Sample records for mystery image quiz

  1. MISR Where on Earth…? Mystery Image Quiz #29

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-09-07

    ... ready for a challenge? Become a geographical detective and solve the latest mystery quiz from NASA’s MISR (Multi-angle Imaging ... ready for a challenge? Become a geographical detective and solve the latest mystery quiz from NASA’s MISR (Multi-angle Imaging ...

  2. MISR Where on Earth...? MISR Mystery Image Quiz #28

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-16

    Are you ready for a challenge? Become a geographical detective and solve the latest mystery quiz from NASA's MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer) instrument onboard the Terra satellite. Prize submissions for perfect scores accepted until Wednesday, November 23, at 4:00 p.m. PST. Happy sleuthing! Take the quiz here http://climate.nasa.gov/quizzes/misr_quiz_28. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA15375

  3. MISR Where on Earth ...? MISR Mystery Image Quiz #29

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-21

    Are you ready for a challenge? Become a geographical detective and solve the latest mystery quiz from NASA's MISR Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument onboard the Terra satellite. Prize submissions for perfect scores accepted until Wednesday, June 28, at 4:00 p.m. PDT. Happy sleuthing! Take the quiz here http://climate.nasa.gov/quizzes/misr_quiz_29. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21762

  4. Where on Earth...? MISR Mystery Image Quiz #24: Shandong Province, China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-03

    This image of the Shandong Province, China was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer instrument aboard NASA Terra spacecraft. This image is from the MISR Where on Earth...? Mystery Quiz #24.

  5. Where on Earth...? MISR Mystery Image Quiz #3:Lofoten Islands, Norway

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-09-26

    Lofoten Islands, Norway. Norway is deeply indented by fjords, rises precipitously to high plateaus, and is united with the ocean by numerous islands. This image from NASA Terra satellite is MISR Mystery Image Quiz #2.

  6. Where on Earth...? MISR Mystery Image Quiz #8:Yarlung Tsangpo River, China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-05-15

    The mighty river featured in this image is called the Yarlung Tsangpo in China, and is then known as the Dikrong during its passage through India state of Arunachal Pradesh. This image from NASA Terra satellite is MISR Mystery Image Quiz #8.

  7. Where on Earth...? MISR Mystery Image Quiz #13: Western Uzbekistan and Northeastern Turkmenistan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-19

    Acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer instrument aboard NASA Terra spacecraft, this image is from the MISR Where on Earth...? Mystery Quiz #13. The location is Western Uzbekistan and Northeastern Turkmenistan.

  8. Where on Earth...? MISR Mystery Image Quiz #10:Pulau Kimaam, West Papua

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-09-04

    Pulau Kimaam, Pulau Dolok, Pulau Yos Sudarso, and Frederik Hendrik Island are all names used to refer to this island, which is part of the Indonesian province of West Papua. This image from NASA Terra satellite is MISR Mystery Image Quiz #10.

  9. Mystery #28

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-06-14

    ... ready for a challenge? Become a geographical detective and solve the latest mystery quiz from NASA’s MISR (Multi-angle Imaging ... ready for a challenge? Become a geographical detective and solve the latest mystery quiz from NASA’s MISR (Multi-angle Imaging ...

  10. Where on Earth...? MISR Mystery Image Quiz #6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Here's another chance to play geographical detective! This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. Use any reference materials you like and answer the following five questions: The large lagoon in the image is named for a particular type of bird. Name the bird. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. What did they call the river? A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. Which ONE of the following is most responsible for the formation of these cusps? Violent storm impacts on erosion and accretion Wind and tide-driven sediment transport and circulation Tectonic folding associated with nearby mountain ridges Bathymetric effects of dredging operations True or false: Changes in regional precipitation associated with large scale atmospheric circulation patterns have no effect on the salinity of the lagoon's water. Which one of these is NOT distributed within the area covered by this image? Ruppia maritima Chelonia mydas Tapirus bairdii Microcystis aeruginosa E-mail your answers, name (initials are acceptable if you prefer), and your hometown by Tuesday, February 19, 2002 to suggestions@mail-misr.jpl.nasa.gov. Answers will be published on the MISR web site in conjunction with the next weekly image release. The names and home towns of respondents who answer all questions correctly by the deadline will also be published in the order responses were received. The first 3 people on this list who are not affiliated with NASA, JPL, or MISR and who did not win a prize in the last quiz will be sent a print of the image. A new 'Where on Earth...?' mystery appears as the MISR 'image of the week' approximately once per month. A new image of the week is released every

  11. Mystery #21

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    article title:  MISR Mystery Image Quiz #21   ... This mystery concerns a particular type of cloud, one example of which was imaged by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ... ) These clouds are commonly tracked using propeller-driven research aircraft. 3.   Two of these statements are false. Which one is ...

  12. Mystery #21 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    article title:  MISR Mystery Image Quiz #21: Actinoform Clouds ... This mystery concerns a particular type of cloud, one example of which was imaged by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ... ) These clouds are commonly tracked using propeller-driven research aircraft. Answer: C is True. The weather satellite, TIROS ...

  13. Mystery #11

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    article title:  MISR Mystery Image Quiz #11     View Larger Image Here's another chance to play geographical detective! These images ... MISR Team. Text acknowledgment: Clare Averill, David J. Diner, Graham Bothwell (Jet Propulsion Laboratory). Other formats ...

  14. Mystery #19 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... article title:  MISR Mystery Image Quiz #19: Black Sea     View Larger Image This natural-color image of the Black Sea from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) represents an area of ...

  15. Mystery #6 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... title:  MISR Mystery Image Quiz #6: Brazil's Duck Lagoon     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil's Duck Lagoon covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was ...

  16. Mystery #11 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    article title:  MISR Mystery Image Quiz #11: Queensland, Australia     View Larger Image These Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of ... MISR Team. Text acknowledgment: Clare Averill, David J. Diner, Graham Bothwell (Jet Propulsion Laboratory). Other formats ...

  17. Mystery #24

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-22

    article title:  MISR Mystery Image Quiz #24   ... formed by the large sediment-laden river in the image is an example of a well preserved wetland ecosystem, and is used as a "transfer ... MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center in Hampton, VA. Image ...

  18. Mystery #14 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-16

    article title:  MISR Mystery Image Quiz #14: Anatahan Island ... to find another satellite image of Anatahan on May 14th. For example, the view of Anatahan from   the  Aqua satellite  shows that on ... MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center in Hampton, VA. Image ...

  19. Immune System Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Quiz: Immune System KidsHealth / For Kids / Quiz: Immune System Print How much do you know about your immune system? Find out by taking this quiz! About Us ...

  20. Sleep Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Sleep Quiz Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... on. Photo: iStock Take the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Sleep Quiz TRUE OR FALSE ? _____1. ...

  1. Cholesterol IQ Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cholesterol IQ Quiz Updated:Jul 5,2017 Begin the quiz Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Atherosclerosis What Your Cholesterol ...

  2. Quiz: Alzheimer's Disease Quiz | Alzheimer's disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alzheimer's Disease Quiz: Alzheimer's Disease Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of ... How many people in the United States have Alzheimer's disease? as many as 5.1 million as ...

  3. Quiz: Water and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... your health Quiz: Water and your health Quiz: Water and your health Clean water is an important part of being healthy. Do you know all of these fun facts about water? Take this quiz to find out! Then, test ...

  4. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... navigation Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Asthma ▸ EIB Quiz Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction or Exercise-Induced Asthma Quiz Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (also called ...

  5. Quiz Making Activities Using the Multi-Mouse Quiz System in an Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Juan; Mori, Mikihiko; Ueda, Hiroshi; Kita, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Mouse Quiz System is an application used to treat quizzes in a classroom or other learning environment. The system comprises the Multi Mouse Quiz (MMQ) and MMQEditor. The MMQ is an application of Single Display Groupware (SDG), which enables multiple users to answer quizzes by connecting several mice to an ordinary computer. The…

  6. Mystery #19

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... camera in May, 2002. This mystery concerns a large body of water (the blue waters which dominate most of the image) and the region ... MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center in Hampton, VA. Image ...

  7. Nicotine Withdrawal; Measure Your Symptoms (Quiz)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Free Resources Medications Can Help You Quit Using Nicotine Replacement Therapy Busting NRT Myths Smokefree Phone Apps ... Withdrawal Understanding Withdrawal Quiz: How Strong is Your Nicotine Addiction? Quiz: What Are Your Withdrawal Symptoms? Dealing ...

  8. Headaches and Migraines: Migraine 101 Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Headaches and Migraines Migraine 101 Quiz Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of ... the facts when it comes to headaches and migraines? Test your knowledge with this quick quiz. True/ ...

  9. Mystery #25

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-22

    ... lies a World Heritage Site surrounded by water. What location is shown in this image?   Mystery Solved ... NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed ...

  10. Quiz: Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... you know about your nails? Find out by taking this quiz! About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes ...

  11. Folic Acid Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surveillance References Birth Defects COUNT Data & Statistics Research Articles & Key Findings About Us Partners Links to Other Websites Information For… Media Policy Makers Folic Acid Quiz Language: English (US) ...

  12. Quiz Today: Should I Skip Class?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zizler, Peter

    2013-01-01

    How does selective assessment, wherein one counts only the best "k" out of "n" quizzes set, impact grade inflation? Based on our analysis, a specific quantitative answer can be given to a student who plans to skip a quiz, depending, of course, on the student's quiz writing consistency or inconsistency.

  13. The Monte Carlo Quiz: Encouraging Punctual Completion and Deep Processing of Assigned Readings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Peter S.

    2004-01-01

    The Monte Carlo Quiz (MCQ), a single-item quiz, is so named because chance, with the roll of a die, determines (a) whether the quiz is administered; (b) the specific article, chapter, or section of the assigned reading that the quiz covers; and (c) the particular question that makes up the quiz. The MCQ encourages both punctual completion and deep…

  14. Meet your Aircraft Quiz

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-01-01

    This quiz is designed to help a pilot meet his or her aircraft. Although no attempt is made to cover in depth all of the information contained in the typical Pilot's Operating Handbook (POH), Owner's Manual (OM), or Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM), the ...

  15. Mystery Person

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article features a mathematical game called "Mystery Person." The author describes how the Mystery Person game was tried with first-graders [age 6]. The Mystery games involve the generation of key questions, the coordination of information--often very complex information--and the formulation of consequences based on this…

  16. Face the Fats Quiz 2

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart? Ready to make informed choices about the foods you eat? From fish to French fries to fried chicken, test your knowledge about the fats in some familiar foods. Welcome to Face the Fats Quiz II - and ...

  17. Mysterious Changing Feature in Ligeia Mare

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-29

    These three images, created from NASA Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar SAR data, show the appearance and evolution of a mysterious feature in Ligeia Mare, one of the largest hydrocarbon seas on Saturn moon Titan.

  18. Integrating an Information Literacy Quiz into the Learning Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, M. Sara; Booth, Char; Tagge, Natalie; Stone, Sean

    2014-01-01

    The Claremont Colleges Library Instruction Services Department developed a quiz that could be integrated into the consortial learning management software to accompany a local online, open-source information literacy tutorial. The quiz is integrated into individual course pages, allowing students to receive a grade for completion and improving…

  19. New VLA Images Unlocking Galactic Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    Astronomers have produced a scientific gold mine of detailed, high-quality images of nearby galaxies that is yielding important new insights into many aspects of galaxies, including their complex structures, how they form stars, the motions of gas in the galaxies, the relationship of "normal" matter to unseen "dark matter," and many others. An international team of scientists used more than 500 hours of observations with the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to produce detailed sets of images of 34 galaxies at distances from 6 to 50 million light-years from Earth. Their project, called The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey, or THINGS, required two years to produce nearly one TeraByte of data. HI ("H-one") is an astronomical term for atomic hydrogen gas. The astronomers presented their initial findings to the American Astronomical Society's (AAS) meeting in Austin, Texas. "Studying the radio waves emitted by atomic hydrogen gas in galaxies is an extremely powerful way to learn what's going on in nearby galaxies. The THINGS survey uses that tool to provide sets of images of the highest quality and sensitivity for a substantial sample of galaxies of different types," said Fabian Walter, of the Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany. IC2574M74 Dwarf galaxy IC2574, left, and spiral galaxy M74, in THINGS images. Credit: Walter et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click images for high-resolution files (33 KB & 25 KB) Spiral Galaxies in THINGS Most of the galaxies studied in the THINGS survey also have been observed at other wavelengths, including Spitzer space telescope infrared images and GALEX ultraviolet images. This combination provides an unprecedented resource for unravelling the mystery of how a galaxy's gaseous material influences its overall evolution. Analysis of THINGS data already has yielded numerous scientific payoffs. For example, one study has shed new light on astronomers' understanding of the gas-density threshold required to

  20. Web-Based Quiz-Game-Like Formative Assessment: Development and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tzu-Hua

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to develop a multiple-choice Web-based quiz-game-like formative assessment system, named GAM-WATA. The unique design of "Ask-Hint Strategy" turns the Web-based formative assessment into an online quiz game. "Ask-Hint Strategy" is composed of "Prune Strategy" and "Call-in Strategy".…

  1. Modifying the Monte Carlo Quiz to Increase Student Motivation, Participation, and Content Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Shawn R.

    2017-01-01

    Fernald developed the Monte Carlo Quiz format to enhance retention, encourage students to prepare for class, read with intention, and organize information in psychology classes. This author modified the Monte Carlo Quiz, combined it with the Minute Paper, and applied it to various courses. Students write quiz questions as part of the Minute Paper…

  2. Self-Assessment Quiz Taking Behaviour Analysis in an Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozarslan, Yasin; Ozan, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Self-assessment is vital for online learning since it is one of the most essential skills of distance learners. In this respect, the purpose of this study was to understand learners' self-assessment quiz taking behaviours in an undergraduate level online course. We tried to figure out whether there is a relation between self-assessment quiz taking…

  3. Reliability and validity of the Incontinence Quiz-Turkish version.

    PubMed

    Kara, Kerime C; Çıtak Karakaya, İlkim; Tunalı, Nur; Karakaya, Mehmet G

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Incontinence Quiz, which was developed by Branch et al. (1994), to assess women's knowledge of and attitudes toward urinary incontinence. Comprehensibility of the Turkish version of the 14-item Incontinence Quiz, which was prepared following translation-back translation procedures, was tested on a pilot group of eight women, and its internal reliability, test-retest reliability and construct validity were assessed in 150 women who attended the gynecology clinics of three hospitals in İçel, Turkey. Physical and sociodemographic characteristics and presence of incontinence complaints were also recorded. Data were analyzed at the 0.05 alpha level, using SPSS version 22. The scale had good reliability and validity. The internal reliability coefficient (Cronbach α) was 0.80, test-retest correlation coefficients were 0.83-0.94; and with regard to construct validity, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin coefficient was 0.76 and Barlett sphericity test was 562.777 (P = 0.000). Turkish version of the Incontinence Quiz had a four-factor structure, with Eigenvalues ranging from 1.17 to 4.08. The Incontinence Quiz-Turkish version is a highly comprehensible, reliable and valid scale, which may be used to assess Turkish-speaking women's knowledge of and attitudes toward urinary incontinence. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Using Reading Guides and On-Line Quizzes to Improve Reading Compliance and Quiz Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Trent W.; Longfield, Judith

    2015-01-01

    This study compared students' daily in-class reading quiz scores in an introductory Child Development course across five conditions: control, reading guide only, reading guide and on-line practice quiz, reading guide and on-line graded quiz, and reading guide and both types of on-line quizzes. At the beginning of class, students completed a 5-item…

  5. Designing Online Quiz Questions To Assess a Range of Cognitive Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Nick; McLoughlin, Catherine

    This paper discusses the design and pedagogy underpinning the use of online quiz items in which students are presented with a range of questions designed to enhance understanding of complex linguistic constructions. It explores the design of different types of quiz questions from the perspective of pedagogy and cognitive demand. The particular…

  6. The benefits of mystery in nature on attention: assessing the impacts of presentation duration

    PubMed Central

    Szolosi, Andrew M.; Watson, Jason M.; Ruddell, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Although research has provided prodigious evidence in support of the cognitive benefits that natural settings have over urban settings, all nature is not equal. Within nature, natural settings that contain mystery are often among the most preferred nature scenes. With the prospect of acquiring new information, scenes of this type could more effectively elicit a person's sense of fascination, enabling that person to rest the more effortful forms of attention. The present study examined the direct cognitive benefits that mystery in nature has on attention. Settings of this sort presumably evoke a form of attention that is undemanding or effortless. In order to investigate that notion, participants (n = 144) completed a Recognition Memory Task (RMT) that evaluated recognition performance based on the presence of mystery and presentation duration (300 ms, 1 s, 5 s, and 10 s). Results revealed that with additional viewing time, images perceived high in mystery achieved greater improvements in recognition performance when compared to those images perceived low in mystery. Tests for mediation showed that the effect mystery had on recognition performance occurred through perceptions of fascination. Implications of these and other findings are discussed in the context of Attention Restoration Theory. PMID:25505441

  7. An Electrifying Quiz! Constructing a Printed-Circuit Board Quiz Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Laptop computers, cell phones and the Apple iPod all contain transistors, IC chips, capacitors, and other electronic components. To the general public--and especially students in upper elementary and middle school grades--these components are most often very mysterious items. Yet, it is at elementary and middle school levels that scientists and…

  8. A mysterious hermit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-06

    The drizzle of stars scattered across this image forms a galaxy known as UGC 4879. UGC 4879 is an irregular dwarf galaxy — as the name suggests, galaxies of this type are a little smaller and messier than their cosmic cousins, lacking the majestic swirl of a spiral or the coherence of an elliptical. This galaxy is also very isolated. There are about 2.3 million light years between UGC 4879 and its closest neighbour, Leo A, which is about the same distance as that between the Andromeda Galaxy and the Milky Way. This galaxy’s isolation means that it has not interacted with any surrounding galaxies, making it an ideal laboratory for studying star formation uncomplicated by interactions with other galaxies. Studies of UGC 4879 have revealed a significant amount of star formation in the first 4-billion-years after the Big Bang, followed by a strange nine-billion-year lull in star formation, ended 1-billion-years ago by a more recent reignition. The reason for this behaviour, however, remains mysterious, and the solitary galaxy continues to provide ample study material for astronomers looking to understand the complex mysteries of starbirth throughout the Universe.

  9. Gender differences in response to questions on the australian national chemistry quiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walding, Richard; Fogliani, Charles; Over, Ray; Bain, John D.

    In contrast to the attention given to the relative levels of achievement of boys and girls in mathematics, the question of whether there are sex differences in the solution of chemistry questions has not attracted much attention. This study compares the performance of boys and girls in the Australian National Chemistry Quiz (Chem Quiz), a multiple-choice test conducted by the Royal Australian Chemical Institute. The analyses were based on results from 27,000 students in Years 11 and 12 and 16,000 students in Year 10 who completed the Chem Quiz in 1991. Although some questions in the Chem Quiz were solved equally well by boys and girls, on many questions boys outperformed girls. The extreme case was a question answered correctly by 67% of Year 10 boys in contrast to 48% of Year 10 girls. Several reasons why boys and girls might differ in the rates they solve at least some chemistry questions are discussed, and directions for identifying the nature, extent, and basis for sex differences are outlined.

  10. Blood Pressure Quiz | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents Blood pressure changes throughout the day. It… is highest while ...

  11. Modern Solar Mysteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2004-01-01

    100 years ago we thought that the Sun and stars shone as a result of slow gravitational contraction over a few tens of millions of years - putting astronomers at odds with geologists who claimed that the Earth was much, much older. That mystery was solved in the 1920s and 30s with the discovery of nuclear energy (proving that the geologists had it right all along). Other scientific mysteries concerning the Sun have come and gone but three major mysteries remain: 1) How does the Sun produce sunspots with an 11-year cycle? 2) What produces the huge explosions that result in solar flares, prominence eruptions, and coronal mass ejections? and 3) Why is the Sun's outer atmosphere, the corona, so darned hot? Recent progress in solar astronomy reveals a single key to understanding all three of these mysteries.

  12. Biochemistry Games: "AZ-Quiz" and "Jeopardy!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostejnska, Milada; Klimova, Helena

    2011-01-01

    "AZ-Quiz" and "Jeopardy!" are popular television shows and serve as the basis for in-class games designed to support and diversify chemistry instruction at the high school level. Both games were created in Microsoft PowerPoint, which is an easily accessible and controllable instrument that enables the creation of engaging animation. The use of…

  13. The Facts on Aging Quiz: A Review of Findings and a Revision of Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmore, Erdman; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In a review of studies using the Facts on Aging Quiz (FAQ), group reliability was high, but item reliability was low. Less educated groups were more biased against the elderly. In some ways the revised FAQ supports the Palmore scale, while compensating for its weaknesses. (JAC)

  14. Orthopedic Health: Osteoarthritis— What You Should Know (quiz)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Orthopedic Health Osteoarthritis— What You Should Know Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... Javascript on. How much do you know about osteoarthritis, its causes, and its therapies? Take this quiz ...

  15. The Librarian's Stereotyped Image in Mystery Novels, 1980-1990: Has the Image Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhart, Linda A.

    This research paper examines the portrayal of 35 librarians depicted in 24 adult mystery novels copyrighted between 1980 and 1990. Its main objective is to gauge how closely the portrayals of the librarians resemble or differ from the stereotype denounced in professional writings. In general, the librarians in these stories are fairly young and…

  16. The Mystery Begins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, LaDawna

    2008-01-01

    All teachers and media specialists are looking for the "hook" that will engage their students and make them want to learn--and according to the author, mystery stories are a perfect way to create that hook. Here, she presents a unit on mysteries, intended for collaboration between media specialists and language arts teachers. The unit uses…

  17. Examination of the Psychometric Properties of the Knowledge of Aging for Social Work Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakao, Kayoko C.; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Lawrance, Frances P.; Volland, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    Using graduate social work students' data ("n" = 481) in the Hartford Partnership Program for Aging Education (HPPAE) in the United States, the study examined psychometric properties of the Knowledge of Aging for Social Work Quiz (KASW), a revision of the Facts on Aging Quiz, to evaluate biopsychosocial knowledge relevant to social work.…

  18. A Quiz on Recent Court Decisions Concerning Student Conduct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a 10-question quiz based on court decisions reported from 1977 through 1979. Three areas are covered--student discipline, student searches, and student expression. Answers and explanations are given for each question. (IRT)

  19. Who Dun It? Mysteries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanarini, Anna

    2001-01-01

    Offers brief descriptions of 23 mysteries that will appeal to adolescent readers. Notes that further lists of excellent titles in the category of juvenile and young adult mystery are available on the Edgar Allen Poe website at http://www.mysterywriters.org/awards.html. (SR)

  20. Solving the Mystery of Short Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are among the most fascinating occurrences in the cosmos. Until this year, the origin of short gamma-ray bursts was a complete mystery. A new NASA satellite named Swift has now captured the first images of these events and found that they are caused by tremendous explosions in the distant universe.

  1. Effects Of The Contingency For Homework Submission On Homework Submission And Quiz Performance In A College Course

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Effects of the contingency for submission of homework assignments on the probability of assignment submission and on quiz grades were assessed in an undergraduate psychology course. Under an alternating treatments design, each student was assigned to a points condition for 5 of 10 quiz-related homework assignments corresponding to textbook chapters. Points were available for homework submission under this condition; points were not available under the no-points condition. The group-mean percentage of homework assignments submitted and quiz grades were higher for all chapters under the points condition than in the no-points condition. These findings, which were replicated in Experiment 2, demonstrate that homework submission was not maintained when the only consequences were instructor-provided feedback and expectation of improved quiz performance. PMID:15898476

  2. Differential Effects of the Mystery Motivator Intervention Using Student-Selected and Mystery Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robichaux, Natalie M.; Gresham, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Class-wide interventions such as the Mystery Motivator are an easy and effective way to remediate problematic behavior in the classroom and increase the level of classroom management. Multiple procedural variations to the Mystery Motivator intervention have successfully changed student behavior, but a systematic comparison of two procedural…

  3. Does the Sex Risk Quiz Predict Mycoplasma genitalium Infection in Urban Adolescents and Young Adult Women?

    PubMed

    Ronda, Jocelyn; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Perin, Jamie; Tabacco, Lisa; Coleman, Jenell; Trent, Maria

    2018-06-04

    Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) but there are limited strategies to identify individuals at risk of MG. Previously a sex risk quiz was used to predict STIs including Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC), and/or Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). The original quiz categorized individuals ≤25 years old as at risk of STIs, but the Centers for Disease Control identifies females <25 years old as at risk of STIs. In this study, the quiz was changed to categorize females <25 years old as high risk. The objective was to determine if the age-modified risk quiz predicted MG infection. A cross-sectional analysis of a prospective longitudinal study was performed including female adolescents and young adults (AYA) evaluated in multiple outpatient clinics. Participants completed an age-modified risk quiz about sexual practices. Scores ranged from 0 to 10 and were categorized as low-risk (0-3), medium-risk (4-7), and high-risk (8-10) based upon the STI prevalence for each score. Vaginal and/or endocervical specimens were tested for MG, TV, CT, and GC using the Aptima Gen-Probe nucleic amplification test. There were 693 participants. Most participants reported having 0-1 sexual partners in the last 90 days (91%) and inconsistent condom use (84%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis controlling for race, education, and symptom status demonstrated that a medium-risk score predicted MG infection among AYA <25 years old (adjusted OR 2.56 [95% CI 1.06-6.18]). A risk quiz may be useful during clinical encounters to identify AYA at risk of MG.

  4. American Society of Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire 2015: Electrolytes and Acid-Base Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rosner, Mitchell H; Perazella, Mark A; Choi, Michael J

    2016-04-07

    The Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire remains an extremely popular session for attendees of the annual Kidney Week meeting of the American Society of Nephrology. During the 2015 meeting the conference hall was once again overflowing with eager quiz participants. Topics covered by the experts included electrolyte and acid-base disorders, glomerular disease, end-stage renal disease and dialysis, and kidney transplantation. Complex cases representing each of these categories together with single-best-answer questions were prepared and submitted by the panel of experts. Before the meeting, training program directors of nephrology fellowship programs and nephrology fellows in the United States answered the questions through an internet-based questionnaire. During the live session members of the audience tested their knowledge and judgment on the same series of case-oriented questions in a quiz. The audience compared their answers in real time using a cell-phone app containing the answers of the nephrology fellows and training program directors. The results of the online questionnaire were displayed, and then the quiz answers were discussed. As always, the audience, lecturers, and moderators enjoyed this highly educational session. This article recapitulates the session and reproduces selected content of educational value for theClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrologyreaders. Enjoy the clinical cases and expert discussions. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. Hubble Uncovers a Mysterious Hermit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    This irregular dwarf galaxy's closes neighbor is 2.3 million light years away, so yeah, we're calling it "isolated". The drizzle of stars scattered across this image forms a galaxy known as UGC 4879. UGC 4879 is an irregular dwarf galaxy — as the name suggests, galaxies of this type are a little smaller and messier than their cosmic cousins, lacking the majestic swirl of a spiral or the coherence of an elliptical. This galaxy is also very isolated. There are about 2.3 million light years between UGC 4879 and its closest neighbor, Leo A, which is about the same distance as that between the Andromeda Galaxy and the Milky Way. This galaxy’s isolation means that it has not interacted with any surrounding galaxies, making it an ideal laboratory for studying star formation uncomplicated by interactions with other galaxies. Studies of UGC 4879 have revealed a significant amount of star formation in the first 4 billion years after the Big Bang, followed by a strange 9-billion-year lull in star formation that ended 1 billion years ago by a more recent re-ignition. The reason for this behavior, however, remains mysterious, and the solitary galaxy continues to provide ample study material for astronomers looking to understand the complex mysteries of star birth throughout the universe. Image credit: NASA/ESA NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  6. The use of quizStar application for online examination in basic physics course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kustijono, R.; Budiningarti, H.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to produce an online Basic Physics exam system using the QuizStar application. This is a research and development with ADDIE model. The steps are: 1) analysis; 2) design; 3) development; 4) implementation; 5) evaluation. System feasibility is reviewed for its validity, practicality, and effectiveness. The subjects of research are 60 Physics Department students of Universitas Negeri Surabaya. The data analysis used is a descriptive statistic. The validity, practicality, and effectiveness scores are measured using a Likert scale. Criteria feasible if the total score of all aspects obtained is ≥ 61%. The results obtained from the online test system by using QuizStar developed are 1) conceptually feasible to use; 2) the system can be implemented in the Basic Physics assessment process, and the existing constraints can be overcome; 3) student's response to system usage is in a good category. The results conclude that QuizStar application is eligible to be used for online Basic Physics exam system.

  7. How to Escape a Home Fire (Take This Safety Quiz).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1994

    1994-01-01

    A checklist/safety quiz from the National Fire Protection Association examines individual knowledge of how to escape if a home fire breaks out. The organization recommends that every household develop a fire escape plan and practice it at least twice a year. (SM)

  8. Quiz: What's the buzz about salt? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Too Much Salt Quiz: What's the buzz about salt? Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table of Contents The body needs how much salt per day: ¼ teaspoon ½ teaspoon 1 teaspoon ...

  9. Diet Quality Scores of Australian Adults Who Have Completed the Healthy Eating Quiz.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rebecca L; Rollo, Megan E; Schumacher, Tracy; Collins, Clare E

    2017-08-15

    Higher scores obtained using diet quality and variety indices are indicators of more optimal food and nutrient intakes and lower chronic disease risk. The aim of this paper is to describe the overall diet quality and variety in a sample of Australian adults who completed an online diet quality self-assessment tool, the Healthy Eating Quiz. The Healthy Eating Quiz takes approximately five minutes to complete online and computes user responses into a total diet quality score (out of a maximum of 73 points) and then categorizes them into the following groups: 'needs work' (<33), 'getting there' (33-38), 'excellent' (39-46), or 'outstanding' (47+). There was a total of 93,252 first-time respondents, of which 76% were female. Over 80% of respondents were between 16-44 years of age. The mean total score was 34.1 ± 9.7 points. Females had a higher total score than males ( p < 0.001) and vegetarians had higher total scores than non-vegetarians ( p < 0.001). Healthy eating quiz scores were higher in those aged 45-75 years compared to 16-44 years ( p < 0.001). When comparing Socioeconomic Indices for Areas deciles, those most disadvantaged had a lower total score than those least disadvantaged ( p < 0.001). Repeat measures showed that those who scored lowest (needs work) in their first completion increased their total score by 3.2 ± 7.4 at their second completion ( p < 0.001). While the Healthy Eating Quiz data indicates that individuals receiving feedback on how to improve their score can improve their diet quality, there is a need for further nutrition promotion interventions in Australian adults.

  10. Mystery #16

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... x 184 kilometers (right panel). This mystery concerns two coral atoll ecosystems located in different parts of the globe. Use any ... production.   B.   Symbiotic zooxanthellae provide reef corals with the calcium and nutrients they need to grow.   C. ...

  11. Do clinical and translational science graduate students understand linear regression? Development and early validation of the REGRESS quiz.

    PubMed

    Enders, Felicity

    2013-12-01

    Although regression is widely used for reading and publishing in the medical literature, no instruments were previously available to assess students' understanding. The goal of this study was to design and assess such an instrument for graduate students in Clinical and Translational Science and Public Health. A 27-item REsearch on Global Regression Expectations in StatisticS (REGRESS) quiz was developed through an iterative process. Consenting students taking a course on linear regression in a Clinical and Translational Science program completed the quiz pre- and postcourse. Student results were compared to practicing statisticians with a master's or doctoral degree in statistics or a closely related field. Fifty-two students responded precourse, 59 postcourse , and 22 practicing statisticians completed the quiz. The mean (SD) score was 9.3 (4.3) for students precourse and 19.0 (3.5) postcourse (P < 0.001). Postcourse students had similar results to practicing statisticians (mean (SD) of 20.1(3.5); P = 0.21). Students also showed significant improvement pre/postcourse in each of six domain areas (P < 0.001). The REGRESS quiz was internally reliable (Cronbach's alpha 0.89). The initial validation is quite promising with statistically significant and meaningful differences across time and study populations. Further work is needed to validate the quiz across multiple institutions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. ToxMystery

    MedlinePlus

    Accessibility - This is a link to an external javascript file that searchs for a flash browser plug-in and what version of the browser is being used. The javascript is functional ToxMystery uses Adobe Flash Player. If you cannot install Flash Player, please use ...

  13. Stimulating Student Interest in Physiology: The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ) was initiated in 2003 during the author's last sabbatical from the University of Malaya. At this inaugural event, there were just seven competing teams from Malaysian medical schools. The challenge trophy for the IMSPQ is named in honor of Prof. A. Raman, who was the first Malaysian Professor of…

  14. Introducing The Captain Power and The Power Quiz. Energy Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedermeyer, F.; Roberson, E.

    Two energy education programs are described in this informational brochure. Both "Captain Power" for second graders and "Power Quiz" for fifth graders are designed to teach energy concepts and to help students develop and use conservation skills. Program outcomes focus on energy concepts, types of energy, energy costs, energy…

  15. Studying as Fun and Games: Effects on College Students' Quiz Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neef, Nancy A.; Perrin, Christopher J.; Haberlin, Alayna T.; Rodrigues, Lilian C.

    2011-01-01

    We examined college students' participation in a game activity for studying course material on their subsequent quiz performance. Game conditions were alternated with another activity counterbalanced across two groups of students in a multielement design. Overall, the mean percentage correct on quizzes was higher during the game condition than…

  16. Mystery Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharyya, Sonalee; Namakshi, Nama; Zunker, Christina; Warshauer, Hiroko K.; Warshauer, Max

    2016-01-01

    Making math more engaging for students is a challenge that every teacher faces on a daily basis. These authors write that they are constantly searching for rich problem-solving tasks that cover the necessary content, develop critical-thinking skills, and engage student interest. The Mystery Fraction activity provided here focuses on a key number…

  17. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM):Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Special Section CAM Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... low back pain. True False Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes: Meditation Chiropractic Use of natural products, ...

  18. Key steps in developing a cognitive vaccine against traumatic flashbacks: visuospatial Tetris versus verbal Pub Quiz.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Emily A; James, Ella L; Kilford, Emma J; Deeprose, Catherine

    2010-11-10

    Flashbacks (intrusive memories of a traumatic event) are the hallmark feature of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, however preventative interventions are lacking. Tetris may offer a 'cognitive vaccine' [1] against flashback development after trauma exposure. We previously reported that playing the computer game Tetris soon after viewing traumatic material reduced flashbacks compared to no-task [1]. However, two criticisms need to be addressed for clinical translation: (1) Would all games have this effect via distraction/enjoyment, or might some games even be harmful? (2) Would effects be found if administered several hours post-trauma? Accordingly, we tested Tetris versus an alternative computer game--Pub Quiz--which we hypothesized not to be helpful (Experiments 1 and 2), and extended the intervention interval to 4 hours (Experiment 2). The trauma film paradigm was used as an experimental analog for flashback development in healthy volunteers. In both experiments, participants viewed traumatic film footage of death and injury before completing one of the following: (1) no-task control condition (2) Tetris or (3) Pub Quiz. Flashbacks were monitored for 1 week. Experiment 1: 30 min after the traumatic film, playing Tetris led to a significant reduction in flashbacks compared to no-task control, whereas Pub Quiz led to a significant increase in flashbacks. Experiment 2: 4 hours post-film, playing Tetris led to a significant reduction in flashbacks compared to no-task control, whereas Pub Quiz did not. First, computer games can have differential effects post-trauma, as predicted by a cognitive science formulation of trauma memory. In both Experiments, playing Tetris post-trauma film reduced flashbacks. Pub Quiz did not have this effect, even increasing flashbacks in Experiment 1. Thus not all computer games are beneficial or merely distracting post-trauma - some may be harmful. Second, the beneficial effects of Tetris are retained at 4 hours post-trauma. Clinically

  19. Key Steps in Developing a Cognitive Vaccine against Traumatic Flashbacks: Visuospatial Tetris versus Verbal Pub Quiz

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Emily A.; James, Ella L.; Kilford, Emma J.; Deeprose, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Background Flashbacks (intrusive memories of a traumatic event) are the hallmark feature of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, however preventative interventions are lacking. Tetris may offer a ‘cognitive vaccine’ [1] against flashback development after trauma exposure. We previously reported that playing the computer game Tetris soon after viewing traumatic material reduced flashbacks compared to no-task [1]. However, two criticisms need to be addressed for clinical translation: (1) Would all games have this effect via distraction/enjoyment, or might some games even be harmful? (2) Would effects be found if administered several hours post-trauma? Accordingly, we tested Tetris versus an alternative computer game – Pub Quiz – which we hypothesized not to be helpful (Experiments 1 and 2), and extended the intervention interval to 4 hours (Experiment 2). Methodology/Principal Findings The trauma film paradigm was used as an experimental analog for flashback development in healthy volunteers. In both experiments, participants viewed traumatic film footage of death and injury before completing one of the following: (1) no-task control condition (2) Tetris or (3) Pub Quiz. Flashbacks were monitored for 1 week. Experiment 1: 30 min after the traumatic film, playing Tetris led to a significant reduction in flashbacks compared to no-task control, whereas Pub Quiz led to a significant increase in flashbacks. Experiment 2: 4 hours post-film, playing Tetris led to a significant reduction in flashbacks compared to no-task control, whereas Pub Quiz did not. Conclusions/Significance First, computer games can have differential effects post-trauma, as predicted by a cognitive science formulation of trauma memory. In both Experiments, playing Tetris post-trauma film reduced flashbacks. Pub Quiz did not have this effect, even increasing flashbacks in Experiment 1. Thus not all computer games are beneficial or merely distracting post-trauma - some may be harmful. Second, the

  20. What Happened Next? Making and Using an Interactive DVD Quiz Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sluman, Jonny

    2013-01-01

    In this article Jonny Sluman describes how he adapted an interactive DVD quiz game at a Christmas family get-together into an exciting, creative science activity to teach his students. The rounds included: a "quick fire" question round, a "what happened next" round, a music round, and a "spot the difference" round.…

  1. Quiz: Does Your Blood Pressure Pass the Test? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Quiz: Does Your Blood Pressure Pass the Test? Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Blood pressure changes throughout the day. It is highest while ...

  2. A Comparison of Escalating versus Fixed Reinforcement Schedules on Undergraduate Quiz Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Drug abstinence studies indicate that escalating reinforcement schedules maintain abstinence for longer periods than fixed reinforcement schedules. The current study evaluated whether escalating reinforcement schedules would maintain more quiz taking than fixed reinforcement schedules. During baseline and for the control group, bonus points were…

  3. Clueless: Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    This annotated bibliography includes adult mysteries that appeal to teen readers under the categories of Sherlock Holmes; reference sources; private investigators; amateur sleuths; historical sleuths; suspense and thrillers; police procedurals; mystery blends; and anthologies. (LRW)

  4. Studying as fun and games: effects on college students' quiz performance.

    PubMed

    Neef, Nancy A; Perrin, Christopher J; Haberlin, Alayna T; Rodrigues, Lilian C

    2011-01-01

    We examined college students' participation in a game activity for studying course material on their subsequent quiz performance. Game conditions were alternated with another activity counterbalanced across two groups of students in a multielement design. Overall, the mean percentage correct on quizzes was higher during the game condition than in the no-game condition.

  5. Three Modes of Hydrogeophysical Investigation: Puzzles, Mysteries, and Conundrums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferre, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    In an article in the New Yorker in 2007, Malcolm Gladwell discussed the distinction that national security expert Gregory Treverton has made between puzzles and mysteries. Specifically, puzzles are problems that we understand and that will eventually be solved when we amass enough information. (Think crossword puzzles.) Mysteries are problems for which we have the necessary information, but it is often overwhelmed by irrelevant or misleading input. To solve a mystery, we require improved analysis. (Think find-a-word.) Gladwell goes on to explain that, in the national security realm, the Cold War was a puzzle while the current national security condition is a mystery. I will discuss the past, current, and future trajectories of hydrogeophysics in terms of puzzles and mysteries. I will also add a third class of problem: conundrums - those for which we lack sufficient information about their structure to know how to solve them. A conundrum is a mystery with an unexpected twist. I hope to make the case that the future growth of hydrogeophysics lies in our ability to address this more challenging and more interesting class of problem.

  6. Evaluative Appraisals of Environmental Mystery and Surprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasar, Jack L.; Cubukcu, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    This study used a desktop virtual environment (VE) of 15 large-scale residential streets to test the effects of environmental mystery and surprise on response. In theory, mystery and surprise should increase interest and visual appeal. For each VE, participants walked through an approach street and turned right onto a post-turn street. We designed…

  7. Four Interesting Mysteries with Seemingly Conflicting Explanations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorenzo, Ron

    2000-04-01

    Four mysteries with seemingly contradictory solutions are presented to make chemistry courses more interesting and relevant to students' lives: (1) Why might women become intoxicated more easily than men? (2) Why might alcohol consumption enhance cigarettes' carcinogenic effects? (3) Why might the use of Vaseline Intensive Care Hand Lotion as a lubricant increase the number of unwanted pregnancies and promote the spread of HIV? (4) Why does oil-based Vaseline Intensive Care Hand Lotion rinse off in water? Although the solutions to these mysteries appear to contradict one another, the contradictions are reconciled by considering a fifth mystery: Why does red wine go with red meat and white wine go with fish?

  8. Mysterious Chickpea Disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A mysterious disease of chickpea is widespread this year in the Palouse region. Symptoms started showing in late June, and symptomatic plants were scattered all over in fields. Initial symptoms included necrosis/die back of growing tips. The leaves of infected plants turned bronze/yellow, and the...

  9. Teaching resources for dermatology on the WWW--quiz system and dynamic lecture scripts using a HTTP-database demon.

    PubMed Central

    Bittorf, A.; Diepgen, T. L.

    1996-01-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) is becoming the major way of acquiring information in all scientific disciplines as well as in business. It is very well suitable for fast distribution and exchange of up to date teaching resources. However, to date most teaching applications on the Web do not use its full power by integrating interactive components. We have set up a computer based training (CBT) framework for Dermatology, which consists of dynamic lecture scripts, case reports, an atlas and a quiz system. All these components heavily rely on an underlying image database that permits the creation of dynamic documents. We used a demon process that keeps the database open and can be accessed using HTTP to achieve better performance and avoid the overhead involved by starting CGI-processes. The result of our evaluation was very encouraging. Images Figure 3 PMID:8947625

  10. Creative Ways to Teach the Mysteries of History, Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ronald Hans

    2005-01-01

    This book is developed to make the teaching and learning of history a powerful and enjoyable experience in the classroom through the study of historical mysteries. What better place to snoop around and dig through mysterious graves than in history class? This book takes ten mysterious events in history from ancient Egypt to the 21st century for…

  11. Using an online quiz-based reinforcement system to teach healthcare quality and patient safety and care transitions at the University of California.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Ulfat; Afsar-Manesh, Nasim; Amin, Alpesh N; Clay, Brian; Ranji, Sumant R

    2017-10-01

    Implementing quality improvement (QI) education during clinical training is challenging due to time constraints and inadequate faculty development in these areas. Quiz-based reinforcement systems show promise in fostering active engagement, collaboration, healthy competition and real-time formative feedback, although further research on their effectiveness is required. An online quiz-based reinforcement system to increase resident and faculty knowledge in QI, patient safety and care transitions. Experts in QI and educational assessment at the 5 University of California medical campuses developed a course comprised of 3 quizzes on Introduction to QI, Patient Safety and Care Transitions. Each quiz contained 20 questions and utilized an online educational quiz-based reinforcement system that leveraged spaced learning. Approximately 500 learners completed the course (completion rate 66-86%). Knowledge acquisition scores for all quizzes increased after completion: Introduction to QI (35-73%), Patient Safety (58-95%), and Care Transitions (66-90%). Learners reported that the quiz-based system was an effective teaching modality and preferred this type of education to classroom-based lectures. Suggestions for improvement included reducing frequency of presentation of questions and utilizing more questions that test learners on application of knowledge instead of knowledge acquisition. A multi-campus online quiz-based reinforcement system to train residents in QI, patient safety and care transitions was feasible, acceptable, and increased knowledge. The course may be best utilized to supplement classroom-based and experiential curricula, along with increased attention to optimizing frequency of presentation of questions and enhancing application skills. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Hercule Poirot v. Reality: Murder Mysteries as an Epistemic Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geisler, Deborah M.

    If murder mysteries are to carry an epistemic force, it is important to examine how murder mysteries represent a unique way of knowing, of coming to view the world, for their readers. This can be accomplished by looking at the text of murder mysteries and how the nature of the text influences the reality creating process; by exploring the nature…

  13. Solve Medical Mysteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Leslie

    2007-01-01

    Wondering how to make the study of the immune system and infectious agents more relevant to your students' lives? The online adventure series, Medical Mysteries, can provide the context and motivation. The series combines the drama of television's "CSI" episodes with science to address several of the National Science Education Content Standards.…

  14. Library Programs for Teens: Mystery Theater. VOYA Guides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siwak, Karen J.

    2010-01-01

    It's no mystery that fun and exciting programs bring teens into the library. Theater programs provide a venue for teens to express themselves creatively, encourage their participation in library programming, and offer them the opportunity for lively interaction with peers and adults. In "Library Programs for Teens: Mystery Theater," Karen Siwak…

  15. ScienceCast 32: 600 Mysteries in the Night Sky

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-14

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope recently produced a map of the night sky. Out of 1873 new sources, nearly 600 were complete mysteries. In this week's ScienceCast, researchers speculate on the nature of the mystery objects.

  16. Improving EFL Learners' Pronunciation of English through Quiz-Demonstration-Practice-Revision (QDPR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moedjito

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of Quiz-Demonstration-Practice-Revision (QDPR) in improving EFL learners' pronunciation of English. To achieve the goal, the present researcher conducted a one-group pretest-posttest design. The experimental group was selected using a random sampling technique with consideration of the inclusion criteria.…

  17. Passport to Mystery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Wilda

    2010-01-01

    Mystery and suspense fiction remain as popular as ever for as many reasons as there are readers. "Those who wish for escape or respite read cozies, historicals, or romance crossovers," says Poisoned Pen editor Barbara Peters. "Those who want to stay on the cutting edge of society read thrillers [from authors] like Daniel Silva, Alex Berenson, or…

  18. Space Mysteries: Making Science and Astronomy Learning Fun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plait, P.; Tim, G.; Cominsky, L.

    2001-12-01

    How do you get and keep a student's attention during class? Make learning fun! Using a game to teach students ensures that they have fun, enjoy the lesson and remember it. We have developed a series of interactive web and CD based games called "Space Mysteries" to teach students math, physics and astronomy. Using real NASA data, the students must find out Who (or What) dunit in an engaging astronomy mystery. The games include video interviews with famous scientists, actors playing roles who give clues to the solution, and even a few blind alleys and red herrings. The first three games are currently online in beta release at http://mystery.sonoma.edu.

  19. Sauerbraten, Rotkappchen und Goethe: The Quiz Show as an Introduction to German Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Diane

    1980-01-01

    Proposes an adaptation of the quiz-show format for classroom use, discussing a set of rules and sample questions designed for beginning and intermediate German students. Presents questions based on German life and culture which are especially selected to encourage participation from students majoring in subjects other than German. (MES)

  20. Mysterious Roving Rocks of Racetrack Playa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    The main mystery on Racetrack Playa is how the rocks move, but another, possibly greater mystery, is why some trails don't have rocks. Photo credit: NASA/GSFC/Mindy Krzykowski/LPSA intern To read a feature story on the Racetrack Playa go to: www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/roving-rocks.html NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  1. Mystery Box Marvels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Joel; Centurio, Tina

    2012-01-01

    What happens in the first week of school could very well set the stage for the rest of the school year. Setting high standards for science activities based in inquiry can start on the first day of science class and develop as the year unfolds. With the use of simple, readily available, inexpensive materials, an efficient mystery box lesson can be…

  2. The Quick Quiz: An Unplugged Assessment for the Math Educator's Toolbox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Julie P.; Bradley, Gary; Love, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    When implemented correctly, feedback from assessments can result in students reflecting and rethinking their mathematics, while increasing their effort and motivation. This article explores a formative assessment technique for use in the first few minutes of each class. Readers will find out how they can use the QuickQuiz (QQ) to drive…

  3. "UML Quiz": Automatic Conversion of Web-Based E-Learning Content in Mobile Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Franqué, Alexander; Tellioglu, Hilda

    2014-01-01

    Many educational institutions use Learning Management Systems to provide e-learning content to their students. This often includes quizzes that can help students to prepare for exams. However, the content is usually web-optimized and not very usable on mobile devices. In this work a native mobile application ("UML Quiz") that imports…

  4. A Microbial Murder Mystery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Melissa A.; Mitchell, James K.

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a microbial mystery activity to test students' knowledge of human anatomy and their ability to identify microbes. Provides an opportunity for students to develop logical deductive reasoning. Includes national science education standards related to this activity, activity sheets with whole procedures, and Internet resources. (KHR)

  5. Effects of random study checks and guided notes study cards on middle school special education students' notetaking accuracy and science vocabulary quiz scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Charles L.

    Federal legislation mandates that all students with disabilities have meaningful access to the general education curriculum and that students with and without disabilities be held equally accountable to the same academic standards (IDEIA, 2004; NCLB, 2001). Many students with disabilities, however, perform poorly in academic content courses, especially at the middle and secondary school levels. Previous research has reported increased notetaking accuracy and quiz scores over lecture content when students completed guided notes compared to taking their own notes. This study evaluated the effects of a pre-quiz review procedure and specially formatted guided notes on middle school special education students' learning of science vocabulary. This study compared the effects of three experimental conditions. (a) Own Notes (ON), (b) Own Notes+Random Study Checks (ON+RSC), and (c) Guided Notes Study Cards+Random Study Checks (GNSC+RSC) on each student's accuracy of notes, next-day quiz scores, and review quiz scores. Each session, the teacher presented 12 science vocabulary terms and definitions during a lecture and students took notes. The students were given 5 minutes to study their notes at the end of each session and were reminded to study their notes at home and in study hall period. In the ON condition students took notes on a sheet of paper with numbered lines from 1 to 12. Just before each next-day quiz in the ON+RSC condition students used write-on response cards to answer two teacher-posed questions over randomly selected vocabulary terms from the previous day's lecture. If the answer on a randomly selected student's response card was correct, that student earned a lottery ticket for inexpensive prizes and a quiz bonus point for herself and each classmate. In the GNSC+RSC condition students took notes on specially formatted guided notes that after the lecture they cut into a set of flashcards that could used for study. The students' mean notetaking accuracy was 75

  6. Misconceptions Highlighted among Medical Students in the Annual International Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi

    2012-01-01

    The annual Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ), initiated in 2003, is now an event that attracts a unique, large gathering of selected medical students from medical schools across the globe. The 8th IMSPQ, in 2010, hosted by the Department of Physiology, University of Malaya, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, had 200 students representing 41…

  7. Evolutionary mysteries in meiosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Meiosis is a key event of sexual life cycles in eukaryotes. Its mechanistic details have been uncovered in several model organisms, and most of its essential features have received various and often contradictory evolutionary interpretations. In this perspective, we present an overview of these often ‘weird’ features. We discuss the origin of meiosis (origin of ploidy reduction and recombination, two-step meiosis), its secondary modifications (in polyploids or asexuals, inverted meiosis), its importance in punctuating life cycles (meiotic arrests, epigenetic resetting, meiotic asymmetry, meiotic fairness) and features associated with recombination (disjunction constraints, heterochiasmy, crossover interference and hotspots). We present the various evolutionary scenarios and selective pressures that have been proposed to account for these features, and we highlight that their evolutionary significance often remains largely mysterious. Resolving these mysteries will likely provide decisive steps towards understanding why sex and recombination are found in the majority of eukaryotes. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Weird sex: the underappreciated diversity of sexual reproduction’. PMID:27619705

  8. Mysterious object He2-90

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-12-01

    Astronomers using NASA Hubble Space Telescope stumbled upon a mysterious object that grudgingly yielded clues to its identity. The object is classified as a planetary nebula, the glowing remains of a dying, lightweight star.

  9. Campus Spies? Using Mystery Students to Evaluate University Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Alex; Douglas, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    Background: This paper explores the appropriateness of using mystery customer programmes in higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK. Purpose: The main aim of the paper is to examine potential advantages and disadvantages of mystery customer programmes within HEIs, and to identify any issues that would need to be successfully resolved were…

  10. The Use of a Daily Quiz "TOPday" as Supportive Learning Method for Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maessen, Martijn F. H.; Fluit, Cornelia R. M. G.; Holla, Micha; Drost, Gea; Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; de Waal Malefijt, Maarten C.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Tanck, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Medical students consider anatomy, neurology, and traumatology as difficult study topics. A recent study showed that the daily quiz "Two Opportunities to Practice per day (TOPday)" positively supported biomedical students in analyzing and solving biomechanical problems. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of…

  11. The Effectiveness Evaluation among Different Player-Matching Mechanisms in a Multi-Player Quiz Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Fu-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether different player-matching mechanisms in educational multi-player online games (MOGs) can affect students' learning performance, enjoyment perception and gaming behaviors. Based on the multi-player quiz game, TRIS-Q, developed by Tsai, Tsai and Lin (2015) using a free player-matching (FPM) mechanism, the same…

  12. Big Mysteries: Extra Dimensions

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-06-10

    The weakness of gravity compared to the other subatomic forces is a real mystery. While nobody knows the answer, one credible solution is that gravity has access to more spatial dimensions than the other three known forces. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln describes this idea, with the help of some very urbane characters.

  13. Big Mysteries: Extra Dimensions

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2018-01-16

    The weakness of gravity compared to the other subatomic forces is a real mystery. While nobody knows the answer, one credible solution is that gravity has access to more spatial dimensions than the other three known forces. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln describes this idea, with the help of some very urbane characters.

  14. Evolutionary mysteries in meiosis.

    PubMed

    Lenormand, Thomas; Engelstädter, Jan; Johnston, Susan E; Wijnker, Erik; Haag, Christoph R

    2016-10-19

    Meiosis is a key event of sexual life cycles in eukaryotes. Its mechanistic details have been uncovered in several model organisms, and most of its essential features have received various and often contradictory evolutionary interpretations. In this perspective, we present an overview of these often 'weird' features. We discuss the origin of meiosis (origin of ploidy reduction and recombination, two-step meiosis), its secondary modifications (in polyploids or asexuals, inverted meiosis), its importance in punctuating life cycles (meiotic arrests, epigenetic resetting, meiotic asymmetry, meiotic fairness) and features associated with recombination (disjunction constraints, heterochiasmy, crossover interference and hotspots). We present the various evolutionary scenarios and selective pressures that have been proposed to account for these features, and we highlight that their evolutionary significance often remains largely mysterious. Resolving these mysteries will likely provide decisive steps towards understanding why sex and recombination are found in the majority of eukaryotes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Weird sex: the underappreciated diversity of sexual reproduction'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Ordinary Dark Matter versus Mysterious Dark Matter in Galactic Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, C. F.; Feng, James

    2008-04-01

    To theoretically describe the measured rotational velocity curves of spiral galaxies, there are two different approaches and conclusions. (1) ORDINARY DARK MATTER. We assume Newtonian gravity/dynamics and successfully find (via computer) mass distributions in bulge/disk configurations that duplicate the measured rotational velocities. There is ordinary dark matter within the galactic disk towards the cooler periphery which has lower emissivity/opacity. There are no mysteries in this scenario based on verified physics. (2) MYSTERIOUS DARK MATTER. Others INaccurately assume the galactic mass distributions follow the measured light distributions, and then the measured rotational velocity curves are NOT duplicated. To alleviate this discrepancy, speculations are invoked re ``Massive Peripheral Spherical Halos of Mysterious Dark Matter.'' But NO matter has been detected in this UNtenable Halo configuration. Many UNverified ``Mysteries'' are invoked as necessary and convenient. CONCLUSION. The first approach utilizing Newtonian gravity/dynamics and searching for the ordinary mass distributions within the galactic disk simulates reality and agrees with data.

  16. Magical Mysteries. Texas Reading Club, 1984. A Librarian's Planning Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Jim

    Designed to encourage library use by Texas youth, the Texas Reading Club programs usually include a structured reading program and a variety of entertaining literature-related storyhours, puppet shows, films, and other attractive happenings. This handbook for the 1984 theme--"magical mysteries"--focuses on mysteries, magic, and adventure…

  17. M Dwarf Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Irwin, Jonathan; Dieterich, Sergio; Finch, Charlie T.; Riedel, Adric R.; Subasavage, John P.; Winters, Jennifer; RECONS Team

    2017-01-01

    During RECONS' 17-year (so far) astrometry/photometry program at the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9m, we have observed thousands of the ubiquitous red dwarfs in the solar neighborhood. During this reconnaissance, a few mysterious characters have emerged ...The Case of the Mercurial Stars: One M dwarf has been fading steadily for more than a decade, at last measure 6% fainter than when it was first observed. Another has grown brighter by 7% over 15 years. Are these brightness changes part of extremely long stellar cycles, or something else entirely?The Case of Identical Stellar Twins that Aren't: Two M dwarfs seem at first to be identical siblings traveling together through the Galaxy. They have virtually identical spectra at optical wavelengths and identical colors throughout the VRIJHK bands. Long-term astrometry indicates that they are, indeed, at the same distance via parallax measurements, and their proper motions match precisely. Yet, one of the twins is FOUR times brighter than the other. Followup work has revealed that the brighter component is a very close spectroscopic double, but no other stars are seen. So, the mystery may be half solved, but why do the close stars remain twice as bright as their widely-separated twin?The Case of the Great Kaboom!: After more than 1000 nights of observing on the reliable 0.9m telescope, with generally routine frames reading out upon the screen, one stellar system comprised of five red dwarfs flared in stunning fashion. Of the two distinct sources, the fainter one (an unresolved double) surpassed the brightness of the brighter one (an unresolved triple), increasing by more than three full magnitudes in the V filter. Which component actually flared? Is this magnificent outburst an unusual event, or in fact typical for this system and other M dwarfs?At the AAS meeting, we hope to probe the cognoscenti who study the Sun's smaller cousins to solve these intriguing M Dwarf Mysteries.This effort has been supported by the NSF through grants

  18. The effect of mystery shopper reports on age verification for tobacco purchases.

    PubMed

    Krevor, Brad S; Ponicki, William R; Grube, Joel W; DeJong, William

    2011-09-01

    Mystery shops involving attempted tobacco purchases by young buyers have been implemented in order to monitor retail stores' performance in refusing underage sales. Anecdotal evidence suggests that mystery shop visits with immediate feedback to store personnel can improve age verification. This study investigated the effect of monthly and twice-monthly mystery shop reports on age verification. Mystery shoppers visited 45 Walgreens stores 20 times. The stores were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions. Control group stores received no feedback, whereas 2 treatment groups received feedback communications on every visit (twice monthly) or on every second visit (monthly) after baseline. Logit regression models tested whether each treatment group improved verification rates relative to the control group. Postbaseline verification rates were higher in both treatment groups than in the control group, but only the stores receiving monthly communications had a significantly greater improvement compared with the control group stores. Verification rates increased significantly during the study period for all 3 groups, with delayed improvement among control group stores. Communication between managers regarding the mystery shop program may account for the delayed age-verification improvements observed in the control group stores. Encouraging interstore communication might extend the benefits of mystery shop programs beyond those stores that receive this intervention. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  19. NOvA: Exploring Neutrino Mysteries

    ScienceCinema

    Vahle, Tricia; Messier, Mark

    2018-01-16

    Neutrinos are a mystery to physicists. They exist in three different flavors and mass states and may be able to give hints about the origins of the matter-dominated universe. A new long-baseline experiment led by Fermilab called NOvA may provide some answers.

  20. NOvA: Exploring Neutrino Mysteries

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Vahle, Tricia; Messier, Mark

    2012-09-06

    Neutrinos are a mystery to physicists. They exist in three different flavors and mass states and may be able to give hints about the origins of the matter-dominated universe. A new long-baseline experiment led by Fermilab called NOvA may provide some answers.

  1. The Fellowship of the Mystery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Wesley

    1976-01-01

    Author states that religion involves cosmic vision as well as ethical philosophy, and that religious ethics become impotent without this vision. Mystery, defined as the sense of wonder at the revelation of the nature of the cosmos, can be expressed only through art. (RW)

  2. The mystery of Morgellons disease: infection or delusion?

    PubMed

    Savely, Virginia R; Leitao, Mary M; Stricker, Raphael B

    2006-01-01

    Morgellons disease is a mysterious skin disorder that was first described more than 300 years ago. The disease is characterized by fiber-like strands extruding from the skin in conjunction with various dermatologic and neuropsychiatric symptoms. In this respect, Morgellons disease resembles and may be confused with delusional parasitosis. The association with Lyme disease and the apparent response to antibacterial therapy suggest that Morgellons disease may be linked to an undefined infectious process. Further clinical and molecular research is needed to unlock the mystery of Morgellons disease.

  3. The Mystery of The Moon Illusion - Exploring Size Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Helen; Plug, Cornelis

    2002-09-01

    For thousands of years, one scientific puzzle has fascinated and perplexed the greatest philosophers, mathematicians, physicists, and psychologists -- why do the moon and sun appear so much larger on the horizon than when high up in the sky? Exploring the theories from antiquity to now, the 'Mystery of the Moon Illusion' is the definitive book on a mystery that has fascinated and tested the greatest minds throughout the ages.

  4. Mystery Boxes, X Rays, and Radiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Norman

    2000-01-01

    Indicates the difficulties of teaching concepts beyond light and color and creating memorable learning experiences. Recommends sequential activities using the mystery box approach to explain how scientists and doctors use photon applications. (YDS)

  5. The Majorana mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Salvatore

    2010-03-01

    "For years after I first learned about Ettore Majorana, I wanted to write a book about his life... but I always deferred to an uncertain future the act of putting pen to paper. Then, one day I read a newspaper clipping and realized that the mystery was about to come full circle. Ettore had just turned one hundred, and a major discovery had been made in the deep waters near Catania. The time had arrived for the final unveiling of the Majorana legacy."

  6. The Mystery in Science: A Neglected Tool for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papacosta, Pangratios

    2008-01-01

    Of the many valuable tools available to science education, the mystery in science is the one that is most ignored, underused, or misunderstood. whenever it is used, it is only as mere entertainment or as an attention grabber. In this article, the author discusses how the mystery in science can improve student attitudes, generate a life-long…

  7. Titan Mystery Clouds

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-21

    This comparison of two views from NASA's Cassini spacecraft, taken fairly close together in time, illustrates a peculiar mystery: Why would clouds on Saturn's moon Titan be visible in some images, but not in others? In the top view, a near-infrared image from Cassini's imaging cameras, the skies above Saturn's moon Titan look relatively cloud free. But in the bottom view, at longer infrared wavelengths, Cassini sees a large field of bright clouds. Even though these views were taken at different wavelengths, researchers would expect at least a hint of the clouds to show up in the upper image. Thus they have been trying to understand what's behind the difference. As northern summer approaches on Titan, atmospheric models have predicted that clouds will become more common at high northern latitudes, similar to what was observed at high southern latitudes during Titan's late southern summer in 2004. Cassini's Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) and Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) teams have been observing Titan to document changes in weather patterns as the seasons change, and there is particular interest in following the onset of clouds in the north polar region where Titan's lakes and seas are concentrated. Cassini's "T120" and "T121" flybys of Titan, on June 7 and July 25, 2016, respectively, provided views of high northern latitudes over extended time periods -- more than 24 hours during both flybys. Intriguingly, the ISS and VIMS observations appear strikingly different from each other. In the ISS observations (monochrome image at top), surface features are easily identifiable and only a few small, isolated clouds were detected. In contrast, the VIMS observations (color image at bottom) suggest widespread cloud cover during both flybys. The observations were made over the same time period, so differences in illumination geometry or changes in the clouds themselves are unlikely to be the cause for the apparent discrepancy: VIMS shows persistent

  8. Venus: Mysteries Of The "forgotten Planet"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, D. V.

    The first phase of Venus spacecraft exploration by the Venera, Pioneer Venus, Vega and Magellan missions and later Galileo and Cassini fly-bys established a basic de- scription of the physical and chemical conditions prevailing in the atmosphere and near-planetary environment. It also expanded considerably our knowledge of VenusS geology and geophysics. At the same time, these studies raised many questions on the physical processes on the planet, most of which remain as of today unsolved. The fundamental mysteries of Venus are related to the global atmospheric circulation, the atmospheric chemical composition and its variations, the surface-atmosphere physical and chemical interactions including volcanism, the physics and chemistry of the cloud layer, the thermal balance and role of trace gases in the greenhouse effect, the origin and evolution of the atmosphere, and the plasma environment and its interaction with the solar wind. Besides, the key issues of the history of Venusian volcanism, the global tectonic structure of Venus, and important characteristics of the planetSs surface are still unresolved. Beyond the specific case of Venus, resolving these issues is of cru- cial importance in a comparative planetology context and notably for understanding the long-term climatic evolution processes on Earth. The above problems can be effi- ciently addressed by an orbiter equipped with a suite of adequate remote sensing and in situ instruments. A combination of spectrometers, spectro-imagers, and imagers covering the UV to thermal IR range, along with other instruments such as a radar and a plasma and neutral atoms analyzer, is able to sound the entire Venus atmosphere from the surface to 200 km, and to address specific questions on the surface. Future in situ investigations by descent probes, balloons, and sample return missions will be required to provide a more detailed insight in the Venus mysteries. For more than 10 years Venus has remained the Sforgotten planet

  9. Creative Ventures: Mysteries and UFO's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This book published in 1987 provides open-ended activities to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage them to examine their feelings and values. Williams' model of cognitive-intellective and affective-feeling domains are addressed. Nearly 60 pages of exercises focus on the historical, the scientific, the mysterious, the…

  10. Super Send-Offs for All Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskvitz, Alan; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Several activities to help teachers focus students' attention on learning at the end of the year include quiz games, mystery boxes, map games, videotapes, gift making, author birthday parties, yard sales, ice cream science, and summer safety activities. Younger students can create murals, play editing games, and enjoy special ceremonies. (SM)

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Revised Facts on Suicide Quiz in Austrian Medical and Psychology Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voracek, Martin; Tran, Ulrich S.; Sonneck, Gernot

    2008-01-01

    Psychometric properties and demographic correlates of a German form of R. W. Hubbard and J. L. McIntosh's (1992) Revised Facts on Suicide Quiz (RFOS), an inventory for assessing overall knowledge about suicide, were investigated in a sample of 1,093 Austrian medical and psychology students. Internal consistency of the RFOS was weak, as were many…

  12. Searching for Judy: How Small Mysteries Affect Narrative Processes and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Current theories of text processing say little about how authors' narrative choices, including the introduction of small mysteries, can affect readers' narrative experiences. Gerrig, Love, and McKoon (2009) provided evidence that 1 type of small mystery--a character introduced without information linking him or her to the story--affects readers'…

  13. How To Write a Mystery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beinhart, Larry

    Drawing on examples from the best and most popular works in mystery writing--from Raymond Chandler and Mickey Spillane to Scott Turow and Thomas Harris--this book introduces the fledgling writer to his or her most indispensable "partners in crime": character, plot, and procedure; the secrets to creating heroes and villains; the art of…

  14. Population cycles: generalities, exceptions and remaining mysteries.

    PubMed

    Myers, Judith H

    2018-03-28

    Population cycles are one of nature's great mysteries. For almost a hundred years, innumerable studies have probed the causes of cyclic dynamics in snowshoe hares, voles and lemmings, forest Lepidoptera and grouse. Even though cyclic species have very different life histories, similarities in mechanisms related to their dynamics are apparent. In addition to high reproductive rates and density-related mortality from predators, pathogens or parasitoids, other characteristics include transgenerational reduced reproduction and dispersal with increasing-peak densities, and genetic similarity among populations. Experiments to stop cyclic dynamics and comparisons of cyclic and noncyclic populations provide some understanding but both reproduction and mortality must be considered. What determines variation in amplitude and periodicity of population outbreaks remains a mystery. © 2018 The Author(s).

  15. Population cycles: generalities, exceptions and remaining mysteries

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Population cycles are one of nature's great mysteries. For almost a hundred years, innumerable studies have probed the causes of cyclic dynamics in snowshoe hares, voles and lemmings, forest Lepidoptera and grouse. Even though cyclic species have very different life histories, similarities in mechanisms related to their dynamics are apparent. In addition to high reproductive rates and density-related mortality from predators, pathogens or parasitoids, other characteristics include transgenerational reduced reproduction and dispersal with increasing-peak densities, and genetic similarity among populations. Experiments to stop cyclic dynamics and comparisons of cyclic and noncyclic populations provide some understanding but both reproduction and mortality must be considered. What determines variation in amplitude and periodicity of population outbreaks remains a mystery. PMID:29563267

  16. Mysterious quantum Cheshire cat: an illusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michielsen, K.; Lippert, Th.; De Raedt, H.

    2015-09-01

    We provide a mystery-free explanation for the experimentally observed facts in the neutron interferometry quantum Cheshire cat experiment of Denkmayr et al. [Nat. Comm. 5, 4492, 2014] in terms of a discrete-event simulation model, demonstrating that the quantum Cheshire cat is an illusion.

  17. The First-Day Quiz as a Teaching Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, Raymond S.

    1998-04-01

    The problem with chemical education today is not merely that the students are inattentive, that our instructors are incompetent, or that the subject is intrinsically difficult. I believe the problem is that the fundamentals of the subject are not imparted. As students emerge from the basic courses in chemistry, despite exposure to a range of specific topics, they are commonly unclear on the basic ideas and how they might apply to more advanced topics. In this contribution, I describe a first-day quiz for students in an advanced chemistry class, presented to them ostensibly as a test of basic knowledge. While this approach is not unprecedented, it is apparently rare, as it comes as a surprise to those colleagues I have discussed it with. The important objective of the exercise is to allow students to realize what they don't know about fundamental chemistry, which I have found makes them more receptive to chemical education.

  18. How Effective are Your Mentoring Relationships? Mentoring Quiz for Residents.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Vibhor; Nagy, Paul; Chhabra, Avneesh; Lee, Cindy S

    Mentoring is an essential part of a resident's career development. It plays an important role in nurturing, and sustaining success along the career path of a young physician. Mentoring is a long-term goal that is development-driven rather than performance-driven. Although specific learning goals may be used as a basis, the focus of mentoring may also include self-confidence, self-perception, and work-life balance. A number of residency programs have implemented mentoring programs in their institutions. This article discusses the importance of mentoring, illustrates "do's and don'ts" for mentees and demonstrates how to choose the ideal mentor. Finally, a "mentoring quiz" is designed to evaluate your mentoring relationship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6: Standards-Based Inquiry Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taris, James Robert; Taris, Louis James

    2006-01-01

    In "Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6," the authors connect science to real-world situations by investigating actual mysteries and phenomena, such as the strange heads on Easter Island, the ghost ship "Mary Celeste," and the "Dancing Stones" of Death Valley. The labs are designed to encourage the development…

  20. Design and Testing of an Air Force Services Mystery Shopping Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-11-01

    Base level Air Force Services’ lodging and foodservice activities use limited service quality measurement tools to determine customer perceptions of... service quality . These tools, specifically management observation and customer comment cards, do not provide a complete picture of service quality . Other... service quality measurement methods such as mystery shopping are rarely used. Bases do not consider using mystery shopping programs because of the

  1. Mysteries of TGF-β Paradox in Benign and Malignant Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Yu, Nengwang; Lee, Chung

    2014-01-01

    TGF-β regulates a wide range of biological functions including embryonic development, wound healing, organogenesis, immune modulation, and cancer progression. Interestingly, TGF-β is known to inhibit cell growth in benign cells but promote progression in cancer cells; this phenomenon is known as TGF-β paradox. To date, the mechanism of this paradox still remains a scientific mystery. In this review, we present our experience, along with the literature, in an attempt to answer this mystery. First, we observed that, on TGF-β engagement, there is a differential activation of Erk between benign and cancer cells. Since activated Erk is a major mediator in tumor progression and metastasis, a differentially activated Erk represents the answer to this mystery. Second, we identified a key player, PP2A-B56α, which is differentially recruited by the activated type I TGF-β receptor (TBRI) in benign and tumor cells, resulting in differential Erk activation. Finally, TGF-β stimulation leads to suppressed TBRs in tumor cells but not in benign cells. This differentially suppressed TBRs triggers differential recruitment of PP2A-B56α and, thus, differential activation of Erk. The above three events explain the mysteries of TGF-β paradox. Understanding the mechanism of TGF-β paradox will help us to predict indolent from aggressive cancers and develop novel anti-cancer strategies.

  2. Mysteries of TGF-β Paradox in Benign and Malignant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Yu, Nengwang; Lee, Chung

    2014-01-01

    TGF-β regulates a wide range of biological functions including embryonic development, wound healing, organogenesis, immune modulation, and cancer progression. Interestingly, TGF-β is known to inhibit cell growth in benign cells but promote progression in cancer cells; this phenomenon is known as TGF-β paradox. To date, the mechanism of this paradox still remains a scientific mystery. In this review, we present our experience, along with the literature, in an attempt to answer this mystery. First, we observed that, on TGF-β engagement, there is a differential activation of Erk between benign and cancer cells. Since activated Erk is a major mediator in tumor progression and metastasis, a differentially activated Erk represents the answer to this mystery. Second, we identified a key player, PP2A-B56α, which is differentially recruited by the activated type I TGF-β receptor (TBRI) in benign and tumor cells, resulting in differential Erk activation. Finally, TGF-β stimulation leads to suppressed TBRs in tumor cells but not in benign cells. This differentially suppressed TBRs triggers differential recruitment of PP2A-B56α and, thus, differential activation of Erk. The above three events explain the mysteries of TGF-β paradox. Understanding the mechanism of TGF-β paradox will help us to predict indolent from aggressive cancers and develop novel anti-cancer strategies. PMID:24860782

  3. Guided Research in Middle School: Mystery in the Media Center. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, LaDawna

    2011-01-01

    A little imagination, a little drama, a little mystery. Using the guided inquiry model in this updated, second edition, students become detectives at Information Headquarters. They solve a mystery-and enhance their problem-solving and literacy skills. Middle school is a crucial time in the development of problem-solving, critical-thinking, and…

  4. A Coprolite Mystery: Who Dung It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2011-01-01

    Discover the secrets contained in fossilized feces. Few topics in middle school classrooms capture students' enthusiasm and interest as do coprolites. These trace fossils offer classroom opportunities for integrated life and Earth sciences study, a stranger-than-fiction history of science, and an opportunity to solve mysteries. (Contains 8…

  5. Using Classic Mystery Stories in Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, Stephen H.; Noronha, Peter A.

    1990-01-01

    One third-year clinical clerkship in pediatrics has included Sherlock Holmes mysteries in its introductory curriculum, providing students with a model clinical problem-solving process and a list of issues on which they will need information. The nonclinical cases provide an effective and entertaining vehicle for learning clinical reasoning. (MSE)

  6. From Mystery Seed to Mangrove Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frissell, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Introducing a mystery object is an easy strategy to implement and allows teachers to pre-assess students' knowledge about local natural resources. Misconceptions can be noted as teachers record initial inquiries and wonderings on charts. Using the constructivist approach, students can explore and construct their learning as they continue to use…

  7. An instrument to measure nurses' knowledge in palliative care: Validation of the Spanish version of Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Palliative care is nowadays essential in nursing care, due to the increasing number of patients who require attention in final stages of their life. Nurses need to acquire specific knowledge and abilities to provide quality palliative care. Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses is a questionnaire that evaluates their basic knowledge about palliative care. The Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses (PCQN) is useful to evaluate basic knowledge about palliative care, but its adaptation into the Spanish language and the analysis of its effectiveness and utility for Spanish culture is lacking. Purpose To report the adaptation into the Spanish language and the psychometric analysis of the Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses. Method The Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses-Spanish Version (PCQN-SV) was obtained from a process including translation, back-translation, comparison with versions in other languages, revision by experts, and pilot study. Content validity and reliability of questionnaire were analyzed. Difficulty and discrimination indexes of each item were also calculated according to Item Response Theory (IRT). Findings Adequate internal consistency was found (S-CVI = 0.83); Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.67 and KR-20 test result of 0,72 reflected the reliability of PCQN-SV. The questionnaire had a global difficulty index of 0,55, with six items which could be considered as difficult or very difficult, and five items with could be considered easy or very easy. The discrimination indexes of the 20 items, show us that eight items are good or very good while six items are bad to discriminate between good and bad respondents. Discussion Although in shows internal consistency, reliability and difficulty indexes similar to those obtained by versions of PCQN in other languages, a reformulation of the items with lowest content validity or discrimination indexes and those showing difficulties with their comprehension is an aspect to take into account in order to improve the

  8. An instrument to measure nurses' knowledge in palliative care: Validation of the Spanish version of Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses.

    PubMed

    Chover-Sierra, Elena; Martínez-Sabater, Antonio; Lapeña-Moñux, Yolanda Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Palliative care is nowadays essential in nursing care, due to the increasing number of patients who require attention in final stages of their life. Nurses need to acquire specific knowledge and abilities to provide quality palliative care. Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses is a questionnaire that evaluates their basic knowledge about palliative care. The Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses (PCQN) is useful to evaluate basic knowledge about palliative care, but its adaptation into the Spanish language and the analysis of its effectiveness and utility for Spanish culture is lacking. To report the adaptation into the Spanish language and the psychometric analysis of the Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses. The Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses-Spanish Version (PCQN-SV) was obtained from a process including translation, back-translation, comparison with versions in other languages, revision by experts, and pilot study. Content validity and reliability of questionnaire were analyzed. Difficulty and discrimination indexes of each item were also calculated according to Item Response Theory (IRT). Adequate internal consistency was found (S-CVI = 0.83); Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.67 and KR-20 test result of 0,72 reflected the reliability of PCQN-SV. The questionnaire had a global difficulty index of 0,55, with six items which could be considered as difficult or very difficult, and five items with could be considered easy or very easy. The discrimination indexes of the 20 items, show us that eight items are good or very good while six items are bad to discriminate between good and bad respondents. Although in shows internal consistency, reliability and difficulty indexes similar to those obtained by versions of PCQN in other languages, a reformulation of the items with lowest content validity or discrimination indexes and those showing difficulties with their comprehension is an aspect to take into account in order to improve the PCQN-SV. The PCQN-SV is a useful Spanish language

  9. Incorporating Music into the Economics Classroom: A Comparison of Two Teaching Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huey, Jane Aw Yang

    2011-01-01

    There is always something mysterious about music as it affects us so powerfully. This paper looks at the role of music in enhancing students' understanding of economic concepts, such as money and inflation. Music lyrics were used as a source for teaching some economic concepts to a group of Office Management (OM) students. A quiz was given to test…

  10. Biology Today. Ah, Sweet Mysteries of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1991-01-01

    Mysteries of the biological past that paleontologists are trying to solve are discussed. Topics include first seeds, fossils and computers, packrat middens, charcoal clues, soft parts, Burgess shale, halkieriids, toe count, whales with feet, long necks, and changing functions. (KR)

  11. The Effects of Certain and Uncertain Reinforcement Procedures on the Quiz Submission and Performance of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkovits, Shira Melody

    2011-01-01

    College instructors often provide homework so that their students can review class material; however some students do not take advantage of these review opportunities. This study compared the effects of a certain reward and a lottery reward on the quiz submission rates and accuracy of 112 college students. In Baseline, quizzes were for practice…

  12. [Rochus, patron saint of physicians and hospitals--a teledermatologic quiz].

    PubMed

    Aberer, Werner

    2006-07-01

    The painting "St. Rochus with an angel" by Quinten Massys in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich was utilized for a teledermatological quiz. First, only a detail of the plague bubo on the thigh was sent electronically to all physicians in our department. The answers were correct descriptions, but the interpretations quite heterogeneous. In a second set, the full painting together with the hint- Pinakothek - was given. Now the number of descriptively correct diagnoses was high; one resident knew the name of the featured individual and his diagnosis. This example demonstrates one problem with teledermatology - when viewing a clinical picture, relevant additional information is frequently essential in order to make a correct diagnosis. In addition, this presentation of saint physicians and hospitals, the holy Rochus, better known to those who are under his protection.

  13. Taking the "Mystery" Out of Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eun Ju; Cite, Suleyman; Hanuscin, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Many teachers have developed "tried and true" lessons that they look forward to teaching-- mystery powders is one that these authors like. Originally part of the Elementary Science Study curricula in the 1960s, there are now many different versions of this well-known activity in which students examine physical and chemical properties of…

  14. Putting a Little Mystery in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Bryan; Ristvey, John

    2011-01-01

    Posing mysteries is not just a gimmicky way to increase the entertainment value of a lesson; it taps into students' innate human desire to explore and learn about their environments. Instead of coming right out and providing students with the answers, teachers can build suspense, piquing students' natural curiosity. Teachers can guide students,…

  15. An Item Response Theory Analysis of Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz (FAQ) Using the Three Parameter Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiekwe, Jerry C.

    Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz (FAQ) (E. Palmore, 1977) is an instrument that is used to educate, to measure learning, to test knowledge, to measure attitudes toward aging, and in research. A comparative analysis was performed between the FAQ I and its multiple choice version and the FAQ II and its multiple choice version in terms of their item…

  16. Mysterious Anti-Gravity and Dark-Essence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Je-An

    2013-12-01

    The need of anti-gravity and dark-essence in cosmology is the greatest scientific mystery in the 21st century. This paper presents a personal view of several relevant issues, including the long-standing cosmological constant problem, the newly emerging dark radiation issue, and the basic stability issue of the general-relativity limit in modified gravity.

  17. Mysterious Anti-Gravity and Dark-Essence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Je-An

    2013-01-01

    The need of anti-gravity and dark-essence in cosmology is the greatest scientific mystery in the 21st century. This paper presents a personal view of several relevant issues, including the long-standing cosmological constant problem, the newly emerging dark radiation issue, and the basic stability issue of the general-relativity limit in modified gravity.

  18. Draw-a-Scientist/Mystery Box Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Ann

    2007-01-01

    It is important that students have the opportunity to experience the nature and processes of science for themselves. The sequence of activities presented in this paper--Draw-a-Scientist and the Mystery Box Redux--were designed to help students better understand the nature of science (NOS) and engage them in the process of scientific inquiry. These…

  19. 78 FR 45285 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Egypt's Mysterious Book...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8393] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Egypt's Mysterious Book of the Faiyum'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following... exhibition ``Egypt's Mysterious Book of the Faiyum,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  20. Stem Cell Research: Unlocking the Mystery of Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues From the Director: Stem Cell Research: Unlocking the Mystery of Disease Past Issues / Summer ... Director, described the need for expanding stem cell research. Recently, he spoke about stem cell research with ...

  1. Searching for Judy: how small mysteries affect narrative processes and memory.

    PubMed

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail; Gerrig, Richard J

    2010-05-01

    Current theories of text processing say little about how authors' narrative choices, including the introduction of small mysteries, can affect readers' narrative experiences. Gerrig, Love, and McKoon (2009) provided evidence that 1 type of small mystery-a character introduced without information linking him or her to the story-affects readers' moment-by-moment processing. For that project, participants read stories that introduced characters by proper name alone (e.g., "Judy") or with information connecting the character to the rest of the story (e.g., "our principal Judy"). In an online recognition probe task, responses to the character's name 3 lines after his or her introduction were faster when the character had not been introduced with connecting information, suggesting that the character remained accessible awaiting resolution. In the 4 experiments in this article, we extend our theoretical analysis of small mysteries. In Experiments 1 and 2, we found evidence that trait information (e.g., "daredevil Judy") is not sufficient to connect a character to a text. In Experiments 3 and 4, we found evidence that the moment-by-moment processing effects of such small mysteries also affect readers' memory for the stories. We interpret the results in terms of Kintsch's (1988) construction-integration model of discourse processing. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Mysterious Black Water off Florida's Gulf Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In mid-December last year, a mysterious black water overtook the normally bluish green waters of Florida Bay. Over the course of the winter, the extent of the water grew to encompass an area as big as Lake Okeechobee, Florida, before subsiding over the last few weeks. These images taken by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite, show the progression of the black water over the last three months. The affected water sits along the southeastern coast of Florida about fifty miles north of the Florida Keys. As of now, scientists do not know why the water appears black in satellite and aerial images or whether the water is harming the wildlife. They speculate that it could be due to an exotic algae bloom, an underwater fountain pushing up sediments from the ocean floor, or possibly chemical and sediment run-off from the nearby Shark River. Researchers at the Florida Marine Research Institute in St. Petersburg and the Mote Marine Research Institute in Sarasota are running tests to determine the chemical make-up of the water. No big fish kills have been reported in the area. But fishermen say the catch has been low this winter. In addition, the black water sits just north of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, which is home to one of the largest coral reef habitats in the United States. Toxic run-off from the Florida coastline and motor boats in the area have already destroyed many of Florida's reefs. Scientists are concerned that if the extent of the black water grows again, it could endanger these reefs. Information provided by the Naples Daily News. For up-to-date images of the area, view these SeaWiFS Images of Florida Bay. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  3. Health Detectives: Uncovering the Mysteries of Disease (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema

    Bissell, Mina; Canaria, Christie; Celnicker, Susan; Karpen, Gary

    2018-06-20

    In this April 23, 2012 Science at the Theater event, Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how they uncover the mysteries of disease in unlikely places. Speakers and topics include: World-renowned cancer researcher Mina Bissell's pioneering research on the role of the cellular microenvironment in breast cancer has changed the conversation about the disease. How does DNA instability cause disease? To find out, Christie Canaria images neural networks to study disorders such as Huntington's disease. Fruit flies can tell us a lot about ourselves. Susan Celniker explores the fruit fly genome to learn how our genome works. DNA is not destiny. Gary Karpen explores how environmental factors shape genome function and disease through epigenetics.

  4. Health Detectives: Uncovering the Mysteries of Disease (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bissell, Mina; Canaria, Christie; Celnicker, Susan

    In this April 23, 2012 Science at the Theater event, Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how they uncover the mysteries of disease in unlikely places. Speakers and topics include: World-renowned cancer researcher Mina Bissell's pioneering research on the role of the cellular microenvironment in breast cancer has changed the conversation about the disease. How does DNA instability cause disease? To find out, Christie Canaria images neural networks to study disorders such as Huntington's disease. Fruit flies can tell us a lot about ourselves. Susan Celniker explores the fruit fly genome to learn how our genome works. DNA is not destiny. Garymore » Karpen explores how environmental factors shape genome function and disease through epigenetics.« less

  5. Prototype of a Questionnaire and Quiz System for Supporting Increase of Health Awareness During Wait Time in Dispensing Pharmacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Takeshi; Chen, Poa-Min; Ozaki, Shinya; Ideguchi, Naoko; Miyaki, Tomoko; Nanbu, Keiko; Ikeda, Keiko

    For quit-smoking clinic and its campaign, there was a need for pharmacists to investigate pediatric patient's parent consciousness to tobacco harm utilizing wait time in a pediatric dispensing pharmacy. In this research, we developed the questionnaire and quiz total system using the tablet for user interface, in which people can easily answer the questionnaire/quiz and quickly see the total results on the spot in order to enhance their consciousness to the tobacco harm. The system also provides their tobacco dependence level based on the questionnaire results and some advice for their health and dietary habits due to the tobacco dependence level. From a field trial with one hundred four examinees in the pediatric dispensing pharmacy, the user interface was useful compared to conventional questionnaire form. The system could enhance their consciousness to tobacco harm and make their beneficial use of waiting time in dispensing pharmacy. Some interesting suggestions for improvement and new services were also obtained.

  6. Mystery Boxes: Helping Children Improve Their Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.

    2007-01-01

    This guest editorial describes ways teachers can use guessing games about an unknown item in a "mystery box" to help children improve their abilities to listen to others, recall information, ask purposeful questions, classify items by class, make inferences, synthesize information, and draw conclusions. The author presents information…

  7. Teaching Baroreflex Physiology to Medical Students: A Comparison of Quiz-Based and Conventional Teaching Strategies in a Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Ronan M. G.; Plovsing, Ronni R.; Damgaard, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Quiz-based and collaborative teaching strategies have previously been found to be efficient for the improving meaningful learning of physiology during lectures. These approaches have, however, not been investigated during laboratory exercises. In the present study, we compared the impact of solving quizzes individually and in groups with…

  8. CHIPPING AWAY AT THE MYSTERY OF DRUG RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chipping away at the mystery of drug responses
    John C. Rockett
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 2771...

  9. Population estimate of Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) in a Nebraska reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaine, Noelle M.; Allen, Craig R.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species in North America. Little is known regarding this species' impacts on freshwater ecosystems. It is be lieved that population densities can be high, yet no population estimates have been reported. We utilized a mark-recapture approach to generate a population estimate for Chinese mystery snail in Wild Plum Lake, a 6.47-ha reservoir in southeast Nebraska. We calculated, using bias-adjusted Lincoln-Petersen estimation, that there were approximately 664 adult snails within a 127 m2 transect (5.2 snails/m2). If this density was consistent throughout the littoral zone (<3 m in depth) of the reservoir, then the total adult population in this impoundment is estimated to be 253,570 snails, and the total Chinese mystery snail wet biomass is estimated to be 3,119 kg (643 kg/ha). If this density is confined to the depth sampled in this study (1.46 m), then the adult population is estimated to be 169,400 snails, and wet biomass is estimated to be 2,084 kg (643 kg/ha). Additional research is warranted to further test the utility of mark-recapture methods for aquatic snails and to better understand Chinese mystery snail distributions within reservoirs.

  10. Active dendrites: colorful wings of the mysterious butterflies.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Daniel; Narayanan, Rishikesh

    2008-06-01

    Santiago Ramón y Cajal had referred to neurons as the 'mysterious butterflies of the soul.' Wings of these butterflies--their dendrites--were traditionally considered as passive integrators of synaptic information. Owing to a growing body of experimental evidence, it is now widely accepted that these wings are colorful, endowed with a plethora of active conductances, with each family of these butterflies made of distinct hues and shades. Furthermore, rapidly evolving recent literature also provides direct and indirect demonstrations for activity-dependent plasticity of these active conductances, pointing toward chameleonic adaptability in these hues. These experimental findings firmly establish the immense computational power of a single neuron, and thus constitute a turning point toward the understanding of various aspects of neuronal information processing. In this brief historical perspective, we track important milestones in the chameleonic transmogrification of these mysterious butterflies.

  11. 78 FR 39435 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: “Magritte: The Mystery of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8364] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: ``Magritte: The Mystery of the Ordinary, 1926-1938'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the... exhibition ``Magritte: The Mystery of the Ordinary, 1926-1928,'' imported from abroad for temporary...

  12. Oriental mystery: ginseng

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yun, T.K.; Cho, H.O.; Yun, Y.S.

    1985-01-01

    As a mysterious cure-all medicine Korea ginseng has been, since four or five thousand years ago, used as a tonic in the orient. Ginseng has been known to have a tonic effect and it is the general opinion of many investigators that ginseng has the effect of normalization of physical conditions, that is; maintaining individual homeostasis. On the other hand, the authors have found that ginseng extract inhibits the incidence and also the proliferation of tumors induced by carcinogens such as urethane, DMBA and aflatoxin B. The anticarcinogenic effect of ginseng was due to its ability to enhance the naturalmore » killer activity of the host. Korea ginseng is highly effective in preventing or curing various disease such as diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure, etc.« less

  13. Internet Investigations: Solving Mysteries on the Information Superhighway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Tracy; Brown, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Describes how a group of gifted primary-school children in New Zealand explored the Internet in a workshop project organized around solving the mystery of what happened to the Titanic. Insets include the student "contract," a listing of Web sites, and the evaluation instrument. (DB)

  14. The Mysterious Universe - Exploring Our World with Particle Accelerators

    ScienceCinema

    Brau, James E [University of Oregon

    2018-04-24

    The universe is dark and mysterious, more so than even Einstein imagined. While modern science has established deep understanding of ordinary matter, unidentified elements ("Dark Matter" and "Dark Energy") dominate the structure of the universe, its behavior and its destiny. What are these curious elements? We are now working on answers to these and other challenging questions posed by the universe with experiments at particle accelerators on Earth. Results of this research may revolutionize our view of nature as dramatically as the advances of Einstein and other quantum pioneers one hundred years ago. Professor Brau will explain for the general audience the mysteries, introduce facilities which explore them experimentally and discuss our current understanding of the underlying science. The presentation is at an introductory level, appropriate for anyone interested in physics and astronomy.

  15. Roman mystery iron blades from Serbia

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Balos, Sebastian; Benscoter, Arlan; Pense, Alan

    A First to Forth Century Roman spear blade from Serbia was found to have an unusual microstructure inconsistent with typical Roman Period iron. An analysis of the blade undertaken at Lehigh University in the US and at the Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad, Serbia established that it was metallic in appearance, magnetic and had an external layer of red rust. But as metallographically polished, it appeared to contain multiple internal phases and internal cracking. Even after aggressive etching, no typical low carbon microstructure was developed. Scanning electron microscopy, classical and energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that the specimenmore » was essentially iron, although its microhardness was too high for typical Roman iron. It was then dubbed 'Mystery Iron.' Analysis of all the data led to the proposal that it was essentially a Roman iron 'fossil' in which the iron had been converted to high temperature iron oxide while retaining the form of the blade, conversion probably occurring in a fire. Subsequent X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the blade consisted of FeO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the mystery of the iron fossil was at least partially solved. A hypothesis is proposed regarding a potential cause for the fire.« less

  16. The Mysteries of Real Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laub, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The presentation will consist of showing arc jet data mysterious to the modelers. It will show pictures from an arc jet test where a material (unidentified) exhibited a failure mode that nobody understands followed by thermocouple data from arc jet tests on another (unidentified) material of interest in which the T/Cs exhibit repeatable, consistent, fascinating yet frustrating response characteristics that have the modelers stumped. This all happens between RT and 200 F. Unless we figure out what the responsible phenomenology is and can model it, we can't size the TPS with any confidence.

  17. The Mystery of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    1998-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts remain on of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics in spite of recent observational advances and intense theoretical work. Although some of the basic properties of bursts were known 25 years ago, new and more detailed observations have been made by the BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment) experiment on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory in the past five years. Recent observations of bursts and some proposed models will be discussed.

  18. Unsolved mysteries: How does lipid peroxidation cause ferroptosis?

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Huizhong

    2018-01-01

    Ferroptosis is a cell death process driven by damage to cell membranes and linked to numerous human diseases. Ferroptosis is caused by loss of activity of the key enzyme that is tasked with repairing oxidative damage to cell membranes—glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4). GPX4 normally removes the dangerous products of iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, protecting cell membranes from this type of damage; when GPX4 fails, ferroptosis ensues. Ferroptosis is distinct from apoptosis, necroptosis, necrosis, and other modes of cell death. Several key mysteries regarding how cells die during ferroptosis remain unsolved. First, the drivers of lipid peroxidation are not yet clear. Second, the subcellular location of lethal lipid peroxides remains an outstanding question. Finally, how exactly lipid peroxidation leads to cell death is an unsolved mystery. Answers to these questions will provide insights into the mechanisms of ferroptotic cell death and associated human diseases, as well as new therapeutic strategies for such diseases. PMID:29795546

  19. Unraveling the Mystery of an Environmental Disease

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Grollman, Arthur

    For many years, residents of farming villages along the Danube River basin suffered from a fatal kidney disease and an associated urinary tract cancer. The cause of the disease remained a mystery for more than 50 years. Recently, however, Arthur Grollman and his colleagues have determined that home-baked bread is implicated in the disease, known as Balkan endemic nephropathy.

  20. Mystery Motivator: A Tier 1 Classroom Behavioral Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalewicz, Eva A.; Coffee, Gina

    2014-01-01

    This study is an examination of the effectiveness of the Mystery Motivator--an interdependent group contingency, variable-ratio, classwide intervention--as a tool for reducing disruptive classroom behavior in eight diverse general-education elementary school classrooms across seven different schools. The study was conducted using an ABAB, changing…

  1. AB72. Mysteries of TGF-β paradox in benign and malignant cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chung; Grayhack, John T.

    2014-01-01

    TGF-β regulates a wide range of biological functions including embryonic development, wound healing, organogenesis, immune modulation, and cancer progression. Interestingly, TGF-β is known to inhibit cell growth in benign cells but promote progression in cancer cells, a phenomenon known as TGF-β paradox. To date, the mechanism of this paradox still remains as a scientific mystery. In this review, we present our experience, alone with the literature, in an attempt to offer answers to this mystery. First, we observed that, upon TGF-β engagement, there is a differential activation of Erk between benign and cancer cells. Since activated Erk is a major mediator in tumor progression and metastasis, a differentially activated Erk represents the answer to this mystery. Second, we identified a key player, PP2A-B56α, which is differentially recruited by the activated type I TGF-β receptor (TBRI) in benign and tumor cells, resulting in differential Erk activation. Finally, TGF-β stimulation leads to a suppressed TBRs in tumor cells but not in benign cells. This differentially suppressed TBRs triggers differential recruitment of PP2A-B56α and, thus, differential activation of Erk. The above three events offer the explanation to the mysteries of TGF-β paradox. Understanding the mechanism of TGF-β paradox will help us to predict indolent from aggressive cancers and will help us to develop novel anti-cancer strategies.

  2. Students Dig Deep in the Mystery Soil Lab: A Playful, Inquiry-Based Soil Laboratory Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiet, Rachel K.

    2014-01-01

    The Mystery Soil Lab, a playful, inquiry-based laboratory project, is designed to develop students' skills of inquiry, soil analysis, and synthesis of foundational concepts in soil science and soil ecology. Student groups are given the charge to explore and identify a "Mystery Soil" collected from a unique landscape within a 10-mile…

  3. Cles: Etes-vous bon detective?; Enigmes grammaticales; Problemes policiers; Kidnapping (Keys: Are You a Good Detective?; Grammatical Puzzles; Detective Mysteries; Kidnapping).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debyser, Francis; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Four sets of French classroom activities are presented: a mystery whose clues include two postcard messages; three puzzles with grammar-related clues; a mystery contained in three comic strip frames; and the solving of a kidnapping mystery. (MSE)

  4. Potentially harmful side-effects: medically unexplained symptoms, somatization, and the insufficient illness narrative for viewers of mystery diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Carol-Ann

    2013-09-01

    Illness narrative has often been found to play a positive role in both patients' and providers' efforts to find meaning in the illness experience. However, illness narrative can sometimes become counterproductive, even pathological, particularly in cases of medical mystery--cases wherein biopsychosocial factors blur the distinction between bodily dysfunction and somatizing behavior. In this article, the author draws attention to two examples of medical mystery, the clinical presentation of medically unexplained symptoms, and the popular reality television program Mystery Diagnosis, to demonstrate the potentially harmful effects of illness narrative. The medical mystery's complex narrative structure reflects and tends to reinforce providers' and patients' mistaken assumptions, anxieties, and conflicts in ways which obstruct, rather than facilitate, healing.

  5. Scientific Encounters of the Mysterious Sea. Reading Activities That Explore the Mysterious Creatures of the Deep Blue Sea. Grades 4-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embry, Lynn

    This activity book presents reading activities for grades 4-7 exploring the mysterious creatures of the deep sea. The creatures include: angel sharks; argonauts; barberfish; comb jelly; croakers; electric rays; flying fish; giganturid; lantern fish; narwhals; northern basket starfish; ocean sunfish; Portuguese man-of-war; sea cucumbers; sea…

  6. 2014 Summer Series - Robert Carvalho - Pursuing the Mysteries of the Sun: The IRIS Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-19

    Pursuing the Mysteries of the Sun: The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) Mission. Flight controllers from the IRIS mission will present their individual experiences on IRIS from development through the first year of flight. This will begin with a discussion of the unique nature of IRIS's mission and science, and how it fits into NASA's fleet of solar observatories. Next will be a discussion of the critical roles Ames contributed in the mission including spacecraft and flight software development, ground system development, and training for launch. This will be followed by experiences from launch, early operations, ongoing operations, and unusual operations experiences. The presentation will close with IRIS science imagery and questions.

  7. Eosinophilic esophagitis: a bulk of mysteries.

    PubMed

    Straumann, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), which was first described in the early 1990s, has rapidly evolved as a distinctive chronic inflammatory esophageal disease. The diagnosis is based clinically on the presence of symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and histologically by an eosinophil-predominant inflammation once other conditions leading to esophageal eosinophilia are excluded. This striking male-prevalent disease has an increasing incidence and prevalence in the Westernized countries. Currently, EoE represents the main cause of dysphagia and bolus impaction in adult patients. Despite the fact that EoE often occurs in atopic patients, the value of allergic testing is still under discussion. Topical corticosteroids lead to a rapid improvement of active EoE clinically and histologically; they are therefore regarded as first-line drug therapy. Elimination diets have similar efficacy as topical corticosteroids, but their long-term use is limited by practical issues. Esophageal dilation of EoE-induced strictures can also be effective in improving symptoms, but this therapy has no effect on the underlying inflammation. Neither the diagnostic nor the long-term therapeutic strategies have been fully defined. Currently, the list of unsolved issues--or mysteries--is still long and a concerted effort on behalf of clinicians and scientists is required to improve the understanding and the therapeutic management of this mysterious disease. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Veiled EGM Jackpots: The Effects of Hidden and Mystery Jackpots on Gambling Intensity.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Phillip; Langham, Erika; Rockloff, Matthew J; Browne, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the impact of EGM Jackpots on gambling intensity may allow targeted strategies to be implemented that facilitate harm minimisation by acting to reduce losses of gamblers who play frequently, while maintaining the enjoyment and excitement of potential jackpots. The current study investigated the influences of Hidden and Mystery Jackpots on EGM gambling intensity. In a Hidden Jackpot, the prize value is not shown to the player, although the existence of a jackpot prize is advertised. In a Mystery Jackpot, the jackpot triggering state of the machine is unknown to players. One hundred and seven volunteers (males = 49, females = 58) played a laptop-simulated EGM with a starting $20 real-money stake and a chance to win a Jackpot ($500). Participants played for either a Hidden or Known Jackpot Value, with either a Mystery or Known winning symbol combination in a crossed design. Lastly, a control condition with no jackpot was included. Gambling intensity (speed of bets, persistence) was greater when the Jackpot value was unknown, especially when a winning-symbol combination suggested that a win was possible. While there is no evidence in the present investigation to suggest that Hidden or Mystery jackpots contribute to greater player enjoyment, there is some evidence to suggest a marginal positive contribution of hidden jackpots to risky playing behaviour.

  9. Searching for Judy: How small mysteries affect narrative processes and memory

    PubMed Central

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Current theories of text processing say little about how author’s narrative choices, including the introduction of small mysteries, can affect readers’ narrative experiences. Gerrig, Love, and McKoon (2009) provided evidence that one type of small mystery—a character introduced without information linking him or her to the story—affects readers’ moment-by-moment processing. For that project, participants read stories that introduced characters by proper name alone (e.g., Judy) or with information connecting the character to the rest of the story (e.g., our principal Judy). In an on-line recognition probe task, responses to the character’s name three lines after his or her introduction were faster when the character had not been introduced with connecting information, suggesting that the character remained accessible awaiting resolution. In the four experiments in this paper, we extended our theoretical analysis of small mysteries. In Experiments 1 and 2, we found evidence that trait information (e.g., daredevil Judy) is not sufficient to connect a character to a text. In Experiments 3 and 4, we provide evidence that the moment-by-moment processing effects of such small mysteries also affect readers’ memory for the stories. We interpret the results in terms of Kintsch’s Construction-Integration model (1988) of discourse processing. PMID:20438273

  10. The mystery shopper: an anonymous review of your services.

    PubMed

    Steiner, K

    1986-06-01

    Mystery shoppers can provide an unbiased report on the day-to-day functioning of hospital activities. For this study, six shoppers "used" various hospital services and reported their impressions through a questionnaire. The general findings may be applicable to many other well-run health care organizations.

  11. Teaching physics mysteries versus pseudoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuttner, Fred

    2007-04-01

    The interpretation of quantum mechanics (and the encounter with consciousness) is contentious and has been called ``physics' skeleton in the closet.'' The reluctance of physicists to share this enigma with students and with the larger public has left the discussion open to the wild claims of purveyors of pseudoscience. The movie ``What the Bleep'' is a recent example. Bringing the enigma into the open is the best way to combat pseudoscience and share the true, deep mysteries that physics has uncovered. I will discuss my own experience and that of colleagues with ways of presenting this material to physics majors, non-majors, and the public.

  12. The yeast Golgi apparatus: insights and mysteries

    PubMed Central

    Papanikou, Effrosyni; Glick, Benjamin S.

    2009-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is known to modify and sort newly synthesized secretory proteins. However, fundamental mysteries remain about the structure, operation, and dynamics of this organelle. Important insights have emerged from studying the Golgi in yeasts. For example, yeasts have provided direct evidence for Golgi cisternal maturation, a mechanism that is likely to be broadly conserved. Here, we highlight features of the yeast Golgi as well as challenges that lie ahead. PMID:19879270

  13. Magnetic resonance microscopy of prostate tissue: How basic science can inform clinical imaging development

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bourne, Roger

    2013-03-15

    This commentary outlines how magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) microscopy studies of prostate tissue samples and whole organs have shed light on a number of clinical imaging mysteries and may enable more effective development of new clinical imaging methods.

  14. The ALTE mysteries: who's to blame?

    PubMed

    Wickham, Sara

    2016-02-01

    In this column, Sara Wickham takes a sideways look at issues relevant to midwives, students, women and families, inviting us to sit down with a cup of tea and ponder what we think we know. A recent paper on apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs) in newborn babies brought to mind an experience from practice, the cause of which remains a mystery. As many similar events are unexplained, is it acceptable that there is a tendency in the literature to claim that skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding are risk factors for ALTEs?

  15. The Mystery of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts remain one of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics. Observations of gamma-ray bursts made by the BATSE experiment on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory will be described. Most workers in the field now believe that they originate from cosmological distances. This view has been reinforced by observations this year of several optical afterglow counterparts to gamma-ray bursts. A summary of these recent discoveries will be presented, along with their implications for models of the burst emission mechanism and the energy source of the bursts.

  16. Towards Uncovering the Mysterious World of Math Homework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Mingyu

    2014-01-01

    Homework has been a mysterious world to educators due to the fact that it is hard to collect data with regard to homework behaviors. Little is known about when a student works on homework, how long it takes him to complete the homework, how much time he spends on a problem and whether and where he has struggled, etc. Such information not only have…

  17. Toxicity of copper sulfate and rotenone to Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haak, Danielle M.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Kill, Robert A.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Allen, Craig R.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is a freshwater snail native to Southeast Asia, Japan, and Russia and is currently classified as an invasive species in at least 27 states in the USA. The species tolerates a wide range of environmental conditions, making management of established populations difficult. We tested the efficacy of two traditional chemical treatments, rotenone and copper sulfate, on the elimination of adult Chinese mystery snails in laboratory experiments. All snails (N=50) survived 72-hour exposure to rotenone-treated lake water, and 96% (N=25) survived 72-hour exposure to pre-determined rotenone concentrations of 0.25, 2.5, and 25.0 mg/L. All snails (N=10) survived exposure to 1.25 mg/L copper sulfate solution, 90% (N=10) survived exposure to 2.50 mg/L copper sulfate solution, and 80% (N=5) survived exposure to 5.0 mg/L copper sulfate solution. Neither rotenone nor copper sulfate effectively killed adult Chinese mystery snails in laboratory experiments, most likely due to their relatively large size, thick shell, and operculum. Therefore, it appears that populations will be very difficult to control once established, and management should focus on preventing additional spread or introductions of this species.

  18. Einstein's Biggest Blunder: A Cosmic Mystery Story

    ScienceCinema

    Krauss, Lawrence

    2018-01-11

    The standard model of cosmology built up over 20 years is no longer accepted as accurate. New data suggest that most of the energy density of the universe may be contained in empty space. Remarkably, this is exactly what would be expected if Einstein's cosmological constant really exists. If it does, its origin is the biggest mystery in physics and presents huge challenges for the fundamental theories of elementary particles and fields. Krauss explains Einstein's concept and describes its possible implications.

  19. The Sneaky Sneaker Spies and the Mysterious Black Ink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savran, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the process of making "The Sneaky Sneaker Spies and the Mysterious Black Ink," a six-minute animation starring five art students who form a detective club. This animation is available online for art teachers to use in their own classrooms. After showing this video in class, art teachers could have students try…

  20. The Mystery and Misery of Acid Reflux in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Mike; Davenport, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    When a child is sick, parents want answers. They want to know what is wrong, what they can do, and how to get their child healthy--pronto. Regrettably, there are some puzzling illnesses affecting children that are surrounded by mystery. One of them is gastroesophageal reflux (GER), otherwise known as acid reflux--or "reflux" for short. Reflux…

  1. Exploring Mystery in Fifth Grade: A Journey of Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Claudia; Martinez, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    An instructional framework that included the use of a touchstone text, literature circles, and independent reading and writing created a rich context for the study of mysteries in a fifth-grade classroom. Key points include a) the complexity of the touchstone text as a key factor in shaping the instructional goals in this genre study, and b) the…

  2. Removing the Mystery of Entropy and Thermodynamics--Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Left, Harvey S.

    2012-01-01

    Energy and entropy are centerpieces of physics. Energy is typically introduced in the study of classical mechanics. Although energy in this context can be challenging, its use in thermodynamics and its connection with entropy seem to take on a special air of mystery. In this five-part series, I pinpoint ways around key areas of difficulty to…

  3. The puzzling unsolved mysteries of liquid water: Some recent progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. E.; Kumar, P.; Xu, L.; Yan, Z.; Mazza, M. G.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Chen, S.-H.; Mallamace, F.

    2007-12-01

    Water is perhaps the most ubiquitous, and the most essential, of any molecule on earth. Indeed, it defies the imagination of even the most creative science fiction writer to picture what life would be like without water. Despite decades of research, however, water's puzzling properties are not understood and 63 anomalies that distinguish water from other liquids remain unsolved. We introduce some of these unsolved mysteries, and demonstrate recent progress in solving them. We present evidence from experiments and computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water displays a special transition point (which is not unlike the “tipping point” immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell). The general idea is that when the liquid is near this “tipping point,” it suddenly separates into two distinct liquid phases. This concept of a new critical point is finding application to other liquids as well as water, such as silicon and silica. We also discuss related puzzles, such as the mysterious behavior of water near a protein.

  4. [Acute skin infections and their imitators in children : A photo quiz].

    PubMed

    Theiler, M; Schwieger-Briel, A; Weibel, L

    2017-10-01

    Skin infections account for 40% of emergency visits in pediatric dermatology. It is important to promptly recognize skin infections with potential complications and initiate treatment. However some characteristic skin findings may imitate skin infections and are often misdiagnosed. To illustrate frequent pediatric skin infections and pitfalls in view of imitators and differential diagnoses. A photo quiz is presented with the discussion of a selection of acute pediatric skin infections in comparison to their infectious or noninfectious differential diagnoses. The following infectious skin conditions and imitators are described and clinical clues for differentiation highlighted: eczema herpeticum and bacterial superinfection of atopic dermatitis; exanthematous hand, foot and mouth disease and varicella infection; erythema chronicum multilocularis and anular urticaria; Gianotti-Crosti syndrome and Gianotti-Crosti-like reaction; bacterial folliculitis of the scalp and kerion celsi and eosinophilic pustular folliculitis of the scalp; cutaneous Leishmaniasis and idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma; allergic and bacterial lymphangitis; bullous impetigo contagiosa and nonaccidental scalding. Careful anamnesis and skin examination with attention to the here illustrated differential diagnoses are essential to avoid pitfalls in the evaluation of acute pediatric skin infections.

  5. Hubble Solves Mystery on Source of Supernova in Nearby Galaxy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    NASA image release January 11, 2012 Using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers have solved a longstanding mystery on the type of star, or so-called progenitor, that caused a supernova in a nearby galaxy. The finding yields new observational data for pinpointing one of several scenarios that could trigger such outbursts. Based on previous observations from ground-based telescopes, astronomers knew that a kind of supernova called a Type Ia created a remnant named SNR 0509-67.5, which lies 170,000 light-years away in the Large Magellanic Cloud galaxy. The type of system that leads to this kind of supernova explosion has long been a high importance problem with various proposed solutions but no decisive answer. All these solutions involve a white dwarf star that somehow increases in mass to the highest limit. Astronomers failed to find any companion star near the center of the remnant, and this rules out all but one solution, so the only remaining possibility is that this one Type Ia supernova came from a pair of white dwarfs in close orbit. To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hubble/science/supernova-sourc... Image Credit: NASA, ESA, CXC, SAO, the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA), and J. Hughes (Rutgers University) NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  6. Optical Brain Imaging: A Powerful Tool for Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinpei; Xia, Yanfang; Wang, Xuecen; Si, Ke; Gong, Wei

    2017-02-01

    As the control center of organisms, the brain remains little understood due to its complexity. Taking advantage of imaging methods, scientists have found an accessible approach to unraveling the mystery of neuroscience. Among these methods, optical imaging techniques are widely used due to their high molecular specificity and single-molecule sensitivity. Here, we overview several optical imaging techniques in neuroscience of recent years, including brain clearing, the micro-optical sectioning tomography system, and deep tissue imaging.

  7. The mystery of reincarnation

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore; Nanjegowda, Raveesh Bevinahalli; Purushothama, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the mysteries puzzling human mind since the origin of mankind is the concept of “reincarnation” which literally means “to take on the flesh again.” As the civilizations evolved, beliefs got discriminated and disseminated into various religions. The major division manifested was “East” and “West.” The eastern religions being more philosophical and less analytical, have accepted reincarnation. However, the different eastern religions like Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism have differed in their faith on rebirth. Further, the Islam as well as the most dominant religion of the world, Christianity, having its origin in the west, have largely denied reincarnation, though some sub-sects still show interest in it. Also many mystic and esoteric schools like theosophical society have their unique description on rebirth. This article describes reincarnation as perceived by various religions and new religious movements as well as some research evidence. PMID:23858250

  8. The Mystery of Matter, World of the Atom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, William G.

    This booklet is one in the "World of the Atome Series" for junior high school students and their teachers. It describes the fascinating story of the search for the key to the structure of matter. These topics are reviewed: the chemical atom of the 19th century, the planetary atom, the wave atom, inside the elementary particles, and the mystery of…

  9. The Mystery of the Electronic Spectrum of Ruthenium Monophosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Allan G.; Christensen, Ryan M.; Dore, Jacob M.; Konder, Ricarda M.; Tokaryk, Dennis W.

    2016-06-01

    Using PH3 as a reactant gas and ruthenium as the target metal in the UNB laser ablation spectrometer, the ruthenium monophosphide molecule (RuP) has been detected. Dispersed fluorescence experiments have been performed to determine ground state vibrational frequencies and the presence of any low-lying electronic states. Rotationally resolved spectra of two vibrational bands at 577nm and 592nm have been taken; the bands have been identified as 1-0 and 0-0 bands based on isotopic shifts. Ruthenium has seven stable isotopes and rotational transitions have been observed for six of the RuP isotopologues. RuP is isoelectronic to RuN so it is expected that RuP will have a 2Σ+ ground state and low resolution spectra indicated a likely 2Σ+ - 2Σ+ electronic transition. Further investigation has led us to believe we are observing a 2Π - 2Σ+ transition but mysteriously some important rotational branches are missing. It is hoped that new data to be recorded on a second electronic system we have observed at 535nm will help shed light on this mystery.

  10. Convergent and Divergent Thinking in the Context of Narrative Mysteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, William G.; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    This project demonstrates how narrative mysteries provide a context in which readers engage in creative cognition. Drawing on the concepts of convergent and divergent thinking, we wrote stories that had either convergent or divergent outcomes. For example, one story had a character give his girlfriend a ring (a convergent outcome), whereas the…

  11. MIT Lincoln Laboratory Takes the Mystery Out of Supercomupting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-18

    analysis, designing sensors, and developing algorithms. In 2008, the Lincoln demonstrated the largest single problem ever run on a computer using ... computation . As we design and prototype these devices, the use of leading–edge engineering practices have become the de facto standard. This includes...MIT Lincoln Laboratory Takes the Mystery Out of Supercomputing By Dr. Jeremy Kepner 1 The introduction of multicore and manycore processors

  12. The First Amendment: The Finished Mystery Case and World War I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jean West; Schamel, Wynell Burroughs

    1990-01-01

    Introduces the censorship, and imprisonment of Jehovah's Witnesses who distributed, "The Finished Mystery," which contained antiwar statements deemed seditious during World War I. Asks students to examine a Justice Department document pertaining to the case. Helps students decide whether national security needs should override First…

  13. HUBBLE UNCOVERS MYSTERY OBJECTS IN THE DENSE CORE OF A NEARBY STAR CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Piercing the heart of a glittering swarm of stars, NASA's sharp-eyed Hubble Space Telescope unveils the central region of the globular cluster M22, a 12- to 14-billion-year-old grouping of stars in the constellation Sagittarius. The telescope's view of the cluster's core measures 3.3 light-years across. The stars near the cluster's core are 100,000 times more numerous than those in the Sun's neighborhood. Buried in the glow of starlight are about six 'mystery objects,' which astronomers estimate are no larger than one quarter the mass of the giant planet Jupiter, the solar system's heftiest planet. The mystery objects are too far and dim for Hubble to see directly. Instead, the orbiting observatory detected these unseen celestial bodies by looking for their gravitational effects on the light from far distant stars. In this case, the stars are far beyond the cluster in the galactic bulge, about 30,000 light-years from Earth at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. M22 is 8,500 light-years away. The invisible objects betrayed their presence by bending the starlight gravitationally and amplifying it, a phenomenon known as microlensing. From February 22 to June 15, 1999, Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 looked through this central region and monitored 83,000 stars. During that time the orbiting observatory recorded six unexpectedly brief microlensing events. In each case a background star jumped in brightness for less than 20 hours before dropping back to normal. These transitory spikes in brightness mean that the object passing in front of the star must have been much smaller than a normal star. Hubble also detected one clear microlensing event. In that observation a star appeared about 10 times brighter over an 18-day span before returning to normal. Astronomers traced the leap in brightness to a dwarf star in the cluster floating in front of the background star. The inset photo shows the entire globular cluster of about 10 million stars. M22 is about 60

  14. Increasing Active Student Responding in a University Applied Behavior Analysis Course: The Effect of Daily Assessment and Response Cards on End of Week Quiz Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malanga, Paul R.; Sweeney, William J.

    2008-01-01

    The study compared the effects of daily assessment and response cards on average weekly quiz scores in an introduction to applied behavior analysis course. An alternating treatments design (Kazdin 1982, "Single-case research designs." New York: Oxford University Press; Cooper et al. 2007, "Applied behavior analysis." Upper Saddle River:…

  15. A 'mystery shopper' project to evaluate sexual health and contraceptive services for young people in Croydon.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Susie; O'Sullivan, Karin

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the accessibility of, and advice provided by, sexual health and advice services for young people in Croydon, UK using a 'mystery shopper' approach. Nineteen young people aged 13-21 years were trained as mystery shoppers. The group developed a set of standards, based in part on existing guidelines of best practice, that should be met when working with young people. The group accessed local sexual health services in pairs posing as genuine patients. Using one of four scenarios, the mystery shoppers assessed the service they received against the predefined standards. The main access difficulties occurred in the reception area. Confidentiality was a major concern and was frequently not explained. The advice and information received was generally clearly given and with an appropriate level of detail. Additional training and support needs to be offered to receptionists. Confidentiality policies and statements need to be more effectively communicated.

  16. Mystery mushroom malingerers: Megaselia marquezi Hartop et al. 2015 (Diptera: Phoridae).

    PubMed

    Brown, Brian V; Hartop, Emily A

    2017-01-01

    A mysterious female phorid fly, known for many years to be associated with fungal sporophores ("mushrooms") is identified as Megaselia marquezi Hartop et al. 2015. Male and female flies were collected emerging from the fungus Psathyrella candolleana (Fr.) Maire, and females were observed swarming over the sporophores.

  17. The Mysterious Case of the Detective as Child Hero: Sherlock Holmes, Encyclopedia Brown and Nancy Drew as Role Models?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugarman, Sally

    In the mystery genre, the one characteristic that the enduring figures of Sherlock Holmes, Nancy Drew, and Encyclopedia Brown have in common is a rational mind. The source of their strength is their ability to think and think well. A study examined some typical examples of the mystery genre in young adult literature and surveyed children and…

  18. Why AIDS? The Mystery of How HIV Attacks the Immune System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Damaris

    1999-01-01

    Reviews differing theories surrounding the mystery of how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system. Claims that understanding how HIV triggers immune-cell depletion may enable researchers to block its effects. New knowledge could reveal strategies for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) therapies that go beyond the drugs…

  19. The Mysterious Death: An HPLC Lab Experiment. An Undergraduate Forensic Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beussman, Douglas J.

    2007-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) laboratory experiment based on the separation of four prescription drugs (disopyramide, lidocaine, procainamide, and quinidine) is presented. The experiment is set within the forensic science context of the discovery of a patient's mysterious death where a drug overdose is suspected. Each lab group…

  20. Mystery mushroom malingerers: Megaselia marquezi Hartop et al. 2015 (Diptera: Phoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Hartop, Emily A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A mysterious female phorid fly, known for many years to be associated with fungal sporophores ("mushrooms") is identified as Megaselia marquezi Hartop et al. 2015. Male and female flies were collected emerging from the fungus Psathyrella candolleana (Fr.) Maire, and females were observed swarming over the sporophores. PMID:28989296

  1. The Effects of the Mystery Motivator Intervention in an Urban Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeks, Amirah; Graves, Scott, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine the effect of the implementation of the Mystery Motivator intervention as an interdependent group contingency to decrease disruptive behavior in an urban eighth-grade general education science classroom. The study was conducted using an A-B changing criterion design. The effectiveness of the intervention…

  2. Availability and provision of misoprostol and other medicines for menstrual regulation among pharmacies in Bangladesh via mystery client survey.

    PubMed

    Huda, Fauzia A; Ngo, Thoai D; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Alam, Anadil; Reichenbach, Laura

    2014-02-01

    To explore the availability and provision of misoprostol and other medicines for menstrual regulation (MR) among pharmacies in Bangladesh. Between March and November 2011, a cross-sectional study using mystery client visits was conducted among pharmacy workers in Dhaka and Gazipur Districts, Bangladesh. Mystery clients were trained to present 1 of 4 pre-developed situations to pharmacy workers to elicit information on the regimen, adverse effects, and complications of misoprostol use. Mystery clients visited 331 pharmacies. Among the 331 pharmacy workers, 45.8% offered the mystery clients misoprostol and/or other medicines for MR; 25.7% referred them to private clinics or hospitals. Only 7% recommended an effective regimen of misoprostol for MR; 65% suggested administering vaginal and oral misoprostol together. Overall, 72.4% did not provide any advice on complications; the remainder suggested visiting trained providers for complications. Counseling on excessive bleeding as a danger sign was provided by 46% of pharmacy workers. Most (94%) did not provide or refer for post-MR family planning. Pharmacy workers in urban Bangladesh are providing ineffective drugs and regimens for MR. A training package is needed to strengthen service delivery by providing accurate information, high-quality products, and referral mechanisms for women seeking MR through pharmacies. © 2013.

  3. The Mystery of the Gun Turret in the Desert

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hoffman, R. D.

    The mystery of the gun turret in the desert began with an ingenious idea: to develop a reusable open-air line of sight diagnostic device to support LLNL’s early nuclear weapons development efforts. Obtained from the Mare Island Navy Shipyard (MINS) in January 1957, the gun turret traveled by ship to the Naval Construction Battalion base at Port Hueneme, California, and then by truck to Area 2 in the Yucca Flats valley at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS).

  4. The Intergenerational Transmission of Suicide: Moral Injury and the Mysterious Object in the Work of Walker Percy.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Jane G

    2016-06-01

    The intrapsychic mechanisms for the intergenerational transmission of suicide are not adequately theorized, though it is well known that a family history of suicide places survivors at increased risk for suicide. The suicide of a family member, particularly a parent, it is hypothesized, marks some survivors with a type of trauma associated with moral injury, which may produce an alteration in object relations with the emergence of what may be called a mysterious object. Under the press of these conditions, survivors may embark on what Apprey (2014) has termed an "urgent errand" in an effort to solve a problem in the anterior generation. Analysands with a history of familial suicide may bring symptoms of moral injury, a mysterious object relation, and a risk for suicide into the transference. The family history, life history, and literary work of the novelist Walker Percy, who had an extensive family history of suicide, provides evidence for the hypothesis linking moral injury, a mysterious object, and an urgent errand in such patients. © 2016 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.

  5. Investigation of "mysterious" disease in livestock: hydrocyanic acid poisoning.

    PubMed

    Krishna, L; Katoch, R C

    1989-12-01

    An investigation of "mysterious" disease due to hydrocyanic acid (HCN) poisoning in livestock in this state was carried out. Detailed clinicopathological and pathological studies were conducted. Characteristic signs of acute tympany followed with profuse frothing, convulsions and dyspnea were recorded. Cynosis of the mucosa with characteristic anoxemic tissue changes and a high concentration of HCN in rumen content, feed and skeletal muscles were recorded. These were sufficient to establish the diagnosis. Successful treatment with a specific antidote was achieved, and further morbidity and mortality was checked.

  6. Out of the Mouths of Babes: Unlocking the Mysteries of Language and Voice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurber, Christopher A.

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes three studies that have revolutionized child psychology by teaching us that children are biologically programmed to learn language; children's language development is orderly and pragmatic, but grammatically mysterious; and children's linguistic self-expression reveals some disturbing ways in which they have been socialized. Presents…

  7. Examination Outcomes Following Use of Card Games for Learning Radiographic Image Quality in Veterinary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Ober, Christopher P

    Understanding the concepts of radiographic image quality and artifact formation can be difficult for veterinary students. Two educational card games were previously developed to help students learn about factors affecting contrast and blackness as well as radiographic artifacts. Second-year veterinary students played one of the two card games as a part of their normal studies for their veterinary imaging course and later took the radiographic physics quiz normally administered during the course. Performance on quiz questions related to each of the two games was compared between students who played each respective game and those who did not. The hypothesis was that students who played a game would perform better on related questions than those who did not play that game. For the contrast and blackness questions, students who played the associated game as part of their studies performed better than those who only studied by conventional means (mean 4.3 vs. 3.8 out of 5 points, p=.02). However, there was no significant difference in results between groups for artifacts questions (mean 4.7 vs. 4.5 out of 5 points, p=.35). Based on these results, educational game play can have benefits to student learning, but performance may be dependent on specific game objectives and play mechanics.

  8. Quantum physics and the beam splitter mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hénault, François

    2015-09-01

    Optical lossless beam splitters are frequently encountered in fundamental physics experiments regarding the nature of light, including "which-way" determination or the EPR paradox and their measurement apparatus. Although they look as common optical components at first glance, their behaviour remains somewhat mysterious since they apparently exhibit stand-alone particle-like features, and then wave-like characteristics when inserted into a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In this communication are examined and discussed some basic properties of these beamssplitters, both from a classical optics and quantum physics point of view. Herein the most evident convergences and contradictions are highlighted, and the results of a few emblematic experiments demonstrating photon existence are discussed. Alternative empirical models are also proposed in order to shed light on some remaining issues.

  9. 222Rn variations in Mystery Cave, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lively, R.S.; Krafthefer, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    222Rn concentrations and meteorological parameters were measured at 4- h intervals over a 2-y period in Mystery Cave, southeastern Minnesota. Continuous radon monitors and meteorological sensors connected to data loggers were installed at several locations along commercial tour routes. 222Rn concentrations ranged as high as 25 kBq m-3 in summer and 20 kBq m-3 in winter. Average winter concentrations were lower than summer by at least a factor of two. Seasonal radon variations were correlative with outside air temperatures. During the winter, radon concentrations were observed to fluctuate periodically by factors of 20 or more in under 24 h. Both the long- and short-term variations are correlative with temperature- induced mixing of cave air with surface air.

  10. Under the Lens: Investigating the Sun's Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, William; Klotz, Irene

    2008-11-01

    Sometime around 2012, the waxing 11-year solar cycle once again will reach its peak. Between now and then, magnetically turbulent sunspots, spawned by some still mysterious process, will form near the poles in increasing numbers and migrate toward the Sun's faster-rotating equator in pairs of opposite polarity. Titanic magnetic storms will rage as immense flux tubes rise to the surface in active regions around sunspots and spread out in a boiling sea of electric charge. Magnetic field lines across an enormous range of scales will arc and undulate, rip apart and reconnect, heating the Sun's upper atmosphere and occasionally triggering brilliant flares and multibillion-megaton coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that travel through the solar wind and slam into Earth.

  11. The Fish Kill Mystery: Using Case Studies in the Middle School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heid, Christy; Biglan, Barbara; Ritson, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    Case studies are an excellent method for engaging middle school students in the current work of scientists. Students learn to think like scientists as they decide how to investigate the dilemma presented in the case study. This article describes one such case study, the Fish Kill Mystery, which takes place at a popular vacation spot--the beaches…

  12. Spheromaks and how plasmas may explain the ultra high energy cosmic ray mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, T. Kenneth; Li, Hui

    2016-10-01

    > eV or more, finally ejected as ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) long regarded as one of the mysteries of astrophysics. The acceleration is mainly due to the drift cyclotron loss cone kinetic instability known from plasma research. Experiments and simulations are suggested to verify the acceleration process.

  13. Brain-machine interfaces can accelerate clarification of the principal mysteries and real plasticity of the brain.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    This perspective emphasizes that the brain-machine interface (BMI) research has the potential to clarify major mysteries of the brain and that such clarification of the mysteries by neuroscience is needed to develop BMIs. I enumerate five principal mysteries. The first is "how is information encoded in the brain?" This is the fundamental question for understanding what our minds are and is related to the verification of Hebb's cell assembly theory. The second is "how is information distributed in the brain?" This is also a reconsideration of the functional localization of the brain. The third is "what is the function of the ongoing activity of the brain?" This is the problem of how the brain is active during no-task periods and what meaning such spontaneous activity has. The fourth is "how does the bodily behavior affect the brain function?" This is the problem of brain-body interaction, and obtaining a new "body" by a BMI leads to a possibility of changes in the owner's brain. The last is "to what extent can the brain induce plasticity?" Most BMIs require changes in the brain's neuronal activity to realize higher performance, and the neuronal operant conditioning inherent in the BMIs further enhances changes in the activity.

  14. Unraveling the Mysteries of Turbulence Transport in a Wind Farm

    DOE PAGES

    Jha, Pankaj K.; Duque, Earl P. N.; Bashioum, Jessica L.; ...

    2015-06-26

    A true physical understanding of the mysteries involved in the recovery process of the wake momentum deficit, downstream of utility-scale wind turbines in the atmosphere, has not been obtained to date. Field data are not acquired at sufficient spatial and temporal resolutions to dissect some of the mysteries of wake turbulence. It is here that the actuator line method has evolved to become the technology standard in the wind energy community. This work presents the actuator line method embedded into an Open source Field Operation and Manipulation (OpenFOAM) large-eddy simulation solver and applies it to two small wind farms, themore » first one consisting of an array of two National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5 Megawatt (NREL 5-MW) turbines separated by seven rotor diameters in neutral and unstable atmospheric boundary-layer flow and the second one consisting of five NREL 5-MW wind turbines in unstable atmospheric conditions arranged in two staggered arrays of two and three turbines, respectively. Detailed statistics involving power spectral density (PSD) of turbine power along with standard deviations reveal the effects of atmospheric turbulence and its space and time scales. In conclusion, high-resolution surface data extracts provide new insight into the complex recovery process of the wake momentum deficit governed by turbulence transport phenomena.« less

  15. Unraveling the Mysteries of Turbulence Transport in a Wind Farm

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jha, Pankaj K.; Duque, Earl P. N.; Bashioum, Jessica L.

    A true physical understanding of the mysteries involved in the recovery process of the wake momentum deficit, downstream of utility-scale wind turbines in the atmosphere, has not been obtained to date. Field data are not acquired at sufficient spatial and temporal resolutions to dissect some of the mysteries of wake turbulence. It is here that the actuator line method has evolved to become the technology standard in the wind energy community. This work presents the actuator line method embedded into an Open source Field Operation and Manipulation (OpenFOAM) large-eddy simulation solver and applies it to two small wind farms, themore » first one consisting of an array of two National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5 Megawatt (NREL 5-MW) turbines separated by seven rotor diameters in neutral and unstable atmospheric boundary-layer flow and the second one consisting of five NREL 5-MW wind turbines in unstable atmospheric conditions arranged in two staggered arrays of two and three turbines, respectively. Detailed statistics involving power spectral density (PSD) of turbine power along with standard deviations reveal the effects of atmospheric turbulence and its space and time scales. In conclusion, high-resolution surface data extracts provide new insight into the complex recovery process of the wake momentum deficit governed by turbulence transport phenomena.« less

  16. Catalase and its mysteries.

    PubMed

    Sepasi Tehrani, Hessam; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2018-03-09

    Catalase is one of the firsts in every realm of biological sciences. At the same time it also has a number of unusual features. It has one of the highest turnover numbers of all enzymes. It is essential for neutralizing the noxious hydrogen peroxide both in the nature and the various industries such as dairy, textile and pharmaceutics. It also has the merit of being one of the first protein crystals to be isolated. Ironically its three-dimensional structure was discerned some forty years later. However through the times this senile enzyme has continued to intrigue the scientists by surprising facts and phenomena, such as peculiar interweaving of subunits and remarkable thermal stability. It is also known for suicide inactivation by its own substrate. Catalase is known to be implicated in various medical scenarios and its levels have served as a marker in that capacity. It has even been incorporated into several pharmaceuticals. This review strives to clarify these perspectives. It also draws attention to the biophysical contributions offered by thermodynamics and kinetics in these discoveries. The ultimate aim of this review, however, is to state that the venerable catalase will continue to bewilder us with its mysteries well into the twenty-first century. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Astronomers Go Behind The Milky Way To Solve X-Ray Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-08-01

    Through layers of gas and dust that stretch for more than 30,000 light years, astronomers using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have taken a long, hard look at the plane of the Milky Way galaxy and found that its X-ray glow comes from hot and diffuse gas. The findings, published in the August 10 issue of Science, help to settle a long-standing mystery about the source of the X-ray emission from the galactic plane. Scientists have debated whether the Milky Way plane's X-ray emission was diffuse light or from individual stars. Armed with Chandra, an international team led Dr. Ken Ebisawa of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD zoomed in on a tiny region of the galactic plane in the constellation Scutum. "The point sources we saw in the galactic plane were actually active galaxies with bright cores millions of light years behind our galaxy," said Ebisawa. "The number of these sources is consistent with the expected number of extragalactic sources in the background sky. We saw few additional point sources within our Galaxy." The observation marks the deepest X-ray look at the so-called "zone of avoidance" -- a region of space behind which no optical observation has ever been taken because thick dust and gas in the spiral arms of the Milky Way galaxy block out visible radiation. Infrared, radio, and X-rays, however, can penetrate this dust and gas. Detection of diffuse X rays emanating from the Galactic plane, what we call the "Milky Way" in visible light, indicates the presence of plasma gas with temperatures of tens of millions of degrees Celsius. Smoothed X-ray Image of the Galactic Plane Smoothed X-ray Image of the Galactic Plane Gas this hot would escape the gravitational confines of the Milky Way galaxy under normal circumstances. The fact that it still lingers within the Galactic plane is the next mystery to solve. One possibility, suggested by Ebisawa is that hot plasma may be confined to the Milky Way by magnetic fields. The Chandra observation

  18. An interactive histology image-barcode manual for a videodisc image library.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, R W

    1995-01-01

    of class. There is a need for resources for additional study outside of the institutional setting, for students to have and interact with to reinforce the learning experience in the teaching laboratory. A hard copy manual was created and is being used in our course; it incorporates photos captured from the videodisc. The images displayed in the manual are chosen to give the student one example of each histological component. Additional labeling is added to the images, and each image is accompanied by a bar code that may be used at a videodisc player with a bar code reader to retrieve the same color image from the disc displayed in larger format on a TV monitor. Each topic in the manual is accompanied by learning objectives and a statement of clinical relevance. Following the presentation of the images in each section of the manual, the students are encouraged to practice by viewing multiple examples of each structural component presented in the lesson. They can do this by using the bar-coded catalog supplied with each disc. The presentation of each topic concludes with a quiz composed of questions about images that the student can retrieve from the videodisc using barcodes in the text of the manual. Some of the images on the quiz are printed in miniature in the manual to provide the student with an opportunity for personal review at home when hardware to obtain and display images from a video disc is not available. This manual provides an answer to the dilemma faced by the learner when access to hardware is not available; reinforcement is therefore facilitated outside the teaching laboratory. This allows learning to continue outside of the classroom, using the same materials. (abstract truncated)

  19. ESA's Integral solves thirty-year old gamma-ray mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Integral solves mystery hi-res Size hi-res: 60 kb Credits: Credit: ESA, F. Lebrun (CEA-Saclay). ESA's Integral solves thirty-year old gamma-ray mystery The central regions of our galaxy, the Milky Way, as seen by Integral in gamma rays. With its superior ability to see faint details, Integral correctly reveals the individual sources that comprised the foggy, gamma-ray background seen by previous observatories. The brightest 91 objects seen in this image were classified by Integral as individual sources, while the others appear too faint to be properly characterized at this stage. During the spring and autumn of 2003, Integral observed the central regions of our Galaxy, collecting some of the perpetual glow of diffuse low-energy gamma rays that bathe the entire Galaxy. These gamma rays were first discovered in the mid-1970s by high-flying balloon-borne experiments. Astronomers refer to them as the 'soft' Galactic gamma-ray background, with energies similar to those used in medical X-ray equipment. Initially, astronomers believed that the glow was caused by interactions involving the atoms of the gas that pervades the Galaxy. Whilst this theory could explain the diffuse nature of the emission, since the gas is ubiquitous, it failed to match the observed power of the gamma rays. The gamma rays produced by the proposed mechanisms would be much weaker than those observed. The mystery has remained unanswered for decades. Now Integral's superb gamma-ray telescope IBIS, built for ESA by an international consortium led by Principal Investigator Pietro Ubertini (IAS/CNR, Rome, Italy), has seen clearly that, instead of a fog produced by the interstellar medium, most of the gamma-rays are coming from individual celestial objects. In the view of previous, less sensitive instruments, these objects appeared to merge together. In a paper published today in "Nature", Francois Lebrun (CEA Saclay, Gif sur Yvette, France) and his collaborators report the discovery of 91 gamma

  20. Gamma ray flashes add to mystery of upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmospheric electricity research has come a long way since Benjamin Franklin's kite-flying days. But what researchers have been learning lately about above-thunderstorm electricity has wrought a whole new era of mysteries.For a start, last summer a Colorado meteorologist sparked interest in a terrestrial phenomenon that the community first observed more than 100 years ago: optical flashes that occur above thunderstorms—at least 30 km above Earth. Walter Lyons with the Ft. Collins-based Mission Research Corporation, demonstrated that such flashes are not anomalies, as conventional scientific wisdom had held. He filmed hundreds of flashes during a 2-week period.

  1. Brain-machine interfaces can accelerate clarification of the principal mysteries and real plasticity of the brain

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    This perspective emphasizes that the brain-machine interface (BMI) research has the potential to clarify major mysteries of the brain and that such clarification of the mysteries by neuroscience is needed to develop BMIs. I enumerate five principal mysteries. The first is “how is information encoded in the brain?” This is the fundamental question for understanding what our minds are and is related to the verification of Hebb’s cell assembly theory. The second is “how is information distributed in the brain?” This is also a reconsideration of the functional localization of the brain. The third is “what is the function of the ongoing activity of the brain?” This is the problem of how the brain is active during no-task periods and what meaning such spontaneous activity has. The fourth is “how does the bodily behavior affect the brain function?” This is the problem of brain-body interaction, and obtaining a new “body” by a BMI leads to a possibility of changes in the owner’s brain. The last is “to what extent can the brain induce plasticity?” Most BMIs require changes in the brain’s neuronal activity to realize higher performance, and the neuronal operant conditioning inherent in the BMIs further enhances changes in the activity. PMID:24904323

  2. The Mysteries and Curiosities of Mars: A Tour of Unusual and Unexplained Terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, L.

    2017-12-01

    The large amount of data available from orbiting satellites around Mars has provided a wealth of information about the Martian surface and geological history. The published literature tends to focus on regions of Mars for which there are ready explanations; however, many regions of Mars remain mysterious. In this contribution, we present some of the strangest and least explained terrains on Mars: The Taffy Terrain: This complex terrain, consisting of swirling layers with variably sized bands, is present mostly at the bottom of Hellas Basin, but versions of it can also be found on the floor of Melas Chasma and in the Medusae Fossae Formation near Apollinaris Sulci. While little has been written about the taffy terrain, hypotheses include "glacial features" and salt domes. The taffy terrain bears some resemblance to submarine salt domes in the Gulf of Mexico, glacial deposits with mixed ash and ice in Iceland, or chalk formations in Egypt's White Desert. The Fishscale Terrain: At the northern edge of Lucus Planum, the friable Medusae Fossae Formation transitions into a chaos-like terrain with hundreds of mesas forming a pattern like the scales of a fish. While chaos terrains are mysterious in general, this morphologically fresh, near-equatorial chaos is especially unusual. Polygonal Ridges in Gordii Dorsum: Also a part of the Medusae Fossae Formation, the ridges in Gordii Dorsum represent a negative image of the fishscale terrain—a intricate lattice of slender black ridges. These are thought to form via the embayment of the fishscale terrain with lava and the subsequent erosion of the original mesas. Horseshoe Features: These geomorphological features look like inverted barchan dunes, but they are actually pits eroded into the surface of the Medusae Fossae Formation. Channels surrounding Elysium Mons: These channel systems are among the most complex on Mars, but they appear on a young Amazonian lava surface. The channels cut through topography, anastomose, and

  3. Did Kanner Actually Describe the First Account of Autism? The Mystery of 1938

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellowes, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Kanner opens his pioneering 1943 paper on autism by making a mysterious mention of the year 1938. Recent letters to the editor of this journal have disagreed over a particular interpretation--does 1938 refer to an early paper by Asperger, effectively meaning Kanner plagiarised Asperger? I argue 1938 refers to a paper by Louise Despert. This was…

  4. Mystery shopping and coaching as a form of audit and feedback to improve community pharmacy management of non-prescription medicine requests: an intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Carl Richard; Naughtin, Clare Louise; Wilson, Frances; de Almeida Neto, Abilio Cesar; Moles, Rebekah Jane

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether repeated mystery shopping visits with feedback improve pharmacy performance over nine visits and to determine what factors predict an appropriate outcome. Design Prospective, parallel, repeated intervention, repeated measures mystery shopping (pseudopatient) design. Setting Thirty-six community pharmacies in metropolitan Sydney, Australia in March–October 2015. Participants Sixty-one University of Sydney pharmacy undergraduates acted as mystery shoppers. Students enrolled in their third year of Bachelor of Pharmacy in 2015 were eligible to participate. Any community pharmacy in the Sydney metropolitan region was eligible to take part and was selected through convenience sampling. Intervention Repeated mystery shopping with immediate feedback and coaching. Outcome measures Outcome for each given scenario (appropriate or not) and questioning scores for each interaction. Results Five hundred and twenty-one visits were analysed, of which 54% resulted in an appropriate outcome. Questioning scores and the proportion of interactions resulting in an appropriate outcome significantly improved over time (P<0.001). Involvement of pharmacists, visit number, increased questioning score and the prescribed scenario were predictors of an appropriate outcome (P=0.008, P=0.022, P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Interactions involving a pharmacist had greater scores than those without (P<0.001). Conclusions Repeated mystery shopping visits with feedback were associated with improved pharmacy performance over time. Future work should focus on the role of non-pharmacist staff and design interventions accordingly. PMID:29247115

  5. Gamma-Ray Bursts: A Mystery Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Ann

    2007-01-01

    With the success of the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer currently in orbit, this is quite an exciting time in the history of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). The study of GRBs is a modern astronomical mystery story that began over 30 years ago with the serendipitous discovery of these astronomical events by military satellites in the late 1960's. Until the launch of BATSE on the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory, astronomers had no clue whether GRBs originated at the edge of our solar system, in our own Milky Way Galaxy or incredibly far away near the edge of the observable Universe. Data from BATSE proved that GRBs are distributed isotropically on the sky and thus could not be the related to objects in the disk of our Galaxy. Given the intensity of the gamma-ray emission, an extragalactic origin would require an astounding amount of energy. Without sufficient data to decide the issue, a great debate continued about whether GRBs were located in the halo of our own galaxy or were at extragalactic - even cosmological distances. This debate continued until 1997 when the BeppoSAX mission discovered a fading X-ray afterglow signal in the same location as a GRB. This discovery enabled other telescopes, to observe afterglow emission at optical and radio wavelengths and prove that GRBs were at cosmological distances by measuring large redshifts in the optical spectra. Like BeppoSAX Swift, slews to new GRB locations to measure afterglow emission. In addition to improved GRB sensitivity, a significant advantage of Swift over BeppoSAX and other missions is its ability to slew very quickly, allowing x-ray and optical follow-up measurements to be made as early as a minute after the gamma-ray burst trigger rather than the previous 6-8 hour delay. Swift afterglow measurements along with follow-up ground-based observations, and theoretical work have allowed astronomers to identify two plausible scenarios for the creation of a GRB: either through core collapse of super massive stars or

  6. Case Study: The Mystery of the Seven Deaths--A Case Study in Cellular Respiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazdik, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Cellular respiration, the central component of cellular metabolism, can be a difficult concept for many students to fully understand. In this interrupted, problem-based case study, students explore the purpose of cellular respiration as they play the role of medical examiner, analyzing autopsy evidence to determine the mysterious cause of death…

  7. Women of Mystery: Investigating Learning Pathways of Canadian and American Female Crime Fiction Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouthro, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the learning pathways of 15 Canadian and American female crime fiction authors. Using a critical feminist perspective, it argues that despite the neoliberal rhetoric of individual choice, as in most careers, there are social-structural factors that create opportunities and barriers for women mystery writers. The article…

  8. A New Clue in the Mystery of Fast Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-06-01

    The origin of the mysterious fast radio bursts has eluded us for more than a decade. With the help of a particularly cooperative burst, however, scientists may finally be homing in on the answer to this puzzle.A Burst RepeatsThe host of FRB 121102 is placed in context in this Gemini image. [Gemini Observatory/AURA/NSF/NRC]More than 20 fast radio bursts rare and highly energetic millisecond-duration radio pulses have been observed since the first was discovered in 2007. FRB 121102, however, is unique in its behavior: its the only one of these bursts to repeat. The many flashes observed from FRB 121102 allowed us for the first time to follow up on the burst and hunt for its location.Earlier this year, this work led to the announcement that FRB 121102s host galaxy has been identified: a dwarf galaxy located at a redshift of z = 0.193 (roughly 3 billion light-years away). Now a team of scientists led by Cees Bassa (ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy) has performed additional follow-up to learn more about this host and what might be causing the mysterious flashes.Hubble observation of the host galaxy. The object at the bottom right is a reference star. The blue ellipse marks the extended diffuse emission of the galaxy, the red circle marks the centroid of the star-forming knot, and the white cross denotes the location of FRB 121102 ad the associated persistent radio source. [Adapted from Bassa et al. 2017]Host ObservationsBassa and collaborators used the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telecsope, and the Gemini North telecsope in Hawaii to obtain optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared observations of FRB 121102s host galaxy.The authors determined that the galaxy is a dim, irregular, low-metallicity dwarf galaxy. Its resolved, revealing a bright star-forming region roughly 4,000 light-years across in the galaxys outskirts. Intriguingly, the persistent radio source associated with FRB 121102 falls directly within that star-forming knot

  9. Consciousness platform: the greatest mystery of all time.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Sid

    2010-01-01

    This article is about the model for a very controversial edifice--the many-sided foundation for consciousness. What I refer to is, undoubtedly, the greatest mystery of all time--why do we have an awareness of our own existence? What is the evolutionary advantage of consciousness? Much of the material printed about consciousness has a religious flavor, with references to the human spirit and/or extrasensory perception, but I will have none of that here. In this study, consciousness is tied in with a platform, not a physical platform, of course, but a conceptual platform. This is because we are most comfortable imagining or visualizing an actual platform that has many connections to various parts of the brain, a sort of an old-fashioned telephone switchboard.

  10. ASKAP Joins the Hunt for Mysterious Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-05-01

    A new telescope, the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP), has joined the search for energetic and elusive fast radio bursts. And in just a few days of looking, its already had success!Elusive TransientsThe Parkes radio telescope, which has detected all but five of the fast radio bursts published to date, has a very narrow field of view. [CSIRO]Fast radio bursts are mysterious millisecond-duration radio pulses that were first discovered around a decade ago. Since that time particularly in recent years weve made some progress toward the goal of localizing them. Were now fairly convinced that fast radio bursts come from outside of the galaxy, and yet theyre enormously bright orders of magnitude more luminous than any pulse seen from the Milky Way.Better identification of where these mysterious bursts come from would help us to determine what they are. But so far, weve discovered only around 30 such bursts, despite the fact that theyre estimated to occur at a rate of 3,000 events per day across the whole sky.Why are they so hard to find? Due to their short duration, effective detection would require instantaneous coverage of a very large fraction of the sky. The Parkes radio telescope which has detected all but five of the fast radio bursts published to date has a field of view spanning less than a square degree,significantly limiting our ability to rapidly survey for these transients.FRB 170107s band-averaged pulse (top) and dynamic spectrum (bottom). [Bannister et al. 2017]A New Array in TownA new player is now on the scene, however, and its already had huge success. ASKAP is a wide-field radio telescope made up of an array of 12-meter antennas. Using phased-array-feed technology, ASKAP is able to instantaneously observe an effective area of 160 square degrees an enormous field compared to Parkes 0.6 square degrees! This capability significantly increases our chances of being able to detect fast radio bursts.In a new study led by Keith Bannister

  11. On Recursive Policy Envelopes and Exposure Management: The Mysterious Survival of a Governmental Guideline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markussen, Rolf Andreas; Wackers, Ger

    2015-01-01

    Guidelines play a vital role in the governance of professional practitioners in the frontline of the welfare state towards practices based on scientific knowledge. However the viability of guidelines as a genre of governing devices is by no means self-evident. This article interrogates the somewhat mysterious survival of one particular guideline.…

  12. The Effect of Mystery Shopper Reports on Age Verification for Tobacco Purchases

    PubMed Central

    KREVOR, BRAD S.; PONICKI, WILLIAM R.; GRUBE, JOEL W.; DeJONG, WILLIAM

    2011-01-01

    Mystery shops (MS) involving attempted tobacco purchases by young buyers have been employed to monitor retail stores’ performance in refusing underage sales. Anecdotal evidence suggests that MS visits with immediate feedback to store personnel can improve age verification. This study investigated the impact of monthly and twice-monthly MS reports on age verification. Forty-five Walgreens stores were each visited 20 times by mystery shoppers. The stores were randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Control group stores received no feedback, whereas two treatment groups received feedback communications every visit (twice monthly) or every second visit (monthly) after baseline. Logit regression models tested whether each treatment group improved verification rates relative to the control group. Post-baseline verification rates were higher in both treatment groups than in the control group, but only the stores receiving monthly communications had a significantly greater improvement than control group stores. Verification rates increased significantly during the study period for all three groups, with delayed improvement among control group stores. Communication between managers regarding the MS program may account for the delayed age-verification improvements observed in the control group stores. Encouraging inter-store communication might extend the benefits of MS programs beyond those stores that receive this intervention. PMID:21541874

  13. Mystery #14

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... play geographical detective! This natural-color image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on the Terra ... type of clouds pictured here are often associated with lightning and sustained rainstorms lasting several hours or more. 5. ...

  14. Top Mysteries of the Mind: Insights From the Default Space Model of Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Jerath, Ravinder; Beveridge, Connor

    2018-01-01

    Aside from the nature of consciousness itself, there are still many unsolved problems in the neurosciences. Despite the vast and quickly growing body of work in this field, we still find ourselves perplexed at seemingly simple qualities of our mental being such as why we need to sleep. The neurosciences are at least beginning to take a hold on these mysteries and are working toward solving them. We hold a perspective that metastable consciousness models, specifically the Default Space Model (DSM), provide insights into these mysteries. In this perspective article, we explore some of these curious questions in order to elucidate the interesting points they bring up. The DSM is a dynamic, global theory of consciousness that involves the maintenance of an internal, 3D simulation of the external, physical world which is the foundation and structure of consciousness. This space is created and filled by multiple frequencies of membrane potential oscillations throughout the brain and body which are organized, synchronized and harmonized by the thalamus. The veracity of the DSM is highlighted here in its ability to further understanding of some of the most puzzling problems in neuroscience.

  15. Top Mysteries of the Mind: Insights From the Default Space Model of Consciousness.

    PubMed

    Jerath, Ravinder; Beveridge, Connor

    2018-01-01

    Aside from the nature of consciousness itself, there are still many unsolved problems in the neurosciences. Despite the vast and quickly growing body of work in this field, we still find ourselves perplexed at seemingly simple qualities of our mental being such as why we need to sleep. The neurosciences are at least beginning to take a hold on these mysteries and are working toward solving them. We hold a perspective that metastable consciousness models, specifically the Default Space Model (DSM), provide insights into these mysteries. In this perspective article, we explore some of these curious questions in order to elucidate the interesting points they bring up. The DSM is a dynamic, global theory of consciousness that involves the maintenance of an internal, 3D simulation of the external, physical world which is the foundation and structure of consciousness. This space is created and filled by multiple frequencies of membrane potential oscillations throughout the brain and body which are organized, synchronized and harmonized by the thalamus. The veracity of the DSM is highlighted here in its ability to further understanding of some of the most puzzling problems in neuroscience.

  16. Fecundity of the Chinese mystery snail in a Nebraska reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephen, Bruce J.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.; Wong, Alec

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is a non-indigenous, invasive species in freshwater ecosystems of North America. We provide fecundity estimates for a population of these snails in a Nebraska reservoir. We dissected 70 snails, of which 29 were females. Nearly all female snails contained developing young, with an average of 25 young per female. Annual fecundity was estimated at between 27.2 and 33.3 young per female per year. Based on an estimated adult population and the calculated fecundity, the annual production for this reservoir was between 2.2 and 3.7 million young.

  17. Using Interactive Digital Images of Products to Teach Pharmaceutics

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Khang H.; Dollar,, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Objective To implement interactive digital images of drug products and online quizzes in a pharmaceutics course to teach students where to look on product labels for information and how to evaluate ingredients of various dosage forms, and to reinforce pharmaceutical calculations with practical problems. Design Interactive digital images of drug products and a database of quiz questions pertaining to the products were created and an interactive online platform was designed. The interactive digital images were incorporated in pharmaceutics lectures as examples of dosage forms studied and calculations taught. The online quizzes were administered to first-professional year pharmacy students in fall 2004 and fall 2005. Assessment The competency outcome data illustrates that the product-based online quizzes aided students in meeting the desired learning objectives. Modifications to increase ease of use resulted in higher student success rates in the second year of implementation. Student and faculty evaluations of the application were largely positive. Conclusion The development of interactive digital images and product-based online quizzes successfully adapted a traditional learning aid into a viable electronic resource for pharmacy education. PMID:17619660

  18. Mystery #27

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-22

    ... of the image are natural geologic features that often carry descriptive names of their location.   What is the native word used to call ... MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center in Hampton, VA. Image ...

  19. A mystery of black-hole gravitational resonances

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hod, Shahar; The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem 91010

    More than three decades ago, Detweiler provided an analytical formula for the gravitational resonant frequencies of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes. In the present work we shall discuss an important discrepancy between the famous analytical prediction of Detweiler and the recent numerical results of Zimmerman et al. In addition, we shall refute the claim that recently appeared in the physics literature that the Detweiler-Teukolsky-Press resonance equation for the characteristic gravitational eigenfrequencies of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes is not valid in the regime of damped quasinormal resonances with ℑω/T{sub BH}≫1 (here ω and T{sub BH} are respectively the characteristic quasinormal resonant frequencymore » of the Kerr black hole and its Bekenstein-Hawking temperature). The main goal of the present paper is to highlight and expose this important black-hole quasinormal mystery (that is, the intriguing discrepancy between the analytical and numerical results regarding the gravitational quasinormal resonance spectra of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes).« less

  20. [Digital imaging and robotics in endoscopic surgery].

    PubMed

    Go, P M

    1998-05-23

    The introduction of endoscopical surgery has among other things influenced technical developments in surgery. Owing to digitalisation, major progress will be made in imaging and in the sophisticated technology sometimes called robotics. Digital storage makes the results of imaging diagnostics (e.g. the results of radiological examination) suitable for transmission via video conference systems for telediagnostic purposes. The availability of digital video technique renders possible the processing, storage and retrieval of moving images as well. During endoscopical operations use may be made of a robot arm which replaces the camera man. The arm does not grow tired and provides a stable image. The surgeon himself can operate or address the arm and it can remember fixed image positions to which it can return if ordered to do so. The next step is to carry out surgical manipulations via a robot arm. This may make operations more patient-friendly. A robot arm can also have remote control: telerobotics. At the Internet site of this journal a number of supplements to this article can be found, for instance three-dimensional (3D) illustrations (which is the purpose of the 3D spectacles enclosed with this issue) and a quiz (http:@appendix.niwi. knaw.nl).

  1. Imaging's insights into human violence.

    PubMed

    Church, Elizabeth J

    2014-01-01

    Following every well-publicized act of incomprehensible violence, the news media rush to interview neighbors, family members, and experts in an attempt to discover what could have led an individual to commit such a barbarous act. Certain stock answers are reiterated: video games, bullying, violent films, mental illness, the availability of guns, and a society that is increasingly both anonymous and callous. Might imaging be one of the more valuable keys to unlocking the mysteries of violent, aggressive people? This article explores these questions and their complex answers in the context of violent individuals.

  2. Imaging the Antikythera Mechanism

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Malzbender, Thomas

    2012-02-10

    In 1900, a party of sponge divers chanced on the wreck of a Roman merchant vessel between Crete and mainland Greece. It was found to contain numerous ancient Greek treasures, among them a mysterious lump of clay that split open to reveal ‘mathematical gears’ as it dried out. This object is now known as the Antikythera Mechanism, one of the most enlightening artifacts in terms of revealing the advanced nature of ancient Greek science and technology. In 2005 we travelled to the National Archeological Museum in Athens to apply our Reflectance Imaging methods to the mechanism in the hopes ofmore » revealing ancient writing on the device. We were successful, and along with the results of Microfocus CT imaging, epigraphers were able to decipher 3000 characters.« less

  3. Augmenting College Students' Study of Speech-Language Pathology Using Computer-Based Mini Quiz Games.

    PubMed

    Vinney, Lisa A; Howles, Les; Leverson, Glen; Connor, Nadine P

    2016-08-01

    This study examined whether undergraduate college students' immediate recall and longer-term retention of introductory voice disorder concepts improved by using mini quiz games (MQGs; interactive knowledge tests in game format) compared with (a) traditional study alone, (b) MQGs and traditional study together, or (c) a no-study control condition. Ninety-three college students participated in proctored sessions in which they were given a pretest, viewed an online lecture on introductory voice disorder concepts, and then engaged in either no intervention or interventions including traditional study, MQG play, or both MQG play and traditional study, followed by an immediate recall posttest and longer-term retention follow-up test. Analyses suggested that the effects of all interventions (traditional study, MQG play, and the combination of the 2) were equivalent and resulted in significantly greater improvements from pretest to immediate recall posttest performance than the control condition. In contrast, MQGs and MQGs with traditional study, but not traditional study alone, showed better results for long-term retention than no study. Results provide preliminary support for the idea that there may be multiple effective learning modes, beyond traditional study, that enhance recall and retention of knowledge foundational to speech-language pathology clinical training and practice.

  4. Mystery #12 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) natural-color image of Russia's St. Petersburg was captured by the instrument's nadir camera on May ... The city in the south eastern portion of the image is Russia's St. Petersburg, which is the most northerly large city in the world at ...

  5. Characterizing Mystery Cell Lines: Student-driven Research Projects in an Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Course.

    PubMed

    Lemons, Michele L

    2012-01-01

    Inquiry-based projects promote discovery and retention of key concepts, increase student engagement, and stimulate interest in research. Described here are a series of lab exercises within an undergraduate upper level neuroscience course that train students to design, execute and analyze their own hypothesis-driven research project. Prior to developing their own projects, students learn several research techniques including aseptic cell culture, cell line maintenance, immunocytochemistry and fluorescent microscopy. Working in groups, students choose how to use these techniques to characterize and identify a "mystery" cell line. Each lab group is given a unique cell line with either a neural, astrocyte, or Schwann cell origin. Working together, students plan and execute experiments to determine the cellular origin and other unique characteristics of their mystery cell line. Students generate testable hypotheses, design interpretable experiments, generate and analyze data, and report their findings in both oral and written formats. Students receive instructor and peer feedback throughout the entire project. In summary, these labs train students the process of scientific research. This series of lab exercises received very strong positive feedback from the students. Reflections on student feedback and plans for future improvements are discussed.

  6. The mysterious noh mask: contribution of multiple facial parts to the recognition of emotional expressions.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Hiromitsu; Nishimura, Ritsuko; Okanoya, Kazuo; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-01-01

    A Noh mask worn by expert actors when performing on a Japanese traditional Noh drama is suggested to convey countless different facial expressions according to different angles of head/body orientation. The present study addressed the question of how different facial parts of a Noh mask, including the eyebrows, the eyes, and the mouth, may contribute to different emotional expressions. Both experimental situations of active creation and passive recognition of emotional facial expressions were introduced. In Experiment 1, participants either created happy or sad facial expressions, or imitated a face that looked up or down, by actively changing each facial part of a Noh mask image presented on a computer screen. For an upward tilted mask, the eyebrows and the mouth shared common features with sad expressions, whereas the eyes with happy expressions. This contingency tended to be reversed for a downward tilted mask. Experiment 2 further examined which facial parts of a Noh mask are crucial in determining emotional expressions. Participants were exposed to the synthesized Noh mask images with different facial parts expressing different emotions. Results clearly revealed that participants primarily used the shape of the mouth in judging emotions. The facial images having the mouth of an upward/downward tilted Noh mask strongly tended to be evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. The results suggest that Noh masks express chimeric emotional patterns, with different facial parts conveying different emotions This appears consistent with the principles of Noh which highly appreciate subtle and composite emotional expressions, as well as with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western art. It was further demonstrated that the mouth serves as a diagnostic feature in characterizing the emotional expressions. This indicates the superiority of biologically-driven factors over the traditionally formulated performing styles when evaluating the emotions of the Noh masks.

  7. The Mysterious Noh Mask: Contribution of Multiple Facial Parts to the Recognition of Emotional Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Hiromitsu; Nishimura, Ritsuko; Okanoya, Kazuo; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Background A Noh mask worn by expert actors when performing on a Japanese traditional Noh drama is suggested to convey countless different facial expressions according to different angles of head/body orientation. The present study addressed the question of how different facial parts of a Noh mask, including the eyebrows, the eyes, and the mouth, may contribute to different emotional expressions. Both experimental situations of active creation and passive recognition of emotional facial expressions were introduced. Methodology/Principal Findings In Experiment 1, participants either created happy or sad facial expressions, or imitated a face that looked up or down, by actively changing each facial part of a Noh mask image presented on a computer screen. For an upward tilted mask, the eyebrows and the mouth shared common features with sad expressions, whereas the eyes with happy expressions. This contingency tended to be reversed for a downward tilted mask. Experiment 2 further examined which facial parts of a Noh mask are crucial in determining emotional expressions. Participants were exposed to the synthesized Noh mask images with different facial parts expressing different emotions. Results clearly revealed that participants primarily used the shape of the mouth in judging emotions. The facial images having the mouth of an upward/downward tilted Noh mask strongly tended to be evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that Noh masks express chimeric emotional patterns, with different facial parts conveying different emotions This appears consistent with the principles of Noh which highly appreciate subtle and composite emotional expressions, as well as with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western art. It was further demonstrated that the mouth serves as a diagnostic feature in characterizing the emotional expressions. This indicates the superiority of biologically-driven factors over the traditionally

  8. [Images in the dialogue between science and society].

    PubMed

    Claessens, Michel

    2011-01-01

    In France, over 45 millions people watch TV every day for more than 3 hours. Science and image get well together since most TV watchers trust this media and rely on it (more than on any other source) for their scientific information. This emphasizes the power of images, which do not always deliver information, but can be naively regarded as creating communication. Image is necessary and an event which does not generate images is a non-event. Images are more than just a support for scientific messages: technologies have produced an enormous amount of images which allow us to uncover the mysteries of the world and Universe, their beauty and delicacy. We can be fascinated by the discovery of the invisible world which surrounds us, and science has truly generated artistic masterpieces even though we should remember that its primary goal is to understand the world rather than to create images. © 2011 médecine/sciences - Inserm / SRMS.

  9. The mystery of language evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Marc D.; Yang, Charles; Berwick, Robert C.; Tattersall, Ian; Ryan, Michael J.; Watumull, Jeffrey; Chomsky, Noam; Lewontin, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of language requires evidence regarding origins and processes that led to change. In the last 40 years, there has been an explosion of research on this problem as well as a sense that considerable progress has been made. We argue instead that the richness of ideas is accompanied by a poverty of evidence, with essentially no explanation of how and why our linguistic computations and representations evolved. We show that, to date, (1) studies of nonhuman animals provide virtually no relevant parallels to human linguistic communication, and none to the underlying biological capacity; (2) the fossil and archaeological evidence does not inform our understanding of the computations and representations of our earliest ancestors, leaving details of origins and selective pressure unresolved; (3) our understanding of the genetics of language is so impoverished that there is little hope of connecting genes to linguistic processes any time soon; (4) all modeling attempts have made unfounded assumptions, and have provided no empirical tests, thus leaving any insights into language's origins unverifiable. Based on the current state of evidence, we submit that the most fundamental questions about the origins and evolution of our linguistic capacity remain as mysterious as ever, with considerable uncertainty about the discovery of either relevant or conclusive evidence that can adjudicate among the many open hypotheses. We conclude by presenting some suggestions about possible paths forward. PMID:24847300

  10. The mystery of language evolution.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Marc D; Yang, Charles; Berwick, Robert C; Tattersall, Ian; Ryan, Michael J; Watumull, Jeffrey; Chomsky, Noam; Lewontin, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of language requires evidence regarding origins and processes that led to change. In the last 40 years, there has been an explosion of research on this problem as well as a sense that considerable progress has been made. We argue instead that the richness of ideas is accompanied by a poverty of evidence, with essentially no explanation of how and why our linguistic computations and representations evolved. We show that, to date, (1) studies of nonhuman animals provide virtually no relevant parallels to human linguistic communication, and none to the underlying biological capacity; (2) the fossil and archaeological evidence does not inform our understanding of the computations and representations of our earliest ancestors, leaving details of origins and selective pressure unresolved; (3) our understanding of the genetics of language is so impoverished that there is little hope of connecting genes to linguistic processes any time soon; (4) all modeling attempts have made unfounded assumptions, and have provided no empirical tests, thus leaving any insights into language's origins unverifiable. Based on the current state of evidence, we submit that the most fundamental questions about the origins and evolution of our linguistic capacity remain as mysterious as ever, with considerable uncertainty about the discovery of either relevant or conclusive evidence that can adjudicate among the many open hypotheses. We conclude by presenting some suggestions about possible paths forward.

  11. The mysterious demise of an ice-age relic: exposing the cause of yellow-cedar decline.

    Treesearch

    Jonathan Thompson

    2007-01-01

    For more than a century, yellow-cedar has been inexplicably dying throughout the northern coastal rain forests of the Pacific Northwest. Yellow-cedar mortality has been mapped on more than a half million acres in southeastern Alaska, yet until recently the cause of death was a stubborn mystery. Researchers are hopeful, after several decades of investigation, that they...

  12. The identity of the mysterious "Azara's Parakeet" Sittace flaviventris Wagler, 1832.

    PubMed

    Smith, Paul

    2018-06-25

    Sittace flaviventris Wagler, 1832 was the name given to Azara's No. 276 "Maracaná cabeza y encuentro roxos", but since then the identity of the species has remained a mystery. Based on a tail-less domestic individual, it has most often been attributed to an aberrant Aratinga parakeet, and is currently considered a doubtful taxon. In this note the identity of "Azara's Parakeet" is confirmed as Red-spectacled Amazon Amazona pretrei (Temminck, 1830), a species that still occurs today in the region from where Azara described it. Sittace flaviventris is thus a junior synonym of Amazona pretrei.

  13. The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings: a critical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrelli, S.

    The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings: a critical analysis S. Sandrelli INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milano, Italy (stefano.sandrelli@brera.inaf.it / Fax: 02 72001600 / Phone: +39 02 72320337) "The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings" is a live astronomical role-playing game for kids aged 10 -13. Its goal is to introduce them to some of the main topics of the Solar System: a) the role of gravity; b) the distribution of mass & light; c) the effects of rotation; d) the distribution of water. The game was held both at the Perugia (2004) and the Genova Science Festival (2005), obtaining great success. Teams of about 6-8 members are introduced to Mr Schioppanelli, the astro-detective of the town (the name is a pun: it reminds Schiaparelli, the famous italian astronomer, and it is a slang expression meaning "ring-breaker"). Mr Schioppanelli has his office in an "gastronomical astronomical observatory", known as The Red Giant Pizzeria. Schioppanelli informs the kids that a mysterious Centaur succeded in stealing the rings of Saturn. The partecipants are appointed astro-detectives in-charge and asked to find the rings by browsing around the Solar System, which is scaled so as to fit the town historical centre or a pedestrian area, going from the Sun to Saturn or beyond, depending on the actual area at disposal. Great care must be taken allowing children playing only in a car-free area of the town. At the right scaled distances, the partecipants meet characters playing as the various planets. The kids can talk to them after solving a riddle, obtaining useful informations. A special characters play as a comet, timely going in and out of the inner solar system. The teams can also talk to some shepherd-moons of the rings. They easily discover that the rings were totally destroyed by the Centaur: a real disaster! They are also suggested to gather the necessary ingredients (gravity, light, rotation, inclination, dust and

  14. A Comparison of the Mystery Motivator and the "Get 'Em On Task" Interventions for Off-Task Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraemer, Elisabeth E.; Davies, Susan C.; Arndt, Kelli Jo; Hunley, Sawyer

    2012-01-01

    Attending to instruction is a critical behavior for academic success. Many elementary school teachers, however, identify disruptive and inattentive classroom behaviors as key barriers to students' successful educational performance. This study examined the impact of two class-wide positive behavior support programs. The Mystery Motivator and…

  15. Revisiting Jenner's mysteries, the role of the Beaugency lymph in the evolutionary path of ancient smallpox vaccines.

    PubMed

    Damaso, Clarissa R

    2018-02-01

    In 1796, Edward Jenner developed the smallpox vaccine consisting of pustular material obtained from lesions on cows affected by so-called cow-pox. The disease, caused by cowpox virus, confers crossprotection against smallpox. However, historical evidence suggests that Jenner might have used vaccinia virus or even horsepox virus instead of cowpox virus. Mysteries surrounding the origin and nature of the smallpox vaccine persisted during the 19th century, a period of intense exchange of vaccine strains, including the Beaugency lymph. This lymph was obtained from spontaneous cases of cow-pox in France in 1866 and then distributed worldwide. A detailed Historical Review of the distribution of the Beaugency lymph supports recent genetic analyses of extant vaccine strains, suggesting the lymph was probably a vaccinia strain or a horsepox-like virus. This Review is a historical investigation that revisits the mysteries of the smallpox vaccine and reveals an intricate evolutionary relationship of extant vaccinia strains. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mystery of a Dimming White Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    In the wake of the recent media attention over an enigmatic, dimming star, another intriguing object has been discovered: J1529+2928, a white dwarf that periodically dims. This mystery, however, may have a simple solution with interesting consequences for future surveys of white dwarfs.Unexpected VariabilityJ1529+2928 is an isolated white dwarf that appears to have a mass of slightly more than the Sun. But rather than radiating steadily, J1529+2928 dims once every 38 minutes almost as though it were being eclipsed.The team that discovered these variations, led by Mukremin Kilic (University of Oklahoma), used telescopes at the Apache Point Observatory and the McDonald Observatory to obtain follow-up photometric data of J1529+2928 spread across 66 days. The team also took spectra of the white dwarf with the Gemini North telescope.Kilic and collaborators then began, one by one, to rule out possible causes of this objects variability.Eliminating OptionsThe period of the variability is too long for J1529+2928 to be a pulsating white dwarf with luminosity variation caused by gravity-wave pulsations.The variability cant be due to an eclipse by a stellar or brown-dwarf companion, because there isnt any variation in J1529+2928s radial velocity.Its not due to the orbit of a solid-body planetary object; such a transit would be too short to explain observations.It cant be due to the orbit of a disintegrated planet; this wouldnt explain the light curves observed in different filters plus the light curve doesnt change over the 66-day span.Spotty SurfaceTop and middle two panels: light curves from three different nights observing J1529+2928s periodic dimming. Bottom panel: The Fourier transform shows a peak at 37.7 cycles/day (and another, smaller peak at its first harmonic). [Kilic et al. 2015]So what explanation is left? The authors suggest that J1529+2928s variability is likely caused by a starspot on the white dwarfs surface that rotates into and out of our view. Estimates

  17. Global Learning in a Geography Course Using the Mystery Method as an Approach to Complex Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applis, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    In the study which is the foundation of this essay, the question is examined of whether the complexity of global issues can be solved at the level of teaching methodology. In this context, the first qualitative and constructive study was carried out which researches the Mystery Method using the Thinking-Through-Geography approach (David Leat,…

  18. Century-old Mystery of Puccinia striiformis Life History Solved with the Identification of Berberis as an Alternate Host

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The life history of Puccinia striiformis remains a mystery because the alternate host has never been found. Inoculation of grasses using aeciospores from naturally infected Berberis chinensis and B. koreana resulted in infection on Poa pratensis, producing uredinia typical of stripe rust caused by P...

  19. Uncovering the Mystery of Gliding Motility in the Myxobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Beiyan; Zusman, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial gliding motility is the smooth movement of cells on solid surfaces unaided by flagella or pili. Many diverse groups of bacteria exhibit gliding, but the mechanism of gliding motility has remained a mystery since it was first observed more than a century ago. Recent studies on the motility of Myxococcus xanthus, a soil myxobacterium, suggest a likely mechanism for gliding in this organism. About forty M. xanthus genes were shown to be involved in gliding motility, and some of their protein products were labeled and localized within cells. These studies suggest that gliding motility in M. xanthus involves large multiprotein structural complexes, regulatory proteins, and cytoskeletal filaments. In this review, we summarize recent experiments that provide the basis for this emerging view of M. xanthus motility. We also discuss alternative models for gliding. PMID:21910630

  20. Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gruy, H.J.

    1998-03-01

    Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes whatmore » gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.« less

  1. Mystery #16 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... were acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) during October and November 2003. The two images represent about 310 ... obtain calcium from the seawater and carbon dioxide from cell respiration, and bring these products into the internal tissues of the ...

  2. Mystery #27 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... of the image are natural geologic features that often carry descriptive names of their location.  What is the native word used to call ... MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center in Hampton, VA. Image ...

  3. Male access to emergency contraception in pharmacies: a mystery shopper survey.

    PubMed

    Bell, David L; Camacho, Elvis J; Velasquez, Andrew B

    2014-10-01

    Pharmacy access to emergency contraception (EC) could involve men in pregnancy prevention. The objectives were to assess the availability and cost of EC. Male mystery shoppers visited 158 pharmacies in three neighborhoods in New York City. They asked for EC and its cost and noted weekend hours. Twenty-two (73.3%) of 30 pharmacies created barriers to get EC. The cost of EC was higher in the higher-socioeconomic status (SES) neighborhood (p<.001), and the higher-SES neighborhood pharmacies had a greater number of weekend hours (p<.001). Overall, males had a 20% probability of not being able to access EC. The national dialogue should include males. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The mystery of the thymus gland.

    PubMed

    Liu, Daniel; Ellis, Harold

    2016-09-01

    The thymus is the last organ in the human body to have its mechanisms fully understood, having had its function fully delineated more than 50 years ago (Miller , Tissue Antigens 63:509-517). Prior to this, the thymus gland has had an interesting history with theories having included a role in fetal growth and development before becoming more sinisterly, a cause of sudden infant death in the late 19th century known as status lymphaticus (Paltauf , Wien Klin Wochenschr 2:877-881). Until Miller (, Lancet 278:748-749) eventually proved its primarily immunological role, the history of this mysterious gland has closely mirrored the history of medicine itself, troubling the minds of pathologists such as Virchow (, Ueber die Chlorose und die damit zusammenhängenden Anomalien im Gefässapparate, insbesondere über "Endocarditis puerperalis," vorgetragen in der Sitzung der Berliner Geburtshülflichen Gesellschaft vom 12) and Grawitz (, Deut Med Wochenschr 22:429-431), surgeons such as Astley Cooper (, The Anatomy of the Thymus Gland) and Keynes (1953, Ann R Coll Surg 12:88), and eminent medical epidemiologists such as Greenwood and Woods [, J Hyg (Lond) 26:305-326]. This article will hopefully be of interest therefore to both clinician and historian alike. Clin. Anat. 29:679-684, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Dr. Earl N. Meyer, in the Lab, with a Scalpel: A Murder Mystery as a Biochemistry Recruitment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vulcu, Felicia; Heirwegh, Meagan

    2015-01-01

    Increasing student participation in science is an ongoing challenge for many universities. In this active learning workshop, centered on inquiry and teamwork, we introduce high-school students to biochemistry and molecular biology techniques using a murder mystery activity. During this intensive 3 hr workshop, we engage students in a murder…

  6. Resolving the mystery of transport within internal transport barriersa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staebler, G. M.; Kinsey, J. E.; Belli, E. A.; Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E.; Greenfield, C. M.; Lao, L. L.; Smith, S. P.; Grierson, B. A.; Chrystal, C.

    2014-05-01

    The Trapped Gyro-Landau Fluid (TGLF) quasi-linear model [G. M. Staebler, et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 102508 (2005)], which is calibrated to nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations, is now able to predict the electron density, electron and ion temperatures, and ion toroidal rotation simultaneously for internal transport barrier (ITB) discharges. This is a strong validation of gyrokinetic theory of ITBs, requiring multiple instabilities responsible for transport in different channels at different scales. The mystery of transport inside the ITB is that momentum and particle transport is far above the predicted neoclassical levels in apparent contradiction with the expectation from the theory of suppression of turbulence by E ×B velocity shear. The success of TGLF in predicting ITB transport is due to the inclusion of ion gyro-radius scale modes that become dominant at high E ×B velocity shear and to improvements to TGLF that allow momentum transport from gyrokinetic turbulence to be faithfully modeled.

  7. Resolving the mystery of transport within internal transport barriers

    DOE PAGES

    Staebler, Gary M.; Kinsey, Jon E.; Belli, Emily A.; ...

    2014-05-02

    Here, the Trapped Gyro-Landau Fluid (TGLF) quasi-linear model, which is calibrated to nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations, is now able to predict the electron density, electron and ion temperatures and ion toroidal rotation simultaneously for internal transport barrier (ITB) discharges. This is a strong validation of gyrokinetic theory of ITBs, requiring multiple instabilities responsible for transport in different channels at different scales. The mystery of transport inside the ITB is that momentum and particle transport is far above the predicted neoclassical levels in apparent contradiction with the expectation from the theory of suppression of turbulence by E × B velocity shear.more » The success of TGLF in predicting ITB transport is due to the inclusion of ion gyro-radius scale modes that become dominant at high E × B velocity shear and to improvements to TGLF that allow momentum transport from gyrokinetic turbulence to be faithfully modeled.« less

  8. The Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Budget: Mystery or Not

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Qing; Newman, Paul A.; Daniel, John S.; Reimann, Stefan; Hall, Bradley; Dutton, Geoff; Kuijpers, Lambert J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a major anthropogenic ozone-depleting substance and greenhouse gas and has been regulated under the Montreal Protocol. However, atmospheric observations show a very slow decline in CCl4 concentrations, inconsistent with the nearly zero emissions estimate based on the UNEP reported production and feedstock usage in recent years. It is now apparent that there are either unidentified industrial leakages, an unknown production source of CCl4, or large legacy emissions from CCl4 contaminated sites. In this paper we use a global chemistry climate model to assess the budget mystery of atmospheric CCl4. We explore various factors that affect the global trend and the gradient between the Northern and Southern hemispheres or interhemispheric gradient (IHG): emissions, emission hemispheric partitioning, and lifetime variations. We find a present-day emission of 30-50 Gg per yr and a total lifetime 25 - 36 years are necessary to reconcile both the observed CCl4 global trend and IHG.

  9. Brightness Variations of Sun-like Stars: The Mystery Deepens - Astronomers facing Socratic "ignorance"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-12-01

    An extensive study made with ESO's Very Large Telescope deepens a long-standing mystery in the study of stars similar to the Sun. Unusual year-long variations in the brightness of about one third of all Sun-like stars during the latter stages of their lives still remain unexplained. Over the past few decades, astronomers have offered many possible explanations, but the new, painstaking observations contradict them all and only deepen the mystery. The search for a suitable interpretation is on. "Astronomers are left in the dark, and for once, we do not enjoy it," says Christine Nicholls from Mount Stromlo Observatory, Australia, lead author of a paper reporting the study. "We have obtained the most comprehensive set of observations to date for this class of Sun-like stars, and they clearly show that all the possible explanations for their unusual behaviour just fail." The mystery investigated by the team dates back to the 1930s and affects about a third of Sun-like stars in our Milky Way and other galaxies. All stars with masses similar to our Sun become, towards the end of their lives, red, cool and extremely large, just before retiring as white dwarfs. Also known as red giants, these elderly stars exhibit very strong periodic variations in their luminosity over timescales up to a couple of years. "Such variations are thought to be caused by what we call 'stellar pulsations'," says Nicholls. "Roughly speaking, the giant star swells and shrinks, becoming brighter and dimmer in a regular pattern. However, one third of these stars show an unexplained additional periodic variation, on even longer timescales - up to five years." In order to find out the origin of this secondary feature, the astronomers monitored 58 stars in our galactic neighbour, the Large Magellanic Cloud, over two and a half years. They acquired spectra using the high resolution FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope and combined them with images from other telescopes [1

  10. Geological mysteries on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image shows some unusual features on the surface of Jupiter's moon, Ganymede. NASA's Galileo spacecraft imaged this region as it passed Ganymede during its second orbit through the Jovian system. The region is located at 31 degrees latitude, 186 degrees longitude in the north of Marius Regio, a region of ancient dark terrain, and is near the border of a large swathe of younger, heavily tectonised bright terrain known as Nippur Sulcus. Situated in the transitional region between these two terrain types, the area shown here contains many complex tectonic structures, and small fractures can be seen crisscrossing the image. North is to the top-left of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the southeast. This image is centered on an unusual semicircular structure about 33 kilometers (20 miles) across. A 38 kilometer (24 miles) long, remarkably linear feature cuts across its northern extent, and a wide east-west fault system marks its southern boundary. The origin of these features is the subject of much debate among scientists analyzing the data. Was the arcuate structure part of a larger feature? Is the straight lineament the result of internal or external processes? Scientists continue to study this data in order to understand the surface processes occurring on this complex satellite.

    The image covers an area approximately 80 kilometers (50 miles) by 52 kilometers (32 miles) across. The resolution is 189 meters (630 feet) per picture element. The images were taken on September 6, 1996 at a range of 9,971 kilometers (6,232 miles) by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  11. Mystery #26

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-22

    ... area during the dry season, thus giving this area its descriptive name. 6.   This animal, which can be found in the National ... MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center in Hampton, VA. Image ...

  12. Mystery shopping and alcohol sales: do supermarkets and liquor stores sell alcohol to underage customers?

    PubMed

    Gosselt, Jordy F; van Hoof, Joris J; de Jong, Menno D T; Prinsen, Sander

    2007-09-01

    The Dutch national policy regarding alcohol and youth relies on retailers' willingness to refuse to sell alcohol to underage customers. This study examined unobtrusively whether supermarkets and liquor stores do indeed comply with the legal age restrictions for alcohol sales. A research protocol was developed based on the methodology of mystery shopping. Using the protocol, 150 supermarkets and 75 liquor stores were visited by 15-year-old adolescents who tried to buy soft alcoholic beverages (legal age, 16 years), and 75 liquor stores were visited by 17-year-old adolescents who tried to buy strong alcoholic beverages (legal age, 18). Of all 300 buying attempts, 86% were successful. In supermarkets, 88% of all attempts succeeded. In liquor stores, a difference was found between the purchase of strong alcohol by 17-year-olds (89%) and the purchase of soft alcoholic beverages by 15-year-olds (77%). In only 71 of all visits, mystery shoppers were asked for an ID. In 39% of these cases, they were still able to buy alcohol. Female adolescents were more successful in buying alcohol than male adolescents. The results show that supermarkets and liquor stores generally fail to see the need for extra care when young customers try to buy alcohol. Legal age restrictions without enforcement and facilitation clearly do not suffice to protect adolescents from early exposure to alcohol.

  13. Evaluation of Pharmacists' Services for Dispensing Emergency Contraceptive Pills in Delhi, India: A Mystery Shopper Study.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Nigam, Aruna

    2016-01-01

    Although emergency contraceptive pills are available over the counter, the quality of consultation, including key areas of contraceptive counseling and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STI), has not been well documented. To evaluate actual pharmacist services while dispensing emergency contraception through a mystery shopper technique. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 pharmacies situated in Delhi by 4 trained mystery shoppers posed as customers over a period of 6 months. None of the pharmacists asked about the time lapsed since last unprotected sexual intercourse or last menstrual period before deciding the eligibility of the customer. The majority were unclear about side effects associated with emergency contraception (78.57%) or with anticipated changes in menstrual flow (78.57%); 85.71% did not know whether subsequent unprotected intercourse would be protected. Only 15.71% counseled shoppers regarding risk of STI on asking leading questions and 88.5% did not provide any contraceptive advice. There is a huge gap in the technical knowledge and mindset of the pharmacists when it comes to checking for the eligibility of the client and providing advice regarding use of regular contraception and barrier for protection from STI, which needs to be addressed in order to realize the full benefit of making emergency contraceptive pills available over the counter.

  14. Mystery #23

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... Which one is true?   A.   There is an active uranium mining site within the image area.   B.   Coal has been in continuous ... NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science ...

  15. Imaging: Guiding the Clinical Translation of Cardiac Stem Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Patricia K.; Lan, Feng; Wang, Yongming; Wu, Joseph C.

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have been touted as the holy grail of medical therapy with promises to regenerate cardiac tissue, but it appears the jury is still out on this novel therapy. Using advanced imaging technology, scientists have discovered that these cells do not survive nor engraft long-term. In addition, only marginal benefit has been observed in large animal studies and human trials. However, all is not lost. Further application of advanced imaging technology will help scientists unravel the mysteries of stem cell therapy and address the clinical hurdles facing its routine implementation. In this review, we will discuss how advanced imaging technology will help investigators better define the optimal delivery method, improve survival and engraftment, and evaluate efficacy and safety. Insights gained from this review may direct the development of future preclinical investigations and clinical trials. PMID:21960727

  16. Gigantic Cosmic Corkscrew Reveals New Details About Mysterious Microquasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    Making an extra effort to image a faint, gigantic corkscrew traced by fast protons and electrons shot out from a mysterious microquasar paid off for a pair of astrophysicists who gained new insights into the beast's inner workings and also resolved a longstanding dispute over the object's distance. Microquasar SS 433 VLA Image of Microquasar SS 433 CREDIT: Blundell & Bowler, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on Image for Larger Version) The astrophysicists used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to capture the faintest details yet seen in the plasma jets emerging from the microquasar SS 433, an object once dubbed the "enigma of the century." As a result, they have changed scientists' understanding of the jets and settled the controversy over its distance "beyond all reasonable doubt," they said. SS 433 is a neutron star or black hole orbited by a "normal" companion star. The powerful gravity of the neutron star or black hole draws material from the stellar wind of its companion into an accretion disk of material tightly circling the dense central object prior to being pulled onto it. This disk propels jets of fast protons and electrons outward from its poles at about a quarter of the speed of light. The disk in SS 433 wobbles like a child's top, causing its jets to trace a corkscrew in the sky every 162 days. The new VLA study indicates that the speed of the ejected particles varies over time, contrary to the traditional model for SS 433. "We found that the actual speed varies between 24 percent to 28 percent of light speed, as opposed to staying constant," said Katherine Blundell, of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. "Amazingly, the jets going in both directions change their speeds simultaneously, producing identical speeds in both directions at any given time," Blundell added. Blundell worked with Michael Bowler, also of Oxford. The scientists' findings have been accepted by the Astrophysical Journal Letters. SS 433 New VLA

  17. Fragility Extraordinaire: Unsolved Mysteries of Chromosome Fragile Sites.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wenyi; Chakraborty, Arijita

    2017-01-01

    Chromosome fragile sites are a fascinating cytogenetic phenomenon now widely implicated in a slew of human diseases ranging from neurological disorders to cancer. Yet, the paths leading to these revelations were far from direct, and the number of fragile sites that have been molecularly cloned with known disease-associated genes remains modest. Moreover, as more fragile sites were being discovered, research interests in some of the earliest discovered fragile sites ebbed away, leaving a number of unsolved mysteries in chromosome biology. In this review we attempt to recount some of the early discoveries of fragile sites and highlight those phenomena that have eluded intense scrutiny but remain extremely relevant in our understanding of the mechanisms of chromosome fragility. We then survey the literature for disease association for a comprehensive list of fragile sites. We also review recent studies addressing the underlying cause of chromosome fragility while highlighting some ongoing debates. We report an observed enrichment for R-loop forming sequences in fragile site-associated genes than genomic average. Finally, we will leave the reader with some lingering questions to provoke discussion and inspire further scientific inquiries.

  18. Unsolved mysteries of Rag GTPase signaling in yeast.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Riko; De Virgilio, Claudio

    2016-10-01

    The target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) plays a central role in controlling eukaryotic cell growth by fine-tuning anabolic and catabolic processes to the nutritional status of organisms and individual cells. Amino acids represent essential and primordial signals that modulate TORC1 activity through the conserved Rag family GTPases. These assemble, as part of larger lysosomal/vacuolar membrane-associated complexes, into heterodimeric sub-complexes, which typically comprise two paralogous Rag GTPases of opposite GTP-/GDP-loading status. The TORC1-stimulating/inhibiting states of these heterodimers are controlled by various guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) and GTPase-activating protein (GAP) complexes, which are remarkably conserved in various eukaryotic model systems. Among the latter, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been instrumental for the elucidation of basic aspects of Rag GTPase regulation and function. Here, we discuss the current state of the respective research, focusing on the major unsolved issues regarding the architecture, regulation, and function of the Rag GTPase containing complexes in yeast. Decoding these mysteries will undoubtedly further shape our understanding of the conserved and divergent principles of nutrient signaling in eukaryotes.

  19. Unsolved mysteries of Rag GTPase signaling in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hatakeyama, Riko; De Virgilio, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) plays a central role in controlling eukaryotic cell growth by fine-tuning anabolic and catabolic processes to the nutritional status of organisms and individual cells. Amino acids represent essential and primordial signals that modulate TORC1 activity through the conserved Rag family GTPases. These assemble, as part of larger lysosomal/vacuolar membrane-associated complexes, into heterodimeric sub-complexes, which typically comprise two paralogous Rag GTPases of opposite GTP-/GDP-loading status. The TORC1-stimulating/inhibiting states of these heterodimers are controlled by various guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) and GTPase-activating protein (GAP) complexes, which are remarkably conserved in various eukaryotic model systems. Among the latter, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been instrumental for the elucidation of basic aspects of Rag GTPase regulation and function. Here, we discuss the current state of the respective research, focusing on the major unsolved issues regarding the architecture, regulation, and function of the Rag GTPase containing complexes in yeast. Decoding these mysteries will undoubtedly further shape our understanding of the conserved and divergent principles of nutrient signaling in eukaryotes. PMID:27400376

  20. Cassini First-Look Images of Jupiter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-10-05

    This image of Jupiter was taken by the Cassini Imaging Science narrow angle camera through the blue filter (centered at 445 nanometers) on October 1, 2000, 15:26 UTC at a distance of 84.1million km from Jupiter. The smallest features that can be seen are 500 kilometers across. The contrast between bright and dark features in this region of the spectrum is determined by the different light absorbing properties of the particles composing Jupiter's clouds. Ammonia ice particles are white, reflecting all light that falls on them. But some particles are red, and absorb mostly blue light. The composition of these red particles and the processes which determine their distribution are two of the long-standing mysteries of Jovian meteorology and chemistry. Note that the Great Red Spot contains a dark core of absorbing particles. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02666

  1. About Comparative Research of Poems "Treasury of Mysteries" and "Iskandername" on the Basis of Manuscript Sources as the Multiculturalism Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasanov, Elnur L.

    2016-01-01

    In this scientific paper for the first time were investigated the innovative approach of the local literary heritage of Ganja on the basis of various historic sources as manuscripts and archive materials. Have been researched the comparative materials of such poems as "Treasury of mysteries" and "Iskandername". Also were…

  2. Mystery Montage: A Holistic, Visual, and Kinesthetic Process for Expanding Horizons and Revealing the Core of a Teaching Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Kim; Priebe, Carly; Sharipova, Mayya; West, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Revealing the core of a teaching philosophy is the key to a concise and meaningful philosophy statement, but it can be an elusive goal. This paper offers a visual, kinesthetic, and holistic process for expanding the horizons of self-reflection, self-analysis, and self-knowledge. Mystery montage, a variation of visual mapping, storyboarding, and…

  3. Spheromaks and how plasmas may explain the ultra high energy cosmic ray mystery

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fowler, T. Kenneth; Li, Hui

    In recent papers, we show how accretion disks around massive black holes could act as dynamos producing magnetic jets similar to the jets that create spheromaks in the laboratory. In this paper, we discuss how these magnetic astrophysical jets might naturally produce runaway ion beams accelerated tomore » $$10^{20}$$ eV or more, finally ejected as ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) long regarded as one of the mysteries of astrophysics. The acceleration is mainly due to the drift cyclotron loss cone kinetic instability known from plasma research. Finally, experiments and simulations are suggested to verify the acceleration process.« less

  4. Spheromaks and how plasmas may explain the ultra high energy cosmic ray mystery

    DOE PAGES

    Fowler, T. Kenneth; Li, Hui

    2016-10-10

    In recent papers, we show how accretion disks around massive black holes could act as dynamos producing magnetic jets similar to the jets that create spheromaks in the laboratory. In this paper, we discuss how these magnetic astrophysical jets might naturally produce runaway ion beams accelerated tomore » $$10^{20}$$ eV or more, finally ejected as ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) long regarded as one of the mysteries of astrophysics. The acceleration is mainly due to the drift cyclotron loss cone kinetic instability known from plasma research. Finally, experiments and simulations are suggested to verify the acceleration process.« less

  5. Regenerative tissue remodeling in planarians - The mysteries of morphallaxis.

    PubMed

    Pellettieri, Jason

    2018-04-19

    Biologists have long marveled at the ability of planarian flatworms to regenerate any parts of their bodies in just a little over a week. While great progress has been made in deciphering the mechanisms by which new tissue is formed at sites of amputation, we know relatively little about the complementary remodeling response that occurs in uninjured tissues to restore anatomical scale and proportion. This review explores the mysterious biology of this process, first described in hydra by the father of experimental zoology, Abraham Trembley, and later termed 'morphallaxis' by the father of experimental genetics, Thomas Hunt Morgan. The perceptive work of these early pioneers, together with recent studies using modern tools, has revealed some of the key features of regenerative tissue remodeling, including repatterning of the body axes, reproportioning of organs like the brain and gut, and a major increase in the rate of cell death. Yet a mechanistic solution to this longstanding problem in the field will require further study by the next generation of planarian researchers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Circular RNAs and exosomes in cancer: a mysterious connection.

    PubMed

    Hou, J; Jiang, W; Zhu, L; Zhong, S; Zhang, H; Li, J; Zhou, S; Yang, S; He, Y; Wang, D; Chen, X; Deng, F; Zhang, Q; Wang, J; Hu, J; Zhang, W; Ding, L; Zhao, J; Tang, J

    2018-03-13

    Circular RNAs (CircRNAs) are a type of non-coding RNAs (NcRNAs) with a closed annular structure. Until next-generation sequencing (NGS) is developed, the misunderstanding of circRNAs 'splicing error' has changed, and the mysterious veil of circRNAs has been revealed. NGS provides an approach to investigate circRNAs. Many scholars point out that circRNAs may play an important role in many diseases, especially cancer. At the same time, exosomes, as a kind of extracellular vesicles loaded with many contents, are a hotspot in recent years. They can act as 'messengers' between cells, especially in cancer. Lately, it is interesting circRNAs are enriched and stable in exosomes, also called exo-circRNAs, and there have been several articles on circRNAs associated with exosomes. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of circRNAs, especially its main functions. Then, we briefly introduce exosomes and their function in cancer. Finally, the known relation between circRNAs and exosomes is discussed. With further researches, exo-circRNAs may be a novel pathway for cancer diagnosis and targeted therapy.

  7. A TALE OF THREE MYSTERIOUS SPECTRAL FEATURES IN CARBON-RICH EVOLVED STARS: THE 21 μm, 30 μm, AND “UNIDENTIFIED INFRARED” EMISSION FEATURES

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mishra, Ajay; Li, Aigen; Jiang, B. W., E-mail: amishra@mail.missouri.edu, E-mail: lia@missouri.edu, E-mail: bjiang@bnu.edu.cn

    2015-03-20

    The mysterious “21 μm” emission feature seen almost exclusively in the short-lived protoplanetary nebula (PPN) phase of stellar evolution remains unidentified since its discovery two decades ago. This feature is always accompanied by the equally mysterious, unidentified “30 μm” feature and the so-called “unidentified infrared” (UIR) features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 μm which are generally attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. The 30 μm feature is commonly observed in all stages of stellar evolution from the asymptotic giant branch through PPN to the planetary nebula phase. We explore the interrelations among the mysterious 21, 30 μm,more » and UIR features of the 21 μm sources. We derive the fluxes emitted in the observed UIR, 21, and 30 μm features from published Infrared Space Observatory or Spitzer/IRS spectra. We find that none of these spectral features correlate with each other. This argues against a common carrier (e.g., thiourea) for both the 21 μm feature and the 30 μm feature. This also does not support large PAH clusters as a possible carrier for the 21 μm feature.« less

  8. Evaluation of Pharmacists' Services for Dispensing Emergency Contraceptive Pills in Delhi, India: A Mystery Shopper Study

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Nigam, Aruna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although emergency contraceptive pills are available over the counter, the quality of consultation, including key areas of contraceptive counseling and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STI), has not been well documented. Objective: To evaluate actual pharmacist services while dispensing emergency contraception through a mystery shopper technique. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 pharmacies situated in Delhi by 4 trained mystery shoppers posed as customers over a period of 6 months. Results: None of the pharmacists asked about the time lapsed since last unprotected sexual intercourse or last menstrual period before deciding the eligibility of the customer. The majority were unclear about side effects associated with emergency contraception (78.57%) or with anticipated changes in menstrual flow (78.57%); 85.71% did not know whether subsequent unprotected intercourse would be protected. Only 15.71% counseled shoppers regarding risk of STI on asking leading questions and 88.5% did not provide any contraceptive advice. Conclusion: There is a huge gap in the technical knowledge and mindset of the pharmacists when it comes to checking for the eligibility of the client and providing advice regarding use of regular contraception and barrier for protection from STI, which needs to be addressed in order to realize the full benefit of making emergency contraceptive pills available over the counter. PMID:27385872

  9. Who took the "x" out of expectancy-value theory? A psychological mystery, a substantive-methodological synergy, and a cross-national generalization.

    PubMed

    Nagengast, Benjamin; Marsh, Herbert W; Scalas, L Francesca; Xu, Man K; Hau, Kit-Tai; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2011-08-01

    Expectancy-value theory (EVT) is a dominant theory of human motivation. Historically, the Expectancy × Value interaction, in which motivation is high only if both expectancy and value are high, was central to EVT. However, the Expectancy × Value interaction mysteriously disappeared from published research more than 25 years ago. Using large representative samples of 15-year-olds (N = 398,750) from 57 diverse countries, we attempted to solve this mystery by testing Expectancy × Value interactions using latent-variable models with interactions. Expectancy (science self-concept), value (enjoyment of science), and the Expectancy × Value interaction all had statistically significant positive effects on both engagement in science activities and intentions of pursuing scientific careers; these results were similar for the total sample and for nearly all of the 57 countries considered separately. This study, apparently the strongest cross-national test of EVT ever undertaken, supports the generalizability of EVT predictions--including the "lost" Expectancy × Value interaction.

  10. Mysteries of attraction: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, astrology and desire.

    PubMed

    Rutkin, H Darrel

    2010-06-01

    Although in his later years Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) vehemently rejected astrology, he earlier used it in a variety of ways, but primarily to provide further evidence for positions to which he had arrived by other means. One such early use appears in his commentary on his friend Girolamo Benivieni's love poetry, the Canzone d'amore, of 1486-1487. In the passages discussed here, Pico presents an intensive Platonic natural philosophical analysis based on a deep astrologically informed understanding of human nature as he attempts to explain a perennial question, namely, why one person is attracted to a certain person (or people), and another to others. I will place this discussion of the mysteries of attraction and desire in historical perspective by tracing Pico's changing relationship to astrology during the course of his short but passionate life, and in historiographic perspective by revising Frances Yates's still influential views concerning Pico's contribution to Renaissance thought and his relationship with Marsilio Ficino.

  11. An Explanation of the Missing Flux from Boyajian's Mysterious Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foukal, Peter

    2017-06-01

    A previously unremarkable star in the constellation Cygnus has, in the past year, become known as the most mysterious object in our Galaxy. Boyajian’s star exhibits puzzling episodes of sporadic, deep dimming discovered in photometry with the Kepler Mission. Proposed explanations have focused on its obscuration by colliding exoplanets, exocomets, and even intervention of alien intelligence. These hypotheses have considered only phenomena external to the star because the radiative flux missing in the dimmings was believed to exceed the star’s storage capacity. We point out that modeling of variations in solar luminosity indicates that convective stars can store the required fluxes. It also suggests explanations for (a) a reported time-profile asymmetry of the short, deep dimmings and (b) a slower, decadal scale dimming reported from archival and Kepler photometry. Our findings suggest a broader range of explanations of Boyajian’s star that may produce new insights into stellar magneto-convection.

  12. The Complex World of Adolescent Literacy: Myths, Motivations, and Mysteries

    PubMed Central

    Moje, Elizabeth Birr; Overby, Melanie; Tysvaer, Nicole; Morris, Karen

    2009-01-01

    In this article, Elizabeth Birr Moje, Melanie Overby, Nicole Tysvaer, and Karen Morris challenge some of the prevailing myths about adolescents and their choices related to reading. The reading practices of youth from one urban community are examined using mixed methods in an effort to define what, how often, and why adolescents choose to read. By focusing on what features of texts youth find motivating, the authors find that reading and writing frequently occur in a range of literacy contexts outside school. However, only reading novels on a regular basis outside of school is shown to have a positive relationship to academic achievement as measured by school grades. This article describes how adolescents read texts that are embedded in social networks, allowing them to build social capital. Conclusions are framed in terms of the mysteries that remain — namely, how to build on what motivates adolescents' literacy practices in order to both promote the building of their social selves and improve their academic outcomes. PMID:19756223

  13. An Explanation of the Missing Flux from Boyajian's Mysterious Star

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Foukal, Peter

    A previously unremarkable star in the constellation Cygnus has, in the past year, become known as the most mysterious object in our Galaxy. Boyajian’s star exhibits puzzling episodes of sporadic, deep dimming discovered in photometry with the Kepler Mission. Proposed explanations have focused on its obscuration by colliding exoplanets, exocomets, and even intervention of alien intelligence. These hypotheses have considered only phenomena external to the star because the radiative flux missing in the dimmings was believed to exceed the star’s storage capacity. We point out that modeling of variations in solar luminosity indicates that convective stars can store the requiredmore » fluxes. It also suggests explanations for (a) a reported time-profile asymmetry of the short, deep dimmings and (b) a slower, decadal scale dimming reported from archival and Kepler photometry. Our findings suggest a broader range of explanations of Boyajian’s star that may produce new insights into stellar magneto-convection.« less

  14. Mirror image agnosia.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Issac, Thomas Gregor

    2014-10-01

    Gnosis is a modality-specific ability to access semantic knowledge of an object or stimulus in the presence of normal perception. Failure of this is agnosia or disorder of recognition. It can be highly selective within a mode. self-images are different from others as none has seen one's own image except in reflection. Failure to recognize this image can be labeled as mirror image agnosia or Prosopagnosia for reflected self-image. Whereas mirror agnosia is a well-recognized situation where the person while looking at reflected images of other objects in the mirror he imagines that the objects are in fact inside the mirror and not outside. Five patients, four females, and one male presented with failure to recognize reflected self-image, resulting in patients conversing with the image as a friend, fighting because the person in mirror is wearing her nose stud, suspecting the reflected self-image to be an intruder; but did not have prosopagnosia for others faces, non living objects on self and also apraxias except dressing apraxia in one patient. This phenomena is new to our knowledge. Mirror image agnosia is an unique phenomena which is seen in patients with parietal lobe atrophy without specificity to a category of dementing illness and seems to disappear as disease advances. Reflected self-images probably have a specific neural substrate that gets affected very early in posterior dementias specially the ones which predominantly affect the right side. At that phase most patients are mistaken as suffering from psychiatric disorder as cognition is moderately preserved. As disease becomes more widespread this symptom becomes masked. A high degree of suspicion and proper assessment might help physicians to recognize the organic cause of the symptom so that early therapeutic interventions can be initiated. Further assessment of the symptom with FMRI and PET scan is likely to solve the mystery of how brain handles reflected self-images. A new observation involving failure

  15. Mirror Image Agnosia

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Issac, Thomas Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gnosis is a modality-specific ability to access semantic knowledge of an object or stimulus in the presence of normal perception. Failure of this is agnosia or disorder of recognition. It can be highly selective within a mode. self-images are different from others as none has seen one's own image except in reflection. Failure to recognize this image can be labeled as mirror image agnosia or Prosopagnosia for reflected self-image. Whereas mirror agnosia is a well-recognized situation where the person while looking at reflected images of other objects in the mirror he imagines that the objects are in fact inside the mirror and not outside. Material and Methods:: Five patients, four females, and one male presented with failure to recognize reflected self-image, resulting in patients conversing with the image as a friend, fighting because the person in mirror is wearing her nose stud, suspecting the reflected self-image to be an intruder; but did not have prosopagnosia for others faces, non living objects on self and also apraxias except dressing apraxia in one patient. This phenomena is new to our knowledge. Results: Mirror image agnosia is an unique phenomena which is seen in patients with parietal lobe atrophy without specificity to a category of dementing illness and seems to disappear as disease advances. Discussion: Reflected self-images probably have a specific neural substrate that gets affected very early in posterior dementias specially the ones which predominantly affect the right side. At that phase most patients are mistaken as suffering from psychiatric disorder as cognition is moderately preserved. As disease becomes more widespread this symptom becomes masked. A high degree of suspicion and proper assessment might help physicians to recognize the organic cause of the symptom so that early therapeutic interventions can be initiated. Further assessment of the symptom with FMRI and PET scan is likely to solve the mystery of how brain handles

  16. 1-Deoxysphingolipids Encountered Exogenously and Made de Novo: Dangerous Mysteries inside an Enigma*

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jingjing; Merrill, Alfred H.

    2015-01-01

    The traditional backbones of mammalian sphingolipids are 2-amino, 1,3-diols made by serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). Many organisms additionally produce non-traditional, cytotoxic 1-deoxysphingoid bases and, surprisingly, mammalian SPT biosynthesizes some of them, too (e.g. 1-deoxysphinganine from l-alanine). These are rapidly N-acylated to 1-deoxy-“ceramides” with very uncommon biophysical properties. The functions of 1-deoxysphingolipids are not known, but they are certainly dangerous as contributors to sensory and autonomic neuropathies when elevated by inherited SPT mutations, and they are noticeable in diabetes, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, serine deficiencies, and other diseases. As components of food as well as endogenously produced, these substances are mysteries within an enigma. PMID:25947379

  17. Citizen Sky, Solving the Mystery of epsilon Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Rebecca; Price, A.; Kloppenborg, B.; Henden, A.

    2010-01-01

    Citizen Sky is a multi-year, NSF funded citizen science project involving the bright star eps Aur. The project was conceived by the IYA 2009 working group on Research Experiences for Students, Teachers, and Citizen-Scientists. Citizen Sky goes beyond simple observing to include a major data analysis component. The goal is to introduce the participant to the full scientific process from background research to paper writing for a peer-reviewed journal. It begins with a 10 Star Training Program of several types of binary and transient variable stars that are easy to observe from suburban locations with the naked eye. Participants then move on to monitoring the rare and mysterious 2009-2011 eclipse (already underway) of epsilon Aurigae. This object undergoes eclipses only every 27.1 years and each eclipse lasts nearly two years. The star is bright enough to be seen with the naked eye from most urban areas. Training will be provided in observing techniques as well as basic data analysis of photometric and visual datasets (light curve and period analysis). The project also involves two public workshops, one on observing (already held in August of 2009) and one on data analysis and scientific paper writing (to be held in 2010.) This project has been made possible by the National Science Foundation.

  18. Featured Image: Revealing Hidden Objects with Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    Stunning color astronomical images can often be the motivation for astronomers to continue slogging through countless data files, calculations, and simulations as we seek to understand the mysteries of the universe. But sometimes the stunning images can, themselves, be the source of scientific discovery. This is the case with the below image of Lynds Dark Nebula 673, located in the Aquila constellation, that was captured with the Mayall 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory by a team of scientists led by Travis Rector (University of Alaska Anchorage). After creating the image with a novel color-composite imaging method that reveals faint H emission (visible in red in both images here), Rector and collaborators identified the presence of a dozen new Herbig-Haro objects small cloud patches that are caused when material is energetically flung out from newly born stars. The image adapted above shows three of the new objects, HH 118789, aligned with two previously known objects, HH 32 and 332 suggesting they are driven by the same source. For more beautiful images and insight into the authors discoveries, check out the article linked below!Full view of Lynds Dark Nebula 673. Click for the larger view this beautiful composite image deserves! [T.A. Rector (University of Alaska Anchorage) and H. Schweiker (WIYN and NOAO/AURA/NSF)]CitationT. A. Rector et al 2018 ApJ 852 13. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa9ce1

  19. The 'Razorback' Mystery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The pointy features in this image may only be a few centimeters high and less than 1 centimeter (0.4 inches) wide, but they generate major scientific interest. Dubbed 'Razorback,' this chunk of rock sticks up at the edge of flat rocks in 'Endurance Crater.' Based on their understanding of processes on Earth, scientists believe these features may have formed when fluids migrated through fractures, depositing minerals. Fracture-filling minerals would have formed veins composed of a harder material that eroded more slowly than the rock slabs.

    Possible examination of these features using the instruments on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity may further explain what these features have to do with the history of water on Mars. This false-color image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  20. Mysterious Blob Galaxies Revealed

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-01-11

    This image composite shows a giant galactic blob (red) and the three merging galaxies NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope discovered within it (yellow). Blobs are intensely glowing clouds of hot hydrogen gas that envelop faraway galaxies. They are about 10 times as large as the galaxies they surround. Visible-light images reveal the vast extent of blobs, but don't provide much information about their host galaxies. Using its heat-seeking infrared eyes, Spitzer was able to see the dusty galaxies tucked inside one well-known blob located 11 billion light-years away. The findings reveal three monstrously bright galaxies, trillions of times brighter than the Sun, in the process of merging together. Spitzer also observed three other blobs located in the same cosmic neighborhood, all of which were found to be glaringly bright. One of these blobs is also known to be a galactic merger, only between two galaxies instead of three. It remains to be seen whether the final two blobs studied also contain mergers. The Spitzer data were acquired by its multiband imaging photometer. The visible-light image was taken by the Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07220

  1. Waiting for Brandon: How Readers Respond to Small Mysteries

    PubMed Central

    Gerrig, Richard J.; Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail

    2009-01-01

    When readers experience narratives they often encounter small mysteries—questions that a text raises that are not immediately settled. In our experiments, participants read stories that introduced characters by proper names (e.g., “It’s just that Brandon hasn’t called in so long”). Resolved versions of the stories specified the functions those characters’ assumed in their narrative worlds with respect to the other characters (e.g., Brandon was identified as the speaker’s grandson); unresolved versions of the stories did not immediately provide that information. We predicted that characters whose functions were still unresolved would remain relatively accessible in the discourse representations. We tested that prediction in Experiments 1 and 2 by asking participants to indicate whether a name (e.g., Brandon) had appeared in the story. Participants responded most swiftly when the characters remained unresolved. In the latter experiments, we demonstrated that the presence of an unresolved character disrupted processing of information that followed that character’s introduction (Experiment 3) but not information that preceded that introduction (Experiment 4). These results support the general importance of providing a theoretical account of readers’ responses to narrative mysteries. PMID:20046984

  2. Mystery #26 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... area during the dry season, thus giving this area its descriptive name. Answer: TRUE.  The Cabo Blanco Nature Reserve is ... MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center in Hampton, VA. Image ...

  3. Mars Rock Formation Poses Mystery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This sharp, close-up image taken by the microscopic imager on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows a rock target dubbed 'Robert E,' located on the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are studying this area for clues about the rock outcrop's composition. This image measures 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across and was taken on the 15th day of Opportunity's journey (Feb. 8, 2004).

  4. 1-Deoxysphingolipids Encountered Exogenously and Made de Novo: Dangerous Mysteries inside an Enigma.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jingjing; Merrill, Alfred H

    2015-06-19

    The traditional backbones of mammalian sphingolipids are 2-amino, 1,3-diols made by serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). Many organisms additionally produce non-traditional, cytotoxic 1-deoxysphingoid bases and, surprisingly, mammalian SPT biosynthesizes some of them, too (e.g. 1-deoxysphinganine from L-alanine). These are rapidly N-acylated to 1-deoxy-"ceramides" with very uncommon biophysical properties. The functions of 1-deoxysphingolipids are not known, but they are certainly dangerous as contributors to sensory and autonomic neuropathies when elevated by inherited SPT mutations, and they are noticeable in diabetes, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, serine deficiencies, and other diseases. As components of food as well as endogenously produced, these substances are mysteries within an enigma. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Distance Measurement Solves Astrophysical Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-08-01

    Location, location, and location. The old real-estate adage about what's really important proved applicable to astrophysics as astronomers used the sharp radio "vision" of the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) to pinpoint the distance to a pulsar. Their accurate distance measurement then resolved a dispute over the pulsar's birthplace, allowed the astronomers to determine the size of its neutron star and possibly solve a mystery about cosmic rays. "Getting an accurate distance to this pulsar gave us a real bonanza," said Walter Brisken, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. Monogem Ring The Monogem Ring, in X-Ray Image by ROSAT satellite CREDIT: Max-Planck Institute, American Astronomical Society (Click on Image for Larger Version) The pulsar, called PSR B0656+14, is in the constellation Gemini, and appears to be near the center of a circular supernova remnant that straddles Gemini and its neighboring constellation, Monoceros, and is thus called the Monogem Ring. Since pulsars are superdense, spinning neutron stars left over when a massive star explodes as a supernova, it was logical to assume that the Monogem Ring, the shell of debris from a supernova explosion, was the remnant of the blast that created the pulsar. However, astronomers using indirect methods of determining the distance to the pulsar had concluded that it was nearly 2500 light-years from Earth. On the other hand, the supernova remnant was determined to be only about 1000 light-years from Earth. It seemed unlikely that the two were related, but instead appeared nearby in the sky purely by a chance juxtaposition. Brisken and his colleagues used the VLBA to make precise measurements of the sky position of PSR B0656+14 from 2000 to 2002. They were able to detect the slight offset in the object's apparent position when viewed from opposite sides of Earth's orbit around the Sun. This effect, called parallax, provides a direct measurement of

  6. A quiz becomes a multidirectional dialogue with Web-based instructional tools for an anatomical pathology rotation.

    PubMed

    Fales-Williams, Amanda; Kramer, Travis; Heer, Rex; Danielson, Jared

    2005-01-01

    Senior veterinary students in the Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine (ISU CVM) participate in clinical rotations, among them a two-week necropsy rotation. The students have access to the rotation syllabus on the ISU CVM intranet site. To promote rapid comprehension of necropsy protocol, students completed a pre-exam on the syllabus. This exercise evolved from a paper quiz to an online pre-exam, using course management software to improve use of class time, increase feedback, and shift the focus to acquisition of knowledge. The students were encouraged to work collaboratively on the pre-exam and could make repeated attempts. We predicted that professional students would make multiple attempts at the pre-exam until the desired score was attained. This exercise achieves multiple goals. First, the exam encourages early review of necropsy protocol. Second, use of WebCT allows for instant, automatic, and consistent feedback from the instructor, reducing redundancy while improving the quality of communication between student and instructor and thus using faculty time more efficiently. The instructor can quickly identify and rectify common misunderstandings through this interface. Third, by allowing discussion and repeated attempts, we can ensure that there is less pressure associated with the exam. Statistical analysis of the students' performance supports the prediction that students would repeat the exam until the desired score was achieved. Subjectively, as a result of implementation of an online pre-exam, the instructor has observed students to be more engaged with the material at an earlier point in the rotation.

  7. Mystery #7 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... China and Russia. The large lakes apparent in the image form geographic   reference points and fall on or near political boundaries. ... but have not yet been constructed.   C.   Mammoth fossils have been discovered here.   D.   Railway passengers can cross ...

  8. Mystery #4 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... millet and sorghum for subsistence, as well as onions for a cash crop. Several writers, inspired by the studies of the   French ... top of the image, where the Niger River changes direction to flow more directly   eastward. Six hundred years ago, Timbuktu was a central ...

  9. Hidden Attraction - The History and Mystery of Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    1996-04-01

    Long one of nature's most fascinating phenomena, magnetism was once the subject of many superstitions. Magnets were thought useful to thieves, effective as a love potion, and as a cure for gout or spasms. They could remove sorcery from women and put demons to flight and even reconcile married couples. It was said that a lodestone pickled in the salt of sucking fish had the power to attract gold. Today, these beliefs have been put aside, but magnetism is no less remarkable for our modern understanding of it. In Hidden Attraction , Gerrit L. Verschuur, a noted astronomer and National Book Award nominee for The Invisible Universe , traces the history of our fascination with magnetism, from the mystery and superstition that propelled the first alchemical experiments with lodestone, through the more tangible works of Faraday, Maxwell, Hertz and other great pioneers of magnetism (scientists responsible for the extraordinary advances in modern science and technology, including radio, the telephone, and computers, that characterize the twentieth century), to state-of-the-art theories that see magnetism as a basic force in the universe. Boasting many informative illustrations, this is an adventure of the mind, using the specific phenomenon of magnetism to show how we have moved from an era of superstitions to one in which the Theory of Everything looms on the horizon.

  10. Mystery #23 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... Which one is true?   A.   There is an active uranium mining site within the image area.   B.   Coal has been in continuous ... NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science ...

  11. Structural biology of intrinsically disordered proteins: Revisiting unsolved mysteries.

    PubMed

    Sigalov, Alexander B

    2016-06-01

    The emergence of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) has challenged the classical protein structure-function paradigm by introducing a new paradigm of "coupled binding and folding". This paradigm suggests that IDPs fold upon binding to their partners. Further studies, however, revealed a novel and previously unrecognized phenomenon of "uncoupled binding and folding" suggesting that IDPs do not necessarily fold upon interaction with their lipid and protein partners. The complex and often unusual biophysics of IDPs makes structural characterization of these proteins and their complexes not only challenging but often resulting in opposite conclusions. For this reason, some crucial questions in this field remain unsolved for well over a decade. Considering an important role of IDPs in cellular regulation, signaling and control in health and disease, more efforts are needed to solve these mysteries. Here, I focus on two long-standing contradictions in the literature concerning dimerization and membrane-binding activities of IDPs. Molecular explanation of these discrepancies is provided. I also demonstrate how resolution of these critical issues in the field of IDPs results in our expanded understanding of cell function and has multiple applications in biology and medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  12. Hanny and the Mystery of the Voorwerp: Citizen Science in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costello, K.; Reilly, E.; Bracey, G.; Gay, P.

    2012-08-01

    The highly engaging graphic comic Hanny and the Mystery of the Voorwerp is the focus of an eight-day educational unit geared to middle level students. Activities in the unit link national astronomy standards to the citizen science Zooniverse website through tutorials that lead to analysis of real data online. NASA resources are also included in the unit. The content of the session focused on the terminology and concepts - galaxy formation, types and characteristics of galaxies, use of spectral analysis - needed to classify galaxies. Use of citizen science projects as tools to teach inquiry in the classroom was the primary focus of the workshop. The session included a hands-on experiment taken from the unit, including a NASA spectral analysis activity called "What's the Frequency, Roy G Biv?" In addition, presenters demonstrated the galaxy classification tools found in the "Galaxy Zoo" project at the Zooniverse citizen science website.

  13. The effectiveness of annotated (vs. non-annotated) digital pathology slides as a teaching tool during dermatology and pathology residencies.

    PubMed

    Marsch, Amanda F; Espiritu, Baltazar; Groth, John; Hutchens, Kelli A

    2014-06-01

    With today's technology, paraffin-embedded, hematoxylin & eosin-stained pathology slides can be scanned to generate high quality virtual slides. Using proprietary software, digital images can also be annotated with arrows, circles and boxes to highlight certain diagnostic features. Previous studies assessing digital microscopy as a teaching tool did not involve the annotation of digital images. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of annotated digital pathology slides versus non-annotated digital pathology slides as a teaching tool during dermatology and pathology residencies. A study group composed of 31 dermatology and pathology residents was asked to complete an online pre-quiz consisting of 20 multiple choice style questions, each associated with a static digital pathology image. After completion, participants were given access to an online tutorial composed of digitally annotated pathology slides and subsequently asked to complete a post-quiz. A control group of 12 residents completed a non-annotated version of the tutorial. Nearly all participants in the study group improved their quiz score, with an average improvement of 17%, versus only 3% (P = 0.005) in the control group. These results support the notion that annotated digital pathology slides are superior to non-annotated slides for the purpose of resident education. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Mars Rock Formation Poses Mystery-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This sharp, close-up image taken by the microscopic imager on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows a rock target dubbed 'Robert E,' located on the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are studying the spherule, or small sphere, in the center of the image that appears to be protruding from the rock formation. This image measures 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across and was taken on the 15th day of Opportunity's journey (Feb. 8, 2004).

  15. "Short, Hard Gamma-Ray Bursts - Mystery Solved?????"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A.

    2006-01-01

    After over a decade of speculation about the nature of short-duration hard-spectrum gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the recent detection of afterglow emission from a small number of short bursts has provided the first physical constraints on possible progenitor models. While the discovery of afterglow emission from long GRBs was a real breakthrough linking their origin to star forming galaxies, and hence the death of massive stars, the progenitors, energetics, and environments for short gamma-ray burst events remain elusive despite a few recent localizations. Thus far, the nature of the host galaxies measured indicates that short GRBs arise from an old (> 1 Gyr) stellar population, strengthening earlier suggestions and providing support for coalescing compact object binaries as the progenitors. On the other hand, some of the short burst afterglow observations cannot be easily explained in the coalescence scenario. These observations raise the possibility that short GRBs may have different or multiple progenitors systems. The study of the short-hard GRB afterglows has been made possible by the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer, launched in November of 2004. Swift is equipped with a coded aperture gamma-ray telescope that can observe up to 2 steradians of the sky and can compute the position of a gamma-ray burst to within 2-3 arcmin in less than 10 seconds. The Swift spacecraft can slew on to this burst position without human intervention, allowing its on-board x ray and optical telescopes to study the afterglow within 2 minutes of the original GRB trigger. More Swift short burst detections and afterglow measurements are needed before we can declare that the mystery of short gamma-ray burst is solved.

  16. The medical mystery of Napoleon Bonaparte: an interdisciplinary exposé.

    PubMed

    Lugli, Alessandro; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Corso, Philip E; di Costanzo, Jacques; Dirnhofer, Richard; Fiorini, Ettore; Herborg, Costanza; Hindmarsh, John Thomas; Orvini, Edoardo; Piazzoli, Adalberto; Previtali, Ezio; Santagostino, Angela; Sonnenberg, Amnon; Genta, Robert M

    2011-03-01

    Napoleon Bonaparte (1769 to 1821) is one of the most studied historical figures in European history. Not surprisingly, amongst the many mysteries still surrounding his person is the cause of his death, and particularly the suspicion that he was poisoned, continue to intrigue medical historians. After the defeat of the Napoleonic Army at the battle of Waterloo in 1815, Napoleon was exiled to the small island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, where he died 6 years later. Although his personal physician, Dr François Carlo Antommarchi, stated in his autopsy report that stomach cancer was the cause of death, this diagnosis was challenged in 1961 by the finding of an elevated arsenic concentration in one of Napoleon's hair samples. At that time it was suggested that Napoleon had been poisoned by one of his companions in exile who was allegedly supported by the British Government. Since then Napoleon's cause of death continues to be a topic of debate. The aim of this review is to use a multidisciplinary approach to provide a systematic and critical assessment of Napoleon's cause of death.

  17. Source of the great A.D. 1257 mystery eruption unveiled, Samalas volcano, Rinjani Volcanic Complex, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Lavigne, Franck; Degeai, Jean-Philippe; Komorowski, Jean-Christophe; Guillet, Sébastien; Robert, Vincent; Lahitte, Pierre; Oppenheimer, Clive; Stoffel, Markus; Vidal, Céline M.; Surono; Pratomo, Indyo; Wassmer, Patrick; Hajdas, Irka; Hadmoko, Danang Sri; de Belizal, Edouard

    2013-01-01

    Polar ice core records attest to a colossal volcanic eruption that took place ca. A.D. 1257 or 1258, most probably in the tropics. Estimates based on sulfate deposition in these records suggest that it yielded the largest volcanic sulfur release to the stratosphere of the past 7,000 y. Tree rings, medieval chronicles, and computational models corroborate the expected worldwide atmospheric and climatic effects of this eruption. However, until now there has been no convincing candidate for the mid-13th century “mystery eruption.” Drawing upon compelling evidence from stratigraphic and geomorphic data, physical volcanology, radiocarbon dating, tephra geochemistry, and chronicles, we argue the source of this long-sought eruption is the Samalas volcano, adjacent to Mount Rinjani on Lombok Island, Indonesia. At least 40 km3 (dense-rock equivalent) of tephra were deposited and the eruption column reached an altitude of up to 43 km. Three principal pumice fallout deposits mantle the region and thick pyroclastic flow deposits are found at the coast, 25 km from source. With an estimated magnitude of 7, this event ranks among the largest Holocene explosive eruptions. Radiocarbon dates on charcoal are consistent with a mid-13th century eruption. In addition, glass geochemistry of the associated pumice deposits matches that of shards found in both Arctic and Antarctic ice cores, providing compelling evidence to link the prominent A.D. 1258/1259 ice core sulfate spike to Samalas. We further constrain the timing of the mystery eruption based on tephra dispersal and historical records, suggesting it occurred between May and October A.D. 1257. PMID:24082132

  18. The Mystery of the Sparkling Spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' reveals shiny, spherical objects embedded within the trench wall at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are highly intrigued by these objects and may further investigate them. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across.

  19. Unraveling the mystery of music: music as an evolved group process.

    PubMed

    Loersch, Chris; Arbuckle, Nathan L

    2013-11-01

    As prominently highlighted by Charles Darwin, music is one of the most mysterious aspects of human nature. Despite its ubiquitous presence across cultures and throughout recorded history, the reason humans respond emotionally to music remains unknown. Although many scientists and philosophers have offered hypotheses, there is little direct empirical evidence for any perspective. Here we address this issue, providing data which support the idea that music evolved in service of group living. Using 7 studies, we demonstrate that people's emotional responses to music are intricately tied to the other core social phenomena that bind us together into groups. In sum, this work establishes human musicality as a special form of social cognition and provides the first direct support for the hypothesis that music evolved as a tool of social living. In addition, the findings provide a reason for the intense psychological pull of music in modern life, suggesting that the pleasure we derive from listening to music results from its innate connection to the basic social drives that create our interconnected world. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Toughening mystery of natural rubber deciphered by double network incorporating hierarchical structures

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Weiming; Li, Xiangyang; Lu, Jie; Huang, Ningdong; Chen, Liang; Qi, Zeming; Li, Liangbin; Liang, Haiyi

    2014-01-01

    As an indispensible material for modern society, natural rubber possesses peerless mechanical properties such as strength and toughness over its artificial analogues, which remains a mystery. Intensive experimental and theoretical investigations have revealed the self-enhancement of natural rubber due to strain-induced crystallization. However a rigorous model on the self-enhancement, elucidating natural rubber's extraordinary mechanical properties, is obscured by deficient understanding of the local hierarchical structure under strain. With spatially resolved synchrotron radiation micro-beam scanning X-ray diffraction we discover weak oscillation in distributions of strain-induced crystallinity around crack tip for stretched natural rubber film, demonstrating a soft-hard double network structure. The fracture energy enhancement factor obtained by utilizing the double network model indicates an enhancement of toughness by 3 orders. It's proposed that upon stretching spontaneously developed double network structures integrating hierarchy at multi length-scale in natural rubber play an essential role in its remarkable mechanical performance. PMID:25511479

  1. The Mystery Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click for larger view

    This high-resolution image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the region containing the patch of soil scientists examined at Gusev Crater just after Spirit rolled off the Columbia Memorial Station. Scientists examined this patch on the 13th and 15th martian days, or sols, of Spirit's journey. Using nearly all the science instruments located on the rover's instrument deployment device or 'arm,' scientists yielded some puzzling results including the detection of a mineral called olivine and the appearance that the soil is stronger and more cohesive than they expected. Like detectives searching for clues, the science team will continue to peruse the landscape for explanations of their findings.

    Data taken from the camera's red, green and blue filters were combined to create this approximate true color picture, acquired on the 12th martian day, or sol, of Spirit's journey.

    The yellow box (see inset above) in this high-resolution image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit outlines the patch of soil scientists examined at Gusev Crater just after Spirit rolled off the Columbia Memorial Station.

  2. Earth's mysterious atmosphere. ATLAS 1: Teachers guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    One of our mission's primary goals is to better understand the physics and chemistry of our atmosphere, the thin envelope of air that provides for human life and shields us from the harshness of space. The Space Shuttle Atlantis will carry the ATLAS 1 science instruments 296 km above Earth, so that they can look down into and through the various layers of the atmosphere. Five solar radiometers will precisely measure the amount of energy the Sun injects into Earth's environment. The chemistry at different altitudes will be measured very accurately by five other instruments called spectrometers. Much of our time in the cockpit of Atlantis will be devoted to two very exciting instruments that measure the auroras and the atmosphere's electrical characteristics. Finally, our ultraviolet telescope will probe the secrets of fascinating celestial objects. This Teacher's Guide is designed as a detective story to help you appreciate some of the many questions currently studied by scientists around the world. Many complex factors affect our atmosphere today, possibly even changing the course of global climate. All of us who live on Earth must recognize that we play an ever-growing role in causing some of these changes. We must solve this great atmospheric mystery if we are to understand all these changes and know what to do about them.

  3. Earth's mysterious atmosphere. ATLAS 1: Teachers guide with activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-11-01

    One of our mission's primary goals is to better understand the physics and chemistry of our atmosphere, the thin envelope of air that provides for human life and shields us from the harshness of space. The Space Shuttle Atlantis will carry the ATLAS 1 science instruments 296 km above Earth, so that they can look down into and through the various layers of the atmosphere. Five solar radiometers will precisely measure the amount of energy the Sun injects into Earth's environment. The chemistry at different altitudes will be measured very accurately by five other instruments called spectrometers. Much of our time in the cockpit of Atlantis will be devoted to two very exciting instruments that measure the auroras and the atmosphere's electrical characteristics. Finally, our ultraviolet telescope will probe the secrets of fascinating celestial objects. This Teacher's Guide is designed as a detective story to help you appreciate some of the many questions currently studied by scientists around the world. Many complex factors affect our atmosphere today, possibly even changing the course of global climate. All of us who live on Earth must recognize that we play an ever-growing role in causing some of these changes. We must solve this great atmospheric mystery if we are to understand all these changes and know what to do about them.

  4. Turning "smoking man" images around: portrayals of smoking in men's magazines as a blueprint for smoking cessation campaigns.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Mohan J; Boyd, Josh

    2007-01-01

    Published scholarship documents the prevalence and health risks of smoking among men. There is also a rich tradition of studying the normative influences of the media in constructing and propagating images of healthy/unhealthy behaviors such as smoking. To understand the construction of these media-propagated smoking images toward male audiences, this article studies all advertising and editorial content of 3 major men's magazines for 2001 using rhetorical and content analyses. The emergent themes construct the smoking man as sensual, in another place, independent, and mysterious. The authors recommend turning around these themes of the masculine "smoking man" for the purpose of strategic media planning and developing message-targeting guidelines for smoking cessation and prevention messages directed at men.

  5. Movement mysteries unveiled: spatial ecology of juvenile green sea turtles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaver, Donna J.; Hart, Kristen M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rubio, Cynthia; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Lutterschmidt, William I.

    2013-01-01

    Locations of important foraging areas are not well defined for many marine species. Unraveling these mysteries is vital to develop conservation strategies for these species, many of which are threatened or endangered. Satellite-tracking is a tool that can reveal movement patterns at both broad and fine spatial scales, in all marine environments. This chapter presents records of the longest duration track of an individual juvenile green turtle (434 days) and highest number of tracking days in any juvenile green turtle study (5483 tracking days) published to date. In this chapter, we use spatial modeling techniques to describe movements and identify foraging areas for juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) captured in a developmental habitat in south Texas, USA. Some green turtles established residency in the vicinity of their capture and release site, but most used a specific habitat feature (i.e., a jettied pass) to travel between the Gulf of Mexico and a nearby bay. Still others moved southward within the Gulf of Mexico into Mexican coastal waters, likely in response to decreasing water temperatures. These movements to waters off the coast of Mexico highlight the importance of international cooperation in restoration efforts undertaken on behalf of this imperiled species.

  6. NASA's Great Observatories May Unravel 400-Year Old Supernova Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    Four hundred years ago, sky watchers, including the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler, best known as the discoverer of the laws of planetary motion, were startled by the sudden appearance of a "new star" in the western sky, rivaling the brilliance of the nearby planets. Kepler's Supernova Remnant Multiple Images of Kepler's Supernova Remnant Modern astronomers, using NASA's three orbiting Great Observatories, are unraveling the mysteries of the expanding remains of Kepler's supernova, the last such object seen to explode in our Milky Way galaxy. When a new star appeared Oct. 9, 1604, observers could use only their eyes to study it. The telescope would not be invented for another four years. A team of modern astronomers has the combined abilities of NASA's Great Observatories, the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Chandra X-ray Observatory, to analyze the remains in infrared radiation, visible light, and X-rays. Ravi Sankrit and William Blair of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore lead the team. The combined image unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust, 14 light-years wide and expanding at 4 million mph. Observations from each telescope highlight distinct features of the supernova, a fast-moving shell of iron-rich material, surrounded by an expanding shock wave sweeping up interstellar gas and dust. Interview with Dr. Ravi Sankrit Interview with Dr. Ravi Sankrit "Multi-wavelength studies are absolutely essential for putting together a complete picture of how supernova remnants evolve," Sankrit said. Sankrit is an associate research scientist, Center for Astrophysical Sciences at Hopkins and lead for HST astronomer observations. "For instance, the infrared data are dominated by heated interstellar dust, while optical and X-ray observations sample different temperatures of gas," Blair added. Blair is a research professor, Physics and Astronomy Department at Hopkins and lead astronomer for SST observations. "A range of

  7. A TALE OF TWO MYSTERIES IN INTERSTELLAR ASTROPHYSICS: THE 2175 A EXTINCTION BUMP AND DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BANDS

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Xiang, F. Y.; Zhong, J. X.; Li Aigen, E-mail: jxzhong@xtu.edu.cn, E-mail: lia@missouri.edu

    2011-06-01

    The diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are ubiquitous absorption spectral features arising from the tenuous material in the space between stars-the interstellar medium (ISM). Since their first detection nearly nine decades ago, over 400 DIBs have been observed in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range in both the Milky Way and external galaxies, both nearby and distant. However, the identity of the species responsible for these bands remains as one of the most enigmatic mysteries in astrophysics. An equally mysterious interstellar spectral signature is the 2175 A extinction bump, the strongest absorption feature observed in the ISM. Its carrier also remainsmore » unclear since its first detection 46 years ago. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have long been proposed as a candidate for DIBs as their electronic transitions occur in the wavelength range where DIBs are often found. In recent years, the 2175 A extinction bump is also often attributed to the {pi}-{pi}* transition in PAHs. If PAHs are indeed responsible for both the 2175 A extinction feature and DIBs, their strengths may correlate. We perform an extensive literature search for lines of sight for which both the 2175 A extinction feature and DIBs have been measured. Unfortunately, we found no correlation between the strength of the 2175 A feature and the equivalent widths of the strongest DIBs. A possible explanation might be that DIBs are produced by small free gas-phase PAH molecules and ions, while the 2175 A bump is mainly from large PAHs or PAH clusters in condensed phase so that there is no tight correlation between DIBs and the 2175 A bump.« less

  8. Spectral Imaging of Portolan Charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Fenella G.; Wilson, Meghan A.; Ghez, Anita

    2018-05-01

    Spectral imaging of Portolan Charts, early nautical charts, provided extensive new information about their construction and creation. The origins of the portolan chart style have been a continual source of perplexity to numerous generations of cartographic historians. The spectral imaging system utilized incorporates a 50 megapixel mono-chrome camera with light emitting diode (LED) illumination panels that cover the range from 365 nm to 1050 nm to capture visible and non-visible information. There is little known about how portolan charts evolved, and what influenced their creation. These early nautical charts began as working navigational tools of medieval mariners, initially made in the 1300s in Italy, Portugal and Spain; however the origin and development of the portolan chart remained shrouded in mystery. Questions about these early navigational charts included whether colorants were commensurate with the time period and geographical location, and if different, did that give insight into trade routes, or possible later additions to the charts? For example; spectral data showed the red pigment on both the 1320 portolan chart and the 1565 Galapagos Islands matched vermillion, an opaque red pigment used since antiquity. The construction of these charts was also of great interest. Spectral imaging with a range of illumination modes revealed the presence of a "hidden circle" often referred to in relation to their construction. This paper will present in-depth analysis of how spectral imaging of the Portolans revealed similarities and differences, new hidden information and shed new light on construction and composition.

  9. MOST: A Powerful Tool to Reveal the True Nature of the Mysterious Dust-Forming Wolf-Rayet Binary CV Ser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David-Uraz, A.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Chené, A.-N.; MOST Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The WR + O binary CV Ser has been a source of mystery since it was shown that its atmospheric eclipses change with time over decades, in addition to its sporadic dust production. However, the first high-precision time-dependent photometric observations obtained with the MOST space telescope in 2009 show two consecutive eclipses over the 29 day orbit, with varying depths. A subsequent MOST run in 2010 showed a somewhat asymmetric eclipse profile. Parallel optical spectroscopy was obtained from the Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic (2009 and 2010) and from the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (2009).

  10. Can a systems biology approach unlock the mysteries of Kawasaki disease?

    PubMed

    Rowley, Anne H

    2013-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic inflammatory illness of childhood that particularly affects the coronary arteries. It can lead to coronary artery aneurysms, myocardial infarction, and sudden death. Clinical and epidemiologic data support an infectious cause, and the etiology remains unknown, but recent data support infection with a 'new' virus. Genetic factors influence KD susceptibility; the incidence is 10-fold higher in children of Asian when compared with Caucasian ethnicity. Recent research has identified genes affecting immune response that are associated with KD susceptibility and outcome. A re-examination of the pathologic features of KD has yielded a three process model of KD vasculopathy, providing a framework for understanding the KD arterial immune response and the damage it inflicts and for identifying new therapeutic targets for KD patients with coronary artery abnormalities. The researcher is faced with many challenges in determining the pathogenesis of KD. A systems biology approach incorporating genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and microbial bioinformatics analysis of high-throughput sequence data from KD tissues could provide the keys to unlocking the mysteries of this potentially fatal illness of childhood. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Fever case management at private health facilities and private pharmacies on the Kenyan coast: analysis of data from two rounds of client exit interviews and mystery client visits.

    PubMed

    Poyer, Stephen; Musuva, Anne; Njoki, Nancy; Okara, Robi; Cutherell, Andrea; Sievers, Dana; Lussiana, Cristina; Memusi, Dorothy; Kiptui, Rebecca; Ejersa, Waqo; Dolan, Stephanie; Charman, Nicole

    2018-03-13

    Private sector availability and use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) lags behind the public sector in Kenya. Increasing channels through which quality malaria diagnostic services are available can improve access to testing and help meet the target of universal diagnostic testing. Registered pharmacies are currently not permitted to perform blood tests, and evidence of whether malaria RDTs can be used by non-laboratory private providers in line with the national malaria control guidelines is required to inform ongoing policy discussions in Kenya. Two rounds of descriptive cross-sectional exit interviews and mystery client surveys were conducted at private health facilities and registered pharmacies in 2014 and 2015, 6 and 18 months into a multi-country project to prime the private sector market for the introduction of RDTs. Data were collected on reported RDT use, medicines received and prescribed, and case management of malaria test-negative mystery clients. Analysis compared outcomes at facilities and pharmacies independently for the two survey rounds. Across two rounds, 534 and 633 clients (including patients) from 130 and 120 outlets were interviewed, and 214 and 250 mystery client visits were completed. Reported testing by any malaria diagnostic test was higher in private health facilities than registered pharmacies in both rounds (2014: 85.6% vs. 60.8%, p < 0.001; 2015: 85.3% vs. 56.3%, p < 0.001). In registered pharmacies, testing by RDT was 52.1% in 2014 and 56.3% in 2015. At least 75% of test-positive patients received artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in both rounds, with no significant difference between outlet types in either round. Provision of any anti-malarial for test-negative patients ranged from 0 to 13.9% across outlet types and rounds. In 2015, mystery clients received the correct (negative) diagnosis and did not receive an anti-malarial in 75.5% of visits to private health facilities and in 78.4% of visits to

  12. Modeling the Nature of Science with the Mystery Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Scott

    2014-12-01

    Oftentimes physics is portrayed as merely a list of facts that we know about the world around us, when in fact it is a way of knowing about that world. At times physics claims to understand the inner working of objects that cannot be directly observed, such as the core of the planets and Sun, or the structure of an atom. It is important for students to learn not only the facts of what we know about science, but also how we know what we know about science, even if we cannot directly observe it. This article describes a new take on a black box activity that has been around for years, the mystery tube.1 It is simple to construct but effective at demonstrating the nature of science (NOS). It illustrates the difference between observation and inference, and steps students through the scientific process. Beginning with a scientific question, students make observations, form a hypothesis, predict further observations, and test them before revising or strengthening their hypothesis. This activity provides a fantastic introduction to NOS, either as an alternative to other NOS activities2 or as a lead-in to a discussion of NOS.3 It can be used as an in-class activity, starting off a discussion of how scientists can claim to know what we know, or it can be used as an introductory lab, setting the foundation for how all subsequent activities should be conducted.

  13. [The frieze of the "Mystery villa" in Pompeii. Contribution to the development of female psychology].

    PubMed

    Schwabe, G

    1979-01-01

    The large frieze of the "Villa of the Mysteries" at Pompeji is interpreted on the base of the psychology of C. G. Jung, especially of his student Erich Neumann. According to his psychological theories the frieze is depicting the development of the female principle to individuation, arranged with extraordinary artistic inspiration. Through the myth of Ariadne-Theseus-Dionysus the change of the woman, disappointed from the personal man and hero is shown. Through the experience of the transpersonal male principle in herself she is entering in a new level of conscience, the patriarchism, and so coming to the highest development, to the "Selbst". The experience of the male principle is made through Dionysus, a symbol of change in the theory of the "Archetypen" found by C. G. Jung.

  14. ELSI Priorities for Brain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Illes, Judy; De Vries, Raymond; Cho, Mildred K.; Schraedley-Desmond, Pam

    2006-01-01

    As one of the most compelling technologies for imaging the brain, functional MRI (fMRI) produces measurements and persuasive pictures of research subjects making cognitive judgments and even reasoning through difficult moral decisions. Even after centuries of studying the link between brain and behavior, this capability presents a number of novel significant questions. For example, what are the implications of biologizing human experience? How might neuroimaging disrupt the mysteries of human nature, spirituality, and personal identity? Rather than waiting for an ethical agenda to emerge from some unpredictable combination of the concerns of ethicists and researchers, the attention of journalists, or after controversy is sparked by research that cannot be retracted, we queried key figures in bioethics and the humanities, neuroscience, media, industry, and patient advocacy in focus groups and interviews. We identified specific ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) that highlight researcher obligations and the nonclinical impact of the technology at this new frontier. PMID:16500831

  15. Baby Stars in Orion Solve Solar System Mystery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanjek, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    What do X-rays, meteoroids, infant stars in the Orion Nebula, and our solar system have in common? Perhaps much more than anyone thought. Eric Feigelson of Penn State University stumbled onto a connection one day while his thoughts were far from the solar system, turned toward the vibrant neighborhood of young stars, hot gas, and caliginous dust of the Orion Nebula. This nebula, 1500 light-years away, is visible to the naked eye in the constellation Orion, a gem to behold with a good pair of binoculars or a telescope under dark skies. In Orion, Feigelson inadvertently found a possible solution to a long-standing mystery about our own solar system: the presence of exotic isotopes locked away in meteoroids. Scientists have assumed that these short-lived isotopes - special forms of atomic nuclei, such as aluminum-26 and calcium-41 - were transported here by a nearby supernova. Only tenuous evidence for such an explosion exists, but what else could have made the isotopes? The isotopes are about as old as the solar system, and the Sun couldn t possibly have been powerful enough to create them. Well, maybe we need to give the Sun a little more credit. Feigelson found that very young, midsized stars in the Orion Nebula - in the same stellar class as our Sun except they are only a million years old - produce powerful flares visible in X-rays. His team spotted these X-ray flares with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. These baby-tantrum flares are indeed energetic enough to forge heavy isotopes, Feigelson says. If the infant stars in Orion can do it now, then our Sun could have done the same when the solar system was forming about 4.5 billion years ago, when the Sun itself was only a few million years old.

  16. Status of the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope: unraveling the mysteries the Sun.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmele, Thomas R.; Pillet, Valentin; Goode, Philip R.; Knoelker, Michael; Kuhn, Jeffrey Richard; Rosner, Robert; Casini, Roberto; Lin, Haosheng; von der Luehe, Oskar; Woeger, Friedrich; Tritschler, Alexandra; Fehlmann, Andre; Jaeggli, Sarah A.; Schmidt, Wolfgang; De Wijn, Alfred; Rast, Mark; Harrington, David M.; Sueoka, Stacey R.; Beck, Christian; Schad, Thomas A.; Warner, Mark; McMullin, Joseph P.; Berukoff, Steven J.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; DKIST Team

    2018-06-01

    The 4m Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) currently under construction on Haleakala, Maui will be the world’s largest solar telescope. Designed to meet the needs of critical high resolution and high sensitivity spectral and polarimetric observations of the sun, this facility will perform key observations of our nearest star that matters most to humankind. DKIST’s superb resolution and sensitivity will enable astronomers to address many of the fundamental problems in solar and stellar astrophysics, including the origin of stellar magnetism, the mechanisms of coronal heating and drivers of the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in solar and stellar output. DKIST will also address basic research aspects of Space Weather and help improve predictive capabilities. In combination with synoptic observations and theoretical modeling DKIST will unravel the many remaining mysteries of the Sun.The construction of DKIST is progressing on schedule with 80% of the facility complete. Operations are scheduled to begin early 2020. DKIST will replace the NSO facilities on Kitt Peak and Sac Peak with a national facility with worldwide unique capabilities. The design allows DKIST to operate as a coronagraph. Taking advantage of its large aperture and infrared polarimeters DKIST will be capable to routinely measure the currently illusive coronal magnetic fields. The state-of-the-art adaptive optics system provides diffraction limited imaging and the ability to resolve features approximately 20 km on the Sun. Achieving this resolution is critical for the ability to observe magnetic structures at their intrinsic, fundamental scales. Five instruments will be available at the start of operations, four of which will provide highly sensitive measurements of solar magnetic fields throughout the solar atmosphere – from the photosphere to the corona. The data from these instruments will be distributed to the world wide community via the NSO/DKIST data center

  17. High Energy Interactions in Massive Binaries: An Application to a Most Mysterious Binary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Extremely massive stars (50M and above) are exceedingly rare in the local Universe but are believed to have composed the entire first generation of stars, which lived fast, died young and left behind the first generation of black holes and set the stage for the formation of lower mass stars suitable to support life. There are significant uncertainties about how this happened (and how it still happens), mostly due to our poor knowledge of how stars change mass as they evolve. Extremely massive stars give mass back to the ISM via strong radiatively-driven winds and sometimes through sporadic eruptions of the most massive and brightest stars. Such mass loss plays an important role in the chemical and dynamical evolution of the local interstellar medium prior to the supernova explosion. Below we discuss how high energy thermal (and, in some cases, non-thermal) emission, along with modern simulations in 2 and 3 dimensions, can be used to help determine a physically realistic picture of mass loss in a well-studied, mysterious system.

  18. Martian Mystery: Do Some Materials Flow Uphill?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Some of the geological features of Mars defy conventional, or simple, explanations. A recent example is on the wall of a 72 kilometer-wide (45 mile-wide) impact crater in Promethei Terra. The crater (above left) is located at 39oS, 247oW. Its inner walls appear in low-resolution images to be deeply gullied.

    A high resolution Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows that each gully on the crater's inner wall contains a tongue of material that appears to have flowed (to best see this, click on the icon above right and examine the full image). Ridges and grooves that converge toward the center of each gully and show a pronounced curvature are oriented in a manner that seems to suggest that material has flowed from the top toward the bottom of the picture. This pattern is not unlike pouring pancake batter into a pan... the viscous fluid will form a steep, lobate margin and spread outward across the pan. The ridges and grooves seen in the image are also more reminiscent of the movement of material out and away from a place of confinement, as opposed to the types of features seen when they flow into a more confined area. Mud and lava-flows, and even some glaciers, for the most part behave in this manner. From these observations, and based solely on the appearance, one might conclude that the features formed by moving from the top of the image towards the bottom.

    But this is not the case! The material cannot have flowed from the top towards the bottom of the area seen in the high resolution image (above, right), because the crater floor (which is the lowest area in the image) is at the top of the picture. The location and correct orientation of the high resolution image is shown by a white box in the context frame on the left. Since gravity pulls the material in the gullies downhill not uphill the pattern of ridges and grooves found on these gully-filling materials is puzzling. An explanation may lie in the nature of the material (e.g., how viscous was

  19. Accessibility and Barriers to Oncology Appointments at 40 National Cancer Institute-Designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers: Results of a Mystery Shopper Project.

    PubMed

    Hamlyn, Geoffrey S; Hutchins, Kathryn E; Johnston, Abby L; Thomas, Rishonda T; Tian, James; Kamal, Arif H

    2016-10-01

    Patients turn to National Cancer Institute (NCI) -designated comprehensive cancer centers because of perceived better quality and more timely access to care. However, recent studies have found that patients at various institutions may struggle to gain access to an appointment or obtain consistent information from attendants. Our study employs a mystery shopper format to identify and quantify barriers faced by patients seeking to make a first consultation appointment across a homogenous sample of 40 NCI-designated comprehensive cancer centers. Five mystery shoppers used a standardized call script to inquire about first available appointment times and service offerings. When inquiring about a date for a first available appointment, 29% of callers were unable to secure an estimated date without registering into the center's database, 51% were able to secure an estimated date, and 20% were provided with an actual date. Of estimated or actual dates for a first available appointment, 74% were greater than 1 week away. There was no statistically significant variation between appointment availability across insurance type or US region. Our study highlights the difficulty of accessing information about appointment availability. Although not statistically significant, inquiries regarding first available appointments for Medicaid patients resulted in longer estimated or actual wait times than those for patients with private insurance, and Medicaid shoppers noted qualitative differences. Although our study was limited by small sample size and imperfect analytic methods, our results suggest the need for more efficient and accessible care for patients at our nation's top cancer centers.

  20. Joseph Carpue's file drawer experiment - A murder mystery from 1801.

    PubMed

    Freshwater, M Felix

    2015-12-01

    Today unpublished or "file drawer" experiments are the impetus for trial registration and reporting of all results. In 1801, Joseph Carpue, the father of modern plastic surgery, did a file drawer experiment for Benjamin West, who was President of the Royal Academy of Arts. George III had commissioned West to create the largest stained glass window ever created whose theme, the Crucifixion, was based upon Michelangelo's drawing. Subsequently, West suffered a series of political, professional and economic setbacks. In the summer of 1801, West's project was delayed. By the fall, West hoped that independent scientific confirmation of his design could salvage the project. West approached Carpue who obtained a murderer's fresh corpse that he crucified and documented the results with plaster casts created by sculptor Thomas Banks. Carpue's experiment showed that West's window design wrongly depicted the Crucifixion because West had posed the hands and shoulders incorrectly. West died in 1820 without ever being associated with Carpue's experiment. Carpue's obituary in The Lancet in 1846 contained Carpue's handwritten note that described the experiment but not West's Royal commission. As no records or publications associate the cast with West project, this can be considered to be a file drawer experiment. After 1801, West made further drawings of the Crucifixion that showed the figures in the same position as the cast. Nineteenth century auction catalogues suggest that West made a corrected Crucifixion painting, but its current location remains a mystery.

  1. Content Validity and Psychometric Characteristics of the "Knowledge about Older Patients Quiz" for Nurses Using Item Response Theory.

    PubMed

    Dikken, Jeroen; Hoogerduijn, Jita G; Kruitwagen, Cas; Schuurmans, Marieke J

    2016-11-01

    To assess the content validity and psychometric characteristics of the Knowledge about Older Patients Quiz (KOP-Q), which measures nurses' knowledge regarding older hospitalized adults and their certainty regarding this knowledge. Cross-sectional. Content validity: general hospitals. Psychometric characteristics: nursing school and general hospitals in the Netherlands. Content validity: 12 nurse specialists in geriatrics. Psychometric characteristics: 107 first-year and 78 final-year bachelor of nursing students, 148 registered nurses, and 20 nurse specialists in geriatrics. Content validity: The nurse specialists rated each item of the initial KOP-Q (52 items) on relevance. Ratings were used to calculate Item-Content Validity Index and average Scale-Content Validity Index (S-CVI/ave) scores. Items with insufficient content validity were removed. Psychometric characteristics: Ratings of students, nurses, and nurse specialists were used to test for different item functioning (DIF) and unidimensionality before item characteristics (discrimination and difficulty) were examined using Item Response Theory. Finally, norm references were calculated and nomological validity was assessed. Content validity: Forty-three items remained after assessing content validity (S-CVI/ave = 0.90). Psychometric characteristics: Of the 43 items, two demonstrating ceiling effects and 11 distorting ability estimates (DIF) were subsequently excluded. Item characteristics were assessed for the remaining 30 items, all of which demonstrated good discrimination and difficulty parameters. Knowledge was positively correlated with certainty about this knowledge. The final 30-item KOP-Q is a valid, psychometrically sound, comprehensive instrument that can be used to assess the knowledge of nursing students, hospital nurses, and nurse specialists in geriatrics regarding older hospitalized adults. It can identify knowledge and certainty deficits for research purposes or serve as a tool in educational

  2. Fusion of PET and MRI for Hybrid Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Zang-Hee; Son, Young-Don; Kim, Young-Bo; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    Recently, the development of the fusion PET-MRI system has been actively studied to meet the increasing demand for integrated molecular and anatomical imaging. MRI can provide detailed anatomical information on the brain, such as the locations of gray and white matter, blood vessels, axonal tracts with high resolution, while PET can measure molecular and genetic information, such as glucose metabolism, neurotransmitter-neuroreceptor binding and affinity, protein-protein interactions, and gene trafficking among biological tissues. State-of-the-art MRI systems, such as the 7.0 T whole-body MRI, now can visualize super-fine structures including neuronal bundles in the pons, fine blood vessels (such as lenticulostriate arteries) without invasive contrast agents, in vivo hippocampal substructures, and substantia nigra with excellent image contrast. High-resolution PET, known as High-Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), is a brain-dedicated system capable of imaging minute changes of chemicals, such as neurotransmitters and -receptors, with high spatial resolution and sensitivity. The synergistic power of the two, i.e., ultra high-resolution anatomical information offered by a 7.0 T MRI system combined with the high-sensitivity molecular information offered by HRRT-PET, will significantly elevate the level of our current understanding of the human brain, one of the most delicate, complex, and mysterious biological organs. This chapter introduces MRI, PET, and PET-MRI fusion system, and its algorithms are discussed in detail.

  3. Impact of Interactive e-Learning Modules on Appropriateness of Imaging Referrals: A Multicenter, Randomized, Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Velan, Gary M; Goergen, Stacy K; Grimm, Jane; Shulruf, Boaz

    2015-11-01

    Health care expenditure on diagnostic imaging investigations is increasing, and many tests are ordered inappropriately. Validated clinical decision rules (CDRs) for certain conditions are available to aid in assessing the need for imaging. However, awareness and utilization of CDRs are lacking. This study compared the efficacy and perceived impact of interactive e-learning modules versus static versions of CDRs, for learning about appropriate imaging referrals. A multicenter, randomized, crossover trial was performed; participants were volunteer medical students and recent graduates. In week 1, group 1 received an e-learning module on appropriate imaging referrals for pulmonary embolism; group 2 received PDF versions of relevant CDRs, and an online quiz with feedback. In week 2, the groups crossed over, focusing on imaging referrals for cervical spine trauma in adults. Online assessments were administered to both groups at the end of each week, and participants completed an online questionnaire at the end of the trial. Group 1 (e-learning module) performed significantly better on the pulmonary embolism knowledge assessment. After the crossover, participants in group 2 (e-learning module) were significantly more likely to improve their scores in the assessment of cervical spine trauma knowledge. Both groups gave positive evaluations of the e-learning modules. Interactive e-learning was significantly more effective for learning in this cohort, compared with static CDRs. We believe that the authentic clinical scenarios, feedback, and integration provided by the e-learning modules contributed to their impact. This study has implications for implementation of e-learning tools to facilitate appropriate referrals for imaging investigations in clinical practice. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pregnancy Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... your body is working harder than ever to fuel the growth of a precious new life. While you only need 300 extra calories each day, the kind of food you eat is very important because it affects how your baby can build and maintain cells, tissues, and organs. Healthy food choices like fruits, ...

  5. Asthma Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Asthma is a chronic disease that requires ongoing management. Personalized plans for treatment may include medications, an asthma action plan, and environmental control measures to avoid your child's asthma triggers. ...

  6. Asthma Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... the AAAAI Foundation Donate Utility navigation Español Journals Pollen Counts Annual Meeting Member Login / My Membership Search ... bacterial infections, exercise, exposure to allergens such as pollen, dust mites or pet dander, acid reflux, some ...

  7. Kidney Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... NKF Online Communities Featured Story Want to save money on your prescriptions? Introducing a new discount card ... Events and Galas Spring Clinical Meetings KEEP Healthy - Free Kidney Health checks Your Kidneys and You Meetings ...

  8. Climbing Bloom's Taxonomy Pyramid: Lessons from a Graduate Histology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Nikki B.; Hwang, Charles; Scott, Sara; Stallard, Stefanie; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Bloom's taxonomy was adopted to create a subject-specific scoring tool for histology multiple-choice questions (MCQs). This Bloom's Taxonomy Histology Tool (BTHT) was used to analyze teacher- and student-generated quiz and examination questions from a graduate level histology course. Multiple-choice questions using histological images were…

  9. Not letting the perfect be the enemy of the good: steps toward science-ready ALMA images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Donovan Meyer, Jennifer; Brogan, Crystal; Moullet, Arielle; Hibbard, John; Indebetouw, Remy; Mason, Brian

    2016-07-01

    Historically, radio observatories have placed the onus of calibrating and imaging data on the observer, thus restricting their user base to those already initiated into the mysteries of radio data or those willing to develop these skills. To expand its user base, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has a high- level directive to calibrate users' data and, ultimately, to deliver scientifically usable images or cubes to principle investigators (PIs). Although an ALMA calibration pipeline is in place, all delivered images continue to be produced for the PI by hand. In this talk, I will describe on-going efforts at the Northern American ALMA Science Center to produce more uniform imaging products that more closely meet the PI science goals and provide better archival value. As a first step, the NAASC imaging group produced a simple imaging template designed to help scientific staff produce uniform imaging products. This script allowed the NAASC to maximize the productivity of data analysts with relatively little guidance by the scientific staff by providing a step-by-step guide to best practices for ALMA imaging. Finally, I will describe the role of the manually produced images in verifying the imaging pipeline and the on-going development of said pipeline. The development of the imaging template, while technically simple, shows how small steps toward unifying processes and sharing knowledge can lead to large gains for science data products.

  10. Enamel-based mark performance for marking Chinese mystery snail Bellamya chinensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Alec; Allen, Craig R.; Hart, Noelle M.; Haak, Danielle M.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    The exoskeleton of gastropods provides a convenient surface for carrying marks, and i the interest of improving future marking methods our laboratory assessed the performance of an enamel paint. The endurance of the paint was also compared to other marking methods assessed in the past. We marked the shells of 30 adult Chinese mystery snails Bellamya chinensis and held them in an aquarium for 181 days. We observed no complete degradation of any enamel-paint mark during the 181 days. The enamel-paint mark was superior to a nai;-polish mark, which lasted a median of 100 days. Enamel-paint marks also have a lower rate of loss (0.00 month-1 181 days) than plastic bee tags (0.01 month-1, 57 days), gouache paint (0.07 month-1, 18.5 days), or car body paint from studies found in scientific literature. Legibility of enamel-paint marks had a median lifetime of 102 days. The use of enamel paint on the shells of gastropods is a viable option for studies lasting up to 6 months. Furthermore, visits to capture-mark-recapture site 1 year after application of enamel-paint marks on B. chinesnis shells produced several individuals on which the enamel paint was still visible, although further testing is required to clarify durability over longer periods.

  11. Remaining Mysteries of Molecular Biology: The Role of Polyamines in the Cell.

    PubMed

    Miller-Fleming, Leonor; Olin-Sandoval, Viridiana; Campbell, Kate; Ralser, Markus

    2015-10-23

    The polyamines (PAs) spermidine, spermine, putrescine and cadaverine are an essential class of metabolites found throughout all kingdoms of life. In this comprehensive review, we discuss their metabolism, their various intracellular functions and their unusual and conserved regulatory features. These include the regulation of translation via upstream open reading frames, the over-reading of stop codons via ribosomal frameshifting, the existence of an antizyme and an antizyme inhibitor, ubiquitin-independent proteasomal degradation, a complex bi-directional membrane transport system and a unique posttranslational modification-hypusination-that is believed to occur on a single protein only (eIF-5A). Many of these features are broadly conserved indicating that PA metabolism is both concentration critical and evolutionary ancient. When PA metabolism is disrupted, a plethora of cellular processes are affected, including transcription, translation, gene expression regulation, autophagy and stress resistance. As a result, the role of PAs has been associated with cell growth, aging, memory performance, neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic disorders and cancer. Despite comprehensive studies addressing PAs, a unifying concept to interpret their molecular role is missing. The precise biochemical function of polyamines is thus one of the remaining mysteries of molecular cell biology. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Mystery behind the match: an undergraduate medical education–graduate medical education collaborative approach to understanding match goals and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Nagler, Alisa; Engle, Deborah L.; Rudd, Mariah; Chudgar, Saumil M.; Weinerth, John L.; Kuhn, Catherine M.; Buckley, Edward; Grochowski, Colleen O’Connor

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of information regarding institutional targets for the number of undergraduate medical education (UME) graduates being matched to graduate medical education (GME) programs at their home institutions. At our institution, the Duke University, the number of UME graduates matched to GME programs declined dramatically in 2011. To better understand why this decline may have happened, we sought to identify perceived quality metrics for UME and GME learners, evaluate trends in match outcomes and educational program characteristics, and explore whether there is an ideal retention rate for UME graduates in their home institutions’ GME programs. Methods We analyzed the number of Duke University UME graduates remaining at Duke for GME training over the past 5 years. We collected data to assess for changing characteristics of UME and GME, and performed descriptive analysis of trends over time to investigate the potential impact on match outcomes. Results A one-sample t-test analysis showed no statistically significant difference in the number of Duke UME graduates who stayed for GME training. For both UME and GME, no significant changes in the characteristics of either program were found. Discussion We created a process for monitoring data related to the characteristics or perceived quality of UME and GME programs and developed a shared understanding of what may impact match lists for both UME graduates and GME programs, leaving the Match somewhat less mysterious. While we understand the trend of graduates remaining at their home institutions for GME training, we are uncertain whether setting a goal for retention is reasonable, and so some mystery remains. We believe there is an invaluable opportunity for collaboration between UME and GME stakeholders to facilitate discussion about setting shared institutional goals. PMID:27702432

  13. Mystery behind the match: an undergraduate medical education-graduate medical education collaborative approach to understanding match goals and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nagler, Alisa; Engle, Deborah L; Rudd, Mariah; Chudgar, Saumil M; Weinerth, John L; Kuhn, Catherine M; Buckley, Edward; Grochowski, Colleen O'Connor

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of information regarding institutional targets for the number of undergraduate medical education (UME) graduates being matched to graduate medical education (GME) programs at their home institutions. At our institution, the Duke University, the number of UME graduates matched to GME programs declined dramatically in 2011. To better understand why this decline may have happened, we sought to identify perceived quality metrics for UME and GME learners, evaluate trends in match outcomes and educational program characteristics, and explore whether there is an ideal retention rate for UME graduates in their home institutions' GME programs. We analyzed the number of Duke University UME graduates remaining at Duke for GME training over the past 5 years. We collected data to assess for changing characteristics of UME and GME, and performed descriptive analysis of trends over time to investigate the potential impact on match outcomes. A one-sample t -test analysis showed no statistically significant difference in the number of Duke UME graduates who stayed for GME training. For both UME and GME, no significant changes in the characteristics of either program were found. We created a process for monitoring data related to the characteristics or perceived quality of UME and GME programs and developed a shared understanding of what may impact match lists for both UME graduates and GME programs, leaving the Match somewhat less mysterious. While we understand the trend of graduates remaining at their home institutions for GME training, we are uncertain whether setting a goal for retention is reasonable, and so some mystery remains. We believe there is an invaluable opportunity for collaboration between UME and GME stakeholders to facilitate discussion about setting shared institutional goals.

  14. El Chichon and 'mystery cloud' aerosols between 30 and 55 km Global observations from the SME visible spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, R. T.

    1986-09-01

    Visible limb radiances measured by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) are used to obtain volume scattering ratios for aerosol loading in the 30-55 km altitude range of the stratosphere. Global maps of these ratios are presented for the period January 1982 to August 1984. Significant aerosol scattering from the 'mystery cloud' and El Chichon aerosol layers are found above 30 km. A timescale of approximately 2 months between the appearance of the aerosol at 30.5 km and at 37.5 km is consistent with vertical transport of aerosol or vapor by eddy diffusion above 30 km. An anticorrelation exists between aerosol scattering and stratospheric temperatures. Periods of lower stratospheric temperatures may account for the formation of aerosol between 40 and 55 km altitude.

  15. El Chichon and 'mystery cloud' aerosols between 30 and 55 km Global observations from the SME visible spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    Visible limb radiances measured by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) are used to obtain volume scattering ratios for aerosol loading in the 30-55 km altitude range of the stratosphere. Global maps of these ratios are presented for the period January 1982 to August 1984. Significant aerosol scattering from the 'mystery cloud' and El Chichon aerosol layers are found above 30 km. A timescale of approximately 2 months between the appearance of the aerosol at 30.5 km and at 37.5 km is consistent with vertical transport of aerosol or vapor by eddy diffusion above 30 km. An anticorrelation exists between aerosol scattering and stratospheric temperatures. Periods of lower stratospheric temperatures may account for the formation of aerosol between 40 and 55 km altitude.

  16. A SOLAR CYCLE LOST IN 1793-1800: EARLY SUNSPOT OBSERVATIONS RESOLVE THE OLD MYSTERY

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Usoskin, Ilya G.; Mursula, Kalevi; Arlt, Rainer

    2009-08-01

    Because of the lack of reliable sunspot observations, the quality of the sunspot number series is poor in the late 18th century, leading to the abnormally long solar cycle (1784-1799) before the Dalton minimum. Using the newly recovered solar drawings by the 18-19th century observers Staudacher and Hamilton, we construct the solar butterfly diagram, i.e., the latitudinal distribution of sunspots in the 1790s. The sudden, systematic occurrence of sunspots at high solar latitudes in 1793-1796 unambiguously shows that a new cycle started in 1793, which was lost in the traditional Wolf sunspot series. This finally confirms the existence of themore » lost cycle that has been proposed earlier, thus resolving an old mystery. This Letter brings the attention of the scientific community to the need of revising the sunspot series in the 18th century. The presence of a new short, asymmetric cycle implies changes and constraints to sunspot cycle statistics, solar activity predictions, and solar dynamo theories, as well as for solar-terrestrial relations.« less

  17. Mortality estimate of Chinese mystery snail, Bellamya chinensis (Reeve, 1863) in a Nebraska reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haak, Danielle M.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Wong, Alec; Allen, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species found throughout the USA. Little is known about this species’ life history or ecology, and only one population estimate has been published, for Wild Plum Lake in southeast Nebraska. A recent die-off event occurred at this same reservoir and we present a mortality estimate for this B. chinensis population using a quadrat approach. Assuming uniform distribution throughout the newly-exposed lake bed (20,900 m2), we estimate 42,845 individuals died during this event, amounting to approximately 17% of the previously-estimated population size of 253,570. Assuming uniform distribution throughout all previously-reported available habitat (48,525 m2), we estimate 99,476 individuals died, comprising 39% of the previously-reported adult population. The die-off occurred during an extreme drought event, which was coincident with abnormally hot weather. However, the exact reason of the die-off is still unclear. More monitoring of the population dynamics of B. chinensis is necessary to further our understanding of this species’ ecology.

  18. The mysterious age invariance of the planetary nebula luminosity function bright cut-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesicki, K.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.

    2018-05-01

    Planetary nebulae mark the end of the active life of 90% of all stars. They trace the transition from a red giant to a degenerate white dwarf. Stellar models1,2 predicted that only stars above approximately twice the solar mass could form a bright nebula. But the ubiquitous presence of bright planetary nebulae in old stellar populations, such as elliptical galaxies, contradicts this: such high-mass stars are not present in old systems. The planetary nebula luminosity function, and especially its bright cut-off, is almost invariant between young spiral galaxies, with high-mass stars, and old elliptical galaxies, with only low-mass stars. Here, we show that new evolutionary tracks of low-mass stars are capable of explaining in a simple manner this decades-old mystery. The agreement between the observed luminosity function and computed stellar evolution validates the latest theoretical modelling. With these models, the planetary nebula luminosity function provides a powerful diagnostic to derive star formation histories of intermediate-age stars. The new models predict that the Sun at the end of its life will also form a planetary nebula, but it will be faint.

  19. Resolving the Mystery of Transport Within Internal Transport Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staebler, G. M.

    2013-10-01

    The Trapped Gyro-Landau Fluid (TGLF) quasilinear model, which is calibrated to approximate non-linear gyro-kinetic turbulence simulations, is now able to predict the electron density, electron and ion temperatures and ion toroidal rotation simultaneously for internal transport barrier (ITB) discharges in excellent agreement with data from the DIII-D tokamak. This is a strong validation of gyro-kinetic theory of ITBs, requiring multiple instabilities responsible for transport in different channels at different scales. Inside the ITB, the ion energy transport is observed to be reduced to the neoclassical level which is consistent with the theory of turbulence suppression by E × B velocity shear acting on low wavenumber turbulence. The electron energy transport is observed to be far above the neoclassical level which is consistent with electron energy transport due to high wavenumber electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes. Since the ETG modes do not produce particle and ion momentum transport, and low wavenumber modes are suppressed, these channels are expected to be reduced to the neoclassical level in striking disagreement with experimental measurements. A possible resolution of this conundrum was found in 2005 when gyro-kinetic turbulence simulations showed that the parallel velocity shear driven Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) mode can arrest the suppression of transport by the shear in the E × B velocity Doppler shift at high toroidal flow shear. The success of TGLF in predicting ITB transport is due to the inclusion of ion gyro-radius scale modes that become dominant at high E × B shear and to recent improvements to TGLF that allow the KH mode to be faithfully modeled. The resolution of this long-standing mystery of the missing particle and momentum transport in an ITB is the result of the steady advances in gyro-kinetic simulations and quasilinear modeling. Supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FG02-95ER54309.

  20. Projectile Motion Gets the Hose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, John Eric; Liyanage, Chinthaka

    2011-01-01

    Students take a weekly quiz in our introductory physics course. During the week in which material focused on projectile motion, we not-so-subtly suggested what problem the students would see on the quiz. The quiz problem was an almost exact replica of a homework problem we worked through in the class preceding the quiz. The goal of the problem is…

  1. Investigating the mysteries of groundwater in the Badain Jaran Desert, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu-Sheng; Zhou, Yanyi

    2018-03-01

    The Badain Jaran Desert (BJD) in China is a desert with impressive sand dunes and a groundwater situation that has attracted numerous researchers. This paper gives an overview of the mysteries of groundwater in the BJD that are exhibited as five key problems identified in previous studies. These problems relate to the origin of the groundwater, the hydrological connection between the BJD and the Heihe River Basin (HRB), the infiltration recharge, the lake-groundwater interactions, and the features of stable isotope analyses. The existing controversial analyses and hypotheses have caused debate and have hindered effective water resources management in the region. In recent years, these problems have been partly addressed by additional surveys. It has been revealed that the Quaternary sandy sediments and Neogene-Cretaceous sandstones form a thick aquifer system in the BJD. Groundwater flow at the regional scale is dominated by a significant difference in water levels between the surrounding mountains and lowlands at the western and northern edges. Discharge of groundwater from the BJD to the downstream HRB occurs according to the regional flow. Seasonal fluctuations of the water level in lakes are less than 0.5 m due to the quasi-steady groundwater discharge. The magnitude of infiltration recharge is still highly uncertain because significant limitations existed in previous studies. The evaporation effect may be the key to interpreting the anomalous negative deuterium-excess in the BJD groundwater. Further investigations are expected to reveal the hydrogeological conditions in more detail.

  2. Emergency contraception supply in Australian pharmacies after the introduction of ulipristal acetate: a mystery shopping mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jack Charles; Schneider, Carl Richard; Moles, Rebekah Jane

    2018-05-09

    To explore the supply of emergency contraception (EC) from Australian community pharmacies after the introduction of ulipristal acetate (UPA) and to explore pharmacists' knowledge, decision-making, attitudes and beliefs surrounding supplying EC. A mixed-methods approach of mystery shopping with structured interview was employed. From August to November 2017, 20 pharmacy students mystery-shopped 10 community pharmacies in metropolitan Sydney, Australia, requesting "the morning after pill." Each pharmacy was visited five times with varying scenarios. Structured interviews were conducted immediately postvisit. Visit data were analyzed descriptively and comparatively. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and categorically analyzed. Of 50 planned visits, 43 were analyzed. EC was supplied in 38 requests by pharmacists (54% male). Levonorgestrel (LNG) was more frequently supplied than UPA (74% vs. 26%). UPA was only supplied when intercourse occurred >72 h prior. Directions for use were provided in 35 supplies. No difference in questioning or counseling was found based on sex of requester. Female pharmacists provided more counseling points (MED=4 [IQR=4-5] vs. MED=3 [IQR=0-4]; p<.01). Two pharmacists asked all guideline questions, and no pharmacist provided all guideline counseling points. Interviews elicited supply guidelines, regulatory and clinical knowledge, financial considerations, privacy and stock availability as factors influencing EC supply. EC was supplied in accordance with local legislation in all instances, with the majority supplied within the licensed timeframe for each EC formulation. LNG was supplied more frequently than UPA. UPA was only supplied in the 72-120-h timeframe. Clinical and regulatory knowledge, availability and cost to consumer were identified as factors influencing supply. This study found that despite the introduction of ulipristal acetate to the Australian market, it is not frequently supplied. Interviews identified the need for

  3. University of Saskatchewan Radiology Courseware (USRC): an assessment of its utility for teaching diagnostic imaging in the medical school curriculum.

    PubMed

    Burbridge, Brent; Kalra, Neil; Malin, Greg; Trinder, Krista; Pinelle, David

    2015-01-01

    We have found it very challenging to integrate images from our radiology digital imaging repository into the curriculum of our local medical school. Thus, it has been difficult to convey important knowledge related to viewing and interpreting diagnostic radiology images. We sought to determine if we could create a solution for this problem and evaluate whether students exposed to this solution were able to learn imaging concepts pertinent to medical practice. We developed University of Saskatchewan Radiology Courseware (USRC), a novel interactive web application that enables preclinical medical students to acquire image interpretation skills fundamental to clinical practice. This web application reformats content stored in Medical Imaging Resource Center teaching cases for BlackBoard Learn™, a popular learning management system. We have deployed this solution for 2 successive years in a 1st-year basic sciences medical school course at the College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan. The "courseware" content covers both normal anatomy and common clinical pathologies in five distinct modules. We created two cohorts of learners consisting of an intervention cohort of students who had used USRC for their 1st academic year, whereas the nonintervention cohort was students who had not been exposed to this learning opportunity. To assess the learning experience of the users we designed an online questionnaire and image review quiz delivered to both of the student groups. Comparisons between the groups revealed statistically significant differences in both confidence with image interpretation and the ability to answer knowledge-based questions. Students were satisfied with the overall usability, functions, and capabilities of USRC. USRC is an innovative technology that provides integration between Medical Imaging Resource Center, a teaching solution used in radiology, and a Learning Management System.

  4. The Use of Mystery Shopping for Quality Assurance Evaluations of HIV/STI Testing Sites Offering Services to Young Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Pingel, Emily S.; Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura; Meanley, Steven; Alapati, Deepak; Moore, Michael; Lowther, Matthew; Wade, Ryan; Harper, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at increased risk for HIV and STI infection. While encouraging HIV and STI testing among YMSM remains a public health priority, we know little about the cultural competency of providers offering HIV/STI tests to YMSM in public clinics. As part of a larger intervention study, we employed a mystery shopper methodology to evaluate the LGBT cultural competency and quality of services offered in HIV and STI testing sites in Southeast Michigan (n = 43).We trained and deployed mystery shoppers (n = 5) to evaluate the HIV and STI testing sites by undergoing routine HIV/STI testing. Two shoppers visited each site, recording their experiences using a checklist that assessed 13 domains, including the clinic’s structural characteristics and interactions with testing providers. We used the site scores to examine the checklist’s psychometric properties and tested whether site evaluations differed between sites only offering HIV testing (n = 14) versus those offering comprehensive HIV/STI testing (n = 29). On average, site scores were positive across domains. In bivariate comparisons by type of testing site, HIV testing sites were more likely than comprehensive HIV/STI testing clinics to ascertain experiences of intimate partner violence, offer action steps to achieve safer sex goals, and provide safer sex education. The developed checklist may be used as a quality assurance indicator to measure HIV/STI testing sites’ performance when working with YMSM. Our findings also underscore the need to bolster providers’ provision of safer sex education and behavioral counseling within comprehensive HIV/STI testing sites. PMID:26303197

  5. Characterization of medical students recall of factual knowledge using learning objects and repeated testing in a novel e-learning system.

    PubMed

    Taveira-Gomes, Tiago; Prado-Costa, Rui; Severo, Milton; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2015-01-24

    Spaced-repetition and test-enhanced learning are two methodologies that boost knowledge retention. ALERT STUDENT is a platform that allows creation and distribution of Learning Objects named flashcards, and provides insight into student judgments-of-learning through a metric called 'recall accuracy'. This study aims to understand how the spaced-repetition and test-enhanced learning features provided by the platform affect recall accuracy, and to characterize the effect that students, flashcards and repetitions exert on this measurement. Three spaced laboratory sessions (s0, s1 and s2), were conducted with n=96 medical students. The intervention employed a study task, and a quiz task that consisted in mentally answering open-ended questions about each flashcard and grading recall accuracy. Students were randomized into study-quiz and quiz groups. On s0 both groups performed the quiz task. On s1 and s2, the study-quiz group performed the study task followed by the quiz task, whereas the quiz group only performed the quiz task. We measured differences in recall accuracy between groups/sessions, its variance components, and the G-coefficients for the flashcard component. At s0 there were no differences in recall accuracy between groups. The experiment group achieved a significant increase in recall accuracy that was superior to the quiz group in s1 and s2. In the study-quiz group, increases in recall accuracy were mainly due to the session, followed by flashcard factors and student factors. In the quiz group, increases in recall accuracy were mainly accounted by flashcard factors, followed by student and session factors. The flashcard G-coefficient indicated an agreement on recall accuracy of 91% in the quiz group, and of 47% in the study-quiz group. Recall accuracy is an easily collectible measurement that increases the educational value of Learning Objects and open-ended questions. This metric seems to vary in a way consistent with knowledge retention, but further

  6. Pulsating Star Mystery Solved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-11-01

    By discovering the first double star where a pulsating Cepheid variable and another star pass in front of one another, an international team of astronomers has solved a decades-old mystery. The rare alignment of the orbits of the two stars in the double star system has allowed a measurement of the Cepheid mass with unprecedented accuracy. Up to now astronomers had two incompatible theoretical predictions of Cepheid masses. The new result shows that the prediction from stellar pulsation theory is spot on, while the prediction from stellar evolution theory is at odds with the new observations. The new results, from a team led by Grzegorz Pietrzyński (Universidad de Concepción, Chile, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Poland), appear in the 25 November 2010 edition of the journal Nature. Grzegorz Pietrzyński introduces this remarkable result: "By using the HARPS instrument on the 3.6-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, along with other telescopes, we have measured the mass of a Cepheid with an accuracy far greater than any earlier estimates. This new result allows us to immediately see which of the two competing theories predicting the masses of Cepheids is correct." Classical Cepheid Variables, usually called just Cepheids, are unstable stars that are larger and much brighter than the Sun [1]. They expand and contract in a regular way, taking anything from a few days to months to complete the cycle. The time taken to brighten and grow fainter again is longer for stars that are more luminous and shorter for the dimmer ones. This remarkably precise relationship makes the study of Cepheids one of the most effective ways to measure the distances to nearby galaxies and from there to map out the scale of the whole Universe [2]. Unfortunately, despite their importance, Cepheids are not fully understood. Predictions of their masses derived from the theory of pulsating stars are 20-30% less than predictions from the theory of the

  7. Materials Analysis: A Key to Unlocking the Mystery of the Columbia Tragedy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayeaux, Brian M.; Collins, Thomas E.; Piascik, Robert S.; Russel, Richard W.; Jerman, Gregory A.; Shah, Sandeep R.; McDanels, Steven J.

    2004-01-01

    Materials analyses of key forensic evidence helped unlock the mystery of the loss of space shuttle Columbia that disintegrated February 1, 2003 while returning from a 16-day research mission. Following an intensive four-month recovery effort by federal, state, and local emergency management and law officials, Columbia debris was collected, catalogued, and reassembled at the Kennedy Space Center. Engineers and scientists from the Materials and Processes (M&P) team formed by NASA supported Columbia reconstruction efforts, provided factual data through analysis, and conducted experiments to validate the root cause of the accident. Fracture surfaces and thermal effects of selected airframe debris were assessed, and process flows for both nondestructive and destructive sampling and evaluation of debris were developed. The team also assessed left hand (LH) airframe components that were believed to be associated with a structural breach of Columbia. Analytical data collected by the M&P team showed that a significant thermal event occurred at the left wing leading edge in the proximity of LH reinforced carbon carbon (RCC) panels 8 and 9. The analysis also showed exposure to temperatures in excess of 1,649 C, which would severely degrade the support structure, tiles, and RCC panel materials. The integrated failure analysis of wing leading edge debris and deposits strongly supported the hypothesis that a breach occurred at LH RCC panel 8.

  8. Mysterious eclipses in the light curve of KIC8462852: a possible explanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neslušan, L.; Budaj, J.

    2017-04-01

    Context. Apart from thousands of "regular" exoplanet candidates, Kepler satellite has discovered a small number of stars exhibiting peculiar eclipse-like events. They are most probably caused by disintegrating bodies transiting in front of the star. However, the nature of the bodies and obscuration events, such as those observed in KIC 8462852, remain mysterious. A swarm of comets or artificial alien mega-structures have been proposed as an explanation for the latter object. Aims: We explore the possibility that such eclipses are caused by the dust clouds associated with massive parent bodies orbiting the host star. Methods: We assumed a massive object and a simple model of the dust cloud surrounding the object. Then, we used the numerical integration to simulate the evolution of the cloud, its parent body, and resulting light-curves as they orbit and transit the star. Results: We found that it is possible to reproduce the basic features in the light-curve of KIC 8462852 with only four objects enshrouded in dust clouds. The fact that they are all on similar orbits and that such models require only a handful of free parameters provides additional support for this hypothesis. Conclusions: This model provides an alternative to the comet scenario. With such physical models at hand, at present, there is no need to invoke alien mega-structures for an explanation of these light-curves.

  9. Dark Matter Mystery Deepens in Cosmic "Train Wreck"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-08-01

    Astronomers have discovered a chaotic scene unlike any witnessed before in a cosmic "train wreck" between giant galaxy clusters. NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and optical telescopes revealed a dark matter core that was mostly devoid of galaxies, which may pose problems for current theories of dark matter behavior. "These results challenge our understanding of the way clusters merge," said Dr. Andisheh Mahdavi of the University of Victoria, British Columbia. "Or, they possibly make us even reexamine the nature of dark matter itself." There are three main components to galaxy clusters: individual galaxies composed of billions of stars, hot gas in between the galaxies, and dark matter, a mysterious substance that dominates the cluster mass and can be detected only through its gravitational effects. Illustration of Abell 520 System Illustration of Abell 520 System Optical telescopes can observe the starlight from the individual galaxies, and can infer the location of dark matter by its subtle light-bending effects on distant galaxies. X-ray telescopes like Chandra detect the multimillion-degree gas. A popular theory of dark matter predicts that dark matter and galaxies should stay together, even during a violent collision, as observed in the case of the so-called Bullet Cluster. However, when the Chandra data of the galaxy cluster system known as Abell 520 was mapped along with the optical data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and Subaru Telescope atop Mauna Kea, HI, a puzzling picture emerged. A dark matter core was found, which also contained hot gas but no bright galaxies. "It blew us away that it looks like the galaxies are removed from the densest core of dark matter," said Dr. Hendrik Hoekstra, also of University of Victoria. "This would be the first time we've seen such a thing and could be a huge test of our knowledge of how dark matter behaves." Animation of Galaxy Cluster Animation of Galaxy Cluster In addition to the dark matter core, a

  10. Biotrophy at Its Best: Novel Findings and Unsolved Mysteries of the Arabidopsis-Powdery Mildew Pathosystem.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Hannah; Kwaaitaal, Mark; Kusch, Stefan; Acevedo-Garcia, Johanna; Wu, Hongpo; Panstruga, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted in plant-microbe interactions research that disease is the exception rather than a common outcome of pathogen attack. However, in nature, plants with symptoms that signify colonization by obligate biotrophic powdery mildew fungi are omnipresent. The pervasiveness of the disease and the fact that many economically important plants are prone to infection by powdery mildew fungi drives research on this interaction. The competence of powdery mildew fungi to establish and maintain true biotrophic relationships renders the interaction a paramount example of a pathogenic plant-microbe biotrophy. However, molecular details underlying the interaction are in many respects still a mystery. Since its introduction in 1990, the Arabidopsis-powdery mildew pathosystem has become a popular model to study molecular processes governing powdery mildew infection. Due to the many advantages that the host Arabidopsis offers in terms of molecular and genetic tools this pathosystem has great capacity to answer some of the questions of how biotrophic pathogens overcome plant defense and establish a persistent interaction that nourishes the invader while in parallel maintaining viability of the plant host.

  11. Biotrophy at Its Best: Novel Findings and Unsolved Mysteries of the Arabidopsis-Powdery Mildew Pathosystem

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Hannah; Kwaaitaal, Mark; Kusch, Stefan; Acevedo-Garcia, Johanna; Wu, Hongpo; Panstruga, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted in plant-microbe interactions research that disease is the exception rather than a common outcome of pathogen attack. However, in nature, plants with symptoms that signify colonization by obligate biotrophic powdery mildew fungi are omnipresent. The pervasiveness of the disease and the fact that many economically important plants are prone to infection by powdery mildew fungi drives research on this interaction. The competence of powdery mildew fungi to establish and maintain true biotrophic relationships renders the interaction a paramount example of a pathogenic plant-microbe biotrophy. However, molecular details underlying the interaction are in many respects still a mystery. Since its introduction in 1990, the Arabidopsis-powdery mildew pathosystem has become a popular model to study molecular processes governing powdery mildew infection. Due to the many advantages that the host Arabidopsis offers in terms of molecular and genetic tools this pathosystem has great capacity to answer some of the questions of how biotrophic pathogens overcome plant defense and establish a persistent interaction that nourishes the invader while in parallel maintaining viability of the plant host. PMID:27489521

  12. Mystery spot in supernova 1987A - Reflection or fluorescence by an interstellar cloud?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felten, James E.; Dwek, Eli; Viegas-Aldrovandi, Sueli M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper explores fluorescence and reflection models of the companion to SN 1987A obseved by speckle interferometry, recalling a 1901 precedent. The apparent small angular size of the companion is a severe constraint. A fluorescence model cannot reach the observed brightness unless the ultraviolet burst from the supernova contained as many as 2 x 10 to the 58th ionizing photons. This is about 25 times stronger than generous current models. Even then, the expected line ratios and widths do not fit the observations. The absence of narrow H-alpha and H-beta lines in the supernova spectrum, the ratio of fluxes of the companion in H-alpha and forbidden N II line filters, the invisibility of the companion at 4861 (H-beta), and its detection at 5330 fail to agree with theory. A dust-reflection model is more promising, and the color can be reddened by the evaporation of small grains, but the model still falls more than about 1 mag short in brightness. Furthermore, a dust reflection should have increased in relative brightness in May-June 1987, rather than disappearing as the mystery spot did. If all the observations are correct, neither model is likely to work.

  13. A microscopic solution to the magnetic detwinning mystery in EuFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiwald, J.; Mazin, I. I.; Nandi, S.; Xiao, Y.; Gegenwart, P.

    One of the greatest recent advances in studying nematic phenomena in Fe-based superconductors was the mechanical detwinning of the 122-family compounds. Unfortunately, these techniques generate considerable stress in the investigated samples, which contaminates the results. Recently, we observed that a minuscule magnetic field of the order of 0.1 T irreversibly and persistently detwins EuFe2As2, opening an entirely new avenue for addressing nematicity. However, further development was hindered by the absence of a microscopic theory explaining this magnetic detwinning. In fact, Eu2+ has zero orbital moment and does not couple to the lattice, and its exchange coupling with the Fe sublattice cancels by symmetry. Moreover, further increase of the field to 1 T leads to a reorientation of Fe domains, while even larger fields 10 T reorient the domains once again. We will present a new microscopic model, based on a sizable biquadratic coupling between the Fe 3 d and Eu 4 f moments. This model quantitatively explains our old and new magnetization and neutron diffraction data, thus removing the veil of mystery and finally opening the door to full-scale research into magnetic detwinning and nematicity in Fe-based superconductors.

  14. Characterizing Mystery Cell Lines: Student-driven Research Projects in an Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Course

    PubMed Central

    Lemons, Michele L.

    2012-01-01

    Inquiry-based projects promote discovery and retention of key concepts, increase student engagement, and stimulate interest in research. Described here are a series of lab exercises within an undergraduate upper level neuroscience course that train students to design, execute and analyze their own hypothesis-driven research project. Prior to developing their own projects, students learn several research techniques including aseptic cell culture, cell line maintenance, immunocytochemistry and fluorescent microscopy. Working in groups, students choose how to use these techniques to characterize and identify a “mystery” cell line. Each lab group is given a unique cell line with either a neural, astrocyte, or Schwann cell origin. Working together, students plan and execute experiments to determine the cellular origin and other unique characteristics of their mystery cell line. Students generate testable hypotheses, design interpretable experiments, generate and analyze data, and report their findings in both oral and written formats. Students receive instructor and peer feedback throughout the entire project. In summary, these labs train students the process of scientific research. This series of lab exercises received very strong positive feedback from the students. Reflections on student feedback and plans for future improvements are discussed. PMID:23504583

  15. Researchers Resolve Intermediate Mass Black Hole Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-04-01

    New research, funded by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Advanced Physical and Chemical Research, NASA and the University of Tokyo, solved the mystery of how a black hole, with the mass more than several hundreds times larger than that of our Sun, could be formed in the nearby starburst galaxy, M82. Recent observations of the Chandra X-ray observatory (Matsumoto et al., 2001 ApJ 547, L25) indicate the presence of an unusually bright source in the star cluster MGG11 in the starburst galaxy M82. The properties of the X-ray source are best explained by a black hole with a mass of about a thousand times the mass of the Sun, placing it intermediate between the relatively small (stellar mass) black holes in the Milky way Galaxy and the supermassive black holes found in the nuclei of galaxies. For comparison, stellar-mass black holes are only a few times more massive than the Sun, whereas the black hole in the center of the Milky-way Galaxy is more than a few million times more massive than the Sun. An international team of researchers, using the world's fastest computer, the GRAPE-6 system in Japan, were engaged in a series of simulations of star clusters that resembled MGG11. They used the GRAPE-6 to perform simulations with two independently developed computer programs (Starlab and NBODY4 developed by Sverre Aarseth in Cambridge), both of which give the same qualitative result. The simulations ware initiated by high resolution observations of the star cluster MGG11 by McCrady et al (2003, ApJ 596, 240) using the Hubble Space Telescope and Keck, and by Harashima et al (2001) using the giant Subaru telescope. M82 Chandra X-ray image of the central region of the starburst galaxy M82. The GRAPE's detailed, star-by-star simulations represent the state of the art in cluster modeling. For the first time using the GRAPE, researchers perform simulations of the evolution of young and dense star clusters with up to 600000 stars; they calculate the

  16. Enceladus Warm Baghdad Sulcus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-23

    This image, combining data from the imaging science subsystem and composite infrared spectrometer aboard NASA Cassini spacecraft, shows pockets of heat appearing along one of the mysterious fractures in the south polar region of Saturn moon Enceladus

  17. Imaging quasiperiodic electronic states in a synthetic Penrose tiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Laura C.; Witte, Thomas G.; Silverman, Rochelle; Green, David B.; Gomes, Kenjiro K.

    2017-06-01

    Quasicrystals possess long-range order but lack the translational symmetry of crystalline solids. In solid state physics, periodicity is one of the fundamental properties that prescribes the electronic band structure in crystals. In the absence of periodicity and the presence of quasicrystalline order, the ways that electronic states change remain a mystery. Scanning tunnelling microscopy and atomic manipulation can be used to assemble a two-dimensional quasicrystalline structure mapped upon the Penrose tiling. Here, carbon monoxide molecules are arranged on the surface of Cu(111) one at a time to form the potential landscape that mimics the ionic potential of atoms in natural materials by constraining the electrons in the two-dimensional surface state of Cu(111). The real-space images reveal the presence of the quasiperiodic order in the electronic wave functions and the Fourier analysis of our results links the energy of the resonant states to the local vertex structure of the quasicrystal.

  18. Imaging quasiperiodic electronic states in a synthetic Penrose tiling.

    PubMed

    Collins, Laura C; Witte, Thomas G; Silverman, Rochelle; Green, David B; Gomes, Kenjiro K

    2017-06-22

    Quasicrystals possess long-range order but lack the translational symmetry of crystalline solids. In solid state physics, periodicity is one of the fundamental properties that prescribes the electronic band structure in crystals. In the absence of periodicity and the presence of quasicrystalline order, the ways that electronic states change remain a mystery. Scanning tunnelling microscopy and atomic manipulation can be used to assemble a two-dimensional quasicrystalline structure mapped upon the Penrose tiling. Here, carbon monoxide molecules are arranged on the surface of Cu(111) one at a time to form the potential landscape that mimics the ionic potential of atoms in natural materials by constraining the electrons in the two-dimensional surface state of Cu(111). The real-space images reveal the presence of the quasiperiodic order in the electronic wave functions and the Fourier analysis of our results links the energy of the resonant states to the local vertex structure of the quasicrystal.

  19. The Mysterious sdO X-ray Binary BD+37°442

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, U.; Geier, S.; Irrgang, A.; Schneider, D.; Barbu-Barna, I.; Mereghetti, S.; La Palombara, N.

    2014-04-01

    Pulsed X-ray emission in the luminous, helium-rich sdO BD +37°442 has recently been discovered (La Palombara et al. 2012). It was suggested that the sdO star has a neutron star or white dwarf companion with a spin period of 19.2 s. After HD 49798, which has a massive white dwarf companion spinning at 13.2 s in an 1.55 day orbit, this is only the second O-type subdwarf from which X-ray emission has been detected. We report preliminary results of our ongoing campaign to obtain time-resolved high-resolution spectroscopy using the CAFE instrument at Calar Alto observatory and SARG at the Telescopio Nationale Galileo. Atmospheric parameters were derived via a quantitative NLTE spectral analysis. The line fits hint at an unusually large projected rotation velocity. Therefore it seemed likely that BD +37°442 is a binary similar to HD 49798 and that the orbital period is also similar. The level of X-ray emission from BD +37°442 could be explained by accretion from the sdO wind by a neutron star orbiting at a period of less than ten days. Hence, we embarked on radial velocity monitoring in order to derive the binary parameters of the BD+37°442 system and obtained 41 spectra spread out over several month in 2012. Unlike for HD 49798, no radial velocity variations were found and, hence, there is no dynamical evidence for the existence of a compact companion yet. The origin of the pulsed X-ray emission remains as a mystery.

  20. The use of mystery shopping for quality assurance evaluations of HIV/STI testing sites offering services to young gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A; Pingel, Emily S; Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura; Meanley, Steven; Alapati, Deepak; Moore, Michael; Lowther, Matthew; Wade, Ryan; Harper, Gary W

    2015-10-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at increased risk for HIV and STI infection. While encouraging HIV and STI testing among YMSM remains a public health priority, we know little about the cultural competency of providers offering HIV/STI tests to YMSM in public clinics. As part of a larger intervention study, we employed a mystery shopper methodology to evaluate the LGBT cultural competency and quality of services offered in HIV and STI testing sites in Southeast Michigan (n = 43).We trained and deployed mystery shoppers (n = 5) to evaluate the HIV and STI testing sites by undergoing routine HIV/STI testing. Two shoppers visited each site, recording their experiences using a checklist that assessed 13 domains, including the clinic's structural characteristics and interactions with testing providers. We used the site scores to examine the checklist's psychometric properties and tested whether site evaluations differed between sites only offering HIV testing (n = 14) versus those offering comprehensive HIV/STI testing (n = 29). On average, site scores were positive across domains. In bivariate comparisons by type of testing site, HIV testing sites were more likely than comprehensive HIV/STI testing clinics to ascertain experiences of intimate partner violence, offer action steps to achieve safer sex goals, and provide safer sex education. The developed checklist may be used as a quality assurance indicator to measure HIV/STI testing sites' performance when working with YMSM. Our findings also underscore the need to bolster providers' provision of safer sex education and behavioral counseling within comprehensive HIV/STI testing sites.

  1. Taking the Mystery Out of Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Donald A.

    1982-01-01

    Seeks to clarify the marketing process in the promotion of a school's educational offerings and the school's image within the community. Divides activities into advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, and publicity. Includes a sample promotional plan which identifies objectives and tasks required for development and implementation. (DMM)

  2. Expanding Empathy in Our Clinical Work: A Response to Wickramasekera II's (2015) "Mysteries of Hypnosis and the Self Are Revealed by the Psychology and Neuroscience of Empathy.".

    PubMed

    Kaklauskas, Francis J; Clements, Carla June

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is a central tenet of psychotherapeutic process. This article builds upon Wickramasekera II's (2015) "Mysteries of Hypnosis and the Self are Revealed by the Psychology and Neuroscience of Empathy," with particular focus on "empathetic involvement theory." A brief transtheoretical and research review of empathy is provided. A couple's therapy case illustration is provided to elucidate how one can expand "empathetic involvement theory" into clinical practice. Emphasis is placed upon the dimensions of sensation and body/mind connectedness.

  3. Tooling Techniques Enhance Medical Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    They can release as much energy as tens of billions of hydrogen bombs exploding at the same time. They send protons and electrons rocketing at near the speed of light. They heat gas in the Sun s atmosphere to tens of millions of degrees Celsius. They send a blast of gas and particles toward Earth, posing a danger to spacecraft and astronauts outside the planet s magnetosphere, in rare cases even knocking out radio communications and power grids on the ground. They are so-called solar eruptive events, made up of solar flares and the often associated coronal mass ejections. Because of the scientific mystery of how these solar eruptions are produced on the Sun with such scale and force, and also the major role they play in space weather that can impact life on Earth, NASA researchers have innovated new methods of gathering information about these violent events. One NASA mission, the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) has significantly advanced understanding of solar flares since its launch in 2002. RHESSI scientists use the spacecraft s imaging spectrometer to piece together pictures of solar flares from the high-energy X-ray and gamma-ray radiation they emit. While there is still much to be learned, data gathered by RHESSI has revealed how magnetic fields in the vast expanse of the solar atmosphere may be the force that drives the immense explosions. The instrument has imaged around 50,000 flares to date, providing information that may explain not only the workings of solar flares but also of much more massive energy releases from distant objects like black holes and quasars. We have been able to make images from X-rays with much finer resolution and greater sensitivity than have ever been made before, says Brian Dennis, RHESSI Mission Scientist and astrophysicist in the Solar Physics Laboratory at Goddard Space Flight Center. The key to RHESSI s unprecedented capabilities lie in a set of essential components a NASA partner created for the

  4. A standardized online clinical education and assessment tool for neurology clerkship students assigned to multiple sites.

    PubMed

    Holland, Neil R; Grinberg, Ilya; Tabby, David

    2014-01-01

    The Drexel neurology clerkship experience can vary from large groups at a university hospital inpatient unit to smaller groups at private physician offices. Evaluations are based on the site director's subjective assessment and performance on the National Board of Medical Examiners neurology shelf examination. We are developing a standardized online clinical neurology course and quiz for the whole clerkship. We piloted the course and quiz at a single site for one academic year and compared their test scores with a control group of students at other clerkship sites who took the online quiz without viewing the course. Students at the pilot site achieved higher scores both on the neurology shelf examination and the clinical quiz and also reported higher teaching satisfaction scores than students at all other sites. There was a 97 % participation rate in the online quiz from the other sites. Use of this online course and quiz provides effective standardized clinical neurology teaching and evaluation that can be applied to students across multiple sites.

  5. Origin of the mysterious Yin-Shang bronzes in China indicated by lead isotopes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei-dong; Zhang, Li-peng; Guo, Jia; Li, Cong-ying; Jiang, Yu-hang; Zartman, Robert E; Zhang, Zhao-feng

    2016-03-18

    Fine Yin-Shang bronzes containing lead with puzzlingly highly radiogenic isotopic compositions appeared suddenly in the alluvial plain of the Yellow River around 1400 BC. The Tongkuangyu copper deposit in central China is known to have lead isotopic compositions even more radiogenic and scattered than those of the Yin-Shang bronzes. Most of the Yin-Shang bronzes are tin-copper alloys with high lead contents. The low lead and tin concentrations, together with the less radiogenic lead isotopes of bronzes in an ancient smelting site nearby, however, exclude Tongkuangyu as the sole supplier of the Yin-Shang bronzes. Interestingly, tin ingots/prills and bronzes found in Africa also have highly radiogenic lead isotopes, but it remains mysterious as to how such African bronzes may have been transported to China. Nevertheless, these African bronzes are the only bronzes outside China so far reported that have lead isotopes similar to those of the Yin-Shang bronzes. All these radiogenic lead isotopes plot along ~2.0-2.5 Ga isochron lines, implying that deposits around Archean cratons are the most likely candidates for the sources. African cratons along the Nile and even micro-cratons in the Sahara desert may have similar lead signatures. These places were probably accessible by ancient civilizations, and thus are the most favorable suppliers of the bronzes.

  6. Origin of the mysterious Yin-Shang bronzes in China indicated by lead isotopes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei-dong; Zhang, Li-peng; Guo, Jia; Li, Cong-ying; Jiang, Yu-hang; Zartman, Robert E.; Zhang, Zhao-feng

    2016-01-01

    Fine Yin-Shang bronzes containing lead with puzzlingly highly radiogenic isotopic compositions appeared suddenly in the alluvial plain of the Yellow River around 1400 BC. The Tongkuangyu copper deposit in central China is known to have lead isotopic compositions even more radiogenic and scattered than those of the Yin-Shang bronzes. Most of the Yin-Shang bronzes are tin-copper alloys with high lead contents. The low lead and tin concentrations, together with the less radiogenic lead isotopes of bronzes in an ancient smelting site nearby, however, exclude Tongkuangyu as the sole supplier of the Yin-Shang bronzes. Interestingly, tin ingots/prills and bronzes found in Africa also have highly radiogenic lead isotopes, but it remains mysterious as to how such African bronzes may have been transported to China. Nevertheless, these African bronzes are the only bronzes outside China so far reported that have lead isotopes similar to those of the Yin-Shang bronzes. All these radiogenic lead isotopes plot along ~2.0–2.5 Ga isochron lines, implying that deposits around Archean cratons are the most likely candidates for the sources. African cratons along the Nile and even micro-cratons in the Sahara desert may have similar lead signatures. These places were probably accessible by ancient civilizations, and thus are the most favorable suppliers of the bronzes. PMID:26988425

  7. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AT z ∼ 2: THE MYSTERY OF NEON

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zeimann, Gregory R.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gebhardt, Henry

    2015-01-01

    We use near-infrared grism spectroscopy from the Hubble Space Telescope to examine the strength of [Ne III] λ3869 relative to Hβ, [O II] λ3727, and [O III] λ5007 in 236 low-mass (7.5 ≲ log (M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ≲ 10.5) star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 1.90 < z < 2.35. By stacking the data by stellar mass, we show that the [Ne III]/[O II] ratios of the z ∼ 2 universe are marginally higher than those seen in a comparable set of local Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies, and that [Ne III]/[O III] is enhanced by ∼0.2 dex.more » We consider the possible explanations for this ∼4σ result, including higher oxygen depletion out of the gas phase, denser H II regions, higher production of {sup 22}Ne via Wolf-Rayet stars, and the existence of a larger population of X-ray obscured active galactic nuclei at z ∼ 2 compared to z ∼ 0. None of these simple scenarios, alone, are favored to explain the observed line ratios. We conclude by suggesting several avenues of future observations to further explore the mystery of enhanced [Ne III] emission.« less

  8. The Knowledge-about-Older-Patients - Quiz (KOP-Q) for nurses: Cross-cultural validation between the Netherlands and United States of America.

    PubMed

    Dikken, Jeroen; Hoogerduijn, Jita G; Klaassen, Sharon; Lagerwey, Mary D; Shortridge-Baggett, Lillie; Schuurmans, Marieke J

    2017-08-01

    The Knowledge about Older Patients-Quiz (KOP-Q) is designed as a unidimensional scale measuring knowledge of hospital nurses about older patients. Furthermore, the KOP-Q measures a second unidimensional construct, certainty of hospital nurses about their knowledge. The KOP-Q is developed and validated in the Netherlands. Whether the KOP-Q can be used in other countries is unknown given the cultural and language differences. Investigate the level of measurement invariance of the KOP-Q between the Netherlands and United States of America (USA). A multicenter international cross-sectional design. Four general hospitals in the Netherlands and four general hospitals in the USA. Nurses from the Netherlands (n=201) and the USA (n=130) were invited to participate by email from the ward manager, distributing flyers and present messages on the online hospital communication boards. Questions of the KOP-Q were completed online. The level of measurement invariance (configural, metric or scalar invariance) across countries was tested by running increasingly constrained structural equation models, and testing whether these models fitted the data. Both the knowledge and certainty construct of the KOP-Q proved unidimensional in the Netherlands and USA sample. Test results of the measurement invariance across the Netherlands and USA indicated a stable, partial scalar invariance (15 items full scalar invariance) for the knowledge items and full scalar invariance for the certainty items. The KOP-Q shows to function uniformly across both language groups and can therefore be used to assess nurses' knowledge and their certainty about this knowledge which can be important for educational and/or quality improvement programs in the USA. Furthermore, the KOP-Q is suitable to make comparisons between the Netherlands and the USA using latent variable models. Before the KOP-Q can be used in other countries, cross-cultural tests should again be performed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  9. Planet engulfment and the planetary nebula morphology mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Laura A.

    2018-04-01

    of ≃ 21.5% of all PNe currently visible in the galaxy. The overall conclusion from this work is that while planet engulfment can explain a small fraction of the observed population of non-spherical PNe (≃ 7%), the hypothesis is not capable of resolving the mystery of the unexplained population of non-spherical planetary nebula morphologies. This conclusion adds support to the emerging view that not all low-to-intermediate mass stars can form visible PNe.

  10. Image of the Quasar 3C 273 Taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This image is an observation of Quasar 3C 273 by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2/Einstein Observatory. It reveals the presence of a new source (upper left) with a red shift that indicates that it is about 10 billion light years away. Quasars are mysterious, bright, star-like objects apparently located at the very edge of the visible universe. Although no bigger than our solar system, they radiate as much visible light as a thousand galaxies. Quasars also emit radio signals and were previously recognized as x-ray sources. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2 was designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  11. Skin Allergy Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... long time. True False False: This is called contact dermatitis, which is often due to nickel. Question 9 ... dermatitis. True False True: This is called Irritant contact dermatitis which is more common than allergic contact dermatitis. ...

  12. Cool Cow Quiz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosa, Bill

    1988-01-01

    Provides a game to help develop the skill of estimating and making educated guesses. Uses facts about cows to explain some problems associated with the dairy industry. Includes cards and rules for playing, class adaptation procedures, follow-up activities, and availability of background information on humane concerns. (RT)

  13. Pet Allergy Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center Fellows-in-Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Management Tips Practice Management Workshop Practice Tools Running ...

  14. Skin Allergy Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... You answered questions correctly. Learn more about skin allergy symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and management. Utility navigation Donate Annual ... allergist / immunologist Journals Login / My membership Search your symptoms Shop the AAAAI ... American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology 555 East Wells Street Suite 1100, ...

  15. Credit Card Quiz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students design credit cards and discover for themselves the mathematical realities of buying on credit. Employs multiple-intelligence theory to increase the chance that all students will be reached. (YDS)

  16. Allergic Rhinitis Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... the AAAAI Foundation Donate Utility navigation Español Journals Pollen Counts Annual Meeting Member Login / My Membership Search ... not a trigger for hay fever symptoms: Tree pollen Ragweed Hay Certain types of grass They all ...

  17. Secondhand Smoke Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... laws were passed banning smoking in bars and restaurants there was a large decline within a couple ... c) Heart attacks d) Colds and flu in restaurant workers Together we are strong enough to quit ...

  18. Allergic Rhinitis Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... hay fever. Symptoms can be seasonal or year-round and make you miserable. These annoying symptoms interfere ... typically spring and fall). When symptoms are year-round, the medical term for hay fever is perennial ...

  19. Pet Allergy Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... of U.S. households include a member of the dog or cat family. Yet, millions of people suffer ... of the following breeds is considered a hypoallergenic dog? Poodle Beagle Terrier All of the above None ...

  20. Picture Quiz (questions).

    PubMed

    Chatha, Hamid Aizaz; Nakash, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    A 75-year-old man was referred to hospital with a 24 hour history of severe neck pain, associated with fever, rigors and mild confusion. The pain radiated into his arms and was exacerbated by neck movements. Eight days prior to admission he had developed loose stools for 3 days. There was no history of trauma, and no other features of meningism. He gave a past history of ischemic heart disease and atrial fibrillation for which he was taking warfarin. Examination revealed a pyrexia of 38.3°C. There was tenderness over the cervical spine but no other positive findings. Neurological examination was unremarkable.

  1. Unmasking a Hidden Glow

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-24

    The image on the left shows a portion of our sky, called the Boötes field, in infrared light, while the image on the right shows a mysterious, background infrared glow captured by NASA Spitzer Space Telescope in the same region of sky.

  2. Image Processor Electronics (IPE): The High-Performance Computing System for NASA SWIFT Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang H.; Settles, Beverly A.

    2003-01-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are believed to be the most powerful explosions that have occurred in the Universe since the Big Bang and are a mystery to the scientific community. Swift, a NASA mission that includes international participation, was designed and built in preparation for a 2003 launch to help to determine the origin of Gamma Ray Bursts. Locating the position in the sky where a burst originates requires intensive computing, because the duration of a GRB can range between a few milliseconds up to approximately a minute. The instrument data system must constantly accept multiple images representing large regions of the sky that are generated by sixteen gamma ray detectors operating in parallel. It then must process the received images very quickly in order to determine the existence of possible gamma ray bursts and their locations. The high-performance instrument data computing system that accomplishes this is called the Image Processor Electronics (IPE). The IPE was designed, built and tested by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in order to meet these challenging requirements. The IPE is a small size, low power and high performing computing system for space applications. This paper addresses the system implementation and the system hardware architecture of the IPE. The paper concludes with the IPE system performance that was measured during end-to-end system testing.

  3. Applications of penetrating radiation for small animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Bruce H.; Wu, Max C.; Iwata, Koji; Hwang, Andrew B.; Wong, Kenneth H.; Barber, William C.; Dae, Michael W.; Sakdinawat, Anne E.

    2002-11-01

    Researchers long have relied on research involving small animals to unravel scientific mysteries in the biological sciences, and to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques in the medical and health sciences. Within the past 2 decades, new techniques have been developed to manipulate the genome of the mouse, allowing the development of transgenic and knockout models of mammalian and human disease, development, and physiology. Traditionally, much biological research involving small animals has relied on the use of invasive methods such as organ harvesting, tissue sampling, and autoradiography during which the animal was sacrificed to perform a single measurement. More recently, imaging techniques have been developed that assess anatomy and physiology in the intact animal, in a way that allows the investigator to follow the progression of disease, or to monitor the response to therapeutic interventions. Imaging techniques that use penetrating radiation at millimeter or submillimeter levels to image small animals include x-ray computed tomography (microCT), single-photon emission computed tomography (microSPECT), and imaging positron emission computed tomography (microPET). MicroCT generates cross-sectional slices which reveal the structure of the object with spatial resolution in the range of 50 to 100 microns. MicroSPECT and microPET are radionuclide imaging techniques in which a radiopharmaceutical is injected into the animal that is accumulated to metabolism, blood flow, bone remodeling, tumor growth, or other biological processes. Both microSPECT and microPET offer spatial resolutions in the range of 1-2 millimeters. However, microPET records annihilation photons produced by a positron-emitting radiopharmaceutical using electronic coincidence, and has a sensitivity approximately two orders of magnitude better than microSPECT, while microSPECT is compatible with gamma-ray emitting radiopharmaceuticals that are less expensive and more readily available

  4. Hubble Witnesses an Asteroid Mysteriously Disintegrating

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-06

    Though fragile comet nuclei have been seen falling apart as they near the Sun, nothing like the slow breakup of an asteroid has ever before been observed in the asteroid belt. A series of Hubble Space Telescope images shows that the fragments are drifting away from each other at a leisurely one mile per hour. This makes it unlikely that the asteroid is disintegrating because of a collision with another asteroid. A plausible explanation is that the asteroid is crumbling due to a subtle effect of sunlight. This causes the rotation rate to slowly increase until centrifugal force pulls the asteroid apart. The asteroid's remnant debris, weighing in at 200,000 tons, will in the future provide a rich source of meteoroids. Hubble Observation of P/2013 R3 - November 15, 2013 Credit: NASA, ESA, and D. Jewitt (University of California, Los Angeles) Read more: 1.usa.gov/1ig2E0x NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  5. Hubble Witnesses an Asteroid Mysteriously Disintegrating

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-06

    This series of images shows the asteroid P/2013 R3 breaking apart, as viewed by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope in 2013. This is the first time that such a body has been seen to undergo this kind of break-up. The Hubble observations showed that there are ten distinct objects, each with comet-like dust tails, embedded within the asteroid's dusty envelope. The four largest rocky fragments are up to 200 metres in radius, about twice the length of a football pitch. The date increases from left to right, with frames from 29 October 2013, 15 November 2013, 13 December 2013, and 14 January 2014 respectively, showing how the clumps of debris material move around. The 14 January 2014 frame was not included in the science paper and is additional data. Credit: NASA, ESA, D. Jewitt (UCLA) Read more: 1.usa.gov/1ig2E0x NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  6. [A brief history of the anatomy and physiology of a mysterious and hidden gland called the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Navarro, Salvador

    2014-11-01

    Because of its retrogastric location and appearance, which is similar to mesenteric fat, for centuries the pancreas has been a mysterious, hidden organ that has received little attention. However, its importance was intuited and described by Herophilus, Ruphos of Ephesus and Galen. This gland began to appearin distinct medical treatises from the 16th century. There are two important scientists in the history of the pancreas. The fist, Johann Georg Wirsung, described the main pancreatic duct in 1642, a date considered by many to be the start of Pancreatology. The second, Claude Bernard, described pancreatic exocrine function between 1849 and 1856 and is considered the father of pancreatic physiology. Besides these two outstanding figures, there is a constellation of personalities who contributed to improving knowledge of this enigmatic gland with the results of their studies. The aim of this article is to call attention to some of the most notable findings that have enhanced knowledge of this gland over the years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  7. A forensic hypothesis for the mystery of al-Hasan’s death in the 7th century: Mercury(I) chloride intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Nicole; Golas, Mitchell; Raafat, Cyrus L.

    2015-01-01

    The puzzle of a mysterious death in the Middle Ages has been hypothesized in terms of contemporary forensic legal and scientific methods. That al-Hasan ibn-‘Ali died in 669 aged just 45 has been forensically analyzed based on written sources that dictate eyewitness accounts of historical events. The report of the contemporaneous poisoning of another individual who resided under the same household as al-Hasan’s and experienced similar, yet non-lethal, symptoms has served as the beginning of the analysis. In light of ancient (medieval) documents and through using mineralogical, medical, and chemical facts, it has been hypothesized that mineral calomel (mercury(I) chloride, Hg2Cl2) from a certain region in the Byzantine Empire (present-day western Turkey) was the substance primarily responsible for the murder of al-Hasan. PMID:26377933

  8. Moving Knowledge Acquisition From the Lecture Hall to the Student Home: A Prospective Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    Raupach, Tobias; Grefe, Clemens; Brown, Jamie; Meyer, Katharina; Schuelper, Nikolai; Anders, Sven

    2015-09-28

    Podcasts are popular with medical students, but the impact of podcast use on learning outcomes in undergraduate medical education has not been studied in detail. Our aim was to assess the impact of podcasts accompanied by quiz questions and lecture attendance on short- and medium-term knowledge retention. Students enrolled for a cardio-respiratory teaching module were asked to prepare for 10 specific lectures by watching podcasts and submitting answers to related quiz questions before attending live lectures. Performance on the same questions was assessed in a surprise test and a retention test. Watching podcasts and submitting answers to quiz questions (versus no podcast/quiz use) was associated with significantly better test performance in all items in the surprise test and 7 items in the retention test. Lecture attendance (versus no attendance) was associated with higher test performance in 3 items and 1 item, respectively. In a linear regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, and overall performance levels, both podcast/quiz use and lecture attendance were significant predictors of student performance. However, the variance explained by podcast/quiz use was greater than the variance explained by lecture attendance in the surprise test (38.7% vs. 2.2%) and retention test (19.1% vs. 4.0%). When used in conjunction with quiz questions, podcasts have the potential to foster knowledge acquisition and retention over and above the effect of live lectures.

  9. Community pharmacists providing emergency contraception give little advice about future contraceptive use: a mystery shopper study.

    PubMed

    Glasier, Anna; Manners, Rachel; Loudon, Joanna C; Muir, Aileen

    2010-12-01

    UK women increasingly prefer to attend a pharmacy for emergency contraception (EC) rather than a doctor. Most women who use EC do not conceive and remain at risk of pregnancy unless they start regular contraception. We undertook a study to evaluate the quality of service provision in community pharmacies in Lothian, Scotland, and to determine what advice is given about contraception after EC use. Mystery shopper study. EC was unobtainable from 5/40 pharmacies (12.5%), refused because of "contraindications" in 7 (17.5%) and offered in 28 (70%). Most pharmacists appeared nonjudgemental, over 75% asked appropriate questions about eligibility, and over 90% gave appropriate advice about use. EC was universally refused beyond 72 h after sex but universally provided when the date of the last menstrual period was uncertain. Ongoing contraception after EC use was discussed in only 32.5% of all pharmacies and only 43% of those issuing EC. The quality of consultations for EC in pharmacies is generally good but only a minority discuss ongoing contraception after EC use. The implications for contraceptive use and unintended pregnancy rates are worrying. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Unraveling the Mystery of the Blue Fog: Structure, Properties, and Applications of Amorphous Blue Phase III.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Sahil Sandesh; Chien, Liang-Chy

    2017-12-01

    The amorphous blue phase III of cholesteric liquid crystals, also known as the "blue fog," are among the rising stars in materials science that can potentially be used to develop next-generation displays with the ability to compete toe-to-toe with disruptive technologies like organic light-emitting diodes. The structure and properties of the practically unobservable blue phase III have eluded scientists for more than a century since it was discovered. This progress report reviews the developments in this field from both fundamental and applied research perspectives. The first part of this progress report gives an overview of the 130-years-long scientific tour-de-force that very recently resulted in the revelation of the mysterious structure of blue phase III. The second part reviews progress made in the past decade in developing electrooptical, optical, and photonic devices based on blue phase III. The strong and weak aspects of the development of these devices are underlined and criticized, respectively. The third- and-final part proposes ideas for further improvement in blue phase III technology to make it feasible for commercialization and widespread use. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Image of Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Chandra X-Ray Observatory image of the mysterious superstar Eta Carinae reveals a surprising hot irner core, creating more questions than answers for astronomers. The image shows three distinct structures: An outer, horseshoe shaped ring about 2 light-years in diameter, a hot inner core about 3 light-months in diameter, and a hot central source less than a light-month in diameter which may contain the superstar. In 1 month, light travels a distance of approximately 489 billion miles (about 788 billion kilometers). All three structures are thought to represent shock waves produced by matter rushing away from the superstar at supersonic speeds. The temperature of the shock-heated gas ranges from 60 million degrees Kelvin in the central regions to 7 million degrees Kelvin on the outer structure. Eta Carinae is one of the most enigmatic and intriguing objects in our galaxy. Between 1837 and 1856, it increased dramatically in brightness to become the most prominent star in the sky except for Sirius, even through it is 7,500 light-years away, more than 80 times the distance to Sirius. This 'Great Eruption,' as it is called, had an energy comparable to a supernova, yet did not destroy the star, which faded to become a dim star, invisible to the naked eye. Since 1940, Eta Carinae has begun to brighten again, becoming visible to the naked eye. Photo credit: NASA/CXC/SAO

  12. Imaging of Mercury and Venus from a flyby

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, B.C.; Belton, M.J.S.; Danielson, G. Edward; Davies, M.E.; Kuiper, G.P.; O'Leary, B. T.; Suomi, V.E.; Trask, N.J.

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes the results of study of an imaging experiment planned for the 1973 Mariner Venus/Mercury flyby mission. Scientific objectives, mission constraints, analysis of alternative systems, and the rationale for final choice are presented. Severe financial constraints ruled out the best technical alternative for flyby imaging, a film/readout system, or even significant re-design of previous Mariner vidicon camera/tape recorder systems. The final selection was a vidicon camera quite similar to that used for Mariner Mars 1971, but with the capability of real time transmission during the Venus and Mercury flybys. Real time data return became possible through dramatic increase in the communications bandwidth at only modest sacrifice in the quality of the returned pictures. Two identical long focal length cameras (1500 mm) were selected and it will be possible to return several thousand pictures from both planets at resolutions ranging from equivalent to Earthbased to tenths of a kilometer at encounter. Systematic high resolution ultraviolet photography of Venus is planned after encounter in an attempt to understand the nature of the mysterious ultraviolet markings and their apparent 4- to 5-day rotation period. Full disk coverage in mosaics will produce pictures of both planets similar in quality to Earthbased telescopic pictures of the Moon. The increase of resolution, more than three orders of magnitude, will yield an exciting first look at two planets whose closeup appearance is unknown. ?? 1971.

  13. Dynamic near-infrared imaging reveals transient phototropic change in retinal rod photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Rongwen; Levy, Alexander M; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Pittler, Steven J; Yao, Xincheng

    2013-10-01

    Stiles-Crawford effect (SCE) is exclusively observed in cone photoreceptors, but why the SCE is absent in rod photoreceptors is still a mystery. In this study, we employed dynamic near infrared light imaging to monitor photoreceptor kinetics in freshly isolated frog and mouse retinas stimulated by oblique visible light flashes. It was observed that retinal rods could rapidly (onset: ∼10 ms for frog and 5 ms for mouse; time-to-peak: ∼200 ms for frog and 30 ms for mouse) shift toward the direction of the visible light, which might quickly compensate for the loss of luminous efficiency due to oblique illumination. In contrast, such directional movement was negligible in retinal cones. Moreover, transient rod phototropism could contribute to characteristic intrinsic optical signal (IOS). We anticipate that further study of the transient rod phototropism may not only provide insight into better understanding of the nature of vision but also promise an IOS biomarker for functional mapping of rod physiology at high resolution.

  14. Imaging the Top of the Solar Corona and the Young Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeForest, C. E.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Viall, N. M.; Cranmer, S. R.

    2016-12-01

    We present the first direct visual evidence of the quasi-stationary breakup of solar coronal structure and the rise of turbulence in the young solar wind, directly in the future flight path of Solar Probe. Although the corona and, more recently, the solar wind have both been observed directly with Thomson scattered light, the transition from the corona to the solar wind has remained a mystery. The corona itself is highly structured by the magnetic field and the outflowing solar wind, giving rise to radial "striae" - which comprise the familiar streamers, pseudostreamers, and rays. These striae are not visible in wide-field heliospheric images, nor are they clearly delineated with in-situ measurements of the solar wind. Using careful photometric analysis of the images from STEREO/HI-1, we have, for the first time, directly observed the breakup of radial coronal structure and the rise of nearly-isotropic turbulent structure in the outflowing slow solar wind plasma between 10° (40 Rs) and 20° (80 Rs) from the Sun. These observations are important not only for their direct science value, but for predicting and understanding the conditions expected near SPP as it flies through - and beyond - this final frontier of the heliosphere, the outer limits of the solar corona.

  15. In search of Leonardo: computer-based facial image analysis of Renaissance artworks for identifying Leonardo as subject

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Christopher W.; Smith, William A. P.; Stork, David G.

    2012-03-01

    One of the enduring mysteries in the history of the Renaissance is the adult appearance of the archetypical "Renaissance Man," Leonardo da Vinci. His only acknowledged self-portrait is from an advanced age, and various candidate images of younger men are difficult to assess given the absence of documentary evidence. One clue about Leonardo's appearance comes from the remark of the contemporary historian, Vasari, that the sculpture of David by Leonardo's master, Andrea del Verrocchio, was based on the appearance of Leonardo when he was an apprentice. Taking a cue from this statement, we suggest that the more mature sculpture of St. Thomas, also by Verrocchio, might also have been a portrait of Leonardo. We tested the possibility Leonardo was the subject for Verrocchio's sculpture by a novel computational technique for the comparison of three-dimensional facial configurations. Based on quantitative measures of similarities, we also assess whether another pair of candidate two-dimensional images are plausibly attributable as being portraits of Leonardo as a young adult. Our results are consistent with the claim Leonardo is indeed the subject in these works, but we need comparisons with images in a larger corpora of candidate artworks before our results achieve statistical significance.

  16. The Unsolved Mysteries of Atmospheric Chemistry for High School Students and Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonich, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    The grant "CAREER: New Molecular Markers of Asian Air Emissions - Anthropogenic Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds" (ATM-0239823) was funded by NSF from 2003-2008. The CAREER proposal described the integration of research and outreach education activities in the field of atmospheric chemistry, specifically atmospheric measurements and atmospheric transport. The primary objective of the research was to identify anthropogenic semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs) that could be used as molecular markers for Asian air emissions and trans-Pacific atmospheric transport. The outreach education activity was integrated with the research by developing curriculum to introduce underrepresented minority high school students, and their teachers, to atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric measurements through Oregon State University's National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences funded Hydroville Curriculum Project (http://www.hydroville.org/iaq_resources). A curriculum was developed to allow students to assume the role of "Air Quality Scientist" and measure air temperature, air flow, relative humidity, CO, CO2, O3, and volatile organic compounds in out-door and in-door air. The students gained an understanding of atmospheric transport and compared measured concentrations to recommended guidelines. In addition, the outreach education activities included the development of the "Unsolved Mysteries of Human Health" website (http://www.unsolvedmysteries.oregonstate.edu/), including a specific module on the research conducted under the CAREER grant (http://www.unsolvedmysteries.oregonstate.edu /Gas-Chromatography-Mass-Spectrometry-Overview). The PI of the CAREER proposal, Dr. Staci Massey Simonich, is now a full professor at Oregon State University. To date, she has published over 50 peer-review journal articles, as well as mentored 9 undergraduate students, 20 graduate students, 3 post-doctoral scholars, and 3 international visiting scientists in her laboratory.

  17. Moving Knowledge Acquisition From the Lecture Hall to the Student Home: A Prospective Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Grefe, Clemens; Brown, Jamie; Meyer, Katharina; Schuelper, Nikolai; Anders, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Background Podcasts are popular with medical students, but the impact of podcast use on learning outcomes in undergraduate medical education has not been studied in detail. Objective Our aim was to assess the impact of podcasts accompanied by quiz questions and lecture attendance on short- and medium-term knowledge retention. Methods Students enrolled for a cardio-respiratory teaching module were asked to prepare for 10 specific lectures by watching podcasts and submitting answers to related quiz questions before attending live lectures. Performance on the same questions was assessed in a surprise test and a retention test. Results Watching podcasts and submitting answers to quiz questions (versus no podcast/quiz use) was associated with significantly better test performance in all items in the surprise test and 7 items in the retention test. Lecture attendance (versus no attendance) was associated with higher test performance in 3 items and 1 item, respectively. In a linear regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, and overall performance levels, both podcast/quiz use and lecture attendance were significant predictors of student performance. However, the variance explained by podcast/quiz use was greater than the variance explained by lecture attendance in the surprise test (38.7% vs 2.2%) and retention test (19.1% vs 4.0%). Conclusions When used in conjunction with quiz questions, podcasts have the potential to foster knowledge acquisition and retention over and above the effect of live lectures. PMID:26416467

  18. Go Fly a Chitin: The Mystery of Chitin and Chitinases in Vertebrate Tissues.

    PubMed

    Stern, Robert

    2017-01-01

    A controversy arose decades ago whether the DG42 gene product expressed during frog embryogenesis synthesized hyaluronan or chitin. Both sets of investigators were correct. It is now possible to understand how prescient those findings were. Synthesis of a seven to nine chitin sugar chain fragment is required before hyaluronan synthesis begins. Thus, DG42 indeed synthesizes both hyaluronan and chitin. Hyaluronan turns over rapidly in vertebrate tissues, but chitin oligomers are difficult to degrade. They accumulate and can cause pathology. Chitin is a simple beta-linked repeating sugar homopolymer found prominently in the building block structures of fungi, molluscs, arthropods, and other forms of invertebrate life. It is a highly resistant insoluble material requiring chitin synthases for production and chitinases for degradation. Mysteriously, chitins and chitinases also occur in vertebrate tissues, while it had previously been assumed that no chitins were contained therein. That assumption is now challenged based on recent biochemical evidence. Chitin does accumulate in many tissues, but may be particularly toxic to neurons. Its accumulation in the brain may account for the cognitive decline found in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The DG42 observations together with the participation of chitins and chitinases in several human diseases, among which in addition to Alzheimer's disease include Gaucher's disease, asthma, and aspects of abnormal immune recognition justify a reexamination of these topics. The purpose of this review is to summarize data in order to place chitins and their attendant enzymes in a rational framework in an attempt to create a cohesive story.

  19. Unveiling the mystery of déjà vu: the structural anatomy of déjà vu.

    PubMed

    Brázdil, Milan; Mareček, Radek; Urbánek, Tomáš; Kašpárek, Tomáš; Mikl, Michal; Rektor, Ivan; Zeman, Adam

    2012-10-01

    Déjà vu (DV) is a widespread, fascinating and mysterious human experience. It occurs both in health and in disease, notably as an aura of temporal lobe epilepsy. This feeling of inappropriate familiarity has attracted interest from psychologists and neuroscientists for over a century, but still there is no widely agreed explanation for the phenomenon of non-pathological DV. Here we investigated differences in brain morphology between healthy subjects with and without DV using a novel multivariate neuroimaging technique, Source-Based Morphometry. The analysis revealed a set of cortical (predominantly mesiotemporal) and subcortical regions in which there was significantly less gray matter in subjects reporting DV. In these regions gray matter volume was inversely correlated with the frequency of DV. Our results demonstrate a structural correlate of DV in healthy individuals for the first time and support a neurological explanation for the phenomenon. We hypothesis that the observed local gray matter decrease in subjects experiencing DV reflects an alteration of hippocampal function and postnatal neurogenesis with resulting changes of volume in remote brain regions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  20. The great galactic centre mystery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riegler, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Gamma-ray observations of the center of the Galaxy show a varying positron-electron annihilation radiation emission, while at radio wavelengths a non-thermal compact source surrounded by ionized gas moving at high velocities can be seen. Line emission maps for atomic and ionized hydrogen and molecular gas suggest gas expulsion and a massive collapsed object. IR observations show that ionized gas in the central few parsecs of the Galactic center is concentrated in at least 14 small clouds. Charge-coupled device images show a pair of faint, very red sources within a few arc seconds of IRS 16 and the compact non-thermal radio source. The positron-electron annihilation line emission implies an annihilation rate of 10 to the 43rd per sec, compared with an observed luminosity at IR wavelengths of 10 to the 40 erg per sec. Some models are briefly discussed.

  1. Social effects of an anthropomorphic help agent: humans versus computers.

    PubMed

    David, Prabu; Lu, Tingting; Kline, Susan; Cai, Li

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of fairness of a computer-administered quiz as a function of the anthropomorphic features of the help agent offered within the quiz environment. The addition of simple anthropomorphic cues to a computer help agent reduced the perceived friendliness of the agent, perceived intelligence of the agent, and the perceived fairness of the quiz. These differences were observed only for male anthropomorphic cues, but not for female anthropomorphic cues. The results were not explained by the social attraction of the anthropomorphic agents used in the quiz or by gender identification with the agents. Priming of visual cues provides the best account of the data. Practical implications of the study are discussed.

  2. The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings: a critical analysis of an informal education activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrelli, S.

    2011-10-01

    "The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings" is a live astronomical role-playing game for kids aged 10 -13 [1]. Its goal is to introduce them to some of the main topics of the Solar System: a) the role of gravity; b) the distribution of mass & light; c) the effects of rotation; d) the distribution of water. The game was held at several Science Festival in Italy (Perugia, Genova, Fiorano, Bologna) obtaining great success. Teams of about 6-8 members are introduced to Mr Schioppanelli, the astro-detective of the town (the name is a pun: it reminds Schiaparelli, the famous italian astronomer, and it is a slang expression meaning "ring-breaker"). Mr Schioppanelli has his office in an "gastronomical astronomical observatory", known as The Red Giant Pizzeria. Schioppanelli informs the kids that a mysterious Centaur succeded in stealing the rings of Saturn. The partecipants are appointed astro-detectives incharge and asked to find the rings by browsing around the Solar System, which is scaled so as to fit the town historical centre or a pedestrian area, going from the Sun to Saturn or beyond, depending on the actual area at disposal. Great care must be taken allowing children playing only in a car-free area of the town. At the right scaled distances, the partecipants meet characters playing as the various planets. The kids can talk to them after solving a riddle, obtaining useful informations. A special characters play as a comet, timely going in and out of the inner solar system. The teams can also talk to some shepherdmoons of the rings. They easily discover that the rings were totally destroyed by the Centaur: a real disaster! They are also suggested to gather the necessary ingredients (gravity, light, rotation, inclination, dust and water, represented by simple objects like apples, spinning tops and so on) to rebuild the rings. The kids can buy the ingredients from different planets: every planet has ingredients in quantities which are proportionate to

  3. Mysterious Saturn--Some Ancient and Modern Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwal, Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    The familiar image of Saturn and its rings has come to symbolise our idea of a planet but there is still much about Saturn and its system that we do not understand. The history of our beliefs and knowledge about it, one of the most distant planets visible to the naked eye, is described, from the early myths, such as the Indian village that…

  4. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE CAPTURES FIRST DIRECT IMAGE OF A STAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is the first direct image of a star other than the Sun, made with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Called Alpha Orionis, or Betelgeuse, it is a red supergiant star marking the shoulder of the winter constellation Orion the Hunter (diagram at right). The Hubble image reveals a huge ultraviolet atmosphere with a mysterious hot spot on the stellar behemoth's surface. The enormous bright spot, more than ten times the diameter of Earth, is at least 2,000 Kelvin degrees hotter than the surface of the star. The image suggests that a totally new physical phenomenon may be affecting the atmospheres of some stars. Follow-up observations will be needed to help astronomers understand whether the spot is linked to oscillations previously detected in the giant star, or whether it moves systematically across the star's surface under the grip of powerful magnetic fields. The observations were made by Andrea Dupree of the Harvard- Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA, and Ronald Gilliland of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, MD, who announced their discovery today at the 187th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in San Antonio, Texas. The image was taken in ultraviolet light with the Faint Object Camera on March 3, 1995. Hubble can resolve the star even though the apparent size is 20,000 times smaller than the width of the full Moon -- roughly equivalent to being able to resolve a car's headlights at a distance of 6,000 miles. Betelgeuse is so huge that, if it replaced the Sun at the center of our Solar System, its outer atmosphere would extend past the orbit of Jupiter (scale at lower left). Credit: Andrea Dupree (Harvard-Smithsonian CfA), Ronald Gilliland (STScI), NASA and ESA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on Internet via anonymous ftp from oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

  5. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindschadler, R.; Vornberger, P.; Fleming, A.; Fox, A.; Morin, P.

    2008-12-01

    The first-ever true-color, high-resolution digital mosaic of Antarctica has been produced from nearly 1100 Landsat-7 ETM+ images collected between 1999 and 2003. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) project was an early benchmark data set of the International Polar Year and represents a close and successful collaboration between NASA, USGS, the British Antarctic Survey and the National Science Foundation. The mosaic was successfully merged with lower resolution MODIS data south of Landsat coverage to produce a complete true-color data set of the entire continent. LIMA is being used as a platform for a variety of education and outreach activities. Central to this effort is the NASA website 'Faces of Antarctica' that offers the web visitor the opportunity to explore the data set and to learn how these data are used to support scientific research. Content is delivered through a set of mysteries designed to pique the user's interest and to motivate them to delve deeper into the website where there are various videos and scientific articles for downloading. Detailed lesson plans written by teachers are provided for classroom use and Java applets let the user track the motion of ice in sequential Landsat images. Web links take the user to other sites where they can roam over the imagery using standard pan and zoom functions, or search for any named feature in the Antarctic Geographic Names data base that returns to the user a centered true-color view of any named feature. LIMA also has appeared is a host of external presentations from museum exhibits, to postcards and large posters. It has attracted various value-added providers that increase LIMA's accessibility by allowing users to specify subsets of the very large data set for individual downloads. The ultimate goal of LIMA in the public and educational sector is to enable everyone to become more familiar with Antarctica.

  6. Taming the Data Deluge to Unravel the Mysteries of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston-Hollitt, M.

    2017-04-01

    Modern Astrophysics is one of the most data intensive research fields in the world and is driving many of the required innovations in the "big data" space. Foremost in astronomy in terms of data generation is radio astronomy, and in the last decade an increase in global interest and investment in the field had led to a large number of new or upgraded facilities which are each currently generating petabytes of data per annum. The peak of this so-called 'radio renaissance' will be the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) - a global observatory designed to uncover the mysteries of the Universe. The SKA will create the highest resolution, fastest frame rate movie of the evolving Universe ever and in doing so will generate 160 terrabytes of data a second, or close to 5 zettabytes of data per annum. Furthermore, due to the extreme faintness of extraterrestrial radio signals, the telescope elements for the SKA must be located in radio quite parts of the world with very low population density. Thus the project aims to build the most data intensive scientific experiment ever, in some of the most remote places on Earth. Generating and serving scientific data products of this scale to a global community of researchers from remote locations is just the first of the "big data" challenges the project faces. Coordination of a global network of tiered data resources will be required along with software tools to exploit the vast sea of results generated. In fact, to fully realize the enormous scientific potential of this project, we will need not only better data distribution and coordination mechanisms, but also improved algorithms, artificial intelligence and ontologies to extract knowledge in an automated way at a scale not yet attempted in science. In this keynote I will present an overview of the SKA project, outline the "big data" challenges the project faces and discuss some of the approaches we are taking to tame the astronomical data deluge we face.

  7. Survival and behavior of Chinese mystery snails (Bellamya chinensis) in response to simulated water body drawdowns and extended air exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Unstad, Kody M.; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Haak, Danielle M.; Kill, Robert A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Wong, Alec

    2013-01-01

    Nonnative invasive mollusks degrade aquatic ecosystems and induce economic losses worldwide. Extended air exposure through water body drawdown is one management action used for control. In North America, the Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an invasive aquatic snail with an expanding range, but eradication methods for this species are not well documented. We assessed the ability of B. chinensis to survive different durations of air exposure, and observed behavioral responses prior to, during, and following desiccation events. Individual B. chinensis specimens survived air exposure in a laboratory setting for > 9 weeks, and survivorship was greater among adults than juveniles. Several B. chinensis specimens responded to desiccation by sealing their opercula and/or burrowing in mud substrate. Our results indicate that drawdowns alone may not be an effective means of eliminating B. chinensis. This study lays the groundwork for future management research that may determine the effectiveness of drawdowns when combined with factors such as extreme temperatures, predation, or molluscicides.

  8. The Mystery of Michelangelo Buonarroti's Goiter.

    PubMed

    Lazzeri, Davide; Lippi, Donatella; Castello, Manuel Francisco; Weisz, George M

    2016-01-28

    Whilst painting the vault of the Sistine Chapel, Michelangelo Buonarroti left an autographical sketch that revealed a prominence at the front of his hyper-extended neck. This image was recently diagnosed as goiter. The poet Michelangelo in a sonnet dated 1509 described himself as being afflicted by goiter similarly to the cats in the northern Italian Lombardy, a region with endemic goiter. Several narratives extended this sonnet into a pathological theory. The analyses of Michelangelo's works, however, his portraits and self-portraits, of poems and major biographies, have not indicated the likelihood of goiter. This investigation makes an attempt to assess the diagnosis on clinical as well as iconographical grounds.

  9. Design principles for noninvasive, longitudinal and quantitative cell tracking with nanoparticle-based CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Meir, Rinat; Betzer, Oshra; Motiei, Menachem; Kronfeld, Noam; Brodie, Chaya; Popovtzer, Rachela

    2017-02-01

    Contradictory results in clinical trials are preventing the advancement and implementation of cell-based therapy. To explain such results, there is a need to uncover the mystery regarding the fate of the transplanted cells. To answer this need, we developed a technique for noninvasive in vivo cell tracking, which uses gold nanoparticles as contrast agents for CT imaging. Herein, we investigate the design principles of this technique for intramuscular transplantation of therapeutic cells. Longitudinal studies were performed, displaying the ability to track cells over long periods of time. As few as 500 cells could be detected and a way to quantify the number of cells visualized by CT was demonstrated. Moreover, monitoring of cell functionality was demonstrated on a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This cell-tracking technology has the potential to become an essential tool in pre-clinical as well as clinical trials and to advance the future of cell therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Jaws for a spiral-tooth whorl: CT images reveal novel adaptation and phylogeny in fossil Helicoprion

    PubMed Central

    Tapanila, Leif; Pruitt, Jesse; Pradel, Alan; Wilga, Cheryl D.; Ramsay, Jason B.; Schlader, Robert; Didier, Dominique A.

    2013-01-01

    New CT scans of the spiral-tooth fossil, Helicoprion, resolve a longstanding mystery concerning the form and phylogeny of this ancient cartilaginous fish. We present the first three-dimensional images that show the tooth whorl occupying the entire mandibular arch, and which is supported along the midline of the lower jaw. Several characters of the upper jaw show that it articulated with the neurocranium in two places and that the hyomandibula was not part of the jaw suspension. These features identify Helicoprion as a member of the stem holocephalan group Euchondrocephali. Our reconstruction illustrates novel adaptations, such as lateral cartilage to buttress the tooth whorl, which accommodated the unusual trait of continuous addition and retention of teeth in a predatory chondrichthyan. Helicoprion exemplifies the climax of stem holocephalan diversification and body size in Late Palaeozoic seas, a role dominated today by sharks and rays. PMID:23445952

  11. Self-illuminating quantum dots for non-invasive bioluminescence imaging of mammalian

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The fertility performance of animals is still a mystery and the full comprehension of mammalian gametes maturation and early embryonic development remains to be elucidated. The recent development in nanotechnology offers a new opportunity for real-time study of reproductive cells in thei...

  12. Pressure Safety: Advanced Self-Study 30120

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Glass, George

    2016-02-29

    Pressure Safety Advance Self-Study (Course 30120) consists of an introduction, five modules, and a quiz. To receive credit in UTrain for completing this course, you must score 80% or better on the 15-question quiz (check UTrain). Directions for initiating the quiz are appended to the end of this training manual. This course contains several links to LANL websites. UTrain might not support active links, so please copy links into the address line in your browser.

  13. In a Flash, NASA Helps Solve 35-Year-Old Cosmic Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-10-01

    Scientists have solved the 35-year-old mystery of the origin of powerful, split-second flashes of light known as short gamma-ray bursts. These flashes, brighter than a billion galaxies, yet lasting only a few milliseconds, have been simply too fast to catch - until now. Through the unprecedented coordination of observations from several ground-based telescopes and NASA satellites, scientists determined the flashes arise from violent collisions in space. The clashes are either between a black hole and a neutron star or between two neutron stars. In either scenario, the impact creates a new black hole. In at least one burst, scientists saw tantalizing, first-time evidence of a black hole eating a neutron star. The neutron star was first stretched into a crescent, then swallowed by the black hole. Two recently detected bursts are featured in four papers in this week's Nature magazine. These observations could enable direct detection of exotic gravitational waves that have never before been seen. "Gamma-ray bursts in general are notoriously difficult to study, but the shortest ones have been next to impossible to pin down," said Dr. Neil Gehrels, principal investigator for the Swift satellite at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. "All that has changed. We now have the tools in place to study these events," he said. Hubble Optical Image of GRB 050709 Hubble Optical Image of GRB 050709 Gamma-ray bursts, first detected in the 1960s, are the most powerful explosions known. They are random, fleeting and can occur from any region of the sky. Two years ago, scientists discovered longer bursts, lasting more than two seconds, arise from the explosion of very massive stars. About 30 percent of bursts are short and under two seconds. The Swift satellite detected a short burst on May 9, and NASA's High-Energy Transient Explorer (HETE) detected another on July 9. The May 9 event marked the first time scientists identified an afterglow for a short gamma-ray burst

  14. Learning Curve for Teaching Constellations in a Planetarium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintz, Eric G.; Smith, N.; Moody, J. W.; Stephens, D. C.; Joner, M. D.; Hintz, M.; Lawler, J.; Jones, M.; Bench, N.

    2014-01-01

    As part of a larger project we have examined how students learn constellations in a planetarium environment. Students in our introductory descriptive astronomy class were given a 50 object quiz before any instruction. This quiz includes 30 constellations, 17 bright stars, two star clusters, and the Orion Nebula. In addition we gathered a small set of demographic information. After the initial quiz we tracked student scores through the semester to see how long it took for them to learn all 50 objects. We also plan to give a follow-up constellation quiz to students who have previously taken the quiz to test for retention. This will cover a time line for 6 months up to 4 years. We will present our early results from this study. This data will also be used as a baseline for a study of Head Mounted Displays to teach a deaf audience in a planetarium. This work is partially supported by funding from the National Science Foundation grant IIS-1124548 and the Sorenson Foundation.

  15. Building capacity in laboratory medicine in Africa by increasing physician involvement: a laboratory medicine course for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Guarner, Jeannette; Amukele, Timothy; Mehari, Meheretu; Gemechu, Tufa; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Winkler, Anne M; Asrat, Daniel; Wilson, Michael L; del Rio, Carlos

    2015-03-01

    To describe a 4-day laboratory medicine course for clinicians given at Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia, designed to improve the use of laboratory-based diagnoses. Each day was dedicated to one of the following topics: hematology, blood bank/transfusion medicine and coagulation, chemistry, and microbiology. The course included lectures, case-based learning, laboratory tours, and interactive computer case-based homework. The same 12-question knowledge quiz was given before and after the course. Twenty-eight participants took the quiz before and 21 after completing the course. The average score was 5.28 (range, 2-10) for the initial quiz and 8.09 (range, 4-11) for the second quiz (P = .0001). Two of 12 and 8 of 12 questions were answered correctly by more than 60% of trainees on the initial and second quiz, respectively. Knowledge and awareness of the role of the laboratory increased after participation in the course. Understanding of laboratory medicine principles by clinicians will likely improve use of laboratory services and build capacity in Africa. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  16. On the location of Steve, the mysterious subauroral feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo-Lacourt, B.; Nishimura, Y.; Donovan, E.; Gillies, D. M.; Spanswick, E.; Archer, W. E.; MacDonald, E.; Knudsen, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past year, there has been an exciting development in auroral research with the finding of a new subauroral phenomenon called Steve. Although Steve has been documented by amateur night sky watchers for decades, this is a new phenomenon about which scientists know very little. From optical observations including images from amateur photographers, Steve is a luminous arc that is narrow in north-south extent, and thousands of kilometers in east-west extent. We use auroral images from the ground-based THEMIS all-sky imagers and the Redline Geospace Observatory (REGO) array to identify Steve events. In addition, we use data from Meridian Scanning Photometers (NORSTAR and FESO) that measure brightness of H-β proton auroral emission at 4861Å. We surveyed data from December 2007 up to May 2017. Our observations suggest that Steve is always located equatorward of the proton aurora, and thus is not a traditional electron auroral arc, a feature which is always poleward of the peak in proton auroral brightness. Further, we have developed a picture of the magnetospheric region which is magnetically conjugate to Steve, and the magnetospheric conditions which give rise to the feature.

  17. A mystery caller evaluation of Medicaid staff responses about state coverage of abortion care.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Amanda; Blanchard, Kelly

    2012-03-01

    The Hyde Amendment prohibits federal Medicaid funding for abortion except when a woman is seeking an abortion for a pregnancy that is the result of rape or incest, or that threatens her life. We investigated how Medicaid staff in 17 states responded to inquiries about coverage for abortion in the few circumstances that qualify for federal Medicaid funding. Using a mystery caller approach, we surveyed Medicaid staff about the availability of abortion coverage, the process for obtaining coverage, and the associated costs for an abortion in circumstances of rape and life endangerment in five states where Medicaid coverage should be available to cover most abortions and in 12 states with restrictions on the circumstances under which Medicaid funding can be used for abortion. We were able to complete 82% of surveys. Medicaid staff definitively provided information about the availability of coverage that was consistent with state policies in 64% of surveys. However, 52% of staff reported that coverage could be difficult to obtain and that rigorous documentation of the circumstances of the abortion was required. Information about copays for abortion was given in 78% of surveys. We subjectively rated the caller's experience with Medicaid staff as excellent during 32% of the surveys, adequate in 61% of surveys, and poor in 7% of surveys. Medicaid staff provided inconsistent information that was often discouraging of women seeking abortion coverage, suggesting that women may have difficulties obtaining accurate information about Medicaid coverage of abortion, which may deter access to care. Copyright © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women

  18. DNA barcoding reveals a mysterious high species diversity of conifer-feeding aphids in the mountains of southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Jiang, Li-Yun; Chen, Jing; Qiao, Ge-Xia

    2016-01-01

    The mountains of southwest China are one of the hot spots of biodiversity in the world. However, the high-altitude fauna that inhabit these mountains remain a mystery. In this study, the species diversity of the aphids of the genus Cinara from the high-altitude coniferous forests was first assessed, and then the processes and the mechanisms of speciation were discussed. Three hundreds and four aphid samples that contained 3040 individuals were collected during fourteen field surveys. The molecular clusters derived from the DNA barcodes were used to explore the species diversity. Notably, the aphid alpha-diversity was high, with as many as 94 candidate species, and furthermore, 86.2% of the species collected had not been previously recorded. The centers of aphid species richness corresponded to the distributional pattern of the diversity of the host conifer plant species. The divergence time revealed that following the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau during the Pleistocene, the changes in the climate, ecology and host habitats were likely the most important factors that drove the rapid process of evolutionary radiation in the aphids. Our findings revealed the high species diversity of the aphids with DNA barcoding. PMID:26838797

  19. Family Health History and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk Test Family Health History Quiz Family Health History Quiz Family health history is an important risk ... Should Ask Your Family About Diabetes & Family Health History Knowing your family health history is important. Here ...

  20. Unraveling the Mystery of Exozodiacal Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertel, S.; Augereau, J.-C.; Thébault, P.; Absil, O.; Bonsor, A.; Defrère, D.; Kral, Q.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Lebreton, J.; Coudé du Foresto, V.

    2014-01-01

    Exozodiacal dust clouds are thought to be the extrasolar analogs of the Solar System's zodiacal dust. Studying these systems provides insights in the architecture of the innermost regions of planetary systems, including the Habitable Zone. Furthermore, the mere presence of the dust may result in major obstacles for direct imaging of earth-like planets. Our EXOZODI project aims to detect and study exozodiacal dust and to explain its origin. We are carrying out the first large, near-infrared interferometric survey in the northern (CHARA/FLUOR) and southern (VLTI/PIONIER) hemispheres. Preliminary results suggest a detection rate of up to 30% around A to K type stars and interesting trends with spectral type and age. We focus here on presenting the observational work carried out by our team.

  1. Teen Diabetes Quiz Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... rainbow. Choose carbs like white bread and white rice, sweetened fruit drinks, and sugary desserts less often. ... getting type 2 diabetes—American Indians, Alaska Natives, African Americans, Hispanics/Latinos, Asian Americans, and Pacific Islanders. Genes ...

  2. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... the AAAAI Foundation Donate Utility navigation Español Journals Pollen Counts Annual Meeting Member Login / My Membership Search ... have a viral infection, temperatures are low, or pollen and air pollution levels are high. Learn more ...

  3. Rate Your Risk Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... NKF Online Communities Featured Story Want to save money on your prescriptions? Introducing a new discount card ... Events and Galas Spring Clinical Meetings KEEP Healthy - Free Kidney Health checks Your Kidneys and You Meetings ...

  4. Notes on the history of the radiological study of Egyptian mummies: from X-rays to new imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Cosmacini, P; Piacentini, P

    2008-08-01

    A few centuries after the practice of mummification was finally abolished in the seventh century A.D., mummies began to capture the collective imagination, exerting a mysterious fascination that continues to this day. From the beginning, the radiological study of Egyptian mummies permitted the collection not only of medical data but also of anthropological and archaeological evidence. The first radiological study of an Egyptian mummy was performed by Flinders Petrie shortly after the discovery of X-rays in 1895, and since then, radiology has never stopped investigating these special patients. By the end of the 1970s, computed tomography (CT) scanning permitted more in-depth studies to be carried out without requiring the mummies to be removed from their cartonnage. CT images can be used to obtain a three-dimensional reconstruction of the mummy that provides important new information, in part thanks to the virtual endoscopy technique known as "fly through". Moreover, starting from CT data and using sophisticated graphics software, one can reconstruct an image of the face of the mummified individual at the time of his or her death. The history of imaging, from its origins until now, from the simplest to the most sophisticated technique, allows us to appreciate why these studies have been, and still are, fundamental in the study of Egyptian mummies.

  5. Grain size of recall practice for lengthy text material: fragile and mysterious effects on memory.

    PubMed

    Wissman, Kathryn T; Rawson, Katherine A

    2015-03-01

    The current research evaluated the extent to which the grain size of recall practice for lengthy text material affects recall during practice and subsequent memory. The grain size hypothesis states that a smaller vs. larger grain size will increase retrieval success during practice that in turn will enhance subsequent memory for lengthy text material. Participants were prompted to recall directly after studying each section (section recall) or after all sections had been studied (whole-text recall) during practice, and then all participants completed a final test after a delay. Results across 7 experiments (including 587 participants and 1,394 recall protocols) partially disconfirmed the predictions of the grain size hypothesis: Although the smaller grain size produced sizable recall advantages during practice as expected (ds from 1.02 to 1.87 across experiments), the advantage was substantially or completely attenuated across a delay. Experiments 2-7 falsified several plausible methodological and theoretical explanations for the fragility of the effect, indicating that it was not due to particular text materials, retrieval from working memory during practice, the length of the retention interval, the spacing between study and practice recall, a disproportionate increase in recall of unimportant details, or a deficit in integration of ideas across text sections. In sum, results conclusively establish an initially sizable but mysteriously fragile effect of grain size, for which an explanation remains elusive. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Unraveling mysteries of personal performance style; biomechanics of left-hand position changes (shifting) in violin performance

    PubMed Central

    Visentin, Peter; Li, Shiming; Tardif, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental music performance ranks among the most complex of learned human behaviors, requiring development of highly nuanced powers of sensory and neural discrimination, intricate motor skills, and adaptive abilities in a temporal activity. Teaching, learning and performing on the violin generally occur within musico-cultural parameters most often transmitted through aural traditions that include both verbal instruction and performance modeling. In most parts of the world, violin is taught in a manner virtually indistinguishable from that used 200 years ago. The current study uses methods from movement science to examine the “how” and “what” of left-hand position changes (shifting), a movement skill essential during violin performance. In doing so, it begins a discussion of artistic individualization in terms of anthropometry, the performer-instrument interface, and the strategic use of motor behaviors. Results based on 540 shifting samples, a case series of 6 professional-level violinists, showed that some elements of the skill were individualized in surprising ways while others were explainable by anthropometry, ergonomics and entrainment. Remarkably, results demonstrated each violinist to have developed an individualized pacing for shifts, a feature that should influence timing effects and prove foundational to aesthetic outcomes during performance. Such results underpin the potential for scientific methodologies to unravel mysteries of performance that are associated with a performer’s personal artistic style. PMID:26557431

  7. Unraveling mysteries of personal performance style; biomechanics of left-hand position changes (shifting) in violin performance.

    PubMed

    Visentin, Peter; Li, Shiming; Tardif, Guillaume; Shan, Gongbing

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental music performance ranks among the most complex of learned human behaviors, requiring development of highly nuanced powers of sensory and neural discrimination, intricate motor skills, and adaptive abilities in a temporal activity. Teaching, learning and performing on the violin generally occur within musico-cultural parameters most often transmitted through aural traditions that include both verbal instruction and performance modeling. In most parts of the world, violin is taught in a manner virtually indistinguishable from that used 200 years ago. The current study uses methods from movement science to examine the "how" and "what" of left-hand position changes (shifting), a movement skill essential during violin performance. In doing so, it begins a discussion of artistic individualization in terms of anthropometry, the performer-instrument interface, and the strategic use of motor behaviors. Results based on 540 shifting samples, a case series of 6 professional-level violinists, showed that some elements of the skill were individualized in surprising ways while others were explainable by anthropometry, ergonomics and entrainment. Remarkably, results demonstrated each violinist to have developed an individualized pacing for shifts, a feature that should influence timing effects and prove foundational to aesthetic outcomes during performance. Such results underpin the potential for scientific methodologies to unravel mysteries of performance that are associated with a performer's personal artistic style.

  8. Mystery Solved: The Identification of the Two Missing Romanov Children Using DNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wadhams, Mark J.; Edson, Suni M.; Maynard, Kerry; Meyer, Carna E.; Niederstätter, Harald; Berger, Cordula; Berger, Burkhard; Falsetti, Anthony B.; Gill, Peter; Parson, Walther; Finelli, Louis N.

    2009-01-01

    One of the greatest mysteries for most of the twentieth century was the fate of the Romanov family, the last Russian monarchy. Following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, he and his wife, Alexandra, and their five children were eventually exiled to the city of Yekaterinburg. The family, along with four loyal members of their staff, was held captive by members of the Ural Soviet. According to historical reports, in the early morning hours of July 17, 1918 the entire family along with four loyal members of their staff was executed by a firing squad. After a failed attempt to dispose of the remains in an abandoned mine shaft, the bodies were transported to an open field only a few kilometers from the mine shaft. Nine members of the group were buried in one mass grave while two of the children were buried in a separate grave. With the official discovery of the larger mass grave in 1991, and subsequent DNA testing to confirm the identities of the Tsar, the Tsarina, and three of their daughters – doubt persisted that these remains were in fact those of the Romanov family. In the summer of 2007, a group of amateur archeologists discovered a collection of remains from the second grave approximately 70 meters from the larger grave. We report forensic DNA testing on the remains discovered in 2007 using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), autosomal STR, and Y- STR testing. Combined with additional DNA testing of material from the 1991 grave, we have virtually irrefutable evidence that the two individuals recovered from the 2007 grave are the two missing children of the Romanov family: the Tsarevich Alexei and one of his sisters. PMID:19277206

  9. The Honolulu Liver Disease Cluster at the Medical Center: Its Mysteries and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel

    2016-03-31

    In 2013, physicians at the Honolulu Queen's Medical Center (QMC) noticed that seven liver disease patients reported the use of OxyELITE Pro (OEP), a widely consumed dietary supplement (DS). Assuming a temporal association between OEP use and disease, they argued that OEP was the cause of this mysterious cluster. Subsequent reexamination, however, has revealed that this QMC cohort is heterogeneous and not a cluster with a single agent causing a single disease. It is heterogeneous because patients used multiple DS's and drugs and because patients appeared to have suffered from multiple liver diseases: liver cirrhosis, liver failure by acetaminophen, hepatotoxicity by non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), resolving acute viral hepatitis by hepatitis B virus (HBV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV), and suspected hepatitis E virus (HEV). Failing to exclude these confounders and to consider more viable diagnoses, the QMC physicians may have missed specific treatment options in some of their patients. The QMC physicians unjustifiably upgraded their Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) causality scores so that all patients would appear to be "probable" for OEP. However, subsequent RUCAM reassessments by our group demonstrated a lack of causality for OEP in the evaluated QMC cases. The QMC's questionable approaches explain the extraordinary accumulation of suspected OEP cases at the QMC in Hawaii as single place, whereas similar cohorts were not published by any larger US liver center, substantiating that the problem is with the QMC. In this review article, we present and discuss new case data and critically evaluate upcoming developments of problematic regulatory assessments by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Hawaii Department of Health (HDOH), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as based on invalid QMC conclusions, clarifying now also basic facts and facilitating constructive

  10. The Honolulu Liver Disease Cluster at the Medical Center: Its Mysteries and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, physicians at the Honolulu Queen’s Medical Center (QMC) noticed that seven liver disease patients reported the use of OxyELITE Pro (OEP), a widely consumed dietary supplement (DS). Assuming a temporal association between OEP use and disease, they argued that OEP was the cause of this mysterious cluster. Subsequent reexamination, however, has revealed that this QMC cohort is heterogeneous and not a cluster with a single agent causing a single disease. It is heterogeneous because patients used multiple DS’s and drugs and because patients appeared to have suffered from multiple liver diseases: liver cirrhosis, liver failure by acetaminophen, hepatotoxicity by non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), resolving acute viral hepatitis by hepatitis B virus (HBV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV), and suspected hepatitis E virus (HEV). Failing to exclude these confounders and to consider more viable diagnoses, the QMC physicians may have missed specific treatment options in some of their patients. The QMC physicians unjustifiably upgraded their Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) causality scores so that all patients would appear to be “probable” for OEP. However, subsequent RUCAM reassessments by our group demonstrated a lack of causality for OEP in the evaluated QMC cases. The QMC’s questionable approaches explain the extraordinary accumulation of suspected OEP cases at the QMC in Hawaii as single place, whereas similar cohorts were not published by any larger US liver center, substantiating that the problem is with the QMC. In this review article, we present and discuss new case data and critically evaluate upcoming developments of problematic regulatory assessments by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Hawaii Department of Health (HDOH), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as based on invalid QMC conclusions, clarifying now also basic facts and facilitating constructive

  11. Thirteen ways to say nothing with scientific visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, AL; Raible, E.

    1992-01-01

    Scientific visualization can be used to produce very beautiful images. Frequently, users and others not properly initiated into mysteries of visualization research fail to appreciate the artistic qualities of these images. Scientists will frequently use our work to needlessly understand the data from which it is derived. This paper describes a number of effective techniques to confound such pernicious activity.

  12. Tiu Valles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-11-26

    The ancient, catastrophic floods on Mars, whose origins remain a mystery, produced a channeled and scoured landscape like this one, which is called Tiu Valles and was imaged by NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04013

  13. Ready for the Cosmic Ball

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-26

    Something appears to be peering through a shiny red mask, in this new false-colored image from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope. The mysterious blue eyes are actually starlight from the cores of two merging galaxies, called NGC 2207 and IC 2163.

  14. New Results on Io's Color and Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geissler, P.; McEwen, A. S.; Phillips, C.; Keszthelyi, L.; Turtle, E.; Milazzo, M.; Lopes-Gautier, R.; Simonelli, D.; Williams, D.

    2000-01-01

    Galileo's recent high-resolution imaging provides new insights into the nature of Io's colorful surface, shedding light on the composition and origin of pyroclastic deposits and suggesting that Io's mysterious green spots are due to coating or alteration of silicate lavas.

  15. Debate preparation/participation: an active, effective learning tool.

    PubMed

    Koklanaris, Nikki; MacKenzie, Andrew P; Fino, M Elizabeth; Arslan, Alan A; Seubert, David E

    2008-01-01

    Passive educational techniques (such as lectures) are thought to be less productive than active learning. We examined whether preparing for and participating in a debate would be an effective, active way to learn about a controversial topic. We compared quiz performance in residents who attended a lecture to residents who prepared for/participated in a debate. Twelve residents each participated in one lecture session and one debate session. Learning was evaluated via a quiz. Quizzes were given twice: before the debate/lecture and 1 week after the debate/lecture. Quiz scores were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance, with a p value of < .05 considered significant. A survey evaluating the usefulness of debating was given to all participants. There was a statistically significant difference in the pretest mean quiz score between the debate and lecture groups: 78.3% and 52.5%, respectively (p = .02). Similarly, on posttest quizzes, the average debater scored 85.8%, versus 61.7% for the lecture group (p = .003). Although no one in the debate group scored lower on a follow-up quiz, 3 residents in the lecture group did worse on follow-up. When learning about a controversial topic, residents who prepared for/participated in a debate achieved higher quiz scores and were better at retaining information than those who attended a lecture. When faced with teaching a controversial topic, organizing a debate may be more effective than giving a lecture.

  16. The social mysteries of the superior temporal sulcus.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Michael S

    2015-09-01

    The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is implicated in a variety of social processes, ranging from language perception to simulating the mental processes of others (theory of mind). In a new study, Deen and colleagues use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to show a regular anterior-posterior organization in the STS for different social tasks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship between fumonisin contamination of feed and mystery swine disease. A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bane, D P; Neumann, E J; Hall, W F; Harlin, K S; Slife, R L

    1992-02-01

    Fumonisin is a recently identified mycotoxin that has been shown to be the cause of pulmonary edema disease in swine and leukoencephalomalacia in horses. Mystery Swine Disease (MSD), is an economically devastating disease complex of unknown etiology that has been reported to have occurred in several swine producing states since 1988. To determine the relationship between MSD and fumonisin, a case-control study was carried out in Illinois in mid-1990. Feed samples collected from 12 case and 9 control farms were analyzed for fumonisin. Sera from swine on all farms was screened for titers against encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus and concentrations of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (an acute phase reactive protein). Fumonisin concentrations greater than or equal to 20 ppm were found on 1 control farm (1/9) and 8 case farms (8/12). Titers against EMC virus (greater than or equal to 1:16) were found on 5 control farms (5/9) and on 6 case farms (6/12). Farms with greater than or equal to 20 ppm fumonisin in the feed were at significantly increased risk (OR = 11.2, Fisher's exact test p = 0.037) for MSD. Furthermore, the pi2 test for trend was (p = 0.017), meaning that as the level of fumonisin in the feed increased, the risk of MSD also increased. The presence of EMC virus titers in the sow herd was not a significant risk for MSD (OR = 1.25, Fisher's exact test p = 0.75). Alpha-1 acid glycoprotein concentrations obtained from a 2-week old nursing pigs differed significantly (p = 0.0005) between MSD case and control herds.

  18. Geology of National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2008-01-01

    This is a set of two sheets of 3D images showing geologic features of many National Parks. Red-and-cyan viewing glasses are need to see the three-dimensional effect. A search on the World Wide Web will yield many sites about anaglyphs and where to get 3D glasses. Red-blue glasses will do but red-cyan glasses are a little better. This publication features a photo quiz game: Name that park! where you can explore, interpret, and identify selected park landscapes. Can you identify landscape features in the images? Can you explain processes that may have helped form the landscape features? You can get the answers online.

  19. Stay Teen: Games

    MedlinePlus

    ... by You are here Home » Games and Quizzes Games and Quizzes Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 0 quiz ... Year’s Relationship Resolution Be? Shares · 0 Comments · 0 game Block Party Shares · 0 Comments · 0 quiz Should ...

  20. A point contingency for homework submission in the graduate school classroom.

    PubMed

    Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Walker, Brooke; Garcia, Yors; Lovett, Sadie; Filipiak, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    We explored the effects of points versus no points on the submission of homework assignments and quiz performance in a graduate-level course. Students were more likely to submit homework assignments during points weeks, but quiz scores were relatively unaffected.

  1. In Vitro Ovule Cultivation for Live-cell Imaging of Zygote Polarization and Embryo Patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Daisuke; Kimata, Yusuke; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Ueda, Minako

    2017-09-11

    In most flowering plants, the zygote and embryo are hidden deep in the mother tissue, and thus it has long been a mystery of how they develop dynamically; for example, how the zygote polarizes to establish the body axis and how the embryo specifies various cell fates during organ formation. This manuscript describes an in vitro ovule culture method to perform live-cell imaging of developing zygotes and embryos of Arabidopsis thaliana. The optimized cultivation medium allows zygotes or early embryos to grow into fertile plants. By combining it with a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) micropillar array device, the ovule is held in the liquid medium in the same position. This fixation is crucial to observe the same ovule under a microscope for several days from the zygotic division to the late embryo stage. The resulting live-cell imaging can be used to monitor the real-time dynamics of zygote polarization, such as nuclear migration and cytoskeleton rearrangement, and also the cell division timing and cell fate specification during embryo patterning. Furthermore, this ovule cultivation system can be combined with inhibitor treatments to analyze the effects of various factors on embryo development, and with optical manipulations such as laser disruption to examine the role of cell-cell communication.

  2. Pancake Feature on Ceres

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-02

    Some might see a pancake, and others a sand dollar, in this new image from NASA Dawn mission. Astronomers are puzzling over a mysterious large circular feature located south of the equator and slightly to the right of center in this view.

  3. The Case of Missing Iron in Cassiopeia A

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-19

    When astronomers first looked at images of a supernova remnant called Cassiopeia A, captured by NASA NuSTAR. The mystery of Cassiopeia A Cas A, a massive star that exploded in a supernova more than 11,000 years ago continues to confound scientists.

  4. Venus Express en route to probe the planet's hidden mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-11-01

    mechanics of the planetary atmosphere in general terms. With Mars Express, we are studying the Martian atmosphere. With Huygens, we have explored that of Saturn's satellite Titan. And now with Venus Express, we are going to add a further specimen to our collection. Originally, Venus and the Earth must have been very similar planets. So we really do need to understand why and how they eventually diverged to the point that one became a cradle for life while the other developed into a hostile environment." The Venus Express mission is planned to last at least two Venusian days (486 Earth days) and may be extended, depending on the spacecraft's operational state of health. Twin sister of Mars Express Venus Express largely reuses the architecture developed for Mars Express. This has reduced manufacturing cycles and halved the mission cost, while still targeting the same scientific goals. Finally approved in late 2002, Venus Express was thereby developed fast, indeed in record time, to be ready for its 2005 launch window. However, Venusian environmental conditions are very different to those encountered around Mars. Solar flux is four times higher and it has been necessary to adapt the spacecraft design to this hotter environment, notably by entirely redesigning the thermal insulation. Whereas Mars Express sought to retain heat to enable its electronics to function properly, Venus Express will in contrast be aiming for maximum heat dissipation in order to stay cool. The solar arrays on Venus Express have been completely redesigned. They are shorter and are interspersed with aluminium strips to help reject some solar flux to protect the spacecraft from temperatures topping 250ºC. It has even been necessary to protect the rear of the solar arrays - which normally remain in shadow - in order to counter heat from solar radiation reflected by the planet's atmosphere. An atmosphere of mystery Following on from the twenty or so American and Soviet missions to the planet carried out

  5. Peering into Cells One Molecule at a Time: Single-molecule and plasmon-enhanced fluorescence super-resolution imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biteen, Julie

    2013-03-01

    Single-molecule fluorescence brings the resolution of optical microscopy down to the nanometer scale, allowing us to unlock the mysteries of how biomolecules work together to achieve the complexity that is a cell. This high-resolution, non-destructive method for examining subcellular events has opened up an exciting new frontier: the study of macromolecular localization and dynamics in living cells. We have developed methods for single-molecule investigations of live bacterial cells, and have used these techniques to investigate thee important prokaryotic systems: membrane-bound transcription activation in Vibrio cholerae, carbohydrate catabolism in Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, and DNA mismatch repair in Bacillus subtilis. Each system presents unique challenges, and we will discuss the important methods developed for each system. Furthermore, we use the plasmon modes of bio-compatible metal nanoparticles to enhance the emissivity of single-molecule fluorophores. The resolution of single-molecule imaging in cells is generally limited to 20-40 nm, far worse than the 1.5-nm localization accuracies which have been attained in vitro. We use plasmonics to improve the brightness and stability of single-molecule probes, and in particular fluorescent proteins, which are widely used for bio-imaging. We find that gold-coupled fluorophores demonstrate brighter, longer-lived emission, yielding an overall enhancement in total photons detected. Ultimately, this results in increased localization accuracy for single-molecule imaging. Furthermore, since fluorescence intensity is proportional to local electromagnetic field intensity, these changes in decay intensity and rate serve as a nm-scale read-out of the field intensity. Our work indicates that plasmonic substrates are uniquely advantageous for super-resolution imaging, and that plasmon-enhanced imaging is a promising technique for improving live cell single-molecule microscopy.

  6. The Mystery of Michelangelo Buonarroti’s Goiter

    PubMed Central

    Lazzeri, Davide; Lippi, Donatella; Castello, Manuel Francisco; Weisz, George M.

    2016-01-01

    Whilst painting the vault of the Sistine Chapel, Michelangelo Buonarroti left an autographical sketch that revealed a prominence at the front of his hyper-extended neck. This image was recently diagnosed as goiter. The poet Michelangelo in a sonnet dated 1509 described himself as being afflicted by goiter similarly to the cats in the northern Italian Lombardy, a region with endemic goiter. Several narratives extended this sonnet into a pathological theory. The analyses of Michelangelo’s works, however, his portraits and self-portraits, of poems and major biographies, have not indicated the likelihood of goiter. This investigation makes an attempt to assess the diagnosis on clinical as well as iconographical grounds. PMID:26886953

  7. [A mysterious pleural lesion: A case report].

    PubMed

    Piton, Nicolas; Marguet, Florent; Trintignac, Adrien; Michelin, Paul; Benhamou, Daniel; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe

    2017-06-01

    A computed tomography scanner first, then a magnetic resonance imaging were performed for chest pain in a 24-year-old woman allowed to find out a 5-cm long and 2-cm large right pleural tumour close to the rachis (T9 and T10) and spindle-shaped. This patient was a smoker and reported a fall down the stairs a few weeks ago. A scan-guided biopsy was decided and microscopic examination revealed a fibrous tissue in which were entrapped regular and non-suspicious alveolar glands. After elimination of differential diagnosis, the most probable hypothesis was that this lesion was due to the traumatism reported by the patient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. What's Your Fire Safety IQ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1992

    1992-01-01

    The National Fire Protection Association offers a quiz on fire safety designed to help people learn about the major fire dangers and change the way they respond to them. Recommends that families sit down and take the quiz together, focusing on the correct answers provided. (SM)

  9. The use of magnetic resonance imaging for studying female sexual function: A review.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Christine M

    2015-04-01

    Many would agree that there are two quintessential sexual organs in the female: the clitoris and the brain. Using non-invasive techniques of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), investigators have gained insight into the mental and physical factors involved in female sexual function. Since only the external clitoral glans is easily accessible for direct measurement, the complete anatomy of the clitoris (including the internal components-paired corpora, crura, and bulbs) has only recently been described, with MRI providing the most sensitive way of distinguishing among the various soft tissue planes. Average sizes of clitoral structures and average distances between the clitoral complex and other pelvic landmarks have been measured. These measurements have been correlated with female sexual function: a longer distance between the clitoral complex and the vaginal lumen correlates with poorer sexual function, consistent with prior imaging studies. However, whether clitoral size influences function is debatable, so further studies are needed. Physiological investigations have demonstrated that female arousal disorder is unlikely to be due to inadequate genital engorgement. Some consider the brain to be the ultimate sexual organ, and several recent studies have used functional MRI (fMRI) to reveal sexual excitability in the brain. The normal sexual response requires deactivation of the frontal lobe and activation of the instinctual limbic system of the midbrain. As MR technology continues to improve, the mysteries of female sexuality will be further unraveled. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Evaluating the effectiveness of personal response system technology on millennial student learning.

    PubMed

    McCurry, Mary K; Hunter Revell, Susan M

    2011-08-01

    As nurse educators, we must explore new technologies that capitalize on the characteristics of millennial learners. One such technology, the personal response system (PRS), is an effective way to promote active learning and increase comprehension. Few nursing studies have examined the benefits of PRS technology on student outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of PRS technology on learning outcomes in two sections of an undergraduate nursing research course. A crossover design compared class quiz averages between and within groups. Findings related to between and within class quiz scores were mixed, whereas the effectiveness of in-class PRS questions on paper-and-pencil quiz scores and PRS-targeted quiz items was significant. Knowledge gained from this study can be used to enhance our ability to actively engage our technologically savvy undergraduate students. By threading technology into the undergraduate curriculum, learning outcomes may be improved. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. The wounded male persona and the mysterious feminine in the poetry of James Wright: a study in the transformation of the self.

    PubMed

    Graves, M; Schermer, V L

    1998-12-01

    James Wright's work is multilayered. Taken as a whole, which Annie Wright's beautiful compilation, Above the River, allows one to do, Wright's poems (as well as his masterful "prose poems") have a pattern akin to a mythic cycle. "Mythemes" (Lévi-Strauss, 1979) recur as dialectic opposites from one poem to another, whether the abandoned male and mysterious woman, humankind and nature, blindness and seeing, secrets and revelation. Suggestive and symbolic forms such as birds, horses, earth, sky, the destitute, rivers, and adolescence weave themselves throughout in inner and outer "landscapes" of images and experiential moments. There is a frequent shift of "gestalts" between the inner world and external reality. Such a "blooming, buzzing confusion" of internal and external referents might appear to be psychotic and imply a loss of "reality testing." Chassaguet-Smirgel (1988), citing Oscar Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray as an example, contended that the artist narrowly averts psychosis by transforming it into a work of art. Surrealists, for whom the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan was an important figure (cf. Sarup, 1992, pp. 17-27), elevated psychosis to the status of art, and Wright has been considered to be a surrealistic poet, although he himself denied such an affiliation. Hall (Wright, 1990, Introduction, pp. xxiii-xxxvii) suggests that Wright, in addition to an extensive history of alcoholism, from which he seemed to recover towards the end of his life, suffered from a major mental illness, which included episodes of severe depression, hospitalizations, and at least one suicide attempt. The severity of the asceticism and the extreme damage to the self in some Wright's work suggests their roots in early traumatic experiences. (A terribly damaged yet heroic personage, whose disfigurement perhaps symbolizes the poet's trauma, is "Hook" [ATR, pp. 315-316], about a man who gives his last few cents to the poet with a hook replacing his amputated hand.) Not enough is

  12. Do calendrical savants use calculation to answer date questions? A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Richard; Frith, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Calendrical savants can name the weekdays for dates from different years with remarkable speed and accuracy. Whether calculation rather than just memory is involved is disputed. Grounds for doubting whether they can calculate are reviewed and criteria for attributing date calculation skills to them are discussed. At least some calendrical savants possess date calculation skills. A behavioural characteristic observed in many calendrical savants is increased response time for questions about more remote years. This may be because more remote years require more calculation or because closer years are more practised. An experiment is reported that used functional magnetic resonance imaging to attempt to discriminate between these explanations. Only two savants could be scanned and excessive head movement corrupted one savant's mental arithmetic data. Nevertheless, there was increased parietal activation during both mental arithmetic and date questions and this region showed increased activity with more remote dates. These results suggest that the calendrical skills observed in savants result from intensive practice with calculations used in solving mental arithmetic problems. The mystery is not how they solve these problems, but why. PMID:19528025

  13. Repeated Assessments of Informed Consent Comprehension among HIV-Infected Participants of a Three-Year Clinical Trial in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Chaisson, Lelia H.; Kass, Nancy E.; Chengeta, Bafanana; Mathebula, Unami; Samandari, Taraz

    2011-01-01

    Background Informed consent (IC) has been an international standard for decades for the ethical conduct of clinical trials. Yet frequently study participants have incomplete understanding of key issues, a problem exacerbated by language barriers or lack of familiarity with research concepts. Few investigators measure participant comprehension of IC, while even fewer conduct interim assessments once a trial is underway. Methods and Findings We assessed comprehension of IC using a 20-question true/false quiz administered in 6-month intervals in the context of a placebo-controlled, randomized trial for the prevention of tuberculosis among HIV-infected adults in Botswana (2004–2009). Quizzes were offered in both Setswana and English. To enroll in the TB trial, participants were required to have ≥16/20 correct responses. We examined concepts understood and the degree to which understanding changed over three-years. We analyzed 5,555 quizzes from 1,835 participants. The participants' highest education levels were: 28% primary, 59% secondary, 9% tertiary and 7% no formal education. Eighty percent of participants passed the enrollment quiz (Quiz1) on their first attempt and the remainder passed on their second attempt. Those having higher than primary education and those who took the quiz in English were more likely to receive a passing score on their first attempt (adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, 3.1 (2.4–4.0) and 1.5 (1.2, 1.9), respectively). The trial's purpose or procedures were understood by 90–100% of participants, while 44–77% understood randomization, placebos, or risks. Participants who failed Quiz1 on their initial attempt were more likely to fail quizzes later in the trial. Pass rates improved with quiz re-administration in subsequent years. Conclusions Administration of a comprehension quiz at enrollment and during follow-up was feasible in a large, international collaboration and efficiently determined IC comprehension by trial

  14. Vitamin C in human health and disease is still a mystery ? An overview

    PubMed Central

    Naidu, K Akhilender

    2003-01-01

    of this vitamin/nutraceutical in human biology and health is still a mystery in view of many beneficial claims and controversies. PMID:14498993

  15. History of Hubble Space Telescope (HST)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-01-01

    This image of the Egg Nebula, also known as CRL-2688 and located roughly 3,000 light-years from us, was taken in red light with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WF/PC2) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The image shows a pair of mysterious searchlight beams emerging from a hidden star, crisscrossed by numerous bright arcs. This image sheds new light on the poorly understood ejection of stellar matter that accompanies the slow death of Sun-like stars. The image is shown in false color.

  16. ACS Imaging of beta Pic: Searching for the origin of rings and asymmetry in planetesimal disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalas, Paul

    2003-07-01

    The emerging picture for planetesimal disks around main sequence stars is that their radial and azimuthal symmetries are significantly deformed by the dynamical effects of either planets interior to the disk, or stellar objects exterior to the disk. The cause of these structures, such as the 50 AU cutoff of our Kuiper Belt, remains mysterious. Structure in the beta Pic planetesimal disk could be due to dynamics controlled by an extrasolar planet, or by the tidal influence of a more massive object exterior to the disk. The hypothesis of an extrasolar planet causing the vertical deformation in the disk predicts a blue color to the disk perpendicular to the disk midplane. The hypothesis that a stellar perturber deforms the disk predicts a globally uniform color and the existence of ring-like structure beyond 800 AU radius. We propose to obtain deep, multi-color images of the beta Pic disk ansae in the region 15"-220" {200-4000 AU} radius with the ACS WFC. The unparalleled stability of the HST PSF means that these data are uniquely capable of delivering the color sensitivity that can distinguish between the two theories of beta Pic's disk structure. Ascertaining the cause of such structure provide a meaningful context for understanding the dynamical history of our early solar system, as well as other planetesimal systems imaged around main sequence stars.

  17. A Website for Astronomy Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impey, C.; Danehy, A.

    2017-09-01

    Teach Astronomy is a free, open access website designed for formal and informal learners of astronomy. The site features: an online textbook complete with quiz questions and a glossary; over ten thousand images; a curated collection of the astronomy articles in Wikipedia; a complete video lecture course; a video Frequently Asked Questions tool; and other materials provided by content partners. Clustering algorithms and an interactive visual interface allow users to browse related content. This article reviews the features of the website and how it can be used.

  18. Topographic Ceres Map With Crater Names

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-28

    This color-coded map from NASA Dawn mission shows the highs and lows of topography on the surface of dwarf planet Ceres. It is labeled with names of features approved by the International Astronomical Union. Occator, the mysterious crater containing Ceres' mysterious bright spots, is named after the Roman agriculture deity of harrowing, a method of leveling soil. They retain their bright appearance in this map, although they are color-coded in the same green elevation of the crater floor in which they sit. The color scale extends about 5 miles (7.5 kilometers) below the surface in indigo to 5 miles (7.5 kilometers) above the surface in white. The topographic map was constructed from analyzing images from Dawn's framing camera taken from varying sun and viewing angles. The map was combined with an image mosaic of Ceres and projected as an simple cylindrical projection. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19606

  19. Microlearning mApp raises health competence: hybrid service design.

    PubMed

    Simons, Luuk P A; Foerster, Florian; Bruck, Peter A; Motiwalla, Luvai; Jonker, Catholijn M

    Work place health support interventions can help support our aging work force, with mApps offering cost-effectiveness opportunities. Previous research shows that health support apps should offer users enough newness and relevance each time they are used. Otherwise the 'eHealth law of attrition' applies: 90 % of users are lost prematurely. Our research study builds on this prior research with further investigation on whether a mobile health quiz provides added value for users within a hybrid service mix and whether it promotes long term health? We developed a hybrid health support intervention solution that uses a mix of electronic and physical support services for improving health behaviours, including a mobile micro-learning health quiz. This solution was evaluated in a multiple-case study at three work sites with 86 users. We find that both our mobile health quiz and the overall hybrid solution contributed to improvements in health readiness, -behaviour and -competence. Users indicated that the micro-learning health quiz courses provided new and relevant information. Relatively high utilization rates of the health quiz were observed. Participants indicated that health insights were given that directly influenced every day health perceptions, -choices, coping and goal achievement strategies, plus motivation and self-norms. This points to increased user health self-management competence. Moreover, even after 10 months they indicated to still have improved health awareness, -motivation and -behaviours (food, physical activity, mental recuperation). A design analysis was conducted regarding service mix efficacy; the mobile micro-learning health quiz helped fulfil a set of key requirements that exist for designing ICT-enabled lifestyle interventions, largely in the way it was anticipated.

  20. Solving the Mystery of Galaxy Bulges and Bulge Substructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwin, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Understanding galaxy bulges is crucial for understanding galaxy evolution and the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Recent studies have shown that at least some - perhaps most - disk-galaxy bulges are actually composite structures, with both classical-bulge (spheroid) and pseudobulge (disky) components; this calls into question the standard practice of using simple, low-resolution bulge/disk decompositions to determine spheroid and SMBH mass functions. We propose WFC3 optical and near-IR imaging of a volume- and mass-limited sample of local disk galaxies to determine the full range of pure-classical, pure-pseudobulge, and composite-bulge frequencies and parameters, including stellar masses for classical bulges, disky pseudobulges, and boxy/peanut-shaped bulges. We will combine this with ground-based spectroscopy to determine the stellar-kinematic and population characteristics of the different substructures revealed by our WFC3 imaging. This will help resolve growing uncertainties about the status and nature of bulges and their relation to SMBH masses, and will provide an essential local-universe reference for understanding bulge (and SMBH) formation and evolution.