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Sample records for n-acetylcysteine decreases lactate

  1. N-acetylcysteine supplementation decreases osteoclast differentiation and increases bone mass in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have demonstrated that obesity induced by high-fat diets increases bone resorption, decreases trabecular bone mass, and reduces bone strength in various animal models. This study investigated whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant and a glutathione precursor, alters glutathione statu...

  2. N-acetylcysteine supplementation controls total antioxidant capacity, creatine kinase, lactate, and tumor necrotic factor-alpha against oxidative stress induced by graded exercise in sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Leelarungrayub, Donrawee; Khansuwan, Raphiphat; Pothongsunun, Prapas; Klaphajone, Jakkrit

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-term (7 days) N-acetylcysteine (NAC) at 1,200 mg daily supplementation on muscle fatigue, maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), lactate, creatine kinase (CK), and tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNF-α). Twenty-nine sedentary men (13 controls; 16 in the supplement group) from a randomized control were included. At before and after supplementation, fatigue index (FI) was evaluated in the quadriceps muscle, and performed a graded exercise treadmill test to induce oxidative stress, and as a measure of VO(2max). Blood samples were taken before exercise and 20 minutes after it at before and after supplementation, to determine TAC, CK, lactate, and TNF-α levels. Results showed that FI and VO(2max) increased significantly in the supplement group. After exercise decreased the levels of TAC and increased lactate, CK, and TNF-α of both groups at before supplementation. After supplementation, lactate, CK, and TNF-α levels significantly increased and TAC decreased after exercise in the control group. Whereas the TAC and lactate levels did not change significantly, but CK and TNF-α increased significantly in the supplement group. Therefore, this results showed that NAC improved the muscle fatigue, VO(2max), maintained TAC, controlled lactate production, but had no influence on CK and TNF-α.

  3. N-acetylcysteine chemoprotection without decreased cisplatin antitumor efficacy in pediatric tumor models.

    PubMed

    Muldoon, Leslie L; Wu, Y Jeffrey; Pagel, Michael A; Neuwelt, Edward A

    2015-02-01

    Decreasing oxidative damage with the antioxidant agent N-acetylcysteine (NAC) can block the side effects of chemotherapy, but may diminish anti-tumor efficacy. We tested the potential for interactions of high dose NAC against a minimally effective cisplatin chemotherapy regimen in rat models of human pediatric cancers. Athymic rats received subcutaneous implantation of human SK-N-AS neuroblastoma cells or intra-cerebellar implantation of human D283-MED medulloblastoma cells. Rats were untreated or treated with cisplatin (3 or 4 mg/kg IV) with or without NAC (1,000 mg/kg IV) 30 min before or 4 h after cisplatin treatment. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and tumor volumes were measured. Cisplatin decreased the growth of SK-N-AS neuroblastoma subcutaneous tumors from 17.7 ± 4.9 to 6.4 ± 2.5 fold over baseline 2 weeks after treatment (P < 0.001). Pretreatment with NAC decreased cisplatin efficacy, while 4 h delayed NAC did not significantly affect cisplatin anti-tumor effects (relative tumor volume 6.8 ± 2.0 fold baseline, P < 0.001). In D283-MED medulloblastoma brain tumors, cisplatin decreased final tumor volume to 3.9 ± 2.3 mm(3) compared to untreated tumor volume of 45.9 ± 38.7 (P = 0.008). Delayed NAC did not significantly alter cisplatin efficacy (tumor volume 6.8 ± 8.1 mm(3), P = 0.014 versus control). Cisplatin was minimally nephrotoxic in these models. NAC decreased cisplatin-induced elevations in BUN (P < 0.02). NAC chemoprotection did not alter cisplatin therapy, if delayed until 4 h after chemotherapy. These data support a Phase I/II clinical trial of delayed NAC to reduce ototoxicity in children with localized pediatric cancers.

  4. Protective effects of N-acetylcysteine against hyperoxaluria induced mitochondrial dysfunction in male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Minu; Kaur, Tanzeer; Singla, S K

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the nephro-protective potential of N-acetylcysteine against hyperoxaluria-induced renal mitochondrial dysfunction in rats. Nine days dosing of 0.4 % ethylene glycol +1 % ammonium chloride, developed hyperoxaluria in male wistar rats which resulted in renal injury and dysfunction as supported by increased level of urinary lactate dehydrogenase, calcium, and decreased creatinine clearance. Mitochondrial oxidative strain in hyperoxaluric animals was evident by decreased levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, reduced glutathione, and an increased lipid peroxidation. Declined activities of respiratory chain enzymes and tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes showed mitochondrial dysfunction in hyperoxaluric animals. N-acetylcysteine (50 mg/kg, i.p.), by virtue of its -SH reviving power, was able to increase the glutathione levels and thus decrease the oxidative stress in renal mitochondria. Hence, mitochondrial damage is, evidently, an essential event in ethylene glycol-induced hyperoxaluria and N-acetylcysteine presented itself as a safe and effective remedy in combating nephrolithiasis.

  5. Efficacy of N-Acetylcysteine in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tong; Liu, Jing; Zhao, De Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There are a number of conflicting reports describing the clinical outcomes of using N-acetylcysteine for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We have, therefore, performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine, compared with control, for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Original controlled clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were included in the analysis. Searches for relevant articles were carried out in July 2014 by 2 independent researchers using PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central, and Google Scholar. Change in forced vital capacity, change in percentage of predicted vital capacity, change in percentage of predicted carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, changes in 6 minutes walking test distance, rate of adverse events, and rate of death were expressed as outcomes using RevMan 5.0.1. Five trials, with a total of 564 patients, were included in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed that the control group had significant decreases in percentage of predicted vital capacity (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13 to −0.62; P = 0.003) and 6 minutes walking test distance (SMD = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.02–0.48; P = 0.04). There were no statistically significant differences in forced vital capacity (SMD = 0.07; 95% CI: −0.13–0.27; P = 0.52), percentage of predicted carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (SMD = 0.12; 95% CI: −0.06–0.30; P = 0.18), rates of adverse events (odd ratio = 4.50; 95% CI: 0.19–106.41; P = 0.35), or death rates (odd ratio = 1.79; 95% CI: 0.3–5.12; P = 0.28) between the N-acetylcysteine group and the control group. N-Acetylcysteine was found to have a significant effect only on decreases in percentage of predicted vital capacity and 6 minutes walking test distance. N-acetylcysteine showed no beneficial effect on changes

  6. Effects of oral N-acetylcysteine on plasma homocysteine and whole blood glutathione levels in healthy, non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Roes, Eva Maria; Raijmakers, Maarten T M; Peters, Wilbert H M; Steegers, Eric A P

    2002-05-01

    Oral N-acetylcysteine supplementation in nine young healthy females induced a quick and highly significant decrease in plasma homocysteine levels and an increase in whole blood concentration of the antioxidant glutathione. N-acetylcysteine impresses as an efficient drug in lowering homocysteine concentration and might be beneficial for individuals with hyperhomocysteinemia who are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  7. N-Acetylcysteine Reverses Cocaine Induced Metaplasticity

    PubMed Central

    Moussawi, Khaled; Pacchioni, Alejandra; Moran, Megan; Olive, M. Foster; Gass, Justin T.; Lavin, Antonieta; Kalivas, Peter W

    2009-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is characterized by an impaired ability to develop adaptive behaviors that can compete with cocaine seeking, implying a deficit in the ability to induce plasticity in cortico-accumbens circuitry critical for regulating motivated behavior. RWe found that rats withdrawn from cocaine self-administration had a marked in vivo deficit in the ability to develop long-term potentation (LTP) and depression (LTD) in the nucleus accumbens core subregion following stimulation of prefrontal cortex. N-acetylcysteine treatment prevents relapse in animal models and craving in humans by activating cystine-glutamate exchange and thereby stimulating extrasynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). N-acetylcysteine treatment restored the ability to induce LTP and LTD by indirectly stimulating mGluR2/3 and mGluR5, respectively. Cocaine self-administration induces metaplasticity that inhibits the further induction of synaptic plasticity, and this impairment can be reversed by N-acetylcysteine, a drug that also prevents relapse. PMID:19136971

  8. N-acetylcysteine reduces oxidative stress in sickle cell patients.

    PubMed

    Nur, Erfan; Brandjes, Dees P; Teerlink, Tom; Otten, Hans-Martin; Oude Elferink, Ronald P J; Muskiet, Frits; Evers, Ludo M; ten Cate, Hugo; Biemond, Bart J; Duits, Ashley J; Schnog, John-John B

    2012-07-01

    Oxidative stress is of importance in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD). In this open label randomized pilot study the effects of oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on phosphatidylserine (PS) expression as marker of cellular oxidative damage (primary end point), and markers of hemolysis, coagulation and endothelial activation and NAC tolerability (secondary end points) were studied. Eleven consecutive patients (ten homozygous [HbSS] sickle cell patients, one HbSβ(0)-thalassemia patient) were randomly assigned to treatment with either 1,200 or 2,400 mg NAC daily during 6 weeks. The data indicate an increment in whole blood glutathione levels and a decrease in erythrocyte outer membrane phosphatidylserine exposure, plasma levels of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and cell-free hemoglobin after 6 weeks of NAC treatment in both dose groups. One patient did not tolerate the 2,400 mg dose and continued with the 1,200 mg dose. During the study period, none of the patients experienced painful crises or other significant SCD or NAC related complications. These data indicate that N-acetylcysteine treatment of sickle cell patients may reduce SCD related oxidative stress.

  9. N-acetylcysteine protects against cadmium-induced oxidative stress in rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jicang; Zhu, Huali; Liu, Xuezhong

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known hepatotoxic environmental pollutant. We used rat hepatocytes as a model to study oxidative damage induced by Cd, effects on the antioxidant systems, and the role of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in protecting cells against Cd toxicity. Hepatocytes were incubated for 12 and 24 h with Cd (2.5, 5, 10 µM). Results showed that Cd can induce cytotoxicity: 10 µM resulted in 36.2% mortality after 12 h and 47.8% after 24 h. Lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase activities increased. Additionally, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation increased in Cd-treated hepatocytes along with malondialdehyde levels. Glutathione concentrations significantly decreased after treatment with Cd for 12 h but increased after 24 h of Cd exposure. In contrast, glutathione peroxidase activity significantly increased after treatment with Cd for 12 h but decreased after 24 h. superoxide dismutase and catalase activities increased at 12 h and 24 h. glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase activities decreased, but not significantly. Rat hepatocytes incubated with NAC and Cd simultaneously had significantly increased viability and decreased Cd-induced ROS generation. Our results suggested that Cd induces ROS generation that leads to oxidative stress. Moreover, NAC protects rat hepatocytes from cytotoxicity associated with Cd. PMID:25234327

  10. N-acetylcysteine attenuates copper overload-induced oxidative injury in brain of rat.

    PubMed

    Ozcelik, Dervis; Uzun, Hafize; Nazıroglu, Mustafa

    2012-06-01

    Copper is an integral part of many important enzymes involved in a number of vital biological processes. Even though it is essential to life, at elevated tissue concentrations, copper can become toxic to cells. Recent studies have reported oxidative damage due to copper in various tissues. Considering the vulnerability of the brain to oxidative stress, this study was undertaken to explore possible beneficial antioxidant effects of N-acetylcysteine on oxidative stress induced by copper overload in brain tissue of rats. Thirty-two Wistar rats were equally divided into four groups. The first group was used as control. The second, third, and fourth groups were given 1 g/L copper in their drinking water for 1 month. At the end of this period, the group 2 rats were sacrificed. During the next 2 weeks, the rats in group 3 were injected intraperitoneally with physiological saline and those in group 4 with 20 mg/kg intraperitoneal injections of N-acetylcysteine. In group 2 the lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide levels were increased in the brain cortex while the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase and the concentration of glutathione were decreased. In rats treated with N-acetylcysteine, lipid peroxidation decreased and the activities of antioxidant enzyme improved in the brain cortex. In conclusion, treatment with N-acetylcysteine modulated the antioxidant redox system and reduced brain oxidative stress induced by copper.

  11. N-acetylcysteine alleviates the meconium-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Mokra, D; Drgova, A; Petras, M; Mokry, J; Antosova, M; Calkovska, A

    2015-01-01

    Meconium aspiration in newborns causes lung inflammation and injury, which may lead to meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). In this study, the effect of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine on respiratory and inflammatory parameters were studied in a model of MAS. Oxygen-ventilated rabbits were intratracheally given 4 mL/kg of meconium (25 mg/mL) or saline. Thirty minutes later, meconium-instilled animals were administered N-acetylcysteine (10 mg/kg; i.v.), or were left without treatment. The animals were oxygen-ventilated for additional 5 h. Ventilatory pressures, oxygenation, right-to-left pulmonary shunts, and leukocyte count were measured. At the end of experiment, trachea and lung were excised. The left lung was saline-lavaged and a total and differential count of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) was determined. Right lung tissue strips were used for detection of lung edema (expressed as wet/dry weight ratio) and peroxidation (expressed by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS). In lung and tracheal strips, airway reactivity to acetylcholine was measured. In addition, TBARS and total antioxidant status were determined in the plasma. Meconium instillation induced polymorphonuclear-derived inflammation and oxidative stress. N-acetylcysteine improved oxygenation, reduced lung edema, decreased polymorphonuclears in BAL fluid, and diminished peroxidation and meconium-induced airway hyperreactivity compared with untreated animals. In conclusion, N-acetylcysteine effectively improved lung functions in an animal model of MAS.

  12. Influence of N-acetylcysteine against dimethylnitrosamine induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Priya, Sathish; Vijayalakshmi, Paramasivan; Vivekanandan, Palani; Karthikeyan, Sivanesan

    2011-11-01

    This study evaluates the hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar albino rats. A single intraperitoneal dose of DMN (5 mg/kg b.w.) caused a significant increase in the levels of the serum marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT)) and a subsequent decrease in AST, ALT, ALP and increase in LDH and γ-GT in the liver tissue indicating hepatocellular damage. Elevation in the status of lipid peroxidation, fall in the activities of the enzymic (superoxide dismutase, catalase) and non-enzymic antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E) in the liver tissue further confirms oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage induced on DMN administration. Oral administration of NAC (50 mg/kg b.w.) for 7 days significantly prevented the above alterations in the status of the marker enzymes of hepatotoxicity and antioxidant parameters and restored them towards normalcy, which was further substantiated by the histopathological studies of the liver tissue. These results suggest that NAC offers hepatoprotection by ameliorating DMN-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity and this protective effect was attributed to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties.

  13. N-acetylcysteine in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning: A Randomized, Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    El-Ebiary, Ahmad A; Elsharkawy, Rasha E; Soliman, Nema A; Soliman, Mohammed A; Hashem, Ahmed A

    2016-08-01

    Organophosphorus poisoning is a major global health problem with hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. Research interest in N-acetylcysteine has grown among increasing evidence of the role of oxidative stress in organophosphorus poisoning. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of N-acetylcysteine as an adjuvant treatment in patients with acute organophosphorus poisoning. This was a randomized, controlled, parallel-group trial on 30 patients suffering from acute organophosphorus poisoning, who were admitted to the Poison Control Center of Tanta University Emergency Hospital, Tanta, Egypt, between April and September 2014. Interventions included oral N-acetylcysteine (600 mg three times daily for 3 days) as an added treatment to the conventional measures versus only the conventional treatment. Outcome measures included mortality, total dose of atropine administered, duration of hospitalization and the need for ICU admission and/or mechanical ventilation. A total of 46 patients were screened and 30 were randomized. No significant difference was found between both groups regarding demographic characteristics and the nature or severity of baseline clinical manifestations. No major adverse effects to N-acetylcysteine therapy were reported. Malondialdehyde significantly decreased and reduced glutathione significantly increased only in the NAC-treated patients. The patients on NAC therapy required less atropine doses than those who received only the conventional treatment; however, the length of hospital stay showed no significant difference between both groups. The study concluded that the use of N-acetylcysteine as an added treatment was apparently safe, and it reduced atropine requirements in patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.

  14. The protective effect of N-acetylcysteine on oxidative stress in the brain caused by the long-term intake of aspartame by rats.

    PubMed

    Finamor, Isabela A; Ourique, Giovana M; Pês, Tanise S; Saccol, Etiane M H; Bressan, Caroline A; Scheid, Taína; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Llesuy, Susana F; Partata, Wânia A; Pavanato, Maria A

    2014-09-01

    Long-term intake of aspartame at the acceptable daily dose causes oxidative stress in rodent brain mainly due to the dysregulation of glutathione (GSH) homeostasis. N-Acetylcysteine provides the cysteine that is required for the production of GSH, being effective in treating disorders associated with oxidative stress. We investigated the effects of N-acetylcysteine treatment (150 mg kg(-1), i.p.) on oxidative stress biomarkers in rat brain after chronic aspartame administration by gavage (40 mg kg(-1)). N-Acetylcysteine led to a reduction in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, and carbonyl protein levels, which were increased due to aspartame administration. N-Acetylcysteine also resulted in an elevation of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase activities, as well as non-protein thiols, and total reactive antioxidant potential levels, which were decreased after aspartame exposure. However, N-acetylcysteine was unable to reduce serum glucose levels, which were increased as a result of aspartame administration. Furthermore, catalase and glutathione S-transferase, whose activities were reduced due to aspartame treatment, remained decreased even after N-acetylcysteine exposure. In conclusion, N-acetylcysteine treatment may exert a protective effect against the oxidative damage in the brain, which was caused by the long-term consumption of the acceptable daily dose of aspartame by rats.

  15. Effects of histidine and N-acetylcysteine on doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Farshid, Amir Abbas; Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Simaee, Naeime; Mansouri, Sanam; Najafi, Sima; Asri-Rezaee, Siamak; Alavi, Hossein

    2014-06-01

    The amino acids histidine and n-acetylcysteine have many biological activities such as antioxidant effect. The present study investigated the effects of histidine and n-acetylcysteine on the heart lesions induced by doxorubicin (DOX) in rats. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into two major groups treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with normal saline and 4 mg/kg of DOX, respectively. Each group was further divided into four subgroups that were treated with separate and combined i.p. injections of histidine and n-acetylcysteine (NAC) at a same dose of 40 mg/kg. Electrocardiography (ECG) was recorded using lead II. The heart lesions were evaluated by light microscopy. Serum levels of creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase and heart tissue malondialdehyde levels were measured. Histidine and especially NAC at a same dose of 40 mg/kg recovered ECG changes, improved heart lesions and prevented biochemical changes induced by DOX. Co-administration of histidine and NAC showed better responses when compared with them used alone. The results of the present study showed protective effects for histidine and NAC on the heart. Reduction in free radical-induced toxic effects may be involved in cardioprotective properties of histidine and NAC.

  16. Hyperoxia decreases muscle glycogenolysis, lactate production, and lactate efflux during steady-state exercise.

    PubMed

    Stellingwerff, Trent; Leblanc, Paul J; Hollidge, Melanie G; Heigenhauser, George J F; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the decreased muscle and blood lactate during exercise with hyperoxia (60% inspired O2) vs. room air is due to decreased muscle glycogenolysis, leading to decreased pyruvate and lactate production and efflux. We measured pyruvate oxidation via PDH, muscle pyruvate and lactate accumulation, and lactate and pyruvate efflux to estimate total pyruvate and lactate production during exercise. We hypothesized that 60% O2 would decrease muscle glycogenolysis, resulting in decreased pyruvate and lactate contents, leading to decreased muscle pyruvate and lactate release with no change in PDH activity. Seven active male subjects cycled for 40 min at 70% VO2 peak on two occasions when breathing 21 or 60% O2. Arterial and femoral venous blood samples and blood flow measurements were obtained throughout exercise, and muscle biopsies were taken at rest and after 10, 20, and 40 min of exercise. Hyperoxia had no effect on leg O2 delivery, O2 uptake, or RQ during exercise. Muscle glycogenolysis was reduced by 16% with hyperoxia (267 +/- 19 vs. 317 +/- 21 mmol/kg dry wt), translating into a significant, 15% reduction in total pyruvate production over the 40-min exercise period. Decreased pyruvate production during hyperoxia had no effect on PDH activity (pyruvate oxidation) but significantly decreased lactate accumulation (60%: 22.6 +/- 6.4 vs. 21%: 31.3 +/- 8.7 mmol/kg dry wt), lactate efflux, and total lactate production over 40 min of cycling. Decreased glycogenolysis in hyperoxia was related to an approximately 44% lower epinephrine concentration and an attenuated accumulation of potent phosphorylase activators ADPf and AMPf during exercise. Greater phosphorylation potential during hyperoxia was related to a significantly diminished rate of PCr utilization. The tighter metabolic match between pyruvate production and oxidation resulted in a decrease in total lactate production and efflux over 40 min of exercise during hyperoxia.

  17. N-Acetylcysteine amide: a derivative to fulfill the promises of N-Acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Sunitha, K; Hemshekhar, M; Thushara, R M; Santhosh, M Sebastin; Yariswamy, M; Kemparaju, K; Girish, K S

    2013-05-01

    In the present human health scenario, implication of oxidative stress in numerous pathologies including neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, liver, renal, pulmonary disorders, and cancer has gained attention. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), a popular thiol antioxidant, has been clinically used to treat various pathophysiological disorders. However, NAC therapy is routine only in paracetamol intoxication and as a mucolytic agent. Over six decades, numerous studies involving NAC therapy have yielded inconsistent results, and this could be due to low bioavailability. In order to overcome the limitations of NAC, an amide derivative N-Acetylcysteine amide (NACA) has been synthesized to improve the lipophilicity, membrane permeability, and antioxidant property. Recent studies have demonstrated the blood-brain barrier permeability and therapeutic potentials of NACA in neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Multiple sclerosis, Tardive dyskinesia, and HIV-associated neurological disorders. In addition, NACA displays protective effect against pulmonary inflammation and antibiotic-induced apoptosis. Forthcoming research on the possible therapeutic properties of NACA and its generics in the management of pathologies associated with extracellular matrix degradation and oxidative stress-related inflammation is highly exiting. Superior bioavailability of NACA is likely to fulfill the promises of NAC as well as a molecule to improve the endurance and resident time of bioscaffolds and biomaterials. Till date, more than 800 reviews on NAC have been published. However, no comprehensive review is available on the therapeutic applications of NACA. Therefore, the current review would be the first to emphasize the therapeutic potentials of NACA and its derivatives.

  18. N-Acetylcysteine ameliorates skeletal muscle pathophysiology in mdx mice

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Nicholas P; Pham, Catherine; Gervasio, Othon L; Allen, David G

    2008-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe degenerative muscle disease caused by a mutation in the gene encoding dystrophin, a protein linking the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. In this study we investigated whether the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) provided protection against dystrophic muscle damage in the mdx mouse, an animal model of DMD. In isolated mdx muscles, NAC prevented the increased membrane permeability and reduced the force deficit associated with stretch-induced muscle damage. Three-week-old mdx mice were treated with NAC in the drinking water for 6 weeks. Dihydroethidium staining showed that NAC treatment reduced the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mdx muscles. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in centrally nucleated fibres in muscles from NAC-treated mdx mice. Immunoblotting showed that NAC treatment decreased the nuclear protein expression of NF-κB, a transcription factor involved in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Finally, we show that NAC treatment reduced caveolin-3 protein levels and increased the sarcolemmal expression of β-dystroglycan and the dystrophin homologue, utrophin. Taken together, our findings suggest that ROS play an important role in the dystrophic pathogenesis, both in terms of activating damage pathways and in regulating the expression of some dystrophin-associated membrane proteins. These results offer the prospect that antioxidants such as NAC could have therapeutic potential for DMD patients. PMID:18258657

  19. N-Acetylcysteine ameliorates skeletal muscle pathophysiology in mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Nicholas P; Pham, Catherine; Gervasio, Othon L; Allen, David G

    2008-04-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe degenerative muscle disease caused by a mutation in the gene encoding dystrophin, a protein linking the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. In this study we investigated whether the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) provided protection against dystrophic muscle damage in the mdx mouse, an animal model of DMD. In isolated mdx muscles, NAC prevented the increased membrane permeability and reduced the force deficit associated with stretch-induced muscle damage. Three-week-old mdx mice were treated with NAC in the drinking water for 6 weeks. Dihydroethidium staining showed that NAC treatment reduced the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mdx muscles. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in centrally nucleated fibres in muscles from NAC-treated mdx mice. Immunoblotting showed that NAC treatment decreased the nuclear protein expression of NF-kappaB, a transcription factor involved in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Finally, we show that NAC treatment reduced caveolin-3 protein levels and increased the sarcolemmal expression of beta-dystroglycan and the dystrophin homologue, utrophin. Taken together, our findings suggest that ROS play an important role in the dystrophic pathogenesis, both in terms of activating damage pathways and in regulating the expression of some dystrophin-associated membrane proteins. These results offer the prospect that antioxidants such as NAC could have therapeutic potential for DMD patients.

  20. N-acetylcysteine Prevents Alcohol Related Neuroinflammation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ricardo; Bandiera, Solange; Souza, Débora Guerini; Bellaver, Bruna; Caletti, Greice; Quincozes-Santos, André; Elisabetsky, Elaine; Gomez, Rosane

    2017-03-16

    Alcoholism has been characterized as a systemic pro-inflammatory condition and alcohol withdrawal has been linked to various changes in the brain homeostasis, including oxidative stress and glutamate hyperactivity. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant multi-target drug with promising results in psychiatry, including drug addiction. We assessed the effects of NAC on the serum and brain inflammatory cytokines after cessation of chronic alcohol treatment in rats. Male Wistar rats received 2 g/kg alcohol or vehicle twice a day by oral gavage for 30 days. Rats were treated, from day 31 to 34, with NAC (60 or 90 mg/kg) or saline, intraperitoneally, once daily. Rats were sacrificed at day 35, trunk blood was collected and the frontal cortex and hippocampus dissected for assessment of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, IL-10. NAC prevented the increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the decrease of anti-inflammatory cytokine in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. No changes were observed on serum cytokines. We conclude that NAC protects against inflammation induced by chronic (30 days) alcohol ingestion followed by 5 days cessation in two rat brain areas. Because inflammation has been documented and associated with craving and relapse in alcoholics, the data revealed by this study points to the validity of NAC clinical evaluation in the context of alcohol detoxification and withdrawal.

  1. Acquired 5-oxoproline acidemia successfully treated with N-acetylcysteine

    PubMed Central

    Fenves, Andrew Z.

    2017-01-01

    Acquired 5-oxoprolinemia is increasingly recognized as a cause of anion gap metabolic acidosis. It predominantly occurs in chronically ill, malnourished women with impaired renal function and chronic acetaminophen ingestion. Depletion of glutathione and cysteine stores leads to elevated 5-oxoproline levels. N-acetylcysteine, given its effect in repleting glutathione and cysteine stores, has been proposed as a potential treatment for 5-oxoprolinemia, though reports of its successful use are lacking. We present a case of 5-oxoproline metabolic acidosis that persisted despite discontinuation of acetaminophen. However, the acidosis rapidly resolved with N-acetylcysteine administration.

  2. Effect of oral N-acetylcysteine on mucus clearance.

    PubMed

    Millar, A B; Pavia, D; Agnew, J E; Lopez-Vidriero, M T; Lauque, D; Clarke, S W

    1985-07-01

    Oral N-acetylcysteine has been advocated as a mucolytic agent for use in chronic bronchitis. We have investigated the effects of regular use of this drug at a dose of 200 mg thrice daily for 4 weeks in nine patients with chronic bronchitis on lung function, lung mucociliary clearance and sputum viscosity in a controlled, double-blind, crossover study. No significant differences were found in lung function, mucociliary clearance curves or sputum viscosity following treatment with N-acetylcysteine compared to control or placebo measurements.

  3. Fatal myocardial infarction associated with intravenous N-acetylcysteine error

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background N-acetylcysteine is used to treat acetaminophen toxicity and is available in both intravenous and oral formulations. Our report describes a patient treated with intravenous N-acetylcysteine for acetaminophen toxicity who died after an anaphylactoid reaction following initiation of the infusion. Objective Clinicians should be aware of potential complications when deciding on which formulation of N-acetylcysteine to administer. Case Report A 53-year-old male presented with altered mental status after an overdose of acetaminophen/hydrocodone and carisoprodol. He had an acetaminophen level of 49 mcg/ml with an unknown time of ingestion. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) on a naloxone drip and was started on intravenous N-acetylcysteine (NAC) at the presumed dose of 150 mg/kg. Shortly after initiating the NAC infusion, the patient developed periorbital edema, skin rash, and hypotension. The infusion of N-acetylcysteine was immediately stopped and the patient required emergent intubation. Resuscitation was begun with intravenous fluids followed by the initiation of phenylephrine. He developed ST elevation in the inferior leads on his ECG. This evolved into an inferior myocardial infarction by ECG and cardiac enzymes. Echocardiogram showed global, severe hypokinesis with an ejection fraction of less than 20% in a patient with no pre-existing cardiac history. Despite aggressive support, he died approximately 17 hours after the initiation of intravenous NAC. Further investigation found a 10-fold formulation error in his NAC loading dose. Conclusion The intravenous formulation of NAC has a higher probability of significant adverse effects and complications not described with the oral formulation. Clinicians should be aware of these potential complications when deciding on which formulation to administer. PMID:21878099

  4. Prebiotic formation of 'energy-rich' thioesters from glyceraldehyde and N-acetylcysteine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    The 'energy-rich' thioester, N-acetyl-S-lactoylcysteine, is formed from low concentrations of glyceraldehyde and N-acetylcysteine under anaerobic conditions at ambient temperature in aqueous solutions of sodium phosphate (pH 7.0). Reactions with 2mM glyceraldehyde, 2mM N-acetylcysteine, and 500 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.0) convert about 0.3 percent/day of the glyceraldehyde to lactoyl thioester. The formation of lactoyl thioester in similar reactions with 500 mM imidazole hydrochloride (pH 7.0) is supported by the thiol-dependence of lactate formation, which is 3-fold greater in the presence of thiol (0.11 percent/day) than in the absence of thiol (0.04 percent/day). The formation of lactoly thioester is thought to proceed by the phosphate (or imidazole)-catalyzed dehydration of glyceraldehyde, which adds to the thiol to form a hemithioacetal that rearranges to the thioester. A limited amount of a second thioester, N-acetyl-S-glyceroyl-cysteine, is also formed at the beginning of these reactions. The significance of these reactions to the origin of life is discussed.

  5. Prebiotic formation of `energy-rich' thioesters from glyceraldehyde and N-acetylcysteine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1984-03-01

    The ‘energy-rich’ thioester, N-acetyl-S-lactoylcysteine, is formed from low concentrations of glyceraldehyde and N-acetylcysteine under anaerobic conditions at ambient temperature in aqueous solutions of sodium phosphate (pH 7.0). Reactions with 2 mM glyceraldehyde, 2 mM N-acetylcysteine, and 500 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.0) convert about 0.3%/day of the glyceraldehyde to lactoyl thioester. The formation of lactoyl thioester in similar reactions with 500 mM imidazole hydrochloride (pH 7.0) is supported by the thiol-dependence of lactate formation, which is 3-fold greater in the presence of thiol (0.11%/day) than in the absence of thiol (0.04%/day). The formation of lactoyl thioester is thought to proceed by the phosphate (or imidazole)-catalyzed dehydration of glyceraldehyde to give pyruvaldehyde, which adds to the thiol to form a hemithioacetal that rearranges to the thioester. A limited amount of a second thioester, N-acetyl-S-glyceroyl-cysteine, is also formed at the beginning of these reactions. The significance of these reactions to the origin of life is discussed.

  6. Effects of N-acetylcysteine on asthma exacerbation.

    PubMed

    Aliyali, Masoud; Poorhasan Amiri, Ali; Sharifpoor, Ali; Zalli, Fatemeh

    2010-06-01

    Airway mucus hypersecretion and increased oxidative stress are clinical and pathophysiological features of asthma exacerbation. We studied effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as a mucolytic and antioxidant agent in asthma exacerbation. In this randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled study 50 patients ( 17 male, 33 female, mean age 48.94+/-13.68) with asthma exacerbation were randomized to receive either oral 600 mg b.d. N-acetylcysteine or placebo in addition to standard treatment during 5 days hospitalization. Daily measurements of wheezing, dyspnea, cough, sputum, expectoration, night sleep scores and morning PEFR were performed. There was no significant difference in wheezing score between patients assigned NAC and those assigned placebo in day 5(0.84[SD 0.94] VS 0.87[SD 0.79]) and also in cough score (0.72[SD 0.84] VS 0.79[SD 0.97]), dyspnea score (0.84[SD 1.06] VS 0.91[SD 1.01]), sputum score(0.79[SD 0.83] VS 0.62[SD 0.71]), expectoration score(0.79[SD 0.97] VS 0.83[SD 1.09]), night sleep score(1[SD 1.17] VS 0.67[SD 0.98] and morning PEFR (256[SD 96.36] VS 282[SD 98.86]). We concluded that addition of N-acetylcysteine to usual asthma medication has no significant effect in treatment of asthma exacerbation.

  7. N-Acetylcysteine accelerates amputation stump healing in the setting of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Mohamed A; Wei, Xiachao; Park, Kyoung-Mi; Belaygorod, Larisa; Naim, Uzma; Harvey, Joseph; Yin, Li; Blumer, Kendall; Semenkovich, Clay F

    2017-03-09

    Over 60% of lower extremity amputations are performed in patients with diabetes and peripheral arterial disease, and at least 25% require subsequent reamputation due to poor surgical site healing. The mechanisms underlying poor amputation stump healing in the setting of diabetes are not understood. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is known to promote endothelial cell function and angiogenesis and may have therapeutic benefits in the setting of diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that NAC alters the vascular milieu to improve healing of amputation stumps in diabetes using a novel in vivo murine hindlimb ischemia-amputation model. Amputation stump tissue perfusion and healing were evaluated in C57BL/6J adult mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Compared with controls, mice treated with daily NAC demonstrated improved postamputation stump healing, perfusion, adductor muscle neovascularization, and decreased muscle fiber damage. Additionally, NAC stimulated HUVEC migration and proliferation in a phospholipase C β-dependent fashion and decreased Gαq palmitoylation. Similarly, NAC treatment also decreased Gαq palmitoylation in ischemic and nonischemic hindlimbs in vivo In summary, we demonstrate that NAC accelerates healing of amputation stumps in the setting of diabetes and ischemia. The underlying mechanism appears to involve a previously unrecognized effect of NAC on Gαq palmitoylation and phospholipase C β-mediated signaling in endothelial cells.-Zayed, M. A., Wei, X., Park, K., Belaygorod, L., Naim, U., Harvey, J., Yin, L., Blumer, K., Semenkovich, C. F. N-acetylcysteine accelerates amputation stump healing in the setting of diabetes.

  8. Improvement in endothelial dysfunction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus with N-acetylcysteine and atorvastatin

    PubMed Central

    Kudaravalli, Jyothsna

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and atorvastatin on endothelial dysfunction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Materials and Methods: Thirty-two SLE patients and age, sex-matched 10 healthy control subjects were studied. The patients were between 17 and 65 years of age and positive for diagnostic tests, such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Photoplethysmogram (PPG) detects the changes in the amount of light absorbed by hemoglobin, which reflects changes in the blood volume. Pulse wave analysis was performed at rest, 30 s, 90 s after shear stress, and 10 min after 300 μm of salbutamol inhalation. Results: Stiffness index (SI) of patients before the treatment was 8.46±2.78 cm/s and of controls was 6.07±1.4 cm/s (P = 0.002) and that of reflection index (RI) was 73±13 for patients and 65±7 for controls (P = 0.001). The percentage change in RI after salbutamol inhalation for controls and patients were -16±6 and -7±4 (P = 0.001), respectively, indicating the presence of endothelial dysfunction. The percentage decrease in RI after salbutamol inhalation was from -2.36±0.76 to ?7.92±1.46 in patients treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, P = 0.007). The percentage decrease in RI after salbutamol inhalation was from ?6.36΁1.21 to -9.92±1.21 in patients treated with atorvastatin (P = 0.05). This indicated the improvement in endothelial function. There was decrease in C-reactive protein (CRP) from 1.03±0.72 mg/dL to 0.52±0.22 mg/dL and that of malondialdehyde (MDA) from 11.20±4.07 nmol/mL to 8.81±2.79 nmol/mL with N-acetylcysteine treatment (P < 0.05). The CRP was decreased from 1.11±0.92 mg/dL to 0.440.16 mg/dL (P = 0.05) and that of MDA was decreased from 9.37±3.29 nmol/mL to 8.51±3.27 nmol/mL after treatment with atorvastatin. It showed improvement in oxidative stress with these treatments. Conclusion: The presence of arterial stiffness indicated endothelial dysfunction. There was reduction in RI and SI with

  9. Comparison of the effects of erdosteine and N-acetylcysteine on apoptosis regulation in endotoxin-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Demiralay, Rezan; Gürsan, Nesrin; Ozbilim, Gülay; Erdogan, Gülgün; Demirci, Elif

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate comparatively the frequency of apoptosis in lung epithelial cells after intratracheal instillation of endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] in rats and the role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) on apoptosis, and the effects of erdosteine and N-acetylcysteine on the regulation of apoptosis. Female Wistar rats were given oral erdosteine (10-500 mg kg(-1)) or N-acetylcysteine (10-500 mg kg(-1)) once a day for 3 consecutive days. Then the rats were intratracheally instilled with LPS (5 mg kg(-1)) to induce acute lung injury. The rats were killed at 24 h after LPS administration. Lung tissue samples were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histopathological assessments. The apoptosis level in the lung bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium was determined using the TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick endlabelling) method. Cytoplasmic TNF-alpha was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Pretreatment with erdosteine and pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine at a dose of 10 mg kg(-1) had no protective effect on LPS-induced lung injury. When the doses of drugs increased, the severity of the lung damage caused by LPS decreased. It was found that as the pretreatment dose of erdosteine was increased, the rate of apoptosis induced by LPS in lung epithelial cells decreased and this decrease was statistically significant in doses of 300 mg kg(-1) and 500 mg kg(-1). Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine up to a dose of 500 mg kg(-1) did not show any significant effect on apoptosis regulation. It was noticed that both antioxidants had no significant effect on the local production level of TNF-alpha. These findings suggest that erdosteine could be a possible therapeutic agent for acute lethal lung injury and its mortality.

  10. Beneficial effects of N-acetylcysteine in treatment resistant schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Mahmut; Savas, Haluk Asuman; Altindag, Abdurrahman; Virit, Osman; Dalkilic, Alican

    2009-01-01

    Poor response to antipsychotics is still an important problem in the treatment of many schizophrenia patients. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a compound that exerts anti-oxidant and scavenging actions against reactive oxygen species. This paper reports a case of poorly responsive schizophrenia patient who improved considerably with add-on NAC 600 mg/day. The NAC might work through activating cysteine-glutamate antiporters or reducing in nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, free radicals and cytokines or through both of these mechanisms.

  11. Effect of N-acetylcysteine, allopurinol and vitamin E on jaundice-induced brain oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Karageorgos, Nikolaos; Patsoukis, Nikolaos; Chroni, Elisabeth; Konstantinou, Dimitris; Assimakopoulos, Stelios F; Georgiou, Christos

    2006-09-21

    We examined the possible protective effect of certain antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine, allopurinol and vitamin E) against the oxidative stress of brain tissue induced by experimental obstructive jaundice in rats. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups; group I control, group II sham operated, group III bile duct ligated and groups IV, V, and VI in which the rats, after bile duct ligation, were given every day an intraperitoneal injection with N-acetylcysteine, allopurinol and Vit-E respectively. All rats were sacrificed on the tenth day by exsanguination and the oxidative state in samples from cortex, midbrain and cerebellum was assessed by measuring the thiol redox state and lipid peroxidation quantified by MDA measurements. The main finding was that all three antioxidants decrease lipid peroxidation in the three brain areas. Cysteine levels increased and protein thiol levels were reserved only in the group treated with N-acetylcysteine, whereas oxidized glutathione increased dramatically in the group treated with allopurinol, suggesting that each antioxidant agent had a certain influence profile on the different antioxidant defense systems. The observed effects of the antioxidants in this experimental model could also provide insight into some aspects of jaundice-induced hepatic encephalopathy in humans.

  12. A procedure for the analysis of S-benzyl-N-acetylcysteine and S-(o-methylbenzyl)-N-acetylcysteine in human urine.

    PubMed

    Norström, A; Andersson, B; Levin, J O

    1986-06-01

    Analytical methods for mercapturic acids, the end-products of glutathione metabolism of the industrial solvents toluene and o-xylene (i.e., S-benzyl-N-acetylcysteine and S-(o-methylbenzyl)-N-acetylcysteine), added to human urine have been developed. The sensitivity is 2 ng/microliter (R.S.D. = +/- 13%) and 1 ng/microliter (R.S.D. = +/- 6.4%) urine for S-benzyl-N-acetylcysteine and S-(o-methylbenzyl-N-acetylcysteine, respectively, when using the h.p.l.c. method. The corresponding sensitivities for the g.l.c.-mass spectrometric method are 0.5 and 0.3 ng/microliter urine, respectively.

  13. N-acetylcysteine effectively diminished meconium-induced oxidative stress in adult rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mokra, D; Drgova, A; Mokry, J; Antosova, M; Durdik, P; Calkovska, A

    2015-02-01

    Since inflammation and oxidative stress are fundamental in the pathophysiology of neonatal meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), various anti-inflammatory drugs have been used in experimental and clinical studies on MAS. This pilot study evaluated therapeutic potential of N-acetylcysteine in modulation of meconium-induced inflammation and oxidative lung injury. Oxygen-ventilated adult rabbits were intratracheally given 4 ml/kg of meconium (25 mg/ml) or saline (Sal, n = 6). Thirty minutes later, meconium-instilled animals were treated with intravenous N-acetylcysteine (10 mg/kg, Mec + NAC, n=6) or were non-treated (Mec, n = 6). All animals were oxygen-ventilated for additional 5 hours. Total and differential blood leukocyte counts were determined at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 5 h of the treatment. After sacrificing animals, left lung was saline-lavaged and total and differential cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were determined. Right lung was used for biochemical analyses and for estimation of wet-dry weight ratio. In lung tissue homogenate, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), dityrosine, lysine-lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, and total antioxidant status (TAS) were detected. In isolated lung mitochondria, TBARS, dityrosine, lysine-LPO products, thiol group content, conjugated dienes, and activity of cytochrome c oxidase were estimated. To evaluate systemic effects of meconium instillation and NAC treatment, TBARS and TAS were determined also in plasma. To evaluate participation of eosinophils in the meconium-induced inflammation, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) was detected in plasma and lung homogenate. Meconium instillation increased oxidation markers and ECP in the lung and decreased TAS (all P<0.05). NAC treatment reduced ECP and oxidation markers (all P<0.05, except of dityrosine in homogenate and conjugated dienes in mitochondria) and prevented a decrease in TAS (P<0.01) in lung homogenate compared to Mec group. In plasma, NAC

  14. Methotrexate Promotes Platelet Apoptosis via JNK-Mediated Mitochondrial Damage: Alleviation by N-Acetylcysteine and N-Acetylcysteine Amide

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Manoj; Hemshekhar, Mahadevappa; Thushara, Ram M.; Sundaram, Mahalingam S.; NaveenKumar, Somanathapura K.; Naveen, Shivanna; Devaraja, Sannaningaiah; Somyajit, Kumar; West, Robert; Basappa; Nayaka, Siddaiah C.; Zakai, Uzma I.; Nagaraju, Ganesh; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S.; Kemparaju, Kempaiah; Girish, Kesturu S.

    2015-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia in methotrexate (MTX)-treated cancer and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients connotes the interference of MTX with platelets. Hence, it seemed appealing to appraise the effect of MTX on platelets. Thereby, the mechanism of action of MTX on platelets was dissected. MTX (10 μM) induced activation of pro-apoptotic proteins Bid, Bax and Bad through JNK phosphorylation leading to ΔΨm dissipation, cytochrome c release and caspase activation, culminating in apoptosis. The use of specific inhibitor for JNK abrogates the MTX-induced activation of pro-apoptotic proteins and downstream events confirming JNK phosphorylation by MTX as a key event. We also demonstrate that platelet mitochondria as prime sources of ROS which plays a central role in MTX-induced apoptosis. Further, MTX induces oxidative stress by altering the levels of ROS and glutathione cycle. In parallel, the clinically approved thiol antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and its derivative N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) proficiently alleviate MTX-induced platelet apoptosis and oxidative damage. These findings underpin the dearth of research on interference of therapeutic drugs with platelets, despite their importance in human health and disease. Therefore, the use of antioxidants as supplementary therapy seems to be a safe bet in pathologies associated with altered platelet functions. PMID:26083398

  15. Bioaccumulation and toxicodynamics of cadmium to freshwater planarian and the protective effect of N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jui-Pin; Chen, Hon-Cheng; Li, Mei-Hui

    2012-08-01

    Although toxic responses of freshwater planarians after exposure to environmental toxicants can be observed through external toxicological end points, physiological responses inside the bodies of treated planarians have rarely been investigated. The present study was designed, using cadmium (Cd) as a reference toxicant, to determine its bioaccumulation and toxicodynamics in the freshwater planarian, Dugesia japonica, after acute toxicity was obtained. Accumulated Cd concentrations, metallothionein levels, and the oxidative status in planarians were determined after exposure to Cd. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the acute death of Cd-treated planarians was associated with increased oxidative stress. After Cd-treated planarians were coexposed to antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), we found that NAC protected planarians from Cd lethality by maintaining the oxidative status and decreasing the bioaccumulation of Cd. The results of the present study support planarians being used as a practical model for toxicological studies of environmental contaminants in the future.

  16. N-acetylcysteine amide, a promising antidote for acetaminophen toxicity.

    PubMed

    Khayyat, Ahdab; Tobwala, Shakila; Hart, Marcia; Ercal, Nuran

    2016-01-22

    Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, APAP) is one of the most widely used over the counter antipyretic and analgesic medications. It is safe at therapeutic doses, but its overdose can result in severe hepatotoxicity, a leading cause of drug-induced acute liver failure in the USA. Depletion of glutathione (GSH) is one of the initiating steps in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity; therefore, one strategy for restricting organ damage is to restore GSH levels by using GSH prodrugs. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a GSH precursor, is the only currently approved antidote for an acetaminophen overdose. Unfortunately, fairly high doses and longer treatment times are required due to its poor bioavailability. In addition, oral and I.V. administration of NAC in a hospital setting are laborious and costly. Therefore, we studied the protective effects of N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), a novel antioxidant with higher bioavailability, and compared it with NAC in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice. Our results showed that NACA is better than NAC at a low dose (106mg/kg) in preventing oxidative stress and protecting against APAP-induced damage. NACA significantly increased GSH levels and the GSH/GSSG ratio in the liver to 66.5% and 60.5% of the control, respectively; and it reduced the level of ALT by 30%. However, at the dose used, NAC was not effective in combating the oxidative stress induced by APAP. Thus, NACA appears to be better than NAC in reducing the oxidative stress induced by APAP. It would be of great value in the health care field to develop drugs like NACA as more effective and safer options for the prevention and therapeutic intervention in APAP-induced toxicity.

  17. Ultrastructural evaluation of the effect of N-acetylcysteine on methotrexate nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Çağlar, Yildiz; Özgür, Hülya; Matur, Irem; Yenilmez, Ebru Dündar; Tuli, Abdullah; Gönlüşen, Gülfiliz; Polat, Sait

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the possible protective effect of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) against the likely methotrexate (MTX) toxicity on the kidney using ultrastructural together with biochemical data. Moreover, the immunohistochemical detection of Ki67 nuclear antigen is to be evaluated. Fifteen male Wistar albino rats, weighing 240-290 g, were divided into three equal groups: Rats receiving MTX alone, rats receiving MTX plus NAC treatment, and rats comprising the control group. MTX (18 mg/kg/day, body weight) in dissolved physiologic saline was administered intraperitoneally to rats during 3 days. For the MTX plus NAC group, N-Acetylcysteine (300 mg/kg/day, body weight) was administered together with MTX. At the end of the third day, all the rats were killed with cervical dislocation to obtain blood and tissue samples. Application of MTX principally induced prominent large vacuolization in the proximal convoluted tubule cells, and focal thickening in the glomerular basal lamina of some glomeruli. A decrease in tissue SOD (superoxide dismutase) and GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase), and an increase in serum urea nitrogen and creatinine and in tissue MDA (malondialdehyde) levels were also seen in the MTX group. These changes were significantly reversed in the MTX-plus-NAC-treated group. Most of the vacuoles in the proximal convoluted tubule cells disappeared. Furthermore, an increase in antioxidant enzyme activities, a decrease in serum urea nitrogen and creatinine, and tissue MDA levels were all significant. Additionally, an increase in the number of Ki67 positive-stained cells in proximal tubules was also noted. In conclusion, NAC may be a promising substance against MTX-induced renal damage. It might be useful to use NAC supplementally to minimize MTX-induced nephrotoxicity.

  18. N-acetylcysteine improves renal hemodynamics in rats with cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Aly M; Al Salam, Suhail; AlMahruqi, Ahmed S; Al husseni, Ishaq S; Mansour, Mohamed A; Ali, Badreldin H

    2010-01-01

    This work investigated the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), on renal hemodynamics in cisplatin (CP)-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. The animals were divided into four groups (n = 5 or 6). The first and second groups received normal saline (control) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) N-acetylcysteine (500 mg kg(-1) per day for 9 days), respectively. The third and fourth groups were given a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of CP (5 mg kg(-1)) and an i.p. injection of CP (5 mg kg(-1)) together with i.p. NAC (500 mg kg(-1) per day for 9 days), respectively. At the end of the experiment, rats were anesthetized and blood pressure and renal blood flow were monitored, followed by intravenous (i.v.) injection of norepinephrine (NE) for measurement of renal vasoconstrictor responses. CP caused a significant reduction in renal blood flow but did not affect NE-induced renal vasoconstriction. In addition, CP significantly increased plasma concentrations of urea and creatinine and urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity and kidney relative weight. CP decreased body weight and creatinine clearance. Histopathologically, CP caused remarkable renal damage compared with control. NAC alone did not produce any significant change in any of the variables measured. However, NAC significantly ameliorated CP-induced hemodynamic, biochemical and histopathological changes. The concentration of platinum in the kidneys of CP ? NAC treated rats was less than in CP-treated rats by 37%. The results show that administration of i.p. NAC (500 mg kg(-1) per day for 9 days) reversed the renal hemodynamic changes as well as the biochemical and histopathological indices of CP-induced nephrotoxicity in WKY rats.

  19. A comparison of a new mucolytic N-acetylcysteine L-lysinate with N-acetylcysteine: airway epithelial function and mucus changes in dog.

    PubMed

    Tomkiewicz, R P; App, E M; De Sanctis, G T; Coffiner, M; Maes, P; Rubin, B K; King, M

    1995-12-01

    A newly synthesized mucolytic agent, N-acetylcysteine L-lysinate (Nacystelyn) was studied. Tracheal mucus velocity (TMV), transepithelial potential difference (PD), rheological properties, and ion content of collected airway secretions were evaluated in six healthy mongrel dogs after placebo, Nacystelyn (NAL) and acetylcysteine (NAC) metered dose inhaler (MDI) aerosols. Although TMV was increased and viscoelasticity decreased after both treatments, the treatment effect with NAL was significantly greater. Furthermore, NAL increased the negative PD and CI- content of secretions in the trachea, an effect not observed after NAC. Both compounds increased ciliary beat frequency (CBF) on the frog palate at a concentration range similar to that approximated in dog airways. The increased mucociliary clearance could be partially explained by favourable rheological changes combined with stimulation of CBF. Since both compounds break disulfide bonds in mucus polymers, the greater change in mucus rheology and clearance rate after NAL, without change in water content, could be explained by the increase in CI- content. Nacystelyn appears to combine different modes of action which synergistically cause an increase in the clearance rate of airway secretions.

  20. Effect of High N-Acetylcysteine Concentrations on Antibiotic Activity against a Large Collection of Respiratory Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Landini, Giulia; Di Maggio, Tiziana; Sergio, Francesco; Docquier, Jean-Denis; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2016-01-01

    The effect of high N-acetylcysteine (NAC) concentrations (10 and 50 mM) on antibiotic activity against 40 strains of respiratory pathogens was investigated. NAC compromised the activity of carbapenems (of mostly imipenem and, to lesser extents, meropenem and ertapenem) in a dose-dependent fashion. We demonstrated chemical instability of carbapenems in the presence of NAC. With other antibiotics, 10 mM NAC had no major effects, while 50 mM NAC sporadically decreased (ceftriaxone and aminoglycosides) or increased (penicillins) antibiotic activity. PMID:27736757

  1. Glutathione and N-acetylcysteine conjugates of alpha-methyldopamine produce serotonergic neurotoxicity: possible role in methylenedioxyamphetamine-mediated neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bai, F; Lau, S S; Monks, T J

    1999-12-01

    Direct injection of either 3,4-(+/-)-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or 3,4-(+/-)-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) into the brain fails to reproduce the serotonergic neurotoxicity seen following peripheral administration. The serotonergic neurotoxicity of MDA and MDMA therefore appears to be dependent upon the generation of a neurotoxic metabolite, or metabolites, the identity of which remains unclear. alpha-Methyldopamine (alpha-MeDA) is a major metabolite of both MDA and MDMA. We have shown that intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of 2,5-bis(glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-methyldopamine [2, 5-bis(glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-MeDA] causes decreases in serotonin concentrations in the striatum, cortex, and hippocampus, and neurobehavioral effects similar to those seen following MDA and MDMA administration. In contrast, although 5-(glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-methyldopamine [5-(glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-MeDA] and 5-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)-alpha-methyldopamine [5-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)-alpha-MeDA] produce neurobehavioral changes similar to those seen with MDA and MDMA, and acute changes in brain 5-HT and dopamine concentrations, neither conjugate caused long-term decreases in 5-HT concentrations. We now report that direct intrastriatal or intracortical administration of 5-(glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-MeDA (4 x 200 or 4 x 400 nmol), 5-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)-alpha-MeDA (4 x 7 or 4 x 20 nmol), and 2, 5-bis(glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-MeDA (4 x 150 or 4 x 300 nmol) causes significant decreases in striatal and cortical 5-HT concentrations (7 days following the last injection). Interestingly, intrastriatal injection of 5-(glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-MeDA or 2, 5-bis(glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-MeDA, but not 5-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)-alpha-methyldopamine, also caused decreases in 5-HT concentrations in the ipsilateral cortex. The same pattern of changes was seen when the conjugates were injected into the cortex. The effects of the thioether conjugates of alpha-MeDA were confined to 5-HT nerve terminal fields

  2. Thiol-catalyzed formation of lactate and glycerate from glyceraldehyde. [significance in molecular evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, A. L.

    1983-01-01

    The rate of lactate formation from glyceraldehyde, catalyzed by N-acetyl-cysteine at ambient temperature in aqueous sodium phosphate (pH 7.0), is more rapid at higher sodium phosphate concentrations and remains essentially the same in the presence and absence of oxygen. The dramatic increase in the rate of glycerate formation that is brought about by this thiol, N-acetylcysteine, is accompanied by commensurate decreases in the rates of glycolate and formate production. It is suggested that the thiol-dependent formation of lactate and glycerate occurs by way of their respective thioesters. Attention is given to the significance of these reactions in the context of molecular evolution.

  3. Characterizing N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) binding for lead poisoning treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiqing; Ercal, Nuran; Huynh, Tien; Volkov, Anatoliy; Chusuei, Charles C

    2012-04-01

    Using antioxidants is an important means of treating lead poisoning. Prior in vivo studies showed marked differences between various chelator antioxidants in their ability to decrease both blood Pb(II) levels and oxidative stress resulting from lead poisoning. The comparative abilities of NAC and NACA to Pb(II) were studied in vitro, for the first time, to examine the role of the -OH/-NH(2) functional group in antioxidant binding behavior. To assay the antioxidant-divalent metal interaction, the antioxidants were probed as solid surfaces, adsorbing Pb(II) onto them. Surface characterization was carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis to quantify Pb(II) in the resulting adducts. XPS of the Pb 4f orbitals showed that more Pb(II) was chemically bound to NACA than NAC. In addition, the antioxidant surfaces probed via point-of-zero charge (PZC) measurements of NAC and NACA were obtained to gain further insight into the Pb-NAC and Pb-NACA binding, showing that Coulombic interactions played a partial role in facilitating complex formation. The data correlated well with solution analysis of metal-ligand complexation. UV-vis spectroscopy was used to probe complexation behavior. NACA was found to have the higher binding affinity as shown by free Pb(II) available in the solution after complexation from HPLC data. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was applied to delineate the structures of Pb-antioxidant complexes. Experimental results were further supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations of supermolecular interaction energies (E(inter)) showing a greater interaction of Pb(II) with NACA than NAC.

  4. Minocycline and N-acetylcysteine: A Synergistic Drug Combination to Treat Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    combination of minocycline (MINO) and N- acetyl cysteine ( NAC ) synergistically improved brain function when dosed one hour following closed cortical...combination of minocycline and N- acetylcysteine (MINO/ NAC ) synergistically 10 improved cognition and memory in a mild controlled cortical impact...MINO, 45 mg/kg) and N- acetylcysteine ( NAC , 150 mg/kg) were previously show to improve cognition and memory in rats when dosed one hour after a

  5. N-Acetylcysteine and Acute Retinal Laser Lesion in the Colubrid Snake Eye

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    immune response to acute laser injury. When we applied a thiol antioxidant, N- acetylcysteine ( NAC ) systemically, after the lesion but before the dyes... acetylcysteine on fluorescence, induced by the dye C-400, in acute retinal laser injury. Dye alone on the left. Dye plus NAC on the right. In the first two...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP020041 TITLE: N- Acetylcysteine and Acute Retinal Laser Lesion in the

  6. Effects of N-Acetylcysteine on Thresholds and Otoacoustic Emissions Following Noise Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    wearing ear plugs, muffs, etc.. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of one antioxidant, N- acetylcysteine ( NAC ), on temporary cochlear changes...EFFECTS OF N- ACETYLCYSTEINE ON THRESHOLDS AND OTOACOUSTIC EMISSIONS FOLLOWING NOISE EXPOSURE Barbara Acker-Mills, Ph.D*., CPT Martin Robinette...in humans by using both behavioral and physiological measures. Two levels of supplement (900 mg of NAC or placebo) and two levels of noise (60 dB

  7. Interactive effects of N-acetylcysteine and antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Costa-Campos, Luciane; Herrmann, Ana P; Pilz, Luísa K; Michels, Marcus; Noetzold, Guilherme; Elisabetsky, Elaine

    2013-07-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutathione precursor and glutamate modulator, has been shown to possess various clinically relevant psychopharmacological properties. Considering the role of glutamate and oxidative stress in depressive states, the poor effectiveness of antidepressant drugs (ADs) and the benefits of drug combination for treating depression, the aim of this study was to explore the possible benefit of NAC as an add on drug to treat major depression. For that matter we investigated the combination of subeffective and effective doses of NAC with subeffective and effective doses of several ADs in the mice tail suspension test. The key finding of this study is that a subeffective dose of NAC reduced the minimum effective doses of imipramine and escitalopram, but not those of desipramine and bupropion. Moreover, the same subeffective dose of NAC increased the minimum effective dose of fluoxetine in the same model. In view of the advantages associated with using the lowest effective dose of antidepressant, the results of this study suggest the potential of a clinically useful interaction of NAC with imipramine and escitalopram. Further studies are necessary to better characterize the molecular basis of such interactions, as well as to typify the particular drug combinations that would optimize NAC as an alternative for treating depression.

  8. Anxiolytic properties of N-acetylcysteine in mice.

    PubMed

    Santos, Patrícia; Herrmann, Ana P; Benvenutti, Radharani; Noetzold, Guilherme; Giongo, Franciele; Gama, Clarissa S; Piato, Angelo L; Elisabetsky, Elaine

    2017-01-15

    Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and often result in poor quality of life. Available anxiolytics show significant adverse effects as well as partial efficacy in a sizable part of patients. Innovative treatments with more favorable risk-benefit ratio are sorely needed. A growing body of clinical data indicates the benefits of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in psychiatric conditions. NAC modulates antioxidant, glutamatergic, inflammatory and neurotrophic pathways in the central nervous system, all of which are relevant to anxiety pathology. We evaluated the effects of NAC in mice models commonly used to characterize anxiolytic compounds. Male adult CF1 or BALB/c mice were treated (i.p.) acutely or subacutely (4 consecutive days) with NAC (60-150mg/kg) 60min before open field, light/dark, hole-board, social interaction, elevated T-maze or stress-induced hyperthermia tests. Diazepam (2mg/kg) was used as positive control. We found that NAC presents anxiolytic effects in all models, except for the elevated T-maze. Subacute treatments resulted in lower effective doses in comparison to acute treatment. The anxiolytic effects of NAC were comparable to diazepam. NAC is a safe and low cost medicine with suggested benefits in psychiatric conditions often presenting co-morbidity with anxiety. This study contributes evidence to support the validity of clinical trials with NAC in the context of anxiety disorders, especially considering the safety profile in comparison to the limitations of diazepam for long term treatment.

  9. N-Acetylcysteine boosts xenobiotic detoxification in shellfish.

    PubMed

    Peña-Llopis, Samuel; Serrano, Roque; Pitarch, Elena; Beltrán, Eduardo; Ibáñez, María; Hernández, Félix; Peña, Juan B

    2014-09-01

    Water pollution represents a threat of increasing importance to human health. Bivalve mollusks are filter-feeding organisms that can accumulate chemical and microbiological contaminants in their tissues from very low concentrations in the water or sediments. Consumption of contaminated shellfish is one of the main causes of seafood poisoning. Thus, marine bivalves are normally depurated in sterilized seawater for 48 h to allow the removal of bacteria. However, this depuration time might be insufficient to eliminate chemical contaminants from their tissues. We have developed a novel technology that accelerates up to fourfold the excretion rate of xenobiotics in bivalves by treatment with the antioxidant and glutathione (GSH) pro-drug N-acetylcysteine (NAC) during the depuration period. NAC improved dose-dependently the detoxification of the organophosphate (OP) pesticide fenitrothion in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, diminishing its levels up to nearly a hundred fold compared to conventional depuration, by enhancing the glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and inducing the GSH anabolism (GSH synthesis and reduction by glutathione reductase). Notably, this induction in GSH anabolism and GST activity was also observed in uncontaminated bivalves treated with NAC. As the GSH pathway is involved in the detoxification of many pollutants and biotoxins from harmful algal blooms, we validated this proof of principle in king scallops (Pecten maximus) that naturally accumulated the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxin domoic acid. We illustrate here a method that enhances the elimination of organic contaminants in shellfish, opening new avenues of depuration of marine organisms.

  10. N-acetylcysteine, a novel treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Hien Quoc; Couper, Richard T L; Tran, Cuong D; Moore, Lynette; Kelso, Richard; Butler, Ross N

    2004-01-01

    N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), being both a mucolytic agent and a thiol-containing antioxidant, may affect the establishment and maintenance of H. pylori infection within the gastric mucus layer and mucosa. Agar and broth dilution susceptibility tests determined the MIC of H. pylori strain SSI to NAC. H. pylori load in SSI strain-infected C57BL mice was determined as colony forming units per gram of gastric tissue. Gastritis assessment was scored and gastric surface hydrophobicity was determined by contact angle measurement. MICs of NAC were 5 to 10 and 10 to 15 mg/ml using the agar dilution and broth dilution methods, respectively. NAC (120 mg per day for 14 days) reduced the H. pylori load in mice by almost 1 log compared with sham treatment. Pretreatment with NAC (40 mg/day) also significantly reduced the H. pylori load but did not prevent H. pylori colonization. Both H. pylori infection and NAC reduced the surface hydrophobicity of murine gastric mucosa. No significant differences were observed in the gastritis scores of H. felis- or H. pylori-infected mice receiving either NAC or sham treatments. This study demonstrates that NAC inhibits the growth of H. pylori in both agar and broth susceptibility tests and in H. pylori-infected mice. NAC did not alter the severity of H. pylori- or H. felis-induced gastritis.

  11. Topical N-acetylcysteine improves wound healing comparable to dexpanthenol: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Abdullah; Uslukaya, Omer; Alabalık, Ulas; Turkoglu, Ahmet; Kapan, Murat; Bozdag, Zubeyir

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of dexpanthenol and N-acetylcysteine on wound healing. The wound healing process is a multifaceted sequence of activities associated with tissue restoration process. A number of investigations and clinical studies have been performed to determine new approaches for the improvement of wound healing. A total of 30 rats were divided into 3 equal groups. A linear 2-cm incision was made in the rats' skin. No treatment was administered in the first (control) group. Dexpanthenol cream was administered to the rats in the second group and 3% N-acetylcysteine cream was administered to the rats in the third group. The wound areas of all of the rats were measured on certain days. On the 21st day, all wounds were excised and histologically evaluated. The epithelialization and granulation rates between the groups were revealed to be similar in microscopic evaluations. Although the fibrosis was remarkable in the control group as compared with the other groups, it was similar in N-acetylcysteine and dexpanthenol groups. Angiogenesis rate was remarkable in the N-acetylcysteine group compared with the others. In multiple-comparison analysis, Dexpanthenol and N-acetylcysteine groups had similar results in terms of wound healing rates (P < 0.05), which were both higher than in the control group (P > 0.05). The efficacy of N-acetylcysteine in wound healing is comparable to dexpanthenol, and both substances can be used to improve wound healing.

  12. Topical N-Acetylcysteine Improves Wound Healing Comparable to Dexpanthenol: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Oguz, Abdullah; Uslukaya, Omer; Alabalık, Ulas; Turkoglu, Ahmet; Kapan, Murat; Bozdag, Zubeyir

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of dexpanthenol and N-acetylcysteine on wound healing. The wound healing process is a multifaceted sequence of activities associated with tissue restoration process. A number of investigations and clinical studies have been performed to determine new approaches for the improvement of wound healing. A total of 30 rats were divided into 3 equal groups. A linear 2-cm incision was made in the rats' skin. No treatment was administered in the first (control) group. Dexpanthenol cream was administered to the rats in the second group and 3% N-acetylcysteine cream was administered to the rats in the third group. The wound areas of all of the rats were measured on certain days. On the 21st day, all wounds were excised and histologically evaluated. The epithelialization and granulation rates between the groups were revealed to be similar in microscopic evaluations. Although the fibrosis was remarkable in the control group as compared with the other groups, it was similar in N-acetylcysteine and dexpanthenol groups. Angiogenesis rate was remarkable in the N-acetylcysteine group compared with the others. In multiple-comparison analysis, Dexpanthenol and N-acetylcysteine groups had similar results in terms of wound healing rates (P < 0.05), which were both higher than in the control group (P > 0.05). The efficacy of N-acetylcysteine in wound healing is comparable to dexpanthenol, and both substances can be used to improve wound healing. PMID:25583306

  13. N-acetylcysteine attenuates dimethylnitrosamine induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Sathish, Priya; Paramasivan, Vijayalakshmi; Palani, Vivekanandan; Sivanesan, Karthikeyan

    2011-03-05

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of various hepatic disorders and hence screening for a good hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent is the need of the hour. The present study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant property of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage in male Wistar albino rats. Administration of single dose of DMN (5mg/kg b.w.; i.p.) resulted in significant elevation in the levels of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase, indicating hepatocellular damage. Oxidative stress induced by DMN treatment was confirmed by an elevation in the status of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduction in the activities of enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase and in the levels of non-enzymic antioxidants, reduced glutathione, vitamin-C and vitamin-E in the liver tissue. DMN induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular membrane instability was further substantiated by a decline in the status of the membrane bound ATPases in the liver tissue. Post-treatment with NAC (50mg/kg b.w.; p.o.) for 7days effectively protected against the DMN induced insult to liver by preventing the elevation in the status of the serum marker enzymes and LPO, and restoring the activities of both the enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants and membrane bound ATPases towards normalcy. These results demonstrate that NAC acts as a good hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent in attenuating DMN induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage.

  14. Neuroprotective effects of N-acetylcysteine amide on experimental focal penetrating brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Günther, Mattias; Davidsson, Johan; Plantman, Stefan; Norgren, Svante; Mathiesen, Tiit; Risling, Mårten

    2015-09-01

    We examined the effects of N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) in the secondary inflammatory response following a novel method of focal penetrating traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has limited but well-documented neuroprotective effects after experimental central nervous system ischemia and TBI, but its bioavailability is very low. We tested NACA, a modified form of NAC with higher membrane and blood-brain barrier permeability. Focal penetrating TBI was produced in male Sprague-Dawley rats randomly selected for NACA treatment (n=5) and no treatment (n=5). In addition, four animals were submitted to sham surgery. After 2 hours or 24 hours the brains were removed, fresh frozen, cut in 14 μm coronal sections and subjected to immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, Fluoro-Jade and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analyses. All treated animals were given 300 mg/kg NACA intraperitoneally (IP) 2 minutes post trauma. The 24 hour survival group was given an additional bolus of 300 mg/kg IP after 4 hours. NACA treatment decreased neuronal degeneration by Fluoro-Jade at 24 hours with a mean change of 35.0% (p<0.05) and decreased TUNEL staining indicative of apoptosis at 2 hours with a mean change of 38.7% (p<0.05). Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) increased in the NACA treatment group at 24 hours with a mean change of 35.9% (p<0.05). Levels of migrating macrophages and activated microglia (Ox-42/CD11b), nitric oxide-producing inflammatory enzyme iNOS, peroxynitrite marker 3-nitrotyrosine, NFκB translocated to the nuclei, cytochrome C and Bcl-2 were not affected. NACA treatment decreased neuronal degeneration and apoptosis and increased levels of antioxidative enzyme MnSOD. The antiapoptotic effect was likely regulated by pathways other than cytochrome C. Therefore, NACA prevents brain tissue damage after focal penetrating TBI, warranting further studies towards a clinical application.

  15. The protective effect of N-acetylcysteine against acrylamide toxicity in liver and small and large intestine tissues.

    PubMed

    Altinoz, E; Turkoz, Y; Vardi, N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of N-acetylcysteine against acrylamide toxicity in liver and small and large intestine tissues in rats.The rats were divided into four groups. Acrylamide administration increased MDA levels in all tissues significantly (p < 0.05). But acrylamide+NAC administration decreased MDA levels significantly as compared to the acrylamide group, and lowered it to a level close to the control group values (p < 0.05). GSH levels in liver and small intestine tissues reduced significantly in the acrylamide group (p < 0.05). But acrylamide+NAC administration increased GSH levels significantly in all tissues. Whereas GST activity decreased significantly in the acrylamide group in liver and small intestine tissues as compared to the other groups (p < 0.05), the GST activity increased significantly in the acrylamide+NAC group in all tissues as compared to the acrylamide group (p < 0.05). Liver histopathology showed that the liver epithelial cells were damaged significantly in the acrylamide group. Small intestine histopathology showed that the intestinal villous epithelial cells were damaged significantly in the acrylamide group.Our results indicate that a high level of acrylamide causes oxidative damage in liver and small and large intestine tissues, while N-acetylcysteine administration in a pharmacological dose shows to have an antioxidant effect in preventing this damage (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 66).

  16. Oral N-acetylcysteine reduces bleomycin-induced lung damage and mucin Muc5ac expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Mata, M; Ruíz, A; Cerdá, M; Martinez-Losa, M; Cortijo, J; Santangelo, F; Serrano-Mollar, A; Llombart-Bosch, A; Morcillo, E J

    2003-12-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, therefore antioxidants may be of therapeutic value. Clinical work indicates that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may be beneficial in this disease. The activity of this antioxidant was examined on bleomycin-induced lung damage, mucus secretory cells hyperplasia and mucin Muc5ac gene expression in rats. NAC (3 mmol x kg(-1) x day(-1)) or saline was given orally to Sprague-Dawley rats for 1 week prior to a single intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (2.5 U x kg(-1)) and for 14 days postinstillation. NAC decreased collagen deposition in bleomycin-exposed rats (hydroxyproline content was 4,257+/-323 and 3,200+/-192 microg x lung(-1) in vehicle- and NAC-treated rats, respectively) and lessened the fibrotic area assessed by morphometric analysis. The bleomycin-induced increases in lung tumour necrosis factor-alpha and myeloperoxidase activity were reduced by NAC treatment. The numbers of mucus secretory cells in airway epithelium, and the Muc5ac messenger ribonucleic acid and protein expression, were markedly augmented in rats exposed to bleomycin. These changes were significantly reduced in NAC-treated rats. These results indicate that bleomycin increases the number of airway secretory cells and their mucin production, and that oral N-acetylcysteine improved pulmonary lesions and reduced the mucus hypersecretion in the bleomycin rat model.

  17. An open-label pilot study of N-acetylcysteine for skin-picking in Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jennifer L; Angulo, Moris

    2014-02-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder caused by an abnormality on the long arm of chromosome 15 (q11-q13) that results in a host of behavioral characteristics including excessive interest in food, skin picking, difficulty with a change in routine, and obsessive and compulsive behaviors. Skin-picking can result in serious and potentially life-threatening infections. Recent evidence suggests that the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate is dysregulated in obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and modulation of the glutaminergic pathway may decrease compulsive behaviors, such as recurrent hair pulling or skin-picking behaviors. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a derivative of the amino acid cysteine, is thought to act either via modulation of NMDA glutamate receptors or by increasing glutathione in pilot studies. Thirty-five individuals with confirmed PWS (ages 5-39 years, 23 females/12 males) and skin-picking behavior for more than 1 year were treated with N-acetylcysteine (Pharma-NAC®) at a dose of 450-1,200 mg/day. Skin-picking symptoms and open lesions were assessed after 12 weeks of treatment by counting and measuring lesions before and after the medication. All 35 individuals had improvement in skin-picking behaviors. Ten (29%) individuals (six males and four females) did not have complete resolution of skin-picking behavior, but had significant reduction in the number of active lesions. Longer-term, placebo-controlled trials are needed to further assess the potential benefit of this treatment.

  18. The effect of N-acetylcysteine on the antitumor activity of ifosfamide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nancy; Hanly, Lauren; Rieder, Michael; Yeger, Herman; Koren, Gideon

    2011-05-01

    Ifosfamide-induced nephrotoxicity is a serious adverse effect in children undergoing chemotherapy. Our previous cell and rodent models have shown that the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), used extensively as an antidote for acetaminophen poisoning, protects renal tubular cells from ifosfamide-induced nephrotoxicity at a clinically relevant concentration. For the use of NAC to be clinically relevant in preventing ifosfamide nephrotoxicity, we must ensure there is no effect of NAC on the antitumor activity of ifosfamide. Common pediatric tumors that are sensitive to ifosfamide, human neuroblastoma SK-N-BE(2) and rhabdomyosarcoma RD114-B cells, received either no pretreatment or pretreatment with 400 µmol/L of NAC, followed by concurrent treatment with NAC and either ifosfamide or the active agent ifosfamide mustard. Ifosfamide mustard significantly decreased the growth of both cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.001). The different combined treatments of NAC alone, sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate alone, or NAC plus sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate did not significantly interfere with the tumor cytotoxic effect of ifosfamide mustard. These observations suggest that NAC may improve the risk/benefit ratio of ifosfamide by decreasing ifosfamide-induced nephrotoxicity without interfering with its antitumor effect in cancer cells clinically treated with ifosfamide.

  19. N-acetylcysteine impairs survival of luteal cells through mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Löhrke, Berthold; Xu, Jinxian; Weitzel, Joachim M; Krüger, Burkhard; Goldammer, Tom; Viergutz, Torsten

    2010-04-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is known as an antioxidant and used for mucus viscosity reduction. However, this drug prevents or induces cell death depending on the cell type. The response of steroidogenic luteal cells to NAC is unknown. Our data shows that NAC can behave as an antioxidant or prooxidant in dependency on the concentration and mitochondrial energization. NAC elevated the flowcytometric-measured portion of hypodiploid (dying) cells. This rise was completely abolished by aurintricarboxylic acid, an inhibitor of topoisomerase II. NAC increased the secretion of nitric oxide and cellular nitrotyrosine. An image analysis indicated that cells pretreated with NAC and loaded with DHR showed a fluorescent structure probably elicited by the oxidative product of DHR, rhodamine 123 that sequesters mitochondrially. Pretreating luteal cells with NAC or adding NAC directly to mitochondrial fractions followed by assessing the mitochondrial transmembrane potential difference (Deltapsi) by the JC-1 technique demonstrated a marked decrease in Deltapsi. A protonophore restored Deltapsi and rotenone (an inhibitor of respiratory chain complex I) inhibited mitochondrial recovering. Thus, in steroidogenic luteal cells from healthy mature corpus luteum, NAC impairs cellular survival by interfering with mitochondrial metabolism. The protonophore-induced recovering of NAC-provoked decrease in Deltapsi indicates that an ATP synthase-favored route of H(+) re-entry to the matrix is essentially switched off by NAC while other respiratory chain complexes remain intact. These data may be important for therapeutic timing of treatments with NAC. (c) 2010 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  20. N-acetylcysteine inhibits in vivo oxidation of native low-density lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuqi; Narasimhulu, Chandrakala A.; Liu, Lingjuan; Zhang, Qingbin; Liu, Patrick Z.; Li, Xin; Xiao, Yuan; Zhang, Jia; Hao, Hong; Xie, Xiaoyun; He, Guanglong; Cui, Lianqun; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is non-atherogenic, while oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) is critical to atherosclerosis. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has anti-atherosclerotic effect with largely unknown mechanisms. The present study aimed to determine if NAC could attenuate in vivo LDL oxidation and inhibit atherosclerosis. A single dose of human native LDL was injected intravenously into male C57BL/6 mice with and without NAC treatment. Serum human ox-LDL was detected 30 min after injection, reached the peak in 3 hours, and became undetectable in 12 hours. NAC treatment significantly reduced serum ox-LDL level without detectable serum ox-LDL 6 hours after LDL injection. No difference in ox-LDL clearance was observed in NAC-treated animals. NAC treatment also significantly decreased serum ox-LDL level in patients with coronary artery diseases and hyperlipidemia without effect on LDL level. Intracellular and extracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS) production was significantly increased in the animals treated with native LDL, or ox-LDL and in hyperlipidemic LDL receptor knockout (LDLR−/−) mice that was effectively prevented with NAC treatment. NAC also significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque formation in hyperlipidemic LDLR−/− mice. NAC attenuated in vivo oxidation of native LDL and ROS formation from ox-LDL associated with decreased atherosclerotic plaque formation in hyperlipidemia. PMID:26536834

  1. Protection by N-acetylcysteine against pulmonary endothelial cell damage induced by oxidant injury.

    PubMed

    Sala, R; Moriggi, E; Corvasce, G; Morelli, D

    1993-03-01

    The protective effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against oxidant lung injury was investigated in a model of acute immunological alveolitis in the rat. Intrapulmonary immune complex deposition into rat lungs, induced by intratracheal infusion of immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-bovine serum albumin (BSA) antibodies and intravenous injection of the antigen, caused lung damage associated with a marked decrease in [14C]5-hydroxytryptamine ([14C]5HT) uptake capacity, taken as a biochemical marker of endothelial cell function. The oral administration of a single dose of NAC (2 mmol.kg-1) 60 min before antigen/antibody (Ag/Ab) treatment was effective in preventing pulmonary endothelial cell [14C]5HT uptake loss induced by immune complex deposition. The mechanisms involved in this lung protective action of NAC were investigated by studying the antioxidant activity of NAC on hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase-induced lung damage in vitro, and the effectiveness of the drug as lung glutathione (reduced form) (GSH) precursor in diethylmaleate-depleted rats. The results obtained provide further evidence on the ability of NAC to reduce the susceptibility of lung tissue to free radical-induced damage, by potentiating the antioxidant defence systems.

  2. N-acetylcysteine induces shedding of selectins from liver and intestine during orthotopic liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Taut, F J H; Schmidt, H; Zapletal, C M; Thies, J C; Grube, C; Motsch, J; Klar, E; Martin, E

    2001-01-01

    In orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduces ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, improves liver synthesis function and prevents primary nonfunction of the graft. To further elucidate the mechanisms of these beneficial effects of NAC, we investigated influence of high-dose NAC therapy on the pattern of adhesion molecule release from liver and intestine during OLT. Nine patients receiving allograft OLT were treated with 150 mg NAC/kg during the first hour after reperfusion; 10 patients received the carrier only. One hour after reperfusion, samples of arterial, portal venous and hepatic venous plasma were taken and blood flow in the hepatic artery and the portal vein was measured. Absolute concentrations of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sP-selectin and sE-selectin were not markedly different. However, balance calculations showed release of selectins from NAC-treated livers as opposed to net uptake in controls (P ≤ 0·02 for sP-selectin). This shedding of selectins might be a contributing factor to the decrease in leucocyte adherence and improved haemodynamics found experimentally with NAC-treatment. PMID:11422213

  3. N-Acetylcysteine treatment of rotavirus-associated diarrhea in children.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Carlos A; Torres, Diana P; García, Leidy L; Guerrero, Rafael A; Acosta, Orlando

    2014-11-01

    Rotaviruses are the leading cause of severe, acute, and dehydrating diarrhea affecting children under 5 years of age worldwide. Despite an important reduction in rotavirus-caused deaths as a consequence of the rotavirus vaccine, alternative or complementary strategies for preventing or treating rotavirus-associated diarrhea are needed mainly in the poorest countries. We describe the cases of four rotavirus-unvaccinated 12-13-month-old girls and a 5-year-old boy who developed rotavirus-associated diarrhea confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, and immunochemistry analyses. After the first day of diarrheal episodes, three of the five patients were immediately administered oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) 60 mg/kg daily, divided into three equal doses every 8 hours. The other two patients did not receive NAC and served as controls. Administration of NAC resulted in a decreased number of diarrheal episodes, excretion of fecal rotavirus antigen, and resolution of symptoms after 2 days of treatment. Our results suggest that NAC treatment after the first diarrheal episode could be an efficient strategy for treating rotavirus-affected children and preventing the associated severe life-threatening accompanying dehydration.

  4. The effect of N-acetylcysteine on chloride efflux from airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Varelogianni, Georgia; Oliynyk, Igor; Roomans, Godfried M; Johannesson, Marie

    2010-01-27

    Defective chloride transport in epithelial cells increases mucus viscosity and leads to recurrent infections with high oxidative stress in patients with CF (cystic fibrosis). NAC (N-acetylcysteine) is a well known mucolytic and antioxidant drug, and an indirect precursor of glutathione. Since GSNO (S-nitrosoglutathione) previously has been shown to be able to promote Cl- efflux from CF airway epithelial cells, it was investigated whether NAC also could stimulate Cl- efflux from CF and non-CF epithelial cells and through which mechanisms. CFBE (CF bronchial epithelial cells) and normal bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) were treated with 1 mM, 5 mM, 10 mM or 15 mM NAC for 4 h at 37 degrees C. The effect of NAC on Cl- transport was measured by Cl- efflux measurements and by X-ray microanalysis. Cl- efflux from CFBE cells was stimulated by NAC in a dose-dependent manner, with 10 mM NAC causing a significant increase in Cl- efflux with nearly 80% in CFBE cells. The intracellular Cl- concentration in CFBE cells was significantly decreased up to 60% after 4 h treatment with 10 mM NAC. Moreover immunocytochemistry and Western blot experiments revealed expression of CFTR channel on CFBE cells after treatment with 10 mM NAC. The stimulation of Cl- efflux by NAC in CF airway epithelial cells may improve hydration of the mucus and thereby be beneficial for CF patients.

  5. N-Acetylcysteine Attenuates Diabetic Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury through Inhibiting Excessive Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng; Yan, Fuxia; Wang, Tingting; He, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Background. Excessive autophagy is a major mechanism of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (I/RI) in diabetes with enhanced oxidative stress. Antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduces myocardial I/RI. It is unknown if inhibition of autophagy may represent a mechanism whereby NAC confers cardioprotection in diabetes. Methods and Results. Diabetes was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats with streptozotocin and they were treated without or with NAC (1.5 g/kg/day) for four weeks before being subjected to 30-minute coronary occlusion and 2-hour reperfusion. The results showed that cardiac levels of 15-F2t-Isoprostane were increased and that autophagy was evidenced as increases in ratio of LC3 II/I and protein P62 and AMPK and mTOR expressions were significantly increased in diabetic compared to nondiabetic rats, concomitant with increased postischemic myocardial infarct size and CK-MB release but decreased Akt and eNOS activation. Diabetes was also associated with increased postischemic apoptotic cell death manifested as increases in TUNEL positive cells, cleaved-caspase-3, and ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression. NAC significantly attenuated I/RI-induced increases in oxidative stress and cardiac apoptosis, prevented postischemic autophagy formation in diabetes, and reduced postischemic myocardial infarction (all p < 0.05). Conclusions. NAC confers cardioprotection against diabetic heart I/RI primarily through inhibiting excessive autophagy which might be a major mechanism why diabetic hearts are less tolerant to I/RI. PMID:28265179

  6. Formation of the thioester, N-acetyl, S-lactoylcysteine, by reaction of N-acetylcysteine with pyruvaldehyde in aqueous solution. [in prebiotic evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine reacts efficiently with pyruvaldehyde (methylglyoxal) in aqueous solution (pH 7.0) in the presence of a weak base, like imidazole or phosphate, to give the thioester, N-acetyl, S-lactoylcysteine. Reactions of 100 mM N-acetylcysteine with 14 mM, 24 mM and 41 mM pyruvaldehyde yield, respectively, 86%, 76% and 59% N-acetyl, S-lactoylcysteine based on pyruvaldehyde. The decrease in the percent yield at higher pyruvaldehyde concentrations suggests that during its formation the thioester is not only consumed by hydrolysis, but also by reaction with some substance in the pyruvaldehyde preparation. Indeed, purified N-acetyl, S-lactoylcysteine disappears much more rapidly in the presence of pyruvaldehyde than in its absence. Presumably, N-acetyl, S-lactoylcysteine synthesis occurs by rearrangement of the hemithioacetal of N-acetylcysteine and pyruvaldehyde. The significance of this pathway of thioester formation to molecular evolution is discussed.

  7. Hypothyroidism decreases JAK/STAT signaling pathway in lactating rat mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Campo Verde Arboccó, Fiorella; Persia, Fabio Andres; Hapon, María Belén; Jahn, Graciela A

    2017-04-05

    Thyroid pathologies have deleterious effects on lactation. Especially hypothyroidism (HypoT) induces premature mammary involution at the end of lactation and decreases milk production and quality in mid lactation. Milk synthesis is controlled by JAK2/STAT5 signaling pathway and prolactin (PRL), which activates the pathway. In this work we analyzed the effect of chronic 6-propyl-2- thiouracil (PTU)-induced HypoT on PRL signaling pathway on mammary glands from rats on lactation (L) days 2, 7 and 14. HypoT decreased prolactin receptor expression, and expression and activation of Stat5a/b protein. Expression of members of the SOCS-CIS family, inhibitors of the JAK-STAT pathway, decreased in L2 and L7, possibly as a compensatory response of the mammary cells to maintain PRL responsiveness. However, on L14, the level of these inhibitors was normal and the transcription of α-lactoalbumin (lalba), a target gene of the PRL pathway, decreased by half. HypoT altered the transcriptional capacity of the cell and decreased mRNA levels of Prlr and Stat5b on L14. Stat5b gene has functional thyroid hormone response elements in the regulatory regions, that bind thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) differentially and in a thyroid hormone dependent manner. The overall decrease in the PRL signaling pathway and consequently in target gene (lalba) mRNA transcription explain the profound negative impact of HypoT on mammary function through lactation.

  8. [ROLE OF NEUTRAL SPHINGOMYELINASE IN AGE-DEPENDENT MUSCLE INSULIN RESISTANCE DEVELOPMENT AND ITS IMPROVEMENT WITH N-ACETYLCYSTEINE].

    PubMed

    Babenko, N A; Timofiĭchuk, O A; Belyĭ, A N

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the role of ceramide in age-dependent and etoposide-induced insulin resistance. A significant increase in the level of ceramide and decrease of gluthatione (GSH) content and tissue sensitivity to insulin has been observed in 24-month-old rats as compared with 3-month-old animals. Etoposide imitates ageing-like changes in muscle tissue of young rats. N-acetylcysteine as well as specific neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) inhibitor--GW4869, decreases ceramide content and increases GSH level, and enhances the insulin-induced [3H-D-glucose uptake in the "aged" tissue. These data indicate that nSMase play important role in the age- and drug-induced ceramide-dependent insuline resistance.

  9. N-acetylcysteine reverses cardiac myocyte dysfunction in a rodent model of behavioral stress

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fangping; Hadfield, Jessalyn M.; Berzingi, Chalak; Hollander, John M.; Miller, Diane B.; Nichols, Cody E.

    2013-01-01

    Compelling clinical reports reveal that behavioral stress alone is sufficient to cause reversible myocardial dysfunction in selected individuals. We developed a rodent stress cardiomyopathy model by a combination of prenatal and postnatal behavioral stresses (Stress). We previously reported a decrease in percent fractional shortening by echo, both systolic and diastolic dysfunction by catheter-based hemodynamics, as well as attenuated hemodynamic and inotropic responses to the β-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol (ISO) in Stress rats compared with matched controls (Kan H, Birkle D, Jain AC, Failinger C, Xie S, Finkel MS. J Appl Physiol 98: 77–82, 2005). We now report enhanced catecholamine responses to behavioral stress, as evidenced by increased circulating plasma levels of norepinephrine (P < 0.01) and epinephrine (P < 0.01) in Stress rats vs. controls. Cardiac myocytes isolated from Stress rats also reveal evidence of oxidative stress, as indicated by decreased ATP, increased GSSG, and decreased GSH-to-GSSG ratio in the presence of increased GSH peroxidase and catalase activities (P < 0.01, for each). We also report blunted inotropic and intracellular Ca2+ concentration responses to extracellular Ca2+ (P < 0.05), as well as altered inotropic responses to the intracellular calcium regulator, caffeine (20 mM; P < 0.01). Treatment of cardiac myocytes with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (10−3 M) normalized calcium handling in response to ISO and extracellular Ca2+ concentration and inotropic response to caffeine (P < 0.01, for each). NAC also attenuated the blunted inotropic response to ISO and Ca2+ (P < 0.01, for each). Surprisingly, NAC did not reverse the changes in GSH, GSSG, or GSH-to-GSSG ratio. These data support a GSH-independent salutary effect of NAC on intracellular calcium signaling in this rodent model of stress-induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:23722706

  10. Similarities between N-Acetylcysteine and Glutathione in Binding to Lead(II) Ions.

    PubMed

    Sisombath, Natalie S; Jalilehvand, Farideh

    2015-12-21

    N-Acetylcysteine is a natural thiol-containing antioxidant, a precursor for cysteine and glutathione, and a potential detoxifying agent for heavy metal ions. However, previous accounts of the efficiency of N-acetylcysteine (H2NAC) in excretion of lead are few and contradicting. Here, we report results on the nature of lead(II) complexes formed with N-acetylcysteine in aqueous solution, which were obtained by combining information from several spectroscopic methods, including (207)Pb, (13)C, and (1)H NMR, Pb LIII-edge X-ray absorption, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, and electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Two series of solutions were used containing CPb(II) = 10 and 100 mM, respectively, varying the H2NAC/Pb(II) mole ratios from 2.1 to 10.0 at pH 9.1-9.4. The coordination environments obtained resemble those previously found for the Pb(II) glutathione system: at a ligand-to-lead mole ratio of 2.1, dimeric or oligomeric Pb(II) N-acetylcysteine complexes are formed, while a trithiolate [Pb(NAC)3](4-) complex dominates in solutions with H2NAC/Pb(II) mole ratios >3.0.

  11. Cardiovascular effects of N-acetylcysteine in meconium-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Mokra, D; Tonhajzerova, I; Pistekova, H; Visnovcova, Z; Drgova, A; Mokry, J; Calkovska, A

    2015-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory drugs are increasingly used for treatment of neonatal meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), but their adverse effects are poorly known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine on cardiovascular parameters in an animal model of MAS. Oxygen-ventilated rabbits were intratracheally instilled 4 mL/kg of meconium suspension (25 mg/mL) or saline. Thirty minutes later, meconium-instilled animals were given N-acetylcysteine (10 mg/kg, i.v.) or the same volume of saline. Changes in cardiovascular parameters (blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability) were recorded over a 5-min course of solution administration, over 5 min after its end, and then hourly for 5 h. Oxidation markers (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidant status) and aldosterone, as a non-specific marker of cardiovascular injury, were determined in plasma. Meconium instillation did not evoke any significant cardiovascular changes, but induced oxidative stress and elevated plasma aldosterone. N-acetylcysteine significantly reduced the mentioned markers of injury. However, its administration was associated with short-term increases in blood pressure and in several parameters of heart rate variability. Considering these effects of N-acetylcysteine, its intravenous administration in newborns with MAS should be carefully monitored.

  12. N-acetylcysteine Boosts Brain and Blood Glutathione in Gaucher and Parkinson’s Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Holmay, Mary J.; Terpstra, Melissa; Coles, Lisa D.; Mishra, Usha; Ahlskog, Matthew; Öz, Gülin; Cloyd, James C.; Tuite, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine is able to alter peripheral and central redox capabilities in patients with Parkinson’s or Gaucher disease. Methods The study included non-demented adult subjects: 3 with Parkinson’s disease, 3 with Gaucher disease and 3 healthy controls. Baseline brain glutathione concentrations were measured using 7 Tesla magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Baseline blood reduced-to-oxidized glutathione ratios were determined for each subject. Brain glutathione concentrations and blood redox ratios were then determined during and at specified time points after a single, 150mg/kg N-acetylcysteine infusion. Results N-acetylcysteine increased blood glutathione redox ratios in those with Parkinson’s and Gaucher disease and healthy controls, which was followed by an increase in brain glutathione concentrations in all subjects. Conclusions This is the first demonstration that with magnetic resonance spectroscopy, it is possible to directly measure and monitor increases in brain glutathione levels in the human brain in response to a single, intravenous administration of N-acetylcysteine. This work shows the potential utility of magnetic resonance spectroscopy monitoring which could assist in determining dosing regimens for clinical trials of this potentially useful antioxidant therapy for Parkinson’s disease, Gaucher disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:23860343

  13. Similarities between N-acetylcysteine and Glutathione in Binding to Lead(II) Ions

    PubMed Central

    Sisombath, Natalie S.; Jalilehvand, Farideh

    2015-01-01

    N -acetylcysteine is a natural thiol-containing antioxidant, a precursor for cysteine and glutathione, and a potential detoxifying agent for heavy metal ions. However, previous accounts of the efficiency of N-acetylcysteine (H2NAC) in excretion of lead are few and contradicting. Here we report results on the nature of lead(II) complexes formed with N-acetylcysteine in aqueous solution, which were obtained by combining information from several spectroscopic methods, including 207Pb, 13C and 1H NMR, Pb LIII-edge X-ray absorption, Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis.) spectroscopy and electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Two series of solutions were used containing CPb(II) = 10 and 100 mM, respectively, varying the H2NAC / Pb(II) mole ratios from 2.1 to 10.0 at pH = 9.1 – 9.4. The coordination environments obtained resemble those previously found for the Pb(II) glutathione system: at a ligand-to-lead mole ratio of 2.1 dimeric or oligomeric Pb(II) N-acetylcysteine complexes are formed, while a tri-thiolate [Pb(NAC)3]4− complex dominates in solutions with H2NAC/Pb(II) mole ratios > 3.0. PMID:26624959

  14. A Biomedical Application of Activated Carbon Adsorption: An Experiment Using Acetaminophen and N-Acetylcysteine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybolt, Thomas R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Illustrates an interesting biomedical application of adsorption from solution and demonstrates some of the factors that influence the in vivo adsorption of drug molecules onto activated charcoal. Uses acetaminophen and N-acetylcysteine for the determination. Suggests several related experiments. (MVL)

  15. N-acetylcysteine attenuates progression of liver pathology in a rat model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A "two-hit" model for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has been proposed in which steatosis constitutes the "first hit" and sensitizes the liver to potential "second hits" resulting in NASH. Oxidative stress is considered a candidate for the second hit. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, ...

  16. Disruption of steroidogenesis after dimethoate exposure and efficacy of N-acetylcysteine in rats: an old drug with new approaches.

    PubMed

    Jallouli, Manel; El Bini Dhouib, Ines; Dhouib, Hanène; Lasram, Montassar; Gharbi, Najoua; El Fazaa, Saloua

    2016-04-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) like dimethoate (DMT), are pesticides used worldwide, which can affect both animals and human. Whereas their toxicity is due to acetylcholinesterase inhibition, their secondary toxic effects have been related to free oxygen radical biosynthesis. The present study was designed to investigate the reprotoxic effects of DMT and the protective role of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in male rat. DMT (20 mg/ kg/body weight) was administered daily to rats via gavage in corn oil and NAC (2 g/l) was added to drinking water for 30 days. Rats were sacrificed on the 30th day, 2 h after the last administration. Markers of testis injury (steroidogenesis impairment) and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and antioxidant status) were assessed. In DMT-exposed rats, the serum level of testosterone was decreased. Further, a significant increase in lipid peroxidation level and a significant decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were observed in the testis of rats during DMT intoxication. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated a decrease in messenger RNA (mRNA) levels for testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory StAR protein, cytochrome P450scc, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), and 17β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) in the testis after DMT exposure. No significant changes in the oxidative stress status and selected reproductive variables were observed on CTN group, whereas NAC restored the oxidative stress and the steroidogenesis on NAC group. Dimethoate induces reprotoxicity and oxidative stress. N-acetylcysteine showed therapeutic recovery effects against dimethoate toxicity.

  17. N-Acetylcysteine treatment of dystrophic mdx mice results in protein thiol modifications and inhibition of exercise induced myofibre necrosis.

    PubMed

    Terrill, Jessica R; Radley-Crabb, Hannah G; Grounds, Miranda D; Arthur, Peter G

    2012-05-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated as a factor that increases necrosis of skeletal muscles in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) and the dystrophic mdx mouse. Consequently, drugs that minimize oxidative stress are potential treatments for muscular dystrophy. This study examined the in vivo benefits to mdx mice of an antioxidant treatment with the cysteine precursor N-acetylcysteine (NAC), administered in drinking water. NAC was completely effective in preventing treadmill exercise-induced myofibre necrosis (assessed histologically) and the increased blood creatine kinase levels (a measure of sarcolemma leakiness) following exercise were significantly lower in the NAC treated mice. While NAC had no effect on malondialdehyde level or protein carbonylation (two indicators of irreversible oxidative damage), treatment with NAC for one week significantly decreased the oxidation of glutathione and protein thiols, and enhanced muscle protein thiol content. These data provide in vivo evidence for protective benefits of NAC treatment on dystropathology, potentially via protein thiol modifications.

  18. Enhanced inhibition of bacterial biofilm formation and reduced leukocyte toxicity by chloramphenicol:β-cyclodextrin:N-acetylcysteine complex.

    PubMed

    Aiassa, Virginia; Zoppi, Ariana; Becerra, M Cecilia; Albesa, Inés; Longhi, Marcela R

    2016-11-05

    The purpose of this study was to improve the physicochemical and biological properties of chloramphenicol (CP) by multicomponent complexation with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The present work describes the ability of solid multicomponent complex (MC) to decrease biomass and cellular activity of Staphylococcus by crystal violet and XTT assay, and leukocyte toxicity, measuring the increase of reactive oxygen species by chemiluminescence, and using 123-dihydrorhodamine. In addition, MC was prepared by the freeze-drying or physical mixture methods, and then characterized by scanning electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. Nuclear magnetic resonance and phase solubility studies provided information at the molecular level on the structure of the MC and its association binding constants, respectively. The results obtained allowed us to conclude that MC formation is an effective pharmaceutical strategy that can reduce CP toxicity against leukocytes, while enhancing its solubility and antibiofilm activity.

  19. N-acetylcysteine protects mice from lethal endotoxemia by regulating the redox state of immune cells.

    PubMed

    Victor, Victor M; Rocha, Milagros; De la Fuente, Monica

    2003-09-01

    The excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated with inflammation leads to oxidative stress, which is involved with the high mortality from several diseases such as endotoxic shock and can be controlled to a certain degree by antioxidants. The immune cells use ROS in order to support their functions and, therefore, need adequate levels of antioxidant defenses in order to avoid the harmful effect of an excessive ROS production. In the present work, the effect of the administration of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the redox state of peritoneal macrophages and lymphocytes from mice with lethal endotoxic shock (100 mg/kg i.p. of lipopolysaccharide, LPS), was studied. In both types of immune cells at 0, 2, 4, 12 and 24 h after LPS injection, an increase of ROS, of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), the lipid peroxidation (malonaldehyde levels, MDA), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and the oxidized/reduced glutathione (GSSG/GSH) ratio, as well as a decrease of enzymatic antioxidant defenses, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity, was observed. The injection of NAC (150 mg/kg i.p. at 30 min after LPS injection) decreased the ROS, the TNFalpha the MDA levels, iNOS expression and the GSSG/GSH ratio, and increased the antioxidant defenses in both macrophages and lymphocytes. Moreover, the NAC treatment prevented the activation of nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), which regulates ROS, inflammatory cytokines and antioxidant levels. Our present results provide evidence that both cell types have a relevant role in the pathogenesis of endotoxic shock, and that NAC, by improving the redox state of these immune cells, could increase mouse survival. Thus, antioxidants could offer an alternative treatment of human endotoxic shock.

  20. Vitamin B5 and N-acetylcysteine in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a pre-clinical study in a dietary mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Mariana Verdelho; Kruger, Leandi; Jewell, Mark L.; Michelotti, Gregory Alexander; de Almeida Pereira, Thiago; Xie, Guanhua; Moylan, Cynthia A.; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2015-01-01

    Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the number one cause of chronic liver disease and second indication for liver transplantation in the Western world. Effective therapy is still not available. Previously we showed a critical role for caspase-2 in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the potentially progressive form of NAFLD. An imbalance between free Coenzyme A (CoA) and acyl-CoA ratio is known to induce caspase-2 activation. Objectives We aimed to evaluate CoA metabolism and the effects of supplementation with CoA precursors, pantothenate and cysteine, in mouse models of NASH. Methods CoA metabolism was evaluated in methionine-choline deficient (MCD) and Western diet mouse models of NASH. MCD-diet fed mice were treated with pantothenate and N-acetylcysteine or placebo to determine effects on NASH. Results Liver free CoA content was reduced, pantothenate kinase (PANK), the rate-limiting enzyme in the CoA biosynthesis pathway, was down-regulated, and CoA degrading enzymes were increased in mice with NASH. Decreased hepatic free CoA content was associated with increased caspase-2 activity, and correlated with worse liver cell apoptosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Treatment with pantothenate and N-acetylcysteine did not inhibit caspase-2 activation, improve NASH, normalize PANK expression, or restore free CoA levels in MCD diet-fed mice. Conclusion In mice with NASH, hepatic CoA metabolism is impaired, leading to decreased free CoA content, activation of caspase-2, and increased liver cell apoptosis. Dietary supplementation with CoA precursors did not restore CoA levels or improve NASH, suggesting that alternative approaches are necessary to normalize free CoA during NASH. PMID:26403427

  1. N-Acetylcysteine as a Potential Antidote and Biomonitoring Agent of Methylmercury Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Aremu, David A.; Madejczyk, Michael S.; Ballatori, Nazzareno

    2008-01-01

    Background Many people, by means of consumption of seafood or other anthropogenic sources, are exposed to levels of methylmercury (MeHg) that are generally considered to be quite low, but that may nevertheless produce irreversible brain damage, particularly in unborn babies. The only way to prevent or ameliorate MeHg toxicity is to enhance its elimination from the body. Objectives Using N-acetylcysteine (NAC), we aimed to devise a monitoring protocol for early detection of acute exposure or relatively low MeHg levels in a rodent model, and to test whether NAC reduces MeHg levels in the developing embryo. Results NAC produced a transient, dose-dependent acceleration of urinary MeHg excretion in rats of both sexes. Approximately 5% of various MeHg doses was excreted in urine 2 hr after injection of 1 mmol/kg NAC. In pregnant rats, NAC markedly reduced the body burden of MeHg, particularly in target tissues such as brain, placenta, and fetus. In contrast, NAC had no significant effect on urinary MeHg excretion in preweanling rats. Conclusions Because NAC causes a transient increase in urinary excretion of MeHg that is proportional to the body burden, it is promising as a biomonitoring agent for MeHg in adult animals. In view of this and because NAC is effective at enhancing MeHg excretion when given either orally or intravenously, can decrease brain and fetal levels of MeHg, has minimal side effects, and is widely available in clinical settings, NAC should be evaluated as a potential antidote and biomonitoring agent in humans. PMID:18197295

  2. N-acetylcysteine Ameliorates Prostatitis via miR-141 Regulating Keap1/Nrf2 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang-Liang; Huang, Yu-Hua; Yan, Chun-Yin; Wei, Xue-Dong; Hou, Jian-Quan; Pu, Jin-Xian; Lv, Jin-Xing

    2016-04-01

    Chronic prostatitis was the most common type of prostatitis and oxidative stress was reported to be highly elevated in prostatitis patients. In this study, we determined the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on prostatitis and the molecular mechanism involved in it. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control group (group A, n = 20), carrageenan-induced chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP) model group (group B, n = 20), and carrageenan-induced CNP model group with NAC injection (group C, n = 20). Eye score, locomotion score, inflammatory cell count, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression, and Evans blue were compared in these three groups. The expression of miR-141 was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Moreover, protein expressions of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1) and nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its target genes were examined by Western blot. Luciferase reporter assay was performed in RWPE-1 cells transfected miR-141 mimic or inhibitor and the plasmid carrying 3'-UTR of Keap1. The value of eye score, locomotion score, inflammatory cell count, and Evans blue were significantly decreased in group C, as well as the expression of COX2, when comparing to that of group B. These results indicated that NAC relieved the carrageenan-induced CNP. Further, we found that NAC increased the expression of miR-141 and activated the Keap1/Nrf2 signaling. Luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-141 mimic could suppress the activity of Keap1 and stimulate the downstream target genes of Nrf2. In addition, miR-141 inhibitor could reduce the effect of NAC on prostatitis. NAC ameliorates the carrageenan-induced prostatitis and prostate inflammation pain through miR-141 regulating Keap1/Nrf2 signaling.

  3. N-acetylcysteine inhibits Na+ absorption across human nasal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rochat, Thierry; Lacroix, Jean-Silvain; Jornot, Lan

    2004-10-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a widely used mucolytic drug in patients with a variety of respiratory disorders. The mechanism of action is based on rupture of the disulfide bridges of the high molecular glycoproteins present in the mucus, resulting in smaller subunits of the glycoproteins and reduced viscosity of the mucus. Because Na(+) absorption regulates airway surface liquid volume and thus the efficiency of mucociliary clearance, we asked whether NAC affects the bioelectric properties of human nasal epithelial cells. A 24-h basolateral treatment with 10 mM of NAC decreased the transepithelial potential difference and short-circuit current (I(SC)) by 40%, and reduced the amiloride-sensitive current by 50%, without affecting the transepithelial resistance. After permeabilization of the basolateral membranes of cells with amphotericin B in the presence of a mucosal-to-serosal Na(+) gradient (135:25 mM), NAC inhibited 45% of the amiloride-sensitive current. The Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pump activity and the basolateral K(+) conductance were not affected by NAC treatment. NAC did not alter total cell mRNA and protein levels of alpha-epithelial Na(+) channel (EnaC) subunit, but reduced abundance of alpha-ENaC subunits in the apical cell membrane as quantified by biotinylation. This effect can be ascribed to the sulphydryl (SH) group of NAC, since N-acetylserine and S-carboxymethyl-l-cysteine were ineffective. Given the importance of epithelial Na(+) channels in controlling the thin layer of fluid that covers the surface of the airways, the increase in the fluidity of the airway mucus following NAC treatment in vivo might be in part related to downregulation of Na(+) absorption and consequently water transport.

  4. N-acetylcysteine prevents behavioral and biochemical changes induced by alcohol cessation in rats.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ricardo; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Clarimundo, Vanessa; Dalmaz, Carla; Elisabetsky, Elaine; Gomez, Rosane

    2015-05-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutamate-modulating agent with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, has been considered as a potential anti-addictive drug. Beneficial effects were reported for cocaine, cannabis, and tobacco addicts, but the effect of NAC in alcoholics or in alcohol animal models is unknown. The aggravation of alcohol withdrawal symptoms, such as anxiety, has been associated with increased levels of serum corticosterone and leptin. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of NAC on anxiety, as well as corticosterone and leptin serum levels, after cessation of chronic alcohol treatment in rats. Male Wistar rats were treated with 2 g/kg ethanol, twice daily, by gavage for 30 days; control animals received an appropriate dose of glucose to balance caloric intake. Rats were treated for 4 days with NAC (60 and 90 mg/kg, intra-peritoneally [i.p.]) or saline after alcohol cessation. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, rats were exposed to a 5-min session in the open-field test (OF). Corticosterone and leptin serum levels were determined by ELISA in samples collected within 30 min after the OF. Results showed that rats were hypoactive (decreased rearing, peripheral, and total crossings), and that corticosterone and leptin levels were increased 5 days after alcohol cessation. Four days of NAC prevented the behavioral and biochemical changes brought about by alcohol cessation. We suggest that, in addition to the anti-addictive properties reported for other drugs of abuse, NAC is potentially useful in the management of alcohol withdrawal.

  5. Extrapancreatic organ impairment during acute pancreatitis induced by bile-pancreatic duct obstruction. Effect of N-acetylcysteine

    PubMed Central

    Manso, Manuel A; Ramudo, Laura; De Dios, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Summary Multiple organ failure is frequently associated with acute pancreatitis (AP). Our aim was to study pulmonary, hepatic and renal complications developed in the course of AP experimentally induced in rats by bile-pancreatic duct obstruction (BPDO), differentiating the complications caused by AP itself, from those directly caused by bile duct obstruction (BDO), after ligating the choledocus. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was administered as a therapeutic approach. Myeloperoxidase activity revealed neutrophil infiltration in lungs from 12 h after BDO, even if AP was not triggered. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity indicated hepatocyte death from 48 h after BDO, and from 24 h following BPDO-induced AP onwards, an effect delayed until 48 h by NAC treatment. Rats with single cholestasis (BDO) and rats with BPDO-induced AP showed a significant increase in plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and bilirubin concentration from 12 h onwards, whose values were reduced by NAC treatment at early BPDO. No renal failure was found during 120 h of bile-pancreatic obstruction. Our results showed lung and liver impairment as a result of BDO, even if AP does not develop. Pancreatic damage and extrapancreatic complications during AP induced by BPDO were palliated by NAC treatment. PMID:17877536

  6. Is N-acetylcysteine effective in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis?

    PubMed

    Jeldres Pulgar, Alejandro; Labarca, Gonzalo

    2016-09-29

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive chronic respiratory disease that in final stages carries high mortality. Several treatment options have been proposed, including N-acetylcysteine, but its role is not clearly established. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified eight systematic reviews including 16 trials addressing the question of this article. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded N-acetylcysteine might increase the risk of hospitalizations and exacerbations. While it is unclear whether this leads to increased mortality because the certainty of the evidence is very low, in general there is consensus that it should not be used except in the context of a new clinical trial.

  7. N-acetylcysteine and Unverricht-Lundborg disease: variable response and possible side effects.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M J J; Hargreaves, I P; Heales, S J R; Jones, S J; Ramachandran, V; Bhatia, K P; Sisodiya, S

    2002-11-12

    Serum glutathione levels were assessed in a patient with genetically proven Unverricht-Lundborg disease (ULD) before and during treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Glutathione levels were low before treatment, and increased during treatment. This increase was mirrored by an improvement in seizures, but not in myoclonus or ataxia. Three other patients with clinically determined ULD showed a variable response and some notable side effects during treatment with NAC.

  8. Minocycline and N-acetylcysteine: A Synergistic Drug Combination to Treat Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    The grantee previously found screened that the combination of minocycline (MINO) and N- acetyl cysteine ( NAC ) synergistically improved brain function... acetylcysteine (MINO/ NAC ) synergistically improved cognition and memory in a mild controlled cortical impact (mCCI) model of TBI. mCCI induced a long...W81XWH-10-2-0171 TITLE: Minocycline and N- acetylcysteine : a synergistic drug combination to treat traumatic brain injury PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  9. Inhibition by oral N-acetylcysteine of cigarette smoke-induced "bronchitis" in the rat.

    PubMed

    Rogers, D F; Jeffery, P K

    1986-01-01

    Specific pathogen-free rats were exposed to the cigarette smoke (CS) of 25 cigarettes daily for 14 days and concurrently given N-acetylcysteine (Nac) as 1% of their drinking water (average daily dose 973 mg/kg). The thickness of the epithelium was measured at four airway levels and the numbers of mucus-containing secretory cells, stained for neutral or acidic glycoprotein (NGP or AGP respectively), were counted in surface epithelium at eight airway levels. Cigarette smoke increased the thickness of the epithelium at three of the airway levels studied by between 37 and 72%. The number of secretory cells was increased at all airway levels distal to the upper trachea by between 102 and 421%. Secretory cells containing NGP were reduced in number but this was more than offset by a large increase in the number of secretory cells containing AGP at all airway levels. N-acetylcysteine inhibited CS-induced epithelial thickening. Nac also inhibited the CS-induced increase in the number of secretory cells with AGP, but had little effect on the CS-induced reduction in the number of cells with NGP. Thus, prophylactic oral N-acetylcysteine led to an overall inhibition of CS-induced mucous cell hyperplasia and epithelial hypertrophy. The results suggest a novel anti-inflammatory action for a drug with known mucolytic effects.

  10. N-acetylcysteine rescue protocol for nephrotoxicity in children caused by ifosfamide.

    PubMed

    Hanly, Lauren; Rieder, Michael J; Huang, Shih-Han S; Vasylyeva, Tetyana L; Shah, Rikin K; Regueira, Osvaldo; Koren, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Nephrotoxicity is a serious side effect associated with ifosfamide use. It can affect up to 30% of children who are treated with this chemotherapeutic drug, and treatment may necessitate lifelong supplementations, renal dialysis, renal transplant, and in severe cases may result in death. The antioxidant n-acetylcysteine is a promising strategy for mitigating this renal toxicity. It is currently used in children for acetaminophen overdose in the 21-hour IV protocol, a dose which has also been suggested to provide renal protection against ifosfamide. Of significance, both in vitro and in vivo studies suggest n-acetylcysteine does not interfere with the antitumor actions of ifosfamide. Most importantly, n-acetylcysteine has successfully protected against ifosfamide-induced nephrotoxicity in both cell and rodent models, as well as in several paediatric cases, suggesting it should be evaluated as a treatment option for children on ifosfamide who present with renal dysfunction. The purpose of this paper is to outline strategies and recommendations for treating patients at risk or suffering from nephrotoxicity during ifosfamide therapy. These recommendations may be used when deciding who to treat, how and when to treat, as well as several considerations when exact recommendations cannot be met. They have been created to increase both the quality of care and quality of life of paediatric oncology patients.

  11. Effects of histidine and n-acetylcysteine on experimental lesions induced by doxorubicin in sciatic nerve of rats.

    PubMed

    Farshid, Amir Abbas; Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Najafi, Sima

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the effect of separate and combined intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of histidine and n-acetylcysteine were investigated on experimental damage induced by doxorubicin (DOX) in sciatic nerve of rats. DOX was i.p. injected at a dose of 4 mg/kg once weekly for four weeks. Histidine and n-acetylcysteine were i.p. injected at a same dose of 20 mg/kg. Cold and mechanical allodynia were recorded using acetone spray and von Frey filaments tests, respectively. The sciatic nerve damage was evaluated by light microscopy. Plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. Histidine and especially n-acetylcysteine at a same dose of 20 mg/kg suppressed cold and mechanical allodynia, improved sciatic nerve lesions and reversed MDA and TAC levels in DOX-treated groups. Combination treatment with histidine and n-acetylcysteine showed better responses when compared with them used alone. The results of the present study showed peripheral neuroprotective effects for histidine and n-acetylcysteine. Reduction of free radical-induced toxic effects may have a role in neuroprotective properties of histidine and n-acetylcysteine.

  12. N-acetylcysteine improves established monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The outcome of patients suffering from pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are predominantly determined by the response of the right ventricle to the increase afterload secondary to high vascular pulmonary resistance. However, little is known about the effects of the current available or experimental PAH treatments on the heart. Recently, inflammation has been implicated in the pathophysiology of PAH. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a well-known safe anti-oxidant drug, has immuno-modulatory and cardioprotective properties. We therefore hypothesized that NAC could reduce the severity of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in rats exposed to monocrotaline (MCT), lowering inflammation and preserving pulmonary vascular system and right heart function. Methods Saline-treated control, MCT-exposed, MCT-exposed and NAC treated rats (day 14–28) were evaluated at day 28 following MCT for hemodynamic parameters (right ventricular systolic pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure and cardiac output), right ventricular hypertrophy, pulmonary vascular morphometry, lung inflammatory cells immunohistochemistry (monocyte/macrophages and dendritic cells), IL-6 expression, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis. Results The treatment with NAC significantly decreased pulmonary vascular remodeling, lung inflammation, and improved total pulmonary resistance (from 0.71 ± 0.05 for MCT group to 0.50 ± 0.06 for MCT + NAC group, p < 0.05). Right ventricular function was also improved with NAC treatment associated with a significant decrease in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy (625 ± 69 vs. 439 ± 21 μm2 for MCT and MCT + NAC group respectively, p < 0.001) and heart fibrosis (14.1 ± 0.8 vs. 8.8 ± 0.1% for MCT and MCT + NAC group respectively, p < 0.001). Conclusions Through its immuno-modulatory and cardioprotective properties, NAC has beneficial effect on pulmonary vascular and right heart function in experimental PH. PMID:24929652

  13. DIETARY ANTIOXIDANTS (SELENIUM & N-ACETYLCYSTEINE) MODULATE PARAOXONASE 1 (PON1) IN PCB126-EXPOSED RATS

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hua; Li, Miao; Wang, Bingxuan; Lai, Ian K.; Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The environmental pollutants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), especially dioxin-like PCBs, cause oxidative stress and associated toxic effects, including cancer and possibly atherosclerosis. We previously reported that PCB 126, the most potent dioxin-like PCB congener, decreases antioxidants such as hepatic selenium (Se), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase and glutathione (GSH), but also increases levels of the anti-atherosclerosis enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in liver and serum. To probe the interconnection of these three antioxidant systems, Se, GSH, and PON1, we examined the influence of varying levels of dietary Se and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and precursor for GSH synthesis, on PON1 in the absence and presence of PCB 126 exposure. Male Sprague Dawley rats, fed diets with differing Se levels (0.02, 0.2, or 2 ppm) or NAC (1%), were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of corn oil or various doses of PCB 126 and euthanized 2 weeks later. PCB126 significantly increased liver PON1 mRNA, protein level and activity and serum PON1 activity in all dietary groups, but did not consistently increase thiobarbituric acid levels (TBARS), an indicator for lipid oxidation and oxidative stress, in liver or serum. Inadequate (high or low) dietary Se decreased baseline and PCB 126-induced aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression but further increased PCB 126-induced cytochrome P450 1A1 expression, the enzyme believed to be the cause for PCB 126-induced oxidative stress. In addition, a significant inverse relationship was observed between dietary Se levels and PON1 mRNA and PON1 activity, but also with TBARS levels in the liver, suggesting significant antioxidant protection from dietary Se. NAC lowered serum baseline TBARS levels in the controls and increased serum PON1 activity but lowered liver PON1 activities in animals treated with 1 μmol/kg PCB 126, suggesting antioxidant activity by NAC primarily in serum. These

  14. N-Acetylcysteine protects against trichloroethene-mediated autoimmunity by attenuating oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Gangduo; Wang, Jianling; Ma, Huaxian; Ansari, G.A.S.; Khan, M. Firoze

    2013-11-15

    Exposure to trichloroethene (TCE), a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, is known to induce autoimmunity both in humans and animal models. However, mechanisms underlying TCE-mediated autoimmunity remain largely unknown. Previous studies from our laboratory in MRL +/+ mice suggest that oxidative stress may contribute to TCE-induced autoimmune response. The current study was undertaken to further assess the role of oxidative stress in TCE-induced autoimmunity by supplementing with an antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Groups of female MRL +/+ mice were given TCE, NAC or TCE + NAC for 6 weeks (TCE, 10 mmol/kg, i.p., every 4th day; NAC, 250 mg/kg/day through drinking water). TCE exposure led to significant increases in serum levels of anti-nuclear, anti-dsDNA and anti-Sm antibodies. TCE exposure also led to significant induction of anti-malondiadelhyde (MDA)- and anti-hydroxynonenal (HNE)-protein adduct antibodies which were associated with increased ANA in the sera along with increased MDA-/HNE-protein adducts in the livers and kidneys, and increases in protein oxidation (carbonylation) in the sera, livers and kidneys, suggesting an overall increase in oxidative stress. Moreover, TCE exposure also resulted in increased release of IL-17 from splenocytes and increases in IL-17 mRNA expression. Remarkably, NAC supplementation attenuated not only the TCE-induced oxidative stress, IL-17 release and mRNA expression, but also the markers of autoimmunity, as evident from decreased levels of ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-Sm antibodies in the sera. These results provide further support to a role of oxidative stress in TCE-induced autoimmune response. Attenuation of TCE-induced autoimmunity in mice by NAC provides an approach for preventive and/or therapeutic strategies. - Highlights: • TCE led to increased autoantibodies, supporting its potential to induce autoimmunity. • TCE exposure led to increases in lipid perioxidation and protein carbonyls. • TCE exposure resulted in

  15. Storing red blood cells with vitamin C and N-acetylcysteine prevents oxidative stress-related lesions: a metabolomics overview

    PubMed Central

    Pallotta, Valeria; Gevi, Federica; D’Alessandro, Angelo; Zolla, Lello

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent advances in red blood cell metabolomics have paved the way for further improvements of storage solutions. Materials and methods In the present study, we exploited a validated high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analytical workflow to determine the effects of vitamin C and N-acetylcysteine supplementation (anti-oxidants) on the metabolome of erythrocytes stored in citrate-phosphate-dextrose saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol medium under blood bank conditions. Results We observed decreased energy metabolism fluxes (glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway). A tentative explanation of this phenomenon could be related to the observed depression of the uptake of glucose, since glucose and ascorbate are known to compete for the same transporter. Anti-oxidant supplementation was effective in modulating the redox poise, through the promotion of glutathione homeostasis, which resulted in decreased haemolysis and less accumulation of malondialdehyde and oxidation by-products (including oxidized glutathione and prostaglandins). Discussion Anti-oxidants improved storage quality by coping with oxidative stress at the expense of glycolytic metabolism, although reservoirs of high energy phosphate compounds were preserved by reduced cyclic AMP-mediated release of ATP. PMID:25074788

  16. Treatment of four siblings with progressive myoclonus epilepsy of the Unverricht-Lundborg type with N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Hurd, R W; Wilder, B J; Helveston, W R; Uthman, B M

    1996-11-01

    The finding of increased activity of the enzyme extracellular superoxide dismutase in four siblings with progressive myoclonus epilepsy of the Unverricht-Lundborg type (PME-UL) prompted the addition of antioxidants to these patients' treatment regimen. After 6 months treatment with vitamin E, selenium, riboflavin, and zinc, there was some improvement in patient awareness and speech. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a sulfhydryl antioxidant that increases cellular glutathione and the activity levels of several antioxidant enzymes and has additional actions that contribute to its demonstrated efficacy in preventing or decreasing damage in models of neuronal toxicity. We treated the affected siblings with 4 to 6 grams a day of NAC in addition to the other antioxidants and magnesium. There has been a marked decrease in myoclonus and some normalization of somatosensory evoked potentials with NAC treatment. The patients were treated with NAC for up to 30 months with continued beneficial effects. NAC may prevent further deterioration in the clinical course of patients with PME-UL and may be indicated in other neurodegenerative conditions where excess free radical activity may contribute to disease progression.

  17. N-acetylcysteine reverses existing cognitive impairment and increased oxidative stress in glutamate transporter type 3 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, L; Li, L; Zuo, Z

    2012-09-18

    Oxidative stress contributes significantly to brain aging. Animals lacking glutamate transporter type 3 (EAAT3) have a decreased level of glutathione, the major intracellular anti-oxidant, in neurons, and present with early onset of brain aging including brain atrophy and cognitive impairment at 11 months of age. Here, 12-month-old male EAAT3 knockout mice received intraperitoneal injection of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) at 150 mg/kg once every day for 4 weeks. NAC is a membrane permeable cysteine precursor that can work as a substrate for glutathione synthesis. EAAT3 knockout mice that received saline injection or did not receive any injection were also included in the study. EAAT3 knockout mice had significantly less freezing behavior than age- and gender-matched wild-type mice in context- and tone-related fear conditioning tests. The knockout mice also had decreased levels of glutathione and increased levels of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and proteins containing nitrotyrosine, indicators of oxidative stress, in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. NAC but not saline injection attenuated these behavioral and biochemical changes in the EAAT3 knockout mice. These results suggest that improvement of anti-oxidative capacity in neurons reverses the existing cognitive impairment in aging brains, implying a potential role of glutathione replacement in cognitive improvement of aging population.

  18. N-acetylcysteine prevents increased amphetamine sensitivity in social isolation-reared mice.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Ana P; Benvenutti, Radharani; Pilz, Luísa K; Elisabetsky, Elaine

    2014-05-01

    Treating individuals at risk to develop schizophrenia may be strategic to delay or prevent transition to psychosis. We verified the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. C57 mice were reared in isolation or social groups and treated with NAC from postnatal day 42-70; the locomotor response to amphetamine was assessed at postnatal day 81. NAC treatment in isolated mice prevented the hypersensitivity to amphetamine, suggesting neuroprotection relevant to striatal dopamine. Considering its safety and tolerability profile, complementary studies are warranted to further evaluate the usefulness of NAC to prevent conversion to schizophrenia in at-risk individuals.

  19. Lactation

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Lactation is the most energy-efficient way to provide for the dietary needs of young mammals, their mother's milk being actively protective, immunomodulatory, and ideal for their needs. Intrauterine mammary gland development in the human female is already apparent by the end of the sixth week of gestation. During puberty and adolescence secretions of the anterior pituitary stimulate the maturation of the graafian follicles in the ovaries and stimulate the secretion of follicular estrogens, which stimulate development of the mammary ducts. Pregnancy has the most dramatic effect on the breast, but development of the glandular breast tissue and deposition of fat and connective tissue continue under the influence of cyclic sex-hormone stimulation. Many changes occur in the nipple and breast during pregnancy and at delivery as a prelude to lactation. Preparation of the breasts is so effective that lactation could commence even if pregnancy were discontinued at 16 weeks. Following birth, placental inhibition of milk synthesis is removed, and a woman's progesterone blood levels decline rapidly. The breasts fill with milk, which is a high-density, low-volume feed called colostrum until about 30 hours after birth. Because it is not the level of maternal hormones, but the efficiency of infant suckling and/or milk removal that governs the volume of milk produced in each breast, mothers who permit their infants to feed ad libitum commonly observe that they have large volumes of milk 24-48 hours after birth. The two maternal reflexes involved in lactation are the milk-production and milk-ejection reflex. A number of complementary reflexes are involved when the infant feeds: the rooting reflex (which programmes the infant to search for the nipple), the sucking reflex (rhythmic jaw action creating negative pressure and a peristaltic action of the tongue), and the swallowing reflex. The infant's instinctive actions need to be consolidated into learned behaviour in the postpartum

  20. The Coadministration of N-Acetylcysteine Ameliorates the Effects of Arsenic Trioxide on the Male Mouse Genital System

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Raquel Frenedoso; Borges, Cibele dos Santos; Villela e Silva, Patrícia; Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo Almeida; Pupo, André Sampaio; Barbosa Junior, Fernando; Anselmo-Franci, Janete Aparecida; Kempinas, Wilma De Grava

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has shown effectiveness in treatment of leukemia but is also associated with reproductive toxicity. Since remediation with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may mitigate the adverse effects caused by exposure, we assessed the effects of As2O3 and its potential reversibility after exposure cessation or coadministration of NAC. Animals received 0.3 or 3.0 mg/Kg/day of As2O3 subcutaneously and 40 mM of NAC in tap water. As2O3 treatment impaired spermatogenesis and sperm motility and decreased seminal vesicle weight and testosterone serum levels; after suspension of treatment, these parameters remained altered. When NAC was administered, animals showed improvement in sperm parameters and seminal vesicle weight. In vitro epididymal contractility was increased in As2O3-treated animals. We concluded that As2O3 is toxic to the male mouse genital system by compromising sperm quality and quantity; these effects persisted even after suspension of the treatment. However, the coadministration of NAC ameliorates the harmful effects of the drug on the male genital system. PMID:26839632

  1. Antioxidant N-Acetylcysteine Attenuates the Reduction of Brg1 Protein Expression in the Myocardium of Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jinjin; Lei, Shaoqing; Liu, Yanan; Gao, Xia; Irwin, Michael G.; Xia, Zhong-yuan; Hei, Ziqing; Gan, Xiaoliang; Wang, Tingting; Xia, Zhengyuan

    2013-01-01

    Brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1) is a key gene in inducing the expression of important endogenous antioxidant enzymes, including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) which is central to cardioprotection, while cardiac HO-1 expression is reduced in diabetes. It is unknown whether or not cardiac Brg1 expression is reduced in diabetes. We hypothesize that cardiac Brg1 expression is reduced in diabetes which can be restored by antioxidant treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Control (C) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic (D) rats were treated with NAC in drinking water or placebo for 4 weeks. Plasma and cardiac free15-F2t-isoprostane in diabetic rats were increased, accompanied with increased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), while cardiac Brg1, p-STAT3 and HO-1 protein expression levels were significantly decreased. Left ventricle weight/body weight ratio was higher, while the peak velocities of early (E) and late (A) flow ratio was lower in diabetic than in C rats. NAC normalized tissue and plasma levels of 15-F2t-isoprostane, significantly increased cardiac Brg1, HO-1 and p-STAT3 protein expression levels and reduced TNF-alpha and IL-6, resulting in improved cardiac function. In conclusion, myocardial Brg1 is reduced in diabetes and enhancement of cardiac Brg1 expression may represent a novel mechanism whereby NAC confers cardioprotection. PMID:23853776

  2. N-acetylcysteine prevents low T3 syndrome and attenuates cardiac dysfunction in a male rat model of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Lehnen, Tatiana Ederich; Santos, Marcus Vinicius; Lima, Adrio; Maia, Ana Luiza; Wajner, Simone Magagnin

    2017-02-17

    Nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) affects patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Oxidative stress has been implicated as a causative factor of NTIS, and reversed via N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Male Wistar rats submitted to left anterior coronary artery occlusion received NAC or placebo. Decreases in T3 levels were noted in MI-placebo at 10 and 28 days post-MI, but not in MI-NAC. Groups exhibited similar infarct areas whereas MI-NAC exhibited higher ejection fraction (EF) than MI-placebo. Left ventricular systolic (LVSd) and diastolic (LVDd) diameters were also preserved in MI-NAC, but not in MI-placebo. EF was positively correlated with T3 levels. Oxidative balance was deranged only in MI-placebo animals. Increased D3 expression was detected in the cardiomyocytes of MI-placebo compared with normal heart tissue. NAC was shown to diminish D3 expression and activity in MI-NAC. These results show that restoring redox balance by NAC treatment prevents NTIS- related thyroid hormone derangement and preserve heart function in rats subjected to MI.

  3. A comparative study on radioprotective effect of N-acetylcysteine against 12C6+ ion versus X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Luwei

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the different protective efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 200 mg/kg dose) against 12C6+ ion (4 Gy) and X-rays (4 Gy) - induced damage in vivo model. Method: Kung-Ming female mice were divided into six groups, each composed of twelve animals: control group, two irradiation groups, and two NAC-treated groups, as well as NAC alone-treated group. An acute study was carried out to determine alterations in the oxidative stress (malondialdehyde level) using with colorimetric method and cell apoptosis measuring by flow cytometry as well as DNA-single strand break analyzing by comet assay at 2h after irradiation in mouse liver. Results: Compared with respective irradiation group, NAC can significantly ameliorate injury induced by two types of ionizing irradiation, which marked by the decrease of malondialdehyde level, and the reduction of apoptosis cells percentage and DNA damage. But the greater efficacy of NAC was prominently observed to inhibit the damage induced by X-rays, suggesting that NAC-mediated protective effect is more advisable to X-rays than 12C6+ ion irradiation. Moreover, NAC treatment alone did not result in any damage as compared to the control group. Conclusion: NAC may merit development as a potential radioprotective agent. Furthermore, NAC might exert its best effort to respond X rays-caused damage.

  4. Effects of verapamil, carbenoxolone and N-acetylcysteine on gastric wall mucus and ulceration in stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Koo, M W; Ogle, C W; Cho, C H

    1986-01-01

    The effects of verapamil on gastric wall mucus and ulceration were studied in rats which were restrained and exposed to 4 degrees C (stress). Stress for 2 h significantly depleted stomach wall mucus and produced marked gastric glandular ulcers. Verapamil pretreatment (2, 4, 8 or 16 mg/kg), injected intraperitoneally 30 min before experimentation, significantly prevented stress-induced mucus depletion and gastric ulceration; however, it did not itself influence stomach wall mucus levels in nonstressed animals. Intragastric administration of carbenoxolone (100 or 200 mg/kg), also given 30 min before stress, exhibited similar actions as verapamil. A 15% solution of N-acetylcysteine (10 ml/kg), given orally, strongly decreased the mucus content in both nonstress and stress conditions; it induced ulcers in nonstressed rats, and worsened stress ulceration. These effects were not reversed by verapamil pretreatment. The influence of multiple-dose pretreatment with verapamil or carbenoxolone on mucus content and ulceration in the gastric glandular mucosa during stress is also discussed. It is concluded that gastric wall mucus depletion is likely to play an important role in stress ulcer formation; the antiulcer action of verapamil could partly be due to the preservation of mucus.

  5. Preventive effect of N-acetylcysteine in a mouse model of steroid resistant acute exacerbation of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhari, Parivash; Hajizadeh, Sohrab; Raoufy, Mohammad Reza; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Yang, Ming; Hansbro, Nicole; Li, Jing Jing; Foster, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress appears to have an important role in glucocorticoid insensitivity, as a crucial problem in asthma therapy. We studied the preventive effect of antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and the accumulation of inflammatory cells in the airways in an animal model of steroid resistant acute exacerbation of asthma. Systemically sensitized Balb/C mice were exposed to Ovalbumin aerosol on days 13, 14, 15 and 16, followed by intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce acute exacerbation. NAC (intraperitoneal, 320 mg/kg 30 min before and 12 hours after each challenge) reduced hyper-responsiveness with/out dexamethasone. LPS application caused neutrophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and eosinophil count was higher than respective control in BALF as well as neutrophils after dexamethasone treatment. NAC significantly decreased neutrophil and eosinophil count in BALF as well as inflammatory cytokines (IL-13 and IL-5).We concluded that addition of NAC to asthma therapy has beneficial preventive effects in an animal model of steroid resistant acute exacerbation of asthma. PMID:26417226

  6. The Effects of Ascorbate, N-Acetylcysteine, and Resveratrol on Fibroblasts from Patients with Mitochondrial Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Douiev, Liza; Soiferman, Devorah; Alban, Corinne; Saada, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are assumed to be implicated in the pathogenesis of inborn mitochondrial diseases affecting oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). In the current study, we characterized the effects of three small molecules with antioxidant properties (N-acetylcysteine, ascorbate, and resveratrol) on ROS production and several OXPHOS parameters (growth in glucose free medium, ATP production, mitochondrial content and membrane potential (MMP)), in primary fibroblasts derived from seven patients with different molecularly defined and undefined mitochondrial diseases. N-acetylcysteine appeared to be the most beneficial compound, reducing ROS while increasing growth and ATP production in some patients’ cells. Ascorbate showed a variable positive or negative effect on ROS, ATP production, and mitochondrial content, while incubation with resveratrol disclosed either no effect or detrimental effect on ATP production and MMP in some cells. The individual responses highlight the importance of investigating multiple parameters in addition to ROS to obtain a more balanced view of the overall effect on OXPHOS when evaluating antioxidant treatment options for mitochondrial diseases. PMID:28025489

  7. N-acetylcysteine alters apoptotic gene expression in axotomised primary sensory afferent subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Reid, Adam J; Shawcross, Susan G; Hamilton, Alex E; Wiberg, Mikael; Terenghi, Giorgio

    2009-10-01

    Novel approaches are required in peripheral nerve injury management because current surgical techniques, which do not address axotomy-induced neuronal death, lead to deficient sensory recovery. Sensory neuronal death has functional preference with cutaneous neurons dying in great numbers whilst muscle afferents survive axotomy. This offers the potential of comparing similar cell types that suffer distinct fates upon nerve injury. Here, a novel approach, combining in vivo rat nerve injury model with laser microdissection and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, identifies crucial disparities in apoptotic gene expression attributable to subpopulations of differing sensory modalities and examines the response to N-acetylcysteine (NAC) therapy. We show that axotomised muscle afferent neurons survive injury due to a neuroprotective response which markedly downregulates Bax and caspase-3 mRNA. In contrast, axotomised cutaneous sensory neurons significantly upregulate caspase-3 and alter both Bcl-2 and Bax expression such that pro-apoptotic Bax predominates. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) intervention promotes neuroprotection of cutaneous sensory neurons through considerable upregulation of Bcl-2 and downregulation of both Bax and caspase-3 mRNA. The data presented identifies differential activation of apoptotic genes in axotomised neuronal subpopulations. Furthermore, NAC therapy instigates apoptotic gene expression changes in axotomised neurons, thereby offering pharmacotherapeutic potential in the clinical treatment of nerve injury.

  8. N-acetylcysteine administration does not improve patient outcome after liver resection

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Stuart M; Saif, Rehan; Sen, Gourab; French, Jeremy J; Jaques, Bryon C; Charnley, Richard M; Manas, Derek M; White, Steven A

    2013-01-01

    Background Post-operative hepatic dysfunction is a major cause of concern when undertaking a liver resection. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury can result in hepatocellular injury. Experimental evidence suggests that N-acetylcysteine may ameliorate ROS-mediated liver injury. Methods A cohort of 44 patients who had undergone a liver resection and receiving peri-operative N-acetylcysteine (NAC) were compared with a further cohort of 44 patients who did not. Liver function tests were compared on post-operative days 1, 3 and 5. Peri-operative outcome data were retrieved from a prospectively maintained database within our unit. ResultsAdministration of NAC was associated with a prolonged prothrombin time on the third post-operative day (18.4 versus 16.4 s; P = 0.002). The incidence of grades B and C liver failure was lower in the NAC group although this difference did not reach statistical significance (6.9% versus 14%; P = 0.287). The overall complication rate was similar between groups (32% versus 25%; P = ns). There were two peri-operative deaths in the NAC group and one in the control group (P = NS). ConclusionIn spite of promising experimental evidence, this study was not able to demonstrate any advantage in the routine administration of peri-operative NAC in patients undergoing a liver resection. PMID:23458723

  9. N-acetylcysteine attenuates the development of cardiac fibrosis and remodeling in a mouse model of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Giam, Beverly; Chu, Po-Yin; Kuruppu, Sanjaya; Smith, A Ian; Horlock, Duncan; Kiriazis, Helen; Du, Xiao-Jun; Kaye, David M; Rajapakse, Niwanthi W

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress plays a central role in the pathogenesis of heart failure. We aimed to determine whether the antioxidantN-acetylcysteine can attenuate cardiac fibrosis and remodeling in a mouse model of heart failure. Minipumps were implanted subcutaneously in wild-type mice (n = 20) and mice with cardiomyopathy secondary to cardiac specific overexpression of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST-1;n = 18) to administerN-acetylcysteine (40 mg/kg per day) or saline for a period of 8 weeks. At the end of this period, cardiac remodeling and function was assessed via echocardiography. Fibrosis, oxidative stress, and expression of collagen types I andIIIwere quantified in heart tissues. Cardiac perivascular and interstitial fibrosis were greater by 114% and 209%, respectively, inMST-1 compared to wild type (P ≤ 0.001). InMST-1 mice administeredN-acetylcysteine, perivascular and interstitial fibrosis were 40% and 57% less, respectively, compared to those treated with saline (P ≤ 0. 03). Cardiac oxidative stress was 119% greater inMST-1 than in wild type (P < 0.001) andN-acetylcysteine attenuated oxidative stress inMST-1 by 42% (P = 0.005). These data indicate thatN-acetylcysteine can blunt cardiac fibrosis and related remodeling in the setting of heart failure potentially by reducing oxidative stress. This study provides the basis to investigate the role ofN-acetylcysteine in chronic heart failure.

  10. Brain extracellular γ-hydroxybutyrate concentrations are decreased by L-lactate in rats: Role in the treatment of overdoses

    PubMed Central

    Roiko, Samuel A.; Vijay, Nisha; Felmlee, Melanie A.; Morris, Marilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose L-lactate represents a potential treatment for GHB overdose by inhibiting GHB renal reabsorption mediated by monocarboxylate transporters. Our objective was to assess the dose-dependence of L-lactate treatment, with and without D-mannitol, on GHB toxicokinetics/toxicodynamics (TK/TD). Methods Rats were administered GHB 600 mg/kg i.v. with L-lactate (low and high doses), D-mannitol, or L-lactate (low dose) with D-mannitol. GHB-induced sleep time and GHB plasma, urine and brain extracellular fluid (ECF) concentrations (by LC/MS/MS) were determined. The effect of L-lactate and D-mannitol on the uptake and efflux of GHB was assessed in rat brain endothelial RBE4 cells. Results L-lactate treatment increased GHB renal clearance from 1.4 ± 0.1 ml/min/kg (control) to 2.4 ± 0.2 and 4.7 ± 0.5 ml/min/kg after low and high doses, respectively, and reduced brain ECF AUC values to 65 and 25% of control. Sleep time was decreased from 137 ± 12 minutes (control) to 91 ± 16 and 55 ± 5 minutes (low and high L-lactate, respectively). D-mannitol did not alter GHB TK/TD and did not alter L-lactate’s effects on GHB TK/TD. L-lactate, but not D-mannitol, inhibited GHB uptake, and increased GHB efflux from RBE4 cells. Conclusions L-lactate decreases plasma and brain ECF concentrations of GHB, decreasing sedative/hypnotic effects. PMID:23319173

  11. Blockade of P-Glycoprotein Decreased the Disposition of Phenformin and Increased Plasma Lactate Level

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Min-Koo; Song, Im-Sook

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vivo relevance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the pharmacokinetics and adverse effect of phenformin. To investigate the involvement of P-gp in the transport of phenformin, a bi-directional transport of phenformin was carried out in LLC-PK1 cells overexpressing P-gp, LLC-PK1-Pgp. Basal to apical transport of phenformin was 3.9-fold greater than apical to basal transport and became saturated with increasing phenformin concentration (2–75 μM) in LLC-PK1-Pgp, suggesting the involvement of P-gp in phenformin transport. Intrinsic clearance mediated by P-gp was 1.9 μL/min while passive diffusion clearance was 0.31 μL/min. Thus, P-gp contributed more to phenformin transport than passive diffusion. To investigate the contribution of P-gp on the pharmacokinetics and adverse effect of phenformin, the effects of verapamil, a P-gp inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics of phenformin were also examined in rats. The plasma concentrations of phenformin were increased following oral administration of phenformin and intravenous verapamil infusion compared with those administerd phenformin alone. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax and AUC of phenformin increased and CL/F and Vss/F decreased as a consequence of verapamil treatment. These results suggested that P-gp blockade by verapamil may decrease the phenformin disposition and increase plasma phenformin concentrations. P-gp inhibition by verapamil treatment also increased plasma lactate concentration, which is a crucial adverse event of phenformin. In conclusion, P-gp may play an important role in phenformin transport process and, therefore, contribute to the modulation of pharmacokinetics of phenformin and onset of plasma lactate level. PMID:26797108

  12. [Determination of the N-acetylcysteine and methionine effects in the cerebellum of rats intoxicated with lead].

    PubMed

    Calderón-Cabrera, Lourdes; Durán-Galetta, María Gabriela; Garcia, Ingo; Galetta, Douglas; Lacruz, Luis; Naranjo, Raquel; Pérez, Beatriz; Ferreira, Elizabeth

    2008-03-01

    A therapeutic essay was done to determine the effects of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), Methionine (MET) and the NAC + MET combination on the lead (Pb) blood levels, the malondialdehide (MDA) and catalase activity (CAT) in cerebellum of rats treated with 0.5 and 2 microg/g of Pb acetate. One hundred ninety eight male Wistar rats with an average weight of 240 g were subjected to a test, divided into five groups. Group 1 was the control group where basal levels were determined; Group 2 was the treated group; the rest of the groups once treated received the following: Group 3 NAC, Group 4 MET, Group 5 NAC + MET. The results showed that NAC lowers blood lead levels by 35% and 38% with intoxication doses of 0.5 microg/g and 2 microg/g of Pb acetate respectively. This decrease was not statistically significant; however, there was a 56% decrease of MDA in the cerebellum with a dose of 0.5 microg/g of Pb and of 75% with 2 microg/g; CAT activity increased in the cerebellum by 62% and 71% with the studied Pb doses, making this a statistically significant difference (p < 0.0001) in relation to the intoxication group. MET has a similar effect to NAC, even though it was less strong; anyhow, when NAC + MET are combined a quelant effect is shown, with a statistically significant 45% and 51% reduction in the Pb levels with the doses administered (p < 0.001); MDA decreased and CAT activity increased in the cerebellum. In this research we can conclude that NAC+MET when combined, have a beneficial effect on the studied parameters during acute Pb treatment.

  13. Protective Effects of N-acetylcysteine and a Prostaglandin E1 Analog, Alprostadil, Against Hepatic Ischemia: Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Cheng-Chu; Hsieh, Shu-Chen; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Wu, Ying-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury has a complex pathophysiology resulting from a number of contributing factors. Therefore, it is difficult to achieve effective treatment or protection by individually targeting the mediators or mechanisms. Our aim was to analyze the individual and combined effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) analog alprostadil on hepatic I/R injury in rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (six rats per group) as follows: Control group, I/R group, I/R + NAC group, I/R + alprostadil group, and I/R + NAC + alprostadil group. The rats received injections of NAC (150 mg/kg) and/or alprostadil (0.05 μg/kg) over a period of 30 min prior to ischemia. These rats were then subjected to 60 min of hepatic ischemia followed by a 60-min reperfusion period. Hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione levels were significantly decreased as a result of I/R injury, but they were increased in groups treated with NAC. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and nitric oxide (NO) activities were significantly increased after I/R injury, but they were decreased in the groups with NAC treatment. Alprostadil decreased NO production, but had no effect on MDA and MPO. Histological results showed that both NAC and alprostadil were effective in improving liver tissue morphology during I/R injury. Although NAC and alprostadil did not have a synergistic effect, our findings suggest that treatment with either NAC or alprostadil has benefits for ameliorating hepatic I/R injury.

  14. Arterial morphology responds differently to Captopril then N-acetylcysteine in a monocrotaline rat model of pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molthen, Robert; Wu, Qingping; Baumgardt, Shelley; Kohlhepp, Laura; Shingrani, Rahul; Krenz, Gary

    2010-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an incurable condition inevitably resulting in death because of increased right heart workload and eventual failure. PH causes pulmonary vascular remodeling, including muscularization of the arteries, and a reduction in the typically large vascular compliance of the pulmonary circulation. We used a rat model of monocrotaline (MCT) induced PH to evaluated and compared Captopril (an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor with antioxidant capacity) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a mucolytic with a large antioxidant capacity) as possible treatments. Twenty-eight days after MCT injection, the rats were sacrificed and heart, blood, and lungs were studied to measure indices such as right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), hematocrit, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), vessel morphology and biomechanics. We implemented microfocal X-ray computed tomography to image the pulmonary arterial tree at intravascular pressures of 30, 21, 12, and 6 mmHg and then used automated vessel detection and measurement algorithms to perform morphological analysis and estimate the distensibility of the arterial tree. The vessel detection and measurement algorithms quickly and effectively mapped and measured the vascular trees at each intravascular pressure. Monocrotaline treatment, and the ensuing PH, resulted in a significantly decreased arterial distensibility, increased PVR, and tended to decrease the length of the main pulmonary trunk. In rats with PH induced by monocrotaline, Captopril treatment significantly increased arterial distensibility and decrease PVR. NAC treatment did not result in an improvement, it did not significantly increase distensibility and resulted in further increase in PVR. Interestingly, NAC tended to increase peripheral vascular density. The results suggest that arterial distensibility may be more important than distal collateral pathways in maintaining PVR at normally low values.

  15. Limited theraputic effect of n-acetylcysteine on hepatic insulin resistance in an experimental model of alcohol-induced steatohepatitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alcohol-related steatohepatitis is associated with increased oxidative stress, DNA damage, lipotoxicity, and insulin resistance in liver. Hypothesis: Since inflammation and oxidative stress can promote insulin resistance, effective treatment with anti-oxidants, e.g. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), may rest...

  16. Evaluation of resveratrol and N-acetylcysteine for cancer chemoprevention in a Fanconi anemia murine model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Shuo; Marquez-Loza, Laura; Sheehan, Andrea M; Watanabe-Smith, Kevin; Eaton, Laura; Benedetti, Eric; Major, Angela; Schubert, Kathryn; Deater, Matthew; Joseph, Eric; Grompe, Markus

    2014-04-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) patients suffer from progressive bone marrow failure and often develop cancers. Previous studies showed that antioxidants tempol and resveratrol (RV) delayed tumor onset and reduced hematologic defects in FA murine models, respectively. Here we tested whether antioxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or RV could delay cancer in tumor prone Fancd2(-/-) /Trp53(+/-) mice. Unlike tempol, neither compound had any significant chemopreventive effect in this model. We conclude that not all anti-oxidants are chemopreventive in FA. In addition, when given to Fancd2(-/-) mice, NAC helped maintain Fancd2(-/-) KSL cells in quiescence while tempol did not. The mechanisms behind the different actions of these antioxidants await further investigation.

  17. Effects of N-acetylcysteine on noise-induced temporary threshold shift and temporary emission shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinette, Martin

    2001-05-01

    Animal research has shown that antioxidants can provide significant protection to the cochlea from traumatic noise exposure with some benefit when given after the exposure. Similar results in humans would have a significant impact on both prevention and treatment of noise-induced hearing loss. The current study evaluates the effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on temporary threshold shift (TTS) by using both behavioral and physiological measures. Sixteen healthy, normal-hearing subjects were given NAC or a placebo prior to exposure to a 10-min, 102-dB narrow-band noise, centered at 2 kHz. This exposure was designed to induce a 10-15-dB TTS. Following the noise exposure, pure-tone thresholds (Bekesy) and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) were measured for 60 min to monitor the effects of NAC on TTS recovery. Postexposure measures were compared to baseline data. [Work supported by American BioHealth Group.

  18. N-acetylcysteine - a safe antidote for cysteine/glutathione deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Atkuri, Kondala R.; Mantovani, John J.; Herzenberg, Leonard A.; Herzenberg, Leonore A.

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) deficiency is associated with numerous pathlogical conditions. Administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a cysteine prodrug, replenishes intracellular GSH levels. NAC, best known for it ability to counter acetaminophen toxicity, is a safe well-tolerated antidote for cysteine/GSH deficiency. NAC has been used successfully to treat GSH deficiency in a wide range of infections, genetics defects and metabolic disorders, including HIV infection and COPD. Over two-thirds of 46 placebo-controlled clinical trials with orally administered NAC have indicated beneficial effects of NAC measured either as trial end-points or as general measures of improvement in quality of life and well being of the patients. PMID:17602868

  19. Spectroscopic study of N-acetylcysteine and N-acetylcystine/hydrogen peroxide complexation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picquart, Michel; Abedinzadeh, Zohreh; Grajcar, Lydie; Baron, Marie Héléne

    1998-03-01

    A spectroscopic study of N-acetylcysteine (RSH) and N-acetylcystine (RSSR) has been performed using infrared absorption and Raman scattering in order to pinpoint the sites of complexation of these two species with H 2O 2. Molecules of RSH and RSSR were studied in KBr pellets, and in aqueous solutions of H 2O, D 2O and H 2O with H 2O 2 (1 mol l -1) to characterize the specific influence of the solvent molecules. A time-resolved Raman study was performed for RSH-H 2O 2 in aqueous solution at 1:1 molar ratio in order to observe the formation of RSSR and to discuss the mechanism of this redox reaction.

  20. Effects of N-acetylcysteine on noise-induced temporary threshold shift and temporary emission shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinette, Martin

    2004-05-01

    Animal research has shown that antioxidants can provide significant protection to the cochlea from traumatic noise exposure with some benefit when given after the exposure. Similar results in humans would have a significant impact on both prevention and treatment of noise-induced hearing loss. The current study evaluates the effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on temporary threshold shift (TTS) by using both behavioral and physiological measures. Sixteen healthy, normal-hearing subjects were given NAC or a placebo prior to exposure to a 10-min, 102-dB narrow-band noise, centered at 2 kHz. This exposure was designed to induce a 10-15-dB TTS. Following the noise exposure, pure-tone thresholds (Bekesy) and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) were measured for 60 min to monitor the effects of NAC on TTS recovery. Postexposure measures were compared to baseline data. [Work supported by American BioHealth Group.

  1. N-acetylcysteine alleviates angiotensin II-mediated renal fibrosis in mouse obstructed kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yang; Miao, Nai-jun; Xu, Jin-lan; Gan, Xin-xin; Xu, Dan; Zhou, Li; Xue, Hong; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Li-min

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated renal fibrosis in vivo and in vitro. Methods: Mice were subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), and then treated with vehicle or NAC (250 mg/kg, ip) for 7 days. Histological changes of the obstructed kidneys were observed with Masson's trichrome staining. ROS levels were detected with DHE staining. The expression of relevant proteins in the obstructed kidneys was assessed using Western blotting assays. Cultured rat renal fibroblast NRK-49F cells were used for in vitro experiments. Results: In the obstructed kidneys, Ang II levels were significantly elevated, and collagen I was accumulated in the interstitial spaces. Furthermore, ROS production and the expression of p47 (a key subunit of NADPH oxidase complexes) were increased in a time-dependent manner; the expression of fibronectin, α-SMA and TGF-β were upregulated. Administration of NAC significantly alleviated the fibrotic responses in the obstructed kidneys. In cultured NRK-49F cells, treatment with Ang II (0.001–10 μmol/L) increased the expression of fibronectin, collagen I, α-SMA and TGF-β in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners. Ang II also increased ROS production and the phosphorylation of Smad3. Pretreatment with NAC (5 μmol/L) blocked Ang II-induced oxidative stress and ECM production in the cells. Conclusion: In mouse obstructed kidneys, the fibrotic responses result from Ang II upregulation can be alleviated by the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine. PMID:27041464

  2. Redispersible liposomal-N-acetylcysteine powder for pulmonary administration: development, in vitro characterization and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Ourique, Aline Ferreira; Chaves, Paula Dos Santos; Souto, Gabriele Dadalt; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Guterres, Silvia Stanisçuaski; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver

    2014-12-18

    Liposomal dry powders of N-acetylcysteine (SD-NAC-Lip) were developed for pulmonary administration. Liposomes were prepared by reverse phase evaporation and spray dried using lactose (10%, w/w) as drying adjuvant. The powders were characterized according to process yield, drug content, residual water content, particle size distribution, morphology and redispersion behavior. In vitro aerosol performance was evaluated using an eight-stage Andersen Cascade Impactor. Moreover, in vitro antioxidant activity was determined by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) present in the lungs of healthy Wistar rats after induction of oxidation by iron/EDTA. The spray-drying process had a high yield (71%±2), drug content (mg/g) according to the expected value, moisture content below 9%, geometric mean diameter under 3μm with span value lower than 1. Spherical particles were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Liposomal dry-powders were able to recover the nanometric size of the original dispersion after their redispersion in aqueous medium, as shown by laser diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the powders presented aerodynamic diameter of about 7μm and respirable fraction above 30%, indicating suitable properties for pulmonary use. The encapsulation of N-acetylcysteine in liposomes was essential to maintain its in vitro antioxidant activity after the drying process. In addition, the powder containing the encapsulated drug had better in vitro antioxidant activity than the liquid and solid formulations containing the non-encapsulated drug, which makes it a good candidate for the treatment of pulmonary diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  3. N-Acetylcysteine Administration Prevents Nonthyroidal Illness Syndrome in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vidart, Josi; Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Leite, Rogério Sarmento; Manica, André; Schaan, Beatriz D.; Larsen, P. Reed

    2014-01-01

    Context: The acute phase of the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is characterized by low T3 and high rT3 levels, affecting up to 75% of critically ill patients. Oxidative stress has been implicated as a causative factor of the disturbed peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent intracellular antioxidant, can prevent NTIS in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Design: This was a randomized, multicenter clinical trial. Settings: Consecutive patients admitted to the emergency and intensive care units of two tertiary hospitals in southern Brazil were recruited. Patients and intervention included 67 patients were randomized to receive NAC or placebo during 48 hours. Baseline characteristics and blood samples for thyroid hormones and oxidative parameters were collected. Main Outcome: Variation of serum T3 and rT3 levels was measured. Results: Baseline characteristics were similar between groups (all P > .05). T3 levels decreased in the placebo group at 12 hours of follow-up (P = .002) but not in NAC-treated patients (P = .10). Baseline rT3 levels were elevated in both groups and decreased over the initial 48 hours in the NAC-treated patients (P = .003) but not in the control group (P = .75). The free T4 and TSH levels were virtually identical between the groups throughout the study period (P > .05). Measurement of total antioxidant status and total carbonyl content demonstrated that oxidative balance was deranged in acute myocardial infarction patients, whereas NAC corrected these alterations (P < .001). Conclusions: NAC administration prevents the derangement in thyroid hormone concentrations commonly occurring in the acute phase of acute myocardial infarction, indicating that oxidative stress is involved in the NTIS pathophysiology. PMID:25148231

  4. Effects of Antioxidant N-acetylcysteine Against Paraquat-Induced Oxidative Stress in Vital Tissues of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Maricelly Santiago; Forti, Kevin Muñoz; Suárez Martinez, Edu B.; Muñoz, Lenin Godoy; Husain, Kazim

    2016-01-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is a commonly used herbicide that induces oxidative stress via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against PQ-induced oxidative stress in mice. Male Balb/C mice (24) were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated for 3 weeks: 1) control (saline), 2) NAC (0.5% in diet), 3) PQ (20 mg/kg, IP) and 4) combination (PQ + NAC). Afterwards mice were sacrificed and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. Our data showed no significant change in serum antioxidant capacity. PQ enhanced lipid peroxidation (MDA) levels in liver tissue compared to control whereas NAC decreased MDA levels (p<0.05). NAC significantly increased MDA in brain tissue (p<0.05). PQ significantly depleted glutathione (GSH) levels in liver (p=0.001) and brain tissue (p<0.05) but non-significant GSH depletion in lung tissue. NAC counteracted PQ, showing a moderate increase GSH levels in liver and brain tissues. PQ significantly increased 8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) levels (p<0.05) in liver tissue compared to control without a significant change in brain tissue. NAC treatment ameliorated PQ-induced oxidative DNA damage in the liver tissue. PQ significantly decreased the relative mtDNA amplification and increased the frequency of lesions in liver and brain tissue (p<0.0001), while NAC restored the DNA polymerase activity in liver tissue but not in brain tissue. In conclusion, PQ induced lipid peroxidation, oxidative nuclear DNA and mtDNA damage in liver tissues and depleted liver and brain GSH levels. NAC supplementation ameliorated the PQ-induced oxidative stress response in liver tissue of mice. PMID:27398384

  5. Mucolytic treatment with N-acetylcysteine L-lysinate metered dose inhaler in dogs: airway epithelial function changes.

    PubMed

    Tomkiewicz, R P; App, E M; Coffiner, M; Fossion, J; Maes, P; King, M

    1994-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine L-lysinate Nacystelyn (L-NAC) is a newly synthesized mucolytic agent, of which the action in vivo has not been well defined. In six healthy mongrel dogs, the rheological properties of mucus, its mucociliary and cough clearability, and the transepithelial potential difference (PD) of the tracheobronchial epithelium were evaluated after placebo and L-NAC metered dose inhaler (MDI) aerosols. The principal index of mucus rigidity, log G*, decreased at all airway sites with L-NAC administration, i.e. the mucus became less rigid and more deformable (the overall change in G* was 0.29 log units, i.e. ca. twofold decrease). The viscoelasticity-derived mucus transportability parameters, mucociliary (MCI) and cough (CCI) clearability indices, increased with L-NAC MDI, particularly CCI, which predicts the effect of mucus rheology on cough clearability. PD increased significantly with L-NAC administration at all measurement sites, which appears to be a novel effect for a direct acting mucolytic agent. Tracheal mucus linear velocity (TMV) increased after L-NAC compared with placebo, as did the normalized frog palate transport rate (NFPTR). The increase in NFPTR was greater than that predicted from the mucus rheological properties alone, suggesting that L-NAC still resident in the collected mucus stimulated the frog palate cilia. The index of mucus flux, the collection rate in mg.min-1, was higher with L-NAC compared with placebo. From our results, we conclude that L-NAC shows potential benefit in terms of improving mucus rheological properties and clearability. It may act, in part, by stimulating the fresh secretion of mucus of lower viscoelasticity. The stimulation of mucociliary clearance could be related to ion flux changes, as indicated by the increase in PD.

  6. Respiratory syncytial virus inhibits ciliagenesis in differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells: effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Mata, Manuel; Sarrion, Irene; Armengot, Miguel; Carda, Carmen; Martinez, Isidoro; Melero, Jose A; Cortijo, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Persistent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections have been associated with the exacerbation of chronic inflammatory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This virus infects the respiratory epithelium, leading to chronic inflammation, and induces the release of mucins and the loss of cilia activity, two factors that determine mucus clearance and the increase in sputum volume. These alterations involve reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has proven useful in the management of COPD, reducing symptoms, exacerbations, and accelerated lung function decline. NAC inhibits RSV infection and mucin release in human A549 cells. The main objective of this study was to analyze the effects of NAC in modulating ciliary activity, ciliagenesis, and metaplasia in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cell (NHBEC) cultures infected with RSV. Our results indicated that RSV induced ultrastructural abnormalities in axonemal basal bodies and decreased the expression of β-tubulin as well as two genes involved in ciliagenesis, FOXJ1 and DNAI2. These alterations led to a decrease in ciliary activity. Furthermore, RSV induced metaplastic changes to the epithelium and increased the number of goblet cells and the expression of MUC5AC and GOB5. NAC restored the normal functions of the epithelium, inhibiting ICAM1 expression, subsequent RSV infection through mechanisms involving nuclear receptor factor 2, and the expression of heme oxygenase 1, which correlated with the restoration of the antioxidant capacity, the intracellular H(2)O(2) levels and glutathione content of NHBECs. The results presented in this study support the therapeutic use of NAC for the management of chronic respiratory diseases, including COPD.

  7. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Inhibits Ciliagenesis in Differentiated Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells: Effectiveness of N-Acetylcysteine

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Manuel; Sarrion, Irene; Armengot, Miguel; Carda, Carmen; Martinez, Isidoro; Melero, Jose A.; Cortijo, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Persistent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections have been associated with the exacerbation of chronic inflammatory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This virus infects the respiratory epithelium, leading to chronic inflammation, and induces the release of mucins and the loss of cilia activity, two factors that determine mucus clearance and the increase in sputum volume. These alterations involve reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has proven useful in the management of COPD, reducing symptoms, exacerbations, and accelerated lung function decline. NAC inhibits RSV infection and mucin release in human A549 cells. The main objective of this study was to analyze the effects of NAC in modulating ciliary activity, ciliagenesis, and metaplasia in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cell (NHBEC) cultures infected with RSV. Our results indicated that RSV induced ultrastructural abnormalities in axonemal basal bodies and decreased the expression of β-tubulin as well as two genes involved in ciliagenesis, FOXJ1 and DNAI2. These alterations led to a decrease in ciliary activity. Furthermore, RSV induced metaplastic changes to the epithelium and increased the number of goblet cells and the expression of MUC5AC and GOB5. NAC restored the normal functions of the epithelium, inhibiting ICAM1 expression, subsequent RSV infection through mechanisms involving nuclear receptor factor 2, and the expression of heme oxygenase 1, which correlated with the restoration of the antioxidant capacity, the intracellular H2O2 levels and glutathione content of NHBECs. The results presented in this study support the therapeutic use of NAC for the management of chronic respiratory diseases, including COPD. PMID:23118923

  8. Effect of decreasing dietary phosphorus supply on net recycling of inorganic phosphate in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Puggaard, L; Kristensen, N B; Sehested, J

    2011-03-01

    Five ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows, fitted with permanent indwelling catheters in the mesenteric vein, hepatic vein, portal vein, and an artery were used to study intestinal absorption and net recycling of inorganic phosphate (P(i)) to the gastrointestinal tract. Treatments were low P (LP; 2.4 g of P/kg of DM) and high P (HP; 3.4 g of P/kg of DM). The dietary total P (tP) concentrations were obtained by replacing 0.50% calcium carbonate in the LP diet with 0.50% monocalcium phosphate in the HP diet. Diets were fed for 14 d and cows were sampled on d 14 in each period. Cows were fed restrictively, resulting in equal dry matter intakes as well as milk, fat, and protein yields between treatments. Net P(i) recycling (primarily salivary) was estimated as the difference between net portal plasma flux (net absorption of P(i)) and apparently digested tP (feed - fecal tP difference). Phosphorus intake, apparently digested tP, and fecal tP excretion decreased with LP. An effect of decreased tP intake on net portal plasma flux of P(i) could not be detected. However, despite numerically minute net fluxes across the liver, the net splanchnic flux of P(i) was less in LP compared with that in HP. Though arterial plasma P(i) concentration decreased, net P(i) recycling was not decreased when tP intake was decreased, and recycling of P(i) was maintained at the expense of deposition of P(i) in bones. Data are not consistent with salivary P(i) secretion being the primary regulator of P(i) homeostasis at low tP intakes. On the contrary, maintaining salivary P(i) recycling at low tP intakes indicates that rumen function was prioritized at the expense of bone P reserves.

  9. Effects of N-acetylcysteine and terbutaline treatment on hemodynamics and regional albumin extravasation in porcine septic shock

    SciTech Connect

    Groeneveld, A.B.; den Hollander, W.; Straub, J.; Nauta, J.J.; Thijs, L.G. )

    1990-03-01

    We studied the therapeutic effects of continuously infused N-acetylcysteine, an O2 radical scavenger (N, n = 6), and terbutaline, a beta 2-agonist (T, n = 6), versus dextrose (controls C, N = 6) on hemodynamics and regional albumin extravasation in porcine septic shock. After instrumentation, injection of 99mTc-labeled red blood cells, and baseline measurements, pigs received a 90 min infusion of 11 +/- 9 X 10(8).kg-1 live Escherichia coli bacteria. Thereafter, therapy was started, and 131I human serum albumin was injected. Images were obtained hourly using a gamma camera and a computer until 5 hours after baseline. Regions of interest were drawn in the 99mTc images, yielding regional 131I/99mTc radioactivity ratios, with blood samples as reference. From these ratios, an albumin leak index, a rate constant of transvascular albumin transport, was calculated. Control pigs developed pulmonary hypertension, arterial hypotension, hemoconcentration, and lactic acidemia. In spite of tachycardia and unchanged filling pressures, cardiac output fell. In arterial blood, white cell count, PO2, albumin level, and colloid osmotic pressure fell. The albumin leak index (X10(-3).min-1) measured 1.56 +/- 0.59 over the lungs and 2.87 +/- 1.19 over the abdomen in C, confirming previously found increased albumin flux in both lung and abdomen, the latter exceeding the former. Neither N nor T significantly affected hemodynamic and biochemical changes. The drugs neither decreased the regional albumin leak index nor attenuated the formation of albumin-rich ascites found at autopsy. However, the lung albumin index obtained at autopsy was significantly reduced with N (P less than .01 vs. C), at similar gravimetrically determined extravascular lung water (EVLW). EVLW positively correlated with pulmonary albumin extravasation in C and T but not in N.

  10. Effects of N-acetylcysteine and imipramine in a model of acute rhythm disruption in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Pilz, Luísa K; Trojan, Yasmine; Quiles, Caroline L; Benvenutti, Radharani; Melo, Gabriela; Levandovski, Rosa; Hidalgo, Maria Paz L; Elisabetsky, Elaine

    2015-03-01

    Circadian rhythm disturbances are among the risk factors for depression, but specific animal models are lacking. This study aimed to characterize the effects of acute rhythm disruption in mice and investigate the effects of imipramine and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on rhythm disruption-induced changes. Mice were exposed to 12:12-hour followed by 10:10-hour light:dark cycles (LD); under the latter, mice were treated with saline, imipramine or NAC. Rhythms of rest/activity and temperature were assessed with actigraphs and iButtons, respectively. Hole-board and social preference tests were performed at the beginning of the experiment and again at the 8th 10:10 LD, when plasma corticosterone and IL-6 levels were also assessed. Actograms showed that the 10:10 LD schedule prevents the entrainment of temperature and activity rhythms for at least 13 cycles. Subsequent light regimen change activity and temperature amplitudes showed similar patterns of decline followed by recovery attempts. During the 10:10 LD schedule, activity and temperature amplitudes were significantly decreased (paired t test), an effect exacerbated by imipramine (ANOVA/SNK). The 10:10 LD schedule increased anxiety (paired t test), an effect prevented by NAC (30 mg/kg). This study identified mild but significant behavioral changes at specific time points after light regimen change. We suggest that if repeated overtime, these subtle changes may contribute to lasting behavioral disturbancess relevant to anxiety and mood disorders. Data suggest that imipramine may contribute to sustained rhythm disturbances, while NAC appears to prevent rhythm disruption-induced anxiety. Associations between sleep/circadian disturbances and the recurrence of depressive episodes underscore the relevance of potential drug-induced maintenance of disturbed rhythms.

  11. Indocyanine Green Clearance Varies as a Function of N-Acetylcysteine Treatment in a Murine Model of Acetaminophen Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Milesi-Hallé, Alessandra; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M.; Brown, Aliza; McCullough, Sandra S.; Letzig, Lynda; Hinson, Jack A.; James, Laura P.

    2011-01-01

    Standard assays to assess acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in animal models include determination of ALT (alanine aminotransferase) levels and examination of histopathology of liver sections. However, these assays do not reflect the functional capacity of the injured liver. To examine a functional marker of liver injury, the pharmacokinetics of indocyanine green (ICG) were examined in mice treated with APAP, saline, or APAP followed by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment. Male B6C3F1 mice were administered APAP (200 mg/kg IP) or saline. Two additional groups of mice received APAP followed by NAC at 1 or 4 h after APAP. At 24 h, mice were injected with ICG (10 mg/kg IV) and serial blood samples (0, 2, 10, 30, 50 and 75 min) were obtained for determination of serum ICG concentrations and ALT. Mouse livers were removed for measurement of APAP protein adducts and examination of histopathology. Toxicity (ALT values and histology) was significantly increased above saline treated mice in the APAP and APAP/NAC 4 h mice. Mice treated with APAP/NAC 1 h had complete protection from toxicity. APAP protein adducts were increased in all APAP treated groups and were highest in the APAP/NAC 1 h group. Pharmacokinetic analysis of ICG demonstrated that the total body clearance (ClT) of ICG was significantly decreased and the mean residence time (MRT) was significantly increased in the APAP mice compared to the saline mice. Mice treated with NAC at 1 h had ClT and MRT values similar to those of saline treated mice. Conversely, mice that received NAC at 4 h had a similar ICG pharmacokinetic profile to that of the APAP only mice. Prompt treatment with NAC prevented loss of functional activity while late treatment with NAC offered no improvement in ICG clearance at 24 h. ICG clearance in mice with APAP toxicity can be utilized in future studies testing the effects of novel treatments for APAP toxicity. PMID:21145883

  12. Redox regulation of MMP-3/TIMP-1 ratio in intestinal myofibroblasts: effect of N-acetylcysteine and curcumin.

    PubMed

    Fontani, Filippo; Marcucci, Tommaso; Picariello, Lucia; Tonelli, Francesco; Vincenzini, Maria Teresa; Iantomasi, Teresa

    2014-04-15

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a critical role in inflammation and ulcerations in gut of Crohn׳s disease (CD) patients. Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs) secrete MMPs in response to inflammatory stimuli. Previous data showed in CD-ISEMFs increased oxidative status. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ISEMFs in modulating the production of MMP-3 and TIMP-1, an inhibitor of MMPs activity. A relationship among oxidative stress, activity of antioxidants and MMP-3/TIMP-1 was also studied. ISEMFs isolated from CD patient colon and human colonic cell line of myofibroblasts (18Co) were used. Oxidative state was modulated by buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione (GSH) synthesis, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), GSH precursor. An up-regulation of MMP-3 due to increased oxidative state was found in CD-ISEMFs. Stimulation by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α increased further MMP-3 levels. On the contrary, no change in TIMP-1 production was determined. NAC treatment decreased MMP-3 production in CD-ISMEFs and removed the enhancement due to TNFα. Similar effects were observed in 18Co cells treated with curcumin, antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties. The involvement of MAPKs on MMP-3 redox regulation was also shown. This study demonstrates the involvement of ISEMFs and high oxidative state in the increased MMP-3 production found in intestinal mucosa of CD patients. NAC and curcumin normalize MMP-3 levels mainly in TNFα stimulated cells. A modulation of MMP-3 production by NAC and curcumin due to their direct action on transcriptional factors has been also suggested. Therefore, they could have a therapeutic use for the prevention and treatment of fistulaes in CD.

  13. A randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial of N-Acetylcysteine added to risperidone for treating autistic disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined the efficacy and safety of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) augmentation for treating irritability in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method Forty children and adolescents met diagnostic criteria for ASD according to DSM-IV. They were randomly allocated into one of the two groups of NAC (1200 mg/day)+risperidone or placebo+risperidone. NAC and placebo were administered in the form of effervescent and in two divided doses for 8 weeks. Irritability subscale score of Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) was considered as the main outcome measure. Adverse effects were also checked. Results The mean score of irritability in the NAC+risperidone and placebo+risperidone groups at baseline was 13.2(5.3) and 16.7(7.8), respectively. The scores after 8 weeks were 9.7(4.1) and 15.1(7.8), respectively. Repeated measures of ANOVA showed that there was a significant difference between the two groups after 8 weeks. The most common adverse effects in the NAC+risperidone group were constipation (16.1%), increased appetite (16.1%), fatigue (12.9%), nervousness (12.9%), and daytime drowsiness (12.9%). There was no fatal adverse effect. Conclusions Risperidone plus NAC more than risperidone plus placebo decreased irritability in children and adolescents with ASD. Meanwhile, it did not change the core symptoms of autism. Adverse effects were not common and NAC was generally tolerated well. Trial registration This trial was registered at http://www.irct.ir. The registration number of this trial was IRCT201106103930N6 PMID:23886027

  14. Indocyanine green clearance varies as a function of N-acetylcysteine treatment in a murine model of acetaminophen toxicity.

    PubMed

    Milesi-Hallé, Alessandra; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M; Brown, Aliza; McCullough, Sandra S; Letzig, Lynda; Hinson, Jack A; James, Laura P

    2011-02-01

    Standard assays to assess acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in animal models include determination of ALT (alanine aminotransferase) levels and examination of histopathology of liver sections. However, these assays do not reflect the functional capacity of the injured liver. To examine a functional marker of liver injury, the pharmacokinetics of indocyanine green (ICG) were examined in mice treated with APAP, saline, or APAP followed by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment.Male B6C3F1 mice were administered APAP (200 mg/kg IP) or saline. Two additional groups of mice received APAP followed by NAC at 1 or 4 h after APAP. At 24 h, mice were injected with ICG (10 mg/kg IV) and serial blood samples (0, 2, 10, 30, 50 and 75 min) were obtained for determination of serum ICG concentrations and ALT. Mouse livers were removed for measurement of APAP protein adducts and examination of histopathology. Toxicity (ALT values and histology) was significantly increased above saline treated mice in the APAP and APAP/NAC 4 h mice. Mice treated with APAP/NAC 1 h had complete protection from toxicity. APAP protein adducts were increased in all APAP treated groups and were highest in the APAP/NAC 1 h group. Pharmacokinetic analysis of ICG demonstrated that the total body clearance (Cl(T)) of ICG was significantly decreased and the mean residence time (MRT) was significantly increased in the APAP mice compared to the saline mice. Mice treated with NAC at 1 h had Cl(T) and MRT values similar to those of saline treated mice. Conversely, mice that received NAC at 4 h had a similar ICG pharmacokinetic profile to that of the APAP only mice. Prompt treatment with NAC prevented loss of functional activity while late treatment with NAC offered no improvement in ICG clearance at 24 h. ICG clearance in mice with APAP toxicity can be utilized in future studies testing the effects of novel treatments for APAP toxicity.

  15. A meta-analysis of N-acetylcysteine in contrast-induced nephrotoxicity: unsupervised clustering to resolve heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Denise A; Norsworthy, Kelly J; Kern, Steven J; Banks, Steve; Sieving, Pamela C; Star, Robert A; Natanson, Charles; Danner, Robert L

    2007-01-01

    Background Meta-analyses of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for preventing contrast-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN) have led to disparate conclusions. Here we examine and attempt to resolve the heterogeneity evident among these trials. Methods Two reviewers independently extracted and graded the data. Limiting studies to randomized, controlled trials with adequate outcome data yielded 22 reports with 2746 patients. Results Significant heterogeneity was detected among these trials (I2 = 37%; p = 0.04). Meta-regression analysis failed to identify significant sources of heterogeneity. A modified L'Abbé plot that substituted groupwise changes in serum creatinine for nephrotoxicity rates, followed by model-based, unsupervised clustering resolved trials into two distinct, significantly different (p < 0.0001) and homogeneous populations (I2 = 0 and p > 0.5, for both). Cluster 1 studies (n = 18; 2445 patients) showed no benefit (relative risk (RR) = 0.87; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68–1.12, p = 0.28), while cluster 2 studies (n = 4; 301 patients) indicated that NAC was highly beneficial (RR = 0.15; 95% CI 0.07–0.33, p < 0.0001). Benefit in cluster 2 was unexpectedly associated with NAC-induced decreases in creatinine from baseline (p = 0.07). Cluster 2 studies were relatively early, small and of lower quality compared with cluster 1 studies (p = 0.01 for the three factors combined). Dialysis use across all studies (five control, eight treatment; p = 0.42) did not suggest that NAC is beneficial. Conclusion This meta-analysis does not support the efficacy of NAC to prevent CIN. PMID:18001477

  16. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on blood and tissue lipid peroxidation in lipopolysaccharide-induced obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Caglikulekci, Mehmet; Dirlik, Musa; Pata, Cengiz; Plasse, Marylene; Tamer, Lulufer; Ogetman, Zekai; Ercan, Bahadir

    2006-01-01

    In obstructive jaundice, free radical production is increased and antioxidative activity is reduced. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) has a beneficial effect with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity, acting as a free radical scavenger. NAC inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase, suppresses cytokine expression/release, and inhibits adhesion molecule expression and nuclear factor kappa B. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of NAC on liver/renal tissue and serum lipid peroxidation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced obstructive jaundice. We randomized 60 rats into 6 groups: group 1, Sham; group 2, obstructive jaundice (OJ) induced after bile-duct ligation; group 3, OJ + NAC (100 mg kg- 1 subcutaneously); group 4, OJ + LPS (10 mg kg-1); group 5, OJ + NAC + LPS; and group 6, OJ + LPS + NAC. For each group, the biochemical markers of lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant products were measured in serum and liver/renal tissue after sacrifice. Almost all lipid peroxidation products levels were increased and antioxidant products levels were decreased in groups who received LPS (groups 4, 5, and 6), but the effect was less remarkable when NAC was administered before LPS (group 5). The same trend was seen for groups with OJ +/- LPS who did not received NAC or received it after induced toxemia (groups 2, 4, and 6) as compared to groups 1 and 3. Moreover, in the case of OJ + LPS, rats treated with NAC before LPS (group 5) had lower lipid peroxidation products levels and higher antioxidant products levels as compared to those who did not received NAC (group 4). This phenomenon was not reproducible with NAC administered after LPS (group 6). Thus, results of this study showed that NAC prevents the deleterious effects of LPS in obstructive jaundice by reducing lipid peroxidation in serum and liver/renal tissue if administered before LPS. Nonetheless, NAC failed to prevent the lipid peroxidation in the case of established endotoxemia in obstructive jaundice.

  17. The glutamatergic compounds sarcosine and N-acetylcysteine ameliorate prepulse inhibition deficits in metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Stoker, Astrid; Markou, Athina

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Mice lacking metabotropic glutamate receptors 5 (mGluR5) exhibit reduced glutamatergic function and behavioral abnormalities, including deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response that may be relevant to schizophrenia. Thus, these mice are an animal model that may be used for preclinical evaluation of potentially new classes of antipsychotic compounds. Recent clinical studies have suggested several compounds that modulate glutamatergic transmission through distinct mechanisms, such as potentiation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor glycine site, activation of group II mGluR, and activation of glutamate-cysteine antiporters, as being efficacious in the treatment of schizophrenia. Objectives The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of sarcosine (a selective inhibitor of the glycine transporter 1 [GlyT1]), LY379268 (a group II mGluR agonist), and N-acetylcysteine (a cysteine prodrug that indirectly activates cystine-glutamate antiporters to increase glutamate levels in the extrasynaptic space) on PPI deficits in mGluR5 knockout mice. Results Sarcosine and N-acetylcysteine, but not LY379268, ameliorated PPI deficits in mGluR5 knockout mice. The ability of N-acetylcysteine to restore PPI deficits was not blocked by the group II mGluR antagonist LY341495, indicating that the effects of N-acetylcysteine were not attributable to activation of group II mGluRs by glutamate. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that the interactions between mGluR5 and NMDA receptors are involved in the regulation of PPI and suggest that activation of glutamate receptors, other than group II receptors, by increased endogenous glutamate transmission, may ameliorate the behavioral abnormalities associated with mGluR5 deficiency. PMID:20217053

  18. Synergistic protective effect of N-acetylcysteine and taurine against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Wahab, Wessam M; Moussa, Farouzia I; Saad, Najwa A

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin (cis-diaminedichloroplatinum II; CDDP) is an effective anticancer drug, but it has limitations because of its nephrotoxicity. This study investigates the protective effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and taurine (TAU), both individually and in combination, against CDDP nephrotoxicity in rats. For this purpose, 48 male rats were assigned into eight groups (n=6) as follows: 1) control group, 2) NAC group, 3) TAU group, 4) NAC–TAU group, 5) CDDP group, 6) CDDP–NAC group, 7) CDDP–TAU group, and 8) CDDP–NAC–TAU group. Cisplatin was administered as a single intraperitoneal injection at a concentration of 6 mg/kg. Three days after CDDP administration, NAC (50 mg/kg) and/or TAU (50 mg/kg) were administered three times weekly for four consecutive weeks. Kidney function markers in serum, urinary glucose and protein, as well as oxidant and antioxidant parameters in renal tissue were assessed. Administration of CDDP significantly elevated urinary glucose and protein, as well as serum creatinine, urea, and uric acid. Moreover, CDDP enhanced lipid peroxidation and suppressed the major enzymatic antioxidants in the kidney tissue. Treatment with NAC or TAU protected against the alterations in the serum, urine, and renal tissue when used individually along with CDDP. Furthermore, a combined therapy of both was more effective in ameliorating CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity, which points out to their synergistic effect. PMID:28356716

  19. Early-stage lupus nephritis treated with N-acetylcysteine: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Gao, Wenjuan; Ma, Jingjing; Zhu, Yun; Li, Xingfu

    2015-08-01

    The oxidative-antioxidative status is closely associated with the progression of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and oxidative stress is customarily found in patients with SLE. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a typical antioxidant, is reliable and often applied for clinical treatment. Lupus nephritis (LN) is a kidney disorder associated with SLE, but the treatment of LN with antioxidants is rarely documented. The present report describes two cases of early-stage LN that were orally treated with 1,200 mg NAC in addition to the standard therapy with hydroxychloroquine and calcitriol. Following the NAC administration, the glutathione level largely increased while the level of the lipid peroxidation biomarker 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α declined in both cases. In addition, the routine blood counts, 24-h urine protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and the SLE disease activity index were markedly improved. In conclusion, the present report of two cases has shown that NAC, as an antioxidant, may exert a beneficial effect to modulate the oxidative status in LN; however, the underlying mechanisms require further investigation.

  20. Early-stage lupus nephritis treated with N-acetylcysteine: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    LI, MING; GAO, WENJUAN; MA, JINGJING; ZHU, YUN; LI, XINGFU

    2015-01-01

    The oxidative-antioxidative status is closely associated with the progression of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and oxidative stress is customarily found in patients with SLE. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a typical antioxidant, is reliable and often applied for clinical treatment. Lupus nephritis (LN) is a kidney disorder associated with SLE, but the treatment of LN with antioxidants is rarely documented. The present report describes two cases of early-stage LN that were orally treated with 1,200 mg NAC in addition to the standard therapy with hydroxychloroquine and calcitriol. Following the NAC administration, the glutathione level largely increased while the level of the lipid peroxidation biomarker 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α declined in both cases. In addition, the routine blood counts, 24-h urine protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and the SLE disease activity index were markedly improved. In conclusion, the present report of two cases has shown that NAC, as an antioxidant, may exert a beneficial effect to modulate the oxidative status in LN; however, the underlying mechanisms require further investigation. PMID:26622376

  1. N-acetylcysteine prevents stress-induced anxiety behavior in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Mocelin, Ricieri; Herrmann, Ana P; Marcon, Matheus; Rambo, Cassiano L; Rohden, Aline; Bevilaqua, Fernanda; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Zanatta, Leila; Elisabetsky, Elaine; Barcellos, Leonardo J G; Lara, Diogo R; Piato, Angelo L

    2015-12-01

    Despite the recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders, the pharmacological treatments currently available are limited in efficacy and induce serious side effects. A possible strategy to achieve clinical benefits is drug repurposing, i.e., discovery of novel applications for old drugs, bringing new treatment options to the market and to the patients who need them. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a commonly used mucolytic and paracetamol antidote, has emerged as a promising molecule for the treatment of several neuropsychiatric disorders. The mechanism of action of this drug is complex, and involves modulation of antioxidant, inflammatory, neurotrophic and glutamate pathways. Here we evaluated the effects of NAC on behavioral parameters relevant to anxiety in zebrafish. NAC did not alter behavioral parameters in the novel tank test, prevented the anxiety-like behaviors induced by an acute stressor (net chasing), and increased the time zebrafish spent in the lit side in the light/dark test. These data may indicate that NAC presents an anti-stress effect, with the potential to prevent stress-induced psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. The considerable homology between mammalian and zebrafish genomes invests the current data with translational validity for the further clinical trials needed to substantiate the use of NAC in anxiety disorders.

  2. Clinical trials of N-acetylcysteine in psychiatry and neurology: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Deepmala; Slattery, John; Kumar, Nihit; Delhey, Leanna; Berk, Michael; Dean, Olivia; Spielholz, Charles; Frye, Richard

    2015-08-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is recognized for its role in acetaminophen overdose and as a mucolytic. Over the past decade, there has been growing evidence for the use of NAC in treating psychiatric and neurological disorders, considering its role in attenuating pathophysiological processes associated with these disorders, including oxidative stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation and glutamate and dopamine dysregulation. In this systematic review we find favorable evidence for the use of NAC in several psychiatric and neurological disorders, particularly autism, Alzheimer's disease, cocaine and cannabis addiction, bipolar disorder, depression, trichotillomania, nail biting, skin picking, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, drug-induced neuropathy and progressive myoclonic epilepsy. Disorders such as anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and mild traumatic brain injury have preliminary evidence and require larger confirmatory studies while current evidence does not support the use of NAC in gambling, methamphetamine and nicotine addictions and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Overall, NAC treatment appears to be safe and tolerable. Further well designed, larger controlled trials are needed for specific psychiatric and neurological disorders where the evidence is favorable.

  3. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in neurological disorders: mechanisms of action and therapeutic opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Bavarsad Shahripour, Reza; Harrigan, Mark R; Alexandrov, Andrei V

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an expanding field of research investigating the benefits of medicines with multiple mechanisms of action across neurological disorders. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), widely known as an antidote to acetaminophen overdose, is now emerging as treatment of vascular and nonvascular neurological disorders. NAC as a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione modulates glutamatergic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory pathways. Aim and discussion Most NAC studies up to date have been carried out in animal models of various neurological disorders with only a few studies completed in humans. In psychiatry, NAC has been tested in over 20 clinical trials as an adjunctive treatment; however, this topic is beyond the scope of this review. Herein, we discuss NAC molecular, intracellular, and systemic effects, focusing on its potential applications in neurodegenerative diseases including spinocerebellar ataxia, Parkinson's disease, tardive dyskinesia, myoclonus epilepsy of the Unverricht–Lundbor type as well as multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. Conclusion Finally, we review the potential applications of NAC to facilitate recovery after traumatic brain injury, cerebral ischemia, and in treatment of cerebrovascular vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:24683506

  4. Protective effects of alpha lipoic acid versus N-acetylcysteine on ifosfamide-induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    El-Sisi, Alaa El-Din E; El-Syaad, Magda E; El-Desoky, Karima I; Moussa, Ethar A

    2015-02-01

    Ifosfamide (IFO) is a highly effective chemotherapeutic agent for treating a variety of pediatric solid tumors. However, its use is limited due to its serious side effect on kidneys. The side-chain oxidation of IFO in renal tubular cells produces a reactive toxic metabolite that is believed to be responsible for its nephrotoxic effect. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the possible underlying mechanisms that may be involved in IFO-induced nephrotoxicity, including free radical generation and the possible role of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) versus N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in protection against this toxicity. Male albino rats were injected intraperitoneally with saline, IFO (50 mg/kg daily for 5 days), IFO + ALA (100 mg/kg daily for 8 days) and IFO + NAC (200 mg/kg daily for 8 days). Kidney malondialdehyde, nitric oxide and glutathione contents and serum biochemical parameters and histopathological analysis were determined. Both ALA and NAC markedly reduced the severity of renal dysfunction induced by IFO. NAC was more nephroprotective than ALA. This study suggests that oxidative stress is possibly involved in the IFO-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. The study also suggests the potential therapeutic role for ALA and NAC against IFO-induced nephrotoxicity.

  5. S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine attenuates liver fibrosis in experimental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mazo, Daniel FC; de Oliveira, Marcelo G; Pereira, Isabel VA; Cogliati, Bruno; Stefano, José T; de Souza, Gabriela FP; Rabelo, Fabíola; Lima, Fabiana R; Alves, Venâncio A Ferreira; Carrilho, Flair J; de Oliveira, Claudia PMS

    2013-01-01

    S-Nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (SNAC) is a water soluble primary S-nitrosothiol capable of transferring and releasing nitric oxide and inducing several biochemical activities, including modulation of hepatic stellate cell activation. In this study, we evaluated the antifibrotic activity of SNAC in an animal model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) induced in Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a choline-deficient, high trans fat diet and exposed to diethylnitrosamine for 8 weeks. The rats were divided into three groups: SNAC, which received oral SNAC solution daily; NASH, which received the vehicle; and control, which received standard diet and vehicle. Genes related to fibrosis (matrix metalloproteinases [MMP]-13, -9, and -2), transforming growth factor β-1 [TGFβ-1], collagen-1α, and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase [TIMP-1 and -2] and oxidative stress (heat-shock proteins [HSP]-60 and -90) were evaluated. SNAC led to a 34.4% reduction in the collagen occupied area associated with upregulation of MMP-13 and -9 and downregulation of HSP-60, TIMP-2, TGFβ-1, and collagen-1α. These results indicate that oral SNAC administration may represent a potential antifibrotic treatment for NASH. PMID:23843692

  6. N-acetylcysteine improves the quality of red blood cells stored for transfusion.

    PubMed

    Amen, Florencia; Machin, Andrea; Touriño, Cristina; Rodríguez, Ismael; Denicola, Ana; Thomson, Leonor

    2017-04-06

    Storage inflicts a series of changes on red blood cells (RBC) that compromise the cell survival and functionality; largely these alterations (storage lesions) are due to oxidative modifications. The possibility of improving the quality of packed RBC stored for transfusion including N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in the preservation solution was explored. Relatively high concentrations of NAC (20-25 mM) were necessary to prevent the progressive leakage of hemoglobin, while lower concentrations (≥2.5 mM) were enough to prevent the loss of reduced glutathione during the first 21 days of storage. Peroxiredoxin-2 was also affected during storage, with a progressive accumulation of disulfide-linked dimers and hetero-protein complexes in the cytosol and also in the membrane of stored RBC. Although the presence of NAC in the storage solution was unable to avoid the formation of thiol-mediated protein complexes, it partially restored the capacity of the cell to metabolize H2O2, indicating the potential use of NAC as an additive in the preservation solution to improve RBC performance after transfusion.

  7. Protective effects of N-acetylcysteine against monosodium glutamate-induced astrocytic cell death.

    PubMed

    Park, Euteum; Yu, Kyoung Hwan; Kim, Do Kyung; Kim, Seung; Sapkota, Kumar; Kim, Sung-Jun; Kim, Chun Sung; Chun, Hong Sung

    2014-05-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a flavor enhancer, largely used in the food industry and it was reported to have excitotoxic effects. Higher amounts of MSG consumption have been related with increased risk of many diseases, including Chinese restaurant syndrome and metabolic syndromes in human. This study investigated the protective effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on MSG-induced cytotoxicity in C6 astrocytic cells. MSG (20 mM)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and apoptotic cell death were significantly attenuated by NAC (500 μM) pretreatment. NAC effectively inhibited the MSG-induced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss and intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion. In addition, NAC significantly attenuated MSG-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers, such as XBP1 splicing and CHOP, PERK, and GRP78 up-regulation. Furthermore, NAC prevented the changes of MSG-induced Bcl-2 expression level. These results suggest that NAC can protect C6 astrocytic cells against MSG-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and ER stress.

  8. Isolation of tissue layers in hermatypic corals by N-acetylcysteine: morphological and proteomic examinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, S.-E.; Luo, Y.-J.; Huang, H.-J.; Lee, I.-T.; Hou, L.-S.; Chen, W.-N. U.; Fang, L.-S.; Chen, C.-S.

    2008-03-01

    Corals are diploblastic in body pattern and include two tissue layers, the epidermis and gastrodermis, interconnected by an acellular matrix mesoglea. During development, cells in these tissue layers differentiate morphologically and functionally. In most hermatypic corals, the gastrodermis further develops an ability to associate with microalgae dinoflagellates. This endosymbiosis occurs inside specific host gastrodermal cells, and its mechanism still remains unclear notwithstanding decades of research. The delay in progress is partly due to the difficulty in separating the gastrodermis and its symbionts from the epidermis for detailed cellular and biochemical investigations. The present study reports a simple method to separate these two tissue layers in hermatypic corals using the reducing agent, N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Efficient tissue and proteomic isolations are demonstrated by microscopy and two-dimensional SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D SDS-PAGE). The NAC treatment was able to separate tissue layers without inducing protein degradation. Furthermore, the sensitivity of protein detection greatly increases in the isolated tissue layers. The application of the present technique provides future research on endosymbiosis and coral development with a tool for higher accuracy and sensitivity.

  9. N-acetylcysteine and acute retinal laser lesions in the colubrid snake eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, William R., III; Rentmeister-Bryant, Heike K.; Barsalou, Norman; Beer, Jeremy; Zwick, Harry

    2004-07-01

    This study examined the role of oxidative stress and the effect of a single dose treatment with N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) on the temporal development of acute laser-induced retinal injury. We used the snake eye/Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (SLO) model, an in vivo, non-invasive ocular imaging technique, which has the ability to image cellular retinal detail and allows for studying morphological changes of retinal injury over time. For this study 12 corn-snakes (Elaphe g. guttata) received 5 laser exposures per eye, followed by either a single dose of the antioxidant NAC (150mg/kg, IP in sterile saline) or placebo. Laser exposures were made with a Nd: VO4 DPSS, 532nm laser, coaxially aligned to the SLO. Shuttered pulses were 20msec x 50 mW; 1mJ each. Retinal images were taken using a Rodenstock cSLO and were digitally recorded at 1, 6, 24-hrs, and at 3-wks post-exposure. Lesions were assessed by two raters blind to the conditions of the study yielding measures of damaged area and counts of missing or damaged photoreceptors. Treated eyes showed a significant beneficial effect overall, and these results suggest that oxidative stress plays a role in laser-induced retinal injury. The use of NAC or a similar antioxidant shows promise as a therapeutic tool.

  10. N-Acetylcysteine mucolysis in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Sadowska, Anna M

    2012-06-01

    To develop an efficient therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been tested as a medication that can suppress various pathogenic processes in this disease. NAC is a thiol compound, which provides sulfhydryl groups. NAC can act as a precursor of reduced glutathione and as a direct reactive oxygen species scavenger, hence regulating the redox status in the cells. In this way NAC can interfere with several signaling pathways that play a role in regulating apoptosis, angiogenesis, cell growth and inflammatory response. Mucus hypersecretion has been reported in COPD and in other respiratory conditions. Two pathological processes have been described to play an important role in COPD, namely oxidative stress and inflammation. Both of these processes can induce mucin gene expression leading to mucin production. NAC, therefore, may influence mucin expression by acting on oxidative stress and inflammation, and play a role as a mucolytic agent. In this review we focus on the mucolysis of NAC in the management of COPD.

  11. Potential Role of N-Acetylcysteine in the Management of Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gipson, Cassandra D.; Malcolm, Robert J.; Kalivas, Peter W.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a clear and pressing need to expand pharmacotherapy options for substance use disorders (SUDs) in order to improve sustained abstinence outcomes. Preclinical literature has demonstrated the role of glutamate in addiction, suggesting that new targets for pharmacotherapy should focus on the restoration of glutamatergic function. Glutamatergic agents for SUDs may span multiple addictive behaviors and help demonstrate potentially overlapping mechanisms in addiction. The current review will focus specifically on N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a safe and well-tolerated glutamatergic agent, as a promising potential pharmacotherapy for the treatment of SUDs across several substances of abuse. Building on recently published reviews of the clinical efficacy of NAC across a broad range of conditions, this review will more specifically discuss NAC as a pharmacotherapy for SUDs, devoting particular attention to the safety and tolerability profile of NAC, the wealth of preclinical evidence that has demonstrated the role of glutamate dysregulation in addiction, and the limited but growing clinical literature that has assessed the efficacy of NAC across multiple substances of abuse. Preliminary clinical studies show the promise of NAC in terms of safety, tolerability, and potential efficacy for promoting abstinence from cocaine, nicotine, and cannabis. Results from randomized clinical trials have been mixed, but several mechanistic and methodological factors are discussed to refine the use of NAC in promoting abstinence and relapse prevention across several substances of abuse. Further preclinical and clinical investigation into the use of NAC for SUDs will be vital in addressing current deficits in the treatment of SUDs. PMID:24442756

  12. Potential role of N-acetylcysteine in the management of substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    McClure, Erin A; Gipson, Cassandra D; Malcolm, Robert J; Kalivas, Peter W; Gray, Kevin M

    2014-02-01

    There is a clear and pressing need to expand pharmacotherapy options for substance use disorders (SUDs) in order to improve sustained abstinence outcomes. Preclinical literature has demonstrated the role of glutamate in addiction, suggesting that new targets for pharmacotherapy should focus on the restoration of glutamatergic function. Glutamatergic agents for SUDs may span multiple addictive behaviors and help demonstrate potentially overlapping mechanisms in addiction. The current review will focus specifically on N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a safe and well-tolerated glutamatergic agent, as a promising potential pharmacotherapy for the treatment of SUDs across several substances of abuse. Building on recently published reviews of the clinical efficacy of NAC across a broad range of conditions, this review will more specifically discuss NAC as a pharmacotherapy for SUDs, devoting particular attention to the safety and tolerability profile of NAC, the wealth of preclinical evidence that has demonstrated the role of glutamate dysregulation in addiction, and the limited but growing clinical literature that has assessed the efficacy of NAC across multiple substances of abuse. Preliminary clinical studies show the promise of NAC in terms of safety, tolerability, and potential efficacy for promoting abstinence from cocaine, nicotine, and cannabis. Results from randomized clinical trials have been mixed, but several mechanistic and methodological factors are discussed to refine the use of NAC in promoting abstinence and relapse prevention across several substances of abuse. Further preclinical and clinical investigation into the use of NAC for SUDs will be vital in addressing current deficits in the treatment of SUDs.

  13. Targeting oncogenic interleukin-7 receptor signalling with N-acetylcysteine in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Marc R; Reed, Casie; Eisenberg, Amy R; Tseng, Jen-Chieh; Twizere, Jean-Claude; Daakour, Sarah; Yoda, Akinori; Rodig, Scott J; Tal, Noa; Shochat, Chen; Berezovskaya, Alla; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Sallan, Stephen E; Weinstock, David M; Izraeli, Shai; Kung, Andrew L; Kentsis, Alex; Look, A Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Activating mutations of the interleukin-7 receptor (IL7R) occur in approximately 10% of patients with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL). Most mutations generate a cysteine at the transmembrane domain leading to receptor homodimerization through disulfide bond formation and ligand-independent activation of STAT5. We hypothesized that the reducing agent N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a well-tolerated drug used widely in clinical practice to treat acetaminophen overdose, would reduce disulfide bond formation, and inhibit mutant IL7R-mediated oncogenic signalling. We found that treatment with NAC disrupted IL7R homodimerization in IL7R-mutant DND-41 cells as assessed by non-reducing Western blot, as well as in a luciferase complementation assay. NAC led to STAT5 dephosphorylation and cell apoptosis at clinically achievable concentrations in DND-41 cells, and Ba/F3 cells transformed by an IL7R-mutant construct containing a cysteine insertion. The apoptotic effects of NAC could be rescued in part by a constitutively active allele of STAT5. Despite using doses lower than those tolerated in humans, NAC treatment significantly inhibited the progression of human DND-41 cells engrafted in immunodeficient mice. Thus, targeting leukaemogenic IL7R homodimerization with NAC offers a potentially effective and feasible therapeutic strategy that warrants testing in patients with T-ALL.

  14. Prevention of Acoustic Trauma-Induced Hearing Loss by N-acetylcysteine Administration in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Motalebi Kashani, Masoud; Saberi, Hamidreza; Hannani, Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Background Acoustic trauma is an injury to the hearing mechanisms in the inner ear due to excessive noise. This injury is the most prevalent cause of sensorineural hearing loss in humans, especially from occupational exposure. Previous studies have shown the essential role of free radical formation in the inner ear hearing loss caused by acoustic trauma. Objectives This study was performed to determine the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) administration for reducing acute acoustic trauma in rabbits. Materials and Methods Twenty four rabbits were assigned to four groups including: control, noise plus saline, noise plus NAC administration (325 mg/kg body weight by intraperitoneal injection (IP), three days before exposure to noise and three days after noise exposure), and NAC alone. Auditory brain stem response (ABR) threshold was measured before exposure and one hour and 14 days after exposure. Results The saline plus noise group had on average a 49 decibel (dB) temporary threshold shift (TTS) and 23.9 dB permanent threshold shift (PTS) at the studied frequencies, while rabbits in the NAC administration plus noise group had a 31.5 dB TTS and 10.7 dB PTS averaged across the frequencies. Conclusions Administration of NAC can provide appropriate protection against acoustic trauma-induced hearing loss in rabbits at all studied frequencies. PMID:24396768

  15. Effects of N-Acetylcysteine in Ozone-Induced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Seiffert, Joanna M.; Zhu, Jie; Clarke, Colin; Chang, Yan; Bhavsar, Pank; Adcock, Ian; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhou, Xin; Chung, Kian Fan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Chronic exposure to high levels of ozone induces emphysema and chronic inflammation in mice. We determined the recovery from ozone-induced injury and whether an antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), could prevent or reverse the lung damage. Methods Mice were exposed to ozone (2.5 ppm, 3 hours/12 exposures, over 6 weeks) and studied 24 hours (24h) or 6 weeks (6W) later. Nac (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was administered either before each exposure (preventive) or after completion of exposure (therapeutic) for 6 weeks. Results After ozone exposure, there was an increase in functional residual capacity, total lung volume, and lung compliance, and a reduction in the ratio of forced expiratory volume at 25 and 50 milliseconds to forced vital capacity (FEV25/FVC, FEV50/FVC). Mean linear intercept (Lm) and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to acetylcholine increased, and remained unchanged at 6W after cessation of exposure. Preventive NAC reduced the number of BAL macrophages and airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. Therapeutic NAC reversed AHR, and reduced ASM mass and apoptotic cells. Conclusion Emphysema and lung function changes were irreversible up to 6W after cessation of ozone exposure, and were not reversed by NAC. The beneficial effects of therapeutic NAC may be restricted to the ASM. PMID:24260479

  16. Pharmacological Enhancement of α-Glucosidase by the Allosteric Chaperone N-acetylcysteine

    PubMed Central

    Porto, Caterina; Ferrara, Maria C; Meli, Massimiliano; Acampora, Emma; Avolio, Valeria; Rosa, Margherita; Cobucci-Ponzano, Beatrice; Colombo, Giorgio; Moracci, Marco; Andria, Generoso; Parenti, Giancarlo

    2012-01-01

    Pompe disease (PD) is a metabolic myopathy due to the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme α-glucosidase (GAA). The only approved treatment for this disorder, enzyme replacement with recombinant human GAA (rhGAA), has shown limited therapeutic efficacy in some PD patients. Pharmacological chaperone therapy (PCT), either alone or in combination with enzyme replacement, has been proposed as an alternative therapeutic strategy. However, the chaperones identified so far also are active site-directed molecules and potential inhibitors of target enzymes. We demonstrated that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a novel allosteric chaperone for GAA. NAC improved the stability of rhGAA as a function of pH and temperature without disrupting its catalytic activity. A computational analysis of NAC–GAA interactions confirmed that NAC does not interact with GAA catalytic domain. NAC enhanced the residual activity of mutated GAA in cultured PD fibroblasts and in COS7 cells overexpressing mutated GAA. NAC also enhanced rhGAA efficacy in PD fibroblasts. In cells incubated with NAC and rhGAA, GAA activities were 3.7–8.7-fold higher than those obtained in cells treated with rhGAA alone. In a PD mouse model the combination of NAC and rhGAA resulted in better correction of enzyme activity in liver, heart, diaphragm and gastrocnemia, compared to rhGAA alone. PMID:22990675

  17. Effects of decreased lactate accumulation after dichloroacetate administration on exercise training–induced mitochondrial adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Daisuke; Tamura, Yuki; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Matsunaga, Yutaka; Hatta, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggested that lactate accumulation can be a signal for mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. We investigated whether reductions in lactate concentrations in response to dichloroacetate (DCA), an activator of pyruvate dehydrogenase, attenuate mitochondrial adaptations after exercise training in mice. We first confirmed that DCA administration (200 mg/kg BW by i.p. injection) 10 min before exercise decreased muscle and blood lactate concentrations after high-intensity interval exercise (10 bouts of 1 min treadmill running at 40 m/min with a 1 min rest). At the same time, exercise-induced signal cascades did not change by pre-exercise DCA administration. These results suggested that DCA administration affected only lactate concentrations after exercise. We next examined the effects of acute DCA administration on mRNA expressions involved with mitochondrial biogenesis after same high-intensity interval exercise and the effects of chronic DCA administration on mitochondrial adaptations after high-intensity interval training (increasing intensity from 38 to 43 m/min by the end of training period). Acute DCA administration did not change most of the exercise-induced mRNA upregulation. These data suggest that lactate reductions by DCA administration did not affect transcriptional activation after high-intensity interval exercise. However, chronic DCA administration attenuated, in part, mitochondrial adaptations such as training-induced increasing rates of citrate synthase (P = 0.06), β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activity (P < 0.05), cytochrome c oxidase IV (P < 0.05) and a fatty acid transporter, fatty acid translocase/CD36 (P < 0.05), proteins after exercise training. These results suggest that lactate accumulation during high-intensity interval exercise may be associated with mitochondrial adaptations after chronic exercise training. PMID:26416973

  18. Dichloroacetate increases glucose use and decreases lactate in developing rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.L.; Hatch, J.P.; Prihoda, T.J. )

    1990-12-01

    Dichloroacetate (DCA) activates pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) by inhibiting PDH kinase. Neutralized DCA (100 mg/kg) or saline was intravenously administered to 20 to 25-day-old rats (50-75g). Fifteen minutes later a mixture of {sup 6-14}C glucose and {sup 3}H fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was administered intravenously and the animals were sacrificed by microwave irradiation (2450 MHz, 8.0 kW, 0.6-0.8 sec) after 2 or 5 min. Brain regional rates of glucose use and metabolite levels were determined. DCA-treated rats had increased rates of glucose use in all regions studied (cortex, thalamus, striatum, and brain stem), with an average increase of 41%. Lactate levels were lower in all regions, by an average of 35%. There were no significant changes in levels of ATP, creatine phosphate, or glycogen in any brain region. Blood levels of lactate did not differ significantly between the DCA- and the saline-treated groups. Blood glucose levels were higher in the DCA group. In rats sacrificed by freeze-blowing, DCA treatment caused lower brain levels of both lactate and pyruvate. These results cannot be explained by any systemic effect of DCA. Rather, it appears that in the immature rat, DCA treatment results in activation of brain PDH, increased metabolism of brain pyruvate and lactate, and a resulting increase in brain glycolytic rate.

  19. Protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation after renal ischemia-reperfusion injury: protective effects of erdosteine and N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Hasan; Fadillioglu, Ersin; Yagmurca, Murat; Uçar, Muharrem; Irmak, M Kemal

    2006-02-01

    Oxygen radicals have roles in the renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury usually encountered in several conditions such as renal transplantation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of erdosteine and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the oxidant/antioxidant status and microscopy of renal tissues after IR injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups: control untreated rats, IR (30 min ischemia and 120 min reperfusion), IR + NAC (i.p.; 180 mg/kg) and IR + erdosteine (oral; 50 mg/kg/day for 2 days before experiments) groups. After unilateral renal IR, the right kidney was rapidly excised and sectioned vertically into two pieces for microscopic examination and biochemical analysis. Erdosteine and NAC treatment did not cause any significant change in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in comparison with the IR group, even if the SOD activity increased in IR groups than in the control group. Catalase (CAT) activity was decreased in the IR group in comparison with control and IR + erdosteine groups (P<0.05), whereas it was higher in the IR + erdosteine group than in the IR + NAC group (P<0.05). Xanthine oxidase (XO) activity was higher in all the IR-performed groups than in the control group (P<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level and protein carbonyl (PC) content were increased after IR injury (P<0.05). Erdosteine or NAC treatments ameliorated these increased TBARS and PC contents in comparison with the IR group (P<0.05). Light microscopy of the IR group showed tubular dilatation, tubular necrosis and vacuole formation in epithelial cells. Erdosteine but not NAC apparently reduced the renal tissue damage. The pathological damage score after IR was significantly reduced after erdosteine treatment (P<0.05), but not after NAC treatment. In conclusion, renal IR resulted in oxidative damage as seen in biochemical lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation results with aggravated tubular necrosis. Erdosteine and

  20. N-acetylcysteine stimulates protein synthesis in enterocytes independently of glutathione synthesis.

    PubMed

    Yi, Dan; Hou, Yongqing; Wang, Lei; Long, Minhui; Hu, Shengdi; Mei, Huimin; Yan, Liqiong; Hu, Chien-An Andy; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-02-01

    Dietary supplementation with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been reported to improve intestinal health and treat gastrointestinal diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. According to previous reports, NAC was thought to exert its effect through glutathione synthesis. This study tested the hypothesis that NAC enhances enterocyte growth and protein synthesis independently of cellular glutathione synthesis. Intestinal porcine epithelial cells were cultured for 3 days in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium containing 0 or 100 μM NAC. To determine a possible role for GSH (the reduced form of glutathione) in mediating the effect of NAC on cell growth and protein synthesis, additional experiments were conducted using culture medium containing 100 μM GSH, 100 μM GSH ethyl ester (GSHee), diethylmaleate (a GSH-depletion agent; 10 μM), or a GSH-synthesis inhibitor (buthionine sulfoximine, BSO; 20 μM). NAC increased cell proliferation, GSH concentration, and protein synthesis, while inhibiting proteolysis. GSHee enhanced cell proliferation and GSH concentration without affecting protein synthesis but inhibited proteolysis. Conversely, BSO or diethylmaleate reduced cell proliferation and GSH concentration without affecting protein synthesis, while promoting protein degradation. At the signaling level, NAC augmented the protein abundance of total mTOR, phosphorylated mTOR, and phosphorylated 70S6 kinase as well as mRNA levels for mTOR and p70S6 kinase in IPEC-1 cells. Collectively, these results indicate that NAC upregulates expression of mTOR signaling proteins to stimulate protein synthesis in enterocytes independently of GSH generation. Our findings provide a hitherto unrecognized biochemical mechanism for beneficial effects of NAC in intestinal cells.

  1. N-acetylcysteine with apocynin prevents hyperoxaluria-induced mitochondrial protein perturbations in nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Minu; Sud, Amit; Kaur, Tanzeer; Tandon, Chanderdeep; Singla, S K

    2016-09-01

    Diminished mitochondrial activities were deemed to play an imperative role in surged oxidative damage perceived in hyperoxaluric renal tissue. Proteomics is particularly valuable to delineate the damaging effects of oxidative stress on mitochondrial proteins. The present study was designed to apply large-scale proteomics to describe systematically how mitochondrial proteins/pathways govern the renal damage and calcium oxalate crystal adhesion in hyperoxaluria. Furthermore, the potential beneficial effects of combinatorial therapy with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and apocynin were studied to establish its credibility in the modulation of hyperoxaluria-induced alterations in mitochondrial proteins. In an experimental setup with male Wistar rats, five groups were designed for 9 d. At the end of the experiment, 24-h urine was collected and rats were euthanized. Urinary samples were analyzed for kidney injury marker and creatinine clearance. Transmission electron microscopy revealed distorted renal mitochondria in hyperoxaluria but combinatorial therapy restored the normal mitochondrial architecture. Mitochondria were isolated from renal tissue of experimental rats, and mitochondrial membrane potential was analyzed. The two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) based comparative proteomic analysis was performed on proteins isolated from renal mitochondria. The results revealed eight differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins in hyperoxaluric rats, which were identified by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) analysis. Identified proteins including those involved in important mitochondrial processes, e.g. antioxidant defense, energy metabolism, and electron transport chain. Therapeutic administration of NAC with apocynin significantly expunged hyperoxaluria-induced discrepancy in the renal mitochondrial proteins, bringing them closer to the controls. The results provide insights to further understand the underlying

  2. Glutamate transporter GLT-1 mediates N-acetylcysteine inhibition of cocaine reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Reissner, Kathryn J; Gipson, Cassandra D; Tran, Phuong K; Knackstedt, Lori A; Scofield, Michael D; Kalivas, Peter W

    2015-03-01

    Both pre-clinical and clinical studies indicate that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may be useful in treating relapse to addictive drug use. Cocaine self-administration in rats reduces both cystine-glutamate exchange and glutamate transport via GLT-1 in the nucleus accumbens, and NAC treatment normalizes these two glial processes critical for maintaining glutamate homeostasis. However, it is not known if one or both of these actions by NAC is needed to inhibit relapse to cocaine seeking. To determine whether the restoration of GLT-1 and/or cystine-glutamate exchange is required for NAC to inhibit cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking, we utilized the rat self-administration/extinction/reinstatement model of cocaine relapse. Rats were pre-treated in the nucleus accumbens with vivo-morpholino antisense oligomers targeting either GLT-1 or xCT (catalytic subunit of the cystine-glutamate exchanger) overlapping with daily NAC administration during extinction (100 mg/kg, i.p. for the last 5 days). Rats then underwent cue-induced reinstatement of active lever pressing in the absence of NAC, to determine if preventing NAC-induced restoration of one or the other protein was sufficient to block the capacity of chronic NAC to inhibit reinstatement. The vivo-morpholino suppression of xCT reduced cystine-glutamate exchange but did not affect NAC-induced reduction of reinstated cocaine seeking. In contrast, suppressing NAC-induced restoration of GLT-1 not only prevented NAC from inhibiting reinstatement, but augmented the capacity of cues to reinstate cocaine seeking. We hypothesized that the increased reinstatement after inhibiting NAC induction of GLT-1 resulted from increased extracellular glutamate, and show that augmented reinstatement is prevented by blocking mGluR5. Restoring GLT-1, not cystine-glutamate exchange, is a key mechanism whereby daily NAC reduces cue-induced cocaine reinstatement.

  3. Fetal and Neonatal Effects of N-Acetylcysteine When Used for Neuroprotection in Maternal Chorioamnionitis

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Dorothea D.; Wiest, Donald B.; Mulvihill, Denise M.; Hlavacek, Anthony M.; Majstoravich, Sarah J.; Brown, Truman R.; Taylor, Joseph J.; Buckley, Jason R.; Turner, Robert P.; Rollins, Laura Grace; Bentzley, Jessica P.; Hope, Kathryn E.; Barbour, Andrew B.; Lowe, Danielle W.; Martin, Renee H.; Chang, Eugene Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical safety of antenatal and postnatal N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as a neuroprotective agent in maternal chorioamnionitis in a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial. Study design Twenty-two mothers >24 weeks gestation presenting within 4 hours of diagnosis of clinical chorioamnionitis were randomized with their 24 infants to NAC or saline treatment. Antenatal NAC (100 mg/kg/dose) or saline was given intravenously every 6 hours until delivery. Postnatally, NAC (12.5–25 mg/kg/dose, n = 12) or saline (n = 12) was given every 12 hours for 5 doses. Doppler studies of fetal umbilical and fetal and infant cerebral blood flow, cranial ultrasounds, echocardiograms, cerebral oxygenation, electroencephalograms, and serum cytokines were evaluated before and after treatment, and 12, 24, and 48 hours after birth. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion imaging were performed at term age equivalent. Development was followed for cerebral palsy or autism to 4 years of age. Results Cardiovascular measures, cerebral blood flow velocity and vascular resistance, and cerebral oxygenation did not differ between treatment groups. Cerebrovascular coupling was disrupted in infants with chorioamnionitis treated with saline but preserved in infants treated with NAC, suggesting improved vascular regulation in the presence of neuroinflammation. Infants treated with NAC had higher serum anti-inflammatory interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and lower proinflammatory vascular endothelial growth factor over time vs controls. No adverse events related to NAC administration were noted. Conclusions In this cohort of newborns exposed to chorioamnionitis, antenatal and postnatal NAC was safe, preserved cerebrovascular regulation, and increased an anti-inflammatory neuroprotective protein. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00724594. PMID:26545726

  4. Effect of N-acetylcysteine in COPD patients with different microsomal epoxide hydrolase genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Qing; Zhang, Jia-Qiang; Liu, Hua; Zhao, Zhi-Huan; Fang, Li-Zhou; Liu, Ling; Fu, Wei-Ping; Shu, Jing-Kui; Feng, Jia-Gang; Dai, Lu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not been clarified as yet. In early studies, we found that the proportion of smokers with COPD having extremely slow/slow microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) enzyme activity is significantly higher than that in healthy smokers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether different EPHX1 enzyme activity is related to differential therapeutic effects of treatment with NAC in COPD. Methods A total of 219 patients with COPD were randomly allocated to an extremely slow/slow EPHX1 enzyme activity group (n=157) or a fast/normal EPHX1 enzyme activity group (n=62) according to their EPHX1 enzyme activity. Both groups were treated with NAC 600 mg twice daily for one year. The main study parameters, including forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and yearly exacerbation rate, were measured at baseline and at 6-month intervals for one year. Results Both FEV1 and SGRQ symptom scores were improved after treatment with NAC in the slow activity group when compared with the fast activity group. Further, changes in FEV1 and SGRQ symptom score in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD were more significant than those in patients with severe-to-very severe COPD. The yearly exacerbation rates were reduced in both groups, but the reduction in the slow activity group was significantly lower than in the fast activity group. Conclusion NAC treatment in COPD patients with extremely slow/slow EPHX1 enzyme activity improves FEV1 and the SGRQ symptom score, especially in those with mild-to-moderate COPD, and polymorphism in the EPHX1 gene may have a significant role in differential responses to treatment with NAC in patients with COPD. PMID:25999707

  5. The effect of N-acetylcysteine on the microscopic fluid dynamics of rat tears.

    PubMed

    Tragoulias, Sophia T; Anderton, Philip J

    2001-09-01

    BACKGROUND: The classical view of the tear film is of a 10-micron film of aqueous tears, sandwiched between thin layers of lipid and mucus. This has been challenged recently by the revelation that the tear film may be considerably thicker than 10 microns and that dissolved mucus and protein may play a much more important role than simply promoting tear adherence. In particular, the primary role of mucus may be to form a structured aqueous gel that adheres closely to the corneal surface and evens out its irregularities, thus providing a high-quality optical surface. METHODS: We have used the robust tear film of the rat eye as an animal model to investigate the contribution of mucus and low-molecular-weight (LMW) proteins to tear film structure. The ocular surface was first exposed to saline, which washed away the tear film. Single drops of a tear/saline mixture, treated with various concentrations of the thiol-reducing agent N-acetylcysteine (NAC), were placed on the ocular surface and the resulting fluid behaviour was recorded with video-microscopy. RESULTS: At five per cent concentration, NAC appeared to degrade the gap-filling and anti-evaporative qualities of the tears, features that give the rat tear film its robust characteristics. Lower concentrations had no significant effect. DISCUSSION: In a previous publication, we showed that five per cent NAC alters the profile of LMW proteins in rat tears. The present observations suggest that the robust wetting properties of rat tears depend critically on their mucus and/or LMW protein content and possibly are related to the formation of an aqueous/mucous gel.

  6. [Omeprazole/amoxicillin: improved eradication of Helicobacter pylori in smokers because of N-acetylcysteine].

    PubMed

    Zala, G; Flury, R; Wüst, J; Meyenberger, C; Ammann, R; Wirth, H P

    1994-08-09

    Colonization of Helicobacter pylori (HP) beneath the protective film of gastric mucus enables the organism to survive in the hostile environment of the gastric mucosa. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a sulfhydryl compound with potent mucolytic activity, induces a reduction of gastric barrier mucus thickness of about 75% and reduces mucus viscoelasticity. We therefore tested the hypothesis whether better eradication results could be achieved by addition of NAC to omeprazole/amoxicillin (OME/AMOX). 34 HP positive outpatients with endoscopically documented recurrent duodenal ulcer were included in an ongoing, prospective, randomized trial. Exclusion criteria were: alcoholism, previous gastric surgery, or intake of antibiotics, OME, bismuth salts, corticosteroids or NSAIDs within 4 weeks before study entry. Patients currently smoking > 10 cigarettes/day were classified as smokers. HP infection was confirmed by histology (3 biopsy specimens from gastric antrum and 2 from gastric body; H&E, Giemsa) and at least positive rapid urease test or culture. All 34 patients underwent ulcer therapy with OME (20 mg per day) for 20 days (d 1-20). Group A: in 17 patients (5 females, 12 males, mean age 46 [29-74] years; 8 smokers, 9 nonsmokers) the subsequent eradication therapy, consisting of oral OME (40 mg bid) and AMOX solute (750 mg tid) for 10 days, was combined with NAC solute (2 x 600 mg bid (d 21-30). Group B: 17 patients (2 females, 15 males, mean age 39 [19-70] years; 11 smokers, 6 nonsmokers) underwent eradication therapy without NAC (d 21-30). Control endoscopy was done after a minimal interval of 30 days from the end of treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Antihypertensive mechanisms of chronic captopril or N-acetylcysteine treatment in L-NAME hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Zicha, Josef; Dobesová, Zdenka; Kunes, Jaroslav

    2006-12-01

    Hypertension due to chronic inhibition of NO synthase (NOS) by Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) administration is characterized by both impaired NO-dependent vasodilation and enhanced sympathetic vasoconstriction. The aim of our study was to evaluate changes in the participation of major vasoactive systems in L-NAME-treated rats which were subjected to simultaneous antihypertensive (captopril) or antioxidant (N-acetylcysteine, NAC) treatment. Three-month-old Wistar males treated with L-NAME (60 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks were compared to rats in which L-NAME treatment was combined with simultaneous chronic administration of captopril or NAC. Basal blood pressure (BP) and its acute responses to consecutive i.v. injections of captopril (10 mg/kg), pentolinium (5 mg/kg), L-NAME (30 mg/kg), tetraethylammonium (TEA, 16 mg/kg) and nitroprusside (NP, 20 microg/kg) were determined in conscious rats at the end of the study. The development of L-NAME hypertension was prevented by captopril treatment, whereas NAC treatment caused only a moderate BP reduction. Captopril treatment normalized the sympathetic BP component and significantly reduced residual BP (measured at full NP-induced vasodilation). In contrast, chronic NAC treatment did not modify the sympathetic BP component or residual BP, but significantly enhanced NO-dependent vasodilation. Neither captopril nor NAC treatment influenced the compensatory increase of TEA-sensitive vasodilation mediated by endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in L-NAME-treated rats. Chronic captopril treatment prevented L-NAME hypertension by lowering of sympathetic tone, whereas chronic NAC treatment attenuated L-NAME hypertension by reduction in the vasodilator deficit due to enhanced NO-dependent vasodilation.

  8. High dose intracoronary N-acetylcysteine in a porcine model of ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Markus; Bell, Stephen P; Chen, Zengyi; Nyotowidjojo, Iwan; Lachapelle, Richard R; Christian, Timothy F; Gibson, Pamela C; Keating, Friederike F; Dauerman, Harold L; LeWinter, Martin M

    2013-11-01

    We sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on ischemia and reperfusion in a pig model focusing on cardio-renal protection. High doses of NAC may provide protection from contrast induced nephropathy (CIN). NAC has also been demonstrated to reduce myocardial infarction size and improve left ventricular function after ischemia in both humans and animals studies. In this study we tested the safety and cardiorenal protective efficacy of intracoronary NAC delivered in the radiographic contrast agent in a pig model that simulates the catheter based reperfusion therapy of ST elevation myocardial infarctions. 27 pigs underwent 45 min of ischemia after surgical ligation of distal left descending coronary artery. With coronary reperfusion the animals received at total of 200 mL of the contrast agent Iopamidol with and without NAC to mimic radiographic contrast use during invasive reperfusion therapy. At 24 h the following endpoints were compared: LV function (MRI, echocardiography), myocardial injury (infarct size, area-at-risk, troponin, creatinine kinase) and CIN (creatinine, BUN and renal histology). The effects of NAC on platelet reactivity were also evaluated. Intracoronary administration of NAC administered in the contrast agent is safe. NAC reduces platelet reactivity and there was a trend towards a better cardiac function at 24 h. There was no significant difference in the size of the myocardial infarction. In this model of ischemia-reperfusion high dose NAC did not protect from CIN. High dose intracoronary NAC administered with the radiographic contrast is safe but does not provide significant cardio-renal protection.

  9. In utero heat stress decreases calf survival and performance through the first lactation.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, A P A; Tao, S; Thompson, I M T; Dahl, G E

    2016-10-01

    Calves born to cows exposed to heat stress during late gestation (i.e., the dry period) have lower birth weight and weaning weight and compromised passive immune transfer compared with those born to dams that are cooled. However, it is unknown if heat stress in utero has carryover effects after weaning. The objective was to evaluate the effect of heat stress (HT) or cooling (CL) in late gestation dairy cows on the survival, growth, fertility, and milk production in the first lactation of their calves. Data of animals obtained from previous experiments conducted during 5 consecutive summers in Florida were pooled and analyzed. Cows were dried off 46d before expected calving and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments, HT or CL. Cooled cows were housed with sprinklers, fans, and shade, whereas only shade was provided to HT cows. Within 4h of birth, 3.8 L of colostrum was fed to calves from both groups of cows. All calves were managed in the same manner and weaned at 49d of age. Birth weight and survival of 146 calves (HT=74; CL=72) were analyzed. Additionally, body weight, growth rate, fertility, and milk production in the first lactation from 72 heifers (HT=34; CL=38) were analyzed. As expected, HT calves were lighter (means ± SEM; 39.1±0.7 vs. 44.8±0.7kg) at birth than CL calves. Cooled heifers were heavier up to 1yr of age, but had similar total weight gain (means ± SEM; 305.8±6.3 vs. 299.1±6.3kg, respectively) compared with HT heifers. No effect of treatment was observed on age at first insemination (AI) and age at first parturition. Compared with CL heifers, HT heifers had a greater number of services per pregnancy confirmed at d 30 after AI, but no treatment effect was observed on number of services per pregnancy confirmed at d 50 after AI. A greater percentage of CL heifers reached first lactation compared with HT heifers (85.4 vs. 65.9%). Moreover, HT heifers produced less milk up to 35wk of the first lactation compared with CL heifers (means ± SEM; 26

  10. Resveratrol and N-acetylcysteine influence redox balance in equine articular chondrocytes under acidic and very low oxygen conditions

    PubMed Central

    Collins, John A.; Moots, Robert J.; Clegg, Peter D.; Milner, Peter I.

    2015-01-01

    Mature articular cartilage is an avascular tissue characterized by a low oxygen environment. In joint disease, acidosis and further reductions in oxygen levels occur, compromising cartilage integrity.This study investigated how acidosis and very low oxygen levels affect components of the cellular redox system in equine articular chondrocytesand whether the antioxidants resveratrol and N-acetylcysteine could modulate this system. We used articular chondrocytes isolated from nondiseased equine joints and cultured them in a 3-D alginate bead system for 48 h in <1, 2, 5, and 21% O2 at pH 7.2 or 6.2 in the absence or presence of the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1β (10 ng/ml).In addition, chondrocytes were cultured with resveratrol (10 µM) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (2 mM).Cell viability, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) release, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), reactive oxygen species (ROS), GSH:GSSG ratio, and SOD1 and SOD2 protein expression were measured. Very low levels of oxygen (<1%), acidosis (pH 6.2), and exposure to IL-1β led to reductions in cell viability, increased GAG release, alterations in ΔΨm and ROS levels, and reduced GSH:GSSG ratio. In addition, SOD1 and SOD2 protein expressions were reduced. Both resveratrol and NAC partially restored ΔΨm and ROS levels and prevented GAG release and cell loss and normalized SOD1 and SOD2 protein expression. In particular NAC was highly effective at restoring the GSH:GSSG ratio.These results show that the antioxidants resveratrol and N-acetylcysteine can counteract the redox imbalance in articular chondrocytes induced by low oxygen and acidic conditions. PMID:25998424

  11. Comparative evaluation of N-acetylcysteine and N-acetylcysteineamide in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in human hepatoma HepaRG cells

    PubMed Central

    Tobwala, Shakila; Khayyat, Ahdab; Fan, Weili

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, APAP) is one of the most widely used over-the-counter antipyretic analgesic medications. Despite being safe at therapeutic doses, an accidental or intentional overdose can result in severe hepatotoxicity; a leading cause of drug-induced liver failure in the U.S. Depletion of glutathione (GSH) is implicated as an initiating event in APAP-induced toxicity. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a GSH precursor, is the only currently approved antidote for an APAP overdose. Unfortunately, fairly high doses and longer treatment times are required due to its poor bioavailability. In addition, oral and intravenous administration of NAC in a hospital setting are laborious and costly. Therefore, we studied the protective effects of N-acetylcysteineamide (NACA), a novel antioxidant, with higher bioavailability and compared it with NAC in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in a human-relevant in vitro system, HepaRG. Our results indicated that exposure of HepaRG cells to APAP resulted in GSH depletion, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, increased lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction (assessed by JC-1 fluorescence), and lactate dehydrogenase release. Both NAC and NACA protected against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by restoring GSH levels, scavenging ROS, inhibiting lipid peroxidation, and preserving mitochondrial membrane potential. However, NACA was better than NAC at combating oxidative stress and protecting against APAP-induced damage. The higher efficiency of NACA in protecting cells against APAP-induced toxicity suggests that NACA can be developed into a promising therapeutic option for treatment of an APAP overdose. PMID:25245075

  12. The effect of N-acetylcysteine supplementation on serum homocysteine levels and hepatic and renal oxidative stress in homocysteine thiolactone-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Kondakçı, Gamze; Aydın, A Fatih; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Uysal, Müjdat

    2017-05-01

    The effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (1 g/kg body weight/day) on serum homocysteine (Hcy) levels, insulin resistance (IR), and hepatic and renal prooxidant-antioxidant balance was evaluated in rats treated with homocysteine thiolactone (HcyT) (500 mg/kg body weight/day for 6 weeks). Reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined in the liver and kidney. HcyT elevated serum Hcy levels and caused IR, but liver and kidney function tests remained unchanged. HcyT increased ROS and MDA without any change in hepatic antioxidants, but it elevated renal SOD and GSH-Px activities. NAC decreased serum Hcy, hepatic and renal ROS and MDA levels, and renal SOD and GSH-Px activities in rats with high Hcy levels. However, it did not ameliorate IR. Our results indicate that NAC supplementation may be effective in decreasing Hcy levels and Hcy-induced hepatic and renal oxidative stress.

  13. Effects of guaifenesin, N-acetylcysteine, and ambroxol on MUC5AC and mucociliary transport in primary differentiated human tracheal-bronchial cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Therapeutic intervention in the pathophysiology of airway mucus hypersecretion is clinically important. Several types of drugs are available with different possible modes of action. We examined the effects of guaifenesin (GGE), N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and ambroxol (Amb) on differentiated human airway epithelial cells stimulated with IL-13 to produce additional MUC5AC. Methods After IL-13 pre-treatment (3 days), the cultures were treated with GGE, NAC or Amb (10–300 μM) in the continued presence of IL-13. Cellular and secreted MUC5AC, mucociliary transport rates (MTR), mucus rheology at several time points, and the antioxidant capacity of the drugs were assessed. Results IL-13 increased MUC5AC content (~25%) and secretion (~2-fold) and decreased MTR, but only slightly affected the G’ (elastic) or G” (viscous) moduli of the secretions. GGE significantly inhibited MUC5AC secretion and content in the IL-13-treated cells in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50s at 24 hr ~100 and 150 μM, respectively). NAC or Amb were less effective. All drugs increased MTR and decreased G’ and G” relative to IL-13 alone. Cell viability was not affected and only NAC exhibited antioxidant capacity. Conclusions Thus, GGE effectively reduces cellular content and secretion of MUC5AC, increases MTR, and alters mucus rheology, and may therefore be useful in treating airway mucus hypersecretion and mucostasis in airway diseases. PMID:23113953

  14. Investigations on the endometrial response to intrauterine administration of N-acetylcysteine in oestrous mares.

    PubMed

    Melkus, E; Witte, T; Walter, I; Heuwieser, W; Aurich, C

    2013-08-01

    In mares, mating-induced persistent endometritis contributes to low fertility. The condition is in part related to delayed clearance of mucus accumulated within the uterine lumen. The objective of this study was to investigate the endometrial response of healthy mares to intrauterine (i.u.) treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Oestrous mares (n = 12) were randomly assigned to a treatment (TM) or control (C) group and received an i.u. infusion of 5% NAC and saline (total volume 140 ml), respectively. Endometrial biopsies were collected in five of the mares 24 h after treatment, in the remaining seven mares 72 h after treatment. Endometrial biopsies were evaluated for integrity of the luminal epithelium, number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), staining for cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), staining with Kiel 67 antigen (Ki-67), lectins and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS). The integrity of endometrial epithelial cells was not affected by treatment (no statistical differences between groups or times). At 24 h after treatment, the mean number of PMN in endometrial biopsies from NAC- and C-mares did not differ, but at 72 h after treatment, number of PMN was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in C (3.9 ± 0.6 PMN/field) compared with NAC-treated mares (2.3 ± 0.2 PMN/field). At 72 h after treatment, the intensity of staining for COX2 was significantly higher after saline than after NAC treatment (p < 0.05). In the epithelium, no differences in staining for the proliferation marker Ki-67 were seen with respect to time and treatment. Score for the lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) was slightly higher in NAC-treated mares than in C-mares 72 h after treatment (p < 0.05). Score for PAS staining of mucus in deep uterine glands differed significantly between groups at 24 h after treatment (p < 0.05). The present study demonstrates that NAC does not adversely affect the endometrial function. Moreover, an anti-inflammatory effect on the equine endometrium was

  15. Colonic and Hepatic Modulation by Lipoic Acid and/or N-Acetylcysteine Supplementation in Mild Ulcerative Colitis Induced by Dextran Sodium Sulfate in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Fabiana Andréa; de Andrade, Kívia Queiroz; de Araújo, Orlando Roberto Pimentel; Santos, Juliana Célia de Farias

    2016-01-01

    Lipoic acid (LA) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) are antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents that have not yet been tested on mild ulcerative colitis (UC). This study aims to evaluate the action of LA and/or NAC, on oxidative stress and inflammation markers in colonic and hepatic rat tissues with mild UC, induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (2% w/v). LA and/or NAC (100 mg·kg·day−1, each) were given, once a day, in the diet, in a pretreatment phase (7 days) and during UC induction (5 days). Colitis induction was confirmed by histological and biochemical analyses (high performance liquid chromatography, spectrophotometry, and Multiplex®). A redox imbalance occurred before an immunological disruption in the colon. NAC led to a decrease in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and myeloperoxidase activity. In the liver, DSS did not cause damage but treatments with both antioxidants were potentially harmful, with LA increasing MDA and LA + NAC increasing H2O2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma, and transaminases. In summary, NAC exhibited the highest colonic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, while LA + NAC caused hepatic damage. PMID:27957238

  16. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on the spinal-cord glutathione system and nitric-oxide metabolites in rats with neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Horst, Andréa; Kolberg, Carolina; Moraes, Maira S; Riffel, Ana Paula K; Finamor, Isabela A; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Pavanato, Maria Amália; Partata, Wania A

    2014-05-21

    Since N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a donor of cysteine, we studied the relationship between NAC and concentration of oxidized and reduced glutathione (GSH/GSSG ratio), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities in the lumbosacral spinal cord of rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve that received NAC (150mg/kg/day, i.p.) or 0.9% saline solution for 3 or 10 days. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric-oxide (NO) metabolites were also measured. Von Frey hair and hot-plate tests showed hyperalgesia at day 1 in CCI rats. Hyperalgesia persisted at all other times in saline-treated CCI rats, but returned to pre-injury values in NAC-treated CCI rats after 3 postoperative days. GST activity and the GSH/GSSG ratio increased in saline-treated CCI rats, while the NAC treatment increased GST and GPx activities at day 10, with no significant change in the GSH/GSSG ratio. NAC treatment did not affect H2O2 levels, but it reduced NO metabolites in CCI rats 3 days after the surgery. Thus, the anti-hyperalgesic effect of NAC appears not to involve its action as a cysteine precursor for GSH synthesis, but involves a decrease in NO.

  17. A novel thiol compound, N-acetylcysteine amide, attenuates allergic airway disease by regulating activation of NF-kappaB and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Sun; Kim, So Ri; Park, Hee Sun; Park, Seoung Ju; Min, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Ka Young; Choe, Yeong Hun; Hong, Sang Hyun; Han, Hyo Jin; Lee, Young Rae; Kim, Jong Suk; Atlas, Daphne; Lee, Yong Chul

    2007-12-31

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. Recent studies have demonstrated that antioxidants are able to reduce airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in animal models of allergic airway disease. A newly developed antioxidant, small molecular weight thiol compound, N-acetylcysteine amide (AD4) has been shown to increase cellular levels of glutathione and to attenuate oxidative stress related disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. However, the effects of AD4 on allergic airway disease such as asthma are unknown. We used ovalbumin (OVA)-inhaled mice to evaluate the role of AD4 in allergic airway disease. In this study with OVA-inhaled mice, the increased ROS generation, the increased levels of Th2 cytokines and VEGF, the increased vascular permeability, the increased mucus production, and the increased airway resistance in the lungs were significantly reduced by the administration of AD4. We also found that the administration of AD4 decreased the increases of the NF-kappaB and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) levels in nuclear protein extracts of lung tissues after OVA inhalation. These results suggest that AD4 attenuates airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness by regulating activation of NF-kappaB and HIF-1alpha as well as reducing ROS generation in allergic airway disease.

  18. Targeting Glia with N-Acetylcysteine Modulates Brain Glutamate and Behaviors Relevant to Neurodevelopmental Disorders in C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Durieux, Alice M. S.; Fernandes, Cathy; Murphy, Declan; Labouesse, Marie Anais; Giovanoli, Sandra; Meyer, Urs; Li, Qi; So, Po-Wah; McAlonan, Grainne

    2015-01-01

    An imbalance between excitatory (E) glutamate and inhibitory (I) GABA transmission may underlie neurodevelopmental conditions such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia. This may be direct, through alterations in synaptic genes, but there is increasing evidence for the importance of indirect modulation of E/I balance through glial mechanisms. Here, we used C57BL/6J mice to test the hypothesis that striatal glutamate levels can be shifted by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which acts at the cystine-glutamate antiporter of glial cells. Striatal glutamate was quantified in vivo using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The effect of NAC on behaviors relevant to ASD was examined in a separate cohort. NAC induced a time-dependent decrease in striatal glutamate, which recapitulated findings of lower striatal glutamate reported in ASD. NAC-treated animals were significantly less active and more anxious in the open field test; and NAC-treated females had significantly impaired prepulse inhibition of startle response. This at least partly mimics greater anxiety and impaired sensorimotor gating reported in neurodevelopmental disorders. Thus glial mechanisms regulate glutamate acutely and have functional consequences even in adulthood. Glial cells may be a potential drug target for the development of new therapies for neurodevelopmental disorders across the life-span. PMID:26696857

  19. N-acetylcysteine infusion reduces the resistance index of renal artery in the early stage of systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Rosato, Edoardo; Cianci, Rosario; Barbano, Biagio; Menghi, Ginevra; Gigante, Antonietta; Rossi, Carmelina; Zardi, Enrico M; Amoroso, Antonio; Pisarri, Simonetta; Salsano, Felice

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate resistance index (RI) changes in renal artery after N-acetylcysteine infusion in patients with systemic sclerosis. Methods: In an open-label study 40 patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) were treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) iv infusion over 5 consecutive hours, at a dose of 0.015 g·kg−1·h−1. Renal haemodynamic effects were evaluated by color Doppler examination before and after NAC infusion. Results: NAC infusion significantly reduced RI in a group of sclerodermic patients with early/active capillaroscopic pattern, modified Rodnan Total Skin Score (mRTSS) <14 and mild-moderate score to the vascular domain of Medsger Scleroderma Disease Severity Scale (DSS). RI increased after NAC infusion in patients with late capillaroscopic pattern, mTRSS>14 and severe-end stage score to the vascular domain of DSS. In patients with reduction of RI after NAC infusion, diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide mean value was significantly higher than in those patients with an increase of RI. No significant differences in renal blood flow were found between patients with different subsets of SSc. Conclusion: In patients with low disease severity NAC ameliorates vascular renal function. PMID:19730428

  20. A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of N-Acetylcysteine in the Treatment of Cocaine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    LaRowe, Steven D.; Kalivas, Peter W.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Randall, Patrick K.; Mardikian, Pascale N.; Malcolm, Robert. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background There remains no FDA approved medication for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Preclinical studies and early pilot clinical investigations have suggested that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may be useful in the treatment of the disorder. Objective The present report assessed the efficacy of NAC in the treatment of cocaine dependence. Methods Cocaine-dependent volunteers (n = 111) were randomized to receive daily doses of 1200mg of NAC, 2400mg of NAC or placebo. Participants were followed for 8 weeks (up to 3 visits weekly). At each of these visits, urine samples were collected, along with self-reports of cocaine use. Urine samples were assessed for quantitative levels of benzoylecognine (i.e., cocaine metabolite). Results Overall, the primary results for the clinical trial were negative. However, when considering only subjects who entered the trial having already achieved abstinence, results favored the 2400mg NAC group relative to placebo, with the 2400mg group having longer times to relapse and lower craving ratings. Conclusion While the present trial failed to demonstrate that NAC reduces cocaine use in cocaine-dependent individuals actively using, there was some evidence it prevented return to cocaine use in individuals who had already achieved abstinence from cocaine. Scientific significance: N-Acetylcysteine may be useful as a relapse prevention agent in abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals. PMID:23952889

  1. Potentiation of chemotherapeutics by bromelain and N-acetylcysteine: sequential and combination therapy of gastrointestinal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Afshin; Masoumi-Moghaddam, Samar; Ehteda, Anahid; Liauw, Winston; Morris, David Lawson

    2016-01-01

    Intraperitoneal chemotherapy together with cytoreductive surgery is the standard of care for a number of peritoneal surface malignancies. However, this approach fails to maintain the complete response and disease recurs due to microscopic residual disease. Although safer than systemic chemotherapy regimens, locoregional treatment with chemotherapeutics can induce toxicity which is a major concern affecting the patient’s treatment protocol and outcome. For an enhanced treatment efficacy, efforts should be made to maximize cytotoxic effects of chemotherapeutic agents on tumor cells while minimizing their toxic effects on host cells. Bromelain and N-acetylcysteine are two natural agents with good safety profiles shown to have anti-cancer effects. However, their interaction with chemotherapeutics is unknown. In this study, we investigated if these agents have the potential to sensitize in vitro gastrointestinal cancer models to cisplatin, paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil, and vincristine. The drug-drug interaction was also analyzed. Our findings suggest that combination of bromelain and N-acetylcysteine with chemotherapeutic agents could give rise to an improved chemotherapeutic index in therapeutic approaches to peritoneal surface malignancies of gastrointestinal origin so that maximum benefits could result from less toxic and more patient-friendly doses. This represents a potentially efficacious strategy for the enhancement of microscopic cytoreduction and is a promising area for future research. PMID:27186409

  2. N-acetylcysteine modulates angiogenesis and vasodilation in stomach such as DNA damage in blood of portal hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Licks, Francielli; Hartmann, Renata Minuzzo; Marques, Camila; Schemitt, Elizângela; Colares, Josieli Raskopf; Soares, Mariana do Couto; Reys, Juliana; Fisher, Camila; da Silva, Juliana; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the antioxidant effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the stomach of rats with portal hypertension. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats weighing ± 250 g were divided into four experimental groups (n = 6 each): Sham-operated (SO), SO + NAC, partial portal vein ligation (PPVL), and PPVL + NAC. Treatment with NAC in a dose of 10 mg/kg (i.p.) diluted in 0.6 mL of saline solution was administered daily for 7 d starting 8 d after the surgery. Animals from the PPVL and SO group received saline solution (0.6 mL) for the same period of time as the PPVL + NAC and SO + NAC group. On the 15th day the animals were anesthetized and we evaluated portal pressure by cannulating mesenteric artery. After, we removed the stomach for further analysis. We performed immunohistochemical analysis for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and nitrotirosine (NTT) proteins in stomach. We also evaluated eNOS and VEGF by Western blot analysis and assessed DNA damage in blood samples by the comet assay. RESULTS: The portal hypertension group exhibited increases in portal pressure when compared to SO group (29.8 ± 1.8 vs 12.0 ± 0.3 mmHg) (P < 0.001). The same was observed when we compared the eNOS (56.8 ± 3.7 vs 13.46 ± 2.8 pixels) (P < 0.001), VEGF (34.9 ± 4.7 vs 17.46 ± 2.6 pixels) (P < 0.05), and NTT (39.01 ± 4.0 vs 12.77 ± 2.3 pixels) (P < 0.05) expression by immunohistochemistry of the PPVL animals with the SO group. The expression of eNOS (0.39 ± 0.03 vs 0.25 ± 0.03 a.μ) (P < 0.01) and VEGF (0.38 ± 0.04 vs 0.26 ± 0.04 a.μ) (P < 0.01) were also evaluated by Western blot analysis, and we observed an increase of both proteins on PPVL animals. We also evaluated the DNA damage by comet assay, and observed an increase on damage index and damage frequency on those animals. NAC decreased portal pressure values in PPVL + NAC animals (16.46 ± 2 vs 29.8 ± 1.8 mmHg) (P < 0.001) when compared to PPVL. The expression of e

  3. N-Acetylcysteine improves oocyte and embryo quality in polycystic ovary syndrome patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection: an alternative to metformin.

    PubMed

    Cheraghi, Ebrahim; Mehranjani, Malek Soleimani; Shariatzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein Nasr; Ebrahimi, Zahra

    2016-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with low-quality oocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of metformin (MET), N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and their combination on follicular fluid parameters, oocytes and embryo quality in PCOS patients. A prospective randomised placebo-controlled pilot study on 60 Iranian women with PCOS (aged 25-35 years) undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was designed. Women were divided into four groups (n=15 in each): (1) an MET, administered 1500mg day(-1) MET; (2) an NAC group, administered 1800mg day(-1) NAC; (3) an NAC + MET group; and (4) a placebo group. Drugs were administered from the 3rd day of previous cycle until the day of oocyte aspiration (6 weeks treatment in total). Data were analysed by one-way ANOVA, with significance set at P<0.05. The number of immature and abnormal oocytes decreased significantly in the NAC compared with placebo group, with a concomitant increase in the number of good-quality embryos in the NAC group (P<0.05). Malondialdehyde levels decreased significantly in the NAC and NAC + MET groups compared with the placebo-treated group (P<0.02). In addition, there were significant decreases in leptin levels in the NAC, MET and NAC + MET groups compared with the placebo group (P<0.001). Insulin and LH levels were significantly lower in the MET and NAC groups compared with the placebo-treated group (P<0.02). We concluded that NAC improves oocyte and embryo quality and could be administered as an alternative to MET.

  4. N-acetylcysteine and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid alleviate oxidative stress and hepatic dysfunction induced by sodium arsenite in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Abu El-Saad, Ahmed M; Al-Kahtani, Mohammed A; Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M

    2016-01-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic represents a serious challenge to humans and other animals. The aim of the present study was to test the protective effect of antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) either individually or in combination with a chelating agent, meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), against sodium arsenite oral toxicity in male rats. Five groups were used: control; arsenic group (orally administrated in a concentration of 2 mg/kg body weight [b.w.]); the other three groups were orally administrated sodium arsenite in a concentration of 2 mg/kg b.w. followed by either NAC (10 mg/kg b.w., intraperitoneally [i.p.]), DMSA (50 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) or NAC plus DMSA. Arsenic toxicity caused significant rise in serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin, and a significant decrease in total protein (TP) and albumin levels after 3 weeks of experimental period. In addition, arsenic-treated rats showed significantly higher arsenic content in liver and significant rise in hepatic malondialdehyde level. By contrast, sharp decreases in glutathione content and catalase and glutathione reductase activities were discernible. NAC and/or DMSA counteracted most of these physiologic and biochemical defects. NAC monotherapy was more effective than DMSA in increasing TP, while DMSA was more effective in decreasing alanine aminotransferase. The combined treatment was superior over monotherapies in recovery of TP and glutathione. Biochemical data were well supported by histopathological and ultrastructural findings. In conclusion, the combination therapy of NAC and DMSA may be an ideal choice against oxidative insult induced by arsenic poisoning. PMID:27799742

  5. N-Acetylcysteine in the Treatment of Pediatric Trichotillomania: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Add-On Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Grant, Jon E.; Pittenger, Christopher; Leckman, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for the treatment of pediatric trichotillomania (TTM) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, add-on study. Method: A total of 39 children and adolescents aged 8 to 17 years with pediatric trichotillomania were randomly assigned to receive NAC or matching placebo for 12 weeks. Our primary…

  6. A double-blind placebo controlled trial with oral ambroxol and N-acetylcysteine for mucolytic treatment in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ratjen, F; Wönne, R; Posselt, H G; Stöver, B; Hofmann, D; Bender, S W

    1985-11-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and ambroxol as compared with the effect of placebos was studied in 36 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with mild to moderate pulmonary disease. The patients were randomly assigned to one of three regimens, matched on the basis of age and Chrispin-Norman scores. The trial was conducted over a period of 12 weeks. Patients were assessed clinically and by extensive pulmonary function techniques (body-plethysmography, maximal expiratory flow-volume curves, trapped air determination). Although no clinical differences could be observed between the three groups, significant impairment in the placebo group was found for trapped air and FEV1 when compared to the active groups, suggesting a therapeutic effect of ambroxol and NAC in CF.

  7. Chemical Changes in Nonthermal Plasma-Treated N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) Solution and Their Contribution to Bacterial Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, Utku K.; Smith, Josh; Ji, Hai-Feng; Brooks, Ari D.; Joshi, Suresh G.

    2016-01-01

    In continuation of our previous reports on the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of atmospheric non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma treated N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) solution against planktonic and biofilm forms of different multidrug resistant microorganisms, we present here the chemical changes that mediate inactivation of Escherichia coli. In this study, the mechanism and products of the chemical reactions in plasma-treated NAC solution are shown. UV-visible spectrometry, FT-IR, NMR, and colorimetric assays were utilized for chemical characterization of plasma treated NAC solution. The characterization results were correlated with the antimicrobial assays using determined chemical species in solution in order to confirm the major species that are responsible for antimicrobial inactivation. Our results have revealed that plasma treatment of NAC solution creates predominantly reactive nitrogen species versus reactive oxygen species, and the generated peroxynitrite is responsible for significant bacterial inactivation. PMID:26832829

  8. Determination of the radioprotective effects of topical applications of MEA, WR-2721, and N-acetylcysteine on murine skin

    SciTech Connect

    Verhey, L.J.; Sedlacek, R.

    1983-01-01

    Topical applications of MEA (beta-mercaptoethylamine or cysteamine), WR-2721 (S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)-ethylphosphorothioic acid), and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) were tested for their ability to protect the normal skin of the hind legs of mice against acute and late damage from single doses of /sup 137/Cs radiation. No significant protection was observed with either WR-2721 or NAC. MEA was shown to offer significant protection against acute skin damage in both buffered and unbuffered forms, but no significant protection against late contraction. The use of topical MEA on unanesthetized animals breathing carbogen (95% O2, 5% CO2) appears to give an enhanced level of radioprotection over that shown for anesthetized, air-breathing animals.

  9. Comparative behavioral toxicity of four sulfhydryl radioprotective compounds in mice: Wr2721, cysteamine, diethyldithiocarbamate, and n-acetylcysteine

    SciTech Connect

    Landauer, M.R.; Davis, H.D.; Dominitz, J.A.; Weiss, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    A number of sulfhydryl compounds have been shown to protect against ionizing radiation. One of the most effective radioprotectors is S-2(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid, also known aas ethiofos, gammaphos, or WR-2721 (Davidson, 1980; Giambarresi and Jacobs, 1987). This drug is currently under clinical investigation for its potential in protecting normal tissue during radiation treatment and chemotherapy (Blumberg et al., 1982; Glover et al., 1988; Yuhas et al., 1980). B-Mercaptoethylamine (MEA, cysteamine) was for years the standard against which the effectiveness of other radioprotectors was judged, but is more toxic than WR-2721 (Giambarresi and Jacobs, 1987). Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) are other compounds shown to have radioprotective properties (Milas et al., 1988; Weiss et al., 1984). Studies in a variety of animal species have shown significant behavioral toxicity after administration of WR-2721 (Bogo et al., 1985; Bogo, 1988; Landauer et al., 1987b, 1988).

  10. Chemical Changes in Nonthermal Plasma-Treated N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) Solution and Their Contribution to Bacterial Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Utku K; Smith, Josh; Ji, Hai-Feng; Brooks, Ari D; Joshi, Suresh G

    2016-02-02

    In continuation of our previous reports on the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of atmospheric non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma treated N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) solution against planktonic and biofilm forms of different multidrug resistant microorganisms, we present here the chemical changes that mediate inactivation of Escherichia coli. In this study, the mechanism and products of the chemical reactions in plasma-treated NAC solution are shown. UV-visible spectrometry, FT-IR, NMR, and colorimetric assays were utilized for chemical characterization of plasma treated NAC solution. The characterization results were correlated with the antimicrobial assays using determined chemical species in solution in order to confirm the major species that are responsible for antimicrobial inactivation. Our results have revealed that plasma treatment of NAC solution creates predominantly reactive nitrogen species versus reactive oxygen species, and the generated peroxynitrite is responsible for significant bacterial inactivation.

  11. Is montelukast as effective as N-acetylcysteine in hepatic injury due to acetaminophen intoxication in rats?

    PubMed

    İçer, Mustafa; Zengin, Yilmaz; Gunduz, Ercan; Dursun, Recep; Durgun, Hasan Mansur; Turkcu, Gul; Yuksel, Hatice; Üstündağ, Mehmet; Guloglu, Cahfer

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the acute protective effect of montelukast sodium in hepatic injury secondary to acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication. This study used 60 rats. The rats were grouped into 6 groups. The control group was administered oral distilled water 10 ml/kg, the APAP group oral APAP 1 g/kg, the montelukast sodium (MK) group oral MK 30 mg/kg, the acetaminophen+N-acetylcysteine (APAP+NAC) group oral APAP 1 g/kg, followed by a single dose of intraperitoneal NAC 1.5 g/kg three hours later, the acetaminophen+montelukast sodium (APAP+MK) group oral APAP 1 g/kg, followed by oral MK 30 mg/kg 3 h later, the acetaminophen+N-acetylcysteine+montelukast sodium (APAP+NAC+MK) group oral APAP 1 g/kg, followed by a single intraperitoneal NAC 1.5 g/kg plus oral MK 30 mg/kg 3 h later. Blood and liver tissue samples were taken 24h after drug administration. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin were studied from the blood samples. Liver tissue samples were used for histopathological examination. Compared with the control group, serum AST and ALT activities were higher in the APAP and APAP+NAC groups. APAP+NAC, APAP+MK, and APAP+NAC+MK groups had reduced serum ALT and AST activities than the group administered APAP alone. APAP+MK and APAP+NAC+MK groups had a lower serum ALP activity than the control group. Histopathologically, there was a difference between the group administered APAP alone and the APAP+MK and APAP+NAC+MK groups. MK is as protective as NAC in liver tissue in APAP intoxication in rats.

  12. TOLLIP, MUC5B, and the Response to N-Acetylcysteine among Individuals with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shwu-Fan; Martinez, Fernando J.; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Raghu, Ganesh; Schwartz, David A.; Valenzi, Eleanor; Witt, Leah; Lee, Cathryn; Vij, Rekha; Huang, Yong; Strek, Mary E.; Noth, Imre

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating lung disease of unknown etiology. The genes TOLLIP and MUC5B play important roles in lung host defense, which is an immune process influenced by oxidative signaling. Whether polymorphisms in TOLLIP and MUC5B modify the effect of immunosuppressive and antioxidant therapy in individuals with IPF is unknown. Objectives: To determine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within TOLLIP and MUC5B modify the effect of interventions in subjects participating in the Evaluating the Effectiveness of Prednisone, Azathioprine, and N-Acetylcysteine in Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (PANTHER-IPF) clinical trial. Methods: SNPs within TOLLIP (rs5743890/rs5743894/rs5743854/rs3750920) and MUC5B (rs35705950) were genotyped. Interaction modeling was conducted with multivariable Cox regression followed by genotype-stratified survival analysis using a composite endpoint of death, transplantation, hospitalization, or a decline of ≥10% in FVC. Measurements and Main Results: Significant interaction was observed between N-acetylcysteine (NAC) therapy and rs3750920 within TOLLIP (Pinteraction = 0.001). After stratifying by rs3750920 genotype, NAC therapy was associated with a significant reduction in composite endpoint risk (hazard ratio, 0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.02–0.83; P = 0.03) in those with a TT genotype, but a nonsignificant increase in composite endpoint risk (hazard ratio, 3.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.79–13.16; P = 0.10) was seen in those with a CC genotype. These findings were then replicated in an independent IPF cohort. Conclusions: NAC may be an efficacious therapy for individuals with IPF with an rs3750920 (TOLLIP) TT genotype, but it was associated with a trend toward harm in those with a CC genotype. A genotype-stratified prospective clinical trial should be conducted before any recommendation regarding the use of off-label NAC to treat IPF. PMID:26331942

  13. N-acetylcysteine versus Dopamine to Prevent Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiac Surgery in Patients with Preexisting Moderate Renal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Savluk, Omer Faruk; Guzelmeric, Fusun; Yavuz, Yasemin; Cevirme, Deniz; Gurcu, Emre; Ogus, Halide; Orki, Tulay; Kocak, Tuncer

    2017-01-01

    Objective Acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery is associated with mortality and morbidity. Therefore, strategies to prevent acute kidney injury are very important. The aim of this placebo-controlled randomized double-blind study was to compare the prophylactic efficacy of N-Acetylcysteine and dopamine administration in patients with pre-existing moderate renal insufficiency who were undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods This study included 135 patients with pre-existing moderate renal insufficiency who were scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Serum creatinine and GFR were recorded preoperatively and on the first and second postoperative days. Results On the first and second postoperative days, the drugs used showed statistically significant differences among the creatinine groups (P<0.001). According to Tukey’s HSD, on the first and second PO, the creatinine of Group N, D and P were significantly different (P<0.001). On the first and second PO, the used drugs showed statistically significant differences among the effects of eGFR (P<0.001). According to Tukey’s HSD on the first postoperative day, the average eGFR score of Group N compared to D and P were significantly difference (P<0.001). On the second postoperative day, the eGFR of Group N and D showed no difference (P=0.37), but P showed a difference (P<0.001). Conclusion We found that the prophylactic use of intravenous N-Acetylcysteine had a protective effect on renal function, whereas the application of renal dose dopamine did not have a protective effect in patients with pre-existing moderate renal failure.

  14. The Efficacy of Umbelliferone, Arbutin, and N-Acetylcysteine to Prevent Microbial Colonization and Biofilm Development on Urinary Catheter Surface: Results from a Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Tommaso; Gallelli, Luca; Meacci, Francesca; Brugnolli, Anna; Prosperi, Letizia; Roberta, Stefani; Eccher, Cristina; Mazzoli, Sandra; Lanzafame, Paolo; Caciagli, Patrizio; Malossini, Gianni; Bartoletti, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated, in a preliminary study, the efficacy of umbelliferone, arbutin, and N-acetylcysteine to inhibit biofilm formation on urinary catheter. We used 20 urinary catheters: 5 catheters were incubated with Enterococcus faecalis (control group); 5 catheters were incubated with E. faecalis in presence of umbelliferone (150 mg), arbutin (60 mg), and N-acetylcysteine (150 mg) (group 1); 5 catheters were incubated with E. faecalis in presence of umbelliferone (150 mg), arbutin (60 mg), and N-acetylcysteine (400 mg) (group 2); and 5 catheters were incubated with E. faecalis in presence of umbelliferone (300 mg), arbutin (60 mg), and N-acetylcysteine (150 mg) (group 3). After 72 hours, planktonic microbial growth and microorganisms on catheter surface were assessed. In the control group, we found a planktonic load of ≥105 CFU/mL in the inoculation medium and retrieved 3.69 × 106 CFU/cm from the sessile cells adherent to the catheter surface. A significantly lower amount in planktonic (p < 0.001) and sessile (p = 0.004) bacterial load was found in group 3, showing <100 CFU/mL and 0.12 × 106 CFU/cm in the incubation medium and on the catheter surface, respectively. In groups 1 and 2, 1.67 × 106 CFU/cm and 1.77 × 106 CFU/cm were found on catheter surface. Our results document that umbelliferone, arbutin, and N-acetylcysteine are able to reduce E. faecalis biofilm development on the surface of urinary catheters. PMID:27127655

  15. Reduced nursing frequency during prolonged lactation in the mouse decreases milk production and increases mammary expression of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), but does not accelerate mammary gland remodeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have observed that lactating mouse dams nursed 4 times per day (4X) maintained lactation, but had lower milk yields by the weigh-suckle-weigh method, than dams nursed ad libitum (AL). Therefore, we hypothesized that decreased nursing frequency would also decrease lactation persistence, increase m...

  16. N-acetylcysteine attenuates hexavalent chromium-induced hypersensitivity through inhibition of cell death, ROS-related signaling and cytokine expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Su, Shih-Bin; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Sheu, Hamm-Ming; Tsai, Jui-Chen; Lin, Chia-Ho; Wang, Ying-Jan; Wang, Bour-Jr

    2014-01-01

    Chromium hypersensitivity (chromium-induced allergic contact dermatitis) is an important issue in occupational skin disease. Hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) can activate the Akt, Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways and induce cell death, via the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, cell death stimuli have been proposed to regulate the release of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1). However, the exact effects of ROS on the signaling molecules and cytotoxicity involved in Cr(VI)-induced hypersensitivity have not yet been fully demonstrated. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) could increase glutathione levels in the skin and act as an antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the effects of NAC on attenuating the Cr(VI)-triggered ROS signaling in both normal keratinocyte cells (HaCaT cells) and a guinea pig (GP) model. The results showed the induction of apoptosis, autophagy and ROS were observed after different concentrations of Cr(VI) treatment. HaCaT cells pretreated with NAC exhibited a decrease in apoptosis and autophagy, which could affect cell viability. In addition, Cr (VI) activated the Akt, NF-κB and MAPK pathways thereby increasing IL-1α and TNF-α production. However, all of these stimulation phenomena could be inhibited by NAC in both of in vitro and in vivo studies. These novel findings indicate that NAC may prevent the development of chromium hypersensitivity by inhibiting of ROS-induced cell death and cytokine expression.

  17. Effects of N-Acetylcysteine on Nicotinamide Dinucleotide Phosphate Oxidase Activation and Antioxidant Status in Heart, Lung, Liver and Kidney in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Shaoqing; Liu, Yanan; Liu, Huimin; Yu, Hong; Wang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Hyperglycemia increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the resulting oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is one of the major sources of ROS production in diabetes. We, therefore, examined the possibility that NADPH oxidase activation is increased in various tissues, and that the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may have tissue specific effects on NADPH oxidase and tissue antioxidant status in diabetes. Materials and Methods Control (C) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic (D) rats were treated either with NAC (1.5 g/kg/day) orally or placebo for 4 weeks. The plasma, heart, lung, liver, kidney were harvested immediately and stored for biochemical or immunoblot analysis. Results levels of free 15-F2t-isoprostane were increased in plasma, heart, lung, liver and kidney tissues in diabetic rats, accompanied with significantly increased membrane translocation of the NADPH oxidase subunit p67phox in all tissues and increased expression of the membrane-bound subunit p22phox in heart, lung and kidney. The tissue antioxidant activity in lung, liver and kidney was decreased in diabetic rats, while it was increased in heart tissue. NAC reduced the expression of p22phox and p67phox, suppressed p67phox membrane translocation, and reduced free 15-F2t-isoprostane levels in all tissues. NAC increased antioxidant activity in liver and lung, but did not significantly affect antioxidant activity in heart and kidney. Conclusion The current study shows that NAC inhibits NADPH oxidase activation in diabetes and attenuates tissue oxidative damage in all organs, even though its effects on antioxidant activity are tissue specific. PMID:22318816

  18. Effect of fraxetin on antioxidant defense and stress proteins in human neuroblastoma cell model of rotenone neurotoxicity. Comparative study with myricetin and N-acetylcysteine

    SciTech Connect

    Molina-Jimenez, Maria Francisca . E-mail: jbenedi@farm.ucm.es

    2005-12-15

    Mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone induces apoptosis through enhancing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. Recently, it has been shown that fraxetin (coumarin) and myricetin (flavonoid) have significant neuroprotective effects against apoptosis induced by rotenone, increase the total glutathione levels in vitro, and inhibit lipid peroxidation. Thus, these considerations prompted us to investigate the way in which fraxetin and myricetin affect the endogenous antioxidant defense system, such as Mn and CuZn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, CuZnSOD), catalase, glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) on rotenone neurotoxicity in neuroblastoma cells. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, was employed as a comparative agent. Also, the expression and protein levels of HSP70 by Northern and Western blot analysis were assayed in SH-SY5Y cells. After incubation for 16 h, rotenone significantly increased the expression and activity of MnSOD, GPx, and catalase. When cells were preincubated with fraxetin, there was a decrease in the protein levels and activity of both MnSOD and catalase, in comparison with the rotenone treatment. The myricetin effect was less pronounced. Activity and expression of GPx were increased by rotenone and pre-treatment with fraxetin did not modify significantly these levels. The significant enhancement in HSP70 expression at mRNA and protein levels induced by fraxetin was observed by pre-treatment of cells 0.5 h before rotenone insult. These data suggest that major features of rotenone-induced neurotoxicity are partially mediated by free radical formation and oxidative stress, and that fraxetin partially protects against rotenone toxicity affecting the main protection system of the cells against oxidative injury.

  19. Differential anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of dexamethasone and N-acetylcysteine in endotoxin-induced lung inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Rocksén, D; Lilliehöök, B; Larsson, R; Johansson, T; Bucht, A

    2000-01-01

    Inhalation of bacterial endotoxin induces an acute inflammation in the lower respiratory tract. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the glucocorticoid dexamethasone were investigated in mice exposed to aerosolized endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)). Powerful reduction of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was obtained by a single i.p. injection of dexamethasone (10 mg/kg), whereas treatment with NAC only resulted in reduction of neutrophils when administered at a high dose (500 mg/kg). Measurement of cytokine and chemokine expression in lung tissue revealed a significant decrease of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p40, and MIP-1α mRNA when mice where treated with dexamethasone but not when treated with NAC. Analysis of oxidative burst demonstrated a remarkable reduction of oxygen radicals in BALF neutrophils after treatment with dexamethasone, whereas the effect of NAC was not significantly different from that in untreated animals. In conclusion, dexamethasone exerted both anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects in acute airway inflammation, probably by blocking early events in the inflammatory cascade. In contrast, treatment with NAC resulted in a weak reduction of the inflammatory response but no inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines or reduction of oxidative burst in neutrophils. These results demonstrate dramatic differences in efficiency and also indicate that the two drugs have different actions. Combined treatment with NAC and dexamethasone revealed an additive action but no synergy was observed. PMID:11091282

  20. N-acetylcysteine downregulates phosphorylated p-38 expression but does not reverse the increased superoxide anion levels in the spinal cord of rats with neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Horst, A; de Souza, J A; Santos, M C Q; Riffel, A P K; Kolberg, C; Ribeiro, M F M; de Fraga, L S; Partata, W A

    2017-02-16

    We determined the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the expression of the phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) protein and superoxide anion generation (SAG), two important players in the processing of neuropathic pain, in the lumbosacral spinal cord of rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain. The sciatic functional index (SFI) was also measured to assess the functional recovery post-nerve lesion. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided equally into the following groups: Naive (rats did not undergo surgical manipulation); Sham (rats in which all surgical procedures involved in CCI were used except the ligature), and CCI (rats in which four ligatures were tied loosely around the right common sciatic nerve), which received 2, 4, or 8 intraperitoneal injections of NAC (150 mg·kg-1·day-1) or saline beginning 4 h after CCI. Rats were sacrificed 1, 3, and 7 days after CCI. The SFI was measured on these days and the lumbosacral spinal cord was used for analysis of p-p38 expression and SAG. CCI induced a decrease in SFI as well as an increase in p-p38 expression and SAG in the spinal cord. The SFI showed a partial recovery at day 7 in saline-treated CCI rats, but recovery was improved in NAC-treated CCI rats. NAC induced a downregulation in p-p38 expression at all time-points evaluated, but did not reverse the increased SAG induced by CCI. Since p-p38 is a mediator in neuropathic pain and/or nerve regeneration, modulation of this protein may play a role in NAC-induced effects in CCI rats.

  1. Effects of laxative and N-acetylcysteine on mucus accumulation, bacterial load, transit, and inflammation in the cystic fibrosis mouse small intestine.

    PubMed

    De Lisle, Robert C; Roach, Eileen; Jansson, Kyle

    2007-09-01

    The accumulation of mucus in affected organs is characteristic of cystic fibrosis (CF). The CF mouse small intestine has dramatic mucus accumulation and exhibits slower interdigestive intestinal transit. These factors are proposed to play cooperative roles that foster small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and contribute to the innate immune response of the CF intestine. It was hypothesized that decreasing the mucus accumulation would reduce SIBO and might improve other aspects of the CF intestinal phenotype. To test this, solid chow-fed CF mice were treated with an osmotic laxative to improve gut hydration or liquid-fed mice were treated orally with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to break mucin disulfide bonds. Treatment with laxative or NAC reduced mucus accumulation by 43% and 50%, respectively, as measured histologically as dilation of the intestinal crypts. Laxative and NAC also reduced bacterial overgrowth in the CF intestine by 92% and 63%, respectively. Treatment with laxative normalized small intestinal transit in CF mice, whereas NAC did not. The expression of innate immune response-related genes was significantly reduced in laxative-treated CF mice, whereas there was no significant effect in NAC-treated CF mice. In summary, laxative and NAC treatments of CF mice reduced mucus accumulation to a similar extent, but laxative was more effective than NAC at reducing bacterial load. Eradication of bacterial overgrowth by laxative treatment was associated with normalized intestinal transit and a reduction in the innate immune response. These results suggest that both mucus accumulation and slowed interdigestive small intestinal transit contribute to SIBO in the CF intestine.

  2. Co-administration of metformin and N-acetylcysteine with dietary control improves the biochemical and histological manifestations in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver.

    PubMed

    El-Lakkany, Naglaa Mohamed; Seif El-Din, Sayed Hassan; Sabra, Abdel-Nasser Abdel-Aal; Hammam, Olfat Ali; Ebeid, Fatma Abdel-Latif

    2016-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a burgeoning health problem that affects 1/3 of the adult population and an increasing number of children in developed countries. Oxidative stress and insulin resistance are the mechanisms that seem to be mostly involved in its pathogenesis. This study was conceived in a NAFLD rat model to evaluate the efficacy of both metformin (MTF) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) with dietary control on biochemical and histologic liver manifestations. Rats were classified into nine groups; normal (I), NAFLD-induced by feeding high-fat diet (HFD; II) for 12 weeks, NAFLD switched to regular diet (RD; III), NAFLD-HFD or -RD treated with MTF in a dose of 150 mg/kg (IV, V), NAC in a dose of 500 mg/kg (VI, VII) or MTF+NAC (VIII, IX) respectively for 8 weeks. After 20 weeks, the rats in group II showed notable steatosis, lobular inflammation, fibrosis accompanied with elevated (P < 0.05) serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL, leptin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), transforming growth factor (TGF-β1) and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) compared with group I. Meanwhile, hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione GSH with serum HDL, adiponectin were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). These changes were to a less extent in group III. MTF or NAC individually resulted in improvement of most of these biochemical and histological parameters. These improvements were more pronounced in the combined groups VIII and IX versus each drug alone. NAC supplementation concomitant with MTF could be beneficial for the treatment of NAFLD and prevention of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

  3. N-acetylcysteine downregulates phosphorylated p-38 expression but does not reverse the increased superoxide anion levels in the spinal cord of rats with neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Horst, A.; de Souza, J.A.; Santos, M.C.Q.; Riffel, A.P.K.; Kolberg, C.; Ribeiro, M.F.M.; de Fraga, L.S.; Partata, W.A.

    2017-01-01

    We determined the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the expression of the phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) protein and superoxide anion generation (SAG), two important players in the processing of neuropathic pain, in the lumbosacral spinal cord of rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain. The sciatic functional index (SFI) was also measured to assess the functional recovery post-nerve lesion. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided equally into the following groups: Naive (rats did not undergo surgical manipulation); Sham (rats in which all surgical procedures involved in CCI were used except the ligature), and CCI (rats in which four ligatures were tied loosely around the right common sciatic nerve), which received 2, 4, or 8 intraperitoneal injections of NAC (150 mg·kg-1·day-1) or saline beginning 4 h after CCI. Rats were sacrificed 1, 3, and 7 days after CCI. The SFI was measured on these days and the lumbosacral spinal cord was used for analysis of p-p38 expression and SAG. CCI induced a decrease in SFI as well as an increase in p-p38 expression and SAG in the spinal cord. The SFI showed a partial recovery at day 7 in saline-treated CCI rats, but recovery was improved in NAC-treated CCI rats. NAC induced a downregulation in p-p38 expression at all time-points evaluated, but did not reverse the increased SAG induced by CCI. Since p-p38 is a mediator in neuropathic pain and/or nerve regeneration, modulation of this protein may play a role in NAC-induced effects in CCI rats. PMID:28225868

  4. Expression of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in low osmolar contrast-induced nephropathy in rats and the effect of N-acetylcysteine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Hua; Wang, Lin; He, Hai-Yan; Chen, Jing; Yu, Ya-Ren

    2016-01-01

    Serum creatinine (Scr), which is a conventional indicator of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), is unable to reflect the damage of kidney promptly. The present study aimed to investigate the value of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in kidney and serum of CIN rats to observe whether NGAL can be used as a superior indicator of CIN. Furthermore, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was used to assess its effect on CIN. A total of 120 adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=30/group): CIN rats (CIN), normal rats treated with NAC (NAC), CIN rats treated with NAC (NAC+CIN) and the control group (CON). Serum Scr and NGAL values were measured at 2, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h following the procedure. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis were used to detect NGAL within the kidney tissue. Hematoxylin and eosin staining were used to access the renal injury score. Oxidative stress within the kidney was analyzed via malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The level of NGAL in the serum and tissue of the CIN group increased significantly 2 h after the procedure (P<0.05). However, the Scr value did not exhibit a significantly change until 48 h later. Based on the renal injury scores, NAC reduced the kidney damage caused by the contrast. NAC treatment was associated with a decrease in SOD levels and an increase in MDA. These findings suggested that NGAL was a superior indicator of CIN than Scr, as NGAL was able to detect kidney damage much earlier. Furthermore, NAC treatment inhibited oxidative stress, thus protecting against CIN. PMID:27882134

  5. A randomized controlled trial of pre-procedure simethicone and N-acetylcysteine to improve mucosal visibility during gastroscopy - NICEVIS.

    PubMed

    Basford, Peter John; Brown, James; Gadeke, Lisa; Fogg, Carole; Haysom-Newport, Ben; Ogollah, Reuben; Bhattacharyya, Rupam; Longcroft-Wheaton, Gaius; Thursby-Pelham, Fergus; Neale, James R; Bhandari, Pradeep

    2016-11-01

    Background and study aims: Mucosal views can be impaired by residual bubbles and mucus during gastroscopy. This study aimed to determine whether a pre-gastroscopy drink containing simethicone and N-acetylcysteine improves mucosal visualisation. Patients and methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial recruiting 126 subjects undergoing routine gastroscopy. Subjects were randomized 1:1:1 to receive: A-pre-procedure drink of water, simethicone and N-acetylcysteine (NAC); B-water alone; or C-no preparation. Study endoscopists were blinded to group allocation. Digital images were taken at 4 locations (lower esophagus/upper gastric body/antrum/fundus), and rated for mucosal visibility (MV) using a 4-point scale (1 = best, 4 = worst) by 4 separate experienced endoscopists. The primary outcome measure was mean mucosal visibility score (MVS). Secondary outcome measures were procedure duration and volume of fluid flush required to achieve adequate mucosal views. Results: Mean MVS for Group A was significantly better than for Group B (1.35 vs 2.11, P < 0.001) and Group C (1.35 vs 2.21, P < 0.001). Mean flush volume required to achieve adequate mucosal views was significantly lower in Group A than Group B (2.0 mL vs 31.5 mL, P = 0.001) and Group C (2.0 mL vs 39.2 mL P < 0.001). Procedure duration did not differ significantly between any of the 3 groups. MV scores at each of the 4 locations demonstrated significantly better mucosal visibility in Group A compared to Group B and Group C (P < 0.0025 for all comparisons). Conclusions: A pre-procedure drink containing simethicone and NAC significantly improves mucosal visibility during gastroscopy and reduces the need for flushes during the procedure. Effectiveness in the lower esophagus demonstrates potential benefit in Barrett's oesophagus surveillance gastroscopy.

  6. N-acetylcysteine amide augments the therapeutic effect of neural stem cell-based antiglioma oncolytic virotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chung Kwon; Ahmed, Atique U; Auffinger, Brenda; Ulasov, Ilya V; Tobias, Alex L; Moon, Kyung-Sub; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2013-11-01

    Current research has evaluated the intrinsic tumor-tropic properties of stem cell carriers for targeted anticancer therapy. Our laboratory has been extensively studying in the preclinical setting, the role of neural stem cells (NSCs) as delivery vehicles of CRAd-S-pk7, a gliomatropic oncolytic adenovirus (OV). However, the mediated toxicity of therapeutic payloads, such as oncolytic adenoviruses, toward cell carriers has significantly limited this targeted delivery approach. Following this rationale, in this study, we assessed the role of a novel antioxidant thiol, N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), to prevent OV-mediated toxicity toward NSC carriers in an orthotropic glioma xenograft mouse model. Our results show that the combination of NACA and CRAd-S-pk7 not only increases the viability of these cell carriers by preventing reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced apoptosis of NSCs, but also improves the production of viral progeny in HB1.F3.CD NSCs. In an intracranial xenograft mouse model, the combination treatment of NACA and NSCs loaded with CRAd-S-pk7 showed enhanced CRAd-S-pk7 production and distribution in malignant tissues, which improves the therapeutic efficacy of NSC-based targeted antiglioma oncolytic virotherapy. These data demonstrate that the combination of NACA and NSCs loaded with CRAd-S-pk7 may be a desirable strategy to improve the therapeutic efficacy of antiglioma oncolytic virotherapy.

  7. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on gas exchange after methacholine challenge and isoprenaline inhalation in the dog.

    PubMed

    Ueno, O; Lee, L N; Wagner, P D

    1989-03-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has antioxidant and possibly mucolytic properties. To determine whether NAC could be of benefit in acute bronchoconstriction induced by methacholine, 12 of 24 anaesthetized dogs (group 1) received NAC i.v. (loading dose 150 mg.kg-1, then 20 mg.kg-1.hr-1). The other 12 (group 2) received diluent. Nebulized methacholine (1%) was then inhaled until arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) fell to a mean of 5.5 kPa, after which isoprenaline 0.5% was inhaled in six dogs of each group to reverse bronchoconstriction. Over the next 3 h we measured total lung resistance, functional residual capacity (FRC), haemodynamic variables, and pulmonary gas exchange for respiratory and inert gases. After methacholine challenge, lung resistance increased and then fell similarly for both groups, but PaO2 was higher in the NAC group (by 0.6-1.9 kPa) throughout the observation period. The ventilation-perfusion distribution measured by inert gas elimination also showed less abnormality in the NAC treated dogs over this time. Mucus was visible during post-mortem in the large airways in about half of the dogs in both groups, with no significant differences between them. These results show that NAC produces a measurable improvement in gas exchange following methacholine challenge (both with and without subsequent isoprenaline therapy) by mechanisms that remain to be determined.

  8. Modulation of hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) induced by S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine in ob/ob mice.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Claudia P M S; Alves, Venâncio A F; Lima, Vicência M R; Stefano, José Tadeu; Debbas, Victor; Sá, Sandra Valéria; Wakamatsu, Alda; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; de Mello, Evandro Sobroza; Havaki, Sofia; Tiniakos, Dina G; Marinos, Evangelos; de Oliveira, Marcelo G; Giannella-Neto, Daniel; Laurindo, Francisco R; Caldwell, Stephen; Carrilho, Flair J

    2007-07-15

    We evaluated the effects of a potent NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (SNAC), on microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) expression in ob/ob mice. NAFLD was induced in male ob/ob mice using a methionine-choline deficient diet (MCD) concomitantly with oral SNAC fed solution (n=5) or vehicle (control; n=5) by gavage daily for 4 weeks. Livers were collected for histology and for assessing MTP by RT-qPCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry and immunogold electron microscopy analyses. Histological analysis showed diffuse macro and microvesicular steatosis, moderate hepatocellular ballooning and moderate inflammatory infiltrate in ob/ob mice fed the MCD diet. With SNAC, mice showed a marked reduction in liver steatosis (p<0.01), in parenchymal inflammation (p=0.02) and in MTP protein immunoexpression in zone III (p=0.05). Moreover, SNAC caused reduction of MTP protein in Western blot analysis (p<0.05). In contrast, MTP mRNA content was significantly higher (p<0.05) in mice receiving SNAC. Immuno-electron microscopy showed MTP localized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes in both treated and untreated groups. However with SNAC treatment, MTP was also observed surrounding fat globules. Histological improvement mediated by a nitric oxide donor is associated with significantly altered expression and distribution of MTP in this animal model of fatty liver disease. Further studies are in progress to examine possible mechanisms and to develop SNAC as a possible therapy for human fatty liver disease.

  9. Protective effect of N-acetylcysteine against nicardipine hydrochloride-induced autophagic cell death of human vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Toyoda, Hiromu

    2015-01-01

    Nicardipine hydrochloride (NIC) injection has been widely used for emergency treatment of abnormally high blood pressure. However, NIC injection often causes severe peripheral vascular injury. The purpose of the present study was to reduce the NIC-induced cell injury in human vascular endothelial cells by use of clinical agents. The mechanism of NIC-induced cell injury was evaluated by time-lapse microscopic imaging, autophagosome staining with monodansylcadaverine, immunostaining of light chain 3 isoform B (LC-3B) and assessment of cell viability after exposure to NIC with or without an inhibitor of autophagosome formation (3-methyladenine, 3-MA). Results from autophagosome labeling and immunostaining of LC-3B revealed an increase of autophagosomes and LC-3B in NIC-treated cells. NIC-mediated reduction of cell viability was inhibited by 3-methyladenine. Moreover, we found that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduced NIC-induced cell injury in human vascular endothelial cells. These findings suggest that NIC causes severe peripheral venous irritation via induction of autophagic cell death and that inhibition of autophagy with NAC could contribute to the reduction of NIC-induced vascular injury.

  10. N-acetylcysteine protects melanocytes against oxidative stress/damage and delays onset of UV-induced melanoma in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Murray A.; Thomas, Joshua; Cassidy, Pamela; Robinette, Kyle; Jenkins, Noah; Scott, R. Florell; Leachman, Sancy; Samlowski, Wolfram E.; Grossman, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    UV radiation is the major environmental risk factor for melanoma and a potent inducer of oxidative stress, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of several malignancies. We evaluated whether the thiol antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) could protect melanocytes from UV-induced oxidative stress/damage in vitro and from UV-induced melanoma in vivo. In melan-a cells, a mouse melanocyte line, NAC (1–10 mM) conferred protection from several UV-induced oxidative sequelae including production of intracellular peroxide, formation of the signature oxidative DNA lesion 8-oxoguanine (8-OG), and depletion of free reduced thiols (primarily glutathione). Mice transgenic for hepatocyte growth factor and Survivin, previously shown to develop melanoma following a single neonatal dose of UV irradiation, were administered NAC (7 mg/ml, mother’s drinking water) transplacentally and through nursing until two weeks after birth. Delivery of NAC in this manner reduced thiol depletion and blocked formation of 8-OG in skin following neonatal UV treatment. Mean onset of UV-induced melanocytic tumors was significantly delayed in NAC-treated compared to control mice (21 vs. 14 weeks, p=0.0003). Our data highlight the potential importance of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of melanoma, and suggest that NAC may be useful as a chemopreventive agent. PMID:17908992

  11. Protective effect of N-acetylcysteine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer: A pharmacological assessment in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jaccob, Ausama Ayoob

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Since there is an increasing need for gastric ulcer therapies with optimum benefit-risk profile. This study was conducted to investigate gastro-protective effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer models in mice. Materials and Methods: A total of 41 mice were allocated into six groups consisted of 7 mice each. Groups 1 (normal control) and 2 (ulcer control) received distilled water at a dose of 10 ml/kg, groups 3, 4 and 5 were given NAC at doses 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, respectively, and the 6th group received ranitidine (50 mg/kg). All drugs administered orally once daily for 7 days, on the 8th day absolute ethanol (7 ml/kg) was administrated orally to all mice to induce the acute ulcer except normal control group. Then 3 h after, all animals were sacrificed then consequently the stomachs were excised for examination. Results: NAC administration at the tested doses showed a dose-related potent gastro-protective effect with significant increase in curative ratio, PH of gastric juice and mucus content viscosity seen with the highest dose of NAC and it is comparable with that observed in ranitidine group. Conclusion: The present findings demonstrate that, oral NAC shows significant gastro-protective effects comparable to ranitidine confirmed by anti-secretory, cytoprotective, histological and biochemical data, but the molecular mechanisms behind such protection are complex. PMID:26401392

  12. N-acetylcysteine enhances cystic fibrosis sputum penetration and airway gene transfer by highly compacted DNA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Suk, Jung Soo; Boylan, Nicholas J; Trehan, Kanika; Tang, Benjamin C; Schneider, Craig S; Lin, Jung-Ming G; Boyle, Michael P; Zeitlin, Pamela L; Lai, Samuel K; Cooper, Mark J; Hanes, Justin

    2011-11-01

    For effective airway gene therapy of cystic fibrosis (CF), inhaled gene carriers must first penetrate the hyperviscoelastic sputum covering the epithelium. Whether clinically studied gene carriers can penetrate CF sputum remains unknown. Here, we measured the diffusion of a clinically tested nonviral gene carrier, composed of poly-l-lysine conjugated with a 10 kDa polyethylene glycol segment (CK(30)PEG(10k)). We found that CK(30)PEG(10k)/DNA nanoparticles were trapped in CF sputum. To improve gene carrier diffusion across sputum, we tested adjuvant regimens consisting of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), recombinant human DNase (rhDNase) or NAC together with rhDNase. While rhDNase alone did not enhance gene carrier diffusion, NAC and NAC + rhDNase increased average effective diffusivities by 6-fold and 13-fold, respectively, leading to markedly greater fractions of gene carriers that may penetrate sputum layers. We further tested the adjuvant effects of NAC in the airways of mice with Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mucus hypersecretion. Intranasal dosing of NAC prior to CK(30)PEG(10k)/DNA nanoparticles enhanced gene expression by up to ~12-fold compared to saline control, reaching levels observed in the lungs of mice without LPS challenge. Our findings suggest that a promising synthetic nanoparticle gene carrier may transfer genes substantially more effectively to lungs of CF patients if administered following adjuvant mucolytic therapy with NAC or NAC + rhDNase.

  13. High-dose N-acetylcysteine in the prevention of COPD exacerbations: rationale and design of the PANTHEON Study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jin-Ping; Wen, Fu-Qiang; Bai, Chun-Xue; Wan, Huan-Ying; Kang, Jian; Chen, Ping; Yao, Wan-Zhen; Ma, Li-Jun; Xia, Qi-Kui; Gao, Yi; Zhong, Nan-Shan

    2013-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by persistent airflow limitation; from a pathophysiological point of view it involves many components, including mucus hypersecretion, oxidative stress and inflammation. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a mucolytic agent with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Long-term efficacy of NAC 600mg/d in COPD is controversial; a dose-effect relationship has been demonstrated, but at present it is not known whether a higher dose provides clinical benefits. The PANTHEON Study is a prospective, ICS stratified, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multi-center trial designed to assess the efficacy and safety of high-dose (1200 mg/daily) NAC treatment for one year in moderate-to-severe COPD patients. The primary endpoint is the annual exacerbation rate. Secondary endpoints include recurrent exacerbations hazard ratio, time to first exacerbation, as well as quality of life and pulmonary function. The hypothesis, design and methodology are described and baseline characteristics of recruited patients are presented. 1006 COPD patients (444 treated with maintenance ICS, 562 ICS naive, aged 66.27±8.76 yrs, average post-bronchodilator FEV1 48.95±11.80 of predicted) have been randomized at 34 hospitals in China. Final results of this study will provide objective data on the effects of high-dose (1200 mg/daily) long-term NAC treatment in the prevention of COPD exacerbations and other outcome variables.

  14. A theoretical and matrix-isolation FT-IR investigation of the conformational landscape of N-acetylcysteine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeckx, Bram; Ramaekers, Riet; Maes, Guido

    2010-06-01

    The conformational landscape of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been investigated by a combined experimental matrix-isolation FT-IR and theoretical methodology. This combination is a powerful tool to study the conformational behavior of relatively small molecules. Geometry optimizations at the HF/3-21 level resulted in 438 different geometries with an energy difference smaller than 22 kJ mol -1. Among these, six conformations were detected with a relative energy difference smaller than 10 kJ mol -1 at the DFT(B3LYP)/6-31++G∗∗ level of theory. These were finally subjected to MP2/6-31++G∗∗ optimizations which resulted in five minima. The vibrational and thermodynamical properties of these conformations were calculated at both the DFT and MP2 methodologies. Experimentally NAC was isolated in an argon matrix at 16 K after being sublimated at 323 K. The most stable MP2 form appeared to be dominant in the experimental spectra but the presence of three other conformations with Δ EMP2 < 10 kJ mol -1 was also demonstrated. The experimentally observed abundance of the H-bond containing conformations appeared to be in good accordance with the predicted MP2 value.

  15. N-acetylcysteine Enhances Cystic Fibrosis Sputum Penetration and Airway Gene Transfer by Highly Compacted DNA Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Suk, Jung Soo; Boylan, Nicholas J; Trehan, Kanika; Tang, Benjamin C; Schneider, Craig S; Lin, Jung-Ming G; Boyle, Michael P; Zeitlin, Pamela L; Lai, Samuel K; Cooper, Mark J; Hanes, Justin

    2011-11-01

    For effective airway gene therapy of cystic fibrosis (CF), inhaled gene carriers must first penetrate the hyperviscoelastic sputum covering the epithelium. Whether clinically studied gene carriers can penetrate CF sputum remains unknown. Here, we measured the diffusion of a clinically tested nonviral gene carrier, composed of poly-l-lysine conjugated with a 10 kDa polyethylene glycol segment (CK30PEG10k). We found that CK30PEG10k/DNA nanoparticles were trapped in CF sputum. To improve gene carrier diffusion across sputum, we tested adjuvant regimens consisting of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), recombinant human DNase (rhDNase) or NAC together with rhDNase. While rhDNase alone did not enhance gene carrier diffusion, NAC and NAC + rhDNase increased average effective diffusivities by 6-fold and 13-fold, respectively, leading to markedly greater fractions of gene carriers that may penetrate sputum layers. We further tested the adjuvant effects of NAC in the airways of mice with Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mucus hypersecretion. Intranasal dosing of NAC prior to CK30PEG10k/DNA nanoparticles enhanced gene expression by up to ~12-fold compared to saline control, reaching levels observed in the lungs of mice without LPS challenge. Our findings suggest that a promising synthetic nanoparticle gene carrier may transfer genes substantially more effectively to lungs of CF patients if administered following adjuvant mucolytic therapy with NAC or NAC + rhDNase.

  16. Efficacy of N-Acetylcysteine, Glutathione, and Ascorbic Acid in Acute Toxicity of Paraoxon to Wistar Rats: Survival Study

    PubMed Central

    Nurulain, Syed M.; Ojha, Shreesh; Tekes, Kornelia; Shafiullah, Mohammad; Kalasz, Huba; Adem, Abdu

    2015-01-01

    There are a great number of reports with assertions that oxidative stress is produced by organophosphorus compound (OPC) poisoning and is a cofactor of mortality and morbidity in OPC toxicity. In addition, antioxidants have been suggested as adjuncts to standard therapy. However, there is no substantial evidence for the benefit of the use of antioxidants in survival after acute intoxication of OPCs. The present study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of three non-enzymatic antioxidants (NEAOs), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), glutathione (GSH), and ascorbic acid (AA), in acute intoxication of adult male Wister rats with paraoxon. The efficacy of the antioxidants was estimated as both a pretreatment and a concurrent application along with the standard oxime, pralidoxime (2-PAM). Relative risk of death after 48 hours of application was estimated by Cox regression analysis. The results revealed no benefit of either tested NEAO to the improvement in survival of experimental rats. The application of these antioxidants was found to be deleterious when administered along with pralidoxime compared to the treatment with pralidoxime alone. It has been concluded that the tested non-enzymatic antioxidants are not useful in acute toxicity for improving survival rates. However, the individual toxic dynamics of diversified OPCs should not be overlooked and further studies with different OPCs are suggested. PMID:26167240

  17. Evaluation of N-acetylcysteine and methylprednisolone as therapies for oxygen and acrolein-induced lung damage

    SciTech Connect

    Critchley, J.A.J.H. ); Beeley, J.M.; Clark, R.J.; Buchanan, J.D. ); Summerfield, M.; Bell, S. ); Spurlock, M.S.; Edginton, J.A.G. )

    1990-04-01

    Reactive oxidizing species are implicated in the etiology of a range of inhalational pulmonary injuries. Consequently, various free radical scavengers have been tested as potential prophylactic agents. The sulfydryl compound, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is the only such compound clinically available for use in realistic dosages, and it is well established as an effective antidote for the hepatic and renal toxicity of paracetamol. Another approach in pulmonary injury prophylaxis is methylprednisolone therapy. The authors evaluated NAC and methylprednisolone in two rats models of inhalation injury: 40-hr exposure to >97% oxygen at 1.1 bar and 15-min exposure to acrolein vapor (210 ppm). The increases in lung wet/dry weight ratios, seen with both oxygen and acrolein toxicity were reduced with both treatments. However, with oxygen, NAC therapy was associated with considerably increased mortality and histological changes. Furthermore, IP NAC administration resulted in large volumes of ascitic fluid. With acrolein, IV, NAC had no significant effect on mortality or pulmonary histological damage. Methylprednisolone had no beneficial effects on either the mortality or histological damage observed in either toxicity model. They caution against the ad hoc use of NAC in the management of inhalational pulmonary injury.

  18. Development and optimization of N-Acetylcysteine-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles by electrospray.

    PubMed

    Karimi Zarchi, Ali Akbar; Abbasi, Shayan; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Gilani, Kambiz; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud; Amani, Amir

    2015-01-01

    N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) loaded PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by electrospray method. The influence of independent parameters such as concentration, flow rate and nozzle to collector distance was studied on particle size and size distribution of generated nanoparticles using a Box-Behnken experimental design. Smallest size was found to be obtained at minimum value for both flow rate and concentration of polymer, regardless of collecting distance value in the ranges studied. Additionally, the minimum value of size distribution was observed at lowest values of both concentration of polymer and collecting distance, regardless of flow rate value. In total, a sample with minimum size and polydispersity was predicted to have flow rate, polymer concentration and collecting distance values of 0.06(ml/h), 0.5(%w/w) and 9.28(cm), respectively. The experimentally prepared nanoparticles with lowest size and size distribution values, had a size of 122(nm) and size distribution of 24. Zeta potential, drug loading and encapsulation efficiency of optimized nanoparticles were -6.58, 5% and 54.5%, respectively.

  19. N-acetylcysteine selectively antagonizes the activity of imipenem in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by an OprD-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Beltrán, Jerónimo; Cabot, Gabriel; Valencia, Estela Ynés; Costas, Coloma; Bou, German; Oliver, Antonio; Blázquez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The modulating effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the activity of different antibiotics has been studied in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our results demonstrate that, in contrast to previous reports, only the activity of imipenem is clearly affected by NAC. MIC and checkerboard determinations indicate that the NAC-based modulation of imipenem activity is dependent mainly on OprD. SDS-PAGE of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) after NAC treatments demonstrates that NAC does not modify the expression of OprD, suggesting that NAC competitively inhibits the uptake of imipenem through OprD. Similar effects on imipenem activity were obtained with P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. Our results indicate that imipenem-susceptible P. aeruginosa strains become resistant upon simultaneous treatment with NAC and imipenem. Moreover, the generality of the observed effects of NAC on antibiotic activity was assessed with two additional bacterial species, Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii. Caution should be taken during treatments, as the activity of imipenem may be modified by physiologically attainable concentrations of NAC, particularly during intravenous and nebulized regimes.

  20. N-Acetylcysteine Selectively Antagonizes the Activity of Imipenem in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by an OprD-Mediated Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Beltrán, Jerónimo; Cabot, Gabriel; Valencia, Estela Ynés; Costas, Coloma; Bou, German; Oliver, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The modulating effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the activity of different antibiotics has been studied in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our results demonstrate that, in contrast to previous reports, only the activity of imipenem is clearly affected by NAC. MIC and checkerboard determinations indicate that the NAC-based modulation of imipenem activity is dependent mainly on OprD. SDS-PAGE of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) after NAC treatments demonstrates that NAC does not modify the expression of OprD, suggesting that NAC competitively inhibits the uptake of imipenem through OprD. Similar effects on imipenem activity were obtained with P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. Our results indicate that imipenem-susceptible P. aeruginosa strains become resistant upon simultaneous treatment with NAC and imipenem. Moreover, the generality of the observed effects of NAC on antibiotic activity was assessed with two additional bacterial species, Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii. Caution should be taken during treatments, as the activity of imipenem may be modified by physiologically attainable concentrations of NAC, particularly during intravenous and nebulized regimes. PMID:25801561

  1. Attenuation of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis by oral sulfhydryl containing antioxidants in rats: erdosteine and N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Zeki; Kotuk, Mahir; Iraz, Mustafa; Kuku, Irfan; Ulu, Ramazan; Armutcu, Ferah; Ozen, Suleyman

    2005-01-01

    Antioxidant therapy may be useful in diseases with impaired oxidant antioxidant balance such as lung fibrosis. The effects of sulfhydryl-containing antioxidant agents N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and erdosteine on the bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis were compared in rats. The animals were divided into four groups: Vehicle + vehicle, vehicle + bleomycin (2.5 U/kg), bleomycin + (10 mg/kg), and bleomycin + NAC (3 mmol/kg). Bleomycin administration resulted in prominent lung fibrosis as measured by lung hydroxyproline content and lung histology which is almost completely prevented by erdosteine and NAC. Hydroxyproline content was 18.7 +/- 3.5 and 11.2 +/- 0.6 mg/g dried tissue in bleomycin and saline treated rats, respectively (P < 0.001), and this level was 11.3 +/- 1.2 and 13.8 +/- 1.2 mg/g dried tissue in erdosteine and NAC pretreated, respectively. Erdosteine and NAC significantly reduced depletion of glutathione peroxidase, and prevented increases in myeloperoxidase activities, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde levels in lung tissue produced by bleomycin. Data presented here indicate that erdosteine and NAC similarly prevented bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis and their antioxidant effects were also similar in this experiment.

  2. The effects of erdosteine, N-acetylcysteine, and vitamin E on nicotine-induced apoptosis of hippocampal neural cells.

    PubMed

    Demiralay, Rezan; Gürsan, Nesrin; Erdem, Havva

    2008-08-01

    This study investigated the frequency of apoptosis in rat hippocampal neural cells after intraperitoneal nicotine injection, examining the roles of the inflammatory markers myeloperoxidase (MPO) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in nicotine-induced brain damage and the protective effects of three known antioxidant agents, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), erdosteine, and vitamin E. Female Wistar rats were divided into seven groups, each composed of nine rats: 2 negative control groups, 2 positive control groups, one erdosteine-treated group (500 mg/kg), one NAC-treated group (500 mg/kg), and one vitamin E-treated group (500 mg/kg). Nicotine was intraperitoneally injected at a dosage of 0.6 mg/kg for 21 days. Following nicotine injection, the antioxidants were administered orally; treatment was continued until the rats were killed. Apoptosis level in hippocampal neural cells was determined by using TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick endlabeling) method. Staining of cytoplasmic TNF-alpha in hippocampal neural cells and hippocampus MPO activity were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Nicotine administration had no effect on local TNF-alpha production, or hippocampal MPO activity. The treatments with erdosteine, NAC and vitamin E significantly reduced the rate of nicotine-induced hippocampal neural cell apoptosis. This findings suggest that erdosteine and NAC can be as effective as vitamin E in protecting against nicotine-induced hippocampal neural cell apoptosis.

  3. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period does not decrease milk production in the following lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We investigated the effects of consuming endophyte-infected fescue during late lactation and the dry period on mammary growth, differentiation ...

  4. N-acetylcysteine attenuates the decline in muscle Na+,K+-pump activity and delays fatigue during prolonged exercise in humans

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Michael J; Medved, Ivan; Goodman, Craig A; Brown, Malcolm J; Bjorksten, Andrew R; Murphy, Kate T; Petersen, Aaron C; Sostaric, Simon; Gong, Xiaofei

    2006-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been linked with both depressed Na+,K+-pump activity and skeletal muscle fatigue. This study investigated N-acetylcysteine (NAC) effects on muscle Na+,K+-pump activity and potassium (K+) regulation during prolonged, submaximal endurance exercise. Eight well-trained subjects participated in a double-blind, randomised, crossover design, receiving either NAC or saline (CON) intravenous infusion at 125 mg kg−1 h−1 for 15 min, then 25 mg kg−1 h−1 for 20 min prior to and throughout exercise. Subjects cycled for 45 min at 71% V˙O2peak, then continued at 92% V˙O2peak until fatigue. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were taken before exercise, at 45 min and fatigue and analysed for maximal in vitro Na+,K+-pump activity (K+-stimulated 3-O-methyfluorescein phosphatase; 3-O-MFPase). Arterialized venous blood was sampled throughout exercise and analysed for plasma K+ and other electrolytes. Time to fatigue at 92% V˙O2peak was reproducible in preliminary trials (c.v. 5.6 ± 0.6%) and was prolonged with NAC by 23.8 ± 8.3% (NAC 6.3 ± 0.5 versus CON 5.2 ± 0.6 min, P < 0.05). Maximal 3-O-MFPase activity decreased from rest by 21.6 ± 2.8% at 45 min and by 23.9 ± 2.3% at fatigue (P < 0.05). NAC attenuated the percentage decline in maximal 3-O-MFPase activity (%Δactivity) at 45 min (P < 0.05) but not at fatigue. When expressed relative to work done, the %Δactivity-to-work ratio was attenuated by NAC at 45 min and fatigue (P < 0.005). The rise in plasma [K+] during exercise and the Δ[K+]-to-work ratio at fatigue were attenuated by NAC (P < 0.05). These results confirm that the antioxidant NAC attenuates muscle fatigue, in part via improved K+ regulation, and point to a role for ROS in muscle fatigue. PMID:16840514

  5. Manganese-Induced Oxidative DNA Damage in Neuronal SH-SY5Y Cells: Attenuation of thymine base lesions by glutathione and N-acetylcysteine

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Adrienne P.; Schneider, Jeffrey A.; Nelson, Bryant C.; Atha, Donald H.; Jain, Ashok; Soliman, Karam F. A.; Aschner, Michael; Mazzio, Elizabeth; Reams, R. Renee

    2013-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element required for normal function and development. However, exposure to this metal at elevated levels may cause manganism, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with neurological symptoms similar to idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD). Elevated body burdens of Mn from exposure to parental nutrition, vapors in mines and smelters and welding fumes have been associated with neurological health concerns. The underlying mechanism of Mn neurotoxicity remains unclear. Accordingly, the present study was designed to investigate the toxic effects of Mn2+ in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Mn2+ caused a concentration dependent decrease in SH-SY5Y cellular viability compared to controls. The LD50 value was 12.98 μM Mn2+ (p <0.001 for control vs. 24h Mn treatment). Both TUNEL and annexin V/propidium iodide apoptosis assays confirmed the induction of apoptosis in the cells following exposure to Mn2+ (2 μM, 62 μM or 125 μM). In addition, Mn2+ induced both the formation and accumulation of DNA single strand breaks (via alkaline comet assay analysis) and oxidatively modified thymine bases (via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis). Pre-incubation of the cells with characteristic antioxidants, either 1 mM N-acetylcysteine or 1 mM glutathione reduced the level of DNA strand breaks and the formation of thymine base lesions, suggesting protection against oxidative cellular damage. Our findings indicate that 1) exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to Mn promotes both the formation and accumulation of oxidative DNA nucleotide base damage, 2) SH-SY5Y cells with accumulated DNA damage are more likely to die via an apoptotic pathway and 3) the accumulated levels of DNA damage can be abrogated by the addition of exogenous chemical antioxidants. This is the first known report of Mn2+-induction and antioxidant protection of thymine lesions in this SH-SY5Y cell line and contributes new information to the potential use of antioxidants as a

  6. N-Acetylcysteine as a Provisional, Commercial Off-The Shelf (COTS) Chemoprotectant Against Sulfur Mustard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    development plans schedule a licensed HD prophylaxis in the FYI 0-19 range. Animal and tissue studies have suggested efficacy for NAC as a chemoprotectant...demonstrated the ability of NAC to significantly decrease lung damage from HD and a HD simulant. Tissue culture studies indicated that NAC may also...demonstrated general chemoprotective properties of NAC , the safety of NAC administration, the lack of a licensure requirement, and the data supporting

  7. Oxidative stress determined through the levels of antioxidant enzymes and the effect of N-acetylcysteine in aluminum phosphide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Avinash; Robo, Roto; Jain, Nirdesh; Gutch, Manish; Consil, Shuchi; Kumar, Sukriti

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The primary objective of this study was to determine the serum level of antioxidant enzymes and to correlate them with outcome in patients of aluminum phosphide (ALP) poisoning and, secondly, to evaluate the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) given along with supportive treatment of ALP poisoning. Design: We conducted a cohort study in patients of ALP poisoning hospitalized at a tertiary care center of North India. The treatment group and control group were enrolled during the study period of 1 year from May 2011 to April 2012. Interventions: Oxidative stress was evaluated in each subject by estimating the serum levels of the enzymes, viz. catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR). The treatment group comprised of patients who were given NAC in addition to supportive treatment (magnesium sulfate and vasopressors, if required), while in the control group, only supportive treatment was instituted. The primary endpoint of the study was the survival of the patients. Measurements and Results: The baseline catalase (P = 0.008) and SOD (P < 0.01) levels were higher among survivors than non-survivors. Of the total patients in the study, 31 (67.4%) expired and 15 (32.6%) survived. Among those who expired, the mean duration of survival was 2.92 ± 0.40 days in the test group and 1.82 ± 0.33 days in the control group (P = 0.043). Conclusions: This study suggests that the baseline level of catalase and SOD have reduced in ALP poisoning, but baseline GR level has not suppressed but is rather increasing with due time, and more so in the treatment group. NAC along with supportive treatment may have improved survival in ALP poisoning. PMID:25316977

  8. N-acetylcysteine, Ascorbic Acid, and Methylene Blue for the Treatment of Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning: Still Beneficial?

    PubMed Central

    Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Lavasanijou, Mohamad Reza; Moghaddam, Noushin Afshar; Khazaei, Majid; Behjati, Mohaddeseh; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Intentional and accidental intoxication with aluminium phosphide (ALP) remains a clinical problem, especially in the Middle East region. Considering the high mortality rate besides lack of any recommended first option drug for its treatment, this study was aimed to compare the therapeutic effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), vitamin C (Vit C), and methylene blue; both in isolate and also in combination, for the treatment of ALP intoxication in a rat model. Materials and Methods: In this experimental animal study, 80 male Wistar rats in eight groups were intoxicated with ALP (12.5 mg/kg) and treated with a single dose of NAC (100 mg/kg) or Vit C (500–1,000 mg/kg) or methylene blue (1 mg/kg/5 min, 0.1%) or two of these agents or all three of them (controls were not treated). Rats were monitored regarding the parameters of drug efficacy as increased survival time and reduced morbidity and mortality rate for 3 consecutive days to ensure toxin neutralization. Macroscopic changes were recorded and biopsy sections were taken from brain, cerebellum, kidney, liver, and heart for microscopic evaluation regarding cellular hypoxia. Results: The mean survival times of rats exposed to ALP and treated with VitC + NAC was 210.55±236.22 minutes. In analysis of survival times, there was a significant difference between Group 5 which received VitC + NAC and the other groups (P < 0.01). Serum magnesium levels after death were higher than normal (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Despite the higher survival rate of antioxidant-treated rats compared with controls, this difference was not statistically significant. PMID:26862259

  9. Inhibition of sphincter of Oddi function by the nitric oxide carrier S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine in rabbits and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Slivka, A; Chuttani, R; Carr-Locke, D L; Kobzik, L; Bredt, D S; Loscalzo, J; Stamler, J S

    1994-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an inhibitor of gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Model systems of the gut predict the NO will complex with biological thiol (SH) groups, yielding S-nitrosothiols (RS-NO), which may limit the propensity to form mutagenic nitrosamines. The inhibitory effects of NO and its biologically relevant adducts on sphincter of Oddi (SO) motility have been inferred from animal studies; however, their importance in regulating human SO is not known. The objectives of this study were to (a) provide histologic confirmation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in human SO; (b) characterize the pharmacology of S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (SNAC), an exemplary S-nitrosothiol, on SO motility in a rabbit model; and (c) study the effects of topical SNAC on SO motility in humans. Immunocytochemical and histochemical identification of NOS was performed in human SO. The pharmacologic response of SNAC was defined in isolated rabbit SO using a standard bioassay. Topical SNAC was then applied to the duodenal papilla in patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and biliary manometry. NOS was localized to nerve fibers and bundles of the SO in rabbits and humans. SNAC inhibited spontaneous motility (frequency and amplitude) as well as acetylcholine-induced elevations in SO basal pressure in the rabbit model. In patients undergoing ERCP and biliary manometry, topical SNAC inhibited SO contraction freqency, basal pressure, and duodenal motility. NOS is localized to neural elements in human SO, implicating a role for NO in regulating SO function. Supporting this concept, SNAC is an inhibitor of SO and duodenal motility when applied topically to humans during ERCP. Our data suggest a novel clinical approach using local NO donors to control gastrointestinal motility and regulate sphincteric function. Images PMID:7525649

  10. Acute exposure of the aquatic macrophyte Callitriche obtusangula to the herbicide oxadiazon: the protective role of N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Iriti, Marcello; Castorina, Giulia; Picchi, Valentina; Faoro, Franco; Gomarasca, Stefano

    2009-03-01

    In this study we investigated the acute exposure of the aquatic macrophyte Callitriche obtusangula to the herbicide oxadiazon (Ronstar). The toxic effects on C. obtusangula were evaluated, 24h after exposure, by assessing visible necrotic leaf lesions and, 12 h after exposure, via analyses of dead cells and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) deposits localized by histocytochemical analysis with Trypan blue and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB), respectively. As a result, we found that 0.1275 microg L(-1) a.i. (active ingredient) oxadiazon was the maximum concentration that produced no observable adverse effects (NOAEC) both at leaf and tissue levels, at any considered exposure time. Additionally, we assayed the protective effect of pre-treatment with 0.25 mM N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a cysteine donor, on the damage caused by the toxic herbicidal dose of 6.37 microg L(-1) a.i to C. obtusangula, correlating the NAC observed protection to the direct H2O2-scavenging and to the enhancement of glutathione parameters. NAC-treated plants showed a fourfold increase in the GSH (reduced glutathione)+GSSG (oxidised glutathione) content (149.2 nmol g(-1) FW) compared to controls (36.1 nmol g(-1) FW); in the NAC+oxadiazon treatments, the GSH+GSSG content was more than fivefold higher (202.1 nmol g(-1) FW). GSH showed a similar trend in NAC and NAC+oxadiazon treatments, being six- (130.0 nmol g(-1) FW) and eightfold (185.0 nmol g(-1) FW) higher, respectively, compared to controls (20.7 nmol g(-1) FW). Accordingly, the GSH/GSSG ratio in NAC- and NAC+oxadiazon-treated plants was significantly increased compared to controls, indicating alleviation of oxidative stress.

  11. Cytotoxic Effects of Ochratoxin A in Neuro-2a Cells: Role of Oxidative Stress Evidenced by N-acetylcysteine

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Pratiksha V.; Pandareesh; Khanum, Farhath; Tamatam, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Ochratoxin-A (OTA), is toxic secondary metabolite and is found to be a source of vast range of toxic effects like hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity. However, the information available currently regarding neurotoxic effects exerted by OTA is scanty. Hence, the present study was aimed to evaluate the neurotoxic effects of OTA and the possible mechanisms of toxicity as well as the role of cytotoxic oxidative stress on neuronal (Neuro-2a) cell line was evaluated in vitro. Results of the MTT and LDH assay showed that, OTA induced dose-dependent cell death in Neuro-2a cells and EC50 value was determined as 500 nM. OTA induced high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and elevated levels of malondialdehyde, also loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was observed in a dose depended manner. Effects of OTA on ROS induced chromosomal DNA damage was assessed by Comet assay and plasmid DNA damage assay in which increase in DNA damage was observed in Neuro-2a cells by increasing the OTA concentration. Further western blotting analysis of OTA treated Neuro-2a cells indicated elevated expression levels of c-Jun, JNK3 and cleaved caspase-3 leading to apoptotic cell death. Other hand realtime-Q-PCR analysis clearly indicates the suppressed expression of neuronal biomarker genes including AChE, BDNF, TH and NOS2. Further N-acetylcysteine (NAC) pretreatment to Neuro-2a cells followed by OTA treatment clearly evidenced that, the significant reversal of toxic effects exerted by OTA on Neuro-2a cells. In the present study, results illustrate that ROS a principle event in oxidative stress was elevated by OTA toxicity in Neuro-2a cells. However, further in vivo, animal studies are in need to conclude the present study reports and the use of NAC as a remedy for OTA induced neuronal stress. PMID:27531992

  12. Update on the pathological processes, molecular biology, and clinical utility of N-acetylcysteine in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Hoi Nam; Tseng, Cee Zhung Steven

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common and morbid disease characterized by high oxidative stress. Its pathogenesis is complex, and involves excessive oxidative stress (redox imbalance), protease/antiprotease imbalance, inflammation, apoptosis, and autoimmunity. Among these, oxidative stress has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of COPD by initiating and mediating various redox-sensitive signal transduction pathways and gene expression. The protective physiological mechanisms of the redox balance in the human body, their role in the pathogenesis of COPD, and the clinical correlation between oxidative stress and COPD are reviewed in this paper. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a mucolytic agent with both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This paper also reviews the use of NAC in patients with COPD, especially the dose-dependent properties of NAC, eg, its effects on lung function and the exacerbation rate in patients with the disease. Earlier data from BRONCUS (the Bronchitis Randomized on NAC Cost-Utility Study) did not suggest that NAC was beneficial in patients with COPD, only indicating that it reduced exacerbation in an “inhaled steroid-naïve” subgroup. With regard to the dose-dependent properties of NAC, two recent randomized controlled Chinese trials suggested that high-dose NAC (1,200 mg daily) can reduce exacerbations in patients with COPD, especially in those with an earlier (moderately severe) stage of disease, and also in those who are at high risk of exacerbations. However, there was no significant effect on symptoms or quality of life in patients receiving NAC. Further studies are warranted to investigate the effect of NAC at higher doses in non-Chinese patients with COPD. PMID:25125976

  13. Clarithromycin and N-Acetylcysteine co-spray-dried powders for pulmonary drug delivery: A focus on drug solubility.

    PubMed

    Manniello, Michele Dario; Del Gaudio, Pasquale; Aquino, Rita P; Russo, Paola

    2017-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) lungs are usually susceptible to Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization and this bacterium is resistant to immune system clearance and drug control. Particularly, the biofilm mode of growth protects several microorganisms from host defenses and antibacterial drugs, mainly due to a delayed penetration of the drug through the biofilm matrix. Biofilm, together with lung mucus viscosity and tenacity, reduces, therefore, the effectiveness of conventional antibiotic therapy in CF. The aim of this research was to design and develop a stable, portable, easy to use dry powder inhaler (DPI) for CF patients, able to release directly to the lung an association of macrolide antibiotics (clarithromycin) and a mucolytic agent (N-Acetyl-Cysteine). Its effectiveness is based on the counteracting of the characteristics of P. aeruginosa infections in CF (lung bacterial adhesion to lung epithelium, biofilm formation and mucus viscosity) and the ability to let the antimicrobial drug exert their pharmacological action. A solution of these two drugs, without any excipients, was spray-dried to obtain respirable microparticles, characterized by aerodynamic diameters suitable for inhalation (<5.0μm). The morphology evaluation evidenced a particles shape dependent on water content in the spray drying feeds, with wrinkle particles more evident with higher water content. Moreover, thanks to the presence of N-acetylcysteine which can interact with clarithromycin dimethyl-amino group, a consistent enhancement of drug solubility was obtained, compared to raw material and to the drug sprayed alone. The mucolytic agent added in the DPI may improve the macrolide diffusion into the mucus, enabling its action.

  14. Randomised, controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine for treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [ISRCTN21676344

    PubMed Central

    Black, Peter N; Morgan-Day, Althea; McMillan, Tracey E; Poole, Phillippa J; Young, Robert P

    2004-01-01

    Background Prophylactic treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for 3 months or more is associated with a reduction in the frequency of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This raises the question of whether treatment with NAC during an acute exacerbation will hasten recovery from the exacerbation. Methods We have examined this in a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Subjects, admitted to hospital with an acute exacerbation of COPD, were randomised within 24 h of admission to treatment with NAC 600 mg b.d. (n = 25) or matching placebo (n = 25). Treatment continued for 7 days or until discharge (whichever occurred first). To be eligible subjects had to be ≥ 50 years, have an FEV1 ≤ 60% predicted, FEV1/VC ≤ 70% and ≥ 10 pack year smoking history. Subjects with asthma, heart failure, pneumonia and other respiratory diseases were excluded. All subjects received concurrent treatment with prednisone 40 mg/day, nebulised salbutamol 5 mg q.i.d and where appropriate antibiotics. FEV1, VC, SaO2 and breathlessness were measured 2 hours after a dose of nebulised salbutamol, at the same time each day. Breathlessness was measured on a seven point Likert scale. Results At baseline FEV1 (% predicted) was 22% in the NAC group and 24% in the control group. There was no difference between the groups in the rate of change of FEV1, VC, SaO2 or breathlessness. Nor did the groups differ in the median length of stay in hospital (6 days for both groups). Conclusions Addition of NAC to treatment with corticosteroids and bronchodilators does not modify the outcome in acute exacerbations of COPD. PMID:15581425

  15. A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial of N-Acetylcysteine in Veterans with PTSD and Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Back, Sudie E.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Korte, Kristina J.; Gros, Daniel F.; Leavitt, Virginia; Gray, Kevin M.; Hamner, Mark B.; DeSantis, Stacia M.; Malcolm, Robert; Brady, Kathleen T.; Kalivas, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The antioxidant N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is being increasingly investigated as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of substance use disorders. Preclinical and clinical findings suggest that NAC normalizes extracellular glutamate by restoring the activity of glutamate transporters and antiporters in the nucleus accumbens. This study explored the efficacy of NAC in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which frequently co-occurs with substance use disorders (SUD) and shares impaired prefrontal cortex regulation of basal ganglia circuitry, in particular at glutamate synapses in the nucleus accumbens. Method Veterans with current PTSD and SUD (N=35) were randomly assigned to receive a double-blind, 8-week course of NAC (2400 mg/day) or placebo plus outpatient group cognitive-behavioral therapy for SUD. Primary outcome measures included PTSD symptoms (Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, PTSD Checklist-Military) and craving (Visual Analogue Scale). Depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II) and substance use (Timeline Follow Back, urine drug screens) were also assessed. Results Participants treated with NAC, as compared to placebo, evidenced significant improvements in PTSD symptoms, craving, and depression. Substance use at the start of treatment was low for both the NAC and placebo groups and no significant between-group differences were observed. NAC was well tolerated and retention was high. Conclusions This is the first randomized controlled trial to investigate NAC as a pharmacological treatment for PTSD. The findings show a significant treatment effect on symptoms of PTSD and drug craving, and provide initial support for the use of NAC in combination with cognitive-behavioral therapy among individuals with co-occurring PTSD and SUD. PMID:27736051

  16. Synthesis and Neurotoxicity Profile of 2,4,5-Trihydroxymethamphetamine and its 6-(N-Acetylcystein-S-yl) Conjugate

    PubMed Central

    Neudörffer, Anne; Mueller, Melanie; Martinez, Claire-Marie; Mechan, Annis; McCann, Una; Ricaurte, George A.; Largeron, Martine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine if trihydroxymethamphetamine (THMA), a metabolite of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”) or its thioether conjugate, 6-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)-2,4,5-trihydroxymethamphetamine (6-NAC-THMA), plays a role in the lasting effects of MDMA on brain serotonin (5-HT) neurons. To this end, novel high-yield syntheses of THMA and 6-NAC-THMA were developed. Lasting effects of both compounds on brain serotonin (5-HT) neuronal markers were then examined. A single intraventricular injection of THMA produced a significant lasting depletion of regional rat brain 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), consistent with previous reports that THMA harbors 5-HT neurotoxic potential. The lasting effect of THMA on brain 5-HT markers was blocked by the 5-HT uptake inhibitor fluoxetine, indicating persistent effects of THMA on 5-HT markers, like those of MDMA, are dependent on intact 5-HT transporter function. Efforts to identify THMA in the brains of animals treated with a high, neurotoxic dose (80 mg/kg) of MDMA were unsuccessful. Inability to identify THMA in brains of these animals was not related to the unstable nature of the THMA molecule, because exogenous THMA administered intracerebroventricularly could be readily detected in the rat brain for several hours. The thioether conjugate of THMA, 6-NAC-THMA, led to no detectable lasting alterations of cortical 5-HT or 5-HIAA levels, indicating that it lacks significant 5-HT neurotoxic activity. The present results cast doubt on the role of either THMA or 6-NAC-THMA in the lasting serotonergic effects of MDMA. The possibility remains that different conjugated forms of THMA, or oxidized cyclic forms (e.g. the indole of THMA) play a role in MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxicity in vivo. PMID:21557581

  17. The effects of erdosteine, N-acetylcysteine and vitamin E on nicotine-induced apoptosis of cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Demiralay, Rezan; Gürsan, Nesrin; Erdem, Havva

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the frequency of apoptosis in rat cardiomyocytes after intratraperitoneal nicotine injection, in order to examine the roles of inflammatory markers [myeloperoxidase (MPO) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)] in nicotine-induced cardiac damage and to determine the protective effects of three known antioxidant agents (N-acetylcysteine (NAC), erdosteine and vitamin E) on nicotine toxicity in the heart. Female Wistar rats were divided into seven groups, each composed of nine rats: two negative control groups, two positive control groups, one erdosteine-treated group (500 mg kg(-1)), one NAC-treated group (500 mg kg(-1)) and one vitamin E-treated group (500 mg kg(-1)). Nicotine was intraperitoneally injected at a dosage of 0.6 mg kg(-1) for 21 days. Following nicotine injection, the antioxidants were administered orally; treatment was continued until the rats were killed. Heart tissue samples were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histopathological assessments. Apoptosis level in cardiomyocytes was determined by using TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick endlabelling) method. Staining of cytoplasmic TNF-alpha in cardiomyocytes and heart MPO activity were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The treatments with erdosteine, NAC and vitamin E significantly reduced the rate of nicotine-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The effect of vitamin E on apoptosis regulation was weaker than the effects of erdosteine and NAC. Erdosteine, NAC and vitamin E significantly reduced the increases in the local production of TNF-alpha and heart MPO activity. This findings suggest that the effects of erdosteine and NAC on apoptosis regulation are stronger than that of vitamin E.

  18. N-acetylcysteine attenuates nicotine-induced kindling in female periadolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Adriana Mary Nunes Costa; Gomes, Patrícia Xavier L; de Oliveira, Gersilene V; de Araújo, Fernanda Yvelize R; Tomaz, Viviane S; Chaves Filho, Adriano José Maia; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa F; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes; de Lucena, David Freitas; Macêdo, Danielle

    2016-06-03

    Kindling is a form of behavioral sensitization that is related to the progression of several neuropsychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder. We recently demonstrated that female periadolescent rats are more vulnerable to nicotine (NIC)-induced kindling than their male counterparts. Furthermore, we evidenced that decreases in brain antioxidative defenses may contribute to this gender difference. Here we aimed to determine the preventive effects of the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) against NIC-kindling in female periadolescent rats. To do this female Wistar rats at postnatal day 30 received repeated injections of NIC 2mg/kg, i.p. every weekday for up to 19 days. NAC90, 180 or 270 mg/kg, i.p. was administered 30 min before NIC. The levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lipid peroxidation (LP) and nitrite were determined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HC) and striatum (ST). The development of kindling occurred at a median time of 16.5 days with 87.5% of NIC animals presenting stage 5 seizures in the last day of drug administration. NAC270 prevented the occurrence of kindling. NIC-kindled animals presented decreased levels of GSH and increased LP in the PFC, HC and ST, while SOD activity was decreased in the ST. NAC180 or 270 prevented the alterations in GSH induced by NIC, but only NAC270 prevented the alterations in LP. Nitrite levels increased in the ST of NAC270 pretreated NIC-kindled animals. Taken together we demonstrated that NAC presents anti-kindling effects in female animals partially through the restoration of oxidative alterations.

  19. Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Hepatic Diseases: Therapeutic Possibilities of N-Acetylcysteine

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Kívia Queiroz; Moura, Fabiana Andréa; dos Santos, John Marques; de Araújo, Orlando Roberto Pimentel; de Farias Santos, Juliana Célia; Goulart, Marília Oliveira Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    Liver disease is highly prevalent in the world. Oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation are the most important pathogenetic events in liver diseases, regardless the different etiology and natural course. N-acetyl-l-cysteine (the active form) (NAC) is being studied in diseases characterized by increased OS or decreased glutathione (GSH) level. NAC acts mainly on the supply of cysteine for GSH synthesis. The objective of this review is to examine experimental and clinical studies that evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory roles of NAC in attenuating markers of inflammation and OS in hepatic damage. The results related to the supplementation of NAC in any form of administration and type of study are satisfactory in 85.5% (n = 59) of the cases evaluated (n = 69, 100%). Within this percentage, the dosage of NAC utilized in studies in vivo varied from 0.204 up to 2 g/kg/day. A standard experimental design of protection and treatment as well as the choice of the route of administration, with a broader evaluation of OS and inflammation markers in the serum or other biological matrixes, in animal models, are necessary. Clinical studies are urgently required, to have a clear view, so that, the professionals can be sure about the effectiveness and safety of NAC prescription. PMID:26694382

  20. Acute supplementation of N-acetylcysteine does not affect muscle blood flow and oxygenation characteristics during handgrip exercise.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua R; Broxterman, Ryan M; Ade, Carl J; Evans, Kara K; Kurti, Stephanie P; Hammer, Shane M; Barstow, Thomas J; Harms, Craig A

    2016-04-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC; antioxidant and thiol donor) supplementation has improved exercise performance and delayed fatigue, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. One possibility isNACsupplementation increases limb blood flow during severe-intensity exercise. The purpose was to determine ifNACsupplementation affected exercising arm blood flow and muscle oxygenation characteristics. We hypothesized thatNACwould lead to higher limb blood flow and lower muscle deoxygenation characteristics during severe-intensity exercise. Eight healthy nonendurance trained men (21.8 ± 1.2 years) were recruited and completed two constant power handgrip exercise tests at 80% peak power until exhaustion. Subjects orally consumed either placebo (PLA) orNAC(70 mg/kg) 60 min prior to handgrip exercise. Immediately prior to exercise, venous blood samples were collected for determination of plasma redox balance. Brachial artery blood flow (BABF) was measured via Doppler ultrasound and flexor digitorum superficialis oxygenation characteristics were measured via near-infrared spectroscopy. FollowingNACsupplementaiton, plasma cysteine (NAC: 47.2 ± 20.3 μmol/L vs.PLA: 9.6 ± 1.2 μmol/L;P = 0.001) and total cysteine (NAC: 156.2 ± 33.9 μmol/L vs.PLA: 132.2 ± 16.3 μmol/L;P = 0.048) increased. Time to exhaustion was not significantly different (P = 0.55) betweenNAC(473.0 ± 62.1 sec) andPLA(438.7 ± 58.1 sec). RestingBABFwas not different (P = 0.79) withNAC(99.3 ± 31.1 mL/min) andPLA(108.3 ± 46.0 mL/min).BABFwas not different (P = 0.42) during exercise or at end-exercise (NAC: 413 ± 109 mL/min;PLA: 445 ± 147 mL/min). Deoxy-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] and total-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] were not significantly different (P = 0.73 andP = 0.54, respectively) at rest or during exercise between conditions. We conclude that acuteNACsupplementation does not alter oxygen delivery during exercise in men.

  1. Efficacy and safety of N-acetylcysteine in prevention of noise induced hearing loss: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kopke, Richard; Slade, Martin D; Jackson, Ronald; Hammill, Tanisha; Fausti, Stephen; Lonsbury-Martin, Brenda; Sanderson, Alicia; Dreisbach, Laura; Rabinowitz, Peter; Torre, Peter; Balough, Ben

    2015-05-01

    Despite a robust hearing conservation program, military personnel continue to be at high risk for noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). For more than a decade, a number of laboratories have investigated the use of antioxidants as a safe and effective adjunct to hearing conservation programs. Of the antioxidants that have been investigated, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has consistently reduced permanent NIHL in the laboratory, but its clinical efficacy is still controversial. This study provides a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial investigating the safety profile and the efficacy of NAC to prevent hearing loss in a military population after weapons training. Of the 566 total study subjects, 277 received NAC while 289 were given placebo. The null hypothesis for the rate of STS was not rejected based on the measured results. While no significant differences were found for the primary outcome, rate of threshold shifts, the right ear threshold shift rate difference did approach significance (p = 0.0562). No significant difference was found in the second primary outcome, percentage of subjects experiencing an adverse event between placebo and NAC groups (26.7% and 27.4%, respectively, p = 0.4465). Results for the secondary outcome, STS rate in the trigger hand ear, did show a significant difference (34.98% for placebo-treated, 27.14% for NAC-treated, p-value = 0.0288). Additionally, post-hoc analysis showed significant differences in threshold shift rates when handedness was taken into account. While the secondary outcomes and post-hoc analysis suggest that NAC treatment is superior to the placebo, the present study design failed to confirm this. The lack of significant differences in overall hearing loss between the treatment and placebo groups may be due to a number of factors, including suboptimal dosing, premature post-exposure audiograms, or differences in risk between ears or subjects. Based on secondary outcomes and post hoc

  2. Relationships between intrauterine infusion of N-acetylcysteine, equine endometrial pathology, neutrophil function, post-breeding therapy, and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Gores-Lindholm, Alicia R; LeBlanc, Michelle M; Causey, Robert; Hitchborn, Anna; Fayrer-Hosken, Richard A; Kruger, Marius; Vandenplas, Michel L; Flores, Paty; Ahlschwede, Scott

    2013-08-01

    Persistent endometritis in the mare is associated with hypersecretion of mucus by endometrial epithelium and migration of neutrophils into the uterine lumen. This study examines the relationships between N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a mucolytic agent with anti-inflammatory properties, and endometrial architecture, serum neutrophil function, post-breeding therapy, and reproductive performance of NAC-treated mares in a clinical setting. In study 1, endometrial biopsies from mares receiving intrauterine saline (fertile-control, n = 6) or 3.3% NAC (fertile-treatment, n = 6; barren-treatment, n = 10) were evaluated by histology and image analysis. In study 2, phagocytic activity of serum-derived neutrophils was measured after adding 0.5% or 3% NAC. In study 3, pregnancy rates of repeat breeders (n = 44) receiving an intrauterine infusion of 3.3% NAC 24-36 hours before mating (group 1) was recorded, as was first cycle of the season pregnancy rates of reproductively normal mares (group 2, n = 85), and mares treated for bacterial endometritis the cycle before mating (group 3, n = 25). Intrauterine NAC did not adversely affect endometrial histology. Extracellular mucus thickness and staining intensity were reduced in fertile-treatment mares (P < 0.03). Neutrophil function was inhibited by 3% NAC solution, but not by 0.5% NAC (P < 0.05). In study 3, for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, the first-cycle pregnancy rates were 77%, 74%, and 56%, and early embryonic death rates were 15%, 13%, and 7%. In group 2 mares treated with uterine lavage and oxytocin post-mating, the pregnancy rate was 89% (39/44), whereas in mares treated with uterine lavage and 1 g ceftiofur, it was 60% (24/40). Of the oxytocin-treated mares, 18% (8/44) had ≥ 1 cm of intrauterine fluid or marked uterine edema, whereas 80% (32/40) of the antibiotic-treated mares did. In conclusion, intrauterine infusion of a 3.3% solution of NAC was not irritating and inhibited the oxidative burst of neutrophils. Repeat

  3. Effects of oral treatment with N-acetylcysteine on the viscosity of intrauterine mucus and endometrial function in estrous mares.

    PubMed

    Witte, T S; Melkus, E; Walter, I; Senge, B; Schwab, S; Aurich, C; Heuwieser, W

    2012-10-01

    Persistent breeding-induced endometritis is ranked as the third most common medical problem in the adult mare and leads to enormous economic loss in horse breeding. In mares suffering from persistent breeding-induced endometritis, increased amounts of intrauterine (i.u.) fluid or viscous mucus in estrus or after breeding may act as a barrier for sperm and can contribute to low fertility. Current therapies of these mares aim to eliminate i.u. fluid and mucus by uterine lavage and/or administration of ecbolic drugs. Recently, i.u. administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been shown to support therapy in mares with endometritis. It was the objective of the present study to investigate effects of an oral administration of NAC on the viscosity of i.u. fluid in estrous mares. It was hypothesized that oral treatment with NAC reduces the viscosity of i.u. fluid and has a positive effect on the inflammatory response of the endometrium. Mares (n = 12) were included in the study as soon as estrus was detected (ovarian follicle >3.0 cm and endometrial edema), which was defined as Day 1. They were randomly assigned to a treatment (10 mg/kg NAC on Days 1-4) or a control group (no treatment). On days 1 and 5 i.u. mucus was collected and its rheologic properties were accessed. On Day 5, endometrial biopsies were obtained and evaluated for integrity of the luminal epithelium, number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), staining for cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), staining with Kiel 67 antigen (Ki-67), lectins and periodic acid Schiff (PAS). In the treatment group, viscosity of i.u. mucus increased significantly between Days 1 and 5 (P < 0.05), while no differences were found in control mares (n.s.). At no time were significant differences between treated and control mares seen. Integrity of epithelium was not affected. After NAC treatment the mean number of PMN in endometrial biopsies was significantly lower compared to mares of the control group (1.9 ± 0.3 vs. 4.8 ± 0.4; P < 0

  4. The effects of erdosteine, N-acetylcysteine, and vitamin E on nicotine-induced apoptosis of pulmonary cells.

    PubMed

    Demiralay, Rezan; Gürsan, Nesrin; Erdem, Havva

    2006-02-15

    This study was conducted to investigate the frequency of apoptosis in the pulmonary epithelial cells of rats after intratraperitoneal nicotine injection, in order to examine the role of inflammatory markers [myeloperoxidase (MPO) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)] in nicotine-induced lung damage, and to determine the protective effects of three known antioxidant agents [N-acetylcysteine (NAC), erdosteine, and vitamin E] on the lung toxicity of nicotine in the lungs. Female Wistar rats were divided into seven groups, each composed of nine rats: two negative control groups, two positive control groups, one erdosteine-treated group (500 mg/kg), one NAC-treated group (500 mg/kg), and one vitamin E-treated group (500 mg/kg). Nicotine was injected intraperitoneally at a dosage of 0.6 mg/kg for 21 days. Following nicotine injection, the antioxidants were administered orally, treatment was continued until the rats were killed. Lung tissue samples were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) for histopathological assessments. The apoptosis level in the lung bronchiolar and alveolar epithelium was determined by using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) method. Cytoplasmic TNF-alpha in the bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells and the lung MPO activity were evaluated immunohistochemically. The protective effect of vitamin E on lung histology was stronger than that of erdosteine or NAC. Treatment with erdosteine, NAC, and vitamin E significantly reduced the rate of nicotine-induced pulmonary epithelial cell apoptosis, and there were no significant differences in apoptosis among the three antioxidants groups. Erdosteine, NAC, and vitamin E significantly reduced the increases in TNF-alpha staining and lung MPO activity. The effects of erdosteine on the increases in the local TNF-alpha level and lung MPO activity were weaker than that of NAC or vitamin E. This findings suggest that erdosteine and NAC can be as effective as

  5. Toxicity and oxidative stress of acrylonitrile in rat primary glial cells: preventive effects of N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Esmat, Ahmed; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; El-Mesallamy, Hala; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2007-07-10

    Brain is a target organ for acrylonitrile (ACN) toxicity. The objective of the current work was to investigate ACN cytotoxicity in rat primary glial cells, using N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) as a potential protective agent. Cells were exposed in vitro to different concentrations of ACN for different time intervals. Cell membrane integrity was assessed by trypan blue exclusion and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. Approximately 50% membrane damage was observed in the incubations containing 1.0mM ACN for 3h. Therefore, these experimental conditions were used in subsequent studies. ACN enhanced lipid peroxidation, as indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation, and depleted reduced glutathione (GSH) level with no change in total glutathione. Also, ACN was activated to cyanide (CN(-)) with dramatic decrease in ATP level. Cell treatment with NAC prior to exposure to ACN afforded some protection; as indicated by reducing MDA level and elevating level of both reduced and total glutathione. Further, pretreatment with NAC inhibited CN(-) formation and caused an increase in ATP level. Our results indicate that ACN is toxic to rat primary glial cells as evidenced by induction of oxidative stress and generation of CN(-) with subsequent energy depletion. NAC can play an important role against ACN-induced oxidative damage.

  6. Effect of oral N-acetylcysteine on COPD patients with microsatellite polymorphism in the heme oxygenase-1 gene promoter

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jia-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Qing; Fang, Li-Zhou; Liu, Ling; Fu, Wei-Ping; Dai, Lu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a protective role as an antioxidant in the lung, and HO-1 gene promoter polymorphism has been shown to be associated with the severity and prognosis of COPD patients. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant/mucous modifier, has shown an uncertain benefit in COPD patients. We hypothesized that this polymorphism could be associated with the effectiveness of oral NAC. Methods A total of 368 patients with COPD were recruited and the polymorphisms of their HO-1 gene promoter were classified into three subclasses according to the number of (GT)n repeats, as previously reported: class S (<27 (GT)n repeats), class M (27–32 (GT)n repeats), and class L (>32 (GT)n repeats). These subjects were then classified as L+ group (with the L allele: L/L, L/M, L/S) and L− group (without the L allele: M/M, M/S, S/S). All the patients were allocated to standard therapy plus NAC 600 mg bid over a 1-year period and were observed over that year. Results The L− group saw improvements in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (from 1.44±0.37 to 1.58±0.38, P=0.04) and FEV1% predicted (from 56.6±19.2 to 59.7±17.2, P=0.03). No improvement was found in forced vital capacity of each group and the decline of forced vital capacity in both of the groups was not statistical significant. The number of yearly COPD exacerbations of the L− group was 1.5±0.66 which was lower than the 2.1±0.53 of the L+ group (P<0.01). For the changes of St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score, only the activity score of the L− group was more significant than that of the L+ group (P=0.02). The improvement of the outcome of 6-minute walking distance test in L− group (from 290.1±44.9 meters to 309.7±46.9 m) was higher than that in the L+ group (from 289.7±46.2 m to 300.3±44.2 m) (P=0.03). Conclusion A 600 mg bid oral NAC treatment for 1-year on COPD patients without the L allele can improve the FEV1, FEV1% predicted, the SGRQ activity score, and

  7. The effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on liver and renal tissue inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tissue lipid peroxidation in obstructive jaundice stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

    PubMed

    Cağlikülekci, Mehmet; Pata, Cengiz; Apa, Duygu Dusmez; Dirlik, Musa; Tamer, Lulufer; Yaylak, Faik; Kanik, Arzu; Aydin, Suha

    2004-03-01

    Morbidity and mortality rates are very high in obstructive jaundice when it is associated with sepsis and multiple organ failure. Nitric oxide (NO) formation and increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) also take place in obstructive jaundice (OJ). N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) has a beneficial effect by demonstrating anti-inflammatory activity such as inhibits cytokine expression/release, inhibiting the adhesion molecule expression and inhibiting nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of NAC on liver and renal tissue iNOS, and liver tissue lipid peroxidation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced obstructive jaundice. We randomized 48 rats into six groups. Group A: Sham group; group B: OJ group; group C: OJ+NAC; group D: OJ+LPS (Escherichia coli LPS serotype L-2630, 100mg, Sigma) group E: OJ+NAC+LPS; group F: OJ+LPS+NAC. NAC was started subcutaneously 100mg/kg. LPS was injected intraperitoneally and then at the tenth day we sacrificed the rats. Liver malondialdehyde (MDA) increased and liver ATPase decreased in groups B-D when compared to group A. After the administration of NAC (groups C-E), liver MDA levels decreased, tissue ATPase levels increased as compared to other groups. The liver and renal tissue iNOS expression was increased in groups B, D, and F. After the administration of NAC (groups C-E) the liver and renal tissue iNOS expression were decreased. Our results indicated that NAC prevented the deleterious effects of LPS in OJ by reducing iNOS expression via lipid peroxidation in liver and renal tissue; if it was administrated before LPS. But NAC failed to prevent the iNOS expression and lipid peroxidation if there was established endotoxemia in OJ.

  8. Flaxseed flour (Linum usitatissinum) consumption improves bone quality and decreases the adipocyte area of lactating rats in the post-weaning period.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Danielle Cavalcante; Pereira, Aline D'Avila; da Silva, Paula Cristina Alves; dos Santos, Aline de Sousa; de Santana, Fernanda Carvalho; Boueri, Bianca Ferolla da Camara; Pessanha, Carolina Ribeiro; de Abreu, Maíra Duque Coutinho; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; da Silva, Eduardo Moreira; do Nascimento-Saba, Celly Cristina Alves; da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of flaxseed flour in the intake on adiposity and femur structure of the lactating rats during the post-weaning period. After weaning, the lactating rats were divided into control (C, n = 6) and experimental (F, n = 6) groups treated with a diet containing flaxseed flour. Serum hormone and fatty acids composition, morphology of intra-abdominal adipocytes, computed tomography and biomechanical analyses of femur were determined. Food intake, body mass and hormone analysis have shown similar results. The F group showed the following (p < 0.05): lower arachidonic acid (-60%), total polyunsaturated fatty acids (-30%) and retroperitoneal adipocytes (-36%) area. Higher radiodensity of femoral head region (+29%) and higher maximum force (+18%), breaking strength (+18%) and rigidity (+31%). Fatty acid composition of flaxseed flour decreased the area of adipocytes and improved the bone quality, which may be associated with lower serum levels of arachidonic acid levels, during the post-weaning period.

  9. Prolonged N-acetylcysteine therapy in late acetaminophen poisoning associated with acute liver failure--a need to be more cautious?

    PubMed

    Athuraliya, T Nimmi C; Jones, Alison L

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1970s, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has shown proven efficacy as an antidote for acetaminophen (APAP) poisoning and APAP-induced liver failure for early presenters. The current evidence of benefits of NAC for late presenters is controversial because of the poor understanding of the mechanism of late toxicity. In the previous issue of Critical Care, Yang and colleagues use a mouse model to demonstrate that NAC in doses similar to those used therapeutically to treat APAP poisoning in humans impairs liver regenerative capacity and that the effect is more pronounced when administered for a longer duration. Studies based on cell cultures support this evidence. Cytokine and growth factor signalling pathways are recognised to be involved in the process of liver regeneration and apoptosis. This research paper generates several issues related to the future management of APAP-induced liver failure and research into the mechanism of toxicity, especially of late toxicity.

  10. Resolution of norfloxacin-induced acute liver failure after N-acetylcysteine therapy: further support for the use of NAC in drug-induced ALF?

    PubMed

    Elliott, Timothy Ross; Symes, Tiffany; Kannourakis, George; Angus, Peter

    2016-01-06

    Liver injury due to idiosyncratic drug reactions can be difficult to diagnose and may lead to acute liver failure (ALF), which has a high mortality rate. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is effective treatment for paracetamol toxicity, but its role in non-paracetamol drug-induced ALF is controversial. We report on the use of a validated bedside tool to establish causality for drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and describe the first case of resolution of norfloxacin-induced ALF after NAC therapy. NAC is easy to administer and generally has a good safety profile. We discuss the evidence to support the use of NAC in ALF secondary to DILI and possibilities for further clinical research in this field.

  11. Effect of oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on volume and albumin content of respiratory tract fluid but not on epithelial secretory cell number in "smoking" rats.

    PubMed

    Robinson, N; Brattsand, R; Dahlbäck, M

    1990-03-01

    This study was designed to look at the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on epithelial secretory cells and the respiratory tract fluid volume and albumin content from the lower airways of "bronchitic" rats. Rats were exposed either to tobacco smoke (TS), TS and NAC, or NAC alone. TS caused a significant increase in epithelial secretory cell number which was not reduced by concomitant NAC administration; NAC alone had no effect on cell numbers. TS increased respiratory tract fluid volume and albumin content by a small but non-significant amount, whereas TS and NAC increased the volume and albumin content by a greater and significant amount; NAC alone was also shown to significantly increase both fluid volume and albumin content.

  12. Electrochemical sensor for selective determination of N-acetylcysteine in the presence of folic acid using a modified carbon nanotube paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Beitollahi, Hadi; Taher, Mohammad Ali; Mirrahimi, Fatemeh; Hosseinzadeh, Rahman

    2013-04-01

    In the present paper, a novel benzoylferrocene (BF) modified carbon nanotube paste electrode (BFCNPE) was prepared. The modified electrode was further used for the successful determination of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and it showed an excellent electrocatalytic oxidation activity toward NAC with a lower overvoltage, pronounced current response, and good sensitivity. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the proposed electrochemical NAC sensor exhibited a linear calibration plot that ranged from 3.0×10(-7) to 7.0×10(-4) M with a detection limit of 9.0×10(-8) M. Also, Square wave voltammetry (SWV) was used for simultaneous determination of NAC and folic acid (FA) at the modified electrode. Finally, the proposed method was applied to the determination of NAC in NAC tablets.

  13. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation alters central leptin signalling, increases food intake, and decreases bone mass in 1 year old rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Qasem, Rani J; Li, Jing; Tang, Hee Man; Pontiggia, Laura; D'mello, Anil P

    2016-04-01

    The effects of perinatal nutrition on offspring physiology have mostly been examined in young adult animals. Aging constitutes a risk factor for the progressive loss of metabolic flexibility and development of disease. Few studies have examined whether the phenotype programmed by perinatal nutrition persists in aging offspring. Persistence of detrimental phenotypes and their accumulative metabolic effects are important for disease causality. This study determined the effects of maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation on food consumption, central leptin sensitivity, bone health, and susceptibility to high fat diet-induced adiposity in 1-year-old male offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats received either a control or a protein restricted diet throughout pregnancy and lactation and pups were weaned onto laboratory chow. One-year-old low protein (LP) offspring exhibited hyperphagia. The inability of an intraperitoneal (i.p.) leptin injection to reduce food intake indicated that the hyperphagia was mediated by decreased central leptin sensitivity. Hyperphagia was accompanied by lower body weight suggesting increased energy expenditure in LP offspring. Bone density and bone mineral content that are negatively regulated by leptin acting via the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), were decreased in LP offspring. LP offspring did not exhibit increased susceptibility to high fat diet induced metabolic effects or adiposity. The results presented here indicate that the programming effects of perinatal protein restriction are mediated by specific decreases in central leptin signalling to pathways involved in the regulation of food intake along with possible enhancement of different CNS leptin signalling pathways acting via the SNS to regulate bone mass and energy expenditure.

  14. Comparison of S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) and N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) Protective Effects on Hepatic Damage when Administered After Acetaminophen Overdose

    PubMed Central

    Terneus, Marcus V.; Brown, J. Michael; Carpenter, A. Betts; Valentovic, Monica A.

    2008-01-01

    In the clinical setting, antidotes are generally administered after the occurrence of a drug overdose. Therefore, the most pertinent evaluation of any new agent should model human exposure. This study tested whether acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity was reversed when S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) was administered after APAP exposure, similar to what occurs in clinical situations. Comparisons were made for potency between SAMe and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), the current treatment for APAP toxicity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fasted overnight and divided into groups: control (VEH), SAMe treated (SAMe), APAP treated (APAP), N-acetylcysteine treated (NAC), SAMe or NAC administered 1 h after APAP (SAMe+APAP) and (NAC+APAP), respectively. Mice were injected Intraperitoneal (ip) with water (VEH) or 250 mg/kg APAP (15 ml/kg). One 1h later, mice were injected (ip) with 1.25 mmol/kg SAMe (SAMe+APAP) or NAC (NAC+APAP). Hepatotoxicity was evaluated 4 h after APAP or VEH treatment. APAP induced centrilobular necrosis, increased liver weight and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, depressed total hepatic glutathione (GSH), increased protein carbonyls and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) adducted proteins. Treatment with SAMe 1 hr after APAP overdose (SAMe+APAP) was hepatoprotective and was comparable to NAC+APAP. Treatment with SAMe or NAC 1 h after APAP was sufficient to return total hepatic glutathione (GSH) to levels comparable to the VEH group. Western blot showed reversal of APAP mediated effects in the SAMe+APAP and NAC+APAP groups. In summary, SAMe was protective when given 1 h after APAP and was comparable to NAC. PMID:18068290

  15. Higher thermostability of l-lactate dehydrogenases is a key factor in decreasing the optical purity of d-lactic acid produced from Lactobacillus coryniformis.

    PubMed

    Gu, Sol-A; Jun, Chanha; Joo, Jeong Chan; Kim, Seil; Lee, Seung Hwan; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2014-05-10

    Lactobacillus coryniformis is known to produce d-lactic acid as a dominant fermentation product at a cultivation temperature of approximately 30°C. However, the considerable production of l-lactic acid is observed when the fermentation temperature is greater than 40°C. Because optically pure lactates are synthesized from pyruvate by the catalysis of chiral-specific d- or l-lactate dehydrogenase, the higher thermostability of l-LDHs is assumed to be one of the key factors decreasing the optical purity of d-lactic acid produced from L. coryniformis at high temperature. To verify this hypothesis, two types of d-ldh genes and six types of l-ldh genes based on the genomic information of L. coryniformis were synthesized and expressed in Escherichia coli. Among the LDHs tested, five LDHs showed activity and were used to construct polyclonal antibodies. d-LDH1, l-LDH2, and l-LDH3 were found to be expressed in L. coryniformis by Western blotting analysis. The half-life values (t1/2) of the LDHs at 40°C were estimated to be 10.50, 41.76, and 2311min, and the T50(10) values were 39.50, 39.90, and 58.60°C, respectively. In addition, the Tm values were 36.0, 41.0, and 62.4°C, respectively, which indicates that l-LDH has greater thermostability than d-LDH. The higher thermostability of l-LDHs compared with that of d-LDH1 may be a major reason why the enantiopurity of d-lactic acid is decreased at high fermentation temperatures. The key enzymes characterized will suggest a direction for the design of genetically modified lactic acid bacteria to produce optically pure d-lactic acid.

  16. Temporarily decreasing progesterone after timed artificial insemination decreased expression of interferon-tau stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) in blood leukocytes, serum pregnancy-specific protein B concentrations, and embryo size in lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, P D; Consentini, C C; Weaver, S R; Barleta, R V; Hernandez, L L; Fricke, P M

    2017-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of temporarily decreasing progesterone (P4) after timed artificial insemination (TAI) on embryonic growth in dairy cows. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 80) were submitted to a Double-Ovsynch protocol for first TAI and were assigned randomly to receive 12.5 mg of PGF2α 5 d after the last GnRH treatment (LowP4) or remain untreated (control). Blood samples were collected thrice weekly from 5 to 29 d after TAI for all cows and from 32 to 67 d for pregnant cows, and were analyzed for P4 and pregnancy-specific protein B concentrations. Expression of interferon-tau stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) was assessed in blood leukocyte mRNA 18 and 20 d after TAI. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed weekly using ultrasound from 32 to 67 d after TAI, and embryonic crown-rump length was measured 32, 39, and 46 d after TAI. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and logistic regression using the MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS. The LowP4 cows had less P4 than control cows from 6 to 11 d after TAI; however, pregnancy outcomes 32 d after TAI and pregnancy loss from 32 to 67 d after TAI did not differ between treatments. Control cows diagnosed pregnant 32 d after TAI had greater expression of ISG15 20 d after TAI than LowP4 cows diagnosed pregnant 32 d after TAI, and pregnant control cows had greater pregnancy-specific protein B concentrations from 25 to 67 d after TAI than pregnant LowP4 cows. Embryo size did not differ between treatments 32 and 39 d after TAI, but control cows had larger embryos 46 d after TAI. In conclusion, temporarily decreasing P4 after TAI decreased embryonic growth during early pregnancy in lactating Holstein cows but did not affect pregnancies per artificial insemination or pregnancy loss.

  17. Alpha-lipoic acid and N-acetylcysteine protects intensive swimming exercise-mediated germ-cell depletion, pro-oxidant generation, and alteration of steroidogenesis in rat testis.

    PubMed

    Jana, Kuladip; Dutta, Ananya; Chakraborty, Pratip; Manna, Indranil; Firdaus, Syed Benazir; Bandyopadhyay, Debasish; Chattopadhyay, Ratna; Chakravarty, Baidyanath

    2014-09-01

    Prolonged and strenuous exercise has been proposed as a possible source of male-factor infertility. Forced intensive swimming has also been identified as one source of a dysfunctional male reproduction system. The present study evaluated the possible protective role of α-lipoic acid and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on intensive swimming-induced germ-cell depletion in adult male rats. Forced exhaustive swimming of 1 hr/day, 6 days/week for 8 consecutive weeks resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in epididymal sperm; testicular androgenic enzyme activities; and plasma and intra-testicular testosterone; and produced different types of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium cycle. Conversely, plasma corticosterone levels and sperm-head abnormalities increased. Western-blot analysis showed a considerable decrease in testicular StAR protein expression whereas reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis showed no significant change in cytochrome P450scc (Cyp11a1) gene expression. Significant (P < 0.05) elevation in testicular reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content versus reduction in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and caspase-3 activities along with a depletion in the glutathione pool, mitochondrial membrane potential (▵ψm ), and intracellular ATP generation. A considerable level of DNA damage in testicular spermatogenic cells were also noted following forced extensive swimming. Alpha-lipoic acid and NAC supplementation prevented the swimming-induced testicular spermatogenic and steroidogenic disorders by lowering ROS generation. We therefore conclude that intensive forced swimming causes germ-cell depletion through the generation of ROS and depletion of steroidogenesis in the testis, which can be protected by the co-administration of α-lipoic acid and NAC.

  18. Feeding rumen-inert fats differing in their degree of saturation decreases intake and increases plasma concentrations of gut peptides in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Relling, A E; Reynolds, C K

    2007-03-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of feeding rumen-inert fats differing in their degree of saturation on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and plasma concentrations of insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (7-36) amide (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and cholecystokinin (CCK) in lactating dairy cows. Four midlactation, primiparous Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment with 2-wk periods. Cows were fed a control mixed ration ad libitum, and treatments were the dietary addition (3.5% of ration dry matter) of 3 rumen-inert fats as sources of mostly saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Daily DMI, milk yield, and composition were measured on the last 4 d of each period. Jugular vein blood was collected every 30 min over a 7-h period on d 12 and 14 of each period for analysis of plasma concentrations of hormones, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids. Feeding fat decreased DMI, and the decrease tended to be greater for MUFA and PUFA compared with SFA. Plasma concentration of GLP-1 increased when fat was fed and was greater for MUFA and PUFA. Feeding fat increased plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and CCK concentrations and decreased plasma insulin concentration. Plasma CCK concentration was greater for MUFA and PUFA than for SFA and was greater for MUFA than PUFA. Decreases in DMI in cows fed fat were associated with increased plasma concentrations of GLP-1 and CCK and a decreased insulin concentration. The role of these peptides in regulating DMI in cattle fed fat requires further investigation.

  19. Lactation Consultant

    MedlinePlus

    ... human lactation. Job description Lactation consultants educate women, families, health professionals, and the community about breast feeding and human lactation; facilitate the development of policies which protect, promote, and support breastfeeding; ...

  20. A randomized controlled trial of pre-procedure simethicone and N-acetylcysteine to improve mucosal visibility during gastroscopy – NICEVIS

    PubMed Central

    Basford, Peter John; Brown, James; Gadeke, Lisa; Fogg, Carole; Haysom-Newport, Ben; Ogollah, Reuben; Bhattacharyya, Rupam; Longcroft-Wheaton, Gaius; Thursby-Pelham, Fergus; Neale, James R.; Bhandari, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Mucosal views can be impaired by residual bubbles and mucus during gastroscopy. This study aimed to determine whether a pre-gastroscopy drink containing simethicone and N-acetylcysteine improves mucosal visualisation. Patients and methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial recruiting 126 subjects undergoing routine gastroscopy. Subjects were randomized 1:1:1 to receive: A—pre-procedure drink of water, simethicone and N-acetylcysteine (NAC); B—water alone; or C—no preparation. Study endoscopists were blinded to group allocation. Digital images were taken at 4 locations (lower esophagus/upper gastric body/antrum/fundus), and rated for mucosal visibility (MV) using a 4-point scale (1 = best, 4 = worst) by 4 separate experienced endoscopists. The primary outcome measure was mean mucosal visibility score (MVS). Secondary outcome measures were procedure duration and volume of fluid flush required to achieve adequate mucosal views. Results: Mean MVS for Group A was significantly better than for Group B (1.35 vs 2.11, P < 0.001) and Group C (1.35 vs 2.21, P < 0.001). Mean flush volume required to achieve adequate mucosal views was significantly lower in Group A than Group B (2.0 mL vs 31.5 mL, P = 0.001) and Group C (2.0 mL vs 39.2 mL P < 0.001). Procedure duration did not differ significantly between any of the 3 groups. MV scores at each of the 4 locations demonstrated significantly better mucosal visibility in Group A compared to Group B and Group C (P < 0.0025 for all comparisons). Conclusions: A pre-procedure drink containing simethicone and NAC significantly improves mucosal visibility during gastroscopy and reduces the need for flushes during the procedure. Effectiveness in the lower esophagus demonstrates potential benefit in Barrett’s oesophagus surveillance gastroscopy. PMID:27853746

  1. Decreased hematocrit-to-viscosity ratio and increased lactate dehydrogenase level in patients with sickle cell anemia and recurrent leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Connes, Philippe; Lamarre, Yann; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Lemonne, Nathalie; Waltz, Xavier; Mougenel, Danièle; Mukisi-Mukaza, Martin; Lalanne-Mistrih, Marie-Laure; Tarer, Vanessa; Tressières, Benoit; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Romana, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Leg ulcer is a disabling complication in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) but the exact pathophysiological mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the hematological and hemorheological alterations associated with recurrent leg ulcers. Sixty-two SCA patients who never experienced leg ulcers (ULC-) and 13 SCA patients with a positive history of recurrent leg ulcers (ULC+)--with no leg ulcers at the time of the study--were recruited. All patients were in steady state condition. Blood was sampled to perform hematological, biochemical (hemolytic markers) and hemorheological analyses (blood viscosity, red blood cell deformability and aggregation properties). The hematocrit-to-viscosity ratio (HVR), which reflects the red blood cell oxygen transport efficiency, was calculated for each subject. Patients from the ULC+ group were older than patients from the ULC- group. Anemia (red blood cell count, hematocrit and hemoglobin levels) was more pronounced in the ULC+ group. Lactate dehydrogenase level was higher in the ULC+ group than in the ULC- group. Neither blood viscosity, nor RBC aggregation properties differed between the two groups. HVR was lower and RBC deformability tended to be reduced in the ULC+ group. Our study confirmed increased hemolytic rate and anemia in SCA patients with leg ulcers recurrence. Furthermore, our data suggest that although systemic blood viscosity is not a major factor involved in the pathophysiology of this complication, decreased red blood cell oxygen transport efficiency (i.e., low hematocrit/viscosity ratio) may play a role.

  2. Antioxidative effects of N-acetylcysteine, lipoic acid, taurine, and curcumin in the muscle of Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Sevgiler, Yusuf; Karaytug, Sahire; Karayakar, Fahri

    2011-03-01

    We investigated the muscle tissue of a teleost Cyprinus carpio L. to find out whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC), alpha-lipoic acid (LA), taurine (TAU), and curcumin (CUR) were able to counteract oxidative stress induced by acute exposure to cadmium (Cd). The muscle tissue was dissected 96 h after a single intraperitoneal injection of Cd (5 mg kg(-1)) and of antioxidant substances (50 mg kg(-1)). Using spectrophotometry, we determined the glutathione redox status, lipid peroxidation levels and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione disulphide reductase (GR). Accumulation of Cd in the muscle was analysed using inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).All substances lowered Cd levels in the following order of efficiency; LA=NAC>TAU=CUR. Cadmium increased SOD activity, but CAT activity declined, regardless of antioxidant treatment. Treatment with CUR induced GPx activity. Treatment with TAU lowered Cd due to higher total glutathione (tGSH). The most effective substances on lipid peroxidation were LA and NAC due to a greater Cd-lowering potential. It seems that the protective role of TAU, LA, and NAC is not necessarily associated with antioxidant enzymes, but rather with their own activity.

  3. Effects of N-acetylcysteine, oral glutathione (GSH) and a novel sublingual form of GSH on oxidative stress markers: A comparative crossover study.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Bernard; Vicenzi, Morgane; Garrel, Catherine; Denis, Frédéric M

    2015-12-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is critical to fight against oxidative stress. Its very low bioavailability limits the interest of a supplementation. The purpose of this study was to compare the bioavailability, the effect on oxidative stress markers and the safety of a new sublingual form of GSH with two commonly used dietary supplements, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and oral GSH. The study was a three-week randomized crossover trial. 20 Volunteers with metabolic syndrome were enrolled. GSH levels and several oxidative stress markers were determined at different times during each 21-days period. Compared to oral GSH group, an increase of total and reduced GSH levels in plasma and a higher GSH/GSSG ratio (p=0.003) was observed in sublingual GSH group. After 3 weeks of administration, there was a significant increase of vitamin E level in plasma only in sublingual GSH group (0.83 µmol/g; p=0.04). Our results demonstrate the superiority of a new sublingual form of GSH over the oral GSH form and NAC in terms of GSH supplementation.

  4. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor antagonist or N-acetylcysteine combined with omeprazol protect against mitochondrial complex II inhibition in a rat model of gastritis.

    PubMed

    Rezin, Gislaine T; Petronilho, Fabricia C; Araújo, João H; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Daufenbach, Juliana F; Cardoso, Mariane R; Roesler, Rafael; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Streck, Emilio L

    2011-03-01

    The pathophysiology of gastritis involves an imbalance between gastric acid attack and mucosal defence. In addition, the gastric mucosal injury results in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Several studies have shown the association of mitochondrial disorders with gastrointestinal dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes activity in the stomach of rats with gastritis induced by indomethacin (IDM) and treated with omeprazole (OM), N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) antagonist RC-3095. Adult male Wistar rats were pre-treated for 7 days with OM, NAC, RC-3095, combination of OM plus RC-3095, OM plus NAC and water (control). The animals were then submitted to fasting for 24 hr; IDM was administered. The rats were killed 6 hr later, and the stomachs were used for evaluation of macroscopic damage and respiratory chain activity. Our results showed that complex I and IV activities were not affected by administration of IDM. On the other hand, complex II and III activities were inhibited. In addition, OM plus RC-3095 and OM plus NAC did not reverse complex II activity inhibition. However, the complex III activity inhibition was reversed only with the combined use of OM plus RC-3095 and OM plus NAC. Our results are in agreement with previous studies indicating mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal tract disease and we suggest that GRPR antagonism might be a novel therapeutic strategy in gastritis.

  5. Combination of N-acetylcysteine, α-lipoic acid and α-tocopherol substantially prevents the brain synaptosomal alterations and memory and learning deficits of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Thakurta, Ishita Guha; Banerjee, Priyanjalee; Bagh, Maria Bindu; Ghosh, Arindam; Sahoo, Arghyadip; Chattopadhyay, Sita; Chakrabarti, Sasanka

    2014-02-01

    This study has compared several synaptosomal parameters in three groups of rats: young (46 months), aged (22-24 months) and antioxidant supplemented aged rats (antioxidant supplementation given with the diet as a combination of N-acetylcysteine, α-lipoic acid and α-tocopherol from 18 months onwards till 22-24 months). The synaptosomes from aged rat brain, in comparison to those of young animals, exhibit an increased membrane potential with altered contents of Na(+) and K(+) under basal incubation condition and in the presence of depolarizing agents. The intrasynaptosomal Ca(2+) is also higher in aged than in young rat. These age-dependent changes in synaptosomal parameters are prevented markedly in the antioxidant supplemented group. When examined on T-maze, the aged animals are noticeably impaired in learning and memory functions, but the deficit is remarkably prevented in the antioxidant supplemented aged animals. It is suggested that the synaptosomal alterations partly contribute to the cognitive deficits of aged animals, and both are rescued by long-term antioxidant supplementation.

  6. Oral N-acetylcysteine or S-carboxymethylcysteine inhibit cigarette smoke-induced hypersecretion of mucus in rat larynx and trachea in situ.

    PubMed

    Rogers, D F; Turner, N C; Marriott, C; Jeffery, P K

    1989-11-01

    Two weeks exposure of rats to cigarette smoke (CS) significantly (p less than 0.05) increased the secretion of fucose-containing glycoconjugates above normal in an in situ preparation of larynx and trachea. After equilibration mean basal secretion in CS-exposed rats was 24 micrograms (per 30 min collection) which was 8 times higher than that of unexposed animals (p less than 0.01). N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or S-carboxymethylcysteine (SCMC) given as 1% of the drinking water, before and after daily exposure to CS, significantly inhibited the development of the CS-induced increase in fucose secretion reducing the mean for basal secretion in each group to 7 and 5 micrograms, respectively (p less than 0.05). Neither NAC nor SCMC had significant effects on baseline glycoconjugate secretion in control animals. Albumin was inconsistently present in the secretions of both control and CS-exposed animals, whereas in those exposed to CS and also given one of the two cysteine derivatives there was a consistent increase in albumin transudation.

  7. N-Acetylcysteine in Combination with IGF-1 Enhances Neuroprotection against Proteasome Dysfunction-Induced Neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Pinki; Kuang, Anxiu; Akhtar, Feroz; Scofield, Virginia L.

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) dysfunction has been implicated in the development of many neuronal disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies focused on individual neuroprotective agents and their respective abilities to prevent neurotoxicity following a variety of toxic insults. However, the effects of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on proteasome impairment-induced apoptosis have not been well characterized in human neuronal cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether cotreatment of NAC and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) efficiently protected against proteasome inhibitor-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Our results demonstrate that the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, initiates poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, caspase 3 activation, and nuclear condensation and fragmentation. In addition, MG132 treatment leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy-mediated cell death. All of these events can be attenuated without obvious reduction of MG132 induced protein ubiquitination by first treating the cells with NAC and IGF-1 separately or simultaneously prior to exposure to MG132. Moreover, our data demonstrated that the combination of the two proved to be significantly more effective for neuronal protection. Therefore, we conclude that the simultaneous use of growth/neurotrophic factors and a free radical scavenger may increase overall protection against UPS dysfunction-mediated cytotoxicity and neurodegeneration. PMID:27774335

  8. Evaluating the Effect of Intracoronary N-Acetylcysteine on Platelet Activation Markers After Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Eshraghi, Azadeh; Talasaz, Azita Hajhossein; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Salarifar, Mojtaba; Pourhosseini, Hamidreza; Nozari, Yones; Bahremand, Mostafa; Jalali, Arash; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    During percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), trauma occurs in the arterial endothelium, resulting in platelet activation and aggregation. As platelet aggregation may lead to coronary thrombosis, antiplatelet agents are essential adjunctive therapies in patients undergoing PCI. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the intracoronary administration of high-dose N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for the evaluation of its antiplatelet effects in human subjects. In this triple-blind trial, 147 patients undergoing primary PCI were enrolled. Finally, 100 patients were randomized to receive high-dose intracoronary NAC (100 mg/kg bolus, followed by 10 mg·kg⁻¹·h⁻¹ intracoronary continued intravenously for 12 hours) (n = 50) or dextrose solution (n = 50). Platelet activation biomarkers were measured before and 24 hours after the procedure. Secondary end points, comprising all-cause death, reinfarction, and target-vessel revascularization, were assessed at 30 days and 2 years. In comparison with the placebo, NAC could not reduce the level of platelet activation biomarkers within a 24-hour period after its prescription. Major adverse clinical events at 30 days and 2 years were infrequent and not statistically different between the 2 groups. Our results revealed that NAC, compared with the placebo, did not provide an additional clinical benefit as an effective antiplatelet agent after PCI.

  9. Protective effects of N-acetylcysteine on cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    WANG, FUGEN; LIU, SHOURONG; SHEN, YIQIN; ZHUANG, RANGXIAO; XI, JIANJUN; FANG, HONGYING; PAN, XUWAN; SUN, JINGJING; CAI, ZHAOBIN

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocyte injury is a common pathological effect of cisplatin (CDDP) in various solid tumor therapies. Thus, strategies for minimizing CDDP toxicity are of great clinical interest. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a known antioxidant, is often used as an antidote for acetaminophen overdose in the clinic due to its ability to increase the levels of glutathione (GSH). In the present study, the aim was to investigate the protective effects of NAC against CDDP-induced apoptosis in human-derived HepG2 cells. The results showed that upon exposure of the cells to CDDP, oxidative stress was significantly induced. DNA damage caused by CDDP was associated with cell apoptosis. NAC pre-treatment significantly reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and ameliorated the GSH modulation induced by CDDP. NAC also protected against DNA damage and cell apoptosis. These data suggest the protective role of NAC against hepatocyte apoptosis induced by CDDP was achieved through the inhibition of DNA damage and alterations of the redox status in human derived HepG2 cells. These results indicate that NAC administration may protect against CDDP-induced damage. PMID:25371760

  10. Effects of postresuscitation N-acetylcysteine on cerebral free radical production and perfusion during reoxygenation of hypoxic newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tze-Fun; Tymafichuk, Corinne N; Bigam, David L; Cheung, Po-Yin

    2008-09-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) contribute to the pathogenesis of cerebral hypoxic-ischemic injury. We evaluated the neuroprotective effect of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC, a free radical scavenger) against oxidative stress and perfusion in a model of neonatal hypoxia-reoxygenation (H-R). Piglets (1-3 d, 1.6-2.3 kg) were randomized into a sham-operated group (without H-R) (n = 5) and two H-R experimental groups (2 h normocapnic alveolar hypoxia followed by 4 h reoxygenation) (n = 7/group). Five minutes after reoxygenation, piglets were given either i.v. saline (H-R controls) or NAC (30 mg/kg bolus then 20 mg/kg/h infusion) in a blinded-randomized fashion. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, carotid arterial blood flow (transit-time ultrasonic probe), cerebral cortical H2O2 and NO production (electrochemical sensor), cerebral tissue glutathione and nitrotyrosine levels (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were examined. Hypoxic piglets were acidotic (pH 6.88-6.90), which recovered similarly in the H-R groups (p > 0.05 versus shams). Postresuscitation NAC treatment significantly attenuated the increase in cortical H2O2, but not NO, concentration during reoxygenation, with lower cerebral oxidized glutathione levels. NAC-treated piglets had significantly higher carotid oxygen delivery and lower cerebral lactate levels than that of H-R controls with corresponding changes in carotid arterial flow and vascular resistance. In newborn piglets with H-R, postresuscitation administration of NAC reduced cerebral oxidative stress and improved cerebral perfusion.

  11. N-Acetylcysteine Combined with Home Based Physical Activity: Effect on Health Related Quality of Life in Stable COPD Patients- A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Atram, Jitesh S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Quality of life is adversely affected in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), due to irreversible, progressive nature of the disease and limitations of current treatment options available. One of the important aim of treatment of COPD is to improve Quality of Life (QoL). Cigarette smoke contains numerous free radicals and other oxidants. Oxidative stress has been implicated in pathogenesis, progression of disease and exacerbation in COPD. Pulmonary tuberculosis, outdoor and indoor air pollution and many others are aetiologies of COPD in non-smokers. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is a precursor of endogenous anti-oxidant, Glutathione (GSH) and both agents act as free radical scavengers. Exercise limitation results in poor physical performance and eventually poor QoL in COPD. Aim To observe the combined effect of 600mg of NAC once daily and physical activity (home based) in addition to standard treatment for ten weeks, compared with placebo as control group with standard treatment. Materials and Methods This randomised controlled trial was conducted at a tertiary care centre in Mumbai for two years from December 2011 to December 2013. Hundred patients diagnosed as stable COPD (as per Global Initiative against Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2010 guidelines) were enrolled in the study. There were 50 patients in study group and control group each. The QoL was assessed using Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire-C (SGRQ-C) initially and at the end of ten weeks. The study group was treated with NAC 600mg once a day combined with daily physical activity in addition to standard treatment. Control group patients were treated with placebo and standard treatment. Results At the end of 10 weeks, it was observed that, mean change in SGRQ-C was significant in “study group” as compared to “control group”. Mean change in score among study group was 4.72 and the same in control was 1.32, p-value=0.007. There was significant improvement in SGRQ-C score at the

  12. Depletion of mucin in mucin-producing human gastrointestinal carcinoma: Results from in vitro and in vivo studies with bromelain and N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Amini, Afshin; Masoumi-Moghaddam, Samar; Ehteda, Anahid; Liauw, Winston; Morris, David L

    2015-10-20

    Aberrant expression of membrane-associated and secreted mucins, as evident in epithelial tumors, is known to facilitate tumor growth, progression and metastasis, and to provide protection against adverse growth conditions, chemotherapy and immune surveillance. Emerging evidence provides support for the oncogenic role of MUC1 in gastrointestinal carcinomas and relates its expression to an invasive phenotype. Similarly, mucinous differentiation of gastrointestinal tumors, in particular increased or de novo expression of MUC2 and/or MUC5AC, is widely believed to imply an adverse clinicopathological feature. Through formation of viscous gels, too, MUC2 and MUC5AC significantly contribute to the biology and pathogenesis of mucin-secreting gastrointestinal tumors. Here, we investigated the mucin-depleting effects of bromelain (BR) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), in nine different regimens as single or combination therapy, in in vitro (MKN45, KATOIII and LS174T cell lines) and in vivo (female nude mice bearing intraperitoneal MKN45 and LS174T) settings. The inhibitory effects of the treatment on cancer cell growth and proliferation were also evaluated in vivo. Our results suggest that a combination of BR and NAC with dual effects on growth and mucin products of mucin-expressing tumor cells is a promising candidate towards the development of novel approaches to gastrointestinal malignancies with the involvement of mucin pathology. This capability supports the use of this combination formulation in locoregional approaches for reducing the adverse effects of the aberrantly secreted gel-forming mucins, as in pseudomyxoma peritonei and similar pathologies with ectopic production of mucin.

  13. N-Acetylcysteine improves mitochondrial function and ameliorates behavioral deficits in the R6/1 mouse model of Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Wright, D J; Renoir, T; Smith, Z M; Frazier, A E; Francis, P S; Thorburn, D R; McGee, S L; Hannan, A J; Gray, L J

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, involving psychiatric, cognitive and motor symptoms, caused by a CAG-repeat expansion encoding an extended polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. Oxidative stress and excitotoxicity have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of HD. We hypothesized that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may reduce both excitotoxicity and oxidative stress through its actions on glutamate reuptake and antioxidant capacity. The R6/1 transgenic mouse model of HD was used to investigate the effects of NAC on HD pathology. It was found that chronic NAC administration delayed the onset and progression of motor deficits in R6/1 mice, while having an antidepressant-like effect on both R6/1 and wild-type mice. A deficit in the astrocytic glutamate transporter protein, GLT-1, was found in R6/1 mice. However, this deficit was not ameliorated by NAC, implying that the therapeutic effect of NAC is not due to rescue of the GLT-1 deficit and associated glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Assessment of mitochondrial function in the striatum and cortex revealed that R6/1 mice show reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity specific to the striatum. This deficit was rescued by chronic treatment with NAC. There was a selective increase in markers of oxidative damage in mitochondria, which was rescued by NAC. In conclusion, NAC is able to delay the onset of motor deficits in the R6/1 model of Huntington's disease and it may do so by ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, NAC shows promise as a potential therapeutic agent in HD. Furthermore, our data suggest that NAC may also have broader antidepressant efficacy. PMID:25562842

  14. N-acetylcysteine in agriculture, a novel use for an old molecule: focus on controlling the plant-pathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Muranaka, Lígia S; Giorgiano, Thais E; Takita, Marco A; Forim, Moacir R; Silva, Luis F C; Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D; Machado, Marcos A; de Souza, Alessandra A

    2013-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen bacterium that causes diseases in many different crops. In citrus, it causes Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC). The mechanism of pathogenicity of this bacterium is associated with its capacity to colonize and form a biofilm in the xylem vessels of host plants, and there is not yet any method to directly reduce populations of this pathogen in the field. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), a cysteine analogue used mainly to treat human diseases, on X. fastidiosa in different experimental conditions. Concentrations of NAC over 1 mg/mL reduced bacterial adhesion to glass surfaces, biofilm formation and the amount of exopolysaccharides (EPS). The minimal inhibitory concentration of NAC was 6 mg/mL. NAC was supplied to X. fastidiosa-infected plants in hydroponics, fertigation, and adsorbed to organic fertilizer (NAC-Fertilizer). HPLC analysis indicated that plants absorbed NAC at concentrations of 0.48 and 2.4 mg/mL but not at 6 mg/mL. Sweet orange plants with CVC symptoms treated with NAC (0.48 and 2.4 mg/mL) in hydroponics showed clear symptom remission and reduction in bacterial population, as analyzed by quantitative PCR and bacterial isolation. Experiments using fertigation and NAC-Fertilizer were done to simulate a condition closer to that normally is used in the field. For both, significant symptom remission and a reduced bacterial growth rate were observed. Using NAC-Fertilizer the lag for resurgence of symptoms on leaves after interruption of the treatment increased to around eight months. This is the first report of the anti-bacterial effect of NAC against a phytopathogenic bacterium. The results obtained in this work together with the characteristics of this molecule indicate that the use of NAC in agriculture might be a new and sustainable strategy for controlling plant pathogenic bacteria.

  15. Protective effect of curcumin, silymarin and N-acetylcysteine on antitubercular drug-induced hepatotoxicity assessed in an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Singh, M; Sasi, P; Gupta, V H; Rai, G; Amarapurkar, D N; Wangikar, P P

    2012-08-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is highly endemic in India. The first-line anti-TB therapy (ATT) involving isoniazid (INH), rifampicin and pyrazinamide causes hepatotoxicity in approximately 11.5% of Indian patients. Studies have shown that ATT-induced hepatotoxicity is primarily due to oxidative stress caused by the drugs and metabolites. Herbal drugs with antioxidative properties have been tested in animal studies and clinical trials for the management of hepatotoxicity. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of curcumin (CUR), silymarin (SILY) and N-acetylcysteine (N-ACET) on hepatotoxicity by ATT drugs using an in vitro model of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2). HepG2 cells were treated with ATT drugs alone or along with CUR, SILY or N-ACET for a 48-h duration. The cells were monitored for viability, morphology, respiring mitochondria and cell cycle. Our results suggest that the presence of hepatoprotective drugs during treatment of HepG2 cells with ATT drugs lowers the hepatotoxic effect of the latter. This is observed in terms of (a) increased cell viability, (b) healthy-looking cell morphology as revealed by phase contrast microscopy, (c) active respiring cells as observed with confocal microscopy upon staining with a mitochondrial membrane-specific dye, MitoTracker(®) Red, and reduction in the sub-G(1) peak in cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry. Our results suggest that these hepatoprotective drugs need to be further explored as potential adjuvant therapy along with ATT drugs.

  16. Therapeutic efficacy of Wuzhi tablet (Schisandra sphenanthera Extract) on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity through a mechanism distinct from N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaomei; Chen, Pan; Jiang, Yiming; Wang, Ying; Tan, Huasen; Zeng, Hang; Wang, Yongtao; Qu, Aijuan; Gonzalez, Frank J; Huang, Min; Bi, Huichang

    2015-03-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is the most common cause of drug-induced liver injury and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is the primary antidote of APAP poisoning. Wuzhi tablet (WZ), the active constituents well identified and quantified, is a preparation of an ethanol extract of Schisandra sphenanthera and exerts a protective effect toward APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. However, the clinical use of WZ to rescue APAP-induced acute liver injury and the mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effect of WZ remain unclear. Therefore, the effect of WZ on APAP hepatotoxicity was compared with NAC in mice, and molecular pathways contributing to its therapeutic action were investigated. Administration of WZ 4 hours after APAP treatment significantly attenuated APAP hepatotoxicity and exerted much better therapeutic effect than NAC, as revealed by morphologic, histologic, and biochemical assessments. Both WZ and NAC prevented APAP-induced c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase activation and mitochondrial glutathione depletion in livers. The protein expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 target genes including Gclc, Gclm, Ho-1, and Nqo1 was increased by WZ administration. Furthermore, p53 and p21 levels were upregulated upon APAP exposure, which were completely reversed by postdosing of WZ 4 hours after APAP treatment over 48 hours. In comparison with NAC, WZ significantly increased the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D-dependent kinase 4, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and augmenter of liver regeneration in APAP-injured livers. This study demonstrated that WZ possessed a therapeutic efficacy against APAP-induced liver injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and stimulating a regenerative response after liver injury. Thus WZ may represent a new therapy for APAP-induced acute liver injury.

  17. The effects of phenethyl isothiocyanate, N-acetylcysteine and green tea on tobacco smoke-induced lung tumors in strain A/J mice.

    PubMed

    Witschi, H; Espiritu, I; Yu, M; Willits, N H

    1998-10-01

    Male and female strain A/J mice were exposed to a mixture of cigarette sidestream and mainstream smoke at a chamber concentration of total suspended particulates of 82.5 mg/m3. Exposure time was 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 5 months. The animals were allowed to recover for another 4 months in filtered air before sacrifice and lung tumor count. Male animals were fed either 0.2% N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or 0.05% phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) in diet AIN-76A with 5% corn oil added. Female animals received normal laboratory chow and were given a 1.25% extract of green tea in the drinking water. Corresponding control groups were fed diets without NAC or PEITC or given plain tap water. Exposure to tobacco smoke increased lung tumor multiplicity to 1.1-1.6 tumors/lung, significantly higher than control values (0.5-1.0 tumors/lung). None of the putative chemopreventive agents (NAC, PEITC or green tea extract) had a protective effect. In positive control experiments, PEITC significantly reduced both lung tumor multiplicity and incidence in mice treated with the tobacco smoke-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). In mice treated with three different doses of urethan and fed NAC in the diet, a significant reduction in lung tumor multiplicity was found only at one dose level. Green tea extract did not reduce lung tumor multiplicity in animals treated with a single dose of NNK. It was concluded that successful chemoprevention of tobacco smoke-induced lung tumorigenesis might require administration of several chemopreventive agents rather than just a single one.

  18. Chlorambucil (nitrogen mustard) induced impairment of early vascular endothelial cell migration - effects of α-linolenic acid and N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette; Simons, Thilo; Ibrahim, Marwa; Morguet, Christian; Balszuweit, Frank; Thiermann, Horst; Kehe, Kai; Bloch, Wilhelm; Bölck, Birgit

    2014-08-05

    Alkylating agents (e.g. sulfur and nitrogen mustards) cause a variety of cell and tissue damage including wound healing disorder. Migration of endothelial cells is of utmost importance for effective wound healing. In this study we investigated the effects of chlorambucil (a nitrogen mustard) on early endothelial cells (EEC) with special focus on cell migration. Chlorambucil significantly inhibited migration of EEC in Boyden chamber and wound healing experiments. Cell migration is linked to cytoskeletal organization. We therefore investigated the distribution pattern of the Golgi apparatus as a marker of cell polarity. Cells are polarized under control conditions, whereas chlorambucil caused an encircling perinuclear position of the Golgi apparatus, indicating non-polarized cells. ROS are discussed to be involved in the pathophysiology of alkylating substances and are linked to cell migration and cell polarity. Therefore we investigated the influence of ROS-scavengers (α-linolenic acid (ALA) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC)) on the impaired EEC migration. Both substances, in particular ALA, improved EEC migration. Notably ALA restored cell polarity. Remarkably, investigations of ROS and RNS biomarkers (8-isoprostane and nitrotyrosine) did not reveal a significant increase after chlorambucil exposure when assessed 24h post exposure. A distinct breakdown of mitochondrial membrane potential (measured by TMRM) that recovered under ALA treatment was observed. In conclusion our results provide compelling evidence that the alkylating agent chlorambucil dramatically impairs directed cellular migration, which is accompanied by perturbations of cell polarity and mitochondrial membrane potential. ALA treatment was able to reconstitute cell polarity and to stabilize mitochondrial potential resulting in improved cell migration.

  19. Accelerated urinary excretion of methylmercury following administration of its antidote N-acetylcysteine requires Mrp2/Abcc2, the apical multidrug resistance-associated protein.

    PubMed

    Madejczyk, Michael S; Aremu, David A; Simmons-Willis, Tracey A; Clarkson, Thomas W; Ballatori, Nazzareno

    2007-07-01

    N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is a sulfhydryl-containing compound that produces a dramatic acceleration of urinary methylmercury (MeHg) excretion in poisoned mice, but the molecular mechanism for this effect is poorly defined. MeHg readily binds to NAC to form the MeHg-NAC complex, and recent studies indicate that this complex is an excellent substrate for the basolateral organic anion transporter (Oat)-1, Oat1/Slc22a6, thus potentially explaining the uptake from blood into the renal tubular cells. The present study tested the hypothesis that intracellular MeHg is subsequently transported across the apical membrane of the cells into the tubular fluid as a MeHg-NAC complex using the multidrug resistance-associated protein-2 (Mrp2/Abcc2). NAC markedly stimulated urinary [(14)C]MeHg excretion in wild-type Wistar rats, and a second dose of NAC was as effective as the first dose in stimulating MeHg excretion. In contrast with the normal Wistar rats, NAC was much less effective at stimulating urinary MeHg excretion in the Mrp2-deficient (TR-) Wistar rats. The TR- rats excreted only approximately 30% of the MeHg excreted by the wild-type animals. To directly test whether MeHg-NAC is a substrate for Mrp2, studies were carried out in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from livers of TR- and control Wistar rats. Transport of MeHg-NAC was lower in vesicles prepared from TR- rats, whereas transport of MeHg-cysteine was similar in control and TR- rats. These results indicate that Mrp2 is involved in urinary MeHg excretion after NAC administration and suggest that the transported molecule is most likely the MeHg-NAC complex.

  20. Depletion of mucin in mucin-producing human gastrointestinal carcinoma: Results from in vitro and in vivo studies with bromelain and N-acetylcysteine

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Afshin; Masoumi-Moghaddam, Samar; Ehteda, Anahid; Liauw, Winston; Morris, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant expression of membrane-associated and secreted mucins, as evident in epithelial tumors, is known to facilitate tumor growth, progression and metastasis, and to provide protection against adverse growth conditions, chemotherapy and immune surveillance. Emerging evidence provides support for the oncogenic role of MUC1 in gastrointestinal carcinomas and relates its expression to an invasive phenotype. Similarly, mucinous differentiation of gastrointestinal tumors, in particular increased or de novo expression of MUC2 and/or MUC5AC, is widely believed to imply an adverse clinicopathological feature. Through formation of viscous gels, too, MUC2 and MUC5AC significantly contribute to the biology and pathogenesis of mucin-secreting gastrointestinal tumors. Here, we investigated the mucin-depleting effects of bromelain (BR) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), in nine different regimens as single or combination therapy, in in vitro (MKN45, KATOIII and LS174T cell lines) and in vivo (female nude mice bearing intraperitoneal MKN45 and LS174T) settings. The inhibitory effects of the treatment on cancer cell growth and proliferation were also evaluated in vivo. Our results suggest that a combination of BR and NAC with dual effects on growth and mucin products of mucin-expressing tumor cells is a promising candidate towards the development of novel approaches to gastrointestinal malignancies with the involvement of mucin pathology. This capability supports the use of this combination formulation in locoregional approaches for reducing the adverse effects of the aberrantly secreted gel-forming mucins, as in pseudomyxoma peritonei and similar pathologies with ectopic production of mucin. PMID:26436698

  1. Calcium-dependent nitric oxide production is involved in the cytoprotective properties of n-acetylcysteine in glycochenodeoxycholic acid-induced cell death in hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Rubio, Sandra; Linares, Clara I.; Bello, Rosario I.; Gonzalez, Raul; Ferrin, Gustavo; Hidalgo, Ana B.; Munoz-Gomariz, Elisa; Rodriguez, Blanca A.; Barrera, Pilar; Ranchal, Isidora; Duran-Prado, Mario; De la Mata, Manuel; Muntane, Jordi

    2010-01-15

    The intracellular oxidative stress has been involved in bile acid-induced cell death in hepatocytes. Nitric oxide (NO) exerts cytoprotective properties in glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA)-treated hepatocytes. The study evaluated the involvement of Ca{sup 2+} on the regulation of NO synthase (NOS)-3 expression during N-acetylcysteine (NAC) cytoprotection against GCDCA-induced cell death in hepatocytes. The regulation of Ca{sup 2+} pools (EGTA or BAPTA-AM) and NO (L-NAME or NO donor) production was assessed during NAC cytoprotection in GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. The stimulation of Ca{sup 2+} entrance was induced by A23187 in HepG2. Cell death, Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, NOS-1, -2 and -3 expression, AP-1 activation, and NO production were evaluated. GCDCA reduced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration and NOS-3 expression, and enhanced cell death in HepG2. NO donor prevented, and L-NAME enhanced, GCDCA-induced cell death. The reduction of Ca{sup 2+} entry by EGTA, but not its release from intracellular stores by BAPTA-AM, enhanced cell death in GCDCA-treated cells. The stimulation of Ca{sup 2+} entrance by A23187 reduced cell death and enhanced NOS-3 expression in GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. The cytoprotective properties of NAC were related to the recovery of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration, NOS-3 expression and NO production induced by GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. The increase of NO production by Ca{sup 2+}-dependent NOS-3 expression during NAC administration reduces cell death in GCDCA-treated hepatocytes.

  2. Effects of Enzyme Induction and/or Glutathione Depletion on Methimazole-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice and the Protective Role of N-Acetylcysteine

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Reza; Babaei, Hossein; Roshangar, Leila; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Methimazole is the most convenient drug used in the management of hyperthyroid patients. However, associated with its clinical use is hepatotoxicity as a life threatening adverse effect. The exact mechanism of methimazole-induced hepatotoxicity is still far from clear and no protective agent has been developed for this toxicity. Methods: This study attempts to evaluate the hepatotoxicity induced by methimazole at different experimental conditions in a mice model. Methimazole-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in different situations such as enzyme induced and/or glutathione depleted animals. Results: Methimazole (100 mg/kg, i.p) administration caused hepatotoxicity as revealed by increase in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity as well as pathological changes of the liver. Furthermore, a significant reduction in hepatic glutathione content and an elevation in lipid peroxidation were observed in methimazole-treated mice. Combined administration of L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), as a glutathione depletory agent, caused a dramatic change in methimazole-induced hepatotoxicity characterized by hepatic necrosis and a severe elevation of serum ALT activity. Enzyme induction using phenobarbital and/or β-naphtoflavone beforehand, deteriorated methimazole-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. N-acetyl cysteine (300 mg/kg, i.p) administration effectively alleviated hepatotoxic effects of methimazole in both glutathione-depleted and/or enzyme induced animals. Conclusion: The severe hepatotoxic effects of methimazole in glutathione-depleted animals, reveals the crucial role of glutathione as a cellular defense mechanism against methimazole-induced hepatotoxicity. Furthermore, the more hepatotoxic properties of methimazole in enzyme-induced mice, indicates the role of reactive intermediates in the hepatotoxicity induced by this drug. The protective effects of N-acetylcysteine could be attributed to its radical/reactive metabolite scavenging, and/or antioxidant

  3. Protective role of L-ascorbic acid, N-acetylcysteine and apocynin on neomycin-induced hair cell loss in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Yen; Lee, Han-Jung; Liu, Chi-Fang; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Chen, Hwei-Hsien; Chan, Ming-Huan

    2015-03-01

    Hair cells are highly sensitive to environmental insults and other therapeutic drugs. The adverse effects of drugs such as aminoglycosides can cause hair cell death and lead to hearing loss and imbalance. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective activity of L-ascorbic acid, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and apocynin on neomycin-induced hair cell damage in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae at 5 days post fertilization (dpf). Results showed that the loss of hair cells within the neuromasts of the lateral lines after neomycin exposure was evidenced by a significantly lower number of neuromasts labeled with fluorescent dye FM1-43FX observed under a microscope. Co-administration with L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin protected neomycin-induced hair cell loss within the neuromasts. Moreover, these three compounds reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neuromasts exposed to neomycin, indicating that their antioxidant action is involved. In contrast, the neuromasts were labeled with specific fluorescent dye Texas-red conjugated with neomycin to detect neomycin uptake. Interestingly, the uptake of neomycin into hair cells was not influenced by these three antioxidant compounds. These data imply that prevention of hair cell damage against neomycin by L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin might be associated with inhibition of excessive ROS production, but not related to modulating neomycin uptake. Our findings conclude that L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin could be used as therapeutic drugs to protect aminoglycoside-induced listening impairment after further confirmatory studies.

  4. N-Acetylcysteine in Agriculture, a Novel Use for an Old Molecule: Focus on Controlling the Plant–Pathogen Xylella fastidiosa

    PubMed Central

    Muranaka, Lígia S.; Giorgiano, Thais E.; Takita, Marco A.; Forim, Moacir R.; Silva, Luis F. C.; Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D.; Machado, Marcos A.; de Souza, Alessandra A.

    2013-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen bacterium that causes diseases in many different crops. In citrus, it causes Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC). The mechanism of pathogenicity of this bacterium is associated with its capacity to colonize and form a biofilm in the xylem vessels of host plants, and there is not yet any method to directly reduce populations of this pathogen in the field. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), a cysteine analogue used mainly to treat human diseases, on X. fastidiosa in different experimental conditions. Concentrations of NAC over 1 mg/mL reduced bacterial adhesion to glass surfaces, biofilm formation and the amount of exopolysaccharides (EPS). The minimal inhibitory concentration of NAC was 6 mg/mL. NAC was supplied to X. fastidiosa-infected plants in hydroponics, fertigation, and adsorbed to organic fertilizer (NAC-Fertilizer). HPLC analysis indicated that plants absorbed NAC at concentrations of 0.48 and 2.4 mg/mL but not at 6 mg/mL. Sweet orange plants with CVC symptoms treated with NAC (0.48 and 2.4 mg/mL) in hydroponics showed clear symptom remission and reduction in bacterial population, as analyzed by quantitative PCR and bacterial isolation. Experiments using fertigation and NAC-Fertilizer were done to simulate a condition closer to that normally is used in the field. For both, significant symptom remission and a reduced bacterial growth rate were observed. Using NAC-Fertilizer the lag for resurgence of symptoms on leaves after interruption of the treatment increased to around eight months. This is the first report of the anti-bacterial effect of NAC against a phytopathogenic bacterium. The results obtained in this work together with the characteristics of this molecule indicate that the use of NAC in agriculture might be a new and sustainable strategy for controlling plant pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24009716

  5. N-acetylcysteine for the prevention of stricture after circumferential endoscopic submucosal dissection of the esophagus: a randomized trial in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Circumferential endoscopic submucosal dissection (CESD) of the esophagus would allow for both the eradication of Barrett’s esophagus and its related complications, such as advanced neoplasia. However, such procedures generally induce inflammatory repair resulting in a fibrotic stricture. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant that has shown some efficacy against pulmonary and hepatic fibrosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the benefit of NAC in the prevention of esophageal cicatricial stricture after CESD in a swine model. Animals and methods Two groups of six pigs each were subjected to general anesthesia and CESD: after randomization, a first group received an oral NAC treatment regimen of 100 mg/kg/day, initiated one week before the procedure, whereas a second group was followed without any prophylactic treatment. Follow-up endoscopies took place seven, fourteen, twenty-one, and twenty-eight days after CESD. Necropsy, histological assessment of esophageal inflammation, and fibrosis were performed on day 28. Results The median esophageal lumen diameter on day 21 (main judgment criterion) was 4 mm (range 2 to 5) in group 1 and 3 mm (range 1 to 7) in group 2 (P = 0.95). No significant difference was observed between the two groups regarding clinical evaluation (time before onset of clinically significant esophageal obstruction), number of dilations, esophageal inflammation and fibrosis, or oxidative stress damage on immunohistochemistry. Conclusions Despite its antioxidant effect, systemic administration of NAC did not show significant benefit on esophageal fibrosis in our animal model of esophageal wound healing within the experimental conditions of this study. Since the administered doses were relatively high, it seems unlikely that NAC might be a valuable option for the prevention of post-endoscopic esophageal stricture. PMID:22640979

  6. Effects of N-acetylcysteine and pentoxifylline on remote lung injury in a rat model of hind-limb ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Hesaraki, Saeed; Razmara, Foad; Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh; Hajizadeh, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Objective : To investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and pentoxifylline in a model of remote organ injury after hind-limb ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats, the lungs being the remote organ system. Methods : Thirty-five male Wistar rats were assigned to one of five conditions (n = 7/group), as follows: sham operation (control group); hind-limb ischemia, induced by clamping the left femoral artery, for 2 h, followed by 24 h of reperfusion (I/R group); and hind-limb ischemia, as above, followed by intraperitoneal injection (prior to reperfusion) of 150 mg/kg of NAC (I/R+NAC group), 40 mg/kg of pentoxifylline (I/R+PTX group), or both (I/R+NAC+PTX group). At the end of the trial, lung tissues were removed for histological analysis and assessment of oxidative stress. Results : In comparison with the rats in the other groups, those in the I/R group showed lower superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels, together with higher malondialdehyde levels and lung injury scores (p < 0.05 for all). Interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration of the lungs was also markedly greater in the I/R group than in the other groups. In addition, I/R group rats showed various signs of interstitial edema and hemorrhage. In the I/R+NAC, I/R+PTX, and I/R+NAC+PTX groups, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione levels, malondialdehyde levels, and lung injury scores were preserved (p < 0.05 for all). The differences between the administration of NAC or pentoxifylline alone and the administration of the two together were not significant for any of those parameters (p > 0.05 for all). Conclusions : Our results suggest that NAC and pentoxifylline both protect lung tissue from the effects of skeletal muscle I/R. However, their combined use does not appear to increase the level of that protection. PMID:26982035

  7. Evidence for N-acetylcysteine-sensitive nitric oxide storage as dinitrosyl-iron complexes in lipopolysaccharide-treated rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Muller, B; Kleschyov, A L; Stoclet, J C

    1996-11-01

    1. The aim of this study was to assess whether or not vasoactive nitric oxide (NO) stores exist within vascular tissue after lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treatment. 2. Rat thoracic aortic rings (for contraction experiments) or whole thoracic aortae (for electron paramagnetic resonance (e.p.r.) spectroscopy) were incubated for 18 h at 37 degrees C in the absence (control) or in the presence of LPS (10 micrograms ml-1), with or without L-arginine (L-Arg, 1 mM), the substrate of NO synthase (NOS) or N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 1 mM), an inhibitor of NOS. 3. Incubation of rat aortic rings with LPS and L-Arg resulted in a significant decrease of the maximum contractile response to noradrenaline (NA, 3 microM). Addition of L-NAME (3 mM) enhanced contraction towards control values. After precontraction with NA and L-NAME, addition of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, 0.1 to 10 mM) evoked a concentration-dependent relaxation in rings incubated with LPS and L-Arg, but not in control rings, rings incubated with LPS in the absence of L-Arg or rings incubated with LPS in the presence of L-Arg and L-NAME. Removal of the endothelium did not significantly modify the relaxation induced by NAC. Methylene blue (3 microM), an inhibitor of the activation of guanylyl cyclase by NO, completely abolished the relaxing effect of NAC. 4. The presence of protein-bound dinitrosyl non-haem iron complexes (DNIC) was detected by e.p.r. spectroscopy in aortae incubated with LPS and L-Arg, but not in control aortae. Furthermore in LPS-treated aortae, addition of NAC (20 mM) gave rise to the appearance of an e.p.r. signal characteristic of low molecular weight DNIC. 5. These results provide evidence that, within vascular tissue, NO generated from L-Arg by LPS-induced NOS activity can be stored as protein-bound DNIC in non-endothelial cells. Upon addition of NAC, low molecular weight DNIC are released from these storage sites and induce vascular relaxation probably through guanylyl cyclase

  8. Identification of a mechanism by which the methylmercury antidotes N-acetylcysteine and dimercaptopropanesulfonate enhance urinary metal excretion: transport by the renal organic anion transporter-1.

    PubMed

    Koh, Albert S; Simmons-Willis, Tracey A; Pritchard, John B; Grassl, Steven M; Ballatori, Nazzareno

    2002-10-01

    N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) and dimercaptopropanesulfonate (DMPS) are sulfhydryl-containing compounds that produce a dramatic acceleration of urinary methylmercury (MeHg) excretion in poisoned animals, but the molecular mechanism for this effect is unknown. NAC and DMPS are themselves excreted in urine in high concentrations. The present study tested the hypothesis that the complexes formed between MeHg and these anionic chelating agents are transported from blood into proximal tubule cells by the basolateral membrane organic anion transporters (Oat) 1 and Oat3. Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing rat Oat1 showed increased uptake of [(14)C]MeHg when complexed with either NAC or DMPS but not when complexed with L-cysteine, glutathione, dimercaptosuccinate, penicillamine, or gamma-glutamylcysteine. In contrast, none of these MeHg complexes were transported by Oat3-expressing oocytes. The apparent K(m) values for Oat1-mediated transport were 31 +/- 2 microM for MeHg-NAC and 9 +/- 2 microM for MeHg-DMPS, indicating that these are relatively high-affinity substrates. Oat1-mediated uptake of [(14)C]MeHg-NAC and [(14)C]MeHg-DMPS was inhibited by prototypical substrates for Oat1, including p-aminohippurate (PAH), and was trans-stimulated when oocytes were preloaded with 2 mM glutarate but not glutamate. Conversely, efflux of [(3)H]PAH from Oat1-expressing oocytes was trans-stimulated by glutarate, PAH, NAC, DMPS, MeHg-NAC, MeHg-DMPS, and a mercapturic acid, indicating that these are transported solutes. [(3)H]PAH uptake was competitively inhibited by NAC (K(i) of 2.0 +/- 0.3 mM) and DMPS (K(i) of 0.10 +/- 0.02 mM), providing further evidence that these chelating agents are substrates for Oat1. These results indicate that the MeHg antidotes NAC and DMPS and their mercaptide complexes are transported by Oat1 but are comparatively poor substrates for Oat3. This is the first molecular identification of a transport mechanism by which these antidotes may enhance urinary excretion of

  9. Increased Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Activity at Complex I Is Regulated by N-Acetylcysteine in Lymphocytes of Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Edward; Oaks, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients' peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) show mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. To determine the electrochemical bases of mitochondrial dysfunction, we measured electron transport chain (ETC) activity and its regulation by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) that reversed glutathione depletion and improved disease activity in SLE. ETC activity was assessed in PBL of 69 SLE patients and 37 healthy donors. Negatively isolated T cells were examined in 7 SLE patients, 11 healthy donors, and 10 nonlupus inflammatory arthritis (IA) donors. Results: O2 consumption (in nmol/ml/min) by lupus PBL was increased at baseline (SLE: 2.492±0.196, control: 2.137±0.153; p=0.027) and with complex IV substrates (SLE: 7.722±0.419, control: 7.006±0.505; p=0.028). SLE PBL consumed more O2 upon in-chamber T-cell activation (p=0.012). After overnight T-cell stimulation, ETC activity of SLE PBL was 2.27-fold increased through complex I (SLE: 1.606±0.273, control: 0.709±0.169; p=0.001) and, to a lesser extent, through complex IV. Likewise, complex I activity was elevated in negatively isolated “untouched” T cells of SLE patients (1.816±0.180) relative to healthy controls (0.917±0.094; p=0.0003) and IA disease controls studied in parallel (1.057±0.199; p=0.0308). NAC diminished O2 consumption through complex I and H2O2 levels both in SLE and in control PBL. Innovation: O2 consumption was found to be increased in SLE patients' PBL relative to control subjects evaluated in parallel. ETC complex I is identified as the main source of oxidative stress in SLE. Conclusions: Lupus PBL exhibit increased O2 consumption through mitochondrial ETC complex I that is inhibited by NAC, which may have therapeutic efficacy through reducing oxidative stress in SLE. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 56–65. PMID:24673154

  10. Do Intravenous N-Acetylcysteine and Sodium Bicarbonate Prevent High Osmolal Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury? A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Inda-Filho, Antonio Jose; Caixeta, Adriano; Manggini, Marcia; Schor, Nestor

    2014-01-01

    Background N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), singly or combined, inconsistently prevent patients exposed to radiographic contrast media from developing contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). Objective We asked whether intravenous isotonic saline and either NaHCO3 in 5% dextrose or else a high dose of NAC in 5% dextrose prevent CI-AKI in outpatients exposed to high-osmolal iodinated contrast medium more than does saline alone. Methods This completed prospective, parallel, superiority, open-label, controlled, computer-randomized, single-center, Brazilian trial (NCT01612013) hydrated 500 adult outpatients (214 at high risk of developing CI-AKI) exposed to ioxitalamate during elective coronary angiography and ventriculography. From 1 hour before through 6 hours after exposure, 126 patients (group 1) received a high dose of NAC and saline, 125 (group 2) received NaHCO3 and saline, 124 (group 3) received both treatments, and 125 (group 4) received only saline. Results Groups were similar with respect to age, gender, weight, pre-existing renal dysfunction, hypertension, medication, and baseline serum creatinine and serum cystatin C, but diabetes mellitus was significantly less prevalent in group 1. CI-AKI incidence 72 hours after exposure to contrast medium was 51.4% (257/500), measured as serum creatinine > (baseline+0.3 mg/dL) and/or serum cystatin C > (1.1· baseline), and 7.6% (38/500), measured as both serum creatinine and serum cystatin C > (baseline+0.3 mg/dL) or > (1.25 · baseline). CI-AKI incidence measured less sensitively was similar among groups. Measured more sensitively, incidence in group 1 was significantly (p<0.05) lower than in groups 2 and 3 but not group 4; adjustment for confounding by infused volume equalized incidence in groups 1 and 3. Conclusion: We found no evidence that intravenous isotonic saline and either NaHCO3 or else a high dose of NAC prevent CI-AKI in outpatients exposed to high osmolal iodinated contrast

  11. [The application of n-acetylcysteine as an antioxidant and mucolytic in mechanical ventilation in intensive care patients. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study].

    PubMed

    Konrad, F; Schoenberg, M H; Wiedmann, H; Kilian, J; Georgieff, M

    1995-09-01

    Oxygen radicals and oxygen radial mediators are thought to be important components in the development of acute lung injury, sepsis, and multiple organ failure. Injured patients, patients with pulmonary diseases, and multiple trauma patients also showed an elevated lipid peroxidation, indicating increased oxidant stress. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) has been used as an antioxidant in a wide variety of experiments. NAC has been suggested to act by raising concentrations of cysteine, and hence glutathione, and by scavenging of oxidant species [1, 11, 17, 29]. The present study was designed to investigate whether the application of NAC in intubated patients has an effect on concentrations of reduced glutathione in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and on the lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde and conjugated dienes. Because NAC has been widely used as a mucolytic drug for the treatment of lung diseases, the influence on tracheobronchial mucus was studied, too. METHODS. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, a total of 38 long-term ventilated patients of a surgical intensive care unit were investigated. Patients were treated for 5 days with either 3 g NAC/day or placebo. The plasma concentration of reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, and conjugated dienes were measured on admission and on the 3rd and 5th days of treatment [8, 34, 48]. Additionally, the numbers of tracheobronchial suctionings were registered and chest radiographs were evaluated. A fibre-bronchoscopy was performed on admission and on the 3rd day of treatment. The amount and viscidity of tracheobronchial secretions were examined semiquantitatively, and glutathione levels were measured in the unconcentrated BAL. The study was approved by the ethics committee of the University of Ulm. RESULTS. The two groups were comparable with respect to age, sex, APACHE II score and diagnosis (Table 1). We found no significant differences in reduced glutathione levels in the plasma or in

  12. Organic Anion Transporter 5 (Oat5) Urinary Excretion Is a Specific Biomarker of Kidney Injury: Evaluation of Urinary Excretion of Exosomal Oat5 after N-Acetylcysteine Prevention of Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bulacio, Romina Paula; Anzai, Naohiko; Ouchi, Motoshi; Torres, Adriana Mónica

    2015-08-17

    Cisplatin is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent. Its main side-effect is nephrotoxicity. It was reported that the organic anion transporter 5 (Oat5) urinary excretion is elevated, implying renal perturbation, when no modifications of traditional markers of renal damage are still observed in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). It was also demonstrated that Oat5 is excreted in urine by the exosomal pathway. This study was designated to demonstrate the specific response of the urinary excretion of exosomal Oat5 to kidney injury independently of other cisplatin toxic effects, in order to strengthen Oat5 urinary levels as a specific biomarker of AKI. To accomplish that aim, we evaluated if urinary excretion of exosomal Oat5 returns to its basal levels when cisplatin renal damage is prevented by the coadministration of the renoprotective compound N-acetylcysteine. Four days after cisplatin administration, AKI was induced in cisplatin-treated male Wistar rats (Cis group), as it was corroborated by increased urea and creatinine plasma levels. Tubular damage was also observed. In cotreated animals (Cis + NAC group), plasma urea and creatinine concentrations tended to return to their basal values, and tubular damage was improved. Urinary excretion of exosomal Oat5 was notably increased in the Cis group, but when renal injury was ameliorated by N-acetylcysteine coadministration, that increase was undetected. So, in this work we observed that urinary excretion of exosomal Oat5 was only increased if renal insult is produced, demonstrating its specificity as a renal injury biomarker.

  13. Lactate: Friend or Foe.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mederic M; Rajasekaran, Sathish; Thomsen, Timothy W; Peterson, Andrew R

    2016-03-01

    Lactic acid has played an important role in the traditional theory of muscle fatigue and limitation of endurance exercise performance. It has been called a waste product of anaerobic metabolism and has been believed to be responsible for the uncomfortable "burn" of intense exercise and directly responsible for the metabolic acidosis of exercise, leading to decreased muscle contractility and ultimately cessation of exercise. Although this premise has been commonly taught, it is not supported by the scientific literature and has led to a great deal of confusion among the sports medicine and exercise science communities. This review will provide the sports medicine clinician with an understanding of contemporary lactate theories, including lactate's role in energy production, its contributions to metabolic acidosis, and its function as an energy substrate for a variety of tissues. Lactate threshold concepts will also be discussed, including a practical approach to understanding prediction of performance and monitoring of training progress based on these parameters.

  14. Dinosaur lactation?

    PubMed

    Else, Paul L

    2013-02-01

    Lactation is a process associated with mammals, yet a number of birds feed their newly hatched young on secretions analogous to the milk of mammals. These secretions are produced from various sections (crop organ, oesophageal lining and proventriculus) of the upper digestive tract and possess similar levels of fat and protein, as well as added carotenoids, antibodies and, in the case of pigeons and doves, epidermal growth factor. Parental care in avian species has been proposed to originate from dinosaurs. This study examines the possibility that some dinosaurs used secretory feeding to increase the rate of growth of their young, estimated to be similar to that of present day birds and mammals. Dinosaur 'lactation' could also have facilitated immune responses as well as extending parental protection as a result of feeding newly hatched young in nest environments. While the arguments for dinosaur lactation are somewhat generic, a case study for lactation in herbivorous site-nesting dinosaurs is presented. It is proposes that secretory feeding could have been used to bridge the gap between hatching and establishment of the normal diet in some dinosaurs.

  15. Lactate Metabolism is Associated with Mammalian Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Jr; Mahieu, Nathaniel G.; Huang, Xiaojing; Singh, Manmilan; Crawford, Peter A; Johnson, Stephen L.; Gross, Richard W.; Schaefer, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that lactate secreted by fermenting cells can be oxidized or used as a gluconeogenic substrate by other cells and tissues. Within the fermenting cell itself, however, it is generally assumed that lactate is produced to replenish NAD+ and then is secreted. Here we explored the possibility that cytosolic lactate is metabolized by the mitochondria of fermenting mammalian cells. We found that fermenting HeLa and H460 cells utilize exogenous lactate carbon to synthesize a large percentage of their lipids. With high-resolution mass spectrometry, we found that both 13C and 2-2H labels from enriched lactate enter the mitochondria. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) inhibitor oxamate decreased respiration of isolated mitochondria incubated in lactate, but not isolated mitochondria incubated in pyruvate. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that LDHB localizes to the mitochondria. Taken together, our results demonstrate a link between lactate metabolism and the mitochondria of fermenting mammalian cells. PMID:27618187

  16. Overexpression of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 1 and Lactate Dehydrogenase A in Nerve Cells Confers Resistance to Amyloid β and Other Toxins by Decreasing Mitochondrial Respiration and Reactive Oxygen Species Production*

    PubMed Central

    Newington, Jordan T.; Rappon, Tim; Albers, Shawn; Wong, Daisy Y.; Rylett, R. Jane; Cumming, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that nerve cell lines selected for resistance to amyloid β (Aβ) peptide exhibit elevated aerobic glycolysis in part due to increased expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA). Here, we show that overexpression of either PDK1 or LDHA in a rat CNS cell line (B12) confers resistance to Aβ and other neurotoxins. Treatment of Aβ-sensitive cells with various toxins resulted in mitochondrial hyperpolarization, immediately followed by rapid depolarization and cell death, events accompanied by increased production of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). In contrast, cells expressing either PDK1 or LDHA maintained a lower mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased ROS production with or without exposure to toxins. Additionally, PDK1- and LDHA-overexpressing cells exhibited decreased oxygen consumption but maintained levels of ATP under both normal culture conditions and following Aβ treatment. Interestingly, immunoblot analysis of wild type mouse primary cortical neurons treated with Aβ or cortical tissue extracts from 12-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice showed decreased expression of LDHA and PDK1 when compared with controls. Additionally, post-mortem brain extracts from patients with Alzheimer disease exhibited a decrease in PDK1 expression compared with nondemented patients. Collectively, these findings indicate that key Warburg effect enzymes play a central role in mediating neuronal resistance to Αβ or other neurotoxins by decreasing mitochondrial activity and subsequent ROS production. Maintenance of PDK1 or LDHA expression in certain regions of the brain may explain why some individuals tolerate high levels of Aβ deposition without developing Alzheimer disease. PMID:22948140

  17. Lactate production under fully aerobic conditions: the lactate shuttle during rest and exercise.

    PubMed

    Brooks, G A

    1986-12-01

    O2 insufficiency and other factors increase the rate of lactate production. Significant quantities of lactate are produced under postabsorptive as well as postprandial conditions in resting individuals. In humans during postabsorptive rest, 25-50% of the total carbohydrate combusted appears to pass through the lactate pool. During sustained submaximal (in terms of VO2max) exercise, the rates of lactate production (Ri) and oxidation (Rox) are greatly elevated as compared to rest. However, lactate production and oxidation increase relatively less than O2 consumption during moderate-intensity exercise. Because the lactate production index (RiI = Ri/VO2) decreases during submaximal, moderate-intensity exercise compared to rest, it is concluded that skeletal muscle and other sites of lactate production are effectively oxygenated. Alterations in the levels of circulating catecholamines can affect levels and turnover rates of glucose and lactate. In pure red dog gracilis muscle in situ and in the healthy and myocardium in vivo, contraction results in glycolysis and lactate production. This production of lactate occurs despite an apparent abundance of O2. Similarly, glucose catabolism in the human brain results in lactate production. The formation of lactate under fully aerobic conditions of rest and exercise represents an important mechanism by which different tissues share a carbon source (lactate) for oxidation and other processes such as gluconeogenesis. This mechanism has been termed the lactate shuttle.

  18. Cell-cell and intracellular lactate shuttles.

    PubMed

    Brooks, George A

    2009-12-01

    Once thought to be the consequence of oxygen lack in contracting skeletal muscle, the glycolytic product lactate is formed and utilized continuously in diverse cells under fully aerobic conditions. 'Cell-cell' and 'intracellular lactate shuttle' concepts describe the roles of lactate in delivery of oxidative and gluconeogenic substrates as well as in cell signalling. Examples of the cell-cell shuttles include lactate exchanges between between white-glycolytic and red-oxidative fibres within a working muscle bed, and between working skeletal muscle and heart, brain, liver and kidneys. Examples of intracellular lactate shuttles include lactate uptake by mitochondria and pyruvate for lactate exchange in peroxisomes. Lactate for pyruvate exchanges affect cell redox state, and by itself lactate is a ROS generator. In vivo, lactate is a preferred substrate and high blood lactate levels down-regulate the use of glucose and free fatty acids (FFA). As well, lactate binding may affect metabolic regulation, for instance binding to G-protein receptors in adipocytes inhibiting lipolysis, and thus decreasing plasma FFA availability. In vitro lactate accumulation upregulates expression of MCT1 and genes coding for other components of the mitochondrial reticulum in skeletal muscle. The mitochondrial reticulum in muscle and mitochondrial networks in other aerobic tissues function to establish concentration and proton gradients necessary for cells with high mitochondrial densities to oxidize lactate. The presence of lactate shuttles gives rise to the realization that glycolytic and oxidative pathways should be viewed as linked, as opposed to alternative, processes, because lactate, the product of one pathway, is the substrate for the other.

  19. Cell–cell and intracellular lactate shuttles

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, George A

    2009-01-01

    Once thought to be the consequence of oxygen lack in contracting skeletal muscle, the glycolytic product lactate is formed and utilized continuously in diverse cells under fully aerobic conditions. ‘Cell–cell’ and ‘intracellular lactate shuttle’ concepts describe the roles of lactate in delivery of oxidative and gluconeogenic substrates as well as in cell signalling. Examples of the cell–cell shuttles include lactate exchanges between between white-glycolytic and red-oxidative fibres within a working muscle bed, and between working skeletal muscle and heart, brain, liver and kidneys. Examples of intracellular lactate shuttles include lactate uptake by mitochondria and pyruvate for lactate exchange in peroxisomes. Lactate for pyruvate exchanges affect cell redox state, and by itself lactate is a ROS generator. In vivo, lactate is a preferred substrate and high blood lactate levels down-regulate the use of glucose and free fatty acids (FFA). As well, lactate binding may affect metabolic regulation, for instance binding to G-protein receptors in adipocytes inhibiting lipolysis, and thus decreasing plasma FFA availability. In vitro lactate accumulation upregulates expression of MCT1 and genes coding for other components of the mitochondrial reticulum in skeletal muscle. The mitochondrial reticulum in muscle and mitochondrial networks in other aerobic tissues function to establish concentration and proton gradients necessary for cells with high mitochondrial densities to oxidize lactate. The presence of lactate shuttles gives rise to the realization that glycolytic and oxidative pathways should be viewed as linked, as opposed to alternative, processes, because lactate, the product of one pathway, is the substrate for the other. PMID:19805739

  20. Sex-Related Difference in Nitric Oxide Metabolites Levels after Nephroprotectant Supplementation Administration against Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rat Model: The Role of Vitamin E, Erythropoietin, or N-Acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Pezeshki, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background. Nitric oxide (NO) concentration in serum is altered by cisplatin (CP), and NO influences CP-induced nephrotoxicity. The effect of nephroprotectant agent supplementation (vitamin E, human recombinant erythropoietin (EPO), or n-acetylcysteine (NAC)) on the NO metabolites levels after CP administration in the two genders was determined. Methods. Sixty-four adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into 10 groups. Male and female rats in different groups received vehicle (saline), CP (7 mg/kg) alone, CP plus EPO (100 IU/kg), CP plus vitamin E (250 mg/kg), and CP plus NAC (600 mg/kg). CP was administrated as a single dose, but the supplementations were given for a period of 7 days. Results. In male rats, the serum levels of total NO metabolites (NO x ) and nitrite were increased significantly (P < 0.05) by CP. However, vitamin E significantly reduced the serum levels of these metabolites, which was increased by administration of CP (P < 0.05), and such findings were not observed for female rats. The EPO or NAC did not influence NO metabolites neither in male rats nor in female rats. Conclusion. Although vitamin E, EPO, and NAC are reported to be nephroprotectant agents against CP-induced nephrotoxicity, only vitamin E could reduce the level of all NO metabolites only in male rats.

  1. Nephroprotective Effects of N-Acetylcysteine Amide against Contrast-Induced Nephropathy through Upregulating Thioredoxin-1, Inhibiting ASK1/p38MAPK Pathway, and Suppressing Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yiru; Zheng, Junli; Wang, Yiquan; Wang, Guohua; Norgren, Svante; Hei, Tom K.

    2016-01-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a leading cause of hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (AKI) due to apoptosis induced in renal tubular cells. Our previous study demonstrated the novel N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA); the amide form of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) prevented renal tubular cells from contrast-induced apoptosis through inhibiting p38 MAPK pathway in vitro. In the present study, we aimed to compare the efficacies of NACA and NAC in preventing CIN in a well-established rat model and investigate whether thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) act as the potential activator for p38 MAPK. NACA significantly attenuated elevations of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and biomarkers of AKI. At equimolar concentration, NACA was more effective than NAC in reducing histological changes of renal tubular injuries. NACA attenuated activation of p38 MAPK signal, reduced oxidative stress, and diminished apoptosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that contrast exposure resulted in Trx1 downregulation and increased ASK1/p38 MAPK phosphorylation, which could be reversed by NACA and NAC. To our knowledge, this is the first report that Trx1 and ASK1 are involved in CIN. Our study highlights a renal protective role of NACA against CIN through modulating Trx1 and ASK1/p38 MAPK pathway to result in the inhibition of apoptosis among renal cells. PMID:28105252

  2. A rapid and transient ROS generation by cadmium triggers apoptosis via caspase-dependent pathway in HepG2 cells and this is inhibited through N-acetylcysteine-mediated catalase upregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Seon-Hee; Lim, Sung-Chul . E-mail: sclim@chosun.ac.kr

    2006-05-01

    Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in cadmium (Cd)-induced hepatotoxicity, the role of ROS in this pathway remains unclear. Therefore, we attempted to determine the molecular mechanisms relevant to Cd-induced cell death in HepG2 cells. Cd was found to induce apoptosis in the HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, as confirmed by DNA fragmentation analysis and TUNEL staining. In the early stages, both rapid and transient ROS generation triggered apoptosis via Fas activation and subsequent caspase-8-dependent Bid cleavage, as well as by calpain-mediated mitochondrial Bax cleavage. The timing of Bid activation was coincided with the timing at which the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MMP) collapsed as well as the cytochrome c (Cyt c) released into the cytosol. Furthermore, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore inhibitors, such as cyclosporin A (CsA) and bongkrekic acid (BA), did not block Cd-induced ROS generation, MMP collapse and Cyt c release. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) pretreatment resulted in the complete inhibition of the Cd-induced apoptosis via catalase upregulation and subsequent Fas downregulation. NAC treatment also completely blocked the Cd-induced intracellular ROS generation, MMP collapse and Cyt c release, indicating that Cd-induced mitochondrial dysfunction may be regulated indirectly by ROS-mediated signaling pathway. Taken together, a rapid and transient ROS generation by Cd triggers apoptosis via caspase-dependent pathway and subsequent mitochondrial pathway. NAC inhibits Cd-induced apoptosis through the blocking of ROS generation as well as the catalase upregulation.

  3. The effects of n-acetylcysteine and/or deferoxamine on manic-like behavior and brain oxidative damage in mice submitted to the paradoxal sleep deprivation model of mania.

    PubMed

    Arent, Camila O; Valvassori, Samira S; Steckert, Amanda V; Resende, Wilson R; Dal-Pont, Gustavo C; Lopes-Borges, Jéssica; Amboni, Rafaela T; Bianchini, Guilherme; Quevedo, João

    2015-06-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric disorder associated with social and functional impairment. Some studies have strongly suggested the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of BD. Paradoxal sleep deprivation (PSD) in mice has been considered a good animal model of mania because it induces similar manic-like behavior, as well as producing the neurochemical alterations which have been observed in bipolar patients. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the antioxidant agent's n-acetylcysteine (Nac) and/or deferoxamine (DFX) on behavior and the oxidative stress parameters in the brains of mice submitted to the animal model of mania induced by PSD. The mice were treated for a period of seven days with saline solution (SAL), Nac, DFX or Nac plus DFX. The animals were subject to the PSD protocol for 36 h. Locomotor activity was then evaluated using the open-field test, and the oxidative stress parameters were subsequently evaluated in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of mice. The results showed PSD induced hyperactivity in mice, which is considered a manic-like behavior. In addition to this, PSD increased lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage to proteins, as well as causing alterations to antioxidant enzymes in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of mice. The Nac plus DFX adjunctive treatment prevented both the manic-like behavior and oxidative damage induced by PSD. Improving our understanding relating to oxidative damage in biomolecules, and the antioxidant mechanisms presented in the animal models of mania are important in helping to improve our knowledge concerning the pathophysiology and development of new therapeutical treatments for BD.

  4. Achieving Cannabis Cessation - Evaluating N-acetylcysteine Treatment (ACCENT): Design and implementation of a multi-site, randomized controlled study in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Erin A.; Sonne, Susan C.; Winhusen, Theresa; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Ghitza, Udi E.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Matthews, Abigail G.; Sharma, Gaurav; Van Veldhuisen, Paul; Vandrey, Ryan G.; Levin, Frances R.; Weiss, Roger D.; Lindblad, Robert; Allen, Colleen; Mooney, Larissa J.; Haynes, Louise; Brigham, Gregory S.; Sparenborg, Steve; Hasson, Albert L.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent advances in behavioral interventions for cannabis use disorders, effect sizes remain modest, and few individuals achieve long-term abstinence. One strategy to enhance outcomes is the addition of pharmacotherapy to complement behavioral treatment, but to date no efficacious medications targeting cannabis use disorders in adults through large, randomized controlled trials have been identified. The National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) is currently conducting a study to test the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) versus placebo (PBO), added to contingency management, for cannabis cessation in adults (ages 18–50). This study was designed to replicate positive findings from a study in cannabis-dependent adolescents that found greater odds of abstinence with NAC compared to PBO. This paper describes the design and implementation of an ongoing 12-week, intent-to-treat, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with one follow-up visit four weeks post-treatment. Approximately 300 treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent adults will be randomized to NAC or PBO across six study sites in the United States. The primary objective of this 12-week study is to evaluate the efficacy of twice-daily orally-administered NAC (1200 mg) versus matched PBO, added to contingency management, on cannabis abstinence. NAC is among the first medications to demonstrate increased odds of abstinence in a randomized controlled study among cannabis users in any age group. The current study will assess the cannabis cessation efficacy of NAC combined with a behavioral intervention in adults, providing a novel and timely contribution to the evidence base for the treatment of cannabis use disorders. PMID:25179587

  5. High-dose oral N-acetylcysteine fails to improve respiratory health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic bronchitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kara; McEvoy, Charlene E; Naqvi, Sakina; Wendt, Chris; Reilkoff, Ronald A; Kunisaki, Ken M; Wetherbee, Erin E; Nelson, David; Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Niewoehner, Dennis E

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical outcomes are worse in patients with COPD and chronic bronchitis. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is commonly prescribed for such patients but with uncertain clinical benefits. We postulated that oral NAC, at much larger doses than those ordinarily prescribed, would improve clinical outcomes in a subset of patients with COPD and chronic bronchitis. Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether very high-dose NAC would improve respiratory health status in patients with COPD and chronic bronchitis. Methods Patients with COPD and chronic bronchitis were enrolled in a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial. Patients received oral NAC (1,800 mg) or matching placebo twice daily for 8 weeks in addition to their usual respiratory medications. The primary outcome, respiratory health status, was assessed by changes in the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire. The effects of NAC on lung function and circulating markers of oxidative stress and inflammation were also evaluated. Results We terminated the study prematurely because new external information suggested the possibility of a safety issue. Of the planned 130 patients, 51 were randomized and 45 (22 in the placebo arm and 23 in the NAC arm) completed the study. There was no statistically significant difference between changes in the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire total score, comparing NAC to placebo (adjusted mean difference, 0.1 U; 95% CI, −7.8 to 8.18 U; P=0.97). There were also no significant NAC-related improvements in any of the secondary outcomes. Conclusion In this 8-week trial, we were unable to show any clinical benefit from a very high dose of NAC in patients with COPD and chronic bronchitis. PMID:27143871

  6. Inflammation-induced dysfunction of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 at the blood-brain barrier: protection by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Michelle A; Hansen, Kim; Banks, William A

    2012-10-01

    Impairment in two blood-brain barrier (BBB) efflux transporters, p-glycoprotein (Pgp) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) are thought to contribute to the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by resulting in the brain accumulation of their substrate amyloid beta peptide (Aβ). The initial cause of impaired efflux, however, is unknown. We have shown that induction of systemic inflammation by intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide impairs the efflux of Aβ from the brain, suggesting that systemic inflammation could be one such initiator. In this study, we determined whether pre-administration of the antioxidant N-aceytlcysteine (Nac) has a protective effect against LPS-induced Aβ transporter dysfunction. Our findings were that Nac protected against LPS-induced Aβ transport dysfunction at the BBB through an LRP-1-dependent and Pgp-independent mechanism. This was associated with Nac exerting antioxidant effects in the periphery but not the brain, despite an increased rate of entry of Nac into the brain following LPS. We also found that Nac pre-administration resulted in lower blood levels of the cytokines and chemokines interferon-γ, interleukin-10, CCL2, CCL4, and CCL5, but only lowered CCL4 in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Finally, we observed that hippocampal cytokine responses to LPS were decreased compared to cortex. These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism by which antioxidants prevent Aβ accumulation in the brain caused by inflammation, and therefore protect against AD.

  7. Lactate dehydrogenase test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003471.htm Lactate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a protein that helps produce energy ...

  8. Lactation and reproduction*

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, A. M.; Hytten, F. E.; Black, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    The authors review the literature on the effect of lactation on fertility in the absence of contraception and on the effects of contraceptive measures on lactation. They examine data from several countries on the intervals between births and on the return of menstruation and ovulation after childbirth, comparing lactating with nonlactating women. They conclude that lactation is an inefficient contraceptive for the individual, but that in populations sustained lactation is associated with reduced fertility. Possible physiological mechanisms causing lactation amenorrhoea are discussed. Though much of the literature on the effect of contraceptives on lactation is inadequate, there is general agreement that the estrogen component of hormonal preparations has an adverse effect on lactation, but that progestins alone do not. Many questions remain. Is this effect seen in established lactation, or only in the puerperal period? Is it a direct pharmacological effect, or are pill-users the mothers least motivated to maintain breast-feeding? Does a close relationship exist between hormones given and lactation performance? The authors comment on some of the technical deficiencies of previous studies in this field and discuss practical possibilities of, and limitations to, obtaining adequate scientific information in the future. PMID:1084804

  9. Increase in lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme-4 and splenocyte toxicity in methomyl-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Lohitnavy, O; Sinhaseni, P

    1998-09-01

    The toxic effect of methomyl was studied in rats after a single or repeated oral administration. Rats treated with a single dose of methomyl (3, 5, or 7 mg/kg) showed significant increase (P < 0.05) in total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity on day 1. The highest level of LDH activity was observed on day 3 in rats receiving 7 mg/kg of methomyl. The total LDH activity returned to normal on day 7 after dosing. Specific increases in LDH-3 and LDH-4 isoenzyme activities were observed. In rats treated with a single dose of 6 and 8 mg/kg of methomyl, spleen weight and splenocyte viability significantly dropped (P < 0.05) on days 1 and 3, respectively. Splenotoxicity was prevented by pretreatment with 60 mg/kg of N-acetylcysteine. The results suggest that the splenotoxic effect of methomyl is more likely directly related to oxidative cell injury than to cholinesterase inhibition. The significance of cytotoxic effects and the nature of cytotoxicity in relation to reactive oxidative damage deserve further investigation.

  10. Physiology of lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The breast changes in size, shape, and function during puberty, pregnancy, and lactation. The physiology of lactation is reviewed here. The breast is composed of fat and connective tissue that supports a tubuloalveolar structure. During development, anatomic changes involving new lobule formation an...

  11. Hypoxia and exercise provoke both lactate release and lactate oxidation by the human brain.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Morten; Rasmussen, Peter; Bohm, Aske M; Seifert, Thomas; Brassard, Patrice; Zaar, Morten; Homann, Pernille; Evans, Kevin A; Nielsen, Henning B; Secher, Niels H

    2012-07-01

    Lactate is shuttled between organs, as demonstrated in the Cori cycle. Although the brain releases lactate at rest, during physical exercise there is a cerebral uptake of lactate. Here, we evaluated the cerebral lactate uptake and release in hypoxia, during exercise and when the two interventions were combined. We measured cerebral lactate turnover via a tracer dilution method ([1-(13)C]lactate), using arterial to right internal jugular venous differences in 9 healthy individuals (5 males and 4 females), at rest and during 30 min of submaximal exercise in normoxia and hypoxia (F(i)o(2) 10%, arterial oxygen saturation 72 ± 10%, mean ± sd). Whole-body lactate turnover increased 3.5-fold and 9-fold at two workloads in normoxia and 18-fold during exercise in hypoxia. Although middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity increased during exercise in hypoxia, calculated cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension decreased by 13 mmHg (P<0.001). At the same time, cerebral lactate release increased from 0.15 ± 0.1 to 0.8 ± 0.6 mmol min(-1) (P<0.05), corresponding to ∼10% of cerebral energy consumption. Concurrently, cerebral lactate uptake was 1.0 ± 0.9 mmol min(-1) (P<0.05), of which 57 ± 9% was oxidized, demonstrating that lactate oxidation may account for up to ∼33% of the energy substrate used by the brain. These results support the existence of a cell-cell lactate shuttle that may involve neurons and astrocytes.

  12. Regulation of bone mineral loss during lactation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brommage, R.; Deluca, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of varyng dietary calcium and phosphorous levels, vitamin D deficiency, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pregnancy on bone mineral loss during lactation in rats are studied. The experimental procedures and evaluations are described. The femur ash weight of lactating and nonlactating rats are calculated. The data reveals that a decrease in dietary calcium of 0.02 percent results in an increased loss of bone mineral, an increase in calcium to 1.4 percent does not lessen bone mineral loss, and bone mineral loss in vitamin D deficient rats is independent of calcium levels. It is observed that changes in dietary phosphorous level, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pragnancy do not reduce bone mineral loss during lactation. The analysis of various hormones to determine the mechanism that triggers bone mineral loss during lactation is presented.

  13. The energetics of lactation in cooperatively breeding meerkats Suricata suricatta.

    PubMed

    Scantlebury, M; Russell, A F; McIlrath, G M; Speakman, J R; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2002-10-22

    Species may become obligate cooperative breeders when parents are unable to raise their offspring unassisted. We measured the daily energy expenditure of mothers, helpers and offspring during peak lactation in cooperatively breeding meerkats Suricata suricatta using the doubly labelled water technique. Lactating mothers expended more energy per day than allo-lactating subordinate females, non-lactating females or suckling offspring. Metabolizable energy intakes of lactating mothers were calculated from isotope-based estimates of offspring milk energy intake, and were not significantly different from the previously suggested maximal limit for mammals. Allo-lactating females were the only category of animals that lost weight during the period of study, probably because they spent more time babysitting than non-lactating females. Daily energy expenditure (DEE) of lactating mothers increased with litter size but decreased with the number of helpers. Calculations show that for every 10 helpers, even in the absence of allo-lactators, mothers are able to reduce their DEE during peak lactation by an amount equivalent to the energy cost of one pup. These results indicate that helpers have beneficial energetic consequences for lactating mothers in an obligate cooperatively breeding mammal.

  14. Metabolic regulation by lactate.

    PubMed

    Sola-Penna, Mauro

    2008-09-01

    For more than a century, the metabolic role of lactate has intrigued physiologists and biochemists. Yet, for the first half of the last century lactate had been designated as a waste product, and assigned no additional significance besides its controversial role in muscle fatigue. The decline of the lactate hypothesis for the onset of muscle fatigue and the defining of some modulatory properties attributed to lactate have increased the interest on this molecule. The present critical review aimed at evaluating some recent publications concerned with unveiling the regulatory actions of lactate in cellular function. Lactate has been described to modulate enzymes catalytic properties to affect hormonal release and responsiveness, and to control body homeostasis. Moreover, these properties are directly related to the genesis and the sustainability of pathological conditions, such as diabetes and cancer. In the end, we concluded that lactate should not be regarded as simply an anaerobic metabolite, but should be considered as a regulatory molecule that modulates the integration of metabolism.

  15. The primary pathway for lactate oxidation in Desulfovibrio vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Vita, Nicolas; Valette, Odile; Brasseur, Gaël; Lignon, Sabrina; Denis, Yann; Ansaldi, Mireille; Dolla, Alain; Pieulle, Laetitia

    2015-01-01

    The ability to respire sulfate linked to lactate oxidation is a key metabolic signature of the Desulfovibrio genus. Lactate oxidation by these incomplete oxidizers generates reductants through lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), with the latter catalyzing pyruvate conversion into acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA is the source of substrate-level phosphorylation through the production of ATP. Here, we show that these crucial steps are performed by enzymes encoded by a nonacistronic transcriptional unit named now as operon luo (for lactate utilization operon). Using a combination of genetic and biochemical techniques, we assigned a physiological role to the operon genes DVU3027-28 and DVU3032-33. The growth of mutant Δ26-28 was highly disrupted on D-lactate, whereas the growth of mutant Δ32-33 was slower on L-lactate, which could be related to a decrease in the activity of D-lactate or L-lactate oxidase in the corresponding mutants. The DVU3027-28 and DVU3032-33 genes thus encode functional D-LDH and L-LDH enzymes, respectively. Scanning of the genome for lactate utilization revealed several lactate permease and dehydrogenase homologs. However, transcriptional compensation was not observed in any of the mutants except for lactate permease. Although there is a high degree of redundancy for lactate oxidase, it is not functionally efficient in LDH mutants. This result could be related to the identification of several operon enzymes, including LDHs, in the PFOR activity bands, suggesting the occurrence of a lactate-oxidizing supermolecular structure that can optimize the performance of lactate utilization in Desulfovibrio species.

  16. The primary pathway for lactate oxidation in Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Vita, Nicolas; Valette, Odile; Brasseur, Gaël; Lignon, Sabrina; Denis, Yann; Ansaldi, Mireille; Dolla, Alain; Pieulle, Laetitia

    2015-01-01

    The ability to respire sulfate linked to lactate oxidation is a key metabolic signature of the Desulfovibrio genus. Lactate oxidation by these incomplete oxidizers generates reductants through lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), with the latter catalyzing pyruvate conversion into acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA is the source of substrate-level phosphorylation through the production of ATP. Here, we show that these crucial steps are performed by enzymes encoded by a nonacistronic transcriptional unit named now as operon luo (for lactate utilization operon). Using a combination of genetic and biochemical techniques, we assigned a physiological role to the operon genes DVU3027-28 and DVU3032-33. The growth of mutant Δ26-28 was highly disrupted on D-lactate, whereas the growth of mutant Δ32-33 was slower on L-lactate, which could be related to a decrease in the activity of D-lactate or L-lactate oxidase in the corresponding mutants. The DVU3027-28 and DVU3032-33 genes thus encode functional D-LDH and L-LDH enzymes, respectively. Scanning of the genome for lactate utilization revealed several lactate permease and dehydrogenase homologs. However, transcriptional compensation was not observed in any of the mutants except for lactate permease. Although there is a high degree of redundancy for lactate oxidase, it is not functionally efficient in LDH mutants. This result could be related to the identification of several operon enzymes, including LDHs, in the PFOR activity bands, suggesting the occurrence of a lactate-oxidizing supermolecular structure that can optimize the performance of lactate utilization in Desulfovibrio species. PMID:26167158

  17. Hormonal and Behavioral Responses to Stress in Lactating and Non-lactating Female Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Saltzman, Wendy; Abbott, David H.

    2011-01-01

    In several mammalian species, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and behavioral responses to stressors are down-regulated in lactating females, possibly preventing stress-induced disruptions of maternal care. Experimental elevations of HPA axis hormones have been found to inhibit maternal behavior in lactating common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus), raising the question of whether lactating female marmosets also have blunted endogenous responses to stress. Therefore, we compared HPA and behavioral responses to standardized stressors in reproductively experienced female common marmosets that were undergoing ovulatory cycles and that either were (N=7) or were not lactating (N=8). Each marmoset underwent (1) a restraint stressor during the early follicular phase of the ovarian cycle (approximately 5 weeks postpartum for lactating females) and (2) exposure to a simulated hawk predator during the early to mid-luteal phase (approximately 7 weeks postpartum for lactating females). Lactating females were tested in the presence of one of their infants. Blood samples were collected before, during, and immediately after each test for determination of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol concentrations. Both stressors caused significant elevations in plasma ACTH and cortisol levels, and significant decreases in cortisol:ACTH ratios; however, lactating and non-lactating females showed no significant differences in their endocrine or behavioral responses to either stressor, or in baseline ACTH or cortisol levels. These findings suggest that in contrast to several other mammalian species, lactating female marmosets maintain full behavioral and HPA responsiveness to stress, at least in the presence of their infants. PMID:21600906

  18. Contraception in lactating women.

    PubMed

    Díaz, S; Croxatto, H B

    1993-12-01

    Lactating women need contraception after first menses, supplementation or 6 months postpartum, or before, according to personal or programmatic reasons. Non-hormonal methods have no influence on lactation and are the first choice. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) inserted during amenorrhea are safe and show good continuation rates. Progestin-only methods do not affect breast-feeding and should be used after 6 weeks to prevent transference of orally active steroids to the newborn. Progesterone rings and Nestorone implants are effective new methods, that use orally inactive steroids.

  19. Enhanced Responsiveness to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors during Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Jury, Nicholas J.; McCormick, Betsy A.; Horseman, Nelson D.; Benoit, Stephen C.; Gregerson, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    The physiology of mood regulation in the postpartum is poorly understood despite the fact that postpartum depression (PPD) is a common pathology. Serotonergic mechanisms and their dysfunction are widely presumed to be involved, which has led us to investigate whether lactation induces changes in central or peripheral serotonin (5-HT) systems and related affective behaviors. Brain sections from lactating (day 10 postpartum) and age-matched nulliparous (non-pregnant) C57BL/6J mice were processed for 5-HT immunohistochemistry. The total number of 5-HT immunostained cells and optical density were measured. Lactating mice exhibited lower immunoreactive 5-HT and intensity in the dorsal raphe nucleus when compared with nulliparous controls. Serum 5-HT was quantified from lactating and nulliparous mice using radioimmunoassay. Serum 5-HT concentrations were higher in lactating mice than in nulliparous controls. Affective behavior was assessed in lactating and non-lactating females ten days postpartum, as well as in nulliparous controls using the forced swim test (FST) and marble burying task (MBT). Animals were treated for the preceding five days with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, citalopram, 5mg/kg/day) or vehicle. Lactating mice exhibited a lower baseline immobility time during the FST and buried fewer marbles during the MBT as compared to nulliparous controls. Citalopram treatment changed these behaviors in lactating mice with further reductions in immobility during the FST and decreased marble burying. In contrast, the same regimen of citalopram treatment had no effect on these behaviors in either non-lactating postpartum or nulliparous females. Our findings demonstrate changes in both central and peripheral 5-HT systems associated with lactation, independent of pregnancy. They also demonstrate a significant interaction of lactation and responsiveness to SSRI treatment, which has important implications in the treatment of PPD. Although recent evidence

  20. Enhanced responsiveness to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during lactation.

    PubMed

    Jury, Nicholas J; McCormick, Betsy A; Horseman, Nelson D; Benoit, Stephen C; Gregerson, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    The physiology of mood regulation in the postpartum is poorly understood despite the fact that postpartum depression (PPD) is a common pathology. Serotonergic mechanisms and their dysfunction are widely presumed to be involved, which has led us to investigate whether lactation induces changes in central or peripheral serotonin (5-HT) systems and related affective behaviors. Brain sections from lactating (day 10 postpartum) and age-matched nulliparous (non-pregnant) C57BL/6J mice were processed for 5-HT immunohistochemistry. The total number of 5-HT immunostained cells and optical density were measured. Lactating mice exhibited lower immunoreactive 5-HT and intensity in the dorsal raphe nucleus when compared with nulliparous controls. Serum 5-HT was quantified from lactating and nulliparous mice using radioimmunoassay. Serum 5-HT concentrations were higher in lactating mice than in nulliparous controls. Affective behavior was assessed in lactating and non-lactating females ten days postpartum, as well as in nulliparous controls using the forced swim test (FST) and marble burying task (MBT). Animals were treated for the preceding five days with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, citalopram, 5mg/kg/day) or vehicle. Lactating mice exhibited a lower baseline immobility time during the FST and buried fewer marbles during the MBT as compared to nulliparous controls. Citalopram treatment changed these behaviors in lactating mice with further reductions in immobility during the FST and decreased marble burying. In contrast, the same regimen of citalopram treatment had no effect on these behaviors in either non-lactating postpartum or nulliparous females. Our findings demonstrate changes in both central and peripheral 5-HT systems associated with lactation, independent of pregnancy. They also demonstrate a significant interaction of lactation and responsiveness to SSRI treatment, which has important implications in the treatment of PPD. Although recent evidence

  1. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 184.1311 Section 184.1311 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Ferrous lactate (iron (II) lactate.... It is prepared by reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 184.1311 Section 184.1311 Food... GRAS § 184.1311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Ferrous lactate (iron (II) lactate, C6H10FeO6, CAS Reg. No. 5905... reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid with...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 184.1311 Section 184.1311 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Ferrous lactate (iron (II) lactate.... It is prepared by reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 184.1311 Section 184.1311 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Ferrous lactate (iron (II) lactate.... It is prepared by reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction...

  5. Baicalein Decreases Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Damage to NG108-15 Cells via Upregulation of Nrf2.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chao-Hung; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Liu, Pei-Shan; Kuo, Jung-Kuei; Chueh, Sheau-Huei

    2015-08-01

    Baicalein is a flavonoid inhibitor of 12-lipoxygenase. Here, we investigated its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced damage to NG108-15 cells. Hydrogen peroxide activated the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, decreased Nrf2 expression, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, reduced viability, and increased cell death after 2-24 h treatment of NG108-15 cells. Co-treatment with hydrogen peroxide and baicalein completely suppressed the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by upregulating Nrf2 expression and reducing ROS stress and partially inhibited the effects on cell viability and cell death. Silencing of 12-lipoxygenase had a similar protective effect to baicalein on hydrogen peroxide-induced damage by blocking the hydrogen peroxide-induced decrease in Nrf2 expression and increase in ROS levels. Neither protective effect was altered by addition of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, the product of 12-lipoxygenase, suggesting that hydrogen peroxide induced damage via 12-lipoxygenase by another, as yet unknown, mechanism, rather than activating it. Co-treatment of cells with hydrogen peroxide and N-acetylcysteine or the Nrf2 inducer sulforaphane reduced hydrogen peroxide-induced damage in a similar fashion to baicalein, while the Nrf2 inhibitor retinoic acid blocked the protective effect of baicalein. Silencing Nrf2 also inhibited the protective effects of baicalein, sulforaphane, and N-acetylcysteine and resulted in high ROS levels, suggesting ROS elimination was mediated by Nrf2. Taken together our results suggest that baicalein protects cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by upregulating Nrf2 and inhibiting 12-lipoxygenase to block the increase in ROS levels. Hydrogen peroxide also activates a second mitochondrial dysfunction independent death pathway which is resistant to baicalein.

  6. Lactate in bitches with pyometra.

    PubMed

    Volpato, R; Rodello, L; Abibe, R B; Lopes, M D

    2012-12-01

    Lactate is a compound produced by the anaerobic metabolism of glucose, and hyperlactataemia occurs when the rate of production of lactate exceeds the rate of elimination. This occurs in situations of hypoxia and tissue hypoperfusion. Lactate has been considered a useful prognostic indicator in critically ill patients. Pyometra is a disease of adult female dogs characterized by inflammation of the uterus with an accumulation of exudate, which occurs during the luteal phase. It is one of the most common diseases that occur in the genital tract of female dogs. A total of 31 dogs were diagnosed with pyometra. The diagnosis was confirmed at ultrasonography. Of the 31 dogs, 25 females had open cervix pyometra and six had closed cervix pyometra. Plasma lactate concentrations were determined by an enzymatic colorimetric method. The average concentration (±SD) of plasma lactate in all 31 bitches with pyometra was 3.55 ± 0.46 mm. Healthy dogs had plasma lactate concentrations between 0.3 and 2.5 mm (mean ± SD). Concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 2.9 mm when plasma lactate was measured with a portable device and 0.4-2.6 mm with the blood gas analyser. Even though plasma lactate values vary between several studies and equipment used to measure concentrations, our results for dogs with pyometra are higher indicating hyperlactataemia (Thorneloe et al. , Can Vet J 48, 283-288). Plasma lactate in dogs with closed cervix pyometra was mean ± SD and in dogs with open cervix pyometra, it was mean ± SD. The plasma lactate concentration in dogs with pyometra was higher than in healthy bitches, and there was no influence of patency of the cervix on the concentration of plasma lactate concentrations. Plasma lactate concentrations were similar for animals with open and closed pyometra (3.54 ± 0.52 to 3.64 ± 1.03 mm).

  7. Incompatibility of silver nanoparticles with lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay for cellular viability test is attributed to protein binding and reactive oxygen species generation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seok-Jeong; Kim, Hwa; Liu, Yingqiu; Han, Hyo-Kyung; Kwon, Kyenghee; Chang, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Kwangsik; Kim, Younghun; Shim, Kyuhwan; An, Seong Soo A; Lee, Moo-Yeol

    2014-03-21

    A growing number of studies report that conventional cytotoxicity assays are incompatible with certain nanoparticles (NPs) due to artifacts caused by the distinctive characteristics of NPs. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assays have inadequately detected cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), leading to research into the underlying mechanism. When ECV304 endothelial-like umbilical cells were treated with citrate-capped AgNPs (cAgNPs) or bare AgNPs (bAgNPs), the plasma membrane was disrupted, but the LDH leakage assay failed to detect cytotoxicity, indicating interference with the assay by AgNPs. Both cAgNPs and bAgNPs inactivated LDH directly when treated to cell lysate as expected. AgNPs adsorbed LDH and thus LDH, together with AgNPs, was removed from assay reactants during sample preparation, with a resultant underestimation of LDH leakage from cells. cAgNPs, but not bAgNPs, generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), which were successfully scavenged by N-acetylcysteine or ascorbic acid. LDH inhibition by cAgNPs could be restored partially by simultaneous treatment with those antioxidants, suggesting the contribution of ROS to LDH inactivation. Additionally, the composition of the protein corona surrounding AgNPs was identified employing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. In sum, the LDH leakage assay, a conventional cell viability test method, should be employed with caution when assessing cytotoxicity of AgNPs.

  8. Lactate modulates the activity of primary cortical neurons through a receptor-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Bozzo, Luigi; Puyal, Julien; Chatton, Jean-Yves

    2013-01-01

    Lactate is increasingly described as an energy substrate of the brain. Beside this still debated metabolic role, lactate may have other effects on brain cells. Here, we describe lactate as a neuromodulator, able to influence the activity of cortical neurons. Neuronal excitability of mouse primary neurons was monitored by calcium imaging. When applied in conjunction with glucose, lactate induced a decrease in the spontaneous calcium spiking frequency of neurons. The effect was reversible and concentration dependent (IC50 ∼4.2 mM). To test whether lactate effects are dependent on energy metabolism, we applied the closely related substrate pyruvate (5 mM) or switched to different glucose concentrations (0.5 or 10 mM). None of these conditions reproduced the effect of lactate. Recently, a Gi protein-coupled receptor for lactate called HCA1 has been introduced. To test if this receptor is implicated in the observed lactate sensitivity, we incubated cells with pertussis toxin (PTX) an inhibitor of Gi-protein. PTX prevented the decrease of neuronal activity by L-lactate. Moreover 3,5-dyhydroxybenzoic acid, a specific agonist of the HCA1 receptor, mimicked the action of lactate. This study indicates that lactate operates a negative feedback on neuronal activity by a receptor-mediated mechanism, independent from its intracellular metabolism.

  9. Lactate Modulates the Activity of Primary Cortical Neurons through a Receptor-Mediated Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bozzo, Luigi; Puyal, Julien; Chatton, Jean-Yves

    2013-01-01

    Lactate is increasingly described as an energy substrate of the brain. Beside this still debated metabolic role, lactate may have other effects on brain cells. Here, we describe lactate as a neuromodulator, able to influence the activity of cortical neurons. Neuronal excitability of mouse primary neurons was monitored by calcium imaging. When applied in conjunction with glucose, lactate induced a decrease in the spontaneous calcium spiking frequency of neurons. The effect was reversible and concentration dependent (IC50 ∼4.2 mM). To test whether lactate effects are dependent on energy metabolism, we applied the closely related substrate pyruvate (5 mM) or switched to different glucose concentrations (0.5 or 10 mM). None of these conditions reproduced the effect of lactate. Recently, a Gi protein-coupled receptor for lactate called HCA1 has been introduced. To test if this receptor is implicated in the observed lactate sensitivity, we incubated cells with pertussis toxin (PTX) an inhibitor of Gi-protein. PTX prevented the decrease of neuronal activity by L-lactate. Moreover 3,5-dyhydroxybenzoic acid, a specific agonist of the HCA1 receptor, mimicked the action of lactate. This study indicates that lactate operates a negative feedback on neuronal activity by a receptor-mediated mechanism, independent from its intracellular metabolism. PMID:23951229

  10. Contraceptive implants and lactation.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Soledad

    2002-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of four contraceptive implants, plant, Implanon, Nestorone and Elcometrine, have been evaluated during use in the postpartum period by lactating women. These implants provide highly effective contraceptive protection with no negative effect on breastfeeding or infant growth and development. Breastfeeding women initiating Norplant use in the second postpartum month experience significantly longer periods of amenorrhea than do untreated women or intrauterine device users. After weaning, the bleeding pattern is similar to that observed in non-nursing women. Norplant use does not affect bone turnover and density during lactation. Norplant and Implanon release orally active progestins while Nestorone and Elcometrine implants release an orally inactive progestin, which represents an advantage since the infant should be free of steroidal effects. The infant's daily intake of steroids (estimated from concentrations in maternal milk during the first month of use) range from 90 to 100 ng of levonorgestrel (Norplant), 75-120 ng of etonogestrel (Implanon), and 50 ng and 110 ng of Nestorone (Nestorone and Elcometrine implants, respectively). Nursing women needing contraception may use progestin-only implants when nonhormonal methods are not available or acceptable. Implants that deliver orally active steroids should only be used after 6 weeks postpartum to avoid transferring of steroids to the newborn.

  11. Changes in mRNA expression of arcuate nucleus appetite-regulating peptides during lactation in rats.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Nakahara, Keiko; Maruyama, Keisuke; Okame, Rieko; Ensho, Takuya; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Murakami, Noboru

    2014-04-01

    The contribution of hypothalamic appetite-regulating peptides to further hyperphagia accompanying the course of lactation in rats was investigated by using PCR array and real-time PCR. Furthermore, changes in the mRNA expression for appetite-regulating peptides in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) were analyzed at all stages of pregnancy and lactation, and also after weaning. Food intake was significantly higher during pregnancy, lactation, and after weaning than during non-lactation periods. During lactation, ARC expression of mRNAs for agouti-related protein (AgRP) and peptide YY was increased, whereas that of mRNAs for proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cholecystokinin (CCK) was decreased, in comparison with non-lactation periods. The increase in AgRP mRNA expression during lactation was especially marked. The plasma level of leptin was significantly decreased during the course of lactation, whereas that of acyl-ghrelin was unchanged. In addition, food intake was negatively correlated with the plasma leptin level during lactation. This study has clarified synchronous changes in the expression of many appetite-regulating peptides in ARC of rats during lactation. Our results suggest that hyperphagia during lactation in rats is caused by decreases in POMC and CCK expression and increases in AgRP expression in ARC, the latter being most notable. Together with the decrease in the blood leptin level, such changes in mRNA expression may explain the further hyperphagia accompanying the course of lactation.

  12. Lactate is an alternative energy fuel to glucose in neurons under anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Akifumi; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Imamoto, Natsumi; Momosaki, Sotaro; Hosoi, Rie; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Inoue, Osamu

    2009-11-25

    The uptake of [14C]lactate was measured in the brains of mice anesthetized with pentobarbital or chloral hydrate. The results showed significant increase of the [14C]lactate uptake in the brain under both anesthesia. Despite energy metabolism in the brain being suppressed by both pentobarbital and chloral hydrate, the [14C]lactate uptake was unexpectedly increased under anesthesia. [14C]Lactate uptake in rat brain injured by infusion of quinolic acid was significantly decreased, and the reduction of [14C]lactate uptake was parallel to neural cell death, suggesting that exogenous lactate might be selectively taken up by neuron. These results indicated that lactate rather than glucose might serve as an energy substrate for neuron in intact brain under anesthesia.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prepared by reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid with iron filings, reaction of ferrous chloride with sodium lactate, or reaction of ferrous...

  14. Appetite - decreased

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer Ovarian cancer Stomach cancer Pancreatic cancer Other causes of decreased appetite include: Chronic liver disease Chronic kidney disease Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Dementia Heart failure ...

  15. Lactate and H+ uptake in inactive muscles during intense exercise in man.

    PubMed Central

    Bangsbo, J; Aagaard, T; Olsen, M; Kiens, B; Turcotte, L P; Richter, E A

    1995-01-01

    1. The present study examined how uptake of lactate and H+ in resting muscle is affected by blood flow, arterial lactate concentration and muscle metabolism. 2. Six males subjects performed intermittent arm exercise in two separate 32 min periods (Part I and Part II) and in one subsequent 20 min period in which one leg knee-extensor exercise was also performed (Part III). The exercise was performed at various intensities in order to obtain different steady-state arterial blood lactate concentrations. In the inactive leg, femoral venous blood flow (draining about 7.7 kg of muscles) was measured and femoral arterial and venous blood was collected frequently. Biopsies were taken from m. vastus lateralis of the inactive leg at rest and 10 and 30 min into both Part I and Part II as well as 10 min into recovery from Part II. 3. The arterial plasma lactate concentrations were 7, 9 and 16 mmol l-1 after 10 min of Parts I, II and III, respectively, and the corresponding arterial-venous difference (a-vdiff) for lactate in the resting leg was 1.3, 1.4 and 2.0 mmol l-1. The muscle lactate concentration was 2.8 mmol (kg wet wt)-1 after 10 min of Part I and remained constant throughout the experiment. During Parts I and II, a-vdiff lactate decreased although the arterial lactate concentration and plasma-muscle lactate gradient were unaltered throughout each period. Thus, membrane transport of lactate decreased during each period. 4. Blood flow in the inactive leg was about 2-fold higher during arm exercise compared to the rest periods, resulting in a 2-fold higher lactate uptake. Thus, lactate uptake by inactive muscles was closely related to blood flow. 5. Throughout the experiment a-vdiff for actual base excess and for lactate were of similar magnitude. Thus, in inactive muscles lactate uptake appears to be coupled to the transport of H+. PMID:8568658

  16. Lactate: Brain Fuel in Human Traumatic Brain Injury: A Comparison with Normal Healthy Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Neil A.; Horning, Michael A.; McArthur, David L.; Hovda, David A.; Vespa, Paul; Brooks, George A.

    2015-01-01

    injured brain. Undiminished cerebral lactate fractional extraction and uptake suggest that arterial lactate supplementation may be used to compensate for decreased CMRgluc following TBI. PMID:25594628

  17. Lactate and lactate clearance in acute cardiac care patients

    PubMed Central

    Lazzeri, Chiara; Picariello, Claudio; Dini, Carlotta Sorini; Gensini, Gian Franco; Valente, Serafina

    2012-01-01

    Hyperlactataemia is commonly used as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in intensive care settings. Recent studies documented that serial lactate measurements over time (or lactate clearance), may be clinically more reliable than lactate absolute value for risk stratification in different pathological conditions. While the negative prognostic role of hyperlactataemia in several critical ill diseases (such as sepsis and trauma) is well established, data in patients with acute cardiac conditions (i.e. acute coronary syndromes) are scarce and controversial. The present paper provides an overview of the current available evidence on the clinical role of lactic acid levels and lactate clearance in acute cardiac settings (acute coronary syndromes, cardiogenic shock, cardiac surgery), focusing on its prognostic role. PMID:24062898

  18. Changes in Llama (Lama glama) milk composition during lactation.

    PubMed

    Riek, A; Gerken, M

    2006-09-01

    Milk samples were collected weekly from 10 llamas during the first 27 wk after parturition under controlled stable conditions. Mean values for the concentrations of the major milk components across the lactation period were 4.70% fat, 4.23% protein, 5.93% lactose, 15.61% dry matter, and 22.62 mg/dL of milk urea N. All constituents were affected by the stage of lactation. There was an increase in fat to protein ratio as protein concentration declined and fat concentration increased. Fat, protein, and lactose concentrations changed during the transition from colostrum to milk. In the first month postpartum, fat concentration remained constant, protein decreased, and lactose increased. Starting with wk 5 postpartum, fat and protein increased and lactose decreased until the end of lactation. Among the major constituents fat had the highest variation. The mean gross energy concentration of milk was 3.88 kJ/g and showed a similar course as protein. Fat contributed 48.0%, protein 26.3%, and lactose 25.7% to the gross energy in the milk. Milk urea N values were higher than those found in ruminants and increased with stage of lactation, whereas the pH decreased. The analyzed milk components were not affected by the lactation number of the animal, except milk urea N. Somatic cell counts indicated the absence of mastitis and revealed that the average somatic cell count of uninfected llamas is lower than in animals usually used for milk production. The 2 algebraic models fitted by a nonlinear regression procedure to the data resulted in suitable prediction curves for the constituents (R2 = 0.76 to 0.94). The courses of major milk constituents in llamas during lactation are similar to those in domesticated ruminants, although different in their values. The established curves facilitate the composition of milk replacers at different stages of lactation for nursing llamas whose dams died or are agalactic.

  19. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  20. Hematological and biochemical findings in pregnant, postfoaling, and lactating jennies.

    PubMed

    Bonelli, F; Rota, A; Corazza, M; Serio, D; Sgorbini, M

    2016-04-15

    The aims of this study were to (1) verify if significant changes occur in hematological and biochemical parameters in jennies during the last 2 months of pregnancy and the first 2 months of lactation, and (2) determine any differences with mares. Hematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated in jennies every 15 days during late pregnancy, parturition, and early lactation. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, analysis of variance for repeated measurements and Tukey's multiple comparison test as post hoc were applied. The significance level was set at P < 0.05. Statistical analysis showed differences related to time for Red Blood Cells (RBC) count and Hematocrit (HCT), White Blood Cells (WBC) count, platelet count (PLT), total proteins, blood urea, triglycerides and total cholesterol concentrations, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatine-phosphokinase activities, sodium (Na) and potassium (K). RBC and HCT were higher in late pregnancy than at foaling and during lactation. The relative anemia might be due to increased water ingestion because of fluid losses. The WBC count was higher at foaling than during late pregnancy and lactation. This could be related to the release of cortisol and catecholamine during delivery. The PLT trend showed lower values from delivery to the first 2 months of lactation compared to late gestation. Blood urea increased near parturition, and then remained constant during delivery and lactation, which might be due to the high energy demand at the beginning of lactation. Triglycerides and total cholesterol showed a decrease from delivery through the lactation period. Thus, jennies seem to have a similar metabolism of fats to ponies and draft horse mares, characterized by a greater fat content and mobilization than light breed horses. Aspartate aminotransferase activity decreased at parturition and early lactation, probably because of a predominance of anabolic over catabolic processes during pregnancy. Gamma

  1. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.165 Ferrous lactate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferrous lactate is the ferrous lactate defined in § 184.1311 of this chapter. (b) Specifications. Ferrous...

  2. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.165 Ferrous lactate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferrous lactate is the ferrous lactate defined in § 184.1311 of this chapter. (b) Specifications. Ferrous...

  3. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.165 Ferrous lactate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferrous lactate is the ferrous lactate defined in § 184.1311 of this chapter. (b) Specifications. Ferrous...

  4. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.165 Ferrous lactate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferrous lactate is the ferrous lactate defined in § 184.1311 of this chapter. (b) Specifications. Ferrous...

  5. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.165 Ferrous lactate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferrous lactate is the ferrous lactate defined in § 184.1311 of this chapter. (b) Specifications. Ferrous...

  6. Low-Protein Diet during Lactation and Maternal Metabolism in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moretto, Vera L.; Ballen, Marcia O.; Gonçalves, Talita S. S.; Kawashita, Nair H.; Stoppiglia, Luiz F.; Veloso, Roberto V.; Latorraca, Márcia Q.; Martins, Maria Salete F.; Gomes-da-Silva, Maria Helena G.

    2011-01-01

    Some metabolic alterations were evaluated in Wistar rats which received control or low-protein (17%; 6%) diets, from the pregnancy until the end of lactation: control non-lactating (CNL), lactating (CL), low-protein non-lactating (LPNL) and lactating (LPL) groups. Despite the increased food intake by LPL dams, both LP groups reduced protein intake and final body mass was lower in LPL. Higher serum glucose occurred in both LP groups. Lactation induced lower insulin and glucagon levels, but these were reduced by LP diet. Prolactin levels rose in lactating, but were impaired in LPL, followed by losses of mammary gland (MAG) mass and, a fall in serum leptin in lactating dams. Lipid content also reduced in MAG and gonadal white adipose tissue of lactating and, in LPL, contributed to a decreased daily milk production, and consequent impairment of body mass gain by LPL pups. Liver mass, lipid content and ATP-citrate enzyme activity were increased by lactation, but malic enzyme and lipid: glycogen ratio elevated only in LPL. Conclusion. LP diet reduced the development of MAG and prolactin secretion which compromised milk production and pups growth. Moreover, this diet enhanced the store of lipid to glycogen ratio and suggests a higher risk of fatty liver development. PMID:21637364

  7. Two Levels of Caffeine Ingestion on Blood Lactate and Free Fatty Acid Responses during Incremental Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, Lars

    1987-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine the effects of two doses of caffeine on the lactate threshold and also to examine the effects on substrate utilization during incremental cycle ergometry. Results found that caffeine increased heart rates and free fatty acid levels for all workloads and decreased blood lactate levels at some of the workloads.…

  8. Neuroenergetic Response to Prolonged Cerebral Glucose Depletion after Severe Brain Injury and the Role of Lactate.

    PubMed

    Patet, Camille; Quintard, Hervé; Suys, Tamarah; Bloch, Jocelyne; Daniel, Roy T; Pellerin, Luc; Magistretti, Pierre J; Oddo, Mauro

    2015-10-15

    Lactate may represent a supplemental fuel for the brain. We examined cerebral lactate metabolism during prolonged brain glucose depletion (GD) in acute brain injury (ABI) patients monitored with cerebral microdialysis (CMD). Sixty episodes of GD (defined as spontaneous decreases of CMD glucose from normal to low [<1.0 mmol/L] for at least 2 h) were identified among 26 patients. During GD, we found a significant increase of CMD lactate (from 4 ± 2.3 to 5.4 ± 2.9 mmol/L), pyruvate (126.9 ± 65.1 to 172.3 ± 74.1 μmol/L), and lactate/pyruvate ratio (LPR; 27 ± 6 to 35 ± 9; all, p < 0.005), while brain oxygen and blood lactate remained normal. Dynamics of lactate and glucose supply during GD were further studied by analyzing the relationships between blood and CMD samples. There was a strong correlation between blood and brain lactate when LPR was normal (r = 0.56; p < 0.0001), while an inverse correlation (r = -0.11; p = 0.04) was observed at elevated LPR >25. The correlation between blood and brain glucose also decreased from r = 0.62 to r = 0.45. These findings in ABI patients suggest increased cerebral lactate delivery in the absence of brain hypoxia when glucose availability is limited and support the concept that lactate acts as alternative fuel.

  9. Nutritional aspects of human lactation*

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, A. M.; Black, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the incidence and duration of breast-feeding in various countries, the volume and composition of breast milk, the health and nutrition of breast-fed babies as judged by growth and morbidity, maternal nutritional requirements during lactation, and the effect of prolonged lactation on maternal health. It appears that lactation can be as well sustained by impoverished as by affluent mothers, and that even in communities where malnutrition is common the average growth of infants is satisfactory up to the age of about 3 months on a diet of breast milk alone. Breast milk appears to have specific anti-infective properties, but prolonged breast-feeding will not prevent infections among older infants reared in a poor environment. The authors believe that breast-feeding is the best form of nutrition for the young infant and deplore its decline in modern industrial societies. The recommendations of various FAO/WHO Expert Groups on nutritional intakes during lactation are summarized. The need for an increased daily energy intake of 4.2 MJ (1 000 kcal) is questioned, and an increase of 2.5 MJ (600 kcal) is suggested. Data on the effect of prolonged lactation on the health of the mother are scanty; body weight appears to be maintained even among poorly nourished mothers. The authors stress the need for well-planned and technically adequate studies of the material and psychological factors involved in breast feeding. PMID:816479

  10. Breast cancer and lactation history in Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Romieu, I; Hernández-Avila, M; Lazcano, E; Lopez, L; Romero-Jaime, R

    1996-03-15

    The authors conducted a case-control study in Mexico City between September 1990 and December 1992 to determine whether a dose-response relation could be observed between duration of lactation and the risk of breast cancer. Cases, women aged 20-75 years, were identified through six hospitals in Mexico City (n = 349) and were interviewed to obtain data on risk factors for breast cancer, including a detailed history of lactation. Controls (n = 1,005) were selected from the general population using the Mexican national sampling frame. Parous women who had ever lactated had a reduction in breast cancer risk (age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25-0.62). A small decreasing trend of breast cancer risk in relation to duration of lactation (p < 0.001) was observed. Compared with parous women who had never breast-fed, women who had breast-fed for 12-24 months had an age-adjusted odds ratio of 0.47 (95% CI 0.27-0.83). A stronger protective effect was observed with lactation duration for the first live birth among pre- and postmenopausal women (for 4-12 months of lactation, OR = 0.56 (95 percent CI 0.32-0.96) and OR = 0.48 (95 percent CI 0.29-0.81) in pre- and postmenopausal women, respectively). Adjusting for potentially confounding factors modified these results only slightly. The declining trend in fertility and lactation among Mexican women could lead to a major epidemic of breast cancer such as that observed in Western countries.

  11. Targeting lactate metabolism for cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Joanne R.; Cleveland, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Lactate, once considered a waste product of glycolysis, has emerged as a critical regulator of cancer development, maintenance, and metastasis. Indeed, tumor lactate levels correlate with increased metastasis, tumor recurrence, and poor outcome. Lactate mediates cancer cell intrinsic effects on metabolism and has additional non–tumor cell autonomous effects that drive tumorigenesis. Tumor cells can metabolize lactate as an energy source and shuttle lactate to neighboring cancer cells, adjacent stroma, and vascular endothelial cells, which induces metabolic reprogramming. Lactate also plays roles in promoting tumor inflammation and in functioning as a signaling molecule that stimulates tumor angiogenesis. Here we review the mechanisms of lactate production and transport and highlight emerging evidence indicating that targeting lactate metabolism is a promising approach for cancer therapeutics. PMID:23999443

  12. [Effect of therapeutic hyperventilation on blood lactate concentration].

    PubMed

    Brandt, L; Filos, K; Link, J

    1983-10-01

    The increase of blood lactate is a well known side effect of active and passive hyperventilation. In 22 patients who underwent controlled respiration after head injury or elective neurosurgical operations, we measured lactate, pyruvate, pH, and bicarbonate in central venous blood and investigated their interference by hypocapnia. The level of ventilation was between pCO2 equal 25 mmHg and pCO2 equal 45 mmHg, measured in the central venous blood. With decreasing pCO2, pH showed an increasing (from 7.40 +/- 0.015 to 7.50 +/- 0.068) and bicarbonate a decreasing tendency (from 25.46 +/- 1.32 mMol/l to 23.28 +/- 3.76 mMol/l). Lactate and pyruvate remained within the normal range down to a central venous pCO2 of 31 mmHg. But then with increasing hypocapnia both increased significantly (lactate 2.001 +/- 1.08 mMol/l, 0.098 +/- 0.068 mMol/l). At a pCO2-range of 25-27 mmHg (central venous) lactate continued increasing to 2.212 +/- 0.995 mMol/l whereas pyruvate dropped to 0.087 +/- 0.05 mMol/l. Therefore the possibility of hypocapnia-induced lacticemia seems to arise at a ventilation level less than 30 mmHg (pCO2 central venous). Production of excess-lactate may begin at a central venous pCO2 of 27 mmHg.

  13. Imaging Pregnant and Lactating Patients.

    PubMed

    Tirada, Nikki; Dreizin, David; Khati, Nadia J; Akin, Esma A; Zeman, Robert K

    2015-10-01

    As use of imaging in the evaluation of pregnant and lactating patients continues to increase, misperceptions of radiation and safety risks have proliferated, which has led to often unwarranted concerns among patients and clinicians. When radiologic examinations are appropriately used, the benefits derived from the information gained usually outweigh the risks. This review describes appropriateness and safety issues, estimated doses for imaging examinations that use iodizing radiation (ie, radiography, computed tomography, nuclear scintigraphy, and fluoroscopically guided interventional radiology), radiation risks to the mother and conceptus during various stages of pregnancy, and use of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast agents and radiotracers in pregnant and lactating women. Maternal radiation risk must be weighed with the potential consequences of missing a life-threatening diagnosis such as pulmonary embolus. Fetal risks (ie, spontaneous abortion, teratogenesis, or carcinogenesis) vary with gestational age and imaging modality and should be considered in the context of the potential benefit of medically necessary diagnostic imaging. When feasible and medically indicated, modalities that do not use ionizing radiation (eg, magnetic resonance imaging) are preferred in pregnant and lactating patients. Radiologists should strive to minimize risks of radiation to the mother and fetus, counsel patients effectively, and promote a realistic understanding of risks related to imaging during pregnancy and lactation.

  14. [Drugs and lactation. Part 2].

    PubMed

    Alerany Pardo, C; Bassons Boncompte, M T; Font Pous, M

    1986-01-01

    This document lists categories of drugs and provides brief descriptions of the effects on lactation and nursing infants of specific drugs within categories. Because any drug may pass to some extent to the mother's milk, the effect on the infant must always be considered before a drug is given to the mother. This review provides information on the excretion of drugs through breast milk and identifies drugs that are contraindicated for nursing mothers. The medications considered include drugs for gastrointestinal pathology, drugs for the central nervous system, hormones and hormone substitution drugs, radioisotopes, vitamins and minerals, foods and additives, social toxics such as nicotine and caffeine, and environmental agents. Among hormones and hormone substitution drugs, combinations of estrogens, estrogens and progestins, or estrogens and androgens at high doses may suppress lactation. Low doses of oral contraceptives (OCs) have slight effects on the volume of milk but may suppress lactation in women in whom lactation is not established. OCs also alter the composition of milk, although the changes are within normal limits and their clinical significance is not clear. Cases have been described in which OCs have caused breast development in boys and proliferation of vaginal epithelium in girls, although the causal relationship has not been proven. Androgens are contraindicated because they may cause masculinization of girls or precocious development in boys. Doses of over 50 mcg/day of ethinyl estradiol diminish milk production and may produce feminization of boys. Mestranol at doses of under 100 mcg/day produces insignificant levels in milk.

  15. Effects of Systemic Metabolic Fuels on Glucose and Lactate Levels in the Brain Extracellular Compartment of the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Béland-Millar, Alexandria; Larcher, Jeremy; Courtemanche, Justine; Yuan, Tina; Messier, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Classic neuroenergetic research has emphasized the role of glucose, its transport and its metabolism in sustaining normal neural function leading to the textbook statement that it is the necessary and sole metabolic fuel of the mammalian brain. New evidence, including the Astrocyte-to-Neuron Lactate Shuttle hypothesis, suggests that the brain can use other metabolic substrates. To further study that possibility, we examined the effect of intraperitoneally administered metabolic fuels (glucose, fructose, lactate, pyruvate, ß-hydroxybutyrate, and galactose), and insulin, on blood, and extracellular brain levels of glucose and lactate in the adult male CD1 mouse. Primary motor cortex extracellular levels of glucose and lactate were monitored in freely moving mice with the use of electrochemical electrodes. Blood concentration of these same metabolites were obtained by tail vein sampling and measured with glucose and lactate meters. Blood and extracellular fluctuations of glucose and lactate were monitored for a 2-h period. We found that the systemic injections of glucose, fructose, lactate, pyruvate, and ß-hydroxybutyrate increased blood lactate levels. Apart for a small transitory rise in brain extracellular lactate levels, the main effect of the systemic injection of glucose, fructose, lactate, pyruvate, and ß-hydroxybutyrate was an increase in brain extracellular glucose levels. Systemic galactose injections produced a small rise in blood glucose and lactate but almost no change in brain extracellular lactate and glucose. Systemic insulin injections led to a decrease in blood glucose and a small rise in blood lactate; however brain extracellular glucose and lactate monotonically decreased at the same rate. Our results support the concept that the brain is able to use alternative fuels and the current experiments suggest some of the mechanisms involved. PMID:28154523

  16. Effects of Systemic Metabolic Fuels on Glucose and Lactate Levels in the Brain Extracellular Compartment of the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Béland-Millar, Alexandria; Larcher, Jeremy; Courtemanche, Justine; Yuan, Tina; Messier, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Classic neuroenergetic research has emphasized the role of glucose, its transport and its metabolism in sustaining normal neural function leading to the textbook statement that it is the necessary and sole metabolic fuel of the mammalian brain. New evidence, including the Astrocyte-to-Neuron Lactate Shuttle hypothesis, suggests that the brain can use other metabolic substrates. To further study that possibility, we examined the effect of intraperitoneally administered metabolic fuels (glucose, fructose, lactate, pyruvate, ß-hydroxybutyrate, and galactose), and insulin, on blood, and extracellular brain levels of glucose and lactate in the adult male CD1 mouse. Primary motor cortex extracellular levels of glucose and lactate were monitored in freely moving mice with the use of electrochemical electrodes. Blood concentration of these same metabolites were obtained by tail vein sampling and measured with glucose and lactate meters. Blood and extracellular fluctuations of glucose and lactate were monitored for a 2-h period. We found that the systemic injections of glucose, fructose, lactate, pyruvate, and ß-hydroxybutyrate increased blood lactate levels. Apart for a small transitory rise in brain extracellular lactate levels, the main effect of the systemic injection of glucose, fructose, lactate, pyruvate, and ß-hydroxybutyrate was an increase in brain extracellular glucose levels. Systemic galactose injections produced a small rise in blood glucose and lactate but almost no change in brain extracellular lactate and glucose. Systemic insulin injections led to a decrease in blood glucose and a small rise in blood lactate; however brain extracellular glucose and lactate monotonically decreased at the same rate. Our results support the concept that the brain is able to use alternative fuels and the current experiments suggest some of the mechanisms involved.

  17. 21 CFR 582.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 582.1207 Section 582.1207 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Product. Calcium lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 582.1207 Section 582.1207 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Product. Calcium lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 582.1207 Section 582.1207 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Product. Calcium lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 582.1207 Section 582.1207 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Product. Calcium lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 582.1207 Section 582.1207 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Product. Calcium lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. FGF-21 and skeletal remodeling during and after lactation in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Sheila; Brown, Sue A; Le, Phuong T; Wang, Xunde; DeMambro, Victoria; Horowitz, Mark C; MacDougald, Ormond; Baron, Roland; Lotinun, Sutada; Karsenty, Gerard; Wei, Wei; Ferron, Mathieu; Kovacs, Christopher S; Clemmons, David; Wan, Yihong; Rosen, Clifford J

    2014-09-01

    Lactation is associated with significant alterations in both body composition and bone mass. Systemic and local skeletal factors such as receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL), PTHrP, calcitonin, and estrogen are known to regulate bone remodeling during and after lactation. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) may function as an endocrine factor to regulate body composition changes during lactation by inducing gluconeogenesis and fatty acid oxidation. In this study, we hypothesized that the metabolic changes during lactation were due in part to increased circulating FGF-21, which in turn could accentuate bone loss. We longitudinally characterized body composition in C57BL/6J (B6) mice during (day 7 and day 21 of lactation) and after normal lactation (day 21 postlactation). At day 7 of lactation, areal bone density declined by 10% (P < .001), bone resorption increased (P < .0001), percent fat decreased by 20%, energy expenditure increased (P < .01), and markers of brown-like adipogenesis were suppressed in the inguinal depot and in preformed brown adipose tissue. At day 7 of lactation there was a 2.4-fold increase in serum FGF-21 vs baseline (P < .0001), a 8-fold increase in hepatic FGF-21 mRNA (P < .03), a 2-fold increase in undercarboxylated osteocalcin (Glu13 OCn) (P < .01), and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Recovery of total areal bone density was noted at day 21 of lactation, whereas the femoral trabecular bone volume fraction was still reduced (P < .01). Because FGF-21 levels rose rapidly at day 7 of lactation in B6 lactating mice, we next examined lactating mice with a deletion in the Fgf21 gene. Trabecular and cortical bone masses were maintained throughout lactation in FGF-21(-/-) mice, and pup growth was normal. Compared with lactating control mice, lactating FGF-21(-/-) mice exhibited an increase in bone formation, but no change in bone resorption. In conclusion, in addition to changes in calciotropic hormones, systemic FGF-21 plays a

  3. FGF-21 and Skeletal Remodeling During and After Lactation in C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Sheila; Brown, Sue A.; Le, Phuong T.; Wang, Xunde; DeMambro, Victoria; Horowitz, Mark C.; MacDougald, Ormond; Baron, Roland; Lotinun, Sutada; Karsenty, Gerard; Wei, Wei; Ferron, Mathieu; Kovacs, Christopher S.; Clemmons, David

    2014-01-01

    Lactation is associated with significant alterations in both body composition and bone mass. Systemic and local skeletal factors such as receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL), PTHrP, calcitonin, and estrogen are known to regulate bone remodeling during and after lactation. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) may function as an endocrine factor to regulate body composition changes during lactation by inducing gluconeogenesis and fatty acid oxidation. In this study, we hypothesized that the metabolic changes during lactation were due in part to increased circulating FGF-21, which in turn could accentuate bone loss. We longitudinally characterized body composition in C57BL/6J (B6) mice during (day 7 and day 21 of lactation) and after normal lactation (day 21 postlactation). At day 7 of lactation, areal bone density declined by 10% (P < .001), bone resorption increased (P < .0001), percent fat decreased by 20%, energy expenditure increased (P < .01), and markers of brown-like adipogenesis were suppressed in the inguinal depot and in preformed brown adipose tissue. At day 7 of lactation there was a 2.4-fold increase in serum FGF-21 vs baseline (P < .0001), a 8-fold increase in hepatic FGF-21 mRNA (P < .03), a 2-fold increase in undercarboxylated osteocalcin (Glu13 OCn) (P < .01), and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Recovery of total areal bone density was noted at day 21 of lactation, whereas the femoral trabecular bone volume fraction was still reduced (P < .01). Because FGF-21 levels rose rapidly at day 7 of lactation in B6 lactating mice, we next examined lactating mice with a deletion in the Fgf21 gene. Trabecular and cortical bone masses were maintained throughout lactation in FGF-21−/− mice, and pup growth was normal. Compared with lactating control mice, lactating FGF-21−/− mice exhibited an increase in bone formation, but no change in bone resorption. In conclusion, in addition to changes in calciotropic hormones, systemic FGF-21 plays

  4. Lactation and suckling behavior in the Iberian lynx.

    PubMed

    Yerga, Javier; Calzada, Javier; Manteca, Xavier; Herrera, Irene; Vargas, Astrid; Rivas, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the behavior of endangered species is crucial to improve the management tools to breed animals in captivity and, thus, to increase the success of ex situ conservation programs. In this study, we monitored suckling behavior of 26 cubs born between 2008 and 2012 at "El Acebuche" Iberian Lynx Breeding Centre. The cubs devoted 251 ± 19.7 min (mean ± SE) to lactation on the day of birth, while mothers spent 426 ± 27 min (mean ± SE) nursing their offspring. The time cubs spent suckling decreased exponentially as they grown, until they were fully weaned at 65 ± 2.6 days. The onset of weaning (first intake of solid food) occurred at 54 ± 1.35 days (mean ± SE). Thus, the strict lactation period occupied most of the overall lactation period. Both suckling and maternal behavior were affected by litter size. In twins and triplets, the competition between siblings caused a decrease in the time spent suckling, in spite of the mothers spending more time nursing their young. Finally, no significant differences were found in time spent suckling between littermates or depending on the sex of the cub. Lactation appeared to play a key role in the nutrition of the Iberian lynx and should therefore be conveniently managed in captive breeding programs of this threatened species. Zoo Biol. 35:216-221, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Comparison between the changes in muscle oxygenation and blood lactate concentration in finswimmers during incremental exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bangde; Tian, Qingping; Zhang, Zhongxing; Gong, Hui

    2009-08-01

    For the purpose of comparing the response in local skeletal muscle oxygenation and blood lactate concentration during incremental exercise, 8 female finswimmers were recruited to take an incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer. Muscle oxygenation in right vastus lateralis (VL) were monitored by continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CW NIRS), respiratory gas exchange and blood lactate concentration ([La]b) were simultaneously measured by a metabolic system and a portable blood lactate analyzer respectively. NIRS measurements showed a muscle oxygenation index inflection point (OIip), from which the muscle oxygenation started to decrease dramatically. Significant correlations have been found between OIip and blood lactate threshold identified at the lowest [La]b value which was >0.5 mmol/L lower than that obtained at the following workload. These results might suggest that the CW NIRS measurement could be applied to monitor lactate threshold noninvasively.

  6. Reference values of blood parameters in beef cattle of different ages and stages of lactation.

    PubMed Central

    Doornenbal, H; Tong, A K; Murray, N L

    1988-01-01

    Reference (normal) values for 12 blood serum components were determined for 48 Shorthorn cows (2-10 years old) and their 48 calves, 357 crossbred cows (12-14 years old), 36 feedlot bulls and 36 feedlot steers. In addition, hemoglobin, hematocrit, triiodothyronine, thyroxine and cortisol levels were determined for the crossbred cows, and feedlot bulls and steers. Reference values were tabulated according to sex, age and stage of lactation. Serum concentrations of urea, total protein and bilirubin, and serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase increased with age (P less than 0.05), while calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase decreased with age (P less than 0.05) from birth to the age of ten years. The Shorthorn cows had the highest levels of glucose at parturition (P less than 0.05) with decreasing levels during lactation. Creatinine concentration decreased during lactation and increased during postweaning. Both lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase levels increased (P less than 0.05) during lactation. Urea and uric acid were present at higher concentrations in lactating than nonlactating cows (P less than 0.05). The values reported, based on a wide age range and large number of cattle, could serve as clinical guides and a basis for further research. PMID:3349406

  7. Effects of compression stockings during exercise and recovery on blood lactate kinetics.

    PubMed

    Rimaud, Diana; Messonnier, Laurent; Castells, Josiane; Devillard, Xavier; Calmels, Paul

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate if wearing compression stockings (CS) during exercise and recovery could affect lactate profile in sportsmen. Eight young healthy trained male subjects performed two maximal exercise tests on a cycle ergometer on two different occasions performed randomly: CS during both exercise and recovery, and no CS. Blood lactate concentration was taken during exercise and at 0, 3, 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 min post-exercise. The individual blood lactate recovery curves were fitted to a biexponential time function: La(t) = La(0) + A1(1 - e(-gamma1t)) + A2(1 - e(-gamma2t)), where gamma(1) and gamma(2) denote the abilities to exchange lactate between the previously active muscles and the blood and to remove lactate from the organism, respectively. A significantly higher blood lactate value at the end of the maximal exercise was found (12.1 +/- 0.5 vs. 10.8 +/- 0.5 mmol l(-1)) wearing CS as compared to no CS (P < 0.05). Lower gamma(1) and higher gamma(2) values were observed with CS during recovery, as compared to no CS. It was concluded that CS during graded exercise leads to a significant higher blood lactate value at exhaustion. Since lactate exchanges were expected to be decreased during exercise due to CS, this result was likely attributable to a higher lactate accumulation related to a greater overall contribution of anaerobic glycolysis. Although the lactate removal ability was significantly improved when wearing CS during recovery, its efficacy in promoting blood lactate clearance after high-intensity exercise is limited.

  8. Neurometabolic coupling between neural activity, glucose, and lactate in activated visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Li, Baowang; Freeman, Ralph D

    2015-11-01

    Neural activity is closely coupled with energy metabolism but details of the association remain to be identified. One basic area involves the relationships between neural activity and the main supportive substrates of glucose and lactate. This is of fundamental significance for the interpretation of non-invasive neural imaging. Here, we use microelectrodes with high spatial and temporal resolution to determine simultaneous co-localized changes in glucose, lactate, and neural activity during visual activation of the cerebral cortex in the cat. Tissue glucose and lactate concentration levels are measured with electrochemical microelectrodes while neural spiking activity and local field potentials are sampled by a microelectrode. These measurements are performed simultaneously while neurons are activated by visual stimuli of different contrast levels, orientations, and sizes. We find immediate decreases in tissue glucose concentration and simultaneous increases in lactate during neural activation. Both glucose and lactate signals return to their baseline levels instantly as neurons cease firing. No sustained changes or initial dips in glucose or lactate signals are elicited by visual stimulation. However, co-localized measurements of cerebral blood flow and neural activity demonstrate a clear delay in the cerebral blood flow signal such that it does not correlate temporally with the neural response. These results provide direct real-time evidence regarding the coupling between co-localized energy metabolism and neural activity during physiological stimulation. They are also relevant to a current question regarding the role of lactate in energy metabolism in the brain during neural activation. Dynamic changes in energy metabolites can be measured directly with high spatial and temporal resolution by use of enzyme-based microelectrodes. Here, to examine neuro-metabolic coupling during brain activation, we use combined microelectrodes to simultaneously measure

  9. Modulation of oxidative stress and subsequent induction of apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress allows citral to decrease cancer cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, Arvinder; Felder, Mildred; Fass, Lucas; Kaur, Justanjot; Czarnecki, Austin; Rathi, Kavya; Zeng, San; Osowski, Kathryn Kalady; Howell, Colin; Xiong, May P.; Whelan, Rebecca J.; Patankar, Manish S.

    2016-01-01

    The monoterpenoid, citral, when delivered through PEG-b-PCL nanoparticles inhibits in vivo growth of 4T1 breast tumors. Here, we show that citral inhibits proliferation of multiple human cancer cell lines. In p53 expressing ECC-1 and OVCAR-3 but not in p53-deficient SKOV-3 cells, citral induces G1/S cell cycle arrest and apoptosis as determined by Annexin V staining and increased cleaved caspase3 and Bax and decreased Bcl-2. In SKOV-3 cells, citral induces the ER stress markers CHOP, GADD45, EDEM, ATF4, Hsp90, ATG5, and phospho-eIF2α. The molecular chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid attenuates citral activity in SKOV-3 but not in ECC-1 and OVCAR-3 cells. In p53-expressing cells, citral increases phosphorylation of serine-15 of p53. Activation of p53 increases Bax, PUMA, and NOXA expression. Inhibition of p53 by pifithrin-α, attenuates citral-mediated apoptosis. Citral increases intracellular oxygen radicals and this leads to activation of p53. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis by L-buthionine sulfoxamine increases potency of citral. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine decreases phosphorylation of p53 in citral-treated ECC-1 and OVCAR-3. These results define a p53-dependent, and in the absence of p53, ER stress-dependent mode of action of citral. This study indicates that citral in PEG-b-PCL nanoparticle formulation should be considered for treatment of breast and other tumors. PMID:27270209

  10. Peripheral serotonin regulates maternal calcium trafficking in mammary epithelial cells during lactation in mice.

    PubMed

    Laporta, Jimena; Keil, Kimberly P; Vezina, Chad M; Hernandez, Laura L

    2014-01-01

    Lactation is characterized by massive transcellular flux of calcium, from the basolateral side of the mammary alveolar epithelium (blood) into the ductal lumen (milk). Regulation of calcium transport during lactation is critical for maternal and neonatal health. The monoamine serotonin (5-HT) is synthesized by the mammary gland and functions as a homeostatic regulation of lactation. Genetic ablation of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1), which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in non-neuronal serotonin synthesis, causes a deficiency in circulating serotonin. As a consequence maternal calcium concentrations decrease, mammary epithelial cell morphology is altered, and cell proliferation is decreased during lactation. Here we demonstrate that serotonin deficiency decreases the expression and disrupts the normal localization of calcium transporters located in the apical (PMCA2) and basolateral (CaSR, ORAI-1) membranes of the lactating mammary gland. In addition, serotonin deficiency decreases the mRNA expression of calcium transporters located in intracellular compartments (SERCA2, SPCA1 and 2). Mammary expression of serotonin receptor isoform 2b and its downstream pathways (PLCβ3, PKC and MAP-ERK1/2) are also decreased by serotonin deficiency, which might explain the numerous phenotypic alterations described above. In most cases, addition of exogenous 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan to the Tph1 deficient mice rescued the phenotype. Our data supports the hypothesis that serotonin is necessary for proper mammary gland structure and function, to regulate blood and mammary epithelial cell transport of calcium during lactation. These findings can be applicable to the treatment of lactation-induced hypocalcemia in dairy cows and can have profound implications in humans, given the wide-spread use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors as antidepressants during pregnancy and lactation.

  11. Accelerated Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity Potentiates Osteoclastogenesis via NFATc1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Man; Kwon, So Hyun; Lee, Seoung Hoon; Lee, Soo Young; Jeong, Daewon

    2016-01-01

    Osteoclasts seem to be metabolic active during their differentiation and bone-resorptive activation. However, the functional role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a tetrameric enzyme consisting of an A and/or B subunit that catalyzes interconversion of pyruvate to lactate, in RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation is not known. In this study, RANKL treatment induced gradual gene expression and activation of the LDH A2B2 isotype during osteoclast differentiation as well as the LDH A1B3 and B4 isotypes during osteoclast maturation after pre-osteoclast formation. Glucose consumption and lactate production in growth media were accelerated during osteoclast differentiation, together with enhanced expression of H+-lactate co-transporter and increased extracellular acidification, demonstrating that glycolytic metabolism was stimulated during differentiation. Further, oxygen consumption via mitochondria was stimulated during osteoclast differentiation. On the contrary, depletion of LDH-A or LDH-B subunit suppressed both glycolytic and mitochondrial metabolism, resulting in reduced mature osteoclast formation via decreased osteoclast precursor fusion and down-regulation of the osteoclastogenic critical transcription factor NFATc1 and its target genes. Collectively, our findings suggest that RANKL-induced LDH activation stimulates glycolytic and mitochondrial respiratory metabolism, facilitating mature osteoclast formation via osteoclast precursor fusion and NFATc1 signaling. PMID:27077737

  12. Exogenous lactate supply affects lactate kinetics of rainbow trout, not swimming performance

    PubMed Central

    Omlin, Teye; Langevin, Karolanne

    2014-01-01

    Intense swimming causes circulatory lactate accumulation in rainbow trout because lactate disposal (Rd) is not stimulated as strongly as lactate appearance (Ra). This mismatch suggests that maximal Rd is limited by tissue capacity to metabolize lactate. This study uses exogenous lactate to investigate what constrains maximal Rd and minimal Ra. Our goals were to determine how exogenous lactate affects: 1) Ra and Rd of lactate under baseline conditions or during graded swimming, and 2) exercise performance (critical swimming speed, Ucrit) and energetics (cost of transport, COT). Results show that exogenous lactate allows swimming trout to boost maximal Rd lactate by 40% and reach impressive rates of 56 μmol·kg−1·min−1. This shows that the metabolic capacity of tissues for lactate disposal is not responsible for setting the highest Rd normally observed after intense swimming. Baseline endogenous Ra (resting in normoxic water) is not significantly reduced by exogenous lactate supply. Therefore, trout have an obligatory need to produce lactate, either as a fuel for oxidative tissues and/or from organs relying on glycolysis. Exogenous lactate does not affect Ucrit or COT, probably because it acts as a substitute for glucose and lipids rather than extra fuel. We conclude that the observed 40% increase in Rd lactate is made possible by accelerating lactate entry into oxidative tissues via monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). This observation together with the weak expression of MCTs and the phenomenon of white muscle lactate retention show that lactate metabolism of rainbow trout is significantly constrained by transmembrane transport. PMID:25121611

  13. Cerebral blood flow changes during sodium-lactate-induced panic attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, R.S.; Devous, M.D. Sr.; Rush, A.J.; Lane, L.; Bonte, F.J.

    1988-04-01

    Dynamic single-photon emission computed axial tomography (CAT) with inhaled xenon-133 was used to measure regional cerebral blood flow in 10 drug-free patients with DSM-III-diagnosed panic disorder and in five normal control subjects. All subjects underwent regional cerebral blood flow studies while at rest or during normal saline infusion and during sodium lactate infusion. Six of the 10 patients and none of the control subjects experienced lactate-induced panic attacks. Lactate infusion markedly raised hemispheric blood flow levels in both control subjects and patients who did not panic. Patients who did panic experienced either a minimal increase or a decrease in hemispheric blood flow.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and is prepared commercially...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and....1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 184.1207 Section 184.1207 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Calcium lactate (C6H10CaO6.xH2O,...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 184.1207 Section 184.1207 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Calcium lactate (C6H10CaO6.xH2O,...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium lactate. 184.1207 Section 184.1207 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Calcium lactate (C6H10CaO6.xH2O, where x is...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 184.1207 Section 184.1207 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT... GRAS § 184.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Calcium lactate (C6H10CaO6.xH2O, where x is any integer up to...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 184.1207 Section 184.1207 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Calcium lactate (C6H10CaO6.xH2O,...

  9. Random regression analysis of test-day milk yields in the first and second lactations of Brazilian Gyr cows.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Herrera, L G; El Faro, L; Bignardi, A B; Pereira, R J; Machado, C H C; Albuquerque, L G

    2015-12-09

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the genetic parameters for test-day milk yields (TDMY) in the first and second lactations using random regression models (RRM) in order to contribute to the application of these models in genetic evaluation of milk yield in Gyr cattle. A total of 53,328 TDMY records from 7118 lactations of 5853 Gyr cows were analyzed. The model included the direct additive, permanent environmental, and residual random effects. In addition, contemporary group and linear and quadratic effects of the age of cows at calving were included as fixed effects. A random regression model fitting fourth-order Legendre polynomials for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, with five classes of residual variance, was applied. In the first lactation, the heritabilities increased from early lactation (0.26) until TDMY3 (0.38), followed by a decrease until the end of lactation. In the second lactation, the estimates increased from the first (0.29) to the fifth test day (0.36), with a slight decrease thereafter, and again increased on the last two test days (0.34 and 0.41). There were positive and high genetic correlations estimated between first-lactation TDMY and the remaining TDMY of the two lactations. The moderate heritability estimates, as well as the high genetic correlations between half the first-lactation TDMY and all TDMY of the two lactations, suggest that the selection based only on first lactation TDMY is the best selection strategy to increase milk production across first and second lactations of Gyr cows.

  10. Lactation--how important is it?

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, U E; Walker, A R

    1994-02-01

    In Africa, with poverty rising, and health care diminishing, a nutritional question is-what are the limits of successful physiological adaptation to low dietary intakes? In this review the practice of lactation is discussed, from both past and present viewpoints. Orthodox Recommended Allowances for lactation are scarcely ever met. Yet, through various adaptations, the huge majority of African and similarly placed mothers lactate successfully and produce milk of good quantity and quality. The benefits from supplements are discussed; broadly, results have been disappointing. Some good and adverse non-dietary practices are considered. Benefits for infant and mother from lactation, even for protracted periods, far exceed drawbacks.

  11. ABCG5/ABCG8-independent biliary cholesterol excretion in lactating rats

    PubMed Central

    Coy, Donna J.; Wooton-Kee, Clavia R.; Yan, Baoxiang; Sabeva, Nadezhda; Su, Kai; Graf, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Lactation is associated with increased expression of bile acid transporters and an increased size and hydrophobicity of the bile acid pool in rats. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mdr2), Abcb11 [bile salt export pump (Bsep)], and Abcg5/Abcg8 heterodimers are essential for the biliary secretion of phospholipids, bile acids, and cholesterol, respectively. We investigated the expression of these transporters and secretion of their substrates in female control and lactating Sprague Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice. Expression of Abcg5/Abcg8 mRNA was decreased by 97 and 60% by midlactation in rats and mice, respectively; protein levels of Abcg8 were below detection limits in lactating rats. Mdr2 mRNA expression was decreased in lactating rats and mice by 47 and 59%, respectively. Despite these changes in transporter expression, basal concentrations of cholesterol and phospholipid in bile were unchanged in rats and mice, whereas increased Bsep mRNA expression in early lactation coincided with an increased basal biliary bile acid concentration in lactating mice. Following taurocholate infusion, coupling of phospholipid and taurocholate secretion in bile of lactating mice was significantly impaired relative to control mice, with no significant changes in maximal secretion of cholesterol or bile acids. In rats, taurocholate infusion revealed a significantly impaired coupling of cholesterol to taurocholate secretion in bile in lactating vs. control animals. These data reveal marked utilization of an Abcg5/Abcg8-independent mechanism for basal biliary cholesterol secretion in rats during lactation, but a dependence on Abcg5/g8 for maximal biliary cholesterol secretion. PMID:20413720

  12. Lactate Sensors on Flexible Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuesong; Fu, Timothy; Kota, Pavan Kumar; Tjia, Maggie; Nguyen, Cuong Manh; Chiao, Jung-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Lactate detection by an in situ sensor is of great need in clinical medicine, food processing, and athletic performance monitoring. In this paper, a flexible, easy to fabricate, and low-cost biosensor base on lactate oxidase is presented. The fabrication processes, including metal deposition, sol-gel IrOx deposition, and drop-dry enzyme loading method, are described in detail. The loaded enzyme was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the sensors. Durability, sensibility, and selectivity of the biosensors were examined. The comparison for different electrode sizes and different sensing film materials was conducted. The sensor could last for four weeks with an average surface area normalized sensitivity of 950 nA/(cm2 mM) and 9250 nA/(cm2 mM) for Au-based electrodes, and IrOx-modified electrodes respectively, both with an electrode size of 100 × 50 μm. The self-referencing method to record noises simultaneously with the working electrode greatly improved sensor sensitivity and selectivity. The sensor showed little response to interference chemicals, such as glutamate and dopamine. PMID:27657147

  13. Breastfeeding practices and lactation mastitis.

    PubMed

    Foxman, B; Schwartz, K; Looman, S J

    1994-03-01

    Clinical impression suggests that lactation mastitis is associated with inexperienced nursers, improper nursing techniques, stress and fatigue. A pilot study was conducted to describe the frequency of self-reported breastfeeding practices during the first week post partum among 100 breastfeeding women delivering at a freestanding birthing center or participating in an early discharge program. Nine cases of lactation mastitis were identified from the survey population and an additional 8 from the target population for the survey. Seventeen controls matched by delivery date were identified from survey participants. The frequency of self-reported breastfeeding practices, the presence of fatigue and stress during the week prior to the mastitis date in the case was compared among cases and controls. In the first week post partum, most women fed their babies every 2-3 hr for approx. 20 min a feeding. The cradle or Madonna position was the most frequently used nursing position. Nine percent reported supplementing feedings with formula. Women with mastitis were more likely than controls to report a history of mastitis with a previous child. In the week prior to the mastitis date of the case, women with mastitis were more likely than controls to report breast or nipple pain and cracks or breast fissures. They were less likely to report being able to take a daytime nap. Future studies should focus on the relative importance of and interrelationships among these factors.

  14. Analysis of glucose and lactate in hippocampal dialysates of rats during the operant conditioned reflex using microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yu; Wang, Lei; Shangguan, Dihua; Yu, Xiao; Zhao, Rui; Han, Huiwan; Liu, Guoquan

    2003-07-01

    Changes of extracellular glucose and lactate in hippocampus for freely moving rats during the operant conditioned reflex were examined simultaneously. Samples of the dialysate were assayed for both glucose and lactate using in vivo microdialysis and a microbore flow injection analysis-immobilized enzyme reactor-electrochemical detection (FIA-IMER-ECD) system. Microdialysis samplings were conducted in a Skinner box where lights were delivered as conditioned stimuli (CS) paired with foot shocks as unconditioned stimuli (US). In the treatment group the concentration of glucose and lactate showed no fluctuations during the whole process. However, in the control group in which the rats were exposed to many foot shocks, lactate levels decreased by 19% below baseline during the behavioral session and glucose showed a delayed decrease (by 18%). Compared with glucose, lactate can immediately indicate the dynamic changes in brain.

  15. Inhalation of Shin-I essential oil enhances lactate clearance in treadmill exercise

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsuan-Ying; Wang, Ming-Fu; Lin, Jun-Ying; Tsai, Ying-Chieh; Cheng, Fu-Chou

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of Shin-I essential oil inhalation on blood lactate changes in rats subjected to treadmill exercise. Methods : Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n=12) were randomly divided into the control or the Shin-I group. Rats were subjected to a treadmill exercise program (15 m/min for 30 min). After exercise, rats were exposed to 200 µL of water or Shin-I essential oil, respectively, using a nebulizer for 180 min during the recovery period. Blood samples were collected every 15 min. Blood glucose and lactate concentrations were determined in a CMA 600 analyzer. Results : The basal glucose and lactate levels were no significantly different between two groups. After exercise, glucose levels were slightly increased to about 110%-120% of the basal level in both groups. Lactate levels of both groups reached to 110%-140% of basal levels during exercise. In the recovery period, lactate levels further increased to 180% of the basal level and were maintained at a plateau in the control group. However, lactate levels gradually decreased to 60%-65% of the basal level in the Shin-I group. Lactate clearance was significantly enhanced after Shin-I essential oil inhalation. Conclusions : Our results provide evidence that Shin-I essential oil inhalation may accelerate recovery after exercise in rats. PMID:25182288

  16. Lactate is released and taken up by isolated rabbit vagus nerve during aerobic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Véga, C; Poitry-Yamate, C L; Jirounek, P; Tsacopoulos, M; Coles, J A

    1998-07-01

    To determine if lactate is produced during aerobic metabolism in peripheral nerve, we incubated pieces of rabbit vagus nerve in oxygenated solution containing D-[U-14C]glucose while stimulating electrically. After 30 min, nearly all the radioactivity in metabolites in the nerve was in lactate, glucose 6-phosphate, glutamate, and aspartate. Much lactate was released to the bath: 8.2 pmol (microg dry wt)(-1) from the exogenous glucose and 14.2 pmol (microg dry wt)(-1) from endogenous substrates. Lactate release was not increased when bath PO2 was decreased, indicating that it did not come from anoxic tissue. When the bath contained [U-14C]lactate at a total concentration of 2.13 mM and 1 mM glucose, 14C was incorporated in CO2 and glutamate. The initial rate of formation of CO2 from bath lactate was more rapid than its formation from bath glucose. The results are most readily explained by the hypothesis that has been proposed for brain tissue in which glial cells supply lactate to neurons.

  17. Effect of insulin on in vivo glucose utilization in individual tissues of anesthetized lactating rats

    SciTech Connect

    Burnol, A.F.; Ferre, P.; Leturque, A.; Girard, J.

    1987-02-01

    Glucose utilization rate has been measured in skeletal muscles, white adipose tissue, and mammary gland of anesthetized nonlactating and lactating rats. During lactation, basal (1-TH) glucose utilization is decreased by 40% in periovarian white adipose tissue and by 65% in epitrochlearis and extensor digitorum longus but not in soleus muscle. This may be related to the lower blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations observed during lactation. Basal glucose utilization rate in the mammary gland was, respectively, 18 +/- 2 and 350 +/- 50 g/min in nonlactating and lactating rats. During the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, a physiological increment in plasma insulin concentration induces a similar increase in glucose utilization rate in skeletal muscles and white adipose tissue in the two groups of rats. Furthermore this low increase in plasma insulin concentration does not alter mammary glucose utilization rate in nonlactating rats but induces the same increase as a maximal insulin concentration in lactating rats. These data show that the active mammary gland is the most insulin-sensitive tissue of the lactating rat that has been tested. The overall increase in insulin sensitivity and responsiveness that has been described in lactating rats can then mainly be attributed to the presence of the active mammary gland. Plasma insulin was determined by radioimmunoassay.

  18. Lactate administration reproduces specific brain and liver exercise-related changes.

    PubMed

    E, Lezi; Lu, Jianghua; Selfridge, J Eva; Burns, Jeffrey M; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2013-10-01

    The effects of exercise are not limited to muscle, and its ability to mitigate some chronic diseases is under study. A more complete understanding of how exercise impacts non-muscle tissues might facilitate design of clinical trials and exercise mimetics. Here, we focused on lactate's ability to mediate changes in liver and brain bioenergetic-associated parameters. In one group of experiments, C57BL/6 mice underwent 7 weeks of treadmill exercise sessions at intensities intended to exceed the lactate threshold. Over time, the mice dramatically increased their lactate threshold. To ensure that plasma lactate accumulated during the final week, the mice were run to exhaustion. In the liver, mRNA levels of gluconeogenesis-promoting genes increased. While peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) expression increased, there was a decrease in PGC-1β expression, and overall gene expression changes favored respiratory chain down-regulation. In the brain, PGC-1α and PGC-1β were unchanged, but PGC-1-related co-activator expression and mitochondrial DNA copy number increased. Brain tumor necrosis factor alpha expression fell, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor A expression rose. In another group of experiments, exogenously administered lactate was found to reproduce some but not all of these observed liver and brain changes. Our data suggest that lactate, an exercise byproduct, could mediate some of the effects exercise has on the liver and the brain, and that lactate itself can act as a partial exercise mimetic.

  19. Chromium Supplements in the Feed for Lactating Murrah Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis): Influence on Nutrient Utilization, Lactation Performance, and Metabolic Responses.

    PubMed

    Deka, Rijusmita Sarma; Mani, Veena; Kumar, Muneendra; Shiwajirao, Zade Satish; Kaur, Harjit

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of inorganic chromium (Cr) on nutrient intake, nutrient utilization, milk mineral contents, and blood biochemical in lactating Murrah buffaloes. Twenty-four multifarious Murrah buffaloes were blocked into four groups having six animals in each group and fed for 150 days post-partum. Feeding regimen was same in all the groups except that treatment groups were supplemented with 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg inorganic Cr/kg dry matter (DM) in the four respective groups. Group fed on basal diet supplemented with 0.0 mg Cr/kg DM served as a control. Adding inorganic Cr to the diet of lactating buffaloes increased feed intake, milk yield, and nutrient digestibility. Nitrogen (N) and Cr balance were significantly increased (P<0.05) by adding Cr. Milk and plasma Cr concentration could be increased by adding Cr (P<0.001), while no significant differences were found between the four treatments in milk and plasma concentration of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). Feeding of diet supplemented with inorganic Cr decreased plasma insulin concentration (P=0.016). Concentration of blood glucose and the ratio of blood glucose to insulin were increased by adding Cr (P=0.037 and P=0.011, respectively). Adding Cr to the diet of lactating buffaloes did not show any effect on blood hemoglobin (Hb), while plasma concentration of progesterone and antioxidant status was increased (P<0.05). It could be concluded that adding Cr to the diet of lactating buffaloes improved nutrient intake, nutrient utilization, and lactation performance.

  20. Mechanism of lactate-induced relaxation of isolated rat mesenteric resistance arteries.

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, W; Aaronson, P I; Knock, G; Graves, J; Poston, L

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of the sodium salt of the weak acid lactate on tension and intracellular pH (pH1) were studied in rat mesenteric small arteries mounted on a wire myograph. Sodium lactate was substituted iso-osmotically for sodium chloride. 2. At a concentration of 50 mM, both L- and D-stereoisomers of lactate markedly relaxed arteries preconstricted with noradrenaline (NA) within 10 min. The concentration-response relationship for L-lactate showed that the NA contracture was relaxed by 50% at approximately 26 mM. L-Lactate did not, however, relax arteries preconstricted with high-K+(45 mM) solution. 3. L-Lactate did not alter extracellular pH (pHo) but caused a small but significant decrease in pH1, measured using the pH-sensitive fluorochrome, 2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5-(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). Relaxation to L-lactate was unaffected when this change in pHi was offset by the simultaneous addition of NH4Cl to the solution. 4. Sodium pyruvate (50 mM) caused a significant intracellular acidosis but did not relax arteries preconstricted with NA. 5. L-Lactate-induced relaxations were unaffected by removal of the endothelium or when the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) was inhibited by 10(-4) M N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). 6. The potassium channel blockers glibenclamide (10 microM), 4-aminopyridine (3 mM) and tetraethylammonium chloride (10 mM) did not affect L-lactate-induced relaxation in arteries preconstricted with NA. Inhibition of guanylate cyclase with Methylene Blue, or cyclooxgenase with indomethacin, also did not affect relaxation to L-lactate. 7. The Rp stereoisomer of adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate (Rp-cAMPS), an analogue of cAMP which inhibits competitively stimulation of protein kinase A, reduced significantly L-lactate-induced relaxation at a concentration of 25 microM. Rp-cAMPS also significantly reduced forskolin-induced relaxation of the NA contracture. 8. It is concluded that L-lactate-induced relaxation in this

  1. Oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes contributes to decreased SERCA2a activity in rats with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Balderas-Villalobos, Jaime; Molina-Muñoz, Tzindilu; Mailloux-Salinas, Patrick; Bravo, Guadalupe; Carvajal, Karla; Gómez-Viquez, Norma L

    2013-11-01

    Ca(+) mishandling due to impaired activity of cardiac sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA2a) has been associated with the development of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in insulin-resistant cardiomyopathy. However, the molecular causes underlying SERCA2a alterations induced by insulin resistance and related metabolic disorders, such as metabolic syndrome (MetS), are not completely understood. In this study, we used a sucrose-fed rat model of MetS to test the hypothesis that decreased SERCA2a activity is mediated by elevated oxidative stress produced in the MetS heart. Production of ROS and cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration were recorded in left ventricular myocytes using confocal imaging. The level of SERCA2a oxidation was determined in left ventricular homogenates by biotinylated iodoacetamide labeling. Compared with control rats, sucrose-fed rats exhibited several characteristics of MetS, including central obesity, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Moreover, relative to myocytes from control rats, myocytes from MetS rats exhibited elevated basal production of ROS accompanied by slowed cytosolic Ca(2+) removal, reflected by prolonged Ca(2+) transients. The slowed cytosolic Ca(2+) removal was associated with a significant decrease in SERCA2a-mediated Ca(2+) reuptake and increased SERCA2a oxidation. Importantly, myocytes from MetS rats treated with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine showed normal ROS levels and SERCA2a-mediated Ca(2+) reuptake as well as accelerated cytosolic Ca(2+) removal. These data suggest that elevated oxidative stress may induce oxidative modifications on SERCA2a leading to abnormal function of this protein in the MetS heart.

  2. Lactate oxidation in human skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Robert A; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Nordsborg, Nikolai B; Lundby, Carsten

    2013-04-01

    Lactate is an important intermediate metabolite in human bioenergetics and is oxidized in many different tissues including the heart, brain, kidney, adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle. The mechanism(s) explaining the metabolism of lactate in these tissues, however, remains unclear. Here, we analyze the ability of skeletal muscle to respire lactate by using an in situ mitochondrial preparation that leaves the native tubular reticulum and subcellular interactions of the organelle unaltered. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis muscle in 16 human subjects. Samples were chemically permeabilized with saponin, which selectively perforates the sarcolemma and facilitates the loss of cytosolic content without altering mitochondrial membranes, structure, and subcellular interactions. High-resolution respirometry was performed on permeabilized muscle biopsy preparations. By use of four separate and specific substrate titration protocols, the respirometric analysis revealed that mitochondria were capable of oxidizing lactate in the absence of exogenous LDH. The titration of lactate and NAD(+) into the respiration medium stimulated respiration (P ≤ 0.003). The addition of exogenous LDH failed to increase lactate-stimulated respiration (P = 1.0). The results further demonstrate that human skeletal muscle mitochondria cannot directly oxidize lactate within the mitochondrial matrix. Alternately, these data support previous claims that lactate is converted to pyruvate within the mitochondrial intermembrane space with the pyruvate subsequently taken into the mitochondrial matrix where it enters the TCA cycle and is ultimately oxidized.

  3. Effects of L-Lactate and D-Mannitol on γ-Hydroxybutyrate Toxicokinetics and Toxicodynamics in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Xiaodong

    2008-01-01

    Overdoses of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), a drug of abuse, result in coma, respiratory arrest, and death. The objective of this study was to evaluate a potential GHB detoxification strategy by inhibiting the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)-mediated renal reabsorption of GHB in rats, using the MCT substrate L-Lactate. The use of the osmotic diuretic D-mannitol alone or combined with L-Lactate was also explored. GHB (208 mg/h/kg) was infused i.v. for 3 h in the absence or presence of L-Lactate (60.5, 121, and 302.5 mg h−1 kg−1), D-mannitol (0.5 g/kg), or L-Lactate (60.5 mg h−1 kg−1) combined with D-mannitol (0.5 g/kg). GHB in plasma and urine samples was determined along with blood pH, electrolytes, glucose, and L-Lactate. Administration of L-Lactate, or the combination of L-Lactate and D-mannitol, but not D-mannitol alone, significantly increased the renal and total clearances of GHB in rats. Blood pH and electrolyte concentrations exhibited small changes with GHB, GHB/lactate, and GHB/mannitol treatments, although most values remained within their normal range. The concomitant administration of lactated Ringer's solution (28 mM L-Lactate) at 300 µl/min with mannitol (0.5 g/kg) resulted in a significant increase in GHB clearance and a decrease in sleep time after an i.v. dose of 1 g/kg. Overall, our results indicated the following: 1) the use of the MCT inhibitor L-Lactate can increase the renal and total clearances of GHB, and 2) the combination of lactated Ringer's solution and D-mannitol significantly alters GHB toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics and represents a potential clinical detoxification strategy for the treatment of GHB overdoses. PMID:18719239

  4. Psychological distress and milk volume in lactating mothers.

    PubMed

    Hill, Pamela D; Aldag, Jean C; Chatterton, Robert T; Zinaman, Michael

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to compare psychological distress as measured via self-reported perceived stress, sleep, and fatigue levels in lactating mothers of a term infant and mothers of a preterm infant and(b) to determine whether the addition of psychological distress to a previous model predicts milk volume at Postpartum Week 6 by gestation group. The convenience sample of 95 mothers of a preterm infant (31 weeks) and 98 mothers of a term infant completed the Perceived Stress Visual Analogue Scale, Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire, and the Fatigue Visual Analog Scale. Stress, sleep difficulty, and fatigue levels decreased during the 6-week study period for mothers of a term but not for mothers of a preterm infant. Perceived stress, sleep difficulty, and fatigue during the first 6 weeks postpartum were not related to milk volume; thus, the mother's perceived psychological distress had no apparent effect on lactation.

  5. Treatment of mastitis during lactation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of mastitis should be based on bacteriological diagnosis and take national and international guidelines on prudent use of antimicrobials into account. In acute mastitis, where bacteriological diagnosis is not available, treatment should be initiated based on herd data and personal experience. Rapid bacteriological diagnosis would facilitate the proper selection of the antimicrobial. Treating subclinical mastitis with antimicrobials during lactation is seldom economical, because of high treatment costs and generally poor efficacy. All mastitis treatment should be evidence-based, i.e., the efficacy of each product and treatment length should be demonstrated by scientific studies. Use of on-farm written protocols for mastitis treatment promotes a judicious use of antimicrobials and reduces the use of antimicrobials. PMID:22081939

  6. Transport and metabolism of L-lactate occur in mitochondria from cerebellar granule cells and are modified in cells undergoing low potassium dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Atlante, Anna; de Bari, Lidia; Bobba, Antonella; Marra, Ersilia; Passarella, Salvatore

    2007-11-01

    Having confirmed that externally added L-lactate can enter cerebellar granule cells, we investigated whether and how L-lactate is metabolized by mitochondria from these cells under normal or apoptotic conditions. (1) L-lactate enters mitochondria, perhaps via an L-lactate/H+ symporter, and is oxidized in a manner stimulated by ADP. The existence of an L-lactate dehydrogenase, located in the inner mitochondrial compartment, was shown by immunological analysis. Neither the protein level nor the Km and Vmax values changed en route to apoptosis. (2) In both normal and apoptotic cell homogenates, externally added L-lactate caused reduction of the intramitochondrial pyridine cofactors, inhibited by phenylsuccinate. This process mirrored L-lactate uptake by mitochondria and occurred with a hyperbolic dependence on L-lactate concentrations. Pyruvate appeared outside mitochondria as a result of external addition of L-lactate. The rate of the process depended on L-lactate concentration and showed saturation characteristics. This shows the occurrence of an intracellular L-lactate/pyruvate shuttle, whose activity was limited by the putative L-lactate/pyruvate antiporter. Both the carriers were different from the monocarboxylate carrier. (3) L-lactate transport changed en route to apoptosis. Uptake increased in the early phase of apoptosis, but decreased in the late phase with characteristics of a non-competitive like inhibition. In contrast, the putative L-lactate/pyruvate antiport decreased en route to apoptosis with characteristics of a competitive like inhibition in early apoptosis, and a mixed non-competitive like inhibition in late apoptosis.

  7. Choline and Choline Metabolite Patterns and Associations in Blood and Milk during Lactation in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Artegoitia, Virginia M.; Middleton, Jesse L.; Harte, Federico M.; Campagna, Shawn R.; de Veth, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L). In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L), which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively), with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R2 = 0.78). Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk. PMID:25157578

  8. Hormonal regulation of glucose clearance in lactating northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris).

    PubMed

    Fowler, Melinda A; Champagne, Cory D; Houser, Dorian S; Crocker, Daniel E

    2008-09-01

    Northern elephant seals exhibit the rare strategy of fasting and lactating concomitantly. We investigated hormonal regulation of glucose clearance in northern elephant seals using glucose tolerance tests (GTT) performed early in lactation and again just prior to weaning. For comparison, identical measurements were made on separate females late in the molt fast. Serial blood samples were used to assess glucose clearance and hormone responses for 3 h post glucose injection. Plasma glucose remained elevated at the end of the sampling period in all groups. Glucose clearance rates were not significantly different among test groups. A significant insulin response was observed in early lactation, no significant response was observed late in lactation and an intermediate response was observed late in the molt fast. The insulin response to a glucose load decreased with adipose tissue proportions. Plasma glucagon decreased significantly following GTT in early and late lactation, although the magnitude of the depression was small in comparison to other species. Hypoinsulemia may be critical to facilitate net lipolysis late in lactation. Consistently low glucose clearance among test groups suggests insulin insensitivity within peripheral tissues. Glucagon suppression independent of insulin release suggests modification of the typical insulin-glucagon counter-regulation. These findings suggest that metabolic features of diabetic-like conditions may be adaptive in the context of long-term fasting.

  9. Human mesenchymal stromal cell-secreted lactate induces M2-macrophage differentiation by metabolic reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Civini, Sara; Pacelli, Consiglia; Dieng, Mame Massar; Lemieux, William; Jin, Ping; Bazin, Renée; Patey, Natacha; Marincola, Francesco M.; Moldovan, Florina; Zaouter, Charlotte; Trudeau, Louis-Eric; Benabdhalla, Basma; Louis, Isabelle; Beauséjour, Christian; Stroncek, David; Le Deist, Françoise; Haddad, Elie

    2016-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been shown to dampen immune response and promote tissue repair, but the underlying mechanisms are still under investigation. Herein, we demonstrate that umbilical cord-derived MSC (UC-MSC) alter the phenotype and function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) through lactate-mediated metabolic reprogramming. UC-MSC can secrete large quantities of lactate and, when present during monocyte-to-DC differentiation, induce instead the acquisition of M2-macrophage features in terms of morphology, surface markers, migratory properties and antigen presentation capacity. Microarray expression profiling indicates that UC-MSC modify the expression of metabolic-related genes and induce a M2-macrophage expression signature. Importantly, monocyte-derived DC obtained in presence of UC-MSC, polarize naïve allogeneic CD4+ T-cells into Th2 cells. Treatment of UC-MSC with an inhibitor of lactate dehydrogenase strongly decreases lactate concentration in culture supernatant and abrogates the effect on monocyte-to-DC differentiation. Metabolic analysis further revealed that UC-MSC decrease oxidative phosphorylation in differentiating monocytes while strongly increasing the spare respiratory capacity proportional to the amount of secreted lactate. Because both MSC and monocytes are recruited in vivo at the site of tissue damage and inflammation, we propose the local increase of lactate concentration induced by UC-MSC and the consequent enrichment in M2-macrophage generation as a mechanism to achieve immunomodulation. PMID:27070086

  10. Food hoarding is increased by pregnancy, lactation, and food deprivation in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Bartness, T J

    1997-01-01

    Food hoarding by male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus sungorus) is increased only when body mass (fat) is decreased. Pregnancy and lactation result in marked decreases in lipid reserves (approximately 50%) in female Siberian hamsters. Therefore, the present experiments addressed the following questions: 1) Is food hoarding increased after food deprivation in female Siberian hamsters? and 2) How do food hoarding and food intake change during pregnancy, lactation, and their combination? During measurements in a simulated burrow system food hoarding increased after a 32-h fast (approximately 2- to 3-fold) to a level similar to that seen previously in males and was markedly increased during pregnancy (approximately 12- to 18-fold, lactation, and concurrent pregnancy and lactation (approximately 10- to 25-fold for each of the latter 2 conditions). Postfast food intake was not different from prefast baseline measures. Food intake was increased only during the last few days of pregnancy and was elevated throughout lactation. These impressive increases in the level of food hoarding during pregnancy, lactation and their combination suggest that food hoarding may play an important role in supplying easily accessible energy to subserve these reproductive conditions.

  11. Status of ammonia, glutamate, lactate and pyruvate during Plasmodium yoelii infection and pyrimethamine treatment in mice.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, A; Tripathi, L M; Pandey, V C

    1997-09-01

    Ammonia, lactate, glutamate and pyruvate levels in blood, liver, brain, spleen and kidney were determined during Plasmodium yoelii infection and pyrimethamine treatment in mice. Ammonia and lactate levels showed significant increase with rise in parasitaemia except in spleen where decrease in the lactate levels was observed. The glutamate level displayed a marked decrease in blood, liver and splenic tissues, whereas, significant increase in glutamate level in kidney was observed, although its level in cerebral tissue remained unaltered. The pyruvate level in blood and liver showed a noticeable decrease but brain, spleen and kidney registered an elevation of the same due to the parasitic infection. Pyrimethamine (oral) treatment (10 mg/kg body weight) to infected mice (5-10%) for four days brought back the altered levels of the above cellular constituents in different tissues to normal, a week after cessation of drug treatment.

  12. Lactational mastitis caused by Streptococcus lactarius.

    PubMed

    Tena, Daniel; Fernández, Cristina; López-Garrido, Beatriz; Pérez-Balsalobre, Mercedes; Losa, Cristina; Medina-Pascual, María José; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Human infections caused by Streptococcus lactarius have not been previously reported. In the present report, we describe a lactational mastitis caused by this organism. The infection occurred in a 28-year-old breast-feeding female, with a 10-days history of moderate pain on the right breast. The patient was cured after antibiotic treatment with levofloxacin for 21 days. Our case shows that S. lactarius should be considered as a cause of lactational mastitis. The introduction of molecular microbiology techniques can be extremely useful for knowing the implication of streptococci in lactational mastitis.

  13. A strategy to prevent the occurrence of Lactobacillus strains using lactate-tolerant yeast Candida glabrata in bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Itsuki; Nakamura, Toshihide; Shima, Jun

    2008-10-01

    Contamination of Lactobacillus sp. in the fermentation broth of bioethanol production decreases ethanol production efficiency. Although the addition of lactate to the broth can effectively inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus sp., it also greatly reduces the fermentation ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To overcome this conflict, lactate-tolerant yeast strains were screened. Candida glabrata strain NFRI 3164 was found to exhibit both higher levels of lactate tolerance and fermentation ability. Co-cultivation of C. glabrata was performed with Lactobacillus brevis and Lb. fermentum, which were reported as major contaminating bacteria during bioethanol production, in culture medium containing 2% lactate. Under these culture conditions, the growth of Lactobacillus strains was greatly inhibited, but the ethanol production of C. glabrata was not significantly affected. Our data show the possibility of designing an effective fuel ethanol production process that eliminates contamination by Lactobacillus strains through the combined use of lactate addition and C. glabrata.

  14. Reexamining cancer metabolism: lactate production for carcinogenesis could be the purpose and explanation of the Warburg Effect.

    PubMed

    San-Millán, Iñigo; Brooks, George A

    2016-12-17

    Herein, we use lessons learned in exercise physiology and metabolism to propose that augmented lactate production ('lactagenesis'), initiated by gene mutations, is the reason and purpose of the Warburg Effect and that dysregulated lactate metabolism and signaling are the key elements in carcinogenesis. Lactate-producing ('lactagenic') cancer cells are characterized by increased aerobic glycolysis and excessive lactate formation, a phenomenon described by Otto Warburg 93 years ago, which still remains unexplained. After a hiatus of several decades, interest in lactate as a player in cancer has been renewed. In normal physiology, lactate, the obligatory product of glycolysis, is an important metabolic fuel energy source, the most important gluconeogenic precursor, and a signaling molecule (i.e. a 'lactormone') with major regulatory properties. In lactagenic cancers, oncogenes and tumor suppressor mutations behave in a highly orchestrated manner, apparently with the purpose of increasing glucose utilization for lactagenesis purposes and lactate exchange between, within and among cells. Five main steps are identified (i) increased glucose uptake, (ii) increased glycolytic enzyme expression and activity, (iii) decreased mitochondrial function, (iv) increased lactate production, accumulation and release and (v) upregulation of monocarboxylate transporters MTC1 and MCT4 for lactate exchange. Lactate is probably the only metabolic compound involved and necessary in all main sequela for carcinogenesis, specifically: angiogenesis, immune escape, cell migration, metastasis and self-sufficient metabolism. We hypothesize that lactagenesis for carcinogenesis is the explanation and purpose of the Warburg Effect. Accordingly, therapies to limit lactate exchange and signaling within and among cancer cells should be priorities for discovery.

  15. Intestinal resident yeast Candida glabrata requires Cyb2p-mediated lactate assimilation to adapt in mouse intestine.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Keigo; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Uno, Jun; Sasamoto, Kaname; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kinjo, Yuki; Chibana, Hiroji

    2011-01-01

    The intestinal resident Candida glabrata opportunistically infects humans. However few genetic factors for adaptation in the intestine are identified in this fungus. Here we describe the C. glabrata CYB2 gene encoding lactate dehydrogenase as an adaptation factor for survival in the intestine. CYB2 was identified as a virulence factor by a silkworm infection study. To determine the function of CYB2, we analysed in vitro phenotypes of the mutant Δcyb2. The Δcyb2 mutant grew well in glucose medium under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, was not supersensitive to nitric oxide which has fungicidal-effect in phagocytes, and had normal levels of general virulence factors protease, lipase and adherence activities. A previous report suggested that Cyb2p is responsible for lactate assimilation. Additionally, it was speculated that lactate assimilation was required for Candida virulence because Candida must synthesize glucose via gluconeogenesis under glucose-limited conditions such as in the host. Indeed, the Δcyb2 mutant could not grow on lactate medium in which lactate is the sole carbon source in the absence of glucose, indicating that Cyb2p plays a role in lactate assimilation. We hypothesized that Cyb2p-mediated lactate assimilation is necessary for proliferation in the intestinal tract, as the intestine is rich in lactate produced by bacteria flora, but not glucose. The Δcyb2 mutant showed 100-fold decreased adaptation and few cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can adapt in mouse ceca. Interestingly, C. glabrata could assimilate lactate under hypoxic conditions, dependent on CYB2, but not yeast S. cerevisiae. Because accessible oxygen is limited in the intestine, the ability for lactate assimilation in hypoxic conditions may provide an advantage for a pathogenic yeast. From those results, we conclude that Cyb2p-mediated lactate assimilation is an intestinal adaptation factor of C. glabrata.

  16. Relationships between conception rate in Holstein heifers and cows and milk yield at various stages of lactation.

    PubMed

    Hagiya, K; Terawaki, Y; Yamazaki, T; Nagamine, Y; Itoh, F; Yamaguchi, S; Abe, H; Gotoh, Y; Kawahara, T; Masuda, Y; Suzuki, M

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the relationships between conception rates (CRs) at first service in Japanese Holstein heifers (i.e. animals that had not yet had their first calf) and cows and their test-day (TD) milk yields. Data included records of artificial insemination (AI) for heifers and cows that had calved for the first time between 2000 and 2008 and their TD milk yields at 6 through 305 days in milk (DIM) from first through third lactations. CR was defined as a binary trait for which first AI was a failure or success. A threshold-linear animal model was applied to estimate genetic correlations between CRs of heifers or cows and TD milk yield at various lactation stages. Two-trait genetic analyses were performed for every combination of CR and TD milk yield by using the Bayesian method with Gibbs sampling. The posterior means of the heritabilities of CR were 0.031 for heifers, 0.034 for first-lactation cows and 0.028 for second-lactation cows. Heritabilities for TD milk yield increased from 0.324 to 0.433 with increasing DIM but decreased slightly after 210 DIM during first lactation. These heritabilities from the second and third lactations were higher during late stages of lactation than during early stages. Posterior means of the genetic correlations between heifer CR and all TD yields were positive (range, 0.082 to 0.287), but those between CR of cows and milk yields during first or second lactation were negative (range, -0.121 to -0.250). Therefore, during every stage of lactation, selection in the direction of increasing milk yield may reduce CR in cows. The genetic relationships between CR and lactation curve shape were quite weak, because the genetic correlations between CR and TD milk yield were constant during the lactation period.

  17. On-farm evaluation of the effect of metabolic diseases on the shape of the lactation curve in dairy cows through the MilkBot lactation model.

    PubMed

    Hostens, M; Ehrlich, J; Van Ranst, B; Opsomer, G

    2012-06-01

    equally with or without another MD. Overall, 305-d milk production was decreased in complicated metritis (10,603 ± 50 kg vs. 10,114 ± 172 kg). Although care should be taken in generalizing conclusions from a highly specialized transition management facility, the current study demonstrated that lactation curve analysis may contribute substantially to the evaluation of both short- and long-term effects of metabolic diseases on milk production by detecting changes in the distribution of production that are not apparent when only totals are analyzed.

  18. Comparison of the Lactate Pro and Analox GM7 blood lactate analysers.

    PubMed

    van Someren, K A; Howatson, G; Nunan, D; Thatcher, R; Shave, R

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was firstly, to determine the level of agreement between the Lactate Pro and Analox GM7 for the measurement of blood lactate, and secondly, to examine whether these analysers may be used interchangeably to identify lactate parameters routinely used in the physiological assessment of athletes. Twenty well-trained male cyclists performed an incremental cycle ergometry test; duplicate blood samples were taken simultaneously throughout the test for lactate determination using the two analysers. Power output and heart rate at LT, LT1, 2 mmol.L-1, and 4 mmol.L-1 were calculated from the lactate values obtained from the two analysers. There was a strong linear relationship between the two analysers (Lactate Pro=1.4541xAnalox GM7-0.1287; R2=0.969, p<0.001; SEE=0.704) though the Lactate Pro overestimated blood lactate when compared to the Analox GM7; 95% ratio limits of agreement (Lactate Pro/Analox GM7) were 1.40x//1.35. Differences were found between analysers for power output and heart rate at LT1 (p<0.01), 2 mmol.L-1 (p<0.001), and 4 mmol.L-1 (p<0.001); no differences were found between analysers for power output or heart rate at LT. In conclusion, the average difference in blood lactate concentration measured by the Lactate Pro and the Analox GM7 was 40%, with 95% of measures differing by between 4% and 89%. This poor level of agreement and the significant differences between the two analysers in power output and heart rate associated with a number of lactate parameters indicate that these analysers should not be used interchangeably.

  19. Warming-Up Affects Performance and Lactate Distribution between Plasma and Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Patrick; Zinner, Christoph; Yue, Zengyuan; Bloch, Wilhelm; Mester, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Warming-up (WU) is a widely used preparation for training and competition. However, little is known about the potential mechanisms of WU on performance and on the lactate distribution in the blood compartment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether different WU procedures affect performance and lactate distribution between plasma and red blood cells (RBCs) after maximal exercise. At three different occasions eleven subjects performed one 30 s maximal effort exercise on a cycle ergometer. Before each exercise, subjects warmed up at different intensities: 1. no WU (NWU); 2. extensive WU (EWU); 3. intensive WU (IWU). Blood samples were taken under resting conditions, after WU, and in 1 minute intervals during recovery to determine lactate concentrations [LA] in whole blood ([LA]WB), plasma ([LA]plasma) and erythrocytes ([LA]RBC). Mean power output was +58 Watt (EWU) and +60 Watt (IWU) higher compared to NWU. For each WU condition [LA]plasma and [LA]RBC differed significantly at any time point, showing greater [LA]plasma compared to [LA]RBC. The maximal effort exercise caused a rapid decrease of the [LA]RBC/[LA]plasma ratio. [LA]RBC reached the peak 3-5 minutes later than [LA]plasma depending on the WU condition. The initial increments in [LA]RBC were 10-16% lower after IWU compared to NWU and EWU. The lower increment of [LA]RBC after IWU might be due to a “higher preloading” with lactate before exercise, causing a smaller initial [LA] gradient between plasma and RBCs. It seems that the influx decreases with increasing intracellular [LA]. Another possibility one could speculate about is, that the extracellular increase in [LA] inhibits the outflux of lactate produced by the RBC itself. This inhibited export of lactate from RBCs may lead to an intracellular lactate accumulation. But the relatively fast increase in [LA]RBC and other investigations partly contradicts this possibility. Key points Warm-up significantly improves performance during 30

  20. Genetics Home Reference: lactate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... dehydrogenase-B pieces (subunits) of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme. This enzyme is found throughout the body and is important ... cells. There are five different forms of this enzyme, each made up of four protein subunits. Various ...

  1. Phyllodes Tumor in a Lactating Breast

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Sudha S.; Raju, K. V. V. N.; Nair, Haripreetha G.

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumor is attributed to a small fraction of primary tumors of the breast. Such tumors occur rarely in pregnancy and lactation. We report a case of a 25-year-old lactating mother presenting with a lump in the left breast. Core needle biopsy was opined as phyllodes tumor with lactational changes, and subsequent wide local excision confirmed the diagnosis of benign phyllodes tumor with lactational changes. The characteristic gross and microscopic findings of a well-circumscribed lesion with leaf-like fibroepithelial growth pattern and typical nonuniform or diffuse stromal proliferation with periductal accentuation even in the absence of mitotic figures can help clinch the diagnosis. Benign phyllodes is known for its recurrence and requires wide excision and close follow-up. It is vital to identify these lesions even on limited biopsies as therapeutic options differ. This case is presented for its rarity and the diagnostic challenge it poses in limited biopsy. PMID:27081326

  2. [Natural remedies during pregnancy and lactation].

    PubMed

    Gut, E; Melzer, J; von Mandach, U; Saller, R

    2004-10-01

    Up to date there is a lack of systematically gathered data on the use of natural remedies (phytotherapeutic, homeopathic, anthroposophic, spagyric, Bach and Schussler remedies) during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this non-representative pilot study on 139 women, who came for delivery to three institutions between mid-1997 and the beginning of 1998, was to receive data about how often and within which spectrum natural remedies are used during pregnancy and lactation. During pregnancy 96% and within the lactation period 84% of the women consumed at least 1 natural remedy. Phytotherapeutic drugs were used most frequently. In contrast to the widespread use of natural remedies by pregnant women and nursing mothers in this study, little information on the effectiveness and possible risks is available. Therefore it seems necessary to examine and evaluate natural remedies used during pregnancy and lactation.

  3. Green tea extract intake during lactation modified cardiac macrophage infiltration and AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in weanling rats from undernourished mother during gestation and lactation.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, E; Kataoka, S; Mukai, Y; Sato, M; Sato, S

    2017-04-01

    Maternal dietary restriction is often associated with cardiovascular disease in offspring. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) intake during lactation on macrophage infiltration, and activation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and serine-threonine kinase Akt (Akt) in the hearts of weanlings exposed to maternal dietary protein restriction. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed control (C) or low-protein diets (LP) throughout gestation. Following delivery, the dams received a control or a GTE-containing control diet during lactation: control diet during gestation and lactation (CC), low-protein diet during gestation and lactation (LPC), low-protein diet during gestation and 0.12% GTE-containing low-protein diet during lactation (LPL), and low-protein diet during gestation and 0.24% GTE-containing low-protein diet during lactation (LPH). The female offspring were sacrificed at day 22. Biochemical parameters in the plasma, macrophage infiltration, degree of fibrosis and expression levels of AMPK and Akt were examined. The plasma insulin level increased in LPH compared with LPC. Percentage of the fibrotic areas and the number of macrophages in LPC were higher than those in CC. Conversely, the fibrotic areas and the macrophage number in LPH were smaller (21 and 56%, respectively) than those in LPC. The levels of phosphorylated AMPK in LPL and LPH, and Akt in LPH were greater than those in LPC. In conclusion, maternal protein restriction may induce macrophage infiltration and the decrease of insulin levels. However, GTE intake during lactation may suppress macrophage infiltration and restore insulin secretion function via upregulation of AMPK and insulin signaling in weanlings.

  4. Hormonal and lactational responses to growth hormone-releasing hormone treatment in lactating Japanese Black cows.

    PubMed

    Shingu, H; Hodate, K; Kushibiki, S; Ueda, Y; Touno, E; Shinoda, M; Ohashi, S

    2004-06-01

    Ten multiparous lactating Japanese Black cows (beef breed) were used to evaluate the effects of bovine growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) analog on milk yield and profiles of plasma hormones and metabolites. The cows received 2 consecutive 21-d treatments (a daily s.c. injection of 3-mg GHRH analog or saline) in a 2 (group) x 2 (period) Latin square crossover design. The 5 cows in group A received GHRH analog during period 1 (from d 22 to 42 postpartum) and saline during period 2 (from d 57 to 77 postpartum), and those in group B received saline and GHRH analog during periods 1 and 2, respectively. Mean milk yield decreased in saline treated compared with that during the 1-wk period before treatment 7.4 and 19.1% during periods 1 (group B) and 2 (group A), respectively. Treatment with GHRH analog increased milk yield 17.4% (period 1, group A) and 6.3% (period 2, group B). Treatment with GHRH analog induced higher basal plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin, and glucose compared with saline-treated cows. In glucose challenge, the GHRH analog-treated beef cows had greater insulin secretion than the saline-treated beef cows. In insulin challenge, however, there were no significant differences in the areas surrounded by hypothetical lines of basal glucose concentrations and glucose response curves between GHRH analog- and saline-treated cows. These results demonstrate that GHRH analog treatment facilitates endogenous GH secretion in lactating Japanese Black cows, leading to increases in milk yield and plasma concentrations of IGF-1, insulin, and glucose.

  5. Lactate shuttling and lactate use as fuel after traumatic brain injury: metabolic considerations

    PubMed Central

    Dienel, Gerald A

    2014-01-01

    Lactate is proposed to be generated by astrocytes during glutamatergic neurotransmission and shuttled to neurons as ‘preferred' oxidative fuel. However, a large body of evidence demonstrates that metabolic changes during activation of living brain disprove essential components of the astrocyte–neuron lactate shuttle model. For example, some glutamate is oxidized to generate ATP after its uptake into astrocytes and neuronal glucose phosphorylation rises during activation and provides pyruvate for oxidation. Extension of the notion that lactate is a preferential fuel into the traumatic brain injury (TBI) field has important clinical implications, and the concept must, therefore, be carefully evaluated before implementation into patient care. Microdialysis studies in TBI patients demonstrate that lactate and pyruvate levels and lactate/pyruvate ratios, along with other data, have important diagnostic value to distinguish between ischemia and mitochondrial dysfunction. Results show that lactate release from human brain to blood predominates over its uptake after TBI, and strong evidence for lactate metabolism is lacking; mitochondrial dysfunction may inhibit lactate oxidation. Claims that exogenous lactate infusion is energetically beneficial for TBI patients are not based on metabolic assays and data are incorrectly interpreted. PMID:25204393

  6. L-Lactate protects neurons against excitotoxicity: implication of an ATP-mediated signaling cascade

    PubMed Central

    Jourdain, P.; Allaman, I.; Rothenfusser, K.; Fiumelli, H.; Marquet, P.; Magistretti, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Converging experimental data indicate a neuroprotective action of L-Lactate. Using Digital Holographic Microscopy, we observe that transient application of glutamate (100 μM; 2 min) elicits a NMDA-dependent death in 65% of mouse cortical neurons in culture. In the presence of L-Lactate (or Pyruvate), the percentage of neuronal death decreases to 32%. UK5099, a blocker of the Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier, fully prevents L-Lactate-mediated neuroprotection. In addition, L-Lactate-induced neuroprotection is not only inhibited by probenicid and carbenoxolone, two blockers of ATP channel pannexins, but also abolished by apyrase, an enzyme degrading ATP, suggesting that ATP produced by the Lactate/Pyruvate pathway is released to act on purinergic receptors in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Finally, pharmacological approaches support the involvement of the P2Y receptors associated to the PI3-kinase pathway, leading to activation of KATP channels. This set of results indicates that L-Lactate acts as a signalling molecule for neuroprotection against excitotoxicity through coordinated cellular pathways involving ATP production, release and activation of a P2Y/KATP cascade. PMID:26893204

  7. Transport of lactate and other short-chain monocarboxylates in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Cássio, F; Leão, C; van Uden, N

    1987-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae IGC4072 grown in lactic acid medium transported lactate by an accumulative electroneutral proton-lactate symport with a proton-lactate stoichiometry of 1:1. The accumulation ratio measured with propionate increased with decreasing pH from ca. 24-fold at pH 6.0 to ca. 1,400-fold at pH 3.0. The symport accepted the following monocarboxylates (Km values at 25 degrees C and pH 5.5): D-lactate (0.13 mM), L-lactate (0.13 mM), pyruvate (0.34 mM), propionate (0.09 mM), and acetate (0.05 mM), whereas apparently a different proton symport accepted formate (0.13 mM). The lactate system was inducible and was subject to glucose repression. Undissociated lactic acid entered the cells by simple diffusion. The permeability of the plasma membrane for undissociated lactic acid increased exponentially with pH, and the diffusion constant increased 40-fold when the pH was increased from 3.0 to 6.0. PMID:3034152

  8. Milk residues and performance of lactating dairy cows administered high doses of monensin.

    PubMed

    Bagg, Randal; Vessie, Gordon H; Dick, C Paul; Duffield, Todd; Wilson, Jeff B; Aramini, Jeff J

    2005-07-01

    Milk residues and performance were evaluated in lactating cows that were fed up to 10 times the recommended dose of monensin. Following an acclimatization period of 14 d, during which cows were fed a standard lactating cow total mixed ration containing 24 ppm monensin, 18 lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped according to the level of feed intake and then randomly assigned within each group to 1 of 3 challenge rations delivering 72, 144, and 240 ppm monensin. Outcome measurements included individual cow daily feed intakes, daily milk production, body weights, and monensin residues in composite milk samples from each cow. There were no detectable monensin residues (< 0.005 microg/mL) in any of the milk samples collected. Lactating cows receiving a dose of 72 ppm monensin exhibited up to a 20% reduction in dry matter intake, and a 5% to 15% drop in milk production from the pre-challenge period. Cows receiving doses of 144 and 240 ppm monensin exhibited rapid decreases in feed intake of up to 50% by the 2nd d and milk production losses of up to 20% and 30%, respectively, within 4 d. Lactating cows receiving up to 4865 mg monensin per day had no detectable monensin residues (< 0.005 microg/mL) in any of the milk samples collected. Results of this study confirm that food products derived from lactating dairy cattle receiving monensin at recommended levels are safe for human consumption.

  9. Interaction of Factors Related to Lactation Duration

    PubMed Central

    Boettcher, Joan P; Chezem, Jo Carol; Roepke, Judith; Whitaker, Tracy Adams

    1999-01-01

    Perceived social support and interpersonal dependency were studied as potential factors associated with lactation duration based upon previous breastfeeding experience. Inexperienced breastfeeding mothers perceived more social support than experienced breastfeeding mothers did. Perceived social support was not significantly correlated with lactation duration. An ancillary finding was that women providing a combination of breast milk and human milk substitutes had significantly lower social self-confidence than did mothers providing breast milk exclusively. PMID:22945984

  10. Iodine nutrition in pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Leung, Angela M; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Braverman, Lewis E

    2011-12-01

    Adequate iodine intake is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones that are important for normal fetal and infant neurodevelopment. In this review, we discuss iodine physiology during pregnancy and lactation, methods to assess iodine sufficiency, the importance of adequate iodine nutrition, studies of iodine supplementation during pregnancy and lactation, the consequences of hypothyroidism during pregnancy, the current status of iodine nutrition in the United States, the global efforts toward achieving universal iodine sufficiency, and substances that may interfere with iodine use.

  11. The effects of lactation on impulsive behavior in vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats.

    PubMed

    Aliczki, Mano; Fodor, Anna; Balogh, Zoltan; Haller, Jozsef; Zelena, Dora

    2014-08-01

    Vasopressin (AVP)-deficient Brattleboro rats develop a specific behavioral profile, which-among other things-include altered cognitive performance. This profile is markedly affected by alterations in neuroendocrine state of the animal such as during lactation. Given the links between AVP and cognition we hypothesized that AVP deficiency may lead to changes in impulsivity that is under cognitive control and the changes might be altered by lactation. Comparing virgin and lactating AVP-deficient female Brattleboro rats to their respective controls, we assessed the putative lactation-dependent effects of AVP deficiency on impulsivity in the delay discounting paradigm. Furthermore, to investigate the basis of such effects, we assessed possible interactions of AVP deficiency with GABAergic and serotonergic signaling and stress axis activity, systems playing important roles in impulse control. Our results showed that impulsivity was unaltered by AVP deficiency in virgin rats. In contrast a lactation-induced increase in impulsivity was abolished by AVP deficiency in lactating females. We also found that chlordiazepoxide-induced facilitation of GABAergic and imipramine-induced enhancement of serotonergic activity in virgins led to increased and decreased impulsivity, respectively. In contrast, during lactation these effects were visible only in AVP-deficient rats. These rats also exhibited increased stress axis activity compared to virgin animals, an effect that was abolished by AVP deficiency. Taken together, AVP appears to play a role in the regulation of impulsivity exclusively during lactation: it has an impulsivity increasing effect which is potentially mediated via stress axis-dependent mechanisms and fine-tuning of GABAergic and serotonergic function.

  12. Breast pumping and lactational state exert differential effects on ethanol pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Julie A; Pepino, M Yanina

    2010-03-01

    Prior research revealed that breast stimulation altered the way the lactating body handles alcohol. Its effects depended upon when it occurred relative to drinking. The goal of the present study was to determine whether breast pumping works independently of the physiological and metabolic changes that accompany lactation. To this end, we tested 12 women when they were exclusively breastfeeding 3-5-month-old infants and then again several months after lactation had ceased. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups that differed in the timing of breast pumping relative to drinking a 0.4g/kg dose of alcohol: one group breast pumped 0.6h after drinking (pumped after group) and the other pumped 1h before drinking (pumped before group). For each reproductive stage, subjects were tested on 2 separate days, consuming a standardized meal 1 h before drinking during 1 test day and remaining fasted during the other. Breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC) and temperature readings were obtained before and at fixed intervals after drinking. Pumping before drinking significantly decreased BrAC during both reproductive stages, whereas pumping after drinking resulted in different BrAC time curves during lactation when compared with after lactation. That is, levels were significantly lower during the descending phase of the time curve during than after lactation. The interactions between pumping and reproductive stage were most apparent during fed condition. Furthermore, women were more sensitive to hypothermic effects of both fasting and drinking alcohol during lactation. These findings add to the growing literature that lactating women metabolize alcohol differently, in part, due to the frequent breast stimulation during breastfeeding and the pronounced physiological changes that accompany one of the most energetically costly mammalian activities.

  13. Prolactin inhibition at the end of lactation programs for a central hypothyroidism in adult rat.

    PubMed

    Bonomo, Isabela Teixeira; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; Passos, Magna Cottini Fonseca; Alves, Simone Bezerra; Reis, Adelina Martha; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar

    2008-08-01

    Malnutrition during lactation is associated with hypoprolactinemia and failure in milk production. Adult rats whose mothers were malnourished presented higher body weight and serum tri-iodothyronine (T(3)). Maternal hypoprolactinemia at the end of lactation caused higher body weight in adult life, suggesting an association between maternal prolactin (PRL) level and programming of the offspring's adult body weight. Here, we studied the consequences of the maternal PRL inhibition at the end of lactation by bromocriptine (BRO) injection, a dopaminergic agonist, upon serum TSH and thyroid hormones, thyroid iodide uptake, liver mitochondrial alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (mGPD), liver and pituitary de-iodinase activities (D1 and/or D2), and in vitro post-TRH TSH release in the adult offspring. Wistar lactating rats were divided into BRO - injected with 1 mg/twice a day, daily for the last 3 days of lactation, and C - control, saline-injected with the same frequency. At 180 days of age, the offspring were injected with (125)I i.p. and after 2 h, they were killed. Adult animals whose mothers were treated with BRO at the end of lactation presented lower serum TSH (-51%), T(3) (-23%), and thyroxine (-21%), lower thyroid (125)I uptake (-41%), liver mGPD (-55%), and pituitary D2 (-51%) activities, without changes in the in vitro post-TRH TSH release. We show that maternal PRL suppression at the end of lactation programs a hypometabolic state in adulthood, in part due to a thyroid hypofunction, caused by a central hypothyroidism, probably due to decreased TRH secretion. We suggest that PRL during lactation can regulate the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis and programs its function.

  14. Working memory and blood lactate levels.

    PubMed

    Perciavalle, Valentina; Maci, Tiziana; Perciavalle, Vincenzo; Massimino, Simona; Coco, Marinella

    2015-11-01

    The accumulation of lactate in the blood after a high-intensity exercise is associated with an increase of lactate extractions by the brain. Previously, a negative influence of blood lactate on attentional processes has been observed. The present study was carried out to examine the association of high blood lactate levels, induced with a maximal cycling, with another cognitive domain: working memory. For evaluation of working memory two different protocols were used: the first (Self-Ordered Pointing Task) capable of analyzing non-spatial working memory requiring the ability to generate and monitor a sequence of responses and the second for evaluating motor working memory necessary to perform a motor task. The study was carried out in 30 students (15 males and 15 females) who performed exhaustive exercise. In each subject, blood lactate was measured and motor as well as non-motor forms of working memory were evaluated before the exercise, at its end as well as 15 min after the exhaustion. It was observed that an increase of blood lactate levels is associated with a worsening of both types of working memory.

  15. Blood flow and nutrient exchange across the liver and gut of the dairy cow. Effects of lactation and fasting.

    PubMed

    Lomax, M A; Baird, G D

    1983-05-01

    The rate of blood flow in the portal and hepatic veins, and the net exchange across the gut and liver of volatile fatty acids (VFA), glucose, lactate, pyruvate, amino acids, ketone bodies, glycerol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and oxygen, were measured in lactating and non-lactating cows (a) in the normal, fed state and (b) before, during and after 6 d of fasting. Blood flow rate through the liver was 52% higher in normal, fed, lactating cows as compared with non-lactating cows, and was decreased by fasting in both groups of cows. Portal blood flow rate increased with an increase in metabolizable energy (ME) intake. Lactating, as compared with non-lactating, cows exhibited lower arterial concentrations of glucose and lactate, higher net portal outputs of VFA and ketone bodies, a higher net hepatic output of glucose, and higher net hepatic uptake of propionate and lactate. The splanchnic outputs of acetate, glucose and hydroxybutyrate were all apparently greater in the lactating cows. Fasting caused a rapid decrease in the blood concentrations of the VFA and an increase in those of glycerol and NEFA. The portal, i.e. gut, outputs of VFA, lactate, ketone bodies, alanine and (serine + threonine), and the portal uptake of O2, were all decreased by fasting. Fasting for 6 h also decreased the hepatic output of glucose and acetate by 77 and 95% respectively, increased the hepatic uptake of pyruvate, glycerol and NEFA, and doubled hepatic ketone-body output. The splanchnic output of acetate and glucose and the splanchnic uptake of O2 were also decreased by fasting. The net portal outputs of VFA, lactate and hydroxybutyrate, and the net hepatic output of glucose, were all correlated with ME intake in fed and fasted cows. Hepatic glucose output was also correlated with milk yield. The net hepatic uptake of gluconeogenic precursors measured in this study could account for net hepatic glucose output in the fasted cows, but not in the fed cows. The net hepatic uptake of

  16. Lactate clearance as the predictor of outcome in pediatric septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Richa; Sitaraman, Sadasivan; Choudhary, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Context: Septic shock can rapidly evolve into multiple system organ failure and death. In the recent years, hyperlactatemia has been found to be a risk factor for mortality in critically ill adults. Aims: To evaluate the predictive value of lactate clearance and to determine the optimal cut-off value for predicting outcome in children with septic shock. Settings and Design: A prospective observational study was performed on children with septic shock admitted to pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Subjects and Methods: Serial lactate levels were measured at PICU admission, 24 and 48 h later. Lactate clearance, percent decrease in lactate level in 24 h, was calculated. The primary outcome measure was survival or nonsurvival at the end of hospital stay. We performed receiver operating characteristic analyses to calculate optimal cut-off values. Results: The mean lactate levels at admission were significantly higher in the nonsurvivors than survivors, 5.12 ± 3.51 versus 3.13 ± 1.71 mmol/L (P = 0.0001). The cut-off for lactate level at admission for the best prediction of mortality was determined as ≥4 mmol/L (odds ratio 5.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.45–12.09). Mean lactate clearance was significantly higher in survivors than nonsurvivors (17.9 ± 39.9 vs. −23.2 ± 62.7; P < 0.0001). A lactate clearance rate of <10% at 24 h had a sensitivity and specificity of 78.7% and 72.2%, respectively and a positive predictive value of 83.1% for death. Failure to achieve a lactate clearance of more than 10% was associated with greater risk of mortality (likelihood ratio + 2.83; 95% CI = 1.82–4.41). Conclusions: Serial lactate levels can be used to predict outcome in pediatric septic shock. A 24 h lactate clearance cut-off of <10% is a predictor of in-hospital mortality in such patients. PMID:28367008

  17. Regulation of cell growth and apoptosis through lactate dehydrogenase C over-expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Tuo; Zhang, Cunchao; Jing, Yu; Jiang, Cheng; Li, Zhenhua; Wang, Shengyu; Ma, Kai; Zhang, Dapeng; Hou, Sheng; Dai, Jianxin; Kou, Geng; Wang, Hao

    2016-06-01

    Lactate has long been credited as a by-product, which jeopardizes cell growth and productivity when accumulated over a certain concentration during the manufacturing process of therapeutic recombinant proteins by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. A number of efforts to decrease the lactate concentration have been developed; however, the accumulation of lactate is still a critical issue by the late stage of fed-batch culture. Therefore, a lactate-tolerant cell line was developed through over-expression of lactate dehydrogenase C (LDH-C). In fed-batch culture, sodium lactate or sodium pyruvate was supplemented into the culture medium to simulate the environment of lactate accumulation, and LDH-C over-expression increased the highest viable cell density by over 30 and 50 %, respectively, on day 5, meanwhile the viability was also improved significantly since day 5 compared with that of the control. The percentages of cells suffering early and late apoptosis decreased by 3.2 to 12.5 and 2.0 to 4.3 %, respectively, from day 6 onwards in the fed-batch culture when 40 mM sodium pyruvate was added compared to the control. The results were confirmed by mitochondrial membrane potential assay. In addition, the expression of cleaved caspases 3 and 7 decreased in cells over-expressing LDH-C, suggesting the mitochondrial pathway was involved in the LDH-C regulated anti-apoptosis. In conclusion, a novel cell line with higher lactate tolerance, lowered lactate production, and alleviated apoptosis response was developed by over-expression of LDH-C, which may potentially represent an efficient and labor-saving approach in generating recombinant proteins.

  18. Continuous lactation effects on mammary remodeling during late gestation and lactation in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Safayi, S; Theil, P K; Hou, L; Engbaek, M; Nørgaard, J V; Sejrsen, K; Nielsen, M O

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to 1) elucidate whether continuous milking during late gestation in dairy goats negatively affects mammary remodeling and hence milk production in the subsequent lactation, and 2) identify the regulatory factors responsible for changes in cell turnover and angiogenesis in the continuously lactating mammary gland. Nine multiparous dairy goats were used. One udder half was dried off approximately 9 wk prepartum (normal lactation; NL), and the other udder half of the same goat was milked continuously (continuous lactation; CL) until parturition or until the half-udder milk yields had dropped to below 50 g/d. Mammary biopsies were obtained from each udder half just before the NL gland was dried off (before dry period), within the first 2 wk after drying-off (early dry period, samples available only for NL glands), in the mid dry period, within the last 2 wk before parturition (late dry period), and at d 1 (the day of parturition), 3, 10, 60, and 180 of lactation. Mammary morphology was characterized in biopsies by quantitative histology, and cell turnover was determined by immunohistochemistry (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and Ki-67). Transcription of genes encoding factors involved in mammary epithelial cell (MEC) turnover and vascular function was quantified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Results demonstrated that omitting the dry period was possible in goats but was not as easy as claimed before. Renewal of MEC was suppressed in CL glands, which resulted in a smaller MEC population in the subsequent lactation. At the time of parturition (and throughout lactation), the mammary glands subjected to CL had smaller alveoli, more fully differentiated MEC, and a substantially larger capillary fraction compared with NL glands. The continuously lactating gland thus resembled a normally lactating gland in an advanced stage of lactation. None of the studied genomic factors could account for these treatment

  19. Treatment of β-Thalassemia/Hemoglobin E with Antioxidant Cocktails Results in Decreased Oxidative Stress, Increased Hemoglobin Concentration, and Improvement of the Hypercoagulable State

    PubMed Central

    Yanpanitch, Orn-uma; Hatairaktham, Suneerat; Charoensakdi, Ratiya; Panichkul, Narumol; Fucharoen, Suthat; Siritanaratkul, Noppadol; Kalpravidh, Ruchaneekorn W.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the antioxidant treatment for thalassemia have reported variable outcomes. However, treatment of thalassemia with a combination of hydrophobic and hydrophilic antioxidants and an iron chelator has not been studied. This study investigated the effects of antioxidant cocktails for the treatment of β-thalassemia/hemoglobin E (HbE), which is the most common form of β-thalassemia in Southeast Asia. Sixty patients were divided into two groups receiving N-acetylcysteine, deferiprone, and either curcuminoids (CUR) or vitamin E (Vit-E), and their hematological parameters, iron load, oxidative stress, and blood coagulation potential were evaluated. Patients were classified as responders if they showed the improvements of the markers of iron load and oxidative stress, otherwise as nonresponders. During treatment, the responders in both groups had significantly decreased iron load, oxidative stress, and coagulation potential and significantly increased antioxidant capacity and hemoglobin concentration. The significantly maximum increase (P < 0.01) in hemoglobin concentration was 11% at month 4 in CUR group responders and 10% at month 10 in Vit-E group responders. In conclusion, the two antioxidant cocktails can improve anemia, iron overload, oxidative stress, and hypercoagulable state in β-thalassemia/HbE. PMID:26078808

  20. Lactate and force production in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Michael; Albertsen, Janni; Rentsch, Maria; Juel, Carsten

    2005-01-15

    Lactic acid accumulation is generally believed to be involved in muscle fatigue. However, one study reported that in rat soleus muscle (in vitro), with force depressed by high external K(+) concentrations a subsequent incubation with lactic acid restores force and thereby protects against fatigue. However, incubation with 20 mm lactic acid reduces the pH gradient across the sarcolemma, whereas the gradient is increased during muscle activity. Furthermore, unlike active muscle the Na(+)-K(+) pump is not activated. We therefore hypothesized that lactic acid does not protect against fatigue in active muscle. Three incubation solutions were used: 20 mM Na-lactate (which acidifies internal pH), 12 mM Na-lactate +8 mm lactic acid (which mimics the pH changes during muscle activity), and 20 mM lactic acid (which acidifies external pH more than internal pH). All three solutions improved force in K(+)-depressed rat soleus muscle. The pH regulation associated with lactate incubation accelerated the Na(+)-K(+) pump. To study whether the protective effect of lactate/lactic acid is a general mechanism, we stimulated muscles to fatigue with and without pre-incubation. None of the incubation solutions improved force development in repetitively stimulated muscle (Na-lactate had a negative effect). It is concluded that although lactate/lactic acid incubation regains force in K(+)-depressed resting muscle, a similar incubation has no or a negative effect on force development in active muscle. It is suggested that the difference between the two situations is that lactate/lactic acid removes the negative consequences of an unusual large depolarization in the K(+)-treated passive muscle, whereas the depolarization is less pronounced in active muscle.

  1. Glycolysis and the significance of lactate in traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Keri L. H.; Jalloh, Ibrahim; Hutchinson, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    In traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients, elevation of the brain extracellular lactate concentration and the lactate/pyruvate ratio are well-recognized, and are associated statistically with unfavorable clinical outcome. Brain extracellular lactate was conventionally regarded as a waste product of glucose, when glucose is metabolized via glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway) to pyruvate, followed by conversion to lactate by the action of lactate dehydrogenase, and export of lactate into the extracellular fluid. In TBI, glycolytic lactate is ascribed to hypoxia or mitochondrial dysfunction, although the precise nature of the latter is incompletely understood. Seemingly in contrast to lactate's association with unfavorable outcome is a growing body of evidence that lactate can be beneficial. The idea that the brain can utilize lactate by feeding into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle of neurons, first published two decades ago, has become known as the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis. Direct evidence of brain utilization of lactate was first obtained 5 years ago in a cerebral microdialysis study in TBI patients, where administration of 13C-labeled lactate via the microdialysis catheter and simultaneous collection of the emerging microdialysates, with 13C NMR analysis, revealed 13C labeling in glutamine consistent with lactate utilization via the TCA cycle. This suggests that where neurons are too damaged to utilize the lactate produced from glucose by astrocytes, i.e., uncoupling of neuronal and glial metabolism, high extracellular levels of lactate would accumulate, explaining the association between high lactate and poor outcome. Recently, an intravenous exogenous lactate supplementation study in TBI patients revealed evidence for a beneficial effect judged by surrogate endpoints. Here we review the current state of knowledge about glycolysis and lactate in TBI, how it can be measured in patients, and whether it can be modulated to achieve better

  2. Serotonin as a homeostatic regulator of lactation.

    PubMed

    Collier, R J; Hernandez, L L; Horseman, N D

    2012-08-01

    Serotonin (5-HT), a neurotransmitter produced in mammary epithelial cells (MECs), acts via autocrine-paracrine mechanisms on MECs to regulate milk secretion in a variety of species. Recent studies in dairy cows reported that 5-HT ligands affect milk yield and composition. We determined the mRNA expression of bovine 5-HT receptor (5-HTR) subtypes in bovine mammary tissue (BMT) and cultured bovine MECs. We then used pharmacologic agents to evaluate functional activities of 5-HTR subtypes. The mRNAs for five receptor isoforms (5-HTR1B, 5-HTR2A, 5-HTR2B, 5-HTR4, and 5-HTR7) were identified by conventional reverse transcription PCR, real-time PCR, and in situ hybridization in BMT. In addition to luminal MEC expression, 5-HTR4 was expressed in myoepithelium, and 5-HTR1B, HTR2A, and HTR2B were expressed in small mammary blood vessels. Studies to date report that there are multiple 5-HTR isoforms in mammary tissue of rodents, humans, and cattle. Inhibition of the 5-HT reuptake transporter with selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) disrupted tight junctions and decreased milk protein mRNA expression in mouse, human, and bovine mammary cells. Selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors act to increase the cellular exposure to 5-HT by preventing reuptake of 5-HT by the cell and eventual degradation. Increasing 5-HT concentration in milk via inhibiting its reuptake (SSRI), or by increasing the precursor for 5-HT synthesis 5-hydroxytryptophan, accelerated decline in milk synthesis at dry-off. We conclude that the 5-HT system in mammary tissue acts as a homeostatic regulator of lactation.

  3. Concentrations of preptin, salusins and hepcidins in plasma and milk of lactating women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Suleyman; Celik, Onder; Gurates, Bilgin; Sahin, Ibrahim; Ulas, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Musa; Kalayci, Mehmet; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Catak, Zekiye; Aksoy, Aziz; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanefi; Kumru, Selahattin

    2013-11-01

    This study was undertaken to ascertain whether human milk contains preptin, salusin-alpha (salusin-α) and -beta (salusin-β) and pro-hepcidin and hepcidin-25, and whether there are relationships between plasma and milk preptin, salusin-α and -β and pro-hepcidin and hepcidin-25 concentrations in lactating mothers with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Blood was obtained from non-lactating women (n = 12), non-diabetic lactating women (n = 12), and GDM lactating women (n = 12). Colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk samples were collected just before suckling from healthy and GDM lactating women. Peptides concentrations were determined by ELISA and EIA. Mammary gland tissues were screened immunohistochemically for these peptides. Women with GDM had significantly higher plasma and colostum preptin concentrations than healthy lactating women during the colostral and transitional milk period. Salusin-alpha and -beta levels in milk and plasma were lower in women with GDM. Salusin-α and -β were significantly lower in both plasma and colostrums of GDM than of healthy lactating women. Women with GDM had significantly higher colostum prohepcidin and hepcidin-25 concentrations than healthy lactating women during the colostral period. Plasma prohepcidin was also higher in women with GDM than in healthy lactating women during the colostral period, but plasma prohepcidin and hepcidin-25 levels decreased during mature milk period. Transitional milk pro-hepcidin and hepcidin-25 levels in women with GDM were higher than in healthy lactating women. All these results revealed that the mammary gland produces those peptides, which were present in milk at levels correlating with plasma concentrations.

  4. [Interference of ethylene glycol on lactate assays].

    PubMed

    Graïne, H; Toumi, K; Roullier, V; Capeau, J; Lefèvre, G

    2007-01-01

    Ethylene glycol is broken down to three main organic acids: glycolic acid, glyoxylic acid and oxalic acid which cause severe metabolic acidosis. Effect of these three acids on lactate assays was evaluated in five blood gas analysers and two clinical chemistry analysers. For all systems, no influence of oxalic acid on lactate results could be demonstrated. No interference of glycolic acid could be observed on lactate assay performed with Rapid Lab 1265 (R: 104,9 +/- 12,1%), Vitros 950 (R: 105,7 +/- 5,3 %) and Architect ci8200 (R: 104,9 +/- 4,7%), but on the contrary, CCX 4, OMNI S, ABL 725 and 825 demonstrated a concentration-dependent interference. No interference of glyoxylic acid could be observed with Vitros 950, but a positive interference could be observed with ABL 725 and 825, OMNI S, CCX4 and Architect ci8200 A linear relationship between apparent lactate concentration found with ABL 725 and 825, OMNI S, CCX 4, and glyoxylic acid could be observed (0,94 < r < 0,99), a weaker interference being observed with Rapid Lab 1265 and Architect ci 8200. Our results demonstrated that in case of ethylene glycol poisoning, cautious interpretation of lactate assay should be done, since wrong results of lactacidemia could lead to misdiagnostic and delay patient treatment.

  5. Lactate metabolism during exercise in patients with mitochondrial myopathy.

    PubMed

    Jeppesen, Tina D; Orngreen, Mette C; Van Hall, Gerrit; Vissing, John

    2013-08-01

    Patients with mitochondrial DNA mutations often have elevated plasma lactate at rest and during exercise, but it is unknown whether the high lactate levels are caused by a high production, an impaired oxidation or a combination. We studied lactate kinetics in 10 patients with mtDNA mutations and 10 matched healthy control subjects at rest and during cycle exercise with a combination of femoral arterio-venous differences of lactate, and lactate tracer dilution methodology. During exercise, lactate concentration and production rates were several-fold higher in patients, but despite mitochondrial dysfunction, lactate was oxidized in muscle to the same extent as in healthy control subjects. This surprisingly high ability to burn lactate in working muscle with defective mitochondria, probably relates to the variability of oxidative capacity among muscle fibers. The data suggests that lactate is not solely an indicator of impaired oxidative capacity, but an important fuel for oxidative metabolism, even in muscle with severely impaired mitochondrial function.

  6. Limits to sustainable energy budget during lactation in the striped hamster (Cricetulus barabensis) raising litters of different size.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Jun; Chi, Qing-Sheng; Cao, Jing

    2010-08-01

    A female animal appears to approach an upper limit to the rate of sustained energy intake/metabolic rate (SusEI/MR) during lactation. However, different species of animals may respond differently to the sustainable limit. Here, we measured energy budget during lactation in female striped hamsters raising litters of natural size (Con), and females whose litter size was manipulated during early lactation to support fewer or more pups (minus pups, MP or plus pups, PP). The striped hamsters significantly decreased their body mass and increased food intake from early to late lactation; and MP females had lower weight loss and food intake than the control and PP females. Litter size of the PP group decreased significantly over the period of lactation, and pups were weaned at a similar weight to that of the controls. MP females supported a significantly lower litter mass throughout lactation compared with the control and PP females, but during late lactation the pups from the MP group were significantly heavier. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) did not differ significantly between the three groups and the gross energy intake during peak lactation was 5.0 ×, 4.2 × and 5.0 × RMR for the control, MP and PP females, respectively. Female striped hamsters reached a plateau in food intake at around 14 g/d during peak lactation, which might signify a limit of SusEI at 5.0 × RMR. However, it was not possible to determine whether the limitation on SusEI was imposed centrally by the capacity of the gastrointestinal tract to process food, peripherally by the capacity of the mammary gland to produce milk, or by the capacity of animals to dissipate heat.

  7. Cumulative lactate and hospital mortality in ICU patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Both hyperlactatemia and persistence of hyperlactatemia have been associated with bad outcome. We compared lactate and lactate-derived variables in outcome prediction. Methods Retrospective observational study. Case records from 2,251 consecutive intensive care unit (ICU) patients admitted between 2001 and 2007 were analyzed. Baseline characteristics, all lactate measurements, and in-hospital mortality were recorded. The time integral of arterial blood lactate levels above the upper normal threshold of 2.2 mmol/L (lactate-time-integral), maximum lactate (max-lactate), and time-to-first-normalization were calculated. Survivors and nonsurvivors were compared and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were applied. Results A total of 20,755 lactate measurements were analyzed. Data are srpehown as median [interquartile range]. In nonsurvivors (n = 405) lactate-time-integral (192 [0–1881] min·mmol/L) and time-to-first normalization (44.0 [0–427] min) were higher than in hospital survivors (n = 1846; 0 [0–134] min·mmol/L and 0 [0–75] min, respectively; all p < 0.001). Normalization of lactate <6 hours after ICU admission revealed better survival compared with normalization of lactate >6 hours (mortality 16.6% vs. 24.4%; p < 0.001). AUC of ROC curves to predict in-hospital mortality was the largest for max-lactate, whereas it was not different among all other lactate derived variables (all p > 0.05). The area under the ROC curves for admission lactate and lactate-time-integral was not different (p = 0.36). Conclusions Hyperlactatemia is associated with in-hospital mortality in a heterogeneous ICU population. In our patients, lactate peak values predicted in-hospital mortality equally well as lactate-time-integral of arterial blood lactate levels above the upper normal threshold. PMID:23446002

  8. Early lactation production, health, and welfare characteristics of cows selected for extended lactation.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, J O; Mogensen, L; Kristensen, T

    2017-02-01

    Some cows are able to achieve relatively high milk yields during extended lactations beyond 305 d in milk, and farmers may be able to use this potential by selecting the most suitable cows for an extended lactation. However, the decision to postpone insemination has to rely on information available in early lactation. The main objectives of this study were, therefore, to assess the association between the information available in early lactation and the relative milk production of cows on extended lactation, and to investigate if this information can be used to differentiate time of first insemination between cows. Data came from 4 Danish private herds practicing extended lactation in which some cows are selected to have a delayed time of planned first insemination. Average herd size varied from 93 to 157 cows, and milk yield varied from 7,842 to 12,315 kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM) per cow per year across herds. The analysis was based on 422 completed extended lactations (427 ± 87 d), and each lactation was assigned to 1 of 3 (low, medium, and high) milk performance groups (MPG) within parity group within herd based on a standardized lactation yield. For cows in the high MPG, peak ECM yield, and ECM yield at dry off were significantly greater, the relative reduction in milk yield between 60 and 305 d in milk was significantly smaller, and a smaller proportion had a body condition score (scale: 1-5) at dry off of 3.5 or greater compared with cows in low MPG. Previous lactation days in milk at peak ECM yield and ECM yield at dry off were higher, the relative reduction in milk yield between 60 and 305 d in milk was smaller, and the number of inseminations per conception was higher for multiparous cows in high MPG compared with low. Current lactation ECM yield at second and third milk recording were greater for cows in high MPG compared with low. A principal component analysis indicated that variables related to fertility, diseases, and milk yield explained most

  9. Adverse effects of lactational exposure to chlorpyrifos in suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Mansour, S A; Mossa, A H

    2010-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the oxidative damage, biochemical and histopathological alterations in sucking rats whose mothers were exposed to the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). Dams were administered CPF, via oral route. Doses equalled 0.01 mg kg(-1) body weight (b.wt.; acceptable daily intake, ADI), 1.00 mg kg(-1) b.wt. (no observed adverse effects level, NOAEL) and 1.35 mg kg(-1) b.wt. (1/100 lethal dose [LD(50)]) from postnatal day 1 until day 20 after delivery. At two high doses of CPF, the body weight gain and relative liver and kidney weight of suckling pups were significantly decreased. Exposure of the mothers to CPF caused increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) in lactating pups. CPF altered the level of the marker parameters related to the liver and kidneys. Consistent histological changes were found in the liver and kidneys of the subjected pups, especially at the higher doses. The results suggested that the transfer of CPF intoxication through the mother's milk has resulted in oxidative stress and biochemical and histopathological alterations in the suckling pups. The data of this study may be considered as a contribution to the problem of lactational transfer of the relatively less persistent OP pesticides, such as CPF.

  10. Associations between several aspects of heifer development and dairy cow survivability to second lactation.

    PubMed

    Bach, A

    2011-02-01

    A data set from 7,768 Holstein heifers born between 2004 and 2006, including growth rates from birth until first calving; age and body weight at insemination; and incidence of diarrhea, navel infections, and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) was used to evaluate potential associations between these factors and the odds of completing the first lactation. All heifers were raised in a contract heifer operation (Rancho Las Nieves, Mallen, Spain) and returned to their herds of origin (133 herds in total) before calving. Dates of death were provided by the Subdirección General de Explotaciones y Sistemas de Trazabilidad de los Recursos Agrícolas y Ganaderos from the Ministry of Environment, and Rural and Marine Areas of the Spanish government. At the time of analysis, 2,571 (33.1%) animals out of the 7,768 considered had died. In total, 655 (8.4%) heifers did not finish first lactation, and 31.5% of these left the herd within the first 50 DIM. Also, 4.8% of heifers aborted and were rebred. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects logistic regression and survival analysis for dichotomous variables and a mixed-effects model for continuous ones. Incidence of diarrhea or navel infection was not associated with the chances of finishing the first lactation. Heifers that completed first lactation had a lesser average age at first calving (724 ± 2 d) than those that did not (737 ± 3 d). Heifers that reached second lactation grew (0.8 ± 0.04 kg/d) more between 12 and 65 d of age than those that did not (0.7 ± 0.04 kg/d). As conception rate decreased, chances of leaving the herd before completing the first lactation increased. The number of AI services needed per conception as a nulliparous heifer was negatively associated with survivorship to second lactation. Heifers that experienced an abortion were 2.73 ± 0.52 times more likely to leave the herd before completing the first lactation (but also calved with a much older age at first calving). Heifers that experienced 4 or

  11. Noninvasive skeletal muscle lactate detection between periods of intense exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Mercier, B; Granier, P; Mercier, J; Foucat, L; Bielicki, G; Pradere, J; Renou, J P; Prefaut, C

    1998-06-01

    We investigated whether localized 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS) using stimulated echoes (STEAM) with a long mixing time (t(m)) allowed the suppression of the fat signal and detection of lactate in skeletal muscle. The 1H NMRS sequence was first validated in three isolated and perfused rabbit biceps brachii muscles. Spectra were obtained on a wide-bore spectrometer using a dual-tuned probe (1H and 31P). Death was simulated by ceasing the muscle perfusion, which allowed post-mortem changes to be followed. During and after the simulated death, changes in levels of pH and in content of energy-rich compounds were observed with 31P NMRS. Our results showed an inverse linear relationship between pH and lactate in each of the three rabbits (r = 0.93, P < 0.001; r = 0.92, P < 0.01; r = 0.89, P < 0.01) and a decrease in phosphocreatine and concomitant increase in lactate. We then investigated whether this sequence allowed repeated detection of lactate in human soleus muscle during the recovery between periods of intense exercise (force-velocity test, F-v test). Seven subjects mean age 25.1 (SEM 0.8) years participated in this study. Soleus muscle lactate was detected at rest and for 3 min 30 s of the 5-min recovery between periods using a 2.35-T 40-cm bore magnet spectrometer. Arm venous plasma lactate concentration was measured at rest, during the F-v test when the subject stopped pedalling (S1), and at the end of each 5-min recovery between periods (S2). Results showed that the venous plasma lactate concentration at S1 and S2 increased significantly from the beginning of the F-v test to peak anaerobic power (W(an,peak)) (P < 0.001). The spectra showed that muscle lactate resonance intensity rose markedly when W(an,peak) was achieved. The muscle lactate resonance intensity plotted as a percentage of the resting value increased significantly at W(an,peak) compared with submaximal braking forces (P < 0.05). We concluded from these results that localized 1H

  12. Production of racemic lactic acid in Pediococcus cerevisiae cultures by two lactate dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Gordon, G L; Doelle, H W

    1975-02-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent d(minus)-and l(plus)-lactate dehydrogenases have been partially purified 89- and 70-fold simultaneously from cell-free extracts of Pediococcus cerevisiae. Native molecular weights, as estimated from molecular sieve chromatography and electrophoresis in nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels, are 71,000 to 73,000 for d(minus)-lactate dehydrogenase and 136,000 to 139,000 for l(plus)-lactate dehydrogenase. Electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing gels reveals subunits with approximate molecular weights of 37,000 to 39,000 for both enzymes. By lowering the pyruvate concentration from 5.0 to 0.5 mM, the pH optimum for pyruvate reduction by d(minus)-lactate dehydrogenase decreases from pH 8.0 to 3.6. However, l(plus)-lactate dehydrogenase displays an optimum for pyruvate reduction between pH 4.5 and 6.0 regardless of the pyruvate concentration. The enzymes obey Michaelis-Menten kinetics for both pyruvate and reduced NAD at pH 5.4 and 7.4, with increased affinity for both substrates at the acid pH. alpha-Ketobutyrate can be used as a reducible substrate, whereas oxamate has no inhibitory effect on lactate oxidation by either enzyme. Adenosine triphosphate causes inhibition of both enzymes by competition with reduced NAD. Adenosine diphosphate is also inhibitory under the same conditions, whereas NAD acts as a product inhibitor. These results are discussed with relation to the lactate isomer production during the growth cycle of P. cerevisiae.

  13. Cell surface lactate receptor GPR81 is crucial for cancer cell survival.

    PubMed

    Roland, Christina L; Arumugam, Thiruvengadam; Deng, Defeng; Liu, Shi He; Philip, Bincy; Gomez, Sobeyda; Burns, William R; Ramachandran, Vijaya; Wang, Huamin; Cruz-Monserrate, Zobeida; Logsdon, Craig D

    2014-09-15

    The mechanisms that allow cancer cells to adapt to the typical tumor microenvironment of low oxygen and glucose and high lactate are not well understood. GPR81 is a lactate receptor recently identified in adipose and muscle cells that has not been investigated in cancer. In the current study, we examined GPR81 expression and function in cancer cells. We found that GPR81 was present in colon, breast, lung, hepatocellular, salivary gland, cervical, and pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. Examination of tumors resected from patients with pancreatic cancer indicated that 94% (148 of 158) expressed high levels of GPR81. Functionally, we observed that the reduction of GPR81 levels using shRNA-mediated silencing had little effect on pancreatic cancer cells cultured in high glucose, but led to the rapid death of cancer cells cultured in conditions of low glucose supplemented with lactate. We also observed that lactate addition to culture media induced the expression of genes involved in lactate metabolism, including monocarboxylase transporters in control, but not in GPR81-silenced cells. In vivo, GPR81 expression levels correlated with the rate of pancreatic cancer tumor growth and metastasis. Cells in which GPR81 was silenced showed a dramatic decrease in growth and metastasis. Implantation of cancer cells in vivo was also observed to lead to greatly elevated levels of GPR81. These data support that GPR81 is important for cancer cell regulation of lactate transport mechanisms. Furthermore, lactate transport is important for the survival of cancer cells in the tumor microenvironment. Cancer Res; 74(18); 5301-10. ©2014 AACR.

  14. Glycogen synthesis from lactate in skeletal muscle of the lizard Dipsosaurus dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, T T

    1985-01-01

    The capacity of skeletal muscle to synthesize glycogen from lactate was tested in the iliofibularis muscle of the desert iguana, Dipsosaurus dorsalis. Like other reptiles, Dipsosaurus accumulates significant lactic acid concentrations following vigorous exercise. After 5 min of progressively faster treadmill running at 35 degrees C (final speed = 2.2 km/h), blood lactate concentration increased over 14 mM, which decreased 11 mM after 2 h of recovery. Blood glucose concentration remained unchanged throughout at 8.6 +/- 0.46 mM. The role that muscle gluconeogenesis might play in the removal of post-exercise lactate was evaluated. Animals were run to exhaustion at 1.5 km/h on a treadmill thermostatted at 35 degrees C. Animals (n = 43) ran 6.9 +/- 0.75 min prior to exhaustion. Animals were sacrificed and iliofibularis muscles of both hindlimbs removed and stimulated at 2 Hz for 5 min, reducing twitch tension to 6% of prestimulus tension. Fatigued muscles were then split into red and white fiber bundles and incubated 2 h or 5 h at 35 degrees C in Ringer solution or in Ringer plus 20 mM lactate. In muscles tested in August, red fiber bundles incubated in lactate demonstrated a rate of glycogen synthesis of approximately 1 mg/(g muscle . h). In muscles tested in December, red fiber bundles synthesized glycogen at a reduced rate that was not statistically different than in fiber bundles incubated in Ringer solution without lactate. Glycogen synthesis from lactate was not evident in white fiber bundles in either August or December. The period of peak gluconeogenic capacity coincides with the field active season of Dipsosaurus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Effects of lactate and modified atmospheric packaging on premature browning in cooked ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Mancini, R A; Ramanathan, R; Suman, S P; Konda, M K R; Joseph, P; Dady, G A; Naveena, B M; López-López, I

    2010-06-01

    Our objectives were to determine the effects of lactate and modified atmosphere packaging on raw surface color, lipid oxidation, and internal cooked color of ground beef patties. Eight chubs (85% lean) were divided in half and each half was either assigned to the control (no lactate) or mixed with 2.5% lactate (w/w). Following treatment, patties were prepared and packaged in either vacuum, PVC (atmospheric oxygen level), high-oxygen (80% O(2)+20% CO(2)), or 0.4% CO (30% CO(2)+69.6% N(2)) and stored for 0, 2, or 4days at 2 degrees C. After storage, raw surface color and lipid oxidation were measured and patties were cooked to either 66 degrees C or 71 degrees C. Lactate improved (p<0.05) color stability of PVC, high-oxygen, and vacuum packaged raw patties, but had no effect (p>0.05) on the a * values and visual color scores of patties in 0.4% CO. Lactate decreased (p<0.05) lipid oxidation in all packaging atmospheres. Nevertheless, high-oxygen and PVC-packaged patties had more (p<0.05) lipid oxidation than patties in CO and vacuum. Lactate had no effect (p>0.05) on premature browning, whereas patties packaged in high-oxygen demonstrated premature browning. Conversely, cooked patties in 0.4% CO and vacuum were more red (p<0.05) than both high-oxygen and PVC-packaged patties. Although lactate improved raw color stability, it did not minimize premature browning in cooked ground beef patties.

  16. Hematological and serum biochemical analytes reflect physiological challenges during gestation and lactation in killer whales (Orcinus orca).

    PubMed

    Robeck, Todd R; Nollens, Hendrik H

    2013-01-01

    Gestation and lactation result in metabolic alterations of the dam because of varying demands of the fetus and offspring during the different stages of development. Despite killer whales (Orcinus orca) having one of the longest gestations and highest birth weights of all mammals in human care, these metabolic alterations, and their impact on the physiology of the dam have not been measured. The objectives of this analysis were to determine if physiologic demands on the killer whale during pregnancy and lactation have measurable effects on hematology and biochemical analytes and if detectable, to compare these changes to those which are observed in other mammalian species. Forty hematologic and biochemical analytes from seven female killer whales (22 pregnancies, 1,507 samples) were compared between the following stages: (1) non-pregnant or lactating (control); (2) gestation; and (3) the first 12 months of lactation. Decreased hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cell counts were indicative of plasma volume expansion during mid and late gestation. The killer whales exhibited a progressively increasing physiologic inflammatory state leading up to parturition. Gestation and lactation caused significant shifts in the serum lipid profiles. Gestation and lactation cause significant physiologic changes in the killer whale dam. The last 12 months of gestation had greater physiological impact than lactation, but changes associated with and immediately following parturition were the most dramatic. During this period, killer whales may experience increased susceptibility to illness, and anthropogenic and environmental disturbances.

  17. The relationship between blood potassium, blood lactate, and electromyography signals related to fatigue in a progressive cycling exercise test.

    PubMed

    Tenan, Matthew S; McMurray, Robert G; Blackburn, B Troy; McGrath, Melanie; Leppert, Kyle

    2011-02-01

    Local muscle fatigue may be related to potassium efflux from the muscle cell and/or lactate accumulation within the muscle. Local fatigue causes a decrease in median frequency (MPF) of the electromyogram's power spectrum during isometric contractions but its relationship to changes in potassium and lactate during dynamic exercise is equivocal. Thus, this investigation evaluated relationships between changes in the MPF from the vastus lateralis and blood levels of lactate and potassium during an incremental cycling test and recovery. Trained cyclists (n=8) completed a discontinuous, graded cycle test to exhaustion under normal and glycogen-reduced conditions. The glycogen reduced condition promoted an environment of lower lactate production while permitting a consistent potassium response. Blood samples and maximal isometric EMG data were collected at the end of each stage and during recovery. Maximal lactate levels were ∼ 60% lower in the glycogen reduced condition; potassium was similar between trials. MPF did not change significantly at volitional fatigue. Further, MPF was not significantly related to lactate (p>0.27) or potassium (p>0.16) in either condition. Though both lactate and potassium have been implicated as factors relating to local muscle fatigue, neither is significantly related to changes in MPF during or after progressive exercise on a cycle ergometer.

  18. Oxamate Improves Glycemic Control and Insulin Sensitivity via Inhibition of Tissue Lactate Production in db/db Mice.

    PubMed

    Ye, Weiran; Zheng, Yijia; Zhang, Shanshan; Yan, Li; Cheng, Hua; Wu, Muchao

    2016-01-01

    Oxamate (OXA) is a pyruvate analogue that directly inhibits the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-catalyzed conversion process of pyruvate into lactate. Earlier and recent studies have shown elevated blood lactate levels among insulin-resistant and type 2 diabetes subjects and that blood lactate levels independently predicted the development of incident diabetes. To explore the potential of OXA in the treatment of diabetes, db/db mice were treated with OXA in vivo. Treatment of OXA (350-750 mg/kg of body weight) for 12 weeks was shown to decrease body weight gain and blood glucose and HbA1c levels and improve insulin secretion, the morphology of pancreatic islets, and insulin sensitivity in db/db mice. Meanwhile, OXA reduced the lactate production of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle and serum lactate levels and decreased serum levels of TG, FFA, CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α in db/db mice. The PCR array showed that OXA downregulated the expression of Tnf, Il6, leptin, Cxcr3, Map2k1, and Ikbkb, and upregulated the expression of Irs2, Nfkbia, and Pde3b in the skeletal muscle of db/db mice. Interestingly, LDH-A expression increased in the islet cells of db/db mice, and both treatment of OXA and pioglitazone decreased LDH-A expression, which might be related to the improvement of insulin secretion. Taken together, increased lactate production of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle may be at least partially responsible for insulin resistance and diabetes in db/db mice. OXA improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity in db/db mice primarily via inhibition of tissue lactate production. Oxamic acid derivatives may be a potential drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  19. Pattern of γ-glutamyl transferase activity in cow milk throughout lactation and relationships with metabolic conditions and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Calamari, L; Gobbi, L; Russo, F; Cappelli, F Piccioli

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of this experiment was to study the γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity in milk during lactation and its relationship with metabolic status of dairy cows, milk yield, milk composition, and cheesemaking properties. The study was performed in a tied stall barn and involved 20 lactations from 12 healthy multiparous Italian Friesian dairy cows. During lactation starting at d 10, milk samples were collected weekly and analyzed for composition, somatic cells count, titratable acidity, and milk coagulation properties. The GGT activity was measured in defatted samples. Blood samples were collected weekly to assess biochemical indicators related to energy, protein, and mineral metabolism, markers of inflammation and some enzyme activities. The lactations of each cow were retrospectively categorized into 2 groups according to their milk GGT activity value through lactation. A median value of GGT activity in the milk of all lactations was calculated (3,045 U/L), and 10 lactations with lower GGT activity were classified as low while 10 lactations with greater GGT activity were classified as high. The average value of milk GGT activity during lactation was 3,863 and 3,024 U/L for high and low, respectively. The GGT activity decreased in early lactation and reached minimum values in the second month (3,289 and 2,355 U/L for high and low, respectively). Thereafter GGT activity increased progressively, reaching values in late lactation of 4,511 and 3,540 U/L in high and low, respectively. On average, milk yield was 40.81 and 42.76 kg/d in high and low, respectively, and a negative partial correlation with milk GGT activity was observed. A greater milk protein concentration was observed in high (3.39%) compared with low (3.18%), and a positive partial correlation with milk GGT activity was observed. Greater titratable acidity in high than that in low (3.75 vs. 3.45 degrees Soxhlet-Henkel/50 mL, respectively) was also observed. Plasma glucose was greater in

  20. Proteomic characterization of human milk fat globule membrane proteins during a 12 month lactation period.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yalin; Alvarado, Rudy; Phinney, Brett; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2011-08-05

    The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) contains proteins which have been implicated in a variety of health benefits. Milk fat globule membrane proteins were isolated from human milk during a 12 month lactation period and subjected to in-solution digestion and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Data were pooled, and our results showed that 191 proteins were identified. Relative quantification of the identified MFGM proteins during the course of lactation was performed by label free spectral counting and differentiation expression analysis, which showed some proteins decreasing during the course of lactation whereas some increased or remained at a relatively constant level. The human MFGM proteins are distributed between intracellular, extracellular, and membrane-associated proteins, and they are mainly involved in cell communication and signal transduction, immune function, metabolism and energy production. This study provides more insights into the dynamic composition of human MFGM proteins, which in turn will enhance our understanding of the physiological significance of MFGM proteins.

  1. Short communication: Monitoring nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk: effects of lactation and productive season.

    PubMed

    Martini, Mina; Altomonte, Iolanda; Salari, Federica; Caroli, Anna M

    2014-11-01

    Milk nutritional characteristics are especially interesting when donkey milk is aimed at consumption by children and the elderly. The aim of this study was to monitor the nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk during lactation and productive season to provide information on the milk characteristics and to study action plans to improve milk yield and quality. Thirty-one pluriparous jennies belonging to the same farm were selected. Individual samples of milk from the morning milking were taken once per month starting from the d 30 of lactation until d 300. Milk yield and dry matter, fat, and ash content were constant throughout the experimental period. Milk total protein content showed a progressive decrease during the first 6 mo of lactation; after this period, the protein percentages remained constant (1.50%). Caseins and lactose were lower until d 60 of lactation and remained constant thereafter. During summer and autumn, milk yield and casein and lactose contents were higher, whereas during the spring season, higher protein and ash contents were found. The percentages of fat and dry matter were stable as were most of the minerals in the milk, except for calcium, which was higher in the spring. In conclusion, Amiata donkey milk was found to be relatively stable during lactation. This is an advantage in terms of the production and trade of a food product with consistent characteristics. The different milk yield and quality during the productive seasons were probably related to better adaptability of the animals to warm and temperate periods.

  2. Relationship between blood oxygenation and lactate in human skeletal muscle revealed by near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guodong; Luo, Qingming; Ge, Xinfa; Gong, Hui; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2002-04-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a focus of attention in the research field of biomedical photonics. The concentration of HbO2 in human skeletal muscle has been measured noninvasive NIRS using a portable tissue oximeter continuously when the subjects did incremental exercises on a power bicycle. Blood lactate is one of traditional physical research subjects which is applied most widely. We study blood volume in the tissue of sportsmen when they are subjected by the incremental physical load, simultaneously detecting some parameters such as the heart rate, maximal oxygen absorption and the concentration of blood lactate. As the intensity of exercises was heightened, the concentration of blood lactate and blood volume in tissue increased, while the concentration of HbO2 decreased. Thus the rudimental characteristics of energy consumption and supply during hypoxia and aerobic exercises are investigated. By discovering the relationship between blood lactate in human skeletal muscle and blood oxygenation, a novel approach for measuring blood lactate noninvasively and assessing the sports ability could be provided. Furthermore, it is possible to assess the fatigue state with tissue oximeter to monitor the human sports intensity noninvasively and dynamically.

  3. a Mathematical Model for Training Impulse and Lactate Influx and Outflux during Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moxnes, John F.; Hausken, Kjell

    This paper provides a mathematical description based on the theory of differential equations, for the dynamics of lactate production and removal. Analytical and numerical results for training/exercise of endurance of athletes are presented based on the common concept of training impulse (Trimp). The relationships between activity, production rate, and removal strategies of lactate are studied. Parameters are estimated from published data. A model for optimum removal of lactate after exercise is developed. The model provides realistic predictions when compared with experimental results. We show some specific examples for the usefulness of the mathematical model by studying some recent problems discussed in the literature. (a) Is interval exercise more beneficial than steady-state exercise? (b) What is the optimum aerobic power during recovery? We discuss whether steady-state exercise gives higher Trimp than interval exercise, when imposing an upper boundary for the lactate concentration as a constraint. The model allows for testing all imaginable kinds of steady-state and interval exercises in search of the optimal exercise regime for individuals with various kinds of characteristics. In general, the dynamic model constitute a powerful tool describing the processes by which the concentration of lactate can be studied and controlled to decrease fatigue and increase endurance.

  4. Hyperoxia, mitochondrial redox state, and lactate metabolism of in situ canine muscle.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, B R; Graham, T E; Barclay, J K

    1987-08-01

    The effect of hyperoxia on lactate production and release and the mitochondrial NAD+-to-NADH ratio was studied in the in situ canine gastrocnemius to determine whether elevated PO2 altered metabolic regulation. Dogs breathed either air (21% O2) [arterial O2 partial pressure (PaO2) 90 mmHg; n = 8] or hyperoxia (100% O2) (PaO2 546 mmHg; n = 8). The left muscle was stimulated for 10 min at 3 Hz and then both right and left muscles were quick frozen in N2. Hyperoxia did not affect O2 uptake, blood flow, and developed tension. Activity increased glucose 6-phosphate (G-6-P), D-fructose 6-phosphate (F-6-P), NH3, lactate, and F-6-P/F-1,6-P in both treatment groups. No significant differences in arterial or venous lactate, muscle lactate, glucose uptake, or glycogen depletion were noted in hyperoxia. Cytoplasmic NAD+/NADH was in a more oxidized state in hyperoxia at rest but not during activity. The increase in NH3 with stimulation was significantly larger in hyperoxia. Activity decreased alpha-ketoglutarate in hyperoxia but not in air. At stimulation, the estimated mitochondrial NAD+/NADH increased in both groups suggesting that hypoxia was not present. Thus hyperoxia did not affect mitochondrial redox state or lactate production and release in active muscle.

  5. [Risk factors for prevalence of folic acid deficiency in Chinese lactating women in 2013].

    PubMed

    Bi, Y; Duan, Y F; Wang, J; Yu, D M; Yang, X G; Yin, S A; Yang, Z Y

    2016-12-06

    results showed that, compared with those living in the south and those in the Han ethnic group, those living in the north and belonging to the minority ethnic group had a greater risk of folic acid deficiency, with (OR=3.63, 95% CI: 1.64-8.05) and (OR=5.42, 95% CI: 1.75-16.74), respectively. With each month of age during childhood, the prevalence of folic acid deficiency decreased by 10% (OR=0.90, 95%CI: 0.85-0.96). Compared with low income subjects, those with middle incomes had OR (95%CI) of 0.25 (0.10-0.60) for folic acid deficiency. A lesser intake of cereal was associated with a greater risk of folic acid deficiency in lactating women (OR=3.04, 95%CI: 1.18-7.79). A lesser intake of tubers was a protective factor for folic acid deficiency in lactating women (OR=0.29, 95% CI:0.12-0.70). Conclusion: The folic acid status of Chinese lactating women has, in general, recently improved. However, living in northern areas, during early lactating periods, belonging to an ethnic minority, living in rural areas, having a low income, lower intake of cereal and excessive intake of tubers were risk factors for folic acid deficiency in lactating women. In these women, folic acid intervention should be considered a priority.

  6. LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Research News From NIH LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... Javascript on. Photo: Comstock LactMed, a free online database with information on drugs and lactation, is one ...

  7. Novel Membrane Based Process for Producing Lactate Esters

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    Lactate Esters from Renewable Carbohydrate Feedstocks can Replace Petroleum-Derived Solvents. Lactate esters are versatile solvents that are biodegradable, nontoxic, and applicable to a wide range of industrial and consumer uses.

  8. 21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 582.5311 Section 582.5311 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 582.5311 Section 582.5311 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 582.5311 Section 582.5311 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 582.5311 Section 582.5311 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 582.5311 Section 582.5311 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  13. Nutritional Guide for Pregnant and Lactating Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelbard, Nancy

    Designed to provide accurate and up-to-date information about nutrition and health, this booklet is centered on the nutritional needs of pregnant and lactating adolescents and on the role of schools and the California State Department of Education in meeting those needs. The first section presents information for pregnant adolescents regarding…

  14. Microbial production of lactate-containing polyesters

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jung Eun; Choi, So Young; Shin, Jae Ho; Park, Si Jae; Lee, Sang Yup

    2013-01-01

    Due to our increasing concerns on environmental problems and limited fossil resources, biobased production of chemicals and materials through biorefinery has been attracting much attention. Optimization of the metabolic performance of microorganisms, the key biocatalysts for the efficient production of the desired target bioproducts, has been achieved by metabolic engineering. Metabolic engineering allowed more efficient production of polyhydroxyalkanoates, a family of microbial polyesters. More recently, non-natural polyesters containing lactate as a monomer have also been produced by one-step fermentation of engineered bacteria. Systems metabolic engineering integrating traditional metabolic engineering with systems biology, synthetic biology, protein/enzyme engineering through directed evolution and structural design, and evolutionary engineering, enabled microorganisms to efficiently produce natural and non-natural products. Here, we review the strategies for the metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the in vivo biosynthesis of lactate-containing polyesters and for the optimization of whole cell metabolism to efficiently produce lactate-containing polyesters. Also, major problems to be solved to further enhance the production of lactate-containing polyesters are discussed. PMID:23718266

  15. Studying Reliability Using Identical Handheld Lactate Analyzers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Mark T.; Stavrianeas, Stasinos

    2008-01-01

    Accusport analyzers were used to generate lactate performance curves in an investigative laboratory activity emphasizing the importance of reliable instrumentation. Both the calibration and testing phases of the exercise provided students with a hands-on opportunity to use laboratory-grade instrumentation while allowing for meaningful connections…

  16. Effects of temperature on anoxic submergence: skeletal buffering, lactate distribution, and glycogen utilization in the turtle, Trachemys scripta.

    PubMed

    Warren, Daniel E; Jackson, Donald C

    2007-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that submergence temperature affects the distribution of the lactate load and glycogen utilization during anoxia in turtles, we sampled a variety of tissues after 7 days, 24 h, and 4 h of anoxic submergence at 5, 15, and 25 degrees C, respectively. These anoxic durations were chosen because we found that they produced similar decreases in plasma HCO(3)(-) ( approximately 18-22 meq/l). The sampled tissues included ventricle, liver, small intestine, carapace, and the following muscles: flexor digitorum longus, retrahens capitis, iliofibularis, and pectoralis. Shell and skeleton sequestered 41.9, 34.1, and 26.1% of the estimated lactate load at 5, 15, and 25 degrees C. The changes in plasma Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), relative to the estimated lactate load, decreased with increased temperature, indicating greater buffer release from bone at colder temperatures. Tissue lactate contents, relative to plasma lactate, increased with the temperature of the submergence. Glucose mobilization and tissue glycogen utilization were more pronounced at 15 and 25 degrees C than at 5 degrees C. We conclude that, in slider turtles, the ability of the mineralized tissue to participate in the buffering of lactic acid during anoxia is inversely related to temperature, causing the lactate burden to shift to the tissues at warmer temperatures. Muscles utilize glycogen during anoxia more at warmer temperatures.

  17. Effect of uterine size on fertility of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Baez, Giovanni M; Barletta, Rafael V; Guenther, Jerry N; Gaska, Jerry M; Wiltbank, Milo C

    2016-05-01

    There are multiple reasons for reduced fertility in lactating dairy cows. We hypothesized that one cause of reduced fertility could be the overall size of the reproductive tract, particularly the uterus, given well-established uterine functions in many aspects of the reproductive process. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the variability in uterine size in primiparous and multiparous dairy cows and to analyze whether there was an association between uterine size and fertility, particularly within a given parity. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n = 704) were synchronized to receive timed artificial insemination (TAI) on Day 81 ± 3 of lactation by using the Double-Ovsynch protocol (GnRH-7d-PGF-3d-GnRH-7d-GnRH-7d-PGF-56h-GnRH-16h-TAI). At the time of the last injection of PGF, uterine diameter was determined at the greater curvature using ultrasound, uterine length was determined by rectal palpation, and uterine volume was calculated from these two measurements. Blood samples were also taken to measure progesterone to assure synchronization of all cows used in the final analysis (n = 616; primiparous, n = 289; multiparous, n = 327). Primiparous cows had greater percentage pregnant/AI (P/AI) compared to multiparous cows (49.8% vs. 39.1% at 67 days of pregnancy diagnosis, P = 0.009). Diameter, length, and volume of the uterus were larger in multiparous than in primiparous cows (P < 0.001). For multiparous cows, uterine diameter and volume were smaller in cows that became pregnant compared to cows that were not pregnant to the TAI with a similar tendency observed in primiparous cows. Logistic regression and quartile analysis also showed that as uterine volume increased, there was decreased P/AI in either primiparous or multiparous cows. Thus, there is a negative association between uterine size and fertility in lactating dairy cows with a larger uterus associated with reduced fertility, particularly for multiparous cows.

  18. Using complete breastfeeding and lactational amenorrhoea as birth spacing methods.

    PubMed

    Tommaselli, G A; Guida, M; Palomba, S; Barbato, M; Nappi, C

    2000-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of lactational amenorrhoea and to determine the relationship betwee