MSCs migrate to sites of injury or inflammation by virtue of their homing property. To exert optimal clinical benefits, systemically delivered MSCs need to migrate efficiently and in adequate numbers to pathological areas in vivo. However, underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for MSC migration are still not well understood. The Wharton's jelly (WJ) of the umbilical cord is an attractive source of MSCs for stem cell therapy because of its abundant availability and painless collection. In this study, we attempted to identify the role of nonmuscle myosin II (NMII), if any, in the migration of WJ-derived MSCs (WJ-MSCs). Expression of NMII isoforms, NMIIA, and NMIIB was observed both at RNA and protein levels in WJ-MSCs. Inhibition of NMII or its regulator ROCK, by pharmacological inhibitors, resulted in significant reduction in the migration of WJ-MSCs as confirmed by the scratch migration assay and time-lapse microscopy. Next, trying to dissect the role of each NMII isoform in migration of WJ-MSCs, we found that siRNA-mediated downregulation of NMIIA, but not NMIIB expression, led to cells failing to retract their trailing edge and losing cell–cell cohesiveness, while exhibiting a nondirectional migratory pathway. Migration, moreover, is also dependent on optimal affinity adhesion, which would allow rapid attachment and release of cells and, hence, can be influenced by extracellular matrix (ECM) and adhesion molecules. We demonstrated that inhibition of NMII and more specifically NMIIA resulted in increased gene expression of ECM and adhesion molecules, which possibly led to stronger adhesions and, hence, decreased migration. Therefore, these data suggest that NMII acts as a regulator of cell migration and adhesion in WJ-MSCs. PMID:25923805

  10. Chitin synthases with a myosin motor-like domain control the resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus to echinocandins.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ortigosa, Cristina; Aimanianda, Vishukumar; Muszkieta, Laetitia; Mouyna, Isabelle; Alsteens, David; Pire, Stéphane; Beau, Remi; Krappmann, Sven; Beauvais, Anne; Dufrêne, Yves F; Roncero, César; Latgé, Jean-Paul

    2012-12-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus has two chitin synthases (CSMA and CSMB) with a myosin motor-like domain (MMD) arranged in a head-to-head configuration. To understand the function of these chitin synthases, single and double csm mutant strains were constructed and analyzed. Although there was a slight reduction in mycelial growth of the mutants, the total chitin synthase activity and the cell wall chitin content were similar in the mycelium of all of the mutants and the parental strain. In the conidia, chitin content in the ΔcsmA strain cell wall was less than half the amount found in the parental strain. In contrast, the ΔcsmB mutant strain and, unexpectedly, the ΔcsmA/ΔcsmB mutant strain did not show any modification of chitin content in their conidial cell walls. In contrast to the hydrophobic conidia of the parental strain, conidia of all of the csm mutants were hydrophilic due to the presence of an amorphous material covering the hydrophobic surface-rodlet layer. The deletion of CSM genes also resulted in an increased susceptibility of resting and germinating conidia to echinocandins. These results show that the deletion of the CSMA and CSMB genes induced a significant disorganization of the cell wall structure, even though they contribute only weakly to the overall cell wall chitin synthesis.

  11. Lamellipodial actin mechanically links myosin activity with adhesion site formation

    PubMed Central

    Giannone, Gregory; Dubin-Thaler, Benjamin; Rossier, Olivier; Cai, Yunfei; Chaga, Oleg; Jiang, Guoying; Beaver, William; Döbereiner, Hans-Günther; Freund, Yoav; Borisy, Gary; Sheetz, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Cell motility proceeds by cycles of edge protrusion, adhesion and retraction. Whether these functions are coordinated by biochemical or biomechanical processes is unknown. We find that myosin II pulls the rear of the lamellipodial actin network, causing upward bending, edge retraction and initiation of new adhesion sites. The network then separates from the edge and condenses over the myosin. Protrusion resumes as lamellipodial actin regenerates from the front and extends rearward until it reaches newly assembled myosin, initiating the next cycle. Upward bending, observed by evanescence and electron microscopy, results in ruffle formation when adhesion strength is low. Correlative fluorescence and electron microscopy shows that the regenerating lamellipodium forms a cohesive, separable layer of actin above the lamellum. Thus, actin polymerization periodically builds a mechanical link, the lamellipodium, connecting myosin motors with the initiation of adhesion sites, suggesting that the major functions driving motility are coordinated by a biomechanical process. PMID:17289574

  12. Myosin types and fiber types in cardiac muscle. II. Atrial myocardium

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Antibodies were produced against myosins isolated from the left atrial myocardium (anti-bAm) and the left ventricular myocardium (anti-bVm) of the bovine heart. Cross-reactive antibodies were removed by cross- absorption. Absorbed anti-bAm and anti-bVm were specific for the myosin heavy chains when tested by enzyme immunoassay combined with SDS gel electrophoresis. Indirect immunofluorescence was used to determine the reactivity of atrial muscle fibers to the two antibodies. Three populations of atrial muscle fibers were distinguished in the bovine heart: (a) fibers reactive with anti-bAm and unreactive with anti-bVm, like most fibers in the left atrium; (b) fibers reactive with both antibodies, especially numerous in the right atrium; (c) fibers reactive with anti-bVm and unreactive with anti-bAm, present only in the interatrial septum and in specific regions of the right atrium, such as the crista terminalis. These findings can be accounted for by postulating the existence of two distinct types of atrial myosin heavy chains, one of which is antigenically related to ventricular myosin. The tendency for fibers labeled by anti-bVm to occur frequently in bundles and their preferential distribution in the crista terminalis, namely along one of the main conduction pathways between the sinus node and the atrioventricular node, and in the interatrial septum, where different internodal tracts are known to converge, suggests that these fibers may be specialized for faster conduction. PMID:6218175

  13. Myosin Vc Interacts with Rab32 and Rab38 Proteins and Works in the Biogenesis and Secretion of Melanosomes*

    PubMed Central

    Bultema, Jarred J.; Boyle, Judith A.; Malenke, Parker B.; Martin, Faye E.; Dell'Angelica, Esteban C.; Cheney, Richard E.; Di Pietro, Santiago M.

    2014-01-01

    Class V myosins are actin-based motors with conserved functions in vesicle and organelle trafficking. Herein we report the discovery of a function for Myosin Vc in melanosome biogenesis as an effector of melanosome-associated Rab GTPases. We isolated Myosin Vc in a yeast two-hybrid screening for proteins that interact with Rab38, a Rab protein involved in the biogenesis of melanosomes and other lysosome-related organelles. Rab38 and its close homolog Rab32 bind to Myosin Vc but not to Myosin Va or Myosin Vb. Binding depends on residues in the switch II region of Rab32 and Rab38 and regions of the Myosin Vc coiled-coil tail domain. Myosin Vc also interacts with Rab7a and Rab8a but not with Rab11, Rab17, and Rab27. Although Myosin Vc is not particularly abundant on pigmented melanosomes, its knockdown in MNT-1 melanocytes caused defects in the trafficking of integral membrane proteins to melanosomes with substantially increased surface expression of Tyrp1, nearly complete loss of Tyrp2, and significant Vamp7 mislocalization. Knockdown of Myosin Vc in MNT-1 cells more than doubled the abundance of pigmented melanosomes but did not change the number of unpigmented melanosomes. Together the data demonstrate a novel role for Myosin Vc in melanosome biogenesis and secretion. PMID:25324551

  14. Myosin II ATPase activity mediates the long-term potentiation-induced exodus of stable F-actin bound by drebrin A from dendritic spines.

    PubMed

    Mizui, Toshiyuki; Sekino, Yuko; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Ishizuka, Yuta; Takahashi, Hideto; Kojima, Nobuhiko; Kojima, Masami; Shirao, Tomoaki

    2014-01-01

    The neuronal actin-binding protein drebrin A forms a stable structure with F-actin in dendritic spines. NMDA receptor activation causes an exodus of F-actin bound by drebrin A (DA-actin) from dendritic spines, suggesting a pivotal role for DA-actin exodus in synaptic plasticity. We quantitatively assessed the extent of DA-actin localization to spines using the spine-dendrite ratio of drebrin A in cultured hippocampal neurons, and found that (1) chemical long-term potentiation (LTP) stimulation induces rapid DA-actin exodus and subsequent DA-actin re-entry in dendritic spines, (2) Ca(2+) influx through NMDA receptors regulates the exodus and the basal accumulation of DA-actin, and (3) the DA-actin exodus is blocked by myosin II ATPase inhibitor, but is not blocked by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) or Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitors. These results indicate that myosin II mediates the interaction between NMDA receptor activation and DA-actin exodus in LTP induction. Furthermore, myosin II seems to be activated by a rapid actin-linked mechanism rather than slow MLC phosphorylation. Thus the myosin-II mediated DA-actin exodus might be an initial event in LTP induction, triggering actin polymerization and spine enlargement.

  15. Actin Age Orchestrates Myosin-5 and Myosin-6 Runlengths

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Dennis; Santos, Alicja; Kovar, David R.; Rock, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Unlike a static and immobile skeleton, the actin cytoskeleton is a highly dynamic network of filamentous actin (F-actin) polymers that continuously turn over. In addition to generating mechanical forces and sensing mechanical deformation, dynamic F-actin networks serve as cellular tracks for myosin motor traffic. However, much of our mechanistic understanding of processive myosins comes from in vitro studies where motility was studied on pre-assembled and artificially stabilized, static F-actin tracks. In this work, we examine the role of actin dynamics in single-molecule myosin motility using assembling F-actin and the two highly processive motors, myosin-5 and myosin-6. These two myosins have distinct functions in the cell and travel in opposite directions along actin filaments [1–3]. Myosin-5 walks towards the barbed ends of F-actin, traveling to sites of actin polymerization at the cell periphery [4]. Myosin-6 walks towards the pointed end of F-actin [5], traveling towards the cell center along older segments of the actin filament. We find that myosin-5 takes 1.3 to 1.5-fold longer runs on ADP•Pi (young) F-actin, while myosin-6 takes 1.7 to 3.6-fold longer runs along ADP (old) F-actin. These results suggest that conformational differences between ADP•Pi and ADP F-actin tailor these myosins to walk farther toward their preferred actin filament end. Taken together, these experiments define a new mechanism by which myosin traffic may sort to different F-actin networks depending on filament age. PMID:26190073

  16. Targeting a dynamic protein-protein interaction: fragment screening against the malaria myosin A motor complex.

    PubMed

    Douse, Christopher H; Vrielink, Nina; Wenlin, Zhang; Cota, Ernesto; Tate, Edward W

    2015-01-01

    Motility is a vital feature of the complex life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, the apicomplexan parasite that causes human malaria. Processes such as host cell invasion are thought to be powered by a conserved actomyosin motor (containing myosin A or myoA), correct localization of which is dependent on a tight interaction with myosin A tail domain interacting protein (MTIP) at the inner membrane of the parasite. Although disruption of this protein-protein interaction represents an attractive means to investigate the putative roles of myoA-based motility and to inhibit the parasitic life cycle, no small molecules have been identified that bind to MTIP. Furthermore, it has not been possible to obtain a crystal structure of the free protein, which is highly dynamic and unstable in the absence of its natural myoA tail partner. Herein we report the de novo identification of the first molecules that bind to and stabilize MTIP via a fragment-based, integrated biophysical approach and structural investigations to examine the binding modes of hit compounds. The challenges of targeting such a dynamic system with traditional fragment screening workflows are addressed throughout.

  17. Cyclical compressive stress induces differentiation of rat primary mandibular condylar chondrocytes through phosphorylated myosin light chain II.

    PubMed

    Liu, Limin; Chen, Lin; Mai, Zhihui; Peng, Zhuli; Yu, Kafung; Liu, Guanqi; Ai, Hong

    2016-11-01

    The role of myosin light chain II (MLC‑II) in cellular differentiation of rat mandibular condylar chondrocytes (MCCs) induced by cyclical uniaxial compressive stress (CUCS) remains unclear. In the current study, a four‑point bending system was used to apply CUCS to primary cultured MCCs from rats. It was identified that CUCS stimulated features of cellular differentiation including morphological alterations, cytoskeleton rearrangement and overproduction of proteoglycans. Furthermore, CUCS promoted runt‑related transcription factor‑2 (RUNX2) expression at mRNA (P<0.01) and protein levels (P<0.05) and elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity (P<0.01), which are both markers of osteogenic differentiation. Under conditions of stress, western blotting indicated that the ratio of phosphorylated MLC‑II to total MLC‑II was increased significantly (P<0.05). Silencing MLC‑II by RNA interference reduced ALP activity (P<0.01), and eliminated RUNX2 mRNA expression (P<0.01). Addition of the MLC kinase inhibitor, ML‑7, reduced the CUCS‑associated upregulation of RUNX2 expression (P<0.01) and ALP activity (P<0.01). The data indicated that CUCS promoted cellular differentiation of rat primary MCCs, and this was suggested to be via the phosphorylation of MLC‑II.

  18. Genetic analysis demonstrates a direct link between rho signaling and nonmuscle myosin function during Drosophila morphogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Halsell, S R; Chu, B I; Kiehart, D P

    2000-01-01

    A dynamic actomyosin cytoskeleton drives many morphogenetic events. Conventional nonmuscle myosin-II (myosin) is a key chemomechanical motor that drives contraction of the actin cytoskeleton. We have explored the regulation of myosin activity by performing genetic screens to identify gene products that collaborate with myosin during Drosophila morphogenesis. Specifically, we screened for second-site noncomplementors of a mutation in the zipper gene that encodes the nonmuscle myosin-II heavy chain. We determined that a single missense mutation in the zipper(Ebr) allele gives rise to its sensitivity to second-site noncomplementation. We then identify the Rho signal transduction pathway as necessary for proper myosin function. First we show that a lethal P-element insertion interacts genetically with zipper. Subsequently we show that this second-site noncomplementing mutation disrupts the RhoGEF2 locus. Next, we show that two EMS-induced mutations, previously shown to interact genetically with zipper(Ebr), disrupt the RhoA locus. Further, we have identified their molecular lesions and determined that disruption of the carboxyl-terminal CaaX box gives rise to their mutant phenotype. Finally, we show that RhoA mutations themselves can be utilized in genetic screens. Biochemical and cell culture analyses suggest that Rho signal transduction regulates the activity of myosin. Our studies provide direct genetic proof of the biological relevance of regulation of myosin by Rho signal transduction in an intact metazoan. PMID:10880486

  19. Broad disorder and the allosteric mechanism of myosin II regulation by phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Vileno, Bertrand; Chamoun, Jean; Liang, Hua; Brewer, Paul; Haldeman, Brian D.; Facemyer, Kevin C.; Salzameda, Bridget; Song, Likai; Li, Hui-Chun; Cremo, Christine R.; Fajer, Piotr G.

    2011-01-01

    Double electron electron resonance EPR methods was used to measure the effects of the allosteric modulators, phosphorylation, and ATP, on the distances and distance distributions between the two regulatory light chain of myosin (RLC). Three different states of smooth muscle myosin (SMM) were studied: monomers, the short-tailed subfragment heavy meromyosin, and SMM filaments. We reconstituted myosin with nine single cysteine spin-labeled RLC. For all mutants we found a broad distribution of distances that could not be explained by spin-label rotamer diversity. For SMM and heavy meromyosin, several sites showed two heterogeneous populations in the unphosphorylated samples, whereas only one was observed after phosphorylation. The data were consistent with the presence of two coexisting heterogeneous populations of structures in the unphosphorylated samples. The two populations were attributed to an on and off state by comparing data from unphosphorylated and phosphorylated samples. Models of these two states were generated using a rigid body docking approach derived from EM [Wendt T, Taylor D, Trybus KM, Taylor K (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:4361–4366] (PNAS, 2001, 98:4361–4366), but our data revealed a new feature of the off-state, which is heterogeneity in the orientation of the two RLC. Our average off-state structure was very similar to the Wendt model reveal a new feature of the off state, which is heterogeneity in the orientations of the two RLC. As found previously in the EM study, our on-state structure was completely different from the off-state structure. The heads are splayed out and there is even more heterogeneity in the orientations of the two RLC. PMID:21536903

  20. Conditional deletion of nonmuscle myosin II-A in mouse tongue epithelium results in squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Conti, Mary Anne; Saleh, Anthony D; Brinster, Lauren R; Cheng, Hui; Chen, Zhong; Cornelius, Shaleeka; Liu, Chengyu; Ma, Xuefei; Van Waes, Carter; Adelstein, Robert S

    2015-09-15

    To investigate the contribution of nonmuscle myosin II-A (NM II-A) to early cardiac development we crossed Myh9 floxed mice and Nkx2.5 cre-recombinase mice. Nkx2.5 is expressed in the early heart (E7.5) and later in the tongue epithelium. Mice homozygous for deletion of NM II-A (A(Nkx)/A(Nkx)) are born at the expected ratio with normal hearts, but consistently develop an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue (32/32 A(Nkx)/A(Nkx)) as early as E17.5. To assess reproducibility a second, independent line of Myh9 floxed mice derived from a different embryonic stem cell clone was tested. This second line also develops SCC indistinguishable from the first (15/15). In A(Nkx)/A(Nkx) mouse tongue epithelium, genetic deletion of NM II-A does not affect stabilization of TP53, unlike a previous report for SCC. We attribute the consistent, early formation of SCC with high penetrance to the role of NM II in maintaining mitotic stability during karyokinesis.

  1. The Rho family GEF Asef2 regulates cell migration in three dimensional (3D) collagen matrices through myosin II.

    PubMed

    Jean, Léolène; Yang, Lijie; Majumdar, Devi; Gao, Yandong; Shi, Mingjian; Brewer, Bryson M; Li, Deyu; Webb, Donna J

    2014-01-01

    Cell migration is fundamental to a variety of physiological processes, including tissue development, homeostasis, and regeneration. Migration has been extensively studied with cells on 2-dimensional (2D) substrates, but much less is known about cell migration in 3D environments. Tissues and organs are 3D, which is the native environment of cells in vivo, pointing to a need to understand migration and the mechanisms that regulate it in 3D environments. To investigate cell migration in 3D environments, we developed microfluidic devices that afford a controlled, reproducible platform for generating 3D matrices. Using these devices, we show that the Rho family guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Asef2 inhibits cell migration in 3D type I collagen (collagen I) matrices. Treatment of cells with the myosin II (MyoII) inhibitor blebbistatin abolished the decrease in migration by Asef2. Moreover, Asef2 enhanced MyoII activity as shown by increased phosphorylation of serine 19 (S19). Furthermore, Asef2 increased activation of Rac, which is a Rho family small GTPase, in 3D collagen I matrices. Inhibition of Rac activity by treatment with the Rac-specific inhibitor NSC23766 abrogated the Asef2-promoted increase in S19 MyoII phosphorylation. Thus, our results indicate that Asef2 regulates cell migration in 3D collagen I matrices through a Rac-MyoII-dependent mechanism.

  2. Regulation of nonmuscle myosin II during 3-methylcholanthrene induced dedifferentiation of C2C12 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Dey, Sumit K; Saha, Shekhar; Das, Provas; Das, Mahua R; Jana, Siddhartha S

    2014-08-01

    3-Methylcholanthrene (3MC) induces tumor formation at the site of injection in the hind leg of mice within 110 days. Recent reports reveal that the transformation of normal muscle cells to atypical cells is one of the causes for tumor formation, however the molecular mechanism behind this process is not well understood. Here, we show in an in vitro study that 3MC induces fragmentation of multinucleate myotubes into viable mononucleates. These mononucleates form colonies when they are seeded into soft agar, indicative of cellular transformation. Immunoblot analysis reveals that phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC20) is 5.6±0.5 fold reduced in 3MC treated myotubes in comparison to vehicle treated myotubes during the fragmentation of myotubes. In contrast, levels of myogenic factors such as MyoD, Myogenin and cell cycle regulators such as Cyclin D, Cyclin E1 remain unchanged as assessed by real-time PCR array and reverse transcriptase PCR analysis, respectively. Interestingly, addition of the myosin light chain kinase inhibitor, ML-7, enhances the fragmentation, whereas phosphatase inhibitor perturbs the 3MC induced fragmentation of myotubes. These results suggest that decrease in RLC20 phosphorylation may be associated with the fragmentation step of dedifferentiation.

  3. Porcine myosin-VI: characterization of a new mammalian unconventional myosin

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    We have cloned a new mammalian unconventional myosin, porcine myosin-VI from the proximal tubule cell line, LLC-PK1 (CL4). Porcine myosin-VI is highly homologous to Drosophila 95F myosin heavy chain, and together these two myosins comprise a sixth class of myosin motors. Myosin-VI exhibits ATP-sensitive actin-binding activities characteristic of myosins, and it is associated with a calmodulin light chain. Within LLC- PK1 cells, myosin-VI is soluble and does not associate with the major actin-containing domains. Within the kidney, however, myosin-VI is associated with sedimentable structures and specifically locates to the actin- and membrane-rich apical brush border domain of the proximal tubule cells. This motor was not enriched within the glomerulus, capillaries, or distal tubules. Myosin-VI associates with the proximal tubule cytoskeleton in an ATP-sensitive fashion, suggesting that this motor is associated with the actin cytoskeleton within the proximal tubule cells. Given the difference in association of myosin-VI with the apical cytoskeleton between LLC-PK1 cells and adult kidney, it is likely that this cell line does not fully differentiate to form functional proximal tubule cells. Myosin-VI may require the presence of additional elements, only found in vivo in proximal tubule cells, to properly locate to the apical domain. PMID:7929586

  4. Mutation in the SH1 helix reduces the activation energy of the ATP-induced conformational transition of myosin.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Sosuke; Chaen, Shigeru

    2007-05-25

    The SH1 helix is a joint that links the converter subdomain to the rest of the myosin motor domain. Recently, we showed that a mutation within the SH1 helix in Dictyostelium myosin II (R689H) reduced the elasticity and thermal stability of the protein. To reveal the involvement of the SH1 helix in ATP-dependent conformational changes of the motor domain, we have investigated the effects of the R689H mutation on the conformational changes of the converter, using a GFP-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer method. Although the mutation does not seem to strongly affect conformations, we found that it significantly reduced the activation energy required for the ATP-induced conformational transition corresponding to the recovery stroke. Given the effects of the mutation on the mechanical properties of myosin, we propose that the SH1 helix plays an important role in the mechanochemical energy conversion underlying the conformational change of the myosin motor domain.

  5. Aurora B but not rho/MLCK signaling is required for localization of diphosphorylated myosin II regulatory light chain to the midzone in cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Tomo; Isoda, Rieko; Ookusa, Takayuki; Kamijo, Keiju; Hamao, Kozue; Hosoya, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Non-muscle myosin II is stimulated by monophosphorylation of its regulatory light chain (MRLC) at Ser19 (1P-MRLC). MRLC diphosphorylation at Thr18/Ser19 (2P-MRLC) further enhances the ATPase activity of myosin II. Phosphorylated MRLCs localize to the contractile ring and regulate cytokinesis as subunits of activated myosin II. Recently, we reported that 2P-MRLC, but not 1P-MRLC, localizes to the midzone independently of myosin II heavy chain during cytokinesis in cultured mammalian cells. However, the mechanism underlying the distinct localization of 1P- and 2P-MRLC during cytokinesis is unknown. Here, we showed that depletion of the Rho signaling proteins MKLP1, MgcRacGAP, or ECT2 inhibited the localization of 1P-MRLC to the contractile ring but not the localization of 2P-MRLC to the midzone. In contrast, depleting or inhibiting a midzone-localizing kinase, Aurora B, perturbed the localization of 2P-MRLC to the midzone but not the localization of 1P-MRLC to the contractile ring. We did not observe any change in the localization of phosphorylated MRLC in myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK)-inhibited cells. Furrow regression was observed in Aurora B- and 2P-MRLC-inhibited cells but not in 1P-MRLC-perturbed dividing cells. Furthermore, Aurora B bound to 2P-MRLC in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that Aurora B, but not Rho/MLCK signaling, is essential for the localization of 2P-MRLC to the midzone in dividing HeLa cells.

  6. Modulating Beta-Cardiac Myosin Function at the Molecular and Tissue Levels

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wanjian; Blair, Cheavar A.; Walton, Shane D.; Málnási-Csizmadia, András; Campbell, Kenneth S.; Yengo, Christopher M.

    2017-01-01

    Inherited cardiomyopathies are a common form of heart disease that are caused by mutations in sarcomeric proteins with beta cardiac myosin (MYH7) being one of the most frequently affected genes. Since the discovery of the first cardiomyopathy associated mutation in beta-cardiac myosin, a major goal has been to correlate the in vitro myosin motor properties with the contractile performance of cardiac muscle. There has been substantial progress in developing assays to measure the force and velocity properties of purified cardiac muscle myosin but it is still challenging to correlate results from molecular and tissue-level experiments. Mutations that cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are more common than mutations that lead to dilated cardiomyopathy and are also often associated with increased isometric force and hyper-contractility. Therefore, the development of drugs designed to decrease isometric force by reducing the duty ratio (the proportion of time myosin spends bound to actin during its ATPase cycle) has been proposed for the treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Para-Nitroblebbistatin is a small molecule drug proposed to decrease the duty ratio of class II myosins. We examined the impact of this drug on human beta cardiac myosin using purified myosin motor assays and studies of permeabilized muscle fiber mechanics. We find that with purified human beta-cardiac myosin para-Nitroblebbistatin slows actin-activated ATPase and in vitro motility without altering the ADP release rate constant. In permeabilized human myocardium, para-Nitroblebbistatin reduces isometric force, power, and calcium sensitivity while not changing shortening velocity or the rate of force development (ktr). Therefore, designing a drug that reduces the myosin duty ratio by inhibiting strong attachment to actin while not changing detachment can cause a reduction in force without changing shortening velocity or relaxation. PMID:28119616

  7. Actin-binding cleft closure in myosin II probed by site-directed spin labeling and pulsed EPR.

    PubMed

    Klein, Jennifer C; Burr, Adam R; Svensson, Bengt; Kennedy, Daniel J; Allingham, John; Titus, Margaret A; Rayment, Ivan; Thomas, David D

    2008-09-02

    We present a structurally dynamic model for nucleotide- and actin-induced closure of the actin-binding cleft of myosin, based on site-directed spin labeling and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in Dictyostelium myosin II. The actin-binding cleft is a solvent-filled cavity that extends to the nucleotide-binding pocket and has been predicted to close upon strong actin binding. Single-cysteine labeling sites were engineered to probe mobility and accessibility within the cleft. Addition of ADP and vanadate, which traps the posthydrolysis biochemical state, influenced probe mobility and accessibility slightly, whereas actin binding caused more dramatic changes in accessibility, consistent with cleft closure. We engineered five pairs of cysteine labeling sites to straddle the cleft, each pair having one label on the upper 50-kDa domain and one on the lower 50-kDa domain. Distances between spin-labeled sites were determined from the resulting spin-spin interactions, as measured by continuous wave EPR for distances of 0.7-2 nm or pulsed EPR (double electron-electron resonance) for distances of 1.7-6 nm. Because of the high distance resolution of EPR, at least two distinct structural states of the cleft were resolved. Each of the biochemical states tested (prehydrolysis, posthydrolysis, and rigor), reflects a mixture of these structural states, indicating that the coupling between biochemical and structural states is not rigid. The resulting model is much more dynamic than previously envisioned, with both open and closed conformations of the cleft interconverting, even in the rigor actomyosin complex.

  8. Non-Muscle Myosin II Isoforms Have Different Functions in Matrix Rearrangement by MDA-MB-231 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hindman, Bridget; Goeckeler, Zoe; Sierros, Kostas; Wysolmerski, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The role of a stiffening extra-cellular matrix (ECM) in cancer progression is documented but poorly understood. Here we use a conditioning protocol to test the role of nonmuscle myosin II isoforms in cell mediated ECM arrangement using collagen constructs seeded with breast cancer cells expressing shRNA targeted to either the IIA or IIB heavy chain isoform. While there are several methods available to measure changes in the biophysical characteristics of the ECM, we wanted to use a method which allows for the measurement of global stiffness changes as well as a dynamic response from the sample over time. The conditioning protocol used allows the direct measurement of ECM stiffness. Using various treatments, it is possible to determine the contribution of various construct and cellular components to the overall construct stiffness. Using this assay, we show that both the IIA and IIB isoforms are necessary for efficient matrix remodeling by MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, as loss of either isoform changes the stiffness of the collagen constructs as measured using our conditioning protocol. Constructs containing only collagen had an elastic modulus of 0.40 Pascals (Pa), parental MDA-MB-231 constructs had an elastic modulus of 9.22 Pa, while IIA and IIB KD constructs had moduli of 3.42 and 7.20 Pa, respectively. We also calculated the cell and matrix contributions to the overall sample elastic modulus. Loss of either myosin isoform resulted in decreased cell stiffness, as well as a decrease in the stiffness of the cell-altered collagen matrices. While the total construct modulus for the IIB KD cells was lower than that of the parental cells, the IIB KD cell-altered matrices actually had a higher elastic modulus than the parental cell-altered matrices (4.73 versus 4.38 Pa). These results indicate that the IIA and IIB heavy chains play distinct and non-redundant roles in matrix remodeling. PMID:26136073

  9. Force-generating capacity of human myosin isoforms extracted from single muscle fibre segments.

    PubMed

    Li, Meishan; Larsson, Lars

    2010-12-15

    Muscle, motor unit and muscle fibre type-specific differences in force-generating capacity have been investigated for many years, but there is still no consensus regarding specific differences between slow- and fast-twitch muscles, motor units or muscle fibres. This is probably related to a number of different confounding factors disguising the function of the molecular motor protein myosin. We have therefore studied the force-generating capacity of specific myosin isoforms or combination of isoforms extracted from short single human muscle fibre segments in a modified single fibre myosin in vitro motility assay, in which an internal load (actin-binding protein) was added in different concentrations to evaluate the force-generating capacity. The force indices were the x-axis intercept and the slope of the relationship between the fraction of moving filaments and the α-actinin concentration. The force-generating capacity of the β/slow myosin isoform (type I) was weaker (P < 0.05) than the fast myosin isoform (type II), but the force-generating capacity of the different human fast myosin isoforms types IIa and IIx or a combination of both (IIax) were indistinguishable. A single fibre in vitro motility assay for both speed and force of specific myosin isoforms is described and used to measure the difference in force-generating capacity between fast and slow human myosin isoforms. The assay is proposed as a useful tool for clinical studies on the effects on muscle function of specific mutations or post-translational modifications of myosin.

  10. Revisiting Myosin Families Through Large-scale Sequence Searches Leads to the Discovery of New Myosins.

    PubMed

    Pasha, Shaik Naseer; Meenakshi, Iyer; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    Myosins are actin-based motor proteins involved in many cellular movements. It is interesting to study the evolutionary patterns and the functional attributes of various types of myosins. Computational search algorithms were performed to identify putative myosin members by phylogenetic analysis, sequence motifs, and coexisting domains. This study is aimed at understanding the distribution and the likely biological functions of myosins encoded in various taxa and available eukaryotic genomes. We report here a phylogenetic analysis of around 4,064 myosin motor domains, built entirely from complete or near-complete myosin repertoires incorporating many unclassified, uncharacterized sequences and new myosin classes, with emphasis on myosins from Fungi, Haptophyta, and other Stramenopiles, Alveolates, and Rhizaria (SAR). The identification of large classes of myosins in Oomycetes, Cellular slime molds, Choanoflagellates, Pelagophytes, Eustigmatophyceae, Fonticula, Eucoccidiorida, and Apicomplexans with novel myosin motif variants that are conserved and thus presumably functional extends our knowledge of this important family of motor proteins. This work provides insights into the distribution and probable function of myosins including newly identified myosin classes.

  11. Revisiting Myosin Families Through Large-scale Sequence Searches Leads to the Discovery of New Myosins

    PubMed Central

    Pasha, Shaik Naseer; Meenakshi, Iyer; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    Myosins are actin-based motor proteins involved in many cellular movements. It is interesting to study the evolutionary patterns and the functional attributes of various types of myosins. Computational search algorithms were performed to identify putative myosin members by phylogenetic analysis, sequence motifs, and coexisting domains. This study is aimed at understanding the distribution and the likely biological functions of myosins encoded in various taxa and available eukaryotic genomes. We report here a phylogenetic analysis of around 4,064 myosin motor domains, built entirely from complete or near-complete myosin repertoires incorporating many unclassified, uncharacterized sequences and new myosin classes, with emphasis on myosins from Fungi, Haptophyta, and other Stramenopiles, Alveolates, and Rhizaria (SAR). The identification of large classes of myosins in Oomycetes, Cellular slime molds, Choanoflagellates, Pelagophytes, Eustigmatophyceae, Fonticula, Eucoccidiorida, and Apicomplexans with novel myosin motif variants that are conserved and thus presumably functional extends our knowledge of this important family of motor proteins. This work provides insights into the distribution and probable function of myosins including newly identified myosin classes. PMID:27597808

  12. Quantitative Analysis of the Feedback of the Robust Signaling Pathway Network of Myosin V Molecular Motors on GluR1 of AMPA in Neurons: A Networking Approach for Controlling Nanobiomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Qin; Nakano, Tadashi

    Acting as nanobiomachines within the cell, myosin V molecular motors contribute greatly to the LTP (Long Term Potentiation) in neural signaling, which transport the recycling endosomes from the dendrite to the spine of neurons and the GluR1 in AMPA receptors lead to the activities of memorization in brains. However it is unknown that how the restriction of GluR1 at the spine of neuron is caused by the signaling cascade of myosin V and Rab11/Rab11-FIP2 during the myosin V centered signaling process in neurons. Here we report that the feedback of the biochemical reaction for binding Myosin V and Rab11/Rab11-FIP2 plays a pivotal role to restrict the accumulation of GluR1 at the spine. We have investigated the feedback of myosin V and Rab11/Rab11-FIP2 on the convergence of GluR1 by using the computational model of intracellular signaling pathway networks we designed and the simulation software Cell Illustrator Professional Version 3.0 ®. The obtained results show that controllability of molecular motor based nanobiomachines is inevitable for exploring the molecular mechanism of neuroscience at the nanoscale.

  13. Analysis of the myosins encoded in the recently completed Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, A. S.; Day, I. S.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Three types of molecular motors play an important role in the organization, dynamics and transport processes associated with the cytoskeleton. The myosin family of molecular motors move cargo on actin filaments, whereas kinesin and dynein motors move cargo along microtubules. These motors have been highly characterized in non-plant systems and information is becoming available about plant motors. The actin cytoskeleton in plants has been shown to be involved in processes such as transportation, signaling, cell division, cytoplasmic streaming and morphogenesis. The role of myosin in these processes has been established in a few cases but many questions remain to be answered about the number, types and roles of myosins in plants. RESULTS: Using the motor domain of an Arabidopsis myosin we identified 17 myosin sequences in the Arabidopsis genome. Phylogenetic analysis of the Arabidopsis myosins with non-plant and plant myosins revealed that all the Arabidopsis myosins and other plant myosins fall into two groups - class VIII and class XI. These groups contain exclusively plant or algal myosins with no animal or fungal myosins. Exon/intron data suggest that the myosins are highly conserved and that some may be a result of gene duplication. CONCLUSIONS: Plant myosins are unlike myosins from any other organisms except algae. As a percentage of the total gene number, the number of myosins is small overall in Arabidopsis compared with the other sequenced eukaryotic genomes. There are, however, a large number of class XI myosins. The function of each myosin has yet to be determined.

  14. Regulation of jaw-specific isoforms of myosin-binding protein-C and tropomyosin in regenerating cat temporalis muscle innervated by limb fast and slow motor nerves.

    PubMed

    Kang, Lucia H D; Hoh, Joseph F Y

    2010-11-01

    Cat jaw-closing muscles are a distinct muscle allotype characterized by the expression of masticatory-specific myofibrillar proteins. Transplantation studies showed that expression of masticatory myosin heavy chain (m-MyHC) is promoted by fast motor nerves, but suppressed by slow motor nerves. We investigated whether masticatory myosin-binding protein-C (m-MBP-C) and masticatory tropomyosin (m-Tm) are similarly regulated. Temporalis muscle strips were transplanted into limb muscle beds to allow innervation by fast or slow muscle nerve during regeneration. Regenerated muscles were examined postoperatively up to 168 days by peroxidase IHC using monoclonal antibodies to m-MyHC, m-MBP-C, and m-Tm. Regenerates in both muscle beds expressed fetal and slow MyHCs, m-MyHC, m-MBP-C, and m-Tm during the first 4 weeks. Longer-term regenerates innervated by fast nerve suppressed fetal and slow MyHCs, retaining m-MyHC, m-MBP-C, and m-Tm, whereas fibers innervated by slow nerve suppressed fetal MyHCs and the three masticatory-specific proteins, induced slow MyHC, and showed immunohistochemical characteristics of jaw-slow fibers. We concluded that expression of m-MBP-C and m-Tm is coregulated by m-MyHC and that neural impulses to limb slow muscle are capable of suppressing masticatory-specific proteins and to channel gene expression along the jaw-slow phenotype unique to jaw-closing muscle.

  15. Dlc1 interaction with non-muscle myosin heavy chain II-A (Myh9) and Rac1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Sabbir, Mohammad G.; Dillon, Rachelle; Mowat, Michael R. A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Deleted in liver cancer 1 (Dlc1) gene codes for a Rho GTPase-activating protein that also acts as a tumour suppressor gene. Several studies have consistently found that overexpression leads to excessive cell elongation, cytoskeleton changes and subsequent cell death. However, none of these studies have been able to satisfactorily explain the Dlc1-induced cell morphological phenotypes and the function of the different Dlc1 isoforms. Therefore, we have studied the interacting proteins associated with the three major Dlc1 transcriptional isoforms using a mass spectrometric approach in Dlc1 overexpressing cells. We have found and validated novel interacting partners in constitutive Dlc1-expressing cells. Our study has shown that Dlc1 interacts with non-muscle myosin heavy chain II-A (Myh9), plectin and spectrin proteins in different multiprotein complexes. Overexpression of Dlc1 led to increased phosphorylation of Myh9 protein and activation of Rac1 GTPase. These data support a role for Dlc1 in induced cell elongation morphology and provide some molecular targets for further analysis of this phenotype. PMID:26977077

  16. Planar polarity of multiciliated ependymal cells involves the anterior migration of basal bodies regulated by non-muscle myosin II.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Yuki; Meunier, Alice; Huang, Shihhui; Shimozawa, Togo; Yamada, Osamu; Kida, Yasuyuki S; Inoue, Masashi; Ito, Tsubasa; Kato, Hiroko; Sakaguchi, Masanori; Sunabori, Takehiko; Nakaya, Masa-Aki; Nonaka, Shigenori; Ogura, Toshihiko; Higuchi, Hideo; Okano, Hideyuki; Spassky, Nathalie; Sawamoto, Kazunobu

    2010-09-01

    Motile cilia generate constant fluid flow over epithelial tissue, and thereby influence diverse physiological processes. Such functions of ciliated cells depend on the planar polarity of the cilia and on their basal bodies being oriented in the downstream direction of fluid flow. Recently, another type of basal body planar polarity, characterized by the anterior localization of the basal bodies in individual cells, was reported in the multiciliated ependymal cells that line the surface of brain ventricles. However, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which this polarity is established. Here, we report in mice that basal bodies move in the apical cell membrane during differentiation to accumulate in the anterior region of ependymal cells. The planar cell polarity signaling pathway influences basal body orientation, but not their anterior migration, in the neonatal brain. Moreover, we show by pharmacological and genetic studies that non-muscle myosin II is a key regulator of this distribution of basal bodies. This study demonstrates that the orientation and distribution of basal bodies occur by distinct mechanisms.

  17. Myosin II directly binds and inhibits Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factors: a possible link to Rho family GTPases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chan-Soo; Choi, Chang-Ki; Schwartz, Martin Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Cell migration requires the coordinated spatiotemporal regulation of actomyosin contraction and cell protrusion/adhesion. Nonmuscle myosin II (MII) controls Rac1 and Cdc42 activation, and cell protrusion and focal complex formation in migrating cells. However, these mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that MII interacts specifically with multiple Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Binding is mediated by the conserved tandem Dbl homology–pleckstrin homology module, the catalytic site of these GEFs, with dissociation constants of ∼0.3 µM. Binding to the GEFs required assembly of the MII into filaments and actin-stimulated ATPase activity. Binding of MII suppressed GEF activity. Accordingly, inhibition of MII ATPase activity caused release of GEFs and activation of Rho GTPases. Depletion of βPIX GEF in migrating NIH3T3 fibroblasts suppressed lamellipodial protrusions and focal complex formation induced by MII inhibition. The results elucidate a functional link between MII and Rac1/Cdc42 GTPases, which may regulate protrusion/adhesion dynamics in migrating cells. PMID:20713598

  18. Structural abnormalities develop in the brain after ablation of the gene encoding nonmuscle myosin II-B heavy chain.

    PubMed

    Tullio, A N; Bridgman, P C; Tresser, N J; Chan, C C; Conti, M A; Adelstein, R S; Hara, Y

    2001-04-23

    Ablation of nonmuscle myosin heavy chain II-B (NMHC-B) in mice results in severe hydrocephalus with enlargement of the lateral and third ventricles. All B(-)/B(-) mice died either during embryonic development or on the day of birth (PO). Neurons cultured from superior cervical ganglia of B(-)/B(-) mice between embryonic day (E) 18 and P0 showed decreased rates of neurite outgrowth, and their growth cones had a distinctive narrow morphology compared with those from normal mice. Serial sections of E12.5, E13.5, and E15 mouse brains identified developmental defects in the ventricular neuroepithelium. On E12.5, disruption of the coherent ventricular surface and disordered cell migration of neuroepithelial and differentiated cells were seen at various points in the ventricular walls. These abnormalities resulted in the formation of rosettes in various regions of the brain and spinal cord. On E13.5 and E15, disruption of the ventricular surface and aberrant protrusions of neural cells into the ventricles became more prominent. By E18.5 and P0, the defects in cells lining the ventricular wall resulted in an obstructive hydrocephalus due to stenosis or occlusion of the third ventricle and cerebral aqueduct. These defects may be caused by abnormalities in the cell adhesive properties of neuroepithelial cells and suggest that NMHC-B is essential for both early and late developmental processes in the mammalian brain.

  19. Characteristics of Myosin V Processivity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-Ping; Liu, Yi; Sun, Wei; Zhao, Xiaoyang; La, Ta; Guo, Wei-Sheng

    2017-02-14

    Myosin V is a processive doubled-headed biomolecular motor involved in many intracellular organelle and vesicle transport. The unidirectional movement is coupled with the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis and product release cycle. With the progress of experimental techniques and the enhancement of measuring directness, detailed knowledge of the motility of myosin V has been obtained.Following the ATPase cycle, the 4-state mechanochemical model of the myosin V's processive movement is used. The transitions between various states take place in a stochastic manner. We can use the master equation to analyze and calculate quantitatively. Meanwhile the effect of the reverse reaction is takenfully into account. We fit the mean velocity, the mean dwell time, the mean run length andtheratio of forward/backward steps as a functionof ATP, ADP and Pi concertration. The theoretical curves are generally in line with the experimental data. This work provides a new insight for the characteristic of myosin V.

  20. Lens fiber cell elongation and differentiation is associated with a robust increase in myosin light chain phosphorylation in the developing mouse.

    PubMed

    Maddala, Rupalatha; Skiba, Nikolai; Vasantha Rao, Ponugoti

    2007-10-01

    Myosin II, a molecular motor, plays a critical role in cell migration, cell shape changes, cell adhesion, and cytokinesis. To understand the role of myosin II in lens fiber cell elongation and differentiation, we determined the distribution pattern of nonmuscle myosin IIA, IIB, and phosphorylated regulatory myosin light chain-2 (phospho-MLC) in frozen sections of the developing mouse lens by immunofluorescence analysis. While myosin IIA was distributed uniformly throughout the differentiating lens, including the epithelium and fibers, myosin IIB was localized predominantly to the epithelium and the posterior tips of the lens fibers. In contrast, immunostaining with a di-phospho-MLC antibody localized intensely and precisely to the elongating and differentiating primary and secondary lens fibers, co-localizing with actin filaments. An in situ analysis of Rho GTPase activation revealed that Rho-GTP was distributed uniformly throughout the embryonic lens, including epithelium and fibers. Inhibition of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) activity by ML-7 in organ cultured mouse lenses led to development of nuclear lens opacity in association with abnormal fiber cell organization. Taken together, these data reveal a distinct spatial distribution pattern of myosin II isoforms in the developing lens and a robust activation of MLC phosphorylation in the differentiating lens fibers. Moreover, the regulation of MLC phosphorylation by MLCK appears to be critical for crystallin organization and for maintenance of lens transparency and lens membrane function.

  1. alphaB-crystallin maintains skeletal muscle myosin enzymatic activity and prevents its aggregation under heat-shock stress.

    PubMed

    Melkani, Girish C; Cammarato, Anthony; Bernstein, Sanford I

    2006-05-05

    Here, we provide functional and direct structural evidence that alphaB-crystallin, a member of the small heat-shock protein family, suppresses thermal unfolding and aggregation of the myosin II molecular motor. Chicken skeletal muscle myosin was thermally unfolded at heat-shock temperature (43 degrees C) in the absence and in the presence of alphaB-crystallin. The ATPase activity of myosin at 25 degrees C was used as a parameter to monitor its unfolding. Myosin retained only 65% and 8% of its ATPase activity when incubated at heat-shock temperature for 15 min and 30 min, respectively. However, 84% and 58% of the myosin ATPase activity was maintained when it was incubated with alphaB-crystallin under the same conditions. Furthermore, actin-stimulated ATPase activity of myosin was reduced by approximately 90%, when myosin was thermally unfolded at 43 degrees C for 30 min, but was reduced by only approximately 42% when it was incubated with alphaB-crystallin under the same conditions. Light-scattering assays and bound thioflavin T fluorescence indicated that myosin aggregates when incubated at 43 degrees C for 30 min, while alphaB-crystallin suppressed this thermal aggregation. Photo-labeled bis-ANS alphaB-crystallin fluorescence studies confirmed the transient interaction of alphaB-crystallin with myosin. These findings were further supported by electron microscopy of rotary shadowed molecules. This revealed that approximately 94% of myosin molecules formed inter and intra-molecular aggregates when incubated at 43 degrees C for 30 min. alphaB-Crystallin, however, protected approximately 48% of the myosin molecules from thermal aggregation, with protected myosin appearing identical to unheated molecules. These results are the first to show that alphaB-crystallin maintains myosin enzymatic activity and prevents the aggregation of the motor under heat-shock conditions. Thus, alphaB-crystallin may be critical for nascent myosin folding, promoting myofibrillogenesis

  2. The RhoA-Rok-Myosin II Pathway is Involved in Extracellular Matrix-Mediated Regulation of Prolactin Signaling in Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jyun-Yi; Chen, Meng-Chi; Hsu, Tsai-Ching; Wang, Jen-Hsing; Brackenbury, Lisa; Lin, Ting-Hui; Wu, Yi-Ying; Yang, Zhihong; Streuli, Charles H; Lee, Yi-Ju

    2012-01-01

    In mammary epithelial cells (MECs), prolactin-induced signaling and gene expression requires integrin-mediated cell adhesion to basement membrane (BM). In the absence of proper cell–BM interactions, for example, culturing cells on collagen-coated plastic dishes, signal propagation is substantially impaired. Here we demonstrate that the RhoA-Rok-myosin II pathway accounts for the ineffectiveness of prolactin signaling in MECs cultured on collagen I. Under these culture conditions, the RhoA pathway is activated, leading to downregulation of prolactin receptor expression and reduced prolactin signaling. Enforced activation of RhoA in MECs cultured on BM suppresses prolactin receptor levels, and prevents prolactin-induced Stat5 tyrosine phosphorylation and β-casein expression. Overexpression of dominant negative RhoA in MECs cultured on collagen I, or inhibiting Rok activity, increases prolactin receptor expression, and enhances prolactin signaling. In addition, inhibition of myosin II ATPase activity by blebbistatin also exerts a beneficial effect on prolactin receptor expression and prolactin signaling, suggesting that tension exerted by the collagen substratum, in collaboration with the RhoA-Rok-myosin II pathway, contributes to the failure of prolactin signaling. Furthermore, MECs cultured on laminin-coated plastic have similar morphology and response to prolactin as those cultured on collagen I. They display high levels of RhoA activity and are inefficient in prolactin signaling, stressing the importance of matrix stiffness in signal transduction. Our results reveal that RhoA has a central role in determining the fate decisions of MECs in response to cell–matrix interactions. J. Cell. Physiol. 227: 1553–1560, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:21678418

  3. Azidoblebbistatin, a photoreactive myosin inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Képiró, Miklós; Várkuti, Boglárka H.; Bodor, Andrea; Hegyi, György; Drahos, László; Kovács, Mihály; Málnási-Csizmadia, András

    2012-01-01

    Photoreactive compounds are important tools in life sciences that allow precisely timed covalent crosslinking of ligands and targets. Using a unique technique we have synthesized azidoblebbistatin, which is a derivative of blebbistatin, the most widely used myosin inhibitor. Without UV irradiation azidoblebbistatin exhibits identical inhibitory properties to those of blebbistatin. Using UV irradiation, azidoblebbistatin can be covalently crosslinked to myosin, which greatly enhances its in vitro and in vivo effectiveness. Photo-crosslinking also eliminates limitations associated with the relatively low myosin affinity and water solubility of blebbistatin. The wavelength used for photo-crosslinking is not toxic for cells and tissues, which confers a great advantage in in vivo tests. Because the crosslink results in an irreversible association of the inhibitor to myosin and the irradiation eliminates the residual activity of unbound inhibitor molecules, azidoblebbistatin has a great potential to become a highly effective tool in both structural studies of actomyosin contractility and the investigation of cellular and physiological functions of myosin II. We used azidoblebbistatin to identify previously unknown low-affinity targets of the inhibitor (EC50 ≥ 50 μM) in Dictyostelium discoideum, while the strongest interactant was found to be myosin II (EC50 = 5 μM). Our results demonstrate that azidoblebbistatin, and potentially other azidated drugs, can become highly useful tools for the identification of strong- and weak-binding cellular targets and the determination of the apparent binding affinities in in vivo conditions. PMID:22647605

  4. Myosin is involved in postmitotic cell spreading

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated a role for myosin in postmitotic Potoroo tridactylis kidney (PtK2) cell spreading by inhibitor studies, time- lapse video microscopy, and immunofluorescence. We have also determined the spatial organization and polarity of actin filaments in postmitotic spreading cells. We show that butanedione monoxime (BDM), a known inhibitor of muscle myosin II, inhibits nonmuscle myosin II and myosin V adenosine triphosphatases. BDM reversibly inhibits PtK2 postmitotic cell spreading. Listeria motility is not affected by this drug. Electron microscopy studies show that some actin filaments in spreading edges are part of actin bundles that are also found in long, thin, structures that are connected to spreading edges and substrate (retraction fibers), and that 90% of this actin is oriented with barbed ends in the direction of spreading. The remaining actin in spreading edges has a more random orientation and spatial arrangement. Myosin II is associated with actin polymer in spreading cell edges, but not retraction fibers. Myosin II is excluded from lamellipodia that protrude from the cell edge at the end of spreading. We suggest that spreading involves myosin, possibly myosin II. PMID:7559774

  5. cAPK-phosphorylation controls the interaction of the regulatory domain of cardiac myosin binding protein C with myosin-S2 in an on-off fashion.

    PubMed

    Gruen, M; Prinz, H; Gautel, M

    1999-06-25

    Myosin binding protein C is a protein of the myosin filaments of striated muscle which is expressed in isoforms specific for cardiac and skeletal muscle. The cardiac isoform is phosphorylated rapidly upon adrenergic stimulation of myocardium by cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and together with the phosphorylation of troponin-I and phospholamban contributes to the positive inotropy that results from adrenergic stimulation of the heart. Cardiac myosin binding protein C is phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase on three sites in a myosin binding protein C specific N-terminal domain which binds to myosin-S2. This interaction with myosin close to the motor domain is likely to mediate the regulatory function of the protein. Cardiac myosin binding protein C is a common target gene of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and most mutations encode N-terminal subfragments of myosin binding protein C. The understanding of the signalling interactions of the N-terminal region is therefore important for understanding the pathophysiology of myosin binding protein C associated cardiomyopathy. We demonstrate here by cosedimentation assays and isothermal titration calorimetry that the myosin-S2 binding properties of the myosin binding protein C motif are abolished by cAMP-dependent protein kinase-mediated tris-phosphorylation, decreasing the S2 affinity from a Kd of approximately 5 microM to undetectable levels. We show that the slow and fast skeletal muscle isoforms are no cAMP-dependent protein kinase substrates and that the S2 interaction of these myosin binding protein C isoforms is therefore constitutively on. The regulation of cardiac contractility by myosin binding protein C therefore appears to be a 'brake-off' mechanism that will free a specific subset of myosin heads from sterical constraints imposed by the binding to the myosin binding protein C motif.

  6. Myosin light-chain phosphatase regulates basal actomyosin oscillations during morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Expósito, Andrea; Grosheva, Inna; Míguez, David G; González-Reyes, Acaimo; Martín-Bermudo, María D

    2016-02-18

    Contractile actomyosin networks generate forces that drive tissue morphogenesis. Actomyosin contractility is controlled primarily by reversible phosphorylation of the myosin-II regulatory light chain through the action of myosin kinases and phosphatases. While the role of myosin light-chain kinase in regulating contractility during morphogenesis has been largely characterized, there is surprisingly little information on myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) function in this context. Here, we use live imaging of Drosophila follicle cells combined with mathematical modelling to demonstrate that the MLCP subunit flapwing (flw) is a key regulator of basal myosin oscillations and cell contractions underlying egg chamber elongation. Flw expression decreases specifically on the basal side of follicle cells at the onset of contraction and flw controls the initiation and periodicity of basal actomyosin oscillations. Contrary to previous reports, basal F-actin pulsates similarly to myosin. Finally, we propose a quantitative model in which periodic basal actomyosin oscillations arise in a cell-autonomous fashion from intrinsic properties of motor assemblies.

  7. Myosin light-chain phosphatase regulates basal actomyosin oscillations during morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Valencia-Expósito, Andrea; Grosheva, Inna; Míguez, David G.; González-Reyes, Acaimo; Martín-Bermudo, María D.

    2016-01-01

    Contractile actomyosin networks generate forces that drive tissue morphogenesis. Actomyosin contractility is controlled primarily by reversible phosphorylation of the myosin-II regulatory light chain through the action of myosin kinases and phosphatases. While the role of myosin light-chain kinase in regulating contractility during morphogenesis has been largely characterized, there is surprisingly little information on myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) function in this context. Here, we use live imaging of Drosophila follicle cells combined with mathematical modelling to demonstrate that the MLCP subunit flapwing (flw) is a key regulator of basal myosin oscillations and cell contractions underlying egg chamber elongation. Flw expression decreases specifically on the basal side of follicle cells at the onset of contraction and flw controls the initiation and periodicity of basal actomyosin oscillations. Contrary to previous reports, basal F-actin pulsates similarly to myosin. Finally, we propose a quantitative model in which periodic basal actomyosin oscillations arise in a cell-autonomous fashion from intrinsic properties of motor assemblies. PMID:26888436

  8. Novel configuration of a myosin II transient intermediate analogue revealed by quick-freeze deep-etch replica electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kimori, Yoshitaka; Baba, Norio; Katayama, Eisaku

    2013-02-15

    In the present paper, we described our attempt to characterize the rough three-dimensional features of the structural analogue of the key intermediate of myosin's cross-bridge cycle. Using quick-freeze deep-etch replica electron microscopy, we observed that actin-attached myosin during in vitro sliding was bent superficially as postulated by the conventional hypothesis, but in the opposite direction of the putative pre-power-stroke configuration, as for ADP·Vi (inorganic vanadate)-bound myosin. We searched for the conformational species with a similar appearance and found that SH1-SH2 (thiols 1 and 2)-cross-linked myosin is a good candidate. To characterize such small asymmetric structures, we employed a new pattern-recognition procedure that accommodates the metal-replicated samples. In this method, the best-matched views of the target microscopic images were selected from a comprehensive set of images simulated from known atomic co-ordinates of relevant proteins. Together with effective morphological filtering, we could define the conformational species and the view angles of the catalytic domain and the lever arm cropped from averaged images of disulfide-cross-linked myosin. Whereas the catalytic domain of the new conformer closely resembled the pPDM (N,N'-p-phenylenedimaleimide)-treated, but SH2 Lys705-cross-linked, structure (PDB code 1L2O), a minor product of the same cross-linking reaction, the lever arm projected differently. Using separately determined view angles of the catalytic domain and the lever arm, we built a model of disulfide-cross-linked myosin. Further combination with the 'displacement-mapping' procedure enabled us to reconstruct the global three-dimensional envelope of the unusual structure whose lever arm orientation is compatible with our reports on the actin-sliding cross-bridge structure. Assuming this conformer as the structural analogue of the transient intermediate during actin sliding, the power stroke of the lever arm might

  9. The Effects of Extracellular Calcium on Motility, Pseudopod and Uropod Formation, Chemotaxis and the Cortical Localization of Myosin II in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Lusche, Daniel F.; Wessels, Deborah; Soll, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular Ca++, a ubiquitous cation in the soluble environment of cells both free living and within the human body, regulates most aspects of amoeboid cell motility, including shape, uropod formation, pseudopod formation, velocity and turning in Dictyostelium discoideum. Hence it affects the efficiency of both basic motile behavior and chemotaxis. Extracellular Ca++ is optimal at 10 mM. A gradient of the chemoattractant cAMP generated in the absence of added Ca++ only affects turning, but in combination with extracellular Ca++, enhances the effects of extracellular Ca++. Potassium, at 40 mM, can substitute for Ca++. Mg++, Mn++, Zn++ and Na+ cannot. Extracellular Ca++, or K+, also induce the cortical localization of myosin II in a polar fashion. The effects of Ca++, K+ or a cAMP gradient do not appear to be similarly mediated by an increase in the general pool of free cytosolic Ca++. These results suggest a model, in which each agent functioning through different signaling systems, converge to affect the cortical localization of myosin II, which in turn effects the behavioral changes leading to efficient cell motility and chemotaxis. PMID:19363786

  10. Structure of the Rigor Actin-Tropomyosin-Myosin Complex

    PubMed Central

    Behrmann, Elmar; Müller, Mirco; Penczek, Pawel A.; Mannherz, Hans Georg; Manstein, Dietmar J.; Raunser, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of myosin with actin filaments is the central feature of muscle contraction and cargo movement along actin filaments of the cytoskeleton. Myosin converts the chemical energy stored in ATP into force and movement along actin filaments. Myosin binding to actin induces conformational changes that are coupled to the nucleotide-binding pocket and amplified by a specialized region of the motor domain for efficient force generation. Tropomyosin plays a key role in regulating the productive interaction between myosins and actin. Here, we report the 8 Å resolution structure of the actin-tropomyosin-myosin complex determined by cryo electron microscopy. The pseudo-atomic model of the complex obtained from fitting crystal structures into the map defines the large actin-myosin-tropomyosin interface and the molecular interactions between the proteins in detail and allows us to propose a structural model for tropomyosin dependent myosin binding to actin and actin-induced nucleotide release from myosin. PMID:22817895

  11. Myosinome: a database of myosins from select eukaryotic genomes to facilitate analysis of sequence-structure-function relationships.

    PubMed

    Syamaladevi, Divya P; Sunitha, Margaret S; Kalaimathy, S; Reddy, Chandrashekar C; Iftekhar, Mohammed; Pasha, Shaik N; Sowdhamini, R

    2012-01-01

    Myosins are one of the largest protein superfamilies with 24 classes. They have conserved structural features and catalytic domains yet show huge variation at different domains resulting in a variety of functions. Myosins are molecules driving various kinds of cellular processes and motility until the level of organisms. These are ATPases that utilize the chemical energy released by ATP hydrolysis to bring about conformational changes leading to a motor function. Myosins are important as they are involved in almost all cellular activities ranging from cell division to transcriptional regulation. They are crucial due to their involvement in many congenital diseases symptomatized by muscular malfunctions, cardiac diseases, deafness, neural and immunological dysfunction, and so on, many of which lead to death at an early age. We present Myosinome, a database of selected myosin classes (myosin II, V, and VI) from five model organisms. This knowledge base provides the sequences, phylogenetic clustering, domain architectures of myosins and molecular models, structural analyses, and relevant literature of their coiled-coil domains. In the current version of Myosinome, information about 71 myosin sequences belonging to three myosin classes (myosin II, V, and VI) in five model organisms (Homo Sapiens, Mus musculus, D. melanogaster, C. elegans and S. cereviseae) identified using bioinformatics surveys are presented, and several of them are yet to be functionally characterized. As these proteins are involved in congenital diseases, such a database would be useful in short-listing candidates for gene therapy and drug development. The database can be accessed from http://caps.ncbs.res.in/myosinome.

  12. Cell Adhesion, Signaling and Myosin in Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-01

    calmodulin-binding myosins. Trends Cell Bio 5:310- 316. 4. de Lanerolle, P. and Paul, R.J. (1991) Myosin phosphorylation/ dephosphorylation and...muscle myosin heavy chain is phosphorylated in intact cells by casein kinase II on a serine near the carboxyl terminus. J. Bio. Chem., 265:17876-17882 10

  13. Effects of a myosin-II inhibitor (N-benzyl-p-toluene sulphonamide, BTS) on contractile characteristics of intact fast-twitch mammalian muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Pinniger, G J; Bruton, J D; Westerblad, H; Ranatunga, K W

    2005-01-01

    We have examined the effects of N-benzyl-p-toluene sulphonamide (BTS), a potent and specific inhibitor of fast muscle myosin-II, using small bundles of intact fibres or single fibres from rat foot muscle. BTS decreased tetanic tension reversibly in a concentration-dependent manner with half-maximal inhibition at approximately approximately 2 microM at 20 degrees C. The inhibition of tension with 10 microM BTS was marked at the three temperatures examined (10, 20 and 30 degrees C), but greatest at 10 degrees C. BTS decreased active muscle stiffness to a lesser extent than tetanic tension indicating that not all of the tension inhibition was due to a reduced number of attached cross-bridges. BTS-induced inhibition of active tension was not accompanied by any change in the free myoplasmic Ca2+ transients. The potency and specificity of BTS make it a very suitable myosin inhibitor for intact mammalian fast muscle and should be a useful tool for the examination of outstanding questions in muscle contraction.

  14. Contractile properties of motor units and expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms in rat fast-type muscle after volitional weight-lifting training.

    PubMed

    Łochyński, Dawid; Kaczmarek, Dominik; Mrówczyński, Włodzimierz; Warchoł, Wojciech; Majerczak, Joanna; Karasiński, Janusz; Korostyński, Michał; Zoladz, Jerzy A; Celichowski, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Dynamic resistance training increases the force and speed of muscle contraction, but little is known about modifications to the contractile properties of the main physiological types of motor units (MUs) that contribute to these muscle adaptations. Although the contractile profile of MU muscle fibers is tightly coupled to myosin heavy chain (MyHC) protein expression, it is not well understood if MyHC transition is a prerequisite for modifications to the contractile characteristics of MUs. In this study, we examined MU contractile properties, the mRNA expression of MyHC, parvalbumin, and sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump isoforms, as well as the MyHC protein content after 5 wk of volitional progressive weight-lifting training in the medial gastrocnemius muscle in rats. The training had no effect on MyHC profiling or Ca(2+)-handling protein gene expression. Maximum force increased in slow (by 49%) and fast (by 21%) MUs. Within fast MUs, the maximum force increased in most fatigue-resistant and intermediate but not most fatigable MUs. Twitch contraction time was shortened in slow and fast fatigue-resistant MUs. Twitch half-relaxation was shortened in fast most fatigue-resistant and intermediate MUs. The force-frequency curve shifted rightward in fast fatigue-resistant MUs. Fast fatigable MUs fatigued less within the initial 15 s while fast fatigue-resistant units increased the ability to potentiate the force within the first minute of the standard fatigue test. In conclusion, at the early stage of resistance training, modifications to the contractile characteristics of MUs appear in the absence of MyHC transition and the upregulation of Ca(2+)-handling genes.

  15. Unconventional myosin traffic in cells reveals a selective actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Brawley, Crista M.; Rock, Ronald S.

    2009-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells have a self-organizing cytoskeleton where motors transport cargoes along cytoskeletal tracks. To understand the sorting process, we developed a system to observe single-molecule motility in a cellular context. We followed myosin classes V, VI, and X on triton-extracted actin cytoskeletons from Drosophila S2, mammalian COS-7, and mammalian U2OS cells. We find that these cells vary considerably in their global traffic patterns. The S2 and U2OS cells have regions of actin that either enhance or inhibit specific myosin classes. U2OS cells allow for 1 motor class, myosin VI, to move along stress fiber bundles, while motility of myosin V and X are suppressed. Myosin X motors are recruited to filopodia and the lamellar edge in S2 cells, whereas myosin VI motility is excluded from the same regions. Furthermore, we also see different velocities of myosin V motors in central regions of S2 cells, suggesting regional control of motor motility by the actin cytoskeleton. We also find unexpected features of the actin cytoskeletal network, including a population of reversed filaments with the barbed-end toward the cell center. This myosin motor regulation demonstrates that native actin cytoskeletons are more than just a collection of filaments. PMID:19478066

  16. Myosins as fundamental components during tumorigenesis: diverse and indispensable

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-Ruide; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2016-01-01

    Myosin is a kind of actin-based motor protein. As the crucial functions of myosin during tumorigenesis have become increasingly apparent, the profile of myosin in the field of cancer research has also been growing. Eighteen distinct classes of myosins have been discovered in the past twenty years and constitute a diverse superfamily. Various myosins share similar structures. They all convert energy from ATP hydrolysis to exert mechanical stress upon interactions with microfilaments. Ongoing research is increasingly suggesting that at least seven kinds of myosins participate in the formation and development of cancer. Myosins play essential roles in cytokinesis failure, chromosomal and centrosomal amplification, multipolar spindle formation and DNA microsatellite instability. These are all prerequisites of tumor formation. Subsequently, myosins activate various processes of tumor invasion and metastasis development including cell migration, adhesion, protrusion formation, loss of cell polarity and suppression of apoptosis. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the roles of myosins during tumorigenesis and discuss the factors and mechanisms which may regulate myosins in tumor progression. Furthermore, we put forward a completely new concept of “chromomyosin” to demonstrate the pivotal functions of myosins during karyokinesis and how this acts to optimize the functions of the members of the myosin superfamily. PMID:27121062

  17. Myosin II regulatory light chain as a novel substrate for AIM-1, an aurora/Ipl1p-related kinase from rat.

    PubMed

    Murata-Hori, M; Fumoto, K; Fukuta, Y; Iwasaki, T; Kikuchi, A; Tatsuka, M; Hosoya, H

    2000-12-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that the phosphorylated myosin II regulatory light chain (MRLC) is localized at the cleavage furrow of dividing cells, suggesting that phosphorylation of MRLC plays an important role in cytokinesis. However, it remains unclear which kinase(s) phosphorylate MRLC during cytokinesis. AIM-1, an Aurora/Ipl1p-related kinase from rat, is known as a serine/threonine kinase that is required for cytokinesis. Here we examined the possibility that AIM-1 is a candidate for a kinase that phosphorylates MRLC during cytokinesis. As a result, we showed that AIM-1 monophosphorylated MRLC at Ser19 using two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping analysis and several MRLC mutants. Furthermore, AIM-1 was colocalized with monophosphorylated MRLC at the cleavage furrow of dividing cells. We propose here that AIM-1 may participate in monophosphorylation of MRLC during cytokinesis.

  18. The fission yeast Chs2 protein interacts with the type-II myosin Myo3p and is required for the integrity of the actomyosin ring.

    PubMed

    Martín-García, Rebeca; Valdivieso, M-Henar

    2006-07-01

    In Schizosaccharomyces pombe cytokinesis requires the function of a contractile actomyosin ring. Fission yeast Chs2p is a transmembrane protein structurally similar to chitin synthases that lacks such enzymatic activity. Chs2p localisation and assembly into a ring that contracts during division requires the general system for polarised secretion, some components of the actomyosin ring, and an active septation initiation network. Chs2p interacts physically with the type-II myosin Myo3p revealing a physical link between the plasma membrane and the ring. In chs2Delta mutants, actomyosin ring integrity is compromised during the last stages of contraction and it remains longer in the midzone. In synchronous cultures, chs2Delta cells exhibit a delay in septation with respect to the control strain. All these results show that Chs2p participates in the correct functioning of the medial ring.

  19. Size and speed of the working stroke of cardiac myosin in situ.

    PubMed

    Caremani, Marco; Pinzauti, Francesca; Reconditi, Massimo; Piazzesi, Gabriella; Stienen, Ger J M; Lombardi, Vincenzo; Linari, Marco

    2016-03-29

    The power in the myocardium sarcomere is generated by two bipolar arrays of the motor protein cardiac myosin II extending from the thick filament and pulling the thin, actin-containing filaments from the opposite sides of the sarcomere. Despite the interest in the definition of myosin-based cardiomyopathies, no study has yet been able to determine the mechanokinetic properties of this motor protein in situ. Sarcomere-level mechanics recorded by a striation follower is used in electrically stimulated intact ventricular trabeculae from the rat heart to determine the isotonic velocity transient following a stepwise reduction in force from the isometric peak force TP to a value T(0.8-0.2 TP). The size and the speed of the early rapid shortening (the isotonic working stroke) increase by reducing T from ∼3 nm per half-sarcomere (hs) and 1,000 s(-1) at high load to ∼8 nm⋅hs(-1) and 6,000 s(-1) at low load. Increases in sarcomere length (1.9-2.2 μm) and external [Ca(2+)]o (1-2.5 mM), which produce an increase of TP, do not affect the dependence on T, normalized for TP, of the size and speed of the working stroke. Thus, length- and Ca(2+)-dependent increase of TP and power in the heart can solely be explained by modulation of the number of myosin motors, an emergent property of their array arrangement. The motor working stroke is similar to that of skeletal muscle myosin, whereas its speed is about three times slower. A new powerful tool for investigations and therapies of myosin-based cardiomyopathies is now within our reach.

  20. Size and speed of the working stroke of cardiac myosin in situ

    PubMed Central

    Caremani, Marco; Pinzauti, Francesca; Reconditi, Massimo; Piazzesi, Gabriella; Stienen, Ger J. M.; Lombardi, Vincenzo; Linari, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The power in the myocardium sarcomere is generated by two bipolar arrays of the motor protein cardiac myosin II extending from the thick filament and pulling the thin, actin-containing filaments from the opposite sides of the sarcomere. Despite the interest in the definition of myosin-based cardiomyopathies, no study has yet been able to determine the mechanokinetic properties of this motor protein in situ. Sarcomere-level mechanics recorded by a striation follower is used in electrically stimulated intact ventricular trabeculae from the rat heart to determine the isotonic velocity transient following a stepwise reduction in force from the isometric peak force TP to a value T (0.8–0.2 TP). The size and the speed of the early rapid shortening (the isotonic working stroke) increase by reducing T from ∼3 nm per half-sarcomere (hs) and 1,000 s−1 at high load to ∼8 nm⋅hs−1 and 6,000 s−1 at low load. Increases in sarcomere length (1.9–2.2 μm) and external [Ca2+]o (1–2.5 mM), which produce an increase of TP, do not affect the dependence on T, normalized for TP, of the size and speed of the working stroke. Thus, length- and Ca2+-dependent increase of TP and power in the heart can solely be explained by modulation of the number of myosin motors, an emergent property of their array arrangement. The motor working stroke is similar to that of skeletal muscle myosin, whereas its speed is about three times slower. A new powerful tool for investigations and therapies of myosin-based cardiomyopathies is now within our reach. PMID:26984499

  1. Distinct Roles of Myosins in Aspergillus fumigatus Hyphal Growth and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Renshaw, Hilary; Vargas-Muñiz, José M.; Richards, Amber D.; Asfaw, Yohannes G.; Juvvadi, Praveen R.

    2016-01-01

    Myosins are a family of actin-based motor proteins found in many organisms and are categorized into classes based on their structures. Class II and V myosins are known to be important for critical cellular processes, including cytokinesis, endocytosis, exocytosis, and organelle trafficking, in the model fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus nidulans. However, the roles of myosins in the growth and virulence of the pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus are unknown. We constructed single- and double-deletion strains of the class II and class V myosins in A. fumigatus and found that while the class II myosin (myoB) is dispensable for growth, the class V myosin (myoE) is required for proper hyphal extension; deletion of myoE resulted in hyperbranching and loss of hyphal polarity. Both myoB and myoE are necessary for proper septation, conidiation, and conidial germination, but only myoB is required for conidial viability. Infection with the ΔmyoE strain in the invertebrate Galleria mellonella model and also in a persistently immunosuppressed murine model of invasive aspergillosis resulted in hypovirulence, while analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) release and cellular infiltration were similar compared to those of the wild-type strain. The ΔmyoE strain showed fungal growth in the murine lung, while the ΔmyoB strain exhibited little fungal burden, most likely due to the reduced conidial viability. These results show, for the first time, the important role these cytoskeletal components play in the growth of and disease caused by a known pathogen, prompting future studies to understand their regulation and potential targeting for novel antifungal therapies. PMID:26953327

  2. Input-specific regulation of hippocampal circuit maturation by non-muscle Myosin IIB

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Emin D.; Aceti, Massimiliano; Creson, Thomas K.; Rojas, Camilo S.; Hubbs, Cristopher; McGuire, Megan N.; Kakad, Priyanka P.; Miller, Courtney A.; Rumbaugh, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Myh9 and Myh10, which encode two major isoforms of non-muscle myosin II expressed in the brain, have emerged as risk factors for developmental brain disorders. Myosin II motors regulate neuronal cytoskeletal dynamics leading to optimization of synaptic plasticity and memory formation. However, the role of these motor complexes in brain development remains poorly understood. Here, we disrupted the in vivo expression of Myh9 and/or Myh10 in developing hippocampal neurons to determine how these motors contribute to circuit maturation in this brain area important for cognition. We found that Myh10 ablation in early postnatal, but not mature, CA1 pyramidal neurons reduced excitatory synaptic function in the Schaffer collateral pathway, while more distal inputs to CA1 neurons were relatively unaffected. Myh10 ablation in young neurons also selectively impaired the elongation of oblique dendrites that receive Schaffer collateral inputs, while the structure of distal dendrites was normal. We observed normal spine density and spontaneous excitatory currents in these neurons, indicating that Myh10 KO impaired proximal pathway synaptic maturation through disruptions to dendritic development rather than postsynaptic strength or spine morphogenesis. To address possible redundancy and/or compensation by other Myosin II motors expressed in neurons, we performed similar experiments in Myh9 null neurons. In contrast to findings in Myh10 mutants, evoked synaptic function in young Myh9 KO hippocampal neurons was normal. Data obtained from double Myh9/Myh10 KO neurons largely resembled the MyH10 KO synaptic phenotype. These data indicate that Myosin IIB is a key molecular factor that guides input-specific circuit maturation in the developing hippocampus. PMID:25931194

  3. Random myosin loss along thick-filaments increases myosin attachment time and the proportion of bound myosin heads to mitigate force decline in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Bertrand C W; McNabb, Mark; Palmer, Bradley M; Toth, Michael J; Miller, Mark S

    2014-06-15

    Diminished skeletal muscle performance with aging, disuse, and disease may be partially attributed to the loss of myofilament proteins. Several laboratories have found a disproportionate loss of myosin protein content relative to other myofilament proteins, but due to methodological limitations, the structural manifestation of this protein loss is unknown. To investigate how variations in myosin content affect ensemble cross-bridge behavior and force production we simulated muscle contraction in the half-sarcomere as myosin was removed either (i) uniformly, from the Z-line end of thick-filaments, or (ii) randomly, along the length of thick-filaments. Uniform myosin removal decreased force production, showing a slightly steeper force-to-myosin content relationship than the 1:1 relationship that would be expected from the loss of cross-bridges. Random myosin removal also decreased force production, but this decrease was less than observed with uniform myosin loss, largely due to increased myosin attachment time (ton) and fractional cross-bridge binding with random myosin loss. These findings support our prior observations that prolonged ton may augment force production in single fibers with randomly reduced myosin content from chronic heart failure patients. These simulations also illustrate that the pattern of myosin loss along thick-filaments influences ensemble cross-bridge behavior and maintenance of force throughout the sarcomere.

  4. Interactions between relay helix and Src homology 1 (SH1) domain helix drive the converter domain rotation during the recovery stroke of myosin II.

    PubMed

    Baumketner, Andrij

    2012-06-01

    Myosin motor protein exists in two alternative conformations, prerecovery state M* and postrecovery state M**, on adenosine triphosphate binding. The details of the M*-to-M** transition, known as the recovery stroke to reflect its role as the functional opposite of the force-generating power stroke, remain elusive. The defining feature of the postrecovery state is a kink in the relay helix, a key part of the protein involved in force generation. In this article, we determine the interactions that are responsible for the appearance of the kink. We design a series of computational models that contain three other segments, relay loop, converter domain, and Src homology 1 (SH1) domain helix, with which relay helix interacts and determine their structure in accurate replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent. By conducting an exhaustive combinatorial search among different models, we find that: (1) the converter domain must be attached to the relay helix during the transition, so it does not interfere with other parts of the protein and (2) the structure of the relay helix is controlled by SH1 helix. The kink is strongly coupled to the position of SH1 helix. It arises as a result of direct interactions between SH1 and the relay helix and leads to a rotation of the C-terminal part of the relay helix, which is subsequently transmitted to the converter domain.

  5. Stochastic dynamics of small ensembles of non-processive molecular motors: the parallel cluster model.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Thorsten; Albert, Philipp J; Schwarz, Ulrich S

    2013-11-07

    Non-processive molecular motors have to work together in ensembles in order to generate appreciable levels of force or movement. In skeletal muscle, for example, hundreds of myosin II molecules cooperate in thick filaments. In non-muscle cells, by contrast, small groups with few tens of non-muscle myosin II motors contribute to essential cellular processes such as transport, shape changes, or mechanosensing. Here we introduce a detailed and analytically tractable model for this important situation. Using a three-state crossbridge model for the myosin II motor cycle and exploiting the assumptions of fast power stroke kinetics and equal load sharing between motors in equivalent states, we reduce the stochastic reaction network to a one-step master equation for the binding and unbinding dynamics (parallel cluster model) and derive the rules for ensemble movement. We find that for constant external load, ensemble dynamics is strongly shaped by the catch bond character of myosin II, which leads to an increase of the fraction of bound motors under load and thus to firm attachment even for small ensembles. This adaptation to load results in a concave force-velocity relation described by a Hill relation. For external load provided by a linear spring, myosin II ensembles dynamically adjust themselves towards an isometric state with constant average position and load. The dynamics of the ensembles is now determined mainly by the distribution of motors over the different kinds of bound states. For increasing stiffness of the external spring, there is a sharp transition beyond which myosin II can no longer perform the power stroke. Slow unbinding from the pre-power-stroke state protects the ensembles against detachment.

  6. Stochastic dynamics of small ensembles of non-processive molecular motors: The parallel cluster model

    SciTech Connect

    Erdmann, Thorsten; Albert, Philipp J.; Schwarz, Ulrich S.

    2013-11-07

    Non-processive molecular motors have to work together in ensembles in order to generate appreciable levels of force or movement. In skeletal muscle, for example, hundreds of myosin II molecules cooperate in thick filaments. In non-muscle cells, by contrast, small groups with few tens of non-muscle myosin II motors contribute to essential cellular processes such as transport, shape changes, or mechanosensing. Here we introduce a detailed and analytically tractable model for this important situation. Using a three-state crossbridge model for the myosin II motor cycle and exploiting the assumptions of fast power stroke kinetics and equal load sharing between motors in equivalent states, we reduce the stochastic reaction network to a one-step master equation for the binding and unbinding dynamics (parallel cluster model) and derive the rules for ensemble movement. We find that for constant external load, ensemble dynamics is strongly shaped by the catch bond character of myosin II, which leads to an increase of the fraction of bound motors under load and thus to firm attachment even for small ensembles. This adaptation to load results in a concave force-velocity relation described by a Hill relation. For external load provided by a linear spring, myosin II ensembles dynamically adjust themselves towards an isometric state with constant average position and load. The dynamics of the ensembles is now determined mainly by the distribution of motors over the different kinds of bound states. For increasing stiffness of the external spring, there is a sharp transition beyond which myosin II can no longer perform the power stroke. Slow unbinding from the pre-power-stroke state protects the ensembles against detachment.

  7. Kinetic properties and small-molecule inhibition of human myosin-6

    PubMed Central

    Heissler, Sarah M.; Selvadurai, Jayashankar; Bond, Lisa M.; Fedorov, Roman; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma; Manstein, Dietmar J.

    2012-01-01

    Myosin-6 is an actin-based motor protein that moves its cargo towards the minus-end of actin filaments. Mutations in the gene encoding the myosin-6 heavy chain and changes in the cellular abundance of the protein have been linked to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Here, we present a detailed kinetic characterization of the human myosin-6 motor domain, describe the effect of 2,4,6-triiodophenol on the interaction of myosin-6 with F-actin and nucleotides, and show how addition of the drug reduces the number of myosin-6-dependent vesicle fusion events at the plasma membrane during constitutive secretion. PMID:22884421

  8. Structural Basis of Cargo Recognition by Unconventional Myosins in Cellular Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianchao; Lu, Qing; Zhang, Mingjie

    2016-08-01

    Unconventional myosins are a superfamily of actin-based molecular motors playing diverse roles including cellular trafficking, mechanical supports, force sensing and transmission, etc. The variable neck and tail domains of unconventional myosins function to bind to specific cargoes including proteins and lipid vesicles and thus are largely responsible for the diverse cellular functions of myosins in vivo. In addition, the tail regions, together with their cognate cargoes, can regulate activities of the motor heads. This review outlines the advances made in recent years on cargo recognition and cargo binding-induced regulation of the activity of several unconventional myosins including myosin-I, V, VI and X in cellular trafficking. We approach this topic by describing a series of high-resolution structures of the neck and tail domains of these unconventional myosins either alone or in complex with their specific cargoes, and by discussing potential implications of these structural studies on cellular trafficking of these myosin motors.

  9. The role of myosin 1c and myosin 1b in surfactant exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Kittelberger, Nadine; Breunig, Markus; Martin, René; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; Miklavc, Pika

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Actin and actin-associated proteins have a pivotal effect on regulated exocytosis in secretory cells and influence pre-fusion as well as post-fusion stages of exocytosis. Actin polymerization on secretory granules during the post-fusion phase (formation of an actin coat) is especially important in cells with large secretory vesicles or poorly soluble secretions. Alveolar type II (ATII) cells secrete hydrophobic lipo-protein surfactant, which does not easily diffuse from fused vesicles. Previous work showed that compression of actin coat is necessary for surfactant extrusion. Here, we investigate the role of class 1 myosins as possible linkers between actin and membranes during exocytosis. Live-cell microscopy showed translocation of fluorescently labeled myosin 1b and myosin 1c to the secretory vesicle membrane after fusion. Myosin 1c translocation was dependent on its pleckstrin homology domain. Expression of myosin 1b and myosin 1c constructs influenced vesicle compression rate, whereas only the inhibition of myosin 1c reduced exocytosis. These findings suggest that class 1 myosins participate in several stages of ATII cell exocytosis and link actin coats to the secretory vesicle membrane to influence vesicle compression. PMID:26940917

  10. The role of myosin 1c and myosin 1b in surfactant exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kittelberger, Nadine; Breunig, Markus; Martin, René; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; Miklavc, Pika

    2016-04-15

    Actin and actin-associated proteins have a pivotal effect on regulated exocytosis in secretory cells and influence pre-fusion as well as post-fusion stages of exocytosis. Actin polymerization on secretory granules during the post-fusion phase (formation of an actin coat) is especially important in cells with large secretory vesicles or poorly soluble secretions. Alveolar type II (ATII) cells secrete hydrophobic lipo-protein surfactant, which does not easily diffuse from fused vesicles. Previous work showed that compression of actin coat is necessary for surfactant extrusion. Here, we investigate the role of class 1 myosins as possible linkers between actin and membranes during exocytosis. Live-cell microscopy showed translocation of fluorescently labeled myosin 1b and myosin 1c to the secretory vesicle membrane after fusion. Myosin 1c translocation was dependent on its pleckstrin homology domain. Expression of myosin 1b and myosin 1c constructs influenced vesicle compression rate, whereas only the inhibition of myosin 1c reduced exocytosis. These findings suggest that class 1 myosins participate in several stages of ATII cell exocytosis and link actin coats to the secretory vesicle membrane to influence vesicle compression.

  11. The Carboxy-Terminal Tails of Septins Cdc11 and Shs1 Recruit Myosin-II Binding Factor Bni5 to the Bud Neck in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Finnigan, Gregory C.; Booth, Elizabeth A.; Duvalyan, Angela; Liao, Elizabeth N.; Thorner, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Septins are a conserved family of GTP-binding proteins that form heterooctameric complexes that assemble into higher-order structures. In yeast, septin superstructure at the bud neck serves as a barrier to separate a daughter cell from its mother and as a scaffold to recruit the proteins that execute cytokinesis. However, how septins recruit specific factors has not been well characterized. In the accompanying article in this issue, (Finnigan et al. 2015), we demonstrated that the C-terminal extensions (CTEs) of the alternative terminal subunits of septin heterooctamers, Cdc11 and Shs1, share a role required for optimal septin function in vivo. Here we describe our use of unbiased genetic approaches (both selection of dosage suppressors and analysis of synthetic interactions) that pinpointed Bni5 as a protein that interacts with the CTEs of Cdc11 and Shs1. Furthermore, we used three independent methods—construction of chimeric proteins, noncovalent tethering mediated by a GFP-targeted nanobody, and imaging by fluorescence microscopy—to confirm that a physiologically important function of the CTEs of Cdc11 and Shs1 is optimizing recruitment of Bni5 and thereby ensuring efficient localization at the bud neck of Myo1, the type II myosin of the actomyosin contractile ring. Related article in GENETICS: Finnigan, G. C. et al., 2015 Comprehensive Genetic Analysis of Paralogous Terminal Septin Subunits Shs1 and Cdc11 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics 200: 821–841. PMID:25971666

  12. Differential localization of cytoplasmic myosin II isoforms A and B in avian interphase and dividing embryonic and immortalized cardiomyocytes and other cell types in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, A. H.; Jaffredo, T.; Conrad, G. W.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Two principal isoforms of cytoplasmic myosin II, A and B (CMIIA and CMIIB), are present in different proportions in different tissues. Isoform-specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to avian CMIIA and CMIIB reveal the cellular distributions of these isoforms in interphase and dividing embryonic avian cardiac, intestinal epithelial, spleen, and dorsal root ganglia cells in primary cell culture. Embryonic cardiomyocytes react with antibodies to CMIIB but not to CMIIA, localize CMIIB in stress-fiber-like-structures during interphase, and markedly concentrate CMIIB in networks in the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. In contrast, cardiac fibroblasts localize both CMIIA and CMIIB in stress fibers and networks during interphase, and demonstrate slight and independently regulated concentration of CMIIA and CMIIB in networks in their cleavage furrows. V-myc-immortalized cardiomyocytes, an established cell line, have regained the ability to express CMIIA, as well as CMIIB, and localize both CMIIA and CMIIB in stress fibers and networks in interphase cells and in cleavage furrows in dividing cells. Conversely, some intestinal epithelial, spleen, and dorsal root ganglia interphase cells express only CMIIA, organized primarily in networks. Of these, intestinal epithelial cells express both CMIIA and CMIIB when they divide, whereas some dividing cells from both spleen and dorsal root ganglia express only CMIIA and concentrate it in their cleavage furrows. These results suggest that within a given tissue, different cell types express different isoforms of CMII, and that cells expressing either CMIIA or CMIIB alone, or simultaneously, can form a cleavage furrow and divide.

  13. Duty ratio of cooperative molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Dharan, Nadiv; Farago, Oded

    2012-02-01

    Molecular motors are found throughout the cells of the human body and have many different and important roles. These micromachines move along filament tracks and have the ability to convert chemical energy into mechanical work that powers cellular motility. Different types of motors are characterized by different duty ratios, which is the fraction of time that a motor is attached to its filament. In the case of myosin II (a nonprocessive molecular machine with a low duty ratio), cooperativity between several motors is essential to induce motion along its actin filament track. In this work we use statistical mechanical tools to calculate the duty ratio of cooperative molecular motors. The model suggests that the effective duty ratio of nonprocessive motors that work in cooperation is lower than the duty ratio of the individual motors. The origin of this effect is the elastic tension that develops in the filament which is relieved when motors detach from the track.

  14. Duty ratio of cooperative molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharan, Nadiv; Farago, Oded

    2012-02-01

    Molecular motors are found throughout the cells of the human body and have many different and important roles. These micromachines move along filament tracks and have the ability to convert chemical energy into mechanical work that powers cellular motility. Different types of motors are characterized by different duty ratios, which is the fraction of time that a motor is attached to its filament. In the case of myosin II (a nonprocessive molecular machine with a low duty ratio), cooperativity between several motors is essential to induce motion along its actin filament track. In this work we use statistical mechanical tools to calculate the duty ratio of cooperative molecular motors. The model suggests that the effective duty ratio of nonprocessive motors that work in cooperation is lower than the duty ratio of the individual motors. The origin of this effect is the elastic tension that develops in the filament which is relieved when motors detach from the track.

  15. Visualization of an unstable coiled coil from the scallop myosin rod.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Brown, Jerry H; Reshetnikova, Ludmilla; Blazsek, Antal; Farkas, László; Nyitray, László; Cohen, Carolyn

    2003-07-17

    Alpha-helical coiled coils in muscle exemplify simplicity and economy of protein design: small variations in sequence lead to remarkable diversity in cellular functions. Myosin II is the key protein in muscle contraction, and the molecule's two-chain alpha-helical coiled-coil rod region--towards the carboxy terminus of the heavy chain--has unusual structural and dynamic features. The amino-terminal subfragment-2 (S2) domains of the rods can swing out from the thick filament backbone at a hinge in the coiled coil, allowing the two myosin 'heads' and their motor domains to interact with actin and generate tension. Most of the S2 rod appears to be a flexible coiled coil, but studies suggest that the structure at the N-terminal region is unstable, and unwinding or bending of the alpha-helices near the head-rod junction seems necessary for many of myosin's functional properties. Here we show the physical basis of a particularly weak coiled-coil segment by determining the 2.5-A-resolution crystal structure of a leucine-zipper-stabilized fragment of the scallop striated-muscle myosin rod adjacent to the head-rod junction. The N-terminal 14 residues are poorly ordered; the rest of the S2 segment forms a flexible coiled coil with poorly packed core residues. The unusual absence of interhelical salt bridges here exposes apolar core atoms to solvent.

  16. Myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation enhances cardiac β-myosin in vitro motility under load.

    PubMed

    Karabina, Anastasia; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Moore, Jeffrey R

    2015-08-15

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and myofibrillar disarray, and often results in sudden cardiac death. Two HCM mutations, N47K and R58Q, are located in the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). The RLC mechanically stabilizes the myosin lever arm, which is crucial to myosin's ability to transmit contractile force. The N47K and R58Q mutations have previously been shown to reduce actin filament velocity under load, stemming from a more compliant lever arm (Greenberg, 2010). In contrast, RLC phosphorylation was shown to impart stiffness to the myosin lever arm (Greenberg, 2009). We hypothesized that phosphorylation of the mutant HCM-RLC may mitigate distinct mutation-induced structural and functional abnormalities. In vitro motility assays were utilized to investigate the effects of RLC phosphorylation on the HCM-RLC mutant phenotype in the presence of an α-actinin frictional load. Porcine cardiac β-myosin was depleted of its native RLC and reconstituted with mutant or wild-type human RLC in phosphorylated or non-phosphorylated form. Consistent with previous findings, in the presence of load, myosin bearing the HCM mutations reduced actin sliding velocity compared to WT resulting in 31-41% reductions in force production. Myosin containing phosphorylated RLC (WT or mutant) increased sliding velocity and also restored mutant myosin force production to near WT unphosphorylated values. These results point to RLC phosphorylation as a general mechanism to increase force production of the individual myosin motor and as a potential target to ameliorate the HCM-induced phenotype at the molecular level.

  17. Myosin I contributes to the generation of resting cortical tension.

    PubMed

    Dai, J; Ting-Beall, H P; Hochmuth, R M; Sheetz, M P; Titus, M A

    1999-08-01

    The amoeboid myosin I's are required for cellular cortical functions such as pseudopod formation and macropinocytosis, as demonstrated by the finding that Dictyostelium cells overexpressing or lacking one or more of these actin-based motors are defective in these processes. Defects in these processes are concomitant with changes in the actin-filled cortex of various Dictyostelium myosin I mutants. Given that the amoeboid myosin I's possess both actin- and membrane-binding domains, the mutant phenotypes could be due to alterations in the generation and/or regulation of cell cortical tension. This has been directly tested by analyzing mutant Dictyostelium that either lacks or overexpresses various myosin I's, using micropipette aspiration techniques. Dictyostelium cells lacking only one myosin I have normal levels of cortical tension. However, myosin I double mutants have significantly reduced (50%) cortical tension, and those that mildly overexpress an amoeboid myosin I exhibit increased cortical tension. Treatment of either type of mutant with the lectin concanavalin A (ConA) that cross-links surface receptors results in significant increases in cortical tension, suggesting that the contractile activity of these myosin I's is not controlled by this stimulus. These results demonstrate that myosin I's work cooperatively to contribute substantially to the generation of resting cortical tension that is required for efficient cell migration and macropinocytosis.

  18. Myosin IIA dependent retrograde flow drives 3D cell migration.

    PubMed

    Shih, Wenting; Yamada, Soichiro

    2010-04-21

    Epithelial cell migration is an essential part of embryogenesis and tissue regeneration, yet their migration is least understood. Using our three-dimensional (3D) motility analysis, migrating epithelial cells formed an atypical polarized cell shape with the nucleus leading the cell front and a contractile cell rear. Migrating epithelial cells exerted traction forces to deform both the anterior and posterior extracellular matrix toward the cell body. The cell leading edge exhibited a myosin II-dependent retrograde flow with the magnitude and direction consistent with surrounding network deformation. Interestingly, on a two-dimensional substrate, myosin IIA-deficient cells migrated faster than wild-type cells, but in a 3D gel, these myosin IIA-deficient cells were unpolarized and immobile. In contrast, the migration rates of myosin IIB-deficient cells were similar to wild-type cells. Therefore, myosin IIA, not myosin IIB, is required for 3D epithelial cell migration.

  19. Characterization of the Catalytic and Nucleotide Binding Properties of the α-Kinase Domain of Dictyostelium Myosin-II Heavy Chain Kinase A*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yidai; Ye, Qilu; Jia, Zongchao; Côté, Graham P.

    2015-01-01

    The α-kinases are a widely expressed family of serine/threonine protein kinases that exhibit no sequence identity with conventional eukaryotic protein kinases. In this report, we provide new information on the catalytic properties of the α-kinase domain of Dictyostelium myosin-II heavy chain kinase-A (termed A-CAT). Crystallization of A-CAT in the presence of MgATP yielded structures with AMP or adenosine in the catalytic cleft together with a phosphorylated Asp-766 residue. The results show that the β- and α-phosphoryl groups are transferred either directly or indirectly to the catalytically essential Asp-766. Biochemical assays confirmed that A-CAT hydrolyzed ATP, ADP, and AMP with kcat values of 1.9, 0.6, and 0.32 min−1, respectively, and showed that A-CAT can use ADP to phosphorylate peptides and proteins. Binding assays using fluorescent 2′/3′-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl) analogs of ATP and ADP yielded Kd values for ATP, ADP, AMP, and adenosine of 20 ± 3, 60 ± 20, 160 ± 60, and 45 ± 15 μm, respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that Glu-713, Leu-716, and Lys-645, all of which interact with the adenine base, were critical for nucleotide binding. Mutation of the highly conserved Gln-758, which chelates a nucleotide-associated Mg2+ ion, eliminated catalytic activity, whereas loss of the highly conserved Lys-722 and Arg-592 decreased kcat values for kinase and ATPase activities by 3–6-fold. Mutation of Asp-663 impaired kinase activity to a much greater extent than ATPase, indicating a specific role in peptide substrate binding, whereas mutation of Gln-768 doubled ATPase activity, suggesting that it may act to exclude water from the active site. PMID:26260792

  20. On the kinetics that moves Myosin V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, Christian; O'Kelly de Galway, Winny

    2015-10-01

    Molecular motor proteins such as Myosin V, Dynein or Kinesin are no ratchets, at least not with a flashing asymmetric potential; the crucial asymmetry is in the dynamical activity. We make that explicit in terms of a simple Markov model, emphasizing the kinetic (and non-thermodynamic) aspects of stochastic transport. The analysis shows the presence of a fluctuation symmetry in that part of the dynamical activity which is antisymmetric under reversal of trailing and leading head of the motor. The direction of the motor motion is determined by it.

  1. Motor Training Promotes Both Synaptic and Intrinsic Plasticity of Layer II/III Pyramidal Neurons in the Primary Motor Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kida, Hiroyuki; Tsuda, Yasumasa; Ito, Nana; Yamamoto, Yui; Owada, Yuji; Kamiya, Yoshinori; Mitsushima, Dai

    2016-01-01

    Motor skill training induces structural plasticity at dendritic spines in the primary motor cortex (M1). To further analyze both synaptic and intrinsic plasticity in the layer II/III area of M1, we subjected rats to a rotor rod test and then prepared acute brain slices. Motor skill consistently improved within 2 days of training. Voltage clamp analysis showed significantly higher α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid/N-methyl-d-aspartate (AMPA/NMDA) ratios and miniature EPSC amplitudes in 1-day trained rats compared with untrained rats, suggesting increased postsynaptic AMPA receptors in the early phase of motor learning. Compared with untrained controls, 2-days trained rats showed significantly higher miniature EPSC amplitude and frequency. Paired-pulse analysis further demonstrated lower rates in 2-days trained rats, suggesting increased presynaptic glutamate release during the late phase of learning. One-day trained rats showed decreased miniature IPSC frequency and increased paired-pulse analysis of evoked IPSC, suggesting a transient decrease in presynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release. Moreover, current clamp analysis revealed lower resting membrane potential, higher spike threshold, and deeper afterhyperpolarization in 1-day trained rats—while 2-days trained rats showed higher membrane potential, suggesting dynamic changes in intrinsic properties. Our present results indicate dynamic changes in glutamatergic, GABAergic, and intrinsic plasticity in M1 layer II/III neurons after the motor training. PMID:27193420

  2. Myosin, Transgelin, and Myosin Light Chain Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Léguillette, Renaud; Laviolette, Michel; Bergeron, Celine; Zitouni, Nedjma; Kogut, Paul; Solway, Julian; Kachmar, Linda; Hamid, Qutayba; Lauzon, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Airway smooth muscle (SM) of patients with asthma exhibits a greater velocity of shortening (Vmax) than that of normal subjects, and this is thought to contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness. A greater Vmax can result from increased myosin activation. This has been reported in sensitized human airway SM and in models of asthma. A faster Vmax can also result from the expression of specific contractile proteins that promote faster cross-bridge cycling. This possibility has never been addressed in asthma. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that the expression of genes coding for SM contractile proteins is altered in asthmatic airways and contributes to their increased Vmax. Methods: We quantified the expression of several genes that code for SM contractile proteins in mild allergic asthmatic and control human airway endobronchial biopsies. The function of these contractile proteins was tested using the in vitro motility assay. Measurements and Main Results: We observed an increased expression of the fast myosin heavy chain isoform, transgelin, and myosin light chain kinase in patients with asthma. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the expression of these genes at the protein level. To address the functional significance of this overexpression, we purified tracheal myosin from the hyperresponsive Fisher rats, which also overexpress the fast myosin heavy chain isoform as compared with the normoresponsive Lewis rats, and found a faster rate of actin filament propulsion. Conversely, transgelin did not alter the rate of actin filament propulsion. Conclusions: Selective overexpression of airway smooth muscle genes in asthmatic airways leads to increased Vmax, thus contributing to the airway hyperresponsiveness observed in asthma. PMID:19011151

  3. Processive steps in the reverse direction require uncoupling of the lead head lever arm of myosin VI.

    PubMed

    Ménétrey, Julie; Isabet, Tatiana; Ropars, Virginie; Mukherjea, Monalisa; Pylypenko, Olena; Liu, Xiaoyan; Perez, Javier; Vachette, Patrice; Sweeney, H Lee; Houdusse, Anne M

    2012-10-12

    Myosin VI is the only known reverse-direction myosin motor. It has an unprecedented means of amplifying movements within the motor involving rearrangements of the converter subdomain at the C terminus of the motor and an unusual lever arm projecting from the converter. While the average step size of a myosin VI dimer is 30-36 nm, the step size is highly variable, presenting a challenge to the lever arm mechanism by which all myosins are thought to move. Herein, we present structures of myosin VI that reveal regions of compliance that allow an uncoupling of the lead head when movement is modeled on actin. The location of the compliance restricts the possible actin binding sites and predicts the observed stepping behavior. The model reveals that myosin VI, unlike plus-end directed myosins, does not use a pure lever arm mechanism, but instead steps with a mechanism analogous to the kinesin neck-linker uncoupling model.

  4. Nondestructive Evaluation and Inspection Programs for Pershing II motors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    2. Maintenance instructions. 3. Electrical schematics. 4. Parts lists. 40 APPENDIX D: ULTRASONIC THICKNESS GAGE FOR PERSHING-H NDI Background A...Specifications for Real-Time Digital Radiographic Inspection System 26 APPENDIX C: Borescope System Specification 37 APPENDIX D: Ultrasonic Thickness Gage for...returned from the field. Motors are now being removed from the field as part of an ongoing program of replacement. These motors have been subjected to

  5. A simple theory of motor protein kinetics and energetics. II.

    PubMed

    Qian, H

    2000-01-10

    A three-state stochastic model of motor protein [Qian, Biophys. Chem. 67 (1997) pp. 263-267] is further developed to illustrate the relationship between the external load on an individual motor protein in aqueous solution with various ATP concentrations and its steady-state velocity. A wide variety of dynamic motor behavior are obtained from this simple model. For the particular case of free-load translocation being the most unfavorable step within the hydrolysis cycle, the load-velocity curve is quasi-linear, V/Vmax = (cF/Fmax-c)/(1-c), in contrast to the hyperbolic relationship proposed by A.V. Hill for macroscopic muscle. Significant deviation from the linearity is expected when the velocity is less than 10% of its maximal (free-load) value--a situation under which the processivity of motor diminishes and experimental observations are less certain. We then investigate the dependence of load-velocity curve on ATP (ADP) concentration. It is shown that the free load Vmax exhibits a Michaelis-Menten like behavior, and the isometric Fmax increases linearly with ln([ATP]/[ADP]). However, the quasi-linear region is independent of the ATP concentration, yielding an apparently ATP-independent maximal force below the true isometric force. Finally, the heat production as a function of ATP concentration and external load are calculated. In simple terms and solved with elementary algebra, the present model provides an integrated picture of biochemical kinetics and mechanical energetics of motor proteins.

  6. Myosin-5, kinesin-1 and myosin-17 cooperate in secretion of fungal chitin synthase.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Martin; Treitschke, Steffi; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Molloy, Justin; Harmer, Nicholas J; Steinberg, Gero

    2012-01-04

    Plant infection by pathogenic fungi requires polarized secretion of enzymes, but little is known about the delivery pathways. Here, we investigate the secretion of cell wall-forming chitin synthases (CHSs) in the corn pathogen Ustilago maydis. We show that peripheral filamentous actin (F-actin) and central microtubules (MTs) form independent tracks for CHSs delivery and both cooperate in cell morphogenesis. The enzyme Mcs1, a CHS that contains a myosin-17 motor domain, is travelling along both MTs and F-actin. This transport is independent of kinesin-3, but mediated by kinesin-1 and myosin-5. Arriving vesicles pause beneath the plasma membrane, but only ~15% of them get exocytosed and the majority is returned to the cell centre by the motor dynein. Successful exocytosis at the cell tip and, to a lesser extent at the lateral parts of the cell requires the motor domain of Mcs1, which captures and tethers the vesicles prior to secretion. Consistently, Mcs1-bound vesicles transiently bind F-actin but show no motility in vitro. Thus, kinesin-1, myosin-5 and dynein mediate bi-directional motility, whereas myosin-17 introduces a symmetry break that allows polarized secretion.

  7. Association of myosin I alpha with endosomes and lysosomes in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Raposo, G; Cordonnier, M N; Tenza, D; Menichi, B; Dürrbach, A; Louvard, D; Coudrier, E

    1999-05-01

    Myosin Is, which constitute a ubiquitous monomeric subclass of myosins with actin-based motor properties, are associated with plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles. Myosin Is have been proposed as key players for membrane trafficking in endocytosis or exocytosis. In the present paper we provide biochemical and immunoelectron microscopic evidence indicating that a pool of myosin I alpha (MMIalpha) is associated with endosomes and lysosomes. We show that the overproduction of MMIalpha or the production of nonfunctional truncated MMIalpha affects the distribution of the endocytic compartments. We also show that truncated brush border myosin I proteins, myosin Is that share 78% homology with MMIalpha, promote the dissociation of MMIalpha from vesicular membranes derived from endocytic compartments. The analysis at the ultrastructural level of cells producing these brush border myosin I truncated proteins shows that the delivery of the fluid phase markers from endosomes to lysosomes is impaired. MMIalpha might therefore be involved in membrane trafficking occurring between endosomes and lysosomes.

  8. Association of Myosin I Alpha with Endosomes and Lysosomes in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Raposo, Graça; Cordonnier, Marie-Neige; Tenza, Danièle; Menichi, Bernadette; Dürrbach, Antoine; Louvard, Daniel; Coudrier, Evelyne

    1999-01-01

    Myosin Is, which constitute a ubiquitous monomeric subclass of myosins with actin-based motor properties, are associated with plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles. Myosin Is have been proposed as key players for membrane trafficking in endocytosis or exocytosis. In the present paper we provide biochemical and immunoelectron microscopic evidence indicating that a pool of myosin I alpha (MMIα) is associated with endosomes and lysosomes. We show that the overproduction of MMIα or the production of nonfunctional truncated MMIα affects the distribution of the endocytic compartments. We also show that truncated brush border myosin I proteins, myosin Is that share 78% homology with MMIα, promote the dissociation of MMIα from vesicular membranes derived from endocytic compartments. The analysis at the ultrastructural level of cells producing these brush border myosin I truncated proteins shows that the delivery of the fluid phase markers from endosomes to lysosomes is impaired. MMIα might therefore be involved in membrane trafficking occurring between endosomes and lysosomes. PMID:10233157

  9. Myosin superfamily: The multi-functional and irreplaceable factors in spermatogenesis and testicular tumors.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Ruide; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2016-01-15

    Spermatogenesis is a fundamental process in sexual development and reproduction, in which the diploid spermatogonia transform into haploid mature spermatozoa. This process is under the regulation of multiple factors and pathway. Myosin has been implicated in various aspects during spermatogenesis. Myosins constitute a diverse superfamily of actin-based molecular motors that translocate along microfilament in an ATP-dependent manner, and six kinds of myosins have been proved that function during spermatogenesis. In mitosis and meiosis, myosins play an important role in spindle assembly and positioning, karyokinesis and cytokinesis. During spermiogenesis, myosins participate in acrosomal formation, nuclear morphogenesis, mitochondrial translocation and spermatid individualization. In this review, we summarize current understanding of the functions of myosin in spermatogenesis and some reproductive system diseases such as testicular tumors and prostate cancer, and discuss the roles of possible upstream molecules which regulate myosin in these processes.

  10. Coiled coils and SAH domains in cytoskeletal molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Peckham, Michelle

    2011-10-01

    Cytoskeletal motors include myosins, kinesins and dyneins. Myosins move along tracks of actin filaments, whereas kinesins and dyneins move along microtubules. Many of these motors are involved in trafficking cargo in cells. However, myosins are mostly monomeric, whereas kinesins are mostly dimeric, owing to the presence of a coiled coil. Some myosins (myosins 6, 7 and 10) contain an SAH (single α-helical) domain, which was originally thought to be a coiled coil. These myosins are now known to be monomers, not dimers. The differences between SAH domains and coiled coils are described and the potential roles of SAH domains in molecular motors are discussed.

  11. Unidirectional Brownian motion observed in an in silico single molecule experiment of an actomyosin motor

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Mitsunori; Terada, Tomoki P.; Sasai, Masaki

    2010-01-01

    The actomyosin molecular motor, the motor composed of myosin II and actin filament, is responsible for muscle contraction, converting chemical energy into mechanical work. Although recent single molecule and structural studies have shed new light on the energy-converting mechanism, the physical basis of the molecular-level mechanism remains unclear because of the experimental limitations. To provide a clue to resolve the controversy between the lever-arm mechanism and the Brownian ratchet-like mechanism, we here report an in silico single molecule experiment of an actomyosin motor. When we placed myosin on an actin filament and allowed myosin to move along the filament, we found that myosin exhibits a unidirectional Brownian motion along the filament. This unidirectionality was found to arise from the combination of a nonequilibrium condition realized by coupling to the ATP hydrolysis and a ratchet-like energy landscape inherent in the actin-myosin interaction along the filament, indicating that a Brownian ratchet-like mechanism contributes substantially to the energy conversion of this molecular motor. PMID:20385833

  12. Differential signalling by muscarinic receptors in smooth muscle: m2-mediated inactivation of myosin light chain kinase via Gi3, Cdc42/Rac1 and p21-activated kinase 1 pathway, and m3-mediated MLC20 (20 kDa regulatory light chain of myosin II) phosphorylation via Rho-associated kinase/myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 and protein kinase C/CPI-17 pathway.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Karnam S; Zhou, Huiping; Grider, John R; Brautigan, David L; Eto, Masumi; Makhlouf, Gabriel M

    2003-08-15

    Signalling via m3 and m2 receptors in smooth muscles involved activation of two G-protein-dependent pathways by each receptor. m2 receptors were coupled via Gbetagammai3 with activation of phospholipase C-beta3, phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Cdc42/Rac1 (where Cdc stands for cell division cycle) and p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), resulting in phosphorylation and inactivation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Each step was inhibited by methoctramine and pertussis toxin. PAK1 activity was abolished in cells expressing both Cdc42-DN (where DN stands for dominant negative) and Rac1-DN. MLCK phosphorylation was inhibited by PAK1 antibody, and in cells expressing Cdc42-DN and Rac1-DN. m3 receptors were coupled via Galpha(q/11) with activation of phospholipase C-beta1 and via RhoA with activation of Rho-associated kinase (Rho kinase), phospholipase D and protein kinase C (PKC). Rho kinase and phospholipase D activities were inhibited by C3 exoenzyme and in cells expressing RhoA-DN. PKC activity was inhibited by bisindolylmaleimide, and in cells expressing RhoA-DN; PKC activity was also inhibited partly by Y27632 (44+/-5%). PKC-induced phosphorylation of PKC-activated 17 kDa inhibitor protein of type 1 phosphatase (CPI-17) at Thr38 was abolished by bisindolylmaleimide and inhibited partly by Y27632 (28+/-3%). Rho-kinase-induced phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase targeting subunit (MYPT1) and was abolished by Y27632. Sustained phosphorylation of 20 kDa regulatory light chain of myosin II (MLC20) and contraction were abolished by bisindolylmaleimide Y27632 and C3 exoenzyme and in cells expressing RhoA-DN. The results suggest that Rho-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of MYPT1 and PKC-dependent phosphorylation and enhancement of CPI-17 binding to the catalytic subunit of MLC phosphatase (MLCP) act co-operatively to inhibit MLCP activity, leading to sustained stimulation of MLC20 phosphorylation and contraction. Because Y27632 inhibited both Rho kinase and PKC activities

  13. Differential signalling by muscarinic receptors in smooth muscle: m2-mediated inactivation of myosin light chain kinase via Gi3, Cdc42/Rac1 and p21-activated kinase 1 pathway, and m3-mediated MLC20 (20 kDa regulatory light chain of myosin II) phosphorylation via Rho-associated kinase/myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 and protein kinase C/CPI-17 pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Karnam S; Zhou, Huiping; Grider, John R; Brautigan, David L; Eto, Masumi; Makhlouf, Gabriel M

    2003-01-01

    Signalling via m3 and m2 receptors in smooth muscles involved activation of two G-protein-dependent pathways by each receptor. m2 receptors were coupled via Gbetagammai3 with activation of phospholipase C-beta3, phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Cdc42/Rac1 (where Cdc stands for cell division cycle) and p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), resulting in phosphorylation and inactivation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Each step was inhibited by methoctramine and pertussis toxin. PAK1 activity was abolished in cells expressing both Cdc42-DN (where DN stands for dominant negative) and Rac1-DN. MLCK phosphorylation was inhibited by PAK1 antibody, and in cells expressing Cdc42-DN and Rac1-DN. m3 receptors were coupled via Galpha(q/11) with activation of phospholipase C-beta1 and via RhoA with activation of Rho-associated kinase (Rho kinase), phospholipase D and protein kinase C (PKC). Rho kinase and phospholipase D activities were inhibited by C3 exoenzyme and in cells expressing RhoA-DN. PKC activity was inhibited by bisindolylmaleimide, and in cells expressing RhoA-DN; PKC activity was also inhibited partly by Y27632 (44+/-5%). PKC-induced phosphorylation of PKC-activated 17 kDa inhibitor protein of type 1 phosphatase (CPI-17) at Thr38 was abolished by bisindolylmaleimide and inhibited partly by Y27632 (28+/-3%). Rho-kinase-induced phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase targeting subunit (MYPT1) and was abolished by Y27632. Sustained phosphorylation of 20 kDa regulatory light chain of myosin II (MLC20) and contraction were abolished by bisindolylmaleimide Y27632 and C3 exoenzyme and in cells expressing RhoA-DN. The results suggest that Rho-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of MYPT1 and PKC-dependent phosphorylation and enhancement of CPI-17 binding to the catalytic subunit of MLC phosphatase (MLCP) act co-operatively to inhibit MLCP activity, leading to sustained stimulation of MLC20 phosphorylation and contraction. Because Y27632 inhibited both Rho kinase and PKC activities

  14. Myosin 18A coassembles with nonmuscle myosin 2 to form mixed bipolar filaments.

    PubMed

    Billington, Neil; Beach, Jordan R; Heissler, Sarah M; Remmert, Kirsten; Guzik-Lendrum, Stephanie; Nagy, Attila; Takagi, Yasuharu; Shao, Lin; Li, Dong; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Yingfan; Barzik, Melanie; Betzig, Eric; Hammer, John A; Sellers, James R

    2015-03-30

    Class-18 myosins are most closely related to conventional class-2 nonmuscle myosins (NM2). Surprisingly, the purified head domains of Drosophila, mouse, and human myosin 18A (M18A) lack actin-activated ATPase activity and the ability to translocate actin filaments, suggesting that the functions of M18A in vivo do not depend on intrinsic motor activity. M18A has the longest coiled coil of any myosin outside of the class-2 myosins, suggesting that it might form bipolar filaments similar to conventional myosins. To address this possibility, we expressed and purified full-length mouse M18A using the baculovirus/Sf9 system. M18A did not form large bipolar filaments under any of the conditions tested. Instead, M18A formed an ∼ 65-nm-long bipolar structure with two heads at each end. Importantly, when NM2 was polymerized in the presence of M18A, the two myosins formed mixed bipolar filaments, as evidenced by cosedimentation, electron microscopy, and single-molecule imaging. Moreover, super-resolution imaging of NM2 and M18A using fluorescently tagged proteins and immunostaining of endogenous proteins showed that NM2 and M18A are present together within individual filaments inside living cells. Together, our in vitro and live-cell imaging data argue strongly that M18A coassembles with NM2 into mixed bipolar filaments. M18A could regulate the biophysical properties of these filaments and, by virtue of its extra N- and C-terminal domains, determine the localization and/or molecular interactions of the filaments. Given the numerous, fundamental cellular and developmental roles attributed to NM2, our results have far-reaching biological implications.

  15. Cytoplasmic myosin from Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Myosin is identified and purified from three different established Drosophila melanogaster cell lines (Schneider's lines 2 and 3 and Kc). Purification entails lysis in a low salt, sucrose buffer that contains ATP, chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, precipitation with actin in the absence of ATP, gel filtration in a discontinuous KI-KCl buffer system, and hydroxylapatite chromatography. Yield of pure cytoplasmic myosin is 5-10%. This protein is identified as myosin by its cross-reactivity with two monoclonal antibodies against human platelet myosin, the molecular weight of its heavy chain, its two light chains, its behavior on gel filtration, its ATP-dependent affinity for actin, its characteristic ATPase activity, its molecular morphology as demonstrated by platinum shadowing, and its ability to form bipolar filaments. The molecular weight of the cytoplasmic myosin's light chains and peptide mapping and immunochemical analysis of its heavy chains demonstrate that this myosin, purified from Drosophila cell lines, is distinct from Drosophila muscle myosin. Two-dimensional thin layer maps of complete proteolytic digests of iodinated muscle and cytoplasmic myosin heavy chains demonstrate that, while the two myosins have some tryptic and alpha-chymotryptic peptides in common, most peptides migrate with unique mobility. One-dimensional peptide maps of SDS PAGE purified myosin heavy chain confirm these structural data. Polyclonal antiserum raised and reacted against Drosophila myosin isolated from cell lines cross-reacts only weakly with Drosophila muscle myosin isolated from the thoraces of adult Drosophila. Polyclonal antiserum raised against Drosophila muscle myosin behaves in a reciprocal fashion. Taken together our data suggest that the myosin purified from Drosophila cell lines is a bona fide cytoplasmic myosin and is very likely the product of a different myosin gene than the muscle myosin heavy chain gene that has been previously identified and characterized. PMID

  16. Interactions of actin, myosin, and a new actin-binding protein of rabbit pulmonary macrophages. II. Role in cytoplasmic movement and phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Stossel, T P; Hartwig, J H

    1976-03-01

    Actin and myosin of rabbit pulmonary macrophages are influenced by two other proteins. A protein cofactor is required for the actin activation of macrophage myosin Mg2 ATPase activity, and a high molecular weight actin-binding protein aggregates actin filaments (Stossel T.P., and J.H. Hartwig. 1975. J. Biol. Chem. 250:5706-5711)9 When warmed in 0.34 M sucrose solution containing Mg2-ATP and dithiothreitol, these four proteins interact cooperatively. Acin-binding protein in the presence of actin causes the actin to form a gel, which liquifies when cooled. The myosin contracts the gel into an aggregate, and the rate of aggregation is accelerated by the cofactor. Therefore, we believe that these four proteins also effec the temperature-dependent gelation and aggregation of crude sucrose extracts pulmonary macrophages containing Mg2-ATP and dithiothreitol. The gelled extracts are composed of tangled filaments. Relative to homogenates of resting macrophages, the distribution of actin-binding protein in homogenates of phagocytizing macrophages is altered such that 2-6 times more actin-binding protein is soluble. Sucrose extracts of phagocytizing macrophages gel more rapidly than extracts of resting macrophages. Phagocytosis by pulmonary macrophages involves the formation of peripheral pseudopods containing filaments. The findings suggest that the actin-binding protein initiates a cooperative interaction of contractile proteins to generate cytoplasmic gelation, and that phagocytosis influences the behavior of the actin-binding protein.

  17. Myosin light chain kinase-regulated endothelial cell contraction: the relationship between isometric tension, actin polymerization, and myosin phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The phosphorylation of regulatory myosin light chains by the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent enzyme myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) has been shown to be essential and sufficient for initiation of endothelial cell retraction in saponin permeabilized monolayers (Wysolmerski, R. B. and D. Lagunoff. 1990. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 87:16-20). We now report the effects of thrombin stimulation on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVE) actin, myosin II and the functional correlate of the activated actomyosin based contractile system, isometric tension development. Using a newly designed isometric tension apparatus, we recorded quantitative changes in isometric tension from paired monolayers. Thrombin stimulation results in a rapid sustained isometric contraction that increases 2- to 2.5-fold within 5 min and remains elevated for at least 60 min. The phosphorylatable myosin light chains from HUVE were found to exist as two isoforms, differing in their molecular weights and isoelectric points. Resting isometric tension is associated with a basal phosphorylation of 0.54 mol PO4/mol myosin light chain. After thrombin treatment, phosphorylation rapidly increases to 1.61 mol PO4/mol myosin light chain within 60 s and remains elevated for the duration of the experiment. Myosin light chain phosphorylation precedes the development of isometric tension and maximal phosphorylation is maintained during the sustained phase of isometric contraction. Tryptic phosphopeptide maps from both control and thrombin-stimulated cultures resolve both monophosphorylated Ser-19 and diphosphorylated Ser-19/Thr-18 peptides indicative of MLCK activation. Changes in the polymerization of actin and association of myosin II correlate temporally with the phosphorylation of myosin II and development of isometric tension. Activation results in a 57% increase in F-actin content within 90 s and 90% of the soluble myosin II associates with the reorganizing F-actin. Furthermore, the disposition of actin and

  18. Structural and molecular conformation of myosin in intact muscle fibers by second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nucciotti, V.; Stringari, C.; Sacconi, L.; Vanzi, F.; Linari, M.; Piazzesi, G.; Lombardi, V.; Pavone, F. S.

    2009-02-01

    Recently, the use of Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) for imaging biological samples has been explored with regard to intrinsic SHG in highly ordered biological samples. As shown by fractional extraction of proteins, myosin is the source of SHG signal in skeletal muscle. SHG is highly dependent on symmetries and provides selective information on the structural order and orientation of the emitting proteins and the dynamics of myosin molecules responsible for the mechano-chemical transduction during contraction. We characterise the polarization-dependence of SHG intensity in three different physiological states: resting, rigor and isometric tetanic contraction in a sarcomere length range between 2.0 μm and 4.0 μm. The orientation of motor domains of the myosin molecules is dependent on their physiological states and modulate the SHG signal. We can discriminate the orientation of the emitting dipoles in four different molecular conformations of myosin heads in intact fibers during isometric contraction, in resting and rigor. We estimate the contribution of the myosin motor domain to the total second order bulk susceptibility from its molecular structure and its functional conformation. We demonstrate that SHG is sensitive to the fraction of ordered myosin heads by disrupting the order of myosin heads in rigor with an ATP analog. We estimate the fraction of myosin motors generating the isometric force in the active muscle fiber from the dependence of the SHG modulation on the degree of overlap between actin and myosin filaments during an isometric contraction.

  19. Discovery of myosin genes by physical mapping in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed Central

    Titus, M A; Kuspa, A; Loomis, W F

    1994-01-01

    The diversity of the myosin family in a single organism, Dictyostelium discoideum, has been investigated by a strategy devised to rapidly identify and clone additional members of a gene family. An ordered array of yeast artificial chromosome clones that encompasses the Dictyostelium genome was probed at low stringency with conserved regions of the myosin motor domain to identify all possible myosin loci. The previously identified myosin loci (mchA, myoA-E) were detected by hybridization to the probes, as well as an additional seven previously unidentified loci (referred to as myoF-L). Clones corresponding to four of these additional loci (myoF, myoH-J) were obtained by using the isolated yeast artificial chromosomes as templates in a PCR employing degenerate primers specific for conserved regions of the myosin head. Sequence analysis and physical mapping of these clones confirm that these PCR products are derived from four previously unidentified myosin genes. Preliminary analysis of these sequences suggests that at least one of the genes (myoJ) encodes a member of a potentially different class of myosins. With the development of whole genome libraries for a variety of organisms, this approach can be used to rapidly explore the diversity of this and other gene families in a number of systems. PMID:7937787

  20. Myosin-10 independently influences mitotic spindle structure and mitotic progression.

    PubMed

    Sandquist, Joshua C; Larson, Matthew E; Hine, Ken J

    2016-06-01

    The iconic bipolar structure of the mitotic spindle is of extreme importance to proper spindle function. At best, spindle abnormalities result in a delayed mitosis, while worse outcomes include cell death or disease. Recent work has uncovered an important role for the actin-based motor protein myosin-10 in the regulation of spindle structure and function. Here we examine the contribution of the myosin tail homology 4 (MyTH4) domain of the myosin-10 tail to the protein's spindle functions. The MyTH4 domain is known to mediate binding to microtubules and we verify the suspicion that this domain contributes to myosin-10's close association with the spindle. More surprisingly, our data demonstrate that some but not all of myosin-10's spindle functions require microtubule binding. In particular, myosin-10's contribution to spindle pole integrity requires microtubule binding, whereas its contribution to normal mitotic progression does not. This is demonstrated by the observation that dominant negative expression of the wild-type MyTH4 domain produces multipolar spindles and an increased mitotic index, whereas overexpression of a version of the MyTH4 domain harboring point mutations that abrogate microtubule binding results in only the mitotic index phenotype. Our data suggest that myosin-10 helps to control the metaphase to anaphase transition in cells independent of microtubule binding. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Structure of androcam supports specialized interactions with myosin VI

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Mehul K.; Moran, Sean; Beckingham, Kathleen M.; MacKenzie, Kevin R.

    2012-01-01

    Androcam replaces calmodulin as a tissue-specific myosin VI light chain on the actin cones that mediate D. melanogaster spermatid individualization. We show that the androcam structure and its binding to the myosin VI structural (Insert 2) and regulatory (IQ) light chain sites are distinct from those of calmodulin and provide a basis for specialized myosin VI function. The androcam N lobe noncanonically binds a single Ca2+ and is locked in a “closed” conformation, causing androcam to contact the Insert 2 site with its C lobe only. Androcam replacing calmodulin at Insert 2 will increase myosin VI lever arm flexibility, which may favor the compact monomeric form of myosin VI that functions on the actin cones by facilitating the collapse of the C-terminal region onto the motor domain. The tethered androcam N lobe could stabilize the monomer through contacts with C-terminal portions of the motor or recruit other components to the actin cones. Androcam binds the IQ site at all calcium levels, constitutively mimicking a conformation adopted by calmodulin only at intermediate calcium levels. Thus, androcam replacing calmodulin at IQ will abolish a Ca2+-regulated, calmodulin-mediated myosin VI structural change. We propose that the N lobe prevents androcam from interfering with other calmodulin-mediated Ca2+ signaling events. We discuss how gene duplication and mutations that selectively stabilize one of the many conformations available to calmodulin support the molecular evolution of structurally and functionally distinct calmodulin-like proteins. PMID:22851764

  2. Self-organization of actin networks by a monomeric myosin

    PubMed Central

    Saczko-Brack, Dario; Warchol, Ewa; Rogez, Benoit; Kröss, Markus; Heissler, Sarah M.; Sellers, James R.; Batters, Christopher; Veigel, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The organization of actomyosin networks lies at the center of many types of cellular motility, including cell polarization and collective cell migration during development and morphogenesis. Myosin-IXa is critically involved in these processes. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we resolved actin bundles assembled by myosin-IXa. Electron microscopic data revealed that the bundles consisted of highly ordered lattices with parallel actin polarity. The myosin-IXa motor domains aligned across the network, forming cross-links at a repeat distance of precisely 36 nm, matching the helical repeat of actin. Single-particle image processing resolved three distinct conformations of myosin-IXa in the absence of nucleotide. Using cross-correlation of a modeled actomyosin crystal structure, we identified sites of additional mass, which can only be accounted for by the large insert in loop 2 exclusively found in the motor domain of class IX myosins. We show that the large insert in loop 2 binds calmodulin and creates two coordinated actin-binding sites that constrain the actomyosin interactions generating the actin lattices. The actin lattices introduce orientated tracks at specific sites in the cell, which might install platforms allowing Rho-GTPase–activating protein (RhoGAP) activity to be focused at a definite locus. In addition, the lattices might introduce a myosin-related, force-sensing mechanism into the cytoskeleton in cell polarization and collective cell migration. PMID:27956608

  3. Complete nucleotide sequence and deduced polypeptide sequence of a nonmuscle myosin heavy chain gene from Acanthamoeba: evidence of a hinge in the rodlike tail

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    We have completely sequenced a gene encoding the heavy chain of myosin II, a nonmuscle myosin from the soil ameba Acanthamoeba castellanii. The gene spans 6 kb, is split by three small introns, and encodes a 1,509-residue heavy chain polypeptide. The positions of the three introns are largely conserved relative to characterized vertebrate and invertebrate muscle myosin genes. The deduced myosin II globular head amino acid sequence shows a high degree of similarity with the globular head sequences of the rat embryonic skeletal muscle and nematode unc 54 muscle myosins. By contrast, there is no unique way to align the deduced myosin II rod amino acid sequence with the rod sequence of these muscle myosins. Nevertheless, the periodicities of hydrophobic and charged residues in the myosin II rod sequence, which dictate the coiled-coil structure of the rod and its associations within the myosin filament, are very similar to those of the muscle myosins. We conclude that this ameba nonmuscle myosin shares with the muscle myosins of vertebrates and invertebrates an ancestral heavy chain gene. The low level of direct sequence similarity between the rod sequences of myosin II and muscle myosins probably reflects a general tolerance for residue changes in the rod domain (as long as the periodicities of hydrophobic and charged residues are largely maintained), the relative evolutionary "ages" of these myosins, and specific differences between the filament properties of myosin II and muscle myosins. Finally, sequence analysis and electron microscopy reveal the presence within the myosin II rodlike tail of a well-defined hinge region where sharp bending can occur. We speculate that this hinge may play a key role in mediating the effect of heavy chain phosphorylation on enzymatic activity. PMID:3040773

  4. Antibodies Covalently Immobilized on Actin Filaments for Fast Myosin Driven Analyte Transport

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Saroj; ten Siethoff, Lasse; Persson, Malin; Lard, Mercy; te Kronnie, Geertruy; Linke, Heiner; Månsson, Alf

    2012-01-01

    Biosensors would benefit from further miniaturization, increased detection rate and independence from external pumps and other bulky equipment. Whereas transportation systems built around molecular motors and cytoskeletal filaments hold significant promise in the latter regard, recent proof-of-principle devices based on the microtubule-kinesin motor system have not matched the speed of existing methods. An attractive solution to overcome this limitation would be the use of myosin driven propulsion of actin filaments which offers motility one order of magnitude faster than the kinesin-microtubule system. Here, we realized a necessary requirement for the use of the actomyosin system in biosensing devices, namely covalent attachment of antibodies to actin filaments using heterobifunctional cross-linkers. We also demonstrated consistent and rapid myosin II driven transport where velocity and the fraction of motile actin filaments was negligibly affected by the presence of antibody-antigen complexes at rather high density (>20 µm−1). The results, however, also demonstrated that it was challenging to consistently achieve high density of functional antibodies along the actin filament, and optimization of the covalent coupling procedure to increase labeling density should be a major focus for future work. Despite the remaining challenges, the reported advances are important steps towards considerably faster nanoseparation than shown for previous molecular motor based devices, and enhanced miniaturization because of high bending flexibility of actin filaments. PMID:23056279

  5. Ca(2+)-dependent phosphorylation of the tail domain of myosin-V, a calmodulin-binding myosin in vertebrate brain.

    PubMed

    Coelho, M V; Larson, R E

    1993-05-01

    1. Myosin-V from vertebrate brain is a novel molecular motor with a myosin-like head domain, a calmodulin-binding neck region and a unique tail domain of unknown function. Previous studies showed brain myosin-V to be a phosphoprotein substrate for Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase associated with actomyosin. In the present study we describe the preparation of a specific actin-cytoskeletal fraction which is enriched in brain myosin-V. 2. We show that Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity is also associated with this preparation and phosphorylates brain myosin-V. 3. Calpain, a Ca(2+)-dependent protease, generates a M(r) 80,000 fragment from the COOH terminal region of brain myosin-V containing most or all of the phosphorylation sites. 4. These results suggest that the unique tail domain of this novel myosin is subject to Ca2+ control via phosphorylation by kinase activity associated with the actin cytoskeleton.

  6. Still and rotating myosin clusters determine cytokinetic ring constriction

    PubMed Central

    Wollrab, Viktoria; Thiagarajan, Raghavan; Wald, Anne; Kruse, Karsten; Riveline, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The cytokinetic ring is essential for separating daughter cells during division. It consists of actin filaments and myosin motors that are generally assumed to organize as sarcomeres similar to skeletal muscles. However, direct evidence is lacking. Here we show that the internal organization and dynamics of rings are different from sarcomeres and distinct in different cell types. Using micro-cavities to orient rings in single focal planes, we find in mammalian cells a transition from a homogeneous distribution to a periodic pattern of myosin clusters at the onset of constriction. In contrast, in fission yeast, myosin clusters rotate prior to and during constriction. Theoretical analysis indicates that both patterns result from acto-myosin self-organization and reveals differences in the respective stresses. These findings suggest distinct functional roles for rings: contraction in mammalian cells and transport in fission yeast. Thus self-organization under different conditions may be a generic feature for regulating morphogenesis in vivo. PMID:27363521

  7. My oh my(osin): Insights into how auditory hair cells count, measure, and shape

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Lana M.; Chou, Shih-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying mechanosensory hair bundle formation in auditory sensory cells are largely mysterious. In this issue, Lelli et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201509017) reveal that a pair of molecular motors, myosin IIIa and myosin IIIb, is involved in the hair bundle’s morphology and hearing. PMID:26754648

  8. Human nonsyndromic hereditary deafness DFNA17 is due to a mutation in nonmuscle myosin MYH9.

    PubMed

    Lalwani, A K; Goldstein, J A; Kelley, M J; Luxford, W; Castelein, C M; Mhatre, A N

    2000-11-01

    The authors had previously mapped a new locus-DFNA17, for nonsyndromic hereditary hearing impairment-to chromosome 22q12.2-q13. 3. DFNA17 spans a 17- to 23-cM region, and MYH9, a nonmuscle-myosin heavy-chain gene, is located within the linked region. Because of the importance of myosins in hearing, MYH9 was tested as a candidate gene for DFNA17. Expression of MYH9 in the rat cochlea was confirmed using reverse transcriptase-PCR and immunohistochemistry. MYH9 was immunolocalized in the organ of Corti, the subcentral region of the spiral ligament, and the Reissner membrane. Sequence analysis of MYH9 in a family with DFNA17 identified, at nucleotide 2114, a G-->A transposition that cosegregated with the inherited autosomal dominant hearing impairment. This missense mutation changes codon 705 from an invariant arginine (R) to histidine (H), R705H, within a highly conserved SH1 linker region. Previous studies have shown that modification of amino acid residues within the SH1 helix causes dysfunction of the ATPase activity of the motor domain in myosin II. Both the precise role of MYH9 in the cochlea and the mechanism by which the R705H mutation leads to the DFNA17 phenotype (progressive hearing impairment and cochleosaccular degeneration) remain to be elucidated.

  9. Widespread mRNA Association with Cytoskeletal Motor Proteins and Identification and Dynamics of Myosin-Associated mRNAs in S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Casolari, Jason M.; Thompson, Michael A.; Salzman, Julia; Champion, Lowry M.; Moerner, W. E.; Brown, Patrick O.

    2012-01-01

    Programmed mRNA localization to specific subcellular compartments for localized translation is a fundamental mechanism of post-transcriptional regulation that affects many, and possibly all, mRNAs in eukaryotes. We describe her e a systematic approach to identify the RNA cargoes associated with the cytoskeletal motor proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in combination with live-cell 3D super-localization microscopy of endogenously tagged mRNAs. Our analysis identified widespread association of mRNAs with cytoskeletal motor proteins, including association of Myo3 with mRNAs encoding key regulators of actin branching and endocytosis such as WASP and WIP. Using conventional fluorescence microscopy and expression of MS2-tagged mRNAs from endogenous loci, we observed a strong bias for actin patch nucleator mRNAs to localize to the cell cortex and the actin patch in a Myo3- and F-actin dependent manner. Use of a double-helix point spread function (DH-PSF) microscope allowed super-localization measurements of single mRNPs at a spatial precision of 25 nm in x and y and 50 nm in z in live cells with 50 ms exposure times, allowing quantitative profiling of mRNP dynamics. The actin patch mRNA exhibited distinct and characteristic diffusion coefficients when compared to a control mRNA. In addition, disruption of F-actin significantly expanded the 3D confinement radius of an actin patch nucleator mRNA, providing a quantitative assessment of the contribution of the actin cytoskeleton to mRNP dynamic localization. Our results provide evidence for specific association of mRNAs with cytoskeletal motor proteins in yeast, suggest that different mRNPs have distinct and characteristic dynamics, and lend insight into the mechanism of actin patch nucleator mRNA localization to actin patches. PMID:22359641

  10. The globular tail domain puts on the brake to stop the ATPase cycle of myosin Va

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang-dong; Jung, Hyun Suk; Wang, Qizhi; Ikebe, Reiko; Craig, Roger; Ikebe, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    Myosin Va is a well known processive motor involved in transport of organelles. A tail-inhibition model is generally accepted for the regulation of myosin Va: inhibited myosin Va is in a folded conformation such that the tail domain interacts with and inhibits myosin Va motor activity. Recent studies indicate that it is the C-terminal globular tail domain (GTD) that directly inhibits the motor activity of myosin Va. In the present study, we identified a conserved acidic residue in the motor domain (Asp-136) and two conserved basic residues in the GTD (Lys-1706 and Lys-1779) as critical residues for this regulation. Alanine mutations of these conserved charged residues not only abolished the inhibition of motor activity by the GTD but also prevented myosin Va from forming a folded conformation. We propose that Asp-136 forms ionic interactions with Lys-1706 and Lys-1779. This assignment locates the GTD-binding site in a pocket of the motor domain, formed by the N-terminal domain, converter, and the calmodulin in the first IQ motif. We propose that binding of the GTD to the motor domain prevents the movement of the converter/lever arm during ATP hydrolysis cycle, thus inhibiting the chemical cycle of the motor domain. PMID:18216256

  11. Molecular dynamics simulation of a myosin subfragment-1 docking with an actin filament.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Tadashi

    2013-09-01

    Myosins are typical molecular motor proteins, which convert the chemical energy of ATP into mechanical work. The fundamental mechanism of this energy conversion is still unknown. To explain the experimental results observed in molecular motors, Masuda has proposed a theory called the "Driven by Detachment (DbD)" mechanism for the working principle of myosins. Based on this theory, the energy used during the power stroke of the myosins originates from the attractive force between a detached myosin head and an actin filament, and does not directly arise from the energy of ATP. According to this theory, every step in the myosin working process may be reproduced by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, except for the ATP hydrolysis step. Therefore, MD simulations were conducted to reproduce the docking process of a myosin subfragment-1 (S1) against an actin filament. A myosin S1 directed toward the barbed end of an actin filament was placed at three different positions by shifting it away from the filament axis. After 30 ns of MD simulations, in three cases out of ten trials on average, the myosin made a close contact with two actin monomers by changing the positions and the orientation of both the myosin and the actin as predicted in previous studies. Once the docking was achieved, the distance between the myosin and the actin showed smaller fluctuations, indicating that the docking is stable over time. If the docking was not achieved, the myosin moved randomly around the initial position or moved away from the actin filament. MD simulations thus successfully reproduced the docking of a myosin S1 with an actin filament. By extending the similar MD simulations to the other steps of the myosin working process, the validity of the DbD theory may be computationally demonstrated.

  12. In vitro receptor autoradiography reveals angiotensin II (Ang II) binding associated with sensory and motor components of the vagus

    SciTech Connect

    Diz, D.I.; Barnes, K.L.; Ferrario, C.M.

    1986-03-05

    Specific, high affinity Ang II binding in the dog's dorsal medulla is concentrated in the area postrema, nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (dmnX). More recently Ang II binding sites were observed where bundles of vagal afferent fibers enter the dorsal medulla 6 mm rostral to obex and in the nodose ganglia and peripheral vagal nerves. Since Ang II binding in the nTS and dmnX overlies the distribution of vagal afferent fibers and efferent neurons, the effects of nodose ganglionectomy and cervical vagotomy on Ang II binding in the dorsal medulla were studied in rats and dogs using autoradiography after incubation of 14 ..mu..m coronal sections with 0.4 nM /sup 125/I-Ang II. Nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of 1 ..mu..M unlabeled Ang II. Two weeks after unilateral nodose ganglionectomy Ang II binding sites were absent ipsilaterally in the region where vagal afferent fibers enter the dorsal medulla. In the nTS and dmnX, binding near obex was reduced, while more rostrally these nuclei were almost completely devoid of Ang II binding on the denervated side. After cervical vagotomy, the loss of binding was restricted to the ipsilateral dmnX. These data are the first to reveal that Ang II binding in the dorsal medulla requires an intact vagal system.

  13. Phosphate and ADP Differently Inhibit Coordinated Smooth Muscle Myosin Groups

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert, Lennart; Balassy, Zsombor; Zitouni, Nedjma B.; Mackey, Michael C.; Lauzon, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Actin filaments propelled in vitro by groups of skeletal muscle myosin motors exhibit distinct phases of active sliding or arrest, whose occurrence depends on actin length (L) within a range of up to 1.0 μm. Smooth muscle myosin filaments are exponentially distributed with ≈150 nm average length in vivo—suggesting relevance of the L-dependence of myosin group kinetics. Here, we found L-dependent actin arrest and sliding in in vitro motility assays of smooth muscle myosin. We perturbed individual myosin kinetics with varying, physiological concentrations of phosphate (Pi, release associated with main power stroke) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP, release associated with minor mechanical step). Adenosine triphosphate was kept constant at physiological concentration. Increasing [Pi] lowered the fraction of time for which actin was actively sliding, reflected in reduced average sliding velocity (ν) and motile fraction (fmot, fraction of time that filaments are moving); increasing [ADP] increased the fraction of time actively sliding and reduced the velocity while sliding, reflected in reduced ν and increased fmot. We introduced specific Pi and ADP effects on individual myosin kinetics into our recently developed mathematical model of actin propulsion by myosin groups. Simulations matched our experimental observations and described the inhibition of myosin group kinetics. At low [Pi] and [ADP], actin arrest and sliding were reflected by two distinct chemical states of the myosin group. Upon [Pi] increase, the probability of the active state decreased; upon [ADP] increase, the probability of the active state increased, but the active state became increasingly similar to the arrested state. PMID:25650929

  14. Phosphate and ADP differently inhibit coordinated smooth muscle myosin groups.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Lennart; Balassy, Zsombor; Zitouni, Nedjma B; Mackey, Michael C; Lauzon, Anne-Marie

    2015-02-03

    Actin filaments propelled in vitro by groups of skeletal muscle myosin motors exhibit distinct phases of active sliding or arrest, whose occurrence depends on actin length (L) within a range of up to 1.0 μm. Smooth muscle myosin filaments are exponentially distributed with ≈150 nm average length in vivo--suggesting relevance of the L-dependence of myosin group kinetics. Here, we found L-dependent actin arrest and sliding in in vitro motility assays of smooth muscle myosin. We perturbed individual myosin kinetics with varying, physiological concentrations of phosphate (Pi, release associated with main power stroke) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP, release associated with minor mechanical step). Adenosine triphosphate was kept constant at physiological concentration. Increasing [Pi] lowered the fraction of time for which actin was actively sliding, reflected in reduced average sliding velocity (ν) and motile fraction (fmot, fraction of time that filaments are moving); increasing [ADP] increased the fraction of time actively sliding and reduced the velocity while sliding, reflected in reduced ν and increased fmot. We introduced specific Pi and ADP effects on individual myosin kinetics into our recently developed mathematical model of actin propulsion by myosin groups. Simulations matched our experimental observations and described the inhibition of myosin group kinetics. At low [Pi] and [ADP], actin arrest and sliding were reflected by two distinct chemical states of the myosin group. Upon [Pi] increase, the probability of the active state decreased; upon [ADP] increase, the probability of the active state increased, but the active state became increasingly similar to the arrested state.

  15. Comprehensive physical mechanism of two-headed biomotor myosin V.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuzhi; Wang, Zhisong

    2009-12-28

    Two-headed biomotor myosin V autonomously coordinates its two identical heads in fuel consumption and mechanical stepping, so that the dimerized motor as a whole gains the capability of processive, unidirectional movement along cytoskeletal filament. How the dimer-level functions like sustained direction rectification and autonomous coordination emerge out of physical principles poses an outstanding question pertinent to motor protein biology as well as the nascent field of bioinspired nanomotors. Here the comprehensive physical mechanism for myosin V motor is identified by a dimer-level free-energy analysis that is methodologically calibrated against experimental data. A hallmark of the identified mechanism is a mechanically mediated symmetry breaking that occurs at the dimer level and prevails against ubiquitous thermal fluctuations. Another character is the onset of substantial free-energy gaps between major dimer-track binding configurations. The symmetry breaking is the basis for myosin V's directional rectification, and the energy gaps facilitate autonomous head-head coordination. The mechanism explains the experimental finding that myosin V makes ATP-independent consecutive steps under high opposing loads but not under pushing loads. Interestingly, myosin V and another major biomotor kinesin 1 are found to share essentially the same core mechanism but for distinctly different working regimes.

  16. LGM-30B, Stage II Dissected Motors Test Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    Speed Test Test Sm er E Motor SIN (in/min) Date (MO) (psi) (in/in) (psi) 0022135 2.0 79270 196 547.7 0.2251 6313 543.5 0.2509 6786 542.2 0.3000 6648 K...11073 9358 5692 SD - 3669 2366 1953 886 0022788 20 79277 183 1627 870 687 353 1600 870 700 360 1513 820 660 340 X 1580* 853 682 351 SD 60 29 20 10...0022788 77 79277 183 357 233 210 160 350 233 207 157 387 260 233 170 X - 365 242 217 162 SD- 20 16 14 7 0022788 100 79277 183 313 230 197 160 317 233

  17. Central and peripheral cardiovascular, ventilatory, and motor effects of trout urotensin-II in the trout.

    PubMed

    Le Mével, Jean-Claude; Lancien, Frédéric; Mimassi, Nagi; Leprince, Jérôme; Conlon, J Michael; Vaudry, Hubert

    2008-05-01

    Urotensin-II (U-II) was originally considered to be exclusively the product of the caudal neurosecretory system (CNSS) of teleost fish, but it has now been demonstrated that U-II is widely expressed in peripheral tissues and nervous structures of species from lampreys to mammals. However, very little is known regarding the physiological effects of this peptide in its species of origin. In the present review, we summarize the most significant results relating to the cardiovascular, ventilatory, and motor effects of centrally and peripherally administered synthetic trout U-II in our experimental animal model, the unanesthetized trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. In addition, we compare the actions of U-II with those of other neurohormonal peptides, particularly with the actions of urotensin-I, a 41-amino acid residue peptide paralogous to corticotropin-releasing hormone that is co-localized with U-II within neurons of the CNSS.

  18. Roles for kinesin and myosin during cytokinesis.

    PubMed Central

    Hepler, Peter K; Valster, Aline; Molchan, Tasha; Vos, Jan W

    2002-01-01

    Cytokinesis in higher plants involves the phragmoplast, a complex cytoplasmic structure that consists of microtubules (MTs), microfilaments (MFs) and membrane elements. Both MTs and MFs are essential for cell plate formation, although it is not clear which motor proteins are involved. Some candidate processes for motor proteins include transport of Golgi vesicles to the plane of the cell plate and the spatiotemporal organization of the cytoskeletal elements in order to achieve proper deposition and alignment of the cell plate. We have focused on the kinesin-like calmodulin binding protein (KCBP) and, more broadly, on myosins. Using an antibody that constitutively activates KCBP, we find that this MT motor, which is minus-end directed, contributes to the organization of the spindle and phragmoplast MTs. It does not participate in vesicle transport; rather, because of the orientation of the phragmoplast MTs, it is supposed that plus-end kinesins fill this role. Myosins, on the other hand, based on their inhibition with 2,3-butanedione monoxime and 1-(5-iodonaphthalene-1-sulphonyl)-1H-hexahydro-1,4-diazepine (ML-7), are associated with the process of post-mitotic spindle/phragmoplast alignment and with late lateral expansion of the cell plate. They are also not the principal motors involved in vesicle transport. PMID:12079671

  19. Leveraging the membrane-cytoskeleton interface with myosin-1

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Russell E.; Tyska, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    Class 1 myosins are small motor proteins with the ability to simultaneously bind to actin filaments and cellular membranes. Given their ability to generate mechanical force, and their high prevalence in many cell types, these molecules are well positioned to carry out a number of important biological functions at the interface of membrane and the actin cytoskeleton. Indeed, recent studies implicate these motors in endocytosis, exocytosis, release of extracellular vesicles, and the regulation of tension between membrane and the cytoskeleton. Many class 1 myosins also exhibit a load-dependent mechano-chemical cycle that enables them to maintain tension for long periods of time without hydrolyzing ATP. These properties put myosins-1 in a unique position to regulate dynamic membrane-cytoskeleton interactions and respond to physical forces during these events. PMID:20471271

  20. Non-muscle myosins in tumor progression, cancer cell invasion and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ouderkirk, J. L.; Krendel, M.

    2014-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton, which regulates cell polarity, adhesion, and migration, can influence cancer progression, including initial acquisition of malignant properties by normal cells, invasion of adjacent tissues, and metastasis to distant sites. Actin-dependent molecular motors, myosins, play key roles in regulating tumor progression and metastasis. In this review, we examine how non-muscle myosins regulate neoplastic transformation and cancer cell migration and invasion. Members of the myosin superfamily can act as either enhancers or suppressors of tumor progression. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on how mutations or epigenetic changes in myosin genes and changes in myosin expression may affect tumor progression and patient outcomes and discusses the proposed mechanisms linking myosin inactivation or upregulation to malignant phenotype, cancer cell migration, and metastasis. PMID:25087729

  1. Cucurbitacin I elicits the formation of actin/phospho-myosin II co-aggregates by stimulation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway and inhibition of LIM-kinase.

    PubMed

    Sari-Hassoun, Meryem; Clement, Marie-Jeanne; Hamdi, Imane; Bollot, Guillaume; Bauvais, Cyril; Joshi, Vandana; Toma, Flavio; Burgo, Andrea; Cailleret, Michel; Rosales-Hernández, Martha Cecilia; Macias Pérez, Martha Edith; Chabane-Sari, Daoudi; Curmi, Patrick A

    2016-02-15

    Cucurbitacins are cytotoxic triterpenoid sterols isolated from plants. One of their earliest cellular effect is the aggregation of actin associated with blockage of cell migration and division that eventually lead to apoptosis. We unravel here that cucurbitacin I actually induces the co-aggregation of actin with phospho-myosin II. This co-aggregation most probably results from the stimulation of the Rho/ROCK pathway and the direct inhibition of the LIMKinase. We further provide data that suggest that the formation of these co-aggregates is independent of a putative pro-oxidant status of cucurbitacin I. The results help to understand the impact of cucurbitacins on signal transduction and actin dynamics and open novel perspectives to use it as drug candidates for cancer research.

  2. Modeling Hand-Over-Hand and Inchworm Steps in Myosin VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jack, Amanda; Lowe, Ian; Tehver, Riina

    Myosin VI is a molecular motor protein that moves along actin filaments to transport cargo within a cell. There is much experimental evidence that the myosin VI dimer moves ``hand-over-hand'' along actin; however, recent experiments suggest that the protein can also move via an ``inchworm'' mechanism. We created a mechanochemical kinetic model to predict myosin VI's behavior under different ATP, ADP, and force conditions, taking these alternative mechanisms into account. Our model's calculations agree well with experimental results and can also be used to predict myosin VI's behavior outside experimentally tested regimes, such as under forward force. We also predict an optimized motor function for the protein around physiological (-2 pN) load and anchoring under -3 pN load. By using our model to predict myosin VI's response to environmental change, we can gain insight into the behavior of a protein that can be difficult to observe experimentally.

  3. Catch-bond behaviour facilitates membrane tubulation by non-processive myosin 1b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Ayako; Mamane, Alexandre; Lee-Tin-Wah, Jonathan; di Cicco, Aurélie; Prévost, Coline; Lévy, Daniel; Joanny, Jean-François; Coudrier, Evelyne; Bassereau, Patricia

    2014-04-01

    Myosin 1b is a single-headed membrane-associated motor that binds to actin filaments with a catch-bond behaviour in response to load. In vivo, myosin 1b is required to form membrane tubules at both endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. To establish the link between these two fundamental properties, here we investigate the capacity of myosin 1b to extract membrane tubes along bundled actin filaments in a minimal reconstituted system. We show that single-headed non-processive myosin 1b can extract membrane tubes at a biologically relevant low density. In contrast to kinesins we do not observe motor accumulation at the tip, suggesting that the underlying mechanism for tube formation is different. In our theoretical model, myosin 1b catch-bond properties facilitate tube extraction under conditions of increasing membrane tension by reducing the density of myo1b required to pull tubes.

  4. Direct Measurements of Local Coupling between Myosin Molecules Are Consistent with a Model of Muscle Activation.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Sam; Kad, Neil M

    2015-11-01

    Muscle contracts due to ATP-dependent interactions of myosin motors with thin filaments composed of the proteins actin, troponin, and tropomyosin. Contraction is initiated when calcium binds to troponin, which changes conformation and displaces tropomyosin, a filamentous protein that wraps around the actin filament, thereby exposing myosin binding sites on actin. Myosin motors interact with each other indirectly via tropomyosin, since myosin binding to actin locally displaces tropomyosin and thereby facilitates binding of nearby myosin. Defining and modeling this local coupling between myosin motors is an open problem in muscle modeling and, more broadly, a requirement to understanding the connection between muscle contraction at the molecular and macro scale. It is challenging to directly observe this coupling, and such measurements have only recently been made. Analysis of these data suggests that two myosin heads are required to activate the thin filament. This result contrasts with a theoretical model, which reproduces several indirect measurements of coupling between myosin, that assumes a single myosin head can activate the thin filament. To understand this apparent discrepancy, we incorporated the model into stochastic simulations of the experiments, which generated simulated data that were then analyzed identically to the experimental measurements. By varying a single parameter, good agreement between simulation and experiment was established. The conclusion that two myosin molecules are required to activate the thin filament arises from an assumption, made during data analysis, that the intensity of the fluorescent tags attached to myosin varies depending on experimental condition. We provide an alternative explanation that reconciles theory and experiment without assuming that the intensity of the fluorescent tags varies.

  5. In Vitro and In Vivo Single Myosin Step-Sizes in Striated Muscle a

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, Thomas P.; Sun, Xiaojing; Wang, Yihua; Ajtai, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    Myosin in muscle transduces ATP free energy into the mechanical work of moving actin. It has a motor domain transducer containing ATP and actin binding sites, and, mechanical elements coupling motor impulse to the myosin filament backbone providing transduction/mechanical-coupling. The mechanical coupler is a lever-arm stabilized by bound essential and regulatory light chains. The lever-arm rotates cyclically to impel bound filamentous actin. Linear actin displacement due to lever-arm rotation is the myosin step-size. A high-throughput quantum dot labeled actin in vitro motility assay (Qdot assay) measures motor step-size in the context of an ensemble of actomyosin interactions. The ensemble context imposes a constant velocity constraint for myosins interacting with one actin filament. In a cardiac myosin producing multiple step-sizes, a “second characterization” is step-frequency that adjusts longer step-size to lower frequency maintaining a linear actin velocity identical to that from a shorter step-size and higher frequency actomyosin cycle. The step-frequency characteristic involves and integrates myosin enzyme kinetics, mechanical strain, and other ensemble affected characteristics. The high-throughput Qdot assay suits a new paradigm calling for wide surveillance of the vast number of disease or aging relevant myosin isoforms that contrasts with the alternative model calling for exhaustive research on a tiny subset myosin forms. The zebrafish embryo assay (Z assay) performs single myosin step-size and step-frequency assaying in vivo combining single myosin mechanical and whole muscle physiological characterizations in one model organism. The Qdot and Z assays cover “bottom-up” and “top-down” assaying of myosin characteristics. PMID:26728749

  6. Direct Measurements of Local Coupling between Myosin Molecules Are Consistent with a Model of Muscle Activation

    PubMed Central

    Walcott, Sam; Kad, Neil M.

    2015-01-01

    Muscle contracts due to ATP-dependent interactions of myosin motors with thin filaments composed of the proteins actin, troponin, and tropomyosin. Contraction is initiated when calcium binds to troponin, which changes conformation and displaces tropomyosin, a filamentous protein that wraps around the actin filament, thereby exposing myosin binding sites on actin. Myosin motors interact with each other indirectly via tropomyosin, since myosin binding to actin locally displaces tropomyosin and thereby facilitates binding of nearby myosin. Defining and modeling this local coupling between myosin motors is an open problem in muscle modeling and, more broadly, a requirement to understanding the connection between muscle contraction at the molecular and macro scale. It is challenging to directly observe this coupling, and such measurements have only recently been made. Analysis of these data suggests that two myosin heads are required to activate the thin filament. This result contrasts with a theoretical model, which reproduces several indirect measurements of coupling between myosin, that assumes a single myosin head can activate the thin filament. To understand this apparent discrepancy, we incorporated the model into stochastic simulations of the experiments, which generated simulated data that were then analyzed identically to the experimental measurements. By varying a single parameter, good agreement between simulation and experiment was established. The conclusion that two myosin molecules are required to activate the thin filament arises from an assumption, made during data analysis, that the intensity of the fluorescent tags attached to myosin varies depending on experimental condition. We provide an alternative explanation that reconciles theory and experiment without assuming that the intensity of the fluorescent tags varies. PMID:26536123

  7. Expansion and concatenation of nonmuscle myosin IIA filaments drive cellular contractile system formation during interphase and mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Fenix, Aidan M.; Taneja, Nilay; Buttler, Carmen A.; Lewis, John; Van Engelenburg, Schuyler B.; Ohi, Ryoma; Burnette, Dylan T.

    2016-01-01

    Cell movement and cytokinesis are facilitated by contractile forces generated by the molecular motor, nonmuscle myosin II (NMII). NMII molecules form a filament (NMII-F) through interactions of their C-terminal rod domains, positioning groups of N-terminal motor domains on opposite sides. The NMII motors then bind and pull actin filaments toward the NMII-F, thus driving contraction. Inside of crawling cells, NMIIA-Fs form large macromolecular ensembles (i.e., NMIIA-F stacks), but how this occurs is unknown. Here we show NMIIA-F stacks are formed through two non–mutually exclusive mechanisms: expansion and concatenation. During expansion, NMIIA molecules within the NMIIA-F spread out concurrent with addition of new NMIIA molecules. Concatenation occurs when multiple NMIIA-Fs/NMIIA-F stacks move together and align. We found that NMIIA-F stack formation was regulated by both motor activity and the availability of surrounding actin filaments. Furthermore, our data showed expansion and concatenation also formed the contractile ring in dividing cells. Thus interphase and mitotic cells share similar mechanisms for creating large contractile units, and these are likely to underlie how other myosin II–based contractile systems are assembled. PMID:26960797

  8. Allosteric regulation by cooperative conformational changes of actin filaments drives mutually exclusive binding with cofilin and myosin.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Kien Xuan; Umeki, Nobuhisa; Kijima, Saku T; Kodera, Noriyuki; Ueno, Hiroaki; Furutani-Umezu, Nozomi; Nakajima, Jun; Noguchi, Taro Q P; Nagasaki, Akira; Tokuraku, Kiyotaka; Uyeda, Taro Q P

    2016-10-20

    Heavy meromyosin (HMM) of myosin II and cofilin each binds to actin filaments cooperatively and forms clusters along the filaments, but it is unknown whether the two cooperative bindings are correlated and what physiological roles they have. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that HMM-GFP and cofilin-mCherry each bound cooperatively to different parts of actin filaments when they were added simultaneously in 0.2 μM ATP, indicating that the two cooperative bindings are mutually exclusive. In 0.1 mM ATP, the motor domain of myosin (S1) strongly inhibited the formation of cofilin clusters along actin filaments. Under this condition, most actin protomers were unoccupied by S1 at any given moment, suggesting that transiently bound S1 alters the structure of actin filaments cooperatively and/or persistently to inhibit cofilin binding. Consistently, cosedimentation experiments using copolymers of actin and actin-S1 fusion protein demonstrated that the fusion protein affects the neighboring actin protomers, reducing their affinity for cofilin. In reciprocal experiments, cofilin-actin fusion protein reduced the affinity of neighboring actin protomers for S1. Thus, allosteric regulation by cooperative conformational changes of actin filaments contributes to mutually exclusive cooperative binding of myosin II and cofilin to actin filaments, and presumably to the differential localization of both proteins in cells.

  9. Allosteric regulation by cooperative conformational changes of actin filaments drives mutually exclusive binding with cofilin and myosin

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Kien Xuan; Umeki, Nobuhisa; Kijima, Saku T.; Kodera, Noriyuki; Ueno, Hiroaki; Furutani-Umezu, Nozomi; Nakajima, Jun; Noguchi, Taro Q. P.; Nagasaki, Akira; Tokuraku, Kiyotaka; Uyeda, Taro Q. P.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy meromyosin (HMM) of myosin II and cofilin each binds to actin filaments cooperatively and forms clusters along the filaments, but it is unknown whether the two cooperative bindings are correlated and what physiological roles they have. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that HMM-GFP and cofilin-mCherry each bound cooperatively to different parts of actin filaments when they were added simultaneously in 0.2 μM ATP, indicating that the two cooperative bindings are mutually exclusive. In 0.1 mM ATP, the motor domain of myosin (S1) strongly inhibited the formation of cofilin clusters along actin filaments. Under this condition, most actin protomers were unoccupied by S1 at any given moment, suggesting that transiently bound S1 alters the structure of actin filaments cooperatively and/or persistently to inhibit cofilin binding. Consistently, cosedimentation experiments using copolymers of actin and actin-S1 fusion protein demonstrated that the fusion protein affects the neighboring actin protomers, reducing their affinity for cofilin. In reciprocal experiments, cofilin-actin fusion protein reduced the affinity of neighboring actin protomers for S1. Thus, allosteric regulation by cooperative conformational changes of actin filaments contributes to mutually exclusive cooperative binding of myosin II and cofilin to actin filaments, and presumably to the differential localization of both proteins in cells. PMID:27762277

  10. Fast and slow myosins as markers of muscle injury

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, M; Guiu-Comadevall, M; Cadefau, J A; Parra, J; Balius, R; Estruch, A; Rodas, G; Bedini, J L; Cussó, R

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The diagnosis of muscular lesions suffered by athletes is usually made by clinical criteria combined with imaging of the lesion (ultrasonography and/or magnetic resonance) and blood tests to detect the presence of non-specific muscle markers. This study was undertaken to evaluate injury to fast and slow-twitch fibres using specific muscle markers for these fibres. Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 51 non-sports people and 38 sportsmen with skeletal muscle injury. Western blood analysis was performed to determine fast and slow myosin and creatine kinase (CK) levels. Skeletal muscle damage was diagnosed by physical examination, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance and biochemical markers. Results: The imaging tests were found to be excellent for detecting and confirming grade II and III lesions. However, grade I lesions were often unconfirmed by these techniques. Grade I lesions have higher levels of fast myosin than slow myosin with a very small increase in CK levels. Grade II and III lesions have high values of both fast and slow myosin. Conclusions: The evaluation of fast and slow myosin in the blood 48 h after the lesion occurs is a useful aid for the detection of type I lesions in particular, since fast myosin is an exclusive skeletal muscle marker. The correct diagnosis of grade I lesions can prevent progression of the injury in athletes undergoing continual training sessions and competitions, thus aiding sports physicians in their decision making. PMID:18070807

  11. Calcium-regulated import of myosin IC into the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Maly, Ivan V; Hofmann, Wilma A

    2016-06-01

    Myosin IC is a molecular motor involved in intracellular transport, cell motility, and transcription. Its mechanical properties are regulated by calcium via calmodulin binding, and its functions in the nucleus depend on import from the cytoplasm. The import has recently been shown to be mediated by the nuclear localization signal located within the calmodulin-binding domain. In the present paper, it is demonstrated that mutations in the calmodulin-binding sequence shift the intracellular distribution of myosin IC to the nucleus. The redistribution is displayed by isoform B, described originally as the "nuclear myosin," but is particularly pronounced with isoform C, the normally cytoplasmic isoform. Furthermore, experimental elevation of the intracellular calcium concentration induces a rapid import of myosin into the nucleus. The import is blocked by the importin β inhibitor importazole. These findings are consistent with a mechanism whereby calmodulin binding prevents recognition of the nuclear localization sequence by importin β, and the steric inhibition of import is released by cell signaling leading to the intracellular calcium elevation. The results establish a mechanistic connection between the calcium regulation of the motor function of myosin IC in the cytoplasm and the induction of its import into the nucleus. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Myosin V is a biological Brownian machine

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Keisuke; Iwaki, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Myosin V is a vesicle transporter that unidirectionally walks along cytoskeletal actin filaments by converting the chemical energy of ATP into mechanical work. Recently, it was found that myosin V force generation is a composition of two processes: a lever-arm swing, which involves a conformational change in the myosin molecule, and a Brownian search-and-catch, which involves a diffusive “search” by the motor domain that is followed by an asymmetric “catch” in the forward actin target such that Brownian motion is rectified. Here we developed a system that combines optical tweezers with DNA nano-material to show that the Brownian search-and-catch mechanism is the energetically dominant process at near stall force, providing 13 kBT of work compared to just 3 kBT by the lever-arm swing. Our result significantly reconsiders the lever-arm swinging model, which assumes the swing dominantly produces work (>10 kBT), and sheds light on the Brownian search-and-catch as a driving process. PMID:27493501

  13. Three-dimensional in vivo analysis of Dictyostelium mounds reveals directional sorting of prestalk cells and defines a role for the myosin II regulatory light chain in prestalk cell sorting and tip protrusion.

    PubMed

    Clow, P A; Chen, T; Chisholm, R L; McNally, J G

    2000-06-01

    During cell sorting in Dictyostelium, we observed that GFP-tagged prestalk cells (ecmAO-expressing cells) moved independently and directionally to form a cluster. This is consistent with a chemotaxis model for cell sorting (and not differential adhesion) in which a long-range signal attracts many of the prestalk cells to the site of cluster formation. Surprisingly, the ecmAO prestalk cluster that we observed was initially found at a random location within the mound of this Ax3 strain, defining an intermediate sorting stage not widely reported in Dictyostelium. The cluster then moved en masse to the top of the mound to produce the classic, apical pattern of ecmAO prestalk cells. Migration of the cluster was also directional, suggesting the presence of another long-range guidance cue. Once at the mound apex, the cluster continued moving upward leading to protrusion of the mound's tip. To investigate the role of the cluster in tip protrusion, we examined ecmAO prestalk-cell sorting in a myosin II regulatory light chain (RLC) null in which tips fail to form. In RLC-null mounds, ecmAO prestalk cells formed an initial cluster that began to move to the mound apex, but then arrested as a vertical column that extended from the mound's apex to its base. Mixing experiments with wild-type cells demonstrated that the RLC-null ecmAO prestalk-cell defect is cell autonomous. These observations define a specific mechanism for myosin's function in tip formation, namely a mechanical role in the upward movement of the ecmAO prestalk cluster. The wild-type data demonstrate that cell sorting can occur in two steps, suggesting that, in this Ax3 strain, spatially and temporally distinct cues may guide prestalk cells first to an initial cluster and then later to the tip.

  14. Identification and characterization of Myosin from rat testicular peritubular myoid cells.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Dario; Bertoldi, Maria V; Gómez, Laura; Morales, Alfonsina; Callegari, Eduardo; Lopez, Luis A

    2008-12-01

    In the mammalian testis, peritubular myoid cells (PMCs) surround seminiferous tubules. These cells are contractile, express the cytoskeletal markers of true smooth muscle-alpha-isoactin and F-actin-and participate in the contraction of seminiferous tubules during the transport of spermatozoa and testicular fluid to the rete testis. Myosin from PMCs (PMC-myosin) was isolated from adult rat testis and purified by cycles of assembly-disassembly and sucrose gradient centrifugation. PMC-myosin was recognized by a monoclonal anti-smooth muscle myosin antibody, and the peptide sequence shared partial homology with rat smooth muscle myosin-II, MYH11 (also known as SMM-II). Most PMC-myosin (95%) was soluble in the PMC cytosol, and purified PMC-myosin did not assemble into filaments in the in vitro salt dialysis assay at 4 degrees C, but did at 20 degrees C. PMC-myosin filaments are stable to ionic strength to the same degree as gizzard MYH11 filaments, but PMC-myosin filaments were more unstable in the presence of ATP. When PMCs were induced to contract by endothelin 1, a fraction of the PMC-myosin was found to be involved in the contraction. From these results we infer that PMCs express an isoform of smooth muscle myosin-II that is characterized by solubility at physiological ionic strength, a requirement for high temperature to assemble into filaments in vitro, and instability at low ATP concentrations. PMC-myosin is part of the PMC contraction apparatus when PMCs are stimulated with endothelin 1.

  15. Effects of hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy mutations on power output by human β-cardiac myosin.

    PubMed

    Spudich, James A; Aksel, Tural; Bartholomew, Sadie R; Nag, Suman; Kawana, Masataka; Yu, Elizabeth Choe; Sarkar, Saswata S; Sung, Jongmin; Sommese, Ruth F; Sutton, Shirley; Cho, Carol; Adhikari, Arjun S; Taylor, Rebecca; Liu, Chao; Trivedi, Darshan; Ruppel, Kathleen M

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most frequently occurring inherited cardiovascular disease, with a prevalence of more than one in 500 individuals worldwide. Genetically acquired dilated cardiomyopathy is a related disease that is less prevalent. Both are caused by mutations in the genes encoding the fundamental force-generating protein machinery of the cardiac muscle sarcomere, including human β-cardiac myosin, the motor protein that powers ventricular contraction. Despite numerous studies, most performed with non-human or non-cardiac myosin, there is no clear consensus about the mechanism of action of these mutations on the function of human β-cardiac myosin. We are using a recombinantly expressed human β-cardiac myosin motor domain along with conventional and new methodologies to characterize the forces and velocities of the mutant myosins compared with wild type. Our studies are extending beyond myosin interactions with pure actin filaments to include the interaction of myosin with regulated actin filaments containing tropomyosin and troponin, the roles of regulatory light chain phosphorylation on the functions of the system, and the possible roles of myosin binding protein-C and titin, important regulatory components of both cardiac and skeletal muscles.

  16. Evolutionary traces decode molecular mechanism behind fast pace of myosin XI

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cytoplasmic class XI myosins are the fastest processive motors known. This class functions in high-velocity cytoplasmic streaming in various plant cells from algae to angiosperms. The velocities at which they process are ten times faster than its closest class V homologues. Results To provide sequence determinants and structural rationale for the molecular mechanism of this fast pace myosin, we have compared the sequences from myosin class V and XI through Evolutionary Trace (ET) analysis. The current study identifies class-specific residues of myosin XI spread over the actin binding site, ATP binding site and light chain binding neck region. Sequences for ET analysis were accumulated from six plant genomes, using literature based text search and sequence searches, followed by triple validation viz. CDD search, string-based searches and phylogenetic clustering. We have identified nine myosin XI genes in sorghum and seven in grape by sequence searches. Both the plants possess one gene product each belonging to myosin type VIII as well. During this process, we have re-defined the gene boundaries for three sorghum myosin XI genes using fgenesh program. Conclusion Molecular modelling and subsequent analysis of putative interactions involving these class-specific residues suggest a structural basis for the molecular mechanism behind high velocity of plant myosin XI. We propose a model of a more flexible switch I region that contributes to faster ADP release leading to high velocity movement of the algal myosin XI. PMID:21942950

  17. Kinetic characterization of the sole nonmuscle myosin-2 from the model organism Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Heissler, Sarah M.; Chinthalapudi, Krishna; Sellers, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Nonmuscle myosin-2 is the primary enzyme complex powering contractility of the F-actin cytoskeleton in the model organism Drosophila. Despite myosin’s essential function in fly development and homeostasis, its kinetic features remain elusive. The purpose of this in vitro study is a detailed steady-state and presteady-state kinetic characterization of the Drosophila nonmuscle myosin-2 motor domain. Kinetic features are a slow steady-state ATPase activity, high affinities for F-actin and ADP, and a low duty ratio. Comparative analysis of the overall enzymatic signatures across the nonmuscle myosin-2 complement from model organisms indicates that the Drosophila protein resembles nonmuscle myosin-2s from metazoa rather than protozoa, though modulatory aspects of myosin motor function are distinct. Drosophila nonmuscle myosin-2 is uniquely insensitive toward blebbistatin, a commonly used myosin-2 inhibitor. An in silico modeling approach together with kinetic studies indicate that the nonconsensus amino acid Met466 in the Drosophila nonmuscle myosin-2 active-site loop switch-2 acts as blebbistatin desensitizer. Introduction of the M466I mutation sensitized the protein for blebbistatin, resulting in a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 36.3 ± 4.1 µM. Together, these data show that Drosophila nonmuscle myosin-2 is a bona fide molecular motor and establish an important link between switch-2 and blebbistatin sensitivity.—Heissler, S. M., Chinthalapudi, K., Sellers, J. R. Kinetic characterization of the sole nonmuscle myosin-2 from the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:25636739

  18. Calcium and cargoes as regulators of myosin 5a activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, James R. Thirumurugan, Kavitha; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Hammer, John A.; Knight, Peter J.

    2008-04-25

    Myosin 5a is a two-headed actin-dependent motor that transports various cargoes in cells. Its enzymology and mechanochemistry have been extensively studied in vitro. It is a processive motor that takes multiple 36 nm steps on actin. The enzymatic activity of myosin 5 is regulated by an intramolecular folding mechanism whereby its lever arms fold back against the coiled-coil tail such that the motor domains directly bind the globular tail domains. We show that the structure seen in individual folded molecules is consistent with electron density map of two-dimensional crystals of the molecule. In this compact state, the actin-activated MgATPase activity of the molecule is markedly inhibited and the molecule cannot move processively on surface bound actin filaments. The actin-activated MgATPase activity of myosin 5a is activated by increasing the calcium concentration or by binding of a cargo-receptor molecule, melanophilin, in vitro. However, calcium binding to the calmodulin light chains results in dissociation of some of the calmodulin which disrupts the ability of myosin 5a to move on actin filaments in vitro. Thus we propose that the physiologically relevant activation pathway in vivo involves binding of cargo-receptor proteins.

  19. Loss of cargo binding in the human myosin VI deafness mutant (R1166X) leads to increased actin filament binding

    PubMed Central

    Arden, Susan D.; Tumbarello, David A.; Butt, Tariq; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in myosin VI have been associated with autosomal-recessive (DFNB37) and autosomal-dominant (DFNA22) deafness in humans. Here, we characterise an myosin VI nonsense mutation (R1166X) that was identified in a family with hereditary hearing loss in Pakistan. This mutation leads to the deletion of the C-terminal 120 amino acids of the myosin VI cargo-binding domain, which includes the WWY-binding motif for the adaptor proteins LMTK2, Tom1 as well as Dab2. Interestingly, compromising myosin VI vesicle-binding ability by expressing myosin VI with the R1166X mutation or with single point mutations in the adaptor-binding sites leads to increased F-actin binding of this myosin in vitro and in vivo. As our results highlight the importance of cargo attachment for regulating actin binding to the motor domain, we perform a detailed characterisation of adaptor protein binding and identify single amino acids within myosin VI required for binding to cargo adaptors. We not only show that the adaptor proteins can directly interact with the cargo-binding tail of myosin VI, but our in vitro studies also suggest that multiple adaptor proteins can bind simultaneously to non-overlapping sites in the myosin VI tail. In conclusion, our characterisation of the human myosin VI deafness mutant (R1166X) suggests that defects in cargo binding may leave myosin VI in a primed/activated state with an increased actin-binding ability. PMID:27474411

  20. High resolution characterization of myosin IIC protein tailpiece and its effect on filament assembly.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Masha M; Ronen, Daniel; Lahav, Noa; Nazirov, Elvira; Ravid, Shoshana; Friedler, Assaf

    2013-04-05

    The motor protein nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) must undergo dynamic oligomerization into filaments to perform its cellular functions. A small nonhelical region at the tail of the long coiled-coil region (tailpiece) is a common feature of all dynamically assembling myosin II proteins. This tailpiece is a key regulatory domain affecting NMII filament assembly properties and is subject to phosphorylation in vivo. We previously demonstrated that the positively charged region of the tailpiece binds to assembly-incompetent NMII-C fragments, inducing filament assembly. In the current study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which the tailpiece regulates NMII-C self-assembly. Using alanine scan, we found that specific positive and aromatic residues within the positively charged region of the tailpiece are important for inducing NMII-C filament assembly and for filament elongation. Combining peptide arrays with deletion studies allowed us to identify the tailpiece binding sites in the coiled-coil rod. Elucidation of the mechanism by which the tailpiece induces filament assembly permitted us further investigation into the role of tailpiece phosphorylation. Sedimentation and CD spectroscopy identified that phosphorylation of Thr(1957) or Thr(1960) inhibited the ability of the tailpiece to bind the coiled-coil rod and to induce NMII-C filament formation. This study provides molecular insight into the role of specific residues within the NMII-C tailpiece that are responsible for shifting the oligomeric equilibrium of NMII-C toward filament assembly and determining its morphology.

  1. Mechanobiology of bone marrow stem cells: from myosin-II forces to compliance of matrix and nucleus in cell forms and fates.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae-Won; Swift, Joe; Ivanovska, Irena; Spinler, Kyle R; Buxboim, Amnon; Discher, Dennis E

    2013-10-01

    Adult stem cells and progenitors are of great interest for their clinical application as well as their potential to reveal deep sensitivities to microenvironmental factors. The bone marrow is a niche for at least two types of stem cells, and the prototype is the hematopoietic stem cell/progenitors (HSC/Ps), which have saved many thousands of patients for several decades now. In bone marrow, HSC/Ps interact functionally with marrow stromal cells that are often referred to as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or derivatives thereof. Myosin and matrix elasticity greatly affect MSC function, and these mechanobiological factors are now being explored with HSC/Ps both in vitro and in vivo. Also emerging is a role for the nucleus as a mechanically sensitive organelle that is semi-permeable to transcription factors which are modified for nuclear entry by cytoplasmic mechanobiological pathways. Since therapies envisioned with induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells generally involve in vitro commitment to an adult stem cell or progenitor, a very deep understanding of stem cell mechanobiology is essential to progress with these multi-potent cells.

  2. An invertebrate smooth muscle with striated muscle myosin filaments

    PubMed Central

    Sulbarán, Guidenn; Alamo, Lorenzo; Pinto, Antonio; Márquez, Gustavo; Méndez, Franklin; Padrón, Raúl; Craig, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Muscle tissues are classically divided into two major types, depending on the presence or absence of striations. In striated muscles, the actin filaments are anchored at Z-lines and the myosin and actin filaments are in register, whereas in smooth muscles, the actin filaments are attached to dense bodies and the myosin and actin filaments are out of register. The structure of the filaments in smooth muscles is also different from that in striated muscles. Here we have studied the structure of myosin filaments from the smooth muscles of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. We find, surprisingly, that they are indistinguishable from those in an arthropod striated muscle. This structural similarity is supported by sequence comparison between the schistosome myosin II heavy chain and known striated muscle myosins. In contrast, the actin filaments of schistosomes are similar to those of smooth muscles, lacking troponin-dependent regulation. We conclude that schistosome muscles are hybrids, containing striated muscle-like myosin filaments and smooth muscle-like actin filaments in a smooth muscle architecture. This surprising finding has broad significance for understanding how muscles are built and how they evolved, and challenges the paradigm that smooth and striated muscles always have distinctly different components. PMID:26443857

  3. An invertebrate smooth muscle with striated muscle myosin filaments.

    PubMed

    Sulbarán, Guidenn; Alamo, Lorenzo; Pinto, Antonio; Márquez, Gustavo; Méndez, Franklin; Padrón, Raúl; Craig, Roger

    2015-10-20

    Muscle tissues are classically divided into two major types, depending on the presence or absence of striations. In striated muscles, the actin filaments are anchored at Z-lines and the myosin and actin filaments are in register, whereas in smooth muscles, the actin filaments are attached to dense bodies and the myosin and actin filaments are out of register. The structure of the filaments in smooth muscles is also different from that in striated muscles. Here we have studied the structure of myosin filaments from the smooth muscles of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. We find, surprisingly, that they are indistinguishable from those in an arthropod striated muscle. This structural similarity is supported by sequence comparison between the schistosome myosin II heavy chain and known striated muscle myosins. In contrast, the actin filaments of schistosomes are similar to those of smooth muscles, lacking troponin-dependent regulation. We conclude that schistosome muscles are hybrids, containing striated muscle-like myosin filaments and smooth muscle-like actin filaments in a smooth muscle architecture. This surprising finding has broad significance for understanding how muscles are built and how they evolved, and challenges the paradigm that smooth and striated muscles always have distinctly different components.

  4. Precipitation of kidney myosin IIA and IIB by freezing.

    PubMed

    Dias, Decivaldo dos Santos; da Cruz, Grabriel Costa Nunes; de Sousa, Marcelo Valle; Coelho, Milton Vieira

    2011-03-01

    Actomyosin precipitation is a critical step in the purification of myosins. In this work, the objective was to precipitate rat kidney actomyosin and isolate myosin by freezing and thawing the soluble fraction. Kidney was homogenized in imidazole buffer, centrifuged at 45000 g for 30 min, and the supernatant was frozen at -20°C for 48 h. The supernatant was thawed at 4°C, centrifuged at 45000 g for 30 min and the precipitate washed twice with imidazole buffer pH 7.0 (with and without Triton X-100, respectively). The resulting precipitate presented a polypeptide profile in SDS/PAGE characteristic of actomyosin and expressed Mg- and K/EDTA-ATPase activity. The actomyosin complex was solubilized with ATP and Mg, and the main polypeptide, p200, was purified in a DEAE-Sepharose column. p200 was marked with anti-myosin II, co-sedimented with F-actin in the absence, but not in the presence, of ATP and was identified by MS/MS with a high Mascot score for myosin IIA. The analysis identified peptides exclusive of myosin IIB, but detected no peptides exclusive of myosin IIC.

  5. Non-Muscle Myosin IIA Differentially Regulates Intestinal Epithelial Cell Restitution and Matrix Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Babbin, Brian A.; Koch, Stefan; Bachar, Moshe; Conti, Mary-Anne; Parkos, Charles A.; Adelstein, Robert S.; Nusrat, Asma; Ivanov, Andrei I.

    2009-01-01

    Epithelial cell motility is critical for self-rejuvenation of normal intestinal mucosa, wound repair, and cancer metastasis. This process is regulated by the reorganization of the F-actin cytoskeleton, which is driven by a myosin II motor. However, the role of myosin II in regulating epithelial cell migration remains poorly understood. This study addressed the role of non-muscle myosin (NM) IIA in two different modes of epithelial cell migration: two-dimensional (2-D) migration that occurs during wound closure and three-dimensional (3-D) migration through a Matrigel matrix that occurs during cancer metastasis. Pharmacological inhibition or siRNA-mediated knockdown of NM IIA in SK-CO15 human colonic epithelial cells resulted in decreased 2-D migration and increased 3-D invasion. The attenuated 2-D migration was associated with increased cell adhesiveness to collagen and laminin and enhanced expression of β1-integrin and paxillin. On the 2-D surface, NM IIA-deficient SK-CO15 cells failed to assemble focal adhesions and F-actin stress fibers. In contrast, the enhanced invasion of NM IIA-depleted cells was dependent on Raf-ERK1/2 signaling pathway activation, enhanced calpain activity, and increased calpain-2 expression. Our findings suggest that NM IIA promotes 2-D epithelial cell migration but antagonizes 3-D invasion. These observations indicate multiple functions for NM IIA, which, along with the regulation of the F-actin cytoskeleton and cell-matrix adhesions, involve previously unrecognized control of intracellular signaling and protein expression. PMID:19147824

  6. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression in motor neurons: effect of axotomy.

    PubMed

    Lund, L M; McQuarrie, I G

    1997-11-20

    Although Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) protein kinase II isoforms are present in the nervous system in high amounts, many aspects of in vivo expression, localization, and function remain unexplored. During development, CaM kinase IIalpha and IIbeta are differentially expressed. Here, we examined CaM kinase II isoforms in Sprague-Dawley rat sciatic motor neurons before and after axotomy. We cut the L4-5 spinal nerves unilaterally and exposed the proximal nerve stumps to a fluoroprobe, to retrogradely label the neurons of origin. Anti-CaM kinase IIbeta antibody showed immunoreactivity in motor neurons, which decreased to low levels by 4 days after axotomy. We found a similar response by in situ hybridization with riboprobes. The decrease in expression of mRNA and protein was confined to fluorescent motor neurons. For CaM kinase IIalpha, in situ hybridization showed that the mRNA was in sciatic motor neurons, with a density unaffected by axotomy. However, these neurons were also enlarged, suggesting an up-regulation of expression. Northern blots confirmed an mRNA increase. We were unable to find CaM kinase IIalpha immunoreactivity before or after axotomy in sciatic motor neuron cell bodies, suggesting that CaM kinase IIalpha is in the axons or dendrites, or otherwise unavailable to the antibody. Using rats with crush lesions, we radiolabeled axonal proteins being synthesized in the cell body and used two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with Western blots to identify CaM kinase IIalpha as a component of slow axonal transport. This differential regulation and expression of kinase isoforms suggests separate and unique intracellular roles. Because we find CaM kinase IIbeta down-regulates during axonal regrowth, its role in these neurons may be related to synaptic transmission. CaM kinase IIalpha appears to support axonal regrowth.

  7. The effects of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of brain myosin on its actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase and contractile activities.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, S; Takashima, T; Ohmori, H; Kumon, A

    1988-02-01

    Purified bovine brain myosin contained approximately 1 and 3 mol of protein-bound phosphate/mol myosin in the light chains and heavy chains, respectively. Large portions of this light chain- and heavy chain-bound phosphate (about 0.8 and 2.4 mol, respectively) were removed by incubation with a brain phosphoprotein phosphatase and potato acid phosphatase, respectively. Upon phosphorylation of the dephosphorylated brain myosin with myosin light chain kinase and casein kinase II, about 1.6 and 3.0 mol of phosphate was incorporated into the light chains and heavy chains, respectively, while much lower levels of phosphate were incorporated into the non-dephosphorylated brain myosin under the same conditions. The actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity of brain myosin rephosphorylated with myosin light chain kinase was about twice as high as that of dephosphorylated brain myosin (about 30 and 15 nmol phosphate/mg/min, respectively). On the other hand, whereas the rephosphorylated brain myosin superprecipitated rapidly with F-actin, the rate of superprecipitation of the dephosphorylated brain myosin was extremely low. Under appropriate conditions, a loose network of tiny superprecipitates, which formed initially throughout the solution, contracted to form eventually a large and dense particle. These results indicate that phosphorylation of the light chains of brain myosin is a prerequisite for the contraction of brain actomyosin. The role of phosphorylation of the heavy chains by casein kinase II remains to be elucidated.

  8. Myosin domain evolution and the primary divergence of eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Richards, Thomas A; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2005-08-25

    Eukaryotic cells have two contrasting cytoskeletal and ciliary organizations. The simplest involves a single cilium-bearing centriole, nucleating a cone of individual microtubules (probably ancestral for unikonts: animals, fungi, Choanozoa and Amoebozoa). In contrast, bikonts (plants, chromists and all other protozoa) were ancestrally biciliate with a younger anterior cilium, converted every cell cycle into a dissimilar posterior cilium and multiple ciliary roots of microtubule bands. Here we show by comparative genomic analysis that this fundamental cellular dichotomy also involves different myosin molecular motors. We found 37 different protein domain combinations, often lineage-specific, and many previously unidentified. The sequence phylogeny and taxonomic distribution of myosin domain combinations identified five innovations that strongly support unikont monophyly and the primary bikont/unikont bifurcation. We conclude that the eukaryotic cenancestor (last common ancestor) had a cilium, mitochondria, pseudopodia, and myosins with three contrasting domain combinations and putative functions.

  9. Axonal isoforms of myosin-I.

    PubMed

    Lund, Linda M; Machado, Victor M; McQuarrie, Irvine G

    2005-05-13

    We have examined spinal motor neurons in Sprague-Dawley rats to further characterize a mechanoenzyme, myosin-Igamma (myr4), which is found in high concentration during axon tract formation in neonates. We raised an antibody to myr4 and made riboprobes for in situ hybridization. Myr4 mRNA was abundant in spinal cord motor neurons (particularly during axon regrowth). Nerves undergoing Wallerian degeneration (from a crush 7 days earlier) showed anti-myr4 labeling of the axolemma and SER--after microtubules, neurofilaments, and F-actin had already been degraded--which is consistent with a described lipid-binding domain in the tail region of myosin-Is. Newly synthesized myr4 was carried in axons by the slow component (SC) of axonal transport at 1-8 mm/day, whereas, none was carried by the fast component (FC). We conclude that SC delivers myr4 to the cytoplasmic surfaces of stationary axonal membranes (SER and axolemma). This positioning would anchor the tail domain of myr4 and leave the catalytic head domain free to interact with F-actin.

  10. The association of myosin IB with actin waves in dictyostelium requires both the plasma membrane-binding site and actin-binding region in the myosin tail.

    PubMed

    Brzeska, Hanna; Pridham, Kevin; Chery, Godefroy; Titus, Margaret A; Korn, Edward D

    2014-01-01

    F-actin structures and their distribution are important determinants of the dynamic shapes and functions of eukaryotic cells. Actin waves are F-actin formations that move along the ventral cell membrane driven by actin polymerization. Dictyostelium myosin IB is associated with actin waves but its role in the wave is unknown. Myosin IB is a monomeric, non-filamentous myosin with a globular head that binds to F-actin and has motor activity, and a non-helical tail comprising a basic region, a glycine-proline-glutamine-rich region and an SH3-domain. The basic region binds to acidic phospholipids in the plasma membrane through a short basic-hydrophobic site and the Gly-Pro-Gln region binds F-actin. In the current work we found that both the basic-hydrophobic site in the basic region and the Gly-Pro-Gln region of the tail are required for the association of myosin IB with actin waves. This is the first evidence that the Gly-Pro-Gln region is required for localization of myosin IB to a specific actin structure in situ. The head is not required for myosin IB association with actin waves but binding of the head to F-actin strengthens the association of myosin IB with waves and stabilizes waves. Neither the SH3-domain nor motor activity is required for association of myosin IB with actin waves. We conclude that myosin IB contributes to anchoring actin waves to the plasma membranes by binding of the basic-hydrophobic site to acidic phospholipids in the plasma membrane and binding of the Gly-Pro-Gln region to F-actin in the wave.

  11. The Association of Myosin IB with Actin Waves in Dictyostelium Requires Both the Plasma Membrane-Binding Site and Actin-Binding Region in the Myosin Tail

    PubMed Central

    Brzeska, Hanna; Pridham, Kevin; Chery, Godefroy; Titus, Margaret A.; Korn, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    F-actin structures and their distribution are important determinants of the dynamic shapes and functions of eukaryotic cells. Actin waves are F-actin formations that move along the ventral cell membrane driven by actin polymerization. Dictyostelium myosin IB is associated with actin waves but its role in the wave is unknown. Myosin IB is a monomeric, non-filamentous myosin with a globular head that binds to F-actin and has motor activity, and a non-helical tail comprising a basic region, a glycine-proline-glutamine-rich region and an SH3-domain. The basic region binds to acidic phospholipids in the plasma membrane through a short basic-hydrophobic site and the Gly-Pro-Gln region binds F-actin. In the current work we found that both the basic-hydrophobic site in the basic region and the Gly-Pro-Gln region of the tail are required for the association of myosin IB with actin waves. This is the first evidence that the Gly-Pro-Gln region is required for localization of myosin IB to a specific actin structure in situ. The head is not required for myosin IB association with actin waves but binding of the head to F-actin strengthens the association of myosin IB with waves and stabilizes waves. Neither the SH3-domain nor motor activity is required for association of myosin IB with actin waves. We conclude that myosin IB contributes to anchoring actin waves to the plasma membranes by binding of the basic-hydrophobic site to acidic phospholipids in the plasma membrane and binding of the Gly-Pro-Gln region to F-actin in the wave. PMID:24747353

  12. Can Alberta infant motor scale and milani comparetti motor development screening test be rapid alternatives to bayley scales of infant development-II at high-risk infants

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Zeynep Hoşbay; Aydınlı, Nur; Ekici, Barış; Tatlı, Burak; Çalişkan, Mine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main object of the present study is to assess neuromotor development of high-risk infants by using three tests, and to determine inter-test concordance and the feasibility of these tests. Materials and Methods: One-hundred and nine patients aged between 0 and 6 months and identified as “high-risk infant” according to the Kliegman's criteria were enrolled to the study. Three different tests were used to assess neuromotor development of the patients: Bayley scales of infant development-II (BSID-II), Alberta infant motor scale (AIMS), and Milani Comparetti Motor Development Screening Test (MCMDST). Results: Correlation analysis was performed between pure scores of BSID-II motor scale and total scores of AIMS. These two tests were highly correlated (r:0.92). Moderate concordance was found between BSID-II and AIMS (k:0.35). Slight concordance was found between BSID-II and MCMDST; and the concordance was slight again for AIMS and MCMDST (k:0.11 and k:0.16, respectively) too. Conclusion: AIMS has a high correlation and consistency with BSID-II and can be used with routine neurological examination as it is based on observations, has few items, and requires less time to complete. PMID:22919192

  13. Mechanochemical tuning of myosin-I by the N-terminal region

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Michael J.; Lin, Tianming; Shuman, Henry; Ostap, E. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Myosins are molecular motors that generate force to power a wide array of motile cellular functions. Myosins have the inherent ability to change their ATPase kinetics and force-generating properties when they encounter mechanical loads; however, little is known about the structural elements in myosin responsible for force sensing. Recent structural and biophysical studies have shown that myosin-I isoforms, Myosin-Ib (Myo1b) and Myosin-Ic (Myo1c), have similar unloaded kinetics and sequences but substantially different responses to forces that resist their working strokes. Myo1b has the properties of a tension-sensing anchor, slowing its actin-detachment kinetics by two orders of magnitude with just 1 pN of resisting force, whereas Myo1c has the properties of a slow transporter, generating power without slowing under 1-pN loads that would stall Myo1b. To examine the structural elements that lead to differences in force sensing, we used single-molecule and ensemble kinetic techniques to show that the myosin-I N-terminal region (NTR) plays a critical role in tuning myosin-I mechanochemistry. We found that replacing the Myo1c NTR with the Myo1b NTR changes the identity of the primary force-sensitive transition of Myo1c, resulting in sensitivity to forces of <2 pN. Additionally, we found that the NTR plays an important role in stabilizing the post–power-stroke conformation. These results identify the NTR as an important structural element in myosin force sensing and suggest a mechanism for generating diversity of function among myosin isoforms. PMID:26056287

  14. Myosin Va is developmentally regulated and expressed in the human cerebellum from birth to old age

    PubMed Central

    Souza, C.C.R.; Dombroski, T.C.D.; Machado, H.R.; Oliveira, R.S.; Rocha, L.B.; Rodrigues, A.R.A.; Neder, L.; Chimelli, L.; Corrêa, V.M.A.; Larson, R.E.; Martins, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Myosin Va functions as a processive, actin-based motor molecule highly enriched in the nervous system, which transports and/or tethers organelles, vesicles, and mRNA and protein translation machinery. Mutation of myosin Va leads to Griscelli disease that is associated with severe neurological deficits and a short life span. Despite playing a critical role in development, the expression of myosin Va in the central nervous system throughout the human life span has not been reported. To address this issue, the cerebellar expression of myosin Va from newborns to elderly humans was studied by immunohistochemistry using an affinity-purified anti-myosin Va antibody. Myosin Va was expressed at all ages from the 10th postnatal day to the 98th year of life, in molecular, Purkinje and granular cerebellar layers. Cerebellar myosin Va expression did not differ essentially in localization or intensity from childhood to old age, except during the postnatal developmental period. Structures resembling granules and climbing fibers in Purkinje cells were deeply stained. In dentate neurons, long processes were deeply stained by anti-myosin Va, as were punctate nuclear structures. During the first postnatal year, myosin Va was differentially expressed in the external granular layer (EGL). In the EGL, proliferating prospective granule cells were not stained by anti-myosin Va antibody. In contrast, premigratory granule cells in the EGL stained moderately. Granule cells exhibiting a migratory profile in the molecular layer were also moderately stained. In conclusion, neuronal myosin Va is developmentally regulated, and appears to be required for cerebellar function from early postnatal life to senescence. PMID:23558932

  15. Reliability and validity of the test of gross motor development-II in Korean preschool children: applying AHP.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chung-Il; Han, Dong-Wook; Park, Il-Hyeok

    2014-04-01

    The Test of Gross Motor Development-II (TGMD-II) is a frequently used assessment tool for measuring motor ability. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reliability and validity of TGMD-II's weighting scores (by comparing pre-weighted TGMD-II scores with post ones) as well as examine applicability of the TGMD-II on Korean preschool children. A total of 121 Korean children (three kindergartens) participated in this study. There were 65 preschoolers who were 5-years-old (37 boys and 28 girls) and 56 preschoolers who were 6-years-old (34 boys and 22 girls). For internal consistency, reliability, and construct validity, only one researcher evaluated all of the children using the TGMD-II in the following areas: running; galloping; sliding; hopping; leaping; horizontal jumping; overhand throwing; underhand rolling; striking a stationary ball; stationary dribbling; kicking; and catching. For concurrent validity, the evaluator measured physical fitness (strength, flexibility, power, agility, endurance, and balance). The key findings were as follows: first, the reliability coefficient and the validity coefficient between pre-weighted and post-weighted TGMD-II scores were quite similar. Second, the research showed adequate reliability and validity of the TGMD-II for Korean preschool children. The TGMD-II is a proper instrument to test Korean children's motor development. Yet, applying relative weighting on the TGMD-II should be a point of consideration.

  16. Myosin Vs organize actin cables in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Lo Presti, Libera; Chang, Fred; Martin, Sophie G.

    2012-01-01

    Myosin V motors are believed to contribute to cell polarization by carrying cargoes along actin tracks. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Myosin Vs transport secretory vesicles along actin cables, which are dynamic actin bundles assembled by the formin For3 at cell poles. How these flexible structures are able to extend longitudinally in the cell through the dense cytoplasm is unknown. Here we show that in myosin V (myo52 myo51) null cells, actin cables are curled, bundled, and fail to extend into the cell interior. They also exhibit reduced retrograde flow, suggesting that formin-mediated actin assembly is impaired. Myo52 may contribute to actin cable organization by delivering actin regulators to cell poles, as myoV∆ defects are partially suppressed by diverting cargoes toward cell tips onto microtubules with a kinesin 7–Myo52 tail chimera. In addition, Myo52 motor activity may pull on cables to provide the tension necessary for their extension and efficient assembly, as artificially tethering actin cables to the nuclear envelope via a Myo52 motor domain restores actin cable extension and retrograde flow in myoV mutants. Together these in vivo data reveal elements of a self-organizing system in which the motors shape their own tracks by transporting cargoes and exerting physical pulling forces. PMID:23051734

  17. Identification and characterization of multiple novel Rab–myosin Va interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Andrew J.; Jollivet, Florence; Horgan, Conor P.; Khan, Amir R.; Raposo, Graça; McCaffrey, Mary W.; Goud, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Myosin Va is a widely expressed actin-based motor protein that binds members of the Rab GTPase family (3A, 8A, 10, 11A, 27A) and is implicated in many intracellular trafficking processes. To our knowledge, myosin Va has not been tested in a systematic screen for interactions with the entire Rab GTPase family. To that end, we report a yeast two-hybrid screen of all human Rabs for myosin Va-binding ability and reveal 10 novel interactions (3B, 3C, 3D, 6A, 6A′, 6B, 11B, 14, 25, 39B), which include interactions with three new Rab subfamilies (Rab6, Rab14, Rab39B). Of interest, myosin Va interacts with only a subset of the Rabs associated with the endocytic recycling and post-Golgi secretory systems. We demonstrate that myosin Va has three distinct Rab-binding domains on disparate regions of the motor (central stalk, an alternatively spliced exon, and the globular tail). Although the total pool of myosin Va is shared by several Rabs, Rab10 and Rab11 appear to be the major determinants of its recruitment to intracellular membranes. We also present evidence that myosin Va is necessary for maintaining a peripheral distribution of Rab11- and Rab14-positive endosomes. PMID:24006491

  18. The expression pattern and cellular localisation of Myosin VI during the Drosophila melanogaster life cycle.

    PubMed

    Millo, Hadas; Bownes, Mary

    2007-02-01

    Myosin VI is a motor protein which is necessary for the morphogenesis of epithelial tissues during Drosophila development. The spatial and temporal expression of Myosin VI was examined by expressing a GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein) tagged Myosin VI molecule (PGM), under the control of a Myosin VI-Gal4 line. PGM was present in tissues that were shown previously to express Myosin VI, such as the ovarian follicle epithelium, and the individualization complex; and in other tissues, including the trachea, the midgut, the salivary glands and the imaginal discs. The GFP-tagged Myosin V1 rescued the male sterile phenotype of Jaguar showing it is functional in vivo. Within individual cells, the role of the head and neck domain and the tail domain in targeting of the Myosin V1 molecule was examined by investigating the localisation of the separate domains tagged to GFP. In salivary glands and follicle cells the head and neck domains were concentrated in the cell nucleus, where the minus end of each actin filament is located. We found that the tail domain anchors the whole molecule outside of the nucleus. Similarly, in the individualization complex in the testes, the tail anchors the whole molecule to the base of the complex while the separated head with neck domain becomes scattered along the entire actin molecule suggesting the cellular location may be determined by cargo proteins that bind to the tail domain rather than by the movement of Myosin VI along the actin filaments.

  19. New insights into the regulation of myosin light chain phosphorylation in retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Loredo, Ariadna Yolanda; López-Colomé, Ana María

    2012-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays an essential role in the function of the neural retina and the maintenance of vision. Most of the functions displayed by RPE require a dynamic organization of the acto-myosin cytoskeleton. Myosin II, a main cytoskeletal component in muscle and non-muscle cells, is directly involved in force generation required for organelle movement, selective molecule transport within cell compartments, exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis, and cell division, among others. Contractile processes are triggered by the phosphorylation of myosin II light chains (MLCs), which promotes actin-myosin interaction and the assembly of contractile fibers. Considerable evidence indicates that non-muscle myosin II activation is critically involved in various pathological states, increasing the interest in studying the signaling pathways controlling MLC phosphorylation. Particularly, recent findings suggest a role for non-muscle myosin II-induced contraction in RPE cell transformation involved in the establishment of numerous retinal diseases. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding myosin function in RPE cells, as well as the signaling networks leading to MLC phosphorylation under pathological conditions. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying RPE dysfunction would improve the development of new therapies for the treatment or prevention of different ocular disorders leading to blindness.

  20. Myosin light chain kinase accelerates vesicle endocytosis at the calyx of Held synapse.

    PubMed

    Yue, Hai-Yuan; Xu, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal activity triggers endocytosis at synaptic terminals to retrieve efficiently the exocytosed vesicle membrane, ensuring the membrane homeostasis of active zones and the continuous supply of releasable vesicles. The kinetics of endocytosis depends on Ca(2+) and calmodulin which, as a versatile signal pathway, can activate a broad spectrum of downstream targets, including myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). MLCK is known to regulate vesicle trafficking and synaptic transmission, but whether this kinase regulates vesicle endocytosis at synapses remains elusive. We investigated this issue at the rat calyx of Held synapse, where previous studies using whole-cell membrane capacitance measurement have characterized two common forms of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent endocytosis, i.e., slow clathrin-dependent endocytosis and rapid endocytosis. Acute inhibition of MLCK with pharmacological agents was found to slow down the kinetics of both slow and rapid forms of endocytosis at calyces. Similar impairment of endocytosis occurred when blocking myosin II, a motor protein that can be phosphorylated upon MLCK activation. The inhibition of endocytosis was not accompanied by a change in Ca(2+) channel current. Combined inhibition of MLCK and calmodulin did not induce synergistic inhibition of endocytosis. Together, our results suggest that activation of MLCK accelerates both slow and rapid forms of vesicle endocytosis at nerve terminals, likely by functioning downstream of Ca(2+)/calmodulin.

  1. Head-to-tail regulation is critical for the in vivo function of myosin V

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Kirk W.

    2015-01-01

    Cell organization requires regulated cargo transport along cytoskeletal elements. Myosin V motors are among the most conserved organelle motors and have been well characterized in both yeast and mammalian systems. Biochemical data for mammalian myosin V suggest that a head-to-tail autoinhibitory interaction is a primary means of regulation, but the in vivo significance of this interaction has not been studied. Here we generated and characterized mutations in the yeast myosin V Myo2p to reveal that it is regulated by a head-to-tail interaction and that loss of regulation renders the myosin V constitutively active. We show that an unregulated motor is very deleterious for growth, resulting in severe defects in Myo2-mediated transport processes, including secretory vesicle transport, mitochondrial inheritance, and nuclear orientation. All of the defects associated with motor misregulation could be rescued by artificially restoring regulation. Thus, spatial and temporal regulation of myosin V in vivo by a head-to-tail interaction is critical for the normal delivery functions of the motor. PMID:25940346

  2. Neuro-muscular function in the wobbler murine model of primary motor neuronopathy.

    PubMed

    Broch-Lips, Martin; Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Riisager, Anders; Schmitt-John, Thomas; Nielsen, Ole Bækgaard

    2013-10-01

    The wobbler mouse represents a model for neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons. This study explored the importance of fiber type specific changes for the contractile dysfunction of soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from wobbler mice using a specific inhibitor of force generation by the type II myosin protein. Generally, wobbler condition was associated with ~50% reductions in muscle mass and contractile capacity in both muscles. In soleus, an increase in the relative abundance of type I myosin protein was observed. Since, however, only ~40% of the fibers containing type I myosin had functional innervation whereas almost all fibers containing type II myosin were innervated, the shift toward type I myosin was without significance for the in vivo contractile phenotype. Soleus muscles from wobbler mice were further characterized by a 2-fold increase in the width of the twitches, which was associated with a reduction in the excitation frequency necessary to elicit tetanic contractions. Since the SR Ca(2+) ATPase in wobbler soleus was reduced from 22 ± 5 to 10 ± 2 nmol/g muscle tissue (P=0.0006), the increase in twitch width was most likely caused by delayed recovery of cytosolic Ca(2+). Such changes were not observed in EDL. It is concluded that the shift in myosin protein from type II to type I previously reported in both innervated and denervated wobbler muscles primarily takes place in the population of denervated muscle fibers. Since these muscles do not contribute to force generation, the transition is, therefore, of limited relevance for the contractile phenotype of the muscles. Instead, the slow contractile phenotype of wobbler soleus muscles seemed to be a consequence of reduced SR content of Ca(2+) ATPase.

  3. Myosin-Va and dynamic actin oppose microtubules to drive long-range organelle transport.

    PubMed

    Evans, Richard D; Robinson, Christopher; Briggs, Deborah A; Tooth, David J; Ramalho, Jose S; Cantero, Marta; Montoliu, Lluis; Patel, Shyamal; Sviderskaya, Elena V; Hume, Alistair N

    2014-08-04

    In animal cells, microtubule and actin tracks and their associated motors (dynein, kinesin, and myosin) are thought to regulate long- and short-range transport, respectively. Consistent with this, microtubules extend from the perinuclear centrosome to the plasma membrane and allow bidirectional cargo transport over long distances (>1 μm). In contrast, actin often comprises a complex network of short randomly oriented filaments, suggesting that myosin motors move cargo short distances. These observations underpin the "highways and local roads" model for transport along microtubule and actin tracks. The "cooperative capture" model exemplifies this view and suggests that melanosome distribution in melanocyte dendrites is maintained by long-range transport on microtubules followed by actin/myosin-Va-dependent tethering. In this study, we used cell normalization technology to quantitatively examine the contribution of microtubules and actin/myosin-Va to organelle distribution in melanocytes. Surprisingly, our results indicate that microtubules are essential for centripetal, but not centrifugal, transport. Instead, we find that microtubules retard a centrifugal transport process that is dependent on myosin-Va and a population of dynamic F-actin. Functional analysis of mutant proteins indicates that myosin-Va works as a transporter dispersing melanosomes along actin tracks whose +/barbed ends are oriented toward the plasma membrane. Overall, our data highlight the role of myosin-Va and actin in transport, and not tethering, and suggest a new model in which organelle distribution is determined by the balance between microtubule-dependent centripetal and myosin-Va/actin-dependent centrifugal transport. These observations appear to be consistent with evidence coming from other systems showing that actin/myosin networks can drive long-distance organelle transport and positioning.

  4. Myosin-Va and Dynamic Actin Oppose Microtubules to Drive Long-Range Organelle Transport

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Richard D.; Robinson, Christopher; Briggs, Deborah A.; Tooth, David J.; Ramalho, Jose S.; Cantero, Marta; Montoliu, Lluis; Patel, Shyamal; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Hume, Alistair N.

    2014-01-01

    Summary In animal cells, microtubule and actin tracks and their associated motors (dynein, kinesin, and myosin) are thought to regulate long- and short-range transport, respectively [1–8]. Consistent with this, microtubules extend from the perinuclear centrosome to the plasma membrane and allow bidirectional cargo transport over long distances (>1 μm). In contrast, actin often comprises a complex network of short randomly oriented filaments, suggesting that myosin motors move cargo short distances. These observations underpin the “highways and local roads” model for transport along microtubule and actin tracks [2]. The “cooperative capture” model exemplifies this view and suggests that melanosome distribution in melanocyte dendrites is maintained by long-range transport on microtubules followed by actin/myosin-Va-dependent tethering [5, 9]. In this study, we used cell normalization technology to quantitatively examine the contribution of microtubules and actin/myosin-Va to organelle distribution in melanocytes. Surprisingly, our results indicate that microtubules are essential for centripetal, but not centrifugal, transport. Instead, we find that microtubules retard a centrifugal transport process that is dependent on myosin-Va and a population of dynamic F-actin. Functional analysis of mutant proteins indicates that myosin-Va works as a transporter dispersing melanosomes along actin tracks whose +/barbed ends are oriented toward the plasma membrane. Overall, our data highlight the role of myosin-Va and actin in transport, and not tethering, and suggest a new model in which organelle distribution is determined by the balance between microtubule-dependent centripetal and myosin-Va/actin-dependent centrifugal transport. These observations appear to be consistent with evidence coming from other systems showing that actin/myosin networks can drive long-distance organelle transport and positioning [10, 11]. PMID:25065759

  5. Molecular Basis of Dynamic Relocalization of Dictyostelium Myosin IB*

    PubMed Central

    Brzeska, Hanna; Guag, Jake; Preston, G. Michael; Titus, Margaret A.; Korn, Edward D.

    2012-01-01

    Class I myosins have a single heavy chain comprising an N-terminal motor domain with actin-activated ATPase activity and a C-terminal globular tail with a basic region that binds to acidic phospholipids. These myosins contribute to the formation of actin-rich protrusions such as pseudopodia, but regulation of the dynamic localization to these structures is not understood. Previously, we found that Acanthamoeba myosin IC binds to acidic phospholipids in vitro through a short sequence of basic and hydrophobic amino acids, BH site, based on the charge density of the phospholipids. The tail of Dictyostelium myosin IB (DMIB) also contains a BH site. We now report that the BH site is essential for DMIB binding to the plasma membrane and describe the molecular basis of the dynamic relocalization of DMIB in live cells. Endogenous DMIB is localized uniformly on the plasma membrane of resting cells, at active protrusions and cell-cell contacts of randomly moving cells, and at the front of motile polarized cells. The BH site is required for association of DMIB with the plasma membrane at all stages where it colocalizes with phosphoinositide bisphosphate/phosphoinositide trisphosphate (PIP2/PIP3). The charge-based specificity of the BH site allows for in vivo specificity of DMIB for PIP2/PIP3 similar to the PH domain-based specificity of other class I myosins. However, DMIB-head is required for relocalization of DMIB to the front of migrating cells. Motor activity is not essential, but the actin binding site in the head is important. Thus, dynamic relocalization of DMIB is determined principally by the local PIP2/PIP3 concentration in the plasma membrane and cytoplasmic F-actin. PMID:22367211

  6. Myosin IIA-related Actomyosin Contractility Mediates Oxidative Stress-induced Neuronal Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Yingqiong; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhen; Yin, Mingzhu; Jiang, Nan; Cao, Guosheng; Yu, Boyang; Cao, Zhengyu; Kou, Junping

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis plays an important role in the progression of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. In our study, when neuronal cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an exogenous oxidant, cell apoptosis was observed with typical morphological changes including membrane blebbing, neurite retraction and cell contraction. The actomyosin system is considered to be responsible for the morphological changes, but how exactly it regulates oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis and the distinctive functions of different myosin II isoforms remain unclear. We demonstrate that myosin IIA was required for neuronal contraction, while myosin IIB was required for neuronal outgrowth in normal conditions. During H2O2-induced neuronal apoptosis, myosin IIA, rather than IIB, interacted with actin filaments to generate contractile forces that lead to morphological changes. Moreover, myosin IIA knockout using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) reduced H2O2-induced neuronal apoptosis and the associated morphological changes. We further demonstrate that caspase-3/Rho-associated kinase 1 (ROCK1) dependent phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) was required for the formation of the myosin IIA-actin complex. Meanwhile, either inhibition of myosin II ATPase with blebbistatin or knockdown of myosin IIA with siRNA reversely attenuated caspase-3 activation, suggesting a positive feedback loop during oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Based on our observation, myosin IIA-actin complex contributes to actomyosin contractility and is associated with the positive feedback loop of caspase-3/ROCK1/MLC pathway. This study unravels the biochemical and mechanistic mechanisms during oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis and may be applicable for the development of therapies for CNS diseases. PMID:28352215

  7. Myosin‑II heavy chain and formin mediate the targeting of myosin essential light chain to the division site before and during cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhonghui; Okada, Satoshi; Cai, Guoping; Zhou, Bing; Bi, Erfei

    2015-01-01

    MLC1 is a haploinsufficient gene encoding the essential light chain for Myo1, the sole myosin‑II heavy chain in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mlc1 defines an essential hub that coordinates actomyosin ring function, membrane trafficking, and septum formation during cytokinesis by binding to IQGAP, myosin‑II, and myosin‑V. However, the mechanism of how Mlc1 is targeted to the division site during the cell cycle remains unsolved. By constructing a GFP‑tagged MLC1 under its own promoter control and using quantitative live‑cell imaging coupled with yeast mutants, we found that septin ring and actin filaments mediate the targeting of Mlc1 to the division site before and during cytokinesis, respectively. Both mechanisms contribute to and are collectively required for the accumulation of Mlc1 at the division site during cytokinesis. We also found that Myo1 plays a major role in the septin‑dependent Mlc1 localization before cytokinesis, whereas the formin Bni1 plays a major role in the actin filament–dependent Mlc1 localization during cytokinesis. Such a two‑tiered mechanism for Mlc1 localization is presumably required for the ordered assembly and robustness of cytokinesis machinery and is likely conserved across species. PMID:25631819

  8. Identification of signals that facilitate isoform specific nucleolar localization of myosin IC.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Ryan S; Ihnatovych, Ivanna; Yunus, Sharifah Z S A; Domaradzki, Tera; Hofmann, Wilma A

    2013-05-01

    Myosin IC is a single headed member of the myosin superfamily that localizes to the cytoplasm and the nucleus, where it is involved in transcription by RNA polymerases I and II, intranuclear transport, and nuclear export. In mammalian cells, three isoforms of myosin IC are expressed that differ only in the addition of short isoform-specific N-terminal peptides. Despite the high sequence homology, the isoforms show differences in cellular distribution, in localization to nuclear substructures, and in their interaction with nuclear proteins through yet unknown mechanisms. In this study, we used EGFP-fusion constructs that express truncated or mutated versions of myosin IC isoforms to detect regions that are involved in isoform-specific localization. We identified two nucleolar localization signals (NoLS). One NoLS is located in the myosin IC isoform B specific N-terminal peptide, the second NoLS is located upstream of the neck region within the head domain. We demonstrate that both NoLS are functional and necessary for nucleolar localization of specifically myosin IC isoform B. Our data provide a first mechanistic explanation for the observed functional differences between the myosin IC isoforms and are an important step toward our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that regulate the various and distinct functions of myosin IC isoforms.

  9. Myosin V and Kinesin act as tethers to enhance each others' processivity

    PubMed Central

    Ali, M. Yusuf; Lu, Hailong; Bookwalter, Carol S.; Warshaw, David M.; Trybus, Kathleen M.

    2008-01-01

    Organelle transport to the periphery of the cell involves coordinated transport between the processive motors kinesin and myosin V. Long-range transport takes place on microtubule tracks, whereas final delivery involves shorter actin-based movements. The concept that motors only function on their appropriate track required further investigation with the recent observation that myosin V undergoes a diffusional search on microtubules. Here we show, using single-molecule techniques, that a functional consequence of myosin V's diffusion on microtubules is a significant enhancement of the processive run length of kinesin when both motors are present on the same cargo. The degree of run length enhancement correlated with the net positive charge in loop 2 of myosin V. On actin, myosin V also undergoes longer processive runs when kinesin is present on the same cargo. The process that causes run length enhancement on both cytoskeletal tracks is electrostatic. We propose that one motor acts as a tether for the other and prevents its diffusion away from the track, thus allowing more steps to be taken before dissociation. The resulting run length enhancement likely contributes to the successful delivery of cargo in the cell. PMID:18347333

  10. Force Generation by Membrane-Associated Myosin-I

    PubMed Central

    Pyrpassopoulos, Serapion; Arpağ, Göker; Feeser, Elizabeth A.; Shuman, Henry; Tüzel, Erkan; Ostap, E. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate myosin-IC (Myo1c) is a type-1 myosin that links cell membranes to the cytoskeleton via its actin-binding motor domain and its phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2)-binding tail domain. While it is known that Myo1c bound to PtdIns(4,5)P2 in fluid-lipid bilayers can propel actin filaments in an unloaded motility assay, its ability to develop forces against external load on actin while bound to fluid bilayers has not been explored. Using optical tweezers, we measured the diffusion coefficient of single membrane-bound Myo1c molecules by force-relaxation experiments, and the ability of ensembles of membrane-bound Myo1c molecules to develop and sustain forces. To interpret our results, we developed a computational model that recapitulates the basic features of our experimental ensemble data and suggests that Myo1c ensembles can generate forces parallel to lipid bilayers, with larger forces achieved when the myosin works away from the plane of the membrane or when anchored to slowly diffusing regions. PMID:27156719

  11. Muscular tissues of the squid Doryteuthis pealeii express identical myosin heavy chain isoforms: an alternative mechanism for tuning contractile speed.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Justin F; Kier, William M

    2012-01-15

    The speed of muscle contraction is largely controlled at the sarcomere level by the ATPase activity of the motor protein myosin. Differences in amino acid sequence in catalytically important regions of myosin yield different myosin isoforms with varying ATPase activities and resulting differences in cross-bridge cycling rates and interfilamentary sliding velocities. Modulation of whole-muscle performance by changes in myosin isoform ATPase activity is regarded as a universal mechanism to tune contractile properties, especially in vertebrate muscles. Invertebrates such as squid, however, may exhibit an alternative mechanism to tune contractile properties that is based on differences in muscle ultrastructure, including variable myofilament and sarcomere lengths. To determine definitively whether contractile properties of squid muscles are regulated via different myosin isoforms (i.e. different ATPase activities), the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the myosin heavy chain from the squid Doryteuthis pealeii were determined from the mantle, arm, tentacle, fin and funnel retractor musculature. We identified three myosin heavy chain isoforms in squid muscular tissues, with differences arising at surface loop 1 and the carboxy terminus. All three isoforms were detected in all five tissues studied. These results suggest that the muscular tissues of D. pealeii express identical myosin isoforms, and it is likely that differences in muscle ultrastructure, not myosin ATPase activity, represent the most important mechanism for tuning contractile speeds.

  12. Intra-axonal myosin and actin in nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, Irvine G; Lund, Linda M

    2009-10-01

    A focused review of sciatic nerve regeneration in the rat model, based on research conducted by the authors, is presented. We examine structural proteins carried distally in the axon by energy-requiring motor enzymes, using protein chemistry and molecular biology techniques in combination with immunohistochemistry. Relevant findings from other laboratories are cited and discussed. The general conclusion is that relatively large amounts of actin and tubulin are required to construct a regenerating axon and that these materials mainly originate in the parent axon. The motor enzymes that carry these proteins forward as macromolecules include kinesin and dynein but probably also include myosin.

  13. Approaches to myosin modelling in a two-phase flow model for cell motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimpton, L. S.; Whiteley, J. P.; Waters, S. L.; Oliver, J. M.

    2016-04-01

    A wide range of biological processes rely on the ability of cells to move through their environment. Mathematical models have been developed to improve our understanding of how cells achieve motion. Here we develop models that explicitly track the cell's distribution of myosin within a two-phase flow framework. Myosin is a small motor protein which is important for contracting the cell's actin cytoskeleton and enabling cell motion. The two phases represent the actin network and the cytosol in the cell. We start from a fairly general description of myosin kinetics, advection and diffusion in the two-phase flow framework, then identify a number of sub-limits of the model that may be relevant in practice, two of which we investigate further via linear stability analyses and numerical simulations. We demonstrate that myosin-driven contraction of the actin network destabilizes a stationary steady state leading to cell motion, but that rapid diffusion of myosin and rapid unbinding of myosin from the actin network are stabilizing. We use numerical simulation to investigate travelling-wave solutions relevant to a steadily gliding cell and we consider a reduction of the model in which the cell adheres strongly to the substrate on which it is crawling. This work demonstrates that a number of existing models for the effect of myosin on cell motility can be understood as different sub-limits of our two-phase flow model.

  14. The 95F unconventional myosin is required for proper organization of the Drosophila syncytial blastoderm

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The 95F myosin, a class VI unconventional myosin, associates with particles in the cytoplasm of the Drosophila syncytial blastoderm and is required for the ATP- and F-actin-dependent translocation of these particles. The particles undergo a cell cycle-dependent redistribution from domains that surround each nucleus in interphase to transient membrane invaginations that provide a barrier between adjacent spindles during mitosis. When 95F myosin function is inhibited by antibody injection, profound defects in syncytial blastoderm organization occur. This disorganization is seen as aberrant nuclear morphology and position and is suggestive of failures in cytoskeletal function. Nuclear defects correlate with gross defects in the actin cytoskeleton, including indistinct actin caps and furrows, missing actin structures, abnormal spacing of caps, and abnormally spaced furrows. Three- dimensional examination of embryos injected with anti-95F myosin antibody reveals that actin furrows do not invaginate as deeply into the embryo as do normal furrows. These furrows do not separate adjacent mitoses, since microtubules cross over them. These inappropriate microtubule interactions lead to aberrant nuclear divisions and to the nuclear defects observed. We propose that 95F myosin function is required to generate normal actin-based transient membrane furrows. The motor activity of 95F myosin itself and/or components within the particles transported to the furrows by 95F myosin may be required for normal furrows to form. PMID:7790355

  15. Heavy chain of Acanthamoeba myosine IB is a fusion of myosin-like and non-myosin-like sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, G.; Korn, E.D.; Hammer, J.A. III

    1987-10-01

    Acanthamoeba castellanii myosins IA and IB demonstrate the catalytic properties of a myosin and can support analogues of contractile and motile activity in vitro, but their single, low molecular weight heavy chains, roughly globular shapes, and inabilities to self-assemble into filaments make them structurally atypical myosins. The authors present the complete amino acid sequence of the 128-kDa myosin IB heavy chain, which they deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the gene and which reveals that the polypeptide is a fusion of myosin-like and non-myosin-like sequences. Specifically, the amino-terminal approx. 76 kDa of amino acid sequence is highly similar to the globular head sequences of conventional myosins. By contrast, the remaining approx. 51 kDa of sequence shows no similarity to any portion of conventional myosin sequences, contains regions that are rich in glycine, proline, and alanine residues, and lacks the distinctive sequence characteristics of an ..cap alpha..-helical, coiled-coil structure. They conclude, therefore, that the protein is composed of a myosin globular head fused not to the typical coiled-coil rod-like myosin tail structure but rather to an unusual carboxyl-terminal domain. These results support the conclusion that filamentous myosin is not required for force generation and provide a further perspective on the structural requirements for myosin function. Finally, they find a striking conservation of intron/exon structure between this gene and a vertebrate muscle myosin gene. They discuss this observation in relation to the evolutionary origin of the myosin IB gene and the antiquity of myosin gene intron/exon structure.

  16. And the dead shall rise: Actin and myosin return to the spindle

    PubMed Central

    Sandquist, Joshua C.; Kita, Angela M.; Bement, William M.

    2011-01-01

    The spindle directs chromosome partitioning in eukaryotes and, for the last three decades, has been considered primarily a structure based on microtubules, microtubule motors, and other microtubule binding proteins. However, a surprisingly large body of both old and new studies suggests roles for actin filaments (F-actin) and myosins (F-actin-based motor proteins) in spindle assembly and function. Here we review these data, and conclude that in several cases the evidence for F-actin and myosins participation in spindle function is very strong, and in the situations where it is less strong, there is nevertheless enough evidence to warrant further investigation. PMID:21920311

  17. The myosin mesa and a possible unifying hypothesis for the molecular basis of human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Spudich, James A.

    2015-01-01

    No matter how many times one explores the structure of the myosin molecule, there is always something new to discover. Here, I describe the myosin mesa, a structural feature of the motor domain that has the characteristics of a binding domain for another protein, possibly myosin-binding protein C (MyBP-C). Interestingly, many well-known hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) mutations lie along this surface and may affect the putative interactions proposed here. A potential unifying hypothesis for the molecular basis of human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is discussed here. It involves increased power output of the cardiac muscle as a result of HCM mutations causing the release of inhibition by myosin binding protein C. PMID:25619247

  18. Organization of motor pools supplying the cervical musculature in a cryptodyran turtle, Pseudemys scripta elegans. II. Medial motor nucleus and muscles supplied by two motor nuclei.

    PubMed

    Yeow, M B; Peterson, E H

    1986-01-08

    In this paper we describe the medial motor nucleus of Pseudemys cervical spinal cord and the motor pools of three neck muscles that exhibit an unusual pattern of innervation. Cells of the medial motor nucleus form a longitudinal column at the dorsomedial gray/white border of the ventral horn from C1 through C8. In Nissl-stained transverse sections they appear fusiform with prominent medially projecting dendrites; in HRP material these dendrites are seen to cross into the contralateral ventral funiculus. Medial nuclear cells vary in size (12-31 micron in diameter) and are often relatively large (greater than 21 micron in diameter). They are significantly larger and more numerous in caudal than in rostral cervical segments. Medial nuclear cells supply three of the cervical muscles examined in this study: mm. retrahens capitis collique (RCCQ), testocervicis, and longus colli. These three muscles differ from other cervical muscles in Pseudemys and from vertebrate limb muscles in that they are supplied in parallel by two populations of motor neurons: the medial and ventral motor nuclei (cf. Yeow and Peterson, '86). Ventral nuclear cells supplying these three muscles are organized into a musculotopic pattern with m. testocervicis motor neurons most medial and m. RCCQ motor neurons lateral; in contrast, the location of medial nuclear motor neurons is invariant with respect to muscle position. HRP-positive medial nuclear cells are sometimes smaller (m. testocervicis) but more often are as large or larger (mm. RCCQ and longus colli) than ventral nuclear cells supplying the same muscles, thus suggesting that they supply extrafusal muscle fibers, perhaps different muscle unit types in the three muscles. Based on the morphology of medial nuclear cells and the probable actions of the muscles they innervate, we hypothesize that the medial motor nucleus may represent a discrete functional system for producing bilaterally synchronous muscle activation, and that this system is

  19. Identification of signals that facilitate isoform specific nucleolar localization of myosin IC

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, Ryan S.; Ihnatovych, Ivanna; Yunus, Sharifah Z.S.A.; Domaradzki, Tera; Hofmann, Wilma A.

    2013-05-01

    Myosin IC is a single headed member of the myosin superfamily that localizes to the cytoplasm and the nucleus, where it is involved in transcription by RNA polymerases I and II, intranuclear transport, and nuclear export. In mammalian cells, three isoforms of myosin IC are expressed that differ only in the addition of short isoform-specific N-terminal peptides. Despite the high sequence homology, the isoforms show differences in cellular distribution, in localization to nuclear substructures, and in their interaction with nuclear proteins through yet unknown mechanisms. In this study, we used EGFP-fusion constructs that express truncated or mutated versions of myosin IC isoforms to detect regions that are involved in isoform-specific localization. We identified two nucleolar localization signals (NoLS). One NoLS is located in the myosin IC isoform B specific N-terminal peptide, the second NoLS is located upstream of the neck region within the head domain. We demonstrate that both NoLS are functional and necessary for nucleolar localization of specifically myosin IC isoform B. Our data provide a first mechanistic explanation for the observed functional differences between the myosin IC isoforms and are an important step toward our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that regulate the various and distinct functions of myosin IC isoforms. - Highlights: ► Two NoLS have been identified in the myosin IC isoform B sequence. ► Both NoLS are necessary for myosin IC isoform B specific nucleolar localization. ► First mechanistic explanation of functional differences between the isoforms.

  20. Active fluidization of polymer networks through molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, D; Duggan, C; Saha, D; Smith, D; Käs, J

    2002-03-28

    Entangled polymer solutions and melts exhibit elastic, solid-like resistance to quick deformations and a viscous, fluid-like response to slow deformations. This viscoelastic behaviour reflects the dynamics of individual polymer chains driven by brownian motion: since individual chains can only move in a snake-like fashion through the mesh of surrounding polymer molecules, their diffusive transport, described by reptation, is so slow that the relaxation of suddenly imposed stress is delayed. Entangled polymer solutions and melts therefore elastically resist deforming motions that occur faster than the stress relaxation time. Here we show that the protein myosin II permits active control over the viscoelastic behaviour of actin filament solutions. We find that when each actin filament in a polymerized actin solution interacts with at least one myosin minifilament, the stress relaxation time of the polymer solution is significantly shortened. We attribute this effect to myosin's action as a 'molecular motor', which allows it to interact with randomly oriented actin filaments and push them through the solution, thus enhancing longitudinal filament motion. By superseding reptation with sliding motion, the molecular motors thus overcome a fundamental principle of complex fluids: that only depolymerization makes an entangled, isotropic polymer solution fluid for quick deformations.

  1. Myosin types in cultured muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Fluorescent antibodies against fast skeletal, slow skeletal, and ventricular myosins were applied to muscle cultures from embryonic pectoralis and ventricular myocadium of the chicken. A number of spindle-shaped mononucleated cells, presumably myoblasts, and all myotubes present in skeletal muscle cultures were labeled by all three antimyosin antisera. In contrast, in cultures from ventricular myocardium all muscle cells were labeled by anti-ventricular myosin, whereas only part of them were stained by anti-slow skeletal myosin and rare cells reacted with anti-fast skeletal myosin. The findings indicate that myosin(s) present in cultured embryonic skeletal muscle cells contains antigenic determinants similar to those present in adult fast skeletal, slow skeletal, and ventricular myosins. PMID:6156177

  2. Identification of age-dependent motor and neuropsychological behavioural abnormalities in a mouse model of Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II

    PubMed Central

    Gleitz, Hélène F. E.; O’Leary, Claire; Holley, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    Severe mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is a progressive lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the IDS gene, leading to a deficiency in the iduronate-2-sulfatase enzyme that is involved in heparan sulphate and dermatan sulphate catabolism. In constitutive form, MPS II is a multi-system disease characterised by progressive neurocognitive decline, severe skeletal abnormalities and hepatosplenomegaly. Although enzyme replacement therapy has been approved for treatment of peripheral organs, no therapy effectively treats the cognitive symptoms of the disease and novel therapies are in development to remediate this. Therapeutic efficacy and subsequent validation can be assessed using a variety of outcome measures that are translatable to clinical practice, such as behavioural measures. We sought to consolidate current knowledge of the cognitive, skeletal and motor abnormalities present in the MPS II mouse model by performing time course behavioural examinations of working memory, anxiety, activity levels, sociability and coordination and balance, up to 8 months of age. Cognitive decline associated with alterations in spatial working memory is detectable at 8 months of age in MPS II mice using spontaneous alternation, together with an altered response to novel environments and anxiolytic behaviour in the open-field. Coordination and balance on the accelerating rotarod were also significantly worse at 8 months, and may be associated with skeletal changes seen in MPS II mice. We demonstrate that the progressive nature of MPS II disease is also seen in the mouse model, and that cognitive and motor differences are detectable at 8 months of age using spontaneous alternation, the accelerating rotarod and the open-field tests. This study establishes neurological, motor and skeletal measures for use in pre-clinical studies to develop therapeutic approaches in MPS II. PMID:28207863

  3. Structural studies of rigor bovine myofibrils using fluorescence microscopy. II. Influence of sarcomere length on the binding of myosin subfragment-1, alpha-actinin and G-actin to rigor myofibrils.

    PubMed

    Swartz, D R; Greaser, M L; Marsh, B B

    1993-01-01

    Sarcomere length influences the textural quality of meat, yet the molecular basis for the mechanism of post-mortem shortening and the toughness associated with shortened muscle remain obscure. Bovine and rabbit myofibrillar structure was investigated over a range of sarcomere lengths (SL), using the high affinity of the myosin head for actin and of alpha-actinin for the Z-line. Myofibrils were incubated with fluorescent conjugates of myosin subfragment-1 (S1), alpha-actinin and actin. When S1 and alpha-actinin were added together, S1 bound in the I-band and A-band but not at the Z-line, while alpha-actinin bound at the Z-line. The pattern of S1 binding was highly influenced by SL, and could be explained using a model with the ratio of myofibrillar actin to myosin heads in the overlap region of 2:1 and thin filament penetration into opposing half sarcomeres. Double staining with S1 and actin demonstrated that, once the tip of the thin filament reached the bare zone, few intrinsic myosin heads were available for fluorescent actin. The patterns observed for both S1 and actin staining suggest that myofibrillar rigor bonds form even at very short SL. These observations lead to the hypothesis that the toughness associated with short sarcomeres is due to thick-filament interactions and not to the density of rigor bonds in the myofibril. Regulation of S1 binding was investigated by incubating myofibrils with low levels of fluorescent S1 in the presence and absence of calcium; S1 binding was in the overlap region when calcium was absent, but in the I-band when it was present. These results suggest that the thin filament can be activated for muscle shortening by the binding of myosin heads, a mechanism that may contribute to post-mortem muscle shortening.

  4. Transportation of nanoscale cargoes by myosin propelled actin filaments.

    PubMed

    Persson, Malin; Gullberg, Maria; Tolf, Conny; Lindberg, A Michael; Månsson, Alf; Kocer, Armagan

    2013-01-01

    Myosin II propelled actin filaments move ten times faster than kinesin driven microtubules and are thus attractive candidates as cargo-transporting shuttles in motor driven lab-on-a-chip devices. In addition, actomyosin-based transportation of nanoparticles is useful in various fundamental studies. However, it is poorly understood how actomyosin function is affected by different number of nanoscale cargoes, by cargo size, and by the mode of cargo-attachment to the actin filament. This is studied here using biotin/fluorophores, streptavidin, streptavidin-coated quantum dots, and liposomes as model cargoes attached to monomers along the actin filaments ("side-attached") or to the trailing filament end via the plus end capping protein CapZ. Long-distance transportation (>100 µm) could be seen for all cargoes independently of attachment mode but the fraction of motile filaments decreased with increasing number of side-attached cargoes, a reduction that occurred within a range of 10-50 streptavidin molecules, 1-10 quantum dots or with just 1 liposome. However, as observed by monitoring these motile filaments with the attached cargo, the velocity was little affected. This also applied for end-attached cargoes where the attachment was mediated by CapZ. The results with side-attached cargoes argue against certain models for chemomechanical energy transduction in actomyosin and give important insights of relevance for effective exploitation of actomyosin-based cargo-transportation in molecular diagnostics and other nanotechnological applications. The attachment of quantum dots via CapZ, without appreciable modulation of actomyosin function, is useful in fundamental studies as exemplified here by tracking with nanometer accuracy.

  5. Transmembrane myosin chitin synthase involved in mollusc shell formation produced in Dictyostelium is active.

    PubMed

    Schönitzer, Veronika; Eichner, Norbert; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Weiss, Ingrid M

    2011-12-02

    Several mollusc shells contain chitin, which is formed by a transmembrane myosin motor enzyme. This protein could be involved in sensing mechanical and structural changes of the forming, mineralizing extracellular matrix. Here we report the heterologous expression of the transmembrane myosin chitin synthase Ar-CS1 of the bivalve mollusc Atrina rigida (2286 amino acid residues, M.W. 264 kDa/monomer) in Dictyostelium discoideum, a model organism for myosin motor proteins. Confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy (CLSM), chitin binding GFP detection of chitin on cells and released to the cell culture medium, and a radiochemical activity assay of membrane extracts revealed expression and enzymatic activity of the mollusc chitin synthase in transgenic slime mold cells. First high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of Ar-CS1 transformed cellulose synthase deficient D. discoideumdcsA(-) cell lines are shown.

  6. Skeletal muscle myosin cross-bridge cycling is necessary for myofibrillogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Indu; Terry, Monica; Ferrari, Michael B

    2003-05-01

    A major stimulus affecting myofibrillogenesis in both embryonic and mature striated muscle is contractile activity. There are two major signals associated with contractile activity: a physiological signal, the transient increase in intracellular calcium, and a physical signal, the transient increase in tension production. However, dissociating these two signals to examine their relative contributions to myofibrillogenesis has proven difficult. In this study, we have used two different myosin inhibitors to determine the importance of myosin cross-bridge cycling in sarcomere assembly. We find that the small-molecule inhibitor 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM), which inhibits myosin ATPase, disrupts myofibrillogenesis in amphibian myocytes, consistent with results from avian studies. However, BDM is a weak myosin inhibitor and it is non-specific; concentrations that inhibit contraction and disrupt myofibrillogenesis also disrupt calcium signaling. Therefore, we also used the recently identified skeletal muscle myosin II inhibitor, N-benzyl-p-toluenesulphonamide (BTS), which has high affinity and specificity for skeletal muscle fast myosin. BTS inhibits contraction and results in myofibrillar disruption that phenocopies our results with BDM. However, BTS does not affect either spontaneous or induced calcium transients. Furthermore, BTS is reversible and does not significantly affect the expression levels of myosin or actin. Thus, our convergent results with BDM and BTS suggest that sarcomere assembly depends on active regulation of tension in the forming myofibril.

  7. Coiled-Coil–Mediated Dimerization Is Not Required for Myosin VI to Stabilize Actin during Spermatid Individualization in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Tatsuhiko; Frank, Deborah J.; Isaji, Mamiko

    2009-01-01

    Myosin VI is a pointed-end–directed actin motor that is thought to function as both a transporter of cargoes and an anchor, capable of binding cellular components to actin for long periods. Dimerization via a predicted coiled coil was hypothesized to regulate activity and motor properties. However, the importance of the coiled-coil sequence has not been tested in vivo. We used myosin VI's well-defined role in actin stabilization during Drosophila spermatid individualization to test the importance in vivo of the predicted coiled coil. If myosin VI functions as a dimer, a forced dimer should fully rescue myosin VI loss of function defects, including actin stabilization, actin cone movement, and cytoplasmic exclusion by the cones. Conversely, a molecule lacking the coiled coil should not rescue at all. Surprisingly, neither prediction was correct, because each rescued partially and the molecule lacking the coiled coil functioned better than the forced dimer. In extracts, no cross-linking into higher molecular weight forms indicative of dimerization was observed. In addition, a sequence required for altering nucleotide kinetics to make myosin VI dimers processive is not required for myosin VI's actin stabilization function. We conclude that myosin VI does not need to dimerize via the predicted coiled coil to stabilize actin in vivo. PMID:19005209

  8. Electron Tomography of Cryofixed, Isometrically Contracting Insect Flight Muscle Reveals Novel Actin-Myosin Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shenping; Liu, Jun; Reedy, Mary C.; Tregear, Richard T.; Winkler, Hanspeter; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Lucaveche, Carmen; Goldman, Yale E.; Reedy, Michael K.; Taylor, Kenneth A.

    2010-10-22

    Isometric muscle contraction, where force is generated without muscle shortening, is a molecular traffic jam in which the number of actin-attached motors is maximized and all states of motor action are trapped with consequently high heterogeneity. This heterogeneity is a major limitation to deciphering myosin conformational changes in situ. We used multivariate data analysis to group repeat segments in electron tomograms of isometrically contracting insect flight muscle, mechanically monitored, rapidly frozen, freeze substituted, and thin sectioned. Improved resolution reveals the helical arrangement of F-actin subunits in the thin filament enabling an atomic model to be built into the thin filament density independent of the myosin. Actin-myosin attachments can now be assigned as weak or strong by their motor domain orientation relative to actin. Myosin attachments were quantified everywhere along the thin filament including troponin. Strong binding myosin attachments are found on only four F-actin subunits, the 'target zone', situated exactly midway between successive troponin complexes. They show an axial lever arm range of 77{sup o}/12.9 nm. The lever arm azimuthal range of strong binding attachments has a highly skewed, 127{sup o} range compared with X-ray crystallographic structures. Two types of weak actin attachments are described. One type, found exclusively in the target zone, appears to represent pre-working-stroke intermediates. The other, which contacts tropomyosin rather than actin, is positioned M-ward of the target zone, i.e. the position toward which thin filaments slide during shortening. We present a model for the weak to strong transition in the myosin ATPase cycle that incorporates azimuthal movements of the motor domain on actin. Stress/strain in the S2 domain may explain azimuthal lever arm changes in the strong binding attachments. The results support previous conclusions that the weak attachments preceding force generation are very

  9. In vitro receptor autoradiography reveals angiotensin IL (ANG II) binding associated with sensory and motor components of the vagus

    SciTech Connect

    Diz, D.I.; Barnes, K.L.; Ferrario, C.M.

    1986-03-05

    Specific, high affinity Ang II binding in the dog's dorsal medulla is concentrated in the area postrema, nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (dmnX). More recently Ang II binding sites were observed where bundles of vagal afferent fibers enter the dorsal medulla 6 mm rostral to obex and in the nodose ganglia and peripheral vagal nerves. Since Ang II binding in the nTS and dmnX overlies the distribution of vagal afferent fibers and efferent neurons, the effects of nodose ganglionectomy and cervical vagotomy on Ang II binding in the dorsal medulla were studied in rats and dogs using autoradiography after incubation of 14 ..mu..m coronal sections with 0.4 nM /sup 125/I-Ang II. Nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of 1 ..mu..m unlabeled Ang II. Two weeks after unilateral nodose ganglionectomy Ang II binding sites were absent ipsilaterally in the region where vagal afferent fibers enter the dorsal medulla. In the nTS and dmnX, binding near obex was reduced, while more rostrally these nuclei were almost completely devoid of Ang II binding on the denervated side. After cervical vagotomy, the loss of binding was restricted to the ipsilateral dmnX. These data are the first to reveal that Ang II binding in the dorsal medulla requires an intact vagal system.

  10. Early-Onset Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Mutations Significantly Increase the Velocity, Force, and Actin-Activated ATPase Activity of Human β-Cardiac Myosin.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Arjun S; Kooiker, Kristina B; Sarkar, Saswata S; Liu, Chao; Bernstein, Daniel; Spudich, James A; Ruppel, Kathleen M

    2016-12-13

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a heritable cardiovascular disorder that affects 1 in 500 people. A significant percentage of HCM is attributed to mutations in β-cardiac myosin, the motor protein that powers ventricular contraction. This study reports how two early-onset HCM mutations, D239N and H251N, affect the molecular biomechanics of human β-cardiac myosin. We observed significant increases (20%-90%) in actin gliding velocity, intrinsic force, and ATPase activity in comparison to wild-type myosin. Moreover, for H251N, we found significantly lower binding affinity between the S1 and S2 domains of myosin, suggesting that this mutation may further increase hyper-contractility by releasing active motors. Unlike previous HCM mutations studied at the molecular level using human β-cardiac myosin, early-onset HCM mutations lead to significantly larger changes in the fundamental biomechanical parameters and show clear hyper-contractility.

  11. Beam finite-element model of a molecular motor for the simulation of active fibre networks

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Kei W.; Birzle, Anna M.; Wall, Wolfgang A.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular motors are proteins that excessively increase the efficiency of subcellular transport processes. They allow for cell division, nutrient transport and even macroscopic muscle movement. In order to understand the effect of motors in large biopolymer networks, e.g. the cytoskeleton, we require a suitable model of a molecular motor. In this contribution, we present such a model based on a geometrically exact beam finite-element formulation. We discuss the numerical model of a non-processive motor such as myosin II, which interacts with actin filaments. Based on experimental data and inspired by the theoretical understanding offered by the power-stroke model and the swinging-cross-bridge model, we parametrize our numerical model in order to achieve the effect that a physiological motor has on its cargo. To this end, we introduce the mechanical and mathematical foundations of the model, then discuss its calibration, prove its usefulness by conducting finite-element simulations of actin–myosin motility assays and assess the influence of motors on the rheology of semi-flexible biopolymer networks. PMID:26997891

  12. Special Feature: Liquids and Structural Glasses Special Feature: An active biopolymer network controlled by molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenderink, Gijsje H.; Dogic, Zvonimir; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Bendix, Poul M.; MacKintosh, Frederick C.; Hartwig, John H.; Stossel, Thomas P.; Weitz, David A.

    2009-09-01

    We describe an active polymer network in which processive molecular motors control network elasticity. This system consists of actin filaments cross-linked by filamin A (FLNa) and contracted by bipolar filaments of muscle myosin II. The myosin motors stiffen the network by more than two orders of magnitude by pulling on actin filaments anchored in the network by FLNa cross-links, thereby generating internal stress. The stiffening response closely mimics the effects of external stress applied by mechanical shear. Both internal and external stresses can drive the network into a highly nonlinear, stiffened regime. The active stress reaches values that are equivalent to an external stress of 14 Pa, consistent with a 1-pN force per myosin head. This active network mimics many mechanical properties of cells and suggests that adherent cells exert mechanical control by operating in a nonlinear regime where cell stiffness is sensitive to changes in motor activity. This design principle may be applicable to engineering novel biologically inspired, active materials that adjust their own stiffness by internal catalytic control.

  13. Inhibition of Myosin ATPase activity by halogenated pseudilins: a structure-activity study.

    PubMed

    Preller, Matthias; Chinthalapudi, Krishna; Martin, Renee; Knolker, Hans-Joachim; Manstein, Dietmar J

    2011-06-09

    Myosin activity is crucial for many biological functions. Strong links have been established between changes in the activity of specific myosin isoforms and diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular failure, and disorders of sensory organs and the central nervous system. The modulation of specific myosin isoforms therefore holds a strong therapeutic potential. In recent work, we identified members of the marine alkaloid family of pseudilins as potent inhibitors of myosin-dependent processes. Here, we report the crystal structure of the complex between the Dictyostelium myosin 2 motor domain and 2,4-dichloro-6-(3,4,5-tribromo-1H-pyrrole-2-yl)phenol (3). Detailed comparison with previously solved structures of the myosin 2 complex with bound pentabromopseudilin (2a) or pentachloropseudilin (4a) provides insights into the molecular basis of the allosteric communication between the catalytic and the allosteric sites. Moreover, we describe the inhibitory potency for a congeneric series of halogenated pseudilins. Insight into their mode of action is gained by applying a combination of experimental and computational approaches.

  14. Competition and compensation: dissecting the biophysical and functional differences between the class 3 myosin paralogs, myosins 3a and 3b.

    PubMed

    Manor, Uri; Grati, M'hamed; Yengo, Christopher M; Kachar, Bechara; Gov, Nir S

    2012-01-01

    Stereocilia are actin protrusions with remarkably well-defined lengths and organization. A flurry of recent papers has reported multiple myosin motor proteins involved in regulating stereocilia structures by transporting actin-regulatory cargo to the tips of stereocilia. In our recent paper, we show that two paralogous class 3 myosins--Myo3a and Myo3b--both transport the actin-regulatory protein Espin 1 (Esp1) to stereocilia and filopodia tips in a remarkably similar, albeit non-identical fashion. (1) Here we present experimental and computational data that suggests that subtle differences between these two proteins' biophysical and biochemical properties can help us understand how these myosin species target and regulate the lengths of actin protrusions.

  15. Involvement of myosin VI immunoanalog in pinocytosis and phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Magdalena; Wasik, Anna; Kłopocka, Wanda; Redowicz, Maria Jolanta

    2008-12-01

    Recently, we found a 130-kDa myosin VI immunoanalog in amoeba, which bound to actin in an ATP-sensitive manner and in migrating amoebae colocalized to filamentous actin and dynamin II-containing vesicular structures. To further characterize this protein, we assessed its involvement in amoeba pinocytosis and phagocytosis. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy of immunogold-stained cells revealed that, in pinocytotic and phagocytotic amoebae, the myosin VI immunoanalog was visible throughout the cells, including pinocytotic channels and pinocytotic vesicles as well as phagosomes and emerging phagocytic cups. Blocking endogenous protein with anti-porcine myosin VI antibody (introduced into cells by means of microinjection) caused severe defects in pinocytosis and phagocytosis. In comparison with control cells, the treated amoebae formed ~75% less pinocytotic channels and phagocytosed ~65% less Tetrahymena cells. These data indicate that the myosin VI immunoanalog has an important role in pinocytosis and phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus (Pal.).

  16. A model of stereocilia adaptation based on single molecule mechanical studies of myosin I.

    PubMed Central

    Batters, Christopher; Wallace, Mark I; Coluccio, Lynne M; Molloy, Justin E

    2004-01-01

    We have used an optical tweezers-based apparatus to perform single molecule mechanical experiments using the unconventional myosins, Myo1b and Myo1c. The single-headed nature and slow ATPase kinetics of these myosins make them ideal for detailed studies of the molecular mechanism of force generation by acto-myosin. Myo1c exhibits several features that have not been seen using fast skeletal muscle myosin II. (i) The working stroke occurs in two, distinct phases, producing an initial 3 nm and then a further 1.5 nm of movement. (ii) Two types of binding interaction were observed: short-lived ATP-independent binding events that produced no movement and longer-lived, ATP-dependent events that produced a full working stroke. The stiffness of both types of interaction was similar. (iii) In a new type of experiment, using feedback to apply controlled displacements to a single acto-myosin cross-bridge, we found abrupt changes in force during attachment of the acto-Myo1b cross-bridge, a result that is consistent with the classical 'T2' behaviour of single muscle fibres. Given that these myosins might exhibit the classical T2 behaviour, we propose a new model to explain the slow phase of sensory adaptation of the hair cells of the inner ear. PMID:15647165

  17. Thermal overload protection for electric motors on safety-related motor-operated valves: Generic Issue II. E. 6. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Rothberg, O.

    1988-06-01

    NRC regulatory positions, as stated in Regulatory Guide 1.106, Revision 1, have been identified by the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) as potential contributors to valve motor burnout. AEOD is particularly concerned about the allowed policy of bypassing thermal overload devices during normal or accident conditions. Regulatory Guide 1.106 favors compromising the function of thermal overload devices in favor of completing the safety-related action of valves. The purpose of this study was to determine if the guidance contained in Regulatory Guide 1.106 is appropriate and, if not, to recommend the necessary changes. This report describes thermal overload devices commonly used to protect safety-related valve operator motors. The regulatory guidelines stated in Regulatory Guide 1.106 along with the limitations of thermal overload protection are discussed. Supplements and alternatives to thermal overload protection are also described. Findings and conclusions of several AEOD reports are discussed. Information obtained from the standard review plan, standard technical specifications, technical specifications from representative plants, and several papers are cited.

  18. Mapping interactions between myosin relay and converter domains that power muscle function.

    PubMed

    Kronert, William A; Melkani, Girish C; Melkani, Anju; Bernstein, Sanford I

    2014-05-02

    Intramolecular communication within myosin is essential for its function as motor, but the specific amino acid residue interactions required are unexplored within muscle cells. Using Drosophila melanogaster skeletal muscle myosin, we performed a novel in vivo molecular suppression analysis to define the importance of three relay loop amino acid residues (Ile(508), Asn(509), and Asp(511)) in communicating with converter domain residue Arg(759). We found that the N509K relay mutation suppressed defects in myosin ATPase, in vitro motility, myofibril stability, and muscle function associated with the R759E converter mutation. Through molecular modeling, we define a mechanism for this interaction and suggest why the I508K and D511K relay mutations fail to suppress R759E. Interestingly, I508K disabled motor function and myofibril assembly, suggesting that productive relay-converter interaction is essential for both processes. We conclude that the putative relay-converter interaction mediated by myosin residues 509 and 759 is critical for the biochemical and biophysical function of skeletal muscle myosin and the normal ultrastructural and mechanical properties of muscle.

  19. Biochemical and bioinformatic analysis of the MYO19 motor domain

    PubMed Central

    Adikes, Rebecca C.; Unrath, William C.; Yengo, Christopher M.; Quintero, Omar A.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics are dependent on both the microtubule and actin cytoskeletal systems. Evidence for the involvement of myosin motors has been described in many systems, and until recently a candidate mitochondrial transport motor had not been described in vertebrates. Myosin-XIX (MYO19) was predicted to represent a novel class of myosin and had previously been shown to bind to mitochondria and increase mitochondrial network dynamics when ectopically expressed. Our analyses comparing ∼40 MYO19 orthologs to ∼2000 other myosin motor domain sequences identified instances of homology well-conserved within class XIX myosins that were not found in other myosin classes, suggesting MYO19-specific mechanochemistry. Steady-state biochemical analyses of the MYO19 motor domain indicate that Homo sapiens MYO19 is a functional motor. Insect cell-expressed constructs bound calmodulin as a light chain at the predicted stoichiometry and displayed actin-activated ATPase activity. MYO19 constructs demonstrated high actin affinity in the presence of ATP in actin-cosedimentation assays, and translocated actin filaments in gliding assays. Expression of GFP-MYO19 containing a mutation impairing ATPase activity did not enhance mitochondrial network dynamics, as occurs with wild-type MYO19, indicating that myosin motor activity is required for mitochondrial motility. The measured biochemical properties of MYO19 suggest it is a high-duty ratio motor that could serve to transport mitochondria or anchor mitochondria, depending upon the cellular microenvironment. PMID:23568824

  20. Defocused orientation and position imaging (DOPI) of myosin V.

    PubMed

    Toprak, Erdal; Enderlein, Joerg; Syed, Sheyum; McKinney, Sean A; Petschek, Rolfe G; Ha, Taekjip; Goldman, Yale E; Selvin, Paul R

    2006-04-25

    The centroid of a fluorophore can be determined within approximately 1.5-nm accuracy from its focused image through fluorescence imaging with one-nanometer accuracy (FIONA). If, instead, the sample is moved away from the focus, the point-spread-function depends on both the position and 3D orientation of the fluorophore, which can be calculated by defocused orientation and position imaging (DOPI). DOPI does not always yield position accurately, but it is possible to switch back and forth between focused and defocused imaging, thereby getting the centroid and the orientation with precision. We have measured the 3D orientation and stepping behavior of single bifunctional rhodamine probes attached to one of the calmodulins of the light-chain domain (LCD) of myosin V as myosin V moves along actin. Concomitant with large and small steps, the LCD rotates and then dwells in the leading and trailing position, respectively. The probe angle relative to the barbed end of the actin (beta) averaged 128 degrees while the LCD was in the leading state and 57 degrees in the trailing state. The angular difference of 71 degrees represents rotation of LCD around the bound motor domain and is consistent with a 37-nm forward step size of myosin V. When beta changes, the probe rotates +/-27 degrees azimuthally around actin and then rotates back again on the next step. Our results remove degeneracy in angles and the appearance of nontilting lever arms that were reported.

  1. Myosin VI contributes to malignant proliferation of human glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rong; Fang, Xu-hao

    2016-01-01

    Previously characterized as a backward motor, myosin VI (MYO6), which belongs to myosin family, moves toward the minus end of the actin track, a direction opposite to all other known myosin members. Recent researches have illuminated the role of MYO6 in human cancers, particularly in prostate cancer. However, the role of MYO6 in glioma has not yet been determined. In this study, to explore the role of MYO6 in human glioma, lentivirus-delivered short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting MYO6 was designed to stably down-regulate its endogenous expression in glioblastoma cells U251. Knockdown of MYO6 signifi cantly inhibited viability and proliferation of U251 cells in vitro. Moreover, the cell cycle of U251 cells was arrested at G0/G1 phase with the absence of MYO6, which could contribute to the suppression of cell proliferation. In conclusion, we firstly identified the crucial involvement of MYO6 in human glioma. The inhibition of MYO6 by shRNA might be a potential therapeutic method in human glioma. PMID:26937209

  2. Multidimensional structure-function relationships in human β-cardiac myosin from population-scale genetic variation.

    PubMed

    Homburger, Julian R; Green, Eric M; Caleshu, Colleen; Sunitha, Margaret S; Taylor, Rebecca E; Ruppel, Kathleen M; Metpally, Raghu Prasad Rao; Colan, Steven D; Michels, Michelle; Day, Sharlene M; Olivotto, Iacopo; Bustamante, Carlos D; Dewey, Frederick E; Ho, Carolyn Y; Spudich, James A; Ashley, Euan A

    2016-06-14

    Myosin motors are the fundamental force-generating elements of muscle contraction. Variation in the human β-cardiac myosin heavy chain gene (MYH7) can lead to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a heritable disease characterized by cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. How specific myosin variants alter motor function or clinical expression of disease remains incompletely understood. Here, we combine structural models of myosin from multiple stages of its chemomechanical cycle, exome sequencing data from two population cohorts of 60,706 and 42,930 individuals, and genetic and phenotypic data from 2,913 patients with HCM to identify regions of disease enrichment within β-cardiac myosin. We first developed computational models of the human β-cardiac myosin protein before and after the myosin power stroke. Then, using a spatial scan statistic modified to analyze genetic variation in protein 3D space, we found significant enrichment of disease-associated variants in the converter, a kinetic domain that transduces force from the catalytic domain to the lever arm to accomplish the power stroke. Focusing our analysis on surface-exposed residues, we identified a larger region significantly enriched for disease-associated variants that contains both the converter domain and residues on a single flat surface on the myosin head described as the myosin mesa. Notably, patients with HCM with variants in the enriched regions have earlier disease onset than patients who have HCM with variants elsewhere. Our study provides a model for integrating protein structure, large-scale genetic sequencing, and detailed phenotypic data to reveal insight into time-shifted protein structures and genetic disease.

  3. Multidimensional structure-function relationships in human β-cardiac myosin from population-scale genetic variation

    PubMed Central

    Homburger, Julian R.; Green, Eric M.; Caleshu, Colleen; Sunitha, Margaret S.; Taylor, Rebecca E.; Ruppel, Kathleen M.; Metpally, Raghu Prasad Rao; Colan, Steven D.; Michels, Michelle; Day, Sharlene M.; Olivotto, Iacopo; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Dewey, Frederick E.; Ho, Carolyn Y.; Spudich, James A.; Ashley, Euan A.

    2016-01-01

    Myosin motors are the fundamental force-generating elements of muscle contraction. Variation in the human β-cardiac myosin heavy chain gene (MYH7) can lead to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a heritable disease characterized by cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. How specific myosin variants alter motor function or clinical expression of disease remains incompletely understood. Here, we combine structural models of myosin from multiple stages of its chemomechanical cycle, exome sequencing data from two population cohorts of 60,706 and 42,930 individuals, and genetic and phenotypic data from 2,913 patients with HCM to identify regions of disease enrichment within β-cardiac myosin. We first developed computational models of the human β-cardiac myosin protein before and after the myosin power stroke. Then, using a spatial scan statistic modified to analyze genetic variation in protein 3D space, we found significant enrichment of disease-associated variants in the converter, a kinetic domain that transduces force from the catalytic domain to the lever arm to accomplish the power stroke. Focusing our analysis on surface-exposed residues, we identified a larger region significantly enriched for disease-associated variants that contains both the converter domain and residues on a single flat surface on the myosin head described as the myosin mesa. Notably, patients with HCM with variants in the enriched regions have earlier disease onset than patients who have HCM with variants elsewhere. Our study provides a model for integrating protein structure, large-scale genetic sequencing, and detailed phenotypic data to reveal insight into time-shifted protein structures and genetic disease. PMID:27247418

  4. Evaluation of Acanthamoeba myosin-IC as a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Reyes-Batlle, María; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio; Maciver, Sutherland K

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are facultative pathogens of humans, causing a sight-threatening keratitis and a fatal encephalitis. We have targeted myosin-IC by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing as a therapeutic approach, since it is known that the function of this protein is vital for the amoeba. In this work, specific siRNAs against the Acanthamoeba myosin-IC gene were developed. Treated and control amoebae were cultured in growth and encystment media to evaluate the induced effects after myosin-IC gene knockdown, as we have anticipated that cyst formation may be impaired. The effects of myosin-IC gene silencing were inhibition of cyst formation, inhibition of completion of cytokinesis, inhibition of osmoregulation under osmotic stress conditions, and death of the amoebae. The finding that myosin-IC silencing caused incompletion of cytokinesis is in agreement with earlier suggestions that the protein plays a role in cell locomotion, which is necessary to pull daughter cells apart after mitosis in a process known as "traction-mediated cytokinesis". We conclude that myosin-IC is a very promising potential drug target for the development of much-needed antiamoebal drugs and that it should be further exploited for Acanthamoeba therapy.

  5. Nonmuscle Myosin IIA Regulates Platelet Contractile Forces Through Rho Kinase and Myosin Light-Chain Kinase.

    PubMed

    Feghhi, Shirin; Tooley, Wes W; Sniadecki, Nathan J

    2016-10-01

    Platelet contractile forces play a major role in clot retraction and help to hold hemostatic clots against the vessel wall. Platelet forces are produced by its cytoskeleton, which is composed of actin and nonmuscle myosin filaments. In this work, we studied the role of Rho kinase, myosin light-chain kinase, and myosin in the generation of contractile forces by using pharmacological inhibitors and arrays of flexible microposts to measure platelet forces. When platelets were seeded onto microposts, they formed aggregates on the tips of the microposts. Forces produced by the platelets in the aggregates were measured by quantifying the deflection of the microposts, which bent in proportion to the force of the platelets. Platelets were treated with small molecule inhibitors of myosin activity: Y-27632 to inhibit the Rho kinase (ROCK), ML-7 to inhibit myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK), and blebbistatin to inhibit myosin ATPase activity. ROCK inhibition reduced platelet forces, demonstrating the importance of the assembly of actin and myosin phosphorylation in generating contractile forces. Similarly, MLCK inhibition caused weaker platelet forces, which verifies that myosin phosphorylation is needed for force generation in platelets. Platelets treated with blebbistatin also had weaker forces, which indicates that myosin's ATPase activity is necessary for platelet forces. Our studies demonstrate that myosin ATPase activity and the regulation of actin-myosin assembly by ROCK and MLCK are needed for the generation of platelet forces. Our findings illustrate and explain the importance of myosin for clot compaction in hemostasis and thrombosis.

  6. Evaluation of Acanthamoeba Myosin-IC as a Potential Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Reyes-Batlle, María; Piñero, José E.; Valladares, Basilio; Maciver, Sutherland K.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are facultative pathogens of humans, causing a sight-threatening keratitis and a fatal encephalitis. We have targeted myosin-IC by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing as a therapeutic approach, since it is known that the function of this protein is vital for the amoeba. In this work, specific siRNAs against the Acanthamoeba myosin-IC gene were developed. Treated and control amoebae were cultured in growth and encystment media to evaluate the induced effects after myosin-IC gene knockdown, as we have anticipated that cyst formation may be impaired. The effects of myosin-IC gene silencing were inhibition of cyst formation, inhibition of completion of cytokinesis, inhibition of osmoregulation under osmotic stress conditions, and death of the amoebae. The finding that myosin-IC silencing caused incompletion of cytokinesis is in agreement with earlier suggestions that the protein plays a role in cell locomotion, which is necessary to pull daughter cells apart after mitosis in a process known as “traction-mediated cytokinesis”. We conclude that myosin-IC is a very promising potential drug target for the development of much-needed antiamoebal drugs and that it should be further exploited for Acanthamoeba therapy. PMID:24468784

  7. Nonmuscle myosin IIB as a therapeutic target for the prevention of relapse to methamphetamine use.

    PubMed

    Young, E J; Blouin, A M; Briggs, S B; Sillivan, S E; Lin, L; Cameron, M D; Rumbaugh, G; Miller, C A

    2016-05-01

    Memories associated with drug use increase vulnerability to relapse in substance use disorder (SUD), and there are no pharmacotherapies for the prevention of relapse. Previously, we reported a promising finding that storage of memories associated with methamphetamine (METH), but not memories for fear or food reward, is vulnerable to disruption by actin depolymerization in the basolateral amygdala complex (BLC). However, actin is not a viable therapeutic target because of its numerous functions throughout the body. Here we report the discovery of a viable therapeutic target, nonmuscle myosin IIB (NMIIB), a molecular motor that supports memory by directly driving synaptic actin polymerization. A single intra-BLC treatment with Blebbistatin (Blebb), a small-molecule inhibitor of class II myosin isoforms, including NMIIB, produced a long-lasting disruption of context-induced drug seeking (at least 30 days). Further, postconsolidation genetic knockdown of Myh10, the heavy chain of the most highly expressed NMII in the BLC, was sufficient to produce METH-associated memory loss. Blebb was found to be highly brain penetrant. A single systemic injection of the compound selectively disrupted the storage of METH-associated memory and reversed the accompanying increase in BLC spine density. This effect was specific to METH-associated memory, as it had no effect on an auditory fear memory. The effect was also independent of retrieval, as METH-associated memory was disrupted 24 h after a single systemic injection of Blebb delivered in the home cage. Together, these results argue for the further development of small-molecule inhibitors of NMII as potential therapeutics for the prevention of SUD relapse triggered by drug associations.

  8. Myosin light chains: Teaching old dogs new tricks

    PubMed Central

    Heissler, Sarah M; Sellers, James R

    2014-01-01

    The myosin holoenzyme is a multimeric protein complex consisting of heavy chains and light chains. Myosin light chains are calmodulin family members which are crucially involved in the mechanoenzymatic function of the myosin holoenzyme. This review examines the diversity of light chains within the myosin superfamily, discusses interactions between the light chain and the myosin heavy chain as well as regulatory and structural functions of the light chain as a subunit of the myosin holoenzyme. It covers aspects of the myosin light chain in the localization of the myosin holoenzyme, protein-protein interactions and light chain binding to non-myosin binding partners. Finally, this review challenges the dogma that myosin regulatory and essential light chain exclusively associate with conventional myosin heavy chains while unconventional myosin heavy chains usually associate with calmodulin. PMID:26155737

  9. The Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Myosin Mutation R453C Alters ATP Binding and Hydrolysis of Human Cardiac β-Myosin*

    PubMed Central

    Bloemink, Marieke; Deacon, John; Langer, Stephen; Vera, Carlos; Combs, Ariana; Leinwand, Leslie; Geeves, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutation R453C results in one of the more severe forms of the myopathy. Arg-453 is found in a conserved surface loop of the upper 50-kDa domain of the myosin motor domain and lies between the nucleotide binding pocket and the actin binding site. It connects to the cardiomyopathy loop via a long α-helix, helix O, and to Switch-2 via the fifth strand of the central β-sheet. The mutation is, therefore, in a position to perturb a wide range of myosin molecular activities. We report here the first detailed biochemical kinetic analysis of the motor domain of the human β-cardiac myosin carrying the R453C mutation. A recent report of the same mutation (Sommese, R. F., Sung, J., Nag, S., Sutton, S., Deacon, J. C., Choe, E., Leinwand, L. A., Ruppel, K., and Spudich, J. A. (2013) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110, 12607–12612) found reduced ATPase and in vitro motility but increased force production using an optical trap. Surprisingly, our results show that the mutation alters few biochemical kinetic parameters significantly. The exceptions are the rate constants for ATP binding to the motor domain (reduced by 35%) and the ATP hydrolysis step/recovery stroke (slowed 3-fold), which could be the rate-limiting step for the ATPase cycle. Effects of the mutation on the recovery stroke are consistent with a perturbation of Switch-2 closure, which is required for the recovery stroke and the subsequent ATP hydrolysis. PMID:24344137

  10. Delineating cooperative responses of processive motors in living cells.

    PubMed

    Efremov, Artem K; Radhakrishnan, Anand; Tsao, David S; Bookwalter, Carol S; Trybus, Kathleen M; Diehl, Michael R

    2014-01-21

    Characterizing the collective functions of cytoskeletal motors is critical to understanding mechanisms that regulate the internal organization of eukaryotic cells as well as the roles various transport defects play in human diseases. Though in vitro assays using synthetic motor complexes have generated important insights, dissecting collective motor functions within living cells still remains challenging. Here, we show that the protein heterodimerization switches FKBP-rapalog-FRB can be harnessed in engineered COS-7 cells to compare the collective responses of kinesin-1 and myosinVa motors to changes in motor number and cargo size. The dependence of cargo velocities, travel distances, and position noise on these parameters suggests that multiple myosinVa motors can cooperate more productively than collections of kinesins in COS-7 cells. In contrast to observations with kinesin-1 motors, the velocities and run lengths of peroxisomes driven by multiple myosinVa motors are found to increase with increasing motor density, but are relatively insensitive to the higher loads associated with transporting large peroxisomes in the viscoelastic environment of the COS-7 cell cytoplasm. Moreover, these distinctions appear to be derived from the different sensitivities of kinesin-1 and myosinVa velocities and detachment rates to forces at the single-motor level. The collective behaviors of certain processive motors, like myosinVa, may therefore be more readily tunable and have more substantial roles in intracellular transport regulatory mechanisms compared with those of other cytoskeletal motors.

  11. Interplay between crosslinkers and dynamic molecular motor-induced instabilities in the moderation of biopolymer organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David; Humphrey, David; Ziebert, Falko; Zimmermann, Walter; Käs, Josef

    2006-03-01

    Structure and function of biological cells rely on the highly-dynamic self-organization of protein filaments to an intracellular cytoskeleton responsive to mechanical and chemical stimuli. While dissolving these complex cellular structures through Brownian motion is inherently slow (tens of minutes), changes in the activity of the molecular motor myosin II cause rapid order-disorder transitions within 1-2 minutes in reconstituted cytoskeletal actin networks. When motor-induced filament sliding decreases, actin network structure rapidly and reversibly self-organizes into various assemblies triggered by a nonlinear instability. Modulation of static crosslinker concentrations allow for a wide phase space of order ranging from nematics to compact asters & dense packing of motor-filament clusters. The observed isothermal transitions between disorder and self-organization illustrate that molecular motors can substantially contribute to dynamic cellular organization.

  12. Innovative Perceptual-Motor Activities: Programing Techniques that Work--Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorrell, Howard M.

    1979-01-01

    The article describes tasks that promote perceptual motor coordination in handicapped students. An introductory section provides suggestions for implementation and charts the activities in terms of emphasis on visual tracking, visual discrimination and/or copying of forms, spatial body perception, fine motor coordination, tactile discrimination,…

  13. Structural Basis for the Allosteric Interference of Myosin Function by Reactive Thiol Region Mutations G680A and G680V*

    PubMed Central

    Preller, Matthias; Bauer, Stefanie; Adamek, Nancy; Fujita-Becker, Setsuko; Fedorov, Roman; Geeves, Michael A.; Manstein, Dietmar J.

    2011-01-01

    The cold-sensitive single-residue mutation of glycine 680 in the reactive thiol region of Dictyostelium discoideum myosin-2 or the corresponding conserved glycine in other myosin isoforms has been reported to interfere with motor function. Here we present the x-ray structures of myosin motor domain mutants G680A in the absence and presence of nucleotide as well as the apo structure of mutant G680V. Our results show that the Gly-680 mutations lead to uncoupling of the reactive thiol region from the surrounding structural elements. Structural and functional data indicate that the mutations induce the preferential population of a state that resembles the ADP-bound state. Moreover, the Gly-680 mutants display greatly reduced dynamic properties, which appear to be related to the recovery of myosin motor function at elevated temperatures. PMID:21841195

  14. Direct photoaffinity labeling by nucleotides of the apparent catalytic site on the heavy chains of smooth muscle and Acanthamoeba myosins

    SciTech Connect

    Maruta, H.; Korn, E.D.

    1981-01-10

    The heavy chains of Acanthamoeba myosins, IA, IB and II, turkey gizzard myosin, and rabbit skeletal muscle myosin subfragment-1 were specifically labeled by radioactive ATP, ADP, and UTP, each of which is a substrate or product of myosin ATPase activity, when irradiated with uv light at 0/sup 0/C. With UTP, as much as 0.45 mol/mol of Acanthamoeba myosin IA heavy chain and 1 mol/mol of turkey gizzard myosin heavy chain was incorporated. Evidence that the ligands were associated with the catalytic site included the observations that reaction occurred only with nucleotides that are substrates or products of the ATPase activity; that the reaction was blocked by pyrophosphate which is an inhibitor of the ATPase activity; that ATP was bound as ADP; and that label was probably restricted to a single peptide following limited subtilisin proteolysis of labeled Acanthamoeba myosin IA heavy chain and extensive cleavage with CNBr and trypsin of labeled turkey gizzard myosin heavy chain.

  15. Effect of oil mists on the irritancy of sulfur dioxide. II. Motor oil.

    PubMed

    Costa, D L; Amdur, M O

    1979-09-01

    This study examines the effect of sub-micrometer aerosols of motor oil on the irritant potency of sulfur dioxide. The increase in pulmonary flow resistance in guinea pigs was used as the bioassay of irritant response. When administered simultaneously, both unused and used motor oil protected against the irritant response to sulfur dioxide. This protective effect was lost when the oils had been previously reacted with sulfur dioxide. The additives used in the motor oil provided an equivalent protection when dissolved in a mineral oil which alone did not protect. Pre-exposure to motor oil did not provide protection. Sulfur dioxide and motor oil given together as a pre-exposure provided protection against further exposure to sulfur dioxide.

  16. Traveling-wave piezoelectric linear motor part II: experiment and performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ting, Yung; Li, Chun-Chung; Chen, Liang-Chiang; Yang, Chieh-Min

    2007-04-01

    This article continues the discussion of a traveling-wave piezoelectric linear motor. Part I of this article dealt with the design and analysis of the stator of a traveling-wave piezoelectric linear motor. In this part, the discussion focuses on the structure and modeling of the contact layer and the carriage. In addition, the performance analysis and evaluation of the linear motor also are dealt with in this study. The traveling wave is created by stator, which is constructed by a series of bimorph actuators arranged in a line and connected to form a meander-line structure. Analytical and experimental results of the performance are presented and shown to be almost in agreement. Power losses due to friction and transmission are studied and found to be significant. Compared with other types of linear motors, the motor in this study is capable of supporting heavier loads and provides a larger thrust force.

  17. Myosin-driven transport network in plants

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Elizabeth G.; Peremyslov, Valera V.; Turner, Hannah L.; Makarova, Kira S.; Iranzo, Jaime; Mekhedov, Sergei L.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Dolja, Valerian V.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the myosin XI-driven transport network in Arabidopsis using protein–protein interaction, subcellular localization, gene knockout, and bioinformatics analyses. The two major groups of nodes in this network are myosins XI and their membrane-anchored receptors (MyoB) that, together, drive endomembrane trafficking and cytoplasmic streaming in the plant cells. The network shows high node connectivity and is dominated by generalists, with a smaller fraction of more specialized myosins and receptors. We show that interaction with myosins and association with motile vesicles are common properties of the MyoB family receptors. We identify previously uncharacterized myosin-binding proteins, putative myosin adaptors that belong to two unrelated families, with four members each (MadA and MadB). Surprisingly, MadA1 localizes to the nucleus and is rapidly transported to the cytoplasm, suggesting the existence of myosin XI-driven nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. In contrast, MadA2 and MadA3, as well as MadB1, partition between the cytosolic pools of motile endomembrane vesicles that colocalize with myosin XI-K and diffuse material that does not. Gene knockout analysis shows that MadB1–4 contribute to polarized root hair growth, phenocopying myosins, whereas MadA1–4 are redundant for this process. Phylogenetic analysis reveals congruent evolutionary histories of the myosin XI, MyoB, MadA, and MadB families. All these gene families emerged in green algae and show concurrent expansions via serial duplication in flowering plants. Thus, the myosin XI transport network increased in complexity and robustness concomitantly with the land colonization by flowering plants and, by inference, could have been a major contributor to this process. PMID:28096376

  18. Structure of the Single-lobe Myosin Light Chain C in Complex with the Light Chain-binding Domains of Myosin-1C Provides Insights into Divergent IQ Motif Recognition.

    PubMed

    Langelaan, David N; Liburd, Janine; Yang, Yidai; Miller, Emily; Chitayat, Seth; Crawley, Scott W; Côté, Graham P; Smith, Steven P

    2016-09-09

    Myosin light chains are key regulators of class 1 myosins and typically comprise two domains, with calmodulin being the archetypal example. They bind IQ motifs within the myosin neck region and amplify conformational changes in the motor domain. A single lobe light chain, myosin light chain C (MlcC), was recently identified and shown to specifically bind to two sequentially divergent IQ motifs of the Dictyostelium myosin-1C. To provide a molecular basis of this interaction, the structures of apo-MlcC and a 2:1 MlcC·myosin-1C neck complex were determined. The two non-functional EF-hand motifs of MlcC pack together to form a globular four-helix bundle that opens up to expose a central hydrophobic groove, which interacts with the N-terminal portion of the divergent IQ1 and IQ2 motifs. The N- and C-terminal regions of MlcC make critical contacts that contribute to its specific interactions with the myosin-1C divergent IQ motifs, which are contacts that deviate from the traditional mode of calmodulin-IQ recognition.

  19. Myosin IIIa boosts elongation of stereocilia by transporting espin 1 to the plus ends of actin filaments.

    PubMed

    Salles, Felipe T; Merritt, Raymond C; Manor, Uri; Dougherty, Gerard W; Sousa, Aurea D; Moore, Judy E; Yengo, Christopher M; Dosé, Andréa C; Kachar, Bechara

    2009-04-01

    Two proteins implicated in inherited deafness, myosin IIIa, a plus-end-directed motor, and espin, an actin-bundling protein containing the actin-monomer-binding motif WH2, have been shown to influence the length of mechanosensory stereocilia. Here we report that espin 1, an ankyrin repeat-containing isoform of espin, colocalizes with myosin IIIa at stereocilia tips and interacts with a unique conserved domain of myosin IIIa. We show that combined overexpression of these proteins causes greater elongation of stereocilia, compared with overexpression of either myosin IIIa alone or espin 1 alone. When these two proteins were co-expressed in the fibroblast-like COS-7 cell line they induced a tenfold elongation of filopodia. This extraordinary filopodia elongation results from the transport of espin 1 to the plus ends of F-actin by myosin IIIa and depends on espin 1 WH2 activity. This study provides the basis for understanding the role of myosin IIIa and espin 1 in regulating stereocilia length, and presents a physiological example where myosins can boost elongation of actin protrusions by transporting actin regulatory factors to the plus ends of actin filaments.

  20. Drosophila UNC-45 accumulates in embryonic blastoderm and in muscles, and is essential for muscle myosin stability.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi F; Melkani, Girish C; Yu, Qin; Suggs, Jennifer A; Kronert, William A; Suzuki, Yoko; Hipolito, Lori; Price, Maureen G; Epstein, Henry F; Bernstein, Sanford I

    2011-03-01

    UNC-45 is a chaperone that facilitates folding of myosin motor domains. We have used Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the role of UNC-45 in muscle development and function. Drosophila UNC-45 (dUNC-45) is expressed at all developmental stages. It colocalizes with non-muscle myosin in embryonic blastoderm of 2-hour-old embryos. At 14 hours, it accumulates most strongly in embryonic striated muscles, similarly to muscle myosin. dUNC-45 localizes to the Z-discs of sarcomeres in third instar larval body-wall muscles. We produced a dunc-45 mutant in which zygotic expression is disrupted. This results in nearly undetectable dUNC-45 levels in maturing embryos as well as late embryonic lethality. Muscle myosin accumulation is robust in dunc-45 mutant embryos at 14 hours. However, myosin is dramatically decreased in the body-wall muscles of 22-hour-old mutant embryos. Furthermore, electron microscopy showed only a few thick filaments and irregular thick-thin filament lattice spacing. The lethality, defective protein accumulation, and ultrastructural abnormalities are rescued with a wild-type dunc-45 transgene, indicating that the mutant phenotypes arise from the dUNC-45 deficiency. Overall, our data indicate that dUNC-45 is important for myosin accumulation and muscle function. Furthermore, our results suggest that dUNC-45 acts post-translationally for proper myosin folding and maturation.

  1. Actin-myosin network is required for proper assembly of influenza virus particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kumakura, Michiko; Kawaguchi, Atsushi Nagata, Kyosuke

    2015-02-15

    Actin filaments are known to play a central role in cellular dynamics. After polymerization of actin, various actin-crosslinking proteins including non-muscle myosin II facilitate the formation of spatially organized actin filament networks. The actin-myosin network is highly expanded beneath plasma membrane. The genome of influenza virus (vRNA) replicates in the cell nucleus. Then, newly synthesized vRNAs are nuclear-exported to the cytoplasm as ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs), followed by transport to the beneath plasma membrane where virus particles assemble. Here, we found that, by inhibiting actin-myosin network formation, the virus titer tends to be reduced and HA viral spike protein is aggregated on the plasma membrane. These results indicate that the actin-myosin network plays an important role in the virus formation. - Highlights: • Actin-myosin network is important for the influenza virus production. • HA forms aggregations at the plasma membrane in the presence of blebbistatin. • M1 is recruited to the budding site through the actin-myosin network.

  2. The heterotrimeric motor protein kinesin-II localizes to the midpiece and flagellum of sea urchin and sand dollar sperm.

    PubMed

    Henson, J H; Cole, D G; Roesener, C D; Capuano, S; Mendola, R J; Scholey, J M

    1997-01-01

    We have utilized immunoblotting and light microscopic immunofluorescent staining methods to examine the expression and localization of sea urchin kinesin-II, a heterotrimeric plus end-directed microtubule motor protein (previously referred to as KRP(85/95)), in sea urchin and sand dollar sperm. We demonstrate the presence of the 85 K and 115 K subunits of kinesin-II in sperm and localize these proteins to the sperm flagella and midpiece. The kinesin-II localization pattern is punctate and discontinuous, and in the flagella it is quite distinct from the continuous labeling present in sperm labeled with anti-flagellar dynein. The kinesin-II staining is largely insensitive to prefixation detergent extraction, suggesting that it is not associated with membranous elements in the sperm. In the midpiece the kinesin-II staining is similar to the pattern present in sperm labeled with an anti-centrosomal antibody. To our knowledge, this is the first localization of kinesin-like proteins in mature sperm and corroborates the recent identification and localization of kinesin-like proteins in the flagella and basal body of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas. We hypothesize that kinesin-II in the sperm may play functional roles in intraflagellar transport and/or the formation of flagella during spermatogenesis.

  3. Research on combustion instability and application to solid propellant rocket motors. II.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culick, F. E. C.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the current state of analyses of combustion instability in solid-propellant rocket motors, citing appropriate measurements and observations. The work discussed has become increasingly important, both for the interpretation of laboratory data and for predicting the transient behavior of disturbances in full-scale motors. Two central questions are considered - namely, linear stability and nonlinear behavior. Several classes of problems are discussed as special cases of a general approach to the analysis of combustion instability. Application to motors, and particularly the limitations presently understood, are stressed.

  4. Generation and characterization of Dictyostelium cells deficient in a myosin I heavy chain isoform

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Motile activities such as chemotaxis and phagocytosis, which occur in Dictyostelium cells lacking myosin II, may be dependent upon myosin I. To begin to explore this possibility, we have engineered a disruption of the Dictyostelium myosin I heavy chain (DMIHC) gene described recently (Jung, G., C. L. Saxe III, A. R. Kimmel, and J. A. Hammer III. 1989. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 86:6186-6190). The double-crossover, gene disruption event that occurred resulted in replacement of the middle approximate one-third of the gene with the neomycin resistance marker. The resulting cells are devoid of both the 3.6-kb DMIHC gene transcript and the 124-kD DMIHC polypeptide. DMIHC- cells are capable of chemotactic streaming and aggregation, but these processes are delayed. Furthermore, the rate of phagocytosis by DMIHC- cells is reduced, as assessed by growth rate on lawns of heat-killed bacteria and on the initial rate of uptake of FITC-labeled bacteria. Therefore, this Dictyostelium myosin I isoform appears to play a role in supporting chemotaxis and phagocytosis, but it is clearly not required for these processes to occur. Using a portion of the DMIHC gene as a probe, we have cloned three additional Dictyostelium small myosin heavy chain genes. Comparison of these four genes with three genes described recently by Titus et al. (Titus, M. A., H. M. Warrick, and J. A. Spudich. 1989. Cell Reg. 1:55-63) indicates that there are at least five small myosin heavy chain genes in Dictyostelium. The probability that there is considerable overlap of function between these small myosin isoforms indicates that multiple gene disruptions within a single cell may be necessary to generate a more striking myosin I- phenotype. PMID:2141028

  5. A programmable DNA origami nanospring that reveals force-induced adjacent binding of myosin VI heads.

    PubMed

    Iwaki, M; Wickham, S F; Ikezaki, K; Yanagida, T; Shih, W M

    2016-12-12

    Mechanosensitive biological nanomachines such as motor proteins and ion channels regulate diverse cellular behaviour. Combined optical trapping with single-molecule fluorescence imaging provides a powerful methodology to clearly characterize the mechanoresponse, structural dynamics and stability of such nanomachines. However, this system requires complicated experimental geometry, preparation and optics, and is limited by low data-acquisition efficiency. Here we develop a programmable DNA origami nanospring that overcomes these issues. We apply our nanospring to human myosin VI, a mechanosensory motor protein, and demonstrate nanometre-precision single-molecule fluorescence imaging of the individual motor domains (heads) under force. We observe force-induced transitions of myosin VI heads from non-adjacent to adjacent binding, which correspond to adapted roles for low-load and high-load transport, respectively. Our technique extends single-molecule studies under force and clarifies the effect of force on biological processes.

  6. A programmable DNA origami nanospring that reveals force-induced adjacent binding of myosin VI heads

    PubMed Central

    Iwaki, M.; Wickham, S. F.; Ikezaki, K.; Yanagida, T.; Shih, W. M.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanosensitive biological nanomachines such as motor proteins and ion channels regulate diverse cellular behaviour. Combined optical trapping with single-molecule fluorescence imaging provides a powerful methodology to clearly characterize the mechanoresponse, structural dynamics and stability of such nanomachines. However, this system requires complicated experimental geometry, preparation and optics, and is limited by low data-acquisition efficiency. Here we develop a programmable DNA origami nanospring that overcomes these issues. We apply our nanospring to human myosin VI, a mechanosensory motor protein, and demonstrate nanometre-precision single-molecule fluorescence imaging of the individual motor domains (heads) under force. We observe force-induced transitions of myosin VI heads from non-adjacent to adjacent binding, which correspond to adapted roles for low-load and high-load transport, respectively. Our technique extends single-molecule studies under force and clarifies the effect of force on biological processes. PMID:27941751

  7. Molecular Motors and Stochastic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipowsky, Reinhard

    The behavior of single molecular motors such as kinesin or myosin V, which move on linear filaments, involves a nontrivial coupling between the biochemical motor cycle and the stochastic movement. This coupling can be studied in the framework of nonuniform ratchet models which are characterized by spatially localized transition rates between the different internal states of the motor. These models can be classified according to their functional relationships between the motor velocity and the concentration of the fuel molecules. The simplest such relationship applies to two subclasses of models for dimeric kinesin and agrees with experimental observations on this molecular motor.

  8. Pigment granule translocation in red ovarian chromatophores from the palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium olfersi (Weigmann, 1836): functional roles for the cytoskeleton and its molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Milograna, Sarah Ribeiro; Ribeiro, Márcia Regina; Baqui, Munira Muhammad Abdel; McNamara, John Campbell

    2014-12-01

    The binding of red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH) to membrane receptors in crustacean chromatophores triggers Ca²⁺/cGMP signaling cascades that activate cytoskeletal motors, driving pigment granule translocation. We investigate the distributions of microfilaments and microtubules and their associated molecular motors, myosin and dynein, by confocal and transmission electron microscopy, evaluating a functional role for the cytoskeleton in pigment translocation using inhibitors of polymer turnover and motor activity in vitro. Microtubules occupy the chromatophore cell extensions whether the pigment granules are aggregated or dispersed. The inhibition of microtubule turnover by taxol induces pigment aggregation and inhibits re-dispersion. Phalloidin-FITC actin labeling, together with tannic acid fixation and ultrastructural analysis, reveals that microfilaments form networks associated with the pigment granules. Actin polymerization induced by jasplaquinolide strongly inhibits RPCH-induced aggregation, causes spontaneous pigment dispersion, and inhibits pigment re-dispersion. Inhibition of actin polymerization by latrunculin-A completely impedes pigment aggregation and re-dispersion. Confocal immunocytochemistry shows that non-muscle myosin II (NMMII) co-localizes mainly with pigment granules while blebbistatin inhibition of NMMII strongly reduces the RPCH response, also inducing spontaneous pigment dispersion. Myosin II and dynein also co-localize with the pigment granules. Inhibition of dynein ATPase by erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine induces aggregation, inhibits RPCH-triggered aggregation, and inhibits re-dispersion. Granule aggregation and dispersion depend mainly on microfilament integrity although microtubules may be involved. Both cytoskeletal polymers are functional only when subunit turnover is active. Myosin and dynein may be the molecular motors that drive pigment aggregation. These mechanisms of granule translocation in crustacean

  9. Myosin MyTH4-FERM structures highlight important principles of convergent evolution

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Florian; Sirigu, Serena; Sirkia, Helena; Clause, Jeffrey; Sourigues, Yannick; Johnsrud, Daniel O.; Amigues, Beatrice; Cecchini, Marco; Gilbert, Susan P.; Houdusse, Anne; Titus, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    Myosins containing MyTH4-FERM (myosin tail homology 4-band 4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin, or MF) domains in their tails are found in a wide range of phylogenetically divergent organisms, such as humans and the social amoeba Dictyostelium (Dd). Interestingly, evolutionarily distant MF myosins have similar roles in the extension of actin-filled membrane protrusions such as filopodia and bind to microtubules (MT), suggesting that the core functions of these MF myosins have been highly conserved over evolution. The structures of two DdMyo7 signature MF domains have been determined and comparison with mammalian MF structures reveals that characteristic features of MF domains are conserved. However, across millions of years of evolution conserved class-specific insertions are seen to alter the surfaces and the orientation of subdomains with respect to each other, likely resulting in new sites for binding partners. The MyTH4 domains of Myo10 and DdMyo7 bind to MT with micromolar affinity but, surprisingly, their MT binding sites are on opposite surfaces of the MyTH4 domain. The structural analysis in combination with comparison of diverse MF myosin sequences provides evidence that myosin tail domain features can be maintained without strict conservation of motifs. The results illustrate how tuning of existing features can give rise to new structures while preserving the general properties necessary for myosin tails. Thus, tinkering with the MF domain enables it to serve as a multifunctional platform for cooperative recruitment of various partners, allowing common properties such as autoinhibition of the motor and microtubule binding to arise through convergent evolution. PMID:27166421

  10. Single myosin lever arm orientation in a muscle fiber detected with photoactivatable GFP.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Thomas P; Li, Jinhui; Ajtai, Katalin

    2009-02-03

    Myosin 2 is the molecular motor in muscle. It binds actin and executes a power stroke by rotating its lever arm through an angle of approximately 70 degrees to translate actin against resistive force. Myosin 2 has evolved to function optimally under crowded conditions where rates and equilibria of macromolecular reactions undergo major shifts relative to those measured in dilute solution. Hence, an important research objective is to detect in situ the lever arm orientation. Single-molecule measurements are preferred because they clarify ambiguities that are unavoidable with ensemble measurements; however, detecting single molecules in the condensed tissue medium where the myosin concentration exceeds 100 muM is challenging. A myosin light chain (MLC) tagged with photoactivatable green fluorescent protein (PAGFP) was constructed. The recombinant MLC physically and functionally replaced native MLC on the myosin lever arm in a permeabilized skeletal muscle fiber. Probe illumination volume was minimized using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, and PAGFP was sparsely photoactivated such that polarized fluorescence identified a single probe orientation. Several physiological states of the muscle fiber were characterized, revealing two distinct orientation populations in all states called straight and bent conformations. Conformation occupancy probability varies among fiber states with rigor and isometric contraction at extremes where straight and bent conformations predominate, respectively. Comparison to previous work on single rigor cross-bridges at the A-band periphery where the myosin concentration is low suggests molecular crowding in the A-band promotes occupancy of the straight myosin conformation [Burghardt, T. P., et al. (2007) Biophys. J. 93, 2226]. The latter may have a role in contraction because it provides additional free energy favoring completion of the cross-bridge power stroke.

  11. Myosin-Powered Membrane Compartment Drives Cytoplasmic Streaming, Cell Expansion and Plant Development.

    PubMed

    Peremyslov, Valera V; Cole, Rex A; Fowler, John E; Dolja, Valerian V

    2015-01-01

    Using genetic approaches, particle image velocimetry and an inert tracer of cytoplasmic streaming, we have made a mechanistic connection between the motor proteins (myosins XI), cargo transported by these motors (distinct endomembrane compartment defined by membrane-anchored MyoB receptors) and the process of cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. It is shown that the MyoB compartment in Nicotiana benthamiana is highly dynamic moving with the mean velocity of ~3 μm/sec. In contrast, Golgi, mitochondria, peroxisomes, carrier vesicles and a cytosol flow tracer share distinct velocity profile with mean velocities of 0.6-1.5 μm/sec. Dominant negative inhibition of the myosins XI or MyoB receptors using overexpression of the N. benthamiana myosin cargo-binding domain or MyoB myosin-binding domain, respectively, resulted in velocity reduction for not only the MyoB compartment, but also each of the tested organelles, vesicles and cytoplasmic streaming. Furthermore, the extents of this reduction were similar for each of these compartments suggesting that MyoB compartment plays primary role in cytosol dynamics. Using gene knockout analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana, it is demonstrated that inactivation of MyoB1-4 results in reduced velocity of mitochondria implying slower cytoplasmic streaming. It is also shown that myosins XI and MyoB receptors genetically interact to contribute to cell expansion, plant growth, morphogenesis and proper onset of flowering. These results support a model according to which myosin-dependent, MyoB receptor-mediated transport of a specialized membrane compartment that is conserved in all land plants drives cytoplasmic streaming that carries organelles and vesicles and facilitates cell growth and plant development.

  12. Myosin-Powered Membrane Compartment Drives Cytoplasmic Streaming, Cell Expansion and Plant Development

    PubMed Central

    Peremyslov, Valera V.; Cole, Rex A.; Fowler, John E.; Dolja, Valerian V.

    2015-01-01

    Using genetic approaches, particle image velocimetry and an inert tracer of cytoplasmic streaming, we have made a mechanistic connection between the motor proteins (myosins XI), cargo transported by these motors (distinct endomembrane compartment defined by membrane-anchored MyoB receptors) and the process of cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. It is shown that the MyoB compartment in Nicotiana benthamiana is highly dynamic moving with the mean velocity of ~3 μm/sec. In contrast, Golgi, mitochondria, peroxisomes, carrier vesicles and a cytosol flow tracer share distinct velocity profile with mean velocities of 0.6–1.5 μm/sec. Dominant negative inhibition of the myosins XI or MyoB receptors using overexpression of the N. benthamiana myosin cargo-binding domain or MyoB myosin-binding domain, respectively, resulted in velocity reduction for not only the MyoB compartment, but also each of the tested organelles, vesicles and cytoplasmic streaming. Furthermore, the extents of this reduction were similar for each of these compartments suggesting that MyoB compartment plays primary role in cytosol dynamics. Using gene knockout analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana, it is demonstrated that inactivation of MyoB1-4 results in reduced velocity of mitochondria implying slower cytoplasmic streaming. It is also shown that myosins XI and MyoB receptors genetically interact to contribute to cell expansion, plant growth, morphogenesis and proper onset of flowering. These results support a model according to which myosin-dependent, MyoB receptor-mediated transport of a specialized membrane compartment that is conserved in all land plants drives cytoplasmic streaming that carries organelles and vesicles and facilitates cell growth and plant development. PMID:26426395

  13. Synthetic lethality screen identifies a novel yeast myosin I gene (MYO5): myosin I proteins are required for polarization of the actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The organization of the actin cytoskeleton plays a critical role in cell physiology in motile and nonmotile organisms. Nonetheless, the function of the actin based motor molecules, members of the myosin superfamily, is not well understood. Deletion of MYO3, a yeast gene encoding a "classic" myosin I, has no detectable phenotype. We used a synthetic lethality screen to uncover genes whose functions might overlap with those of MYO3 and identified a second yeast myosin 1 gene, MYO5. MYO5 shows 86 and 62% identity to MYO3 across the motor and non- motor regions. Both genes contain an amino terminal motor domain, a neck region containing two IQ motifs, and a tail domain consisting of a positively charged region, a proline-rich region containing sequences implicated in ATP-insensitive actin binding, and an SH3 domain. Although myo5 deletion mutants have no detectable phenotype, yeast strains deleted for both MYO3 and MYO5 have severe defects in growth and actin cytoskeletal organization. Double deletion mutants also display phenotypes associated with actin disorganization including accumulation of intracellular membranes and vesicles, cell rounding, random bud site selection, sensitivity to high osmotic strength, and low pH as well as defects in chitin and cell wall deposition, invertase secretion, and fluid phase endocytosis. Indirect immunofluorescence studies using epitope-tagged Myo5p indicate that Myo5p is localized at actin patches. These results indicate that MYO3 and MYO5 encode classical myosin I proteins with overlapping functions and suggest a role for Myo3p and Myo5p in organization of the actin cytoskeleton of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:8682864

  14. Myosin 1b promotes the formation of post-Golgi carriers by regulating actin assembly and membrane remodelling at the trans-Golgi network.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Claudia G; Yamada, Ayako; Tenza, Danièle; Louvard, Daniel; Raposo, Graça; Coudrier, Evelyne

    2011-06-12

    The function of organelles is intimately associated with rapid changes in membrane shape. By exerting force on membranes, the cytoskeleton and its associated motors have an important role in membrane remodelling. Actin and myosin 1 have been implicated in the invagination of the plasma membrane during endocytosis. However, whether myosin 1 and actin contribute to the membrane deformation that gives rise to the formation of post-Golgi carriers is unknown. Here we report that myosin 1b regulates the actin-dependent post-Golgi traffic of cargo, generates force that controls the assembly of F-actin foci and, together with the actin cytoskeleton, promotes the formation of tubules at the TGN. Our results provide evidence that actin and myosin 1 regulate organelle shape and uncover an important function for myosin 1b in the initiation of post-Golgi carrier formation by regulating actin assembly and remodelling TGN membranes.

  15. Immunolocalization of myosin Va in the developing nervous system of embryonic chicks.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Alexandre; Lunardi, Laurelúcia O; Larson, Roy E

    2004-08-01

    Myosins are molecular motors associated with the actin cytoskeleton that participate in the mechanisms of cellular motility. During the development of the nervous system, migration of nerve cells to specific sites, extension of growth cones, and axonal transport are dramatic manifestations of cellular motility. We demonstrate, via immunoblots, the expression of myosin Va during early stages of embryonic development in chicks, extending from the blastocyst period to the beginning of the fetal period. The expression of myosin Va in specific regions and cellular structures of the nervous system during these early stages was determined by immunocytochemistry using a polyclonal antibody. Whole mounts of chick embryos at 24-30-h stages showed intense immunoreactivity of the neural tube in formation along its full extent. Cross-sections at these stages of development showed strong labeling in neuroepithelial cells at the basal and apical regions of the neural tube wall. Embryos at more advanced periods of development (48 h and 72 h) showed distinctive immunolabeling of neuroepithelial cells, neuroblasts and their cytoplasmic extensions in the mantle layer of the stratified neural tube wall, and neuroblasts and their cytoplasmic extensions in the internal wall of the optic cup, as well as a striking labeling of cells in the apparent nuclei of cranial nerves and budding fibers. These immunolocalization studies indicate temporal and site-specific expression of myosin Va during chick embryo development, suggesting that myosin Va expression is related to recruitment for specific cellular tasks.

  16. Myosin VI deafness mutation prevents the initiation of processive runs on actin.

    PubMed

    Pylypenko, Olena; Song, Lin; Shima, Ai; Yang, Zhaohui; Houdusse, Anne M; Sweeney, H Lee

    2015-03-17

    Mutations in the reverse-direction myosin, myosin VI, are associated with deafness in humans and mice. A myosin VI deafness mutation, D179Y, which is in the transducer of the motor, uncoupled the release of the ATP hydrolysis product, inorganic phosphate (Pi), from dependency on actin binding and destroyed the ability of single dimeric molecules to move processively on actin filaments. We observed that processive movement is rescued if ATP is added to the mutant dimer following binding of both heads to actin in the absence of ATP, demonstrating that the mutation selectively destroys the initiation of processive runs at physiological ATP levels. A drug (omecamtiv) that accelerates the actin-activated activity of cardiac myosin was able to rescue processivity of the D179Y mutant dimers at physiological ATP concentrations by slowing the actin-independent release of Pi. Thus, it may be possible to create myosin VI-specific drugs that rescue the function of deafness-causing mutations.

  17. Thin-disc piezoceramic ultrasonic motor. Part II: system construction and control.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chi Yung; Wen, Fuh Liang; Ouyang, Minsun

    2003-08-01

    Design and performance evaluation of an ultrasonic motor was discussed in [Wen et al., Thin-disc piezoelectric ultrasonic motor. Part I: design and performance evaluation, Ultrasonics]. Higher precision position control of piezoceramic ultrasonic motor depends on mechanical design and servo control of a very precise and adequate metrology. This paper proposes the design of a driving circuit and controller to deal with non-linearities behavior in the model of piezoceramic-driving ultrasonic motor. The performance of the driver and the effectiveness of the proposed controller are demonstrated by command inputs of sinusoidal and step signals. For comparison purpose, the ultrasonic motor is controlled using two methods: i.e., proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and sliding-mode control (SMC). It was proven that SMC would compensate automatically for unmodeled behaviors such as piezoceramic non-linearities and mechanical stick-slip phenomena. Furthermore, SMC scheme has been successfully applied to position tracking to demonstrate the excellent robust performance in noise rejection.

  18. [Electrophoresis of native cardiac myosin in Anura amphibians].

    PubMed

    Dutartre, P; Mougin, D; Bride, M

    1983-01-01

    Electrophoresis in non dissociating conditions of native cardiac myosin was adapted to the study of Amphibian myosin. Utilization of potassium ion has allowed to obtain a good separation of myosin isoenzymes. An evolution of isoenzymic composition of cardiac myosin during metamorphosis and aging in Xenopus laevis (Daudin) was observed.

  19. Cross-reactivity of termite myosin; a potential allergen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myosin and myosin isoforms are common food allergens in crustaceans; such as, shrimp, lobster, and crab. Allergy to Shellfish is a prevalent and potentially long lasting disorder that can severely affect health and quality of life. Myosin and myosin isoforms of dust mites and cockroaches are simil...

  20. Cytoskeleton Molecular Motors: Structures and Their Functions in Neuron.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qingpin; Hu, Xiaohui; Wei, Zhiyi; Tam, Kin Yip

    2016-01-01

    Cells make use of molecular motors to transport small molecules, macromolecules and cellular organelles to target region to execute biological functions, which is utmost important for polarized cells, such as neurons. In particular, cytoskeleton motors play fundamental roles in neuron polarization, extension, shape and neurotransmission. Cytoskeleton motors comprise of myosin, kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein. F-actin filaments act as myosin track, while kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein move on microtubules. Cytoskeleton motors work together to build a highly polarized and regulated system in neuronal cells via different molecular mechanisms and functional regulations. This review discusses the structures and working mechanisms of the cytoskeleton motors in neurons.

  1. Cytoskeleton Molecular Motors: Structures and Their Functions in Neuron

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qingpin; Hu, Xiaohui; Wei, Zhiyi; Tam, Kin Yip

    2016-01-01

    Cells make use of molecular motors to transport small molecules, macromolecules and cellular organelles to target region to execute biological functions, which is utmost important for polarized cells, such as neurons. In particular, cytoskeleton motors play fundamental roles in neuron polarization, extension, shape and neurotransmission. Cytoskeleton motors comprise of myosin, kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein. F-actin filaments act as myosin track, while kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein move on microtubules. Cytoskeleton motors work together to build a highly polarized and regulated system in neuronal cells via different molecular mechanisms and functional regulations. This review discusses the structures and working mechanisms of the cytoskeleton motors in neurons. PMID:27570482

  2. Mechanism of transport of IFT particles in C. elegans cilia by the concerted action of kinesin-II and OSM-3 motors.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoyu; Ou, Guangshuo; Civelekoglu-Scholey, Gul; Blacque, Oliver E; Endres, Nicholas F; Tao, Li; Mogilner, Alex; Leroux, Michel R; Vale, Ronald D; Scholey, Jonathan M

    2006-09-25

    The assembly and function of cilia on Caenorhabditis elegans neurons depends on the action of two kinesin-2 motors, heterotrimeric kinesin-II and homodimeric OSM-3-kinesin, which cooperate to move the same intraflagellar transport (IFT) particles along microtubule (MT) doublets. Using competitive in vitro MT gliding assays, we show that purified kinesin-II and OSM-3 cooperate to generate movement similar to that seen along the cilium in the absence of any additional regulatory factors. Quantitative modeling suggests that this could reflect an alternating action mechanism, in which the motors take turns to move along MTs, or a mechanical competition, in which the motors function in a concerted fashion to move along MTs with the slow motor exerting drag on the fast motor and vice versa. In vivo transport assays performed in Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) protein and IFT motor mutants favor a mechanical competition model for motor coordination in which the IFT motors exert a BBS protein-dependent tension on IFT particles, which controls the IFT pathway that builds the cilium foundation.

  3. Cross-reinnervated motor units in cat muscle. II. Soleus muscle reinnervated by flexor digitorum longus motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Dum, R P; O'Donovan, M J; Toop, J; Tsairis, P; Pinter, M J; Burke, R E

    1985-10-01

    The properties of whole soleus (SOL) muscles and of individual motor units were studied in cats 30-50 wk after self-reinnervation by soleus (SOL) motoneurons (SOL----SOL) or cross-reinnervation by flexor digitorum longus (FDL) motoneurons (FDL----SOL). As in the preceding paper (22), intracellular and glycogen-depletion methods were used to examine the physiological and histochemical properties of individual motor units. The results were compared with data from normal SOL motor units (8, 12). Intentionally self-reinnervated SOL muscles (SOL----SOL; n = 6) were normal in size and wet weight, and all of the five SOL----SOL motor units studied had physiological and histochemical characteristics that matched those of normal SOL units. Cross-reinnervation of SOL by FDL alpha-motoneurons (FDL----SOL; n = 7) produced muscles with wet weights and appearance essentially identical to normal SOL. However, whole-muscle twitch contraction times were much shorter (mean 60.4 ms) than those of normal (mean 136.9 ms, n = 18) or SOL----SOL muscles (mean 115.3 ms; n = 6). Despite this difference, none of the FDL----SOL muscles contained more than 7% histochemical type II muscle fibers, all of which were type IIA. Normal cat SOL muscles can contain up to 5% type IIA fibers, but none of our SOL----SOL muscles showed any type II fibers. Two FDL----SOL muscles had significant amounts of unintended self-reinnervation, permitting side-by-side comparison of FDL----SOL and SOL----SOL muscle fibers. The twitch contraction times of the two populations differed markedly, but they were histochemically indistinguishable except for the fact that SOL----SOL fibers had high neutral fat content (as do normal SOL fibers), whereas FDL----SOL showed much lower fat content. The 23 FDL----SOL muscle units studied were classified as physiological type S by criteria ("sag" test and fatigue resistance) used to identify motor-unit types in normal cat muscles. All five of the FDL----SOL units studied

  4. Transmembrane myosin chitin synthase involved in mollusc shell formation produced in Dictyostelium is active

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenitzer, Veronika; Eichner, Norbert; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Weiss, Ingrid M.

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dictyostelium produces the 264 kDa myosin chitin synthase of bivalve mollusc Atrina. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitin synthase activity releases chitin, partly associated with the cell surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Membrane extracts of transgenic slime molds produce radiolabeled chitin in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitin producing Dictyostelium cells can be characterized by atomic force microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This model system enables us to study initial processes of chitin biomineralization. -- Abstract: Several mollusc shells contain chitin, which is formed by a transmembrane myosin motor enzyme. This protein could be involved in sensing mechanical and structural changes of the forming, mineralizing extracellular matrix. Here we report the heterologous expression of the transmembrane myosin chitin synthase Ar-CS1 of the bivalve mollusc Atrina rigida (2286 amino acid residues, M.W. 264 kDa/monomer) in Dictyostelium discoideum, a model organism for myosin motor proteins. Confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy (CLSM), chitin binding GFP detection of chitin on cells and released to the cell culture medium, and a radiochemical activity assay of membrane extracts revealed expression and enzymatic activity of the mollusc chitin synthase in transgenic slime mold cells. First high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of Ar-CS1 transformed cellulose synthase deficient D. discoideumdcsA{sup -} cell lines are shown.

  5. Myosin IC generates power over a range of loads via a new tension-sensing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Michael J; Lin, Tianming; Goldman, Yale E; Shuman, Henry; Ostap, E Michael

    2012-09-11

    Myosin IC (myo1c), a widely expressed motor protein that links the actin cytoskeleton to cell membranes, has been associated with numerous cellular processes, including insulin-stimulated transport of GLUT4, mechanosensation in sensory hair cells, endocytosis, transcription of DNA in the nucleus, exocytosis, and membrane trafficking. The molecular role of myo1c in these processes has not been defined, so to better understand myo1c function, we utilized ensemble kinetic and single-molecule techniques to probe myo1c's biochemical and mechanical properties. Utilizing a myo1c construct containing the motor and regulatory domains, we found the force dependence of the actin-attachment lifetime to have two distinct regimes: a force-independent regime at forces < 1 pN, and a highly force-dependent regime at higher loads. In this force-dependent regime, forces that resist the working stroke increase the actin-attachment lifetime. Unexpectedly, the primary force-sensitive transition is the isomerization that follows ATP binding, not ADP release as in other slow myosins. This force-sensing behavior is unique amongst characterized myosins and clearly demonstrates mechanochemical diversity within the myosin family. Based on these results, we propose that myo1c functions as a slow transporter rather than a tension-sensitive anchor.

  6. Increased expression of Myosin binding protein H in the skeletal muscle of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Conti, Antonio; Riva, Nilo; Pesca, Mariasabina; Iannaccone, Sandro; Cannistraci, Carlo V; Corbo, Massimo; Previtali, Stefano C; Quattrini, Angelo; Alessio, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe and fatal neurodegenerative disease of still unknown pathogenesis. Recent findings suggest that the skeletal muscle may play an active pathogenetic role. To investigate ALS's pathogenesis and to seek diagnostic markers, we analyzed skeletal muscle biopsies with the differential expression proteomic approach. We studied skeletal muscle biopsies from healthy controls (CN), sporadic ALS (sALS), motor neuropathies (MN) and myopathies (M). Pre-eminently among several differentially expressed proteins, Myosin binding protein H (MyBP-H) expression in ALS samples was anomalously high. MyBP-H is a component of the thick filaments of the skeletal muscle and has strong affinity for myosin, but its function is still unclear. High MyBP-H expression level was associated with abnormal expression of Rho kinase 2 (ROCK2), LIM domain kinase 1 (LIMK1) and cofilin2, that might affect the actin-myosin interaction. We propose that MyBP-H expression level serves, as a putative biomarker in the skeletal muscle, to discriminate ALS from motor neuropathies, and that it signals the onset of dysregulation in actin-myosin interaction; this in turn might contribute to the pathogenesis of ALS.

  7. Central effects of native urotensin II on motor activity, ventilatory movements, and heart rate in the trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Lancien, Frédéric; Leprince, Jérôme; Mimassi, Nagi; Mabin, Dominique; Vaudry, Hubert; Le Mével, Jean-Claude

    2004-10-15

    Urotensin II (UII) has been originally isolated from fish urophysis. However, in fish as in mammals, UII is also produced in brain neurons. Although UII binding sites are widely distributed in the fish central nervous system (CNS), little is known regarding its central activities. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of synthetic trout UII on the duration of motor activity (ACT; evidenced by bursts of activity on the trace of the ventilatory signal), ventilatory frequency (VF), ventilatory amplitude (VA), and heart rate (HR) in unanesthesized trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. ICV injection of very low doses of UII (1 and 5 pmol) produced a dose-dependent increase of ACT without affecting VF, VA, or HR. At a higher dose (50 pmol), UII stimulated ACT as well as VF, VA, and HR. ICV injection of trout angiotensin II (5 pmol) did not affect ACT, VF, and VA, but provoked a robust increase in HR. These data provide the first evidence that central administration of UII stimulates motor activity in a nonmammalian vertebrate.

  8. Time-course effects of centrally administered native urotensin-II on motor and cardioventilatory activity in trout.

    PubMed

    Lancien, F; Leprince, J; Mimassi, N; Mabin, D; Vaudry, H; Le Mével, J C

    2005-04-01

    Although in most vertebrate species urotensin-II (UII) is synthesized in neurons of the central nervous system, little is known regarding the physiological actions of UII in the brain. We have investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of synthetic trout UII (1, 5, and 50 pmol) on total motor activity (ACT), ventilatory frequency (VF), ventilatory amplitude (VA), and heart rate (HR) in the unanesthetized trout. ICV injection of UII increased ACT in a dose-dependent manner, and the maximal effect was observed at a dose of 5 pmol. At doses of 1 and 5 pmol, UII did not affect VF, VA, or HR. At the highest dose tested (50 pmol), UII not only increased ACT, but also significantly activated VF, VA, and HR. In contrast, ICV injection of synthetic trout angiotensin-II (5 pmol) did not produce any effect on ACT, VF, or VA, but sharply increased HR. These data provide the first evidence that UII can act centrally to induce motor activity in a nonmammalian vertebrate species.

  9. Optimality and stability of intentional and unintentional actions: II. Motor equivalence and structure of variance.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Behnoosh; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2017-02-01

    We address the nature of unintentional changes in performance in two papers. This second paper tested hypotheses related to stability of task-specific performance variables estimated using the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis. Our first hypothesis was that selective stability of performance variables would be observed even when the magnitudes of those variables drifted unintentionally because of the lack of visual feedback. Our second hypothesis was that stability of a variable would depend on the number of explicit task constraints. Subjects performed four-finger isometric pressing tasks that required the accurate production of a combination of total moment and total force with natural or modified finger involvement under full visual feedback, which was removed later for some or all of the salient variables. We used inter-trial analysis of variance and drifts in the space of finger forces within the UCM and within the orthogonal to the UCM space. The two variance components were used to estimate a synergy index stabilizing the force/moment combination, while the two drift components were used to estimate motor equivalent and non-motor equivalent force changes, respectively. Without visual feedback, both force and moment drifted toward lower absolute magnitudes. The non-motor equivalent component of motion in the finger force space was larger than the motor equivalent component for variables that stopped receiving visual feedback. In contrast, variables that continued to receive visual feedback showed larger motor equivalent component, compared to non-motor equivalent component, over the same time interval. These data falsified the first hypothesis; indeed, selective stabilization of a variable over the duration of a trial allows expecting comparably large motor equivalent components both with and without visual feedback. Adding a new constraint (presented as a target magnitude of middle finger force) resulted in a drop in the synergy index

  10. Reversal of cell polarity and actin-myosin cytoskeleton reorganization under mechanical and chemical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Dalous, Jérémie; Burghardt, Emmanuel; Müller-Taubenberger, Annette; Bruckert, Franz; Gerisch, Günther; Bretschneider, Till

    2008-02-01

    To study reorganization of the actin system in cells that invert their polarity, we stimulated Dictyostelium cells by mechanical forces from alternating directions. The cells oriented in a fluid flow by establishing a protruding front directed against the flow and a retracting tail. Labels for polymerized actin and filamentous myosin-II marked front and tail. At 2.1 Pa, actin first disassembled at the previous front before it began to polymerize at the newly induced front. In contrast, myosin-II slowly disappeared from the previous tail and continuously redistributed to the new tail. Front specification was myosin-II independent and accumulation of polymerized actin was even more focused in mutants lacking myosin-II heavy chains. We conclude that under mechanical stimulation, the inversion of cell polarity is initiated by a global internal signal that turns down actin polymerization in the entire cell. It is thought to be elicited at the most strongly stimulated site of the cell, the incipient front region, and to be counterbalanced by a slowly generated, short-range signal that locally activates actin polymerization at the front. Similar pattern of front and tail interconversion were observed in cells reorienting in strong gradients of the chemoattractant cyclic AMP.

  11. Criticalities in crosslinked actin networks due to myosin activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheinman, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Many essential processes in cells and tissues, like motility and morphogenesis, are orchestrated by molecular motors applying internal, active stresses on crosslinked networks of actin filaments. Using scaling analysis, mean-field calculation, numerical modelling and in vitro experiments of such active networks we predict and observe different mechanical regimes exhibiting interesting critical behaviours with non-trivial power-law dependencies. Firstly, we find that the presence of active stresses can dramatically increase the stiffness of a floppy network, as was observed in reconstituted intracellular F-actin networks with myosin motors and extracellular gels with contractile cells. Uniform internal stress results in an anomalous, critical mechanical regime only in the vicinity of the rigidity percolation points of the network. However, taking into account heterogeneity of motors, we demonstrate that the motors, stiffening any floppy network, induce large non-affine fluctuations, giving rise to a critical mechanical regime. Secondly, upon increasing motor concentration, the resulting large internal stress is able to significantly enhance unbinding of the network's crosslinks and, therefore, disconnect the initially well-connected network to isolated clusters. However, during this process, when the network approaches marginal connectivity the internal stresses are expected to drop drastically such that the connectivity stabilizes. This general argument and detailed numerical simulations show that motors should drive a well connected network to a close vicinity of a critical point of marginal connectivity. Experiments clearly confirm this conclusion and demonstrate robust critical connectivity of initially well-connected networks, ruptured by the motor activity for a wide range of parameters. M. Sheinman, C.P. Broedersz and F.C. MacKintosh, Phys. Rev. Lett, in press. J. Alvarado, M. Sheinman, A. Sharma, F.C. MacKintosh and G. Koenderink, in preparation.

  12. Actin and Myosin in Pea Tendrils 1

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yong-Ze; Yen, Lung-Fei

    1989-01-01

    We demonstrate here the presence of actin and myosin in pea (Pisum sativum L.) tendrils. The molecular weight of tendril actin is 43,000, the same as rabbit skeletal muscle actin. The native molecular weight of tendril myosin is about 440,000. Tendril myosin is composed of two heavy chains of molecular weight approximately 165,000 and four (two pairs) light chains of 17,000 and 15,000. At high ionic strength, the ATPase activity of pea tendril myosin is activated by K+-EDTA and Ca2+ and is inhibited by Mg2+. At low ionic strength, the Mg2+-ATPase activity of pea tendril myosin is activated by rabbit skeletal muscle F-actin. Superprecipitation occurred after incubation at room temperature when ATP was added to the crude actomyosin extract. It is suggested that the interaction of actin and myosin may play a role in the coiling movement of pea tendril. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:16666586

  13. Myosin filament structure in vertebrate smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The in vivo structure of the myosin filaments in vertebrate smooth muscle is unknown. Evidence from purified smooth muscle myosin and from some studies of intact smooth muscle suggests that they may have a nonhelical, side-polar arrangement of crossbridges. However, the bipolar, helical structure characteristic of myosin filaments in striated muscle has not been disproved for smooth muscle. We have used EM to investigate this question in a functionally diverse group of smooth muscles (from the vascular, gastrointestinal, reproductive, and visual systems) from mammalian, amphibian, and avian species. Intact muscle under physiological conditions, rapidly frozen and then freeze substituted, shows many myosin filaments with a square backbone in transverse profile. Transverse sections of fixed, chemically skinned muscles also show square backbones and, in addition, reveal projections (crossbridges) on only two opposite sides of the square. Filaments gently isolated from skinned smooth muscles and observed by negative staining show crossbridges with a 14.5-nm repeat projecting in opposite directions on opposite sides of the filament. Such filaments subjected to low ionic strength conditions show bare filament ends and an antiparallel arrangement of myosin tails along the length of the filament. All of these observations are consistent with a side-polar structure and argue against a bipolar, helical crossbridge arrangement. We conclude that myosin filaments in all smooth muscles, regardless of function, are likely to be side-polar. Such a structure could be an important factor in the ability of smooth muscles to contract by large amounts. PMID:8698822

  14. Molecular mechanics of cardiac myosin-binding protein C in native thick filaments.

    PubMed

    Previs, M J; Beck Previs, S; Gulick, J; Robbins, J; Warshaw, D M

    2012-09-07

    The heart's pumping capacity results from highly regulated interactions of actomyosin molecular motors. Mutations in the gene for a potential regulator of these motors, cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C), cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, cMyBP-C's ability to modulate cardiac contractility is not well understood. Using single-particle fluorescence imaging techniques, transgenic protein expression, proteomics, and modeling, we found that cMyBP-C slowed actomyosin motion generation in native cardiac thick filaments. This mechanical effect was localized to where cMyBP-C resides within the thick filament (i.e., the C-zones) and was modulated by phosphorylation and site-specific proteolytic degradation. These results provide molecular insight into why cMyBP-C should be considered a member of a tripartite complex with actin and myosin that allows fine tuning of cardiac muscle contraction.

  15. Single myosin cross-bridge orientation in cardiac papillary muscle detects lever-arm shear strain in transduction.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Thomas P; Josephson, Matthew P; Ajtai, Katalin

    2011-09-13

    Myosin motors transduce ATP free energy into mechanical work. Transduction models allocate specific functions to motor structural domains beginning with ATP hydrolysis in the active site and ending in a lever-arm rotating power-stroke. Myosin light chains, regulatory (RLC) and essential (ELC), bind IQ-domains on the lever-arm and track its movement. Strong evidence exists that light chains stabilize the lever-arm and that light chain mutation undermines stability. Human ventricular RLC tagged with photoactivatable GFP (HCRLC-PAGFP) replaces native RLC in porcine papillary muscle fibers, restores native contractility, and situates PAGFP for single molecule orientation tracking within the crowded fiber lattice. The spatial emission pattern from single photoactivated PAGFP tagged myosins was observed in z-stacks fitted simultaneously to maximize accuracy in estimated dipole orientation. Emitter dipole polar and azimuthal angle pair scatter plots identified an area where steric and molecular crowding constraints depopulated orientations unfavorable for actin interaction. Transitions between pre- and post-power-stroke states represent the lever-arm trajectory sampled by the data and quantify lever-arm shear strain in transduction at three tension levels. These data identify forces acting on myosin in the in situ fiber system due to crowding, steric hindrance, and actomyosin interaction. They induce lever-arm shear strain observed with single molecule orientation detection. A single myosin work histogram reveals discretized power-stroke substates reminiscent of the Huxley-Simmons model for myosin based contraction [Huxley and Simmons ( 1971 ) Nature 233 , 533]. RLC or ELC mutation, should it impact lever-arm shear strain, will be detected as changes in single myosin shear strain or power-stroke substate distribution.

  16. Single Myosin Cross-Bridge Orientation in Cardiac Papillary Muscle Detects Lever-Arm Shear Strain in Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, Thomas P.; Josephson, Matthew P.; Ajtai, Katalin

    2011-01-01

    Myosin motors transduce ATP free energy into mechanical work. Transduction models allocate specific functions to motor structural domains beginning with ATP hydrolysis in the active site and ending in a lever-arm rotating power-stroke. Myosin light chains, regulatory (RLC) and essential (ELC), bind IQ-domains on the lever-arm and track its movement. Strong evidence exists that light chains stabilize the lever-arm and that light chain mutation undermines stability. Human ventricular RLC tagged with photoactivatable GFP (HCRLC-PAGFP) replaces native RLC in porcine papillary muscle fibers, restores native contractility, and situates PAGFP for single molecule orientation tracking within the crowded fiber lattice. The spatial emission pattern from single photoactivated PAGFP tagged myosins was observed in z-stacks fitted simultaneously to maximize accuracy in estimated dipole orientation. Emitter dipole polar and azimuthal angle pair scatter plots identified an area where steric and molecular crowding constraints depopulated orientations unfavorable for actin interaction. Transitions between pre- and post-power-stroke states represent the lever-arm trajectory sampled by the data and quantify lever-arm shear strain in transduction at three tension levels. These data identify forces acting on myosin in the in situ fiber system due to crowding, steric hindrance, and actomyosin interaction. They induce lever-arm shear strain observed with single molecule orientation detection. A single myosin work histogram reveals discretized power-stroke substates reminiscent of the Huxley–Simmons model for myosin based contraction [Huxley and Simmons (1971) Nature 233, 533]. RLC or ELC mutation, should it impact lever-arm shear strain, will be detected as changes in single myosin shear strain or power-stroke substate distribution. PMID:21819137

  17. Activated full-length myosin-X moves processively on filopodia with large steps toward diverse two-dimensional directions

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Osamu; Jung, Hyun Suk; Komatsu, Satoshi; Tsukasaki, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Tomonobu M.; Homma, Kazuaki; Ikebe, Mitsuo

    2017-01-01

    Myosin-X, (Myo 10), is an unconventional myosin that transports the specific cargos to filopodial tips, and is associated with the mechanism underlying filopodia formation and extension. To clarify the innate motor characteristic, we studied the single molecule movement of a full-length myosin-X construct with leucine zipper at the C-terminal end of the tail (M10FullLZ) and the tail-truncated myosin-X without artificial dimerization motif (BAP-M101–979HMM). M10FullLZ localizes at the tip of filopodia like myosin-X full-length (M10Full). M10FullLZ moves on actin filaments in the presence of PI(3,4,5)P3, an activator of myosin-X. Single molecule motility analysis revealed that the step sizes of both M10FullLZ and BAP-M101–979HMM are widely distributed on single actin filaments that is consistent with electron microscopy observation. M10FullLZ moves on filopodial actin bundles of cells with a mean step size (~36 nm), similar to the step size on single actin filaments (~38 nm). Cartesian plot analysis revealed that M10FullLZ meandered on filopodial actin bundles to both x- and y- directions. These results suggest that the lever-arm of full-length myosin-X is flexible enough to processively steps on different actin filaments within the actin bundles of filopodia. This characteristic of myosin-X may facilitate actin filament convergence for filopodia production. PMID:28287133

  18. Myosin VI undergoes a 180 degrees power stroke implying an uncoupling of the front lever arm.

    PubMed

    Reifenberger, Jeff G; Toprak, Erdal; Kim, Hyeongjun; Safer, Dan; Sweeney, H Lee; Selvin, Paul R

    2009-10-27

    We simultaneously measure both the step size, via FIONA, and the 3-D orientation, via DOPI, of the light-chain domain of individual dimeric myosin VIs. This allows for the correlation of the change in orientation of the light chain domain to the stepping of the motor. Three different pairs of positions were tested using a rigid bifunctional rhodamine on the calmodulin of the IQ domain. The data for all three labeling positions support the model that the light chain domain undergoes a significant rotation of approximately 180 degrees . Contrary to an earlier study [Sun, Y. et al. (2007) Mol Cell 28, 954-964], our data does not support a model of multiple angles of the lever arm of the lead head, nor "wiggly" walking on actin. Instead, we propose that for the two heads of myosin VI to coordinate their processive movement, the lever arm of the lead head must be uncoupled from the converter until the rear head detaches. More specifically, intramolecular strain causes the myosin VI lever arm of the lead head to uncouple from the motor domain, allowing the motor domain to go through its product-release (phosphate and ADP) steps at an unstrained rate. The lever arm of the lead head rebinds to the motor and attains a rigor conformation when the rear head detaches. By coupling the orientation and position information with previously described kinetics, this allows us to explain how myosin VI coordinates its heads processively while maintaining the ability to move under load with a (semi-) rigid lever arm.

  19. Myosin subunit interactions. Properties of the 19,000-dalton light chain-deficient myosin.

    PubMed

    Pastra-Landis, S C; Lowey, S

    1986-11-05

    The 19,000-dalton light chain (LC2) can be completely and reversibly removed from chicken pectoralis myosin in 1 mM EDTA and 5 mM ATP using immunoaffinity chromatography at 37 degrees C. Earlier methods have led to only partial removal of LC2 or have caused limited degradation of the heavy chain. Electron microscopy of LC2-deficient myosin showed it to have a marked tendency to aggregate into oligomers through the "neck" region of the myosin head. Myosin reverted to the monomeric form when it was reconstituted with light chains. LC2-deficient myosin retained full K+ (EDTA) or Ca2+-ATPase activity, and the actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase was similar to that of the native molecule. Alkali light chain exchange at 37 degrees C, which has been demonstrated in subfragment 1 prepared with chymotrypsin, does not occur with intact myosin molecules or with papain subfragment 1, both of which contain LC2. However, a temperature-dependent exchange of alkali light chains was observed in myosin lacking LC2. The interaction of the alkali light chain with the heavy chain thus appears to be influenced by the presence of LC2, which may have an important stabilizing effect on the myosin molecule.

  20. Multiple actin-based motor genes in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed Central

    Titus, M A; Warrick, H M; Spudich, J A

    1989-01-01

    Dictyostelium cells, devoid of conventional myosin, display a variety of motile activities, consistent with the presence of other molecular motors. The Dictyostelium genome was probed at low stringency with a gene fragment containing the conserved conventional myosin head domain sequences to identify other actin-based motors that may play a role in the observed motility of these mutant cells. One gene (abmA) has been characterized and encodes a polypeptide of approximately 135 kDa with a head region homologous to other myosin head sequences and a tail region that is not predicted to form either an alpha-helical structure of coiled-coil interactions. Comparisons of the amino acid sequences of the tail regions of abmA, Dictyostelium myosin I, and Acanthamoeba myosins IB and IL reveal an area of sequence similarity in the amino terminal half of the tail that may be a membrane-binding domain. The abmA gene, however, does not contain an unusual Gly, Pro, Ala stretch typical of many of the previously described myosin Is. Two additional genes (abmB and abmC) were identified using this approach and also found to contain sequences that encode proteins with typical conserved myosin head sequences. The abm genes may be part of a large family of actin-based motors that play various roles in diverse aspects of cellular motility. Images PMID:2519618

  1. Heterogeneous activation of a slow myosin gene in proliferating myoblasts and differentiated single myofibers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing-hua; Wang, Qiao-jing; Wang, Chao; Reinholt, Brad; Grant, Alan L; Gerrard, David E; Kuang, Shihuan

    2015-01-01

    Each skeletal muscle contains a fixed ratio of fast and slow myofibers that are distributed in a stereotyped pattern to achieve a specific motor function. How myofibers are specified during development and regeneration is poorly understood. Here we address this question using transgenic reporter mice that indelibly mark the myofiber lineages based on activation of fast or slow myosin. Lineage tracing indicates that during development all muscles have activated the fast myosin gene Myl1, but not the slow myosin gene Myh7, which is activated in all slow but a subset of fast myofibers. Similarly, most nascent myofibers do not activate Myh7 during fast muscle regeneration, but the ratio and pattern of fast and slow myofibers are restored at the completion of regeneration. At the single myofiber level, most mature fast myofibers are heterogeneous in nuclear composition, manifested by mosaic activation of Myh7. Strikingly, Myh7 is activated in a subpopulation of proliferating myoblasts that co-express the myogenic progenitor marker Pax7. When induced to differentiate, the Myh7-activated myoblasts differentiate more readily than the non-activated myoblasts, and have a higher tendency, but not restricted, to become slow myotubes. Together, our data reveal significant nuclear heterogeneity within a single myofiber, and challenge the conventional view that myosin genes are only expressed after myogenic differentiation. These results provide novel insights into the regulation of muscle fiber type specification. PMID:25794679

  2. Load and Pi control flux through the branched kinetic cycle of myosin V.

    PubMed

    Kad, Neil M; Trybus, Kathleen M; Warshaw, David M

    2008-06-20

    Myosin V is a processive actin-based motor protein that takes multiple 36-nm steps to deliver intracellular cargo to its destination. In the laser trap, applied load slows myosin V heavy meromyosin stepping and increases the probability of backsteps. In the presence of 40 mm phosphate (P(i)), both forward and backward steps become less load-dependent. From these data, we infer that P(i) release commits myosin V to undergo a highly load-dependent transition from a state in which ADP is bound to both heads and its lead head trapped in a pre-powerstroke conformation. Increasing the residence time in this state by applying load increases the probability of backstepping or detachment. The kinetics of detachment indicate that myosin V can detach from actin at two distinct points in the cycle, one of which is turned off by the presence of P(i). We propose a branched kinetic model to explain these data. Our model includes P(i) release prior to the most load-dependent step in the cycle, implying that P(i) release and load both act as checkpoints that control the flux through two parallel pathways.

  3. Binding modes of decavanadate to myosin and inhibition of the actomyosin ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Tiago, Teresa; Martel, Paulo; Gutiérrez-Merino, Carlos; Aureliano, Manuel

    2007-04-01

    Decavanadate, a vanadate oligomer, is known to interact with myosin and to inhibit the ATPase activity, but the putative binding sites and the mechanism of inhibition are still to be clarified. We have previously proposed that the decavanadate (V(10)O(28)(6-)) inhibition of the actin-stimulated myosin ATPase activity is non-competitive towards both actin and ATP. A likely explanation for these results is that V(10) binds to the so-called back-door at the end of the Pi-tube opposite to the nucleotide-binding site. In order to further investigate this possibility, we have carried out molecular docking simulations of the V(10) oligomer on three different structures of the myosin motor domain of Dictyostelium discoideum, representing distinct states of the ATPase cycle. The results indicate a clear preference of V(10) to bind at the back-door, but only on the "open" structures where there is access to the phosphate binding-loop. It is suggested that V(10) acts as a "back-door stop" blocking the closure of the 50-kDa cleft necessary to carry out ATP-gamma-phosphate hydrolysis. This provides a simple explanation to the non-competitive behavior of V(10) and spurs the use of the oligomer as a tool to elucidate myosin back-door conformational changes in the process of muscle contraction.

  4. Structural dynamics of the myosin relay helix by time-resolved EPR and FRET.

    PubMed

    Agafonov, Roman V; Negrashov, Igor V; Tkachev, Yaroslav V; Blakely, Sarah E; Titus, Margaret A; Thomas, David D; Nesmelov, Yuri E

    2009-12-22

    We have used two complementary time-resolved spectroscopic techniques, dipolar electron-electron resonance and fluorescence resonance energy transfer to determine conformational changes in a single structural element of the myosin motor domain, the relay helix, before and after the recovery stroke. Two double-Cys mutants were labeled with optical probes or spin labels, and interprobe distances were determined. Both methods resolved two distinct structural states of myosin, corresponding to straight and bent conformations of the relay helix. The bent state was occupied only upon nucleotide addition, indicating that relay helix, like the entire myosin head, bends in the recovery stroke. However, saturation of myosin with nucleotide, producing a single biochemical state, did not produce a single structural state. Both straight and bent structural states of the relay helix were occupied when either ATP (ADP.BeF(x)) or ADP.P(i) (ADP.AlF(4)) analogs were bound at the active site. A greater population was found in the bent structural state when the posthydrolysis analog ADP.AlF(4) was bound. We conclude that the bending of the relay helix in the recovery stroke does not require ATP hydrolysis but is favored by it. A narrower interprobe distance distribution shows ordering of the relay helix, despite its bending, during the recovery stroke, providing further insight into the dynamics of this energy-transducing structural transition.

  5. Modeling smooth muscle myosin's two heads: long-lived enzymatic roles and phosphorylation-dependent equilibria.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Sam; Warshaw, David M

    2010-08-09

    Smooth muscle myosin has two heads, each capable of interacting with actin to generate force and/or motion as it hydrolyzes ATP. These heads are inhibited when their associated regulatory light chain is unphosphorylated (0P), becoming active and hydrolyzing ATP maximally when phosphorylated (2P). Interestingly, with only one of the two regulatory light chains phosphorylated (1P), smooth muscle myosin is active but its ATPase rate is <2P. To explain published 1P single ATP turnover and steady-state ATPase activities, we propose a kinetic model in which 1P myosin exists in an equilibrium between being fully active (2P) and inhibited (0P). Based on the single ATP turnover data, we also propose that each 2P head adopts a hydrolytic role distinct from its partner at any point in time, i.e., one head strongly binds actin and hydrolyzes ATP at its actin-activated rate while the other weakly binds actin. Surprisingly, the heads switch roles slowly (<0.1 s(-1)), suggesting that their activities are not independent. The phosphorylation-dependent equilibrium between active and inhibited states and the hydrolytic role that each head adopts during its interaction with actin may have implications for understanding regulation and mechanical performance of other members of the myosin family of molecular motors.

  6. Quantitative Assessment of Motor and Sensory/Motor Acquisition in Handicapped and Nonhandicapped Infants and Young Children. Volume II: Interobserver Reliability Results for the Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guess, Doug; And Others

    The second of a three volume report on a University of Kansas approach to developing quantitative measures of motor and perceptual motor functioning in nonhandicapped and severely/multiply handicapped infants and young children presents interobserver reliability results from the measures described in volume 1. Some studies also include a limited…

  7. Lab Test of MIPS Turbodyne II Precleaner with Scavenge Blower Motor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    A verbal agreement given by Satya Kodali , Team leader of the Crusader Team, to conduct the testing since a similar type Turbodyne II air cleaner...possible to make a direct comparison between TARDEC’S test data and SBM manufacturers test data due to differences in test conditions/ methods . A comparison...obtained by SwRI during their particle size determination tests. Two main differences in testing methods between the two test sites included the

  8. Alternative S2 Hinge Regions of the Myosin Rod Affect Myofibrillar Structure and Myosin Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Mark S.; Dambacher, Corey M.; Knowles, Aileen F.; Braddock, Joan M.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.; Swank, Douglas M.; Bernstein, Sanford I.; Maughan, David W.

    2009-07-01

    The subfragment 2/light meromyosin 'hinge' region has been proposed to significantly contribute to muscle contraction force and/or speed. Transgenic replacement of the endogenous fast muscle isovariant hinge A (exon 15a) in Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle with the slow muscle hinge B (exon 15b) allows examination of the structural and functional changes when only this region of the myosin molecule is different. Hinge B was previously shown to increase myosin rod length, increase A-band and sarcomere length, and decrease flight performance compared to hinge A. We applied additional measures to these transgenic lines to further evaluate the consequences of modifying this hinge region. Structurally, the longer A-band and sarcomere lengths found in the hinge B myofibrils appear to be due to the longitudinal addition of myosin heads. Functionally, hinge B, although a significant distance from the myosin catalytic domain, alters myosin kinetics in a manner consistent with this region increasing myosin rod length. These structural and functional changes combine to decrease whole fly wing-beat frequency and flight performance. Our results indicate that this hinge region plays an important role in determining myosin kinetics and in regulating thick and thin filament lengths as well as sarcomere length.

  9. Actin dynamics and competition for myosin monomer govern the sequential amplification of myosin filaments.

    PubMed

    Beach, Jordan R; Bruun, Kyle S; Shao, Lin; Li, Dong; Swider, Zac; Remmert, Kirsten; Zhang, Yingfan; Conti, Mary A; Adelstein, Robert S; Rusan, Nasser M; Betzig, Eric; Hammer, John A

    2017-02-01

    The cellular mechanisms governing non-muscle myosin II (NM2) filament assembly are largely unknown. Using EGFP-NM2A knock-in fibroblasts and multiple super-resolution imaging modalities, we characterized and quantified the sequential amplification of NM2 filaments within lamellae, wherein filaments emanating from single nucleation events continuously partition, forming filament clusters that populate large-scale actomyosin structures deeper in the cell. Individual partitioning events coincide spatially and temporally with the movements of diverging actin fibres, suppression of which inhibits partitioning. These and other data indicate that NM2A filaments are partitioned by the dynamic movements of actin fibres to which they are bound. Finally, we showed that partition frequency and filament growth rate in the lamella depend on MLCK, and that MLCK is competing with centrally active ROCK for a limiting pool of monomer with which to drive lamellar filament assembly. Together, our results provide new insights into the mechanism and spatio-temporal regulation of NM2 filament assembly in cells.

  10. Tuning of shortening speed in coleoid cephalopod muscle: no evidence for tissue-specific muscle myosin heavy chain isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Justin F.; Kier, William M.

    2015-01-01

    The contractile protein myosin II is ubiquitous in muscle. It is widely accepted that animals express tissue-specific myosin isoforms that differ in amino acid sequence and ATPase activity in order to tune muscle contractile velocities. Recent studies, however, suggested that the squid Doryteuthis pealeii might be an exception; members of this species do not express muscle-specific myosin isoforms, but instead alter sarcomeric ultrastructure to adjust contractile velocities. We investigated whether this alternative mechanism of tuning muscle contractile velocity is found in other coleoid cephalopods. We analyzed myosin heavy chain transcript sequences and expression profiles from muscular tissues of a cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, and an octopus, Octopus bimaculoides, in order to determine if these cephalopods express tissue-specific myosin heavy chain isoforms. We identified transcripts of four and six different myosin heavy chain isoforms in S. officinalis and O. bimaculoides muscular tissues, respectively. Transcripts of all isoforms were expressed in all muscular tissues studied, and thus S. officinalis and O. bimaculoides do not appear to express tissue-specific muscle myosin isoforms. We also examined the sarcomeric ultrastructure in the transverse muscle fibers of the arms of O. bimaculoides and the arms and tentacles of S. officinalis using transmission electron microscopy and found that the fast contracting fibers of the prey capture tentacles of S. officinalis have shorter thick filaments than those found in the slower transverse muscle fibers of the arms of both species. It thus appears that coleoid cephalopods, including the cuttlefish and octopus, may use ultrastructural modifications rather than tissue-specific myosin isoforms to adjust contractile velocities. PMID:26997860

  11. Tuning of shortening speed in coleoid cephalopod muscle: no evidence for tissue-specific muscle myosin heavy chain isoforms.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Justin F; Kier, William M

    2016-03-01

    The contractile protein myosin II is ubiquitous in muscle. It is widely accepted that animals express tissue-specific myosin isoforms that differ in amino acid sequence and ATPase activity in order to tune muscle contractile velocities. Recent studies, however, suggested that the squid Doryteuthis pealeii might be an exception; members of this species do not express muscle-specific myosin isoforms, but instead alter sarcomeric ultrastructure to adjust contractile velocities. We investigated whether this alternative mechanism of tuning muscle contractile velocity is found in other coleoid cephalopods. We analyzed myosin heavy chain transcript sequences and expression profiles from muscular tissues of a cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, and an octopus, Octopus bimaculoides, in order to determine if these cephalopods express tissue-specific myosin heavy chain isoforms. We identified transcripts of four and six different myosin heavy chain isoforms in S. officinalis and O. bimaculoides muscular tissues, respectively. Transcripts of all isoforms were expressed in all muscular tissues studied, and thus S. officinalis and O. bimaculoides do not appear to express tissue-specific muscle myosin isoforms. We also examined the sarcomeric ultrastructure in the transverse muscle fibers of the arms of O. bimaculoides and the arms and tentacles of S. officinalis using transmission electron microscopy and found that the fast contracting fibers of the prey capture tentacles of S. officinalis have shorter thick filaments than those found in the slower transverse muscle fibers of the arms of both species. It thus appears that coleoid cephalopods, including the cuttlefish and octopus, may use ultrastructural modifications rather than tissue-specific myosin isoforms to adjust contractile velocities.

  12. Inhibition of myosin/moesin phosphatase by expression of the phosphoinhibitor protein CPI-17 alters microfilament organization and retards cell spreading.

    PubMed

    Eto, M; Wong, L; Yazawa, M; Brautigan, D L

    2000-07-01

    Cell migration and cytokinesis require reorganization of the cytoskeleton, involving phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of proteins such as myosin II and moesin. Myosin and moesin bind directly to a regulatory subunit of myosin/moesin phosphatase (MMP) that contains a protein type-1 phosphatase (PP1) catalytic subunit. Here we examined the role of MMP in cytoskeletal dynamics using a phosphorylation-dependent inhibitor protein specific for MMP, called CPI-17. Fibroblasts do not express CPI-17, making them a null background to study effects of expression. Wild type CPI-17 in rat embryo fibroblasts caused (1) abnormal accumulation of cortical F-actin fibers, distinct from the stress fibers induced by expression of active RhoA; (2) progressive contraction of cell area, leaving behind filamentous extensions that stained for F-actin and moesin, but not myosin; and (3) significantly retarded spreading of fibroblasts on fibronectin with elevated myosin II light chain phosphorylation. A phosphorylation site mutant CPI-17(T38A) and inhibitor-2 (Inh2), another PP1-specific inhibitor protein, served as controls and did not elicit these same responses when expressed at the same level as CPI-17. Inhibition of myosin light chain kinase by ML-9 prevented the abnormal accumulation of cortical microfilaments by CPI-17, but did not reverse shrinkage in area, whereas kinase inhibitors HA1077 and H7 prevented CPI-17-induced changes in microfilament distribution and cell contraction. These results highlight the physiological importance of myosin/moesin phosphatase regulation to dynamic remodeling of the cytoskeleton.

  13. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase efficiently phosphorylates serine 15 of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain

    SciTech Connect

    Josephson, Matthew P.; Sikkink, Laura A.; Penheiter, Alan R.; Burghardt, Thomas P.; Ajtai, Katalin

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (MYL2) is phosphorylated at S15. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a ubiquitous kinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is a widely believed that MYL2 is a poor substrate for smMLCK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In fact, smMLCK efficiently and rapidly phosphorylates S15 in MYL2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation kinetics measured by novel fluorescence method without radioactivity. -- Abstract: Specific phosphorylation of the human ventricular cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (MYL2) modifies the protein at S15. This modification affects MYL2 secondary structure and modulates the Ca{sup 2+} sensitivity of contraction in cardiac tissue. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a ubiquitous kinase prevalent in uterus and present in other contracting tissues including cardiac muscle. The recombinant 130 kDa (short) smMLCK phosphorylated S15 in MYL2 in vitro. Specific modification of S15 was verified using the direct detection of the phospho group on S15 with mass spectrometry. SmMLCK also specifically phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain S15 in porcine ventricular myosin and chicken gizzard smooth muscle myosin (S20 in smooth muscle) but failed to phosphorylate the myosin regulatory light chain in rabbit skeletal myosin. Phosphorylation kinetics, measured using a novel fluorescence method eliminating the use of radioactive isotopes, indicates similar Michaelis-Menten V{sub max} and K{sub M} for regulatory light chain S15 phosphorylation rates in MYL2, porcine ventricular myosin, and chicken gizzard myosin. These data demonstrate that smMLCK is a specific and efficient kinase for the in vitro phosphorylation of MYL2, cardiac, and smooth muscle myosin. Whether smMLCK plays a role in cardiac muscle regulation or response to a disease causing stimulus is unclear but it should be considered a potentially significant

  14. Alternative exon-encoding regions of Locusta migratoria muscle myosin modulate the pH dependence of ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Lu, Z; He, J; Chen, Q; Wang, X; Kang, L; Li, X-D

    2016-12-01

    Whereas the vertebrate muscle myosin heavy chains (MHCs) are encoded by a family of Mhc genes, most insects examined to date contain a single Mhc gene and produce all of the different MHC isoforms by alternative RNA splicing. Here, we found that the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, has one Mhc gene, which contains 41 exons, including five alternative exclusive exons and one differently included penultimate exon, and potentially encodes 360 MHC isoforms. From the adult L. migratoria, we identified 14 MHC isoforms (including two identical isoforms): four from flight muscle (the thorax dorsal longitudinal muscle), three from jump muscle (the hind leg extensor tibiae muscle) and seven from the abdominal intersegmental muscle. We purified myosins from flight muscle and jump muscle and characterized their motor activities. At neutral pH, the flight and the jump muscle myosins displayed similar levels of in vitro actin-gliding activity, whereas the former had a slightly higher actin-activated ATPase activity than the latter. Interestingly, the pH dependences of the actin-activated ATPase activity of these two myosins are different. Because the dominant MHC isoforms in these two muscles are identical except for the two alternative exon-encoding regions, we propose that these two alternative regions modulate the pH dependence of L. migratoria muscle myosin.

  15. Arabidopsis myosin XI sub-domains homologous to the yeast myo2p organelle inheritance sub-domain target subcellular structures in plant cells

    PubMed Central

    Sattarzadeh, Amirali; Schmelzer, Elmon; Hanson, Maureen R.

    2013-01-01

    Myosin XI motor proteins transport plant organelles on the actin cytoskeleton. The Arabidopsis gene family that encodes myosin XI has 13 members, 12 of which have sub-domains within the tail region that are homologous to well-characterized cargo-binding domains in the yeast myosin V myo2p. Little is presently known about the cargo-binding domains of plant myosin XIs. Prior experiments in which most or all of the tail regions of myosin XIs have been fused to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and transiently expressed have often not resulted in fluorescent labeling of plant organelles. We identified 42 amino-acid regions within 12 Arabidopsis myosin XIs that are homologous to the yeast myo2p tail region known to be essential for vacuole and mitochondrial inheritance. A YFP fusion of the yeast region expressed in plants did not label tonoplasts or mitochondria. We investigated whether the homologous Arabidopsis regions, termed by us the “PAL” sub-domain, could associate with subcellular structures following transient expression of fusions with YFP in Nicotiana benthamiana. Seven YFP::PAL sub-domain fusions decorated Golgi and six were localized to mitochondria. In general, the myosin XI PAL sub-domains labeled organelles whose motility had previously been observed to be affected by mutagenesis or dominant negative assays with the respective myosins. Simultaneous transient expression of the PAL sub-domains of myosin XI-H, XI-I, and XI-K resulted in inhibition of movement of mitochondria and Golgi. PMID:24187546

  16. Comparative single-molecule and ensemble myosin enzymology: sulfoindocyanine ATP and ADP derivatives.

    PubMed Central

    Oiwa, K; Eccleston, J F; Anson, M; Kikumoto, M; Davis, C T; Reid, G P; Ferenczi, M A; Corrie, J E; Yamada, A; Nakayama, H; Trentham, D R

    2000-01-01

    Single-molecule and macroscopic reactions of fluorescent nucleotides with myosin have been compared. The single-molecule studies serve as paradigms for enzyme-catalyzed reactions and ligand-receptor interactions analyzed as individual stochastic processes. Fluorescent nucleotides, called Cy3-EDA-ATP and Cy5-EDA-ATP, were derived by coupling the dyes Cy3.29.OH and Cy5.29.OH (compounds XI and XIV, respectively, in, Bioconjug. Chem. 4:105-111)) with 2'(3')-O-[N-(2-aminoethyl)carbamoyl]ATP (EDA-ATP). The ATP(ADP) analogs were separated into their respective 2'- and 3'-O-isomers, the interconversion rate of which was 30[OH(-)] s(-1) (0.016 h(-1) at pH 7.1) at 22 degrees C. Macroscopic studies showed that 2'(3')-O-substituted nucleotides had properties similar to those of ATP and ADP in their interactions with myosin, actomyosin, and muscle fibers, although the ATP analogs did not relax muscle as well as ATP did. Significant differences in the fluorescence intensity of Cy3-nucleotide 2'- and 3'-O-isomers in free solution and when they interacted with myosin were evident. Single-molecule studies using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy showed that reciprocal mean lifetimes of the nucleotide analogs interacting with myosin filaments were one- to severalfold greater than predicted from macroscopic data. Kinetic and equilibrium data of nucleotide-(acto)myosin interactions derived from single-molecule microscopy now have a biochemical and physiological framework. This is important for single-molecule mechanical studies of motor proteins. PMID:10827983

  17. Myosin binding surface on actin probed by hydroxyl radical footprinting and site-directed labels.

    PubMed

    Oztug Durer, Zeynep A; Kamal, J K Amisha; Benchaar, Sabrina; Chance, Mark R; Reisler, Emil

    2011-11-25

    Actin and myosin are the two main proteins required for cell motility and muscle contraction. The structure of their strongly bound complex-rigor state-is a key for delineating the functional mechanism of actomyosin motor. Current knowledge of that complex is based on models obtained from the docking of known atomic structures of actin and myosin subfragment 1 (S1; the head and neck region of myosin) into low-resolution electron microscopy electron density maps, which precludes atomic- or side-chain-level information. Here, we use radiolytic protein footprinting for global mapping of sites across the actin molecules that are impacted directly or allosterically by myosin binding to actin filaments. Fluorescence and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies and cysteine actin mutants are used for independent, residue-specific probing of S1 effects on two structural elements of actin. We identify actin residue candidates involved in S1 binding and provide experimental evidence to discriminate between the regions of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Focusing on the role of the DNase I binding loop (D-loop) and the W-loop residues of actin in their interactions with S1, we found that the emission properties of acrylodan and the mobility of electron paramagnetic resonance spin labels attached to cysteine mutants of these residues change strongly and in a residue-specific manner upon S1 binding, consistent with the recently proposed direct contacts of these loops with S1. As documented in this study, the direct and indirect changes on actin induced by myosin are more extensive than known until now and attest to the importance of actin dynamics to actomyosin function.

  18. Phosphorylation of human skeletal muscle myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, M.E.; Lingley, M.D.; Stuart, D.S.; Hoffman-Goetz, L.

    1986-03-01

    Phosphorylation of the P-light chains (phosphorylatable light chains) in human skeletal muscle myosin was studied in vitro and in vivo under resting an d contracted conditions. biopsy samples from rested vastus lateralis muscle of male and female subjects were incubated in oxygenated physiological solution at 30/sup 0/C. Samples frozen following a quiescent period showed the presence of only unphosphorylated P-light chains designated LC2f (light chain two of fast myosin) CL2s and LC2s'(light chains two of slow myosin). Treatment with caffeine (10 mM) or direct electrical stimulation resulted in the appearance of three additional bands which were identified as the phosphorylated forms of the P-light chains i.e. LC2f-P, LC2s-P and LC2s'-P. The presence of phosphate was confirmed by prior incubation with (/sup 30/P) orthophosphate. Muscle samples rapidly frozen from resting vastus lateralis muscle revealed the presence of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated P-light chains in approximately equal ratios. Muscle samples rapidly frozen following a maximal 10 second isometric contraction showed virtually only phosphorylated fast and slow P-light chains. These results reveal that the P-light chains in human fast and slow myosin may be rapidly phosphorylated, but the basal level of phosphorylation in rested human muscle considerably exceeds that observed in animal muscles studied in vitro or in situ.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Myosin Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Elizabeth; Eftink, Maurice R.

    1985-01-01

    Students complete five experimental projects at the end of a senior-level biochemistry course which involves the isolation and characterization of myosin and its water-soluble subfragments. Procedures used and results obtained are provided for such projects as viscosity and ATPase measurements and gel electrophoresis experiments. (JN)

  20. Orbit/CLASP is required for myosin accumulation at the cleavage furrow in Drosophila male meiosis.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Daishi; Matsuo, Tatsuru; Kaizuka, Kana; Miyauchi, Chie; Hayashi, Daisuke; Inoue, Yoshihiro H

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral microtubules (MTs) near the cell cortex are essential for the positioning and continuous constriction of the contractile ring (CR) in cytokinesis. Time-lapse observations of Drosophila male meiosis showed that myosin II was first recruited along the cell cortex independent of MTs. Then, shortly after peripheral MTs made contact with the equatorial cortex, myosin II was concentrated there in a narrow band. After MT contact, anillin and F-actin abruptly appeared on the equatorial cortex, simultaneously with myosin accumulation. We found that the accumulation of myosin did not require centralspindlin, but was instead dependent on Orbit, a Drosophila ortholog of the MT plus-end tracking protein CLASP. This protein is required for stabilization of central spindle MTs, which are essential for cytokinesis. Orbit was also localized in a mid-zone of peripheral MTs, and was concentrated in a ring at the equatorial cortex during late anaphase. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments indicated that Orbit is closely associated with F-actin in the CR. We also showed that the myosin heavy chain was in close proximity with Orbit in the cleavage furrow region. Centralspindlin was dispensable in Orbit ring formation. Instead, the Polo-KLP3A/Feo complex was required for the Orbit accumulation independently of the Orbit MT-binding domain. However, orbit mutations of consensus sites for the phosphorylation of Cdk1 or Polo did not influence the Orbit accumulation, suggesting an indirect regulatory role of these protein kinases in Orbit localization. Orbit was also necessary for the maintenance of the CR. Our data suggest that Orbit plays an essential role as a connector between MTs and the CR in Drosophila male meiosis.

  1. Myosin 1b functions as an effector of EphB signaling to control cell repulsion

    PubMed Central

    Prospéri, Marie-Thérèse; Lépine, Priscilla; Dingli, Florent; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Martin, René; Loew, Damarys; Knölker, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Eph receptors and their membrane-tethered ligands, the ephrins, have important functions in embryo morphogenesis and in adult tissue homeostasis. Eph/ephrin signaling is essential for cell segregation and cell repulsion. This process is accompanied by morphological changes and actin remodeling that drives cell segregation and tissue patterning. The actin cortex must be mechanically coupled to the plasma membrane to orchestrate the cell morphology changes. Here, we demonstrate that myosin 1b that can mechanically link the membrane to the actin cytoskeleton interacts with EphB2 receptors via its tail and is tyrosine phosphorylated on its tail in an EphB2-dependent manner. Myosin 1b regulates the redistribution of myosin II in actomyosin fibers and the formation of filopodia at the interface of ephrinB1 and EphB2 cells, which are two processes mediated by EphB2 signaling that contribute to cell repulsion. Together, our results provide the first evidence that a myosin 1 functions as an effector of EphB2/ephrinB signaling, controls cell morphology, and thereby cell repulsion. PMID:26195670

  2. Myosin-dependent remodeling of adherens junctions protects junctions from Snail-dependent disassembly

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Mo

    2016-01-01

    Although Snail is essential for disassembly of adherens junctions during epithelial–mesenchymal transitions (EMTs), loss of adherens junctions in Drosophila melanogaster gastrula is delayed until mesoderm is internalized, despite the early expression of Snail in that primordium. By combining live imaging and quantitative image analysis, we track the behavior of E-cadherin–rich junction clusters, demonstrating that in the early stages of gastrulation most subapical clusters in mesoderm not only persist, but move apically and enhance in density and total intensity. All three phenomena depend on myosin II and are temporally correlated with the pulses of actomyosin accumulation that drive initial cell shape changes during gastrulation. When contractile myosin is absent, the normal Snail expression in mesoderm, or ectopic Snail expression in ectoderm, is sufficient to drive early disassembly of junctions. In both cases, junctional disassembly can be blocked by simultaneous induction of myosin contractility. Our findings provide in vivo evidence for mechanosensitivity of cell–cell junctions and imply that myosin-mediated tension can prevent Snail-driven EMT. PMID:26754645

  3. Force Dependent Biotinylation of Myosin IIA by α-Catenin Tagged with a Promiscuous Biotin Ligase

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Shuji; Blee, Alexandra M.; Macway, Katherine G.; Renner, Derrick J.; Yamada, Soichiro

    2015-01-01

    Tissues and organs undergo constant physical perturbations and individual cells must respond to mechanical forces to maintain tissue integrity. However, molecular interactions underlying mechano-transduction are not fully defined at cell-cell junctions. This is in part due to weak and transient interactions that are likely prevalent in force-induced protein complexes. Using in situ proximal biotinylation by the promiscuous biotin ligase BirA tagged to α-catenin and a substrate stretch cell chamber, we sought to identify force-dependent molecular interactions surrounding α-catenin, an actin regulator at the sites of cadherin mediated cell-cell adhesion. While E-cadherin, β-catenin, vinculin and actin localize with α-catenin at cell-cell contacts in immuno-fluorescent staining, only β-catenin and plakoglobin were biotinylated, suggesting that this proximal biotinylation is limited to the molecules that are in the immediate vicinity of α-catenin. In mechanically stretched samples, increased biotinylation of non-muscle myosin IIA, but not myosin IIB, suggests close spatial proximity between α-catenin and myosin IIA during substrate stretching. This force-induced biotinylation diminished as myosin II activity was inhibited by blebbistatin. Taken together, this promising technique enables us to identify force sensitive complexes that may be essential for mechano-responses in force bearing cell adhesion. PMID:25806963

  4. Myosin IIIB uses an actin-binding motif in its espin-1 cargo to reach the tips of actin protrusions.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Raymond C; Manor, Uri; Salles, Felipe T; Grati, M'hamed; Dose, Andrea C; Unrath, William C; Quintero, Omar A; Yengo, Christopher M; Kachar, Bechara

    2012-02-21

    Myosin IIIA (MYO3A) targets actin protrusion tips using a motility mechanism dependent on both motor and tail actin-binding activity [1]. We show that myosin IIIB (MYO3B) lacks tail actin-binding activity and is unable to target COS7 cell filopodia tips, yet is somehow able to target stereocilia tips. Strikingly, when MYO3B is coexpressed with espin-1 (ESPN1), a MYO3A cargo protein endogenously expressed in stereocilia [2], MYO3B targets and carries ESPN1 to COS7 filopodia tips. We show that this tip localization is lost when we remove the ESPN1 C terminus actin-binding site. We also demonstrate that, like MYO3A [2], MYO3B can elongate filopodia by transporting ESPN1 to the polymerizing end of actin filaments. The mutual dependence of MYO3B and ESPN1 for tip localization reveals a novel mechanism for the cell to regulate myosin tip localization via a reciprocal relationship with cargo that directly participates in actin binding for motility. Our results are consistent with a novel form of motility for class III myosins that requires both motor and tail domain actin-binding activity and show that the actin-binding tail can be replaced by actin-binding cargo. This study also provides a framework to better understand the late-onset hearing loss phenotype in patients with MYO3A mutations.

  5. Phosphorylation of the Kinase Domain Regulates Autophosphorylation of Myosin IIIA and Its Translocation in Microvilli

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Motor activity of myosin III is regulated by autophosphorylation. To investigate the role of the kinase activity on the transporter function of myosin IIIA (Myo3A), we identified the phosphorylation sites of kinase domain (KD), which is responsible for the regulation of kinase activity and thus motor function. Using mass spectrometry, we identified six phosphorylation sites in the KD, which are highly conserved among class III myosins and Ste20-related misshapen (Msn) kinases. Two predominant sites, Thr184 and Thr188, in KD are important for phosphorylation of the KD as well as the motor domain, which regulates the affinity for actin. In the Caco2 cells, the full-length human Myo3A (hMyo3AFull) markedly enlarged the microvilli, although it did not show discrete localization within the microvilli. On the other hand, hMyo3AFull(T184A) and hMyo3AFull(T188A) both showed clear localization at the microvilli tips. Our results suggest that Myo3A induces large actin bundle formation to form microvilli, and phosphorylation of KD at Thr184 and Thr188 is critical for the kinase activity of Myo3A, and regulation of Myo3A translocation to the tip of microvilli. Retinal extracts potently dephosphorylate both KD and motor domain without IQ motifs (MDIQo), which was inhibited by okadaic acid (OA) with nanomolar range and by tautomycetin (TMC) with micromolar range. The results suggest that Myo3A phosphatase is protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A). Supporting this result, recombinant PP2Ac potently dephosphorylates both KD and MDIQo. We propose that the phosphorylation–dephosphorylation mechanism plays an essential role in mediating the transport and actin bundle formation and stability functions of hMyo3A. PMID:25402663

  6. Dynamin and Myosin Regulate Differential Exocytosis from Mouse Adrenal Chromaffin Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Shyue-An; Doreian, Bryan; Smith, Corey

    2011-01-01

    Neuroendocrine chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla represent a primary output for the sympathetic nervous system. Chromaffin cells release catecholamine as well as vaso- and neuro-active peptide transmitters into the circulation through exocytic fusion of large dense-core secretory granules. Under basal sympathetic activity, chromaffin cells selectively release modest levels of catecholamines, helping to set the “rest and digest” status of energy storage. Under stress activation, elevated sympathetic firing leads to increased catecholamine as well as peptide transmitter release to set the “fight or flight” status of energy expenditure. While the mechanism for catecholamine release has been widely investigated, relatively little is known of how peptide transmitter release is regulated to occur selectively under elevated stimulation. Recent studies have shown selective catecholamine release under basal stimulation is accomplished through a transient, restricted exocytic fusion pore between granule and plasma membrane, releasing a soluble fraction of the small, diffusible molecules. Elevated cell firing leads to the active dilation of the fusion pore, leading to the release of both catecholamine and the less diffusible peptide transmitters. Here we propose a molecular mechanism regulating the activity-dependent dilation of the fusion pore. We review the immediate literature and provide new data to formulate a working mechanistic hypothesis whereby calcium-mediated dephosphorylation of dynamin I at Ser-774 leads to the recruitment of the molecular motor myosin II to actively dilate the fusion pore to facilitate release of peptide transmitters. Thus, activity-dependent dephosphorylation of dynamin is hypothesized to represent a key molecular step in the sympatho-adrenal stress response. PMID:21061163

  7. Myosin IIA participates in docking of Glut4 storage vesicles with the plasma membrane in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Le Thi Kim; Hosaka, Toshio; Harada, Nagakatsu; Jambaldorj, Bayasgalan; Fukunaga, Keiko; Nishiwaki, Yuka; Teshigawara, Kiyoshi; Sakai, Tohru; Nakaya, Yutaka; Funaki, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    In adipocytes and myocytes, insulin stimulation translocates glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) storage vesicles (GSVs) from their intracellular storage sites to the plasma membrane (PM) where they dock with the PM. Then, Glut4 is inserted into the PM and initiates glucose uptake into these cells. Previous studies using chemical inhibitors demonstrated that myosin II participates in fusion of GSVs and the PM and increase in the intrinsic activity of Glut4. In this study, the effect of myosin IIA on GSV trafficking was examined by knocking down myosin IIA expression. Myosin IIA knockdown decreased both glucose uptake and exposures of myc-tagged Glut4 to the cell surface in insulin-stimulated cells, but did not affect insulin signal transduction. Interestingly, myosin IIA knockdown failed to decrease insulin-dependent trafficking of Glut4 to the PM. Moreover, in myosin IIA knockdown cells, insulin-stimulated binding of GSV SNARE protein, vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2) to PM SNARE protein, syntaxin 4 was inhibited. These data suggest that myosin IIA plays a role in insulin-stimulated docking of GSVs to the PM in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through SNARE complex formation.

  8. Myosin 3A Kinase Activity Is Regulated by Phosphorylation of the Kinase Domain Activation Loop*

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Omar A.; Unrath, William C.; Stevens, Stanley M.; Manor, Uri; Kachar, Bechara; Yengo, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Class III myosins are unique members of the myosin superfamily in that they contain both a motor and kinase domain. We have found that motor activity is decreased by autophosphorylation, although little is known about the regulation of the kinase domain. We demonstrate by mass spectrometry that Thr-178 and Thr-184 in the kinase domain activation loop and two threonines in the loop 2 region of the motor domain are autophosphorylated (Thr-908 and Thr-919). The kinase activity of MYO3A 2IQ with the phosphomimic (T184E) or phosphoblock (T184A) mutations demonstrates that kinase activity is reduced 30-fold as a result of the T184A mutation, although the Thr-178 site only had a minor impact on kinase activity. Interestingly, the actin-activated ATPase activity of MYO3A 2IQ is slightly reduced as a result of the T178A and T184A mutations suggesting coupling between motor and kinase domains. Full-length GFP-tagged T184A and T184E MYO3A constructs transfected into COS7 cells do not disrupt the ability of MYO3A to localize to filopodia structures. In addition, we demonstrate that T184E MYO3A reduces filopodia elongation in the presence of espin-1, whereas T184A enhances filopodia elongation in a similar fashion to kinase-dead MYO3A. Our results suggest that as MYO3A accumulates at the tips of actin protrusions, autophosphorylation of Thr-184 enhances kinase activity resulting in phosphorylation of the MYO3A motor and reducing motor activity. The differential regulation of the kinase and motor activities allows for MYO3A to precisely self-regulate its concentration in the actin bundle-based structures of cells. PMID:24214986

  9. Cardiomyopathy mutations reveal variable region of myosin converter as major element of cross-bridge compliance.

    PubMed

    Seebohm, B; Matinmehr, F; Köhler, J; Francino, A; Navarro-Lopéz, F; Perrot, A; Ozcelik, C; McKenna, W J; Brenner, B; Kraft, T

    2009-08-05

    The ability of myosin to generate motile forces is based on elastic distortion of a structural element of the actomyosin complex (cross-bridge) that allows strain to develop before filament sliding. Addressing the question, which part of the actomyosin complex experiences main elastic distortion, we suggested previously that the converter domain might be the most compliant region of the myosin head domain. Here we test this proposal by studying functional effects of naturally occurring missense mutations in the beta-myosin heavy chain, 723Arg --> Gly (R723G) and 736Ile --> Thr (I736T), in comparison to 719Arg --> Trp (R719W). All three mutations are associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and are located in the converter region of the myosin head domain. We determined several mechanical parameters of single skinned slow fibers isolated from Musculus soleus biopsies of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients and healthy controls. Major findings of this study for mutation R723G were i), a >40% increase in fiber stiffness in rigor with a 2.9-fold increase in stiffness per myosin head (S( *)(rigor R723G) = 0.84 pN/nm S( *)(rigor WT) = 0.29 pN/nm); and ii), a significant increase in force per head (F( *)(10 degrees C), 1.99 pN vs. 1.49 pN = 1.3-fold increase; F( *)(20 degrees C), 2.56 pN vs. 1.92 pN = 1.3-fold increase) as well as stiffness per head during isometric steady-state contraction (S( *)(active10 degrees C), 0.52 pN/nm vs. 0.28 pN/nm = 1.9-fold increase). Similar changes were found for mutation R719W (2.6-fold increase in S( *)(rigor); 1.8-fold increase in F( *)(10 degrees C), 1.6-fold in F( *)(20 degrees C); twofold increase in S( *)(active10 degrees C)). Changes in active cross-bridge cycling kinetics could not account for the increase in force and active stiffness. For the above estimates the previously determined fraction of mutated myosin in the biopsies was taken into account. Data for wild-type myosin of slow soleus muscle fibers support previous

  10. Monomeric Acanthamoeba myosins I support movement in vitro.

    PubMed

    Albanesi, J P; Fujisaki, H; Hammer, J A; Korn, E D; Jones, R; Sheetz, M P

    1985-07-25

    Acanthamoeba myosins IA and IB were found to have molecular weights of 159,000 and 150,000 and Stokes radii of 6.2 and 5.9 nm, respectively. Both enzymes have frictional ratios of 1.7. Myosin IA consists of 22% alpha-helix, 32% beta-structure, and 46% unordered structure, while myosin IB is 16% alpha-helix, 46% beta-structure, and 38% unordered. Both myosins remain monomolecular under conditions in which other myosins form filaments. Beads coated with myosin IA or IB move unidirectionally on actin cables of Nitella. Movement requires ATP and phosphorylation of the myosin I heavy chain which is also required for actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity. Movement is inhibited by myosin I antiserum that inhibits actin-activated ATPase activity. These studies establish that these nonfilamentous, monomolecular myosins with single heavy chains of 130,000 and 125,000 daltons (IA and IB, respectively) can support actin-dependent movement analogous to that supported by filamentous myosins.

  11. Ginsenoside Rg1 Protects against Oxidative Stress-induced Neuronal Apoptosis through Myosin IIA-actin Related Cytoskeletal Reorganization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Qian; Xu, Yingqiong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Lv, Yanni; Tan, Yisha; Jiang, Nan; Cao, Guosheng; Ma, Xiaonan; Wang, Jingrong; Cao, Zhengyu; Yu, Boyang; Kou, Junping

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress-induced cytoskeletal dysfunction of neurons has been implicated as a crucial cause of cell apoptosis or death in the central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. The application of neuroprotectants rescuing the neurons from cytoskeletal damage and apoptosis can be a potential treatment for these CNS diseases. Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), one of the major active components of ginseng, has been reported possessing notable neuroprotective activities. However, there is rare report about its effect on cytoskeleton and its undergoing mechanism. The current study is to reveal the regulatory effects of Rg1 on cytoskeletal and morphological lesion in oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis. The results demonstrated that pre-treatment with Rg1 (0.1-10 μM) attenuated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced neuronal apoptosis and oxidative stress through reducing the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) level. The Rg1 treatment also abolished H2O2-induced morphological changes, including cell rounding, membrane blebbing, neurite retraction and nuclei condensation, which were generated by myosin IIA-actin interaction. These effects were mediated via the down-regulation of caspase-3, ROCK1 (Rho-associated kinase1) activation and myosin light chain (MLC, Ser-19) phosphorylation. Furthermore, inhibiting myosin II activity with blebbistatin partly blocked the neuroprotective effects of Rg1. The computer-aided homology modelling revealed that Rg1 preferentially positioned in the actin binding cleft of myosin IIA and might block the binding of myosin IIA to actin filaments. Accordingly, the neuroprotective mechanism of Rg1 is related to the activity that inhibits myosin IIA-actin interaction and the caspase-3/ROCK1/MLC signaling pathway. These findings put some insights into the unique neuroprotective properties of Rg1 associated with the regulation of myosin IIA

  12. Molecular motors and their functions in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular motors that hydrolyze ATP and use the derived energy to generate force are involved in a variety of diverse cellular functions. Genetic, biochemical, and cellular localization data have implicated motors in a variety of functions such as vesicle and organelle transport, cytoskeleton dynamics, morphogenesis, polarized growth, cell movements, spindle formation, chromosome movement, nuclear fusion, and signal transduction. In non-plant systems three families of molecular motors (kinesins, dyneins, and myosins) have been well characterized. These motors use microtubules (in the case of kinesines and dyneins) or actin filaments (in the case of myosins) as tracks to transport cargo materials intracellularly. During the last decade tremendous progress has been made in understanding the structure and function of various motors in animals. These studies are yielding interesting insights into the functions of molecular motors and the origin of different families of motors. Furthermore, the paradigm that motors bind cargo and move along cytoskeletal tracks does not explain the functions of some of the motors. Relatively little is known about the molecular motors and their roles in plants. In recent years, by using biochemical, cell biological, molecular, and genetic approaches a few molecular motors have been isolated and characterized from plants. These studies indicate that some of the motors in plants have novel features and regulatory mechanisms. The role of molecular motors in plant cell division, cell expansion, cytoplasmic streaming, cell-to-cell communication, membrane trafficking, and morphogenesis is beginning to be understood. Analyses of the Arabidopsis genome sequence database (51% of genome) with conserved motor domains of kinesin and myosin families indicates the presence of a large number (about 40) of molecular motors and the functions of many of these motors remain to be discovered. It is likely that many more motors with novel regulatory

  13. Simultaneous nano-tracking of multiple motor proteins via spectral discrimination of quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Kakizuka, Taishi; Ikezaki, Keigo; Kaneshiro, Junichi; Fujita, Hideaki; Watanabe, Tomonobu M.; Ichimura, Taro

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous nanometric tracking of multiple motor proteins was achieved by combining multicolor fluorescent labeling of target proteins and imaging spectroscopy, revealing dynamic behaviors of multiple motor proteins at the sub-diffraction-limit scale. Using quantum dot probes of distinct colors, we experimentally verified the localization precision to be a few nanometers at temporal resolution of 30 ms or faster. One-dimensional processive movement of two heads of a single myosin molecule and multiple myosin molecules was successfully traced. Furthermore, the system was modified for two-dimensional measurement and applied to tracking of multiple myosin molecules. Our approach is useful for investigating cooperative movement of proteins in supramolecular nanomachinery. PMID:27446684

  14. The effect of novel mutations on the structure and enzymatic activity of unconventional myosins associated with autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Tae-Jun; Oh, Se-Kyung; Park, Hong-Joon; Sato, Osamu; Venselaar, Hanka; Choi, Soo Young; Kim, SungHee; Lee, Kyu-Yup; Bok, Jinwoong; Lee, Sang-Heun; Vriend, Gert; Ikebe, Mitsuo; Kim, Un-Kyung; Choi, Jae Young

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in five unconventional myosin genes have been associated with genetic hearing loss (HL). These genes encode the motor proteins myosin IA, IIIA, VI, VIIA and XVA. To date, most mutations in myosin genes have been found in the Caucasian population. In addition, only a few functional studies have been performed on the previously reported myosin mutations. We performed screening and functional studies for mutations in the MYO1A and MYO6 genes in Korean cases of autosomal dominant non-syndromic HL. We identified four novel heterozygous mutations in MYO6. Three mutations (p.R825X, p.R991X and Q918fsX941) produce a premature truncation of the myosin VI protein. Another mutation, p.R205Q, was associated with diminished actin-activated ATPase activity and actin gliding velocity of myosin VI in an in vitro analysis. This finding is consistent with the results of protein modelling studies and corroborates the pathogenicity of this mutation in the MYO6 gene. One missense variant, p.R544W, was found in the MYO1A gene, and in silico analysis suggested that this variant has deleterious effects on protein function. This finding is consistent with the results of protein modelling studies and corroborates the pathogenic effect of this mutation in the MYO6 gene. PMID:25080041

  15. The effect of novel mutations on the structure and enzymatic activity of unconventional myosins associated with autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tae-Jun; Oh, Se-Kyung; Park, Hong-Joon; Sato, Osamu; Venselaar, Hanka; Choi, Soo Young; Kim, SungHee; Lee, Kyu-Yup; Bok, Jinwoong; Lee, Sang-Heun; Vriend, Gert; Ikebe, Mitsuo; Kim, Un-Kyung; Choi, Jae Young

    2014-07-01

    Mutations in five unconventional myosin genes have been associated with genetic hearing loss (HL). These genes encode the motor proteins myosin IA, IIIA, VI, VIIA and XVA. To date, most mutations in myosin genes have been found in the Caucasian population. In addition, only a few functional studies have been performed on the previously reported myosin mutations. We performed screening and functional studies for mutations in the MYO1A and MYO6 genes in Korean cases of autosomal dominant non-syndromic HL. We identified four novel heterozygous mutations in MYO6. Three mutations (p.R825X, p.R991X and Q918fsX941) produce a premature truncation of the myosin VI protein. Another mutation, p.R205Q, was associated with diminished actin-activated ATPase activity and actin gliding velocity of myosin VI in an in vitro analysis. This finding is consistent with the results of protein modelling studies and corroborates the pathogenicity of this mutation in the MYO6 gene. One missense variant, p.R544W, was found in the MYO1A gene, and in silico analysis suggested that this variant has deleterious effects on protein function. This finding is consistent with the results of protein modelling studies and corroborates the pathogenic effect of this mutation in the MYO6 gene.

  16. Motor Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Kollmorgen Corporation's Mermaid II two person submersible is propeller-driven by a system of five DC brushless motors with new electronic controllers that originated in work performed in a NASA/DOE project managed by Lewis Research Center. A key feature of the system is electric commutation rather than mechanical commutation for converting AC current to DC.

  17. Myosin synthesis in embryonic chicken fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    The rate of constitutive myosin synthesis was measured in cultures of replicating embryonic chicken skin fibroblasts by pulse labeling with [3H]leucine. These cells synthesized the 200,000-dalton heavy chain of myosin (MHC) at a rate of 3.2 x 10(3) molecules/cell/min. Additionally, an independent estimate of the MHC synthesis rate needed to maintain a constant level of constitutive MHC/cell was calculated from total protein content, percentage MHC, fibroblast doubling time, and MHC half- life. This calculated rate of approximately 2.9 x 10(3) molecules/cell/min was in close agreement with the measured rate. By comparison, the synthesis rate of myofibrillar MHC in fully activated muscle cell cultures was approximately 2.9 x 10(4) molecules/nucleus/min. PMID:479285

  18. Enzymatic activity and motility of recombinant Arabidopsis myosin XI, MYA1.

    PubMed

    Hachikubo, You; Ito, Kohji; Schiefelbein, John; Manstein, Dietmar J; Yamamoto, Keiichi

    2007-06-01

    We expressed recombinant Arabidopsis myosin XI (MYA1), in which the motor domain of MYA1 was connected to an artificial lever arm composed of triple helical repeats of Dictyostelium alpha-actinin, in order to understand its motor activity and intracellular function. The V(max) and K(actin) of the actin-activated Mg(2+) ATPase activity of the recombinant MYA1 were 50.7 Pi head(-1) s(-1) and 30.2 microM, respectively, at 25 degrees C. The recombinant MYA1 could translocate actin filament at the maximum velocity of 1.8 microm s(-1) at 25 degrees C in the in vitro motility assay. The value corresponded to a motility of 3.2 microm s(-1) for native MYA1 if we consider the difference in the lever arm length, and this value was very close to the velocity of cytoplasmic streaming in Arabidopsis hypocotyl epidermal cells. The extent of inhibition by ADP of the motility of MYA1 was similar to that of the well-known processive motor, myosin V, suggesting that MYA1 is a processive motor. The dissociation rate of the actin-MYA1-ADP complex induced by ATP (73.5 s(-1)) and the V(max) value of the actin-activated Mg(2+) ATPase activity revealed that MYA1 stays in the actin-bound state for about 70% of its mechanochemical cycle time. This high ratio of actin-bound states is also a characteristic of processive motors. Our results strongly suggest that MYA1 is a processive motor and involved in vesicle transport and/or cytoplasmic streaming.

  19. A Combination of Diffusion and Active Translocation Localizes Myosin 10 to the Filopodial Tip*

    PubMed Central

    Baboolal, Thomas G.; Mashanov, Gregory I.; Nenasheva, Tatiana A.; Peckham, Michelle; Molloy, Justin E.

    2016-01-01

    Myosin 10 is an actin-based molecular motor that localizes to the tips of filopodia in mammalian cells. To understand how it is targeted to this distinct region of the cell, we have used total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to study the movement of individual full-length and truncated GFP-tagged molecules. Truncation mutants lacking the motor region failed to localize to filopodial tips but still bound transiently at the plasma membrane. Deletion of the single α-helical and anti-parallel coiled-coil forming regions, which lie between the motor and pleckstrin homology domains, reduced the instantaneous velocity of intrafilopodial movement but did not affect the number of substrate adherent filopodia. Deletion of the anti-parallel coiled-coil forming region, but not the EKR-rich region of the single α-helical domain, restored intrafilopodial trafficking, suggesting this region is important in determining myosin 10 motility. We propose a model by which myosin 10 rapidly targets to the filopodial tip via a sequential reduction in dimensionality. Molecules first undergo rapid diffusion within the three-dimensional volume of the cell body. They then exhibit periods of slower two-dimensional diffusion in the plane of the plasma membrane. Finally, they move in a unidimensional, highly directed manner along the polarized actin filament bundle within the filopodium becoming confined to a single point at the tip. Here we have observed directly each phase of the trafficking process using single molecule fluorescence imaging of live cells and have quantified our observations using single particle tracking, autocorrelation analysis, and kymographs. PMID:27566544

  20. Cloning and characterization of myr 6, an unconventional myosin of the dilute/myosin-V family.

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, L P; Koslovsky, J S; Reinhard, J; Bähler, M; Witt, A E; Provance, D W; Mercer, J A

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated cDNAs encoding a second member of the dilute (myosin-V) unconventional myosin family in vertebrates, myr 6 (myosin from rat 6). Expression of myr 6 transcripts in the brain is much more limited than is the expression of dilute, with highest levels observed in choroid plexus and components of the limbic system. We have mapped the myr 6 locus to mouse chromosome 18 using an interspecific backcross. The 3' portion of the myr 6 cDNA sequence from rat is nearly identical to that of a previously published putative glutamic acid decarboxylase from mouse [Huang, W.M., Reed-Fourquet, L., Wu, E. & Wu, J.Y. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 8491-8495]. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 PMID:8855265

  1. Dense granule trafficking in Toxoplasma gondii requires a unique class 27 myosin and actin filaments

    PubMed Central

    Heaslip, Aoife T.; Nelson, Shane R.; Warshaw, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The survival of Toxoplasma gondii within its host cell requires protein release from secretory vesicles, called dense granules, to maintain the parasite’s intracellular replicative niche. Despite the importance of DGs, nothing is known about the mechanisms underlying their transport. In higher eukaryotes, secretory vesicles are transported to the plasma membrane by molecular motors moving on their respective cytoskeletal tracks (i.e., microtubules and actin). Because the organization of these cytoskeletal structures differs substantially in T. gondii, the molecular motor dependence of DG trafficking is far from certain. By imaging the motions of green fluorescent protein–tagged DGs in intracellular parasites with high temporal and spatial resolution, we show through a combination of molecular genetics and chemical perturbations that directed DG transport is independent of microtubules and presumably their kinesin/dynein motors. However, directed DG transport is dependent on filamentous actin and a unique class 27 myosin, TgMyoF, which has structural similarity to myosin V, the prototypical cargo transporter. Actomyosin DG transport was unexpected, since filamentous parasite actin has yet to be visualized in vivo due in part to the prevailing model that parasite actin forms short, unstable filaments. Thus our data uncover new critical roles for these essential proteins in the lytic cycle of this devastating pathogen. PMID:27146112

  2. Erythrocyte Protein 4.1 Binds and Regulates Myosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternack, Gary R.; Racusen, Richard H.

    1989-12-01

    Myosin was recently identified in erythrocytes and was shown to partition both with membrane and cytosolic fractions, suggesting that it may be loosely bound to membranes [Fowler, V. M., Davis, J. Q. & Bennett, V. (1985) J. Cell Biol. 100, 47-55, and Wong, A. J., Kiehart, D. P. & Pollard, T. D. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 46-49]; however, the molecular basis for this binding was unclear. The present studies employed immobilized monomeric myosin to examine the interaction of myosin with erythrocyte protein 4.1. In human erythrocytes, protein 4.1 binds to integral membrane proteins and mediates spectrin-actin assembly. Protein 4.1 binds to rabbit skeletal muscle myosin with a Kd = 140 nM and a stoichiometry consistent with 1:1 binding. Heavy meromyosin competes for protein 4.1 binding with Ki = 36-54 nM; however, the S1 fragment (the myosin head) competes less efficiently. Affinity chromatography of partial chymotryptic digests of protein 4.1 on immobilized myosin identified a 10-kDa domain of protein 4.1 as the myosin-binding site. In functional studies, protein 4.1 partially inhibited the actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity of rabbit skeletal muscle myosin with Ki = 51 nM. Liver cytosolic and erythrocyte myosins preactivated with myosin light-chain kinase were similarly inhibited by protein 4.1. These studies show that protein 4.1 binds, modulates, and thus may regulate myosin. This interaction might serve to generate the contractile forces involved in Mg2+-ATP-dependent shape changes in erythrocytes and may additionally serve as a model for myosin organization and regulation in non-muscle cells.

  3. Flexural Stiffness of Myosin Va Subdomains as Measured from Tethered Particle Motion

    PubMed Central

    Michalek, Arthur J.; Kennedy, Guy G.; Warshaw, David M.; Ali, M. Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Myosin Va (MyoVa) is a processive molecular motor involved in intracellular cargo transport on the actin cytoskeleton. The motor's processivity and ability to navigate actin intersections are believed to be governed by the stiffness of various parts of the motor's structure. Specifically, changes in calcium may regulate motor processivity by altering the motor's lever arm stiffness and thus its interhead communication. In order to measure the flexural stiffness of MyoVa subdomains, we use tethered particle microscopy, which relates the Brownian motion of fluorescent quantum dots, which are attached to various single- and double-headed MyoVa constructs bound to actin in rigor, to the motor's flexural stiffness. Based on these measurements, the MyoVa lever arm and coiled-coil rod domain have comparable flexur