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Sample records for myxomatosis infectious

  1. Myxomatosis.

    PubMed

    Bertagnoli, S; Marchandeau, S

    2015-08-01

    Myxomatosis, a major disease of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), is enzootic on several continents. The disease is infectious, virulent and contagious. The pathogen is a virus of the family Poxviridae, genus Leporipoxvirus. In its classic form the disease is often fatal, characterised by severe immunosuppression and the appearance of skin pseudotumours (myxomas); it is conducive to effective mechanical transmission by many biting arthropods. Atypical clinical forms, referred to as amyxomatous, of variable severity and with an apparent preference for direct transmission, have recently emerged in Europe. Virus-host interactions have been particularly well studied since the voluntary introduction of the myxoma virus into Australia and Europe, revealing a remarkable process of co-evolution. Molecular analysis has recently demonstrated the extraordinary evolutionary capacity of the myxoma virus. PMID:26601455

  2. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, J.; Tittensor, A. M.; Fox, A. P.; Sanders, M. F.

    1989-01-01

    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in sufficient numbers for transmission to occur throughout the year, but the observed seasonal pattern of the disease appeared to be influenced by seasonal mass movements of these fleas. However other factors were also important including the timing and success of the main rabbit breeding season, the proportion of rabbits which had recovered from the disease and the timing and extent of autumn rabbit mortality from other causes. Significantly more males than females, and more adults and immatures than juveniles, were observed to be infected by myxomatosis. Only 25-27% of the total populations were seen to be infected during outbreaks. Using two independent methods of calculation, it was estimated that between 47 and 69% of infected rabbits died from the disease (much lower than the expected 90-95% for fully susceptible rabbits with the partly attenuated virus strains that predominated). Thus it was estimated that 12-19% of the total rabbit populations were known to have died directly or indirectly from myxomatosis. Although the effects of myxomatosis were much less than during the 1950s and 1960s, it continued to be an important mortality factor. It may still have a regulatory effect on rabbit numbers, with autumn/winter peaks of disease reducing the numbers of rabbits present at the start of the breeding season. PMID:2806418

  3. Possible windborne spread of myxomatosis to England in 1953.

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, R. F.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of the meterological conditions showed that the first outbreaks of myxomatosis in S.E. England in 1953 could have resulted from wind carriage of insects infected with myxoma virus from northern France. South-easterly winds on the night 11-12 August would have carried the insects 120-160 km from the Départements of Nord, Pas de Calais and Somme across the English Channel to near Edenbridge, Kent. The flight would have taken 6.5-8.5 h at wind speeds of 15-22 km h-1. On the night 11-12 August, temperatures increased with height (inversion) up to 500 m; at ground level temperature was around 19 degrees C and at 500 m was 25 degrees C. Insects would have travelled up to the top of the inversion arriving on 12 August as the inversion declined. Two or possibly three generations of infection would have taken place before the disease was seen around the middle of September 1953. The most likely insect was the mosquito Anopheles atroparvus which breeds along the coastal marshes of England and northern France and which has been shown experimentally and in the field to transmit myxoma virus mechanically. PMID:2881798

  4. Vaccine breaks: Outbreaks of myxomatosis on Spanish commercial rabbit farms.

    PubMed

    Dalton, K P; Nicieza, I; de Llano, D; Gullón, J; Inza, M; Petralanda, M; Arroita, Z; Parra, F

    2015-08-01

    Despite the success of vaccination against myxoma virus, myxomatosis remains a problem on rabbit farms throughout Spain and Europe. In this study we set out to evaluate possible causes of myxoma virus (MYXV) vaccine failures addressing key issues with regard to pathogen, vaccine and vaccination strategies. This was done by genetically characterising MYXV field isolates from farm outbreaks, selecting a representative strain for which to assay its virulence and measuring the protective capability of a commercial vaccine against this strain. Finally, we compare methods (route) of vaccine administration under farm conditions and evaluate immune response in vaccinated rabbits. The data presented here show that the vaccine tested is capable of eliciting protection in rabbits that show high levels of seroconversion. However, the number of animals failing to seroconvert following subcutaneous vaccination may leave a large number of rabbits unprotected following vaccine administration. Successful vaccination requires the strict implication of workable, planned, on farm programs. Following this, analysis to confirm seroconversion rates may be advisable. Factors such as the wild rabbit reservoir, control of biting insects and good hygienic practices must be taken into consideration to prevent vaccine failures from occurring. PMID:26009303

  5. A reappraisal of the role of mosquitoes in the transmission of myxomatosis in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Service, M. W.

    1971-01-01

    Field experiments were made in southern England to re-examine the possibility that mosquitoes in Britain might feed on wild rabbits and hence be vectors of myxomatosis. Mosquitoes of several species were attracted to rabbits enclosed in cylindrical traps and in a trap in which the animal was placed in a wire mesh cage. Substantial numbers of mosquitoes were also caught biting, or attempting to bite, tethered rabbits which were not in cages or traps. Evidence that mosquitoes fed on wild rabbits under natural conditions was obtained from results of precipitin tests made on blood-smears collected from mosquitoes caught resting amongst vegetation. On a few evenings mosquitoes were seen to be attracted to healthy wild rabbits and apparently attempting to feed on them. Batches of two mosquito species collected from the field were infected with myxoma virus. It was concluded that contrary to previous beliefs mosquitoes in Britain feed to a certain extent on wild rabbits, and therefore are potential vectors of myxomatosis. No attempts were made to assess their relative importance in the transmission of the disease, which in Britain is transmitted mainly by the rabbit flea. ImagesPlate 1 PMID:4401995

  6. Atypical myxomatosis--virus isolation, experimental infection of rabbits and restriction endonuclease analysis of the isolate.

    PubMed

    Psikal, I; Smíd, B; Rodák, L; Valícek, L; Bendová, J

    2003-08-01

    Atypical form of myxomatosis, which caused non-lethal and clinically mild disease in domestic rabbits 1 month after immunization with a commercially available vaccine MXT, is described. The isolated myxoma virus designated as Litovel 2 (Li-2) did not induce systemic disease following subcutaneous and intradermal applications in susceptible experimental rabbits but led to the immune response demonstrated by ELISA. No severe disease was induced in those Li-2 inoculated rabbits by challenge with the virulent strains Lausanne (Lu) or Sanar (SA), while the control animals showed nodular form of myxomatosis with lethal course of the illness. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of genomic DNA with KpnI and BamHI endonucleases was used for genetic characterization of the Li-2 isolate, the vaccine strain MXT and both virulent strains Lu and SA, respectively. In general, RFLP analysis has shown to be informative for inferring genetic relatedness between myxoma viruses. Based on restriction endonuclease DNA fragment size distribution, it was evident that the pathogenic strain SA is genetically related to the reference strain Lu and the isolate Li-2 is more related, but not identical, to the vaccination strain MXT.

  7. Horizontal Transmissible Protection against Myxomatosis and Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease by Using a Recombinant Myxoma Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bárcena, Juan; Morales, Mónica; Vázquez, Belén; Boga, José A.; Parra, Francisco; Lucientes, Javier; Pagès-Manté, Albert; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José M.; Blasco, Rafael; Torres, Juan M.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a new strategy for immunization of wild rabbit populations against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) that uses recombinant viruses based on a naturally attenuated field strain of myxoma virus (MV). The recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV major capsid protein (VP60) including a linear epitope tag from the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) nucleoprotein. Following inoculation, the recombinant viruses induced specific antibody responses against MV, RHDV, and the TGEV tag. Immunization of wild rabbits by the subcutaneous and oral routes conferred protection against virulent RHDV and MV challenges. The recombinant viruses showed a limited horizontal transmission capacity, either by direct contact or in a flea-mediated process, promoting immunization of contact uninoculated animals. PMID:10627521

  8. Infectious Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... bones meet, such as your elbow or knee. Infectious arthritis is an infection in the joint. The infection ... from another part of the body. Symptoms of infectious arthritis include Intense pain in the joint Joint redness ...

  9. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    PubMed Central

    Bertagnoli, S; Gelfi, J; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Vautherot, J F; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S; Petit, F; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Milon, A

    1996-01-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma virus-specific antibodies in rabbits after immunization. Inoculations by the intradermal route protected animals against virulent RHDV and myxoma virus challenges. PMID:8764013

  10. Infectious disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on infectious disease. It addresses their major concern over outbreaks of infectious disease that could jeopardize the health, safety and/or performance of crew members engaged in long duration space missions. The Antarctic environment is seen as an analogous location on Earth and a good place to carry out such infectious disease studies and methods for proposed studies as suggested.

  11. Infectious Aortitis.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, F Daniel; Jamison, Bruce M; Hibbert, Benjamin

    2016-09-28

    Aortitis is broadly divided into infectious and non-infectious etiologies, each with distinct treatment implications. We present the case of a patient who sustained a type A aortic dissection during urgent coronary angiography for acute coronary syndrome. Clinical findings and events during the procedure raised suspicion for an underlying vascular disorder; however, the diagnosis of staphylococcal aortitis was not made until pathological examination of resected tissue. Clues to the diagnosis of infectious aortitis noted throughout the patient's clinical course are detailed as are potential consequences of diagnostic delays and treatment decisions, underscoring the difficulties in recognizing and managing the condition. In addition, we describe a previously unreported complication of cardiac catheterization in the setting of an infectious aortopathy.

  12. Infectious Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Infectious uveitis is one of the most common and visually devastating causes of uveitis in the US and worldwide. This review provides a summary of the identification, treatment, and complications associated with certain forms of viral, bacterial, fungal, helminthic, and parasitic uveitis. In particular, this article reviews the literature on identification and treatment of acute retinal necrosis due to herpes simplex virus, varicella virus, and cytomegalovirus. While no agreed-upon treatment has been identified, the characteristics of Ebola virus panuveitis is also reviewed. In addition, forms of parasitic infection such as Toxoplasmosis and Toxocariasis are summarized, as well as spirochetal uveitis. Syphilitic retinitis is reviewed given its increase in prevalence over the last decade. The importance of early identification and treatment of infectious uveitis is emphasized. Early identification can be achieved with a combination of maintaining a high suspicion, recognizing certain clinical features, utilizing multi-modal imaging, and obtaining specimens for molecular diagnostic testing. PMID:26618074

  13. Infectious Mononucleosis

    PubMed Central

    Dunmire, Samantha K.; Hogquist, Kristin A.; Balfour, Henry H.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is a clinical entity characterized by sore throat, cervical lymph node enlargement, fatigue and fever most often seen in adolescents and young adults and lasting several weeks. It can be caused by a number of pathogens, but this chapter only discusses infectious mononucleosis due to primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. EBV is a γ-herpesvirus that infects at least 90% of the population worldwide. The virus is spread by intimate oral contact among teenagers and young adults. How preadolescents acquire the virus is not known. A typical clinical picture with a positive heterophile test is usually sufficient to make the diagnosis, but heterophile antibodies are not specific and do not develop in some patients. EBV-specific antibody profiles are the best choice for staging EBV infection. In addition to causing acute illness, there can also be long-term consequences as the result of acquisition of the virus. Several EBV related illnesses occur including certain cancers and autoimmune diseases, as well as complications of primary immunodeficiency in persons with the certain genetic mutations. A major obstacle to understanding these sequelae has been the lack of an efficient animal model for EBV infection, although progress in primate and mouse models has recently been made. Key future challenges are to develop protective vaccines and effective treatment regimens. PMID:26424648

  14. Infectious tolerance.

    PubMed

    Cobbold, S; Waldmann, H

    1998-10-01

    Infectious tolerance can be induced in many ways, does not require a thymus or clonal deletion and can spread to third-party antigens linked on the same antigen-presenting cell-the process being variously described as linked-, bystanderor epitope-suppression. We here review the evidence concerning the mechanisms involved and attempt to make a consistent hypothesis, that during tolerance induction in the Th1-mediated autoimmune diseases and transplantation systems there would seem to be a phase of immune deviation towards Th2 cytokines, like IL-4 and IL-10; however, this may lead to an IL-10-induced form of anergy or nonresponsiveness and generation of the recently characterized Th3/T-regulatory-1 CD4+ T cell subset which is thought to downregulate the antigen-presenting cell, possibly via transforming growth factor beta. PMID:9794831

  15. Overview of Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Overview of Infectious Diseases Page Content Article Body I nfectious diseases are ... worms Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Immunizations & Infectious Diseases: An Informed Parent's Guide (Copyright © 2006 American Academy ...

  16. [Infectious diseases research].

    PubMed

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge. PMID:19195467

  17. [Infectious diseases research].

    PubMed

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge.

  18. FastStats: Infectious Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Infectious Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Health, United States trend tables with data on infectious disease Seroprevalence of six infectious diseases among adults in ...

  19. Modeling Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... MIDAS models require a breadth of knowledge, the network draws together an interdisciplinary team of researchers with expertise in epidemiology, infectious diseases, computational biology, statistics, social sciences, physics, computer sciences and informatics. In 2006, MIDAS modelers simulated ...

  20. Ethics and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2005-06-01

    Bioethics apparently suffers from a misdistribution of research resources analogous to the '10/90' divide in medical research. Though infectious disease should be recognized as a topic of primary importance for bioethics, the general topic of infectious disease has received relatively little attention from the discipline of bioethics in comparison with things like abortion, euthanasia, genetics, cloning, stem cell research, and so on. The fact that the historical and potential future consequences of infectious diseases are almost unrivalled is one reason that the topic of infectious disease warrants more attention from bioethicists. The 'Black Death' eliminated one third of the European population during the 14th Century; the 1989 flu killed between 20 and 100 million people; and, in the 20th Century smallpox killed perhaps three times more people than all the wars of that period. In the contemporary world, epidemics (AIDS, multi-drug resistant turberculosis, and newly emerging infectious diseases such as SARS) continue to have dramatic consequences. A second reason why the topic of infectious disease deserves further attention is that it raises difficult ethical questions of its own. While infected individuals can threaten the health of other individuals and society as a whole, for example, public health care measures such as surveillance, isolation, and quarantine can require the infringement of widely accepted basic human rights and liberties. An important and difficult ethical question asks how to strike a balance between the utilitarian aim of promoting public health, on the one hand, and libertarian aims of protecting privacy and freedom of movement, on the other, in contexts involving diseases that are--to varying degrees--contagious, deadly, or otherwise dangerous. Third, since their burden is most heavily shouldered by the poor (in developing countries), infectious diseases involve issues of justice--which should be a central concern of ethics. I conclude

  1. A review of mutual transmission of important infectious diseases between livestock and wildlife in Europe.

    PubMed

    Frölich, K; Thiede, S; Kozikowski, T; Jakob, W

    2002-10-01

    Oral vaccination of red foxes against rabies has been practiced in Europe since 1978 and has succeeded in greatly reducing the occurrence of this disease in foxes: this is an example of coordinated activity against a disease that affects both wild and domestic animals as well as humans. Some examples of diseases that affect both domestic and wild animals in Europe are: classical swine fever (hog cholera) in wild boars and domestic swine; myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease in domestic and wild rabbits; bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in cattle and roe deer; contagious ecthyma in domestic sheep and goats and also in, e.g., chamois, muskox, and reindeer; Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, wild boars, badgers, and deer; and brucellosis in a broad range of livestock and wildlife in all European countries. In addition, serological surveys performed in different free-ranging ungulate species revealed the presence of alphaherpesviruses related to bovine herpesvirus-1 in 7 European countries; and a study of malignant catarrhal fever in deer in Germany might indicate that in this case sheep are the main reservoir species. Although many data on infectious diseases are available in various European countries, there is more need for systematic surveillance and coordinated research. PMID:12381556

  2. Emergent Infectious Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Khairallah, Moncef; Jelliti, Bechir; Jenzeri, Salah

    2009-01-01

    Infectious causes should always be considered in all patients with uveitis and it should be ruled out first. The differential diagnosis includes multiple well-known diseases including herpes, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, bartonellosis, Lyme disease, and others. However, clinicians should be aware of emerging infectious agents as potential causes of systemic illness and also intraocular inflammation. Air travel, immigration, and globalization of business have overturned traditional pattern of geographic distribution of infectious diseases, and therefore one should work locally but think globally, though it is not possible always. This review recapitulates the systemic and ocular mainfestations of several emergent infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist including Rickettsioses, West Nile virus infection, Rift valley fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. Retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement have been associated with these emergent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of any of these infections is usually based on pattern of uveitis, systemic symptoms and signs, and specific epidemiological data and confirmed by detection of specific antibody in serum. A systematic ocular examination, showing fairly typical fundus findings, may help in establishing an early clinical diagnosis, which allows prompt, appropriate management. PMID:20404989

  3. Infectious Chronic Rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Bose, Sumit; Grammer, Leslie C; Peters, Anju T

    2016-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a persistent inflammatory disease that affects a multitude of people worldwide. The pathogenesis of CRS involves many factors including genetics, status of the sinonasal microbiome, infections, and environmental influences. Comorbidities associated with CRS include asthma, allergic rhinitis, bronchiectasis, and certain kinds of immunodeficiency. CRS can be divided into different subtypes based on endotypes and phenotypes. Infectious CRS is one such category. The etiology of infectious CRS is usually secondary to chronic bacterial infection that commonly begins with a viral upper respiratory tract infection. Humoral antibody deficiencies can underlie difficult-to-treat or recurrent CRS. Infectious CRS can be treated with antimicrobials, topical or oral corticosteroids, and nasal saline irrigations. Patients with CRS and humoral immunodeficiency may require an aggressive treatment approach including immunoglobulin replacement therapy. Despite advancements in the field of CRS, targeted therapies and reliable biomarkers are still lacking. PMID:27393772

  4. Forecasting Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic models of infectious disease systems abound and are used to study the epidemiological characteristics of disease outbreaks, the ecological mechanisms affecting transmission, and the suitability of various control and intervention strategies. The dynamics of disease transmission are non-linear and consequently difficult to forecast. Here, we describe combined model-inference frameworks developed for the prediction of infectious diseases. We show that accurate and reliable predictions of seasonal influenza outbreaks can be made using a mathematical model representing population-level influenza transmission dynamics that has been recursively optimized using ensemble data assimilation techniques and real-time estimates of influenza incidence. Operational real-time forecasts of influenza and other infectious diseases have been and are currently being generated.

  5. Infectious waste feed system

    DOEpatents

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  6. Dynamics of infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, Kat; Brand, Sam; Moir, Jo; Keeling, Matt J.

    2014-02-01

    Modern infectious disease epidemiology has a strong history of using mathematics both for prediction and to gain a deeper understanding. However the study of infectious diseases is a highly interdisciplinary subject requiring insights from multiple disciplines, in particular a biological knowledge of the pathogen, a statistical description of the available data and a mathematical framework for prediction. Here we begin with the basic building blocks of infectious disease epidemiology—the SIS and SIR type models—before considering the progress that has been made over the recent decades and the challenges that lie ahead. Throughout we focus on the understanding that can be developed from relatively simple models, although accurate prediction will inevitably require far greater complexity beyond the scope of this review. In particular, we focus on three critical aspects of infectious disease models that we feel fundamentally shape their dynamics: heterogeneously structured populations, stochasticity and spatial structure. Throughout we relate the mathematical models and their results to a variety of real-world problems.

  7. Controlling Infectious Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Wm. Lane; Fidler, David P.

    1997-01-01

    Advocates establishing programs to educate the public about the growing threat of communicable diseases and to promote effective strategies. Utilizes recent successes and failures to formulate those strategies. Profiles three recent infectious disease outbreaks that illustrate some of the current problems. Identifies four ways that lawyers can…

  8. [Feline infectious peritonitis].

    PubMed

    Lutz, H; Hauser, B; Horzinek, M C

    1985-11-15

    This paper gives a summary of our present-day knowledge concerning etiology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, pathology and pathogenesis of feline infectious peritonitis. Special emphasis is given to the participation of the immune system in the development of lesions. A therapy protocol is proposed and an extensive list of original literature for further study is given.

  9. Eosinophilia in Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Elise M.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    In determining the etiology of eosinophilia, it is necessary to consider the type of patient, including previous travel and exposure history, comorbidities, and symptoms. In this review, we discuss the approach to the patient with eosinophilia from an infectious diseases perspective based on symptom complexes. PMID:26209897

  10. Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases NIAID conducts and supports basic research to better ... diagnose, treat, and prevent a wide range of infectious diseases, whether those diseases emerge naturally or are deliberately ...

  11. Infectious panniculitides: an update.

    PubMed

    Perasole, A

    2013-08-01

    Very few areas in the realm of diagnostic dermatopathology may be so challenging both for the dermatologist and the histopathologist as are those related to panniculitis, because of their frequent overlapping microscopical patterns and uncertain etiology. Classically, a dicotomic taxonomy key has been proposed according the prevalent involvement of subcutaneous septa or lobules of the inflammation, presence or absence of vasculitis and type of vessel involved, but exceptions to this approach do occur and overlapping forms are sometimes encountered. Infectious panniculitides have also been traditionally approached according to this schema, and their microscopic diagnosis may be even more complex when the causative agent is unknown and underrepresented in the specimen. Many types of pathogens are capable to evoke protean clinical manifestations, which range from organism-specific to aspecific pictures. For this reason a tissue biopsy is always mandatory to ascertain the type of lesion and differentiate an infectious process from its many other mimickers essentially represented by reactive-based panniculitides. Recognition of morphologic changes which characterize distinct infections in the subcutis often needs a complete clinical history, physical examination and laboratory studies, especially when few microorganisms if any are found. This review will be focussed on the pathophysiology of the adipose tissue in relation to immunity and mechanisms of host reaction. The most frequent infectious panniculitides will then be discussed with special reference to their microscopic pictures, to provide clues to their specific diagnosis and the use of immunohistochemistry and molecular biology techniques as ancillary techniques. PMID:23900164

  12. Immunoserology of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    James, K

    1990-01-01

    The immune response to microorganisms not only participates in the elimination of unwanted organisms from the body, but also assists in diagnosis of infectious diseases. The nonspecific immune response is the first line of defense, assisting the body until the specific immune response can be mobilized to provide protective mechanisms. The specific immune response involves humoral or cell-mediated immunity or both, dependent on the nature of the organism and its site of sequestration. A variety of test systems have been developed to identify the causative organisms of infectious diseases. Test systems used in immunoserology have classically included methods of detecting antigen-antibody reactions which range from complement fixation to immunoassay methods. Relevant test systems for detecting antigens and antibodies are described. With numerous test systems available to detect antigens and antibodies, there can be confusion regarding selection of the appropriate system for each application. Methods for detecting antibody to verify immunity differ from immunologic methods to diagnose disease. Techniques to detect soluble antigens present in active infectious states may appear similar to those used to detect antibody, but their differences should be appreciated. PMID:2187592

  13. Radioimmunotherapy of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    The need for novel approaches to treat infectious diseases is obvious and urgent. This situation has renewed interest in using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in therapy of infectious diseases. During the last 5 years radioimmunotherapy (RIT), a modality developed for cancer treatment, has been successfully adapted for the treatment of experimental fungal (C. neoformans and H. capsulatum), bacterial (S. pneumoniae and B. anthracis) and viral (HIV-1) infections. RIT produced none or only transient hematological toxicity in experimental animals. Investigation of radiobiological mechanisms of RIT of infections showed that microbial cells are killed by both "direct hit" and "cross-fire" radiation. MAbs radiolabeled with either alpha- or beta-emitters stimulated apoptosis-like cell death, while only mAbs radiolabeled with alpha-emitter 213Bi also decreased the metabolic activity of microbial cells. The success of this approach in laboratory studies combined with earlier nuclear medicine experience on pre-clinical and clinical studies utilizing radiolabeled organism-specific antibodies for imaging of infections provides encouragement for feasibility of therapeutically targeting microbes with labeled antibodies. We envision that first the organism-specific mAbs will be radiolabeled with imaging radionuclides such as 99mTc or 111In to localize the sites of infection with SPECT followed by RIT with 188Re- or 90Y-labeled mAb, respectively. Also, immunoPET might be utilized for imaging of infection before treatment if such positron-emitting radionuclides as 86Y (matching pair for 90Y) or 124I (matching pair for 131I) are available. It might be possible to create a so-called “pan-antibody” which would recognize an antigen shared by a particular class of human pathogens such as fungi, for example. The availability of such antibodies would eliminate the necessity of having antibodies specific for each particular microorganism and would enormously enhance the development of RIT

  14. Globalization and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Frenk, Julio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia M

    2011-09-01

    This article discusses the nature of the health challenges created by globalization and proposes new forms of international cooperation to confront them. The discussion of global health challenges includes both the transfer of health risks, with an emphasis on infectious diseases, and the international dissemination of health opportunities, including the transfer of knowledge and technology. The authors argue that the health-related challenges and opportunities of an increasingly interdependent world demand new forms of international cooperation. The authors suggest the promotion of 3 elements that, in their essence, contain the idea of collaboration: exchange, evidence, and empathy.

  15. Feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Katrin

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), an important disease frequently seen in veterinary practice. FIP causes many problems to the veterinarian as it can be difficult to definitively diagnose the disease, as there is no effective treatment, and as prophylactic interventions are not very successful. Although intense research has created a lot of new knowledge about this disease in the last years, there are still many unanswered questions. The objective of this article is to review recent knowledge and to increase understanding of the complex pathogenesis of FIP.

  16. Feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Goodson, Teresa; Randell, Susan; Moore, Lisa

    2009-10-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) frequently results in death in cats. It is caused by a mutated, highly contagious coronavirus, and it is more common in indoor cats in multicat households. A complex interaction between the coronavirus and the feline immune system causes disseminated vasculitis, which is the hallmark of FIP. New tests are being developed, but the antemortem diagnosis of FIP continues to be difficult and frustrating. Current treatments are crude and involve supportive care and immunosuppression. Minimizing exposure is the best method of preventing infection.

  17. Feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Andrew, S E

    2000-09-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis is a noncurable viral disease affecting cats worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that the FIPV has evolved as a deletion mutation of FECV. Immune complex deposition and vasculitis with pyogranulomatous lesions are the hallmark of FIP. The only definitive antemortem diagnostic test for FIP is histopathologic examination of tissue. Ocular manifestations occur commonly with noneffusive FIP. The most common clinical sign is a bilateral granulomatous anterior uveitis often accompanied by chorioretinitis. Treatment of ocular FIP is symptomatic, and the mainstay of palliative therapy is topical or systemic corticosteroids or both.

  18. Infectious Meningitis and Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Piquet, Amanda L; Lyons, Jennifer L

    2016-08-01

    The clinician who is evaluating a patient with a suspected central nervous system infection often faces a large differential diagnosis. There are several signs, symptoms, geographical clues, and diagnostic testing, such as cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities, which can be helpful in identifying the etiological agent. By taking a systematic approach, one can often identify life-threatening, common, and/or treatable etiologies. Here the authors describe some of the pearls and pitfalls in diagnosing and treating acute infectious meningitis and encephalitis. PMID:27643906

  19. Studies on Infectious Mononucleosis

    PubMed Central

    Joncas, J.; Chagnon, A.; Pavilanis, V.

    1966-01-01

    Viral studies were carried out on throat swabs, rectal swabs and washed white blood cells from 27 cases of infectious mononucleosis (positive Paul-Bunnell-David-sohn test), and from 22 controls. Four cytopathic agents were isolated in the test group, two of which were readily subcultured for at least three successive passages. Three cytopathic agents were recovered in the control group, two of which have been identified as adenovirus type 5 and adenovirus type 3. The unidentified agents tested so far are sensitive to ether and to pH 3. The results of acridine-orange staining and the immunofluorescence technique, using a conjugated control serum and two conjugated convalescent infectious mononucleosis sera, indicate that the isolated agent or agents in the test group are RNA-type agents with a cytoplasmic cycle of development. The overall results of this study lead the authors to suspect a respiratory syncytial-like myxovirus as the as yet unidentified agent which they recovered. ImagesFig. 1aFig. 1bFig. 1cFig. 1dFig. 2aFig. 2bFig. 2cFig. 2dFig. 3aFig. 3bFig. 3cFig. 3dFig. 3eFig. 3f PMID:4952899

  20. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, Victoria

    The emergence of new, transmissible infections poses a significant threat to human populations. As the 2009 novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic demonstrate, we have observed the effects of rapid spread of illness in non-immune populations and experienced disturbing uncertainty about future potential for human suffering and societal disruption. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of a newly emerged infectious organism are usually gathered in retrospect as the outbreak evolves and affects populations. Knowledge of potential effects of outbreaks and epidemics and most importantly, mitigation at community, regional, national and global levels is needed to inform policy that will prepare and protect people. Study of possible outcomes of evolving epidemics and application of mitigation strategies is not possible in observational or experimental research designs, but computational modeling allows conduct of `virtual' experiments. Results of well-designed computer simulations can aid in the selection and implementation of strategies that limit illness and death, and maintain systems of healthcare and other critical resources that are vital to public protection. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks.

  1. Sports: The Infectious Hazards.

    PubMed

    Minooee, Arezou; Wang, Jeff; Gupta, Geeta K

    2015-10-01

    Although the medical complications of sports are usually traumatic in nature, infectious hazards also arise. While blood-borne pathogens such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cause significant illness, the risk of acquiring these agents during sporting activities is minimal. Skin infections are more commonplace, arising from a variety of microbial agents including bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. Sports involving water contact can lead to enteric infections, eye infections, or disseminated infections such as leptospirosis. Mumps, measles, and influenza are vaccine-preventable diseases that have been transmitted during sporting events, both in players and in spectators. Prevention is the key to many of these infections. Players should be vaccinated and should not participate in sports if their infection can be spread by contact, airborne, or droplet transmission.

  2. 76 FR 39041 - Infectious Diseases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ...-596, 84 STAT. 1590 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657), Secretary of Labor's Order No. 4-2010 (75 FR 55355 (Sept... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 RIN 1218-AC46 Infectious Diseases AGENCY... exposure to infectious diseases. OSHA plans to use the information gathered at these meetings to...

  3. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  4. What Is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist? Page Content Article Body If your child ... teen years. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialists Have? Pediatric infectious diseases specialists are medical ...

  5. NON-INFECTIOUS DISORDERS OF WARMWATER FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Compared with infectious diseases and disorders, few non-infectious diseases and disorders in cultured fish have severe biologic or economic impact. Culture practices, however, often establish environments that promote infectious disease by weakening the immune response or by pro...

  6. Prioritising Infectious Disease Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, David M.; Howes, Rosalind E.; Wiebe, Antoinette; Battle, Katherine E.; Golding, Nick; Gething, Peter W.; Dowell, Scott F.; Farag, Tamer H.; Garcia, Andres J.; Kimball, Ann M.; Krause, L. Kendall; Smith, Craig H.; Brooker, Simon J.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing volumes of data and computational capacity afford unprecedented opportunities to scale up infectious disease (ID) mapping for public health uses. Whilst a large number of IDs show global spatial variation, comprehensive knowledge of these geographic patterns is poor. Here we use an objective method to prioritise mapping efforts to begin to address the large deficit in global disease maps currently available. Methodology/Principal Findings Automation of ID mapping requires bespoke methodological adjustments tailored to the epidemiological characteristics of different types of diseases. Diseases were therefore grouped into 33 clusters based upon taxonomic divisions and shared epidemiological characteristics. Disability-adjusted life years, derived from the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study, were used as a globally consistent metric of disease burden. A review of global health stakeholders, existing literature and national health priorities was undertaken to assess relative interest in the diseases. The clusters were ranked by combining both metrics, which identified 44 diseases of main concern within 15 principle clusters. Whilst malaria, HIV and tuberculosis were the highest priority due to their considerable burden, the high priority clusters were dominated by neglected tropical diseases and vector-borne parasites. Conclusions/Significance A quantitative, easily-updated and flexible framework for prioritising diseases is presented here. The study identifies a possible future strategy for those diseases where significant knowledge gaps remain, as well as recognising those where global mapping programs have already made significant progress. For many conditions, potential shared epidemiological information has yet to be exploited. PMID:26061527

  7. Conflict and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Legros, Dominique; Formenty, Pierre; Connolly, Maire A.

    2007-01-01

    Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in conflict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well as ongoing insecurity and poor coordination among humanitarian agencies. This article outlines factors that potentiate emergence and transmission of infectious diseases in conflict situations and highlights several priority actions for their containment and control. PMID:18217543

  8. Infectious diseases and impaired consciousness.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael R; Roos, Karen L

    2011-11-01

    Any of a number of neuroinfectious diseases can cause a disorder of consciousness. The priority in the care of the patient is to identify an infectious disease that is treatable. This article examines disorders of consciousness that may be caused by a septic encephalopathy, bacterial meningoencephalitis, viral encephalitis, tick-borne bacterial disease, fungal meningitis, tuberculous meningitis, a focal infectious mass lesion, such as a brain abscess, or an autoimmune-mediated disorder as a complication of infection. PMID:22032667

  9. Infectious disease, endangerment, and extinction.

    PubMed

    Macphee, Ross D E; Greenwood, Alex D

    2013-01-01

    Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters. PMID:23401844

  10. Human migration and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Soto, S M

    2009-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EID) are defined as diseases that have appeared recently or that have recently increased in their frequency, geographical distribution or both. Commercial globalisation, population movements and environmental changes are the main factors favouring the international spread of microorganisms. Transport and communication development constitutes also a remarkable factor in the worldwide dispersion of microorganisms. The mass movement of large numbers of people creates new opportunities for the spread and establishment of common or novel infectious diseases. A surveillance system to detect emergent and re-emergent infections, a rapid responsiveness of healthcare systems and laboratories, vector control, and the provision of healthcare education programmes to inform the population of how to avoid infections are needed in order to stop the spread of infectious diseases. PMID:19220349

  11. Human migration and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Soto, S M

    2009-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EID) are defined as diseases that have appeared recently or that have recently increased in their frequency, geographical distribution or both. Commercial globalisation, population movements and environmental changes are the main factors favouring the international spread of microorganisms. Transport and communication development constitutes also a remarkable factor in the worldwide dispersion of microorganisms. The mass movement of large numbers of people creates new opportunities for the spread and establishment of common or novel infectious diseases. A surveillance system to detect emergent and re-emergent infections, a rapid responsiveness of healthcare systems and laboratories, vector control, and the provision of healthcare education programmes to inform the population of how to avoid infections are needed in order to stop the spread of infectious diseases.

  12. [Loperamide for acute infectious diarrhoea].

    PubMed

    Douma, Joeri A J; Smulders, Yvo M

    2015-01-01

    Many physicians are resistant to the idea of prescribing loperamide for acute infectious traveller's diarrhoea and community-acquired diarrhoea because of the fear of possible adverse effects. Large randomized trials with loperamide, either alone or as an adjunct to antibiotic treatment, have in fact revealed positive rather than negative effects. International guidelines now often support the use of loperamide for the treatment of infectious diarrhoea without dysentery. There seems to be no reason to systematically avoid loperamide in patients with dysentery, but caution is advised. Loperamide can be used as monotherapy or as an adjunct to antibiotic treatment in immunocompetent adults with acute infectious traveller's diarrhoea or community-acquired diarrhoea without severe comorbidities. This can reduce both the frequency of diarrhoea and the time until the diarrhoea stops without the risk of severe complications.

  13. Infectious Risks of Air Travel.

    PubMed

    Mangili, Alexandra; Vindenes, Tine; Gendreau, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Infectious diseases are still among the leading causes of death worldwide due to their persistence, emergence, and reemergence. As the recent Ebola virus disease and MERS-CoV outbreaks demonstrate, the modern epidemics and large-scale infectious outbreaks emerge and spread quickly. Air transportation is a major vehicle for the rapid spread and dissemination of communicable diseases, and there have been a number of reported outbreaks of serious airborne diseases aboard commercial flights including tuberculosis, severe acute respiratory syndrome, influenza, smallpox, and measles, to name a few. In 2014 alone, over 3.3 billion passengers (a number equivalent to 42% of the world population) and 50 million metric tons of cargo traveled by air from 41,000 airports and 50,000 routes worldwide, and significant growth is anticipated, with passenger numbers expected to reach 5.9 billion by 2030. Given the increasing numbers of travelers, the risk of infectious disease transmission during air travel is a significant concern, and this chapter focuses on the current knowledge about transmission of infectious diseases in the context of both transmissions within the aircraft passenger cabin and commercial aircraft serving as vehicles of worldwide infection spread. PMID:26542037

  14. Infectious Risks of Air Travel.

    PubMed

    Mangili, Alexandra; Vindenes, Tine; Gendreau, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Infectious diseases are still among the leading causes of death worldwide due to their persistence, emergence, and reemergence. As the recent Ebola virus disease and MERS-CoV outbreaks demonstrate, the modern epidemics and large-scale infectious outbreaks emerge and spread quickly. Air transportation is a major vehicle for the rapid spread and dissemination of communicable diseases, and there have been a number of reported outbreaks of serious airborne diseases aboard commercial flights including tuberculosis, severe acute respiratory syndrome, influenza, smallpox, and measles, to name a few. In 2014 alone, over 3.3 billion passengers (a number equivalent to 42% of the world population) and 50 million metric tons of cargo traveled by air from 41,000 airports and 50,000 routes worldwide, and significant growth is anticipated, with passenger numbers expected to reach 5.9 billion by 2030. Given the increasing numbers of travelers, the risk of infectious disease transmission during air travel is a significant concern, and this chapter focuses on the current knowledge about transmission of infectious diseases in the context of both transmissions within the aircraft passenger cabin and commercial aircraft serving as vehicles of worldwide infection spread.

  15. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, R. N. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide. PMID:20190120

  16. Diagnostic vitrectomy for infectious uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Jeroudi, Abdallah; Yeh, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The identification of an infectious or noninfectious uveitis syndrome is important to determine the range of therapeutic and prognostic implications of that disease entity. Diagnostic dilemmas arise with atypical history, atypical clinical presentations, inconclusive diagnostic workup, and persistent or worsened inflammation despite appropriate immunosuppression. More invasive intraocular testing is indicated in these situations particularly in infectious uveitis where a delay in treatment may result in worsening of the patient’s disease and a poor visual outcome. Laboratory analysis of vitreous fluid via diagnostic pars plana vitrectomy is an important technique in the diagnostic armamentarium, but the most important aspects of sample collection include rapid processing, close coordination with an ophthalmic pathology laboratory, and directed testing on this limited collected sample. Culture and staining has utility in bacterial, fungal, and nocardial infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis has shown promising results for bacterial endophthalmitis and infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis whereas PCR testing for viral retinitides and ocular toxoplasmosis has a more established role. Antibody testing is appropriate for toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis, and may be complementary to PCR for viral retinitis. Masquerade syndromes represent neoplastic conditions that clinically appear as infectious or inflammatory conditions and should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. Diagnostic vitrectomy and chorioretinal biopsy are thus critical tools for the management of patients in whom an infectious etiology of uveitis is suspected. PMID:24613892

  17. Preventing Infectious Disease in Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Warren B.

    2003-01-01

    Preventing infectious disease in sports is fundamental to maintaining team effectiveness and helping athletes avoid the adverse effects of illness. Good hygiene, immunization, minimal exposure to specific diseases, and certain prophylactic measures are essential. Teammates, coaches, trainers, officials, healthcare providers, and community public…

  18. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, R N M

    2010-03-15

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide.

  19. Facts about Infectious Diseases (ID)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and influenza. Travelers to foreign countries may require vaccinations against yellow fever, cholera, typhoid fever or hepatitis ... 1300 Wilson Boulevard Suite 300 Arlington, VA 22209 | Phone: (703) 299-0200 | Fax: (703) 299-0204 For ... | HIVMA | Contact Us © Copyright IDSA 2016 Infectious Diseases Society of America Full Site Mobile Site

  20. Aerosol stability of infectious and potentially infectious reovirus particles.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, D J; Spendlove, J C; Spendlove, R S; Barnett, B B

    1982-01-01

    The aerosol stability of two particle forms, infectious and potentially infectious, of reovirus were examined under static conditions for a range of relative humidities at 21 and 24 degrees C. Virus aerosolization efficiency was determined for two methods of dissemination: Collison nebulizer and Chicago atomizer. Suspensions of Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores were added to reovirus preparations that included both particle forms and disseminated into a dynamic aerosol toroid to estimate the physical decay of the aerosols. At 90 to 100% relative humidity, both reovirus particle forms showed less than 10-fold loss of infectivity after 12 h of aging. At lower relative humidities the aerosol decay curve showed rapid initial decay followed by a markedly lower decay rate. Our findings reveal that reovirus particles are relatively stable in the airborne state. PMID:7149719

  1. Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Emerging Infectious Diseases/Pathogens Research Introduction and Goals Despite remarkable advances ... medical research and treatments during the 20th century, infectious diseases remain among the leading causes of death worldwide. ...

  2. Infectious pathogens and bronchiolitis outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Kohei; Mansbach, Jonathan M; Camargo, Carlos A

    2014-07-01

    Bronchiolitis is a common early childhood illness and an important cause of morbidity, it is the number one cause of hospitalization among US infants. Bronchiolitis is also an active area of research, and recent studies have advanced our understanding of this illness. Although it has long been the conventional wisdom that the infectious etiology of bronchiolitis does not affect outcomes, a growing number of studies have linked specific pathogens of bronchiolitis (e.g., rhinovirus) to short- and long-term outcomes, such as future risk of developing asthma. The authors review the advent of molecular diagnostic techniques that have demonstrated diverse pathogens in bronchiolitis, and they review recent studies on the complex link between infectious pathogens of bronchiolitis and the development of childhood asthma.

  3. [Alzheimer's disease: the infectious hypothesis].

    PubMed

    Roubaud Baudron, Claire; Varon, Christine; Mégraud, Francis; Salles, Nathalie

    2015-12-01

    Several hypotheses are proposed for understanding the Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathological mechanisms, mainly the amyloid theory, but the process inducing Aß peptide deposit, tau protein degeneration, and ultimately neuronal loss, is still to be elucidated. Alteration of the blood-brain barrier and activation of neuroinflammation seem to play an important role in AD neurodegeneration, especially in the decrease of Aß peptide clearance, therefore suggesting a role of infectious agents. Epidemiological and experimental studies on cellular or murine models related to herpes simplex virus (HSV), spirochetes, Chlamydia pneumoniae or Borrelia, and systemic inflammation are reviewed. Aß peptide or tau protein could also behave like a prion protein. Infectious agents could thus have an impact on AD by direct interaction with neurotropism or systemic inflammation. Although the results of these studies are not conclusive, they may contribute to the understanding of AD pathology. PMID:26707559

  4. Biomechanical Analysis of Infectious Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Head, David

    2016-01-01

    The removal of infectious biofilms from tissues or implanted devices and their transmission through fluid transport systems depends in part of the mechanical properties of their polymeric matrix. Linking the various physical and chemical microscopic interactions to macroscopic deformation and failure modes promises to unveil design principles for novel therapeutic strategies targeting biofilm eradication, and provide a predictive capability to accelerate the development of devices, water lines, etc, that minimise microbial dispersal. Here, our current understanding of biofilm mechanics is appraised from the perspective of biophysics , with an emphasis on constitutive modelling that has been highly successful in soft matter. Fitting rheometric data to viscoelastic models has quantified linear and nonlinear stress relaxation mechanisms, how they vary between species and environments, and how candidate chemical treatments alter the mechanical response. The rich interplay between growth, mechanics and hydrodynamics is just becoming amenable to computational modelling and promises to provide unprecedented characterisation of infectious biofilms in their native state. PMID:27193540

  5. [Infectious diseases and climate change].

    PubMed

    Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Glismann, Steffen Offersen; Mølbak, Kåre

    2009-10-26

    Climate changes will likely have an impact on the spectrum of infectious diseases in Europe. We may see an increase in vector-borne diseases, diseases spread by rodents such as Hantavirus, and food- and water-borne diseases. As the effects of climate changes are likely to occur gradually, a modern industrialised country such as Denmark will have the opportunity to adapt to the expected changes.

  6. Global warming and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Khasnis, Atul A; Nettleman, Mary D

    2005-01-01

    Global warming has serious implications for all aspects of human life, including infectious diseases. The effect of global warming depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. From the human standpoint, changes in the environment may trigger human migration, causing disease patterns to shift. Crop failures and famine may reduce host resistance to infections. Disease transmission may be enhanced through the scarcity and contamination of potable water sources. Importantly, significant economic and political stresses may damage the existing public health infrastructure, leaving mankind poorly prepared for unexpected epidemics. Global warming will certainly affect the abundance and distribution of disease vectors. Altitudes that are currently too cool to sustain vectors will become more conducive to them. Some vector populations may expand into new geographic areas, whereas others may disappear. Malaria, dengue, plague, and viruses causing encephalitic syndromes are among the many vector-borne diseases likely to be affected. Some models suggest that vector-borne diseases will become more common as the earth warms, although caution is needed in interpreting these predictions. Clearly, global warming will cause changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases. The ability of mankind to react or adapt is dependent upon the magnitude and speed of the change. The outcome will also depend on our ability to recognize epidemics early, to contain them effectively, to provide appropriate treatment, and to commit resources to prevention and research.

  7. [Respiratory infectious diseases in horses].

    PubMed

    Mayr, A

    1987-01-01

    Among all infectious diseases affecting horses, respiratory disease pose the greatest threat to horses kept in stables, horses used for breeding and race horses. Here a distinction should be made between the so-called monocausal infectious diseases (so-called Henle-Koch postulates) and multicausal infectious diseases which are the result of the synergistic interaction of different processes, that alone do not lead to disease. There is no clearcut distinction between the two groups. The most important monocausal respiratory infections of horses are caused by equine influenza virus (subtypes 1 and 2), equine rhinopneumonitis virus (equine herpes-virus type 1), equine arteritis virus and partially by Reoviruses. In addition, streptococcus equi (strangles, adenitis equorum, coryza contagiosa equorum) and mycobacteria tuberculosis can cause monocausal diseases. In multicausal infections, the first step usually is a virus infection. This is the basis for secondary infection by widespread, opportunistic agents such as bacteria, mycoplasms or fungi which lead to clinical disease. The method of choice for controlling monocausal respiratory infections of horses is prophylactic vaccination and chemotherapy. Measures to control multicausal infections include: vaccination with functional-synergistic combined vaccines; the use of herd-specific vaccines; medical stimulation of the non-specific part of immunity (immunmodulation, paramunization). Paramunization is a new concept in the prophylaxis and therapy of respiratory infections of horses and can be combined with prophylactic vaccination as well as with chemotherapy. In severe cases of respiratory disease paramunization can also be combined with corticosteroids.

  8. Infectious and coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Rezaee-Zavareh, Mohammad Saeid; Tohidi, Mohammad; Sabouri, Amin; Ramezani-Binabaj, Mahdi; Sadeghi-Ghahrodi, Mohsen; Einollahi, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Atherosclerotic event is one of the most causes of death in the world. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one manifestation of atherosclerosis. It is well-known that several risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking, hypertension (HTN), have effects on it. It is proposed that infection can lead to atherosclerosis or even make its process faster. Here, we discuss about the effect of some of infectious agents on the atherosclerosis and CAD. METHODS In this study, first we did a comprehensive search in PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct using some related keywords such as atherosclerosis, CAD, myocardial infarction (MI), infection, and name of viruses and bacteria. After finding the related papers, we reviewed the correlation between some microbial agents and risk of CAD. RESULTS Literature has reported several infectious agents (viruses, bacteria, and parasites) that can be associated with risk of CAD. This association for some of them like Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), Chlamydia pneumonia (C. pneumoniae), and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a very strong. On the other hand, there are some other agents like influenza that still need to be more investigated through original studies. Furthermore, different mechanisms (general and special) have been reported for the association of each agent with CAD. CONCLUSION Based on the studies in databases and our literature review, it is so clear that some microbes and infectious agents can be involved in the process of atherosclerosis. Therefore, controlling each type of infections especially among people with a traditional risk factor for atherosclerosis should be taken into account for reducing the risk of CAD and atherosclerosis. PMID:27114736

  9. [Current therapeutics in infectious dermatology].

    PubMed

    Lascaux, A S; Chosidow, O

    NEW AGENTS: Among new treatments used for infectious dermatology diseases, new agents for genital herpes, valaciclovir and famciclovir, have greatly simplified therapeutic schemes. Cidofovir has also been shown to be effective against aciclovir-resistant cutaneous and mucosal herpetic lesions and for the treatment of molluscum contagiosum. NEW ADMINISTRATION ROUTES: For genital papillomavirus infections, trials using systemic or intralesional administered interferon have not provided conclusive evidence but imiquimode appears to be quite promising. Itaconazole and fluconazole are effective for onchomycoses. NEW POSSIBILITIES: Ivermectine is effective against scabies, but must be reserved for particularly severe forms. Finally, the emergence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains resistant to fluoroquinolones is disquieting. PMID:10874915

  10. Infectious Considerations in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddon, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Slightly more than 500 people have flown in space, most of them for short periods of time. The total number of person years in space is small. Given this fact, and given rigorous astronaut screening, it is not surprising that the accumulated infectious disease experience in space is also small, and mostly, theoretical. As the human space presence expands, we may expect mission length, total accumulated person years and the environmental complexity to increase. Add to the mix both changes in human immunity and microbial virulence, and it becomes realistic to consider infectious scenarios and the means to mitigate them. This lecture will cover the inhabited space environment from the perspective of host-microbe interactions, current relevant research, and the current countermeasures used. Future challenges will be discussed and there will be opportunity to ask questions about Space Operations. The audience is encouraged to think about what medical tools you would choose to have in different types of mission, what you would be willing to leave behind, and how you would compensate for the necessary trade offs in mission design.

  11. Interleukin-12 in infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Romani, L; Puccetti, P; Bistoni, F

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a potent immunoregulatory cytokine that is crucially involved in a wide range of infectious diseases. In several experimental models of bacterial, parasitic, viral, and fungal infection, endogenous IL-12 is required for early control of infection and for generation and perhaps maintenance of acquired protective immunity, directed by T helper type 1 (Th1) cells and mediated by phagocytes. Although the relative roles of IL-12 and gamma interferon in Th1-cell priming may be to a significant extent pathogen dependent, common to most infections is that IL-12 regulates the magnitude of the gamma interferon response at the initiation of infection, thus potentiating natural resistance, favoring Th1-cell development; and inhibiting Th2 responses. Treatment of animals with IL-12, either alone or as a vaccine adjuvant, has been shown to prevent disease by many of the same infectious agents, by stimulating innate resistance or promoting specific reactivity. Although IL-12 may enhance protective memory responses in vaccination or in combination with antimicrobial chemotherapy, it is yet unclear whether exogenous IL-12 can alter established responses in humans. Continued investigation into the possible application of IL-12 therapy to human infections is warranted by the role of the cytokine in inflammation, immunopathology, and autoimmunity. PMID:9336665

  12. Livestock infectious diseases and zoonoses

    PubMed Central

    Tomley, Fiona M.; Shirley, Martin W.

    2009-01-01

    Infectious diseases of livestock are a major threat to global animal health and welfare and their effective control is crucial for agronomic health, for safeguarding and securing national and international food supplies and for alleviating rural poverty in developing countries. Some devastating livestock diseases are endemic in many parts of the world and threats from old and new pathogens continue to emerge, with changes to global climate, agricultural practices and demography presenting conditions that are especially favourable for the spread of arthropod-borne diseases into new geographical areas. Zoonotic infections that are transmissible either directly or indirectly between animals and humans are on the increase and pose significant additional threats to human health and the current pandemic status of new influenza A (H1N1) is a topical example of the challenge presented by zoonotic viruses. In this article, we provide a brief overview of some of the issues relating to infectious diseases of livestock, which will be discussed in more detail in the papers that follow. PMID:19687034

  13. Genome of infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Lomniczi, B; Kennedy, I

    1977-01-01

    Techniques are described for the growth and rapid purification of the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Purified IBV has a sedimentation coefficient of 320S and a buoyant density of 1.22 g/ml in sucrose-deuterium oxide equilibrium gradients. IBV RNA extracted by proteinase K in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and further purified by phenol extraction and gradient centrifugation is single stranded and has a sedimentation coefficient of 64S, as determined by isokinetic gradient centrifugation. Analysis on sucrose gradients under both aqueous and denaturing conditions together with agarose gel electrophoresis in the presence of the chaotropic agent methylmercuric hydroxide gave a value of 8 X 10(6) for the moleclar weight of IBV RNA. This value was confirmed by RNase T1 fingerprinting, which also indicated that IBV RNA is haploid. No evidence was found of subunit structure in IBV RNA. From these results together with the recently reported observation that IBV RNA is infectious and contains a tract of polyadenylic acid (Lomniczi, J. Gen. Virol., in press), we conclude that the genome of the coronaviruses is a single continuous chain of about 23,000 mononucleotides that is of messenger polarity. Images PMID:198590

  14. Infectious entry pathway of adenovirus type 2.

    PubMed Central

    Varga, M J; Weibull, C; Everitt, E

    1991-01-01

    Internalization of the infectious fraction of human adenovirus type 2 into HeLa cells was followed by a quantitative internalization assay. Treatments known to selectively block receptor-mediated endocytosis reduced the internalization of infectious virus to an extent close to the reduction of endocytosis of transferrin. This suggests that one of the first steps in the infectious cycle of adenovirus type 2 is internalization by the coated-pit and -vesicle pathway. Images PMID:1920625

  15. Infectious diseases in disaster areas/catastrophes.

    PubMed

    Benca, J; Kalavsky, E; Miklosko, Jozef; Rudinsky, B; Taziarova, M; McKenzie, F

    2007-06-01

    There is very little data and no prospective research possible in the field of catastrophic medicine (disaster medicine) including infectious diseases. This minireview tries to contribute to the pathogenesis and outcome of infectious diseases in areas after anthropogenic (war, genocide, terrorist attack, industrial disasters) and non anthropogenic (natural) catastrophes (earthquake, floods, tsunamis, hurricanes, volcano eruptions). Therefore ISC received a proposal to create a working group on infectious diseases in areas after catastrophes, better to understand epidemiology, prevention and therapy of infectious diseases occurring in conjunction to various anthropogenic and non anthropogenic (natural) disasters.

  16. Infectious diseases associated with caves.

    PubMed

    Igreja, Ricardo Pereira

    2011-06-01

    In recent times, caving has become increasingly popular, with almost 2 million people visiting national park caves each year in the United States. Although the 2 million tourist visits are extremely low risk, smaller numbers of sport cavers are at risk for some high risk conditions, and expedition cavers are at risk for some obscure infections. Infectious diseases like histoplasmosis, rabies, leptospirosis, and tick-borne relapsing fever may be transmitted by the underground fauna. To reduce the risk of illness or injury while caving, knowledge of potential risks before engaging in this activity is important. Caving preparation needs to be carefully planned and executed, including vaccinations, prophylactic medications, and advice regarding safe conduct and behaviors. PMID:21664559

  17. [Frequent infectious diseases in migrants].

    PubMed

    Stich, A

    2016-05-01

    The current influx of refugees and the high rate of immigration increase the rate and impact of infectious diseases in Europe. Infections can be detected at the initial examination of arriving refugees as a result of systematic screening or within the framework of general medical care. Diagnosis and treatment require special expertise and in some cases special precautions. The spectrum of infections is determined by the country of origin of migrants and the conditions experienced on fleeing to Germany. In this article the diagnostics and treatment of the most important infections are presented. As far as infections are concerned refugees and migrants do not represent a threat to the general population but instead have to be perceived as a highly vulnerable group. PMID:27142435

  18. Thermal inactivation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosting, L.; Gould, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A plaque assay was used to follow the inactivation kinetics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in cell culture media at various temperatures. Inactivation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in a visceral organ slurry was compared with that in culture media.

  19. 78 FR 7674 - Foreign Quarantine; Import Regulations for Infectious Biological Agents, Infectious Substances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... small if its annual revenue ranges between $2.5 to $21.5 million for services provided or the number of... concerning the packaging, labeling, and shipment of infectious substances. (c) If noted as a condition of the... replacing the definition of ``infectious material'' with an ``infectious substance''......

  20. An Interdisciplinary Perspective: Infectious Diseases and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turco, Jenifer; Byrd, Melanie

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the course "Infectious Diseases and History" which is designed for freshman and sophomore students. Aims to teach about infectious diseases, develop skills of using libraries and computer resources, and develop oral and written communication skills. Focuses on tuberculosis as an example of an instructional approach and explains its…

  1. 25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Infectious plants. 140.26 Section 140.26 Indians BUREAU... Infectious plants. Traders shall not introduce into, sell, or spread within Indian reservations any plant, plant product, seed, or any type of vegetation, which is infested, or infected or which might act as...

  2. 25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Infectious plants. 140.26 Section 140.26 Indians BUREAU... Infectious plants. Traders shall not introduce into, sell, or spread within Indian reservations any plant, plant product, seed, or any type of vegetation, which is infested, or infected or which might act as...

  3. 25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Infectious plants. 140.26 Section 140.26 Indians BUREAU OF... Infectious plants. Traders shall not introduce into, sell, or spread within Indian reservations any plant, plant product, seed, or any type of vegetation, which is infested, or infected or which might act as...

  4. 25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Infectious plants. 140.26 Section 140.26 Indians BUREAU... Infectious plants. Traders shall not introduce into, sell, or spread within Indian reservations any plant, plant product, seed, or any type of vegetation, which is infested, or infected or which might act as...

  5. 25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infectious plants. 140.26 Section 140.26 Indians BUREAU... Infectious plants. Traders shall not introduce into, sell, or spread within Indian reservations any plant, plant product, seed, or any type of vegetation, which is infested, or infected or which might act as...

  6. Evolutionary Response to Human Infectious Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armelagos, George J.; Dewey, John R.

    1970-01-01

    Gives an overview of human history, relating cultural changes with resulting changes in population density and in ecological balance to patterns of infectious diseases in man. Discusses mechanisms of evolution of resistance. Suggests that in populations where infectious diseases can be controlled, attention should shift to degenerative diseases…

  7. 76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel,...

  8. Infectious Diseases at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Basnyat, Buddha; Starling, Jennifer M

    2015-08-01

    Travel to elevations above 2,500 m is an increasingly common activity undertaken by a diverse population of individuals. These may be trekkers, climbers, miners in high-altitude sites in South America, and more recently, soldiers deployed for high-altitude duty in remote areas of the world. What is also being increasingly recognized is the plight of the millions of pilgrims, many with comorbidities, who annually ascend to high-altitude sacred areas. There are also 400 million people who reside permanently in high mountain ranges, which cover one-fifth of the Earth's surface. Many of these high-altitude areas are in developing countries, for example, the Himalayan range in South Asia. Although high-altitude areas may not harbor any specific infectious disease agents, it is important to know about the pathogens encountered in the mountains to be better able to help both the ill sojourner and the native high-altitude dweller. Often the same pathogens prevalent in the surrounding lowlands are found at high altitude, but various factors such as immunomodulation, hypoxia, poor physiological adaptation, and harsh environmental stressors at high altitude may enhance susceptibility to these pathogens. Against this background, various gastrointestinal, respiratory, dermatological, neurological, and other infections encountered at high altitude are discussed.

  9. [Genetic predisposition to infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Dessein, A

    1997-01-01

    At the present time more is known about barriers to transmission of infectious agents between species than barriers to transmission within the same species. However differences in resistance to infection have been well-established within given species of various plants and domestic farm animals. Unsurprisingly several similar mechanisms have been observed in humans. A well-known human example of genetic protection is resistance to malaria in endemic areas which has been associated with polymorphism in alpha and beta chain globulin genes, cytoskeleton proteins, and protein/receptors on the surface of red blood cells. Studies regarding infection by Schistosoma mansoni show that the extent of infection depends largely on each individual's intrinsic resistance under the control of a single major gene which has now been located on q31-33 locus of the long arm of chromosome 5. This locus harbors several genes involved in differentiation of auxiliary T lymphocytes. With regard to HIV infection it has been known for several years that a small but significant number of individuals are relatively resistant. This resistance has been attributed to deletion of the gene coding for the chemokine receptor used by the virus as a co-receptor to infect macrophage.

  10. Imported infectious diseases and surveillance in Japan.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Yoshida, Makiko; Sunagawa, Tomimasa; Tada, Yuki; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2008-11-01

    Surveillance of imported infectious diseases is important because of the need for early detection of outbreaks of international concern as well as information of risk to the travelers. This paper attempts to review how the Japanese surveillance system deals with imported infectious diseases and reviews the trend of these diseases. The cases of acquired infection overseas were extracted from the surveillance data in 1999-2008. The incidence and rate of imported cases of a series of infectious diseases with more than one imported case were observed by the year of diagnosis and place of acquired infection. During the period 10,030 cases that could be considered to be imported infectious diseases were identified. Shigellosis ranked as the most common imported disease, followed by amebiasis, malaria, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, typhoid fever, dengue fever, hepatitis A, giardiasis, cholera, and paratyphoid fever. The annual trends of these diseases always fluctuated but not every change was investigated. The study reveals that the situation of imported infectious diseases can be identified in the current Japanese surveillance system with epidemiologic features of both temporal and geographic distribution of cases of imported infectious diseases. However, further timely investigation for unusual increase in infectious diseases is needed. PMID:18984479

  11. Management of infectious waste by US hospitals.

    PubMed

    Rutala, W A; Odette, R L; Samsa, G P

    In July 1987 and January 1988, forty-six percent (441/955) of randomly selected US hospitals responded to a questionnaire intended to identify their waste disposal practices. Survey responses were received from hospitals in 48 states. United States hospitals generated a median of 6.93 kg of hospital waste per patient per day and infectious waste made up 15% of the total hospital waste. Most hospitals (greater than 90%) considered blood, microbiology, "sharps," communicable disease isolation, pathology, autopsy, and contaminated animal carcass waste as infectious. Other sources of hospital waste that were commonly (greater than 80%) designated infectious were surgical, dialysis, and miscellaneous laboratory waste. The infectious waste was normally (80%) treated via incineration or steam sterilization before disposal, whereas noninfectious waste was discarded directly in a sanitary landfill. Eight-two percent of these US hospitals are discarding blood, microbiology, sharps, pathology, and contaminated animal carcass waste in accordance with the Centers for Disease Control's recommendations, while the compliance rate for the Environmental Protection Agency's recommendations (excluding optional waste) is 75%. No hospital could identify an infection problem (excluding needle-stick injuries) that was attributable to the disposal of infectious waste. While the management of infectious waste by US hospitals is generally consistent with the Centers for Disease Control's guidelines, many hospitals employ overly inclusive definitions of infectious waste.

  12. Imported infectious diseases and surveillance in Japan.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Yoshida, Makiko; Sunagawa, Tomimasa; Tada, Yuki; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2008-11-01

    Surveillance of imported infectious diseases is important because of the need for early detection of outbreaks of international concern as well as information of risk to the travelers. This paper attempts to review how the Japanese surveillance system deals with imported infectious diseases and reviews the trend of these diseases. The cases of acquired infection overseas were extracted from the surveillance data in 1999-2008. The incidence and rate of imported cases of a series of infectious diseases with more than one imported case were observed by the year of diagnosis and place of acquired infection. During the period 10,030 cases that could be considered to be imported infectious diseases were identified. Shigellosis ranked as the most common imported disease, followed by amebiasis, malaria, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, typhoid fever, dengue fever, hepatitis A, giardiasis, cholera, and paratyphoid fever. The annual trends of these diseases always fluctuated but not every change was investigated. The study reveals that the situation of imported infectious diseases can be identified in the current Japanese surveillance system with epidemiologic features of both temporal and geographic distribution of cases of imported infectious diseases. However, further timely investigation for unusual increase in infectious diseases is needed.

  13. Prevention of infectious diseases in athletes.

    PubMed

    Luke, Anthony; d'Hemecourt, Pierre

    2007-07-01

    The sports medicine physician may face challenging issues regarding infectious diseases when dealing with teams or highly competitive athletes who have difficulties taking time off to recover. One must treat the individual sick athlete and take the necessary precautions to contain the spread of communicable disease to the surrounding team, staff, relatives, and other contacts. This article reviews preventive strategies for infectious disease in athletes, including immunization recommendations and prophylaxis guidelines, improvements in personal hygiene and prevention of spread of infectious organisms by direct contact, insect-borne disease precautions, and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. A special emphasis on immunizations focuses on pertussis, influenza, and meningococcal prophylaxis.

  14. Advances in microfluidics in combating infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Tay, Andy; Pavesi, Andrea; Yazdi, Saeed Rismani; Lim, Chwee Teck; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi

    2016-01-01

    One of the important pursuits in science and engineering research today is to develop low-cost and user-friendly technologies to improve the health of people. Over the past decade, research efforts in microfluidics have been made to develop methods that can facilitate low-cost diagnosis of infectious diseases, especially in resource-poor settings. Here, we provide an overview of the recent advances in microfluidic devices for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics for infectious diseases and emphasis is placed on malaria, sepsis and AIDS/HIV. Other infectious diseases such as SARS, tuberculosis, and dengue are also briefly discussed. These infectious diseases are chosen as they contribute the most to disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The current state of research in this area is evaluated and projection toward future applications and accompanying challenges are also discussed. PMID:26854743

  15. Infectious Mononucleosis: Recognition and Management in Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1987-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis strikes many young athletes. Considered here are its epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, natural course, complications, and management. The focus is on concerns of athletes with a perspective on personality, convalescence, and chronic fatigue. (Author/MT)

  16. Eradication of infectious diseases in heterogeneous populations

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.C.; Lenhart, S.M.

    1987-04-01

    A model is presented of infectious disease in heterogeneous populations, which allows for variable intra- to intergroup contact ratios. The authors give necessary and sufficient conditions for disease eradication by means of vaccination. Smallpox is used as an illustrative example.

  17. Infectious Diseases and Immunizations. Matrix No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sever, John L.

    This paper summarizes the major advances achieved by research in the fields of infectious diseases and immunizations during the 1970s, and delineates directions for future research in these fields. (Author/MP)

  18. [Equine infectious anemia--a review].

    PubMed

    Haas, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    This article combines essential facts of equine infectious anemia. Beside etiology and epidemiology, emphasis is put on the clinical course and laboratory diagnosis. Finally, control measures and prophylactic issues are discussed.

  19. Coping with Stress during Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    MedlinePlus

    · Coping With Stress During Infectious Disease Outbreaks What You Should Know When you hear, read, or watch news about an outbreak ... you may feel anxious and show signs of stress. These signs of stress are normal, and may ...

  20. Global climate change and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Shuman, E K

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is occurring as a result of warming of the earth's atmosphere due to human activity generating excess amounts of greenhouse gases. Because of its potential impact on the hydrologic cycle and severe weather events, climate change is expected to have an enormous effect on human health, including on the burden and distribution of many infectious diseases. The infectious diseases that will be most affected by climate change include those that are spread by insect vectors and by contaminated water. The burden of adverse health effects due to these infectious diseases will fall primarily on developing countries, while it is the developed countries that are primarily responsible for climate change. It is up to governments and individuals to take the lead in halting climate change, and we must increase our understanding of the ecology of infectious diseases in order to protect vulnerable populations.

  1. Infectious Bursal Agent Vaccination of Chicks from Infectious Bursal Agent-vaccinated Dams

    PubMed Central

    Ide, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Chicks from infectious bursal agent-vaccinated broiler breeders were vaccinated with a commercial infectious bursal agent vaccine at intervals after hatching. Bursas from some of these chicks were examined for infectious bursal agent-specific fluorescence four days after vaccination and bursas from others were examined for histological lesions of infectious bursal disease 21 days after vaccination. Serological studies were conducted to determine if active immunity to infectious bursal agent followed vaccination. Chicks failed to develop immunity if their levels of maternally-derived serum neutralizing antibody were in excess of approximately log2 7 at the time of vaccination. When antibody titres fell below this level, vaccination usually resulted in infectious bursal agent virus replication in the bursa and consequential bursal damage but was followed by development of active immunity. PMID:219952

  2. [Global warming and spread of infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Ebert, B; Fleischer, B

    2005-01-01

    At the end of the twentieth century, tropical infectious diseases increased despite earlier successes of eradication campaigns. As a global warming of 1.4-5.8 degrees C is anticipated to occur by 2100, mainly the vector-borne tropical diseases that are particularly sensitive to climate are expected to spread. Although biological reasons seemingly support this hypothesis, ecological and socioeconomic factors have in the past proven to be stronger driving forces for the spread of infectious disease than climate.

  3. Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines.

    PubMed Central

    Daszak, P.; Berger, L.; Cunningham, A. A.; Hyatt, A. D.; Green, D. E.; Speare, R.

    1999-01-01

    We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations. PMID:10603206

  4. Pharyngitis of infectious mononucleosis: computed tomography findings.

    PubMed

    Kutuya, Naoki; Kurosaki, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Takata, Koremochi; Shiraihshi, Akihiko

    2008-05-01

    Two women presented with sore throat and fever. Their symptoms were not alleviated by antibiotics. Cervical computed tomography (CT) with contrast enhancement demonstrated enlargement of predominant posterior cervical lymph nodes and streaky heterogeneous tonsils with interspersed low attenuation. They were diagnosed as having infectious mononucleosis by their laboratory data. Thus, when radiologists encounter these CT findings of pharyngitis that is not alleviated by antibiotic therapy, infectious mononucleosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  5. Infectious animal disease and its control.

    PubMed

    Biggs, P M

    1985-09-12

    The control of infectious diseases in the main food-producing animals is considered and the main factors involved in the epizootiology of disease are presented. The properties of infectious agents and their natural history together with factors that influence the spread and development of disease are summarized. The factors in intensive animal husbandry that affect the occurrence of infectious disease and its control are considered. These include population density, population movement, management, hygiene and genetic constitution of the host. They encourage the appearance of new diseases, changes in the character of established diseases and the development of pathogenicity in infectious agents that were previously of no importance. Intensive animal husbandry has also increased the importance of multifactorial disease, which includes diseases that require more than one infectious agent or one or more infectious agents plus other factors for their cause. The methods of control of infectious disease currently available are described and the success and difficulties of their control on a global, national and local (farm or enterprise) basis are considered. Examples of diseases of global importance where national and world programmes of control and eradication have been of varying success are described. Examples of diseases that are enzootic throughout the world and the procedures used for their control are also described. The technological opportunities for the improvement of the control of infectious disease in the future are discussed. It is considered that developments in molecular biology and immunology will provide improvements in diagnostic tools and will revolutionize the development of animal resistance to disease and the production and use of vaccines.

  6. Causal Inference for Vaccine Effects on Infectiousness

    PubMed Central

    Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Hudgens, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    If a vaccine does not protect individuals completely against infection, it could still reduce infectiousness of infected vaccinated individuals to others. Typically, vaccine efficacy for infectiousness is estimated based on contrasts between the transmission risk to susceptible individuals from infected vaccinated individuals compared with that from infected unvaccinated individuals. Such estimates are problematic, however, because they are subject to selection bias and do not have a causal interpretation. Here, we develop causal estimands for vaccine efficacy for infectiousness for four different scenarios of populations of transmission units of size two. These causal estimands incorporate both principal stratification, based on the joint potential infection outcomes under vaccine and control, and interference between individuals within transmission units. In the most general scenario, both individuals can be exposed to infection outside the transmission unit and both can be assigned either vaccine or control. The three other scenarios are special cases of the general scenario where only one individual is exposed outside the transmission unit or can be assigned vaccine. The causal estimands for vaccine efficacy for infectiousness are well defined only within certain principal strata and, in general, are identifiable only with strong unverifiable assumptions. Nonetheless, the observed data do provide some information, and we derive large sample bounds on the causal vaccine efficacy for infectiousness estimands. An example of the type of data observed in a study to estimate vaccine efficacy for infectiousness is analyzed in the causal inference framework we developed. PMID:22499732

  7. Global biogeography of human infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kris A; Preston, Nicholas; Allen, Toph; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Hosseini, Parviez R; Daszak, Peter

    2015-10-13

    The distributions of most infectious agents causing disease in humans are poorly resolved or unknown. However, poorly known and unknown agents contribute to the global burden of disease and will underlie many future disease risks. Existing patterns of infectious disease co-occurrence could thus play a critical role in resolving or anticipating current and future disease threats. We analyzed the global occurrence patterns of 187 human infectious diseases across 225 countries and seven epidemiological classes (human-specific, zoonotic, vector-borne, non-vector-borne, bacterial, viral, and parasitic) to show that human infectious diseases exhibit distinct spatial grouping patterns at a global scale. We demonstrate, using outbreaks of Ebola virus as a test case, that this spatial structuring provides an untapped source of prior information that could be used to tighten the focus of a range of health-related research and management activities at early stages or in data-poor settings, including disease surveillance, outbreak responses, or optimizing pathogen discovery. In examining the correlates of these spatial patterns, among a range of geographic, epidemiological, environmental, and social factors, mammalian biodiversity was the strongest predictor of infectious disease co-occurrence overall and for six of the seven disease classes examined, giving rise to a striking congruence between global pathogeographic and "Wallacean" zoogeographic patterns. This clear biogeographic signal suggests that infectious disease assemblages remain fundamentally constrained in their distributions by ecological barriers to dispersal or establishment, despite the homogenizing forces of globalization. Pathogeography thus provides an overarching context in which other factors promoting infectious disease emergence and spread are set.

  8. 78 FR 58322 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee, Microbiology & Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee (MID-B...: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  9. Health systems perspectives - infectious diseases of poverty.

    PubMed

    Huntington, Dale

    2012-11-01

    The right to health as a fundamental human right is enshrined in the World Health Organization's charter and has been reaffirmed in international agreements spanning decades. This new journal reminds us of the essential characteristic of poverty as a violent abuse of human rights. The context of poverty - its social, political and economic dimensions - remain in the reader's mind as evidence is provided on technical solutions to managing the infectious diseases that afflict poor populations world-wide. Applying a health systems framework to a discussion on infectious diseases of poverty emerges from the papers in this journal's first edition. Many of the articles discuss treatments, indicating the importance of pharmaceuticals for neglected diseases. Delivery strategies to reach impoverished populations also figure within this first round of papers. Innovative programs that provide diagnostics and treatment for infectious diseases to hard-to-reach rural and urban communities are needed clearly needed, and some good examples are discussed here. Future editions will explore other health system components, broadening the evidence base to increase understanding of effective and sustainable interventions to reduce the burden of infectious disease among the poor. The editors are to be congratulated on the release of this inaugural issue of the journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty. We look forward to reading subsequent editions.

  10. Does biodiversity protect humans against infectious disease?

    PubMed

    Wood, Chelsea L; Lafferty, Kevin D; DeLeo, Giulio; Young, Hillary S; Hudson, Peter J; Kuris, Armand M

    2014-04-01

    Control of human infectious disease has been promoted as a valuable ecosystem service arising from the conservation of biodiversity. There are two commonly discussed mechanisms by which biodiversity loss could increase rates of infectious disease in a landscape. First, loss of competitors or predators could facilitate an increase in the abundance of competent reservoir hosts. Second, biodiversity loss could disproportionately affect non-competent, or less competent reservoir hosts, which would otherwise interfere with pathogen transmission to human populations by, for example, wasting the bites of infected vectors. A negative association between biodiversity and disease risk, sometimes called the "dilution effect hypothesis," has been supported for a few disease agents, suggests an exciting win-win outcome for the environment and society, and has become a pervasive topic in the disease ecology literature. Case studies have been assembled to argue that the dilution effect is general across disease agents. Less touted are examples in which elevated biodiversity does not affect or increases infectious disease risk for pathogens of public health concern. In order to assess the likely generality of the dilution effect, we review the association between biodiversity and public health across a broad variety of human disease agents. Overall, we hypothesize that conditions for the dilution effect are unlikely to be met for most important diseases of humans. Biodiversity probably has little net effect on most human infectious diseases but, when it does have an effect, observation and basic logic suggest that biodiversity will be more likely to increase than to decrease infectious disease risk.

  11. A comprehensive infectious disease management system.

    PubMed

    Marcu, Alex; Farley, John D

    2009-01-01

    An efficient electronic management system is now an essential tool for the successful management and monitoring of those affected by communicable infectious diseases (Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV, hepatitis C - HEP C) during the course of the treatment. The current methods which depend heavily on manual collecting, compiling and disseminating treatment information are labor-intensive and time consuming. Clinics specialized in the treatment of infectious diseases use a mix of electronic systems that fail to interact with each other, result in data duplication, and do not support treatment of the patient as a whole. The purpose of the Infectious Disease Management System is to reduce the administrative overhead associated with data collection and analysis while providing correlation abilities and decision support in accordance with defined treatment guidelines. This Infectious Disease Management System was developed to: Ensure cost effectiveness by means of low software licensing costs, Introduce a centralized mechanism of collecting and monitoring all infectious disease management data, Automate electronic retrieval of laboratory findings, Introduce a decision support mechanism as per treatment guidelines, Seamlessly integrate of application modules, Provide comprehensive reporting capabilities, Maintain a high level of user friendliness.

  12. Health systems perspectives - infectious diseases of poverty.

    PubMed

    Huntington, Dale

    2012-01-01

    The right to health as a fundamental human right is enshrined in the World Health Organization's charter and has been reaffirmed in international agreements spanning decades. This new journal reminds us of the essential characteristic of poverty as a violent abuse of human rights. The context of poverty - its social, political and economic dimensions - remain in the reader's mind as evidence is provided on technical solutions to managing the infectious diseases that afflict poor populations world-wide. Applying a health systems framework to a discussion on infectious diseases of poverty emerges from the papers in this journal's first edition. Many of the articles discuss treatments, indicating the importance of pharmaceuticals for neglected diseases. Delivery strategies to reach impoverished populations also figure within this first round of papers. Innovative programs that provide diagnostics and treatment for infectious diseases to hard-to-reach rural and urban communities are needed clearly needed, and some good examples are discussed here. Future editions will explore other health system components, broadening the evidence base to increase understanding of effective and sustainable interventions to reduce the burden of infectious disease among the poor. The editors are to be congratulated on the release of this inaugural issue of the journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty. We look forward to reading subsequent editions. PMID:23848993

  13. Sapronosis: a distinctive type of infectious agent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuris, Armand M.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Sokolow, Susanne H.

    2014-01-01

    Sapronotic disease agents have evolutionary and epidemiological properties unlike other infectious organisms. Their essential saprophagic existence prevents coevolution, and no host–parasite virulence trade-off can evolve. However, the host may evolve defenses. Models of pathogens show that sapronoses, lacking a threshold of transmission, cannot regulate host populations, although they can reduce host abundance and even extirpate their hosts. Immunocompromised hosts are relatively susceptible to sapronoses. Some particularly important sapronoses, such as cholera and anthrax, can sustain an epidemic in a host population. However, these microbes ultimately persist as saprophages. One-third of human infectious disease agents are sapronotic, including nearly all fungal diseases. Recognition that an infectious disease is sapronotic illuminates a need for effective environmental control strategies.

  14. Rabbit Models for Studying Human Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xuwen; Knouse, John A; Hernon, Krista M

    2015-01-01

    Using an appropriate animal model is crucial for mimicking human disease conditions, and various facets including genetics, anatomy, and pathophysiology should be considered before selecting a model. Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are well known for their wide use in production of antibodies, eye research, atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. However, a systematic description of the rabbit as primary experimental models for the study of various human infectious diseases is unavailable. This review focuses on the human infectious diseases for which rabbits are considered a classic or highly appropriate model, including AIDS (caused by HIV1), adult T-cell leukemia–lymphoma (human T-lymphotropic virus type 1), papilloma or carcinoma (human papillomavirus) , herpetic stromal keratitis (herpes simplex virus type 1), tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), and syphilis (Treponema pallidum). In addition, particular aspects of the husbandry and care of rabbits used in studies of human infectious diseases are described. PMID:26678367

  15. Biodiversity loss and infectious diseases: chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    When conservation biologists think about infectious diseases, their thoughts are mostly negative. Infectious diseases have been associated with the extinction and endangerment of some species, though this is rare, and other factors like habitat loss and poorly regulated harvest still are the overwhelming drivers of endangerment. Parasites are pervasive and play important roles as natural enemies on par with top predators, from regulating population abundances to maintaining species diversity. Sometimes, parasites themselves can be endangered. However, it seems unlikely that humans will miss extinct parasites. Parasites are often sensitive to habitat loss and degradation, making them positive indicators of ecosystem “health”. Conservation biologists need to carefully consider infectious diseases when planning conservation actions. This can include minimizing the movement of domestic and invasive species, vaccination, and culling.

  16. Rabbit Models for Studying Human Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xuwen; Knouse, John A; Hernon, Krista M

    2015-12-01

    Using an appropriate animal model is crucial for mimicking human disease conditions, and various facets including genetics, anatomy, and pathophysiology should be considered before selecting a model. Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are well known for their wide use in production of antibodies, eye research, atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. However, a systematic description of the rabbit as primary experimental models for the study of various human infectious diseases is unavailable. This review focuses on the human infectious diseases for which rabbits are considered a classic or highly appropriate model, including AIDS (caused by HIV1), adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (human T-lymphotropic virus type 1), papilloma or carcinoma (human papillomavirus) , herpetic stromal keratitis (herpes simplex virus type 1), tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), and syphilis (Treponema pallidum). In addition, particular aspects of the husbandry and care of rabbits used in studies of human infectious diseases are described. PMID:26678367

  17. Infectious Discitis and Spondylodiscitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    In children, infectious discitis (D) and infectious spondylodiscitis (SD) are rare diseases that can cause significant clinical problems, including spinal deformities and segmental instabilities. Moreover, when the infection spreads into the spinal channel, D and SD can cause devastating neurologic complications. Early diagnosis and treatment may reduce these risks. The main aim of this paper is to discuss recent concepts regarding the epidemiology, microbiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric D and SD. It is highlighted that particular attention must be paid to the identification of the causative infectious agent and its sensitivity to antibiotics, remembering that traditional culture frequently leads to negative results and modern molecular methods can significantly increase the detection rate. Several different bacterial pathogens can cause D and SD, and, in some cases, particularly those due to Staphylococcus aureus, Kingella kingae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Brucella spp., the appropriate choice of drug is critical to achieve cure. PMID:27070599

  18. [Impact of genetic modifications on infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Houdebine, L-M

    2004-11-01

    Genetic engineering offers the theoretical possibility to transfer any natural or modified gene into any living organism. This generates new and diverse situations which may contribute to the spreading of infectious diseases or on the contrary to control them. Problems may theoretically come from uncontrolled genes providing resistance to antibiotics, from the activation of genomic retroviral sequences, from enhanced sensitivity of the organism to pathogens, as well as from the generation of mutated microorganisms with a higher pathogenecity. On the contrary, various genetic modifications may create organisms resistant to infectious diseases, generate safe and efficient recombinant vaccines, or provide patients with proteins which stimulate their defense mechanisms. The major impacts of genetic modifications in the development of infectious diseases or on the contrary in their eradication are analyzed in this article.

  19. Continuing challenge of infectious diseases in India.

    PubMed

    John, T Jacob; Dandona, Lalit; Sharma, Vinod P; Kakkar, Manish

    2011-01-15

    In India, the range and burden of infectious diseases are enormous. The administrative responsibilities of the health system are shared between the central (federal) and state governments. Control of diseases and outbreaks is the responsibility of the central Ministry of Health, which lacks a formal public health department for this purpose. Tuberculosis, malaria, filariasis, visceral leishmaniasis, leprosy, HIV infection, and childhood cluster of vaccine-preventable diseases are given priority for control through centrally managed vertical programmes. Control of HIV infection and leprosy, but not of tuberculosis, seems to be on track. Early success of malaria control was not sustained, and visceral leishmaniasis prevalence has increased. Inadequate containment of the vector has resulted in recurrent outbreaks of dengue fever and re-emergence of Chikungunya virus disease and typhus fever. Other infectious diseases caused by faecally transmitted pathogens (enteric fevers, cholera, hepatitis A and E viruses) and zoonoses (rabies, leptospirosis, anthrax) are not in the process of being systematically controlled. Big gaps in the surveillance and response system for infectious diseases need to be addressed. Replication of the model of vertical single-disease control for all infectious diseases will not be efficient or viable. India needs to rethink and revise its health policy to broaden the agenda of disease control. A comprehensive review and redesign of the health system is needed urgently to ensure equity and quality in health care. We recommend the creation of a functional public health infrastructure that is shared between central and state governments, with professional leadership and a formally trained public health cadre of personnel who manage an integrated control mechanism of diseases in districts that includes infectious and non-infectious diseases, and injuries.

  20. [Corticosteroids in the treatment of infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Kronig, I; Schibler, M; Rougemont, M; Emonet, S

    2013-04-24

    The addition of a corticosteroid has become a common practice for the treatment of some infectious diseases, such as meningitis, septic shock, moderate to severe Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. The belief that steroids may have a beneficial effect in the early stage of pro-inflammatory infections explains the renewed interest for these treatments. This review of recent literature helps determine the use of steroids in the treatment of infectious diseases as formal guidance, questionable or rather contraindicated. When there is a clear scientific indication for the use of corticosteroids regardless of the current infection, the latter is never a formal contraindication.

  1. [Infectious burdens of reproduction of female dogs].

    PubMed

    Wendt, K; Stellmacher, H

    1996-02-01

    The results of gynecological investigations in 142 bitches were evaluated and the complexity of infectious affections is discussed. High proportions of infectious cases were found in cases of limitation of fertility (67.5%), in vaginal discharge in the estrus (60.8%), in cases of mastitis/pseudopregnancy (61.5%) and in mortality of newborn puppies. St. aureus and E. coli were often isolated. There is a high etiological correlation in epidemiology of diseases of the reproductive tract in the single bitch and especially in kennel bitches.

  2. Postdoctoral fellowship in pediatric infectious disease pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nahata, M C

    1986-04-01

    The first postdoctoral fellowship program in pediatric infectious disease pharmacotherapy is described. The fellowship program is designed to train a clinical pharmacist to be an independent researcher. The features of this program include: (1) two-year duration; (2) about 80 percent of time devoted to research-related activities and 20 percent to teaching and consultative practice; (3) formal course work; (4) training in in vitro and in vivo animal as well as clinical studies; and (5) interdisciplinary personnel and laboratory resources. This program should help meet the need for clinical scientists in pediatric infectious disease pharmacotherapy.

  3. Method for early detection of infectious mononucleosis

    DOEpatents

    Willard, K.E.

    1982-08-10

    Early detection of infectious mononucleosis is carried out using a sample of human blood by isolating and identifying the presence of Inmono proteins in the sample from a two-dimensional protein map with the proteins being characterized by having isoelectric banding as measured in urea of about -16 to -17 with respect to certain isoelectric point standards and molecular mass of about 70 to 75 K daltons as measured in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate containing polyacrylamide gels, the presence of the Inmono proteins being correlated with the existence of infectious mononucleosis.

  4. Selected emerging infectious diseases of ornamental fish.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Colin; Palmeiro, Brian

    2013-05-01

    Several emerging infectious diseases have serious implications for the trade and husbandry of ornamental fish. Although many of these diseases have been well studied and described in certain species, there are still many diseases that are not well understood. The following discussion focuses on select important emerging infectious diseases that affect ornamental fish in the aquarium and aquaculture industries: goldfish herpesvirus, koi herpesvirus, Ranavirus, Megalocytivirus, Betanodavirus, Francisella, Cryptobia iubilans, and Exophiala. When possible, the known species affected, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, disinfection, and prevention modalities for each disease are discussed.

  5. Therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty for infectious and non-infectious corneal ulcers.

    PubMed

    Yalniz-Akkaya, Zuleyha; Burcu, Ayse; Doğan, Emine; Onat, Mustafa; Ornek, Firdevs

    2015-04-01

    This study reports the outcomes of therapeutic penetrating keratoplasties, defined as keratoplasties performed to eradicate active infectious corneal diseases or to repair a structural defect of the cornea. The records of 24 eyes of 24 patients (17 female and 7 male) treated with therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty between 2002 and 2010 were evaluated retrospectively. Patients were divided into infectious keratitis group and non-infectious keratitis group. The mean age was 52.12 ± 17.91 years. The median follow-up time was 22 months (min-max: 6-96). Therapeutic success was achieved and eyes were preserved in 23 patients and one patient required evisceration for recurrent fungal infection. At the end of the follow-up period, 92.9 % (n = 13) and 77.8 % (n = 7) of grafts remained clear in the infectious and non-infectious groups, respectively (p = 0.538). Visual acuity (VA) improved at least one Snellen line in 23 patients. The mean postoperative decimal VA was 0.2 ± 0.3 and 0.1 ± 0.3 in the infectious and non-infectious groups, respectively (p = 0.12). Amniotic membrane transplantation was performed in two eyes preoperatively and in four eyes postoperatively. Therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty continues to be an effective method in the treatment process of serious perforated and non-perforated corneal infectious and non-infectious diseases resistant to medical and other surgical interventions.

  6. 49 CFR 172.323 - Infectious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Infectious substances. 172.323 Section 172.323 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS...

  7. Vaccination and herd immunity to infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Roy M.; May, Robert M.

    1985-11-01

    An understanding of the relationship between the transmission dynamics of infectious agents and herd immunity provides a template for the design of effective control programmes based on mass immunization. Mathematical models of the spread and persistence of infection provide important insights into the problem of how best to protect the community against disease.

  8. Prevention of infectious diseases in aquaculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahne, W.; Winton, J.R.; Kimura, T.

    1989-01-01

    Infectious diseases remain one of the most important limitations to the successful propagation of aquatic animals. Most of the losses caused by pathogens in aquaculture could be prevented by health inspection, adequate environment and sound management practices. Effective control measures, mainly based upon 1) avoidance of pathogens 2) modification of the environment 3) improvement of host resistance 4) vaccination and 5) chemoprophylaxis are described.

  9. Addressing Infectious Disease Challenges by Investigating Microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Balskus, Emily P

    2016-07-01

    Microbial communities occupy essentially every habitat on earth and have profound effects on our environment and human health. The National Microbiome Initiative will provide a framework for interdisciplinary microbiome research. The challenges inherent in discovering and understanding microbiome functions, especially those associated with infectious disease, present countless opportunities for chemists. PMID:27626096

  10. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and ‘pestilence’ associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations. PMID:26168924

  11. Global climate change and emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Patz, J A; Epstein, P R; Burke, T A; Balbus, J M

    1996-01-17

    Climatic factors influence the emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases, in addition to multiple human, biological, and ecological determinants. Climatologists have identified upward trends in global temperatures and now estimate an unprecedented rise of 2.0 degrees C by the year 2100. Of major concern is that these changes can affect the introduction and dissemination of many serious infectious diseases. The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases, including malaria, dengue, and viral encephalitides, are among those diseases most sensitive to climate. Climate change would directly affect disease transmission by shifting the vector's geographic range and increasing reproductive and biting rates and by shortening the pathogen incubation period. Climate-related increases in sea surface temperature and sea level can lead to higher incidence of water-borne infectious and toxin-related illnesses, such as cholera and shellfish poisoning. Human migration and damage to health infrastructures from the projected increase in climate variability could indirectly contribute to disease transmission. Human susceptibility to infections might be further compounded by malnutrition due to climate stress on agriculture and potential alterations in the human immune system caused by increased flux of ultraviolet radiation. Analyzing the role of climate in the emergence of human infectious diseases will require interdisciplinary cooperation among physicians, climatologists, biologists, and social scientists. Increased disease surveillance, integrated modeling, and use of geographically based data systems will afford more anticipatory measures by the medical community. Understanding the linkages between climatological and ecological change as determinants of disease emergence and redistribution will ultimately help optimize preventive strategies.

  12. Heterotypic protection to infectious bronchitis virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota (rLS) expressing a distinct spike (S) protein gene of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). This recombinant vaccine technology confers cross-protection among different IBV strains. We also experimentally demonstrated that the recombinant construct main...

  13. Bacterial clinical infectious diseases ontology (BCIDO) dataset.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Claire L; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-09-01

    This article describes the Bacterial Infectious Diseases Ontology (BCIDO) dataset related to research published in http:dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.jbi.2015.07.014 [1], and contains the Protégé OWL files required to run BCIDO in the Protégé environment. BCIDO contains 1719 classes and 39 object properties. PMID:27508237

  14. Modeling Addictive Consumption as an Infectious Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Alamar, Benjamin; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2011-01-01

    The dominant model of addictive consumption in economics is the theory of rational addiction. The addict in this model chooses how much they are going to consume based upon their level of addiction (past consumption), the current benefits and all future costs. Several empirical studies of cigarette sales and price data have found a correlation between future prices and consumption and current consumption. These studies have argued that the correlation validates the rational addiction model and invalidates any model in which future consumption is not considered. An alternative to the rational addiction model is one in which addiction spreads through a population as if it were an infectious disease, as supported by the large body of empirical research of addictive behaviors. In this model an individual's probability of becoming addicted to a substance is linked to the behavior of their parents, friends and society. In the infectious disease model current consumption is based only on the level of addiction and current costs. Price and consumption data from a simulation of the infectious disease model showed a qualitative match to the results of the rational addiction model. The infectious disease model can explain all of the theoretical results of the rational addiction model with the addition of explaining initial consumption of the addictive good. PMID:21339848

  15. Rapid detection and identification of infectious agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsbury, D.T.; Falkow, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains papers divided among five sections. Some of the paper titles are: Aspects of Using Nucleic Acid Filter Hybridization to Characterize and Detect Enteroviral RNAs; Rapid Identification of Lesihmania Species using Specific Hybridization of Kinetoplast DNA Sequences; Selection of DNA Probes for use in the Diagnosis of Infectious Disease; and Summary of DNA Probes.

  16. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations. PMID:26168924

  17. Infectious Disease Risk Associated with Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation opens with views of the shuttle in various stages of preparation for launch, a few moments after launch prior to external fuel tank separation, a few pictures of the earth,and several pictures of astronomical interest. The presentation reviews the factors effecting the risks of infectious disease during space flight, such as the crew, water, food, air, surfaces and payloads and the factors that increase disease risk, the factors affecting the risk of infectious disease during spaceflight, and the environmental factors affecting immunity, such as stress. One factor in space infectious disease is latent viral reactivation, such as herpes. There are comparisons of the incidence of viral reactivation in space, and in other analogous situations (such as bed rest, or isolation). There is discussion of shingles, and the pain and results of treatment. There is a further discussion of the changes in microbial pathogen characteristics, using salmonella as an example of the increased virulence of microbes during spaceflight. A factor involved in the risk of infectious disease is stress.

  18. [Combined physiotherapy of chronic infectious prostatitis].

    PubMed

    Churakov, A A; Popkov, V M; Zemskov, S P; Glybochko, P V; Bliumberg, B I

    2007-01-01

    Our experience with therapy of 259 outpatients with chronic infectious prostatitis (CIP) aged 16-55 years has demonstrated that combined treatment of CIP with rectal digital massage of the prostate, electrophoresis of chimotripsin solution with dimexide and local magnetotherapy (Intramag unit) significantly raises treatment efficacy, shortens treatment, prevents complications. PMID:17472003

  19. Infectious pancreatic necrosis: its detection and identification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, K.

    1965-01-01

    Ultimate control of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in hatcheries depends largely upon learning where the virus occurs. To detect the presence of virus either susceptible fish or susceptible fish cell cultures may be used as test systems. In modern virology, it is generally agreed that cell cultures are more convenient, are usually a much more sensitive test system, and allow more rapid determinations.

  20. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations.

  1. Hospitals and their disposal of infectious waste.

    PubMed

    Jones, R E

    1992-08-01

    A thorny problem facing many hospital managers (often the environmental services manager) today is how to safely handle and dispose of infectious and hazardous waste in a cost-effective fashion. This is a very complex issue, involving myriad regulations, ethical issues, and cost analysis.

  2. [Blood transfusion: control of infectious risks].

    PubMed

    Laperche, Syria; Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Morel, Pascal; Pouchol, Elodie; Pozzetto, Bruno

    2015-02-01

    From blood donor collection to transfusion of the recipient, there are several layers of protection of the blood supply. These measures combined with huge progresses over the three past decades in pathogen discovery and blood testing for specific pathogens (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses, Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)), provide the greatest safety. With the implementation of serological and molecular testing, at least in high-income countries, transfusion-transmitted infections have become extremely rare. However, for pathogen agents, which are not tested and especially those which are responsible for emerging infectious disease, it became apparent that full control of infectious disease had not been achieved. In addition, the immune status of the recipient has also an impact in the outcome of infectious diseases transmitted by transfusion. Blood safety is based on several measures: education and deferral of donors with risk factors for transmissible disease, blood testing, pathogen reduction interventions, and patient blood management. This paper proposes a review of the residual risk of transmission of infectious diseases by transfusion and of the additional interventions able to further reduce it.

  3. Infectious canine hepatitis associated with prednisone treatment.

    PubMed

    Wong, Valerie M; Marche, Candace; Simko, Elemir

    2012-11-01

    An 11-week-old, female Alaskan husky dog housed outdoors in the Yukon, Canada, was diagnosed with infectious canine hepatitis. The predisposing factors in this puppy for such a rare disease included inappropriate vaccination program, potential contact with endemic wildlife, and immunosuppression due to prednisone treatment.

  4. Joint spatial analysis of gastrointestinal infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Held, Leonhard; Graziano, Giusi; Frank, Christina; Rue, Håvard

    2006-10-01

    A major obstacle in the spatial analysis of infectious disease surveillance data is the problem of under-reporting. This article investigates the possibility of inferring reporting rates through joint statistical modelling of several infectious diseases with different aetiologies. Once variation in under-reporting can be estimated, geographic risk patterns for infections associated with specific food vehicles may be discerned. We adopt the shared component model, proposed by Knorr-Held and Best for two chronic diseases and further extended by (Held L, Natario I, Fenton S, Rue H, Becker N. Towards joint disease mapping. Statistical Methods in Medical Research 2005b; 14: 61-82) for more than two chronic diseases to the infectious disease setting. Our goal is to estimate a shared component, common to all diseases, which may be interpreted as representing the spatial variation in reporting rates. Additional components are introduced to describe the real spatial variation of the different diseases. Of course, this interpretation is only allowed under specific assumptions, in particular, the geographical variation in under-reporting should be similar for the diseases considered. In addition, it is vital that the data do not contain large local outbreaks, so adjustment based on a time series method recently proposed by (Held L, Höhle M, Hofmann M. A statistical framework for the analysis of multivariate infectious disease surveillance data. Statistical Modelling 2005a; 5: 187-99) is made at a preliminary stage. We will illustrate our approach through the analysis of gastrointestinal diseases notification data obtained from the German infectious disease surveillance system, administered by the Robert Koch Institute in Berlin.

  5. 77 FR 298 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ...: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  6. Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series

    Cancer.gov

    Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series highlights emerging and cutting-edge research related to infection-associated cancers, shares scientific knowledge about technologies and methods, and fosters cross-disciplinary discussions on infectious agents and cancer epidemiology.

  7. Infectious Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in final reclaimed effluent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gennaccaro, A.L.; McLaughlin, M.R.; Quintero-Betancourt, W.; Huffman, D.E.; Rose, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Water samples collected throughout several reclamation facilities were analyzed for the presence of infectious Cryptosporidium parvum by the focus detection method-most-probable-number cell culture technique. Results revealed the presence of infectious C. parvum oocysts in 40% of the final disinfected effluent samples. Sampled effluent contained on average seven infectious oocysts per 100 liters. Thus, reclaimed water is not pathogen free but contains infectious C. parvum.

  8. The Challenge of Infectious Diseases to the Biomedical Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foladori, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    The resurgence of infectious diseases and the emergence of infectious diseases raise questions on how to cope with the situation. The germ or clinical approach is the hegemonic biomedical paradigm. In this article, the author argues that the spread of infectious diseases has posted a challenge to the biomedical paradigm and shows how lock-in…

  9. Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This document contains guidelines for developing policies and procedures related to chronic infectious diseases, as recommended by the Illinois Task Force on School Management of Infectious Disease. It is designed to help school personnel understand how infectious diseases can be transmitted, and to assist school districts in the development and…

  10. [Update in infectious diseases. Part I: epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Salzberger, B; Franzen, C; Fätkenheuer, G

    2000-06-15

    A number of infectious agents has been newly detected in the last 10 years. Climatic changes and migration have been the most important factors in the emergence of new and old infections. Additionally, new methods for the detection of DNA and RNA have played an important role in the detection of agents difficult to culture. Relevant new bacterial pathogens are Bartonella henselae (cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis), Tropheryma whippeli (Whipple's disease) and new Rickettsiae. Newly detected viral pathogens include Sin-nombre virus (pulmonary Hanta virus syndrome), Nipah- and Hendra virus and avian influenza. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy has been transmitted to humans causing the newly described syndrome of variant Creuzfeldt-Jakob disease. The extent of this new epidemic is not yet clear. These trends from the last years clearly indicate, that further new infections and infectious agents will be detected in the future.

  11. Infectious Disease Stigmas: Maladaptive in Modern Society

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rachel A.; Hughes, David

    2014-01-01

    At multiple times in human history people have asked if there are good stigmas. Is there some useful function stigmas serve in the context of our evolutionary history; is stigma adaptive? This essay discusses stigmas as a group-selection strategy and the human context in which stigmas likely appeared. The next section explores how human patterns have changed in modern society and the consequences for infectious disease (ID) stigmas in the modern age. The concluding section suggests that while social-living species may be particularly apt to create and communicate ID stigmas and enact ID-related stigmatization, such stigma-related processes no longer function to protect human communities. Stigmas do not increase the ability of modern societies to survive infectious diseases, but in fact may be important drivers of problematic disease dynamics and act as catalysts for failures in protecting public health. PMID:25477728

  12. Progress and Challenges in Infectious Disease Cartography.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Moritz U G; Hay, Simon I; Pigott, David M; Smith, David L; Wint, G R William; Golding, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Quantitatively mapping the spatial distributions of infectious diseases is key to both investigating their epidemiology and identifying populations at risk of infection. Important advances in data quality and methodologies have allowed for better investigation of disease risk and its association with environmental factors. However, incorporating dynamic human behavioural processes in disease mapping remains challenging. For example, connectivity among human populations, a key driver of pathogen dispersal, has increased sharply over the past century, along with the availability of data derived from mobile phones and other dynamic data sources. Future work must be targeted towards the rapid updating and dissemination of appropriately designed disease maps to guide the public health community in reducing the global burden of infectious disease.

  13. Travel and the emergence of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    Travel is a potent force in the emergence of disease. Migration of humans has been the pathway for disseminating infectious diseases throughout recorded history and will continue to shape the emergence, frequency, and spread of infections in geographic areas and populations. The current volume, speed, and reach of travel are unprecedented. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveler to the population visited and the ecosystem. When they travel, humans carry their genetic makeup, immunologic sequelae of past infections, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. Microbes, animals, and other biologic life also accompany them. Today's massive movement of humans and materials sets the stage for mixing diverse genetic pools at rates and in combinations previously unknown. Concomitant changes in the environment, climate, technology, land use, human behavior, and demographics converge to favor the emergence of infectious diseases caused by a broad range of organisms in humans, as well as in plants and animals. PMID:8903157

  14. [Infectious diseases, the veritable pandora's box].

    PubMed

    Pattyn, S R

    1997-01-01

    The past few years, much attention has been given to the problems regarding new and emerging infectious diseases. Four groups may be considered: (1) new agents discovered among the causes of classical medical syndromes, these do not constitute new dangers but decrease the proportion of unknown causes within these syndromes; (2) increased importance of infectious agents resulting from modified ways of living or production procedures; (3) the really new agents, the spread of which is generally favoured by the same factors and (4) organisms with acquired resistance against antibiotics and pesticides. There is need for extended epidemiological surveillance, that can be improved in our country by better collaboration between different organisations. Most importantly epidemiological surveillance should be organized on an European level with the entire support of our regional and federal authorities.

  15. Database Research for Pediatric Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kronman, Matthew P; Gerber, Jeffrey S; Newland, Jason G; Hersh, Adam L

    2015-06-01

    Multiple electronic and administrative databases are available for the study of pediatric infectious diseases. In this review, we identify research questions well suited to investigations using these databases and highlight their advantages, including their relatively low cost, efficiency, and ability to detect rare outcomes. We discuss important limitations, including those inherent in observational study designs and the potential for misclassification of exposures and outcomes, and identify strategies for addressing these limitations. We provide examples of commonly used databases and discuss methodologic considerations in undertaking studies using large databases. Last, we propose a checklist for use in planning or evaluating studies of pediatric infectious diseases that employ electronic databases, and we outline additional practical considerations regarding the cost of and how to access commonly used databases. PMID:26407414

  16. Non-infectious Pulmonary Diseases and HIV.

    PubMed

    Triplette, M; Crothers, K; Attia, E F

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary complications remain among the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality for individuals with HIV despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and improvement in its efficacy and availability. The prevalence of non-infectious pulmonary diseases is rising in this population, reflecting both an increase in smoking and the independent risk associated with HIV. The unique mechanisms of pulmonary disease in these patients remain poorly understood, and direct effects of HIV, genetic predisposition, inflammatory pathways, and co-infections have all been implicated. Lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pulmonary hypertension are the most prevalent non-infectious pulmonary diseases in persons with HIV, and the risk of each of these diseases is higher among HIV-infected (HIV+) persons than in the general population. This review discusses the latest advances in the literature on these important complications of HIV infection. PMID:27121734

  17. Travel and the emergence of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mary E

    2004-01-01

    Travel is a potent force in the emergence of disease. Migration of humans has been the pathway for disseminating infectious diseases throughout recorded history and will continue to shape the emergence, frequency, and spread of infections in geographic areas and populations. The current volume, speed, and reach of travel are unprecedented. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveler to the population visited and the ecosystem. When they travel, humans carry their genetic makeup, immunologic sequelae of past infections, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. Microbes, animals, and other biologic life also accompany them. Today's massive movement of humans and materials sets the stage for mixing diverse genetic pools at rates and in combinations previously unknown. Concomitant changes in the environment, climate, technology, land use, human behavior, and demographics converge to favor the emergence of infectious diseases caused by a broad range of organisms in humans, as well as in plants and animals. PMID:19785214

  18. Infectious Diseases Physician Compensation: An Improved Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Jethro Trees; Lynch, John B.; MacIntyre, Ann T.; Trotman, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Negotiating physician compensation can be complicated because many factors now influence the ways in which physicians can be compensated. Infectious diseases (ID) specialists typically provide a wide array of services, ranging from patient care to administrative leadership. Compensation surveys from national organizations have produced results based on small samples and often are not congruent with ID physicians’ perceptions. In July of 2015, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) conducted a compensation survey to assess current compensation earned by the diverse ID specialists within its membership. Members of IDSA's Clinical Affairs Committee report the results from the 2015 IDSA Physician Compensation survey, with a particular focus on the findings from respondents who indicate “patient care” as their primary responsibility and present a discussion that compares and contrasts results against other survey data. PMID:27419159

  19. Clinical management of infectious cerebral vasculitides.

    PubMed

    Carod Artal, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of infections (virus, bacteria, parasite and fungi) may cause cerebral vasculitides. Headache, seizures, encephalopathy and stroke are common forms of presentation. Infection and inflammation of intracranial vessels may cause pathological vascular remodelling, vascular occlusion and ischemia. Vasculitis in chronic meningitis may cause ischemic infarctions, and is associated with poor outcome. Appropriate neuroimaging (CT-angiography, MR-angiography, conventional 4-vessel angiography) and laboratory testing (specific antibodies in blood and CSF, CSF culture and microscopy) and even brain biopsy are needed to quickly establish the aetiology. Enhancement of contrast, wall thickening and lumen narrowing are radiological signs pointing to an infectious vasculitis origin. Although corticosteroids and prophylactic antiplatelet therapy have been used in infectious cerebral vasculitis, there are no randomized clinical trials that have evaluated their efficacy and safety. Stable mycotic aneurysms can be treated with specific antimicrobial therapy. Endovascular therapy and intracranial surgery are reserved for ruptured aneurysms or enlarging unruptured aneurysms. PMID:26689107

  20. Globalization, international law, and emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, D. P.

    1996-01-01

    The global nature of the threat posed by new and reemerging infectious diseases will require international cooperation in identifying, controlling, and preventing these diseases. Because of this need for international cooperation, international law will certainly play a role in the global strategy for the control of emerging diseases. Recognizing this fact, the World Health Organization has already proposed revising the International Health Regulations. This article examines some basic problems that the global campaign against emerging infectious diseases might face in applying international law to facilitate international cooperation. The international legal component of the global control strategy for these diseases needs careful attention because of problems inherent in international law, especially as it applies to emerging infections issues. PMID:8903206

  1. Progress and Challenges in Infectious Disease Cartography.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Moritz U G; Hay, Simon I; Pigott, David M; Smith, David L; Wint, G R William; Golding, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Quantitatively mapping the spatial distributions of infectious diseases is key to both investigating their epidemiology and identifying populations at risk of infection. Important advances in data quality and methodologies have allowed for better investigation of disease risk and its association with environmental factors. However, incorporating dynamic human behavioural processes in disease mapping remains challenging. For example, connectivity among human populations, a key driver of pathogen dispersal, has increased sharply over the past century, along with the availability of data derived from mobile phones and other dynamic data sources. Future work must be targeted towards the rapid updating and dissemination of appropriately designed disease maps to guide the public health community in reducing the global burden of infectious disease. PMID:26604163

  2. Future Infectious Disease Threats to Europe

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jonathan E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how different drivers of infectious disease could interact to threaten control efforts in Europe. We considered projected trends through 2020 for 3 broad groups of drivers: globalization and environmental change, social and demographic change, and health system capacity. Eight plausible infectious disease threats with the potential to be significantly more problematic than they are today were identified through an expert consultation: extensively drug-resistant bacteria, vector-borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections, food-borne infections, a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases, health care–associated infections, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. Preemptive measures to be taken by the public health community to counteract these threats were identified. PMID:21940915

  3. Transgenic animals resistant to infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Tiley, L

    2016-04-01

    The list of transgenic animals developed to test ways of producing livestock resistant to infectious disease continues to grow. Although the basic techniques for generating transgenic animals have not changed very much in the ten years since they were last reviewed for the World Organisation for Animal Health, one recent fundamental technological advance stands to revolutionise genome engineering. The advent of technically simple and efficient site-specific gene targeting has profound implications for genetically modifying livestock species.

  4. History and Practice: Antibodies in Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hey, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Antibodies and passive antibody therapy in the treatment of infectious diseases is the story of a treatment concept which dates back more than 120 years, to the 1890s, when the use of serum from immunized animals provided the first effective treatment options against infections with Clostridium tetani and Corynebacterium diphtheriae. However, after the discovery of penicillin by Fleming in 1928, and the subsequent introduction of the much cheaper and safer antibiotics in the 1930s, serum therapy was largely abandoned. However, the broad and general use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine has resulted in the development of multi-resistant strains of bacteria with limited to no response to existing treatments and the need for alternative treatment options. The combined specificity and flexibility of antibody-based treatments makes them very valuable tools for designing specific antibody treatments to infectious agents. These attributes have already caused a revolution in new antibody-based treatments in oncology and inflammatory diseases, with many approved products. However, only one monoclonal antibody, palivizumab, for the prevention and treatment of respiratory syncytial virus, is approved for infectious diseases. The high cost of monoclonal antibody therapies, the need for parallel development of diagnostics, and the relatively small markets are major barriers for their development in the presence of cheap antibiotics. It is time to take a new and revised look into the future to find appropriate niches in infectious diseases where new antibody-based treatments or combinations with existing antibiotics, could prove their value and serve as stepping stones for broader acceptance of the potential for and value of these treatments.

  5. Nutritional modulation of resistance to infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Klasing, K C

    1998-08-01

    Dietary characteristics can modulate a bird's susceptibility to infectious challenges and subtle influences due to the level of nutrients or the types of ingredients may at times be of critical importance. This review considers seven mechanisms for nutritional modulation of resistance to infectious disease in poultry. 1) Nutrition may impact the development of the immune system, both in ovo and in the first weeks posthatch. Micronutrient deficiencies that affect developmental events, such as the seeding of lymphoid organs and clonal expansion of lymphocyte clones, can negatively impact the immune system later in life. 2) A substrate role of nutrients is necessary for the immune response so that responding cells can divide and synthesize effector molecules. The quantitative need for nutrients for supporting a normal immune system, as well as the proliferation of leukocytes and the production of antibodies during an infectious challenge, is very small relative to uses for growth or egg production. It is likely that the systemic acute phase response that accompanies most infectious challenges is a more significant consumer of nutrients than the immune system itself. 3) The low concentration of some nutrients (e.g., iron) in body fluids makes them the limiting substrates for the proliferation of invading pathogens and the supply of these nutrients is further limited during the immune response. 4) Some nutrients (e.g., fatty acids and vitamins A, D, and E) have direct regulatory actions on leukocytes by binding to intracellular receptors or by modifying the release of second messengers. 5) The diet may also have indirect regulatory effects that are mediated by the classical endocrine system. 6) Physical and chemical aspects of the diet can modify the populations of microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract, the capacity of pathogens to attach to enterocytes, and the integrity of the intestinal epithelium.

  6. First aid for complications of infectious keratitis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Infectious keratitis is a fairly common entity in India. However while paying attention to the primary entity, the associated events may be overlooked. Enhanced pain usually suggests a worsening of the condition or development of associated problems like secondary glaucoma. However, contrary to logic, a sudden decrease in pain is also liley to suggest a worsening, e.g. perforation of the corneal ulcer. Various such problems with their management are outlined. PMID:18417823

  7. Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brizzi, Kate T.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious causes of peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease are underrecognized but potentially treatable. Heightened awareness educed by advanced understanding of the presentations and management of these infections can aid diagnosis and facilitate treatment. In this review, we discuss the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of common bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections that affect the PNS. We additionally detail PNS side effects of some frequently used antimicrobial agents. PMID:25360209

  8. Emerging infectious disease: global response, global alert.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, H

    1997-01-01

    Despite spectacular progress in the eradication of infectious diseases, malaria and tuberculosis are making a comeback in many parts of the world. After years of decline, plague, diphtheria, dengue, meningococcal meningitis, yellow fever, and cholera have reappeared as public health threats. In the last 20 years [before 1997] more than 30 new and highly infectious diseases have been identified, including Ebola-type hemorrhagic fever, HIV/AIDs, and hepatitis C. Antibiotic resistance has also emerged during this period, and fewer new antibiotics are being produced because of high development costs and licensing. Drugs no longer offer protection or cure for many infectious diseases, and consequently more people need hospitalization with higher treatment costs. The causes of the appearance of new diseases and the resurgence of old ones include the rapid increase in international travel, the growth of mega-cities with high population densities, inadequate safe water and sanitation, food-borne diseases by the globalization of trade, and human penetration into remote animal and insect habitats. Meanwhile, resources for public health are being reduced, with the result that either the appearance of new diseases or resistance to drugs go unnoticed. A recent example is the human immunodeficiency virus, which went unrecognized until a large number of people got infected. For this very reason the 1997 World Health Day featured the theme of emerging infectious diseases and global response. Such forums are held to help countries rebuild the foundations of disease surveillance and control, while the public and private sectors may be encouraged to develop better techniques for surveillance to confront a common global threat.

  9. Recovery of infectious bluetongue virus from RNA.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Mark; Roy, Polly

    2007-03-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an insect-vectored emerging pathogen of ruminants with the potential for devastating economic impact on European agriculture. BTV and many other members of the Reoviridae have remained stubbornly refractory to the development of methods for the rescue of infectious virus from cloned nucleic acid (reverse genetics). Partially disassembled virus particles are transcriptionally active, synthesizing viral transcripts in the cytoplasm of infected cells, in essence delivering viral nucleic acids in situ. With the goal of generating a reverse-genetics system for BTV, we examined the possibility of recovering infectious BTV by the transfection of BSR cells with BTV transcripts (single-stranded RNA [ssRNA]) synthesized in vitro using BTV core particles. Following transfection, viral-protein synthesis was detected by immunoblotting, and confocal examination of the cells showed a punctate cytoplasmic distribution of inclusion bodies similar to that seen in infected cells. Viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) was isolated from ssRNA-transfected cells, demonstrating that replication of the ssRNA had occurred. Additionally, infectious virus was present in the medium of transfected cells, as demonstrated by the passage of infectivity in BSR cells. Infectivity was sensitive to single-strand-specific RNase A, and cotransfection of genomic BTV dsRNA with transcribed ssRNA demonstrated that the ssRNA species, rather than dsRNA, were the active components. We conclude that it is possible to recover infectious BTV wholly from ssRNA, which suggests a means for establishing helper virus-independent reverse-genetics systems for members of the Reoviridae.

  10. Spatial dynamics of airborne infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Marguerite; Stilianakis, Nikolaos I; Drossinos, Yannis

    2012-03-21

    Disease outbreaks, such as those of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2003 and the 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza, have highlighted the potential for airborne transmission in indoor environments. Respirable pathogen-carrying droplets provide a vector for the spatial spread of infection with droplet transport determined by diffusive and convective processes. An epidemiological model describing the spatial dynamics of disease transmission is presented. The effects of an ambient airflow, as an infection control, are incorporated leading to a delay equation, with droplet density dependent on the infectious density at a previous time. It is found that small droplets (∼0.4μm) generate a negligible infectious force due to the small viral load and the associated duration they require to transmit infection. In contrast, larger droplets (∼4μm) can lead to an infectious wave propagating through a fully susceptible population or a secondary infection outbreak for a localized susceptible population. Droplet diffusion is found to be an inefficient mode of droplet transport leading to minimal spatial spread of infection. A threshold air velocity is derived, above which disease transmission is impaired even when the basic reproduction number R(0) exceeds unity.

  11. [Infectious aortitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae].

    PubMed

    Zizi, O; Jiber, H; Bouarhroum, A

    2016-02-01

    Infectious aortitis is a rare clinical entity that most often manifests itself by an aortic aneurysm. The syphilitic or tubercular forms can be subacute. When it is caused by Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus sp. or Streptococcus pneumoniae, the aortitis is acute with alarming symptoms. Germs found in most cases are Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus. S. pneumoniae rarely causes infectious aortitis. We report the case of a 75-year-old patient seen in an emergency setting for sudden-onset abdominal pain with fever. An abdominal angio-computed tomography (CT) scan showed a sacciform infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm, with an inflammatory aspect and periaortic hematoma. Surgical cure was undertaken because of the impending rupture. An interposition aortic replacement graft was implanted. Blood cultures and bacteriological study of the aortic wall isolated a S. pneumoniae. The anatomical pathology study reported fibrin clot leukocyte remodeling of the aortic wall. An intravenous antibiotic regimen was started. Several organisms, including Streptococcus, can cause infectious aortitis. We found 36 cases described in the literature in addition to our patient. PMID:26775836

  12. Electronic tools for infectious diseases and microbiology.

    PubMed

    Burdette, Steven D

    2007-11-01

    Electronic tools for infectious diseases and medical microbiology have the ability to change the way the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases are approached. Medical information today has the ability to be dynamic, keeping up with the latest research or clinical issues, instead of being static and years behind, as many textbooks are. The ability to rapidly disseminate information around the world opens up the possibility of communicating with people thousands of miles away to quickly and efficiently learn about emerging infections. Electronic tools have expanded beyond the desktop computer and the Internet, and now include personal digital assistants and other portable devices such as cellular phones. These pocket-sized devices have the ability to provide access to clinical information at the point of care. New electronic tools include e-mail listservs, electronic drug databases and search engines that allow focused clinical questions. The goal of the present article is to provide an overview of how electronic tools can impact infectious diseases and microbiology, while providing links and resources to allow users to maximize their efficiency in accessing this information. Links to the mentioned Web sites and programs are provided along with other useful electronic tools.

  13. Is irritable bowel syndrome an infectious disease?

    PubMed

    Thompson, John Richard

    2016-01-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of all gastroenterological diseases. While many mechanisms have been postulated to explain its etiology, no single mechanism entirely explains the heterogeneity of symptoms seen with the various phenotypes of the disease. Recent data from both basic and clinical sciences suggest that underlying infectious disease may provide a unifying hypothesis that better explains the overall symptomatology. The presence of small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) has been documented in patients with IBS and reductions in SIBO as determined by breath testing correlate with IBS symptom improvement in clinical trials. The incidence of new onset IBS symptoms following acute infectious gastroenteritis also suggests an infectious cause. Alterations in microbiota-host interactions may compromise epithelial barrier integrity, immune function, and the development and function of both central and enteric nervous systems explaining alterations in the brain-gut axis. Clinical evidence from treatment trials with both probiotics and antibiotics also support this etiology. Probiotics appear to restore the imbalance in the microflora and improve IBS-specific quality of life. Antibiotic trials with both neomycin and rifaximin show improvement in global IBS symptoms that correlates with breath test normalization in diarrhea-predominant patients. The treatment response to two weeks of rifaximin is sustained for up to ten weeks and comparable results are seen in symptom reduction with retreatment in patients who develop recurrent symptoms. PMID:26819502

  14. Is irritable bowel syndrome an infectious disease?

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, John Richard

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of all gastroenterological diseases. While many mechanisms have been postulated to explain its etiology, no single mechanism entirely explains the heterogeneity of symptoms seen with the various phenotypes of the disease. Recent data from both basic and clinical sciences suggest that underlying infectious disease may provide a unifying hypothesis that better explains the overall symptomatology. The presence of small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) has been documented in patients with IBS and reductions in SIBO as determined by breath testing correlate with IBS symptom improvement in clinical trials. The incidence of new onset IBS symptoms following acute infectious gastroenteritis also suggests an infectious cause. Alterations in microbiota-host interactions may compromise epithelial barrier integrity, immune function, and the development and function of both central and enteric nervous systems explaining alterations in the brain-gut axis. Clinical evidence from treatment trials with both probiotics and antibiotics also support this etiology. Probiotics appear to restore the imbalance in the microflora and improve IBS-specific quality of life. Antibiotic trials with both neomycin and rifaximin show improvement in global IBS symptoms that correlates with breath test normalization in diarrhea-predominant patients. The treatment response to two weeks of rifaximin is sustained for up to ten weeks and comparable results are seen in symptom reduction with retreatment in patients who develop recurrent symptoms. PMID:26819502

  15. Spatial dynamics of airborne infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Marguerite; Stilianakis, Nikolaos I; Drossinos, Yannis

    2012-03-21

    Disease outbreaks, such as those of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2003 and the 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza, have highlighted the potential for airborne transmission in indoor environments. Respirable pathogen-carrying droplets provide a vector for the spatial spread of infection with droplet transport determined by diffusive and convective processes. An epidemiological model describing the spatial dynamics of disease transmission is presented. The effects of an ambient airflow, as an infection control, are incorporated leading to a delay equation, with droplet density dependent on the infectious density at a previous time. It is found that small droplets (∼0.4μm) generate a negligible infectious force due to the small viral load and the associated duration they require to transmit infection. In contrast, larger droplets (∼4μm) can lead to an infectious wave propagating through a fully susceptible population or a secondary infection outbreak for a localized susceptible population. Droplet diffusion is found to be an inefficient mode of droplet transport leading to minimal spatial spread of infection. A threshold air velocity is derived, above which disease transmission is impaired even when the basic reproduction number R(0) exceeds unity. PMID:22207025

  16. Emerging infectious diseases: a cause for concern.

    PubMed

    Berns, D S; Rager, B

    2000-12-01

    As the twenty-first century begins it becomes increasingly apparent that the twentieth century, which opened with the promise of the eradication of most infectious diseases, closed with the specter of the reemergence of many deadly infectious diseases that have a rapidly increasing incidence and geographic range. Equally if not more alarming is the appearance of new infectious diseases that have become major sources of morbidity and mortality. Among recent examples are HIV/AIDS, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Lyme disease, hemolytic uremic syndrome (caused by a strain of Escherichia coli), Rift Valley fever, Dengue hemorrhagic fever, malaria, cryptosporidiosis, and schistosomiasis. The reasons for this situation are easily identified in some cases as associated with treatment modalities (permissive use of antibiotics), the industrial use of antibiotics, demographic changes, societal behavior patterns, changes in ecology, global warming, the inability to deliver minimal health care and the neglect of well-established public health priorities. In addition is the emergence of diseases of another type. We have begun to characterize the potential microbial etiology of what has historically been referred to as chronic diseases.

  17. Epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Marjorie

    2010-04-01

    The Homeland Security News Wire has been reporting on new ways to fight epidemics using digital tools such as iPhone, social networks, Wikipedia, and other Internet sites. Instant two-way communication now gives consumers the ability to complement official reports on emerging infectious diseases from health authorities. However, there is increasing concern that these communications networks could open the door to mass panic from unreliable or false reports. There is thus an urgent need to ensure that epidemiological monitoring for emerging infectious diseases gives health authorities the capability to identify, analyze, and report disease outbreaks in as timely and efficient a manner as possible. One of the dilemmas in the global dissemination of information on infectious diseases is the possibility that information overload will create inefficiencies as the volume of Internet-based surveillance information increases. What is needed is a filtering mechanism that will retrieve relevant information for further analysis by epidemiologists, laboratories, and other health organizations so they are not overwhelmed with irrelevant information and will be able to respond quickly. This paper introduces a self-organizing ontology that could be used as a filtering mechanism to increase relevance and allow rapid analysis of disease outbreaks as they evolve in real time.

  18. Is irritable bowel syndrome an infectious disease?

    PubMed

    Thompson, John Richard

    2016-01-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of all gastroenterological diseases. While many mechanisms have been postulated to explain its etiology, no single mechanism entirely explains the heterogeneity of symptoms seen with the various phenotypes of the disease. Recent data from both basic and clinical sciences suggest that underlying infectious disease may provide a unifying hypothesis that better explains the overall symptomatology. The presence of small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) has been documented in patients with IBS and reductions in SIBO as determined by breath testing correlate with IBS symptom improvement in clinical trials. The incidence of new onset IBS symptoms following acute infectious gastroenteritis also suggests an infectious cause. Alterations in microbiota-host interactions may compromise epithelial barrier integrity, immune function, and the development and function of both central and enteric nervous systems explaining alterations in the brain-gut axis. Clinical evidence from treatment trials with both probiotics and antibiotics also support this etiology. Probiotics appear to restore the imbalance in the microflora and improve IBS-specific quality of life. Antibiotic trials with both neomycin and rifaximin show improvement in global IBS symptoms that correlates with breath test normalization in diarrhea-predominant patients. The treatment response to two weeks of rifaximin is sustained for up to ten weeks and comparable results are seen in symptom reduction with retreatment in patients who develop recurrent symptoms.

  19. Morphological and quantitative comparison between infectious and non-infectious forms of influenza virus.

    PubMed

    WERNER, G H; SCHLESINGER, R W

    1954-08-01

    Electron microscopic study has revealed the morphological entity responsible for the rise in viral hemagglutinin observed in brains of mice after intracerebral inoculation of non-neurotropic strains of influenza virus. This rise in hemagglutinin, although dependent on inoculation of fully infectious virus, is not associated with an increase in infectious titer. The hemagglutinating principle is functionally similar to the "incomplete" influenza virus which can be obtained from chick embryos by serial egg-to-egg transfer of undiluted, infected allantoic fluid according to the method of von Magnus. A method has been described which facilitates selective adsorption of viral particles recovered from organ extracts on saponine-lysed ghosts of fowl erythrocytes. This procedure has been utilized in studying the morphology of non-infectious, hemagglutinating virus from chorio-allantoic membranes or mouse brains and in comparing these two forms with each other and with ordinary, infectious (standard) influenza virus. Standard virus isolated from allantoic fluids or membranes of infected eggs was found to contain uniform particles of predominantly spherical shape with smooth surface and even density, resembling those described by others. The appearance of such particles was not affected by the procedure of extraction and concentration used. In contrast, non-infectious, hemagglutinating virus obtained either from allantoic sacs ("undiluted passages") or from mouse brain was pleomorphic and seemed to consist of disintegrating particles. The majority appeared flattened and bag-like and had a rough, granular surface and reduced, uneven density. 37 per cent of the non-infectious particles isolated from mouse brain infected with the non-neurotropic strain WS had diameters in excess of 170 mmicro, as compared with only 2 per cent of the particles of the parent strain itself. Regardless of whether or not the contrast in appearance of standard and of non-infectious particles was due

  20. How to make epidemiological training infectious.

    PubMed

    Bellan, Steve E; Pulliam, Juliet R C; Scott, James C; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Modern infectious disease epidemiology builds on two independently developed fields: classical epidemiology and dynamical epidemiology. Over the past decade, integration of the two fields has increased in research practice, but training options within the fields remain distinct with few opportunities for integration in the classroom. The annual Clinic on the Meaningful Modeling of Epidemiological Data (MMED) at the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences has begun to address this gap. MMED offers participants exposure to a broad range of concepts and techniques from both epidemiological traditions. During MMED 2010 we developed a pedagogical approach that bridges the traditional distinction between classical and dynamical epidemiology and can be used at multiple educational levels, from high school to graduate level courses. The approach is hands-on, consisting of a real-time simulation of a stochastic outbreak in course participants, including realistic data reporting, followed by a variety of mathematical and statistical analyses, stemming from both epidemiological traditions. During the exercise, dynamical epidemiologists developed empirical skills such as study design and learned concepts of bias while classical epidemiologists were trained in systems thinking and began to understand epidemics as dynamic nonlinear processes. We believe this type of integrated educational tool will prove extremely valuable in the training of future infectious disease epidemiologists. We also believe that such interdisciplinary training will be critical for local capacity building in analytical epidemiology as Africa continues to produce new cohorts of well-trained mathematicians, statisticians, and scientists. And because the lessons draw on skills and concepts from many fields in biology--from pathogen biology, evolutionary dynamics of host--pathogen interactions, and the ecology of infectious disease to bioinformatics, computational biology, and statistics--this exercise

  1. The changing pattern of infectious disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ikwueke, K

    1984-01-01

    Several factors contribute towards a decrease in the prevalence of infectious disease in a population. These include active control measures, active immunisation, and improvement in the socioeconomic state of the population. There appears, however, to be a progressive increase in the resistance of a population in relation to the length of time the population has been exposed to an agent. This increasing resistance is currently thought to be an expression of natural selection but transmission of actively acquired immunity cannot be ruled out and in the light of current evidence remains a highly probable contributory factor. PMID:6437550

  2. Controlling emerging infectious diseases in salmon aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, J M; Osmundsen, T; Aunsmo, A; Mardones, F O; Rich, K M

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the authors review the impacts of diseases facing salmon aquaculture, drawing lessons from terrestrial animal diseases. They discuss the implementation of current control strategies, taking into account transmission patterns (vertical versus horizontal), disease reservoirs, and interactions with wild fish. In addition, the decision-making context of aquatic disease control and the institutional organisation of control strategies are considered, with particular emphasis on the roles and responsibilities of regulatory authorities and the private sector. Case studies on the emergence and control of infectious salmon anaemia worldwide and pancreas disease in Norway are used to examine some of the controversies that may influence decision making and provide lessons for the future.

  3. (Meta)population dynamics of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Grenfell, B; Harwood, J

    1997-10-01

    The metapopulation concept provides a very powerful tool for analysing the persistence of spatially-disaggregated populations, in terms of a balance between local extinction and colonization. Exactly the same approach has been developed by epidemiologists, in order to understand patterns of diseases persistence. There is great scope for further cross-fertilization between areas. Recent work on the spatitemporal dynamics of measles illustrates that the large datasets and rich modelling literature on many infectious diseases offer great potential for developing and testing ideas about metapopulations.

  4. Asymptotic theory of an infectious disease model.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Alan M; Ashrafiuon, Hashem

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, we present asymptotic theory as a viable alternative solution method for infectious disease models. We consider a particular model of a pathogen attacking a host whose immune system responds defensively, that has been studied previously [Mohtashemi and Levins in J. Math. Biol. 43: 446-470 (2001)]. On rendering this model dimensionless, we can reduce the number of parameters to two and note that one of them has a large value that suggests an asymptotic analysis. On doing this analysis, we obtain a satisfying qualitative description of the dynamic evolution of each population, together with simple analytic expressions for their main features, from which we can compute accurate quantitative values.

  5. Pulmonary endarterectomy after pulmonary infectious embolisms

    PubMed Central

    Heiberg, Johan; Ilkjær, Lars B.

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is a well-established procedure in the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTPH). The procedure is known to increase functional outcome and to raise the 5-year survival rate. We report 2 cases of pulmonary valve endocarditis and secondary embolisms causing sustained pulmonary hypertension. Both were treated with PEA. In none of the cases, a cleavage between the thrombotic masses and the vessel wall was obtainable, and both attempts were therefore inadequate. Based on our reports, we recommend not attempting PEA in cases of CTPH after infectious embolisms. PMID:23248168

  6. What Is New in Infectious Diseases?

    PubMed

    Cook, Paul P

    2016-01-01

    The practice of infectious diseases is an ever-changing discipline. Diseases such as syphilis and tuberculosis have been with mankind for millennia, whereas conditions such as AIDS and Zika virus are relatively new maladies. A working knowledge of clinical presentations associated with Zika virus infection, syphilis, and common parasitic infections will help the primary care provider determine whom to treat and whom to refer to a specialist. Increasing the use of vaccination for influenza and pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV infection should reduce the burden of these common diseases. PMID:27621340

  7. Infectious diarrhea in developed and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Allen C; McDonald, Jay R; Thielman, Nathan M

    2005-10-01

    Diarrhea from gastrointestinal infection remains a common problem. In industrialized countries, management is aimed at reducing morbidity and defining groups that may benefit from further investigation. Most infectious diarrhea is self-limiting and only requires supportive management. Viral agents are increasingly recognized as causative agents of epidemic and sporadic diarrhea. In developing countries, diarrhea is a major cause of mortality in children. Oral rehydration therapy, guided by a clinical assessment of the degree of dehydration, is cheap, simple, and effective and remains the mainstay of management of infant diarrhea. Controversies focus on the optimal formulation of oral rehydration solution. A vaccine against rotavirus has the potential to save millions of lives worldwide.

  8. Infectious and Non-infectious Etiologies of Cardiovascular Disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chastain, Daniel B.; King, Travis S.; Stover, Kayla R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing rates of HIV have been observed in women, African Americans, and Hispanics, particularly those residing in rural areas of the United States. Although cardiovascular (CV) complications in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have significantly decreased following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy on a global scale, in many rural areas, residents face geographic, social, and cultural barriers that result in decreased access to care. Despite the advancements to combat the disease, many patients in these medically underserved areas are not linked to care, and fewer than half achieve viral suppression. Methods: Databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed publications reporting infectious and non-infectious etiologies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. Relevant articles cited in the retrieved publications were also reviewed for inclusion. Results: A variety of outcomes studies and literature reviews were included in the analysis. Relevant literature discussed the manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of infectious and non-infectious etiologies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. Conclusion: In these medically underserved areas, it is vital that clinicians are knowledgeable in the manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of CV complications in patients with untreated HIV. This review summarizes the epidemiology and causes of CV complications associated with untreated HIV and provide recommendations for management of these complications. PMID:27583063

  9. Timeliness of notification in infectious disease cases.

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, A; Coll, J J; Fuentes, M; Salleras, L

    1992-01-01

    Records of notification in cases of eight infectious diseases in the "Servei Territorial de Salut Publica" of the Province of Barcelona, Spain, between 1982 and 1986 were reviewed. Time from onset of symptoms to notification, time from notification to completion of data collection, and time from onset to completion of the case investigation were analyzed. For the period from onset to notification, the shortest mean was registered for meningococcal infection (6.31 days) and the longest was for pulmonary tuberculosis (54.79 days). For time from notification to complete investigation, the shortest value was for pulmonary tuberculosis (12.20 days) and the longest for rickettsioses (35.79 days). Time from onset to completion of data collection was 22.87 days for meningococcal infection and 72.34 days for tuberculosis of other organs (probably because of the long period of time that elapses between the onset of the first symptoms and notification). It would appear that both physicians and the general population must be educated so that lay-men can identify early signs and symptoms of disease and physicians can realize that statutory notification of infectious diseases is strongly linked to community health care. PMID:1641446

  10. Early adversity, immunity and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Avitsur, Ronit; Levy, Sigal; Goren, Naama; Grinshpahet, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Complex interactions between biological, behavioral and environmental factors are involved in mediating individual differences in health and disease. In this review, we present evidence suggesting that increased vulnerability to infectious disease may be at least, in part, due to long-lasting effects of early life psychosocial adversities. Studies have shown that maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy is associated with long lasting changes in immune function and disease resistance in the offspring. Studies further indicated that harsh environmental conditions during the neonatal period may also cause lasting changes in host response to infectious disease. Although the mechanisms involved in these effects have not been fully examined, several potential mediators have been described, including changes in the development of the offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, alterations in epigenetic pathways, stress-related maternal health risk behavior and infection during pregnancy. Although there are ample literature indicating that perinatal psychosocial stress increases vulnerability to disease, other reports suggest that mild predictable stressors may benefit the organism and allow better coping with future stressors. Thus, understanding the possible consequences of perinatal adversities and the mechanisms that are involved in immune regulation is important for increasing awareness to the potential outcomes of early negative life events and providing insight into potential therapies to combat infection in vulnerable individuals.

  11. Global climate change and infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Shope, R

    1991-01-01

    The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholerae is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help us to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed. PMID:1820262

  12. Towards effective emerging infectious disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Ear, Sophal

    2014-01-01

    In this plenary talk given at the annual meeting of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences at Texas Tech University last October, Professor Sophal Ear, then of the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, discussed his research on the political economy of emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance programs. His talk reviews lessons learned for U.S. military medical research laboratories collaborating with developing countries and is comprised of three case studies: Cambodia (U.S. Naval Area Medical Research Unit 2 or NAMRU-2), Indonesia (also NAMRU-2 in the context of H5N1 or Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza), (1) and Mexico (that country's handling of A/H1N1 or Swine Flu in 2009). (2) Professor Ear's research provides policymakers with tools for improving the effectiveness of new or existing EID surveillance programs. His work also offers host countries the opportunity to incorporate ideas, provide opinions, and debate the management of political and economic constraints facing their programs. In this analysis, constraints are found for each case study and general recommendations are given for improving global emerging infectious disease surveillance across political, economic, and cultural dimensions. PMID:25514524

  13. Towards effective emerging infectious disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Ear, Sophal

    2014-01-01

    In this plenary talk given at the annual meeting of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences at Texas Tech University last October, Professor Sophal Ear, then of the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, discussed his research on the political economy of emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance programs. His talk reviews lessons learned for U.S. military medical research laboratories collaborating with developing countries and is comprised of three case studies: Cambodia (U.S. Naval Area Medical Research Unit 2 or NAMRU-2), Indonesia (also NAMRU-2 in the context of H5N1 or Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza), (1) and Mexico (that country's handling of A/H1N1 or Swine Flu in 2009). (2) Professor Ear's research provides policymakers with tools for improving the effectiveness of new or existing EID surveillance programs. His work also offers host countries the opportunity to incorporate ideas, provide opinions, and debate the management of political and economic constraints facing their programs. In this analysis, constraints are found for each case study and general recommendations are given for improving global emerging infectious disease surveillance across political, economic, and cultural dimensions.

  14. Tackling feline infectious peritonitis via reverse genetics.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Volker; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen; Tekes, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is caused by feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) and represents one of the most important lethal infectious diseases of cats. To date, there is no efficacious prevention and treatment, and our limited knowledge on FIP pathogenesis is mainly based on analysis of experiments with field isolates. In a recent study, we reported a promising approach to study FIP pathogenesis using reverse genetics. We generated a set of recombinant FCoVs and investigated their pathogenicity in vivo. The set included the type I FCoV strain Black, a type I FCoV strain Black with restored accessory gene 7b, two chimeric type I/type II FCoVs and the highly pathogenic type II FCoV strain 79-1146. All recombinant FCoVs and the reference strain isolates were found to establish productive infections in cats. While none of the type I FCoVs and chimeric FCoVs induced FIP, the recombinant type II FCoV strain 79-1146 was as pathogenic as the parental isolate. Interestingly, an intact ORF 3c was confirmed to be restored in all viruses (re)isolated from FIP-diseased animals.

  15. Tackling feline infectious peritonitis via reverse genetics

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Volker; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen; Tekes, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is caused by feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) and represents one of the most important lethal infectious diseases of cats. To date, there is no efficacious prevention and treatment, and our limited knowledge on FIP pathogenesis is mainly based on analysis of experiments with field isolates. In a recent study, we reported a promising approach to study FIP pathogenesis using reverse genetics. We generated a set of recombinant FCoVs and investigated their pathogenicity in vivo. The set included the type I FCoV strain Black, a type I FCoV strain Black with restored accessory gene 7b, two chimeric type I/type II FCoVs and the highly pathogenic type II FCoV strain 79–1146. All recombinant FCoVs and the reference strain isolates were found to establish productive infections in cats. While none of the type I FCoVs and chimeric FCoVs induced FIP, the recombinant type II FCoV strain 79–1146 was as pathogenic as the parental isolate. Interestingly, an intact ORF 3c was confirmed to be restored in all viruses (re)isolated from FIP-diseased animals. PMID:25482087

  16. Social inequalities and emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, P.

    1996-01-01

    Although many who study emerging infections subscribe to social-production-of-disease theories, few have examined the contribution of social inequalities to disease emergence. Yet such inequalities have powerfully sculpted not only the distribution of infectious diseases, but also the course of disease in those affected. Outbreaks of Ebola, AIDS, and tuberculosis suggest that models of disease emergence need to be dynamic, systemic, and critical. Such models--which strive to incorporate change and complexity, and are global yet alive to local variation--are critical of facile claims of causality, particularly those that scant the pathogenic roles of social inequalities. Critical perspectives on emerging infections ask how large-scale social forces influence unequally positioned individuals in increasingly interconnected populations; a critical epistemology of emerging infectious diseases asks what features of disease emergence are obscured by dominant analytic frameworks. Research questions stemming from such a reexamination of disease emergence would demand close collaboration between basic scientists, clinicians, and the social scientists and epidemiologists who adopt such perspectives. PMID:8969243

  17. Global climate change and infectious diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Shope, R. )

    1991-12-01

    The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholera is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help as to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Feline infectious peritonitis: still an enigma?

    PubMed

    Kipar, A; Meli, M L

    2014-03-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is one of the most important fatal infectious diseases of cats, the pathogenesis of which has not yet been fully revealed. The present review focuses on the biology of feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection and the pathogenesis and pathological features of FIP. Recent studies have revealed functions of many viral proteins, differing receptor specificity for type I and type II FCoV, and genomic differences between feline enteric coronaviruses (FECVs) and FIP viruses (FIPVs). FECV and FIP also exhibit functional differences, since FECVs replicate mainly in intestinal epithelium and are shed in feces, and FIPVs replicate efficiently in monocytes and induce systemic disease. Thus, key events in the pathogenesis of FIP are systemic infection with FIPV, effective and sustainable viral replication in monocytes, and activation of infected monocytes. The host's genetics and immune system also play important roles. It is the activation of monocytes and macrophages that directly leads to the pathologic features of FIP, including vasculitis, body cavity effusions, and fibrinous and granulomatous inflammatory lesions. Advances have been made in the clinical diagnosis of FIP, based on the clinical pathologic findings, serologic testing, and detection of virus using molecular (polymerase chain reaction) or antibody-based methods. Nevertheless, the clinical diagnosis remains challenging in particular in the dry form of FIP, which is partly due to the incomplete understanding of infection biology and pathogenesis in FIP. So, while much progress has been made, many aspects of FIP pathogenesis still remain an enigma.

  19. Hajj: infectious disease surveillance and control.

    PubMed

    Memish, Ziad A; Zumla, Alimuddin; Alhakeem, Rafat F; Assiri, Abdullah; Turkestani, Abdulhafeez; Al Harby, Khalid D; Alyemni, Mohamed; Dhafar, Khalid; Gautret, Philippe; Barbeschi, Maurizio; McCloskey, Brian; Heymann, David; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A

    2014-06-14

    Religious festivals attract a large number of pilgrims from worldwide and are a potential risk for the transmission of infectious diseases between pilgrims, and to the indigenous population. The gathering of a large number of pilgrims could compromise the health system of the host country. The threat to global health security posed by infectious diseases with epidemic potential shows the importance of advanced planning of public health surveillance and response at these religious events. Saudi Arabia has extensive experience of providing health care at mass gatherings acquired through decades of managing millions of pilgrims at the Hajj. In this report, we describe the extensive public health planning, surveillance systems used to monitor public health risks, and health services provided and accessed during Hajj 2012 and Hajj 2013 that together attracted more than 5 million pilgrims from 184 countries. We also describe the recent establishment of the Global Center for Mass Gathering Medicine, a Saudi Government partnership with the WHO Collaborating Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine, Gulf Co-operation Council states, UK universities, and public health institutions globally. PMID:24857703

  20. Mathematical modeling of infectious disease dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Siettos, Constantinos I.; Russo, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Over the last years, an intensive worldwide effort is speeding up the developments in the establishment of a global surveillance network for combating pandemics of emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases. Scientists from different fields extending from medicine and molecular biology to computer science and applied mathematics have teamed up for rapid assessment of potentially urgent situations. Toward this aim mathematical modeling plays an important role in efforts that focus on predicting, assessing, and controlling potential outbreaks. To better understand and model the contagious dynamics the impact of numerous variables ranging from the micro host–pathogen level to host-to-host interactions, as well as prevailing ecological, social, economic, and demographic factors across the globe have to be analyzed and thoroughly studied. Here, we present and discuss the main approaches that are used for the surveillance and modeling of infectious disease dynamics. We present the basic concepts underpinning their implementation and practice and for each category we give an annotated list of representative works. PMID:23552814

  1. Measuring Spatial Dependence for Infectious Disease Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Grabowski, M. Kate; Cummings, Derek A. T.

    2016-01-01

    Global spatial clustering is the tendency of points, here cases of infectious disease, to occur closer together than expected by chance. The extent of global clustering can provide a window into the spatial scale of disease transmission, thereby providing insights into the mechanism of spread, and informing optimal surveillance and control. Here the authors present an interpretable measure of spatial clustering, τ, which can be understood as a measure of relative risk. When biological or temporal information can be used to identify sets of potentially linked and likely unlinked cases, this measure can be estimated without knowledge of the underlying population distribution. The greater our ability to distinguish closely related (i.e., separated by few generations of transmission) from more distantly related cases, the more closely τ will track the true scale of transmission. The authors illustrate this approach using examples from the analyses of HIV, dengue and measles, and provide an R package implementing the methods described. The statistic presented, and measures of global clustering in general, can be powerful tools for analysis of spatially resolved data on infectious diseases. PMID:27196422

  2. Global climate change and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Shope, R

    1991-12-01

    The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholerae is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help us to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed.

  3. Photodynamic inactivation of pathogens causing infectious keratitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Carole; Wolf, G.; Walther, M.; Winkler, K.; Finke, M.; Hüttenberger, D.; Bischoff, Markus; Seitz, B.; Cullum, J.; Foth, H.-J.

    2014-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance requires new approaches also for the treatment of infectious keratitis. Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI) using the photosensitizer (PS) Chlorin e6 (Ce6) was investigated as an alternative to antibiotic treatment. An in-vitro cornea model was established using porcine eyes. The uptake of Ce6 by bacteria and the diffusion of the PS in the individual layers of corneal tissue were investigated by fluorescence. After removal of the cornea's epithelium Ce6-concentrations < 1 mM were sufficient to reach a penetration depth of 500 μm. Liquid cultures of microorganisms were irradiated using a specially constructed illumination chamber made of Spectralon(R) (reflectance: 99 %), which was equipped with high power light emitting diodes (λ = 670 nm). Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) from keratitis patients were tested in liquid culture against different concentrations of Ce6 (1 - 512 μM) using 10 minutes irradiation (E = 18 J/cm2 ). This demonstrated that a complete inactivation of the pathogen strains were feasible whereby SA was slightly more susceptible than PA. 3909 mutants of the Keio collection of Escherichia coli (E.coli) were screened for potential resistance factors. The sensitive mutants can be grouped into three categories: transport mutants, mutants in lipopolysaccharide synthesis and mutants in the bacterial SOS-response. In conclusion PDI is seen as a promising therapy concept for infectious keratitis.

  4. The role of infectious disease in marine communities: chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew

    2014-01-01

    Marine ecologists recognize that infectious diseases play and important role in ocean ecosystems. This role may have increased in some host taxa over time (Ward and Lafferty 2004). We begin this chapter by introducing infectious agents and their relationships with their hosts in marine systems. We then put infectious disease agents with their hosts in marine systems. We then put infectious disease agents in the perspective of marine biodiversity and discuss the various factors that affect parasites. Specifically, we introduce some basin epidemiological concepts, including the effects of stress and free-living diversity on parasites. Following this, we give brief consideration to communities of parasites within their hosts, particularly as these can lead to general insights into community ecology. We also give examples of how infectious diseases affect host populations, scaling up to marine communities. Finally, we present examples of marine infectious disease that impair conservation and fisheries.

  5. Emerging trends in international law concerning global infectious disease control.

    PubMed

    Fidler, David P

    2003-03-01

    International cooperation has become critical in controlling infectious diseases. In this article, I examine emerging trends in international law concerning global infectious disease control. The role of international law in horizontal and vertical governance responses to infectious disease control is conceptualized; the historical development of international law regarding infectious diseases is described; and important shifts in how states, international institutions, and nonstate organizations use international law in the context of infectious disease control today are analyzed. The growing importance of international trade law and the development of global governance mechanisms, most prominently in connection with increasing access to drugs and other medicines in unindustrialized countries, are emphasized. Traditional international legal approaches to infectious disease control--embodied in the International Health Regulations--may be moribund.

  6. Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases Based on Antimicrobial Peptide Production▿

    PubMed Central

    Rivas-Santiago, Bruno; Serrano, Carmen J.; Enciso-Moreno, J. Antonio

    2009-01-01

    In the last few years, the great impact of antimicrobial peptides on infectious disease susceptibility and natural resistance has been reported. In some cases, susceptibility to diseases is related to antimicrobial peptide polymorphisms and gene copy numbers, but for the vast majority of infectious diseases, these phenomena need to be elucidated. This review is focused on the current knowledge about susceptibility and resistance conferred by genetic variations in antimicrobial peptide expression in infectious diseases. PMID:19703980

  7. Susceptibility to infectious diseases based on antimicrobial peptide production.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Santiago, Bruno; Serrano, Carmen J; Enciso-Moreno, J Antonio

    2009-11-01

    In the last few years, the great impact of antimicrobial peptides on infectious disease susceptibility and natural resistance has been reported. In some cases, susceptibility to diseases is related to antimicrobial peptide polymorphisms and gene copy numbers, but for the vast majority of infectious diseases, these phenomena need to be elucidated. This review is focused on the current knowledge about susceptibility and resistance conferred by genetic variations in antimicrobial peptide expression in infectious diseases.

  8. Susceptibility to infectious diseases based on antimicrobial peptide production.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Santiago, Bruno; Serrano, Carmen J; Enciso-Moreno, J Antonio

    2009-11-01

    In the last few years, the great impact of antimicrobial peptides on infectious disease susceptibility and natural resistance has been reported. In some cases, susceptibility to diseases is related to antimicrobial peptide polymorphisms and gene copy numbers, but for the vast majority of infectious diseases, these phenomena need to be elucidated. This review is focused on the current knowledge about susceptibility and resistance conferred by genetic variations in antimicrobial peptide expression in infectious diseases. PMID:19703980

  9. Infectious medical waste management. A home care responsibility.

    PubMed

    Ralph, I G

    1993-01-01

    With the proliferation of bloodborne diseases in the United States, more attention is being focused on the issues of infectious medical waste and its disposal. Home care organizations must be aware of the potential risks involved in handling infectious wastes, and adhere to industry standards of disposal and transport. Education of staff, patients, and community about the management of infectious waste is crucial in today's healthcare arena.

  10. 21 CFR 866.5640 - Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques heterophile antibodies frequently associated with infectious mononucleosis in serum, plasma, and other body fluids. Measurements of these antibodies aid in the diagnosis of...

  11. Continuity planning for workplace infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Welch, Nancy; Miller, Pamela Blair; Engle, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, business continuity plans prepare for worst-case scenarios; people plan for the exception rather than the common. Plans focus on infrastructure damage and recovery wrought by such disasters as hurricanes, terrorist events or tornadoes. Yet, another very real threat looms present every day, every season and can strike without warning, wreaking havoc on the major asset -- human capital. Each year, millions of dollars are lost in productivity, healthcare costs, absenteeism and services due to infectious, communicable diseases. Sound preventive risk management and recovery strategies can avert this annual decimation of staff and ensure continuous business operation. This paper will present a strong economic justification for the recognition, prevention and mitigation of communicable diseases as a routine part of continuity planning for every business. Recommendations will also be provided for environmental/engineering controls as well as personnel policies that address employee and customer protection, supply chain contacts and potential legal issues. PMID:27318291

  12. Bilateral self-inflicted infectious dacryoadenitis.

    PubMed

    Latasiewicz, Marta; Chang-Sotomayor, Meilin; Alonso-Caldarelli, Claudia; Farias-Plazas, Fabian; Leszczynska, Anna; Gonzalez-Candial, Miguel

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this report is to present a case of a patient with bilateral lacrimal gland abscesses in the course of dacryoadenitis. A 45-year-old female patient with a long history of cocaine abuse presented with bilateral bacterial dacryoadenitis and upper lid inflammation with purulent discharge from a palpebral wound of the right upper lid. The diagnosis was confirmed with microbiology culture and an orbital CT scan, which revealed lacrimal gland abscesses. The patient admitted to vigorous eye scratching, which we believe was the mechanism responsible for the process. The infection resolved on targeted antibiotic therapy. This is the first reported case of bilateral infectious dacryoadenitis produced in a self-inflicted mechanism in a cocaine addict. PMID:25208047

  13. Continuity planning for workplace infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Welch, Nancy; Miller, Pamela Blair; Engle, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, business continuity plans prepare for worst-case scenarios; people plan for the exception rather than the common. Plans focus on infrastructure damage and recovery wrought by such disasters as hurricanes, terrorist events or tornadoes. Yet, another very real threat looms present every day, every season and can strike without warning, wreaking havoc on the major asset -- human capital. Each year, millions of dollars are lost in productivity, healthcare costs, absenteeism and services due to infectious, communicable diseases. Sound preventive risk management and recovery strategies can avert this annual decimation of staff and ensure continuous business operation. This paper will present a strong economic justification for the recognition, prevention and mitigation of communicable diseases as a routine part of continuity planning for every business. Recommendations will also be provided for environmental/engineering controls as well as personnel policies that address employee and customer protection, supply chain contacts and potential legal issues.

  14. Reflectance confocal microscopy in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Cinotti, E; Labeille, B; Cambazard, F; Perrot, J L

    2015-10-01

    In vivo reflectance confocal microscope (RCM) is a high-resolution non-invasive imaging technique that was initially focused on the diagnosis of skin cancers. A rising number of other indications have been later described for the diagnosis and management of inflammatory and infectious dermatological disorders. RCM can identify cutaneous parasites that are not visible to naked eye such as Sarcoptes scabiei and Demodex folliculorum and it allows to better identify the different body parts of bigger parasites such as ticks. Fungal filaments can also be identified as elongated bright structures in the cutaneous upper layers. RCM cannot observe virus directly. However, the cytopathic effect associated with some virus can be recognized. In addition of being helpful for the diagnosis and follow-up after treatment, thanks to its non-invasiveness, RCM allows pathophysiological studies. PMID:26129682

  15. Controlling emerging infectious diseases in salmon aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, J M; Osmundsen, T; Aunsmo, A; Mardones, F O; Rich, K M

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the authors review the impacts of diseases facing salmon aquaculture, drawing lessons from terrestrial animal diseases. They discuss the implementation of current control strategies, taking into account transmission patterns (vertical versus horizontal), disease reservoirs, and interactions with wild fish. In addition, the decision-making context of aquatic disease control and the institutional organisation of control strategies are considered, with particular emphasis on the roles and responsibilities of regulatory authorities and the private sector. Case studies on the emergence and control of infectious salmon anaemia worldwide and pancreas disease in Norway are used to examine some of the controversies that may influence decision making and provide lessons for the future. PMID:27044162

  16. Infectious arthritis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Mateo Soria, L; Miquel Nolla Solé, J; Rozadilla Sacanell, A; Valverde García, J; Roig Escofet, D

    1992-01-01

    Eleven cases of infectious arthritis occurring in patients with rheumatoid arthritis are reported. Staphylococcus aureus was the causative organism in eight patients. Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus agalactiae in one patient each, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in two patients. The mean duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 16 days in patients with pyogenic arthritis. The diagnosis of joint infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis was especially delayed (57 days). Four patients died; they were found to have a longer time to diagnosis and two of them had multiple joint infection. Although Staphylococcus aureus is the microorganism most often affecting patients with rheumatoid arthritis, infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis must also be considered in such patients. PMID:1575593

  17. Intracranial Infectious Aneurysm in Orbital Cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brian; Kim, Charles; Carrasco, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Infectious intracranial aneurysm and cavernous sinus thrombosis are rare complications of orbital cellulitis. We report the case of a 46-year-old male presenting with sinusitis and orbital cellulitis complicated by the development of an orbital mass. Following orbitotomy with debulking, the patient underwent bony orbital decompression for increasing proptosis postoperatively. While his exam stabilized, the patient developed complete ptosis and extraocular motor palsy in the contralateral eye after undergoing bilateral sinus debridement. Imaging was notable for the presence of a pseudoaneurysm of the internal carotid artery, which was treated with a stent. This report demonstrates rare complications of orbital cellulitis. These patients should be monitored carefully with noninvasive imaging studies, such as cerebral angiography, for early detection of vascular abnormalities that can progress rapidly. PMID:25955309

  18. Infectious enveloped RNA virus antigenic chimeras.

    PubMed

    London, S D; Schmaljohn, A L; Dalrymple, J M; Rice, C M

    1992-01-01

    Random insertion mutagenesis has been used to construct infectious Sindbis virus structural protein chimeras containing a neutralization epitope from a heterologous virus, Rift Valley fever virus. Insertion sites, permissive for recovery of chimeric viruses with growth properties similar to the parental virus, were found in the virion E2 glycoprotein and the secreted E3 glycoprotein. For the E2 chimeras, the epitope was expressed on the virion surface and stimulated a partially protective immune response to Rift Valley fever virus infection in vivo. Besides providing a possible approach for developing live attenuated vaccine viruses, insertion of peptide ligands into virion surface proteins may ultimately allow targeting of virus infection to specific cell types.

  19. Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Charles L.

    2011-12-31

    Research for the DOE Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers focused on Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). RVFV and VEEV are Category A and B pathogens respectively. Among the priority threats, RVFV and VEEV rank high in their potential for being weaponized and introduced to the United States, spreading quickly, and having a large health and economic impact. In addition, they both have live attenuated vaccine, which allows work to be performed at BSL-2. While the molecular biology of RVFV and VEEV are increasingly well-characterized, little is known about its host-pathogen interactions. Our research is aimed at determining critical alterations in host signaling pathways to identify therapeutics targeted against the host.

  20. Infectious diseases: Surveillance, genetic modification and simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koh, H. L.; Teh, S.Y.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases such as influenza and dengue have the potential of becoming a worldwide pandemic that may exert immense pressures on existing medical infrastructures. Careful surveillance of these diseases, supported by consistent model simulations, provides a means for tracking the disease evolution. The integrated surveillance and simulation program is essential in devising effective early warning systems and in implementing efficient emergency preparedness and control measures. This paper presents a summary of simulation analysis on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Malaysia. This simulation analysis provides insightful lessons regarding how disease surveillance and simulation should be performed in the future. This paper briefly discusses the controversy over the experimental field release of genetically modified (GM) Aedes aegypti mosquito in Malaysia. Model simulations indicate that the proposed release of GM mosquitoes is neither a viable nor a sustainable control strategy. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

  1. Integrated Amplification Microarrays for Infectious Disease Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Darrell P.; Bryant, Lexi; Griesemer, Sara B.; Gu, Rui; Knickerbocker, Christopher; Kukhtin, Alexander; Parker, Jennifer; Zimmerman, Cynthia; George, Kirsten St.; Cooney, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    This overview describes microarray-based tests that combine solution-phase amplification chemistry and microarray hybridization within a single microfluidic chamber. The integrated biochemical approach improves microarray workflow for diagnostic applications by reducing the number of steps and minimizing the potential for sample or amplicon cross-contamination. Examples described herein illustrate a basic, integrated approach for DNA and RNA genomes, and a simple consumable architecture for incorporating wash steps while retaining an entirely closed system. It is anticipated that integrated microarray biochemistry will provide an opportunity to significantly reduce the complexity and cost of microarray consumables, equipment, and workflow, which in turn will enable a broader spectrum of users to exploit the intrinsic multiplexing power of microarrays for infectious disease diagnostics.

  2. Rapid infectious diseases diagnostics using Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The “Smartphone” is an almost universal possession in high-income populations, and is rapidly becoming so in lower-income regions, particularly among urban populations, and serves social networking and a quest for information and knowledge. The field of infectious disease diagnostics is at a potential watershed moment, with the essential building blocks for the development of diagnostic assays being ever more available and affordable, which is leading to creative innovative approaches to developing much-needed accurate and simple point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tools for high disease burden, low-income settings. We review the importance and implications of a paper published in Science Translational Medicine on the development of a smartphone-powered and -controlled multiplex immunological assay that tests for HIV and syphilis simultaneously. This is reviewed in the context of other prototype smartphone-enabled/assisted diagnostic devices, and how such developments might shape the future of the POC diagnostics field. PMID:26488011

  3. Why infectious disease research needs community ecology.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Pieter T J; de Roode, Jacobus C; Fenton, Andy

    2015-09-01

    Infectious diseases often emerge from interactions among multiple species and across nested levels of biological organization. Threats as diverse as Ebola virus, human malaria, and bat white-nose syndrome illustrate the need for a mechanistic understanding of the ecological interactions underlying emerging infections. We describe how recent advances in community ecology can be adopted to address contemporary challenges in disease research. These analytical tools can identify the factors governing complex assemblages of multiple hosts, parasites, and vectors, and reveal how processes link across scales from individual hosts to regions. They can also determine the drivers of heterogeneities among individuals, species, and regions to aid targeting of control strategies. We provide examples where these principles have enhanced disease management and illustrate how they can be further extended. PMID:26339035

  4. Why infectious disease research needs community ecology

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Pieter T. J.; de Roode, Jacobus C.; Fenton, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases often emerge from interactions among multiple species and across nested levels of biological organization. Threats as diverse as Ebola virus, human malaria, and bat white-nose syndrome illustrate the need for a mechanistic understanding of the ecological interactions underlying emerging infections. We describe how recent advances in community ecology can be adopted to address contemporary challenges in disease research. These analytical tools can identify the factors governing complex assemblages of multiple hosts, parasites, and vectors, and reveal how processes link across scales from individual hosts to regions. They can also determine the drivers of heterogeneities among individuals, species, and regions to aid targeting of control strategies. We provide examples where these principles have enhanced disease management and illustrate how they can be further extended. PMID:26339035

  5. Role of glycosaminoglycans in infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Jinno, Akiko; Park, Pyong Woo

    2015-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been shown to bind to a wide variety of microbial pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi in vitro. GAGs are thought to promote pathogenesis by facilitating pathogen attachment, invasion, or evasion of host defense mechanisms. However, the role of GAGs in infectious disease has not been extensively studied in vivo and therefore their pathophysiological significance and functions are largely unknown. Here we describe methods to directly investigate the role of GAGs in infections in vivo using mouse models of bacterial lung and corneal infection. The overall experimental strategy is to establish the importance and specificity of GAGs, define the essential structural features of GAGs, and identify a biological activity of GAGs that promotes pathogenesis.

  6. Global Transport Networks and Infectious Disease Spread

    PubMed Central

    Tatem, A.J.; Rogers, D.J.; Hay, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Air, sea and land transport networks continue to expand in reach, speed of travel and volume of passengers and goods carried. Pathogens and their vectors can now move further, faster and in greater numbers than ever before. Three important consequences of global transport network expansion are infectious disease pandemics, vector invasion events and vector-borne pathogen importation. This review briefly examines some of the important historical examples of these disease and vector movements, such as the global influenza pandemics, the devastating Anopheles gambiae invasion of Brazil and the recent increases in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases. We then outline potential approaches for future studies of disease movement, focussing on vector invasion and vector-borne disease importation. Such approaches allow us to explore the potential implications of international air travel, shipping routes and other methods of transport on global pathogen and vector traffic. PMID:16647974

  7. Does incineration turn infectious waste aseptic?

    PubMed

    Kanemitsu, K; Inden, K; Kunishima, H; Ueno, K; Hatta, M; Gunji, Y; Watanabe, I; Kaku, M

    2005-08-01

    Incineration of infectious waste is considered to be biologically safe. We performed basic experiments to confirm that bacillus spores are killed by incineration in a muffle furnace. Biological samples containing 10(6) spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus were placed in stainless steel Petri dishes and then into hot furnaces. The furnace temperature and duration of incineration were 300 degrees C for 15 min, 300 degrees C for 30 min, 500 degrees C for 15 min, 500 degrees C for 30 min and 1100 degrees C for 3 min. We confirmed that all spores of B. stearothermophilus were killed at each of these settings. The effect of incineration seems to be equivalent to that of sterilization, based on the satisfactory sterilization assurance level of 10(-6). PMID:15963601

  8. Endovascular treatment of infectious intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Gross, Bradley A; Puri, Ajit S

    2013-01-01

    Infectious intracranial aneurysms (IIA) are rare but a considerable source of morbidity and mortality as a result of rupture. Most patients with these lesions have considerable medical comorbidities, making endovascular approaches a crucial modality in their treatment armamentarium. Contributing our own case, we performed a comprehensive review of the literature to illustrate overall results and outcomes for patients with IIA treated with endovascular approaches. Incorporating our own case, we found 65 patients harboring 72 IIA across 31 reports. Fifty-one were treated via parent artery occlusion (71%), 17 via direct aneurysm embolization (24%), two via stent-coiling (3%), and two with stent monotherapy (3%). Twenty-nine IIAs were treated with n-butylcyanoacrylate (NBCA) (40%), 25 with coils (35%), seven with Onyx or ethylene vinyl alcohol (10%), five with detachable balloons (7%), four with stents (6%), and one with autologous clot (1%). One case of incomplete aneurysm occlusion and two cases of recanalization were reported. Six symptomatic periprocedural ischemic events were reported (9%), with only three resulting in permanent sequelae (5%). No infectious complications were reported. Incorporating the natural history of the disease, 28 patients were neurologically intact (43%), while seven had died at the time of follow-up (11%). Endovascular treatment of ruptured, symptomatic, or enlarging IIA is an excellent treatment modality with high occlusion rates and low procedure-related complication rates. Distal IIA are more often treated with parent artery occlusion, in our hands, preferentially with Onyx, while proximal lesions may be treated with direct stent-coiling or even flow-diverting stent monotherapy.

  9. [Research Development of Diagnostic Techniques for Tropical Infectious Diseases].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-mei

    2015-12-01

    Tropical infectious diseases remain predominant among emerging infectious diseases, and some of those are showing a spreading trend worldwide. Improvement of diagnostic techniques is a key to the control of tropical diseases. In this review, we provide an overview on research development of diagnostic techniques for the diseases, especially the development of immunological and molecular detection techniques.

  10. Perspectives and research challenges in veterinary infectious diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Veterinary Infectious Disease specialty section seeks to become an outlet for veterinary research into infectious diseases through the study of the pathogen or its host or the host's environment or by addressing combinations of these aspects of the disease system. We vision research in this are...

  11. Infectious causes of death in the medical examiner's office.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lynda; Garavaglia, Jan; Wallace, Mark R

    2015-03-01

    Infectious deaths accounted for 228 (3.4%) of all autopsied cases in a US Medical Examiner's office. Most infectious deaths were rapid (ill <1 week) and pulmonary sources predominated. Drug users and the homeless were at high risk. Many patients failed to recognize how ill they were and missed opportunities for care. PMID:25626435

  12. Information Supply Chain System for Managing Rare Infectious Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopalakrishna-Remani, Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    Timely identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases has important economic, social and health implications. In this study, we investigate how different stakeholders in the existing reporting system influence the timeliness in identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases. Building on the vision of the information supply…

  13. The effect of global warming on infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Kurane, Ichiro

    2010-12-01

    Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever is mainly because of the expansion of the infested areas of vector mosquitoes and increase in the number and feeding activity of infected mosquitoes. There will be increase in the number of cases with water- and foodborne diarrhoeal diseases. Even with the strongest mitigation procedures, global warming cannot be avoided for decades. Therefore, implementation of adaptation measures to the effect of global warming is the most practical action we can take. It is generally accepted that the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases have not been apparent at this point yet in East Asia. However, these impacts will appear in one form or another if global warming continues to progress in future. Further research on the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases and on future prospects should be conducted.

  14. STUDIES OF A MYXOVIRUS RECOVERED FROM PATIENTS WITH INFECTIOUS HEPATITIS

    PubMed Central

    Liebhaber, Harvey; Krugman, Saul; McGregor, Dorothy; Giles, Joan P.

    1965-01-01

    A virus has been isolated from the serum and urine of patients with infectious hepatitis. This virus is a member of the parinfluenza group. It is serologically distinct from the known members of the group, but apparently is antigenically related to the simian type-2 parainfluenza viruses. A causal relationship between WB virus and infectious hepatitis has not been established. PMID:4285254

  15. 49 CFR 173.196 - Category A infectious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... integrity at the temperature of the liquid nitrogen as well as the temperatures and pressures of transport... dimension. (4) For a liquid infectious substance, an absorbent material placed between the primary... for infectious substances must be capable of withstanding without leakage temperatures in the range...

  16. 49 CFR 173.196 - Category A infectious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) at its smallest overall external dimension. (4) For a liquid infectious substance, an absorbent... heat seal, skirted stopper, or metal crimp seal. If screw caps are used, they must be secured by... refrigeration were lost. (3) Infectious substances shipped in liquid nitrogen. The primary receptacle and...

  17. 49 CFR 173.196 - Category A infectious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) at its smallest overall external dimension. (4) For a liquid infectious substance, an absorbent... heat seal, skirted stopper, or metal crimp seal. If screw caps are used, they must be secured by... refrigeration were lost. (3) Infectious substances shipped in liquid nitrogen. The primary receptacle and...

  18. Aerobiology and Its Role in the Transmission of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fernstrom, Aaron; Goldblatt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Aerobiology plays a fundamental role in the transmission of infectious diseases. As infectious disease and infection control practitioners continue employing contemporary techniques (e.g., computational fluid dynamics to study particle flow, polymerase chain reaction methodologies to quantify particle concentrations in various settings, and epidemiology to track the spread of disease), the central variables affecting the airborne transmission of pathogens are becoming better known. This paper reviews many of these aerobiological variables (e.g., particle size, particle type, the duration that particles can remain airborne, the distance that particles can travel, and meteorological and environmental factors), as well as the common origins of these infectious particles. We then review several real-world settings with known difficulties controlling the airborne transmission of infectious particles (e.g., office buildings, healthcare facilities, and commercial airplanes), while detailing the respective measures each of these industries is undertaking in its effort to ameliorate the transmission of airborne infectious diseases. PMID:23365758

  19. Climate change-related migration and infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change will have significant impacts on both human migration and population health, including infectious disease. It will amplify and alter migration pathways, and will contribute to the changing ecology and transmission dynamics of infectious disease. However there has been limited consideration of the intersections between migration and health in the context of a changing climate. This article argues that climate-change related migration - in conjunction with other drivers of migration – will contribute to changing profiles of infectious disease. It considers infectious disease risks for different climate-related migration pathways, including: forced displacement, slow-onset migration particularly to urban-poor areas, planned resettlement, and labor migration associated with climate change adaptation initiatives. Migration can reduce vulnerability to climate change, but it is critical to better understand and respond to health impacts – including infectious diseases - for migrant populations and host communities. PMID:26151221

  20. Climate change-related migration and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change will have significant impacts on both human migration and population health, including infectious disease. It will amplify and alter migration pathways, and will contribute to the changing ecology and transmission dynamics of infectious disease. However there has been limited consideration of the intersections between migration and health in the context of a changing climate. This article argues that climate-change related migration - in conjunction with other drivers of migration - will contribute to changing profiles of infectious disease. It considers infectious disease risks for different climate-related migration pathways, including: forced displacement, slow-onset migration particularly to urban-poor areas, planned resettlement, and labor migration associated with climate change adaptation initiatives. Migration can reduce vulnerability to climate change, but it is critical to better understand and respond to health impacts - including infectious diseases - for migrant populations and host communities.

  1. Acute Conditions Caused by Infectious Aortitis

    PubMed Central

    Molacek, Jiri; Treska, Vladislav; Baxa, Jan; Certik, Bohuslav; Houdek, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Infection of the aorta is rare but potentially very dangerous. Under normal circumstances the aorta is very resistant to infections. Following some afflictions, the infection can pass to the aorta from blood or the surrounding tissues. The authors present their 5-year experience with therapy of various types of infections of the abdominal aorta. Methods: In the 5-year period between January 2008 and December 2012, the Surgical Clinic of the University Hospital in Pilsen treated 17 patients with acute infection of the abdominal aorta. They included 9 males and 8 females. The mean age was 73.05 years (58-90). The most common pathogens were Salmonella (7), Staphylococcus aureus (2), Klebsiella pneumoniae (1), Listeria monocytogenes (1), and Candida albicans (1). Two cases included mixed bacteria and no infectious agent was cultured in three cases. In 14 cases (82.6%) we decided on an open surgical solution, i.e., resection of the affected abdominal aorta, extensive debridement, and vascular reconstruction. In all of these 14 cases we decided on in situ reconstruction. Twelve cases were treated using silver-impregnated prostheses. An antibiotic impregnated graft was used in one case and fresh aortic allograft in one case. In one case (5.9%) we decided on an endovascular solution, i.e., insertion of a bifurcation stent graft and prolonged antibiotic therapy. In two cases (11.8%) we decided on conservative treatment, as both patients refused any surgical therapy. Results: Morbidity was 47.2% (8 patients). In one case we had to perform reoperation of a patient on the 15th postoperative day to evacuate the postoperative hematoma. The 30-day mortality was 5.9% (1 patient). The hospital mortality was 11.8% (2 patients). One patient died on the 42nd postoperative day due to multiorgan failure following resection of perforated aortitis. During follow-up (average 3.5 years), we had no case of infection or thrombosis of the vascular prosthesis. Conclusion: Patients with mycotic

  2. The Infectious Diseases Society of America Emerging Infections Network: Bridging the Gap Between Clinical Infectious Diseases and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Satish K.; Beekmann, Susan E.; Santibanez, Scott; Polgreen, Philip M.

    2015-01-01

    In 1995, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention granted a Cooperative Agreement Program award to the Infectious Diseases Society of America to develop a provider-based emerging infections sentinel network, the Emerging Infections Network (EIN). Over the past 17 years, the EIN has evolved into a flexible, nationwide network with membership representing a broad cross-section of infectious disease physicians. The EIN has an active electronic mail conference (listserv) that facilitates communication among infectious disease providers and the public health community, and also sends members periodic queries (short surveys on infectious disease topics) that have addressed numerous topics relevant to both clinical infectious diseases and public health practice. The article reviews how the various functions of EIN contribute to clinical care and public health, identifies opportunities to further link clinical medicine and public health, and describes future directions for the EIN. PMID:24403542

  3. 77 FR 2736 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  4. 75 FR 48978 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

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    2010-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council....

  5. 76 FR 6626 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

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    2011-02-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council; Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation...

  6. 75 FR 76475 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

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  7. 78 FR 75357 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

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  8. 77 FR 16247 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  9. 75 FR 22817 - Emerging Infectious Diseases: Evaluation to Implementation for Transfusion and Transplantation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Emerging Infectious Diseases: Evaluation to Implementation... Infectious Diseases: Evaluation to Implementation for Transfusion and Transplantation Safety'' (EID public... of risk from, and prioritization of response to, emerging infectious diseases relevant to...

  10. Comparative nucleotide sequence analysis of three virulent strains of infectious laryngotracheitis virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious laryngotracheitis is a very serious and widespread respiratory disease of chickens caused by gallid herpesvirus type 1, commonly named infectious laryngotracheitis virus. For protection from infectious laryngotracheitis, chickens have traditionally been vaccinated with live-attenuated str...

  11. 76 FR 11799 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February 25, 2011. Jennifer...

  12. 75 FR 17416 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-04-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: March 31, 2010. Anna...

  13. 75 FR 53321 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2010-08-31

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  14. 75 FR 65639 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-10-26

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  15. 78 FR 9404 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  1. 76 FR 13195 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

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  2. 76 FR 13649 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-03-14

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  3. 78 FR 3009 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  4. The occurrence of autoantibodies in infectious mononucleosis

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, R. N. P.; Emond, R. T. D.; Thomas, D. B.; Doniach, D.

    1974-01-01

    Autoantibodies were looked for by immunofluorescence (IFL) in seventy-seven cases of infectious mononucleosis (IM) at the onset of symptoms and on recovery, to determine the time of appearance, duration and range of these responses, and to correlate them with serum immunoglobulin and EB virus antibody titres. Antibodies to lymphocyte membrane demonstrated by IFL, now identified with lymphocytotoxins, were present in 46% of patients in the acute stage, persisting for less than 7 weeks. Antibodies to smooth muscle (SMA) or to contractile fibres in other tissue cells including human thyroid and rat hepatocytes, were present in over 70% of cases, some being entirely of IgM class. The highest titres occurred soon after onset and these antibodies also disappeared during convalescence. By contrast ANA, mitochondrial, microsomal and reticulin antibodies, also thyroid and gastric organ-specific reactivity were seen only occasionally owing to the young age group of the patients. In individual cases there was no correlation between the appearance of lymphocyte antibodies and SMA, or between these and the EB virus antibody titres. The autoantibodies produced in this disease are highly selected. It is suggested that clones of B cells are stimulated to make these antibodies by virtue of being infected with EB virus, and that the T-cell clones in the circulation are more likely expanded in order to terminate the infection. PMID:4619789

  5. Newborn screening for congenital infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Neto, Eurico Camargo; Rubin, Rosélia; Schulte, Jacqueline; Giugliani, Roberto

    2004-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence of congenital toxoplasmosis, Chagas disease, cytomegalovirus, and rubella, blood samples on dried blood spot (DBS) from neonates (day 3-20 of life) were screened for immunoglobulin (Ig) M against Toxoplasma gondii, cytomegalovirus, rubella virus, and IgG against Trypanosoma cruzi by methods used for serum and adapted for use with DBS. Positive samples were further analyzed for IgM and IgG in serum from neonates and mothers. DBS samples from 364,130 neonates were tested for Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgM, and 15,873 neonates were also tested for IgM against cytomegalovirus and rubella virus and for Trypanosoma cruzi-specific IgG. A total of 195 were diagnosed with congenital toxoplasmosis, 16 with cytomegalovirus, and 11 with congenital rubella. One newborn had a confirmed result for Chagas disease, and 21 mothers had positive serum antibodies. These results suggest that infectious diseases should be considered for future inclusion in programs for newborn screening of metabolic diseases in disease-endemic areas. PMID:15207059

  6. Predicting global variation in infectious disease severity

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Per M.; De Fine Licht, Henrik H.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Understanding the underlying causes for the variation in case-fatality-ratios (CFR) is important for assessing the mechanism governing global disparity in the burden of infectious diseases. Variation in CFR is likely to be driven by factors such as population genetics, demography, transmission patterns and general health status. We present data here that support the hypothsis that changes in CFRs for specific diseases may be the result of serial passage through different hosts. For example passage through adults may lead to lower CFR, whereas passage through children may have the opposite effect. Accordingly changes in CFR may occur in parallel with demographic transitions. Methodology: We explored the predictability of CFR using data obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO) disease databases for four human diseases: mumps, malaria, tuberculosis and leptospirosis and assessed these for association with a range of population characteristics, such as crude birth and death rates, median age of the population, mean body mass index, proportion living in urban areas and tuberculosis vaccine coverage. We then tested this predictive model on Danish historical demographic and population data. Results: Birth rates were the best predictor for mumps and malaria CFR. For tuberculosis CFR death rates were the best predictor and for leptospirosis population density was a significant predictor. Conclusions and implications: CFR predictors differed among diseases according to their biology. We suggest that the overall result reflects an interaction between the forces driving demographic change and the virulence of human-to-human transmitted diseases. PMID:26884415

  7. Dermatoscopy in inflammatory and infectious skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Lacarrubba, F; Verzì, A E; Dinotta, F; Scavo, S; Micali, G

    2015-10-01

    Dermatoscopy is a non-invasive technique that allows a rapid and magnified in vivo observation of the skin surface. By definition, it is performed with handheld devices (dermatoscopes) allowing X10 magnification. More expensive, computer-assisted digital systems (videodermatoscopes) may be equipped with lenses that ensure magnifications up to X1000; in this case the term videodermatoscopy is generally used. Dermatoscopy is mainly utilized for the evaluation of pigmented skin lesions, and has increasing applications in dermatology. In this paper the use of dermatoscopy in a variety of inflammatory (psoriasis, lichen planus, pityriasis lichenoides, rosacea, lichen sclerosus, Darier's disease, pigmented purpuric dermatoses) and infectious (human papillomaviruses infections, molluscum contagiosum, tinea capitis, tinea nigra, scabies, head and pubic lice, tungiasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis and cutaneous larva migrans) cutaneous disorders will be analyzed. In these conditions, dermatoscopy may assist the clinical diagnosis, reducing the need of semi-invasive or invasive procedures such as skin scrapings and/or biopsy. Depending on the disease, the choice to use low or high magnifications may be crucial. Dermatoscopy may also be useful for prognostic evaluation and monitoring of response to treatment, representing an important and relatively simple aid in daily clinical practice. PMID:26333553

  8. Genotyping coronaviruses associated with feline infectious peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Catherine S.; Porter, Emily; Matthews, David; Kipar, Anja; Tasker, Séverine; Helps, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) infections are endemic among cats worldwide. The majority of infections are asymptomatic or result in only mild enteric disease. However, approximately 5 % of cases develop feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a systemic disease that is a frequent cause of death in young cats. In this study, we report the complete coding genome sequences of six FCoVs: three from faecal samples from healthy cats and three from tissue lesion samples from cats with confirmed FIP. The six samples were obtained over a period of 8 weeks at a single-site cat rescue and rehoming centre in the UK. We found amino acid differences located at 44 positions across an alignment of the six virus translatomes and, at 21 of these positions, the differences fully or partially discriminated between the genomes derived from the faecal samples and the genomes derived from the tissue lesion samples. In this study, two amino acid differences fully discriminated the two classes of genomes: these were both located in the S2 domain of the virus surface glycoprotein gene. We also identified deletions in the 3c protein ORF of genomes from two of the FIP samples. Our results support previous studies that implicate S protein mutations in the pathogenesis of FIP. PMID:25667330

  9. Treatment of cats with feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Katrin; Ritz, Susanne

    2008-05-15

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) infection resulting in clinical signs is invariably fatal despite clinical intervention. As FIP is an immune-mediated disease, treatment is mainly aimed at controlling the immune response triggered by the infection with the feline coronavirus (FCoV). Immune suppressive drugs such as prednisone or cyclophosphamide may slow disease progression but do not produce a cure. In nearly every published case report of attempted therapy for clinical FIP, glucocorticoids have been used; there are, however, no controlled studies that evaluate the effect of glucocorticoids as a therapy for FIP. Some veterinarians prescribe immune modulators to treat cats with FIP with no documented controlled evidence of efficacy. It has been suggested that these agents may benefit infected animals by restoring compromised immune function, thereby allowing the patient to control viral burden and recover from clinical signs. However, a non-specific stimulation of the immune system may be contraindicated as clinical signs develop and progress as a result of an immune-mediated response to the mutated FCoV.

  10. Immunization with viral antigens: infectious haematopoietic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Winton, J R

    1997-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) is one of the most important viral diseases of salmonids, especially among juvenile fish where losses can be high. For over 20 years, researchers have tested a variety of preparations for control of IHN. Early vaccines consisted of killed virus and were effective when delivered by injection, but too costly to be practical on a large scale. Attenuated vaccines were developed by serial passage in cell culture and by monoclonal antibody selection. These offered excellent protection and were cost-effective, but residual virulence and uncertainty about their effects on other aquatic species made them poor candidates for licensing. Subunit vaccines using part of the IHNV glycoprotein gene cloned into E. coli or into an attenuated strain of A. salmonicida have been tested, appeared safe and were inexpensive. These vaccines were reported to provide some protection when delivered by immersion. Information on the location of antigenic sites on the glycoprotein led to trials using synthetic peptides, but these did not seem to be economically viable. Recently, plasmid vectors encoding the glycoprotein gene under control of a cytomegalovirus promoter were developed for genetic immunization. The constructs were highly protective when delivered by injection, but a more practical delivery system is needed. Thus, while several vaccine strategies have been tried in order to stimulate specific immunity against IHN, more research is needed to develop a commercially viable product for control of this important disease. PMID:9270850

  11. Immunization with viral antigens: infectious haematopoietic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Winton, J R

    1997-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) is one of the most important viral diseases of salmonids, especially among juvenile fish where losses can be high. For over 20 years, researchers have tested a variety of preparations for control of IHN. Early vaccines consisted of killed virus and were effective when delivered by injection, but too costly to be practical on a large scale. Attenuated vaccines were developed by serial passage in cell culture and by monoclonal antibody selection. These offered excellent protection and were cost-effective, but residual virulence and uncertainty about their effects on other aquatic species made them poor candidates for licensing. Subunit vaccines using part of the IHNV glycoprotein gene cloned into E. coli or into an attenuated strain of A. salmonicida have been tested, appeared safe and were inexpensive. These vaccines were reported to provide some protection when delivered by immersion. Information on the location of antigenic sites on the glycoprotein led to trials using synthetic peptides, but these did not seem to be economically viable. Recently, plasmid vectors encoding the glycoprotein gene under control of a cytomegalovirus promoter were developed for genetic immunization. The constructs were highly protective when delivered by injection, but a more practical delivery system is needed. Thus, while several vaccine strategies have been tried in order to stimulate specific immunity against IHN, more research is needed to develop a commercially viable product for control of this important disease.

  12. [Correction of complex deformities in infectious conditions].

    PubMed

    Suger, G; Schmelz, A; Kinzl, L; Liener, U

    2000-01-01

    Skeletal deformities do occur after conservative or operative fracture treatment, as a consequence of congenital growth disturbance and as sequlae after posttraumatic and haematogenous osteomyelitis. In postinfectious deformities the course of the bone and soft tissue infection plays a decisive role when choosing the appropriate operative technique. Even in non active situations with a closed soft tissues envelope and no draining sinus persistence of germs within the bone has to be anticipated. The biological quality of the bone and the soft tissue envelope is often reduced because of local changes and as a result of multiple local revisions. Consequently wide areas of scar tissue and sclerotic bone are often encountered. The apex of the deformity is in most cases identical with the focus of the active or non active infection. The correction of the deformity at the apex can therefore only be accomplished if the infectious bone is also resected. If a correction is not possible at the apex of the deformity, translation at the osteotomy site is necessary to achieve a correct mechanical axis. The later rather complex operative procedure necessitates intensive preoperative planning and an extensive experience with deformity corrections by external fixators. PMID:10663242

  13. Networks and the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Danon, Leon; Ford, Ashley P.; House, Thomas; Jewell, Chris P.; Keeling, Matt J.; Roberts, Gareth O.; Ross, Joshua V.; Vernon, Matthew C.

    2011-01-01

    The science of networks has revolutionised research into the dynamics of interacting elements. It could be argued that epidemiology in particular has embraced the potential of network theory more than any other discipline. Here we review the growing body of research concerning the spread of infectious diseases on networks, focusing on the interplay between network theory and epidemiology. The review is split into four main sections, which examine: the types of network relevant to epidemiology; the multitude of ways these networks can be characterised; the statistical methods that can be applied to infer the epidemiological parameters on a realised network; and finally simulation and analytical methods to determine epidemic dynamics on a given network. Given the breadth of areas covered and the ever-expanding number of publications, a comprehensive review of all work is impossible. Instead, we provide a personalised overview into the areas of network epidemiology that have seen the greatest progress in recent years or have the greatest potential to provide novel insights. As such, considerable importance is placed on analytical approaches and statistical methods which are both rapidly expanding fields. Throughout this review we restrict our attention to epidemiological issues. PMID:21437001

  14. Behavioural phenotypes predict disease susceptibility and infectiousness.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Alessandra; Kirschman, Lucas; Warne, Robin W

    2016-08-01

    Behavioural phenotypes may provide a means for identifying individuals that disproportionally contribute to disease spread and epizootic outbreaks. For example, bolder phenotypes may experience greater exposure and susceptibility to pathogenic infection because of distinct interactions with conspecifics and their environment. We tested the value of behavioural phenotypes in larval amphibians for predicting ranavirus transmission in experimental trials. We found that behavioural phenotypes characterized by latency-to-food and swimming profiles were predictive of disease susceptibility and infectiousness defined as the capacity of an infected host to transmit an infection by contacts. While viral shedding rates were positively associated with transmission, we also found an inverse relationship between contacts and infections. Together these results suggest intrinsic traits that influence behaviour and the quantity of pathogens shed during conspecific interactions may be an important contributor to ranavirus transmission. These results suggest that behavioural phenotypes provide a means to identify individuals more likely to spread disease and thus give insights into disease outbreaks that threaten wildlife and humans. PMID:27555652

  15. Recent trends in infectious diseases for travellers.

    PubMed

    Green, A D; Roberts, K I

    2000-11-01

    In the early 1970s medicine was considered to have conquered infectious diseases. The following three decades have shown this optimism to be misplaced, with both traditional infections increasing in prevalence and novel diseases appearing. Many of these diseases have become major problems in developing countries, and coupled with the exponential growth in international traffic now pose a significant risk to the traveller. The threat to the package tourist differs greatly from that to the businessman, soldier or backpacker. The latter groups may have little control over their food and water supplies and be exposed to vector-borne and zoonotic infections normally restricted to remote locations. However the package holidaymaker may be involved in mass outbreaks of food poisoning with novel pathogens or acquire unusual infections from close proximity to other tourists. All groups may be susceptible to diseases transmitted during travel, and these may be more common than is presently recognised. The common factor is that all such infections may be transported around the world within their incubation period, and that any disease can now present to any doctor. Today more than ever before it is incumbent on any practitioner to ask not only 'where have you been?' but also 'what were you doing there?'

  16. Emerging infectious diseases and travel medicine.

    PubMed

    Ostroff, S M; Kozarsky, P

    1998-03-01

    International movement of individuals, populations, and products is one of the major factors associated with the emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases as the pace of global travel and commerce increases rapidly. Travel can be associated with disease emergence because (1) the disease arises in an area of heavy tourism, (2) tourists may be at heightened risk because of their activities, or (3) because they can act as vectors to transport the agent to new areas. Examples of recently recognized diseases with relationship to travel include HIV, Legionnaire's disease, cyclosporiasis, Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal, hantavirus, and variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease. Reemerging diseases include dengue fever, malaria, cholera, schistosomiasis, leptospirosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers. In addition, tuberculosis, drug-resistant shigellosis, and cholera have been major concerns in refugee and migrant populations. Because of the unique role of travel in emerging infections, efforts are underway to address this factor by agencies such as the CDC, WHO, the International Society of Travel Medicine, and the travel industry.

  17. New infectious etiologies for posterior uveitis.

    PubMed

    Khairallah, Moncef; Kahloun, Rim; Ben Yahia, Salim; Jelliti, Bechir; Messaoud, Riadh

    2013-01-01

    Emergent and resurgent arthropod vector-borne diseases are major causes of systemic morbidity and death and expanding worldwide. Among them, viral and bacterial agents including West Nile virus, Dengue fever, Chikungunya, Rift Valley fever, and rickettsioses have been recently associated with an array of ocular manifestations. These include anterior uveitis, retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis and optic nerve involvement. Proper clinical diagnosis of any of these infectious diseases is based on epidemiological data, history, systemic symptoms and signs, and the pattern of ocular involvement. The diagnosis is usually confirmed by the detection of a specific antibody in serum. Ocular involvement associated with emergent infections usually has a self-limited course, but it can result in persistent visual impairment. There is currently no proven specific treatment for arboviral diseases, and therapy is mostly supportive. Vaccination for humans against these viruses is still in the research phase. Doxycycline is the treatment of choice for rickettsial diseases. Prevention, including public measures to reduce the number of mosquitoes and personal protection, remains the mainstay for arthropod vector disease control. Influenza A (H1N1) virus was responsible for a pandemic human influenza in 2009, and was recently associated with various posterior segment changes.

  18. Decontaminating infectious laboratory waste by autoclaving.

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, J L; Battles, D R; Vesley, D

    1982-01-01

    The temperature profile of infectious laboratory waste being autoclaved was examined relative to the type of containers used in the process. A standardized waste load (1,750 +/- 4 g) placed in the container was evaluated by using a direct readout thermocouple. The sensor of the thermocouple was placed within an unused and outdated agar plate, centrally located about 5 cm from the bottom of the container. The gravity displacement autoclave tested reached 121 degrees C within 3 min. Waste within a steel container (plus 1 liter of water) reached 108, 120, and 122 degrees C at 12, 30, and 50 min, respectively. Without the addition of water, the corresponding temperatures were 60, 110, and 120 degrees C, respectively. With a steel container, "autoclavable" plastic bags, and no additional water, the temperatures were 36, 71, and 105 degrees C, respectively. When 1 liter of water was placed in the autoclavable bag, the temperatures were 98, 115, and 121 degrees C, respectively. Waste within a polypropylene container (dimensions similar to those of the steel container) with and without the addition of 1 liter of water, reached a maximum temperature of 108 degrees C at 50 min. With a polypropylene container, autoclavable plastic bag, and 1 liter of water, the corresponding temperature was 99 degrees C. Without the addition of water, the temperature was 92 degrees C. The importance of container, moisture, and material in autoclaving was demonstrated. PMID:7138007

  19. Infectious Colitis Associated With Ipilimumab Therapy

    PubMed Central

    McCutcheon, Jessica L.; McClain, Colt M.; Puzanov, Igor; Smith, Terrence A.

    2014-01-01

    Ipilimumab is a monoclonal antibody against cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 and is thought to promote anti-tumor activity by enhancing cell mediated immunity. It is one of the few therapies shown to improve overall survival in metastatic melanoma. Given its mechanism of action, the drug is associated with significant immune-related adverse events with the gastrointestinal system being commonly involved. Our patient is a 22-year-old female with stage IVA melanoma on ipilimumab therapy who presented with fever, diarrhea and abdominal pain. She gave a history of recent travel to a wedding where several other guests in attendance had also developed diarrheal illnesses. Her colonoscopy and pathology were consistent with ipilimumab-induced colitis. Her stool culture returned positive for Salmonella enteritides. She was treated with prednisone and ciprofloxacin with resolution of her symptoms. In our case, we describe ipilimumab-induced colitis where an infectious pathogen was identified with temporal relationship to symptoms and could be suggestive of a causal relationship.

  20. Infectious Entry Pathway of Enterovirus B Species

    PubMed Central

    Marjomäki, Varpu; Turkki, Paula; Huttunen, Moona

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus B species (EV-B) are responsible for a vast number of mild and serious acute infections. They are also suspected of remaining in the body, where they cause persistent infections contributing to chronic diseases such as type I diabetes. Recent studies of the infectious entry pathway of these viruses revealed remarkable similarities, including non-clathrin entry of large endosomes originating from the plasma membrane invaginations. Many cellular factors regulating the efficient entry have recently been associated with macropinocytic uptake, such as Rac1, serine/threonine p21-activated kinase (Pak1), actin, Na/H exchanger, phospholipace C (PLC) and protein kinase Cα (PKCα). Another characteristic feature is the entry of these viruses to neutral endosomes, independence of endosomal acidification and low association with acidic lysosomes. The biogenesis of neutral multivesicular bodies is crucial for their infection, at least for echovirus 1 (E1) and coxsackievirus A9 (CVA9). These pathways are triggered by the virus binding to their receptors on the plasma membrane, and they are not efficiently recycled like other cellular pathways used by circulating receptors. Therefore, the best “markers” of these pathways may be the viruses and often their receptors. A deeper understanding of this pathway and associated endosomes is crucial in elucidating the mechanisms of enterovirus uncoating and genome release from the endosomes to start efficient replication. PMID:26690201

  1. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Morse, S. S.

    1995-01-01

    "Emerging" infectious diseases can be defined as infections that have newly appeared in a population or have existed but are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range. Among recent examples are HIV/AIDS, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Lyme disease, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (a foodborne infection caused by certain strains of Escherichia coli). Specific factors precipitating disease emergence can be identified in virtually all cases. These include ecological, environmental, or demographic factors that place people at increased contact with a previously unfamiliar microbe or its natural host or promote dissemination. These factors are increasing in prevalence; this increase, together with the ongoing evolution of viral and microbial variants and selection for drug resistance, suggests that infections will continue to emerge and probably increase and emphasizes the urgent need for effective surveillance and control. Dr. David Satcher's article and this overview inaugurate Perspectives, a regular section in this journal intended to present and develop unifying concepts and strategies for considering emerging infections and their underlying factors. The editors welcome, as contributions to the Perspectives section, overviews, syntheses, and case studies that shed light on how and why infections emerge, and how they may be anticipated and prevented. PMID:8903148

  2. Decontaminating infectious laboratory waste by autoclaving.

    PubMed

    Lauer, J L; Battles, D R; Vesley, D

    1982-09-01

    The temperature profile of infectious laboratory waste being autoclaved was examined relative to the type of containers used in the process. A standardized waste load (1,750 +/- 4 g) placed in the container was evaluated by using a direct readout thermocouple. The sensor of the thermocouple was placed within an unused and outdated agar plate, centrally located about 5 cm from the bottom of the container. The gravity displacement autoclave tested reached 121 degrees C within 3 min. Waste within a steel container (plus 1 liter of water) reached 108, 120, and 122 degrees C at 12, 30, and 50 min, respectively. Without the addition of water, the corresponding temperatures were 60, 110, and 120 degrees C, respectively. With a steel container, "autoclavable" plastic bags, and no additional water, the temperatures were 36, 71, and 105 degrees C, respectively. When 1 liter of water was placed in the autoclavable bag, the temperatures were 98, 115, and 121 degrees C, respectively. Waste within a polypropylene container (dimensions similar to those of the steel container) with and without the addition of 1 liter of water, reached a maximum temperature of 108 degrees C at 50 min. With a polypropylene container, autoclavable plastic bag, and 1 liter of water, the corresponding temperature was 99 degrees C. Without the addition of water, the temperature was 92 degrees C. The importance of container, moisture, and material in autoclaving was demonstrated.

  3. A method for screening climate change-sensitive infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunjing; Rao, Yuhan; Wu, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Hainan; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment), systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify the difference between the sensitivity of the infectious disease to climate variables for two different climate statuses (i.e., historical climate and present climate) in non-exposure and exposure groups. The case study in Anhui Province, China has demonstrated the effectiveness of this Relative Sensitivity indicator. The application results indicate significant sensitivity of many epidemic infectious diseases to climate change in the form of changing climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and absolute humidity. As novel evidence, this research shows that absolute humidity has a critical influence on many observed infectious diseases in Anhui Province, including dysentery, hand, foot and mouth disease, hepatitis A, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis, influenza and schistosomiasis. Moreover, some infectious diseases are more sensitive to climate change in rural areas than in urban areas. This insight provides guidance for future health inputs that consider spatial variability in response to climate change. PMID:25594780

  4. A method for screening climate change-sensitive infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunjing; Rao, Yuhan; Wu, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Hainan; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-14

    Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment), systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify the difference between the sensitivity of the infectious disease to climate variables for two different climate statuses (i.e., historical climate and present climate) in non-exposure and exposure groups. The case study in Anhui Province, China has demonstrated the effectiveness of this Relative Sensitivity indicator. The application results indicate significant sensitivity of many epidemic infectious diseases to climate change in the form of changing climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and absolute humidity. As novel evidence, this research shows that absolute humidity has a critical influence on many observed infectious diseases in Anhui Province, including dysentery, hand, foot and mouth disease, hepatitis A, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis, influenza and schistosomiasis. Moreover, some infectious diseases are more sensitive to climate change in rural areas than in urban areas. This insight provides guidance for future health inputs that consider spatial variability in response to climate change.

  5. A Method for Screening Climate Change-Sensitive Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunjing; Rao, Yuhan; Wu, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Hainan; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment), systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify the difference between the sensitivity of the infectious disease to climate variables for two different climate statuses (i.e., historical climate and present climate) in non-exposure and exposure groups. The case study in Anhui Province, China has demonstrated the effectiveness of this Relative Sensitivity indicator. The application results indicate significant sensitivity of many epidemic infectious diseases to climate change in the form of changing climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and absolute humidity. As novel evidence, this research shows that absolute humidity has a critical influence on many observed infectious diseases in Anhui Province, including dysentery, hand, foot and mouth disease, hepatitis A, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis, influenza and schistosomiasis. Moreover, some infectious diseases are more sensitive to climate change in rural areas than in urban areas. This insight provides guidance for future health inputs that consider spatial variability in response to climate change. PMID:25594780

  6. Airborne infectious disease and the suppression of pulmonary bioaerosols.

    PubMed

    Fiegel, Jennifer; Clarke, Robert; Edwards, David A

    2006-01-01

    The current understanding of airborne pathogen spread in relation to the new methods of suppressing exhaled bioaerosols using safe surface-active materials, such as isotonic saline, is reviewed here. We discuss the physics of bioaerosol generation in the lungs, what is currently known about the relationship between expired bioaerosols and airborne infectious disease and current methods of airborne infectious disease containment. We conclude by reviewing recent experiments that suggest the delivery of isotonic saline can significantly diminish exhaled aerosol--generated from airway lining fluid in the course of natural breathing. We also discuss these implications in relation to airborne infectious disease control.

  7. 76 FR 35224 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  8. 75 FR 62546 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  9. 75 FR 11896 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; B cell Immunology Partnership Program for HIV-1..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research,...

  10. 78 FR 68857 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  11. 77 FR 36563 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  12. 78 FR 54766 - Federal Plan Requirements for Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators Constructed On or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    .../Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators Constructed On or Before December 1, 2008, and Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources: Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators Correction In...

  13. Lessons Learnt from Post-Infectious IBS

    PubMed Central

    Sarna, Sushil K.

    2011-01-01

    The development of IBS symptoms – altered bowel function and abdominal cramping in a subset of adult subjects exposed to severe enteric infections opened up an unprecedented opportunity to understand the etiology of this poorly understood disorder. Perhaps, for the reasons that these symptoms follow a severe enteric infection, and mucosal biopsy tissues are readily available, the focus of most studies thus far has been to show that mild/low-grade mucosal inflammation persisting after the initial infection has subsided causes the IBS symptoms. Parallel studies in non-infectious IBS patients, who did not have prior enteritis, showed similar mild mucosal inflammation. Together, these studies examined the mucosal infiltration of specific immune cells, increase of select inflammatory mediators, mast cell and enterochromaffin cell hyperplasia, and epithelial permeability. In spite of the fact that the data on these topics were not consistent among different studies and clinical trials with prednisone, fluoxetine, and ketotifen failed to provide relief of IBS symptoms, the predominant conclusions were that mild mucosal inflammation is the cause of IBS symptoms. However, the circular smooth muscle cells, and myenteric neurons are the primary regulators of gut motility function, while primary afferent neurons and CNS play essential roles in induction of visceral hypersensitivity – no explanation was provided as to how mild mucosal inflammation causes dysfunction in cells far removed. Accumulating evidence shows that mild mucosal inflammation in IBS patients is in physiological range. It has little deleterious effects on cells within its own environment and therefore it is unlikely to affect cells in the muscularis externa. This review discusses the disconnect between the focus on mild/low-grade mucosal inflammation and the potential mechanisms and molecular dysfunctions in smooth muscle cells, myenteric neurons, and primary afferent neurons that may underlie IBS

  14. Infectious diseases associated with complement deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, J E; Densen, P

    1991-07-01

    The complement system consists of both plasma and membrane proteins. The former influence the inflammatory response, immune modulation, and host defense. The latter are complement receptors, which mediate the cellular effects of complement activation, and regulatory proteins, which protect host cells from complement-mediated injury. Complement activation occurs via either the classical or the alternative pathway, which converge at the level of C3 and share a sequence of terminal components. Four aspects of the complement cascade are critical to its function and regulation: (i) activation of the classical pathway, (ii) activation of the alternative pathway, (iii) C3 convertase formation and C3 deposition, and (iv) membrane attack complex assembly and insertion. In general, mechanisms evolved by pathogenic microbes to resist the effects of complement are targeted to these four steps. Because individual complement proteins subserve unique functional activities and are activated in a sequential manner, complement deficiency states are associated with predictable defects in complement-dependent functions. These deficiency states can be grouped by which of the above four mechanisms they disrupt. They are distinguished by unique epidemiologic, clinical, and microbiologic features and are most prevalent in patients with certain rheumatologic and infectious diseases. Ethnic background and the incidence of infection are important cofactors determining this prevalence. Although complement undoubtedly plays a role in host defense against many microbial pathogens, it appears most important in protection against encapsulated bacteria, especially Neisseria meningitidis but also Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and, to a lesser extent, Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The availability of effective polysaccharide vaccines and antibiotics provides an immunologic and chemotherapeutic rationale for preventing and treating infection in patients with these deficiencies.

  15. Plaquing procedure for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, J.A.; Mulcahy, D.

    1980-01-01

    A single overlay plaque assay was designed and evaluated for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Epithelioma papillosum carpio cells were grown in normal atmosphere with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane- or HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid)-buffered media. Plaques were larger and formed more quickly on 1- to 3-day-old cell monolayers than on older monolayers. Cell culture medium with a 10% addition of fetal calf serum (MEM 10) or without serum (MEM 0) were the most efficient virus diluents. Dilution with phosphate-buffered saline, saline, normal broth, or deionized water reduced plaque numbers. Variations in the pH (7.0 to 8.0) of a MEM 0 diluent did not affect plaque numbers. Increasing the volume of viral inoculum above 0.15 ml (15- by 60-mm plate) decreased plaquing efficiency. Significantly more plaques occurred under gum tragacanth and methylcellulose than under agar or agarose overlays. Varying the pH (6.8 to 7.4) of methylcellulose overlays did not significantly change plaque numbers. More plaques formed under the thicker overlays of both methylcellulose and gum tragacanth. Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and HEPES performed equally well, buffering either medium or overlay. Plaque numbers were reduced when cells were rinsed after virus adsorption or less than 1 h was allowed for adsorption. Variation in adsorption time between 60 and 180 min did not change plaque numbers. The mean plaque formation time was 7 days at 16 degrees C. The viral dose response was linear when the standardized assay was used.

  16. Infectious diseases associated with complement deficiencies.

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, J E; Densen, P

    1991-01-01

    The complement system consists of both plasma and membrane proteins. The former influence the inflammatory response, immune modulation, and host defense. The latter are complement receptors, which mediate the cellular effects of complement activation, and regulatory proteins, which protect host cells from complement-mediated injury. Complement activation occurs via either the classical or the alternative pathway, which converge at the level of C3 and share a sequence of terminal components. Four aspects of the complement cascade are critical to its function and regulation: (i) activation of the classical pathway, (ii) activation of the alternative pathway, (iii) C3 convertase formation and C3 deposition, and (iv) membrane attack complex assembly and insertion. In general, mechanisms evolved by pathogenic microbes to resist the effects of complement are targeted to these four steps. Because individual complement proteins subserve unique functional activities and are activated in a sequential manner, complement deficiency states are associated with predictable defects in complement-dependent functions. These deficiency states can be grouped by which of the above four mechanisms they disrupt. They are distinguished by unique epidemiologic, clinical, and microbiologic features and are most prevalent in patients with certain rheumatologic and infectious diseases. Ethnic background and the incidence of infection are important cofactors determining this prevalence. Although complement undoubtedly plays a role in host defense against many microbial pathogens, it appears most important in protection against encapsulated bacteria, especially Neisseria meningitidis but also Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and, to a lesser extent, Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The availability of effective polysaccharide vaccines and antibiotics provides an immunologic and chemotherapeutic rationale for preventing and treating infection in patients with these deficiencies. PMID

  17. Sex and Reproduction in the Transmission of Infectious Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Janet L.

    2014-01-01

    Current data permit only speculations regarding sex differences in the prevalence of infectious uveitis between women and men because uveitis case surveys do not uniformly report gender data. Differences in prevalence that are reported in the literature could relate to simple differences in the number of women and men at risk for infection or to biological differences between men and women. Compared to other types of uveitis, infectious uveitis may be directly related to occupational exposures or sexual behaviors, which differ between women and men, and may mask actual biological differences in susceptibility to ocular manifestations of the infection and its prognosis. In infectious uveitis for which there is no element of sexual transmission and data is available, prevalence of ocular disease is roughly equal between women and men. Women also have a unique relationship with infectious uveitis in their role as mothers. Vertical transmission of infections such as herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, and cytomegalovirus can produce severe chorioretinitis in neonates. PMID:25105020

  18. Prevention and Management of Infectious Complications of Percutaneous Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Steven Y.; Philip, Asher; Richter, Michael D.; Gupta, Sanjay; Lessne, Mark L.; Kim, Charles Y.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious complications following interventional radiology (IR) procedures can cause significant patient morbidity and, potentially, mortality. As the number and breadth of IR procedures grow, it becomes increasingly evident that interventional radiologists must possess a thorough understanding of these potential infectious complications. Furthermore, given the increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, emphasis on cost containment, and attention to quality of care, it is critical to have infection control strategies to maximize patient safety. This article reviews infectious complications associated with percutaneous ablation of liver tumors, transarterial embolization of liver tumors, uterine fibroid embolization, percutaneous nephrostomy, percutaneous biliary interventions, central venous catheters, and intravascular stents. Emphasis is placed on incidence, risk factors, prevention, and management. With the use of these strategies, IR procedures can be performed with reduced risk of infectious complications. PMID:26038616

  19. The Concepts that Revolutionized the Field of Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Piyush; Shetty, Anjali; Soman, Rajeev

    2015-08-01

    The fields of Microbiology and Infectious diseases have developed tremendously in the 19th and the 20th centuries. Four revolutionary concepts that evolved during this period form the cornerstones on which these fields have developed further. PMID:27604447

  20. New technologies in predicting, preventing and controlling emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Christaki, Eirini

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance of emerging infectious diseases is vital for the early identification of public health threats. Emergence of novel infections is linked to human factors such as population density, travel and trade and ecological factors like climate change and agricultural practices. A wealth of new technologies is becoming increasingly available for the rapid molecular identification of pathogens but also for the more accurate monitoring of infectious disease activity. Web-based surveillance tools and epidemic intelligence methods, used by all major public health institutions, are intended to facilitate risk assessment and timely outbreak detection. In this review, we present new methods for regional and global infectious disease surveillance and advances in epidemic modeling aimed to predict and prevent future infectious diseases threats. PMID:26068569

  1. International efforts to control infectious diseases, 1851 to the present.

    PubMed

    Stern, Alexandra Minna; Markel, Howard

    2004-09-22

    Many 21st-century observers explain international efforts to control infectious diseases as a function of globalization and recent transformations in international commerce, transportation, and human migration. However, these contemporary global health initiatives can be more fully understood by also exploring the origins of international health organizations and regulations, which were initially dedicated exclusively to stemming the tide of infectious epidemics. This article reviews 3 eras of international approaches to controlling infectious diseases (1851-1881, 1881-1945, and 1945 to the present) and concludes by assessing how nations have a strong fiscal and humanitarian incentive to invest in infectious disease control programs and infrastructures in and beyond their own borders. PMID:15383519

  2. Nanocarriers in therapy of infectious and inflammatory diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikoba, Ufuoma; Peng, Haisheng; Li, Haichun; Miller, Cathy; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-02-01

    Nanotechnology is a growing science that has applications in various areas of medicine. The composition of nanocarriers for drug delivery is critical to guarantee high therapeutic performance when targeting specific host sites. Applications of nanotechnology are prevalent in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases. This review summarizes recent advancements in the application of nanotechnology to the therapy of infectious and inflammatory diseases. The major focus is on the design and fabrication of various nanomaterials, characteristics and physicochemical properties of drug-loaded nanocarriers, and the use of these nanoscale drug delivery systems in treating infectious and inflammatory diseases, such as AIDS, hepatitis, tuberculosis, melanoma, and representative inflammatory diseases. Clinical trials and future perspective of the use of nanocarriers are also discussed in detail. We hope that such a review will be valuable to researchers who are exploring nanoscale drug delivery systems for the treatment of specific infectious and inflammatory diseases.

  3. Emerging and reemerging infectious diseases: a multidisciplinary perspective.

    PubMed

    Stephens, D S; Moxon, E R; Adams, J; Altizer, S; Antonovics, J; Aral, S; Berkelman, R; Bond, E; Bull, J; Cauthen, G; Farley, M M; Glasgow, A; Glasser, J W; Katner, H P; Kelley, S; Mittler, J; Nahmias, A J; Nichol, S; Perrot, V; Pinner, R W; Schrag, S; Small, P; Thrall, P H

    1998-02-01

    Predictions that infectious diseases would be eliminated as a major threat to human health have been shattered by emerging and reemerging infections, among them acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hemorrhagic fevers, marked increases in infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, and the resurgence of tuberculosis and malaria. Understanding the dynamics of emerging and reemerging infections is critical to efforts to reduce the morbidity and mortality of such infections, to establish policy related to preparedness for infectious threats, and for decisions on where to use limited resources in the fight against infections. In order to offer a multidisciplinary perspective, 23 infectious disease specialists, epidemiologists, geneticists, microbiologists, and population biologists participated in an open forum at Emory University on emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. As summarized below, the group addressed questions about the definition, the identification, the factors responsible for, and multidisciplinary approaches to emerging and reemerging infections.

  4. Big data opportunities for global infectious disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Hay, Simon I; George, Dylan B; Moyes, Catherine L; Brownstein, John S

    2013-01-01

    Simon Hay and colleagues discuss the potential and challenges of producing continually updated infectious disease risk maps using diverse and large volume data sources such as social media. PMID:23565065

  5. Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Hu, Wenbiao

    2014-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases present a complex challenge to public health officials and governments; these challenges have been compounded by rapidly shifting patterns of human behaviour and globalisation. The increase in emerging infectious diseases has led to calls for new technologies and approaches for detection, tracking, reporting, and response. Internet-based surveillance systems offer a novel and developing means of monitoring conditions of public health concern, including emerging infectious diseases. We review studies that have exploited internet use and search trends to monitor two such diseases: influenza and dengue. Internet-based surveillance systems have good congruence with traditional surveillance approaches. Additionally, internet-based approaches are logistically and economically appealing. However, they do not have the capacity to replace traditional surveillance systems; they should not be viewed as an alternative, but rather an extension. Future research should focus on using data generated through internet-based surveillance and response systems to bolster the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for emerging infectious diseases.

  6. Characterization of infectious dose and lethal dose of two strains of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenney, Douglas; Kurath, Gael; Wargo, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The ability to infect a host is a key trait of a virus, and differences in infectivity could put one virus at an evolutionary advantage over another. In this study we have quantified the infectivity of two strains of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) that are known to differ in fitness and virulence. By exposing juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hosts to a wide range of virus doses, we were able to calculate the infectious dose in terms of ID50 values for the two genotypes. Lethal dose experiments were also conducted to confirm the virulence difference between the two virus genotypes, using a range of virus doses and holding fish either in isolation or in batch so as to calculate LD50values. We found that infectivity is positively correlated with virulence, with the more virulent genotype having higher infectivity. Additionally, infectivity increases more steeply over a short range of doses compared to virulence, which has a shallower increase. We also examined the data using models of virion interaction and found no evidence to suggest that virions have either an antagonistic or a synergistic effect on each other, supporting the independent action hypothesis in the process of IHNV infection of rainbow trout.

  7. Presumed infectious mononucleosis in a college basketball player.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, R A

    2000-06-01

    A 20-year-old college basketball player was diagnosed as having acute infectious mononucleosis and was withheld from championship competition. Subsequent clinical, laboratory, and serologic evaluation revealed that he, in fact, had a latent infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a current viral syndrome, and a false-positive Monospot test. This case demonstrates the need to consider obtaining specific serologic titers for EBV to confirm a diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis and establish eligibility for return to play.

  8. Structural genomics of infectious disease drug targets: the SSGCID

    PubMed Central

    Stacy, Robin; Begley, Darren W.; Phan, Isabelle; Staker, Bart L.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Varani, Gabriele; Buchko, Garry W.; Stewart, Lance J.; Myler, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    The Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID) is a consortium of researchers at Seattle BioMed, Emerald BioStructures, the University of Washington and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory that was established to apply structural genomics approaches to drug targets from infectious disease organisms. The SSGCID is currently funded over a five-year period by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) to determine the three-dimensional structures of 400 proteins from a variety of Category A, B and C pathogens. Target selection engages the infectious disease research and drug-therapy communities to identify drug targets, essential enzymes, virulence factors and vaccine candidates of biomedical relevance to combat infectious diseases. The protein-expression systems, purified proteins, ligand screens and three-dimensional structures produced by SSGCID con­stitute a valuable resource for drug-discovery research, all of which is made freely available to the greater scientific community. This issue of Acta Crystallographica Section F, entirely devoted to the work of the SSGCID, covers the details of the high-throughput pipeline and presents a series of structures from a broad array of pathogenic organisms. Here, a background is provided on the structural genomics of infectious disease, the essential components of the SSGCID pipeline are discussed and a survey of progress to date is presented. PMID:21904037

  9. Infectious disease agents mediate interaction in food webs and ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Selakovic, Sanja; de Ruiter, Peter C; Heesterbeek, Hans

    2014-02-22

    Infectious agents are part of food webs and ecosystems via the relationship with their host species that, in turn, interact with both hosts and non-hosts. Through these interactions, infectious agents influence food webs in terms of structure, functioning and stability. The present literature shows a broad range of impacts of infectious agents on food webs, and by cataloguing that range, we worked towards defining the various mechanisms and their specific effects. To explore the impact, a direct approach is to study changes in food-web properties with infectious agents as separate species in the web, acting as additional nodes, with links to their host species. An indirect approach concentrates not on adding new nodes and links, but on the ways that infectious agents affect the existing links across host and non-host nodes, by influencing the 'quality' of consumer-resource interaction as it depends on the epidemiological state host involved. Both approaches are natural from an ecological point of view, but the indirect approach may connect more straightforwardly to commonly used tools in infectious disease dynamics.

  10. Structural Genomics and Drug Discovery for Infectious Diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, W.F.

    2010-09-03

    The application of structural genomics methods and approaches to proteins from organisms causing infectious diseases is making available the three dimensional structures of many proteins that are potential drug targets and laying the groundwork for structure aided drug discovery efforts. There are a number of structural genomics projects with a focus on pathogens that have been initiated worldwide. The Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID) was recently established to apply state-of-the-art high throughput structural biology technologies to the characterization of proteins from the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) category A-C pathogens and organisms causing emerging, or re-emerging infectious diseases. The target selection process emphasizes potential biomedical benefits. Selected proteins include known drug targets and their homologs, essential enzymes, virulence factors and vaccine candidates. The Center also provides a structure determination service for the infectious disease scientific community. The ultimate goal is to generate a library of structures that are available to the scientific community and can serve as a starting point for further research and structure aided drug discovery for infectious diseases. To achieve this goal, the CSGID will determine protein crystal structures of 400 proteins and protein-ligand complexes using proven, rapid, highly integrated, and cost-effective methods for such determination, primarily by X-ray crystallography. High throughput crystallographic structure determination is greatly aided by frequent, convenient access to high-performance beamlines at third-generation synchrotron X-ray sources.

  11. Infectious disease agents mediate interaction in food webs and ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Selakovic, Sanja; de Ruiter, Peter C.; Heesterbeek, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Infectious agents are part of food webs and ecosystems via the relationship with their host species that, in turn, interact with both hosts and non-hosts. Through these interactions, infectious agents influence food webs in terms of structure, functioning and stability. The present literature shows a broad range of impacts of infectious agents on food webs, and by cataloguing that range, we worked towards defining the various mechanisms and their specific effects. To explore the impact, a direct approach is to study changes in food-web properties with infectious agents as separate species in the web, acting as additional nodes, with links to their host species. An indirect approach concentrates not on adding new nodes and links, but on the ways that infectious agents affect the existing links across host and non-host nodes, by influencing the ‘quality’ of consumer–resource interaction as it depends on the epidemiological state host involved. Both approaches are natural from an ecological point of view, but the indirect approach may connect more straightforwardly to commonly used tools in infectious disease dynamics. PMID:24403336

  12. Generating West Nile Virus from an Infectious Clone.

    PubMed

    Vandergaast, Rianna; Fredericksen, Brenda L

    2016-01-01

    WNV infectious clones are valuable tools for elucidating WNV biology. Nevertheless, relatively few infectious WNV clones have been generated because their construction is hampered by the instability of flaviviral genomes. More recently, advances in cloning techniques as well as the development of several two-plasmid WNV infectious clone systems have facilitated the generation of WNV infectious clones. Here we described a protocol for recovering WNV from a two-plasmid system. In this approach, large quantities of these constructs are digested with restriction enzymes to produce complementary restriction sites at the 3' end of the upstream fragment and the 5' end of the downstream fragment. These fragments are then annealed to produce linear template for in vitro transcription to synthesize infectious RNA. The resulting RNA is transfected into cells and after several days WNV is recovered in the culture supernatant. This method can be used to generate virus from infectious clones encoding high- and low-pathogenicity strains of WNV, as well as chimeric virues.

  13. A PubMed-Wide Associational Study of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sintchenko, Vitali; Anthony, Stephen; Phan, Xuan-Hieu; Lin, Frank; Coiera, Enrico W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Computational discovery is playing an ever-greater role in supporting the processes of knowledge synthesis. A significant proportion of the more than 18 million manuscripts indexed in the PubMed database describe infectious disease syndromes and various infectious agents. This study is the first attempt to integrate online repositories of text-based publications and microbial genome databases in order to explore the dynamics of relationships between pathogens and infectious diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings Herein we demonstrate how the knowledge space of infectious diseases can be computationally represented and quantified, and tracked over time. The knowledge space is explored by mapping of the infectious disease literature, looking at dynamics of literature deposition, zooming in from pathogen to genome level and searching for new associations. Syndromic signatures for different pathogens can be created to enable a new and clinically focussed reclassification of the microbial world. Examples of syndrome and pathogen networks illustrate how multilevel network representations of the relationships between infectious syndromes, pathogens and pathogen genomes can illuminate unexpected biological similarities in disease pathogenesis and epidemiology. Conclusions/Significance This new approach based on text and data mining can support the discovery of previously hidden associations between diseases and microbial pathogens, clinically relevant reclassification of pathogenic microorganisms and accelerate the translational research enterprise. PMID:20224767

  14. Imaging combined autoimmune and infectious disease microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewart, Tom; Raha, Sandeep; Kus, Dorothy; Tarnopolsky, Mark

    2006-09-01

    Bacterial and viral pathogens are implicated in many severe autoimmune diseases, acting through such mechanisms as molecular mimicry, and superantigen activation of T-cells. For example, Helicobacter pylori, well known cause of stomach ulcers and cancers, is also identified in ischaemic heart disease (mimicry of heat shock protein 65), autoimmune pancreatitis, systemic sclerosis, autoimmune thyroiditis (HLA DRB1*0301 allele susceptibility), and Crohn's disease. Successful antibiotic eradication of H.pylori often accompanies their remission. Yet current diagnostic devices, and test-limiting cost containment, impede recognition of the linkage, delaying both diagnosis and therapeutic intervention until the chronic debilitating stage. We designed a 15 minute low cost 39 antigen microarray assay, combining autoimmune, viral and bacterial antigens1. This enables point-of-care serodiagnosis and cost-effective narrowly targeted concurrent antibiotic and monoclonal anti-T-cell and anti-cytokine immunotherapy. Arrays of 26 pathogen and 13 autoimmune antigens with IgG and IgM dilution series were printed in triplicate on epoxysilane covalent binding slides with Teflon well masks. Sera diluted 1:20 were incubated 10 minutes, washed off, anti-IgG-Cy3 (green) and anti-IgM-Dy647 (red) were incubated for 5 minutes, washed off and the slide was read in an ArrayWoRx(e) scanning CCD imager (Applied Precision, Issaquah, WA). As a preliminary model for the combined infectious disease-autoimmune diagnostic microarray we surveyed 98 unidentified, outdated sera that were discarded after Hepatitis B antibody testing. In these, significant IgG or IgM autoantibody levels were found: dsDNA 5, ssDNA 11, Ro 2, RNP 7, SSB 4, gliadin 2, thyroglobulin 13 cases. Since control sera showed no autoantibodies, the high frequency of anti-DNA and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies found in infected sera lend increased support for linkage of infection to subsequent autoimmune disease. Expansion of the antigen

  15. Selected Pathogens of Concern to Industrial Food Processors: Infectious, Toxigenic, Toxico-Infectious, Selected Emerging Pathogenic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behling, Robert G.; Eifert, Joseph; Erickson, Marilyn C.; Gurtler, Joshua B.; Kornacki, Jeffrey L.; Line, Erick; Radcliff, Roy; Ryser, Elliot T.; Stawick, Bradley; Yan, Zhinong

    This chapter, written by several contributing authors, is devoted to discussing selected microbes of contemporary importance. Microbes from three categories are described by the following: (1) infectious invasive agents like Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter; (2) toxigenic pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Clostridium botulinum; and (3) toxico-infectious agents like enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens. In addition, emerging pathogens, like Cronobacter (Enterobacter) sakazakii, Arcobacter spp., and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis are also described.

  16. 77 FR 56660 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee. MID-B October 2012. Date: October 9, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to...: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  17. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Infectious disease training and... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and..., incorporating a question-and-answer session, about infectious diseases to all newly committed inmates,...

  18. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Infectious disease training and... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and..., incorporating a question-and-answer session, about infectious diseases to all newly committed inmates,...

  19. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Infectious disease training and... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and..., incorporating a question-and-answer session, about infectious diseases to all newly committed inmates,...

  20. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infectious disease training and... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and..., incorporating a question-and-answer session, about infectious diseases to all newly committed inmates,...

  1. 28 CFR 549.15 - Infectious disease training and preventive measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Infectious disease training and... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.15 Infectious disease training and..., incorporating a question-and-answer session, about infectious diseases to all newly committed inmates,...

  2. Mapping Climate Change Vulnerabilities to Infectious Diseases in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jonathan E.; Estevez, Virginia; Ebi, Kristie L.; Lindgren, Elisabet

    2011-01-01

    Background: The incidence, outbreak frequency, and distribution of many infectious diseases are generally expected to change as a consequence of climate change, yet there is limited regional information available to guide decision making. Objective: We surveyed government officials designated as Competent Bodies for Scientific Advice concerning infectious diseases to examine the degree to which they are concerned about potential effects of climate change on infectious diseases, as well as their perceptions of institutional capacities in their respective countries. Methods: In 2007 and 2009/2010, national infectious disease experts from 30 European Economic Area countries were surveyed about recent and projected infectious disease patterns in relation to climate change in their countries and the national capacity to cope with them. Results: A large majority of respondents agreed that climate change would affect vector-borne (86% of country representatives), food-borne (70%), water-borne (68%), and rodent-borne (68%) diseases in their countries. In addition, most indicated that institutional improvements are needed for ongoing surveillance programs (83%), collaboration with the veterinary sector (69%), management of animal disease outbreaks (66%), national monitoring and control of climate-sensitive infectious diseases (64%), health services during an infectious disease outbreak (61%), and diagnostic support during an epidemic (54%). Conclusions: Expert responses were generally consistent with the peer-reviewed literature regarding the relationship between climate change and vector- and water-borne diseases, but were less so for food-borne diseases. Shortcomings in institutional capacity to manage climate change vulnerability, identified in this assessment, should be addressed in impact, vulnerability, and adaptation assessments. PMID:22113877

  3. Emerging infectious diseases: vulnerabilities, contributing factors and approaches.

    PubMed

    Lashley, Felissa R

    2004-04-01

    We live in an ever more connected global village linked through international travel, politics, economics, culture and human-human and human-animal interactions. The realization that the concept of globalization includes global exposure to disease-causing agents that were formerly confined to small, remote areas and that infectious disease outbreaks can have political, economic and social roots and effects is becoming more apparent. Novel infectious disease microbes continue to be discovered because they are new or newly recognized, have expanded their geographic range, have been shown to cause a new disease spectrum, have jumped the species barrier from animals to humans, have become resistant to antimicrobial agents, have increased in incidence or have become more virulent. These emerging infectious disease microbes may have the potential for use as agents of bioterrorism. Factors involved in the emergence of infectious diseases are complex and interrelated and involve all classifications of organisms transmitted in a variety of ways. In 2003, outbreaks of interest included severe acute respiratory syndrome, monkeypox and avian influenza. Information from the human genome project applied to microbial organisms and their hosts will provide new opportunities for detection, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, control and prognosis. New technology related not only to genetics but also to satellite and monitoring systems will play a role in weather, climate and the approach to environmental manipulations that influence factors contributing to infectious disease emergence and control. Approaches to combating emerging infectious diseases include many disciplines, such as animal studies, epidemiology, immunology, ecology, environmental studies, microbiology, pharmacology, other sciences, health, medicine, public health, nursing, cultural, political and social studies, all of which must work together. Appropriate financial support of the public health infrastructure

  4. Lacrimal Duct Occlusion Is Associated with Infectious Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guigang; Guo, Jingmin; Liu, Rong; Hu, Weikun; Xu, Lingjuan; Wang, Juan; Cai, Subo; Zhang, Hong; Zhu, Yingting

    2016-01-01

    Background: To explore the prevalence of lacrimal duct obstruction in patients with infectious keratitis, and the necessity of lacrimal duct dredge in the treatment of human infectious keratitis. Methodology/Principle Findings: The design is prospective, non-control case series. Thirty-one eyes from twenty-eight continuous patients with infectious keratitis were included in this study. The presence/absence of lacrimal duct obstruction was determined by the lacrimal duct irrigation test. The diagnosis of infectious keratitis was made based on clinical manifestations, cornea scraping microscopic examination and bacterial/fungus culture. Diagnosis of viral keratitis was set up based on the recurrent history, deep neovascularization and typical outlook of the cornea scar. The treatment of keratitis included drugs, eye drops or surgery, while treatment of chronic dacryocystitis was lacrimal duct dredging with supporting tube implantation surgery. In the thirty-one eyes with infectious keratitis, fifteen suffered from fungal keratitis (48%), two bacterial keratitis (6%), and fourteen viral keratitis (45%). Eleven eyes (35%) from ten patients with infectious keratitis also suffered from lacrimal duct obstruction. In those cases, six eyes also suffered from lower canalicular obstruction, three nasolacrimal duct obstruction and chronic dacryocystitis, one a combination of upper and lower canalicular obstruction, one upper canalicular obstruction. After local and systemic applications of anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory drugs, twenty-eight eyes (90%) recovered within three weeks, while the ulceration of three patients required the lacrimal duct dredging and supporting tube implantation surgery for the healing. Conclusions: Herein, we first report that the prevalence of infectious keratitis is closely correlated to the occurrence of lacrimal duct obstruction. When both confirmed, simultaneous treatment of keratitis and lacrimal duct obstruction

  5. Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, M.-C. Lin, Jim Juimin

    2008-11-15

    Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the fact that it is not flexible and hence increases cost. This study presents an overview of current management practices for handling infectious industrial waste in Taiwan, and addresses the current waste disposal methods. The number of small clinics in Taiwan increased from 18,183 to 18,877 between 2003 and 2005. Analysis of the data between 2003 and 2005 showed that the majority of medical waste was general industrial waste, which accounted for 76.9%-79.4% of total medical waste. Infectious industrial waste accounted for 19.3%-21.9% of total medical waste. After the SARS event in Taiwan, the amount of infectious waste reached 19,350 tons in 2004, an increase over the previous year of 4000 tons. Waste minimization was a common consideration for all types of waste treatment. In this study, we summarize the percentage of plastic waste in flammable infectious industrial waste generated by medical units, which, in Taiwan was about 30%. The EPA and Taiwan Department of Health have actively promoted different recycling and waste reduction measures. However, the wide adoption of disposable materials made recycling and waste reduction difficult for some hospitals. It has been suggested that enhancing the education of and promoting communication between medical units and recycling industries must be implemented to prevent recyclable waste from entering the incinerator.

  6. Imported tropical infectious ulcers in travelers.

    PubMed

    Zeegelaar, Jim E; Faber, William R

    2008-01-01

    antibacterials. Antitoxin should be administered intramuscularly in suspected cases. Anthrax is caused by spore-forming Bacillus anthracis. This infection is still endemic in many tropical countries. Eschar formation, which sloughs and leaves behind a shallow ulcer at the site of inoculation, characterizes cutaneous anthrax. Penicillin and doxycycline are effective antibacterials. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species belonging to the genus Leishmania. The disorder is one of the ten most frequent causes of skin diseases in travelers returning from (sub)tropical countries. The clinical picture is diverse, ranging from a painless papule or nodule to an ulcer with or without a scab. Treatment depends on the clinical manifestations and the species involved.Sporotrichosis, chromo(blasto)mycosis, and mycetoma are the most common mycoses that may be accompanied by ulceration. Infections are restricted to certain regions and often result from direct penetration of the fungus into the skin. Anti-mycotic treatment depends on the microorganism involved. The most common causes of infectious skin ulceration encountered in patients from tropical countries who present at a department of tropical dermatology are reviewed in this article. PMID:18572973

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging in foals with infectious arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gaschen, Lorrie; LeRoux, Alexandre; Trichel, Jessica; Riggs, Laura; Bragulla, Herman H; Rademacher, Nathalie; Rodriguez, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of foals with infectious and noninfectious arthritis are described. Six foals with infectious arthritis and three foals with noninfectious arthritis were grouped based on synovial fluid analysis results and examined with radiography and MR imaging. Four out of six foals with infectious arthritis had osseous lesions in MR images indicative of osteomyelitis and only 4/19 lesions were detected on digital radiographs. The three foals with noninfectious arthritis had no osseous lesions in MR images or radiographically. Of the six joints that had osseous lesions detected with MR imaging, three had at least one lytic lesion detected radiographically. Osseous lesions in the epiphysis, metaphysis, and physis appeared in MR images as T2W, short tau inversion recovery, and proton density hyperintense foci with a hypointense halo. The same lesions appeared hyperintense in the 3D RSSG water excitation pulse sequence but lacked a surrounding hypointense halo. Most joints of foals with infectious arthritis had heterogenous signals within the synovial fluid whereas all of the nonseptic joints had homogenous synovial fluid signals. MR imaging appears to be better than radiography in the detection of osseous lesions in foals diagnosed with infectious arthritis and may be a valuable screening test for the presence of osteomyelitis.

  8. Infectious causes of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cassell, G. H.

    1998-01-01

    Powerful diagnostic technology, plus the realization that organisms of otherwise unimpressive virulence can produce slowly progressive chronic disease with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and disease outcomes, has resulted in the discovery of new infectious agents and new concepts of infectious diseases. The demonstration that final outcome of infection is as much determined by the genetic background of the patient as by the genetic makeup of the infecting agent is indicating that a number of chronic diseases of unknown etiology are caused by one or more infectious agents. One well-known example is the discovery that stomach ulcers are due to Helicobacter pylori. Mycoplasmas may cause chronic lung disease in newborns and chronic asthma in adults, and Chlamydia pneumoniae, a recently identified common cause of acute respiratory infection, has been associated with atherosclerosis. A number of infectious agents that cause or contribute to neoplastic diseases in humans have been documented in the past 6 years. The association and causal role of infectious agents in chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer have major implications for public health, treatment, and prevention. PMID:9716980

  9. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  10. Infectious Diseases, Urbanization and Climate Change: Challenges in Future China.

    PubMed

    Tong, Michael Xiaoliang; Hansen, Alana; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Cameron, Scott; Xiang, Jianjun; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Han, Gil-Soo; Williams, Craig; Bi, Peng

    2015-09-01

    China is one of the largest countries in the world with nearly 20% of the world's population. There have been significant improvements in economy, education and technology over the last three decades. Due to substantial investments from all levels of government, the public health system in China has been improved since the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak. However, infectious diseases still remain a major population health issue and this may be exacerbated by rapid urbanization and unprecedented impacts of climate change. This commentary aims to explore China's current capacity to manage infectious diseases which impair population health. It discusses the existing disease surveillance system and underscores the critical importance of strengthening the system. It also explores how the growing migrant population, dramatic changes in the natural landscape following rapid urbanization, and changing climatic conditions can contribute to the emergence and re-emergence of infectious disease. Continuing research on infectious diseases, urbanization and climate change may inform the country's capacity to deal with emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in the future. PMID:26371017

  11. Health systems perspectives – infectious diseases of poverty

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The right to health as a fundamental human right is enshrined in the World Health Organization’s charter and has been reaffirmed in international agreements spanning decades. This new journal reminds us of the essential characteristic of poverty as a violent abuse of human rights. The context of poverty – its social, political and economic dimensions – remain in the reader’s mind as evidence is provided on technical solutions to managing the infectious diseases that afflict poor populations world-wide. Applying a health systems framework to a discussion on infectious diseases of poverty emerges from the papers in this journal’s first edition. Many of the articles discuss treatments, indicating the importance of pharmaceuticals for neglected diseases. Delivery strategies to reach impoverished populations also figure within this first round of papers. Innovative programs that provide diagnostics and treatment for infectious diseases to hard-to-reach rural and urban communities are needed clearly needed, and some good examples are discussed here. Future editions will explore other health system components, broadening the evidence base to increase understanding of effective and sustainable interventions to reduce the burden of infectious disease among the poor. The editors are to be congratulated on the release of this inaugural issue of the journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty. We look forward to reading subsequent editions. PMID:23848993

  12. Infectious Diseases in Sub-Saharan Immigrants to Spain.

    PubMed

    Serre Delcor, Núria; Maruri, Begoña Treviño; Arandes, Antoni Soriano; Guiu, Isabel Claveria; Essadik, Hakima Ouaarab; Soley, Mateu Espasa; Romero, Israel Molina; Ascaso, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Immigrants may be carriers of infectious diseases because of the prevalence of these diseases in their country of origin, exposure during migration, or conditions during resettlement, with this prevalence being particularly high in sub-Saharan Africans. We performed a retrospective review of 180 sub-Saharan immigrants screened for infectious diseases at an International Health Center from January 2009 to December 2012. At least one pathogenic infectious disease was diagnosed in 72.8% patients: 60.6% latent tuberculosis infection, 36.8% intestinal parasites (intestinal protozoa or helminths), 28.1% helminths, 14.8% hepatitis B surface antigen positive, 1.2% anti-hepatitis C virus positive, 1.2% human immunodeficiency virus-positive, and 1.2% malaria. Coinfections were present in 28.4%. There was significant association between eosinophilia (absolute count or percentage) or hyper-IgE and the presence of helminths (P< 0.001). Relative eosinophilia and hyper-IgE were better indicators of helminth infection than absolute eosinophilia, particularly for schistosomiasis and strongyloidiasis. We found a high prevalence of infectious diseases in sub-Saharan immigrants, which could lead to severe health problems (in the absence of prompt treatment), representing a high cost to the public health system and possible transmission in the host country. Accurate screening and tailored protocols for infectious diseases are recommended in sub-Saharan immigrants.

  13. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Harvell, C Drew; Conrad, Jon M; Friedman, Carolyn S; Kent, Michael L; Kuris, Armand M; Powell, Eric N; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern. PMID:25251276

  14. Infectious Diseases, Urbanization and Climate Change: Challenges in Future China.

    PubMed

    Tong, Michael Xiaoliang; Hansen, Alana; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Cameron, Scott; Xiang, Jianjun; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Han, Gil-Soo; Williams, Craig; Bi, Peng

    2015-09-07

    China is one of the largest countries in the world with nearly 20% of the world's population. There have been significant improvements in economy, education and technology over the last three decades. Due to substantial investments from all levels of government, the public health system in China has been improved since the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak. However, infectious diseases still remain a major population health issue and this may be exacerbated by rapid urbanization and unprecedented impacts of climate change. This commentary aims to explore China's current capacity to manage infectious diseases which impair population health. It discusses the existing disease surveillance system and underscores the critical importance of strengthening the system. It also explores how the growing migrant population, dramatic changes in the natural landscape following rapid urbanization, and changing climatic conditions can contribute to the emergence and re-emergence of infectious disease. Continuing research on infectious diseases, urbanization and climate change may inform the country's capacity to deal with emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in the future.

  15. Infectious Diseases, Urbanization and Climate Change: Challenges in Future China

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Michael Xiaoliang; Hansen, Alana; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Cameron, Scott; Xiang, Jianjun; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Han, Gil-Soo; Williams, Craig; Bi, Peng

    2015-01-01

    China is one of the largest countries in the world with nearly 20% of the world’s population. There have been significant improvements in economy, education and technology over the last three decades. Due to substantial investments from all levels of government, the public health system in China has been improved since the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak. However, infectious diseases still remain a major population health issue and this may be exacerbated by rapid urbanization and unprecedented impacts of climate change. This commentary aims to explore China’s current capacity to manage infectious diseases which impair population health. It discusses the existing disease surveillance system and underscores the critical importance of strengthening the system. It also explores how the growing migrant population, dramatic changes in the natural landscape following rapid urbanization, and changing climatic conditions can contribute to the emergence and re-emergence of infectious disease. Continuing research on infectious diseases, urbanization and climate change may inform the country’s capacity to deal with emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in the future. PMID:26371017

  16. Multiple invasions of an infectious retrovirus in cat genomes.

    PubMed

    Shimode, Sayumi; Nakagawa, So; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are remnants of ancient retroviral infections of host germ-line cells. While most ERVs are defective, some are active and express viral proteins. The RD-114 virus is a replication-competent feline ERV, and several feline cell lines produce infectious RD-114 viral particles. All domestic cats are considered to have an ERV locus encoding a replication-competent RD-114 virus in their genomes; however, the locus has not been identified. In this study, we investigated RD-114 virus-related proviral loci in genomes of domestic cats, and found that none were capable of producing infectious viruses. We also found that all domestic cats have an RD-114 virus-related sequence on chromosome C2, termed RDRS C2a, but populations of the other RDRSs are different depending on the regions where cats live or breed. Our results indicate that RDRS C2a, the oldest RD-114-related provirus, entered the host genome before an ancestor of domestic cats started diverging and the other new RDRSs might have integrated into migrating cats in Europe. We also show that infectious RD-114 virus can be resurrected by the recombination between two non-infectious RDRSs. From these data, we conclude that cats do not harbor infectious RD-114 viral loci in their genomes and RD-114-related viruses invaded cat genomes multiple times. PMID:25641657

  17. Multiple invasions of an infectious retrovirus in cat genomes

    PubMed Central

    Shimode, Sayumi; Nakagawa, So; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are remnants of ancient retroviral infections of host germ-line cells. While most ERVs are defective, some are active and express viral proteins. The RD-114 virus is a replication-competent feline ERV, and several feline cell lines produce infectious RD-114 viral particles. All domestic cats are considered to have an ERV locus encoding a replication-competent RD-114 virus in their genomes; however, the locus has not been identified. In this study, we investigated RD-114 virus-related proviral loci in genomes of domestic cats, and found that none were capable of producing infectious viruses. We also found that all domestic cats have an RD-114 virus-related sequence on chromosome C2, termed RDRS C2a, but populations of the other RDRSs are different depending on the regions where cats live or breed. Our results indicate that RDRS C2a, the oldest RD-114-related provirus, entered the host genome before an ancestor of domestic cats started diverging and the other new RDRSs might have integrated into migrating cats in Europe. We also show that infectious RD-114 virus can be resurrected by the recombination between two non-infectious RDRSs. From these data, we conclude that cats do not harbor infectious RD-114 viral loci in their genomes and RD-114-related viruses invaded cat genomes multiple times. PMID:25641657

  18. Multiple invasions of an infectious retrovirus in cat genomes.

    PubMed

    Shimode, Sayumi; Nakagawa, So; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2015-02-02

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are remnants of ancient retroviral infections of host germ-line cells. While most ERVs are defective, some are active and express viral proteins. The RD-114 virus is a replication-competent feline ERV, and several feline cell lines produce infectious RD-114 viral particles. All domestic cats are considered to have an ERV locus encoding a replication-competent RD-114 virus in their genomes; however, the locus has not been identified. In this study, we investigated RD-114 virus-related proviral loci in genomes of domestic cats, and found that none were capable of producing infectious viruses. We also found that all domestic cats have an RD-114 virus-related sequence on chromosome C2, termed RDRS C2a, but populations of the other RDRSs are different depending on the regions where cats live or breed. Our results indicate that RDRS C2a, the oldest RD-114-related provirus, entered the host genome before an ancestor of domestic cats started diverging and the other new RDRSs might have integrated into migrating cats in Europe. We also show that infectious RD-114 virus can be resurrected by the recombination between two non-infectious RDRSs. From these data, we conclude that cats do not harbor infectious RD-114 viral loci in their genomes and RD-114-related viruses invaded cat genomes multiple times.

  19. New perspectives from genomic analyses of bacterial infectious agents.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, R J; Smith, D G E

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in the technologies for genomic sequencing and systems for handling and processing sequencing data have transformed bacterial genomics into a near-routine approach for both small- and large-scale investigations of infectious agents. Nonetheless, the application of genomics - especially largerscale studies - to animal infectious agents lags behind its application to human pathogens, despite the growing importance of many animal species as food sources. Assiduously conducted genomic studies offer major benefits, not merely by providing a detailed understanding of infectious agents but also through the exploitation of such findings to enable more accurate diagnosis, high-resolution typing and the development of improved interventions. The use of genomics for these and other purposes is likely to grow in future years and it must be anticipated that investigation and characterisation of important animal infectious agents will also gain considerable benefits. Using mainly animal pathogens as examples - including several infectious agents listed by the World Organisation for Animal Health - this paper provides a concise summary of some recent purposes and developments in bacterial genomics analysis.

  20. Multiple sclerosis after infectious mononucleosis: record linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Goldacre, M.; Wotton, C.; Seagroatt, V.; Yeates, D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain if infectious mononucleosis is a risk factor for the development of multiple sclerosis (MS); and, if it is, whether its effect is close to or remote in time from the onset of MS. Design: Analysis of database of linked abstracts of records of hospital admission and death. Setting: Health region in central southern England. Main outcome measure: Ratio of rate of MS in a cohort of people admitted to hospital with infectious mononucleosis to the rate in a comparison cohort. Results: Considering all time intervals from admission with infection to admission with MS, there was a non-significant increase of risk of MS in the infectious mononucleosis cohort (rate ratio 2.17, 95% confidence intervals 0.79 to 4.77). At the interval of 10 years or more, there was a significant increase in risk of MS (rate ratio 4.01, 1.48 to 8.93). The mean time from infectious mononucleosis to first admission with MS was 14 years. Conclusion: This study adds support to the evidence that Epstein-Barr virus, the cause of infectious mononucleosis, is associated with MS. Its role is probably as an initiator of the disease process of MS, or as a contributor to its early development, rather than as an activator of latent, existing disease. PMID:15547068

  1. Perspectives of public health laboratories in emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Kaw Bing; Gubler, Duane J

    2013-01-01

    The world has experienced an increased incidence and transboundary spread of emerging infectious diseases over the last four decades. We divided emerging infectious diseases into four categories, with subcategories in categories 1 and 4. The categorization was based on the nature and characteristics of pathogens or infectious agents causing the emerging infections, which are directly related to the mechanisms and patterns of infectious disease emergence. The factors or combinations of factors contributing to the emergence of these pathogens vary within each category. We also classified public health laboratories into three types based on function, namely, research, reference and analytical diagnostic laboratories, with the last category being subclassified into primary (community-based) public health and clinical (medical) analytical diagnostic laboratories. The frontline/leading and/or supportive roles to be adopted by each type of public health laboratory for optimal performance to establish the correct etiological agents causing the diseases or outbreaks vary with respect to each category of emerging infectious diseases. We emphasize the need, especially for an outbreak investigation, to establish a harmonized and coordinated national public health laboratory system that integrates different categories of public health laboratories within a country and that is closely linked to the national public health delivery system and regional and international high-end laboratories. PMID:26038473

  2. New perspectives from genomic analyses of bacterial infectious agents.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, R J; Smith, D G E

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in the technologies for genomic sequencing and systems for handling and processing sequencing data have transformed bacterial genomics into a near-routine approach for both small- and large-scale investigations of infectious agents. Nonetheless, the application of genomics - especially largerscale studies - to animal infectious agents lags behind its application to human pathogens, despite the growing importance of many animal species as food sources. Assiduously conducted genomic studies offer major benefits, not merely by providing a detailed understanding of infectious agents but also through the exploitation of such findings to enable more accurate diagnosis, high-resolution typing and the development of improved interventions. The use of genomics for these and other purposes is likely to grow in future years and it must be anticipated that investigation and characterisation of important animal infectious agents will also gain considerable benefits. Using mainly animal pathogens as examples - including several infectious agents listed by the World Organisation for Animal Health - this paper provides a concise summary of some recent purposes and developments in bacterial genomics analysis. PMID:27217179

  3. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Harvell, C Drew; Conrad, Jon M; Friedman, Carolyn S; Kent, Michael L; Kuris, Armand M; Powell, Eric N; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  4. Involvement of B cells in non-infectious uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Justine R; Stempel, Andrew J; Bharadwaj, Arpita; Appukuttan, Binoy

    2016-01-01

    Non-infectious uveitis—or intraocular inflammatory disease—causes substantial visual morbidity and reduced quality of life amongst affected individuals. To date, research of pathogenic mechanisms has largely been focused on processes involving T lymphocyte and/or myeloid leukocyte populations. Involvement of B lymphocytes has received relatively little attention. In contrast, B-cell pathobiology is a major field within general immunological research, and large clinical trials have showed that treatments targeting B cells are highly effective for multiple systemic inflammatory diseases. B cells, including the terminally differentiated plasma cell that produces antibody, are found in the human eye in different forms of non-infectious uveitis; in some cases, these cells outnumber other leukocyte subsets. Recent case reports and small case series suggest that B-cell blockade may be therapeutic for patients with non-infectious uveitis. As well as secretion of antibody, B cells may promote intraocular inflammation by presentation of antigen to T cells, production of multiple inflammatory cytokines and support of T-cell survival. B cells may also perform various immunomodulatory activities within the eye. This translational review summarizes the evidence for B-cell involvement in non-infectious uveitis, and considers the potential contributions of B cells to the development and control of the disease. Manipulations of B cells and/or their products are promising new approaches to the treatment of non-infectious uveitis. PMID:26962453

  5. Infectious diseases in the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shibl, A; Senok, A; Memish, Z

    2012-11-01

    Infectious diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality globally. Epidemiologically, differences in the patterns of infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance exist across diverse geographical regions. In this review on infectious diseases in the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt, the epidemiology of tuberculosis, malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections will be addressed. The challenges of the hepatitis C epidemic in Egypt and the epidemiology of this infection across the region will be reviewed. In recent years, we have seen dengue endemicity become established, with major outbreaks in parts of the region. Emerging data also indicate that, across the region, there is an increasing burden of antibiotic resistance, with endemicity in healthcare settings and dissemination into the community. New challenges include the emergence of the Alkhurma haemorrhagic fever virus in Saudi Arabia. The annual Hajj pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia serves as a model for the control of infectious disease in mass gatherings. As most of these countries constantly experience a uniquely dynamic population influx in the form of expatriate workers, tourists, or pilgrims, concerted regional and international collaboration to address these public health concerns in a region that lies at the crossroads for the global spread of infectious pathogens is imperative.

  6. Cancers in Australia in 2010 attributable to infectious agents

    PubMed Central

    Antonsson, Annika; Wilson, Louise F; Kendall, Bradley J; Bain, Christopher J; Whiteman, David C; Neale, Rachel E

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the proportion and numbers of cancers in Australia in 2010 attributable to infectious agents. Methods The population attributable fraction (PAF) and number of cancers caused by hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV, HCV), Helicobacter pylori and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were calculated using standard formulae incorporating prevalence of infection in the Australian population, the relative risks associated with that infection and cancer incidence. For cancers with very strong associations to the infectious agent (Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], human papillomavirus [HPV] and HIV/Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus [KSHV]), calculations were based on viral prevalence in the tumour. Results An estimated 3,421 cancers (2.9% of all cancers) in Australia in 2010 were attributable to infections. Infectious agents causing the largest numbers of cancers were HPV (n=1,706), H. pylori (n=793) and HBV/HCV (n=518). Cancer sites with the greatest number of cancers caused by infections were cervix (n=818), stomach (n=694) and liver (n=483). Cancers with highest proportions attributable to infectious agents were Kaposi's sarcoma (100%), cervix (100%), nasopharynx (87%), anus (84%) and vagina (70%). Conclusions Infectious agents cause more than 3,000 cancers annually in Australia. Implications Opportunities for cancer prevention through infection control are considerable, even in a ‘first world’ nation like Australia. PMID:26437730

  7. Infectious Diseases Affect Marine Fisheries and Aquaculture Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  8. A Structural and Functional Comparison Between Infectious and Non-Infectious Autocatalytic Recombinant PrP Conformers

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Geoffrey P.; Wang, Daphne W.; Walsh, Daniel J.; Barone, Justin R.; Miller, Michael B.; Nishina, Koren A.; Li, Sheng; Supattapone, Surachai

    2015-01-01

    Infectious prions contain a self-propagating, misfolded conformer of the prion protein termed PrPSc. A critical prediction of the protein-only hypothesis is that autocatalytic PrPSc molecules should be infectious. However, some autocatalytic recombinant PrPSc molecules have low or undetectable levels of specific infectivity in bioassays, and the essential determinants of recombinant prion infectivity remain obscure. To identify structural and functional features specifically associated with infectivity, we compared the properties of two autocatalytic recombinant PrP conformers derived from the same original template, which differ by >105-fold in specific infectivity for wild-type mice. Structurally, hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (DXMS) studies revealed that solvent accessibility profiles of infectious and non-infectious autocatalytic recombinant PrP conformers are remarkably similar throughout their protease-resistant cores, except for two domains encompassing residues 91-115 and 144-163. Raman spectroscopy and immunoprecipitation studies confirm that these domains adopt distinct conformations within infectious versus non-infectious autocatalytic recombinant PrP conformers. Functionally, in vitro prion propagation experiments show that the non-infectious conformer is unable to seed mouse PrPC substrates containing a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, including native PrPC. Taken together, these results indicate that having a conformation that can be specifically adopted by post-translationally modified PrPC molecules is an essential determinant of biological infectivity for recombinant prions, and suggest that this ability is associated with discrete features of PrPSc structure. PMID:26125623

  9. Postexposure management of healthcare personnel to infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Bader, Mazen S; Brooks, Annie A; Srigley, Jocelyn A

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at risk of exposure to various pathogens through their daily tasks and may serve as a reservoir for ongoing disease transmission in the healthcare setting. Management of HCP exposed to infectious agents can be disruptive to patient care, time-consuming, and costly. Exposure of HCP to an infectious source should be considered an urgent medical concern to ensure timely management and administration of postexposure prophylaxis, if available and indicated. Infection control and occupational health departments should be notified for management of exposed HCP, identification of all contacts of the index case, and application of immediate infection control measures for the index case and exposed HCP, if indicated. This article reviews the main principles of postexposure management of HCP to infectious diseases, in general, and to certain common infections, in particular, categorized by their route of transmission, in addition to primary prevention of these infections.

  10. Infectious diseases and global warming: Tracking disease incidence rates globally

    SciTech Connect

    Low, N.C.

    1995-09-01

    Given the increasing importance of impact of global warming on public health, there is no global database system to monitor infectious disease and disease in general, and to which global data of climate change and environmental factors, such as temperature, greenhouse gases, and human activities, e.g., coastal development, deforestation, can be calibrated, investigated and correlated. The author proposes the diseases incidence rates be adopted as the basic global measure of morbidity of infectious diseases. The importance of a correctly chosen measure of morbidity of disease is presented. The importance of choosing disease incidence rates as the measure of morbidity and the mathematical foundation of which are discussed. The author further proposes the establishment of a global database system to track the incidence rates of infectious diseases. Only such a global system can be used to calibrate and correlate other globally tracked climatic, greenhouse gases and environmental data. The infrastructure and data sources for building such a global database is discussed.

  11. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data. PMID:22149618

  12. Forecasting Epidemiological and Evolutionary Dynamics of Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Gandon, Sylvain; Day, Troy; Metcalf, C Jessica E; Grenfell, Bryan T

    2016-10-01

    Mathematical models have been powerful tools in developing mechanistic understanding of infectious diseases. Furthermore, they have allowed detailed forecasting of epidemiological phenomena such as outbreak size, which is of considerable public-health relevance. The short generation time of pathogens and the strong selection they are subjected to (by host immunity, vaccines, chemotherapy, etc.) mean that evolution is also a key driver of infectious disease dynamics. Accurate forecasting of pathogen dynamics therefore calls for the integration of epidemiological and evolutionary processes, yet this integration remains relatively rare. We review previous attempts to model and predict infectious disease dynamics with or without evolution and discuss major challenges facing the development of the emerging science of epidemic forecasting.

  13. Gallstone disease. The clinical manifestations of infectious stones.

    PubMed

    Smith, A L; Stewart, L; Fine, R; Pellegrini, C A; Way, L W

    1989-05-01

    Gallstones from 82 patients were examined under a scanning electron microscope for evidence of bacteria, and the findings were compared with the clinical manifestations of the disease. Bacteria were present in 68% of pigment stones and the pigment portions of 80% of composite stones. These gallstones were referred to as infectious stones. No bacteria were found in cholesterol gallstones. Acute cholangitis was diagnosed in 52% of patients with infectious stones and in 18% of patients with noninfectious stones. Over half of the patients with noninfectious stones presented with mild symptoms. Infectious stones were more often associated with a previous common duct exploration, an urgent operation, infected bile, a common duct procedure, and complications. These data show that gallstone disease is more virulent in patients whose gallstones contain bacteria.

  14. Contagious Rhythm: Infectious Diseases of 20th Century Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Sartin, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Infectious diseases have led to illness and death for many famous musicians, from the classical period to the rock ’n’ roll era. By the 20th century, as public health improved and orchestral composers began living more settled lives, infections among American and European musicians became less prominent. By mid-century, however, seminal jazz musicians famously pursued lifestyles characterized by drug and alcohol abuse. Among the consequences of this risky lifestyle were tuberculosis, syphilis, and chronic viral hepatitis. More contemporary rock musicians have experienced an epidemic of hepatitis C infection and HIV/AIDS related to intravenous drug use and promiscuity. Musical innovation is thus often accompanied by diseases of neglect and overindulgence, particularly infectious illnesses, although risky behavior and associated infectious illnesses tend to decrease as the style matures. PMID:20660936

  15. Infectious diseases - new and ancient threats to world health.

    SciTech Connect

    Olshansky, S. J.; Carnes, B.; Rogers, R. G.; Smith, L.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology

    1997-07-01

    When smallpox was eradicated from the globe in the late 1970s, many health experts assumed that infectious and parasitic diseases (IPDs) could at long last be conquered. Death rates from infectious and parasitic diseases had declined during the late 19th century and throughout the 20th century thanks to better public health and sanitation as well as medical advances made possible by economic development. During this period, scientists discovered the germ theory of disease, identified the epidemiology and natural history of many infectious diseases, and created a host of potent antibiotic drugs that helped save millions of lives. Medical researchers learned to identify and cultivate viruses, which led to vaccines for increasing numbers of diseases.

  16. Initiation of polymer degradation via transfer of infectious species.

    SciTech Connect

    Clough, Roger Lee; Jones, Gary Dunn; Celina, Mathias Christopher

    2005-06-01

    A novel dual stage chemiluminescence detection system incorporating individually controlled hot stages has been developed and applied to probe for material interaction effects during polymer degradation. Utilization of this system has resulted in experimental confirmation for the first time that in an oxidizing environment a degrading polymer A (in this case polypropylene, PP) is capable of infecting a different polymer B (in this case polybutadiene, HTPB) over a relatively large distance. In the presence of the infectious degrading polymer A, the thermal degradation of polymer B is observed over a significantly shorter time period. Consistent with infectious volatiles from material A initiating the degradation process in material B it was demonstrated that traces (micrograms) of a thermally sensitive peroxide in the vicinity of PP could induce degradation remotely. This observation documents cross-infectious phenomena between different polymers and has major consequences for polymer interactions, understanding fundamental degradation processes and long-term aging effects under combined material exposures.

  17. Initiation of polymer degradation via transfer of infectious species.

    SciTech Connect

    Clough, Roger Lee; Jones, Gary D.; Celina, Mathias Christopher

    2005-02-01

    A novel dual stage chemiluminescence detection system incorporating individually controlled hot stages has been developed and applied to probe for material interaction effects during polymer degradation. Utilization of this system has resulted in experimental confirmation for the first time that in an oxidizing environment a degrading polymer A (in this case polypropylene, PP) is capable of infecting a different polymer B (in this case polybutadiene, HTPB) over a relatively large distance. In the presence of the infectious degrading polymer A, the thermal degradation of polymer B is observed over a significantly shorter time period. Consistent with infectious volatiles from material A initiating the degradation process in material B it was demonstrated that traces (micrograms) of a thermally sensitive peroxide in the vicinity of PP could induce degradation remotely. This observation documents cross-infectious phenomena between different polymers and has major consequences for polymer interactions, understanding fundamental degradation processes and long-term aging effects under combined material exposures.

  18. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data.

  19. Force protection and infectious risk mitigation from suicide bombers.

    PubMed

    Clint, Brandon D

    2009-07-01

    Pedestrian suicide bombers (SB) pose an infectious threat to United States (U.S.) forces. The objective of this study is to evaluate the use of rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody assays under contaminated field conditions and develop plans to mitigate the infectious threat. Twenty-six commercially available rapid HIV antibody assays were contaminated with environmental substances. Half of the tests were conducted with HIV-1 antibody (Ab) positive controls and half with HIV Ab negative controls. There were no test failures. Using statistical approximations to evaluate the plausibility of a zero failure rate, the upper 95% confidence limit for the occurrence of a test failure by chance is at most 10.8%. These results suggest the test's success is less likely because of chance and further studies should be conducted for validation. Regardless of the methodology, it is important to develop plans to mitigate infectious risks from pedestrian suicide bombers.

  20. Therapeutic targeting of autophagy in neurodegenerative and infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Carla F.

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved process that uses double-membrane vesicles to deliver cytoplasmic contents to lysosomes for degradation. Although autophagy may impact many facets of human biology and disease, in this review we focus on the ability of autophagy to protect against certain neurodegenerative and infectious diseases. Autophagy enhances the clearance of toxic, cytoplasmic, aggregate-prone proteins and infectious agents. The beneficial roles of autophagy can now be extended to supporting cell survival and regulating inflammation. Autophagic control of inflammation is one area where autophagy may have similar benefits for both infectious and neurodegenerative diseases beyond direct removal of the pathogenic agents. Preclinical data supporting the potential therapeutic utility of autophagy modulation in such conditions is accumulating. PMID:26101267

  1. Recurrence and emergence of infectious diseases in Djibouti city.

    PubMed

    Rodier, G R; Parra, J P; Kamil, M; Chakib, S O; Cope, S E

    1995-01-01

    Public health authorities are now increasingly concerned by changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases which may have an adverse impact on their budget plans and control strategies. Rapid increases in population and urban migration, various ecological changes, increasing poverty, and a rise in international travel have contributed to the worldwide vulnerability of human populations to the emergence, recurrence or spread of infectious diseases. In the rapidly growing city of Djibouti in East Africa, public health priorities have been altered during the last 10 years by diseases which were unknown or under control until the early 1980s. These diseases, including malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis, dengue fever and cholera, are consuming considerable resources. This article on Djibouti illustrates the epidemiological changes in the region. Besides the specific ecological and behavioural changes, which accompany rapid population growth, poverty seems to be a major cause for the emergence and recurrence of infectious diseases.

  2. [INFLAMMATION AND CARDIAC INSUFFICIENCY ASSOCIATED WITH INFECTIOUS ENDOCARDITIS].

    PubMed

    Fedorova, T A; Tazina, S Ya; Kaktursky, L V; Kanareitseva, T D; Stefanenko, N I; Burtsev, V I; Semenenko, N A

    2016-01-01

    The study included 62 patients with uncomplicated primary and secondary infectious endocarditis admitted to S.PBotkin city hospital from 2011 to 2014. The emphasis is laid on diagnostic significance of dynamic measurements of the levels of C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor and highly sensitive troponin-1 for the evaluation of activity of the infectious/toxic process, severity of the disease, and detection of complications. The study revealed the relationship of the enhanced level of troponin-1 with changes of inflammation markers, morphofunctional characteristics of myocardium, and circulatory failure. Morphologicl study demonstrated inflammatory and dystrophic changes in myocardium, focal and diffuse cardiofibrosis suggesting development of non-coronarogenic myocardial lesions that play an important role in the progress of cardiac failure associated with infectious endocarditis.

  3. Global Distribution of Outbreaks of Water-Associated Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; LeJeune, Jeffrey; Alsdorf, Doug; Lu, Bo; Shum, C. K.; Liang, Song

    2012-01-01

    Background Water plays an important role in the transmission of many infectious diseases, which pose a great burden on global public health. However, the global distribution of these water-associated infectious diseases and underlying factors remain largely unexplored. Methods and Findings Based on the Global Infectious Disease and Epidemiology Network (GIDEON), a global database including water-associated pathogens and diseases was developed. In this study, reported outbreak events associated with corresponding water-associated infectious diseases from 1991 to 2008 were extracted from the database. The location of each reported outbreak event was identified and geocoded into a GIS database. Also collected in the GIS database included geo-referenced socio-environmental information including population density (2000), annual accumulated temperature, surface water area, and average annual precipitation. Poisson models with Bayesian inference were developed to explore the association between these socio-environmental factors and distribution of the reported outbreak events. Based on model predictions a global relative risk map was generated. A total of 1,428 reported outbreak events were retrieved from the database. The analysis suggested that outbreaks of water-associated diseases are significantly correlated with socio-environmental factors. Population density is a significant risk factor for all categories of reported outbreaks of water-associated diseases; water-related diseases (e.g., vector-borne diseases) are associated with accumulated temperature; water-washed diseases (e.g., conjunctivitis) are inversely related to surface water area; both water-borne and water-related diseases are inversely related to average annual rainfall. Based on the model predictions, “hotspots” of risks for all categories of water-associated diseases were explored. Conclusions At the global scale, water-associated infectious diseases are significantly correlated with socio

  4. The Etiologic Role of Infectious Antigens in Sarcoidosis Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Celada, Lindsay J; Hawkins, Charlene; Drake, Wonder P

    2015-12-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease of unknown etiology, most commonly involving the lung, skin, lymph node, and eyes. Molecular and immunologic studies continue to strengthen the association of sarcoidosis with infectious antigens. Independent studies report the presence of microbial nucleic acids and proteins within sarcoidosis specimens. Complementary immunologic studies also support the role of infectious agents in sarcoidosis pathogenesis. Case reports and clinical trials have emerged regarding the efficacy of antimicrobials. They support increasing efforts to identify novel therapeutics, such as antimicrobials, that will have an impact on the observed increase in sarcoidosis morbidity and mortality.

  5. Adenoviral vector-based strategies against infectious disease and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adenoviral vectors are widely employed against infectious diseases or cancers, as they can elicit specific antibody responses and T cell responses when they are armed with foreign genes as vaccine carriers, and induce apoptosis of the cancer cells when they are genetically modified for cancer therapy. In this review, we summarize the biological characteristics of adenovirus (Ad) and the latest development of Ad vector-based strategies for the prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases or cancers. Strategies to circumvent the pre-existing neutralizing antibodies which dampen the immunogenicity of Ad-based vaccines are also discussed. PMID:27105067

  6. Apoptosis and T-cell depletion during feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Haagmans, B L; Egberink, H F; Horzinek, M C

    1996-12-01

    Cats that have succumbed to feline infectious peritonitis, an immune-mediated disease caused by variants of feline coronaviruses, show apoptosis and T-cell depletion in their lymphoid organs. The ascitic fluid that develops in the course of the condition causes apoptosis in vitro but only in activated T cells. Since feline infectious peritonitis virus does not infect T cells, and viral proteins did not inhibit T-cell proliferation, we postulate that soluble mediators released during the infection cause apoptosis and T-cell depletion.

  7. Reducing Non-Infectious Risks of Blood Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Gilliss, Brian M.; Looney, Mark R.; Gropper, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary As screening for transfusion-associated infections has improved, non-infectious complications of transfusion now cause the majority of morbidity and mortality associated with transfusion in the United States. For example, transfusion-related acute lung injury, transfusion-associated circulatory overload, and hemolytic transfusion-reactions are the first, second, and third leading causes of death from transfusion respectively. These complications and others are reviewed here and several controversial methods for prevention of non-infectious complications of transfusion are discussed; universal leukoreduction of red cell units, use of male-only plasma, and restriction of red cell storage age. PMID:21792054

  8. [Controversial and unsolved problems in the prevention of infectious hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Spotarenko, S S

    1978-11-01

    Data are presented indicating that 1 ml of 10% and 1% immunoglobulin possessed similar epidemiological activity in the prophylaxis of infectious hepatitis. It was shown that redical action of infectious hepatitis on the epidemic process was possible only in case of embracement by immunoglobulin vaccination of not less than 80% of children aged from 1 to 11 years. The economic effect of the introduction of 1% immunoglobulin constituted about 40 000 roubles per 100 000 persons vaccinated. Besides, a possibility of side-effects were nilin case of placental immunoglobulin since in the 1% preparation nonspecific biologically active substances could penetrate in much lesser amounts.

  9. Overview of selected infectious disease risks for the corporate traveler.

    PubMed

    Hudson, T Warner; Fortuna, Joseph

    2008-08-01

    International business travel to under-developed and developing countries has increased considerably over the past two decades. Most of these destinations are endemic to a variety of infectious diseases, many of which are associated with considerable morbidity, mortality, or both and the nonimmune, unprepared corporate traveler is at risk. Comprehensive pretravel consultation is essential to prevent travel-related illness. This review addresses some of the infectious diseases that can be acquired during international travel, including regions of endemicity, assessment of risk, and available means of prevention. In addition, we discuss data concerning current practices and attitudes of travelers, along with some of the issues surrounding the counseling of corporate travelers.

  10. Modeling infectious diseases dissemination through online role-playing games.

    PubMed

    Balicer, Ran D

    2007-03-01

    As mathematical modeling of infectious diseases becomes increasingly important for developing public health policies, a novel platform for such studies might be considered. Millions of people worldwide play interactive online role-playing games, forming complex and rich networks among their virtual characters. An unexpected outbreak of an infective communicable disease (unplanned by the game creators) recently occurred in this virtual world. This outbreak holds surprising similarities to real-world epidemics. It is possible that these virtual environments could serve as a platform for studying the dissemination of infectious diseases, and as a testing ground for novel interventions to control emerging communicable diseases.

  11. Self-disseminating vaccines for emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Aisling A; Redwood, Alec J; Jarvis, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Modern human activity fueled by economic development is profoundly altering our relationship with microorganisms. This altered interaction with microbes is believed to be the major driving force behind the increased rate of emerging infectious diseases from animals. The spate of recent infectious disease outbreaks, including Ebola virus disease and Middle East respiratory syndrome, emphasize the need for development of new innovative tools to manage these emerging diseases. Disseminating vaccines are one such novel approach to potentially interrupt animal to human (zoonotic) transmission of these pathogens.

  12. Self-disseminating vaccines for emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Aisling A.; Redwood, Alec J.; Jarvis, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Modern human activity fueled by economic development is profoundly altering our relationship with microorganisms. This altered interaction with microbes is believed to be the major driving force behind the increased rate of emerging infectious diseases from animals. The spate of recent infectious disease outbreaks, including Ebola virus disease and Middle East respiratory syndrome, emphasize the need for development of new innovative tools to manage these emerging diseases. Disseminating vaccines are one such novel approach to potentially interrupt animal to human (zoonotic) transmission of these pathogens. PMID:26524478

  13. Delayed-impact infectious disease after a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Bissell, R A

    1983-01-01

    Most recent studies of natural disasters have shown little increase in post-disaster infectious disease. The result has been a de-emphasis of the disease control portion of many disaster relief programs. This study demonstrates a significant increase in four out of the five diseases studied following two hurricanes in the Dominican Republic, with the major impact of the increases coming several months after the disaster. Posited reasons for the increase in infectious diseases are: (a) overcrowding of makeshift refugee centers with insufficient sanitary facilities, and (b) flood-caused water transmission of pathogens.

  14. Modeling rapidly disseminating infectious disease during mass gatherings

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We discuss models for rapidly disseminating infectious diseases during mass gatherings (MGs), using influenza as a case study. Recent innovations in modeling and forecasting influenza transmission dynamics at local, regional, and global scales have made influenza a particularly attractive model scenario for MG. We discuss the behavioral, medical, and population factors for modeling MG disease transmission, review existing model formulations, and highlight key data and modeling gaps related to modeling MG disease transmission. We argue that the proposed improvements will help integrate infectious-disease models in MG health contingency plans in the near future, echoing modeling efforts that have helped shape influenza pandemic preparedness plans in recent years. PMID:23217051

  15. Surveillance of Zoonotic Infectious Disease Transmitted by Small Companion Animals

    PubMed Central

    Breitschwerdt, Edward; Cleaveland, Sarah; Karkare, Umesh; Khanna, Chand; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Kuiken, Thijs; Lappin, Michael R.; McQuiston, Jennifer; Mumford, Elizabeth; Myers, Tanya; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.; Rubin, Carol; Takashima, Gregg; Thiermann, Alex

    2012-01-01

    The One Health paradigm for global health recognizes that most new human infectious diseases will emerge from animal reservoirs. Little consideration has been given to the known and potential zoonotic infectious diseases of small companion animals. Cats and dogs closely share the domestic environment with humans and have the potential to act as sources and sentinels of a wide spectrum of zoonotic infections. This report highlights the lack of a coordinated global surveillance scheme that monitors disease in these species and makes a case for the necessity of developing a strategy to implement such surveillance.

  16. [Infectious mastitis: a new solution for an old problem].

    PubMed

    Beltrán Vaquero, David A; Crespo Garzón, Ana E; Rodriguez Bravo, Tomás C; Garcia Iglesias, Ángel

    2015-02-07

    Mastitis is an inflammation of one or several mammal lobes accompanied or not by a mammary gland infection (WHO 2000). The most frequent etiology is infectious, and the highest prevalence period in women is breast-feeding time. The incidence varies from 2 to 33% according to different authors, being more frequent in primiparous women and during the early postpartum weeks. There are other breast inflammatory processes related etiologies, unrelated to breastfeeding, such as neoplasms or trauma to which no reference is made at this time, since the primary objective of this work is focused on infectious etiology which is caused almost exclusively in relation to postpartum and lactation factors.

  17. [Treatment of infectious diseases in al-Andalus].

    PubMed

    Casal, M T; Casal, M

    2004-12-01

    The treatment used in Islamic Spain, al-Andalus, for a number of infectious diseases such as leprosy, tuberculosis, gonococcal disease, diarrhea, smallpox, measles, parasitic diseases, etc., is reviewed briefly. The different remedies of plant, animal and mineral extracts employed by renowned physicians of the time, such as Isaac, Arib ibn Said, Abulcasis, al-Gafiqi and Averroes among others, are analyzed briefly to provide an understanding of the approach to the treatment of infectious diseases nowadays known to be caused by microorganisms. PMID:15696226

  18. Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Hu, Wenbiao

    2014-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases present a complex challenge to public health officials and governments; these challenges have been compounded by rapidly shifting patterns of human behaviour and globalisation. The increase in emerging infectious diseases has led to calls for new technologies and approaches for detection, tracking, reporting, and response. Internet-based surveillance systems offer a novel and developing means of monitoring conditions of public health concern, including emerging infectious diseases. We review studies that have exploited internet use and search trends to monitor two such diseases: influenza and dengue. Internet-based surveillance systems have good congruence with traditional surveillance approaches. Additionally, internet-based approaches are logistically and economically appealing. However, they do not have the capacity to replace traditional surveillance systems; they should not be viewed as an alternative, but rather an extension. Future research should focus on using data generated through internet-based surveillance and response systems to bolster the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for emerging infectious diseases. PMID:24290841

  19. FYI: Services to Poor Families; Controlling Infectious Diseases; Parent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Discusses services and resources available for families, parents, and child care providers. Describes a National Resource Center for Children in Poverty; a guide for controlling infectious diseases among young children in day care; a directory of parent support groups; and reports of a link between household pesticides and childhood leukemia. (BB)

  20. Complete genome assemblies and methylome characterization in infectious diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the genetic basis of infectious diseases is a critical component to effective treatments. Because of the rapid evolution of bacterial strains and frequent horizontal transfer of DNA between them, resequencing of new isolates against known reference strains often provides an incomplete ...

  1. Licensed DNA Vaccines against Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHNV).

    PubMed

    Alonso, Marta; Leong, Jo-Ann C

    2013-04-01

    This article reviews some of the recent patents on DNA vaccines against fish viruses, in particular against the novirhabdovirus infectious hematopoitic necrosis virus (IHNV). Although very effective in protecting fish against IHNV, only one DNA vaccine has been approved to date for use in Canada. In Europe and in US, its commercialization is restricted due to safety concerns.

  2. A case of infectious endocarditis due to BCG.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Alice; Gouriet, Frédérique; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Casalta, Jean-Paul; Saby, Ludivine; Habib, Gilbert; Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier

    2015-06-01

    The occurrence of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) disease following instillation for bladder cancer is commonly documented. The intravesical administration of BCG is generally safe, but may present severe complications. A fatal case of native aortic valve infectious endocarditis with septicemia due to BCG in a patient treated with intravesical instillation is reported herein.

  3. Infectious Mononucleosis in Active Patients: Definitive Answers to Common Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auwaerter, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes infectious mononucleosis (IM), examining viral transmission and infection, clinical features, diagnosis, and management. Focuses on answers to several commonly asked questions about IM in sport (e.g., when it is safe to resume sports after IM, how often fatigue or depression are related to earlier bouts of IM, and how often IM is…

  4. Infectious Viral Quantification of Chikungunya Virus-Virus Plaque Assay.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Parveen; Lee, Regina Ching Hua; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2016-01-01

    The plaque assay is an essential method for quantification of infectious virus titer. Cells infected with virus particles are overlaid with a viscous substrate. A suitable incubation period results in the formation of plaques, which can be fixed and stained for visualization. Here, we describe a method for measuring Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) titers via virus plaque assays.

  5. Sharing Data for Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Outbreak Detection.

    PubMed

    Aarestrup, Frank M; Koopmans, Marion G

    2016-04-01

    Rapid global sharing and comparison of epidemiological and genomic data on infectious diseases would enable more rapid and efficient global outbreak control and tracking of diseases. Several barriers for global sharing exist but, in our opinion, the presumed magnitude of the problems appears larger than they are, and solutions can be found. PMID:26875619

  6. Techniques for Preventing the Spread of Infectious Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Specific procedures are outlined for prevention of the spread of infectious diseases with techniques of handwashing, diapering, and handling of known disease carriers. Protocols for classroom cleanliness list essential steps and key points and precautions for maintaining a hygienic environment. This section includes a list of protocols for food…

  7. INFECTIOUS AND COMMUNICABLE DISEASES. RESOURCE MATERIAL FOR TEACHERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ABRAMS, IRVING; HAWKINS, BARBARA A.

    DESCRIPTIONS OF TWENTY-FIVE INFECTIOUS AND COMMUNICABLE DISEASES INCLUDE CAUSES, SYMPTOMS, EFFECTS, TREATMENT AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES. IT HAS BEEN DISCOVERED THAT RESPIRATORY AILMENTS OF A COMMUNICABLE NATURE ARE THE MOST COMMON CAUSE OF ABSENTEEISM AMONG STUDENTS. INFORMATION IS INTENDED FOR THE USE OF TEACHERS OF HEALTH EDUCATION OR OTHER…

  8. Network Television Evening News Coverage of Infectious Disease Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Michael; Wartenberg, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Examines coverage of several infectious diseases and teenage suicide to see whether television news favors covering illness where it clusters or when it occurs near major news centers where it is easier to cover. Finds that television news did go to where the illness broke out but tended to favor reporting urban over rural suicides. (RS)

  9. Incidence and Impact of Selected Infectious Diseases in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vital and Health Statistics, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This report provides estimates of the lifetime and annual incidence of certain infectious diseases of children in various demographic groups. Data on the social and health care impact of the diseases in terms of limited activity, days spent in bed, school days lost, contacts with physicians, hospitalizations, surgery, and use of medication are…

  10. Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonaguro, Franco M.

    2014-07-01

    The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

  11. Sharing Data for Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Outbreak Detection.

    PubMed

    Aarestrup, Frank M; Koopmans, Marion G

    2016-04-01

    Rapid global sharing and comparison of epidemiological and genomic data on infectious diseases would enable more rapid and efficient global outbreak control and tracking of diseases. Several barriers for global sharing exist but, in our opinion, the presumed magnitude of the problems appears larger than they are, and solutions can be found.

  12. Emerging infectious diseases in southeast Asia: regional challenges to control.

    PubMed

    Coker, Richard J; Hunter, Benjamin M; Rudge, James W; Liverani, Marco; Hanvoravongchai, Piya

    2011-02-12

    Southeast Asia is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases, including those with pandemic potential. Emerging infectious diseases have exacted heavy public health and economic tolls. Severe acute respiratory syndrome rapidly decimated the region's tourist industry. Influenza A H5N1 has had a profound effect on the poultry industry. The reasons why southeast Asia is at risk from emerging infectious diseases are complex. The region is home to dynamic systems in which biological, social, ecological, and technological processes interconnect in ways that enable microbes to exploit new ecological niches. These processes include population growth and movement, urbanisation, changes in food production, agriculture and land use, water and sanitation, and the effect of health systems through generation of drug resistance. Southeast Asia is home to about 600 million people residing in countries as diverse as Singapore, a city state with a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$37,500 per head, and Laos, until recently an overwhelmingly rural economy, with a GDP of US$890 per head. The regional challenges in control of emerging infectious diseases are formidable and range from influencing the factors that drive disease emergence, to making surveillance systems fit for purpose, and ensuring that regional governance mechanisms work effectively to improve control interventions. PMID:21269678

  13. [Infectious sacroiliitis in tunisian centre: retrospective study of 25 cases].

    PubMed

    Bellazreg, Foued; Alaya, Zeineb; Hattab, Zouhour; Lasfar, Nadia Ben; Ayeche, Mohamed Laziz Ben; Bouajina, Elyes; Letaief, Amel; Hachfi, Wissem

    2016-01-01

    Infectious sacroiliitis are rare but they can be complicated by disabling functional sequelae. To describe the clinical and bacteriological characteristics of infectious sacroiliitis among patients treated in Sousse Medical Center, Tunisia. A retrospective, descriptive study, of infectious sacroiliitis among patients hositalized in Sousse between 2000 and 2015. The diagnosis was made on the basis of medical signs, imaging, microbiological indicators. In the study were enrolled twenty five patients, 10 men and 15 women; the average age was 41 years (19-78). Sacroiliitis were due to pyogenic bacteria in 14 cases (56%), brucella bacteria in 6 cases (24%) and tuberculosis bacteria in 5 cases (20%). The mean duration of symptoms was 61, 45 and 402 days respectively. The most common clinical signs were buttock pain (92%) and fever (88%). Standard radiographic evaluation was abnormal in 75% of cases. CT scan and MRI of the sacroiliac joints was performed in all cases. The diagnosis was bacteriologically confirmed in 24 cases (96%). The average duration of antibiotic treatment was 83 days in the pyogenic sacroiliitis, and 102 days in brucellar sacroiliitis. The evolution was favorable in 12 patients (48%), 9 patients (36%) had sequelae of sacroiliac joint pain and 4 patients (16%) died. In our study, time frame of infectious sacroiliitis evolution did not predict the causative bacterium, hence the need for bacteriological documentation in order to prescribe appropriate antibiotic therapy. PMID:27583067

  14. Emerging infectious diseases in southeast Asia: regional challenges to control.

    PubMed

    Coker, Richard J; Hunter, Benjamin M; Rudge, James W; Liverani, Marco; Hanvoravongchai, Piya

    2011-02-12

    Southeast Asia is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases, including those with pandemic potential. Emerging infectious diseases have exacted heavy public health and economic tolls. Severe acute respiratory syndrome rapidly decimated the region's tourist industry. Influenza A H5N1 has had a profound effect on the poultry industry. The reasons why southeast Asia is at risk from emerging infectious diseases are complex. The region is home to dynamic systems in which biological, social, ecological, and technological processes interconnect in ways that enable microbes to exploit new ecological niches. These processes include population growth and movement, urbanisation, changes in food production, agriculture and land use, water and sanitation, and the effect of health systems through generation of drug resistance. Southeast Asia is home to about 600 million people residing in countries as diverse as Singapore, a city state with a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$37,500 per head, and Laos, until recently an overwhelmingly rural economy, with a GDP of US$890 per head. The regional challenges in control of emerging infectious diseases are formidable and range from influencing the factors that drive disease emergence, to making surveillance systems fit for purpose, and ensuring that regional governance mechanisms work effectively to improve control interventions.

  15. Infectious Mononucleosis: Ensuring a Safe Return to Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKnight, John M.

    2002-01-01

    Clinical properties of infectious mononucleosis include prolonged fatigue, spleen enlargement and fragility, and risk for spleen rupture. Sports medicine practitioners must recognize and manage these clinical features and promote safe, timely return of athletes to sports. Safeguarding against splenic injury and minimizing the duration of…

  16. SPATIAL DYNAMICS OF LAND COVER AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate changes may allow for vector-transmitted tropical diseases to spread into temperate areas. Areas of low ecological diversity are at higher risk of infectious disease transmission due to decreased zooprophylaxis, the diversion of disease carrying insects from humans to
    ...

  17. [Reducing expenditure on infectious waste handling in the hemodialysis room].

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiu-Hui; Teng, Ping-Chieh

    2006-04-01

    Developing awareness of environmental protection issues and rising costs of medical treatment are causing all medical treatment centers to reduce expenditure on the processing of infectious hazardous wastes. This has become a major matter of policy in most hospitals. This project was undertaken because, in one unit, expenditure on infectious hazardous waste processing began to cost 50% of the hospital's entire monthly spending on such processing. A specialist team was established, which put into practice a monitoring plan and improvement measures. The results were as follows. First, with guidance, staff members realized the importance of reducing the quantity of infectious hazardous wastes. Second, infectious hazardous wastes were reduced by reducing the quantity, recycling, and not being wasteful. Third, following this effort, the hemodialysis room in question was able to save NT 2,786 dollars per month in expenditure on hygienic materials and waste handling fees of NT 5,597 dollars per month. A total of NT 100,596 dollars was saved for the whole year. Fourth, the whole improvement project target completion rate was 240% and the progress rate was 13.3%.

  18. The use of proteomics to study infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    List, E O; Berryman, D E; Bower, B; Sackmann-Sala, L; Gosney, E; Ding, J; Okada, S; Kopchick, J J

    2008-03-01

    Technology surrounding genomics, or the study of an organism's genome and its gene use, has advanced rapidly resulting in an abundance of readily available genomic data. Although genomics is extremely valuable, proteins are ultimately responsible for controlling most aspects of cellular function. The field of proteomics, or the study of the full array of proteins produced by an organism, has become the premier arena for the identification and characterization of proteins. Yet the task of characterizing a proteomic profile is more complex, in part because many unique proteins can be produced by the same gene product and because proteins have more diverse chemical structures making sequencing and identification more difficult. Proteomic profiles of a particular organism, tissue or cell are influenced by a variety of environmental stimuli, including those brought on by infectious disease. The intent of this review is to highlight applications of proteomics used in the study of pathogenesis, etiology and pathology of infectious disorders. While many infectious agents have been the target of proteomic studies, this review will focus on those infectious diseases which rank among the highest in worldwide mortalities, such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, measles, and hepatitis. PMID:18473905

  19. 21 CFR 866.5640 - Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system. 866.5640 Section 866.5640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5640 - Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system. 866.5640 Section 866.5640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  1. 21 CFR 866.5640 - Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system. 866.5640 Section 866.5640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  2. 21 CFR 866.5640 - Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system. 866.5640 Section 866.5640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  3. Heterogeneous infectiousness in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Borrini Mayorí, Katty; Salazar Sánchez, Renzo; Ancca Suarez, Jenny; Xie, Sherrie; Náquira Velarde, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z

    2016-02-01

    Guinea pigs are important reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative parasite of Chagas disease, and in the Southern Cone of South America, transmission is mediated mainly by the vector Triatoma infestans. Interestingly, colonies of Triatoma infestans captured from guinea pig corrals sporadically have infection prevalence rates above 80%. Such high values are not consistent with the relatively short 7-8 week parasitemic period that has been reported for guinea pigs in the literature. We experimentally measured the infectious periods of a group of T. cruzi-infected guinea pigs by performing xenodiagnosis and direct microscopy each week for one year. Another group of infected guinea pigs received only direct microscopy to control for the effect that inoculation by triatomine saliva may have on parasitemia in the host. We observed infectious periods longer than those previously reported in a number of guinea pigs from both the xenodiagnosis and control groups. While some guinea pigs were infectious for a short time, other "super-shedders" were parasitemic up to 22 weeks after infection, and/or positive by xenodiagnosis for a year after infection. This heterogeneity in infectiousness has strong implications for T. cruzi transmission dynamics and control, as super-shedder guinea pigs may play a disproportionate role in pathogen spread. PMID:26432777

  4. [Infectious sacroiliitis in tunisian centre: retrospective study of 25 cases].

    PubMed

    Bellazreg, Foued; Alaya, Zeineb; Hattab, Zouhour; Lasfar, Nadia Ben; Ayeche, Mohamed Laziz Ben; Bouajina, Elyes; Letaief, Amel; Hachfi, Wissem

    2016-01-01

    Infectious sacroiliitis are rare but they can be complicated by disabling functional sequelae. To describe the clinical and bacteriological characteristics of infectious sacroiliitis among patients treated in Sousse Medical Center, Tunisia. A retrospective, descriptive study, of infectious sacroiliitis among patients hositalized in Sousse between 2000 and 2015. The diagnosis was made on the basis of medical signs, imaging, microbiological indicators. In the study were enrolled twenty five patients, 10 men and 15 women; the average age was 41 years (19-78). Sacroiliitis were due to pyogenic bacteria in 14 cases (56%), brucella bacteria in 6 cases (24%) and tuberculosis bacteria in 5 cases (20%). The mean duration of symptoms was 61, 45 and 402 days respectively. The most common clinical signs were buttock pain (92%) and fever (88%). Standard radiographic evaluation was abnormal in 75% of cases. CT scan and MRI of the sacroiliac joints was performed in all cases. The diagnosis was bacteriologically confirmed in 24 cases (96%). The average duration of antibiotic treatment was 83 days in the pyogenic sacroiliitis, and 102 days in brucellar sacroiliitis. The evolution was favorable in 12 patients (48%), 9 patients (36%) had sequelae of sacroiliac joint pain and 4 patients (16%) died. In our study, time frame of infectious sacroiliitis evolution did not predict the causative bacterium, hence the need for bacteriological documentation in order to prescribe appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  5. Management of Chronic Infectious Diseases in School Children. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This manual contains current guidelines for Illinois school personnel to follow when working with children who have infectious diseases. The first chapter focuses on school district development of policies and procedures and program implementation. The next chapter provides information on characteristics, mode of transmission, prevention, and…

  6. Epidemiology and unique aspects of aging and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, T T

    2000-06-01

    The elderly population will grow rapidly over the next 25 years. The majority of patients with serious or life-threatening infections will be old. It is imperative that primary care physicians and infectious diseases specialists become aware of and knowledgeable about the special and unique aspects of infections in the geriatric population.

  7. Heterogeneous infectiousness in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Borrini Mayorí, Katty; Salazar Sánchez, Renzo; Ancca Suarez, Jenny; Xie, Sherrie; Náquira Velarde, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z

    2016-02-01

    Guinea pigs are important reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative parasite of Chagas disease, and in the Southern Cone of South America, transmission is mediated mainly by the vector Triatoma infestans. Interestingly, colonies of Triatoma infestans captured from guinea pig corrals sporadically have infection prevalence rates above 80%. Such high values are not consistent with the relatively short 7-8 week parasitemic period that has been reported for guinea pigs in the literature. We experimentally measured the infectious periods of a group of T. cruzi-infected guinea pigs by performing xenodiagnosis and direct microscopy each week for one year. Another group of infected guinea pigs received only direct microscopy to control for the effect that inoculation by triatomine saliva may have on parasitemia in the host. We observed infectious periods longer than those previously reported in a number of guinea pigs from both the xenodiagnosis and control groups. While some guinea pigs were infectious for a short time, other "super-shedders" were parasitemic up to 22 weeks after infection, and/or positive by xenodiagnosis for a year after infection. This heterogeneity in infectiousness has strong implications for T. cruzi transmission dynamics and control, as super-shedder guinea pigs may play a disproportionate role in pathogen spread.

  8. 49 CFR 173.196 - Category A infectious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... dimension. (4) For a liquid infectious substance, an absorbent material placed between the primary.... Positive means of ensuring a leakproof seal must be provided, such as heat seal, skirted stopper, or metal... shipped in liquid nitrogen. The primary receptacle and the secondary packaging must maintain...

  9. Generation of improved humanized mouse models for human infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brehm, Michael A.; Wiles, Michael V.; Greiner, Dale L.; Shultz, Leonard D.

    2014-01-01

    The study of human-specific infectious agents has been hindered by the lack of optimal small animal models. More recently development of novel strains of immunodeficient mice has begun to provide the opportunity to utilize small animal models for the study of many human-specific infectious agents. The introduction of a targeted mutation in the IL2 receptor common gamma chain gene (IL2rgnull) in mice already deficient in T and B cells led to a breakthrough in the ability to engraft hematopoietic stem cells, as well as functional human lymphoid cells and tissues, effectively creating human immune systems in immunodeficient mice. These humanized mice are becoming increasingly important as pre-clinical models for the study of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and other human-specific infectious agents. However, there remain a number of opportunities to further improve humanized mouse models for the study of human-specific infectious agents. This is being done by the implementation of innovative technologies, which collectively will accelerate the development of new models of genetically modified mice, including; i) modifications of the host to reduce innate immunity, which impedes human cell engraftment; ii) genetic modification to provide human-specific growth factors and cytokines required for optimal human cell growth and function; iii) and new cell and tissue engraftment protocols. The development of “next generation” humanized mouse models continues to provide exciting opportunities for the establishment of robust small animal models to study the pathogenesis of human-specific infectious agents, as well as for testing the efficacy of therapeutic agents and experimental vaccines. PMID:24607601

  10. Time series regression model for infectious disease and weather.

    PubMed

    Imai, Chisato; Armstrong, Ben; Chalabi, Zaid; Mangtani, Punam; Hashizume, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Time series regression has been developed and long used to evaluate the short-term associations of air pollution and weather with mortality or morbidity of non-infectious diseases. The application of the regression approaches from this tradition to infectious diseases, however, is less well explored and raises some new issues. We discuss and present potential solutions for five issues often arising in such analyses: changes in immune population, strong autocorrelations, a wide range of plausible lag structures and association patterns, seasonality adjustments, and large overdispersion. The potential approaches are illustrated with datasets of cholera cases and rainfall from Bangladesh and influenza and temperature in Tokyo. Though this article focuses on the application of the traditional time series regression to infectious diseases and weather factors, we also briefly introduce alternative approaches, including mathematical modeling, wavelet analysis, and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. Modifications proposed to standard time series regression practice include using sums of past cases as proxies for the immune population, and using the logarithm of lagged disease counts to control autocorrelation due to true contagion, both of which are motivated from "susceptible-infectious-recovered" (SIR) models. The complexity of lag structures and association patterns can often be informed by biological mechanisms and explored by using distributed lag non-linear models. For overdispersed models, alternative distribution models such as quasi-Poisson and negative binomial should be considered. Time series regression can be used to investigate dependence of infectious diseases on weather, but may need modifying to allow for features specific to this context.

  11. Acute Infectious Gastroenteritis Potentiates a Crohn's Disease Pathobiont to Fuel Ongoing Inflammation in the Post-Infectious Period

    PubMed Central

    Small, Cherrie L.; Xing, Lydia; Law, Hong T.

    2016-01-01

    Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory condition of diverse etiology. Exposure to foodborne pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis produces a long-term risk of CD well into the post-infectious period but the mechanistic basis for this ongoing relationship to disease onset is unknown. We developed two novel models to study the comorbidity of acute gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella Typhimurium or Citrobacter rodentium in mice colonized with adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), a bacterial pathobiont linked to CD. Here, we show that disease activity in the post-infectious period after gastroenteritis is driven by the tissue-associated expansion of the resident AIEC pathobiont, with an attendant increase in immunopathology, barrier defects, and delays in mucosal restitution following pathogen clearance. These features required AIEC resistance to host defense peptides and a fulminant inflammatory response to the enteric pathogen. Our results suggest that individuals colonized by AIEC at the time of acute infectious gastroenteritis may be at greater risk for CD onset. Importantly, our data identify AIEC as a tractable disease modifier, a finding that could be exploited in the development of therapeutic interventions following infectious gastroenteritis in at-risk individuals. PMID:27711220

  12. Evaluation of endocrine and immune disruption of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus vaccinated steers challenged with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the endocrine and immune responses of steers challenged with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV). For the study, twelve crossbred beef steers weighing approximately 228.82 kg were fitted with indwelling rectal temperature monitoring devices and ...

  13. Infectious Diseases - Diseases Related to Service in Gulf War, Iraq, and Afghanistan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Infectious Diseases Veterans who were deployed to Southwest Asia (including Iraq) or Afghanistan may experience symptoms of infectious diseases while on active duty, or they may later ...

  14. Talking with Children: Tips for Caregivers, Parents, and Teachers during Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children: TIPS FOR CAREGIVERS, PARENTS, AND TEACHERS DURING INFECTIOUS DISEASE OUTBREAKS What You Should Know When children and youth watch news on TV about an infectious disease outbreak, read about it in the news, or ...

  15. 78 FR 72611 - Proposal for Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator Negative Declaration for Designated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 62 Proposal for Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator Negative Declaration for... Wisconsin negative declarations for Hospital/Medical/ Infectious Waste Incinerators (HMIWI). The...

  16. 78 FR 60294 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... Panel; Genomic Centers for Infectious Diseases. Date: October 23-24, 2013. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  17. Infectious waste management in Japan: A revised regulation and a management process in medical institutions

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, M. . E-mail: motonobu@cis.fukuoka-u.ac.jp; Une, H.

    2005-07-01

    In Japan, the waste management practice is carried out in accordance with the Waste Disposal Law of 1970. The first rule of infectious waste management was regulated in 1992, and infectious wastes are defined as the waste materials generated in medical institutions as a result of medical care or research which contain pathogens that have the potential to transmit infectious diseases. Revised criteria for infectious waste management were promulgated by the Ministry of Environment in 2004. Infectious waste materials are divided into three categories: the form of waste; the place of waste generation; the kind of infectious diseases. A reduction of infectious waste is expected. We introduce a summary of the revised regulation of infectious waste management in this article.

  18. 76 FR 18230 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Immune Response to Infection Meeting I. Date: April 25-26, 2011... of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel;...

  19. 78 FR 45541 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  20. 76 FR 75887 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  1. 76 FR 30373 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Investigator Initiated Program Project Applications (P01). Date..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 18,...

  2. 76 FR 75888 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: November 29, 2011. Jennifer...

  3. 77 FR 19677 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: March 26,...

  4. 78 FR 78982 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: December 20,...

  5. 77 FR 74674 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: December 10, 2012. David...

  6. 76 FR 25700 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, ] Microbiology and Infectious...

  7. 75 FR 1068 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research,...

  8. 75 FR 76478 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  9. 75 FR 13558 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research,...

  10. 76 FR 3919 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: January 14,...

  11. 75 FR 49942 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  12. 75 FR 48977 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  13. 76 FR 11799 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases...: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Host-Pathogen...

  14. 78 FR 10623 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group... Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and...

  15. 78 FR 63998 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  16. 77 FR 23488 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

  17. 77 FR 43097 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research;...

  18. 77 FR 70791 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis.... 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and...

  19. 78 FR 737 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

  20. Myalgic encephalomyelitis, chronic fatigue syndrome: An infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Underhill, R A

    2015-12-01

    The etiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis also known as chronic fatigue syndrome or ME/CFS has not been established. Controversies exist over whether it is an organic disease or a psychological disorder and even the existence of ME/CFS as a disease entity is sometimes denied. Suggested causal hypotheses have included psychosomatic disorders, infectious agents, immune dysfunctions, autoimmunity, metabolic disturbances, toxins and inherited genetic factors. Clinical, immunological and epidemiological evidence supports the hypothesis that: ME/CFS is an infectious disease; the causal pathogen persists in patients; the pathogen can be transmitted by casual contact; host factors determine susceptibility to the illness; and there is a population of healthy carriers, who may be able to shed the pathogen. ME/CFS is endemic globally as sporadic cases and occasional cluster outbreaks (epidemics). Cluster outbreaks imply an infectious agent. An abrupt flu-like onset resembling an infectious illness occurs in outbreak patients and many sporadic patients. Immune responses in sporadic patients resemble immune responses in other infectious diseases. Contagion is shown by finding secondary cases in outbreaks, and suggested by a higher prevalence of ME/CFS in sporadic patients' genetically unrelated close contacts (spouses/partners) than the community. Abortive cases, sub-clinical cases, and carrier state individuals were found in outbreaks. The chronic phase of ME/CFS does not appear to be particularly infective. Some healthy patient-contacts show immune responses similar to patients' immune responses, suggesting exposure to the same antigen (a pathogen). The chronicity of symptoms and of immune system changes and the occurrence of secondary cases suggest persistence of a causal pathogen. Risk factors which predispose to developing ME/CFS are: a close family member with ME/CFS; inherited genetic factors; female gender; age; rest/activity; previous exposure to stress or toxins

  1. Resistance to infectious diseases is a heritable trait in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Gunia, M; David, I; Hurtaud, J; Maupin, M; Gilbert, H; Garreau, H

    2015-12-01

    Selection for disease resistance is a powerful way to improve the health status of herds and to reduce the use of antibiotics. The objectives of this study were to estimate 1) the genetic parameters for simple visually assessed disease syndromes and for a composite trait of resistance to infectious disease including all syndromes and 2) their genetic correlations with production traits in a rabbit population. Disease symptoms were recorded in the selection herds of 2 commercial paternal rabbit lines during weighing at the end of the test (63 and 70 d of age, respectively). Causes of mortality occurring before these dates were also recorded. Seven disease traits were analyzed: 3 elementary traits visually assessed by technicians on farm (diarrhea, various digestive syndromes, and respiratory syndromes), 2 composite traits (all digestive syndromes and all infectious syndromes), and 2 mortality traits (digestive mortality and infectious mortality). Each animal was assigned only 1 disease trait, corresponding to the main syndrome ( = 153,400). Four production traits were also recorded: live weight the day before the end of test on most animals ( = 137,860) and cold carcass weight, carcass yield, and perirenal fat percentage of the carcass on a subset of slaughtered animals ( = 13,765). Records on both lines were analyzed simultaneously using bivariate linear animal models after validation of consistency with threshold models applied to logit-transformed traits. The heritabilities were low for disease traits, from 0.01 ± 0.002 for various digestive syndromes to 0.04 ± 0.004 for infectious mortality, and moderate to high for production traits. The genetic correlations between digestive syndromes were high and positive, whereas digestive and respiratory syndromes were slightly negatively correlated. The genetic correlations between the composite infectious disease trait and digestive or respiratory syndromes were moderate. Genetic correlations between disease and

  2. Xenotransplantation-associated infectious risk: a WHO consultation.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Jay A; Scobie, Linda; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Xenotransplantation carries the potential risk of the transmission of infection with the cells or tissues of the graft. The degree of risk is unknown in the absence of clinical trials. The clinical application of xenotransplantation has important implications for infectious disease surveillance, both at the national and international levels. Preclinical data indicate that infectious disease events associated with clinical xenotransplantation from swine, should they occur, will be rare; data in human trials are limited but have demonstrated no transmission of porcine microorganisms including porcine endogenous retrovirus. Xenotransplantation will necessitate the development of surveillance programs to detect known infectious agents and, potentially, previously unknown or unexpected pathogens. The development of surveillance and safety programs for clinical trials in xenotransplantation is guided by a "Precautionary Principle," with the deployment of appropriate screening procedures and assays for source animals and xenograft recipients even in the absence of data suggesting infectious risk. All assays require training, standardization and validation, and sharing of laboratory methods and expertise to optimize the quality of the surveillance and diagnostic testing. Investigation of suspected xenogeneic infection events (xenosis, xenozoonosis) should be performed in collaboration with an expert data safety review panel and the appropriate public health and competent authorities. It should be considered an obligation of performance of xenotransplantation trials to report outcomes, including any infectious disease transmissions, in the scientific literature. Repositories of samples from source animals and from recipients prior to, and following xenograft transplantation are essential to the investigation of possible infectious disease events. Concerns over any potential hazards associated with xenotransplantation may overshadow potential benefits. Careful

  3. Propidium monoazide reverse transcriptase PCR and RT-qPCR for detecting infectious enterovirus and norovirus.

    PubMed

    Karim, Mohammad R; Fout, G Shay; Johnson, Clifford H; White, Karen M; Parshionikar, Sandhya U

    2015-07-01

    Presently there is no established cell line or small animal model that allows for the detection of infectious human norovirus. Current methods based on RT-PCR and RT-qPCR detect both infectious and non-infectious virus and thus the conclusions that may be drawn regarding the public health significance of positive findings are limited. In this study, PMA RT-PCR and RT-qPCR assays were evaluated for selective detection of infectious poliovirus, murine norovirus (MNV-1), and Norwalk virus. Viruses were inactivated using heat, chlorine, and ultraviolet light (UV). Infectious and non-infectious viruses were treated with PMA before RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. PMA RT-PCR was able to differentiate selectively between infectious and heat and chlorine inactivated poliovirus. PMA RT-PCR was able to differentiate selectively between infectious and noninfectious murine norovirus only when inactivated by chlorine. However, PMA RT-PCR could not differentiate infectious Norwalk virus from virus particles rendered non-infectious by any treatment. PMA RT-PCR assay was not able to differentiate between infectious and UV inactivated viruses suggesting that viral capsid damage may be necessary for PMA to enter and bind to the viral genome. PMA RT-PCR on naked MNV-1 and Norwalk virus RNA suggest that PMA RT-PCR can be used to detect intact, potentially infectious MNV-1 and Norwalk viruses and can be used to exclude the detection of free viral RNA by PCR assay. PMID:25796356

  4. 77 FR 2736 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee. Date: February 8-9, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: January 11,...

  5. 75 FR 26760 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research Committee. Date: June 17, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To..., and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research,...

  6. 75 FR 49502 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  7. 78 FR 3011 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  8. 77 FR 29676 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  9. 75 FR 81631 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  10. 78 FR 6126 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  11. 75 FR 28029 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee. Date: June 10, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  12. 76 FR 55074 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  13. 77 FR 28398 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meeting

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  14. 76 FR 43650 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Infectious Salmon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Collection; Infectious Salmon Anemia; Payment of Indemnity AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... with regulations for the payment of indemnity due to infectious salmon anemia. DATES: We will consider...: For information on regulations for the payment of indemnity due to infectious salmon anemia,...

  15. Propidium monoazide reverse transcription PCR and RT-qPCR for detecting infectious enterovirus and norovirus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presently there is no established cell line or small animal model that allows for the detection of infectious human norovirus. Current methods based on RT-PCR and RT-qPCR detect both infectious and non-infectious virus and thus the conclusions that may be drawn regarding the publ...

  16. 78 FR 79703 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... and Infectious Diseases Council. Date: January 27, 2014. Open: 10:30 a.m. to 11:40 a.m. Agenda:...

  17. 76 FR 77241 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... and Infectious Diseases Council. Date: January 30, 2012. Open: 10:30 a.m. to 11:40 a.m. Agenda:...

  18. 77 FR 76296 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.... App.), notice is hereby given of meetings of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases... and Infectious Diseases Council. Date: February 4, 2013. Open: 10:30 a.m. to 11:40 a.m. Agenda:...

  19. 75 FR 13561 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

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  20. 77 FR 5035 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-02-01

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  1. 77 FR 16845 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

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  2. 76 FR 28443 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Panel, Ancillary Studies in Immunomodulation Clinical Trials (R01). Date: June 9, 2011. Time: 1 p.m. to...: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  3. 75 FR 3472 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee. Date: February 11-12, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda... of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Planning (R34)...

  4. Gordon Wilson Lecture: Infectious Disease Causes of Cancer: Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Howley, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    The role of infectious agents in cancer is generally underappreciated. However, approximately 20% of human cancers are caused by infectious agents and as such they rank second only to tobacco as a potentially preventable cause in humans. Specific viruses, parasites, and bacteria have been linked to specific human cancers. The infectious etiology for these specific cancers provides opportunities for prevention and treatment.

  5. 78 FR 18996 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  6. 75 FR 16816 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Loan Repayment Program. Date: April 29-30,...

  7. Children's Participation in a Virtual Epidemic in the Science Classroom: Making Connections to Natural Infectious Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neulight, Nina; Kafai, Yasmin B.; Kao, Linda; Foley, Brian; Galas, Cathleen

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated students' understanding of a virtual infectious disease in relation to their understanding of natural infectious diseases. Two sixth-grade classrooms of students between the ages of 10 and 12 (46 students) took part in a participatory simulation of a virtual infectious disease, which was integrated into their science…

  8. 77 FR 58851 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and... Institute of Allergy, and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Building 31, Room 4A30, Bethesda, MD 20892,...

  9. 78 FR 59707 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2013-09-27

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  10. 77 FR 76057 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

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  11. 76 FR 67749 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...@mail.nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases...

  12. Ramadan fasting and infectious diseases: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Briki, Walid; Khabbache, Hicham; Rammouz, Ismail; Mnadla, Sofiane; Demaj, Taned; Zouhir, Mohamed

    2015-11-30

    Ramadan represents the fourth of the five pillars of the Islamic creed. Although patients are exempted from observing this duty, they may be eager to share this moment of the year with their peers. However, there are no guidelines that can help physicians to address the concerns of patients with infectious diseases fasting during Ramadan. For this purpose, we performed a systematic review. of 51 articles. Our main findings are that: 1) patients suffering from diabetes at risk of developing infectious complications should not fast; 2) Ramadan fasting has little impact on diarrheal patients; 3) HIV represents a challenge, and ad hoc drug combinations should be recommended to patients, and the patients should be advised not to take fatty meals that could interfere with the treatment; 4) Ramadan has no effect on the effectiveness of anti-helminthic therapy; and 5) patients with active ulcers should not fast, as they have a higher probability of developing complications.

  13. Retroviral restriction factors and infectious risk in xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Meije, Y; Tönjes, R R; Fishman, J A

    2010-07-01

    The clinical application of xenotransplantation poses immunologic, ethical, and microbiologic challenges. Significant progress has been made in the investigation of each of these areas. Among concerns regarding infectious risks for human xenograft recipients is the identification in swine of infectious agents including porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) that are capable of replication in some human cell lines. PERV replication has, however, been difficult to demonstrate in primate-derived cell lines and in preclinical studies of non-human primates receiving porcine xenografts. Endogenous 'retroviral restriction factors' are intracellular proteins and components of the innate immune system that act at various steps in retroviral replication. Recent studies suggest that some of these factors may have applications in the management of endogenous retroviruses in xenotransplantation. The risks of PERV infection and the potential role of retroviral restriction factors in xenotransplantation are reviewed in detail.

  14. Interactive effects of infectious diseases and pollution in aquatic molluscs.

    PubMed

    Morley, N J

    2010-01-21

    Aquatic molluscs are ideal invertebrate model systems for environmental monitoring and toxicology. However, like all animals, they are subjected to a wide range of infectious diseases that can have significant effects on host ecology and physiology and are therefore a source of natural stress to populations. Anthropogenic activities, especially involving chemical contaminants that pollute the environment, can also affect molluscan ecological and physiological parameters. In combination, pollution and pathogens represent a serious threat to the health of aquatic communities that has been increasingly recognised. The present article reviews the interactive effects of viral, bacterial, protozoan, and trematode infections with toxic pollutants on aquatic molluscs. The interactions between pollution and other less well studied infectious diseases as well as the differing responses to pathogens and pollution between wild and cultured molluscan populations are also considered.

  15. Model of two infectious diseases in nettle caterpillar population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdausi, F. Z.; Nuraini, N.

    2016-04-01

    Palm oil is a vital commodity to the economy of Indonesia. The area of oil palm plantations in Indonesia has increased from year to year. However, the effectiveness of palm oil production is reduced by pest infestation. One of the pest which often infests oil palm plantations is nettle caterpillar. The pest control used in this study is biological control, viz. biological agents given to oil palm trees. This paper describes a mathematical model of two infectious diseases in nettle caterpillar population. The two infectious diseases arise due to two biological agents, namely Bacillus thuringiensis bacterium and parasite which usually attack nettle caterpillars. The derivation of the model constructed in this paper is obtained from ordinary differential equations without time delay. The equilibrium points are analyzed. Two of three equilibrium points are stable if the Routh-Hurwitz criteria are fulfilled. In addition, this paper also presents the numerical simulation of the model which has been constructed.

  16. Nanoneuromedicines for Degenerative, Inflammatory, and Infectious Nervous System Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gendelman, Howard E.; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Bronich, Tatiana; Ghaisas, Shivani; Jin, Huajun; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.; Liu, Xinming; McMillan, JoEllyn; Mosley, R. Lee; Narasimhan, Balaji; Mallapragada, Surya K.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in nanoneuromedicine has grown rapidly due to the immediate need for improved biomarkers and therapies for psychiatric, developmental, traumatic, inflammatory, infectious and degenerative nervous system disorders. These, in whole or in part, are a significant societal burden due to growth in numbers of affected people and in disease severity. Lost productivity of the patient and his or her caregiver, and the emotional and financial burden cannot be overstated. The need for improved health care, treatment and diagnostics are immediate. A means to such an end is nanotechnology. Indeed, recent developments of health-care enabling nanotechnologies and nanomedicines range from biomarker discovery including neuroimaging to therapeutic applications for degenerative, inflammatory and infectious disorders of the nervous system. This review focuses on the current and future potential of the field to positively affect clinical outcomes. PMID:25645958

  17. Persistent infectious and tropical diseases in immigrant correctional populations.

    PubMed

    Getaz, L; Da Silva-Santos, L; Wolff, H; Vitoria, M; Serre-Delcor, N; Lozano-Becerra, J C; Chappuis, F; Albajar-Viñas, P

    2016-10-01

    A number of infectious diseases amongst travelers and the immigrant populations are a major public health concern. Some have a long incubation period or remain asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic for many years before leading to significant clinical manifestations and/or complications. HIV, hepatitis B and C, tuberculosis or latent syphilis are among the most significant persistent diseases in migrants. Schistosomiasis and strongyloidiasis, for instance, are persistent helminthic infections that may cause significant morbidity, particularly in patients co-infected with HIV, hepatitis B and C. Chagas disease, which was initially confined to Latin America, must also now be considered in immigrants from endemic countries. Visceral leishmaniasis and malaria are other examples of parasitic diseases that must be taken into account by physicians treating incarcerated migrants. The focus of this review article is on the risk of neglected tropical diseases in particularly vulnerable correctional populations and on the risk of infectious diseases that commonly affect migrants but which are often underestimated. PMID:27637104

  18. Auto-immune encephalitis as differential diagnosis of infectious encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Armangue, Thaís; Leypoldt, Frank; Dalmau, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To describe the main types of autoimmune encephalitis with special emphasis on those associated with antibodies against neuronal cell surface or synaptic proteins, and the differential diagnosis with infectious encephalitis. Recent findings There is a continuous expansion of the number of cell surface or synaptic proteins that are targets of autoimmunity. The most recently identified include the mGluR5, DPPX, and the GABAAR. In these and previously known autoimmune encephalitis (NMDAR, AMPAR, GABABR, LGI1, CASPR2), the prodromal symptoms or types of presentations often suggest a viral encephalitis. We review here clues that help in the differential diagnosis with infectious encephalitis. Moreover, recent investigations indicate that viral encephalitis (e.g., herpes simplex) can trigger synaptic autoimmunity. In all these disorders immunotherapy is usually effective. Summary Autoimmune encephalitis comprises an expanding group of potentially treatable disorders that should be included in the differential diagnosis of any type of encephalitis. PMID:24792345

  19. Normal modes of prion proteins: from native to infectious particle.

    PubMed

    Samson, Abraham O; Levitt, Michael

    2011-03-29

    Prion proteins (PrP) are the infectious agent in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (i.e., mad cow disease). To be infectious, prion proteins must undergo a conformational change involving a decrease in α-helical content along with an increase in β-strand content. This conformational change was evaluated by means of elastic normal modes. Elastic normal modes show a diminution of two α-helices by one and two residues, as well as an extension of two β-strands by three residues each, which could instigate the conformational change. The conformational change occurs in a region that is compatible with immunological studies, and it is observed more frequently in mutant prions that are prone to conversion than in wild-type prions because of differences in their starting structures, which are amplified through normal modes. These findings are valuable for our comprehension of the conversion mechanism associated with the conformational change in prion proteins. PMID:21338080

  20. Infectious Complications Associated with Monoclonal Antibodies and Related Small Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Salvana, Edsel Maurice T.; Salata, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Biologics are increasingly becoming part of routine disease management. As more agents are developed, the challenge of keeping track of indications and side effects is growing. While biologics represent a milestone in targeted and specific therapy, they are not without drawbacks, and the judicious use of these “magic bullets” is essential if their full potential is to be realized. Infectious complications in particular are not an uncommon side effect of therapy, whether as a direct consequence of the agent or because of the underlying disease process. With this in mind, we have reviewed and summarized the risks of infection and the infectious disease-related complications for all FDA-approved monoclonal antibodies and some related small molecules, and we discuss the probable mechanisms involved in immunosuppression as well as recommendations for prophylaxis and treatment of specific disease entities. PMID:19366915

  1. Discrete stochastic metapopulation model with arbitrarily distributed infectious period.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Ceron, Nancy; Chavez-Casillas, Jonathan A; Feng, Zhilan

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a stochastic discrete-time model is developed to study the spread of an infectious disease in an n-patch environment. The model includes an arbitrary distribution of the (random) infectious period T, and the results are used to investigate how the distribution of T may influence the model outcomes. General results are applied to specific distributions including Geometric, Negative Binomial, Poisson and Uniform. The model outcomes are contrasted both numerically and analytically by comparing the corresponding basic reproduction numbers R0 and probability of a minor epidemic (or probability of disease extinction) P0. It is shown analytically that for n = 2 the reproduction numbers corresponding to different distributions of T can be ordered based on the probability generating function ϕT of T. In addition, numerical simulations are carried out to examine the final epidemic size F and duration of the epidemic D of a two-patch model. PMID:25550286

  2. Impact factor in AIDS and other infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Mancini, R; Girardi, E; Costa, C

    2001-01-01

    The impact factor (IF) is the most accurate system currently available for objectively evaluating the scientific productivity of individual researchers and institutions. It represents the quality level of a periodical and, at the same time, is a convenient reference parameter for the researcher to use in choosing an appropriate journal before submitting his own work for consideration. From this standpoint, we conducted an analysis of periodicals with the highest IF, including those strictly related to infectious diseases and HIV/AIDS, specialty journals, and general medicine reviews. This was done in order to determine just how much of these journals' total 1998 production consisted of articles concerning HIV infection and AIDS. This examination, conducted through a search of the MEDLINE database, predictably revealed greater interest in the HIV/AIDS topic among journals with the highest IF that focus on infectious diseases, though the same interest revealed when examining specialty journals and general medicine periodicals was not negligible.

  3. Spatial dynamics and genetics of infectious diseases on heterogeneous landscapes.

    PubMed

    Real, Leslie A; Biek, Roman

    2007-10-22

    Explicit spatial analysis of infectious disease processes recognizes that host-pathogen interactions occur in specific locations at specific times and that often the nature, direction, intensity and outcome of these interactions depend upon the particular location and identity of both host and pathogen. Spatial context and geographical landscape contribute to the probability of initial disease establishment, direction and velocity of disease spread, the genetic organization of resistance and susceptibility, and the design of appropriate control and management strategies. In this paper, we review the manner in which the physical organization of the landscape has been shown to influence the population dynamics and spatial genetic structure of host-pathogen interactions, and how we might incorporate landscape architecture into spatially explicit population models of the infectious disease process to increase our ability to predict patterns of disease occurrence and optimally design vaccination and control policies.

  4. Operation United Assistance: infectious disease threats to deployed military personnel.

    PubMed

    Murray, Clinton K; Yun, Heather C; Markelz, Ana Elizabeth; Okulicz, Jason F; Vento, Todd J; Burgess, Timothy H; Cardile, Anthony P; Miller, R Scott

    2015-06-01

    As part of the international response to control the recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa, the Department of Defense has deployed military personnel to train Liberians to manage the disease and build treatment units and a hospital for health care volunteers. These steps have assisted in providing a robust medical system and augment Ebola diagnostic capability within the affected nations. In order to prepare for the deployment of U.S. military personnel, the infectious disease risks of the regions must be determined. This evaluation allows for the establishment of appropriate force health protection posture for personnel while deployed, as well as management plans for illnesses presenting after redeployment. Our objective was to detail the epidemiology and infectious disease risks for military personnel in West Africa, particularly for Liberia, along with lessons learned from prior deployments.

  5. Airline operating realities and the global spread of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Webster, Cliff H

    2010-07-01

    The advent of long-haul travel in the past 10 years has considerably reduced the time of potential disease spread from one side of the world to the other. The implication for travelers is that they may unwittingly be in the prodromal phase of influenza and become symptomatic a few days after travel. Alternatively they may knowingly travel with an infectious disease by masking symptoms. This article outlines the myths that have abounded about the cabin environment being "unclean" and discusses the low likelihood of in-flight transmission with effective air-conditioning and filtration systems. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic highlighted the operational challenges of dealing with infectious disease, including the need for accurate passenger information to allow contact tracing, in contrast to futile measures such as thermal scanners. Containment attempts did not stop the rapid global spread of H1N1 influenza. PMID:20566546

  6. Airline operating realities and the global spread of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Webster, Cliff H

    2010-07-01

    The advent of long-haul travel in the past 10 years has considerably reduced the time of potential disease spread from one side of the world to the other. The implication for travelers is that they may unwittingly be in the prodromal phase of influenza and become symptomatic a few days after travel. Alternatively they may knowingly travel with an infectious disease by masking symptoms. This article outlines the myths that have abounded about the cabin environment being "unclean" and discusses the low likelihood of in-flight transmission with effective air-conditioning and filtration systems. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic highlighted the operational challenges of dealing with infectious disease, including the need for accurate passenger information to allow contact tracing, in contrast to futile measures such as thermal scanners. Containment attempts did not stop the rapid global spread of H1N1 influenza.

  7. 76 FR 58523 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Town Hall Meeting on the Future of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Hall Meeting on the Future of the Regional Centers of Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious... Regional Centers of Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases (RCE) Program (...

  8. Infectious disease management in primary care: perceptions of GPs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is important to keep the level of antibiotic prescribing low to contain the development of resistant bacteria. This study was conducted to reveal new knowledge about how GPs think in relation to the prescribing of antibiotics - knowledge that could be used in efforts toward rational treatment of infectious diseases in primary care. The aim was to explore and describe the variations in GPs' perceptions of infectious disease management, with special reference to antibiotic prescribing. Methods Twenty GPs working at primary care centres in a county in south-west Sweden were purposively selected based on the strategy of including GPs with different kinds of experience. The GPs were interviewed and perceptions among GPs were analysed by a phenomenographic approach. Results Five qualitatively different perceptions of infectious disease management were identified. They were: (A) the GP must help the patient to achieve health and well-being; (B) the management must meet the GP's perceived personal, professional and organisational demands; (C) restrictive antibiotic prescribing is time-consuming; (D) restrictive antibiotic prescribing can protect the effectiveness of antibiotics; and (E) patients benefit personally from restrictive antibiotic prescribing. Conclusions Restrictive antibiotic prescribing was considered important in two perceptions, was not an issue as such in two others, and was considered in one perception although the actual prescribing was greatly influenced by the interaction between patient and GP. Accordingly, to encourage restrictive antibiotic prescribing several aspects must be addressed. Furthermore, different GPs need various kinds of support. Infectious disease management in primary care is complex and time-consuming, which must be acknowledged in healthcare organisation and planning. PMID:21223592

  9. Morphological method for estimation of simian virus 40 infectious titer.

    PubMed

    Landau, S M; Nosach, L N; Pavlova, G V

    1982-01-01

    The cytomorphologic method previously reported for titration of adenoviruses has been employed for estimating the infectious titer of simian virus 40 (SV 40). Infected cells forming intranuclear inclusions were determined. The method examined possesses a number of advantages over virus titration by plaque assay and cytopathic effect. The virus titer estimated by the method of inclusion counting and expressed as IFU/ml (Inclusion Forming Units/ml) corresponds to that estimated by plaque count and expressed as PFU/ml.

  10. The landscape genetics of infectious disease emergence and spread

    PubMed Central

    Biek, Roman; Real, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    The spread of parasites is inherently a spatial process often embedded in physically complex landscapes. It is therefore not surprising that infectious disease researchers are increasingly taking a landscape genetics perspective to elucidate mechanisms underlying basic ecological processes driving infectious disease dynamics and to understand the linkage between spatially-dependent population processes and the geographic distribution of genetic variation within both hosts and parasites. The increasing availability of genetic information on hosts and parasites when coupled to their ecological interactions can lead to insights for predicting patterns of disease emergence, spread, and control. Here, we review research progress in this area based on four different motivations for the application of landscape genetics approaches: (1) assessing the spatial organization of genetic variation in parasites as a function of environmental variability, (2) using host population genetic structure as a means to parameterize ecological dynamics that indirectly influence parasite populations, e.g. gene flow and movement pathways across heterogeneous landscapes and the concurrent transport of infectious agents, (3) elucidating the temporal and spatial scales of disease processes, and (4) reconstructing and understanding infectious disease invasion. Throughout this review, we emphasise that landscape genetic principles are relevant to infection dynamics across a range of scales from within host dynamics to global geographic patterns and that they can also be applied to unconventional “landscapes” such as heterogeneous contact networks underlying the spread of human and livestock diseases. We conclude by discussing some general considerations and problems for inferring epidemiological processes from genetic data and try to identify possible future directions and applications for this rapidly expanding field. PMID:20618897

  11. [Effect of infectious factors on human and animal cytogenetic structures].

    PubMed

    Il'inskikh, N N

    1976-01-01

    The analysis of blood leucocyte chromosomes has been carried out on 60 patients with different infectious diseases (influenza, measles, scarlet fever, and disentery), and on 47 patients immunized against measles, tick-born encephalitis, typhoid fever and brucellosis. The mutagenic influence of viruses on the genital cells of mice and on the human somatic cells in vitro was studied. Both viruses and bacteria appeared to be able to bring about different breaks in human and animal cells.

  12. "Wrong, but useful": negotiating uncertainty in infectious disease modelling.

    PubMed

    Christley, Robert M; Mort, Maggie; Wynne, Brian; Wastling, Jonathan M; Heathwaite, A Louise; Pickup, Roger; Austin, Zoë; Latham, Sophia M

    2013-01-01

    For infectious disease dynamical models to inform policy for containment of infectious diseases the models must be able to predict; however, it is well recognised that such prediction will never be perfect. Nevertheless, the consensus is that although models are uncertain, some may yet inform effective action. This assumes that the quality of a model can be ascertained in order to evaluate sufficiently model uncertainties, and to decide whether or not, or in what ways or under what conditions, the model should be 'used'. We examined uncertainty in modelling, utilising a range of data: interviews with scientists, policy-makers and advisors, and analysis of policy documents, scientific publications and reports of major inquiries into key livestock epidemics. We show that the discourse of uncertainty in infectious disease models is multi-layered, flexible, contingent, embedded in context and plays a critical role in negotiating model credibility. We argue that usability and stability of a model is an outcome of the negotiation that occurs within the networks and discourses surrounding it. This negotiation employs a range of discursive devices that renders uncertainty in infectious disease modelling a plastic quality that is amenable to 'interpretive flexibility'. The utility of models in the face of uncertainty is a function of this flexibility, the negotiation this allows, and the contexts in which model outputs are framed and interpreted in the decision making process. We contend that rather than being based predominantly on beliefs about quality, the usefulness and authority of a model may at times be primarily based on its functional status within the broad social and political environment in which it acts. PMID:24146851

  13. Infectious mononucleosis hepatitis; an unwelcome present for Father Christmas.

    PubMed

    Hussaini, Syed H; Pilkington, Nicola; Barnes, John N

    2013-01-01

    We describe a case of infectious mononucleosis (IM) hepatitis occurring in an elderly thespian, who had recently played the role of 'Father Christmas'. We discuss the importance of differing clinical manifestations in older and younger age groups, the changing epidemiology of Epstein Barr (EB) infection within the United Kingdom and the role of different virology tests in establishing a diagnosis. Raised awareness of this changing pattern of disease could prevent unnecessary investigation and consequent potential iatrogenic complications.

  14. Dynamics of infectious disease transmission by inhalable respiratory droplets.

    PubMed

    Stilianakis, Nikolaos I; Drossinos, Yannis

    2010-09-01

    Transmission of respiratory infectious diseases in humans, for instance influenza, occurs by several modes. Respiratory droplets provide a vector of transmission of an infectious pathogen that may contribute to different transmission modes. An epidemiological model incorporating the dynamics of inhalable respiratory droplets is developed to assess their relevance in the infectious process. Inhalable respiratory droplets are divided into respirable droplets, with droplet diameter less than 10 microm, and inspirable droplets, with diameter in the range 10-100 microm: both droplet classes may be inhaled or settle. Droplet dynamics is determined by their physical properties (size), whereas population dynamics is determined by, among other parameters, the pathogen infectivity and the host contact rates. Three model influenza epidemic scenarios, mediated by different airborne or settled droplet classes, are analysed. The scenarios are distinguished by the characteristic times associated with breathing at contact and with hand-to-face contact. The scenarios suggest that airborne transmission, mediated by respirable droplets, provides the dominant transmission mode in middle and long-term epidemics, whereas inspirable droplets, be they airborne or settled, characterize short-term epidemics with high attack rates. The model neglects close-contact transmission by droplet sprays (direct projection onto facial mucous membranes), retaining close-contact transmission by inspirable droplets.

  15. On the Identifiability of Transmission Dynamic Models for Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lintusaari, Jarno; Gutmann, Michael U; Kaski, Samuel; Corander, Jukka

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases is important for both biological research and public health applications. It has been widely demonstrated that statistical modeling provides a firm basis for inferring relevant epidemiological quantities from incidence and molecular data. However, the complexity of transmission dynamic models presents two challenges: (1) the likelihood function of the models is generally not computable, and computationally intensive simulation-based inference methods need to be employed, and (2) the model may not be fully identifiable from the available data. While the first difficulty can be tackled by computational and algorithmic advances, the second obstacle is more fundamental. Identifiability issues may lead to inferences that are driven more by prior assumptions than by the data themselves. We consider a popular and relatively simple yet analytically intractable model for the spread of tuberculosis based on classical IS6110 fingerprinting data. We report on the identifiability of the model, also presenting some methodological advances regarding the inference. Using likelihood approximations, we show that the reproductive value cannot be identified from the data available and that the posterior distributions obtained in previous work have likely been substantially dominated by the assumed prior distribution. Further, we show that the inferences are influenced by the assumed infectious population size, which generally has been kept fixed in previous work. We demonstrate that the infectious population size can be inferred if the remaining epidemiological parameters are already known with sufficient precision.

  16. [Infectious diseases as a clinical specialty in Germany and Europe].

    PubMed

    Kern, Winfried V; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Tacconelli, Evelina; Ullmann, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Clinical infectious diseases have only slowly been established as a medical specialty in Germany. The density of infectious diseases (ID) specialists and the number of ID divisions in general hospitals is still limited when compared with the situation in many other European countries, and there is also a lack of hospital-based medical microbiologists and infection control doctors for many reasons. Often, there is a lack of understanding of the roles and the performance of ID specialists versus microbiologists. Experience in other countries shows that ID specialists are important as clinical experts at the bedside, can help ascertain healthcare quality and patient safety, and are perfectly suited for undertaking strategic tasks in the field of cost-effective antimicrobial therapy algorithms and antibiotic stewardship (ABS) in hospitals. ID specialists are responsible for infection control in several countries, can improve the utility of diagnostic microbiology and are key partners in translational research. We estimate that more than 1,000 additional ID specialists are needed in this country, and believe that specially trained ABS experts can take over parts of their responsibilities and tasks in smaller hospitals. More capacity and flexibility in postgraduate training in infectious diseases, antibiotic stewardship and infection control in Germany will be critical to address the problem of antimicrobial resistance. (As supplied by publisher).

  17. Infectious Agents Are Not Necessary for Murine Atherogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Samuel D.; Burton, Charlotte; Hernandez, Melba; Hassing, Heide; Montenegro, Judy; Mundt, Steve; Patel, Sushma; Card, Deborah J.; Hermanowski-Vosatka, Anne; Bergstrom, James D.; Sparrow, Carl P.; Detmers, Patricia A.; Chao, Yu-Sheng

    2000-01-01

    Recent work has revealed correlations between bacterial or viral infections and atherosclerotic disease. One particular bacterium, Chlamydia pneumoniae, has been observed at high frequency in human atherosclerotic lesions, prompting the hypothesis that infectious agents may be necessary for the initiation or progression of atherosclerosis. To determine if responses to gram-negative bacteria are necessary for atherogenesis, we first bred atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein (apo) E−/− (deficient) mice with animals incapable of responding to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Atherogenesis was unaffected in doubly deficient animals. We further tested the role of infectious agents by creating a colony of germ-free apo E−/− mice. These animals are free of all microbial agents (bacterial, viral, and fungal). Atherosclerosis in germ-free animals was not measurably different from that in animals raised with ambient levels of microbial challenge. These studies show that infection is not necessary for murine atherosclerosis and that, unlike peptic ulcer, Koch's postulates cannot be fulfilled for any infectious agent in atherosclerosis. PMID:10770809

  18. Infectious agents are not necessary for murine atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wright, S D; Burton, C; Hernandez, M; Hassing, H; Montenegro, J; Mundt, S; Patel, S; Card, D J; Hermanowski-Vosatka, A; Bergstrom, J D; Sparrow, C P; Detmers, P A; Chao, Y S

    2000-04-17

    Recent work has revealed correlations between bacterial or viral infections and atherosclerotic disease. One particular bacterium, Chlamydia pneumoniae, has been observed at high frequency in human atherosclerotic lesions, prompting the hypothesis that infectious agents may be necessary for the initiation or progression of atherosclerosis. To determine if responses to gram-negative bacteria are necessary for atherogenesis, we first bred atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein (apo) E(-/)- (deficient) mice with animals incapable of responding to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Atherogenesis was unaffected in doubly deficient animals. We further tested the role of infectious agents by creating a colony of germ-free apo E(-/)- mice. These animals are free of all microbial agents (bacterial, viral, and fungal). Atherosclerosis in germ-free animals was not measurably different from that in animals raised with ambient levels of microbial challenge. These studies show that infection is not necessary for murine atherosclerosis and that, unlike peptic ulcer, Koch's postulates cannot be fulfilled for any infectious agent in atherosclerosis. PMID:10770809

  19. Screening for infectious diseases at international airports: the Frankfurt model.

    PubMed

    Gaber, Walter; Goetsch, Udo; Diel, Roland; Doerr, Hans W; Gottschalk, René

    2009-07-01

    Historically, ships brought infectious diseases to the continents of the world, but in this modern era, infectious diseases and pandemics are primarily spread through aviation as a mode of travel. This is a significant issue in the realm of infection control because of the increased potential for the rapid worldwide transmission and spread of disease. Although the transmission of infectious diseases to airline passengers inside an aircraft is a rare occurrence, it is essential to implement entry and exit screening procedures at airports within the context of the International Health Regulations (IHR) in order to slow down the spread of infection, especially during the early phases of a pandemic event. Currently, there are no standardized procedures for health screening at airports, thus allowing individual regional authorities to determine what they deem to be appropriate screening measures for implementation. In this paper, we will discuss a new pragmatic approach for entry and exit screening procedures at international airports, propose a new classification system for contacts within the aircraft, and discuss changing the fixed enforcement of standardized community mitigation measures to the implementation of measures that correspond to specific characteristics of individual pathogenic agents. The proposed catalog of screening measures is aimed at attaining the goals of the IHR, which states that the measures should be reasonable while avoiding inconvenience or harm to passengers and should not be any more disruptive to the smooth handling of passenger traffic than is necessary.

  20. Causative Microorganisms of Infectious Endophthalmitis: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Fang; Liao, Jingyu; Zheng, Yongxin; Tan, Junlian

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the microbial etiology of infectious endophthalmitis and to determine the antibacterial susceptibilities of bacterial isolates at an eye hospital in South China. A retrospective analysis was carried out on 330 patients with clinically diagnosed infectious endophthalmitis who underwent microbiological evaluation from January 2010 to December 2014. Of the 330 patients, 193 patients (58.5%) had posttraumatic endophthalmitis, 67 patients (20.3%) had postoperative endophthalmitis, 61 patients (18.5%) had endogenous endophthalmitis, and 9 patients (2.7%) had postcorneal infective endophthalmitis. Of the 105 cases (31.8%) of culture-positive endophthalmitis, 79 cases (75.2%) had bacterial growth and 26 cases (24.8%) had fungal growth. In posttraumatic endophthalmitis, Gram-positive bacteria were the predominant species, followed by Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. In endogenous endophthalmitis, Gram-negative bacteria were the predominant species, followed by fungi and Gram-positive bacteria. In postsurgical endophthalmitis, all infections were bacterial. However, in postcorneal infective endophthalmitis, all infections were fungal. Overall, levofloxacin showed the highest activity against bacterial isolates. There was a significant difference in the susceptibility to tobramycin between the isolates from posttraumatic and postoperative endophthalmitis (p < 0.05). The results of this study identify the microbial spectrum of infectious endophthalmitis in this clinical setting. PMID:27413545