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Sample records for n-acetylcysteine reverses cocaine

  1. N-Acetylcysteine Reverses Cocaine Induced Metaplasticity

    PubMed Central

    Moussawi, Khaled; Pacchioni, Alejandra; Moran, Megan; Olive, M. Foster; Gass, Justin T.; Lavin, Antonieta; Kalivas, Peter W

    2009-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is characterized by an impaired ability to develop adaptive behaviors that can compete with cocaine seeking, implying a deficit in the ability to induce plasticity in cortico-accumbens circuitry critical for regulating motivated behavior. RWe found that rats withdrawn from cocaine self-administration had a marked in vivo deficit in the ability to develop long-term potentation (LTP) and depression (LTD) in the nucleus accumbens core subregion following stimulation of prefrontal cortex. N-acetylcysteine treatment prevents relapse in animal models and craving in humans by activating cystine-glutamate exchange and thereby stimulating extrasynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). N-acetylcysteine treatment restored the ability to induce LTP and LTD by indirectly stimulating mGluR2/3 and mGluR5, respectively. Cocaine self-administration induces metaplasticity that inhibits the further induction of synaptic plasticity, and this impairment can be reversed by N-acetylcysteine, a drug that also prevents relapse. PMID:19136971

  2. N-Acetylcysteine reverses cocaine-induced metaplasticity.

    PubMed

    Moussawi, Khaled; Pacchioni, Alejandra; Moran, Megan; Olive, M Foster; Gass, Justin T; Lavin, Antonieta; Kalivas, Peter W

    2009-02-01

    Cocaine addiction is characterized by an impaired ability to develop adaptive behaviors that can compete with cocaine seeking, implying a deficit in the ability to induce plasticity in cortico-accumbens circuitry crucial for regulating motivated behavior. We found that rats withdrawn from cocaine self-administration had a marked in vivo deficit in the ability to develop long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in the nucleus accumbens core subregion after stimulation of the prefrontal cortex. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment prevents relapse in animal models and craving in humans by activating cystine-glutamate exchange and thereby stimulating extrasynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). NAC treatment of rats restored the ability to induce LTP and LTD by indirectly stimulating mGluR2/3 and mGluR5, respectively. Our findings show that cocaine self-administration induces metaplasticity that inhibits further induction of synaptic plasticity, and this impairment can be reversed by NAC, a drug that also prevents relapse.

  3. Repeated N-Acetylcysteine Administration Alters Plasticity-Dependent Effects of Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Madayag, Aric; Lobner, Doug; Kau, Kristen S.; Mantsch, John R.; Abdulhameed, Omer; Hearing, Matthew; Grier, Mark D.; Baker, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Cocaine produces a persistent reduction in cystine-glutamate exchange via system xc- in the nucleus accumbens that may contribute to pathological glutamate signaling linked to addiction. System xc- influences glutamate neurotransmission by maintaining basal, extracellular glutamate in the nucleus accumbens which, in turn, shapes synaptic activity by stimulating group II metabotropic glutamate autoreceptors. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that a long-term reduction in system xc- activity is part of the plasticity produced by repeated cocaine that results in the establishment of compulsive drug seeking. To test this, the cysteine prodrug N-acetylcysteine was administered prior to daily cocaine to determine the impact of increased cystine-glutamate exchange on the development of plasticity-dependent cocaine seeking. Although N-acetylcysteine administered prior to cocaine did not alter the acute effects of cocaine on self-administration or locomotor activity, it prevented behaviors produced by repeated cocaine including escalation of drug intake, behavioral sensitization, and cocaine-primed reinstatement. Because sensitization or reinstatement was not evident even 2–3 weeks after the last injection of N-acetylcysteine, we examined whether N-acetylcysteine administered prior to daily cocaine also prevented the persistent reduction in system xc- activity produced by repeated cocaine. Interestingly, N-acetylcysteine pretreatment prevented cocaine-induced changes in 35S cystine transport via system xc-, basal glutamate, and cocaine-evoked glutamate in the nucleus accumbens when assessed at least three weeks after the last N-acetylcysteine pretreatment. These findings indicate that N-acetylcysteine selectively alters plasticity-dependent behaviors and that normal system xc- activity prevents pathological changes in extracellular glutamate that may be necessary for compulsive drug seeking. PMID:18094234

  4. N-Acetylcysteine reduces cocaine-cue attentional bias and differentially alters cocaine self-administration based on dosing order.

    PubMed

    Levi Bolin, B; Alcorn, Joseph L; Lile, Joshua A; Rush, Craig R; Rayapati, Abner O; Hays, Lon R; Stoops, William W

    2017-09-01

    Disrupted glutamate homeostasis is thought to contribute to cocaine-use disorder, in particular, by enhancing the incentive salience of cocaine stimuli. n-Acetylcysteine might be useful in cocaine-use disorder by normalizing glutamate function. In prior studies, n-acetylcysteine blocked the reinstatement of cocaine seeking in laboratory animals and reduced the salience of cocaine stimuli and delayed relapse in humans. The present study determined the ability of maintenance on n-acetylcysteine (0 or 2400mg/day, counterbalanced) to reduce the incentive salience of cocaine stimuli, as measured by an attentional bias task, and attenuate intranasal cocaine self-administration (0, 30, and 60mg). Fourteen individuals (N=14) who met criteria for cocaine abuse or dependence completed this within-subjects, double-blind, crossover-design study. Cocaine-cue attentional bias was greatest following administration of 0mg cocaine during placebo maintenance, and was attenuated by n-acetylcysteine. Cocaine maintained responding during placebo and n-acetylcysteine maintenance, but the reinforcing effects of cocaine were significantly attenuated across both maintenance conditions in participants maintained on n-acetylcysteine first compared to participants maintained on placebo first. These results collectively suggest that a reduction in the incentive salience of cocaine-related stimuli during n-acetylcysteine maintenance may be accompanied by reductions in cocaine self-administration. These results are in agreement with, and link, prior preclinical and clinical trial results suggesting that n-acetylcysteine might be useful for preventing cocaine relapse by attenuating the incentive salience of cocaine cues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. N-acetylcysteine amide (AD4) reduces cocaine-induced reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska, Joanna; Frankowska, Malgorzata; Filip, Malgorzata; Atlas, Daphne

    2016-09-01

    Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse changes glutamatergic transmission in human addicts and animal models. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a cysteine prodrug that indirectly activates cysteine-glutamate antiporters. In the extrasynaptic space, NAC restores basal glutamate levels during drug abstinence and normalizes increased glutamatergic tone in rats during reinstatement to drugs of abuse. In initial clinical trials, repeated NAC administration seems to be promising for reduced craving in cocaine addicts. In this study, NAC-amide, called AD4 or NACA, was examined in intravenous cocaine self-administration and extinction/reinstatement procedures in rats. We investigated the behavioral effects of AD4 in the olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) rats, considered an animal model of depression. Finally, we tested rats injected with AD4 or NAC during 10-daily extinction training sessions to examine subsequent cocaine seeking. AD4 (25-75 mg kg(-1)) given acutely did not alter the rewarding effects of cocaine in OBX rats and sham-operated controls. However, at 6.25-50 mg kg(-1), AD4 decreased dose-dependently cocaine seeking and relapse triggered by cocaine priming or drug-associated conditioned cues in both phenotypes. Furthermore, repeated treatment with AD4 (25 mg kg(-1)) or NAC (100 mg kg(-1)) during daily extinction trials reduced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior in sham-operated controls. In the OBX rats only, AD4 effectively blocked cocaine-seeking behavior. Our results demonstrate that AD4 is effective at blocking cocaine-seeking behavior, highlighting its potential clinical use toward cocaine use disorder.

  6. The effects of N-acetylcysteine on cocaine reward and seeking behaviors in a rat model of depression.

    PubMed

    Frankowska, Małgorzata; Jastrzębska, Joanna; Nowak, Ewa; Białko, Magdalena; Przegaliński, Edmund; Filip, Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    Depression and substance-abuse (e.g., cocaine) disorders are common concurrent diagnoses. In the present study, we combined bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) with a variety of procedures of intravenous cocaine self-administration and extinction/reinstatement in rats. We also investigated the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on rewarding and seeking behaviors for cocaine in OBX rats and compared the drug's effects in sham-operated control animals (SHAM). The occurrence of depressive symptoms before introduction to cocaine self-administration enhanced subsequent cocaine-seeking behaviors but did not significantly influence cocaine's rewarding properties or extinction training. NAC (25-100mg/kg) given acutely or repeatedly did not alter the co-occurrence of cocaine reward and depression but effectively reduced the cocaine-seeking behavior observed in both phenotypes. Our results indicate that depression behavior is linked to more pronounced drug craving and a higher propensity to relapse in rats. We also show the lack of efficacy of repeated NAC treatment on SHAM or OBX animals in terms of cocaine self-administration, while the drug was an effective blocker of cocaine-seeking behavior in both studied phenotypes, with a more pronounced drug effect observed in OBX animals. The last finding demonstrates the potential clinical utility of NAC to reduce cocaine seeking enhanced by co-existing depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevention and reversal of selenite-induced cataracts by N-acetylcysteine amide in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Maddirala, Yasaswi; Tobwala, Shakila; Karacal, Humeyra; Ercal, Nuran

    2017-04-26

    The present study sought to evaluate the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) eye drops in reversing the cataract formation induced by sodium selenite in male Wistar rat pups. Forty male Wistar rat pups were randomly divided into a control group, an N-acetylcysteine amide-only group, a sodium selenite-induced cataract group, and a NACA-treated sodium selenite-induced cataract group. Sodium selenite was injected intraperitoneally on postpartum day 10, whereas N-acetylcysteine amide was injected intraperitoneally on postpartum days 9, 11, and 13 in the respective groups. Cataracts were evaluated at the end of week 2 (postpartum day 14) when the rat pups opened their eyes. N-acetylcysteine amide eye drops were administered beginning on week 3 until the end of week 4 (postpartum days 15 to 30), and the rats were sacrificed at the end of week 4. Lenses were isolated and examined for oxidative stress parameters such as glutathione, lipid peroxidation, and calcium levels along with the glutathione reductase and thioltransferase enzyme activities. Casein zymography and Western blot of m-calpain were performed using the water soluble fraction of lens proteins. Morphological examination of the lenses in the NACA-treated group indicated that NACA was able to reverse the cataract grade. In addition, glutathione level, thioltransferase activity, m-calpain activity, and m-calpain level (as assessed by Western blot) were all significantly higher in the NACA-treated group than in the sodium selenite-induced cataract group. Furthermore, sodium selenite- injected rat pups had significantly higher levels of malondialdehyde, glutathione reductase enzyme activity, and calcium levels, which were reduced to control levels upon treatment with NACA. The data suggest that NACA has the potential to significantly improve vision and decrease the burden of cataract-related loss of function. Prevention and reversal of cataract formation could have a global impact. Development of

  8. Alpha 1-acid glycoprotein reverses cocaine-induced sodium channel blockade in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yu-Ling; Peters, Nicholas S; Henry, John A

    2006-03-01

    Alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) is an acute phase protein capable of binding basic drugs. This action explains its reversal of sodium channel blockade by drugs such as amitriptyline and quinidine. We report here the reversal of cocaine-induced sodium channel blockade by AAG. The sodium channel blocking property of cocaine is a major mechanism behind cocaine-induced sudden cardiac death, since sodium channels play a key role in the initiation and regulation of the heart beat. Voltage-gated sodium current (I(Na)) was recorded using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Guinea-pig cardiac ventricular myocytes were isolated and continuously perfused at room temperature with physiological solutions. At concentrations ranging from 5 to 320 microM cocaine showed a dose-dependent and reversible blockade of I(Na) with an IC50 of 45.9 microM. The addition of equimolar amounts of AAG to cocaine produced almost complete reversal of cocaine's effects, suggesting a single binding site for cocaine on the AAG molecule. With changes of peak I(Na) normalized against control as 1, cocaine at 20 and 40 microM reduced I(Na) to 0.62+/-0.042 (n = 6) and 0.57+/-0.052 (n = 9), respectively, and the addition of an equimolar concentration of AAG reversed I(Na) to 0.86+/-0.022 and 0.91+/-0.060, respectively. AAG reverses cocaine-induced sodium channel blockade in a dose-dependent manner, indicating a therapeutic potential to reverse acute cocaine cardiac toxicity.

  9. Effects of histidine and n-acetylcysteine on experimental lesions induced by doxorubicin in sciatic nerve of rats.

    PubMed

    Farshid, Amir Abbas; Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Najafi, Sima

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the effect of separate and combined intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of histidine and n-acetylcysteine were investigated on experimental damage induced by doxorubicin (DOX) in sciatic nerve of rats. DOX was i.p. injected at a dose of 4 mg/kg once weekly for four weeks. Histidine and n-acetylcysteine were i.p. injected at a same dose of 20 mg/kg. Cold and mechanical allodynia were recorded using acetone spray and von Frey filaments tests, respectively. The sciatic nerve damage was evaluated by light microscopy. Plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. Histidine and especially n-acetylcysteine at a same dose of 20 mg/kg suppressed cold and mechanical allodynia, improved sciatic nerve lesions and reversed MDA and TAC levels in DOX-treated groups. Combination treatment with histidine and n-acetylcysteine showed better responses when compared with them used alone. The results of the present study showed peripheral neuroprotective effects for histidine and n-acetylcysteine. Reduction of free radical-induced toxic effects may have a role in neuroprotective properties of histidine and n-acetylcysteine.

  10. The metabolism of N-acetylcysteine by human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cotgreave, I; Moldéus, P; Schuppe, I

    1991-06-21

    When human umbilical endothelial cells were depleted of their glutathione by incubation in a sulfur amino acid-free medium, subsequent incubation of the cells with this deficient medium supplemented with N-acetylcysteine resulted in a dose-dependent stimulation of the synthesis of cellular glutathione. Similarly, the inclusion of N-acetylcysteine in the medium during the period of depletion of glutathione caused a dose-dependent retardation of the depletion kinetics. In contrast, the incubation of control cells in normal medium supplemented with N-acetylcysteine did not increase cellular glutathione levels above controls. These observations indicate the presence of an N-deacetylase in/on the cells with specificity for N-acetylcysteine. Due to the large surface area of the endothelium in the vasculature it seems likely that endothelial cell N-deacetylation plays a role in the metabolic disposition of N-acetylcysteine, particularly when administered intravenously. N-Acetylcysteine is, however, a relatively poor precursor to glutathione biosynthesis in comparison to cystine. Thus, any cytoprotective, antioxidant effect exerted by N-acetylcysteine on the human endothelium is likely to be due to direct scavenging of reactive intermediates rather than by stimulated glutathione synthesis in the endothelial cells themselves.

  11. The promise of N-acetylcysteine in neuropsychiatry.

    PubMed

    Berk, Michael; Malhi, Gin S; Gray, Laura J; Dean, Olivia M

    2013-03-01

    N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) targets a diverse array of factors germane to the pathophysiology of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders including glutamatergic transmission, the antioxidant glutathione, neurotrophins, apoptosis, mitochondrial function, and inflammatory pathways. This review summarises the areas where the mechanisms of action of NAC overlap with known pathophysiological elements, and offers a précis of current literature regarding the use of NAC in disorders including cocaine, cannabis, and smoking addictions, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, autism, compulsive and grooming disorders, schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disorder. There are positive trials of NAC in all these disorders, and although many of these require replication and are methodologically preliminary, this makes it one of the most promising drug candidates in neuropsychiatric disorders. The efficacy pattern of NAC interestingly shows little respect for the current diagnostic systems. Its benign tolerability profile, its action on multiple operative pathways, and the emergence of positive trial data make it an important target to investigate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. N-acetylcysteine reverses diastolic dysfunction and hypertrophy in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wilder, Tanganyika; Ryba, David M.; Wieczorek, David F.; Wolska, Beata M.

    2015-01-01

    S-glutathionylation of cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C) induces Ca2+ sensitization and a slowing of cross-bridge kinetics as a result of increased oxidative signaling. Although there is evidence for a role of oxidative stress in disorders associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), this mechanism is not well understood. We investigated whether oxidative myofilament modifications may be in part responsible for diastolic dysfunction in HCM. We administered N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for 30 days to 1-mo-old wild-type mice and to transgenic mice expressing a mutant tropomyosin (Tm-E180G) and nontransgenic littermates. Tm-E180G hearts demonstrate a phenotype similar to human HCM. After NAC administration, the morphology and diastolic function of Tm-E180G mice was not significantly different from controls, indicating that NAC had reversed baseline diastolic dysfunction and hypertrophy in our model. NAC administration also increased sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase protein expression, reduced extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 phosphorylation, and normalized phosphorylation of phospholamban, as assessed by Western blot. Detergent-extracted fiber bundles from NAC-administered Tm-E180G mice showed nearly nontransgenic (NTG) myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity. Additionally, we found that NAC increased tension cost and rate of cross-bridge reattachment. Tm-E180G myofilaments were found to have a significant increase in S-glutathionylation of cMyBP-C, which was returned to NTG levels upon NAC administration. Taken together, our results indicate that oxidative myofilament modifications are an important mediator in diastolic function, and by relieving this modification we were able to reverse established diastolic dysfunction and hypertrophy in HCM. PMID:26432840

  13. [Current pharmacotherapies and immunotherapy in cocaine addiction].

    PubMed

    Karila, Laurent; Weinstein, Aviv; Benyamina, Amine; Coscas, Sarah; Leroy, Claire; Noble, Florence; Lowenstein, William; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Reynaud, Michel

    2008-04-01

    Cocaine is more and more used and abused in France. Cocaine dependence is quite serious and is associated with numerous adverse health consequences. No effective pharmacotherapy for cocaine dependence is yet available. Recent advances in neurobiology, brain imaging and some clinical trials suggest that certain medications that modulate GABAergic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic systems, as well as immunotherapy, show promise in the treatment of cocaine addiction. Recent controlled clinical studies have tested some of these drugs, which act on the various neurobiological circuits modified by cocaine exposure and clinically improve patients' symptoms. Pharmacological agents such as modafinil, GABAergic agents (baclofen, topiramate, tiagabin, and vigabatrin), disulfiram, aripiprazole, N-acetylcysteine and cocaine vaccine seem very promising in the treatment of cocaine dependence. However, this must be confirmed in larger patient populations.

  14. N-acetylcysteine decreased nicotine reward-like properties and withdrawal in mice.

    PubMed

    Bowers, M S; Jackson, A; Maldoon, P P; Damaj, M I

    2016-03-01

    N-acetylcysteine can increase extrasynaptic glutamate and reduce nicotine self-administration in rats and smoking rates in humans. The aim of this study was to determine if N-acetylcysteine modulates the development of nicotine place conditioning and withdrawal in mice. N-acetylcysteine was given to nicotine-treated male ICR mice. Experiment 1: reward-like behavior. N-acetylcysteine (0, 5, 15, 30, or 60 mg/kg, i.p.) was given 15 min before nicotine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.) or saline (10 ml/kg, s.c.) in an unbiased conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Conditioning for highly palatable food served as control. Experiment 2: spontaneous withdrawal. The effect of N-acetylcysteine (0, 15, 30, 120 mg/kg, i.p.) on anxiety-like behavior, somatic signs, and hyperalgesia was measured 18-24 h after continuous nicotine (24 mg/kg/day, 14 days). Experiment 3: mecamylamine-precipitated, withdrawal-induced aversion. The effect of N-acetylcysteine (0, 15, 30, 120 mg/kg, i.p.) on mecamylamine (3.5 mg/kg, i.p.)-precipitated withdrawal was determined after continuous nicotine (24 mg/kg, i.p., 28 days) using the conditioned place aversion (CPA) paradigm. Dose-related reductions in the development of nicotine CPP, somatic withdrawal signs, hyperalgesia, and CPA were observed after N-acetylcysteine pretreatment. No effect of N-acetylcysteine was found on palatable food CPP, anxiety-like behavior, or motoric capacity (crosses between plus maze arms). Finally, N-acetylcysteine did not affect any measure in saline-treated mice at doses effective in nicotine-treated mice. These are the first data suggesting that N-acetylcysteine blocks specific mouse behaviors associated with nicotine reward and withdrawal, which adds to the growing appreciation that N-acetylcysteine may have high clinical utility in combating nicotine dependence.

  15. N-acetylcysteine decreased nicotine reward-like properties and withdrawal in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, M.S.; Jackson, A.; Maldoon, P.P.; Damaj, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale N-acetylcysteine can increase extrasynaptic glutamate and reduce nicotine self-administration in rats and smoking rates in humans. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine if N-acetylcysteine modulates the development of nicotine place conditioning and withdrawal in mice. Methods N-acetylcysteine was given to nicotine-treated male ICR mice. Experiment 1: reward-like behavior. N-acetylcysteine (0, 5, 15, 30, or 60 mg/kg, i.p.) was given 15 min before nicotine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.) or saline (10 ml/kg, s.c.) in an unbiased conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Conditioning for highly palatable food served as control. Experiment 2: spontaneous withdrawal. The effect of N-acetylcysteine (0, 15, 30, 120 mg/kg, i.p.) on anxiety-like behavior, somatic signs, and hyperalgesia were measured 18 - 24 hrs after continuous nicotine (24 mg/kg/day, 14 days). Experiment 3: Mecamylamine-precipitated, withdrawal-induced aversion. The effect of N-acetylcysteine (0, 15, 30, 120 mg/kg, i.p.) on mecamylamine (3.5 mg/kg, i.p.) precipitated withdrawal was determined after continuous nicotine (24 mg/kg, i.p., 28 days) using the conditioned place aversion (CPA) paradigm. Results Dose-related reductions in the development of nicotine CPP, somatic withdrawal signs, hyperalgesia, and CPA were observed after N-acetylcysteine pretreatment. No effect of N-acetylcysteine were found on palatable food CPP, anxiety-like behavior, or motoric capacity (crosses between plus maze arms). Finally, N-acetylcysteine did not affect any measure in saline-treated mice at doses effective in nicotine-treated mice. Conclusions These are the first data suggesting that N-acetylcysteine blocks specific mouse behaviors associated with nicotine reward and withdrawal, which adds to the growing appreciation that N-acetylcysteine may have high clinical utility in combating nicotine dependence. PMID:26676982

  16. Status epilepticus following intravenous N-acetylcysteine therapy.

    PubMed

    Hershkovitz, E; Shorer, Z; Levitas, A; Tal, A

    1996-11-01

    A previously healthy 2 1/2-year-old girl developed status epilepticus followed by cortical blindness during intravenous N-acetylcysteine therapy for paracetamol ingestion. The child's vision was almost completely recovered during the 18 months follow-up period. We assume that the cortical blindness was a postictal sequela after prolonged seizure episode, most probably due to respiratory depression induced by N-acetylcysteine.

  17. Prevention of gentamicin ototoxicity with N-acetylcysteine and vitamin A.

    PubMed

    Aladag, I; Guven, M; Songu, M

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the use of systemic N-acetylcysteine and vitamin A in the prevention of gentamicin ototoxicity in rats. Forty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups according to treatment: intratympanic saline, intratympanic gentamicin, intraperitoneal vitamin A after intratympanic gentamicin, and intraperitoneal N-acetylcysteine after intratympanic gentamicin. Signal-to-noise ratio and distortion product otoacoustic emissions were evaluated in all groups. N-acetylcysteine had a significant protective effect at 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 kHz, whilst vitamin A had a significant protective effect at 2, 3, 4 and 6 kHz, as determined by the distortion product otoacoustic emission measurements. According to the signal-to-noise measurements, N-acetylcysteine had a significant protective effect at 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 kHz, whilst vitamin A had a significant protective effect at 3, 6 and 8 kHz. Gentamicin-induced hearing loss in rats may be prevented by the concomitant use of vitamin A and N-acetylcysteine. Specifically, N-acetylcysteine appeared to have a more protective effect than vitamin A for a greater range of noise frequencies.

  18. N-Acetylcysteine Use in Non-Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    McPheeters, Chelsey M; VanArsdale, Vanessa M; Weant, Kyle A

    2016-01-01

    This article will review the available evidence related to the management of non-acetaminophen induced acute liver failure with N-acetylcysteine. Randomized controlled trials and a meta-analysis were included in this review. The efficacy of N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of acute liver failure from causes other than acetaminophen toxicity was evaluated. The efficacy of N-acetylcysteine in non-acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure is limited to specific patient populations. Patients classified as Coma Grade I or II are more likely to benefit from the use of this agent. The use of N-acetylcysteine is associated with improved transplant-free survival, not overall survival, in adults. N-Acetylcysteine does not improve the overall survival of patients with non-acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure but may be beneficial in those patients with Coma Grades I-II. Liver transplantation remains the only definitive therapy in advanced disease.

  19. Recommendations for the paracetamol treatment nomogram and side effects of N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Koppen, A; van Riel, A; de Vries, I; Meulenbelt, J

    2014-06-01

    Treatment of paracetamol intoxication consists of administration of N-acetylcysteine, preferably shortly after paracetamol ingestion. In most countries, the decision to treat patients with N-acetylcysteine depends on the paracetamol plasma concentration. In the literature, different arguments are given regarding when to treat paracetamol overdose. Some authors do not recommend treatment with N-acetylcysteine at low paracetamol plasma concentrations since unnecessary adverse effects may be induced. But no treatment with N-acetylcysteine at higher paracetamol plasma concentrations may lead to unnecessary severe morbidity and mortality. In this review, we provide an overview on the severity and prevalence of adverse side effects after N-acetylcysteine administration and the consequences these side effects may have for the treatment of paracetamol intoxication. The final conclusion is to continue using the guidelines of the Dutch National Poisons Information Centre for N-acetylcysteine administration in paracetamol intoxication.

  20. N-acetylcysteine for sepsis and systemic inflammatory response in adults.

    PubMed

    Szakmany, Tamas; Hauser, Balázs; Radermacher, Peter

    2012-09-12

    Death is common in systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or sepsis-induced multisystem organ failure and it has been thought that antioxidants such as N-acetylcysteine could be beneficial. We assessed the clinical effectiveness of intravenous N-acetylcysteine for the treatment of patients with SIRS or sepsis. We searched the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 12); MEDLINE (January 1950 to January 2012); EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2012); CINAHL (1982 to January 2012); the NHS Trusts Clinical Trials Register and Current Controlled Trials (www.controlled-trials.com); LILACS; KoreaMED; MEDCARIB; INDMED; PANTELEIMON; Ingenta; ISI Web of Knowledge and the National Trials Register to identify all relevant randomized controlled trials available for review. We included only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the meta-analysis. We independently performed study selection, quality assessment and data extraction. We estimated risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous outcomes. We measured statistical heterogeneity using the I(2) statistic. We included 41 fully published studies (2768 patients). Mortality was similar in the N-acetylcysteine group and the placebo group (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.42; I(2) = 0%). Neither did N-acetylcysteine show any significant effect on length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation or incidence of new organ failure. Early application of N-acetylcysteine to prevent the development of an oxidato-inflammatory response did not affect the outcome, nor did late application that is after 24 hours of developing symptoms. Late application was associated with cardiovascular instability. Overall, this meta-analysis puts doubt on the safety and utility of intravenous N-acetylcysteine as an adjuvant therapy in SIRS and sepsis. At best, N-acetylcysteine is ineffective in reducing mortality and complications in this patient population. At worst, it can be harmful

  1. N-acetylcysteine reverses cardiac myocyte dysfunction in a rodent model of behavioral stress

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fangping; Hadfield, Jessalyn M.; Berzingi, Chalak; Hollander, John M.; Miller, Diane B.; Nichols, Cody E.

    2013-01-01

    Compelling clinical reports reveal that behavioral stress alone is sufficient to cause reversible myocardial dysfunction in selected individuals. We developed a rodent stress cardiomyopathy model by a combination of prenatal and postnatal behavioral stresses (Stress). We previously reported a decrease in percent fractional shortening by echo, both systolic and diastolic dysfunction by catheter-based hemodynamics, as well as attenuated hemodynamic and inotropic responses to the β-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol (ISO) in Stress rats compared with matched controls (Kan H, Birkle D, Jain AC, Failinger C, Xie S, Finkel MS. J Appl Physiol 98: 77–82, 2005). We now report enhanced catecholamine responses to behavioral stress, as evidenced by increased circulating plasma levels of norepinephrine (P < 0.01) and epinephrine (P < 0.01) in Stress rats vs. controls. Cardiac myocytes isolated from Stress rats also reveal evidence of oxidative stress, as indicated by decreased ATP, increased GSSG, and decreased GSH-to-GSSG ratio in the presence of increased GSH peroxidase and catalase activities (P < 0.01, for each). We also report blunted inotropic and intracellular Ca2+ concentration responses to extracellular Ca2+ (P < 0.05), as well as altered inotropic responses to the intracellular calcium regulator, caffeine (20 mM; P < 0.01). Treatment of cardiac myocytes with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (10−3 M) normalized calcium handling in response to ISO and extracellular Ca2+ concentration and inotropic response to caffeine (P < 0.01, for each). NAC also attenuated the blunted inotropic response to ISO and Ca2+ (P < 0.01, for each). Surprisingly, NAC did not reverse the changes in GSH, GSSG, or GSH-to-GSSG ratio. These data support a GSH-independent salutary effect of NAC on intracellular calcium signaling in this rodent model of stress-induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:23722706

  2. Chronic cocaine exposure in adolescence: Effects on spatial discrimination reversal, delay discounting, and performance on fixed-ratio schedules in mice.

    PubMed

    Pope, Derek A; Boomhower, Steven R; Hutsell, Blake A; Teixeira, Kathryn M; Newland, M Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Adolescence is marked by the continued development of the neural pathways that support choice and decision-making, particularly those involving dopamine signaling. Cocaine exposure during adolescence may interfere with this development and manifest as increased perseveration and delay discounting in adulthood, behavioral processes that are related to drug addiction. Adolescent mice were exposed to 30mg/kg/day of cocaine (n=11) or saline vehicle (n=10) for 14days and behavior was assessed in adulthood. In Experiment 1, performance on a spatial-discrimination-reversal procedure was evaluated. In the first two sessions following the first reversal, cocaine-exposed mice produced more preservative errors relative to controls. In Experiment 2, cocaine-exposed mice displayed steeper delay discounting than saline-exposed mice, effects that were reversed by acute cocaine administration. Experiment 3 examined responding maintained by a range of fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement. An analysis based on a theoretical framework called Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement (MPR) was applied to response-rate functions of individual mice. According to MPR, differences in response-rate functions in adulthood were due to a steepening of the delay-of-reinforcement gradient, disrupted motoric capacity (lower maximum response rates), and enhanced reinforcer efficacy for the adolescent cocaine- compared with saline-exposed mice. Overall, these experiments suggest that chronic exposure to cocaine during adolescence may impair different features of 'executive functions' in adulthood, and these may be related to distortions in the impact of reinforcing events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of N-Acetylcysteine on Thresholds and Otoacoustic Emissions Following Noise Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    EFFECTS OF N- ACETYLCYSTEINE ON THRESHOLDS AND OTOACOUSTIC EMISSIONS FOLLOWING NOISE EXPOSURE Barbara Acker-Mills, Ph.D*., CPT Martin Robinette...wearing ear plugs, muffs, etc.. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of one antioxidant, N- acetylcysteine (NAC), on temporary cochlear changes...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Effects Of N- Acetylcysteine On Thresholds And Otoacoustic Emissions Following Noise Exposure 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  4. Efficacy of N-Acetylcysteine in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tong; Liu, Jing; Zhao, De Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There are a number of conflicting reports describing the clinical outcomes of using N-acetylcysteine for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We have, therefore, performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine, compared with control, for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Original controlled clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were included in the analysis. Searches for relevant articles were carried out in July 2014 by 2 independent researchers using PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central, and Google Scholar. Change in forced vital capacity, change in percentage of predicted vital capacity, change in percentage of predicted carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, changes in 6 minutes walking test distance, rate of adverse events, and rate of death were expressed as outcomes using RevMan 5.0.1. Five trials, with a total of 564 patients, were included in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed that the control group had significant decreases in percentage of predicted vital capacity (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13 to −0.62; P = 0.003) and 6 minutes walking test distance (SMD = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.02–0.48; P = 0.04). There were no statistically significant differences in forced vital capacity (SMD = 0.07; 95% CI: −0.13–0.27; P = 0.52), percentage of predicted carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (SMD = 0.12; 95% CI: −0.06–0.30; P = 0.18), rates of adverse events (odd ratio = 4.50; 95% CI: 0.19–106.41; P = 0.35), or death rates (odd ratio = 1.79; 95% CI: 0.3–5.12; P = 0.28) between the N-acetylcysteine group and the control group. N-Acetylcysteine was found to have a significant effect only on decreases in percentage of predicted vital capacity and 6 minutes walking test distance. N-acetylcysteine showed no beneficial effect on changes

  5. A double-blind randomized controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine in cannabis-dependent adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kevin M.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; DeSantis, Stacia M.; Kryway, Elisabeth; Hartwell, Karen J.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Preclinical findings suggest that the over-the-counter supplement N-acetylcysteine, via glutamate modulation in the nucleus accumbens, holds promise as a pharmacotherapy targeting substance dependence. We sought to investigate N-acetylcysteine as a novel cannabis cessation treatment in adolescents, a vulnerable group for whom existing treatments have limited efficacy. Method In this 8-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial, treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent adolescents (age 15-21, N = 116) received N-acetylcysteine (1200 mg) or placebo twice daily, each added to a contingency management intervention and brief (≤10 minute) weekly cessation counseling. The primary efficacy measure was the odds of negative weekly urine cannabinoid tests during treatment among participants receiving N-acetylcysteine versus placebo, via intent-to-treat analysis. The primary tolerability measure was frequency of adverse events, compared by treatment group. Results N-acetylcysteine was well tolerated with minimal adverse events. N-acetylcysteine participants had more than twice the odds, compared to placebo participants, of submitting negative urine cannabinoid tests during treatment (odds ratio = 2.4, [95% CI: 1.1-5.2], p = 0.029). Exploratory secondary abstinence outcomes numerically favored N-acetylcysteine, but were not statistically significant. Conclusions This is the first randomized trial of pharmacotherapy for cannabis dependence in any age group yielding a positive primary cessation outcome via intent-to-treat analysis. Findings support N-acetylcysteine as a pharmacotherapy to complement psychosocial treatment for cannabis dependence in adolescents. Further research is needed to replicate these findings and explore the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine across a variety of treatment contexts and outcomes. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT 01005810 PMID:22706327

  6. Acute effects of cocaine and cannabis on reversal learning as a function of COMT and DRD2 genotype.

    PubMed

    Spronk, Desirée B; Van der Schaaf, Marieke E; Cools, Roshan; De Bruijn, Ellen R A; Franke, Barbara; van Wel, Janelle H P; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Verkes, Robbert J

    2016-01-01

    Long-term cannabis and cocaine use has been associated with impairments in reversal learning. However, how acute cannabis and cocaine administration affect reversal learning in humans is not known. In this study, we aimed to establish the acute effects of administration of cannabis and cocaine on valence-dependent reversal learning as a function of DRD2 Taq1A (rs1800497) and COMT Val108/158Met (rs4680) genotype. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized 3-way crossover design was used. Sixty-one regular poly-drug users completed a deterministic reversal learning task under the influence of cocaine, cannabis, and placebo that enabled assessment of both reward- and punishment-based reversal learning. Proportion correct on the reversal learning task was increased by cocaine, but decreased by cannabis. Effects of cocaine depended on the DRD2 genotype, as increases in proportion correct were seen only in the A1 carriers, and not in the A2/A2 homozygotes. COMT genotype did not modulate drug-induced effects on reversal learning. These data indicate that acute administration of cannabis and cocaine has opposite effects on reversal learning. The effects of cocaine, but not cannabis, depend on interindividual genetic differences in the dopamine D2 receptor gene.

  7. Trichotillomania: a good response to treatment with N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Livia Ariane Lopes; Sternberg, Flavia; Souza, Maria Natalia Inacio de Fraia E; Nunes, Gisele Jacobino de Barros

    2017-01-01

    Trichotillomania is considered a behavioral disorder and is characterized by the recurring habit of pulling one's hair, resulting in secondary alopecia. It affects 1% of the adult population, and 2 to 4.4% of psychiatric patients meet the diagnostic criteria. It can occur at any age and is more prevalent in adolescents and females. Its occurrence in childhood is not uncommon and tends to have a more favorable clinical course. The scalp, eyebrows and eyelashes are the most commonly affected sites. Glutamate modulating agents, such as N-acetylcysteine, have been shown to be a promising treatment. N-acetylcysteine acts by reducing oxidative stress and normalizing glutaminergic transmission. In this paper, we report a case of trichotillomania with an excellent response to N-acetylcysteine.

  8. PI3 kinase is involved in cocaine behavioral sensitization and its reversal with brain area specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiuwu; Mi Jing; Wetsel, William C.

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is an important signaling molecule involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, survival, and phagocytosis, and may participate in various brain functions. To determine whether it is also involved in cocaine sensitization, we measured the p85{alpha}/p110 PI3K activity in the nuclear accumbens (NAc) shell, NAc core, and prefrontal cortex (PFC) following establishment of cocaine sensitization and its subsequent reversal. Naive rats were rank-ordered and split into either daily cocaine or saline pretreatment group based on their locomotor responses to an acute cocaine injection (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.). These two groups were then injected with cocaine (40 mg/kg, s.c.) or salinemore » for 4 consecutive days followed by 9-day withdrawal. Cocaine sensitization was subsequently reversed by 5 daily injections of the D{sub 1}/D{sub 2} agonist pergolide (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) in combination with the 5-HT{sub 3} antagonist ondansetron (0.2 mg/kg, s.c., 3.5 h after pergolide injection). After another 9-day withdrawal, behavioral cocaine sensitization and its reversal were confirmed with an acute cocaine challenge (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.), and animals were sacrificed the next day for measurement of p85{alpha}/p110 PI3K activity. Cocaine-sensitized animals exhibited increased PI3K activity in the NAc shell, and this increase was reversed by combined pergolide/ondansetron treatment, which also reversed behavioral sensitization. In the NAc core and PFC, cocaine sensitization decreased and increased the PI3K activity, respectively. These changes, in contrast to that in the NAc shell, were not normalized following the reversal of cocaine-sensitization. Interestingly, daily injections of pergolide alone in saline-pretreated animals induced PI3K changes that were similar to the cocaine sensitization-associated changes in the NAc core and PFC but not the NAc shell; furthermore, these changes in saline-pretreated animals were prevented by ondansetron given 3.5 h

  9. Protective effects of N-acetylcysteine on experimentally undescended testis.

    PubMed

    Uyeturk, Ugur; Cetinkaya, Ayhan; Ozyalvacli, Gulzade; Tekce, Buket Kin; Ozyalvacli, Mehmet Emin; Kemahli, Eray; Gucuk, Adnan

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine for testicular damage induced by undescended testes in rats. Flutamide was injected in the abdomen of pregnant rats daily from days 14 to 20 of gestation. Male offspring with cryptorchidism were randomly divided into 2 groups. Healthy male rats without undescended testes comprised the control group (group 1). Group 2 (undescended testes without N-acetylcysteine) received no treatment. Group 3 (undescended testes plus N-acetylcysteine) received intraperitoneal N-acetylcysteine daily. At 70 days after experiment initiation the testes were removed for histopathological and biochemical analysis. Mean malonyl dialdehyde values were lowest in group 1 and highest in group 2. In group 3 malonyl dialdehyde levels were significantly lower than in group 2 (p <0.001). Conversely, mean glutathione peroxidase was highest in group 1 and lowest in group 2. Glutathione peroxidase levels in group 3 were significantly higher than in group 2 (p <0.001). Histopathological differences between groups 1 and 3 in the modified Johnsen score were not significant (p = 0.041). However, the differences between these groups and group 2 were significant (p <0.001). The median apoptotic cell count did not differ between groups 1 and 3 but it was significantly higher in group 2 than in the other groups (p = 0.03 and <0.001, respectively). N-acetylcysteine may alleviate undescended testis induced damage to testes through its antioxidant effects. The underlying mechanism of these effects merits further investigation. Long-term studies are also needed as well as comparative animal and human studies. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. S-phenyl-N-acetylcysteine in urine of rats and workers after exposure to benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Jongeneelen, F.J.; Dirven, H.A.; Leijdekkers, C.M.

    1987-05-01

    An HPLC method for the determination of S-phenyl-N-acetylcysteine in urine is described. The sensitivity is 6 mumol/L (CV = 9%) urine. Exposure of rats to six different concentrations of benzene, ranging from 0-30 ppm, was highly associated with urinary excretion of S-phenyl-N-acetylcysteine (r = 0.86) and with total phenol (r = 0.81). A background level of phenol was found in urine of both non-exposed rats and of non-exposed referents. However, no background excretion of S-phenyl-N-acetylcysteine was found, either in rats or in humans. In urine of exposed rats, the level of S-phenyl-N-acetylcysteine was approximately five times lower than the phenolmore » level. Workers occupationally exposed to benzene, showing high levels of urinary phenol, revealed low concentrations of urinary S-phenyl-N-acetylcysteine. The biological monitoring of industrial exposure to benzene by determination of S-phenyl-N-acetylcysteine in urine is not better than the determination of phenol in urine.« less

  11. Synaptic and cellular changes induced by the schizophrenia susceptibility gene G72 are rescued by N-acetylcysteine treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pósfai, B; Cserép, C; Hegedüs, P; Szabadits, E; Otte, D M; Zimmer, A; Watanabe, M; Freund, T F; Nyiri, G

    2016-01-01

    Genetic studies have linked the primate-specific gene locus G72 to the development of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Transgenic mice carrying the entire gene locus express G72 mRNA in dentate gyrus (DG) and entorhinal cortex, causing altered electrophysiological properties of their connections. These transgenic mice exhibit behavioral alterations related to psychiatric diseases, including cognitive deficits that can be reversed by treatment with N-acetylcysteine, which was also found to be effective in human patients. Here, we show that G72 transgenic mice have larger excitatory synapses with an increased amount of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the molecular layer of DG, compared with wild-type littermates. Furthermore, transgenic animals have lower number of dentate granule cells with a parallel, but an even stronger decrease in the number of excitatory synapses in the molecular layer. Importantly, we also show that treatment with N-acetylcysteine can effectively normalize all these changes in transgenic animals, resulting in a state similar to wild-type mice. Our results show that G72 transcripts induce robust alterations in the glutamatergic system at the synaptic level that can be rescued with N-acetylcysteine treatment. PMID:27163208

  12. Topical N-acetylcysteine improves wound healing comparable to dexpanthenol: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Abdullah; Uslukaya, Omer; Alabalık, Ulas; Turkoglu, Ahmet; Kapan, Murat; Bozdag, Zubeyir

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of dexpanthenol and N-acetylcysteine on wound healing. The wound healing process is a multifaceted sequence of activities associated with tissue restoration process. A number of investigations and clinical studies have been performed to determine new approaches for the improvement of wound healing. A total of 30 rats were divided into 3 equal groups. A linear 2-cm incision was made in the rats' skin. No treatment was administered in the first (control) group. Dexpanthenol cream was administered to the rats in the second group and 3% N-acetylcysteine cream was administered to the rats in the third group. The wound areas of all of the rats were measured on certain days. On the 21st day, all wounds were excised and histologically evaluated. The epithelialization and granulation rates between the groups were revealed to be similar in microscopic evaluations. Although the fibrosis was remarkable in the control group as compared with the other groups, it was similar in N-acetylcysteine and dexpanthenol groups. Angiogenesis rate was remarkable in the N-acetylcysteine group compared with the others. In multiple-comparison analysis, Dexpanthenol and N-acetylcysteine groups had similar results in terms of wound healing rates (P < 0.05), which were both higher than in the control group (P > 0.05). The efficacy of N-acetylcysteine in wound healing is comparable to dexpanthenol, and both substances can be used to improve wound healing.

  13. Topical N-Acetylcysteine Improves Wound Healing Comparable to Dexpanthenol: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Oguz, Abdullah; Uslukaya, Omer; Alabalık, Ulas; Turkoglu, Ahmet; Kapan, Murat; Bozdag, Zubeyir

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of dexpanthenol and N-acetylcysteine on wound healing. The wound healing process is a multifaceted sequence of activities associated with tissue restoration process. A number of investigations and clinical studies have been performed to determine new approaches for the improvement of wound healing. A total of 30 rats were divided into 3 equal groups. A linear 2-cm incision was made in the rats' skin. No treatment was administered in the first (control) group. Dexpanthenol cream was administered to the rats in the second group and 3% N-acetylcysteine cream was administered to the rats in the third group. The wound areas of all of the rats were measured on certain days. On the 21st day, all wounds were excised and histologically evaluated. The epithelialization and granulation rates between the groups were revealed to be similar in microscopic evaluations. Although the fibrosis was remarkable in the control group as compared with the other groups, it was similar in N-acetylcysteine and dexpanthenol groups. Angiogenesis rate was remarkable in the N-acetylcysteine group compared with the others. In multiple-comparison analysis, Dexpanthenol and N-acetylcysteine groups had similar results in terms of wound healing rates (P < 0.05), which were both higher than in the control group (P > 0.05). The efficacy of N-acetylcysteine in wound healing is comparable to dexpanthenol, and both substances can be used to improve wound healing. PMID:25583306

  14. Comparative effects of sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride on reversing cocaine-induced changes in the electrocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Parker, R B; Perry, G Y; Horan, L G; Flowers, N C

    1999-12-01

    Cocaine abuse is associated with a number of cardiovascular complications that include arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Although the mechanism(s) remain unclear, cocaine-induced block of sodium channels resulting in slowed cardiac conduction is thought to play an important role. Several reports suggest that the effects of cocaine effects on cardiac sodium channels can be reversed by administration of sodium bicarbonate. Whether the beneficial effects of sodium bicarbonate are due to sodium ions or an increase in blood pH is unknown. Therefore the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of sodium loading alone (by using sodium chloride) versus sodium loading with an associated increase in arterial pH (by using sodium bicarbonate) on reversing cocaine-induced effects on the electrocardiogram (ECG) in a canine model. Seventeen anesthetized dogs received three i.v. injections of cocaine, 5 mg/kg, with each dose separated by 15 min. Two minutes after the third cocaine dose, each dog was randomly assigned to receive 2 mEq/kg i.v. sodium bicarbonate (1 mEq/ml) or 2 mEq/kg i.v. sodium chloride (1 mEq/ml). ECG, electrophysiologic, and hemodynamic data were recorded at baseline, after each cocaine injection, and after administration of sodium bicarbonate or sodium chloride. In both groups of animals, the first cocaine injection significantly (p < 0.05) prolonged the PR, QTc, AH, and HV intervals, and QRS duration compared with baseline. All intervals continued to lengthen in a dose-dependent manner after the second and third cocaine doses. Sodium bicarbonate significantly (p < 0.05) reduced cocaine-induced prolongation of PR [(147 +/- 5-130 +/- 5 ms), AH (81 +/- 6 - 72 +/- 6 ms), and HV intervals (55 +/- 2 - 39 +/- 1 ms). and QRS duration (96 +/- 6 - 66 +/- 4 ms), peak effect after third cocaine dose versus after sodium bicarbonate, respectively]. Sodium chloride had no effect on reversing cocaine-induced effects on the ECG. Cocaine produces dose

  15. A potential role for N-acetylcysteine in the management of methamphetamine dependence.

    PubMed

    McKetin, Rebecca; Dean, Olivia M; Baker, Amanda L; Carter, Greg; Turner, Alyna; Kelly, Peter J; Berk, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Methamphetamine dependence is a growing problem in Australia and globally. Currently, there are no approved pharmacotherapy options for the management of methamphetamine dependence. N-acetylcysteine is one potential pharmacotherapy option. It has received growing attention as a therapy for managing addictions because of its capacity to restore homeostasis to brain glutamate systems disrupted in addiction and thereby reduce craving and the risk of relapse. N-acetylcysteine also has antioxidant properties that protect against methamphetamine-induced toxicity and it may therefore assist in the management of the neuropsychiatric and neurocognitive effects of methamphetamine. This commentary overviews the actions of N-acetylcysteine and evidence for its efficacy in treating addiction with a particular focus on its potential utility for methamphetamine dependence. We conclude that the preliminary evidence indicates a need for full-scale trials to definitively establish whether N-acetylcysteine has a therapeutic benefit and the nature of this benefit, for managing methamphetamine dependence. [McKetin R, Dean O, Baker A. L, Carter G, Turner A, Kelly P. J, Berk M. A potential role for N-acetylcysteine in the management of methamphetamine dependence. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:153-159]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  16. The effect of N-acetylcysteine on mechanical fatigue resistance of antibiotic-loaded bone cement.

    PubMed

    Sukur, Erhan; Akar, Abdulhalim; Topcu, Huseyin Nevzat; Cicekli, Ozgur; Kochai, Alauddin; Turker, Mehmet

    2018-05-31

    This biomechanical study evaluates the effect of N-acetylcysteine alone and in combination with the most commonly used antibiotic-loaded bone cement mixtures. We mixed eight bone cement mixture groups including combinations of N-acetylcysteine, gentamicin, teicoplanin, and vancomycin and applied a four-point bending test individually to each sample on days 1 and 15 using an MTS Acumen test device. The result was less than 50 MPa-the limit declared by the ISO (International Standards Organization)-in only the "gentamicin + bone cement + N-acetylcysteine" group. Mechanical fatigue resistance of the bone cement decreased significantly with the addition of N-acetylcysteine both on day 1 and day 15 (p <  0.001). With the addition of N-acetylcysteine into the "gentamicin + bone cement" and "vancomycin + bone cement" mixtures, a significant decrease in mechanical fatigue resistance was observed both on day 1 and day 15 (p <  0.001). In contrast, with the addition of N-acetylcysteine into the "teicoplanin + bone cement" mixture, no significant difference in mechanical fatigue resistance was observed on days 1 and 15 (p = 0.093, p = 0.356). Preliminary results indicate that adding N-acetylcysteine to teicoplanin-loaded bone cement does not significantly affect the cement's mechanical resistance, potentially leading to a new avenue for preventing and treating peri-prosthetic joint infection. N-acetylcysteine may, therefore, be considered as an alternative agent to be added to antibiotic-loaded bone cement mixtures used in the prevention of peri-prosthetic joint infection.

  17. N-acetylcysteine prevents ketamine-induced adverse effects on development, heart rate and monoaminergic neurons in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Bonnie; Dumas, Melanie; Gu, Qiang; Kanungo, Jyotshna

    2018-06-08

    N-acetylcysteine, a precursor molecule of glutathione, is an antioxidant. Ketamine, a pediatric anesthetic, has been implicated in cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity including modulation of monoaminergic systems in mammals and zebrafish. Here, we show that N-acetylcysteine prevents ketamine's adverse effects on development and monoaminergic neurons in zebrafish embryos. The effects of ketamine and N-acetylcysteine alone or in combination were measured on the heart rate, body length, brain serotonergic neurons and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR) neurons. In the absence of N-acetylcysteine, a concentration of ketamine that produces an internal embryo exposure level comparable to human anesthetic plasma concentrations significantly reduced heart rate and body length and those effects were prevented by N-acetylcysteine co-treatment. Ketamine also reduced the areas occupied by serotonergic neurons in the brain, whereas N-acetylcysteine co-exposure counteracted this effect. TH-IR neurons in the embryo brain and TH-IR cells in the trunk were significantly reduced with ketamine treatment, but not in the presence of N-acetylcysteine. In our continued search for compounds that can prevent ketamine toxicity, this study using specific endpoints of developmental toxicity, cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity, demonstrates protective effects of N-acetylcysteine against ketamine's adverse effects. This is the first study that shows the protective effects of N-acetylcysteine on ketamine-induced developmental defects of monoaminergic neurons as observed in a whole organism. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. N-Acetylcysteine in depressive symptoms and functionality: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Brisa S; Dean, Olivia M; Dodd, Seetal; Malhi, Gin S; Berk, Michael

    2016-04-01

    To assess the utility of N-acetylcysteine administration for depressive symptoms in subjects with psychiatric conditions using a systematic review and meta-analysis. A computerized literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, SciELO, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge. No year or country restrictions were used. The Boolean terms used for the electronic database search were (NAC OR N-acetylcysteine OR acetylcysteine) AND (depression OR depressive OR depressed) AND (trial). The last search was performed in November 2014. The literature was searched for double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials using N-acetylcysteine for depressive symptoms regardless of the main psychiatric condition. Using keywords and cross-referenced bibliographies, 38 studies were identified and examined in depth. Of those, 33 articles were rejected because inclusion criteria were not met. Finally, 5 studies were included. Data were extracted independently by 2 investigators. The primary outcome measure was change in depressive symptoms. Functionality, quality of life, and manic and anxiety symptoms were also examined. A full review and meta-analysis were performed. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were calculated. Five studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis, providing data on 574 participants, of whom 291 were randomized to receive N-acetylcysteine and 283 to placebo. The follow-up varied from 12 to 24 weeks. Two studies included subjects with bipolar disorder and current depressive symptoms, 1 included subjects with MDD in a current depressive episode, and 2 included subjects with depressive symptoms in the context of other psychiatric conditions (1 trichotillomania and 1 heavy smoking). Treatment with N-acetylcysteine improved depressive symptoms as assessed by Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale when compared to placebo (SMD = 0.37; 95% CI = 0

  19. Cognitive Impairment in Cocaine Users is Drug-Induced but Partially Reversible: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Vonmoos, Matthias; Hulka, Lea M; Preller, Katrin H; Minder, Franziska; Baumgartner, Markus R; Quednow, Boris B

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine users consistently display cognitive impairments. However, it is still unknown whether these impairments are cocaine-induced and if they are reversible. Therefore, we examined the relation between changing intensity of cocaine use and the development of cognitive functioning within 1 year. The present data were collected as part of the longitudinal Zurich Cocaine Cognition Study (ZuCo2St). Forty-eight psychostimulant-naive controls and 57 cocaine users (19 with increased, 19 with decreased, and 19 with unchanged cocaine use) were eligible for analysis. At baseline and after a 1-year follow-up, cognitive performance was measured by a global cognitive index and four neuropsychological domains (attention, working memory, declarative memory, and executive functions), calculated from 13 parameters of a broad neuropsychological test battery. Intensity of cocaine use was objectively determined by quantitative 6-month hair toxicology at both test sessions. Substantially increased cocaine use within 1 year (mean +297%) was associated with reduced cognitive performance primarily in working memory. By contrast, decreased cocaine use (−72%) was linked to small cognitive improvements in all four domains. Importantly, users who ceased taking cocaine seemed to recover completely, attaining a cognitive performance level similar to that of the control group. However, recovery of working memory was correlated with age of onset of cocaine use—early-onset users showed hampered recovery. These longitudinal data suggest that cognitive impairment might be partially cocaine-induced but also reversible within 1 year, at least after moderate exposure. The reversibility indicates that neuroplastic adaptations underlie cognitive changes in cocaine users, which are potentially modifiable in psychotherapeutical or pharmacological interventions. PMID:24651468

  20. Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress post-lung resection: Effect of pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Bastin, Anthony J; Davies, Nathan; Lim, Eric; Quinlan, Greg J; Griffiths, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine has been used to treat a variety of lung diseases, where is it thought to have an antioxidant effect. In a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study, the effect of N-acetylcysteine on systemic inflammation and oxidative damage was examined in patients undergoing lung resection, a human model of acute lung injury. Eligible adults were randomized to receive preoperative infusion of N-acetylcysteine (240 mg/kg over 12 h) or placebo. Plasma thiols, interleukin-6, 8-isoprostane, ischaemia-modified albumin, red blood cell glutathione and exhaled breath condensate pH were measured pre- and post-operatively as markers of local and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Patients undergoing lung resection and one-lung ventilation exhibited significant postoperative inflammation and oxidative damage. Postoperative plasma thiol concentration was significantly higher in the N-acetylcysteine-treated group. However, there was no significant difference in any of the measured biomarkers of inflammation or oxidative damage, or in clinical outcomes, between N-acetylcysteine and placebo groups. Preoperative administration of N-acetylcysteine did not attenuate postoperative systemic or pulmonary inflammation or oxidative damage after lung resection. NCT00655928 at ClinicalTrials.gov. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  1. N-Acetylcysteine Prevents Retrograde Motor Neuron Death after Neonatal Peripheral Nerve Injury.

    PubMed

    Catapano, Joseph; Zhang, Jennifer; Scholl, David; Chiang, Cameron; Gordon, Tessa; Borschel, Gregory H

    2017-05-01

    Neuronal death may be an overlooked and unaddressed component of disability following neonatal nerve injuries, such as obstetric brachial plexus injury. N-acetylcysteine and acetyl-L-carnitine improve survival of neurons after adult nerve injury, but it is unknown whether they improve survival after neonatal injury, when neurons are most susceptible to retrograde neuronal death. The authors' objective was to examine whether N-acetylcysteine or acetyl-L-carnitine treatment improves survival of neonatal motor or sensory neurons in a rat model of neonatal nerve injury. Rat pups received either a sciatic nerve crush or transection injury at postnatal day 3 and were then randomized to receive either intraperitoneal vehicle (5% dextrose), N-acetylcysteine (750 mg/kg), or acetyl-L-carnitine (300 mg/kg) once or twice daily. Four weeks after injury, surviving neurons were retrograde-labeled with 4% Fluoro-Gold. The lumbar spinal cord and L4/L5 dorsal root ganglia were then harvested and sectioned to count surviving motor and sensory neurons. Transection and crush injuries resulted in significant motor and sensory neuron loss, with transection injury resulting in significantly less neuron survival. High-dose N-acetylcysteine (750 mg/kg twice daily) significantly increased motor neuron survival after neonatal sciatic nerve crush and transection injury. Neither N-acetylcysteine nor acetyl-L-carnitine treatment improved sensory neuron survival. Proximal neonatal nerve injuries, such as obstetric brachial plexus injury, produce significant retrograde neuronal death after injury. High-dose N-acetylcysteine significantly increases motor neuron survival, which may improve functional outcomes after obstetrical brachial plexus injury.

  2. Reversal of Cocaine-Associated Synaptic Plasticity in Medial Prefrontal Cortex Parallels Elimination of Memory Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Otis, James M; Mueller, Devin

    2017-09-01

    Addiction is characterized by abnormalities in prefrontal cortex that are thought to allow drug-associated cues to drive compulsive drug seeking and taking. Identification and reversal of these pathologic neuroadaptations are therefore critical for treatment of addiction. Previous studies using rodents reveal that drugs of abuse cause dendritic spine plasticity in prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex (PL-mPFC) pyramidal neurons, a phenomenon that correlates with the strength of drug-associated memories in vivo. Thus, we hypothesized that cocaine-evoked plasticity in PL-mPFC may underlie cocaine-associated memory retrieval, and therefore disruption of this plasticity would prevent retrieval. Indeed, using patch clamp electrophysiology we find that cocaine place conditioning increases excitatory presynaptic and postsynaptic transmission in rat PL-mPFC pyramidal neurons. This was accounted for by increases in excitatory presynaptic release, paired-pulse facilitation, and increased AMPA receptor transmission. Noradrenergic signaling is known to maintain glutamatergic plasticity upon reactivation of modified circuits, and we therefore next determined whether inhibition of noradrenergic signaling during memory reactivation would reverse the cocaine-evoked plasticity and/or disrupt the cocaine-associated memory. We find that administration of the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol before memory retrieval, but not after (during memory reconsolidation), reverses the cocaine-evoked presynaptic and postsynaptic modifications in PL-mPFC and causes long-lasting memory impairments. Taken together, these data reveal that cocaine-evoked synaptic plasticity in PL-mPFC is reversible in vivo, and suggest a novel strategy that would allow normalization of prefrontal circuitry in addiction.

  3. N-Acetylcysteine Reverses Anxiety and Oxidative Damage Induced by Unpredictable Chronic Stress in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Mocelin, Ricieri; Marcon, Matheus; D'ambros, Simone; Mattos, Juliane; Sachett, Adrieli; Siebel, Anna M; Herrmann, Ana P; Piato, Angelo

    2018-06-06

    There is accumulating evidence on the use of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in the treatment of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. As a multi-target drug and a glutathione precursor, NAC is a promising molecule in the management of stress-related disorders, for which there is an expanding field of research investigating novel therapies targeting oxidative pathways. The deleterious effects of chronic stress in the central nervous system are a result of glutamatergic hyperactivation, glutathione (GSH) depletion, oxidative stress, and increased inflammatory response, among others. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of NAC in zebrafish submitted to unpredictable chronic stress (UCS). Animals were initially stressed or not for 7 days, followed by treatment with NAC (1 mg/L, 10 min) or vehicle for 7 days. UCS decreased the number of entries and time spent in the top area in the novel tank test, which indicate increased anxiety levels. It also increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) while decreased non-protein thiols (NPSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. NAC reversed the anxiety-like behavior and oxidative damage observed in stressed animals. Additional studies are needed to investigate the effects of this agent on glutamatergic modulation and inflammatory markers related to stress. Nevertheless, our study adds to the existing body of evidence supporting the clinical evaluation of NAC in mood disorders, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and other conditions associated with stress.

  4. N-Acetylcysteine Restores Sevoflurane Postconditioning Cardioprotection against Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiefu; Wang, Tingting; Li, Yalan; Wang, Mengxia; Li, Haobo; Irwin, Michael G; Xia, Zhengyuan

    2016-01-01

    The effect of sevoflurane postconditioning (sevo-postC) cardioprotection is compromised in diabetes which is associated with increased oxidative stress. We hypothesized that antioxidant N-Acetylcysteine may enhance or restore sevo-postC cardioprotection in diabetes. Control or streptozotocin-induced Type 1 diabetic rats were either untreated or treated with N-Acetylcysteine for four weeks starting at five weeks after streptozotocin injection and were subjected to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), in the absence or presence of sevo-postC. Diabetes showed reduction of cardiac STAT3 activation (p-STAT3) and adiponectin with concomitantly increase of FoxO1 and CD36, which associated with reduced sevo-postC cardioprotection. N-Acetylcysteine and sevo-postC synergistically reduced the infarct size in diabetic groups. N-Acetylcysteine remarkably increased cardiac p-STAT3 which was further enhanced by sevo-postC. N-Acetylcysteine but not sevo-postC decreased myocardial FoxO1 while sevo-postC but not N-Acetylcysteine significantly increased myocardiac adiponectin in diabetic rats. It is concluded that late stage diabetic rats displayed reduction of cardiac p-STAT3, adiponectin deficiency, and increase of FoxO1 and CD36 expression, which may be responsible for the loss of myocardial responsiveness to sevo-postC cardioprotection. N-Acetylcysteine restored Sevo-postC cardioprotection in diabetes possibly through enhancing cardiac p-STAT3 and adiponectin and reducing Fox1 and CD36.

  5. Acquired 5-oxoproline acidemia successfully treated with N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Hundemer, Gregory L; Fenves, Andrew Z

    2017-04-01

    Acquired 5-oxoprolinemia is increasingly recognized as a cause of anion gap metabolic acidosis. It predominantly occurs in chronically ill, malnourished women with impaired renal function and chronic acetaminophen ingestion. Depletion of glutathione and cysteine stores leads to elevated 5-oxoproline levels. N-acetylcysteine, given its effect in repleting glutathione and cysteine stores, has been proposed as a potential treatment for 5-oxoprolinemia, though reports of its successful use are lacking. We present a case of 5-oxoproline metabolic acidosis that persisted despite discontinuation of acetaminophen. However, the acidosis rapidly resolved with N-acetylcysteine administration.

  6. The Role of N-Acetylcysteine in the Prevention of Contrast-Induced Nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, Caron; Belli, Anna-Maria; Oliveira, David B.

    2006-06-15

    Purpose. To determine the role of prophylactic N-acetylcysteine in the prevention of contrast-induced nephrotoxicity. Methods. One hundred and sixteen patients undergoing noncoronary angiography, with or without pre-existing renal impairment, were randomly assigned to receive prophylactic oral N-acetylcysteine or no treatment. Serum creatinine (sCr) was measured prior to angiography and 48 hr after the procedure. Urine samples were collected before and after the examination for measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. Contrast-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN) was defined as a rise in serum creatinine of 0.5 mg/dl (44 mmol/l) at 48 hr. Results. Complete data were available on 106 patients, 53 of whom hadmore » received N-acetylcysteine. There were no significant differences between the two groups in baseline characteristics, type of angiogram, or volume and concentration of contrast used. Three patients (2.8%), all of whom had received N-acetylcysteine, developed CIN. In the N-acetylcysteine group, the mean serum creatinine in patients with renal impairment was 151.0 {+-} 44.2 {mu}mol/l prior to the procedure and 155.6 {+-} 48.6 {mu}mol/l (p = 0.49) after the procedure. Respective values for those without renal impairment were 79.6 {+-} 15.1 {mu}mol/l and 81.2 {+-} 20.0 {mu}mol/l (p = 0.65). In the group that had not received N-acetylcysteine, the mean serum creatinine levels before and after the procedure were 150.0 {+-} 58.1 and 141.4 {+-} 48.0 {mu}mol/l (p = 0.17) in patients with renal impairment and 79.7 {+-} 14.2 and 81.4 {+-} 15.4 {mu}mol/l (p = 0.34) in those without renal impairment. In both groups, no significant change in urinary MDA concentration was observed. Conclusion. There is no benefit to the prophylactic administration of N-acetylcysteine in patients undergoing peripheral angiography using current contrast media.« less

  7. N-acetylcysteine reverses immunotoxic effects of methyl mercury and augments murine lymphocyte proliferation in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Omara, F.; Fournier, M.; Bernier, J.

    1995-12-31

    N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is a thiol antioxidant used clinically to treat chronic inflammatory lung disorders and acetaminophen poisoning in humans. The authors evaluated in vitro the effect of NAC on mitogen-induced blastogenesis in C57BI/6 mouse splenocytes by {sup 3}H-thymidine uptake, and its ability to protect against the immunotoxic effects of methyl mercury on lymphocyte proliferation. Lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by optimal and suboptimal concentrations of concanavalin A (Con A), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or a combination of calcium ionophore A23187 and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) were markedly enhanced by NAC. NAC itself was a weak mitogen. The kinetics of the NAC effect on splenocyte proliferation weremore » mitogen dependent. NAC enhanced Con A-induced splenocyte proliferation in a dose-dependent and linear manner but enhanced the LPS-induced response at 50--400 {micro}g/ml of NAC followed by a decline in response to control value at higher concentrations. In splenocytes stimulated with PMA plus A23187, NAC increased proliferation at 50--200 pg/ml followed by a constant response at 200--1,000 {micro}g/ml NAC. When splenocytes were stimulated with higher concentrations of Con A (10 {micro}g/ml) or LPS (150 {micro}g/ml) which markedly suppress splenocyte proliferation, NAC significantly enhanced the Con A-induced response and reversed the inhibitory effect of high concentrations of LPS. NAC also protected lymphocytes against mitogen activation-induced cell death. Methyl mercury at 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}7}--1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} suppressed Con A- and LPS-induced splenocyte proliferation by over 80%. However, NAC completely reversed the immunotoxic effects of methyl mercury on the mitogen-induced splenocyte proliferation even when the cells were pre-incubated with methyl mercury for 6 or 24 hr before stimulation with the mitogens.« less

  8. Frontal Hyperconnectivity Related to Discounting and Reversal Learning in Cocaine Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Camchong, Jazmin; MacDonald, Angus W; Nelson, Brent; Bell, Christopher; Mueller, Bryon A; Specker, Sheila; Lim, Kelvin O

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Functional neuroimaging studies suggest that chronic cocaine use is associated with frontal lobe abnormalities. Functional connectivity (FC) alterations of cocaine dependent individuals (CD), however, are not yet clear. This is the first study to our knowledge that examines resting FC of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in CD. Because ACC is known to integrate inputs from different brain regions to regulate behavior, we hypothesize that CD will have connectivity abnormalities in ACC networks. In addition, we hypothesized that abnormalities would be associated with poor performance in delayed discounting and reversal learning tasks. METHODS Resting functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected to look for FC differences between twenty-seven cocaine dependent individuals (CD) (5 females, age: M=39.73, SD=6.14) and twenty-four controls (5 females, age: M=39.76, SD = 7.09). Participants were assessed with delayed discounting and reversal learning tasks. Using seed-based FC measures, we examined FC in CD and controls within five ACC connectivity networks with seeds in subgenual, caudal, dorsal, rostral, and perigenual ACC. RESULTS CD showed increased FC within the perigenual ACC network in left middle frontal gyrus, ACC and middle temporal gyrus when compared to controls. FC abnormalities were significantly positively correlated with task performance in delayed discounting and reversal learning tasks in CD. CONCLUSIONS The present study shows that participants with chronic cocaine-dependency have hyperconnectivity within an ACC network known to be involved in social processing and mentalizing. In addition, FC abnormalities found in CD were associated with difficulties with delay rewards and slower adaptive learning. PMID:21371689

  9. N-acetylcysteine potentiates platelet inhibition by endothelium-derived relaxing factor.

    PubMed

    Stamler, J; Mendelsohn, M E; Amarante, P; Smick, D; Andon, N; Davies, P F; Cooke, J P; Loscalzo, J

    1989-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that endothelium-derived relaxing factor exhibits properties of nitric oxide. Like nitric oxide, it inhibits platelet function and mediates its effects by elevating intracellular cyclic GMP. In this study we have investigated the role of reduced thiol in the mechanism of action of endothelium-derived relaxing factor on platelets. Bovine aortic endothelial cells were grown on microcarrier beads and pretreated with aspirin before use. Endothelial cells stimulated with bradykinin or exposed to stirred medium expressed a dose-dependent inhibition of platelet aggregation that was potentiated by the reduced thiol, N-acetylcysteine. Endothelial cell-mediated platelet inhibition was attenuated by methylene blue. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by endothelial cells was associated with a rise in platelet intracellular cyclic GMP, an effect that was enhanced by N-acetylcysteine. These data show that 1) the reduced thiol N-acetylcysteine potentiates platelet inhibition by endothelium-derived relaxing factor and 2) this effect is associated with increasing intracellular platelet cyclic GMP levels.

  10. N-acetylcysteine in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning: A Randomized, Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    El-Ebiary, Ahmad A; Elsharkawy, Rasha E; Soliman, Nema A; Soliman, Mohammed A; Hashem, Ahmed A

    2016-08-01

    Organophosphorus poisoning is a major global health problem with hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. Research interest in N-acetylcysteine has grown among increasing evidence of the role of oxidative stress in organophosphorus poisoning. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of N-acetylcysteine as an adjuvant treatment in patients with acute organophosphorus poisoning. This was a randomized, controlled, parallel-group trial on 30 patients suffering from acute organophosphorus poisoning, who were admitted to the Poison Control Center of Tanta University Emergency Hospital, Tanta, Egypt, between April and September 2014. Interventions included oral N-acetylcysteine (600 mg three times daily for 3 days) as an added treatment to the conventional measures versus only the conventional treatment. Outcome measures included mortality, total dose of atropine administered, duration of hospitalization and the need for ICU admission and/or mechanical ventilation. A total of 46 patients were screened and 30 were randomized. No significant difference was found between both groups regarding demographic characteristics and the nature or severity of baseline clinical manifestations. No major adverse effects to N-acetylcysteine therapy were reported. Malondialdehyde significantly decreased and reduced glutathione significantly increased only in the NAC-treated patients. The patients on NAC therapy required less atropine doses than those who received only the conventional treatment; however, the length of hospital stay showed no significant difference between both groups. The study concluded that the use of N-acetylcysteine as an added treatment was apparently safe, and it reduced atropine requirements in patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  11. Clinical trials of N-acetylcysteine in psychiatry and neurology: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Deepmala; Slattery, John; Kumar, Nihit; Delhey, Leanna; Berk, Michael; Dean, Olivia; Spielholz, Charles; Frye, Richard

    2015-08-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is recognized for its role in acetaminophen overdose and as a mucolytic. Over the past decade, there has been growing evidence for the use of NAC in treating psychiatric and neurological disorders, considering its role in attenuating pathophysiological processes associated with these disorders, including oxidative stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation and glutamate and dopamine dysregulation. In this systematic review we find favorable evidence for the use of NAC in several psychiatric and neurological disorders, particularly autism, Alzheimer's disease, cocaine and cannabis addiction, bipolar disorder, depression, trichotillomania, nail biting, skin picking, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, drug-induced neuropathy and progressive myoclonic epilepsy. Disorders such as anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and mild traumatic brain injury have preliminary evidence and require larger confirmatory studies while current evidence does not support the use of NAC in gambling, methamphetamine and nicotine addictions and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Overall, NAC treatment appears to be safe and tolerable. Further well designed, larger controlled trials are needed for specific psychiatric and neurological disorders where the evidence is favorable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of N-Acetylcysteine on Adipose-Derived Stem Cell and Autologous Fat Graft Survival in a Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Joshua; Gebremeskel, Simon; Phipps, Kyle D; MacNeil, Lori A; Sinal, Christopher J; Johnston, Brent; Hong, Paul; Bezuhly, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Autologous fat grafting is a popular reconstructive technique, but is limited by inconsistent graft retention. The authors examined whether a widely available, clinically safe antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, could improve adipose-derived stem cell survival and graft take when added to tumescent solution during fat harvest. Inguinal fat pads were harvested from C57BL/6 mice using tumescent solution with or without N-acetylcysteine. Flow cytometric, proliferation, and differentiation assays were performed on isolated primary adipose-derived stem cells and 3T3-L1 preadipocytes treated with or without hydrogen peroxide and/or N-acetylcysteine. N-Acetylcysteine-treated or control grafts were injected under recipient mouse scalps and assessed by serial micro-computed tomographic volumetric analysis. Explanted grafts underwent immunohistochemical analysis. In culture, N-acetylcysteine protected adipose-derived stem cells from oxidative stress and improved cell survival following hydrogen peroxide treatment. Combined exposure to both N-acetylcysteine and hydrogen peroxide led to a 200-fold increase in adipose-derived stem cell proliferation, significantly higher than with either agent alone. N-Acetylcysteine decreased differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells into mature adipocytes, as evidenced by decreased transcription of adipocyte differentiation markers and reduced Oil Red-O staining. In vivo, N-acetylcysteine treatment resulted in improved graft retention at 3 months compared with control (46 versus 17 percent; p = 0.027). N-Acetylcysteine-treated grafts demonstrated less fibrosis and inflammation, and a 33 percent increase in adipocyte density compared with controls (p < 0.001) that was not associated with increased vascularity. These findings provide proof of principle for the addition of N-acetylcysteine to tumescent harvest solution in the clinical setting to optimize fat graft yields.

  13. Similarities between N-acetylcysteine and Glutathione in Binding to Lead(II) Ions

    PubMed Central

    Sisombath, Natalie S.; Jalilehvand, Farideh

    2015-01-01

    N -acetylcysteine is a natural thiol-containing antioxidant, a precursor for cysteine and glutathione, and a potential detoxifying agent for heavy metal ions. However, previous accounts of the efficiency of N-acetylcysteine (H2NAC) in excretion of lead are few and contradicting. Here we report results on the nature of lead(II) complexes formed with N-acetylcysteine in aqueous solution, which were obtained by combining information from several spectroscopic methods, including 207Pb, 13C and 1H NMR, Pb LIII-edge X-ray absorption, Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis.) spectroscopy and electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Two series of solutions were used containing CPb(II) = 10 and 100 mM, respectively, varying the H2NAC / Pb(II) mole ratios from 2.1 to 10.0 at pH = 9.1 – 9.4. The coordination environments obtained resemble those previously found for the Pb(II) glutathione system: at a ligand-to-lead mole ratio of 2.1 dimeric or oligomeric Pb(II) N-acetylcysteine complexes are formed, while a tri-thiolate [Pb(NAC)3]4− complex dominates in solutions with H2NAC/Pb(II) mole ratios > 3.0. PMID:26624959

  14. Minocycline and N-acetylcysteine: A Synergistic Drug Combination to Treat Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-2-0171 TITLE: Minocycline and N-acetylcysteine: A... Minocycline and N-acetylcysteine: A Synergistic Drug Combination to Treat Traumatic Brain Injury 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-2-0171 5c. PROGRAM...combination of minocycline (MINO) and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) synergistically improved brain function when dosed one hour following closed cortical

  15. Efficacy and safety of inhaled N-acetylcysteine in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A prospective, single-arm study.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Ryo; Matsushima, Hidekazu; Oba, Tomohiro; Kawabe, Rie; Matsubayashi, Minako; Amano, Masako; Nishizawa, Tomotaka; Honda, Koujiro

    2016-05-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lung disease with few treatment options. The efficacy of N-acetylcysteine in patients with IPF remains controversial. The aim of this research was to investigate the efficacy of inhaled N-acetylcysteine. This study was designed as a single-center, single-arm, prospective clinical trial. Each patient who had IPF received 352.4mg of inhaled N-acetylcysteine twice daily. In total, 28 patients were enrolled. The mean values of the respiratory function parameters at the initiation of therapy were as follows: forced vital capacity (FVC), 2.27L and %FVC, 76.2%. The mean change in FVC during 26 weeks prior to the inhaled N-acetylcysteine therapy was -170mL, a significant decrease (p=0.019). The mean change in FVC during 26 weeks after the initiation of inhaled N-acetylcysteine therapy was -70mL (p=0.06). When the patients were classified into two groups according to the degree of decline in FVC (≥100mL vs. <100mL) during the 26-week period prior to the initiation of therapy, inhaled N-acetylcysteine showed a greater efficacy in attenuating FVC decline in the ≥100-mL group than in the <100-mL group. Inhaled N-acetylcysteine therapy was effective in patients with mild-to-moderate IPF and was more beneficial in patients who had greater declines in FVC before the initiation of therapy. (UMIN title: Efficacy and safety of inhaled N-acetylcysteine in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, UMIN000016706, 2015/03/04.). Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Precise determination of N-acetylcysteine in pharmaceuticals by microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Rudašová, Marína; Masár, Marián

    2016-01-01

    A novel microchip electrophoresis method for the rapid and high-precision determination of N-acetylcysteine, a pharmaceutically active ingredient, in mucolytics has been developed. Isotachophoresis separations were carried out at pH 6.0 on a microchip with conductivity detection. The methods of external calibration and internal standard were used to evaluate the results. The internal standard method effectively eliminated variations in various working parameters, mainly run-to-run fluctuations of an injected volume. The repeatability and accuracy of N-acetylcysteine determination in all mucolytic preparations tested (Solmucol 90 and 200, and ACC Long 600) were more than satisfactory with the relative standard deviation and relative error values <0.7 and <1.9%, respectively. A recovery range of 99-101% of N-acetylcysteine in the analyzed pharmaceuticals predetermines the proposed method for accurate analysis as well. This work, in general, indicates analytical possibilities of microchip isotachophoresis for the quantitative analysis of simplified samples such as pharmaceuticals that contain the analyte(s) at relatively high concentrations. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Possible involvement of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in N-acetylcysteine-mediated antidepressant-like effects.

    PubMed

    Al-Samhari, Marwa M; Al-Rasheed, Nouf M; Al-Rejaie, Salim; Al-Rasheed, Nawal M; Hasan, Iman H; Mahmoud, Ayman M; Dzimiri, Nduna

    2016-03-01

    Advances in depression research have targeted inflammation and oxidative stress to develop novel types of treatment. The JAK/STAT signaling pathway plays pivotal roles in immune and inflammatory responses. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine, a putative precursor of the antioxidant glutathione, in an animal model of depression, with an emphasis on the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. Fluoxetine, a classical antidepressant drug was also under investigation. Male Wistar rats were subjected to forced swimming test and given N-acetylcysteine and fluoxetine immediately after the pre-test session, 5 h later and 1 h before the test session of the forced swimming test. N-acetylcysteine decreased immobility time (P < 0.05), serum corticosterone (P < 0.001), and hydrogen peroxide (P < 0.001), while restored glutathione concentration. Treatment of the rats with N-acetylcysteine produced significant (P < 0.001) down-regulation of STAT3 mRNA expression and protein phosphorylation. On the other hand, N-acetylcysteine significantly (P < 0.001) increased SOCS3 gene expression; however, SOCS3 protein was not changed. In conclusion, our study suggests that modulation of the JAK/STAT pathway might mediate the antidepressant-like effects of N-acetylcysteine. Therefore, depression research may target the JAK/STAT signaling pathway to provide a novel effective therapy. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  18. Possible involvement of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in N-acetylcysteine-mediated antidepressant-like effects

    PubMed Central

    Al-Samhari, Marwa M; Al-Rasheed, Nouf M; Al-Rejaie, Salim; Al-Rasheed, Nawal M; Hasan, Iman H; Dzimiri, Nduna

    2015-01-01

    Advances in depression research have targeted inflammation and oxidative stress to develop novel types of treatment. The JAK/STAT signaling pathway plays pivotal roles in immune and inflammatory responses. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine, a putative precursor of the antioxidant glutathione, in an animal model of depression, with an emphasis on the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. Fluoxetine, a classical antidepressant drug was also under investigation. Male Wistar rats were subjected to forced swimming test and given N-acetylcysteine and fluoxetine immediately after the pre-test session, 5 h later and 1 h before the test session of the forced swimming test. N-acetylcysteine decreased immobility time (P < 0.05), serum corticosterone (P < 0.001), and hydrogen peroxide (P < 0.001), while restored glutathione concentration. Treatment of the rats with N-acetylcysteine produced significant (P < 0.001) down-regulation of STAT3 mRNA expression and protein phosphorylation. On the other hand, N-acetylcysteine significantly (P < 0.001) increased SOCS3 gene expression; however, SOCS3 protein was not changed. In conclusion, our study suggests that modulation of the JAK/STAT pathway might mediate the antidepressant-like effects of N-acetylcysteine. Therefore, depression research may target the JAK/STAT signaling pathway to provide a novel effective therapy. PMID:26643864

  19. Minocycline and N-acetylcysteine: A Synergistic Drug Combination to Treat Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    W81XWH-10-2-0171 TITLE: Minocycline and N-acetylcysteine: a synergistic drug combination to treat traumatic brain injury PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Minocycline and N-acetylcysteine: a synergistic drug combination to treat traumatic brain injury 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...The grantee previously found screened that the combination of minocycline (MINO) and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) synergistically improved brain function

  20. N-acetylcysteine, a glutamate modulator, in the treatment of trichotillomania: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Kim, Suck Won

    2009-07-01

    Trichotillomania is characterized by repetitive hair pulling that causes noticeable hair loss. Data on the pharmacologic treatment of trichotillomania are limited to conflicting studies of serotonergic medications. N-acetylcysteine, an amino acid, seems to restore the extracellular glutamate concentration in the nucleus accumbens and, therefore, offers promise in the reduction of compulsive behavior. To determine the efficacy and tolerability of N-acetylcysteine in adults with trichotillomania. Twelve-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ambulatory care center. Fifty individuals with trichotillomania (45 women and 5 men; mean [SD] age, 34.3 [12.1] years). N-acetylcysteine (dosing range, 1200-2400 mg/d) or placebo was administered for 12 weeks. Patients were assessed using the Massachusetts General Hospital Hair Pulling Scale, the Clinical Global Impression scale, the Psychiatric Institute Trichotillomania Scale, and measures of depression, anxiety, and psychosocial functioning. Outcomes were examined using analysis of variance modeling analyses and linear regression in an intention-to-treat population. Patients assigned to receive N-acetylcysteine had significantly greater reductions in hair-pulling symptoms as measured using the Massachusetts General Hospital Hair Pulling Scale (P < .001) and the Psychiatric Institute Trichotillomania Scale (P = .001). Fifty-six percent of patients "much or very much improved" with N-acetylcysteine use compared with 16% taking placebo (P = .003). Significant improvement was initially noted after 9 weeks of treatment. This study, the first to our knowledge that examines the efficacy of a glutamatergic agent in the treatment of trichotillomania, found that N-acetylcysteine demonstrated statistically significant reductions in trichotillomania symptoms. No adverse events occurred in the N-acetylcysteine group, and N-acetylcysteine was well tolerated. Pharmacologic modulation of the glutamate system may prove to be useful in

  1. The antioxidants alpha-lipoic acid and N-acetylcysteine reverse memory impairment and brain oxidative stress in aged SAMP8 mice.

    PubMed

    Farr, Susan A; Poon, H Fai; Dogrukol-Ak, Dilek; Drake, Jeniffer; Banks, William A; Eyerman, Edward; Butterfield, D Allan; Morley, John E

    2003-03-01

    Oxidative stress may play a crucial role in age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we examined the ability of two antioxidants, alpha-lipoic acid (LA) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), to reverse the cognitive deficits found in the SAMP8 mouse. By 12 months of age, this strain develops elevated levels of Abeta and severe deficits in learning and memory. We found that 12-month-old SAMP8 mice, in comparison with 4-month-old mice, had increased levels of protein carbonyls (an index of protein oxidation), increased TBARS (an index of lipid peroxidation) and a decrease in the weakly immobilized/strongly immobilized (W/S) ratio of the protein-specific spin label MAL-6 (an index of oxidation-induced conformational changes in synaptosomal membrane proteins). Chronic administration of either LA or NAC improved cognition of 12-month-old SAMP8 mice in both the T-maze footshock avoidance paradigm and the lever press appetitive task without inducing non-specific effects on motor activity, motivation to avoid shock, or body weight. These effects probably occurred directly within the brain, as NAC crossed the blood-brain barrier and accumulated in the brain. Furthermore, treatment of 12-month-old SAMP8 mice with LA reversed all three indexes of oxidative stress. These results support the hypothesis that oxidative stress can lead to cognitive dysfunction and provide evidence for a therapeutic role for antioxidants.

  2. N-acetylcysteine improves coronary and peripheral vascular function.

    PubMed

    Andrews, N P; Prasad, A; Quyyumi, A A

    2001-01-01

    We investigated whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a reduced thiol that modulates redox state and forms adducts of nitric oxide (NO), improves endothelium-dependent vasomotion. Coronary atherosclerosis is associated with endothelial dysfunction and reduced NO activity. In 16 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization, seven with and nine without atherosclerosis, we assessed endothelium-dependent vasodilation with acetylcholine (ACH) and endothelium-independent vasodilation with nitroglycerin (NTG) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) before and after intracoronary NAC. In 14 patients femoral vascular responses to ACH, NTG and SNP were measured before and after NAC. Intraarterial NAC did not change resting coronary or peripheral vascular tone. N-acetylcysteine potentiated ACH-mediated coronary vasodilation; coronary blood flow was 36 +/- 11% higher (p < 0.02), and epicardial diameter changed from -1.2 +/- 2% constriction to 4.7 +/- 2% dilation after NAC (p = 0.03). Acetylcholine-mediated femoral vasodilation was similarly potentiated by NAC (p = 0.001). Augmentation of the ACH response was similar in patients with or without atherosclerosis. N-acetylcysteine did not affect NTG-mediated vasodilation in either the femoral or coronary circulations and did not alter SNP responses in the femoral circulation. In contrast, coronary vasodilation with SNP was significantly greater after NAC (p < 0.05). Thiol supplementation with NAC improves human coronary and peripheral endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Nitroglycerin responses are not enhanced, but SNP-mediated responses are potentiated only in the coronary circulation. These NO-enhancing effects of thiols reflect the importance of the redox state in the control of vascular function and may be of therapeutic benefit in treating acute and chronic manifestations of atherosclerosis.

  3. A bacterial cocaine esterase protects against cocaine-induced epileptogenic activity and lethality.

    PubMed

    Jutkiewicz, Emily M; Baladi, Michelle G; Cooper, Ziva D; Narasimhan, Diwahar; Sunahara, Roger K; Woods, James H

    2009-09-01

    Cocaine toxicity results in cardiovascular complications, seizures, and death and accounts for approximately 20% of drug-related emergency department visits every year. Presently, there are no treatments to eliminate the toxic effects of cocaine. The present study hypothesizes that a bacterial cocaine esterase with high catalytic efficiency would provide rapid and robust protection from cocaine-induced convulsions, epileptogenic activity, and lethality. Cocaine-induced paroxysmal activity and convulsions were evaluated in rats surgically implanted with radiotelemetry devices (N=6 per treatment group). Cocaine esterase was administered 1 minute after a lethal dose of cocaine or after cocaine-induced convulsions to determine the ability of the enzyme to prevent or reverse, respectively, the effects of cocaine. The cocaine esterase prevented all cocaine-induced electroencephalographic changes and lethality. This effect was specific for cocaine because the esterase did not prevent convulsions and death induced by a cocaine analog, (-)-2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-phenyltropane. The esterase prevented lethality even after cocaine-induced convulsions occurred. In contrast, the short-acting benzodiazepine, midazolam, prevented cocaine-induced convulsions but not the lethal effects of cocaine. The data showed that cocaine esterase successfully degraded circulating cocaine to prevent lethality and that cocaine-induced convulsions alone are not responsible for the lethal effects of cocaine in this model. Therefore, further investigation into the use of cocaine esterase for treating cocaine overdose and its toxic effects is warranted.

  4. A gargantuan acetaminophen level in an acidemic patient treated solely with intravenous N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Zell-Kanter, Michele; Coleman, Patrick; Whiteley, Patrick M; Leikin, Jerrold B

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this report is to describe an acidemic patient with one of the largest recorded acetaminophen ingestions in a patient with acidemia who was treated with supportive care and intravenous (IV) N-acetylcysteine. A 59-year-old female with a history of depression was found comatose. In the Emergency Department, she was obtunded with agonal respirations and immediately intubated. Activated charcoal was given through a nasogastric tube. An initial acetaminophen serum level was 1141 mg/L. The patient was started on IV N-acetylcysteine. The acetaminophen level peaked 2 hours later at 1193 mg/L. She was continued on the IV N-acetylcysteine protocol. The next day her aspartate aminotransferase was 3150 U/L, alanine aminotransferase was 2780 U/L, and creatinine phosphokinase was 16,197 U/L. There was no elevation in bilirubin or international normalized ratio (INR). Transaminase levels decreased on day 3 and normalized by day 4 when she was transferred to a psychiatric unit. Few cases have been reported of strikingly elevated acetaminophen levels in poisoned patients who did not receive hemodialysis. These patients did have increased lactate levels, and some had normal liver function tests. All of these patients received N-acetylcysteine and survived the poisoning without sequelae. This patient in this report was unique in that she had the highest reported serum acetaminophen level with acidosis and was treated successfully with only IV N-acetylcysteine and supportive care.

  5. Combination of tauroursodeoxycholic acid and N-acetylcysteine exceeds standard treatment for acetaminophen intoxication.

    PubMed

    Paridaens, Annelies; Raevens, Sarah; Colle, Isabelle; Bogaerts, Eliene; Vandewynckel, Yves-Paul; Verhelst, Xavier; Hoorens, Anne; van Grunsven, Leo A; Van Vlierberghe, Hans; Geerts, Anja; Devisscher, Lindsey

    2017-05-01

    Acetaminophen overdose in mice is characterized by hepatocyte endoplasmic reticulum stress, which activates the unfolded protein response, and centrilobular hepatocyte death. We aimed at investigating the therapeutic potential of tauroursodeoxycholic acid, a hydrophilic bile acid known to have anti-apoptotic and endoplasmic reticulum stress-reducing capacities, in experimental acute liver injury induced by acetaminophen overdose. Mice were injected with 300 mg/kg acetaminophen, 2 hours prior to receiving tauroursodeoxycholic acid, N-acetylcysteine or a combination therapy, and were euthanized 24 hours later. Liver damage was assessed by serum transaminases, liver histology, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling staining, expression profiling of inflammatory, oxidative stress, unfolded protein response, apoptotic and pyroptotic markers. Acetaminophen overdose resulted in a significant increase in serum transaminases, hepatocyte cell death, unfolded protein response activation, oxidative stress, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, caspase 1 and pro-inflammatory cytokine expressions. Standard of care, N-acetylcysteine and, to a lesser extent, tauroursodeoxycholic treatment were associated with significantly lower transaminase levels, hepatocyte death, unfolded protein response activation, oxidative stress markers, caspase 1 expression and NLRP3 levels. Importantly, the combination of N-acetylcysteine and tauroursodeoxycholic acid improved serum transaminase levels, reduced histopathological liver damage, UPR-activated CHOP, oxidative stress, caspase 1 expression, NLRP3 levels, IL-1β levels and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and this to a greater extend than N-acetylcysteine alone. These findings indicate that a combination strategy of N-acetylcysteine and tauroursodeoxycholic acid surpasses the standard of care in acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice and might represent an attractive therapeutic opportunity for acetaminophen

  6. A Bacterial Cocaine Esterase Protects Against Cocaine-Induced Epileptogenic Activity and Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Jutkiewicz, Emily M.; Baladi, Michelle G.; Cooper, Ziva D.; Narasimhan, Diwahar; Sunahara, Roger K.; Woods, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Study objective Cocaine toxicity results in cardiovascular complications, seizures, and death and accounts for approximately 20% of drug-related emergency department visits every year. Presently, there are no treatments to eliminate the toxic effects of cocaine. The present study hypothesizes that a bacterial cocaine esterase with high catalytic efficiency would provide rapid and robust protection from cocaine-induced convulsions, epileptogenic activity, and lethality. Methods Cocaine-induced paroxysmal activity and convulsions were evaluated in rats surgically implanted with radiotelemetry devices (N=6 per treatment group). Cocaine esterase was administered 1 minute after a lethal dose of cocaine or after cocaine-induced convulsions to determine the ability of the enzyme to prevent or reverse, respectively, the effects of cocaine. Results The cocaine esterase prevented all cocaine-induced electroencephalographic changes and lethality. This effect was specific for cocaine because the esterase did not prevent convulsions and death induced by a cocaine analog, (−)-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-phenyltropane. The esterase prevented lethality even after cocaine-induced convulsions occurred. In contrast, the short-acting benzodiazepine, midazolam, prevented cocaine-induced convulsions but not the lethal effects of cocaine. Conclusion The data showed that cocaine esterase successfully degraded circulating cocaine to prevent lethality and that cocaine-induced convulsions alone are not responsible for the lethal effects of cocaine in this model. Therefore, further investigation into the use of cocaine esterase for treating cocaine overdose and its toxic effects is warranted. PMID:19013687

  7. Effects of N-acetylcysteine and L-arginine in the antioxidant system of C2C12 cells.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, E P; Lambertucci, R H

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of N-acetylcysteine or L-arginine in the antioxidant system of skeletal muscle cells in culture. We used C2C12 cells which were supplemented or not with N-acetylcysteine or L-arginine at different time points. Antioxidant enzymes' activities and protein expression were evaluated. Additionally, superoxide production by cytochrome c reduction method was carried out. It was observed that the supplementation with either N-acetylcysteine or L-arginine was capable to acutely reduce superoxide production (after 30 and 60 minutes). Surprisingly, N-acetylcysteine supplementation also induced an increased production of superoxide during the period of 24 hours. Moreover, both supplements were capable to improve the activity and protein expression of some antioxidants enzymes. In conclusion, we have found new evidences showing that N-acetylcysteine or L-arginine supplementation can provide some benefits to the antioxidant system of skeletal muscle cells in culture. Further studies have to be carried out to evaluate if such benefits could also occur in an in vivo model, with possible benefits for athletes' health and performance.

  8. [Decreasing reperfusion damage with N-acetylcysteine in experimental pancreas transplantion].

    PubMed

    Mayer, H; Thies, J; Schmidt, J; Gebhard, M M; Herfarth, C; Klar, E

    1998-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of donor and recipient conditioning with N-acetylcysteine on the ischemia/reperfusion injury after experimental pancreas-transplantation. We performed standardized pancreaticoduodenal transplantation in male lewis rats. The pancreas was perfused with UW-solution, harvested and conserved at 4 degrees C. Cold ischemia time was 1.5 hours and 16 hours respectively. The microcirculation in the transplanted organ was quantified by means of intravital microscopy 1.5 hours after implantation and reperfusion in the recipient. After 16 hours of cold ischemia we found a significant reduction in capillary erythrocyte velocity and a significantly enhanced leucocyte/endothelium interaction. The treatment with N-acetylcysteine resulted in a significant improvement of these microcirculatory disorders after prolonged cold ischemia.

  9. Frontal hyperconnectivity related to discounting and reversal learning in cocaine subjects.

    PubMed

    Camchong, Jazmin; MacDonald, Angus W; Nelson, Brent; Bell, Christopher; Mueller, Bryon A; Specker, Sheila; Lim, Kelvin O

    2011-06-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies suggest that chronic cocaine use is associated with frontal lobe abnormalities. Functional connectivity (FC) alterations of cocaine-dependent individuals (CD), however, are not yet clear. This is the first study to our knowledge that examines resting FC of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in CD. Because ACC is known to integrate inputs from different brain regions to regulate behavior, we hypothesized that CD will have connectivity abnormalities in ACC networks. In addition, we hypothesized that abnormalities would be associated with poor performance in delayed discounting and reversal learning tasks. Resting functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected to look for FC differences between 27 CD (5 women, age: M = 39.73, SD = 6.14 years) and 24 control subjects (5 women, age: M = 39.76, SD = 7.09 years). Participants were assessed with delayed discounting and reversal learning tasks. With seed-based FC measures, we examined FC in CD and control subjects within five ACC connectivity networks with seeds in subgenual, caudal, dorsal, rostral, and perigenual ACC. The CD showed increased FC within the perigenual ACC network in left middle frontal gyrus, ACC, and middle temporal gyrus when compared with control subjects. The FC abnormalities were significantly positively correlated with task performance in delayed discounting and reversal learning tasks in CD. The present study shows that participants with chronic cocaine-dependency have hyperconnectivity within an ACC network known to be involved in social processing and "mentalizing." In addition, FC abnormalities found in CD were associated with difficulties with delay rewards and slower adaptive learning. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. SPICE/K2 Synthetic Marijuana-Induced Toxic Hepatitis Treated with N-Acetylcysteine

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Israr A.; Lukšič, Miha; Ferstenberg, Richard; Culpepper-Morgan, Joan A.

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 45 Final Diagnosis: Spice/K2 induced liver injury Symptoms: Lethargy • somnolence • fatigue Medication: N-acetylcysteine Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Gastroenterology Objective: Rare disease Background: Spice/K2 is one of several street names for synthetic marijuana. These hallucinogens are increasingly sold over the internet and in “head” shops. They are usually household herbs that are sprayed with chemicals that become centrally active compounds when burned together and inhaled by smoking. Case Report: We present a case of a 45-year-old male substance abuser who was admitted with evidence of hepatocellular necrosis and worsening liver failure. Tests for acetaminophen were negative, as were tests for alcohol. The patient was empirically treated with N-acetylcysteine. Hepatocellular damage was abated and the patient made a full recovery. Upon regaining consciousness, the patient admitted to smoking Spice/K2. Other toxicities have been reported with synthetic marijuana use, but not liver toxicity. Conclusions: Physicians need to have a high index of suspicion for unknown hepatotoxins in substance abusers. N-acetylcysteine can be given if there is no contraindication. PMID:25548903

  11. Prenatal cocaine exposure impairs selective attention: evidence from serial reversal and extradimensional shift tasks.

    PubMed

    Garavan, H; Morgan, R E; Mactutus, C F; Levitsky, D A; Booze, R M; Strupp, B J

    2000-08-01

    This study assessed the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on cognitive functioning, using an intravenous (IV) rodent model that closely mimics the pharmacokinetics seen in humans after smoking or IV injection and that avoids maternal stress and undernutrition. Cocaine-exposed males were significantly impaired on a 3-choice, but not 2-choice, olfactory serial reversal learning task. Both male and female cocaine-exposed rats were significantly impaired on extradimensional shift tasks that required shifting from olfactory to spatial cues; however, they showed no impairment when required to shift from spatial to olfactory cues. In-depth analyses of discrete learning phases implicated deficient selective attention as the basis of impairment in both tasks. These data provide clear evidence that prenatal cocaine exposure produces long-lasting cognitive dysfunction, but they also underscore the specificity of the impairment.

  12. N-acetylcysteine attenuates the development of cardiac fibrosis and remodeling in a mouse model of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Giam, Beverly; Chu, Po-Yin; Kuruppu, Sanjaya; Smith, A Ian; Horlock, Duncan; Kiriazis, Helen; Du, Xiao-Jun; Kaye, David M; Rajapakse, Niwanthi W

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress plays a central role in the pathogenesis of heart failure. We aimed to determine whether the antioxidantN-acetylcysteine can attenuate cardiac fibrosis and remodeling in a mouse model of heart failure. Minipumps were implanted subcutaneously in wild-type mice (n = 20) and mice with cardiomyopathy secondary to cardiac specific overexpression of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST-1;n = 18) to administerN-acetylcysteine (40 mg/kg per day) or saline for a period of 8 weeks. At the end of this period, cardiac remodeling and function was assessed via echocardiography. Fibrosis, oxidative stress, and expression of collagen types I andIIIwere quantified in heart tissues. Cardiac perivascular and interstitial fibrosis were greater by 114% and 209%, respectively, inMST-1 compared to wild type (P ≤ 0.001). InMST-1 mice administeredN-acetylcysteine, perivascular and interstitial fibrosis were 40% and 57% less, respectively, compared to those treated with saline (P ≤ 0. 03). Cardiac oxidative stress was 119% greater inMST-1 than in wild type (P < 0.001) andN-acetylcysteine attenuated oxidative stress inMST-1 by 42% (P = 0.005). These data indicate thatN-acetylcysteine can blunt cardiac fibrosis and related remodeling in the setting of heart failure potentially by reducing oxidative stress. This study provides the basis to investigate the role ofN-acetylcysteine in chronic heart failure. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  13. Pharmacological treatments for cocaine dependence: is there something new?

    PubMed

    Karila, Laurent; Reynaud, Michel; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Rolland, Benjamin; Guardia, Dewi; Cottencin, Olivier; Benyamina, Amine

    2011-01-01

    There is no specific and approved treatment, by regulatory authorities, for cocaine dependence. Therefore, developing new medications for the treatment of this disease continues to be a research priority. Recent advances in neurobiology and brain imaging studies have suggested several promising pharmacological approaches. Literature searches were conducted for the period from January 1990 to February 2011 using PubMed, EMBASE, PsycInfo, the NIDA research monograph index and the reference list of clinicaltrials.gov, which are the main electronic sources of ongoing trials. Recent controlled clinical studies have highlighted some very promising medications, especially glutamatergic (N-Acetylcysteine, modafinil, topiramate) and GABAergic (vigabatrin) agents, agonist replacement therapy (sustained-release methylphenidate, d-amphetamine) and dopamine agents (disulfiram). Additionally, immunotherapy is a new and promising pharmacological approach. Promising pharmacological approaches have emerged for the treatment of cocaine dependence, but larger, randomized, placebo-controlled studies are needed for some medications. Preclinical studies suggest new targets of interest in cocaine dependence. The optimal therapeutic platform is the combination of pharmacotherapies with behavioral therapies.

  14. Ultrasensitive electrochemical cocaine biosensor based on reversible DNA nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Qinglin; Liu, Ruixiao; Zhang, Sai; Zheng, Jianbin

    2014-01-15

    We proposed an ultrasensitive electrochemical cocaine biosensor based on the three-dimensional (3D) DNA structure conversion of nanostructure from Triangular Pyramid Frustum (TPFDNA) to Equilateral Triangle (ETDNA). The presence of cocaine triggered the aptamer-composed DNA nanostructure change from "Close" to "Open", leading to obvious faradaic impedance changes. The unique properties with excellent stability and specific rigid structure of the 3D DNA nanostructure made the biosensing functions stable, sensitive, and regenerable. The Faradaic impedance responses were linearly related to cocaine concentration between 1.0 nM and 2.0 μM with a correlation coefficient of 0.993. The limit of detection was calculated to be 0.21 nM following IUPAC recommendations (3Sb/b). It is expected that the distinctive features of DNA nanostructure would make it potentially advantageous for a broad range of biosensing, bionanoelectronics, and therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of a long-acting mutant bacterial cocaine esterase on acute cocaine toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Gregory T.; Zaks, Matthew E.; Cunningham, Alyssa R.; St. Clair, Carley; Nichols, Joseph; Narasimhan, Diwahar; Ko, Mei-Chuan; Sunahara, Roger K.; Woods, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Background A longer acting, double mutant bacterial cocaine esterase (CocE T172R/G173Q; DM CocE) has been shown to protect mice from cocaine-induced lethality, inhibit the reinforcing effects of cocaine in rats, and reverse cocaine’s cardiovascular effects in rhesus monkeys. The current studies evaluated the effectiveness of DM CocE to protect against, and reverse cocaine’s cardiovascular, convulsant, and lethal effects in male and female rats. Methods Pretreatment studies were used to determine the effectiveness and in vivo duration of action for DM CocE to protect rats against the occurrence of cardiovascular changes, convulsion and lethality associated with acute cocaine toxicity. Posttreatment studies were used to evaluate the capacity of DM CocE to rescue rats from the cardiovascular and lethal effects of large doses of cocaine. In addition, male and female rats were studied to determine if there were any potential effects of sex on the capacity of DM CocE to protect against, or reverse acute cocaine toxicity in rats. Results Pretreatment with DM CocE dose-dependently protected rats against cocaine-induced cardiovascular changes, convulsion and lethality, with higher doses active for up to 4 hrs, and shifting cocaine-induced lethality at least 10-fold to the right. In addition to dose-dependently recovering rats from an otherwise lethal dose of cocaine, post-treatment with DM CocE also reversed the cardiovascular effects of cocaine. There were no sex-related differences in the effectiveness of DM CocE to protect against, or reverse acute cocaine toxicity. Conclusions Together, these results support the development of DM CocE for the treatment of acute cocaine toxicity. PMID:21481548

  16. Rebamipide increases the amount of mucin-like substances on the conjunctiva and cornea in the N-acetylcysteine-treated in vivo model.

    PubMed

    Urashima, Hiroki; Okamoto, Takashi; Takeji, Yasuhiro; Shinohara, Hisashi; Fujisawa, Shigeki

    2004-08-01

    Rebamipide increases the amount of mucin-like substances in the stomach. We aimed to determine the effects of rebamipide on the amount of mucin-like substances in the conjunctiva and cornea of N-acetylcysteine-treated eyes. Furthermore, we attempted to evaluate the effects of rebamipide on the wound healing of N-acetylcysteine-treated eyes. The model was created by instilling 10% N-acetylcysteine solutions into rabbit eyes. Rebamipide was then applied on the day following the completion of N-acetylcysteine treatment. The amount of mucin-like substances on the conjunctiva and cornea was measured using the Alcian-blue binding method. The degree of damage was evaluated using scores based on the areas and densities of the cornea and conjunctival after staining using a rose Bengal solution under blind conditions. Rebamipide increased the level of mucin-like substances on the conjunctiva of N-acetylcysteine-treated eyes when instilled at concentrations of 0.3% or higher, and 1% rebamipide increased the amount of mucin-like substances covering the cornea. Moreover, 1% rebamipide improved the rose Bengal scores of the cornea and conjunctiva in N-acetylcysteine-treated eyes. Rebamipide increased mucin-like substances on the cornea and conjunctiva of N-acetylcysteine-treated eyes. In accordance with the mucin-increasing effects, rebamipide improved the rose Bengal scores for the cornea and conjunctiva of N-acetylcysteine-treated eyes. However, the relevance of these findings to dry eyes is unclear because it is not known whether the change in mucus expression in the N-acetylcysteine model is similar to what occurs in aqueous tear deficiency. Consequently, it may be worth trying on an animal model of keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

  17. Repeated Administration of a Mutant Cocaine Esterase: Effects on Plasma Cocaine Levels, Cocaine-Induced Cardiovascular Activity, and Immune Responses in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Gregory T.; Brim, Remy L.; Noon, Kathleen R.; Narasimhan, Diwahar; Lukacs, Nicholas W.; Sunahara, Roger K.; Woods, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the capacity of a long-acting mutant form of a naturally occurring bacterial double mutant cocaine esterase (DM CocE) to antagonize the reinforcing, discriminative, convulsant, and lethal effects of cocaine in rodents and reverse the increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) produced by cocaine in rhesus monkeys. This study was aimed at characterizing the immunologic responses to repeated dosing with DM CocE and determining whether the development of anti-CocE antibodies altered the capacity of DM CocE to reduce plasma cocaine levels and ameliorate the cardiovascular effects of cocaine in rhesus monkeys. Under control conditions, intravenous administration of cocaine (3 mg/kg) resulted in a rapid increase in the plasma concentration of cocaine (n = 2) and long-lasting increases in MAP and HR (n = 3). Administration of DM CocE (0.32 mg/kg i.v.) 10 min after cocaine resulted in a rapid hydrolysis of cocaine with plasma levels below detection limits within 5 to 8 min. Elevations in MAP and HR were significantly reduced within 25 and 50 min of DM CocE administration, respectively. Although slight (10-fold) increases in anti-CocE antibodies were observed after the fourth administration of DM CocE, these antibodies did not alter the capacity of DM CocE to reduce plasma cocaine levels or ameliorate cocaine's cardiovascular effects. Anti-CocE titers were transient and generally dissipated within 8 weeks. Together, these results suggest that highly efficient cocaine esterases, such as DM CocE, may provide a novel and effective therapeutic for the treatment of acute cocaine intoxication in humans. PMID:22518021

  18. Efficacy of N-Acetylcysteine in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tong; Liu, Jing; Zhao, De Wei

    2016-05-01

    There are a number of conflicting reports describing the clinical outcomes of using N-acetylcysteine for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We have, therefore, performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine, compared with control, for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.Original controlled clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were included in the analysis. Searches for relevant articles were carried out in July 2014 by 2 independent researchers using PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central, and Google Scholar. Change in forced vital capacity, change in percentage of predicted vital capacity, change in percentage of predicted carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, changes in 6 minutes walking test distance, rate of adverse events, and rate of death were expressed as outcomes using RevMan 5.0.1.Five trials, with a total of 564 patients, were included in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed that the control group had significant decreases in percentage of predicted vital capacity (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13 to -0.62; P = 0.003) and 6 minutes walking test distance (SMD = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.02-0.48; P = 0.04). There were no statistically significant differences in forced vital capacity (SMD = 0.07; 95% CI: -0.13-0.27; P = 0.52), percentage of predicted carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (SMD = 0.12; 95% CI: -0.06-0.30; P = 0.18), rates of adverse events (odd ratio = 4.50; 95% CI: 0.19-106.41; P = 0.35), or death rates (odd ratio = 1.79; 95% CI: 0.3-5.12; P = 0.28) between the N-acetylcysteine group and the control group.N-Acetylcysteine was found to have a significant effect only on decreases in percentage of predicted vital capacity and 6 minutes walking test distance. N-acetylcysteine showed no beneficial effect on changes in forced vital capacity

  19. The effect of N-acetylcysteine on cardiac contractility to dobutamine in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xing; Xia, Zhengyuan; Leo, Joyce M; Pang, Catherine C Y

    2005-09-05

    We examined if myocardial depression at the acute phase of diabetes (3 weeks after injection of streptozotocin, 60 mg/kg i.v.) is due to activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and production of peroxynitrite, and if treatment with N-acetylcysteine (1.2 g/day/kg for 3 weeks, antioxidant) improves cardiac function. Four groups of rats were used: control, N-acetylcysteine-treated control, diabetic and N-acetylcysteine-treated diabetic. Pentobarbital-anaesthetized diabetic rats, relative to the controls, had reduced left ventricular contractility to dobutamine (1-57 microg/min/kg). The diabetic rats also had increased myocardial levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, immunostaining of inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitrotyrosine, and similar baseline 15-F2t-isoprostane. N-acetylcysteine did not affect responses in the control rats; but increased cardiac contractility to dobutamine, reduced myocardial immunostaining of inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitrotyrosine and level of 15-F2t-isoprostane, and increased cardiac contractility to dobutamine in the diabetic rats. Antioxidant supplementation in diabetes reduces oxidative stress and improves cardiac function.

  20. A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Pilot Trial of N-Acetylcysteine in Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Back, Sudie E; McCauley, Jenna L; Korte, Kristina J; Gros, Daniel F; Leavitt, Virginia; Gray, Kevin M; Hamner, Mark B; DeSantis, Stacia M; Malcolm, Robert; Brady, Kathleen T; Kalivas, Peter W

    2016-11-01

    The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine is being increasingly investigated as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of substance use disorders (SUDs). This study explored the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which frequently co-occurs with SUD and shares impaired prefrontal cortex regulation of basal ganglia circuitry, in particular at glutamate synapses in the nucleus accumbens. Veterans with PTSD and SUD per DSM-IV criteria (N = 35) were randomly assigned to receive a double-blind, 8-week course of N-acetylcysteine (2,400 mg/d) or placebo plus cognitive-behavioral therapy for SUD (between March 2013 and April 2014). Primary outcome measures included PTSD symptoms (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, PTSD Checklist-Military) and craving (Visual Analog Scale). Substance use and depression were also assessed. Participants treated with N-acetylcysteine compared to placebo evidenced significant improvements in PTSD symptoms, craving, and depression (β values < -0.33; P values < .05). Substance use was low for both groups, and no significant between-group differences were observed. N-acetylcysteine was well tolerated, and retention was high. This is the first randomized controlled trial to investigate N-acetylcysteine as a pharmacologic treatment for PTSD and SUD. Although preliminary, the findings provide initial support for the use of N-acetylcysteine in combination with psychotherapy among individuals with co-occurring PTSD and SUD. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02499029. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  1. Ulcers caused by bullous morphea: successful therapy with N-acetylcysteine and topical wound care.

    PubMed

    Rosato, E; Veneziano, M L; Di Mario, A; Molinaro, I; Pisarri, S; Salsano, F

    2013-01-01

    Bullous morphea is an uncommon form of localized scleroderma. The pathogenesis is unknown and treatment of coexistent ulcers is difficult. The pathogenesis of bullae formation in morphea is multifactorial, but reactive oxygen species production appears to play a key role. We report a patient with bullous morphea with long-standing ulcers whom we successfully treated with N-acetylcysteine and topical wound care. N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant sulfhydryl substance, promotes the healing of ulcers in patients with bullous morphea.

  2. Oral administration of the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, abrogates diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Pieper, G M; Siebeneich, W

    1998-07-01

    Oxidative stress is believed to play an important role in the development of vascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus. In this study, we examined the efficacy of long-term treatment with the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, in preventing the development of defective endothelium-dependent relaxation in streptozotocin-induced, Sprague-Dawley diabetic rats. At 48 h after injection of streptozotocin, a portion of diabetic rats received 250 mg/L N-acetylcysteine in drinking water for a total duration of 8 weeks. Oral administration did not alter the increase in blood glucose or the reduction in serum insulin but did modestly reduce total glycosylated hemoglobin. In precontracted thoracic aortic rings suspended in isolated tissue baths, endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine was impaired in diabetic rings compared with control rings. Endothelium-independent relaxation to nitroglycerin was unaltered. Long-term oral administration of N-acetylcysteine did not alter responses to nitroglycerin but completely prevented the defective relaxation to acetylcholine. These studies indicate a dissociation between glycemic control and correction of endothelial dysfunction and suggest that long-term exposure to reactive oxygen subsequent to diabetes rather than hyperglycemia per se is responsible for the development of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus.

  3. Role of N-acetylcysteine on fibrosis and oxidative stress in cirrhotic rats.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Filho, Gustavo; Ferreira, Clarissa; Schwengber, Alex; Marroni, Cláudio; Zettler, Cláudio; Marroni, Norma

    2008-01-01

    Hepatic cirrhosis is the final stage of liver dysfunction, characterized by diffuse fibrosis which is the main response to the liver injury. The inhalatory carbon tetrachloride is an effective experimental model that triggers cirrhosis and allows to obtain histological and physiological modifications similar to the one seen in humans. To investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the fibrosis and oxidative stress in the liver of cirrhotic rats, analyzing liver function tests, lipoperoxidation, activity of glutathione peroxidase enzyme, collagen quantification, histopathology, as well as the nitric oxide role. The animals were randomly in three experimental groups: control (CO); cirrhotic (CCl4) and CCl4 + NAC. Evaluate the lipid peroxidation, the glutathione peroxidase enzyme, the collagen and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The cirrhotic group treated with N-acetylcysteine showed trough the histological analysis and collagen quantification lower degrees of fibrosis. This group has also shown less damage to the cellular membranes, less decrease on the glutathione peroxidase levels and less expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase when matched with the cirrhotic group without treatment. N-acetylcysteine seams to offer protection against hepatic fibrosis and oxidative stress in cirrhotic rat livers.

  4. Oxidative transformation of tunichromes - Model studies with 1,2-dehydro-N-acetyldopamine and N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Qun F; Abebe, Adal; Evans, Jason; Sugumaran, Manickam

    2017-08-01

    Tunichromes are 1,2-dehydrodopa containing bioactive peptidyl derivatives found in blood cells of several tunicates. They have been implicated in metal sequestering, tunic formation, wound healing and defense reaction. Earlier studies conducted on these compounds indicate their extreme liability, high reactivity and easy oxidative polymerization. Their reactions are also complicated by the presence of multiple dehydrodopyl units. Since they have been invoked in crosslinking and covalent binding, to understand the reactivities of these novel compounds, we have taken a simple model compound that possess the tunichrome reactive group viz., 1,2-dehydro-N-acetyldopamine (Dehydro NADA) and examined its reaction with N-acetylcysteine in presence of oxygen under both enzymatic and nonenzymatic conditions. Ultraviolet and visible spectral studies of reaction mixtures containing dehydro NADA and N-acetylcysteine in different molar ratios indicated the production of side chain and ring adducts of N-acetylcysteine to dehydro NADA. Liquid chromatography and mass spectral studies supported this contention and confirmed the production of several different products. Mass spectral analysis of these products show the potentials of dehydro NADA to form side chain adducts that can lead to polymeric products. This is the first report demonstrating the ability of dehydro dopyl units to form adducts and crosslinks with amino acid side chains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of N-acetylcysteine on indirect indicators of tissue oxygenation in septic shock patients: results from a prospective, randomized, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Spies, C D; Reinhart, K; Witt, I; Meier-Hellmann, A; Hannemann, L; Bredle, D L; Schaffartzik, W

    1994-11-01

    Deactivation of endothelium-derived relaxing factor due to an increased oxygen radical load during sepsis may contribute to an impairment in microcirculatory blood flow. We investigated whether treatment with the sulfhydryl donor and oxygen radical scavenger, N-acetylcysteine, would improve whole-body oxygen consumption (VO2), gastric intramucosal pH, and veno-arterial CO2 gradient (veno-arterial PCO2) during septic shock. Prospective, randomized, double-blind study conducted over 2 yrs. Septic shock patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Fifty-eight patients requiring hemodynamic monitoring (radial and pulmonary artery catheters) due to septic shock, were included in this study. All patients were examined within 72 hrs after the onset of sepsis. They were optimally resuscitated by conventional means with volume and inotropic agents, and exhibited stable clinical conditions (hemodynamic values, body temperature, hemoglobin, FIO2). A gastric tonometer was inserted to measure the gastric intramucosal pH. Subjects randomly received either 150 mg/kg of intravenous N-acetylcysteine or placebo over a 15-min period, then a continuous infusion of 12.5 mg/hr of N-acetylcysteine or placebo over approximately 90 mins. Infusion measurements were begun 60 mins after the beginning of infusion and lasted approximately 30 mins. The infusion was then discontinued and 2 hrs later the final measurements were taken. Basic patient characteristics (age, sex, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II scores, Multiple Organ Failure scores) did not differ significantly, nor did pre- and 2-hr postinfusion measurements differ between any of the groups. Thirteen (45%) patients responded (i.e., showed an increase in VO2 > 10%, reaching a mean of 19%) to the N-acetylcysteine infusion. The N-acetylcysteine responders also showed an increase in gastric intramucosal pH, a decrease in veno-arterial PCO2, an increase in oxygen delivery, cardiac index, stroke index, and left

  6. Formation of the thioester, N-acetyl, S-lactoylcysteine, by reaction of N-acetylcysteine with pyruvaldehyde in aqueous solution. [in prebiotic evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine reacts efficiently with pyruvaldehyde (methylglyoxal) in aqueous solution (pH 7.0) in the presence of a weak base, like imidazole or phosphate, to give the thioester, N-acetyl, S-lactoylcysteine. Reactions of 100 mM N-acetylcysteine with 14 mM, 24 mM and 41 mM pyruvaldehyde yield, respectively, 86%, 76% and 59% N-acetyl, S-lactoylcysteine based on pyruvaldehyde. The decrease in the percent yield at higher pyruvaldehyde concentrations suggests that during its formation the thioester is not only consumed by hydrolysis, but also by reaction with some substance in the pyruvaldehyde preparation. Indeed, purified N-acetyl, S-lactoylcysteine disappears much more rapidly in the presence of pyruvaldehyde than in its absence. Presumably, N-acetyl, S-lactoylcysteine synthesis occurs by rearrangement of the hemithioacetal of N-acetylcysteine and pyruvaldehyde. The significance of this pathway of thioester formation to molecular evolution is discussed.

  7. Chronic cocaine but not chronic amphetamine use is associated with perseverative responding in humans

    PubMed Central

    Roiser, Jonathan P.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Sahakian, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Chronic drug use has been associated with increased impulsivity and maladaptive behaviour, but the underlying mechanisms of this impairment remain unclear. We investigated the ability to adapt behaviour according to changes in reward contingencies, using a probabilistic reversal-learning task, in chronic drug users and controls. Materials and methods Five groups were compared: chronic amphetamine users (n = 30); chronic cocaine users (n = 27); chronic opiate users (n = 42); former drug users of psychostimulants and opiates (n = 26); and healthy non-drug-taking control volunteers (n = 25). Participants had to make a forced choice between two alternative stimuli on each trial to acquire a stimulus–reward association on the basis of degraded feedback and subsequently to reverse their responses when the reward contingencies changed. Results Chronic cocaine users demonstrated little behavioural change in response to the change in reward contingencies, as reflected by perseverative responding to the previously rewarded stimulus. Perseverative responding was observed in cocaine users regardless of whether they completed the reversal stage successfully. Task performance in chronic users of amphetamines and opiates, as well as in former drug users, was not measurably impaired. Conclusion Our findings provide convincing evidence for response perseveration in cocaine users during probabilistic reversal-learning. Pharmacological differences between amphetamine and cocaine, in particular their respective effects on the 5-HT system, may account for the divergent task performance between the two psychostimulant user groups. The inability to reverse responses according to changes in reinforcement contingencies may underlie the maladaptive behaviour patterns observed in chronic cocaine users but not in chronic users of amphetamines or opiates. PMID:18214445

  8. N-acetylcysteine does not prevent post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography hyperamylasemia and acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Milewski, Janusz; Rydzewska, Grazyna; Degowska, Malgorzata; Kierzkiewicz, Maciej; Rydzewski, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    AIM: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is the most common and often severe complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The early step in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis is probably the capillary endothelial injury mediated by oxygen-derived free radicals. N-acetylcysteine - a free radical scavenger may be potentially effective in preventing post-ERCP acute pancreatitis and it is also known that N-acetylcysteine (ACC) can reduce the severity of disease in experimental model of AP. METHODS: One hundred and six patients were randomly allocated to two groups. Fifty-five patients were given N-acetylcysteine (two 600 mg doses orally 24 and 12 h before ERCP and 600 mg was given iv, twice a day for two days after the ERCP). The control group consisted of 51 patients who were given iv. isotonic saline twice a day for two days after the ERCP. Serum and urine amylase activities were measured before ERCP and 8 and 24 h after the procedure. The primary outcome parameter was post-ERCP acute pancreatitis and the secondary outcome parameters were differences between groups in serum and urine amylase activity. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the rate of post-ERCP pancreatitis between two groups (10 patients overall, 4 in the ACC group and 6 in the control group). There were also no significant differences in baseline and post-ERCP serum and urine amylase activity between ACC group and control group. CONCLUSION: N-acetylcysteine fails to demonstrate any significant preventive effect on post-ERCP pancreatitis, as well as on serum and urine amylase activity. PMID:16773694

  9. N-acetylcysteine does not prevent post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography hyperamylasemia and acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Milewski, Janusz; Rydzewska, Grazyna; Degowska, Malgorzata; Kierzkiewicz, Maciej; Rydzewski, Andrzej

    2006-06-21

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is the most common and often severe complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The early step in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis is probably the capillary endothelial injury mediated by oxygen-derived free radicals. N-acetylcysteine - a free radical scavenger may be potentially effective in preventing post-ERCP acute pancreatitis and it is also known that N-acetylcysteine (ACC) can reduce the severity of disease in experimental model of AP. One hundred and six patients were randomly allocated to two groups. Fifty-five patients were given N-acetylcysteine (two 600 mg doses orally 24 and 12 h before ERCP and 600 mg was given iv, twice a day for two days after the ERCP). The control group consisted of 51 patients who were given iv. isotonic saline twice a day for two days after the ERCP. Serum and urine amylase activities were measured before ERCP and 8 and 24 h after the procedure. The primary outcome parameter was post-ERCP acute pancreatitis and the secondary outcome parameters were differences between groups in serum and urine amylase activity. There were no significant differences in the rate of post-ERCP pancreatitis between two groups (10 patients overall, 4 in the ACC group and 6 in the control group). There were also no significant differences in baseline and post-ERCP serum and urine amylase activity between ACC group and control group. N-acetylcysteine fails to demonstrate any significant preventive effect on post-ERCP pancreatitis, as well as on serum and urine amylase activity.

  10. N-acetylcysteine attenuates endotoxin-induced leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and macromolecular leakage in vivo.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, H; Schmidt, W; Müller, T; Böhrer, H; Gebhard, M M; Martin, E

    1997-05-01

    To determine the influence of N-acetylcysteine on endotoxin-induced leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion, vascular leakage, and venular microhemodynamics. Randomized, blinded, controlled trial. Experimental laboratory. Thirty male Wistar rats. After pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (150 mg/kg; n = 40; group A) or 0.9% saline solution (n = 10; group B) animals were given an intravenous infusion of endotoxin (Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide 026:B6; 2 mg/kg/hr) over 120 mins. Animals in the control group (n = 10; group C) received a volume-equivalent infusion of 0.9% saline solution. Leukocyte adherence, red cell velocity (VRBC), vessel diameters, venular wall shear rate, and macromolecular leakage were determined in mesenteric postcapillary venules using in vivo videomicroscopy at baseline and at 30, 50, 90, and 120 mins after the start of the endotoxin challenge. Endotoxin exposure induced a marked increase in adherent leukocytes (group B: baseline, 391 +/- 24 cells/mm2; 120 mins, 1268 +/- 131 cells/mm2; p < .01). N-acetylcysteine pretreatment attenuated the adherence of leukocytes during endotoxemia (baseline, 366 +/- 28 cells/mm2; 120 mins, 636 +/- 49 cells/mm2; p < .01 vs. baseline; p < .01 vs. group B). Leukocyte adherence in control animals (group C) did not increase significantly. Administration of N-acetylcysteine did not influence the decrease in VRBC observed during endotoxemia. In group B1 VRBC decreased during the infusion of endotoxin from 2.0 +/- 0.2 mm/sec at baseline to 1.1 +/- 0.2 mm/ sec after 120 mins (p < .01 vs. baseline; p < .05 vs. group C), and in group A from 2.2 +/- 0.2 mm/sec to 1.1 +/- 0.1 mm/sec after 120 mins (p < .01 vs. baseline; p < .05 vs. group C). In group C, VRBC remained unchanged (baseline, 1.7 +/- 0.2 mm/sec; at 120 mins, 1.5 +/- 0.2 mm/sec). The venular diameters remained unchanged in all groups during the entire study period. After 120 mins, the venular wall shear rate decreased from 502 +/- 62 secs-1 at baseline to 272

  11. The protective effect of N-acetylcysteine on oxidative stress in the brain caused by the long-term intake of aspartame by rats.

    PubMed

    Finamor, Isabela A; Ourique, Giovana M; Pês, Tanise S; Saccol, Etiane M H; Bressan, Caroline A; Scheid, Taína; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Llesuy, Susana F; Partata, Wânia A; Pavanato, Maria A

    2014-09-01

    Long-term intake of aspartame at the acceptable daily dose causes oxidative stress in rodent brain mainly due to the dysregulation of glutathione (GSH) homeostasis. N-Acetylcysteine provides the cysteine that is required for the production of GSH, being effective in treating disorders associated with oxidative stress. We investigated the effects of N-acetylcysteine treatment (150 mg kg(-1), i.p.) on oxidative stress biomarkers in rat brain after chronic aspartame administration by gavage (40 mg kg(-1)). N-Acetylcysteine led to a reduction in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, and carbonyl protein levels, which were increased due to aspartame administration. N-Acetylcysteine also resulted in an elevation of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase activities, as well as non-protein thiols, and total reactive antioxidant potential levels, which were decreased after aspartame exposure. However, N-acetylcysteine was unable to reduce serum glucose levels, which were increased as a result of aspartame administration. Furthermore, catalase and glutathione S-transferase, whose activities were reduced due to aspartame treatment, remained decreased even after N-acetylcysteine exposure. In conclusion, N-acetylcysteine treatment may exert a protective effect against the oxidative damage in the brain, which was caused by the long-term consumption of the acceptable daily dose of aspartame by rats.

  12. Prevention and reversal of social stress-escalated cocaine self-administration in mice by intra-VTA CRFR1 antagonism.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao; DeBold, Joseph F; Miczek, Klaus A

    2017-09-01

    A history of brief intermittent social defeat stress can escalate cocaine self-administration and induce long-term adaptations in the mesolimbic dopamine system. Extra-hypothalamic corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) has been shown to be closely associated with stress-induced escalation of drug use. How repeated stress modulates CRF release in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the roles of CRF receptors during different phases of stress-induced cocaine self-administration remain to be defined. The current study examines the roles of CRF and CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1) in escalated intravenous cocaine self-administration after exposure to social defeat stress in mice. First, CRFR1 antagonist (CP 376,395, 15 mg/kg, i.p.) given 30 min prior to each social defeat episode prevented later escalated cocaine self-administration. When CP 376,395 (5 and 15 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 10 days after the last episode of social stress, the escalation of cocaine intake was dose-dependently reversed. Moreover, socially defeated mice showed increased CRF release in the VTA compared to controls. To further explore the role of CRFR1, CP 376,395 (0.5 and 1 μg/0.2 μl) was infused directly into the VTA before the cocaine self-administration session. Intra-VTA antagonism of CRFR1 was sufficient to reverse social defeat stress-escalated cocaine self-administration. These findings suggest that CRF and CRFR1 exert multiple roles in the response to social stress that are relevant to escalated cocaine self-administration.

  13. Withdrawal from Cocaine Self-Administration Produces Long-Lasting Deficits in Orbitofrontal-Dependent Reversal Learning in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calu, Donna J.; Stalnaker, Thomas A.; Franz, Theresa M.; Singh, Teghpal; Shaham, Yavin; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    Drug addicts make poor decisions. These decision-making deficits have been modeled in addicts and laboratory animals using reversal-learning tasks. However, persistent reversal-learning impairments have been shown in rats and monkeys only after noncontingent cocaine injections. Current thinking holds that to represent the human condition…

  14. [The application of N-acetylcysteine in optimization of specific pharmacological therapies].

    PubMed

    Hołyńska-Iwan, Iga; Wróblewski, Marcin; Olszewska-Słonina, Dorota; Tyrakowski, Tomasz

    2017-09-29

    Based on the analysis of data from clinical trials it could be postulated that N-acetylcysteine has a positive impact on the treatment of various diseases. However, less is known about specific molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the reported therapeutic effects. N-acetylcysteine (NAC, N-acetyl-L-cysteine) is an amino acid derivative containing a thiol group. It is a precursor of L-cysteine and glutathione. NAC is well absorbed and safe for the body at doses up to 300 mg per kg of body weight. Side effects are relatively rare. NAC is used as an mucolytic agent in adjunctive therapy of respiratory diseases causing the retention of secretions, as well as an antidote in the treatment of paracetamol poisoning. Moreover, NAC protects against the toxic effects of reactive oxygen species and their active metabolites. NAC is involved in free radical scavenging processes via several independent mechanisms, including a direct reduction of free radicals, providing substrates for oxidation-reduction reactions and activation of antioxidant enzymes. In the blood, NAC decreases the level of low density lipoprotein peroxidation. In various tissues, NAC may increase the levels of glutathione and cysteine and stimulate the superoxide dismutase action. NAC is used as a supplement in the treatment of various diseases associated with impaired exterior and intracellular oxidative balance. NAC increases the concentrations of amino acids and their derivatives, including cysteine, cystine, and glutathione. It also stabilizes the antioxidant status of the cells and the intercellular spaces. NAC changes the levels of transcription factors, modifying the transcription of selected genes and acting on the protein translation. It works on the activation of several enzymes in the cells and outside the cells. Based on the analysis of data from clinical trials it can be concluded, that an administration of NAC may be beneficial for these groups of patients, in whom the reversible

  15. [The role of N-acetylcysteine against the injury of pulmonary artery induced by LPS].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin-li; Ling, Yi-ling; Zhu, Tie-nian

    2002-11-01

    To investigate the alleviating effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and its mechanism. The effects of NAC on changes of the pulmonary arterial reactivity and the ultrastructure of pulmonary arterial endothelium induced by LPS were observed with the isolated artery ring technique and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) contents and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of pulmonary artery tissues were detected. The exposure of pulmonary artery to LPS (4 microg/ml, 7 h) led to reduction of endothelium-dependent relaxation response to acetylcholine (ACh), which was reversed by the concomitant exposure to NAC (0.5 mmol/L, 7 h), whereas NAC itself had no effect on the response. Significant structural injury were observed under SEM in LPS group and alleviated the changes in LPS + NAC group. The MDA, NO contents increased but SOD activity decreased in LPS group, which were reversed by the concomitant exposure to NAC. NAC protects pulmonary artery endothelium and enhances endothelium-dependent relaxation response of pulmonary artery by antioxidation effect, which may be one of the mechanisms of its reversing pulmonary artery hypertension and following lung injury induced by LPS.

  16. N-Acetylcysteine in the Treatment of Excoriation Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W; Odlaug, Brian L; Kim, Suck Won

    2016-05-01

    Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (SPD) is a disabling, underrecognized condition in which individuals repeatedly pick at their skin, leading to noticeable tissue damage. To date, there has been no clearly effective pharmacologic or psychological treatment for SPD. To determine whether N-acetylcysteine, an amino acid that appears to restore extracellular glutamate concentration in the nucleus accumbens, will be more effective than placebo in reducing compulsive picking behavior. A randomized, double-blind trial was conducted at ambulatory care centers at the University of Minnesota (September 12, 2011, to June 15, 2012) and the University of Chicago (December 17, 2012, to June 26, 2015) and included 66 adults with SPD. Data analysis was performed from July 16 to September 9, 2015. N-acetylcysteine (dosing range, 1200-3000 mg/d) or placebo was administered for 12 weeks. Participants were assessed using measures of skin-picking severity, including the modified Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (NE-YBOCS); total scores range from 0 to 40, with higher scores reflective of greater symptom severity. Another measure of skin-picking severity was the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale; total scores range from 1 (normal) to 7 (among the most extremely ill patients), and improvement ratings range from 7 (very much worse) to 1 (very much improved). Selected cognitive tasks included the Intra-dimensional/Extra-dimensional Shift Task to examine cognitive flexibility, with the key outcome measures being the number of errors, and Stop-Signal Reaction Time task, which evaluates motor inhibition. Outcomes were examined using a linear mixed-effects model. Of the 66 participants (31 randomized to placebo and 35 to N-acetylcysteine) included in the analysis, 59 (89%) were women; mean (SD) age was 34.8 (11.0) years. Compared with placebo, N-acetylcysteine treatment was associated with significant improvements in the NE-YBOCS. At baseline, NE-YBOCS scores were 18.9 and 17

  17. Prebiotic formation of 'energy-rich' thioesters from glyceraldehyde and N-acetylcysteine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    The 'energy-rich' thioester, N-acetyl-S-lactoylcysteine, is formed from low concentrations of glyceraldehyde and N-acetylcysteine under anaerobic conditions at ambient temperature in aqueous solutions of sodium phosphate (pH 7.0). Reactions with 2mM glyceraldehyde, 2mM N-acetylcysteine, and 500 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.0) convert about 0.3 percent/day of the glyceraldehyde to lactoyl thioester. The formation of lactoyl thioester in similar reactions with 500 mM imidazole hydrochloride (pH 7.0) is supported by the thiol-dependence of lactate formation, which is 3-fold greater in the presence of thiol (0.11 percent/day) than in the absence of thiol (0.04 percent/day). The formation of lactoly thioester is thought to proceed by the phosphate (or imidazole)-catalyzed dehydration of glyceraldehyde, which adds to the thiol to form a hemithioacetal that rearranges to the thioester. A limited amount of a second thioester, N-acetyl-S-glyceroyl-cysteine, is also formed at the beginning of these reactions. The significance of these reactions to the origin of life is discussed.

  18. N-acetylcysteine regimens for paracetamol overdose: Time for a change?

    PubMed

    Wong, Anselm; Graudins, Andis

    2016-12-01

    Paracetamol overdose is one of the commonest pharmaceutical poisonings in the world. For nearly four decades, intravenous acetylcysteine regimens have been used to treat most patients successfully and prevent or mitigate hepatotoxicity. However, the rate of occurrence of adverse reactions to acetylcysteine is quite high, and there is a potential for these to be reduced. Recent studies show that distributing the loading-dose of acetylcysteine over the first few hours of treatment may decrease the incidence of adverse reactions. In addition, varying the duration of acetylcysteine administration may potentially benefit certain cohorts of poisoned patients, depending on their risk of developing hepatotoxicity. © 2016 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  19. N-Acetylcysteine's Role in Sepsis and Potential Benefit in Patients With Microcirculatory Derangements.

    PubMed

    Chertoff, Jason

    2018-02-01

    To review the data surrounding the utility of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in sepsis and identify areas needed for additional research. A review of articles describing the mechanisms of action and clinical use of NAC in sepsis. Despite many advances in critical care medicine, still as many as 50% of patients with septic shock die. Treatments thus far have focused on resuscitation and restoration of macrocirculatory targets in the early phases of sepsis, with less focus on microcirculatory dysfunction. N-acetylcysteine, due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties, has been readily investigated in sepsis and has yielded largely incongruous and disappointing results. In addition to its known anti-inflammatory and antioxidative roles, one underappreciated property of NAC is its ability to vasodilate the microcirculation and improve locoregional blood flow. Some investigators have sought to capitalize on this mechanism with promising results, as evidenced by microcirculatory vasodilation, improvements in regional blood flow and oxygen delivery, and reductions in lactic acidosis, organ failure, and mortality. In addition to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, N-acetylcysteine possesses vasodilatory properties that could benefit the microcirculation in sepsis. It is imperative that we investigate these properties to uncover NAC's full potential for benefit in sepsis.

  20. External anal sphincter fatigue is not improved by N-acetylcysteine in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Healy, C F; McMorrow, C; O'Herlihy, C; O'Connell, P R; Jones, J F X

    2008-06-01

    Oxidative stress is associated with skeletal muscle fatigue. This study tests the hypotheses that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduces fatigue and accelerates recovery of the rat external anal sphincter (EAS). Fifteen female Wistar rats were killed humanely. The EAS was mounted as a ring preparation and electrically stimulated with 50 Hz trains of 200 ms in duration every 4 s for three and a half minutes. Three groups were analysed: a control group (n = 5), a group pretreated with NAC (10(-4) mol L(-1); n = 5) and a group pretreated with NAC (10(-3) mol L(-1); n = 5). A novel fatigue index was formulated and was compared to a conventional method of expressing fatigue. There was no significant difference at concentrations of NAC (10(-4) mol L(-1); P > 0.05). At high concentrations of NAC (10(-3) mol L(-1)) there was a significant depression in peak twitch amplitude before fatigue (P = 0.04). N-acetylcysteine in both concentrations used, did not alter fatigue or recovery of the rat EAS. There was a significant positive correlation between the two methods of expressing fatigue but the conventional method produced a higher fatigue index (22.4% on average). N-acetylcysteine does not ameliorate fatigue or accelerate recovery of the EAS and may not be a useful medical therapy for faecal incontinence.

  1. N-acetylcysteine treatment blocks the development of ethanol-induced behavioural sensitization and related ΔFosB alterations.

    PubMed

    Morais-Silva, Gessynger; Alves, Gabrielle Cunha; Marin, Marcelo T

    2016-11-01

    Ethanol addiction is a serious public health problem that still needs more effective pharmacological treatment. A key factor in the development and maintenance of this disease is the advent of neuroadaptations in the mesocorticolimbic brain pathway upon chronic ethanol abuse. In general, these neuroadaptations are maladaptive and affect numerous neurotransmitter systems and intracellular molecules. One of these molecules is ΔFosB, a transcription factor that is altered after chronic drug use. Behavioural sensitization is a useful model for the study of the neuroadaptations related to addiction. Recent works have shown a role for the imbalance of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the symptoms found in addicted people. In this sense, the treatment with N-acetylcysteine, a l-cysteine prodrug that acts by restoring extrasynaptic concentrations of glutamate through the activation of cystine-glutamate antiporter, has shown promising results in the treatment of addiction. Thus, an animal model of behavioural sensitization was used to evaluate the effects of N-acetylcysteine treatment in the behavioural and molecular alterations induced by chronic ethanol administration. Swiss mice were subject to 13 days of daily ethanol administration to induce behavioural sensitization. Two hours before each ethanol administration and locomotor activity evaluation, the animals received intraperitoneally N-acetylcysteine injections. Immediately after the last test session, their brains were removed for ΔFosB and cystine-glutamate antiporter quantification. It was found that N-acetylcysteine treatment blocked ethanol-induced behavioural sensitization, the increase of ΔFosB content in the prefrontal cortex, and its reduction in the nucleus accumbens. The results suggest a possible use of N-acetylcysteine in ethanol-related disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on microcirculation of mucosa in rat ileum in a model of intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ruh, Joachim; Schmidt, Eduard; Vogel, Frank

    2003-05-01

    Oxygen radicals are formed by the endothelium and blood cells and have specific functions in various organs systems. On the level of the microcirculation, oxygen radicals take part in the regulation of the leukocyte-endothelial interaction. The involvement of oxygen radicals has previously been found in conditions such as sepsis, ischemia-reperfusion, and inflammation. Indomethacin is a clinically applied nonsteroidal antiphlogistic, and in previous studies in the rat, it has been found to induce an inflammatory reaction in the small intestine characterized by edema and reddening of the intestinal epithelium, ulceration, and dysregulation in the intestinal-epithelial barrier function. In the present study, we investigated the effect of N-acetylcysteine on erythrocyte velocity and the arteriolar diameter of the main arteriole in single villi, thus providing insight in the perfusion of the mucosa in indomethacin-induced intestinal inflammation. N-Acetylcysteine is known to inactivate superoxide and its precursors. Therefore, we used N-acetylcysteine to investigate whether superoxide and its precursors participate in the regulation of blood supply to single villi in this animal model. We found that indomethacin induced an increase in villous perfusion that was significantly reduced by N-acetylcysteine, indicating that superoxide and its precursors may participate in the regulation of blood supply to the mucosa in this animal model of intestinal inflammation.

  3. Prebiotic formation of `energy-rich' thioesters from glyceraldehyde and N-acetylcysteine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1984-03-01

    The ‘energy-rich’ thioester, N-acetyl-S-lactoylcysteine, is formed from low concentrations of glyceraldehyde and N-acetylcysteine under anaerobic conditions at ambient temperature in aqueous solutions of sodium phosphate (pH 7.0). Reactions with 2 mM glyceraldehyde, 2 mM N-acetylcysteine, and 500 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.0) convert about 0.3%/day of the glyceraldehyde to lactoyl thioester. The formation of lactoyl thioester in similar reactions with 500 mM imidazole hydrochloride (pH 7.0) is supported by the thiol-dependence of lactate formation, which is 3-fold greater in the presence of thiol (0.11%/day) than in the absence of thiol (0.04%/day). The formation of lactoyl thioester is thought to proceed by the phosphate (or imidazole)-catalyzed dehydration of glyceraldehyde to give pyruvaldehyde, which adds to the thiol to form a hemithioacetal that rearranges to the thioester. A limited amount of a second thioester, N-acetyl-S-glyceroyl-cysteine, is also formed at the beginning of these reactions. The significance of these reactions to the origin of life is discussed.

  4. Biological Activities and Potential Oral Applications of N-Acetylcysteine: Progress and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Yanping; Liu, Huan; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yanwei

    2018-01-01

    N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), a cysteine prodrug and glutathione (GSH) precursor, has been used for several decades in clinical therapeutic practices as a mucolytic agent and for the treatment of disorders associated with GSH deficiency. Other therapeutic activities of NAC include inhibition of inflammation/NF-κB signaling and expression of proinflammatory cytokines. N-Acetylcysteine is also a nonantibiotic compound possessing antimicrobial property and exerts anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic effects against certain types of cancer. Recently, studies describing potentially important biological and pharmacological activities of NAC have stimulated interests in using NAC-based therapeutics for oral health care. The present review focused on the biological activities of NAC and its potential oral applications. The potential side effects of NAC and formulations for drug delivery were also discussed, with the intent of advancing NAC-associated treatment modalities in oral medicine. PMID:29849877

  5. Do Montelukast Sodium and N-Acetylcysteine Have a Nephroprotective Effect on Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction? A Placebo Controlled Trial in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Sunay, Melih; Karakan, Tolga; Aydın, Arif; Koca, Gökhan; Börcek, Pınar; Öğüş, Elmas

    2015-10-01

    We assessed the nephroprotective effects of montelukast sodium and N-acetylcysteine on secondary renal damage due to unilateral ureteral obstruction in a rat model. In this study 30 Wistar albino male rats were randomized into 3 groups, including placebo, N-acetylcysteine and montelukast sodium. Three rats served as the control group. The left ureter of the rats was sutured with 4-zero polyglactin sutures. Medications were given 3 days before obstruction and continued for 15 days. Dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy was performed before obstruction and on day 15. Rats were sacrificed on day 15 and histopathological examinations were done. We biochemically assessed oxidative stress markers (myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde), sulfhydryl and total nitrite for lipid peroxidation, oxidative protein damage and antioxidant levels, respectively. On pathological examination inflammation and tubular epithelial damage in the N-acetylcysteine and montelukast sodium groups were less than in the placebo group (p <0.05). No difference was seen in normal kidneys. Myeloperoxidase, malondialdehyde and total nitrite levels in the N-acetylcysteine group, and myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels in the montelukast sodium group were lower than in the placebo group (p <0.05). No statistical difference was seen in sulfhydryl levels (p >0.05) or among the N-acetylcysteine, montelukast sodium and placebo groups on scintigraphy (p >0.05). No pathological, chemical and scintigraphic differences were seen among the N-acetylcysteine, montelukast sodium and sham treated groups (p >0.05). N-acetylcysteine and montelukast sodium have a protective effect against obstructive damage of the kidney. However, further investigations are needed. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on vascular endothelium function in aorta from oophorectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Delgado, J L; Landeras, J; Carbonell, L F; Parilla, J J; Abad, L; Quesada, T; Fiol, G; Hernández, I

    1999-01-01

    1. Experiments were performed to examine and to compare vascular endothelial function in aortic rings from oophorectomized and from ovary-intact rats and to test the effect of thiol compound as N-acetylcysteine on endothelial function. 2. In precontracted aortic rings from oophorectomized and intact rats, vascular endothelial function was evaluated by measuring changes in isometric force in response to cumulative doses of superoxide dismutase, acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. 3. In studies designed to assess the tone-related release of nitric oxide from aortic rings moderately precontracted with phenylephrine, superoxide dismutase produced a lower concentration-related relaxant response in aortic rings from oophorectomized rats than from ovary intact rats. 4. Acetylcholine caused a concentration- and endothelium-dependent relaxation of less magnitude in aortic rings from oophorectomized animals compared with those from ovary-intact rats. Addition of N-omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester eliminated the relaxation induced by both superoxide dismutase and acetylcholine. 5. No differences between groups were noticed in the concentration-relaxation curve induced by sodium nitroprusside. 6. Preincubation with N-acetylcysteine normalized the depressed vasorelaxant response to acetylcholine in the aortic rings from oophorectomized rats, whereas the concentration-response curve for acetylcholine in aortic rings from ovary-intact rats did not alter. 7. These results suggest that the absence of ovary estrogens is associated with a vascular endothelium dysfunction that can be reverted by addition of N-acetylcysteine, a thiol-containing compound with a free radical scavenger effect.

  7. A Randomised, Double Blind Trial of N-Acetylcysteine for Hearing Protection during Stapes Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bagger-Sjöbäck, Dan; Strömbäck, Karin; Hakizimana, Pierre; Plue, Jan; Larsson, Christina; Hultcrantz, Malou; Papatziamos, Georgios; Smeds, Henrik; Danckwardt-Lillieström, Niklas; Hellström, Sten; Johansson, Ann; Tideholm, Bo; Fridberger, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Background Otosclerosis is a disorder that impairs middle ear function, leading to conductive hearing loss. Surgical treatment results in large improvement of hearing at low sound frequencies, but high-frequency hearing often suffers. A likely reason for this is that inner ear sensory cells are damaged by surgical trauma and loud sounds generated during the operation. Animal studies have shown that antioxidants such as N-Acetylcysteine can protect the inner ear from noise, surgical trauma, and some ototoxic substances, but it is not known if this works in humans. This trial was performed to determine whether antioxidants improve surgical results at high frequencies. Methods We performed a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled parallel group clinical trial at three Swedish university clinics. Using block-stratified randomization, 156 adult patients undergoing stapedotomy were assigned to intravenous N-Acetylcysteine (150 mg/kg body weight) or matching placebo (1:1 ratio), starting one hour before surgery. The primary outcome was the hearing threshold at 6 and 8 kHz; secondary outcomes included the severity of tinnitus and vertigo. Findings One year after surgery, high-frequency hearing had improved 2.7 ± 3.8 dB in the placebo group (67 patients analysed) and 2.4 ± 3.7 dB in the treated group (72 patients; means ± 95% confidence interval, p = 0.54; linear mixed model). Surgery improved tinnitus, but there was no significant intergroup difference. Post-operative balance disturbance was common but improved during the first year, without significant difference between groups. Four patients receiving N-Acetylcysteine experienced mild side effects such as nausea and vomiting. Conclusions N-Acetylcysteine has no effect on hearing thresholds, tinnitus, or balance disturbance after stapedotomy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00525551 PMID:25763866

  8. N-acetylcysteine in psychiatry: current therapeutic evidence and potential mechanisms of action

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Olivia; Giorlando, Frank; Berk, Michael

    2011-01-01

    There is an expanding field of research investigating the benefits of alternatives to current pharmacological therapies in psychiatry. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is emerging as a useful agent in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Like many therapies, the clinical origins of NAC are far removed from its current use in psychiatry. Whereas the mechanisms of NAC are only beginning to be understood, it is likely that NAC is exerting benefits beyond being a precursor to the antioxidant, glutathione, modulating glutamatergic, neurotropic and inflammatory pathways. This review outlines the current literature regarding the use of NAC in disorders including addiction, compulsive and grooming disorders, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. N-acetylcysteine has shown promising results in populations with these disorders, including those in whom treatment efficacy has previously been limited. The therapeutic potential of this acetylated amino acid is beginning to emerge in the field of psychiatric research. PMID:21118657

  9. Minocycline and N-acetylcysteine: A Synergistic Drug Combination to Treat Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Contract Number: W81XWH-10-2-0171 TITLE: Minocycline and...30September2012-29September2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Minocycline and N-acetylcysteine: a synergistic drug combination to treat...grantee previously found screened that the combination of minocycline (MINO) and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) synergistically improved brain function when

  10. The pharmacokinetics and extracorporeal removal of N-acetylcysteine during renal replacement therapies.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Stephanie H; Howland, Maryann; Schiano, Thomas D; Hoffman, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen-induced fulminant hepatic failure is associated with acute kidney injury, metabolic acidosis, and fluid and electrolyte imbalances, requiring treatment with renal replacement therapies. Although antidote, acetylcysteine, is potentially extracted by renal replacement therapies, pharmacokinetic data are lacking to guide potential dosing alterations. We aimed to determine the extracorporeal removal of acetylcysteine by various renal replacement therapies. Simultaneous urine, plasma and effluent specimens were serially collected to measure acetylcysteine concentrations in up to three stages: before, during and upon termination of renal replacement therapy. Alterations in pharmacokinetics were determined by applying standard pharmacokinetic equations. Over 2 years, 10 critically ill patients in fulminant hepatic failure requiring renal replacement therapy coincident with acetylcysteine were consecutively enrolled. All 10 patients required continuous venovenous hemofiltration (n = 10) and 2 of the 10 also required hemodialysis (n = 2). There was a significant alteration in the pharmacokinetics of acetylcysteine during hemodialysis; the area under the curve (AUC) decreased 41%, the mean extraction ratio was 51%, the mean hemodialytic clearance was 114.01 ml/kg/h, and a mean 166.75 mg/h was recovered in the effluent or 41% of the hourly dose. Alteration in the pharmacokinetics of acetylcysteine during continuous venovenous hemofiltration did not appear to be significant: the AUC decreased 13%, the mean clearance was 31.77 ml/kg/h and a mean 62.12 mg/h was recovered in the effluent or 14% of the hourly dose. There was no significant extraction of acetylcysteine from continuous venovenous hemofiltration. In contrast, there was significant extracorporeal removal of acetylcysteine during hemodialysis. A reasonable dose adjustment may be to double the IV infusion rate or possibly supplement with oral acetylcysteine during hemodialysis.

  11. N-Acetylcysteine as adjunctive treatment in severe malaria: A randomized double blinded placebo controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Charunwatthana, Prakaykaew; Faiz, M. Abul; Ruangveerayut, Ronnatrai; Maude, Richard; Rahman, M. Ridwanur; Roberts, L. Jackson; Moore, Kevin; Yunus, Emran Bin; Hoque, M. Gofranul; Hasan, Mahatab Uddin; Lee, Sue J.; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Newton, Paul N.; White, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P.J.; Dondorp, Arjen M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Markers of oxidative stress are reported to be increased in severe malaria. It has been suggested that the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may be beneficial in treatment. We studied the efficacy and safety of parenteral N-acetylcysteine as an adjunct to artesunate treatment of severe falciparum malaria. Design A randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial on the use of high dose intravenous NAC as adjunctive treatment to artesunate. Setting A provincial hospital in Western Thailand and a tertiary referral hospital in Chittagong, Bangladesh. Patients One hundred and eight adult patients with severe falciparum malaria. Interventions Patients were randomized to receive N-acetylcysteine or placebo as adjunctive treatment to intravenous artesunate. Measurements and main results A total of 56 patients were treated with NAC and 52 received placebo. NAC had no significant effect on mortality, lactate clearance times (p=0.74) or coma recovery times (p=0.46). Parasite clearance time was increased from 30h (range 6h to 144h) to 36h (range 6h to 120h) (p=0.03), but this could be explained by differences in admission parasitemia. Urinary F2-isoprostane metabolites, measured as a marker of oxidative stress, were increased in severe malaria compared to patients with uncomplicated malaria and healthy volunteers. Admission red cell rigidity correlated with mortality, but did not improve with NAC. Conclusion Systemic oxidative stress is increased in severe malaria. Treatment with N-acetylcysteine had no effect on outcome in patients with severe falciparum malaria in this setting. PMID:19114891

  12. Spectroscopic study of N-acetylcysteine and N-acetylcystine/hydrogen peroxide complexation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picquart, Michel; Abedinzadeh, Zohreh; Grajcar, Lydie; Baron, Marie Héléne

    1998-03-01

    A spectroscopic study of N-acetylcysteine (RSH) and N-acetylcystine (RSSR) has been performed using infrared absorption and Raman scattering in order to pinpoint the sites of complexation of these two species with H 2O 2. Molecules of RSH and RSSR were studied in KBr pellets, and in aqueous solutions of H 2O, D 2O and H 2O with H 2O 2 (1 mol l -1) to characterize the specific influence of the solvent molecules. A time-resolved Raman study was performed for RSH-H 2O 2 in aqueous solution at 1:1 molar ratio in order to observe the formation of RSSR and to discuss the mechanism of this redox reaction.

  13. The effects of sildenafil and n-acetylcysteine on ischemia and reperfusion injury in gastrocnemius muscle and femoral artery endothelium.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Volkan; Yüksel, Volkan; Chousein, Serchat; Taştekin, Ebru; İşcan, Şahin; Sağiroğlu, Gönül; Canbaz, Suat; Sunar, Hasan

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to examine the effects of sildenafil and n-acetylcystein on ischemia/reperfusion injury in femoral artery endothelium and gastrocnemius muscle. 32 rats of Sprague-Dawley breed were randomly divided into four groups (n=8). Median laparotomy was performed, then a 120-minute ischemia was created by microvascular clamping of infrarenal aorta, followed by the release of clamping. In sildenafil group, 1 mg/kg of sildenafil infusion and in the n-acetylcystein group, 100 mg/kg of n-acetylcystein infusion was administered after release of clamps. Blood samples and tissue samples of femoral artery and gastrocnemius muscle were extracted for a histopathological evaluation. Serum levels of malondialdehyde in ischemia/reperfusion group (6.16±0.79) were higher compared to the control group (4.69±0.33), whereas a significant decrease was detected in sildenafil (5.17±0.50) and n-acetylcystein (4.96±0.49) groups. Femoral artery tissue sections of the control group, mean tumor necrosis factor alpha and hypoxy-induced factor-1 alpha immunoreactivity were found to be negative. In the ischemia/reperfusion group, mean tumor necrosis factor α immunoreactivity was intense and mean hypoxy-induced factor-1 alpha immunoreactivity was 51-75%. In the ischemia/reperfusion+Sildenafil and ischemia/reperfusion+NAS groups, mean tumor necrosis factor α immunoreactivity was slight and mean hypoxy-induced factor-1 alpha immunoreactivity was 26-50%. In conclusion, sildenafil and n-acetylcystein may reduce femoral artery endothelium and gastrocnemius muscle injury following lower extremity ischemia/reperfusion. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Potential Role of N-Acetylcysteine in the Management of Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gipson, Cassandra D.; Malcolm, Robert J.; Kalivas, Peter W.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a clear and pressing need to expand pharmacotherapy options for substance use disorders (SUDs) in order to improve sustained abstinence outcomes. Preclinical literature has demonstrated the role of glutamate in addiction, suggesting that new targets for pharmacotherapy should focus on the restoration of glutamatergic function. Glutamatergic agents for SUDs may span multiple addictive behaviors and help demonstrate potentially overlapping mechanisms in addiction. The current review will focus specifically on N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a safe and well-tolerated glutamatergic agent, as a promising potential pharmacotherapy for the treatment of SUDs across several substances of abuse. Building on recently published reviews of the clinical efficacy of NAC across a broad range of conditions, this review will more specifically discuss NAC as a pharmacotherapy for SUDs, devoting particular attention to the safety and tolerability profile of NAC, the wealth of preclinical evidence that has demonstrated the role of glutamate dysregulation in addiction, and the limited but growing clinical literature that has assessed the efficacy of NAC across multiple substances of abuse. Preliminary clinical studies show the promise of NAC in terms of safety, tolerability, and potential efficacy for promoting abstinence from cocaine, nicotine, and cannabis. Results from randomized clinical trials have been mixed, but several mechanistic and methodological factors are discussed to refine the use of NAC in promoting abstinence and relapse prevention across several substances of abuse. Further preclinical and clinical investigation into the use of NAC for SUDs will be vital in addressing current deficits in the treatment of SUDs. PMID:24442756

  15. N-acetylcysteine attenuates TNF-alpha-induced human vascular endothelial cell apoptosis and restores eNOS expression.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhengyuan; Liu, Min; Wu, Yong; Sharma, Vijay; Luo, Tao; Ouyang, Jingping; McNeill, John H

    2006-11-21

    The circulatory inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is increased in pathological conditions, such as diabetes, which initiate or exacerbate vascular endothelial injury. Both nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species may play a dual role (i.e., inhibiting or promoting) in TNF-alpha-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. We investigated the effects of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine on TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis in human vascular endothelial cell (cell line ECV304) apoptosis, NO production and lipid peroxidation. Cultured vascular endothelial cell (ECV304) were either not treated (control), or treated with TNF-alpha (40 ng/ml) alone or TNF-alpha in the presence of N-acetylcysteine at 30 mmol/l or 1 mmol/l, respectively, for 24 h. Cell viability was measured by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. TNF-alpha-induced endothelial cell apoptosis was associated with increased inducible NO synthase but reduced endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) protein expression. NO production and the levels of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde were concomitantly increased. Treatment with NAC at 30 mmol/l restored eNOS expression and further increased NO production as compared to TNF-alpha alone, resulting in improved cell viability and reduced apoptosis. This was accompanied by increased superoxide dismutase activity, increased glutathione peroxidase production and reduced malondialdehyde levels. N-acetylcysteine at 1 mmol/l, however, did not have significant effects on TNF-alpha-induced endothelial cell apoptosis and cell viability despite it slightly enhanced glutathione peroxidase production. N-acetylcysteine attenuation of TNF-alpha-induced human vascular endothelial cell apoptosis is associated with the restoration of eNOS expression.

  16. Oxytocin reduces cocaine seeking and reverses chronic cocaine-induced changes in glutamate receptor function.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Luyi; Sun, Wei-Lun; Young, Amy B; Lee, Kunhee; McGinty, Jacqueline F; See, Ronald E

    2014-10-31

    Oxytocin, a neurohypophyseal neuropeptide, is a potential mediator and regulator of drug addiction. However, the cellular mechanisms of oxytocin in drug seeking remain unknown. In the present study, we used a self-administration/reinstatement model to study the effects of oxytocin on cocaine seeking and its potential interaction with glutamate function at the receptor level. Systemic oxytocin dose-dependently reduced cocaine self-administration during various schedules of reinforcement, including fixed ratio 1, fixed ratio 5, and progressive ratio. Oxytocin also attenuated reinstatement to cocaine seeking induced by cocaine prime or conditioned cues. Western-blot analysis indicated that oxytocin increased phosphorylation of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptor GluA1 subunit at the Ser 845 site with or without accompanying increases in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, in several brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, amygdala, and dorsal hippocampus. Immunoprecipitation of oxytocin receptor and GluA1 subunit receptors further demonstrated a physical interaction between these 2 receptors, although the interaction was not influenced by chronic cocaine or oxytocin treatment. Oxytocin also attenuated sucrose seeking in a GluA1- or extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-independent manner. These findings suggest that oxytocin mediates cocaine seeking through interacting with glutamate receptor systems via second messenger cascades in mesocorticolimbic regions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The effects of N-Acetylcysteine on frontostriatal resting-state functional connectivity, withdrawal symptoms and smoking abstinence: A double-blind, placebo-controlled fMRI pilot study*

    PubMed Central

    Froeliger, B.; McConnell, P.A.; Stankeviciute, N.; McClure, E.A.; Kalivas, P.W.; Gray, K.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse disrupts frontostriatal glutamate transmission, which in turn meditates drug seeking. In animal models, N-acetylcysteine normalizes dysregulated frontostriatal glutamatergic neurotransmission and prevents reinstated drug seeking; however, the effects of N-Acetylcysteine on human frontostriatal circuitry function and maintaining smoking abstinence is unknown. Thus, the current study tested the hypothesis that N-Acetylcysteine would be associated with stronger frontostriatal resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC), attenuated nicotine withdrawal and would help smokers to maintain abstinence over the study period. METHODS The present study examined the effects of N-Acetylcysteine on frontostriatal rsFC, nicotine-withdrawal symptoms and maintaining abstinence. Healthy adult, non-treatment seeking smokers (N=16; mean (SD) age 36.5±11.9; cigs/day 15.8±6.1; yrs/smoking 15.7±8.9) were randomized to a double-blind course of 2400 mg N-Acetylcysteine (1200 mg b.i.d.) or placebo over the course of 3 ½ days of monetary-incentivized smoking abstinence. On each abstinent day, measures of mood and craving were collected digitally and participants attended a lab visit in order to assess smoking (i.e., expired-air carbon monoxide [CO]). On day 4, participants underwent fMRI scanning. RESULTS As compared to placebo (n=8), smokers in the N-Acetylcysteine group (n=8) maintained abstinence, reported less craving and higher positive affect (all p’s <.01), and concomitantly exhibited stronger rsFC between ventral striatal nodes, medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus—key default mode network nodes, and the cerebellum [p<.025; FWE]). CONCLUSIONS Taken together, these findings suggest that N-Acetylcysteine may positively affect potentially dysregulated corticostriatal connectivity, help to restructure reward processing, and help to maintain abstinence immediately following a quit attempt. PMID:26454838

  18. The effects of N-Acetylcysteine on frontostriatal resting-state functional connectivity, withdrawal symptoms and smoking abstinence: A double-blind, placebo-controlled fMRI pilot study.

    PubMed

    Froeliger, B; McConnell, P A; Stankeviciute, N; McClure, E A; Kalivas, P W; Gray, K M

    2015-11-01

    Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse disrupts frontostriatal glutamate transmission, which in turn meditates drug seeking. In animal models, N-Acetylcysteine normalizes dysregulated frontostriatal glutamatergic neurotransmission and prevents reinstated drug seeking; however, the effects of N-Acetylcysteine on human frontostriatal circuitry function and maintaining smoking abstinence is unknown. Thus, the current study tested the hypothesis that N-Acetylcysteine would be associated with stronger frontostriatal resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC), attenuated nicotine withdrawal and would help smokers to maintain abstinence over the study period. The present study examined the effects of N-Acetylcysteine on frontostriatal rsFC, nicotine-withdrawal symptoms and maintaining abstinence. Healthy adult, non-treatment seeking smokers (N=16; mean (SD) age 36.5±11.9; cigs/day 15.8±6.1; years/smoking 15.7±8.9) were randomized to a double-blind course of 2400mg N-Acetylcysteine (1200mg b.i.d.) or placebo over the course of 3½ days of monetary-incentivized smoking abstinence. On each abstinent day, measures of mood and craving were collected and participants attended a lab visit in order to assess smoking (i.e., expired-air carbon monoxide [CO]). On day 4, participants underwent fMRI scanning. As compared to placebo (n=8), smokers in the N-Acetylcysteine group (n=8) maintained abstinence, reported less craving and higher positive affect (all p's<.01), and concomitantly exhibited stronger rsFC between ventral striatal nodes, medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus-key default mode network nodes, and the cerebellum [p<.025; FWE]). Taken together, these findings suggest that N-Acetylcysteine may positively affect dysregulated corticostriatal connectivity, help to restructure reward processing, and help to maintain abstinence immediately following a quit attempt. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. N-acetylcysteine neither lowers plasma homocysteine concentrations nor improves brachial artery endothelial function in cardiac transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Miner, S E S; Cole, D E C; Evrovski, J; Forrest, Q; Hutchison, S J; Holmes, K; Ross, H J

    2002-05-01

    N-acetylcysteine is a novel antioxidant that has been reported to reduce plasma homocysteine concentrations and improve endothelial function. Cardiac transplant recipients have a high incidence of coronary endothelial dysfunction and hyperhomocysteinemia, both of which may lead to the development of transplantation coronary artery disease. It was hypothesized that N-acetylcysteine would reduce plasma homocysteine concentrations and improve brachial endothelial function in cardiac transplant recipients. A cohort of stable cardiac transplant recipients was recruited from the outpatient clinic at the Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario. Brachial artery endothelial functions were studied according to standard techniques to determine flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery. Plasma homocysteine concentrations were assayed using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and pulsed integrated amperometry. After baseline testing, patients were treated in an unblinded fashion with N-acetylcysteine 500 mg/day. After 10 weeks of therapy, patients returned for follow-up endothelial function and homocysteine testing. Thirty-one patients were initially enrolled. Two patients withdrew due to excessive gastrointestinal upset. Two patients did not return for follow-up testing. The remaining 27 patients tolerated the treatment well. At baseline, 85% of the patients had hyperhomocysteinemia (greater than 15 mol/L) with a mean plasma concentration of 18.6 4.7 mol/L. No changes in homocysteine concentrations were seen at follow-up. At baseline, the average flow-mediated dilation was only 4.7 6.3%. No changes were seen at follow-up. Hyperhomocysteinemia and brachial endothelial dysfunction are common in stable cardiac transplant recipients and are unaffected by supplementation with N-acetylcysteine.

  20. An Antidote for Acute Cocaine Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Treweek, Jennifer B.; Janda, Kim D.

    2012-01-01

    Not only has immunopharmacotherapy grown into a field that addresses the abuse of numerous illicit substances, but also the treatment methodologies within immunopharmacotherapy have expanded from traditional active vaccination to passive immunization with anti-drug monoclonal antibodies, optimized mAb formats, and catalytic drug-degrading antibodies. Many laboratories have focused on transitioning distinct immunopharmacotherapeutics to clinical evaluation, but with respect to the indication of cocaine abuse, only the active vaccine TA-CD, which is modeled after our original cocaine hapten GNC1, has been carried through to human clinical trials.2 The successful application of murine mAb GNC92H2 to the reversal of cocaine overdose in a mouse model prompted investigations of human immunoglobulins with the clinical potential to serve as cocaine antidotes. We now report the therapeutic utility of a superior clone, human mAb GNCgzk (Kd = 0.18 nM), which offers a 10-fold improvement in cocaine binding affinity. The GNCgzk manifold was engineered for rapid cocaine clearance, and administration of the F(ab′)2 and Fab formats even after the appearance of acute behavioral signs of cocaine toxicity granted nearly complete prevention of lethality. Thus, contrary to the immunopharmacotherapeutic treatment of drug self-administration, minimal antibody doses were shown to counteract the lethality of a molar excess of circulating cocaine. Passive vaccination with drug-specific antibodies represents a viable treatment strategy for the human condition of cocaine overdose. PMID:22380623

  1. Transtympanic injections of N-acetylcysteine for the prevention of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity: a feasible method with promising efficacy.

    PubMed

    Riga, Maria G; Chelis, Leonidas; Kakolyris, Stylianos; Papadopoulos, Stergios; Stathakidou, Sofia; Chamalidou, Eleni; Xenidis, Nikolaos; Amarantidis, Kyriakos; Dimopoulos, Prokopios; Danielides, Vasilios

    2013-02-01

    Ototoxicity is a common and irreversible adverse effect of cisplatin treatment with great impact on the patients' quality of life. N-acetylcysteine is a low-molecular-weight agent which has shown substantial otoprotective activity. The role of transtympanic infusions of N-acetylcysteine was examined in a cohort of patients treated with cisplatin-based regimens. Twenty cisplatin-treated patients were subjected, under local anesthesia, to transtympanic N-acetylcysteine (10%) infusions in 1 ear, during the hydration procedure preceding intravenous effusion of cisplatin. The contralateral ear was used as control. The number of transtympanic infusions was respective to the number of administered cycles. Hearing acuity was evaluated before each cycle with pure tone audiometry by an audiologist blinded to the treated ear. A total of 84 transtympanic infusions were performed. In treated ears, no significant changes in auditory thresholds were recorded. In the control ears cisplatin induced a significant decrease of auditory thresholds at the 8000 Hz frequency band (P=0.008). At the same frequency (8000 Hz), the changes in auditory thresholds were significantly larger for the control ears than the treated ones (P=0.005). An acute pain starting shortly after the injection and lasting for a few minutes seemed to be the only significant adverse effect. Transtympanic injections of N-acetylcysteine seem to be a feasible and effective otoprotective strategy for the prevention of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Additional studies are required to further clarify the efficiency of this treatment and determine the optimal dosage and protocol.

  2. N-Acetylcysteine supplementation reduces oxidative stress and DNA damage in children with β-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Zeynep Canan; Koc, Ahmet; Aycicek, Ali; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2014-01-01

    There are several reports that increased oxidative stress and DNA damage were found in β-thalassemia major (β-TM) patients. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and vitamin E on total oxidative stress and DNA damage in children with β-TM. Seventy-five children with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia (β-thal) were randomly chosen to receive 10 mg/kg/day of NAC or 10 IU/kg/day of vitamin E or no supplementation; 28 healthy controls were also included in the study. Serum total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured, oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated, and mononuclear DNA damage was assessed by alkaline comet assay; they were determined before treatment and after 3 months of treatment. Total oxydent status, OSI, and DNA damage levels were significantly higher and TAC levels were significantly lower in the thalassemic children than in the healthy controls (p < 0.001). In both supplemented groups, mean TOS and OSI levels were decreased; TAC and pre transfusion hemoglobin (Hb) levels were significantly increased after 3 months (p ≤ 0.002). In the NAC group, DNA damage score decreased (p = 0.001). N-Acetylcysteine and vitamin E may be effective in reducing serum oxidative stress and increase pre transfusion Hb levels in children with β-thal. N-Acetylcysteine also can reduce DNA damage.

  3. Computerized N-acetylcysteine physician order entry by template protocol for acetaminophen toxicity.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Trevonne M; Lu, Jenny J; Blackwood, Louisa; Leikin, Jerrold B

    2011-01-01

    Some medication dosing protocols are logistically complex for traditional physician ordering. The use of computerized physician order entry (CPOE) with templates, or order sets, may be useful to reduce medication administration errors. This study evaluated the rate of medication administration errors using CPOE order sets for N-acetylcysteine (NAC) use in treating acetaminophen poisoning. An 18-month retrospective review of computerized inpatient pharmacy records for NAC use was performed. All patients who received NAC for the treatment of acetaminophen poisoning were included. Each record was analyzed to determine the form of NAC given and whether an administration error occurred. In the 82 cases of acetaminophen poisoning in which NAC was given, no medication administration errors were identified. Oral NAC was given in 31 (38%) cases; intravenous NAC was given in 51 (62%) cases. In this retrospective analysis of N-acetylcysteine administration using computerized physician order entry and order sets, no medication administration errors occurred. CPOE is an effective tool in safely executing complicated protocols in an inpatient setting.

  4. N-acetylcysteine in Cleistanthus collinus Poisoning: A Report of Two Cases in Children.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shreya; Rameshkumar, Ramachandran; Mahadevan, Subramanian

    2016-12-01

    Cleistanthus collinus, also known as Oduvanthalai in Tamil, is the most commonly encountered plant poison in southern India. The leaves are used for poisoning humans (suicide or homicide) and animals (cattle and fish) and as an abortifacient, especially in rural south India. Although this poisoning is commonly reported in adults, data regarding the use of N-acetylcysteine in pediatric poisoning is lacking. We report two previously healthy male siblings of pediatric age group who ingested the liquid extracted from crushed leaves of this plant given to them by their mother as a means of deliberate harm. Both patients developed distal renal tubular acidosis, with hypokalemia. The younger sibling also developed myocardial toxicity. Other significant findings noted include hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia and elevated liver enzymes. Both patients received supportive care along with N-acetylcysteine infusion, and showed complete recovery within 10 days. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A Biomedical Application of Activated Carbon Adsorption: An Experiment Using Acetaminophen and N-Acetylcysteine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybolt, Thomas R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Illustrates an interesting biomedical application of adsorption from solution and demonstrates some of the factors that influence the in vivo adsorption of drug molecules onto activated charcoal. Uses acetaminophen and N-acetylcysteine for the determination. Suggests several related experiments. (MVL)

  6. N-acetylcysteine inhibits muscle fatigue in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Reid, M B; Stokić, D S; Koch, S M; Khawli, F A; Leis, A A

    1994-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a nonspecific antioxidant that selectively inhibits acute fatigue of rodent skeletal muscle stimulated at low (but not high) tetanic frequencies and that decreases contractile function of unfatigued muscle in a dose-dependent manner. The present experiments test the hypothesis that NAC pretreatment can inhibit acute muscular fatigue in humans. Healthy volunteers were studied on two occasions each. Subjects were pretreated with NAC 150 mg/kg or 5% dextrose in water by intravenous infusion. The subject then sat in a chair with surface electrodes positioned over the motor point of tibialis anterior, an ankle dorsiflexor of mixed-fiber composition. The muscle was stimulated to contract electrically (40-55 mA, 0.2-ms pulses) and force production was measured. Function of the unfatigued muscle was assessed by measuring the forces produced during maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of ankle dorsiflexor muscle groups and during electrical stimulation of tibialis anterior at 1, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 120 Hz (protocol 1). Fatigue was produced using repetitive tetanic stimulations at 10 Hz (protocol 1) or 40 Hz (protocol 2); intermittent stimulations subsequently were used to monitor recovery from fatigue. The contralateral leg then was studied using the same protocol. Pretreatment with NAC did not alter the function of unfatigued muscle; MVC performance and the force-frequency relationship of tibialis anterior were unchanged. During fatiguing contractions stimulated at 10 Hz, NAC increased force output by approximately 15% (P < 0.0001), an effect that was evident after 3 min of repetitive contraction (P < 0.0125) and persisted throughout the 30-min protocol. NAC had no effect on fatigue induced using 40 Hz stimuli or on recovery from fatigue. N-acetylcysteine pretreatment can improve performance of human limb muscle during fatiguing exercise, suggesting that oxidative stress plays a causal role in the fatigue process and identifying antioxidant

  7. Bromelain and N-acetylcysteine inhibit proliferation and survival of gastrointestinal cancer cells in vitro: significance of combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Amini, Afshin; Masoumi-Moghaddam, Samar; Ehteda, Anahid; Morris, David Lawson

    2014-11-12

    Bromelain and N-acetylcysteine are two natural, sulfhydryl-containing compounds with good safety profiles which have been investigated for their benefits and application in health and disease for more than fifty years. As such, the potential values of these agents in cancer therapy have been variably reported in the literature. In the present study, the efficacy of bromelain and N-acetylcysteine in single agent and combination treatment of human gastrointestinal carcinoma cells was evaluated in vitro and the underlying mechanisms of effect were explored. The growth-inhibitory effects of bromelain and N-acetylcysteine, on their own and in combination, on a panel of human gastrointestinal carcinoma cell lines, including MKN45, KATO-III, HT29-5F12, HT29-5M21 and LS174T, were assessed by sulforhodamine B assay. Moreover, the influence of the treatment on the expression of a range of proteins involved in the regulation of cell cycle and survival was investigated by Western blot. The presence of apoptosis was also examined by TUNEL assay. Bromelain and N-acetylcysteine significantly inhibited cell proliferation, more potently in combination therapy. Drug-drug interaction in combination therapy was found to be predominantly synergistic or additive. Mechanistically, apoptotic bodies were detected in treated cells by TUNEL assay. Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed diminution of cyclins A, B and D, the emergence of immunoreactive subunits of caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-8 and cleaved PARP, withering or cleavage of procaspase-9, overexpression of cytochrome c, reduced expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and pro-survival phospho-Akt, the emergence of the autophagosomal marker LC3-II and deregulation of other autophagy-related proteins, including Atg3, Atg5, Atg7, Atg12 and Beclin 1. These results were more prominent in combination therapy. We report for the first time to our knowledge the growth-inhibitory and cytotoxic effects of bromelain and N-acetylcysteine, in

  8. Efficacy of simethicone and N-acetylcysteine as premedication in improving visibility during upper endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Kuo; Yeh, Ming-Kung; Hsu, Hsuang-Chun; Chen, Hsuan-Wei; Hu, Ming-Kuan

    2014-04-01

    Simethicone and N-acetylcysteine have been widely used in improving endoscopic visibility. However, the optimal dose, volume, and dosing time for the premedication regimen are still unclear. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of premedication in improving endoscopic visibility and determine the contributions of dose, volume, and premedication time. A total of 1849 patients were prospectively treated in three groups: group A: 100-mg simethicone suspension in 5 mL water; group B: 100-mg simethicone suspension in 100 mL water; and group C: 100-mg simethicone suspension in 100 mL water containing 200 mg N-acetylcysteine. Mucosa visibility was assessed at seven sites of upper gastrointestinal tract. The sum of scores was considered as total mucosal visibility score (TMVS). The upper body of stomach had the worst visibility score for all groups. TMVS of groups B and C were significantly lower than those of group A. Group C had a significantly fewer patients requiring endoscopic flushing than groups A and B. The TMVS for groups B and C were significantly lower than for group A within 30 min of beginning premedication. Beyond 30 min of premedication, there was no significant difference in the TMVS among groups. Premedication using 100 mg simethicone in 100 mL of water improves endoscopic visibility. Addition of N-acetylcysteine to simethicone in 100 mL of water reduces the need for endoscopic flushing. For patients unable to tolerate a large fluid volume, a 5-mL simethicone suspension administered more than 30 min prior to upper endoscopy is suggested. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. N-acetylcysteine administration does not improve patient outcome after liver resection

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Stuart M; Saif, Rehan; Sen, Gourab; French, Jeremy J; Jaques, Bryon C; Charnley, Richard M; Manas, Derek M; White, Steven A

    2013-01-01

    Background Post-operative hepatic dysfunction is a major cause of concern when undertaking a liver resection. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury can result in hepatocellular injury. Experimental evidence suggests that N-acetylcysteine may ameliorate ROS-mediated liver injury. Methods A cohort of 44 patients who had undergone a liver resection and receiving peri-operative N-acetylcysteine (NAC) were compared with a further cohort of 44 patients who did not. Liver function tests were compared on post-operative days 1, 3 and 5. Peri-operative outcome data were retrieved from a prospectively maintained database within our unit. ResultsAdministration of NAC was associated with a prolonged prothrombin time on the third post-operative day (18.4 versus 16.4 s; P = 0.002). The incidence of grades B and C liver failure was lower in the NAC group although this difference did not reach statistical significance (6.9% versus 14%; P = 0.287). The overall complication rate was similar between groups (32% versus 25%; P = ns). There were two peri-operative deaths in the NAC group and one in the control group (P = NS). ConclusionIn spite of promising experimental evidence, this study was not able to demonstrate any advantage in the routine administration of peri-operative NAC in patients undergoing a liver resection. PMID:23458723

  10. Novel C-1 Substituted Cocaine Analogs Unlike Cocaine or Benztropine

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Solav; Hashim, Audrey; Sheikh, Imran S.; Theddu, Naresh; Gaddiraju, Narendra V.; Mehrotra, Suneet; Schmitt, Kyle C.; Murray, Thomas F.; Sershen, Henry; Unterwald, Ellen M.; Davis, Franklin A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a wealth of information on cocaine-like compounds, there is no information on cocaine analogs with substitutions at C-1. Here, we report on (R)-(−)-cocaine analogs with various C-1 substituents: methyl (2), ethyl (3), n-propyl (4), n-pentyl (5), and phenyl (6). Analog 2 was equipotent to cocaine as an inhibitor of the dopamine transporter (DAT), whereas 3 and 6 were 3- and 10-fold more potent, respectively. None of the analogs, however, stimulated mouse locomotor activity, in contrast to cocaine. Pharmacokinetic assays showed compound 2 occupied mouse brain rapidly, as cocaine itself; moreover, 2 and 6 were behaviorally active in mice in the forced-swim test model of depression and the conditioned place preference test. Analog 2 was a weaker inhibitor of voltage-dependent Na+ channels than cocaine, although 6 was more potent than cocaine, highlighting the need to assay future C-1 analogs for this activity. Receptorome screening indicated few significant binding targets other than the monoamine transporters. Benztropine-like “atypical” DAT inhibitors are known to display reduced cocaine-like locomotor stimulation, presumably by their propensity to interact with an inward-facing transporter conformation. However, 2 and 6, like cocaine, but unlike benztropine, exhibited preferential interaction with an outward-facing conformation upon docking in our DAT homology model. In summary, C-1 cocaine analogs are not cocaine-like in that they are not stimulatory in vivo. However, they are not benztropine-like in binding mechanism and seem to interact with the DAT similarly to cocaine. The present data warrant further consideration of these novel cocaine analogs for antidepressant or cocaine substitution potential. PMID:22895898

  11. N-acetylcysteine prevents the geldanamycin cytotoxicity by forming geldanamycin-N-acetylcysteine adduct.

    PubMed

    Mlejnek, Petr; Dolezel, Petr

    2014-09-05

    Geldanamycin (GDN) is a benzoquinone ansamycin antibiotic with anti-proliferative activity on tumor cells. GDN cytotoxicity has been attributed to the disruption of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) binding and stabilizing client proteins, and by the induction of oxidative stress with concomitant glutathione (GSH) depletion. The later mechanism of cytotoxicity can be abrogated by N-acetylcysteine (NAC). It was suggested that NAC prevents GDN cytotoxicity mainly by the restoring of glutathione (GSH) level (Clark et al., 2009). Here we argue that NAC does not protect cells from the GDN cytotoxicity by restoring the level of GSH. A detailed LC/MS/MS analysis of cell extracts indicated formation of GDN adducts with GSH. The amount of the GDN-GSH adduct is proportional to the GDN concentration and increases with incubation time. While nanomolar and low micromolar GDN concentrations induce cell death without an apparent GSH decrease, only much higher micromolar GDN concentrations cause a significant GSH decrease. Therefore, only high micromolar GDN concentrations can cause cell death which might be related to GSH depletion. Addition of NAC leads to the formation of adducts with GDN which diminish formation of GDN adducts with GSH. NAC also forms stable adducts with GDN extracellularly. Although NAC induces an increase in the GSH pool, this effect is not crucial for abrogation of GDN cytotoxicity. Indeed, the presence of NAC in the growth medium causes a rapid conversion of GDN into the GDN-NAC adduct, which is the real cause of the abrogated GDN cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. N-acetylcysteine restores nitric oxide-mediated effects in the fetoplacental circulation of preeclamptic patients.

    PubMed

    Bisseling, Tanya M; Maria Roes, Eva; Raijmakers, Maarten T M; Steegers, Eric A P; Peters, Wilbert H M; Smits, Paul

    2004-07-01

    Preeclampsia is associated with an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants, resulting in reduced effects of the endothelium-derived, relaxing-factor nitric oxide (NO). Antioxidants, like N-acetylcysteine (NAC), remove reactive oxygen species, resulting in an improvement of endothelial function. We aimed to investigate the effect of NAC on the NO-pathway in the human fetoplacental circulation in preeclampsia and control pregnancies. The NO-pathway was investigated by use of the NO-synthase inhibitor L-NAME in an ex vivo cotyledon perfusion model. At baseline, fetoplacental arterial pressure was comparable in preeclamptic pregnancies (n=8) and control pregnancies (n=8), and increased dose-dependently after L-NAME. The maximal L-NAME-induced rise in fetoplacental arterial pressure was attenuated in preeclamptic versus control pregnancies (20.8 +/- 2.0 mm Hg vs 36.7 +/- 3.5 mm Hg, P<.05). Addition of NAC increased the L-NAME-induced rise in fetoplacental arterial pressure to 36.4 +/- 3.4 mm Hg in preeclampsia pregnancies (P<.05) and to 49.2 +/- 2.6 mm Hg in control pregnancies (P<.05). Preeclampsia is associated with a dysfunction of the NO-pathway. N-acetylcysteine increases NO-mediated effects in the fetoplacental circulation in preeclamptic placentas as well as in healthy control placentas.

  13. Reduction of estrogen-induced transformation of mouse mammary epithelial cells by N-acetylcysteine

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, Divya; Zahid, Muhammad; Mailander, Paula C; Meza, Jane L.; Rogan, Eleanor G.; Cavalieri, Ercole L.; Chakravarti, Dhrubajyoti

    2009-01-01

    A growing number of studies indicate that breast cancer initiation is related to abnormal estrogen oxidation to form an excess of estrogen-3,4-quinones, which react with DNA to form depurinating adducts and induce mutations. This mechanism is often called estrogen genotoxicity. 4-catechol estrogens, precursors of the estrogen-3,4-quinones, were previously shown to account for most of the transforming and tumorigenic activity. We examined whether estrogen-induced transformation can be reduced by inhibiting the oxidation of a 4-catechol estrogen to its quinone. We demonstrate that E6 cells (a normal mouse epithelial cell line) can be transformed by a single treatment with a catechol estrogen or its quinone. The transforming activities of 4-hydroxyestradiol and estradiol-3,4-quinone were comparable. N-acetylcysteine, a common antioxidant, inhibited the oxidation of 4-hydroxyestradiol to the quinone and consequent formation of DNA adducts. It also drastically reduced estrogen-induced transformation of E6 cells. These results strongly implicate estrogen genotoxicity in mammary cell transformation. Since N-acetylcysteine is well-tolerated in clinical studies, it may be a promising candidate for breast cancer prevention. PMID:18226522

  14. N-Acetylcysteine prevents congenital heart defects induced by pregestational diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pregestational diabetes is a major risk factor of congenital heart defects (CHDs). Glutathione is depleted and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is elevated in diabetes. In the present study, we aimed to examine whether treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which increases glutathione synthesis and inhibits ROS production, prevents CHDs induced by pregestational diabetes. Methods Female mice were treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to induce pregestational diabetes prior to breeding with normal males to produce offspring. Some diabetic mice were treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in drinking water from E0.5 to the end of gestation or harvesting of the embryos. CHDs were identified by histology. ROS levels, cell proliferation and gene expression in the fetal heart were analyzed. Results Our data show that pregestational diabetes resulted in CHDs in 58% of the offspring, including ventricular septal defect (VSD), atrial septal defect (ASD), atrioventricular septal defects (AVSD), transposition of great arteries (TGA), double outlet right ventricle (DORV) and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Treatment with NAC in drinking water in pregestational diabetic mice completely eliminated the incidence of AVSD, TGA, TOF and significantly diminished the incidence of ASD and VSD. Furthermore, pregestational diabetes increased ROS, impaired cell proliferation, and altered Gata4, Gata5 and Vegf-a expression in the fetal heart of diabetic offspring, which were all prevented by NAC treatment. Conclusions Treatment with NAC increases GSH levels, decreases ROS levels in the fetal heart and prevents the development of CHDs in the offspring of pregestational diabetes. Our study suggests that NAC may have therapeutic potential in the prevention of CHDs induced by pregestational diabetes. PMID:24533448

  15. Hypoxic resistance of KRAS mutant tumor cells to 3-Bromopyruvate is counteracted by Prima-1 and reversed by N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Orue, Andrea; Chavez, Valery; Strasberg-Rieber, Mary; Rieber, Manuel

    2016-11-18

    The metabolic inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) is a promising anti-cancer alkylating agent, shown to inhibit growth of some colorectal carcinoma with KRAS mutation. Recently, we demonstrated increased resistance to 3-BrPA in wt p53 tumor cells compared to those with p53 silencing or mutation. Since hypoxic microenvironments select for tumor cells with diminished therapeutic response, we investigated whether hypoxia unequally increases resistance to 3-BrPA in wt p53 MelJuso melanoma harbouring (Q61L)-mutant NRAS and wt BRAF, C8161 melanoma with (G12D)-mutant KRAS (G464E)-mutant BRAF, and A549 lung carcinoma with a KRAS (G12S)-mutation. Since hypoxia increases the toxicity of the p53 activator, Prima-1 against breast cancer cells irrespective of their p53 status, we also investigated whether Prima-1 reversed hypoxic resistance to 3-BrPA. In contrast to the high susceptibility of hypoxic mutant NRAS MelJuso cells to 3-BrPA or Prima-1, KRAS mutant C8161 and A549 cells revealed hypoxic resistance to 3-BrPA counteracted by Prima-1. In A549 cells, Prima-1 increased p21CDKN1mRNA, and reciprocally inhibited mRNA expression of the SLC2A1-GLUT1 glucose transporter-1 and ALDH1A1, gene linked to detoxification and stem cell properties. 3-BrPA lowered CAIX and VEGF mRNA expression. Death from joint Prima-1 and 3-BrPA treatment in KRAS mutant A549 and C8161 cells seemed mediated by potentiating oxidative stress, since it was antagonized by the anti-oxidant and glutathione precursor N-acetylcysteine. This report is the first to show that Prima-1 kills hypoxic wt p53 KRAS-mutant cells resistant to 3-BrPA, partly by decreasing GLUT-1 expression and exacerbating pro-oxidant stress.

  16. Therapeutic effect of budesonide/formoterol, montelukast and N-acetylcysteine for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sei Won; Rhee, Chin Kook; Kim, Yoo Jin; Lee, Seok; Kim, Hee Je; Lee, Jong Wook

    2016-05-26

    Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is currently treated with systemic corticosteroids despite poor efficacy and side effects. This study investigated the therapeutic effect of budesonide/formoterol, montelukast and n-acetylcysteine, which are suggested as treatment options for BOS after HSCT. After diagnosis of BOS, 61 patients were treated with budesonide/formoterol, montelukast and n-acetylcysteine for 3 months. Pulmonary function test and COPD assessment test (CAT) were performed before and after the combination therapy. Therapeutic response was evaluated by changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) or CAT score. After 3 months of combination treatment, mean FEV1 increased by 220 mL (p < 0.001) and residual volume decreased by 200 mL (p =0 .005). Median CAT score also significantly decreased from 15.5 to 11.0 (p = 0.001). The overall response rate to combination therapy was 82 %. Comparing the no-response group and the response group, the forced vital capacity (% predicted) decline between pre-HSCT and BOS diagnosis was significantly greater in the response group (p = 0.036). Combination treatment with budesonide/formoterol, montelukast and n-acetylcysteine significantly improved lung function and respiratory symptoms in patients with BOS after allogeneic HSCT without serious side effects.

  17. Effects of N-Acetylcysteine Addition to University of Wisconsin Solution on the Rate of Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Adult Orthotopic Liver Transplant.

    PubMed

    Aliakbarian, Mohsen; Nikeghbalian, Saman; Ghaffaripour, Sina; Bahreini, Amin; Shafiee, Mohammad; Rashidi, Mohammad; Rajabnejad, Yaser

    2017-08-01

    One of the main concerns in liver transplant is the prolonged ischemia time, which may lead to primary graft nonfunction or delayed function. N-acetylcysteine is known as a hepato-protective agent in different studies, which may improve human hepatocyte viability in steatotic donor livers. This study investigated whether N-acetylcysteine can decrease the rate of ischemia-reperfusion syndrome and improve short-term outcome in liver transplant recipients. This was a double-blind, randomized, control clinical trial of 115 patients. Between April 2012 and January 2013, patients with orthotopic liver transplant were randomly divided into 2 groups; in 49 cases N-acetylcysteine was added to University of Wisconsin solution as the preservative liquid (experimental group), and in 66 cases standard University of Wisconsin solution was used (control group). We compared postreperfusion hypotension, inotrope requirement before and after portal reperfusion, intermittent arterial blood gas analysis and potassium measurement, pathological review of transplanted liver, in-hospital complications, morbidity, and mortality. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding time to hepatic artery reperfusion, hospital stay, vascular complications, inotrope requirement before and after portal declamping, and blood gas analysis. Hypotension after portal reperfusion was significantly more common in experimental group compared with control group (P = .005). Retransplant and in-hospital mortality were comparable between the groups. Preservation of the liver inside Univer-sity of Wisconsin solution plus N-acetylcysteine did not change the rate of ischemia reperfusion injury and short-term outcome in liver transplant recipients.

  18. [A girl with self-harm treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC)].

    PubMed

    Rus, C P

    Deliberate and recurrent self-harm could be regarded as addictive behaviour that can be treated with medication. In addiction, the dopaminergic mesolimbic reward system is activated. Pain caused by cutting stimulates the reward system through the opioid system. Glutamatergic neurotransmission follows the same pathway and plays a role in addiction as well. In this case-study a 17-year-old girl was successfully treated with N-acetylcysteine (nac) in order to reduce the frequency of self-cutting. In addition, in this case nac reduced the symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and depression. nac modulates the glutamatergic neurotransmission. This article provides possible explanations for the effect of nac in this case.

  19. Cocaine abuse versus cocaine dependence: cocaine self-administration and pharmacodynamic response in the human laboratory.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Sharon L; Donny, Eric C; Nuzzo, Paul A; Umbricht, Annie; Bigelow, George E

    2010-01-01

    Cocaine has high abuse liability but only a subset of individuals who experiment with it develop dependence. The DSM-IV (APA. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV-R. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, 2000) provides criteria for diagnosing cocaine abuse and cocaine dependence as distinct disorders- the latter characterized by additional symptoms related to loss of control over drug use. In this study, two groups of cocaine users (n=8/group), matched on demographic factors and length of cocaine use history and meeting criteria for either cocaine abuse (CocAb) or cocaine dependence (CocDep), were compared on (1) measures related to impulsivity and sensation seeking, (2) response to experimenter-administered cocaine (0, 12.5, 25 and 50mg/70 kg, i.v.), and (3) cocaine self-administration using a Relapse Choice and a Progressive Ratio Procedure (0, 12.5 and 25mg/70 kg, i.v.). Groups did not differ on impulsivity or sensation seeking scores. After experimenter-administered cocaine, the CocAb group reported feeling more suspicious and observers rated them significantly higher on unpleasant effects (e.g., irritability, difficulty concentrating). In contrast, the CocDep group reported significantly greater desire for cocaine, which was sustained over the course of the study, and gave higher street value estimates for cocaine (p<0.05). While cocaine self-administration was dose-related and generally comparable across the two procedures, the CocDep users chose to take significantly more cocaine than the CocAb users. These data suggest that, while regular long-term users of cocaine with cocaine abuse or dependence diagnoses cannot be distinguished by trait measures related to impulsivity, they do exhibit significant differences with regard to cocaine-directed behavior and response to cocaine administration. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Protective Effects of Liposomal N-Acetylcysteine against Paraquat-Induced Cytotoxicity and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Mitsopoulos, Panagiotis; Suntres, Zacharias E.

    2011-01-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is a herbicide that preferentially accumulates in the lung and exerts its cytotoxicity via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). There is no specific treatment for paraquat poisoning. Attempts have been made to increase the antioxidant status in the lung using antioxidants (e.g., superoxide dismutase, vitamin E, N-acetylcysteine) but the outcome from such treatments is limited. Encapsulation of antioxidants in liposomes improves their therapeutic potential against oxidant-induced lung damage because liposomes facilitate intracellular delivery and prolong the retention of entrapped agents inside the cell. In the present study, we compared the effectiveness of conventional N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and liposomal-NAC (L-NAC) against PQ-induced cytotoxicity and examined the mechanism(s) by which these antioxidant formulations conferred cytoprotection. The effects of NAC or L-NAC against PQ-induced cytotoxicity in A549 cells were assessed by measuring cellular PQ uptake, intracellular glutathione content, ROS levels, mitochondrial membrane potential, cellular gene expression, inflammatory cytokine release and cell viability. Pretreatment of cells with L-NAC was significantly more effective than pretreatment with the conventional drug in reducing PQ-induced cytotoxicity, as indicated by the biomarkers used in this study. Our results suggested that the delivery of NAC as a liposomal formulation improves its effectiveness in counteracting PQ-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:21584258

  1. Current evidence for the use of N-acetylcysteine following liver resection.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Richard; Mole, Jonathan; Gomez, Dhanny

    2018-06-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has many uses in medicine; notable in the management of paracetamol toxicity, acute liver failure and liver surgery. The aim of this review was to critically appraise the published literature for the routine use of NAC in liver resection surgery. An electronic search was performed of EBSCOhost (Medline and CINAHL database), PubMed and the Cochrane Library for the period 1990-2016. MeSH headings: 'acetyl-cysteine', 'liver resection' and 'hepatectomy' were used to identify all relevant articles published in English. Following the search criteria used, three articles were included. Two of these studies were randomized controlled trials. All the studies collated data on morbidity and mortality. All three studies did not show a significant difference in overall complications rates in patients that underwent hepatic resection that had NAC infusion compared with patients that did not. In one study, NAC administration was associated with a higher frequency of grade A post-hepatectomy liver failure. In another study, a significantly higher incidence of delirium was observed in the NAC group, which led to the trial to be terminated early. The current published data do not support the routine use of NAC following liver resection. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  2. N-acetylcysteine supplementation decreases osteoclast differentiation and increases bone mass in mice fed a high-fat diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies have demonstrated that obesity induced by high-fat diets increases bone resorption, decreases trabecular bone mass, and reduces bone strength in various animal models. This study investigated whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant and a glutathione precursor, alters glutathione statu...

  3. Massive acetaminophen overdose: effect of hemodialysis on acetaminophen and acetylcysteine kinetics.

    PubMed

    Ghannoum, Marc; Kazim, Sara; Grunbaum, Ami M; Villeneuve, Eric; Gosselin, Sophie

    2016-07-01

    Early onset acidosis from mitochondrial toxicity can be observed in massive acetaminophen poisoning prior to the development of hepatotoxicity. In this context, the efficacy of acetylcysteine to reverse mitochondrial toxicity remains unclear and hemodialysis may offer prompt correction of acidosis. Unfortunately, toxicokinetics of acetaminophen and acetylcysteine during extracorporeal treatments hemodialysis have seldom been described. An 18-year-old woman presented to the emergency department 60 minutes after ingestion of 100 g of acetaminophen, and unknown amounts of ibuprofen and ethanol. Initial assessment revealed an agitated patient. Her mental status worsened and she required intubation for airway protection. Investigations showed metabolic acidosis with lactate peaking at 8.6 mmol/L. Liver and coagulation profiles remained normal. Acetaminophen concentration peaked at 981 μg/ml (6496 μmol/L). Pending hemodialysis, the patient received 100 g of activated charcoal and an acetylcysteine infusion at 150 mg/kg over 1 hour, followed by 12.5 mg/kg/h for 4 hours. During hemodialysis, the infusion was maintained at 12.5 mg/kg/h to compensate for expected removal before it was decreased to 6.25 mg/kg for 20 hours after hemodialysis. The patient rapidly improved during hemodialysis and was discharged 48 hours post-admission. The acetaminophen elimination half-life was 5.2 hours prior to hemodialysis, 1.9-hours during hemodialysis and 3.6 hours post hemodialysis. The acetaminophen and acetylcysteine clearances by A-V gradient during hemodialysis were 160.4 ml/min and 190.3 ml/min, respectively. Hemodialysis removed a total of 20.6 g of acetaminophen and 17.9 g of acetylcysteine. This study confirms the high dialyzability of both acetaminophen and acetylcysteine. Hemodialysis appears to be a beneficial therapeutic option in cases of massive acetaminophen ingestion with coma and lactic acidosis. Additionally, these results

  4. The cocaine cutting agent levamisole is frequently detected in cocaine users.

    PubMed

    Pope, Jeffrey D; Drummer, Olaf H; Schneider, Hans G

    2018-06-21

    Cocaine use in Australia is increasing, with approximately 2.5% of the surveyed population having used cocaine. In the USA, levamisole, a widely used anti-helminthic veterinary drug has been increasingly detected as a cutting agent in cocaine seizures. Levamisole is known to cause agranulocytosis in humans. We ascertained the prevalence of levamisole-adulterated cocaine, detectable in the urine from patients that had undergone a pathology request for a urine drug screen. We assayed routinely requested urines that were positive for cocaine on immunoassay with liquid chromatography high resolution quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF). We investigated available urine samples from a period of 2 years that had a positive result for cocaine. In addition, we examined samples that were below the cut-off for cocaine on immunoassay. Specimens were analysed for the presence of levamisole and other 'unknown' drugs. In the period under investigation the laboratory examined 3665 urine samples for cocaine: 1.4% (n = 51) of the samples were positive for cocaine by immunoassay and half of these (n = 26, 51%) were further examined by LC-QToF. In addition, we examined 10 samples that were negative by immunoassay (as defined by AS/NZS 4308:2008). Levamisole was detected in the urine of cocaine users in approximately 75% of cases. Other illicit drugs were also frequently found in this cohort. The most common illicit drugs detected were methamphetamine, ecstasy and cannabis. Australian cocaine is widely adulterated with levamisole. Cocaine users are at risk of levamisole related health problems in addition to the problems related to cocaine. Copyright © 2018 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cocaine-specific Antibodies Blunt the Subjective Effects of Smoked Cocaine in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Haney, Margaret; Gunderson, Erik W.; Jiang, Huiping; Collins, Eric D.; Foltin, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Rates of relapse among cocaine-dependent patients are high, and new treatment approaches are needed. Clinical data demonstrate that a cocaine vaccine (TA-CD: Celtic Pharmaceutical) produces selective anti-cocaine antibodies, yet the impact of these antibodies on cocaine’s direct effects is unknown. The objective of this human laboratory study was to measure the relationship between antibody titers and the effects of smoked cocaine on ratings of intoxication, craving and cardiovascular effects. Methods Ten cocaine-dependent men not seeking drug treatment spent 2 nights per week for 13 weeks inpatient where the effects of cocaine (0, 25, 50 mg) were determined prior to vaccination and at weekly intervals thereafter. Two doses of TA-CD (82 µg, n=4; 360 µg, n=6) were administered at weeks 1, 3, 5 and 9. Results Peak plasma antibody levels, which were highly variable, significantly predicted cocaine’s effects. Those individuals in the upper half of antibody production had an immediate (within 4 minutes of cocaine smoking) and robust (55–81%) reduction in ratings of Good Drug Effect and Cocaine Quality, while those in the lower half showed only a nonsignificant attenuation (6–26%). Self-reported cocaine use while participants were outpatient tended to decrease as a function of antibody titer (p < 0.12). By contrast, higher antibody levels predicted significantly greater cocaine-induced tachycardia. Conclusions The TA-CD vaccine substantially decreased smoked cocaine’s intoxicating effects in those generating sufficient antibody. These data support further testing of cocaine immunotherapy as a treatment for cocaine dependence. PMID:19846066

  6. Limited theraputic effect of n-acetylcysteine on hepatic insulin resistance in an experimental model of alcohol-induced steatohepatitis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alcohol-related steatohepatitis is associated with increased oxidative stress, DNA damage, lipotoxicity, and insulin resistance in liver. Hypothesis: Since inflammation and oxidative stress can promote insulin resistance, effective treatment with anti-oxidants, e.g. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), may rest...

  7. Intravenous N-Acetylcysteine for Prevention of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zikai; Fu, Qiang; Cao, Longxing; Jin, Wen; Cheng, LingLing; Li, Zhiliang

    2013-01-01

    Background Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the common causes of acute renal insufficiency after contrast procedures. Whether intravenous N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is beneficial for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy is uncertain. In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, we aimed to assess the efficacy of intravenous NAC for preventing CIN after administration of intravenous contrast media. Study Design Relevant studies published up to September 2012 that investigated the efficacy of intravenous N-acetylcysteine for preventing CIN were collected from MEDLINE, OVID, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the conference proceedings from major cardiology and nephrology meetings. The primary outcome was CIN. Secondary outcomes included renal failure requiring dialysis, mortality, and length of hospitalization. Data were combined using random-effects models with the performance of standard tests to assess for heterogeneity and publication bias. Meta-regression analyses were also performed. Results Ten trials involving 1916 patients met our inclusion criteria. Trials varied in patient demographic characteristics, inclusion criteria, dosing regimens, and trial quality. The summary risk ratio for contrast-induced nephropathy was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.46 to 1.02), a nonsignificant trend towards benefit in patients treated with intravenous NAC. There was evidence of significant heterogeneity in NAC effect across studies (Q = 17.42, P = 0.04; I2 = 48%). Meta-regression revealed no significant relation between the relative risk of CIN and identified differences in participant or study characteristics. Conclusion This meta-analysis showed that research on intravenous N-acetylcysteine and the incidence of CIN is too inconsistent at present to warrant a conclusion on efficacy. A large, well designed trial that incorporates the evaluation of clinically relevant outcomes in participants with different

  8. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use

    PubMed Central

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Hannigan, John H.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Partridge, Robert T.; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n = 316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use. PMID:20609384

  9. Adverse reactions associated with acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Sandilands, E A; Bateman, D N

    2009-02-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most common agents deliberately ingested in self-poisoning episodes and a leading cause of acute liver failure in the western world. Acetylcysteine is widely acknowledged as the antidote of choice for paracetamol poisoning, but its use is not without risk. Adverse reactions, often leading to treatment delay, are frequently associated with both intravenous and oral acetylcysteine and are a common source of concern among treating physicians. A systematic literature review investigating the incidence, clinical features, and mechanisms of adverse effects associated with acetylcysteine. A variety of adverse reactions to acetylcysteine have been described ranging from nausea to death, most of the latter due to incorrect dosing. The pattern of reactions differs with oral and intravenous dosing, but reported frequency is at least as high with oral as intravenous. The reactions to the intravenous preparation result in similar clinical features to true anaphylaxis, including rash, pruritus, angioedema, bronchospasm, and rarely hypotension, but are caused by nonimmunological mechanisms. The precise nature of this reaction remains unclear. Histamine now seems to be an important mediator of the response, and there is evidence of variability in patient susceptibility, with females, and those with a history of asthma or atopy are particularly susceptible. Quantity of paracetamol ingestion, measured through serum paracetamol concentration, is also important as higher paracetamol concentrations protect patients against anaphylactoid effects. Most anaphylactoid reactions occur at the start of acetylcysteine treatment when concentrations are highest. Acetylcysteine also affects clotting factor activity, and this affects the interpretation of minor disturbances in the International Normalized Ratio in the context of paracetamol overdose. This review discusses the incidence, clinical features, underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, and

  10. Immunopharmacotherapeutic Manifolds and Modulation of Cocaine Overdose

    PubMed Central

    Treweek, Jennifer B.; Roberts, Amanda J.; Janda, Kim D.

    2011-01-01

    Cocaine achieves its psychostimulant, reinforcing properties through selectively blocking dopamine transporters, and this neurobiological mechanism impedes the use of classical receptor-antagonist pharmacotherapies to outcompete cocaine at CNS sites. Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) specific for cocaine circumvents this problem as drug is sequestered in the periphery prior to entry into the brain. To optimize an immunopharmacotherapeutic strategy for reversing severe cocaine toxicity, the therapeutic properties of mAb GNC92H2 IgG were compared to those of its engineered formats in a mouse overdose model. Whereas the extended half-life of an IgG justifies its application to the prophylactic treatment of addiction, the rapid, thorough biodistribution of mAb-based fragments, including F(ab')2, Fab and scFv, may correlate to accelerated scavenging of cocaine and reversal of toxicity. To test this hypothesis, mice were administered the anti-cocaine IgG (180 mg/kg, i.v.) or GNC92H2-based agent after receiving an LD50 cocaine dose (93 mg/kg, i.p.), and the timeline of overdose symptoms was recorded. All formats lowered the rate of lethality despite the >100-fold molar excess of drug to antibody binding capacity. However, only F(ab')2-92H2 and Fab-92H2 significantly attenuated the progression of premorbid behaviors, and Fab-92H2 prevented seizure generation in a percentage of mice. The calculation of serum half-life of each format demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic profile of Fab-92H2 (elimination half-life, t1/2 ∼ 100 minutes) best approximated that of cocaine. These results not only confirm the importance of highly specific and tight drug binding by the mAb, but also highlight the benefit of aligning the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the immunopharmacotherapeutic with the targeted drug. PMID:21356233

  11. Abstinence reverses EEG-indexed attention bias between drug-related and pleasant stimuli in cocaine-addicted individuals

    PubMed Central

    Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Moeller, Scott J.; Malaker, Pias; Sinha, Rajita; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2017-01-01

    Background Increased attention bias toward drug-related cues over non–drug-related intrinsically pleasant reinforcers is a hallmark of drug addiction. In this study we used the late positive potential (LPP) to investigate whether such increased attention bias toward drug-related relative to non–drug-related cues changes over a protracted period of reduced drug use in treatment-seeking individuals with a cocaine use disorder (CUD). Methods Treatment-seeking individuals with CUD and matched healthy controls passively viewed a series of pleasant, neutral and drug-related pictures while their event-related potentials were recorded at baseline (≤ 3 weeks after treatment initiation) and at 6-month follow-up (only CUD). Results We included 19 treatment-seeking individuals with CUD and 18 matched controls in our analyses. The results showed a reversal in attention bias (i.e., LPP amplitude) from baseline (i.e., drug > pleasant) to follow-up (i.e., pleasant > drug) driven by an increased attentional engagement with pleasant pictures; this LPP reversal was paralleled by a concomitant reduction in self-reported wanting and craving for cocaine in the CUD group. Furthermore, reduced attention bias toward drug-related cues (relative to pleasant cues) was correlated with longer duration of abstinence at baseline, and the extent of its longitudinal reversal was correlated with decreased craving at follow-up, providing support for abstinence as a putative mechanism of this bottom–up attentional change. Limitations A limited sample size and the use of the same set of pictures at baseline and follow-up were the major limitations of this study. Conclusion Results collectively indicate that, by tracking with drug abstinence, LPP in response to drug-related relative to pleasant cues may serve as an indicator of clinical progress in treatment-seeking individuals with CUD. PMID:28245173

  12. Abstinence reverses EEG-indexed attention bias between drug-related and pleasant stimuli in cocaine-addicted individuals.

    PubMed

    Parvaz, Muhammad A; Moeller, Scott J; Malaker, Pias; Sinha, Rajita; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2017-03-01

    Increased attention bias toward drug-related cues over non-drug-related intrinsically pleasant reinforcers is a hallmark of drug addiction. In this study we used the late positive potential (LPP) to investigate whether such increased attention bias toward drug-related relative to non-drug-related cues changes over a protracted period of reduced drug use in treatment-seeking individuals with a cocaine use disorder (CUD). Treatment-seeking individuals with CUD and matched healthy controls passively viewed a series of pleasant, neutral and drug-related pictures while their event-related potentials were recorded at baseline (≤ 3 weeks after treatment initiation) and at 6-month follow-up (only CUD). We included 19 treatment-seeking individuals with CUD and 18 matched controls in our analyses. The results showed a reversal in attention bias (i.e., LPP amplitude) from baseline (i.e., drug > pleasant) to follow-up (i.e., pleasant > drug) driven by an increased attentional engagement with pleasant pictures; this LPP reversal was paralleled by a concomitant reduction in self-reported wanting and craving for cocaine in the CUD group. Furthermore, reduced attention bias toward drug-related cues (relative to pleasant cues) was correlated with longer duration of abstinence at baseline, and the extent of its longitudinal reversal was correlated with decreased craving at follow-up, providing support for abstinence as a putative mechanism of this bottom-up attentional change. A limited sample size and the use of the same set of pictures at baseline and follow-up were the major limitations of this study. Results collectively indicate that, by tracking with drug abstinence, LPP in response to drug-related relative to pleasant cues may serve as an indicator of clinical progress in treatment-seeking individuals with CUD.

  13. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use.

    PubMed

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M; Hannigan, John H; Greenwald, Mark K; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A; Partridge, Robert T; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n=316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Improvement of hepatic microhemodynamics by N-acetylcysteine after warm ischemia.

    PubMed

    Koeppel, T A; Thies, J C; Lehmann, T; Gebhard, M M; Herfarth, C; Otto, G; Post, S

    1996-01-01

    In this study we investigated the influence of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the hepatic microcirculation after warm ischemia by intravital fluorescence microscopy. Clamping of the left liver lobe was performed in 20 male Wistar rats for 70 min. The treatment group (n = 10) received 400 mg NAC/kg body weight 20 min prior to clamping. After reperfusion, acinar and sinusoidal perfusions were observed as well as the leukocyte-endothelium interaction. Phagocytic activity was assessed after application of latex beads. NAC reduced the number of nonperfused sinusoids in all acinar zones. A reduction in zone 1 (portal) was achieved from 15.5 to 7.1% (p < 0.0001), in zone 2 (midzonal) from 14.6 to 6.1% (p < 0.0001) and in zone 3 (central) from 11.9 to 2.9% (p < 0.0001). There were no significant differences in leukocyte adherence as well as in phagocytic activity detectable. We conclude that NAC improves hepatic microcirculation after warm ischemia by increasing sinusoidal blood flow.

  15. N-acetylcysteine does not influence the activity of endothelium-derived relaxing factor in vivo.

    PubMed

    Creager, M A; Roddy, M A; Boles, K; Stamler, J S

    1997-02-01

    Nitric oxide forms complexes with an array of biomolecular carriers that retain biological activity. This reactivity of nitric oxide in physiological systems has led to some dispute as to whether endothelium-derived relaxing factors nitric oxide or a closely related adduct thereof, such as a nitrosothiol. In vitro bioassays used to address this question are limited by the exclusion of biological thiols that are requisite for nitrosothiol formation. Thus, the purpose of this study was to obtain insight into the identity of endothelium-derived relaxing factor in vivo. We reasoned that if endothelium-derived relaxing factor in nitric oxide, infusion of physiological concentrations of thiol would potentiate its bioactivity by analogy with effects seen in vitro, whereas nitrosothiol would be resistant to such modulation. We used venous-occlusion plethysmography to study forearm blood flow in normal subjects. Methacholine (0.3 to 10 micrograms/min) and nitroglycerin (1 to 30 micrograms/min) were infused via the brachial artery to elicit endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation, respectively. Dose-response determinations were made for each drug before and after an intra-arterial infusion of the reduced thiol, N-acetylcysteine, at rates estimated to achieve a physiological concentration of 1 mmol/L. Methacholine increased forearm blood flow in a dose-dependent manner. Infusion of N-acetylcysteine did not change the sensitivity (ED50, 1.7 versus 1.7 micrograms/min, P = NS) or maximal response to methacholine. In contrast, thiol increased the sensitivity to nitroglycerin (ED50, 4.7 versus 2.8 micrograms/min, P < .01). Thus, conflicting with reports in vitro, thiol does not modulate endothelium-derived relaxing factor responses in vivo. These data indicate that sulfhydryl groups are not a limiting factor for endothelium-derived relaxing factor responses in forearm resistance vessels in normal humans and are in keeping with reports that nitrosothiol

  16. Pharmacokinetic modelling of modified acetylcysteine infusion regimens used in the treatment of paracetamol poisoning.

    PubMed

    Wong, Anselm; Landersdorfer, Cornelia; Graudins, Andis

    2017-09-01

    Paracetamol overdose is common and is treated with acetylcysteine to prevent the development of hepatotoxicity. N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) is the toxic metabolite of paracetamol overdose. We aimed to assess the expected acetylcysteine concentration time profiles following delivery of modified acetylcysteine regimens proposed for those at high and low risk of hepatotoxicity. In addition, we will determine acetylcysteine concentrations post-cessation of abbreviated infusions. We performed pharmacokinetic simulations using Berkeley Madonna (version 8.3.23.0) comparing the time course of acetylcysteine concentration during and after the cessation of an abbreviated 12-h regimen (250 mg/kg) using a two-bag infusion and compared this to the standard 21-h three-bag (300 mg/kg) regimen. We also simulated extended duration acetylcysteine regimens and other increased dosing strategies that have been recommended in specific paracetamol poisoning scenarios. A more sustained serum concentration is achieved when the acetylcysteine loading dose is delivered over 4 h using the two-bag compared to the 1-h loading dose of the three-bag regimen. When administering an abbreviated 12-h acetylcysteine regimen, circulating acetylcysteine is detectable for 8 h after cessation of the infusion. This may provide a continued hepatoprotective effect if NAPQI is still being generated after the infusion is ceased. This pharmacokinetic simulation study is an important step in determining plasma acetylcysteine concentrations that are likely to be achieved using various modified treatment regimens. Importantly, for patients at low risk of liver injury after acute overdose, acetylcysteine is likely to be detectable many hours post-cessation of a 12-h regimen. This should provide a safety factor against development of hepatotoxicity for any ongoing paracetamol metabolism after cessation of the acetylcysteine infusion.

  17. N-Acetylcysteine in the Treatment of Pediatric Trichotillomania: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Add-On Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Grant, Jon E.; Pittenger, Christopher; Leckman, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for the treatment of pediatric trichotillomania (TTM) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, add-on study. Method: A total of 39 children and adolescents aged 8 to 17 years with pediatric trichotillomania were randomly assigned to receive NAC or matching placebo for 12 weeks. Our primary…

  18. Effects of chronic varenicline treatment on nicotine, cocaine, and concurrent nicotine+cocaine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Mello, Nancy K; Fivel, Peter A; Kohut, Stephen J; Carroll, F Ivy

    2014-04-01

    Nicotine dependence and cocaine abuse are major public health problems, and most cocaine abusers also smoke cigarettes. An ideal treatment medication would reduce both cigarette smoking and cocaine abuse. Varenicline is a clinically available, partial agonist at α4β2* and α6β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and a full agonist at α7 nAChRs. Varenicline facilitates smoking cessation in clinical studies and reduced nicotine self-administration, and substituted for the nicotine-discriminative stimulus in preclinical studies. The present study examined the effects of chronic varenicline treatment on self-administration of IV nicotine, IV cocaine, IV nicotine+cocaine combinations, and concurrent food-maintained responding by five cocaine- and nicotine-experienced adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Varenicline (0.004-0.04 mg/kg/h) was administered intravenously every 20 min for 23 h each day for 7-10 consecutive days. Each varenicline treatment was followed by saline-control treatment until food- and drug-maintained responding returned to baseline. During control treatment, nicotine+cocaine combinations maintained significantly higher levels of drug self-administration than nicotine or cocaine alone (P<0.05-0.001). Varenicline dose-dependently reduced responding maintained by nicotine alone (0.0032 mg/kg/inj) (P<0.05), and in combination with cocaine (0.0032 mg/kg/inj) (P<0.05) with no significant effects on food-maintained responding. However, varenicline did not significantly decrease self-administration of a low dose of nicotine (0.001 mg/kg), cocaine alone (0.0032 and 0.01 mg/kg/inj), or 0.01 mg/kg cocaine combined with the same doses of nicotine. We conclude that varenicline selectively attenuates the reinforcing effects of nicotine alone but not cocaine alone, and its effects on nicotine+cocaine combinations are dependent on the dose of cocaine.

  19. Effects of Chronic Varenicline Treatment on Nicotine, Cocaine, and Concurrent Nicotine+Cocaine Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Nancy K; Fivel, Peter A; Kohut, Stephen J; Carroll, F Ivy

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine dependence and cocaine abuse are major public health problems, and most cocaine abusers also smoke cigarettes. An ideal treatment medication would reduce both cigarette smoking and cocaine abuse. Varenicline is a clinically available, partial agonist at α4β2* and α6β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and a full agonist at α7 nAChRs. Varenicline facilitates smoking cessation in clinical studies and reduced nicotine self-administration, and substituted for the nicotine-discriminative stimulus in preclinical studies. The present study examined the effects of chronic varenicline treatment on self-administration of IV nicotine, IV cocaine, IV nicotine+cocaine combinations, and concurrent food-maintained responding by five cocaine- and nicotine-experienced adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Varenicline (0.004–0.04 mg/kg/h) was administered intravenously every 20 min for 23 h each day for 7–10 consecutive days. Each varenicline treatment was followed by saline-control treatment until food- and drug-maintained responding returned to baseline. During control treatment, nicotine+cocaine combinations maintained significantly higher levels of drug self-administration than nicotine or cocaine alone (P<0.05–0.001). Varenicline dose-dependently reduced responding maintained by nicotine alone (0.0032 mg/kg/inj) (P<0.05), and in combination with cocaine (0.0032 mg/kg/inj) (P<0.05) with no significant effects on food-maintained responding. However, varenicline did not significantly decrease self-administration of a low dose of nicotine (0.001 mg/kg), cocaine alone (0.0032 and 0.01 mg/kg/inj), or 0.01 mg/kg cocaine combined with the same doses of nicotine. We conclude that varenicline selectively attenuates the reinforcing effects of nicotine alone but not cocaine alone, and its effects on nicotine+cocaine combinations are dependent on the dose of cocaine. PMID:24304823

  20. Experimental and clinical evidence for modification of hepatic ischaemia–reperfusion injury by N-acetylcysteine during major liver surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jegatheeswaran, Santhalingam; Siriwardena, Ajith K

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatic ischaemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury occurs in both liver resectional surgery and in transplantation. The biochemistry of I/R injury involves short-lived oxygen free radicals. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a thiol-containing synthetic compound used in the treatment of acetaminophen toxicity. The present study is a detailed overview of the experimental and clinical evidence for the use of NAC as a pharmaco-protection agent in patients undergoing major liver surgery or transplantation. Methods A computerized search of the Medline, Embase and SCI databases for the period from 1st January 1988 to 31st December 2008 produced 40 reports. For clinical studies, the quality of reports was assessed according to the criteria reported by the Cochrane communication review group. Results Nineteen studies evaluated NAC in experimental liver I/R injury. NAC was administered before induction of ischaemia in 13. The most widely used concentration was 150 mg/kg by intravenous bolus. Fifteen studies report an improvement in outcome, predominantly a reduction in transaminase. Seven studies used an isolated perfused liver model with all showing improvement (predominantly an improvement in bile production after N-acetylcysteine). Two out of four transplantation models showed an improvement in hepatic function. Clinical studies in transplantation show a modest improvement in transaminase levels with no beneficial effect on either patient or graft survival. Conclusion N-acetylcysteine, given before induction of a liver I/R injury in an experimental model can ameliorate liver injury. Clinical outcome data are limited and there is currently little evidence to justify use either in liver transplantation or in liver resectional surgery. PMID:21241423

  1. N-acetylcysteine modulates glutamatergic dysfunction and depressive behavior in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Wright, Dean J; Gray, Laura J; Finkelstein, David I; Crouch, Peter J; Pow, David; Pang, Terence Y; Li, Shanshan; Smith, Zoe M; Francis, Paul S; Renoir, Thibault; Hannan, Anthony J

    2016-07-15

    Glutamatergic dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of depressive disorders and Huntington's disease (HD), in which depression is the most common psychiatric symptom. Synaptic glutamate homeostasis is regulated by cystine-dependent glutamate transporters, including GLT-1 and system x c - In HD, the enzyme regulating cysteine (and subsequently cystine) production, cystathionine-γ-lygase, has recently been shown to be lowered. The aim of the present study was to establish whether cysteine supplementation, using N-acetylcysteine (NAC) could ameliorate glutamate pathology through the cystine-dependent transporters, system x c - and GLT-1. We demonstrate that the R6/1 transgenic mouse model of HD has lower basal levels of cystine, and showed depressive-like behaviors in the forced-swim test. Administration of NAC reversed these behaviors. This effect was blocked by co-administration of the system x c - and GLT-1 inhibitors CPG and DHK, showing that glutamate transporter activity was required for the antidepressant effects of NAC. NAC was also able to specifically increase glutamate in HD mice, in a glutamate transporter-dependent manner. These in vivo changes reflect changes in glutamate transporter protein in HD mice and human HD post-mortem tissue. Furthermore, NAC was able to rescue changes in key glutamate receptor proteins related to excitotoxicity in HD, including NMDAR2B. Thus, we have shown that baseline reductions in cysteine underlie glutamatergic dysfunction and depressive-like behavior in HD and these changes can be rescued by treatment with NAC. These findings have implications for the development of new therapeutic approaches for depressive disorders. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. A Critical Role for Protein Degradation in the Nucleus Accumbens Core in Cocaine Reward Memory

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Meng-Meng; Xue, Yan-Xue; Ding, Zeng-Bo; Xue, Li-Fen; Zhai, Suo-Di; Lu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    The intense associative memories that develop between cocaine-paired contexts and rewarding stimuli contribute to cocaine seeking and relapse. Previous studies have shown impairment in cocaine reward memories by manipulating a labile state induced by memory retrieval, but the mechanisms that underlie the destabilization of cocaine reward memory are unknown. In this study, using a Pavlovian cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure in rats, we tested the contribution of ubiquitin-proteasome system-dependent protein degradation in destabilization of cocaine reward memory. First, we found that polyubiquitinated protein expression levels and polyubiquitinated N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion (NSF) markedly increased 15 min after retrieval while NSF protein levels decreased 1 h after retrieval in the synaptosomal membrane fraction in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core. We then found that infusion of the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin into the NAc core prevented the impairment of memory reconsolidation induced by the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin and reversed the effects of anisomycin on NSF and glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) protein levels in the synaptosomal membrane fraction in the NAc core. We also found that lactacystin infusion into the NAc core but not into the shell immediately after extinction training sessions inhibited CPP extinction and reversed the extinction training-induced decrease in NSF and GluR2 in the synaptosomal membrane fraction in the NAc core. Finally, infusions of lactacystin by itself into the NAc core immediately after each training session or before the CPP retrieval test had no effect on the consolidation and retrieval of cocaine reward memory. These findings suggest that ubiquitin-proteasome system-dependent protein degradation is critical for retrieval-induced memory destabilization. PMID:23303053

  3. N-acetylcysteine for major depressive episodes in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Pedro V; Dean, Olívia M; Bush, Ashley I; Copolov, David L; Malhi, Gin S; Kohlmann, Kristy; Jeavons, Susan; Schapkaitz, Ian; Anderson-Hunt, Murray; Berk, Michael

    2011-12-01

    In this report, we aimed to evaluate the effect of add-on N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on depressive symptoms and functional outcomes in bipolar disorder. To that end, we conducted a secondary analysis of all patients meeting full criteria for a depressive episode in a placebo controlled trial of adjunctive NAC for bipolar disorder. Twenty-four week randomised clinical trial comparing adjunctive NAC and placebo in individuals with bipolar disorder experiencing major depressive episodes. Symptomatic and functional outcome data were collected over the study period. Seventeen participants were available for this report. Very large effect sizes in favor of NAC were found for depressive symptoms and functional outcomes at endpoint. Eight of the ten participants on NAC had a treatment response at endpoint; the same was true for only one of the seven participants allocated to placebo. These results indicate that adjunctive NAC may be useful for major depressive episodes in bipolar disorder. Further studies designed to confirm this hypothesis are necessary.

  4. [Effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Nobumi; Miyamoto, Seiya

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation have recently been focused on the pathological hypotheses of schizophrenia. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a precursor of endogenous antioxidant glutathione and has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. NAC is widely available as an over-the-counter nutritional supplement. Increasing lines of evidence suggest that NAC is effective for various mental disorders. In randomized controlled trials, treatment with NAC as an add-on to antipsychotics showed beneficial effects and safety profiles in patients with chronic schizophrenia. The results of a recent preclinical study using a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia suggest that NAC may have promising effects in an early stage of schizophrenia and an at-risk mental state. However, there is little clinical evidence for the efficacy and safety of NAC at these stages of schizophrenia. In this review, we summarize the evidence regarding the effectiveness of NAC for the treatment of schizophrenia and its prodromal stage. We also introduce the preliminary results of our research on NAC.

  5. N-ACETYLCYSTEINE REDUCES DISEASE ACTIVITY BY BLOCKING MTOR IN T CELLS OF LUPUS PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Zhi-Wei; Hanczko, Robert; Bonilla, Eduardo; Caza, Tiffany N.; Clair, Brandon; Bartos, Adam; Miklossy, Gabriella; Jimah, John; Doherty, Edward; Tily, Hajra; Francis, Lisa; Garcia, Ricardo; Dawood, Maha; Yu, Jianghong; Ramos, Irene; Coman, Ioana; Faraone, Stephen V.; Phillips, Paul E.; Perl, Andras

    2012-01-01

    Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients exhibit T-cell dysfunction which can be regulated through the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) by glutathione. Therefore, the safety, tolerance, and efficacy of glutathione-precursor N-acetylcysteine (NAC) were examined in this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Methods 36 SLE patients received daily placebo or 1.2 g, 2.4 g or 4.8 g of NAC. Disease activity was monthly evaluated by BILAG, SLEDAI and fatigue assessment scale (FAS) before, during, and after 3-month treatment. Δψm and mTOR were assessed by flow cytometry. 42 healthy subjects matched for patients’ age, gender, and ethnicity were studied as controls. Results NAC was tolerated by all patients up to 2.4 g/day while 33% of those receiving 4.8 g/day had reversible nausea. Placebo or 1.2 g/day NAC did not influence disease activity. Considered together, 2.4 g and 4.8 g NAC reduced: 1) SLEDAI after 1 month (p=0.0007), 2 months (p=0.0009), 3 months (p=0.0030) and 4 months (p=0.0046); 2) BILAG after 1 month (p=0.029) and 3 months (p=0.0009); and 3) FAS after 2 months (p=0.002) and 3 months (p=0.004). NAC increased Δψm (p=0.0001) in all T cells, it profoundly reduced mTOR activity (p=0.0001), enhanced apoptosis (p=0.0004) and reversed expansion of CD4−/CD8− T cells (1.35 ± 0.12-fold; p=0.008), stimulated Foxp3 expression in CD4+/CD25+ T cells (p=0.045), and reduced anti-DNA production (p=0.049). Conclusions This pilot study suggests that NAC safely improves lupus disease activity by blocking mTOR in T lymphocytes. PMID:22549432

  6. N-acetylcysteine for neuropsychiatric symptoms in a woman with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pineiro, Mildred Lopez; Roberts, Antoinette M; Waxler, Jessica L; Mullett, Jennifer E; Pober, Barbara R; McDougle, Christopher J

    2014-11-01

    Williams syndrome is a relatively rare genetic disorder caused by the hemizygous microdeletion of a region in chromosome 7q11.23. Individuals with Williams syndrome typically present with a highly social, overfriendly, and empathic personality. Comorbid medical and neuropsychiatric disorders are common. Reports of effective pharmacological treatment of associated neuropsychiatric disorders are limited. The authors describe the successful treatment of interfering anger, aggression, and hair-pulling with N-acetylcysteine in a 19-year-old woman with Williams syndrome. The neuropsychiatric symptoms emerged 1 week following an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, for which fentanyl, midazolam, and propofol were used as anesthetics. The patient's treatment course and hypothesized mechanisms underlying the clinical presentation and symptom resolution are described. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Evidence for the changing regimens of acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Chiew, Angela L; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Duffull, Stephen B; Buckley, Nicholas A

    2016-03-01

    Paracetamol overdose prior to the introduction of acetylcysteine was associated with significant morbidity. Acetylcysteine is now the mainstay of treatment for paracetamol poisoning and has effectively reduced rates of hepatotoxicity and death. The current three-bag intravenous regimen with an initial high loading dose was empirically derived four decades ago and has not changed since. This regimen is associated with a high rate of adverse effects due mainly to the high initial peak acetylcysteine concentration. Furthermore, there are concerns that the acetylcysteine concentration is not adequate for 'massive' overdoses and that the dose and duration may need to be altered. Various novel regimens have been proposed, looking to address these issues. Many of these modified regimens aim to decrease the rate of adverse reactions by slowing the loading dose and thereby decrease the peak concentration. We used a published population pharmacokinetic model of acetylcysteine to simulate these modified regimens. We determined mean peak and 20 h acetylcysteine concentrations and area under the under the plasma concentration-time curve to compare these regimens. Those regimens that resulted in a lower peak acetylcysteine concentration have been shown in studies to have a lower rate of adverse events. However, these studies were too small to show whether they are as effective as the traditional regimen. Further research is still needed to determine the optimum dose and duration of acetylcysteine that results in the fewest side-effects and treatment failures. Indeed, a more patient-tailored approach might be required, whereby the dose and duration are altered depending on the paracetamol dose ingested or paracetamol concentrations. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Beneficial Effects of N-acetylcysteine and N-mercaptopropionylglycine on Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in the Heart.

    PubMed

    Bartekova, Monika; Barancik, Miroslav; Ferenczyova, Kristina; Dhalla, Naranjan S

    2018-01-30

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury of the heart as a consequence of myocardial infarction or cardiac surgery represents a serious clinical problem. One of the most prominent mechanisms of I/R injury is the development of oxidative stress in the heart. In this regard, I/R has been shown to enhance the production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species in the heart which lead to the imbalance between the pro-oxidants and antioxidant capacities of the endogenous radical-scavenging systems. Increasing the antioxidant capacity of the heart by the administration of exogenous antioxidants is considered beneficial for the heart exposed to I/R. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and Nmercaptopropionylglycine (MPG) are two sulphur containing amino acid substances, which belong to the broad category of exogenous antioxidants that have been tested for their protective potential in cardiac I/R injury. Pretreatment of hearts with both NAC and MPG has demonstrated that these agents attenuate the I/R-induced alterations in sarcolemma, sarcoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and myofibrils in addition to improving cardiac function. While experimental studies have revealed promising data suggesting beneficial effects of NAC and MPG in cardiac I/R injury, the results of clinical trials are not conclusive because both positive and no effects of these substances have been reported on the post-ischemic recovery of heart following cardiac surgery or myocardial infarction. It is concluded that both NAC and MPG exert beneficial effects in preventing the I/Rinduced injury; however, further studies are needed to establish their effectiveness in reversing the I/R-induced abnormalities in the heart. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Cocaine inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors influences dopamine release

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Rodriguez, Alexandra; Zhang, Lifen; Zhou, Fuwen; Gong, Suzhen; Gu, Howard; De Biasi, Mariella; Zhou, Fu-Ming; Dani, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) potently regulate dopamine (DA) release in the striatum and alter cocaine's ability to reinforce behaviors. Since cocaine is a weak nAChR inhibitor, we hypothesized that cocaine may alter DA release by inhibiting the nAChRs in DA terminals in the striatum and thus contribute to cocaine's reinforcing properties primarily associated with the inhibition of DA transporters. We found that biologically relevant concentrations of cocaine can mildly inhibit nAChR-mediated currents in midbrain DA neurons and consequently alter DA release in the dorsal and ventral striatum. At very high concentrations, cocaine also inhibits voltage-gated Na channels in DA neurons. Furthermore, our results show that partial inhibition of nAChRs by cocaine reduces evoked DA release. This diminution of DA release via nAChR inhibition more strongly influences release evoked at low or tonic stimulation frequencies than at higher (phasic) stimulation frequencies, particularly in the dorsolateral striatum. This cocaine-induced shift favoring phasic DA release may contribute to the enhanced saliency and motivational value of cocaine-associated memories and behaviors. PMID:25237305

  10. Antiinflammatory Effect of N-Acetylcysteine Combined with Exogenous Surfactant in Meconium-Induced Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Mikolka, P; Kopincova, J; Mikusiakova, L Tomcikova; Kosutova, P; Calkovska, A; Mokra, D

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) can be treated by exogenous surfactant (S). However, aspirated meconium initiates local inflammation and oxidation which may inactivate surfactant and reduce its action. This experimental study estimated whether combined use of surfactant and the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) can enhance effectiveness of therapy. Meconium-instilled rabbits were non-treated (M), treated with monotherapies (M + S, M + NAC), combined therapy (M + S + NAC), or received saline instead of meconium (controls, C). Surfactant therapy consisted of two lung lavages (BAL) with diluted Curosurf (5 mg phospholipids/ml, 10 ml/kg) followed by undiluted Curosurf (100 mg phospholipids/kg). N-acetylcysteine (Acc Injekt, 10 mg/kg) was given intravenously in M + S + NAC group 10 min after surfactant therapy. Animals were oxygen-ventilated for additional 5 h. Then, differential white cell count in the blood (WBC) was determined. Left lung was saline-lavaged and differential cell count in BAL was determined. In right lung tissue, wet/dry weight ratio, oxidation markers (TBARS, 3NT) and interleukines (IL-2, IL-6, IL-13, and TNFα) using ELISA and RT-PCR were estimated. Combined S + NAC therapy significantly decreased W/D ratio, TBARS, 3NT, and IL, whereas the effect of monotherapies (either S or NAC) was less obvious. In conclusion, addition of NAC to surfactant treatment may enhance the therapeutic outcome in MAS.

  11. Potentiation of chemotherapeutics by bromelain and N-acetylcysteine: sequential and combination therapy of gastrointestinal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Afshin; Masoumi-Moghaddam, Samar; Ehteda, Anahid; Liauw, Winston; Morris, David Lawson

    2016-01-01

    Intraperitoneal chemotherapy together with cytoreductive surgery is the standard of care for a number of peritoneal surface malignancies. However, this approach fails to maintain the complete response and disease recurs due to microscopic residual disease. Although safer than systemic chemotherapy regimens, locoregional treatment with chemotherapeutics can induce toxicity which is a major concern affecting the patient’s treatment protocol and outcome. For an enhanced treatment efficacy, efforts should be made to maximize cytotoxic effects of chemotherapeutic agents on tumor cells while minimizing their toxic effects on host cells. Bromelain and N-acetylcysteine are two natural agents with good safety profiles shown to have anti-cancer effects. However, their interaction with chemotherapeutics is unknown. In this study, we investigated if these agents have the potential to sensitize in vitro gastrointestinal cancer models to cisplatin, paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil, and vincristine. The drug-drug interaction was also analyzed. Our findings suggest that combination of bromelain and N-acetylcysteine with chemotherapeutic agents could give rise to an improved chemotherapeutic index in therapeutic approaches to peritoneal surface malignancies of gastrointestinal origin so that maximum benefits could result from less toxic and more patient-friendly doses. This represents a potentially efficacious strategy for the enhancement of microscopic cytoreduction and is a promising area for future research. PMID:27186409

  12. Dopamine D3 receptor antagonism inhibits cocaine-seeking and cocaine-enhanced brain reward in rats.

    PubMed

    Vorel, Stanislav R; Ashby, Charles R; Paul, Mousumi; Liu, Xinhe; Hayes, Robert; Hagan, Jim J; Middlemiss, Derek N; Stemp, Geoffrey; Gardner, Eliot L

    2002-11-01

    dopamine D3 receptor is preferentially localized to the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system and has been hypothesized to play a role in cocaine addiction. To study the involvement of the D3 receptor in brain mechanisms and behaviors commonly assumed to be involved in the addicting properties of cocaine, the potent and selective D3 receptor antagonist trans-N-[4-[2-(6-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-yl)ethyl] cyclohexyl]-4-quinolininecarboxamide (SB-277011-A) was administered to laboratory rats, and the following measures were assessed: (1) cocaine-enhanced electrical brain-stimulation reward, (2) cocaine-induced conditioned place preference, and (3) cocaine-triggered reinstatement of cocaine seeking behavior. Systemic injections of SB-277011-A were found to (1) block enhancement of electrical brain stimulation reward by cocaine, (2) dose-dependently attenuate cocaine-induced conditioned place preference, and (3) dose-dependently attenuate cocaine-triggered reinstatement of cocaine seeking behavior. Thus, D3 receptor blockade attenuates both the rewarding effects of cocaine and cocaine-induced drug-seeking behavior. These data suggest an important role for D3 receptors in mediating the addictive properties of cocaine and suggest that blockade of dopamine D3 receptors may constitute a new and useful target for prospective pharmacotherapies for cocaine addiction.

  13. C57BL/6N mutation in Cytoplasmic FMR interacting protein 2 regulates cocaine response

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vivek; Kim, Kyungin; Joseph, Chryshanthi; Kourrich, Saïd; Yoo, Seung Hee; Huang, Hung Chung; Vitaterna, Martha H.; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel; Churchill, Gary; Bonci, Antonello; Takahashi, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    The inbred mouse C57BL/6J is the reference strain for genome sequence and for most behavioral and physiological phenotypes. However the International Knockout Mouse Consortium uses an embryonic stem cell line derived from a related C57BL/6N substrain. We found that C57BL/6N has lower acute and sensitized response to cocaine and methamphetamine. We mapped a single causative locus and identified a non-synonymous mutation of serine to phenylalanine (S968F) in Cytoplasmic FMR interacting protein 2 (Cyfip2) as the causative variant. The S968F mutation destabilizes CYFIP2 and deletion of the C57BL/6N mutant allele leads to acute and sensitized cocaine response phenotypes. We propose CYFIP2 is a key regulator of cocaine response in mammals and present a framework to utilize mouse substrains to discover novel genes and alleles regulating behavior. PMID:24357318

  14. The Ability of Bacterial Cocaine Esterase to Hydrolyze Cocaine Metabolites and Their Simultaneous Quantification Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Brim, Remy L.; Noon, Kathleen R.; Collins, Gregory T.; Nichols, Joseph; Narasimhan, Diwahar; Sunahara, Roger K.

    2011-01-01

    Cocaine toxicity is a widespread problem in the United States, responsible for more than 500,000 emergency department visits a year. There is currently no U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapy to directly treat cocaine toxicity. To this end, we have developed a mutant bacterial cocaine esterase (DM-CocE), which has been previously shown to rapidly hydrolyze cocaine into inert metabolites, preventing and reversing toxicity with limited immunogenic potential. Herein we describe the ability of DM-CocE to hydrolyze the active cocaine metabolites norcocaine and cocaethylene and its inability to hydrolyze benzoylecgonine. DM-CocE hydrolyzes norcocaine and cocaethylene with 58 and 45% of its catalytic efficiency for cocaine in vitro as measured by a spectrophotometric assay. We have developed a mass spectrometry method to simultaneously detect cocaine, benzoylecgonine, norcocaine, and ecgonine methyl ester to quantify the effect of DM-CocE on normal cocaine metabolism in vivo. DM-CocE administered to rats 10 min after a convulsant dose of cocaine alters the normal metabolism of cocaine, rapidly decreasing circulating levels of cocaine and norcocaine while increasing ecgonine methyl ester formation. Benzoylecgonine was not hydrolyzed in vivo, but circulating concentrations were reduced, suggesting that DM-CocE may bind and sequester this metabolite. These findings suggest that DM-CocE may reduce cocaine toxicity by eliminating active and toxic metabolites along with the parent cocaine molecule. PMID:21885621

  15. Surgically Induced Necrotizing Scleritis Following Strabismus Surgery Treated Successfully with Topical N-acetylcysteine in a Child with Congenital Fibrosis of Extraocular Muscles and Varadi Papp Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Muralidhar; Nagasubramanian, Vidhya; Ayyavoo, Ahila; Raghupathy, Palany; Dandapani, Ramamurthy

    2017-03-01

    Surgically induced necrotizing scleritis (SINS) is a rare but serious disorder that can develop many years after strabismus surgery. It is generally treated with high-dose steroids or immunosuppression. We describe a patient with Varadi Papp syndrome and congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles, who developed surgically induced necrotizing scleritis a month after strabismus surgery and was successfully managed by oral vitamin C and topical N-acetylcysteine 10%. While SINS is conventionally treated with steroids/immunosuppression, a conservative approach may be tried in milder cases. The role of topical N-acetylcysteine in managing this complication needs to be explored.

  16. Premedication with simethicone and N-acetylcysteine in improving visibility during upper endoscopy: a double-blind randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Elvas, Luís; Areia, Miguel; Brito, Daniel; Alves, Susana; Saraiva, Sandra; Cadime, Ana T

    2017-02-01

    Background and study aim  Upper endoscopy is the most common method for the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal tract diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether premedication with simethicone or N -acetylcysteine improves mucosal visualization during upper endoscopy. Patients and methods  This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 297 patients scheduled for upper endoscopy who were premedicated 15 - 30 minutes before the procedure with: 100 mL of water (placebo, group A); water plus 100 mg simethicone (group B); water plus 100 mg simethicone plus 600 mg N -acetylcysteine (group C). The primary outcome measure was the quality of mucosal visualization (score: excellent, adequate or inadequate). Results  The addition of simethicone (group B) or simethicone plus N -acetylcysteine to the water (group C) improved the visualization scores of endoscopies compared with water alone (group A). In particular, groups B and C produced a significantly higher percentage of endoscopies with excellent visualization for the esophagus (91.1 % and 86.7 %, respectively, vs. 71.4 % in group A; P  < 0.001) and stomach (76.2 % and 74.5 % vs. 38.8 % in group A; P  < 0.001). For the duodenum, the use of simethicone also showed an increase in the endoscopies with excellent visualization compared with water alone (85.1 % vs. 73.5 %; P  = 0.042). There were no significant differences in scores between groups B and C or between gastric scores in patients with previous subtotal gastrectomy (B and C vs. A): 60.0 % and 42.1 % vs. 28.6 % ( P  = 0.14). The rate of reported lesions was higher in group B but without statistical significance. Conclusions  Premedication with simethicone resulted in better mucosal visibility. Such premedication might improve diagnostic yield, and should be considered for standard practice. Trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02357303). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart

  17. Reinstatement in a Cocaine vs. Food Choice Situation: Reversal of Preference between Drug and Non-Drug Rewards

    PubMed Central

    Tunstall, Brendan J.; Kearns, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies (for review see Ahmed, 2010; 2012) show that when given a mutually exclusive choice between cocaine and food, rats almost exclusively choose food. The present experiment investigated potential shifts in preference between levers associated with either food or cocaine which might occur during extinction (food and cocaine no longer available) and during footshock-induced, cocaine-primed, and food-primed reinstatement. During self-administration sessions where food and cocaine were simultaneously available, rats demonstrated a stable food preference, choosing food over cocaine on 83% of trials. During extinction when neither reinforcer was available, no preference between levers was evident and responding decreased until rats responded on the previously food- and cocaine-associated levers at equally low rates. Footshock resulted in a non-specific reinstatement of responding upon both levers, while cocaine priming resulted in a significant preference for cocaine seeking over food seeking. This suggests that the mechanism underlying footshock-induced reinstatement is distinct from that of cocaine-primed reinstatement. Food priming engendered a mild, non-specific increase in responding on both levers. Although rats generally prefer food over cocaine when presented with a choice between these primary reinforcers, the present results suggest that in certain situations cocaine-seeking behavior prevails over food-seeking behavior. PMID:23551949

  18. Antiatherogenic effects of S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine in hypercholesterolemic LDL receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Krieger, M H; Santos, K F R; Shishido, S M; Wanschel, A C B A; Estrela, H F G; Santos, L; De Oliveira, M G; Franchini, K G; Spadari-Bratfisch, R C; Laurindo, F R M

    2006-02-01

    The pathophysiology of the NO/NO synthase system and dysfunctional changes in the endothelium in the early phases of the atherogenic process are incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of the nitrosothiol NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (SNAC) in the early prevention of plaque development in the hypercholesterolemic LDLr-/- mice as well as the changes in endothelium-dependent relaxation and NO synthase expression. LDLr-/- mice were fed a 1.25% cholesterol-enriched diet for 15 days. Plasma cholesterol/triglyceride levels increased and this increase was accompanied by the development of aortic root lesions. Aortic vasorelaxation to acetylcholine was increased, although endothelium-independent relaxation in response to sodium nitroprusside did not change, which suggest stimulated NO release enhanced. This dysfunction was associated with enhanced aortic superoxide production and with increased levels of constitutive NOS isoform expression, particularly neuronal NOS. SNAC (S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine) administration (0.51 micromol/kg/day i.p. for 15 days) decreased the extent of the plaque by 55% in hypercholesterolemic mice, but had no effects on vasomotor changes. It did, however, lead to a decrease in constitutive NOS expression. The SNAC induced only minor changes in plasma lipid profile. The present study has shown that, in early stages of plaque development in LDLr-/- mice, specific changes in NO/NO synthase system develop, that are characterized by increased endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and increased constitutive NOS expression. Since the development of plaque and the indicator of endothelial cell dysfunction were prevented by SNAC, such treatment may constitute a novel strategy for the halting of progression of early plaque.

  19. Reversible skeletal abnormalities in gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-deficient mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levasseur, Regis; Barrios, Roberto; Elefteriou, Florent; Glass, Donald A 2nd; Lieberman, Michael W.; Karsenty, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is a widely distributed ectopeptidase responsible for the degradation of glutathione in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. This cycle is implicated in the metabolism of cysteine, and absence of GGT causes a severe intracellular decrease in this amino acid. GGT-deficient (GGT-/-) mice have multiple metabolic abnormalities and are dwarf. We show here that this latter phenotype is due to a decreased of the growth plate cartilage total height resulting from a proliferative defect of chondrocytes. In addition, analysis of vertebrae and tibiae of GGT-/- mice revealed a severe osteopenia. Histomorphometric studies showed that this low bone mass phenotype results from an increased osteoclast number and activity as well as from a marked decrease in osteoblast activity. Interestingly, neither osteoblasts, osteoclasts, nor chondrocytes express GGT, suggesting that the observed defects are secondary to other abnormalities. N-acetylcysteine supplementation has been shown to reverse the metabolic abnormalities of the GGT-/- mice and in particular to restore the level of IGF-1 and sex steroids in these mice. Consistent with these previous observations, N-acetylcysteine treatment of GGT-/- mice ameliorates their skeletal abnormalities by normalizing chondrocytes proliferation and osteoblastic function. In contrast, resorbtion parameters are only partially normalized in GGT-/- N-acetylcysteine-treated mice, suggesting that GGT regulates osteoclast biology at least partly independently of these hormones. These results establish the importance of cysteine metabolism for the regulation of bone remodeling and longitudinal growth.

  20. Cocaine Analog Coupled to Disrupted Adenovirus: A Vaccine Strategy to Evoke High-titer Immunity Against Addictive Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Martin J; De, Bishnu P; Rosenberg, Jonathan B; Davidson, Jesse T; Moreno, Amira Y; Janda, Kim D; Wee, Sunmee; Koob, George F; Hackett, Neil R; Kaminsky, Stephen M; Worgall, Stefan; Toth, Miklos; Mezey, Jason G; Crystal, Ronald G

    2011-01-01

    Based on the concept that anticocaine antibodies could prevent inhaled cocaine from reaching its target receptors in the brain, an effective anticocaine vaccine could help reverse cocaine addiction. Leveraging the knowledge that E1−E3− adenovirus (Ad) gene transfer vectors are potent immunogens, we have developed a novel vaccine platform for addictive drugs by covalently linking a cocaine analog to the capsid proteins of noninfectious, disrupted Ad vector. The Ad-based anticocaine vaccine evokes high-titer anticocaine antibodies in mice sufficient to completely reverse, on a persistent basis, the hyperlocomotor activity induced by intravenous administration of cocaine. PMID:21206484

  1. N-acetylcysteine negatively regulates Notch3 and its malignant signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Juan-Juan; Liu, Xue-Xia; You, Hui; Gong, Mei-Ying; Zou, Ming; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Zhu, Jian-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Notch3 receptor is expressed in a variety of cancers and the excised active intracellular domain (N3ICD) initiates its signaling cascade. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as an antioxidant has been implicated in cancer prevention and therapy. In this study, we demonstrated a negative regulation of Notch3 by NAC in cancer cells. HeLa cells treated with NAC exhibited a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in Notch3 levels and its downstream effectors Hes1 and HRT1 in a manner independent of f-secretase or glutathione. In contrast, NAC did not affect protein levels of Notch1, the full length Notch3 precursor, or ectopically expressed N3ICD. Although SOD, catalase and NAC suppressed reactive oxygen species in HeLa cells, the first two antioxidants did not impact on Notch3 levels. While the mRNA expression of Notch3 was not altered by NAC, functional inhibition of lysosome, but not proteasome, blocked the NAC-dependent reduction of Notch3 levels. Furthermore, results from Notch3 silencing and N3ICD overexpression demonstrated that NAC prevented malignant phenotypes through down-regulation of Notch3 protein in multiple cancer cells. In summary, NAC reduces Notch3 levels through lysosome-dependent protein degradation, thereby negatively regulates Notch3 malignant signaling in cancer cells. These results implicate a novel NAC treatment in sensitizing Notch3-expressing tumors. PMID:27102435

  2. N-acetylcysteine negatively regulates Notch3 and its malignant signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiong; Wang, Ya-Nan; Zhu, Juan-Juan; Liu, Xue-Xia; You, Hui; Gong, Mei-Ying; Zou, Ming; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Zhu, Jian-Hong

    2016-05-24

    Notch3 receptor is expressed in a variety of cancers and the excised active intracellular domain (N3ICD) initiates its signaling cascade. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as an antioxidant has been implicated in cancer prevention and therapy. In this study, we demonstrated a negative regulation of Notch3 by NAC in cancer cells. HeLa cells treated with NAC exhibited a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in Notch3 levels and its downstream effectors Hes1 and HRT1 in a manner independent of f-secretase or glutathione. In contrast, NAC did not affect protein levels of Notch1, the full length Notch3 precursor, or ectopically expressed N3ICD. Although SOD, catalase and NAC suppressed reactive oxygen species in HeLa cells, the first two antioxidants did not impact on Notch3 levels. While the mRNA expression of Notch3 was not altered by NAC, functional inhibition of lysosome, but not proteasome, blocked the NAC-dependent reduction of Notch3 levels. Furthermore, results from Notch3 silencing and N3ICD overexpression demonstrated that NAC prevented malignant phenotypes through down-regulation of Notch3 protein in multiple cancer cells. In summary, NAC reduces Notch3 levels through lysosome-dependent protein degradation, thereby negatively regulates Notch3 malignant signaling in cancer cells. These results implicate a novel NAC treatment in sensitizing Notch3-expressing tumors.

  3. Interactive effects of N-acetylcysteine and antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Costa-Campos, Luciane; Herrmann, Ana P; Pilz, Luísa K; Michels, Marcus; Noetzold, Guilherme; Elisabetsky, Elaine

    2013-07-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutathione precursor and glutamate modulator, has been shown to possess various clinically relevant psychopharmacological properties. Considering the role of glutamate and oxidative stress in depressive states, the poor effectiveness of antidepressant drugs (ADs) and the benefits of drug combination for treating depression, the aim of this study was to explore the possible benefit of NAC as an add on drug to treat major depression. For that matter we investigated the combination of subeffective and effective doses of NAC with subeffective and effective doses of several ADs in the mice tail suspension test. The key finding of this study is that a subeffective dose of NAC reduced the minimum effective doses of imipramine and escitalopram, but not those of desipramine and bupropion. Moreover, the same subeffective dose of NAC increased the minimum effective dose of fluoxetine in the same model. In view of the advantages associated with using the lowest effective dose of antidepressant, the results of this study suggest the potential of a clinically useful interaction of NAC with imipramine and escitalopram. Further studies are necessary to better characterize the molecular basis of such interactions, as well as to typify the particular drug combinations that would optimize NAC as an alternative for treating depression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Maternal melatonin or N-acetylcysteine therapy regulates hydrogen sulfide-generating pathway and renal transcriptome to prevent prenatal NG-Nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced fetal programming of hypertension in adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Tain, You-Lin; Lee, Chien-Te; Chan, Julie Y H; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2016-11-01

    Pregnancy is a critical time for fetal programming of hypertension. Nitric oxide deficiency during pregnancy causes hypertension in adult offspring. We examined whether maternal melatonin or N-acetylcysteine therapy can prevent N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-induced fetal programming of hypertension in adult offspring. Next, we aimed to identify potential gatekeeper pathways that contribute to N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester -induced programmed hypertension using the next generation RNA sequencing technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 4 groups: control, N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester, N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester +melatonin, and N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester+N-acetylcysteine. Pregnant rats received N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester administration at 60 mg/kg/d subcutaneously during pregnancy alone, with additional 0.01% melatonin in drinking water, or with additional 1% N-acetylcysteine in drinking water during the entire pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring (n=8/group) were killed at 12 weeks of age. N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester exposure during pregnancy induced programmed hypertension in adult male offspring, which was prevented by maternal melatonin or N-acetylcysteine therapy. Protective effects of melatonin and N-acetylcysteine against N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-induced programmed hypertension were associated with an increase in hydrogen sulfide-generating enzymes and hydrogen sulfide synthesis in the kidneys. Nitric oxide inhibition by N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester in pregnancy caused >2000 renal transcripts to be modified during nephrogenesis stage in 1-day-old offspring kidney. Among them, genes belong to the renin-angiotensin system, and arachidonic acid metabolism pathways were potentially involved in the N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-induced programmed hypertension. However, melatonin and N-acetylcysteine reprogrammed the renin-angiotensin system and arachidonic acid pathway

  5. Delays during the administration of acetylcysteine for the treatment of paracetamol overdose

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, George P.; Najafi, Javad; Elamin, Muhammad E. M. O.; Waring, W. Stephen; Thomas, Simon H. L.; Archer, John R. H.; Wood, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The licensed intravenous acetylcysteine regimen for treating paracetamol overdose in most countries uses three separate infusions over 21 h. This complex regimen, requiring different infusion concentrations and rates, has been associated with administration errors. The aim of the present study was to assess the extent of administration delays occurring during this acetylcysteine regimen. Method A 6‐month retrospective observational study was conducted at three English teaching hospitals with clinical toxicology services from October 2014. Patients aged 16 years and over, treated with intravenous acetylcysteine for paracetamol overdose, were included. The start times for infusions were recorded and the delays compared with the prescribed infusion times were calculated. Anaphylactoid reactions, intravenous cannula problems, overdose intent and smoking status were recorded to assess their contribution to delays. Results From 263 cases identified, 198 met the study inclusion criteria. The median time between the start of infusions 1 and 3 was delayed from the intended 5 h by a median (interquartile range) of 90 (50–163) min, with 135 (68%) cases delayed by more than 1 h. Significantly longer delays were observed in patients with anaphylactoid reactions [median delay 267 (217–413) min, n = 8] and accidental/supratherapeutic overdose [median delay 170 (95–260) min, n = 29]. There were no significant differences between smokers and nonsmokers, or for patients with intravenous cannula problems. Conclusion Long delays were identified during the three‐infusion acetylcysteine regimen for the treatment of paracetamol overdose. These were of clinical significance and could lead to periods of subtherapeutic plasma acetylcysteine concentrations and potentially avoidable hepatotoxicity, as well as delaying hospital discharge. PMID:27412926

  6. Delays during the administration of acetylcysteine for the treatment of paracetamol overdose.

    PubMed

    Bailey, George P; Najafi, Javad; Elamin, Muhammad E M O; Waring, W Stephen; Thomas, Simon H L; Archer, John R H; Wood, David M; Dargan, Paul I

    2016-11-01

    The licensed intravenous acetylcysteine regimen for treating paracetamol overdose in most countries uses three separate infusions over 21 h. This complex regimen, requiring different infusion concentrations and rates, has been associated with administration errors. The aim of the present study was to assess the extent of administration delays occurring during this acetylcysteine regimen. A 6-month retrospective observational study was conducted at three English teaching hospitals with clinical toxicology services from October 2014. Patients aged 16 years and over, treated with intravenous acetylcysteine for paracetamol overdose, were included. The start times for infusions were recorded and the delays compared with the prescribed infusion times were calculated. Anaphylactoid reactions, intravenous cannula problems, overdose intent and smoking status were recorded to assess their contribution to delays. From 263 cases identified, 198 met the study inclusion criteria. The median time between the start of infusions 1 and 3 was delayed from the intended 5 h by a median (interquartile range) of 90 (50-163) min, with 135 (68%) cases delayed by more than 1 h. Significantly longer delays were observed in patients with anaphylactoid reactions [median delay 267 (217-413) min, n = 8] and accidental/supratherapeutic overdose [median delay 170 (95-260) min, n = 29]. There were no significant differences between smokers and nonsmokers, or for patients with intravenous cannula problems. Long delays were identified during the three-infusion acetylcysteine regimen for the treatment of paracetamol overdose. These were of clinical significance and could lead to periods of subtherapeutic plasma acetylcysteine concentrations and potentially avoidable hepatotoxicity, as well as delaying hospital discharge. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Acute cocaine induced deficits in cognitive performance in rhesus macaque monkeys treated with baclofen

    PubMed Central

    Porrino, Linda J.; Hampson, Robert E.; Opris, Ioan; Deadwyler, Samuel A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Acute and/or chronic exposure to cocaine can affect cognitive performance, which may influence rate of recovery during treatment. Objective Effects of the GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen were assessed for potency to reverse the negative influence of acute, pre-session, intravenous (IV) injection of cocaine on cognitive performance in Macaca mulatta nonhuman primates. Methods Animals were trained to perform a modified delayed match to sample (DMS) task incorporating two types of trials with varying degrees of cognitive load that had different decision requirements in order to correctly utilize information retained over the delay interval. The effects of cocaine (0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mg/kg, IV) alone and in combination with baclofen (0.29 and 0.40 mg/kg, IV) were examined with respect to sustained performance levels. Brain metabolic activity during performance of the task was assessed using PET imaged uptake of [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose. Results Acute cocaine injections produced a dose-dependent decline in DMS performance selective for trials of high cognitive load. The GABA-receptor agonist baclofen, co-administered with cocaine, reversed task performance back to nondrug (saline IV) control levels. Simultaneous assessment of PET-imaged brain metabolic activity in prefrontal cortex (PFC) showed alterations by cocaine compared to PFC metabolic activation in nondrug (saline, IV) control DMS sessions, but like performance, PFC activation was returned to control levels by baclofen (0.40 mg/kg, IV) injected with cocaine. Conclusions The results show that baclofen, administered at a relatively high dose, reversed the cognitive deficits produced by acute cocaine intoxication that may have implications for use in chronic drug exposure. PMID:22836369

  8. Dissociable Effects of Cocaine Dependence on Reward Processes: The Role of Acute Cocaine and Craving.

    PubMed

    Rose, Emma Jane; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Ross, Thomas J; Waltz, James; Schweitzer, Julie B; Stein, Elliot A

    2017-02-01

    The relative impact of chronic vs acute cocaine on dependence-related variability in reward processing in cocaine-dependent individuals (CD) is not well understood, despite the relevance of such effects to long-term outcomes. To dissociate these effects, CD (N=15) and healthy controls (HC; N=15) underwent MRI two times while performing a monetary incentive delay task. Both scans were identical across subjects/groups, except that, in a single-blind, counterbalanced design, CD received intravenous cocaine (30 mg/70 kg) before one session (CD+cocaine) and saline in another (CD+saline). Imaging analyses focused on activity related to anticipatory valence (gain/loss), anticipatory magnitude (small/medium/large), and reinforcing outcomes (successful/unsuccessful). Drug condition (cocaine vs saline) and group (HC vs CD+cocaine or CD+saline) did not influence valence-related activity. However, compared with HC, magnitude-related activity for gains was reduced in CD in the left cingulate gyrus post-cocaine and in the left putamen in the abstinence/saline condition. In contrast, magnitude-dependent activity for losses increased in CD vs HC in the right inferior parietal lobe post-cocaine and in the left superior frontal gyrus post-saline. Across outcomes (ie, successful and unsuccessful) activity in the right habenula decreased in CD in the abstinence/saline condition vs acute cocaine and HC. Cocaine-dependent variability in outcome- and loss-magnitude activity correlated negatively with ratings of cocaine craving and positively with how high subjects felt during the scanning session. Collectively, these data suggest dissociable effects of acute cocaine on non-drug reward processes, with cocaine consumption partially ameliorating dependence-related insensitivity to reinforcing outcomes/'liking', but having no discernible effect on dependence-related alterations in incentive salience/'wanting'. The relationship of drug-related affective sequelae to non-drug reward

  9. Abstinence from cocaine-self-administration activates the nELAV/GAP -43 pathway in the hippocampus: A stress-related effect?

    PubMed

    Pascale, Alessia; Osera, Cecilia; Moro, Federico; Di Clemente, Angelo; Giannotti, Giuseppe; Caffino, Lucia; Govoni, Stefano; Fumagalli, Fabio; Cervo, Luigi

    2016-06-01

    We previously demonstrated that nELAV/GAP-43 pathway is pivotal for learning and its hippocampal expression is up-regulated by acute stress following repeated cocaine administration. We therefore hypothesized that abstinence-induced stress may sustain nELAV/GAP-43 pathway during early abstinence following 2 weeks of cocaine self-administration. We found that contingent, but not non-contingent, cocaine exposure selectively increases hippocampal nELAV, but not GAP-43, expression immediately after the last self-administration session, an effect that wanes after 24 h and that comes back 7 days later when nELAV activation becomes associated with increased expression of GAP-43, an effect again observed only in animals self-administering the psychostimulant. Such effect is specific for nELAV since the ubiquitous ELAV/HuR is unchanged. This nELAV profile suggests that its initial transient alteration is perhaps related to the daily administration of cocaine, while the increase in the nELAV/GAP-43 pathway following a week of abstinence may reflect the activation of this cascade as a target of stressful conditions associated with drug-related memories. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Escherichia coli cellular responses to exposure to atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma-treated N-acetylcysteine solution.

    PubMed

    Ercan, U K; Sen, B; Brooks, A D; Joshi, S G

    2018-04-06

    To understand the underlying cellular mechanisms during inactivation of Escherichia coli in response to antimicrobial solution of nonthermal plasma-activated N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The recommended techniques were used to demonstrate E. coli cellular and transcriptomic changes caused associated with peroxynitrite and compared with plasma-treated NAC solution. The findings demonstrate that E. coli cells respond to plasma-treated NAC and undergo severe oxidative and nitrosative stress, and leading to stress-induced damages to different components of bacterial cells, which includes loss of membrane potential, formation of oxidized glutathione (GSSG), formation of nitrotyrosine (a known marker of nitrosative stress), DNA damage, and generated a prominent pool of peroxynitrite. Reverse-transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction analysis of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) responsive genes indicated their differential expressions. For the first time, we report that the plasma-treated NAC solution activates predominantly nitrosative stress-responsive genes in E. coli and is responsible for cell death. The reactive species generated in solutions by nonthermal plasma treatment depends on the type of solution or solvent used. The plasma-treated NAC solution rapidly inactivates E. coli, mostly involving highly RNS generated in NAC solution, and has high potential as disinfectant. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Extinction Training Regulates Neuroadaptive Responses to Withdrawal from Chronic Cocaine Self-Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smagula, Cynthia S.; Self, David W.; Choi, Kwang-Ho; Simmons, Diana; Walker, John R.

    2004-01-01

    Cocaine produces multiple neuroadaptations with chronic repeated use. Many of these neuroadaptations can be reversed or normalized by extinction training during withdrawal from chronic cocaine self-administration in rats. This article reviews our past and present studies on extinction-induced modulation of the neuroadaptive response to chronic…

  12. Reduced Metabolsim in Brain 'Control Networks' Following Cocaine-Cues Exposure in Female Cocaine Abusers

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.

    Gender differences in vulnerability for cocaine addiction have been reported. Though the mechanisms are not understood, here we hypothesize that gender differences in reactivity to conditioned-cues, which contributes to relapse, are involved. To test this we compared brain metabolism (using PET and {sup 18}FDG) between female (n = 10) and male (n = 16) active cocaine abusers when they watched a neutral video (nature scenes) versus a cocaine-cues video. Self-reports of craving increased with the cocaine-cue video but responses did not differ between genders. In contrast, changes in whole brain metabolism with cocaine-cues differed by gender (p<0.05); females significantly decreasedmore » metabolism (-8.6% {+-} 10) whereas males tended to increase it (+5.5% {+-} 18). SPM analysis (Cocaine-cues vs Neutral) in females revealed decreases in frontal, cingulate and parietal cortices, thalamus and midbrain (p<0.001) whereas males showed increases in right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45) (only at p<0.005). The gender-cue interaction showed greater decrements with Cocaine-cues in females than males (p<0.001) in frontal (BA 8, 9, 10), anterior cingulate (BA 24, 32), posterior cingulate (BA 23, 31), inferior parietal (BA 40) and thalamus (dorsomedial nucleus). Females showed greater brain reactivity to cocaine-cues than males but no differences in craving, suggesting that there may be gender differences in response to cues that are not linked with craving but could affect subsequent drug use. Specifically deactivation of brain regions from 'control networks' (prefrontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, thalamus) in females could increase their vulnerability to relapse since it would interfere with executive function (cognitive inhibition). This highlights the importance of gender tailored interventions for cocaine addiction.« less

  13. Protective influences of N-acetylcysteine against alcohol abstinence-induced depression by regulating biochemical and GRIN2A, GRIN2B gene expression of NMDA receptor signaling pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Yawalkar, Rutuja; Changotra, Harish; Gupta, Girdhari Lal

    2018-04-25

    Evidences have indicated a high degree of comorbidity of alcoholism and depression. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has shown its clinical efficiency in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders and is identified as a multi-target acting drug. The ability of NAC to prevent alcohol abstinence-induced depression-like effects and underlying mechanism(s) have not been adequately addressed. This study was aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of NAC in the alcohol abstinence-induced depression developed following long-term voluntary alcohol intake. For evaluation of the effects of NAC, Sprague-Dawley rats were enabled to voluntary drinking of 4.5%, 7.5% and 9% v/v alcohol for fifteen days. NAC (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (5 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally for three consecutive days during the alcohol abstinence period on the days 16, 17, 18. The behavioral studies were conducted employing forced swim test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST) on day 18 to determine the effects of N-acetylcysteine and fluoxetine in the ethanol withdrawal induced-depression. Blood alcohol concentration, alcohol biomarkers like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, GGT, and MCV were estimated by using commercially available kits. Serotonin concentrations were measured in the plasma, hippocampus and pre-frontal cortex using the rat ELISA kit. The expression of GRIN1, GRIN2A, GRIN2B genes for the N-methyl d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) subunits in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex were also examined by reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results revealed that alcohol abstinence group depicted increased immobility time in FST and TST. Further, NAC exerted significant protective effect at the doses 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, but 25 mg/kg showed insignificant protection against alcohol abstinence-induced depression. The increased level of biochemical parameters following ethanol abstinence were also reversed by NAC at the dose of 100 mg/kg. The

  14. Sex Differences in Psychiatric Comorbidity and Plasma Biomarkers for Cocaine Addiction in Abstinent Cocaine-Addicted Subjects in Outpatient Settings

    PubMed Central

    Pedraz, María; Araos, Pedro; García-Marchena, Nuria; Serrano, Antonia; Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; Suárez, Juan; Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Mayoral-Cleries, Fermín; Ruiz, Juan Jesús; Pastor, Antoni; Barrios, Vicente; Chowen, Julie A.; Argente, Jesús; Torrens, Marta; de la Torre, Rafael; Rodríguez De Fonseca, Fernando; Pavón, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    There are sex differences in the progression of drug addiction, relapse, and response to therapies. Because biological factors participate in these differences, they should be considered when using biomarkers for addiction. In the current study, we evaluated the sex differences in psychiatric comorbidity and the concentrations of plasma mediators that have been reported to be affected by cocaine. Fifty-five abstinent cocaine-addicted subjects diagnosed with lifetime cocaine use disorders (40 men and 15 women) and 73 healthy controls (48 men and 25 women) were clinically assessed with the diagnostic interview “Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders.” Plasma concentrations of chemokines, cytokines, N-acyl-ethanolamines, and 2-acyl-glycerols were analyzed according to history of cocaine addiction and sex, controlling for covariates age and body mass index (BMI). Relationships between these concentrations and variables related to cocaine addiction were also analyzed in addicted subjects. The results showed that the concentrations of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (CCL2/MCP-1) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12/stromal cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12/SDF-1) were only affected by history of cocaine addiction. The plasma concentrations of interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) were affected by history of cocaine addiction and sex. In fact, whereas cytokine concentrations were higher in control women relative to men, these concentrations were reduced in cocaine-addicted women without changes in addicted men. Regarding fatty acid derivatives, history of cocaine addiction had a main effect on the concentration of each acyl derivative, whereas N-acyl-ethanolamines were increased overall in the cocaine group, 2-acyl-glycerols were decreased. Interestingly, N-palmitoleoyl-ethanolamine (POEA) was only increased in cocaine-addicted women. The covariate BMI had a significant

  15. BDNF-TrkB controls cocaine-induced dendritic spines in rodent nucleus accumbens dissociated from increases in addictive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ethan M; Wissman, Anne Marie; Chemplanikal, Joyce; Buzin, Nicole; Guzman, Daniel; Larson, Erin B; Neve, Rachael L; Nestler, Eric J; Cowan, Christopher W; Self, David W

    2017-08-29

    Chronic cocaine use is associated with prominent morphological changes in nucleus accumbens shell (NACsh) neurons, including increases in dendritic spine density along with enhanced motivation for cocaine, but a functional relationship between these morphological and behavioral phenomena has not been shown. Here we show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) receptors in NACsh neurons is necessary for cocaine-induced dendritic spine formation by using either localized TrkB knockout or viral-mediated expression of a dominant negative, kinase-dead TrkB mutant. Interestingly, augmenting wild-type TrkB expression after chronic cocaine self-administration reverses the sustained increase in dendritic spine density, an effect mediated by TrkB signaling pathways that converge on extracellular regulated kinase. Loss of TrkB function after cocaine self-administration, however, leaves spine density intact but markedly enhances the motivation for cocaine, an effect mediated by specific loss of TrkB signaling through phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCγ1). Conversely, overexpression of PLCγ1 both reduces the motivation for cocaine and reverses dendritic spine density, suggesting a potential target for the treatment of addiction in chronic users. Together, these findings indicate that BDNF-TrkB signaling both mediates and reverses cocaine-induced increases in dendritic spine density in NACsh neurons, and these morphological changes are entirely dissociable from changes in addictive behavior.

  16. Priming with BTCP, a dopamine reuptake blocker, reinstates cocaine-seeking and enhances cocaine cue-induced reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Martin-Fardon, Rémi; Lorentz, Christina U; Stuempfig, Nathan D; Weiss, Friedbert

    2005-09-01

    N-[1-(2-benzo[b]thiophenyl)cyclohexyl]piperidine (BTCP), a potent dopamine reuptake inhibitor, substitutes for the reinforcing effects of cocaine and meets other criteria for possible agonist pharmacotherapeutic potential. The purpose of this study was to determine (1) whether BTCP modifies reinstatement of cocaine-seeking elicited by cocaine-related environmental stimuli and (2) whether this compound produces priming effects. Male Wistar rats were trained to associate discriminative stimuli (S(D)) with cocaine availability (0.25 mg/infusion) versus non-reward and then were subjected to repeated extinction sessions during which the reinforcer and S(D) were withheld. Subsequent presentation of the cocaine S(D) produced recovery of cocaine-seeking. BTCP (2.5-30 mg/kg; i.p.) did not attenuate the conditioned reinstatement induced by the cocaine S(D) but, rather, potentiated this effect at 10 mg/kg. To test whether BTCP, by itself, exerts priming effects, different groups of rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (0.25 mg/infusion) for 2 weeks. After a 2-week extinction period, BTCP (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) reinstated cocaine-seeking, showing that BTCP not only increases cocaine-seeking induced by cocaine-related stimuli but also produces priming effects following abstinence. The results suggest that, in cocaine abstinent rats, BTCP produces cocaine-like effects.

  17. Neuroprotective effects of N-acetylcysteine amide on experimental focal penetrating brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Günther, Mattias; Davidsson, Johan; Plantman, Stefan; Norgren, Svante; Mathiesen, Tiit; Risling, Mårten

    2015-09-01

    We examined the effects of N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) in the secondary inflammatory response following a novel method of focal penetrating traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has limited but well-documented neuroprotective effects after experimental central nervous system ischemia and TBI, but its bioavailability is very low. We tested NACA, a modified form of NAC with higher membrane and blood-brain barrier permeability. Focal penetrating TBI was produced in male Sprague-Dawley rats randomly selected for NACA treatment (n=5) and no treatment (n=5). In addition, four animals were submitted to sham surgery. After 2 hours or 24 hours the brains were removed, fresh frozen, cut in 14 μm coronal sections and subjected to immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, Fluoro-Jade and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analyses. All treated animals were given 300 mg/kg NACA intraperitoneally (IP) 2 minutes post trauma. The 24 hour survival group was given an additional bolus of 300 mg/kg IP after 4 hours. NACA treatment decreased neuronal degeneration by Fluoro-Jade at 24 hours with a mean change of 35.0% (p<0.05) and decreased TUNEL staining indicative of apoptosis at 2 hours with a mean change of 38.7% (p<0.05). Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) increased in the NACA treatment group at 24 hours with a mean change of 35.9% (p<0.05). Levels of migrating macrophages and activated microglia (Ox-42/CD11b), nitric oxide-producing inflammatory enzyme iNOS, peroxynitrite marker 3-nitrotyrosine, NFκB translocated to the nuclei, cytochrome C and Bcl-2 were not affected. NACA treatment decreased neuronal degeneration and apoptosis and increased levels of antioxidative enzyme MnSOD. The antiapoptotic effect was likely regulated by pathways other than cytochrome C. Therefore, NACA prevents brain tissue damage after focal penetrating TBI, warranting further studies towards a clinical application. Copyright © 2015

  18. Latent vulnerability in cognitive performance following chronic cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Jessica N.; Gurnsey, Kate; Jedema, Hank P.; Bradberry, Charles W.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Cocaine use is associated with cognitive impairment which impacts treatment outcome. A clearer understanding of those deficits, and whether particular environments exacerbate them, is needed. Objectives This study evaluated whether previously observed domain-specific cognitive deficits persisted following a three month cessation from chronic cocaine self-administration, as well as the impact of novel and cocaine-associated attentional distractors. Methods Control and experimental groups of monkeys performed stimulus discrimination, stimulus reversal, and delayed match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. After establishing post-cocaine baseline performance, we examined general distractibility in both groups, using brief novel distractors counterbalanced across each task. After testing the novel distractor, an identical approach was used for exposure to an appetitive distractor previously associated with cocaine in the experimental group, or water in the control group. Results Post-administration baseline performance was equivalent between groups on all tasks. In the cocaine group, stimulus discrimination was unaffected by either distractor, whereas reversal performance was disrupted by both the novel and appetitive distractors. DMS performance was impaired in the cocaine group in the presence of the novel distractor. The control group’s performance was not affected by the presentation of either distractor on any task. Conclusion Our results reveal that despite normalized performance between groups, there exists in the cocaine group a domain-specific latent vulnerability of cognitive performance to impairment by environmental distractors. The pattern of vulnerability recapitulates the frank impairments seen in drug free animals during an active self-administration phase. A greater impact of the cocaine-associated distractor over the novel one was not observed. PMID:23108938

  19. Latent vulnerability in cognitive performance following chronic cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Porter, Jessica N; Gurnsey, Kate; Jedema, Hank P; Bradberry, Charles W

    2013-03-01

    Cocaine use is associated with cognitive impairment which impacts treatment outcome. A clearer understanding of those deficits, and whether particular environments exacerbate them, is needed. This study evaluated whether previously observed domain-specific cognitive deficits persisted following a 3-month cessation from chronic cocaine self-administration, as well as the impact of novel and cocaine-associated attentional distractors. Control and experimental groups of monkeys performed stimulus discrimination, stimulus reversal, and delayed match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. After establishing post-cocaine baseline performance, we examined general distractibility in both groups, using brief novel distractors counterbalanced across each task. After testing the novel distractor, an identical approach was used for exposure to an appetitive distractor previously associated with cocaine in the experimental group or water in the control group. Post-administration baseline performance was equivalent between groups on all tasks. In the cocaine group, stimulus discrimination was unaffected by either distractor, whereas reversal performance was disrupted by both the novel and appetitive distractors. DMS performance was impaired in the cocaine group in the presence of the novel distractor. The control group's performance was not affected by the presentation of either distractor on any task. Our results reveal that despite normalized performance between groups, there exists in the cocaine group a domain-specific latent vulnerability of cognitive performance to impairment by environmental distractors. The pattern of vulnerability recapitulates the frank impairments seen in drug-free animals during an active self-administration phase. A greater impact of the cocaine-associated distractor over the novel one was not observed.

  20. Oral N-acetylcysteine and exercise tolerance in mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Daniel M; Jones, Joshua H; Zelt, Joel T; da Silva, Marianne L; Bentley, Robert F; Edgett, Brittany A; Gurd, Brendon J; Tschakovsky, Michael E; O'Donnell, Denis E; Neder, J Alberto

    2017-05-01

    Heightened oxidative stress is implicated in the progressive impairment of skeletal muscle vascular and mitochondrial function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Whether accumulation of reactive oxygen species contributes to exercise intolerance in the early stages of COPD is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of oral antioxidant treatment with N -acetylcysteine (NAC) on respiratory, cardiovascular, and locomotor muscle function and exercise tolerance in patients with mild COPD. Thirteen patients [forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 )-to-forced vital capacity ratio < lower limit of normal (LLN) and FEV 1 ≥ LLN) were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized crossover study to receive NAC (1,800 mg/day) or placebo for 4 days. Severe-intensity constant-load exercise tests were performed with noninvasive measurements of central hemodynamics (stroke volume, heart rate, and cardiac output via impedance cardiography), arterial blood pressure, pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange, quadriceps muscle oxygenation (near-infrared spectroscopy), and estimated capillary blood flow. Nine patients completed the study with no major adverse clinical effects. Although NAC elevated plasma glutathione by ~27% compared with placebo ( P < 0.05), there were no differences in exercise tolerance (placebo: 325 ± 47 s, NAC: 336 ± 51 s), central hemodynamics, arterial blood pressure, pulmonary ventilation or gas exchange, locomotor muscle oxygenation, or capillary blood flow from rest to exercise between conditions ( P > 0.05 for all). In conclusion, modulation of plasma redox status with oral NAC treatment was not translated into beneficial effects on central or peripheral components of the oxygen transport pathway, thereby failing to improve exercise tolerance in nonhypoxemic patients with mild COPD. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Acute antioxidant treatment with N -acetylcysteine (NAC) elevated plasma glutathione but did not modulate central or

  1. Acetylcysteine for treatment of autism spectrum disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Stutzman, Danielle; Dopheide, Julie

    2015-11-15

    Successful use of acetylcysteine to control irritability and aggressive behaviors in a hospitalized adolescent patient with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is described. A 17-year-old Hispanic male with ASD and intellectual disability was hospitalized for inpatient psychiatric treatment due to impulsive and violent behavior. Despite receiving various medications in the initial weeks of hospitalization, including intramuscular lorazepam and diphenhydramine injections (four days a week on average), the patient continued to exhibit aggressive and unpredictable behaviors. Treatment with 20% acetylcysteine oral solution was initiated at a dosage of 600 mg twice daily as an adjunct to quetiapine therapy. Over the next six weeks, reductions in the patient's aggressive behavior, tantrums, and irritability were noted. The use of as-needed medications to control aggression was decreased, and the dosage of quetiapine was lowered from 700 to 400 mg daily over the course of the hospitalization. Acetylcysteine was well tolerated, with no observed or reported adverse effects. Unlike clonidine or guanfacine (other medications used for ASD-related behavioral symptoms), acetylcysteine is not sedating; moreover, it lacks the metabolic, extrapyramidal, and endocrine adverse effects of atypical antipsychotics. Published data from small controlled trials and case reports suggest that acetylcysteine use is associated with improvements in irritability and aggression in prepubertal children with ASD; these therapeutic benefits may be associated with acetylcysteine's glutamatergic, dopaminergic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Treatment with acetylcysteine improved ASD symptoms, including irritability and aggression, in a teenage patient. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of levodopa-carbidopa-entacapone and smoked cocaine on facial affect recognition in cocaine smokers.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Gillinder; Shiffrin, Laura; Vadhan, Nehal P; Nunes, Edward V; Foltin, Richard W; Bisaga, Adam

    2016-04-01

    In addition to difficulties in daily social functioning, regular cocaine users have decrements in social processing (the cognitive and affective processes underlying social behavior) relative to non-users. Little is known, however, about the effects of clinically-relevant pharmacological agents, such as cocaine and potential treatment medications, on social processing in cocaine users. Such drug effects could potentially alleviate or compound baseline social processing decrements in cocaine abusers. Here, we assessed the individual and combined effects of smoked cocaine and a potential treatment medication, levodopa-carbidopa-entacapone (LCE), on facial emotion recognition in cocaine smokers. Healthy non-treatment-seeking cocaine smokers (N = 14; two female) completed this 11-day inpatient within-subjects study. Participants received LCE (titrated to 400mg/100mg/200mg b.i.d.) for five days with the remaining time on placebo. The order of medication administration was counterbalanced. Facial emotion recognition was measured twice during target LCE dosing and twice on placebo: once without cocaine and once after repeated cocaine doses. LCE increased the response threshold for identification of facial fear, biasing responses away from fear identification. Cocaine had no effect on facial emotion recognition. Results highlight the possibility for candidate pharmacotherapies to have unintended impacts on social processing in cocaine users, potentially exacerbating already existing difficulties in this population. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Use of N-Acetylcysteine in Psychiatric Conditions among Children and Adolescents: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Naveed, Sadiq; Amray, Afshan; Waqas, Ahmed; Chaudhary, Amna M; Azeem, Muhammad W

    2017-11-29

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a well-known antidote for acetaminophen toxicity and is easily available over the counter. It has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and an established tolerance and safety profile. Owing to its neuroprotective effects, its clinical use has recently expanded to include the treatment of different psychiatric and non-psychiatric disorders. Although a number of randomized controlled trials have documented the clinical evidence for NAC, there are no reviews that summarize the evidence. The present scoping review summarizes the study designs, the patient characteristics, the evidence and the limitations in randomized controlled trials designed to explore the efficacy of NAC for psychiatric conditions in the pediatric population.

  4. Antioxidants inhibit nuclear export of telomerase reverse transcriptase and delay replicative senescence of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Haendeler, Judith; Hoffmann, Jörg; Diehl, J Florian; Vasa, Mariuca; Spyridopoulos, Ioakim; Zeiher, Andreas M; Dimmeler, Stefanie

    2004-04-02

    Aging is associated with a rise in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a loss of telomerase reverse transcriptase activity. Incubation with H2O2 induced the nuclear export of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) into the cytosol in a Src-family kinase-dependent manner. Therefore, we investigated the hypothesis that age-related increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) may induce the nuclear export of TERT and contribute to endothelial cell senescence. Continuous cultivation of endothelial cells resulted in an increased endogenous formation of ROS starting after 29 population doublings (PDL). This increase was accompanied by mitochondrial DNA damage and preceded the onset of replicative senescence at PDL 37. Along with the enhanced formation of ROS, we detected an export of nuclear TERT protein from the nucleus into the cytoplasm and an activation of the Src-kinase. Moreover, the induction of premature senescence by low concentrations of H2O2 was completely blocked with the Src-family kinase inhibitor PP2, suggesting a crucial role for Src-family kinases in the induction of endothelial cell aging. Incubation with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, from PDL 26, reduced the intracellular ROS formation and prevented mitochondrial DNA damage. Likewise, nuclear export of TERT protein, loss in the overall TERT activity, and the onset of replicative senescence were delayed by incubation with N-acetylcysteine. Low doses of the statin, atorvastatin (0.1 micromol/L), had also effects similar to those of N-acetylcysteine. We conclude that both antioxidants and statins can delay the onset of replicative senescence by counteracting the increased ROS production linked to aging of endothelial cells.

  5. Cocaine

    MedlinePlus

    ... confidencial Press Room » Multi-Media Library » Image Gallery » Cocaine COCAINE To Save Images: First click on the thumbnail ... your Save in directory and then click Save. Cocaine Crack Cocaine RESOURCE CENTER Controlled Substances Act DEA ...

  6. Performance on a strategy set shifting task in rats following adult or adolescent cocaine exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kantak, Kathleen M.; Barlow, Nicole; Tassin, David H.; Brisotti, Madeline F.; Jordan, Chloe J

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Neuropsychological testing is widespread in adult cocaine abusers, but lacking in teens. Animal models may provide insight into age-related neuropsychological consequences of cocaine exposure. Objectives Determine whether developmental plasticity protects or hinders behavioral flexibility after cocaine exposure in adolescent vs. adult rats. Methods Using a yoked-triad design, one rat controlled cocaine delivery and the other two passively received cocaine or saline. Rats controlling cocaine delivery (1.0 mg/kg) self-administered for 18 sessions (starting P37 or P77), followed by 18 drug-free days. Rats next were tested in a strategy set shifting task, lasting 11–13 sessions. Results Cocaine self-administration did not differ between age groups. During initial set formation, adolescent-onset groups required more trials to reach criterion and made more errors than adult-onset groups. During the set shift phase, rats with adult-onset cocaine self-administration experience had higher proportions of correct trials and fewer perseverative + regressive errors than age-matched yoked-controls or rats with adolescent-onset cocaine self-administration experience. During reversal learning, rats with adult-onset cocaine experience (self-administered or passive) required fewer trials to reach criterion and the self-administering rats made fewer perseverative + regressive errors than yoked-saline rats. Rats receiving adolescent-onset yoked-cocaine had more trial omissions and longer lever press reaction times than age-matched rats self-administering cocaine or receiving yoked-saline. Conclusions Prior cocaine self-administration may impair memory to reduce proactive interference during set shifting and reversal learning in adult-onset but not adolescent-onset rats (developmental plasticity protective). Passive cocaine may disrupt aspects of executive function in adolescent-onset but not adult-onset rats (developmental plasticity hinders). PMID:24800898

  7. Adolescent cocaine exposure simplifies orbitofrontal cortical dendritic arbors

    PubMed Central

    DePoy, Lauren M.; Perszyk, Riley E.; Zimmermann, Kelsey S.; Koleske, Anthony J.; Gourley, Shannon L.

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine and amphetamine remodel dendritic spines within discrete cortico-limbic brain structures including the orbitofrontal cortex (oPFC). Whether dendrite structure is similarly affected, and whether pre-existing cellular characteristics influence behavioral vulnerabilities to drugs of abuse, remain unclear. Animal models provide an ideal venue to address these issues because neurobehavioral phenotypes can be defined both before, and following, drug exposure. We exposed mice to cocaine from postnatal days 31–35, corresponding to early adolescence, using a dosing protocol that causes impairments in an instrumental reversal task in adulthood. We then imaged and reconstructed excitatory neurons in deep-layer oPFC. Prior cocaine exposure shortened and simplified arbors, particularly in the basal region. Next, we imaged and reconstructed orbital neurons in a developmental-genetic model of cocaine vulnerability—the p190rhogap+/– mouse. p190RhoGAP is an actin cytoskeleton regulatory protein that stabilizes dendrites and dendritic spines, and p190rhogap+/– mice develop rapid and robust locomotor activation in response to cocaine. Despite this, oPFC dendritic arbors were intact in drug-naïve p190rhogap+/– mice. Together, these findings provide evidence that adolescent cocaine exposure has long-term effects on dendrite structure in the oPFC, and they suggest that cocaine-induced modifications in dendrite structure may contribute to the behavioral effects of cocaine more so than pre-existing structural abnormalities in this cell population. PMID:25452728

  8. Protective Effect of N-acetylcysteine on Liver Damage During Chronic Intrauterine Hypoxia in Fetal Guinea Pig

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Kazumasa; Pinkas, Gerard; Evans, LaShauna; Liu, Hongshan; Al-Hasan, Yazan

    2012-01-01

    Chronic exposure to hypoxia during pregnancy generates a stressed intrauterine environment that may lead to fetal organ damage. The objectives of the study are (1) to quantify the effect of chronic hypoxia in the generation of oxidative stress in fetal guinea pig liver and (2) to test the protective effect of antioxidant treatment in hypoxic fetal liver injury. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to either normoxia (NMX) or 10.5% O2 (HPX, 14 days) prior to term (65 days) and orally administered N-acetylcysteine ([NAC] 10 days). Near-term anesthetized fetuses were excised and livers examined by histology and assayed for malondialdehyde (MDA) and DNA fragmentation. Chronic HPX increased erythroid precursors, MDA (NMX vs HPX; 1.26 ± 0.07 vs 1.78 ± 0.07 nmol/mg protein; P < .001, mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM]) and DNA fragmentation levels in fetal livers (0.069 ± 0.01 vs 0.11 ± 0.005 OD/mg protein; P < .01). N-acetylcysteine inhibited erythroid aggregation and reduced (P < .05) both MDA and DNA fragmentation of fetal HPX livers. Thus, chronic intrauterine hypoxia generates cell and nuclear damage in the fetal guinea pig liver. Maternal NAC inhibited the adverse effects of fetal liver damage suggestive of oxidative stress. The suppressive effect of maternal NAC may implicate the protective role of antioxidants in the prevention of liver injury in the hypoxic fetus. PMID:22534333

  9. Atomoxetine Does Not Alter Cocaine Use in Cocaine Dependent Individuals: A Double Blind Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Lisa S.; Wong, Conrad J.; Nuzzo, Paul A.; Campbell, Charles L.; Rush, Craig R.; Lofwall, Michelle R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cocaine abuse continues to be a significant public health problem associated with morbidity and mortality. To date, no pharmacotherapeutic approach has proven effective for treating cocaine use disorders. Preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that noradrenergic activity may play a role in mediating some effects of cocaine and may be a rational target for treatment. Methods This double blind, placebo-controlled randomized, parallel group, 12-week outpatient clinical trial enrolled cocaine dependent individuals seeking treatment to examine the potential efficacy of the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, atomoxetine (80 mg/day; p.o.; n=25), compared to placebo (n=25). Subjects were initially stratified on cocaine use (<15 days or ≥15 days of the last 30), age and race using urn randomization. Attendance, medication adherence and study compliance were reinforced with contingency management, and weekly counseling was offered. An array of measures (vital signs, laboratory chemistries, cognitive and psychomotor tests, cocaine craving and urine samples for drug testing) was collected throughout the study and at follow-up. Results Survival analysis revealed no differences in study retention between the two groups, with approximately 56% of subjects completing the 12-week study (Cox analysis X2=.72; p=.40; Hazard Ratio 1.48 [CI 0.62–3.39]). GEE analysis of the proportion of urine samples positive for benzoylecgonine, a cocaine metabolite, revealed no differences between the atomoxetine and placebo groups (X2=0.2, p=.66; OR=0.89 [95% CI 0.41 – 1.74). Atomoxetine was generally well tolerated in this population. Conclusions These data provide no support for the utility of atomoxetine in the treatment of cocaine dependence. PMID:23200303

  10. Acetylcysteine Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease that causes problems with breathing, digestion, and reproduction). Acetylcysteine is in a class of medications called mucolytic agents. It works by thinning the mucus in the air passages to make it easier to cough up ...

  11. N-acetylcysteine – passe-partout or much ado about nothing?

    PubMed Central

    Aitio, Mirja-Liisa

    2006-01-01

    In experimental studies, the old mucolytic agent N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has had beneficial effects in disorders supposedly linked to oxidative stress. Numerous, mainly small clinical trials with variable doses have yielded inconsistent results in a wide variety of diseases. NAC added to the conventional therapy of human immunodeficiency virus infection might be of benefit; in respect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, systematic reviews and meta-analyses suggested that prolonged treatment with NAC is efficacious, but a recent multicentre study has questioned this. In a large intervention trial on cancer recurrence, NAC was ineffective. NAC infusions have been widely used in acute hepatic failure but convincing evidence of its benefits is lacking. A preliminary study reported that NAC is effective in preventing radiocontrast-induced nephropathy but thereafter highly mixed results have been published, and even meta-analyses disagree on its efficacy. In intensive care NAC has mostly been a disappointment but recently it has ‘given promises’ in surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. NAC therapy is routine only in paracetamol intoxication. PMID:16390346

  12. Cocaine withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Substance use - cocaine withdrawal; Substance abuse - cocaine withdrawal; Drug abuse - cocaine withdrawal; Detox - cocaine ... Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 50. National Institute on Drug Abuse. What is cocaine? Updated May 2016. www.drugabuse. ...

  13. The skinny on cocaine: insights into eating behavior and body weight in cocaine-dependent men.

    PubMed

    Ersche, Karen D; Stochl, Jan; Woodward, Jeremy M; Fletcher, Paul C

    2013-12-01

    There is a general assumption that weight loss associated with cocaine use reflects its appetite suppressing properties. We sought to determine whether this was justified by characterizing, in detail, alterations in dietary food intake and body composition in actively using cocaine-dependent individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional case-control comparison of 65 male volunteers from the local community, half of whom satisfied the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cocaine dependence (n=35) while the other half had no personal or family history of a psychiatric disorder, including substance abuse (n=30). Assessments were made of eating behavior and dietary food intake, estimation of body composition, and measurement of plasma leptin. Although cocaine users reported significantly higher levels of dietary fat and carbohydrates as well as patterns of uncontrolled eating, their fat mass was significantly reduced compared with their non-drug using peers. Levels of leptin were associated with fat mass, and with the duration of stimulant use. Tobacco smoking status or concomitant use of medication did not affect the significance of the results. Weight changes in cocaine users reflect fundamental perturbations in fat regulation. These are likely to be overlooked in clinical practice but may produce significant health problems when cocaine use is discontinued during recovery. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. N-Acetylcysteine as an antioxidant and disulphide breaking agent: the reasons why.

    PubMed

    Aldini, Giancarlo; Altomare, Alessandra; Baron, Giovanna; Vistoli, Giulio; Carini, Marina; Borsani, Luisa; Sergio, Francesco

    2018-05-09

    The main molecular mechanisms explaining the well-established antioxidant and reducing activity of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), the N-acetyl derivative of the natural amino acid l-cysteine, are summarised and critically reviewed. The antioxidant effect is due to the ability of NAC to act as a reduced glutathione (GSH) precursor; GSH is a well-known direct antioxidant and a substrate of several antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, in some conditions where a significant depletion of endogenous Cys and GSH occurs, NAC can act as a direct antioxidant for some oxidant species such as NO 2 and HOX. The antioxidant activity of NAC could also be due to its effect in breaking thiolated proteins, thus releasing free thiols as well as reduced proteins, which in some cases, such as for mercaptoalbumin, have important direct antioxidant activity. As well as being involved in the antioxidant mechanism, the disulphide breaking activity of NAC also explains its mucolytic activity which is due to its effect in reducing heavily cross-linked mucus glycoproteins. Chemical features explaining the efficient disulphide breaking activity of NAC are also explained.

  15. Effect of chitosan-N-acetylcysteine conjugate in a mouse model of botulinum toxin B-induced dry eye.

    PubMed

    Hongyok, Teeravee; Chae, Jemin J; Shin, Young Joo; Na, Daero; Li, Li; Chuck, Roy S

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of a thiolated polymer lubricant, chitosan-N-acetylcysteine conjugate (C-NAC), in a mouse model of dry eye. Eye drops containing 0.5% C-NAC, 0.3% C-NAC, a vehicle (control group), artificial tears, or fluorometholone were applied in a masked fashion in a mouse model of induced dry eye from 3 days to 4 weeks after botulinum toxin B injection. Corneal fluorescein staining was periodically recorded. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining were performed at the end of the study to evaluate inflammatory cytokine expressions. Mice treated with C-NAC, 0.5%, and fluorometholone showed a downward trend that was not statistically significant in corneal staining compared with the other groups. Chitosan-NAC formulations, fluorometholone, and artificial tears significantly decreased IL-1beta (interleukin 1beta), IL-10, IL-12alpha, and tumor necrosis factor alpha expression in ocular surface tissues. The botulinum toxin B-induced dry eye mouse model is potentially useful in evaluating new dry eye treatment. Evaluation of important molecular biomarkers suggests that C-NAC may impart some protective ocular surface properties. However, clinical data did not indicate statistically significant improvement of tear production and corneal staining in any of the groups tested. Topically applied C-NAC might protect the ocular surface in dry eye syndrome, as evidenced by decreased inflammatory cytokine expression.

  16. Cocaine dependent individuals discount future rewards more than future losses for both cocaine and monetary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew W; Bruner, Natalie R; Johnson, Patrick S

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine dependence and other forms of drug dependence are associated with steeper devaluation of future outcomes (delay discounting). Although studies in this domain have typically assessed choices between monetary gains (e.g., receive less money now versus receive more money after a delay), delay discounting is also applicable to decisions involving losses (e.g., small loss now versus larger delayed loss), with gains typically discounted more than losses (the "sign effect"). It is also known that drugs are discounted more than equivalently valued money. In the context of drug dependence, however, relatively little is known about the discounting of delayed monetary and drug losses and the presence of the sign effect. In this within-subject, laboratory study, delay discounting for gains and losses was assessed for cocaine and money outcomes in cocaine-dependent individuals (n=89). Both cocaine and monetary gains were discounted at significantly greater rates than cocaine and monetary losses, respectively (i.e., the sign effect). Cocaine gains were discounted significantly more than monetary gains, but cocaine and monetary losses were discounted similarly. Results suggest that cocaine is discounted by cocaine-dependent individuals in a systematic manner similar to other rewards. Because the sign effect was shown for both cocaine and money, delayed aversive outcomes may generally have greater impact than delayed rewards in shaping present behavior in this population. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Combined Cocaine Hydrolase Gene Transfer and Anti-Cocaine Vaccine Synergistically Block Cocaine-Induced Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Marilyn E.; Zlebnik, Natalie E.; Anker, Justin J.; Kosten, Thomas R.; Orson, Frank M.; Shen, Xiaoyun; Kinsey, Berma; Parks, Robin J.; Gao, Yang; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Mice and rats were tested for reduced sensitivity to cocaine-induced hyper-locomotion after pretreatment with anti-cocaine antibody or cocaine hydrolase (CocH) derived from human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). In Balb/c mice, direct i.p. injection of CocH protein (1 mg/kg) had no effect on spontaneous locomotion, but it suppressed responses to i.p. cocaine up to 80 mg/kg. When CocH was injected i.p. along with a murine cocaine antiserum that also did not affect spontaneous locomotion, there was no response to any cocaine dose. This suppression of locomotor activity required active enzyme, as it was lost after pretreatment with iso-OMPA, a selective BChE inhibitor. Comparable results were obtained in rats that developed high levels of CocH by gene transfer with helper-dependent adenoviral vector, and/or high levels of anti-cocaine antibody by vaccination with norcocaine hapten conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). After these treatments, rats were subjected to a locomotor sensitization paradigm involving a “training phase" with an initial i.p. saline injection on day 1 followed by 8 days of repeated cocaine injections (10 mg/kg, i.p.). A 15-day rest period then ensued, followed by a final “challenge" cocaine injection. As in mice, the individual treatment interventions reduced cocaine-stimulated hyperactivity to a modest extent, while combined treatment produced a greater reduction during all phases of testing compared to control rats (with only saline pretreatment). Overall, the present results strongly support the view that anti-cocaine vaccine and cocaine hydrolase vector treatments together provide enhanced protection against the stimulatory actions of cocaine in rodents. A similar combination therapy in human cocaine users might provide a robust therapy to help maintain abstinence. PMID:22912888

  18. Effect of rate of delivery of intravenous cocaine on self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Charles W; Panlilio, Leigh V; Thorndike, Eric B

    2009-10-01

    Many studies of drug self-administration in primates have shown that faster infusions of a drug are more reinforcing than slower infusions. Similar effects have not been shown in rats. We assessed the influence of delivery rate by allowing rats to choose between the same doses of intravenous cocaine delivered over two different infusion speeds. Rats were trained in chambers containing two nose-poke response devices. In Experiment 1, responses in one nose-poke delivered 0.3 mg/kg/injection of cocaine over 10 s, and responses in the other delivered the same dose over 100 s. In Experiment 2, the same procedure was used, but with 1.0 mg/kg/injection dose delivered over 1.7 versus 100 s. During acquisition, most rats preferred the faster infusion. When the delivery rates associated with the nose pokes were reversed, rats trained with 0.3 mg/kg/injection failed to switch nose-poke preference, but half the rats trained with 1.0 mg/kg/injection did switch. In Experiment 3, the choice was between 1 mg/kg cocaine delivered over 1.7 s and no reinforcement. Here, rats quickly learned to respond in the nose-poke associated with cocaine and quickly switched their choice during reversal. In Experiment 4, two groups of rats were allowed to choose between food delivered with a delay of 1 versus 5 s or 1 versus 10 s, respectively. Rats preferred the shorter delay during initial training. In reversal, some rats in the 1 vs 5 s group failed to reverse, while all the rats in the 1 vs 10 s group reversed. These results show that faster infusions of cocaine are clearly more reinforcing during acquisition, but delivery rate may not be as important to the maintenance of self-administration once it has been established. The results with food suggest that these findings represent general principles of behavior and are not unique to drug self-administration.

  19. N-acetylcysteine modulates doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant vitamin concentrations in liver of rats.

    PubMed

    Koçkar, M Cem; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Celik, Omer; Tola, H Tahsin; Bayram, Dilek; Koyu, Ahmet

    2010-12-02

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapeutic agent, and is widely used in cancer treatment. The most common side effect of DOX was indicated on cardiovascular system by experimental studies. There are some studies suggesting oxidative stress-induced toxic changes on liver related to DOX administration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) relieves oxidative stress in DOX- induced liver injury in rat. Twenty-four male rats were equally divided into three groups. First group was used as a control. Second group received single dose of DOX. NAC for 10 days was given to constituting the third group after giving one dose of DOX. After 10 days of the experiment, liver tissues were taken from all animals. Lipid peroxidation (LP) levels were higher in the DOX group than in control whereas LP levels were lower in the DOX+NAC group than in control. Vitamin C and vitamin E levels were lower in the DOX group than in control whereas vitamin C and vitamin E levels were higher in the DOX+NAC group than in the DOX group. Reduced glutathione levels were higher in the DOX+NAC group than in control and DOX group. Glutathione peroxidase, vitamin A and β-carotene values were not changed in the three groups by DOX and NAC administrations. In histopathological evaluation of DOX group, there were mononuclear cell infiltrations, vacuolar degeneration, hepatocytes with basophilic nucleus and sinusoidal dilatations. The findings were totally recovered by NAC administration. In conclusion, N-acetylcysteine induced modulator effects on the doxorubicin-induced hepatoxicity by inhibiting free radical production and supporting the antioxidant vitamin levels. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Cocaine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Nick J.; Yeager, Rebecca D.

    Cocaine was first used by Europeans in the nineteenth century when extract from the coca leaf was combined with various beverages. Cocaine comes as a white crystalline powder. However, a product called crack cocaine may come as an opaque crystal similar in size and shape to rock salt. A third form of cocaine is known as coca paste, which is an…

  1. Safety of Atomoxetine in Combination with Intravenous Cocaine in Cocaine- Experienced Participants

    PubMed Central

    Cantilena, Louis; Kahn, Roberta; Duncan, Connie C.; Li, Shou-Hua; Anderson, Ann; Elkashef, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Atomoxetine has been considered as an agonist replacement therapy for cocaine. We investigated the safety of the interaction of atomoxetine with cocaine, and also whether cognitive function was affected by atomoxetine during short-term administration. Methods In a double-blind placebo-controlled inpatient study of 20 cocaine-dependent volunteers, participants received atomoxetine 80 mg daily followed by 100 mg daily for 5 days each. On the fourth and fifth day at each dose, cocaine (20 mg and 40 mg) was infused intravenously in sequential daily sessions. Results Pre-infusion mean systolic pressures showed a small but statistically significant difference between placebo and both doses of atomoxetine. Pre-infusion mean diastolic pressures were significant between placebo and atomoxetine 80 mg only. The diastolic pressure response to 40 mg cocaine was statistically significant only between the 80 mg and 100 mg atomoxetine doses. All ECG parameters were unchanged. VAS scores for “bad effect” in the atomoxetine group were significantly higher at baseline, then declined, and for “likely to use” declined with atomoxetine treatment. On the ARCI the atomoxetine group scored significantly lower on amphetamine, euphoria and energy subscales (p<0.0001). Other VAS descriptors, BSCS, POMS, and BPRS showed no differences. Atomoxetine did not affect cocaine pharmacokinetics. In tests of working memory, sustained attention, cognitive flexibility, and decision-making, atomoxetine improved performance on the visual n-back task. There were no differences in any pharmacokinetic parameters for cocaine with atomoxetine. Conclusions Atomoxetine was tolerated safely by all participants. Certain cognitive improvements and a dampening effect on VAS scores after cocaine were observed, but should be weighed against small but significant differences in hemodynamic responses after atomoxetine. PMID:22987022

  2. Protective effect of N-acetylcysteine activated carbon release microcapsule on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhaobin; Shi, Tingting; Zhuang, Rangxiao; Fang, Hongying; Jiang, Xiaojie; Shao, Yidan; Zhou, Hongping

    2018-01-01

    With the development of science and technology, and development of artery bypass, methods such as cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation have been practiced in recent years. Despite this, some methods fail to promote or recover the function of tissues and organs, and in some cases, may aggravate dysfunction and structural damage to tissues. The latter is typical of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Lipid peroxidation mediated by free radicals is an important process of myocardial IR injury. Myocardial IR has been demonstrated to induce the formation of large numbers of free radicals in rats, which promotes the peroxidation of lipids within unsaturated fatty acids in the myocardial cell membrane. Markers of lipid peroxidation include malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and lactic dehydrogenase. Recent studies have demonstrated that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is able to dilate blood vessels, prevent oxidative damage, improve immunity, inhibit apoptosis and the inflammatory response and promote glutathione synthesis in cells. NAC also improves the systolic function of myocardial cells and cardiac function, prevents myocardial apoptosis, protects ventricular remodeling and vascular remodeling, reduces opiomelanocortin levels in the serum and increases the content of nitric oxide in the serum, thus improving vascular endothelial function. Therefore, NAC has potent pharmacological activity; however, the relatively fast metabolism of NAC, along with its large clinical dose and low bioavailability, limit its applications. The present study combined NAC with medicinal activated carbons, and prepared N-acetylcysteine activated carbon sustained-release microcapsules (ACNACs) to overcome the limitations of NAC. It was demonstrated that ACNACs exerted greater effective protective effects than NAC alone on myocardial IR injury in rats. PMID:29434769

  3. A Single Amphetamine Infusion Reverses Deficits in Dopamine Nerve-Terminal Function Caused by a History of Cocaine Self-Administration.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Mark J; Calipari, Erin S; Rose, Jamie H; Siciliano, Cody A; Sun, Haiguo; Chen, Rong; Jones, Sara R

    2015-07-01

    There are ∼ 1.6 million people who meet the criteria for cocaine addiction in the United States, and there are currently no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies. Amphetamine-based dopamine-releasing drugs have shown efficacy in reducing the motivation to self-administer cocaine and reducing intake in animals and humans. It is hypothesized that amphetamine acts as a replacement therapy for cocaine through elevation of extracellular dopamine levels. Using voltammetry in brain slices, we tested the ability of a single amphetamine infusion in vivo to modulate dopamine release, uptake kinetics, and cocaine potency in cocaine-naive animals and after a history of cocaine self-administration (1.5 mg/kg/infusion, fixed-ratio 1, 40 injections/day × 5 days). Dopamine kinetics were measured 1 and 24 h after amphetamine infusion (0.56 mg/kg, i.v.). Following cocaine self-administration, dopamine release, maximal rate of uptake (Vmax), and membrane-associated dopamine transporter (DAT) levels were reduced, and the DAT was less sensitive to cocaine. A single amphetamine infusion reduced Vmax and membrane DAT levels in cocaine-naive animals, but fully restored all aspects of dopamine terminal function in cocaine self-administering animals. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate pharmacologically induced, immediate rescue of deficits in dopamine nerve-terminal function in animals with a history of high-dose cocaine self-administration. This observation supports the notion that the DAT expression and function can be modulated on a rapid timescale and also suggests that the pharmacotherapeutic actions of amphetamine for cocaine addiction go beyond that of replacement therapy.

  4. A Single Amphetamine Infusion Reverses Deficits in Dopamine Nerve-Terminal Function Caused by a History of Cocaine Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Mark J; Calipari, Erin S; Rose, Jamie H; Siciliano, Cody A; Sun, Haiguo; Chen, Rong; Jones, Sara R

    2015-01-01

    There are ∼1.6 million people who meet the criteria for cocaine addiction in the United States, and there are currently no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies. Amphetamine-based dopamine-releasing drugs have shown efficacy in reducing the motivation to self-administer cocaine and reducing intake in animals and humans. It is hypothesized that amphetamine acts as a replacement therapy for cocaine through elevation of extracellular dopamine levels. Using voltammetry in brain slices, we tested the ability of a single amphetamine infusion in vivo to modulate dopamine release, uptake kinetics, and cocaine potency in cocaine-naive animals and after a history of cocaine self-administration (1.5 mg/kg/infusion, fixed-ratio 1, 40 injections/day × 5 days). Dopamine kinetics were measured 1 and 24 h after amphetamine infusion (0.56 mg/kg, i.v.). Following cocaine self-administration, dopamine release, maximal rate of uptake (Vmax), and membrane-associated dopamine transporter (DAT) levels were reduced, and the DAT was less sensitive to cocaine. A single amphetamine infusion reduced Vmax and membrane DAT levels in cocaine-naive animals, but fully restored all aspects of dopamine terminal function in cocaine self-administering animals. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate pharmacologically induced, immediate rescue of deficits in dopamine nerve-terminal function in animals with a history of high-dose cocaine self-administration. This observation supports the notion that the DAT expression and function can be modulated on a rapid timescale and also suggests that the pharmacotherapeutic actions of amphetamine for cocaine addiction go beyond that of replacement therapy. PMID:25689882

  5. Beneficial effects of n-acetylcysteine on ischaemic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Mazzon, Emanuela; Costantino, Giuseppina; Serraino, Ivana; Dugo, Laura; Calabrò, Giusy; Cucinotta, Giovanni; De Sarro, Angela; Caputi, A P

    2000-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), peroxynitrite, formed from NO and superoxide anion, poly (ADP-ribole) synthetase have been implicated as mediators of neuronal damage following focal ischaemia. Here we have investigated the effects of n-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment in Mongolian gerbils subjected to cerebral ischaemia.Treatment of gerbils with NAC (20 mg kg−1 30 min before reperfusion and 1, 2 and 6 h after reperfusion) reduced the formation of post-ischaemic brain oedema, evaluated by water content.NAC also attenuated the increase in the brain levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the increase in the hippocampus of myeloperoxidase (MPO) caused by cerebral ischaemia.Positive staining for nitrotyrosine was found in the hippocampus in Mongolian gerbils subjected to cerebral ischaemia. Hippocampus tissue sections from Mongolian gerbils subjected to cerebral ischaemia also showed positive staining for poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS). The degree of staining for nitrotyrosine and for PARS were markedly reduced in tissue sections obtained from animals that received NAC.NAC treatment increased survival and reduced hyperactivity linked to neurodegeneration induced by cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion.Histological observations of the pyramidal layer of CA1 showed a reduction of neuronal loss in animals that received NAC.These results show that NAC improves brain injury induced by transient cerebral ischaemia. PMID:10903958

  6. Antimicrobial Activity of Penicillin G and N-acetylcystein on Planktonic and Sessile Cells of Streptococcus suis.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Ivette; Báez, Michel; Lobo, Evelyn; Martínez, Siomara; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of Streptococcus suis strains to form biofilms and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Penicillin G and N-acetylcystein (NAC) on both S. suis sessile and planktonic forms. Only non-typeable isolates of S. suis were correlated with a greater biofilm formation capacity. The MCI of Penicillin G and NAC required for inhibiting biofilm growth were higher than the required concentration for inhibiting planktonic growth. The combinations of NAC and Penicillin G showed a strong synergistic activity that inhibited biofilm formation and disrupted the pre-formed biofilm of S. suis.

  7. Safety of atomoxetine in combination with intravenous cocaine in cocaine-experienced participants.

    PubMed

    Cantilena, Louis; Kahn, Roberta; Duncan, Connie C; Li, Shou-Hua; Anderson, Ann; Elkashef, Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    Atomoxetine has been considered as an agonist replacement therapy for cocaine. We investigated the safety of the interaction of atomoxetine with cocaine and also whether cognitive function was affected by atomoxetine during short-term administration. In a double-blind placebo-controlled inpatient study of 20 cocaine-dependent volunteers, participants received atomoxetine 80 mg daily followed by 100 mg daily for 5 days each. On the fourth and fifth day at each dose, cocaine (20 and 40 mg) was infused intravenously in sequential daily sessions. Preinfusion mean systolic pressures showed a small but statistically significant difference between placebo and both doses of atomoxetine. Preinfusion mean diastolic pressures were significant between placebo and atomoxetine 80 mg only. The diastolic pressure response to 40 mg cocaine was statistically significant only between the 80- and 100-mg atomoxetine doses. All electrocardiogram parameters were unchanged. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores for "bad effect" in the atomoxetine group were significantly higher at baseline, then declined, and for "likely to use" declined with atomoxetine treatment. On the Addiction Research Center Inventory, the atomoxetine group scored significantly lower on amphetamine, euphoria, and energy subscales (P < 0.0001). Other VAS descriptors, Brief Substance Craving Scale, Profile of Moods State, and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale showed no differences. Atomoxetine did not affect cocaine pharmacokinetics. In tests of working memory, sustained attention, cognitive flexibility, and decision-making, atomoxetine improved performance on the visual n-back task. There were no differences in any pharmacokinetic parameters for cocaine with atomoxetine. Atomoxetine was tolerated safely by all participants. Certain cognitive improvements and a dampening effect on VAS scores after cocaine were observed, but should be weighed against small but significant differences in hemodynamic responses after atomoxetine.

  8. Cocaine adulteration.

    PubMed

    Kudlacek, Oliver; Hofmaier, Tina; Luf, Anton; Mayer, Felix P; Stockner, Thomas; Nagy, Constanze; Holy, Marion; Freissmuth, Michael; Schmid, Rainer; Sitte, Harald H

    2017-10-01

    Cocaine is a naturally occurring and illicitly used psychostimulant drug. Cocaine acts at monoaminergic neurotransmitter transporters to block uptake of the monoamines, dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine. The resulting increase of monoamines in the extracellular space underlies the positively reinforcing effects that cocaine users seek. In turn, this increase in monoamines underlies the development of addiction, and can also result in a number of severe side effects. Currently, cocaine is one of the most common illicit drugs available on the European market. However, cocaine is increasingly sold in impure forms. This trend is driven by cocaine dealers seeking to increase their profit margin by mixing ("cutting") cocaine with numerous other compounds ("adulterants"). Importantly, these undeclared compounds put cocaine consumers at risk, because consumers are not aware of the additional potential threats to their health. This review describes adulterants that have been identified in cocaine sold on the street market. Their typical pharmacological profile and possible reasons why these compounds can be used as cutting agents will be discussed. Since a subset of these adulterants has been found to exert effects similar to cocaine itself, we will discuss levamisole, the most frequently used cocaine cutting agent today, and its metabolite aminorex. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. σ Receptor Effects of N-Substituted Benztropine Analogs: Implications for Antagonism of Cocaine Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Hiranita, Takato; Hong, Weimin C.; Kopajtic, Theresa

    2017-01-01

    Several N-substituted benztropine (BZT) analogs are atypical dopamine transport inhibitors as they have affinity for the dopamine transporter (DAT) but have minimal cocaine-like pharmacologic effects and can block numerous effects of cocaine, including its self-administration. Among these compounds, N-methyl (AHN1-055), N-allyl (AHN2-005), and N-butyl (JHW007) analogs of 3α-[bis(4′-fluorophenyl)methoxy]-tropane were more potent in antagonizing self-administration of cocaine and d-methamphetamine than in decreasing food-maintained responding. The antagonism of cocaine self-administration (0.03–1.0 mg/kg per injection) with the above BZT analogs was reproduced in the present study. Further, the stimulant-antagonist effects resembled previously reported effects of pretreatments with combinations of standard DAT inhibitors and σ1-receptor (σ1R) antagonists. Therefore, the present study examined binding of the BZT analogs to σRs, as well as their in vivo σR antagonist effects. Each of the BZT analogs displaced radiolabeled σR ligands with nanomolar affinity. Further, self-administration of the σR agonist DTG (0.1–3.2 mg/kg/injection) was dose dependently blocked by AHN2-005 and JHW007 but potentiated by AHN1-055. In contrast, none of the BZT analogs that were active against DTG self-administration was active against the self-administration of agonists at dopamine D1-like [R(+)-SKF 81297, (±)-SKF 82958 (0.00032–0.01 mg/kg per injection each)], D2-like [R(–)-NPA (0.0001–0.0032 mg/kg per injection), (–)-quinpirole (0.0032–0.1 mg/kg per injection)], or μ-opioid (remifentanil, 0.0001–0.0032 mg/kg per injection) receptors. The present results indicate that behavioral antagonist effects of the N-substituted BZT analogs are specific for abused drugs acting at the DAT and further suggest that σR antagonism contributes to those actions. PMID:28442581

  10. σ Receptor Effects of N-Substituted Benztropine Analogs: Implications for Antagonism of Cocaine Self-Administration.

    PubMed

    Hiranita, Takato; Hong, Weimin C; Kopajtic, Theresa; Katz, Jonathan L

    2017-07-01

    Several N-substituted benztropine (BZT) analogs are atypical dopamine transport inhibitors as they have affinity for the dopamine transporter (DAT) but have minimal cocaine-like pharmacologic effects and can block numerous effects of cocaine, including its self-administration. Among these compounds, N -methyl (AHN1-055), N -allyl (AHN2-005), and N -butyl (JHW007) analogs of 3 α -[bis(4'-fluorophenyl)methoxy]-tropane were more potent in antagonizing self-administration of cocaine and d -methamphetamine than in decreasing food-maintained responding. The antagonism of cocaine self-administration (0.03-1.0 mg/kg per injection) with the above BZT analogs was reproduced in the present study. Further, the stimulant-antagonist effects resembled previously reported effects of pretreatments with combinations of standard DAT inhibitors and σ 1 -receptor ( σ 1 R) antagonists. Therefore, the present study examined binding of the BZT analogs to σ Rs, as well as their in vivo σ R antagonist effects. Each of the BZT analogs displaced radiolabeled σ R ligands with nanomolar affinity. Further, self-administration of the σ R agonist DTG (0.1-3.2 mg/kg/injection) was dose dependently blocked by AHN2-005 and JHW007 but potentiated by AHN1-055. In contrast, none of the BZT analogs that were active against DTG self-administration was active against the self-administration of agonists at dopamine D 1 -like [ R (+)-SKF 81297, (±)-SKF 82958 (0.00032-0.01 mg/kg per injection each)], D 2 -like [ R (-)-NPA (0.0001-0.0032 mg/kg per injection), (-)-quinpirole (0.0032-0.1 mg/kg per injection)], or μ -opioid (remifentanil, 0.0001-0.0032 mg/kg per injection) receptors. The present results indicate that behavioral antagonist effects of the N -substituted BZT analogs are specific for abused drugs acting at the DAT and further suggest that σ R antagonism contributes to those actions. U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.

  11. N-acetylcysteine inhibits endothelial cell invasion and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cai, T; Fassina, G; Morini, M; Aluigi, M G; Masiello, L; Fontanini, G; D'Agostini, F; De Flora, S; Noonan, D M; Albini, A

    1999-09-01

    The thiol N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a chemopreventive agent that acts through a variety of mechanisms and can prevent in vivo carcinogenesis. We have previously shown that NAC inhibits invasion and metastasis of malignant cells as well as tumor take. Neovascularization is critical for tumor mass expansion and metastasis formation. We investigated whether a target of the anti-cancer activity of NAC could be the inhibition of the tumor angiogenesis-associated phenotype in vitro and in vivo using the potent angiogenic mixture of Kaposi's sarcoma cell products as a stimulus. Two endothelial (EAhy926 and human umbilical vein endothelial [HUVE]) cell lines were utilized in a panel of assays to test NAC ability in inhibiting chemotaxis, invasion, and gelatinolytic activity in vitro. NAC treatment of EAhy926 and HUVE cells in vitro dose-dependently reduced their ability to invade a reconstituted basement membrane, an indicator of endothelial cell activation. Invasion of HUVE cells was inhibited with an ID50 of 0.24 mM NAC, whereas inhibition of chemotaxis required a 10 fold higher doses, indicating that invasion is a preferential target. NAC inhibited the enzymatic activity and conversion to active forms of the gelatinase produced by endothelial cells. The matrigel in vivo assay was used for the evaluation of angiogenesis; NAC strongly inhibited neovascularization of the matrigel sponges in response to Kaposi's sarcoma cell products. NAC prevented angiogenesis while preserving endothelial cells, implying that it could be safely used as an anti-angiogenic treatment.

  12. Effects of acetylcysteine and probucol on contrast medium-induced depression of intrinsic renal glutathione peroxidase activity in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Lee, Hsiang-Chun; Lai, Wen-Te; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2007-04-01

    Antioxidants such as N-acetylcysteine and probucol have been used to protect patients from contrast media-induced nephrotoxicity. The mechanisms underlying these protective effects are not well understood. We hypothesized that acetylcysteine and probucol alter the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity. Four weeks after induction of diabetes with streptozotocin, diabetic and nondiabetic rats were divided into three groups. Group 1 rats did not receive any antioxidant agents. Group 2 rats were treated with acetylcysteine and group 3 rats with probucol for 1 week before injection of the contrast medium diatrizoate (DTZ). We found that diabetic rats had higher renal glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity than normal rats. DTZ suppressed renal GPx activity significantly in both group 1 diabetic and normal rats. Interestingly, renal GPx activity in both diabetic and normal rats pretreated with acetylcysteine or probucol was not inhibited by DTZ. Renal superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly in normal rats after DTZ injection, but not in diabetic rats. Finally, acetylcysteine or probucol did not significantly influence renal SOD. These findings suggest that the renal protective effects of acetylcysteine and probucol against contrast-induced oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity may be mediated by altering endogenous GPx activity.

  13. Demand Curves for Hypothetical Cocaine in Cocaine-Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Bruner, Natalie R.; Johnson, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Drug purchasing tasks have been successfully used to examine demand for hypothetical consumption of abused drugs including heroin, nicotine, and alcohol. In these tasks drug users make hypothetical choices whether to buy drugs, and if so, at what quantity, at various potential prices. These tasks allow for behavioral economic assessment of that drug's intensity of demand (preferred level of consumption at extremely low prices) and demand elasticity (sensitivity of consumption to price), among other metrics. However, a purchasing task for cocaine in cocaine-dependent individuals has not been investigated. Objectives This study examined a novel Cocaine Purchasing Task and the relation between resulting demand metrics and self-reported cocaine use data. Methods Participants completed a questionnaire assessing hypothetical purchases of cocaine units at prices ranging from $0.01 to $1,000. Demand curves were generated from responses on the Cocaine Purchasing Task. Correlations compared metrics from the demand curve to measures of real-world cocaine use. Results Group and individual data were well modeled by a demand curve function. The validity of the Cocaine Purchasing Task was supported by a significant correlation between the demand curve metrics of demand intensity and Omax (determined from Cocaine Purchasing Task data) and self-reported measures of cocaine use. Partial correlations revealed that after controlling for demand intensity, demand elasticity and the related measure, Pmax, were significantly correlated with real-world cocaine use. Conclusions Results indicate that the Cocaine Purchasing Task produces orderly demand curve data, and that these data relate to real-world measures of cocaine use. PMID:24217899

  14. Demand curves for hypothetical cocaine in cocaine-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Natalie R; Johnson, Matthew W

    2014-03-01

    Drug purchasing tasks have been successfully used to examine demand for hypothetical consumption of abused drugs including heroin, nicotine, and alcohol. In these tasks, drug users make hypothetical choices whether to buy drugs, and if so, at what quantity, at various potential prices. These tasks allow for behavioral economic assessment of that drug's intensity of demand (preferred level of consumption at extremely low prices) and demand elasticity (sensitivity of consumption to price), among other metrics. However, a purchasing task for cocaine in cocaine-dependent individuals has not been investigated. This study examined a novel Cocaine Purchasing Task and the relation between resulting demand metrics and self-reported cocaine use data. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing hypothetical purchases of cocaine units at prices ranging from $0.01 to $1,000. Demand curves were generated from responses on the Cocaine Purchasing Task. Correlations compared metrics from the demand curve to measures of real-world cocaine use. Group and individual data were well modeled by a demand curve function. The validity of the Cocaine Purchasing Task was supported by a significant correlation between the demand curve metrics of demand intensity and O max (determined from Cocaine Purchasing Task data) and self-reported measures of cocaine use. Partial correlations revealed that after controlling for demand intensity, demand elasticity and the related measure, P max, were significantly correlated with real-world cocaine use. Results indicate that the Cocaine Purchasing Task produces orderly demand curve data, and that these data relate to real-world measures of cocaine use.

  15. The effect of N-acetylcysteine on biofilms: Implications for the treatment of respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Blasi, Francesco; Page, Clive; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Pallecchi, Lucia; Matera, Maria Gabriella; Rogliani, Paola; Cazzola, Mario

    2016-08-01

    In airway infections, biofilm formation has been demonstrated to be responsible for both acute and chronic events, and constitutes a genuine challenge in clinical practice. Difficulty in eradicating biofilms with systemic antibiotics has led clinicians to consider the possible role of non-antibiotic therapy. The aim of this review is to examine current evidence for the use of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in the treatment of biofilm-related respiratory infections. Electronic searches of PUBMED up to September 2015 were conducted, searching for 'biofilm', 'respiratory tract infection', 'N-acetylcysteine', 'cystic fibrosis', 'COPD', 'bronchiectasis', 'otitis', and 'bronchitis' in titles and abstracts. Studies included for review were primarily in English, but a few in Italian were also selected. Biofilm formation may be involved in many infections, including ventilator-associated pneumonia, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, bronchitis, and upper respiratory airway infections. Many in vitro studies have demonstrated that NAC is effective in inhibiting biofilm formation, disrupting preformed biofilms (both initial and mature), and reducing bacterial viability in biofilms. There are fewer clinical studies on the use of NAC in disruption of biofilm formation, although there is some evidence that NAC alone or in combination with antibiotics can decrease the risk of exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and rhinosinusitis. However, the usefulness of NAC in the treatment of cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis is still matter of debate. Most of the studies published to date have used oral or intramuscular NAC formulations. Evidence from in vitro studies indicates that NAC has good antibacterial properties and the ability to interfere with biofilm formation and disrupt biofilms. Results from clinical studies have provided some encouraging findings that need to be confirmed and expanded using other routes of administration of NAC such as

  16. Assessing the effects of melatonin and N-acetylcysteine on the McFarlane flap using a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Tunç, Süphan; Kesiktas, Erol; Yilmaz, Yeliz; Açikalin, Arbil; Oran, Gökçen; Yavuz, Metin; Gencel, Eyüphan; Eser, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and melatonin, alone and in combination, on McFarlane flap viability in a rat model. METHODS Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups and received daily intraperitoneal injections for one week before surgery: control (sham [n=10]); melatonin (n=10); NAC (n=10); and NAC+melatonin (n=10). One week after surgery, the experiment was terminated and photographs were taken for topographic studies. A transillumination study was performed to observe vascularization in the flaps and biopsies were obtained for histopathological studies. RESULTS Flap viability was significantly greater in the antioxidant- (ie, NAC and melatonin) treated groups compared with the control group; however, there were no significant differences among the groups that received antioxidants. CONCLUSIONS Melatonin and NAC are important antioxidants that can be used alone or in combination to increase flap viability and prevent distal necrosis in rats. PMID:28439512

  17. Development and utilization of extracorporeal regional complexing hemodialysis as a means of mobilizing and enhancing the excretion of methylmercury in the dog. [N-acetylcysteine; N-acetylpenicillamine; 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kostyniak, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    The present investigation was directed at developing and testing a new procedure for increasing methylmercury excretion in the dog. The procedure utilizes hemodialysis in conjunction with the extracorporeal reversal of protein binding of methylmercury in blood by the presence of low molecular weight sulfhydryl containing complexing agents (cysteine, N-acetylcysteine, penicillamine, N-acetylpenicillamine, 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid) having a high chemical affinity for methylmercury. Using such a procedure, the complexed methylmercury and the free complexing agent were found to be readily removed from blood by the dialyzer. Unlike chelation therapy, this procedure does not rely on the attainment of high systemic concentrations of complexingmore » agent in order to attain enhanced excretion by normal routes. It rather introduces into the circulatory system a shunt designed specifically for methylmercury extraction from blood. In vitro testing of this procedure revealed that methylmercury removal from blood was dependent upon the concentration of complexing agent in blood and the dialyzer blood flow rate. In vivo testing of the procedure in the dog utilized a standard hemodialyzer with infusion of complexing agent into the arterial dialyzer blood line. The rate of methylmercury removal from the dog during the treatment procedures were as high as 400 times the excretion rate of mercury in untreated dogs.« less

  18. Cocaine

    MedlinePlus

    Cocaine is a white powder. It can be snorted up the nose or mixed with water and injected with a needle. Cocaine can also be made into small white rocks, ... Crack is smoked in a small glass pipe. Cocaine speeds up your whole body. You may feel ...

  19. Effects of Phendimetrazine Treatment on Cocaine vs Food Choice and Extended-Access Cocaine Consumption in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Matthew L; Blough, Bruce E; Fennell, Timothy R; Snyder, Rodney W; Negus, S Stevens

    2013-01-01

    There is currently no Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapy for cocaine addiction. Monoamine releasers such as d-amphetamine constitute one class of candidate medications, but clinical use and acceptance are hindered by their own high-abuse liability. Phendimetrazine (PDM) is a schedule III anorectic agent that functions as both a low-potency monoamine-uptake inhibitor and as a prodrug for the monoamine-releaser phenmetrazine (PM), and it may serve as a clinically available, effective, and safer alternative to d-amphetamine. This study determined efficacy of chronic PDM to reduce cocaine self-administration by rhesus monkeys (N=4) using a novel procedure that featured both daily assessments of cocaine vs food choice (to assess medication efficacy to reallocate behavior away from cocaine choice and toward choice of an alternative reinforcer) and 20 h/day cocaine access (to allow high-cocaine intake). Continuous 21-day treatment with ramping PDM doses (days 1–7: 0.32 mg/kg/h; days 8–21: 1.0 mg/kg/h) reduced cocaine choices, increased food choices, and nearly eliminated extended-access cocaine self-administration without affecting body weight. There was a trend for plasma PDM and PM levels to correlate with efficacy to decrease cocaine choice such that the monkey with the highest plasma PDM and PM levels also demonstrated the greatest reductions in cocaine choice. These results support further consideration of PDM as a candidate anti-cocaine addiction pharmacotherapy. Moreover, PDM may represent a novel pharmacotherapeutic approach for cocaine addiction because it may simultaneously function as both a monoamine-uptake inhibitor (via the parent drug PDM) and as a monoamine releaser (via the active metabolite PM). PMID:23893022

  20. Effects of phendimetrazine treatment on cocaine vs food choice and extended-access cocaine consumption in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Banks, Matthew L; Blough, Bruce E; Fennell, Timothy R; Snyder, Rodney W; Negus, S Stevens

    2013-12-01

    There is currently no Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapy for cocaine addiction. Monoamine releasers such as d-amphetamine constitute one class of candidate medications, but clinical use and acceptance are hindered by their own high-abuse liability. Phendimetrazine (PDM) is a schedule III anorectic agent that functions as both a low-potency monoamine-uptake inhibitor and as a prodrug for the monoamine-releaser phenmetrazine (PM), and it may serve as a clinically available, effective, and safer alternative to d-amphetamine. This study determined efficacy of chronic PDM to reduce cocaine self-administration by rhesus monkeys (N=4) using a novel procedure that featured both daily assessments of cocaine vs food choice (to assess medication efficacy to reallocate behavior away from cocaine choice and toward choice of an alternative reinforcer) and 20 h/day cocaine access (to allow high-cocaine intake). Continuous 21-day treatment with ramping PDM doses (days 1-7: 0.32 mg/kg/h; days 8-21: 1.0 mg/kg/h) reduced cocaine choices, increased food choices, and nearly eliminated extended-access cocaine self-administration without affecting body weight. There was a trend for plasma PDM and PM levels to correlate with efficacy to decrease cocaine choice such that the monkey with the highest plasma PDM and PM levels also demonstrated the greatest reductions in cocaine choice. These results support further consideration of PDM as a candidate anti-cocaine addiction pharmacotherapy. Moreover, PDM may represent a novel pharmacotherapeutic approach for cocaine addiction because it may simultaneously function as both a monoamine-uptake inhibitor (via the parent drug PDM) and as a monoamine releaser (via the active metabolite PM).

  1. N-Acetylcysteine interacts with copper to generate hydrogen peroxide and selectively induce cancer cell death

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jie; Lou, Jessica R.; Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Benbrook, Doris M.; Hanigan, Marie H.; Lind, Stuart E.; Ding, Wei-Qun

    2013-01-01

    A variety of metal-binding compounds have been found to exert anti-cancer activity. We postulated that N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which is a membrane-permeable metal-binding compound, might have anti-cancer activity in the presence of metals. We found that NAC/Cu(II) significantly alters growth and induces apoptosis in human cancer lines, yet NAC/Zn(II) and NAC/Fe(III) do not. We further confirmed that this cytotoxicity of NAC/Cu(II) is attributed to reactive oxygen species (ROS). These findings indicate that the combination of Cu(II) and thiols generates cytotoxic ROS that induce apoptosis in cancer cells. They also indicate a fourth class of anti-neoplastic metal-binding compounds, the “ROS generator”. PMID:20667650

  2. N-Acetylcysteine Amide Protects Against Oxidative Stress–Induced Microparticle Release From Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Kyle A.; Yang, Dongli

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Oxidative stress is a major factor involved in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) apoptosis that underlies AMD. Drusen, extracellular lipid- and protein-containing deposits, are strongly associated with the development of AMD. Cell-derived microparticles (MPs) are small membrane-bound vesicles shed from cells. The purpose of this study was to determine if oxidative stress drives MP release from RPE cells, to assess whether these MPs carry membrane complement regulatory proteins (mCRPs: CD46, CD55, and CD59), and to evaluate the effects of a thiol antioxidant on oxidative stress–induced MP release. Methods Retinal pigment epithelium cells isolated from human donor eyes were cultured and treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to induce oxidative stress. Isolated MPs were fixed for transmission electron microscopy or processed for component analysis by flow cytometry, Western blot analysis, and confocal microscopy. Results Transmission electron microscopy showed that MPs ranged in diameter from 100 to 1000 nm. H2O2 treatment led to time- and dose-dependent elevations in MPs with externalized phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine, known markers of MPs. These increases were strongly correlated to RPE apoptosis. Oxidative stress significantly increased the release of mCRP-positive MPs, which were prevented by a thiol antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA). Conclusions This is the first evidence that oxidative stress induces cultured human RPE cells to release MPs that carry mCRPs on their surface. The levels of released MPs are strongly correlated with RPE apoptosis. N-acetylcysteine amide prevents oxidative stress–induced effects. Our findings indicate that oxidative stress reduces mCRPs on the RPE surface through releasing MPs. PMID:26842754

  3. Ozone-induced impairment of mucociliary transport and its prevention with N-acetylcysteine

    SciTech Connect

    Allegra, L.; Moavero, N.E.; Rampoldi, C.

    1991-09-30

    The effects of an oxidizing gaseous pollutant on tracheal mucous velocity have been studied in conscious sheep. Acute (2 hours) exposure to 1.0 ppm of ozone showed an effect on tracheal mucous velocity that resulted in a significant decrease 40 minutes and 2 hours after exposure (35% and 40% of the baseline, respectively). Repeated exposure for longer periods (4 days, 5 hours/day) to 1.0 ppm of ozone also significantly decreased tracheal mucous velocity during the first and the second day (-47% and -70% of the baseline, respectively), but during the following days of exposure adaptation took place (tracheal mucous velocitymore » ranging from -42% to -55% of baseline). The tracheal mucous velocity still significantly decreased 5 days after the last exposure. N-Acetylcysteine, known both for its mucolytic and antioxidizing properties, has been demonstrated to prevent significantly all of the immediate effects of either short-term or long-term ozone exposures on mucociliary functions.« less

  4. Stability of acetylcysteine solution repackaged in oral syringes and associated cost savings.

    PubMed

    Kiser, Tyree H; Oldland, Alan R; Fish, Douglas N

    2007-04-01

    The physical and chemical stability of repackaged acetylcysteine 600 mg/3 mL solution in oral syringes stored under refrigeration or at room temperature was studied for six months; a cost analysis was also conducted. Acetylcysteine 20% solution for inhalation was repackaged undiluted as 600 mg/3 mL in capped oral syringes and stored either under refrigeration or at room temperature exposed to fluorescent light. Four samples for each storage condition were analyzed in duplicate on day zero, weekly for the first month, and then every two weeks during months 2-6. Physical stability was assessed, and the chemical stability of acetylcysteine was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Acetylcysteine solution in syringes was physically stable during the entire six-month study period. When stored at room temperature, acetylcysteine retained 99% of the original concentration at three months and 95% at six months after preparation of the syringes. Loss of acetylcysteine was <2% at six months when stored under refrigeration. Packaging acetylcysteine in batches of 100 syringes instead of preparing individual syringes reduced wastage to zero syringes, saving an estimated $247 in drug costs. The estimated pharmacy time savings was 30 hours ($702). Acetylcysteine 20% solution repackaged as 600 mg/3 mL in oral syringes is both physically and chemically stable under refrigeration or at room temperature under normal fluorescent lighting for six months. The total loss of acetylcysteine was approximately 5% at room temperature under fluorescent lighting and <2% under refrigeration. Repackaging the solution in syringes in bulk rather than in single doses demonstrated a measurable cost saving.

  5. Pharmacotherapeutics directed at deficiencies associated with cocaine dependence: Focus on dopamine, norepinephrine and glutamate

    PubMed Central

    Haile, Colin N.; Mahoney, James J.; Newton, Thomas F.; De La Garza, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has been devoted to research focused on pharmacotherapies for cocaine dependence yet there are no FDA-approved medications for this brain disease. Preclinical models have been essential to defining the central and peripheral effects produced by cocaine. Recent evidence suggests that cocaine exerts its reinforcing effects by acting on multiple neurotransmitter systems within mesocorticolimibic circuitry. Imaging studies in cocaine-dependent individuals have identified deficiencies in dopaminergic signaling primarily localized to corticolimbic areas. In addition to dysregulated striatal dopamine, norepinephrine and glutamate are also altered in cocaine dependence. In this review, we present these brain abnormalities as therapeutic targets for the treatment of cocaine dependence. We then survey promising medications that exert their therapeutic effects by presumably ameliorating these brain deficiencies. Correcting neurochemical deficits in cocaine-dependent individuals improves memory and impulse control, and reduces drug craving that may decrease cocaine use. We hypothesize that using medications aimed at reversing known neurochemical imbalances is likely to be more productive than current approaches. This view is also consistent with treatment paradigms used in neuropsychiatry and general medicine. PMID:22327234

  6. Enhanced Choice for Viewing Cocaine Pictures in Cocaine Addiction

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, S.J.; Goldstein, R.; Moeller, S.J.

    Individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) chose cocaine over nondrug rewards. In two newly designed laboratory tasks with pictures, we document this modified choice outside of a cocaine administration paradigm. Choice for viewing cocaine, pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral pictures-under explicit contingencies (choice made between two fully visible side-by-side images) and under more implicit contingencies (selections made between pictures hidden under flipped-over cards)-was examined in 20 CUD and 20 matched healthy control subjects. Subjects also provided self-reported ratings of each picture's pleasantness and arousal. Under both contingencies, CUD subjects chose to view more cocaine pictures than control subjects, group differences thatmore » were not fully explained by the self-reported picture ratings. Furthermore, whereas CUD subjects choice for viewing cocaine pictures exceeded choice for viewing unpleasant pictures (but did not exceed choice for viewing pleasant pictures, in contrast to their self-reported ratings), healthy control subjects avoided viewing cocaine pictures as frequently as, or even more than, unpleasant pictures. Finally, CUD subjects with the most cocaine viewing selections, even when directly compared with selections of the pleasant pictures, also reported the most frequent recent cocaine use. Enhanced drug-related choice in cocaine addiction can be demonstrated even for nonpharmacologic (pictorial) stimuli. This choice, which is modulated by alternative stimuli, partly transcends self-reports (possibly indicative of a disconnect in cocaine addiction between self-reports and objective behavior) to provide an objective marker of addiction severity. Neuroimaging studies are needed to establish the neural underpinnings of such enhanced cocaine-related choice.« less

  7. Dopamine D3 receptor-preferring agonist enhances the subjective effects of cocaine in humans.

    PubMed

    Newton, Thomas F; Haile, Colin N; Mahoney, James J; Shah, Ravi; Verrico, Christopher D; De La Garza, Richard; Kosten, Thomas R

    2015-11-30

    Pramipexole is a D3 dopamine receptor-preferring agonist indicated for the treatment of Parkinson disease. Studies associate pramipexole with pathological gambling and impulse control disorders suggesting a role for D3 receptors in reinforcement processes. Clinical studies showed pramipexole decreased cocaine craving and reversed central deficits in individuals with cocaine use disorder. Preclinical studies have shown acute administration of pramipexole increases cocaine's reinforcing effects whereas other reports suggest chronic pramipexole produces tolerance to cocaine. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study we examined the impact of pramipexole treatment on the subjective effects produced by cocaine in volunteers with cocaine use disorder. Volunteers received pramipexole titrated up to 3.0mg/d or placebo over 15 days. Participants then received intravenous cocaine (0, 20 and 40mg) on day 15. Cardiovascular and subjective effects were obtained with visual analog scales at time points across the session. Pramipexole alone increased peak heart rate following saline and diastolic blood pressure following cocaine. Pramipexole produced upwards of two-fold increases in positive subjective effects ratings following cocaine. These results indicate that chronic D3 receptor activation increases the subjective effects of cocaine in humans. Caution should be used when prescribing pramipexole to patients that may also use cocaine. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 1 (MRP1) mediated vincristine resistance: effects of N-acetylcysteine and Buthionine Sulfoximine

    PubMed Central

    Akan, Ilhan; Akan, Selma; Akca, Hakan; Savas, Burhan; Ozben, Tomris

    2005-01-01

    Background Multidrug resistance mediated by the multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) decreases cellular drug accumulation. The exact mechanism of MRP1 involved multidrug resistance has not been clarified yet, though glutathione (GSH) is likely to have a role for the resistance to occur. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a pro-glutathione drug. DL-Buthionine (S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) is an inhibitor of GSH synthesis. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of NAC and BSO on MRP1-mediated vincristine resistance in Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK293) and its MRP1 transfected 293MRP cells. Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK293) cells were transfected with a plasmid encoding whole MRP1 gene. Both cells were incubated with vincristine in the presence or absence of NAC and/or BSO. The viability of both cells was determined under different incubation conditions. GSH, Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels were measured in the cell extracts obtained from both cells incubated with different drugs. Results N-acetylcysteine increased the resistance of both cells against vincristine and BSO decreased NAC-enhanced MRP1-mediated vincristine resistance, indicating that induction of MRP1-mediated vincristine resistance depends on GSH. Vincristine decreased cellular GSH concentration and increased GPx activity. Glutathione S-Transferase activity was decreased by NAC. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that NAC and BSO have opposite effects in MRP1 mediated vincristine resistance and BSO seems a promising chemotherapy improving agent in MRP1 overexpressing tumor cells. PMID:16042792

  9. Premedication with N-acetylcysteine and simethicone improves mucosal visualization during gastroscopy: a randomized, controlled, endoscopist-blinded study.

    PubMed

    Neale, James R; James, Shirley; Callaghan, James; Patel, Praful

    2013-07-01

    Diagnostic gastroscopy provides a unique opportunity to diagnose early oesophagogastric neoplasia; however, intraluminal mucus and bile can obscure mucosal visualization. The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of a premedication solution containing the mucolytic agent N-acetylcysteine and the surfactant simethicone improves mucosal visualization within a UK diagnostic gastroscopy service. A total of 75 consecutive patients were recruited from a single (S.J.) endoscopist's diagnostic gastroscopy list. They were randomized into three treatment groups: (a) standard control=clear fluids only for 6 h, nil by mouth for 2 h; (b) water control=standard control+100 ml sterile water (given 20 min before gastroscopy); and (c) solution=standard control+100 ml investigated solution (20 min before gastroscopy). The endoscopist was blinded to patient preparation. Inadequate mucosal visualization was defined as fluid/mucus during gastroscopy that could not be suctioned and required flushing with water. The volume of flush, the site at which it was used and the total procedure times were recorded. All three groups showed no statistical difference for age, sex ratio, procedure priority or indication. The mean volume of flush required to obtain clear mucosa was significantly less in the solution group compared with the other groups. The mean overall procedure time was also less in the solution group compared with the other groups. Premedication with N-acetylcysteine and simethicone markedly improves mucosal visibility during gastroscopy. It also reduces the time taken for the procedure. This low-cost and well-tolerated intervention may improve detection of early neoplasia.

  10. A clinical and pharmacoeconomic justification for intravenous acetylcysteine: a US perspective.

    PubMed

    Culley, Colleen M; Krenzelok, Edward P

    2005-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning remains the most common exposure reported to US poison information centres and the leading cause of poisoning-related fatalities, despite the availability of an effective antidote, acetylcysteine. Oral acetylcysteine solution has been approved for the management of acetaminophen poisoning in the US for four decades. Until the recent approval of intravenous acetylcysteine in the US, it was necessary to compound the oral solution for intravenous administration. The effectiveness and tolerability of oral and intravenous acetylcysteine for the prevention of hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol poisoning are well established in the literature. Intravenous acetylcysteine may be preferred over oral administration based on improved tolerability, ease of administration and the shortened course of therapy (20 hours intravenous vs 72 hours oral). The two intravenous acetylcysteine regimens documented in the literature, 48 hours and 20 hours, have similar efficacy when started within 8-10 hours of ingestion. Although there are no legal concerns with continuing the routine compounding of the oral solution to an intravenous product, new standards for pharmacy compounding of sterile preparations set forth by the US Pharmacopoeia highlight that the risk of compounding products for intravenous use must be assessed carefully. Changing the route of administration of a sterile oral solution to an intravenous preparation, when a commercial sterile and pyrogen-free product is available, may not be advisable. The best cost-containment strategies must be used for introduction of the more costly sterile, pyrogen-free intravenous acetylcysteine formulation by hospitals and healthcare systems. The intravenous acetylcysteine product is more cost effective when given for 20 hours than other treatment protocols based on the costs of acetylcysteine and hospitalisation. If used per protocol, the 20-hour intravenous acetylcysteine regimen may decrease

  11. Effect of 1 GeV/n Fe particles on cocaine-stimulated locomotor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, M.; Bruneus, M.; Gatley, J.; Russell, S.; Billups, A.

    Space travel beyond the Earth's protective magnetic field (for example, to Mars) will involve exposure of astronauts to irradiation by high-energy nuclei such as 56Fe (HZE radiation), which are a component of galactic cosmic rays. These particles have high linear energy transfer (LET) and are expected to irreversibly damage cells they traverse. Our working hypothesis is that long-term behavioral alterations are induced after exposure of the brain to 1 GeV/n iron particles with fluences of 1 to 8 particles/cell targets. Previous studies support this notion but are not definitive, especially with regard to long-term effects. Using the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) we expose C57 mice to 1 GeV/n 56Fe radiation (head only) at doses of 0, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 cGy. There were originally 19 mice per group. The ability of cocaine to increase locomotor activity in 16 of these animals in response to an intraperitoneal injection of cocaine has been measured so far at 1, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28 weeks. Cocaine-stimulated locomotor activity was chosen in part because it is a behavioral assay with which we have considerable experience. More importantly, the ability to respond to cocaine is a complex behavior involving many neurotransmitter systems and brain circuits. Therefore, the probability of alteration of this behavior by HZE particles was considered high. However, the central circuit is the nigrostriatal dopamine system, in which dopamine is released in striatum from nerve terminals whose cell bodies are located in the substantia nigra. Cocaine activates behavior by blocking dopamine transporters on striatal nerve terminals and therefore elevating the concentration of dopamine in the synapse. Dopamine activates receptors on striatal GABAergic cells that project via other brain regions to the thalamus. Activation of the motor cortex by glutamatergic projections from the thalamus leads ultimately to increased locomotion. The experimental paradigm involves

  12. N-acetylcysteine prevents stress-induced anxiety behavior in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Mocelin, Ricieri; Herrmann, Ana P; Marcon, Matheus; Rambo, Cassiano L; Rohden, Aline; Bevilaqua, Fernanda; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Zanatta, Leila; Elisabetsky, Elaine; Barcellos, Leonardo J G; Lara, Diogo R; Piato, Angelo L

    2015-12-01

    Despite the recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders, the pharmacological treatments currently available are limited in efficacy and induce serious side effects. A possible strategy to achieve clinical benefits is drug repurposing, i.e., discovery of novel applications for old drugs, bringing new treatment options to the market and to the patients who need them. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a commonly used mucolytic and paracetamol antidote, has emerged as a promising molecule for the treatment of several neuropsychiatric disorders. The mechanism of action of this drug is complex, and involves modulation of antioxidant, inflammatory, neurotrophic and glutamate pathways. Here we evaluated the effects of NAC on behavioral parameters relevant to anxiety in zebrafish. NAC did not alter behavioral parameters in the novel tank test, prevented the anxiety-like behaviors induced by an acute stressor (net chasing), and increased the time zebrafish spent in the lit side in the light/dark test. These data may indicate that NAC presents an anti-stress effect, with the potential to prevent stress-induced psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. The considerable homology between mammalian and zebrafish genomes invests the current data with translational validity for the further clinical trials needed to substantiate the use of NAC in anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Contribution of ventral tegmental GABA receptors to cocaine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Backes, E N; Hemby, S E

    2008-03-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that compounds affecting GABAergic transmission may provide useful pharmacological tools for the treatment of cocaine addiction. Using a rat model of self-administration, the present study examined the effects of GABA agonists and antagonists injected directly into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on cocaine intake in rats trained to self-administer cocaine (0, 125, 250 and 500 microg/infusion) under an FR5 schedule of reinforcement. Separate groups of rats received bilateral intra-VTA injections of the GABA-A antagonist picrotoxin (34 ng/side, n = 7; 68 ng/side, n = 8), GABA-A agonist muscimol (14 ng/side, n = 8), GABA-B agonist baclofen (56 ng/side, n = 7; 100 ng/side, n = 6), picrotoxin (68 ng/side) co-injected with the GABA-B antagonist 2-hydroxysaclofen (100 ng/side, n = 7; 2 microg/side, n = 8) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF, n = 6) to assess the effects of the various compounds on the cocaine self-administration dose-response curve. Both picrotoxin and baclofen reduced responding maintained by cocaine, whereas muscimol had no effect on responding. In contrast, neither picrotoxin (n = 6) nor baclofen (n = 8) affected responding maintained by food. Interestingly, 2-hydroxysaclofen effectively blocked the suppression of responding produced by picrotoxin, suggesting that both picrotoxin and baclofen exert their effects via activation of GABA-B receptors. Additionally, these effects appear to be specific to cocaine reinforcement, supporting current investigation of baclofen as a treatment for cocaine addiction.

  14. Contribution of ventral tegmental GABA receptors to cocaine self-administration in rats

    PubMed Central

    Backes, E.N.; Hemby, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that compounds affecting GABAergic transmission may provide useful pharmacological tools for the treatment of cocaine addiction. Using a rat model of self-administration, the present study examined the effects of GABA agonists and antagonists injected directly into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on cocaine intake in rats trained to self-administer cocaine (0, 125, 250 and 500 µg/infusion) under an FR5 schedule of reinforcement. Separate groups of rats received bilateral intra-VTA injections of the GABA-A antagonist picrotoxin (34 ng/side, n=7; 68 ng/side, n=8), GABA-A agonist muscimol (14 ng/side, n=8), GABA-B agonist baclofen (56 ng/side, n=7; 100 ng/side, n=6), picrotoxin (68 ng/side) co-injected with the GABA-B antagonist 2-hydroxysaclofen (100 ng/side, n=7; 2 µg/side, n=8) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF, n=6) to assess the effects of the various compounds on the cocaine self-administration dose-response curve. Both picrotoxin and baclofen reduced responding maintained by cocaine, whereas muscimol had no effect on responding. In contrast, neither picrotoxin (n=6) nor baclofen (n=8) affected responding maintained by food. Interestingly, 2-hydroxysaclofen effectively blocked the suppression of responding produced by picrotoxin, suggesting that both picrotoxin and baclofen exert their effects via activation of GABA-B receptors. Additionally, these effects appear to be specific to cocaine reinforcement, supporting current investigation of baclofen as a treatment for cocaine addiction. PMID:17943439

  15. A Recombinant Humanized Anti-Cocaine Monoclonal Antibody Inhibits the Distribution of Cocaine to the Brain in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gooden, Felicia C. T.; Tabet, Michael R.; Ball, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody (mAb), h2E2, is a humanized version of the chimeric human/murine anti-cocaine mAb 2E2. The recombinant h2E2 protein was produced in vitro from a transfected mammalian cell line and retained high affinity (4 nM Kd) and specificity for cocaine over its inactive metabolites benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester. In rats, pharmacokinetic studies of h2E2 (120 mg/kg i.v.) showed a long terminal elimination half-life of 9.0 days and a low volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss) of 0.3 l/kg. Pretreatment with h2E2 produced a dramatic 8.8-fold increase in the area under the plasma cocaine concentration-time curve (AUC) and in brain a concomitant decrease of 68% of cocaine’s AUC following an i.v. injection of an equimolar cocaine dose. Sequestration of cocaine in plasma by h2E2, shown via reduction of cocaine’s Vdss, indicates potential clinical efficacy. Although the binding of cocaine to h2E2 in plasma should inhibit distribution and metabolism, the elimination of cocaine remained multicompartmental and was still rapidly eliminated from plasma despite the presence of h2E2. BE was the major cocaine metabolite, and brain BE concentrations were sixfold higher than in plasma, indicating that cocaine is normally metabolized in the brain. In the presence of h2E2, brain BE concentrations were decreased and plasma BE was increased, consistent with the observed h2E2-induced changes in cocaine disposition. The inhibition of cocaine distribution to the brain confirms the humanized mAb, h2E2, as a lead candidate for development as an immunotherapy for cocaine abuse. PMID:24733787

  16. Dopamine D3 receptor-preferring agonist enhances the subjective effects of cocaine in humans

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Thomas F.; Haile, Colin N.; Mahoney, James J.; Shah, Ravi; Verrico, Christopher D.; De La Garza, Richard; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Pramipexole is a D3 dopamine receptor-preferring agonist indicated for the treatment of Parkinson disease. Studies associate pramipexole with pathological gambling and impulse control disorders suggesting a role for D3 receptors in reinforcement processes. Clinical studies showed pramipexole decreased cocaine craving and reversed central deficits in individuals with cocaine use disorder. Preclinical studies have shown acute administration of pramipexole increases cocaine’s reinforcing effects whereas other reports suggest chronic pramipexole produces tolerance to cocaine. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study we examined the impact of pramipexole treatment on the subjective effects produced by cocaine in volunteers with cocaine use disorder. Volunteers received pramipexole titrated up to 3.0 mg/d or placebo over 15 days. Participants then received intravenous cocaine (0, 20 and 40 mg) on day 15. Cardiovascular and subjective effects were obtained with visual analog scales at time points across the session. Pramipexole alone increased peak heart rate following saline and diastolic blood pressure following cocaine. Pramipexole produced upwards of two-fold increases in positive subjective effects ratings following cocaine. These results indicate that chronic D3 receptor activation increases the subjective effects of cocaine in humans. Caution should be used when prescribing pramipexole to patients that may also use cocaine. PMID:26239766

  17. Pharmacological Characterization of a Dopamine Transporter Ligand That Functions as a Cocaine Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Rajeev I.; Grandy, David K.; Lupica, Carl R.

    2014-01-01

    An N-butyl analog of benztropine, JHW007 [N-(n-butyl)-3α-[bis(4′-fluorophenyl)methoxy]-tropane], binds to dopamine transporters (DAT) but has reduced cocaine-like behavioral effects and antagonizes various effects of cocaine. The present study further examined mechanisms underlying these effects. Cocaine dose-dependently increased locomotion, whereas JHW007 was minimally effective but increased activity 24 hours after injection. JHW007 (3–10 mg/kg) dose-dependently and fully antagonized the locomotor-stimulant effects of cocaine (5–60 mg/kg), whereas N-methyl and N-allyl analogs and the dopamine (DA) uptake inhibitor GBR12909 [1-(2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl)-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine dihydrochloride] stimulated activity and failed to antagonize effects of cocaine. JHW007 also blocked the locomotor-stimulant effects of the DAT inhibitor GBR12909 but not stimulation produced by the δ-opioid agonist SNC 80 [4-[(R)-[(2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethylpiperazin-1-yl](3-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide], which increases activity through nondopaminergic mechanisms. JHW007 blocked locomotor-stimulant effects of cocaine in both DA D2- and CB1-receptor knockout and wild-type mice, indicating a lack of involvement of these targets. Furthermore, JHW007 blocked effects of cocaine on stereotyped rearing but enhanced stereotyped sniffing, suggesting that interference with locomotion by enhanced stereotypies is not responsible for the cocaine-antagonist effects of JHW007. Time-course data indicate that administration of JHW007 antagonized the locomotor-stimulant effects of cocaine within 10 minutes of injection, whereas occupancy at the DAT, as determined in vivo, did not reach a maximum until 4.5 hours after injection. The σ1-receptor antagonist BD 1008 [N-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-N-methyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)ethylamine dihydrobromide] blocked the locomotor-stimulant effects of cocaine. Overall, these findings suggest that JHW007 has cocaine

  18. Hapten Optimization for Cocaine Vaccine with Improved Cocaine Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Muthu; Kinsey, Berma M.; Singh, Rana A.; Kosten, Thomas R.; Orson, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of any effective pharmacotherapy for cocaine addiction, immunotherapy is being actively pursued as a therapeutic intervention. While several different cocaine haptens have been explored to develop anti-cocaine antibodies, none of the hapten was successfully designed which had a protonated tropane nitrogen as is found in native cocaine under physiological conditions, including the succinyl norcocaine (SNC) hapten that has been tested in phase II clinical trials. Herein, we discuss three different cocaine haptens: hexyl-norcocaine (HNC), bromoacetamido butyl- norcocaine (BNC), and succinyl-butyl- norcocaine (SBNC), each with a tertiary nitrogen structure mimicking that of native cocaine which could optimize the specificity of anti-cocaine antibodies for better cocaine recognition. Mice immunized with these haptens conjugated to immunogenic proteins produced high titer anti-cocaine antibodies. However, during chemical conjugation of HNC and BNC haptens to carrier proteins, the 2β methyl ester group is hydrolyzed and immunizing mice with these conjugate vaccines in mice produced antibodies that bound both cocaine and the inactive benzoylecgonine metabolite. While in the case of the SBNC conjugate vaccine hydrolysis of the methyl ester did not appear to occur, leading to antibodies with high specificity to cocaine over BE. Though we observed similar specificity with a SNC hapten, the striking difference is that SBNC carries a positive charge on the tropane nitrogen atom, and therefore it is expected to have better binding of cocaine. The 50% cocaine inhibitory concentration (IC50) value for SBNC antibodies (2.8 μM) was significantly better than the SNC antibodies (9.4 μM) when respective hapten-BSA was used as a substrate. In addition, antibodies from both sera had no inhibitory effect from BE. In contrast to BNC and HNC, the SBNC conjugate was also found to be highly stable without any noticeable hydrolysis for several months at 4°C and 2-3 days in p

  19. Cocaine Self-Administration Produces Long-Lasting Alterations in Dopamine Transporter Responses to Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Cody A.; Fordahl, Steve C.

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is a debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by uncontrolled cocaine intake, which is thought to be driven, at least in part, by cocaine-induced deficits in dopamine system function. A decreased ability of cocaine to elevate dopamine levels has been repeatedly observed as a consequence of cocaine use in humans, and preclinical work has highlighted tolerance to cocaine's effects as a primary determinant in the development of aberrant cocaine taking behaviors. Here we determined that cocaine self-administration in rats produced tolerance to the dopamine transporter-inhibiting effects of cocaine in the nucleus accumbens core, which was normalized following a 14 or 60 d abstinence period; however, although these rats appeared to be similar to controls, a single self-administered infusion of cocaine at the end of abstinence, even after 60 d, fully reinstated tolerance to cocaine's effects. A single cocaine infusion in a naive rat had no effect on cocaine potency, demonstrating that cocaine self-administration leaves the dopamine transporter in a “primed” state, which allows for cocaine-induced plasticity to be reinstated by a subthreshold cocaine exposure. Further, reinstatement of cocaine tolerance was accompanied by decreased cocaine-induced locomotion and escalated cocaine intake despite extended abstinence from cocaine. These data demonstrate that cocaine leaves a long-lasting imprint on the dopamine system that is activated by re-exposure to cocaine. Further, these results provide a potential mechanism for severe cocaine binge episodes, which occur even after sustained abstinence from cocaine, and suggest that treatments aimed at transporter sites may be efficacious in promoting binge termination following relapse. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Tolerance is a DSM-V criterion for substance abuse disorders. Abusers consistently show reduced subjective effects of cocaine concomitant with reduced effects of cocaine at its main site of action

  20. Early Use of N-acetylcysteine With Nitrate Therapy in Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Reduces Myocardial Infarct Size (the NACIAM Trial [N-acetylcysteine in Acute Myocardial Infarction]).

    PubMed

    Pasupathy, Sivabaskari; Tavella, Rosanna; Grover, Suchi; Raman, Betty; Procter, Nathan E K; Du, Yang Timothy; Mahadavan, Gnanadevan; Stafford, Irene; Heresztyn, Tamila; Holmes, Andrew; Zeitz, Christopher; Arstall, Margaret; Selvanayagam, Joseph; Horowitz, John D; Beltrame, John F

    2017-09-05

    Contemporary ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction management involves primary percutaneous coronary intervention, with ongoing studies focusing on infarct size reduction using ancillary therapies. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant with reactive oxygen species scavenging properties that also potentiates the effects of nitroglycerin and thus represents a potentially beneficial ancillary therapy in primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The NACIAM trial (N-acetylcysteine in Acute Myocardial Infarction) examined the effects of NAC on infarct size in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study evaluated the effects of intravenous high-dose NAC (29 g over 2 days) with background low-dose nitroglycerin (7.2 mg over 2 days) on early cardiac magnetic resonance imaging-assessed infarct size. Secondary end points included cardiac magnetic resonance-determined myocardial salvage and creatine kinase kinetics. Of 112 randomized patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, 75 (37 in NAC group, 38 in placebo group) underwent early cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Median duration of ischemia pretreatment was 2.4 hours. With background nitroglycerin infusion administered to all patients, those randomized to NAC exhibited an absolute 5.5% reduction in cardiac magnetic resonance-assessed infarct size relative to placebo (median, 11.0%; [interquartile range 4.1, 16.3] versus 16.5%; [interquartile range 10.7, 24.2]; P =0.02). Myocardial salvage was approximately doubled in the NAC group (60%; interquartile range, 37-79) compared with placebo (27%; interquartile range, 14-42; P <0.01) and median creatine kinase areas under the curve were 22 000 and 38 000 IU·h in the NAC and placebo groups, respectively ( P =0.08). High-dose intravenous NAC administered with low-dose intravenous nitroglycerin is associated with reduced

  1. Substance P and cocaine employ convergent mechanisms to depress excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat nucleus accumbens in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kombian, Samuel B; Ananthalakshmi, Kethireddy V V; Zidichouski, Jeffrey A; Saleh, Tarek M

    2009-04-01

    Substance P (SP) has been reported to produce effects on excitatory synaptic transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) that are similar to those induced by cocaine. To address the question of whether SP serves as an endogenous mediator producing cocaine-like effects that are known to be D1-receptor-mediated, we tested the hypothesis that the effects of SP and cocaine on excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in the NAc occlude one another. We report here that SP and SP(5-11) actions occlude the effect of cocaine and vice versa. SP, SP(5-11) and cocaine all depressed evoked, non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated synaptic currents in a concentration-dependent manner, with EC50 values of 0.12, 0.17 and 8.3 microm, respectively. Although cocaine was the least potent, it was most efficacious. SP, SP(5-11) and cocaine all suppressed isolated NMDA receptor-mediated evoked EPSCs. SP(5-11) (1 microm)-induced EPSC depression was blocked by the neurokinin-1 antagonist L732138 and by the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH23390. Pretreatment of slices with cocaine (30 microm) depressed the EPSC by 39.1% +/- 4.8%. Application of SP or SP(5-11) (1 microm) at the peak of the cocaine depressive effect on the EPSC did not produce any additional diminution of the response (5.7% +/- 2.8%). In the reverse experiments, in which either SP or SP(5-11) was applied first, subsequent application of cocaine at the peak of the peptide's effect (30.3% +/- 2.3%) produced a further but smaller depression (15.5% +/- 3.6%) of the remaining EPSC. These data indicate that cocaine and SP produce similar effects on excitatory synaptic transmission in the NAc, and that their actions occlude one another. This suggests that SP may act like cocaine in its absence, and may be an endogenous trigger for the reward and behaviors associated with cocaine.

  2. N-Acetylcysteine in the Treatment of Pediatric Trichotillomania: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Add-On Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Grant, Jon E.; Pittenger, Christopher; Leckman, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for the treatment of pediatric trichotillomania (TTM) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, add-on study. Method A total of 39 children and adolescents aged 8 to 17 years with pediatric trichotillomania were randomly assigned to receive NAC or matching placebo for 12 weeks. Our primary outcome was change in severity of hairpulling as measured by the Massachusetts General Hospital–Hairpulling Scale (MGH-HPS). Secondary measures assessed hairpulling severity, automatic versus focused pulling, clinician-rated improvement, and comorbid anxiety and depression. Outcomes were examined using linear mixed models to test the treatment × time interaction in an intention-to-treat population. Results No significant difference between N-acetylcysteine and placebo was found on any of the primary or secondary outcome measures. On several measures of hairpulling, subjects significantly improved with time regardless of treatment assignment. In the NAC group, 25% of subjects were judged as treatment responders, compared to 21% in the placebo group. Conclusions We observed no benefit of NAC for the treatment of children with trichotillomania. Our findings stand in contrast to a previous, similarly designed trial in adults with TTM, which demonstrated a very large, statistically significant benefit of NAC. Based on the differing results of NAC in pediatric and adult TTM populations, the assumption that pharmacological interventions demonstrated to be effective in adults with TTM will be as effective in children, may be inaccurate. This trial highlights the importance of referring children with TTM to appropriate behavioral therapy before initiating pharmacological interventions, as behavioral therapy has demonstrated efficacy in both children and adults with trichotillomania. PMID:23452680

  3. N-acetylcysteine prevents nitrosative stress-associated depression of blood pressure and heart rate in streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Nagareddy, Prabhakara Reddy; Xia, Zhengyuan; MacLeod, Kathleen M; McNeill, John H

    2006-04-01

    Previous studies have indicated that cardiovascular abnormalities such as depressed blood pressure and heart rate occur in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Chronic diabetes, which is associated with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and oxidative stress, may produce peroxynitrite/nitrotyrosine and cause nitrosative stress. We hypothesized that nitrosative stress causes cardiovascular depression in STZ diabetic rats and therefore can be corrected by reducing its formation. Control and STZ diabetic rats were treated orally for 9 weeks with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant and inhibitor of iNOS. At termination, the mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and heart rate (HR) were measured in conscious rats. Nitrotyrosine and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and iNOS expression were assessed in the heart and mesenteric arteries by immunohistochemistry and Western blot experiments. Untreated diabetic rats showed depressed MABP and HR that was prevented by treatment with NAC. In untreated diabetic rats, levels of 15-F(2t)-isoprostane, an indicator of lipid peroxidation increased, whereas plasma nitric oxide and antioxidant concentrations decreased. Furthermore, decreased eNOS and increased iNOS expression were associated with elevated nitrosative stress in blood vessel and heart tissue of untreated diabetic rats. N-acetylcysteine treatment of diabetic rats not only restored the antioxidant capacity but also reduced the expression of iNOS and nitrotyrosine and normalized the expression of eNOS to that of control rats in heart and superior mesenteric arteries. The results suggest that nitrosative stress depress MABP and HR following diabetes. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms involved in nitrosative stress mediated depression of blood pressure and heart rate.

  4. Characterization of Differential Cocaine Metabolism in Mouse and Rat through Metabolomics-Guided Metabolite Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Dan; Shi, Xiaolei; Wang, Lei; Gosnell, Blake A.

    2013-01-01

    Rodent animal models have been widely used for studying neurologic and toxicological events associated with cocaine abuse. It is known that the mouse is more susceptible to cocaine-induced hepatotoxicity (CIH) than the rat. However, the causes behind this species-dependent sensitivity to cocaine have not been elucidated. In this study, cocaine metabolism in the mouse and rat was characterized through LC-MS-based metabolomic analysis of urine samples and were further compared through calculating the relative abundance of individual cocaine metabolites. The results showed that the levels of benzoylecgonine, a major cocaine metabolite from ester hydrolysis, were comparable in the urine from the mice and rats treated with the same dose of cocaine. However, the levels of the cocaine metabolites from oxidative metabolism, such as N-hydroxybenzoylnorecgonine and hydroxybenzoylecgonine, differed dramatically between the two species, indicating species-dependent cocaine metabolism. Subsequent structural analysis through accurate mass analysis and LC-MS/MS fragmentation revealed that N-oxidation reactions, including N-demethylation and N-hydroxylation, are preferred metabolic routes in the mouse, while extensive aryl hydroxylation reactions occur in the rat. Through stable isotope tracing and in vitro enzyme reactions, a mouse-specific α-glucoside of N-hydroxybenzoylnorecgonine and a group of aryl hydroxy glucuronides high in the rat were identified and structurally elucidated. The differences in the in vivo oxidative metabolism of cocaine between the two rodent species were confirmed by the in vitro microsomal incubations. Chemical inhibition of P450 enzymes further revealed that different P450-mediated oxidative reactions in the ecgonine and benzoic acid moieties of cocaine contribute to the species-dependent biotransformation of cocaine. PMID:23034697

  5. Enhancement of endocannabinoid signaling protects against cocaine-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Vilela, Luciano R.; Gobira, Pedro H.; Viana, Thercia G.

    Cocaine is an addictive substance with a potential to cause deleterious effects in the brain. The strategies for treating its neurotoxicity, however, are limited. Evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system exerts neuroprotective functions against various stimuli. Thus, we hypothesized that inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the main enzyme responsible for terminating the actions of the endocannabinoid anandamide, reduces seizures and cell death in the hippocampus in a model of cocaine intoxication. Male Swiss mice received injections of endocannabinoid-related compounds followed by the lowest dose of cocaine that induces seizures, electroencephalographic activity and cell death in the hippocampus. Themore » molecular mechanisms were studied in primary cell culture of this structure. The FAAH inhibitor, URB597, reduced cocaine-induced seizures and epileptiform electroencephalographic activity. The cannabinoid CB{sub 1} receptor selective agonist, ACEA, mimicked these effects, whereas the antagonist, AM251, prevented them. URB597 also inhibited cocaine-induced activation and death of hippocampal neurons, both in animals and in primary cell culture. Finally, we investigated if the PI3K/Akt/ERK intracellular pathway, a cell surviving mechanism coupled to CB{sub 1} receptor, mediated these neuroprotective effects. Accordingly, URB597 injection increased ERK and Akt phosphorylation in the hippocampus. Moreover, the neuroprotective effect of this compound was reversed by the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. In conclusion, the pharmacological facilitation of the anandamide/CB1/PI3K signaling protects the brain against cocaine intoxication in experimental models. This strategy may be further explored in the development of treatments for drug-induced neurotoxicity. - Highlights: • Cocaine toxicity is characterized by seizures and hippocampal cell death. • The endocannabinoid anandamide acts as a brain protective mechanism. • Inhibition of anandamide

  6. Substance use -- cocaine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charlie, coca, coke, flake, rock, snow, speedball, toot. Cocaine's Effects on Your Brain Cocaine is a strong stimulant. ... injecting, and last 15 to 30 minutes. Harmful Effects of Cocaine Cocaine can harm the body in many ways ...

  7. Absence of age-related dopamine transporter loss in current cocaine abusers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Fischman, M.

    The brain dopamine (DA) system appears to play a crucial role in the reinforcing properties of cocaine. Using PET we had previously shown significant decreases in DA D2 receptors but no changes in DA transporters (DAT) in detoxified cocaine abusers (>1 month after last cocaine use). This study evaluates DAT availability in current cocaine abusers (15 male and 5 female; age = 36.2{+-}5.3 years old) using PET and [C-11]cocaine, as a DAT ligand, and compares it to that in 18 male and 2 female age matched normal controls. Cocaine abusers had a history of abusing 4.2{+-}2.8 gm /week of cocainemore » for an average of 11.0{+-}4.9 years and their last use of cocaine was 5.4{+-}8 days prior to PET study. DAT availability was obtained using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest (caudate, pulamen) to that in cerebellum which is a function of Bmax./Kd.+1. DAT availability in cocaine abusers did not differ to that in normals (N) (C= 1.78{+-}0.14, N= 1.77{+-}0.13). In addition, there were no differences between the groups in the distribution volume or the Kl (plasma to brain transfer constant) measures for [C-11]cocaine. However, in the normals but not in the abusers striatal DAT availability decreased with age (C: r = -0.07, p = 0.76; N: r = -0.55, p < 0.01). Though this study fails to show group differences in DAT availability between normals and current cocaine abusers it indicates a blunting of the age-related decline in DAT availability in the cocaine abusers. Future studies in older cocaine abusers at different time after detoxification arc required in order to assess if cocaine slows the loss of DAT with age or whether these changes reflect compensation to increased DAT blockade and recover with detoxification.« less

  8. GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors blockade rescues bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of cocaine self-administering rats.

    PubMed

    deBacker, Julian; Hawken, Emily R; Normandeau, Catherine P; Jones, Andrea A; Di Prospero, Cynthia; Mechefske, Elysia; Gardner Gregory, James; Hayton, Scott J; Dumont, Éric C

    2015-01-01

    Drugs of abuse have detrimental effects on homeostatic synaptic plasticity in the motivational brain network. Bidirectional plasticity at excitatory synapses helps keep neural circuits within a functional range to allow for behavioral flexibility. Therefore, impaired bidirectional plasticity of excitatory synapses may contribute to the behavioral hallmarks of addiction, yet this relationship remains unclear. Here we tracked excitatory synaptic strength in the oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (ovBNST) using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in brain slices from rats self-administering sucrose or cocaine. In the cocaine group, we measured both a persistent increase in AMPA to NMDA ratio (A:N) and slow decay time of NMDA currents throughout the self-administration period and after withdrawal from cocaine. In contrast, the sucrose group exhibited an early increase in A:N ratios (acquisition) that returned toward baseline values with continued self-administration (maintenance) and after withdrawal. The sucrose rats also displayed a decrease in NMDA current decay time with continued self-administration (maintenance), which normalized after withdrawal. Cocaine self-administering rats exhibited impairment in NMDA-dependent long-term depression (LTD) that could be rescued by GluN2B-containing NMDA receptor blockade. Sucrose self-administering rats demonstrated no impairment in NMDA-dependent LTD. During the maintenance period of self-administration, in vivo (daily intraperitoneally for 5 days) pharmacologic blockade of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors did not reduce lever pressing for cocaine. However, in vivo GluN2B blockade did normalize A:N ratios in cocaine self-administrating rats, and dissociated the magnitude of ovBNST A:N ratios from drug-seeking behavior after protracted withdrawal. Altogether, our data demonstrate when and how bidirectional plasticity at ovBNST excitatory synapses becomes dysfunctional with cocaine self-administration and that NMDA

  9. Induction of apoptosis by pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate and N-acetylcysteine in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, J C; Jain, M; Hsieh, C M; Lee, W S; Yoshizumi, M; Patterson, C; Perrella, M A; Cooke, C; Wang, H; Haber, E; Schlegel, R; Lee, M E

    1996-02-16

    Pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) have been used as antioxidants to prevent apoptosis in lymphocytes, neurons, and vascular endothelial cells. We report here that PDTC and NAC induce apoptosis in rat and human smooth muscle cells. In rat aortic smooth muscle cells, PDTC induced cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and DNA strand breaks consistent with apoptosis. In addition, overexpression of Bcl-2 suppressed vascular smooth muscle cell death caused by PDTC and NAC. The viability of rat aortic smooth muscle cells decreased within 3 h of treatment with PDTC and was reduced to 30% at 12 h. The effect of PDTC and NAC on smooth muscle cells was not species specific because PDTC and NAC both caused dose-dependent reductions in viability in rat and human aortic smooth muscle cells. In contrast, neither PDTC nor NAC reduced viability in human aortic endothelial cells. The use of antioxidants to induce apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells may help prevent their proliferation in arteriosclerotic lesions.

  10. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in neurological disorders: mechanisms of action and therapeutic opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Bavarsad Shahripour, Reza; Harrigan, Mark R; Alexandrov, Andrei V

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an expanding field of research investigating the benefits of medicines with multiple mechanisms of action across neurological disorders. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), widely known as an antidote to acetaminophen overdose, is now emerging as treatment of vascular and nonvascular neurological disorders. NAC as a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione modulates glutamatergic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory pathways. Aim and discussion Most NAC studies up to date have been carried out in animal models of various neurological disorders with only a few studies completed in humans. In psychiatry, NAC has been tested in over 20 clinical trials as an adjunctive treatment; however, this topic is beyond the scope of this review. Herein, we discuss NAC molecular, intracellular, and systemic effects, focusing on its potential applications in neurodegenerative diseases including spinocerebellar ataxia, Parkinson's disease, tardive dyskinesia, myoclonus epilepsy of the Unverricht–Lundbor type as well as multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. Conclusion Finally, we review the potential applications of NAC to facilitate recovery after traumatic brain injury, cerebral ischemia, and in treatment of cerebrovascular vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:24683506

  11. Protective effects of N-acetylcysteine against monosodium glutamate-induced astrocytic cell death.

    PubMed

    Park, Euteum; Yu, Kyoung Hwan; Kim, Do Kyung; Kim, Seung; Sapkota, Kumar; Kim, Sung-Jun; Kim, Chun Sung; Chun, Hong Sung

    2014-05-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a flavor enhancer, largely used in the food industry and it was reported to have excitotoxic effects. Higher amounts of MSG consumption have been related with increased risk of many diseases, including Chinese restaurant syndrome and metabolic syndromes in human. This study investigated the protective effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on MSG-induced cytotoxicity in C6 astrocytic cells. MSG (20 mM)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and apoptotic cell death were significantly attenuated by NAC (500 μM) pretreatment. NAC effectively inhibited the MSG-induced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss and intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion. In addition, NAC significantly attenuated MSG-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers, such as XBP1 splicing and CHOP, PERK, and GRP78 up-regulation. Furthermore, NAC prevented the changes of MSG-induced Bcl-2 expression level. These results suggest that NAC can protect C6 astrocytic cells against MSG-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and ER stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Single Nanochannel-Aptamer-Based Biosensor for Ultrasensitive and Selective Cocaine Detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Hou, Jue; Zhang, Huacheng; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Lei

    2018-01-17

    Ultrasensitive and selective detection of molecules at nano or sub-nanomolar level is very important for many areas such as early diagnosis and drug testing. Herein, we report a high-sensitive cocaine sensor based on a single nanochannel coupled with DNA aptamers. The single nanochannel-aptamer-based biosensor can recognize cocaine molecules with an excellent sensitivity and good selectivity. A linear relationship between target cocaine concentration and output ionic current is obtained in a wide concentration range of cocaine from 1 nM to 10 μM. The cocaine sensor also shows a detection limit down to 1 nM. This study provides a new avenue to develop new nanochannel-aptamer-based biosensors for rapid and ultratrace detection of a variety of illicit drugs.

  13. Exercise to reduce the escalation of cocaine self-administration in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Zlebnik, Natalie E; Anker, Justin J; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2012-12-01

    Concurrent access to an exercise wheel decreases cocaine self-administration under short access (5 h/day for 5 days) conditions and suppresses cocaine-primed reinstatement in adult rats. The effect of exercise (wheel running) on the escalation of cocaine intake during long access (LgA, 6 h/day for 26 days) conditions was evaluated. Adolescent and adult female rats acquired wheel running, and behavior was allowed to stabilize for 3 days. They were then implanted with an iv catheter and allowed to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg, iv) during 6-h daily sessions for 16 days with concurrent access to either an unlocked or a locked running wheel. Subsequently, for ten additional sessions, wheel access conditions during cocaine self-administration sessions were reversed (i.e., locked wheels became unlocked and vice versa). In the adolescents, concurrent access to the unlocked exercise wheel decreased responding for cocaine and attenuated escalation of cocaine intake irrespective of whether the locked or unlocked condition came first. However, cocaine intake increased when the wheel was subsequently locked for the adolescents that had initial access to an unlocked wheel. Concurrent wheel access either before or after the locked wheel access did not reduce cocaine intake in adults. Wheel running reduced cocaine intake during LgA conditions in adolescent but not adult rats, and concurrent access to the running wheel was necessary. These results suggest that exercise prevents cocaine seeking and that this effect is more pronounced in adolescents than adults.

  14. Synergist effects of n-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine treatment on behavioral and oxidative parameters induced by chronic mild stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Arent, Camila O; Réus, Gislaine Z; Abelaira, Helena M; Ribeiro, Karine F; Steckert, Amanda V; Mina, Francielle; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Quevedo, João

    2012-12-01

    A growing body of evidence has pointed to a relationship between oxidative stress and depression. Thus, the present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of the antioxidants n-acetylcysteine (NAC), deferoxamine (DFX) or their combination on sweet food consumption and oxidative stress parameters in rats submitted to 40days of exposure to chronic mild stress (CMS). Our results showed that in stressed rats treated with saline, there was a decrease in sweet food intake and treatment with NAC or NAC in combination with DFX reversed this effect. Treatment with NAC and DFX decreased the oxidative damage, which include superoxide and TBARS production in submitochondrial particles, and also thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels and carbonyl proteins in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus. Treatment with NAC and DFX also increased the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase in the same brain areas. Even so, a combined treatment with NAC and DFX produced a stronger increase of antioxidant activities in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus. The results described here indicate that co-administration may induce a more pronounced antidepressant activity than each treatment alone. In conclusion, these results suggests that treatment with NAC or DFX alone or in combination on oxidative stress parameters could have positive effects against neuronal damage caused by oxidative stress in major depressive disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Individual and combined effects of Fusarium toxins on apoptosis in PK15 cells and the protective role of N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Shihua; Zhang, Meiling; Yang, Lige; Cheng, Baojing; Li, Jianping; Shan, Anshan

    2018-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN) and fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) are among the most toxicologically important Fusarium toxins commonly found in nature that lead to nephrotoxicity in animals. The present study investigated that the individual and combined effects of subcytotoxic DON (0.25 μM), ZEN (20 μM) and FB 1 (10 μM) on oxidative stress and apoptosis in porcine kidney cells (PK15). In addition, the protective effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against the toxicity of Fusarium toxins was also evaluated. Our results showed that the activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and total superoxide dismutase (SOD) were affected by DON, ZEN and FB 1 , and this change in activity induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) production, increased apoptosis and regulated the mRNA expression of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-9, cytochrome c (cyto c) and P53. This study demonstrated the complexity of combined mycotoxin infection since the combination of toxins exhibited more profound defects in the oxidative stress responses and apoptosis. Moreover, NAC reduced the oxidative damage and inhibited the apoptosis induced by Fusarium toxins. It was concluded that oxidative damage and apoptosis through the mitochondria-dependent channel were the mechanisms of Fusarium toxin mediated toxicity, and NAC reversed these damages to some extent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cigarette Cue Attentional Bias in Cocaine-Smoking and Non-Cocaine-Using Cigarette Smokers.

    PubMed

    Marks, Katherine R; Alcorn, Joseph L; Stoops, William W; Rush, Craig R

    2016-09-01

    Cigarette smoking in cocaine users is nearly four times higher than the national prevalence and cocaine use increases cigarette smoking. The mechanisms underlying cigarette smoking in cocaine-using individuals need to be identified to promote cigarette and cocaine abstinence. Previous studies have examined the salience of cigarette and cocaine cues separately. The present aim was to determine whether cigarette attentional bias (AB) is higher in cigarettes smokers who smoke cocaine relative to individuals who only smoke cigarettes. Twenty cigarette smokers who smoke cocaine and 20 non-cocaine-using cigarette smokers completed a visual probe task with eye-tracking technology. During this task, the magnitude of cigarette and cocaine AB was assessed through orienting bias, fixation time, and response time. Cocaine users displayed an orienting bias towards cigarette cues. Cocaine users also endorsed a more urgent desire to smoke to relieve negative affect associated with cigarette craving than non-cocaine users (g = 0.6). Neither group displayed a cigarette AB, as measured by fixation time. Cocaine users, but not non-cocaine users, displayed a cocaine AB as measured by orienting bias (g = 2.0) and fixation time (g = 1.2). There were no significant effects for response time data. Cocaine-smoking cigarettes smokers display an initial orienting bias toward cigarette cues, but not sustained cigarette AB. The incentive motivation underlying cigarette smoking also differs. Cocaine smokers report more urgent desire to smoke to relieve negative affect. Identifying differences in motivation to smoke cigarettes may provide new treatment targets for cigarette and cocaine use disorders. These results suggest that cocaine-smoking cigarette smokers display an initial orienting bias towards cigarette cues, but not sustained attention towards cigarette cues, relative to non-cocaine-using smokers. Smoked cocaine users also report a more urgent desire to smoke to relieve negative affect

  17. N-acetylcysteine inhibits induction of nitric oxide synthase in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Araki, Shunsuke; Dobashi, Kazushige; Kubo, Kazuyasu; Kawagoe, Rinko; Yamamoto, Yukiyo; Shirahata, Akira

    2007-12-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, modulates nitric oxide (NO) production stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in adipocytes. Stimulation by the combination of 5 microg/ml of LPS and 100 ng/ml of TNF-alpha (LT) significantly enhanced NO production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Preincubation of the cells with NAC (5-20 mM) for 24 h suppressed the increased NO production in a dose-dependent manner. The production of NO was decreased by 49% at the concentration of 20 mM of NAC. The decrease in NO production by NAC was accompanied by a decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein, detected by immunoblot analysis, and iNOS mRNA, determined by real-time reverse-transcriptase coupled polymerase chain reaction analysis. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) was significantly activated by LT-treatment, while the pretreatment with 20 mM of NAC prevented the activity by 42%. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a NF-kappaB inhibitor, also inhibited the LT-mediated NO production dose-dependently. One hundred microM of PDTC inhibited the NO production by 46%. We also investigated the effect of NAC and PDTC on the production of interleukein-6 (IL-6), which is regulated transcriptionally by NF-kappa B in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. IL-6 production was markedly increased by LT stimulus, and the enhanced secretion of IL-6 was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by pretreatment with NAC or PDTC. These results suggest that NAC regulates iNOS expression and NO production in adipocytes through the modulating activation of NF-kappa B.

  18. Error processing in current and former cocaine users

    PubMed Central

    Castelluccio, Brian C.; Meda, Shashwath A.; Muska, Christine E.; Stevens, Michael C.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in response inhibition and error processing can result in maladaptive behavior, including failure to use past mistakes to inform present decisions. A specific deficit in inhibiting a prepotent response represents one aspect of impulsivity and is a prominent feature of addictive behaviors in general, including cocaine abuse/dependence. Brain regions implicated in cognitive control exhibit reduced activation in cocaine abusers. The purposes of the present investigation were (1) to identify neural differences associated with error processing in current and former cocaine-dependent individuals compared to healthy controls and (2) to determine whether former, long-term abstinent cocaine users showed similar differences compared with current users. The present study used an fMRI Go/No-Go task to investigate differences in BOLD response to correct rejections and false alarms between current cocaine users (n=30), former cocaine users (n=29), and healthy controls (n=35). Impulsivity trait measures were also assessed and compared with BOLD activity. Nineteen regions of interest previously implicated in errors of disinhibition were queried. There were no group differences in the correct rejections condition, but both current and former users exhibited increased BOLD response relative to controls for false alarms. In current users, the pregenual cingulate gyrus and left angular/supramarginal gyri overactivated. In former users, the right middle frontal/precentral gyri, right inferior parietal lobule, and left angular/supramarginal gyri overactivated. Overall, our results support a hypothesis that neural activity in former users differs more from healthy controls than that of current users due to cognitive compensation that facilitates abstinence. PMID:23949893

  19. Cocaine-Induced Behavioral Sensitization Is Associated With Changes in the Expression of Endocannabinoid and Glutamatergic Signaling Systems in the Mouse Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Eduardo; Pavón, Francisco J.; Palomino, Ana; Luque-Rojas, María Jesús; Serrano, Antonia; Rivera, Patricia; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Alen, Francisco; Vida, Margarita; Suárez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endocannabinoids modulate the glutamatergic excitatory transmission by acting as retrograde messengers. A growing body of studies has reported that both signaling systems in the mesocorticolimbic neural circuitry are involved in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying drug addiction. Methods: We investigated whether the expression of both endocannabinoid and glutamatergic systems in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were altered by an acute and/or repeated cocaine administration schedule that resulted in behavioral sensitization. We measured the protein and mRNA expression of the main endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes and the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1). We also analyzed the mRNA expression of relevant components of the glutamate-signaling system, including glutamate-synthesizing enzymes, metabotropic receptors, and ionotropic receptors. Results: Although acute cocaine (10mg/kg) produced no significant changes in the endocannabinoid-related proteins, repeated cocaine administration (20mg/kg daily) induced a pronounced increase in the CB1 receptor expression. In addition, acute cocaine administration (10mg/kg) in cocaine-sensitized mice (referred to as cocaine priming) induced a selective increase in the endocannabinoid-degrading enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). These protein changes were accompanied by an overall decrease in the ratios of endocannabinoid synthesis/degradation, especially the N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D/FAAH and diacylglycerol lipase alpha/MAGL ratios. Regarding mRNA expression, while acute cocaine administration produced a decrease in CB1 receptors and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D, repeated cocaine treatment enhanced CB1 receptor expression. Cocaine-sensitized mice that were administered priming injections of cocaine mainly displayed an increased FAAH expression. These endocannabinoid changes were associated with modifications in glutamatergic

  20. Oxytocin decreases cocaine taking, cocaine seeking, and locomotor activity in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Kah-Chung; Zhou, Luyi; Ghee, Shannon M.; See, Ronald E.; Reichel, Carmela M.

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin has been shown to decrease cocaine taking and seeking in male rats, suggesting potential treatment efficacy for drug addiction. In the present study, we extended these findings to the assessment of cocaine seeking and taking in female rats. Further, we made direct comparisons of oxytocin’s impact on cocaine induced locomotor activity in both males and females. In females, systemic oxytocin (0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg/kg) attenuated lever pressing for cocaine during self-administration and oxytocin (1.0 mg/kg) attenuated cue-induced cocaine seeking following extinction. Cocaine increased baseline locomotor activity to a greater degree in females relative to males. Oxytocin (0.1, 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg) reduced cocaine-induced locomotor activity in females, but not significantly in males. These data illustrate sex similarities in oxytocin’s attenuation of cocaine seeking, but sex differences in cocaine-induced locomotor effects. While reductions in cocaine seeking cannot be attributed to a reduction in locomotor activity in males, attenuation of locomotor function cannot be entirely ruled out as an explanation for a decrease in cocaine seeking in females suggesting that oxytocin’s effect on cocaine seeking may be mediated by different mechanisms in male and females. PMID:26523890

  1. Aripiprazole maintenance increases smoked cocaine self-administration in humans

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Eric; Foltin, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Partial dopamine receptor agonists have been proposed as candidate pharmacotherapies for cocaine dependence. Objective This 42-day, within-subject, human laboratory study assessed how maintenance on aripiprazole, a partial D2 receptor agonist, influenced smoked cocaine self-administration, cardiovascular measures, subjective effects, and cocaine craving in nontreatment-seeking, cocaine-dependent volunteers. Methods In order to achieve steady-state concentrations, participants (n=8 men) were administered placebo and aripiprazole (15 mg/day) capsules in counter-balanced order for 21 days. A smoked cocaine dose–response curve (0, 12, 25, 50 mg) was determined twice under placebo and aripiprazole maintenance. Sessions comprised a “sample” trial, when participants smoked the cocaine dose available that session, and five choice trials, when they responded on a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement to receive the cocaine dose or receive $5.00. Results Cocaine’s reinforcing, subjective, and cardiovascular effects were dose-dependent. Aripiprazole significantly increased cocaine (12, 25 mg) self-administration. Following a single administration of cocaine (25 mg), aripiprazole decreased ratings of how much participants would pay for that dose. Following repeated cocaine (50 mg) self-administration, aripiprazole decreased ratings of cocaine quality, craving, and good drug effect as compared to placebo. Conclusions These data suggest that aripiprazole may have increased self-administration to compensate for a blunted subjective cocaine effect. Overall, the findings do not suggest aripiprazole would be useful for treating cocaine dependence. PMID:21373790

  2. Effects of 21-day d-amphetamine and risperidone treatment on cocaine vs food choice and extended-access cocaine intake in male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Hutsell, Blake A; Negus, S Stevens; Banks, Matthew L

    2016-11-01

    Clinical trial data suggest amphetamine treatment is most efficacious in moderate to high frequency cocaine users. However, preclinical studies have examined amphetamine treatment effects under relatively limited cocaine access conditions with low to moderate cocaine intakes. This study determined d-amphetamine treatment effects on cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys under cocaine access conditions allowing for high daily cocaine intake. For comparison and as a negative control, treatment effects with the antipsychotic risperidone were also examined. Continuous 21-day treatments with ramping doses of d-amphetamine (days 1-7: 0.032mg/kg/h; days 8-21: 0.1mg/kg/h, i.v.) or risperidone (days 1-7: 0.001mg/kg/h; days 8-14: 0.0032mg/kg/h; days 15-21: 0.0056mg/kg/h, i.v.) were administered to rhesus monkeys (n=4) with daily access to two types of cocaine self-administration sessions: (1) a 2-h 'choice' session with concurrent availability of 1-g food pellets and intravenous cocaine injections (0-0.1mg/kg per injection) and (2) a 20-h 'extended-access' session with 0.1mg/kg per injection cocaine availability. Total daily cocaine intake increased >6-fold during extended cocaine access. d-Amphetamine significantly decreased total cocaine intake, but not cocaine vs food choice. In contrast, risperidone did not significantly alter either total cocaine intake or cocaine vs. food choice. These results confirm and extend previous results supporting treatment effectiveness for monoamine releasers, but not dopamine antagonists, to reduce cocaine self-administration. Moreover, these results suggest amphetamine treatment efficacy to decrease preclinical cocaine vs. food choice may depend upon cocaine access conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of 21-day d-amphetamine and risperidone treatment on cocaine vs food choice and extended-access cocaine intake in male rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Hutsell, Blake A.; Negus, S. Stevens; Banks, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical trial data suggest amphetamine treatment is most efficacious in moderate to high frequency cocaine users. However, preclinical studies have examined amphetamine treatment effects under relatively limited cocaine access conditions with low to moderate cocaine intakes. This study determined d-amphetamine treatment effects on cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys under cocaine access conditions allowing for high daily cocaine intake. For comparison and as a negative control, treatment effects with the antipsychotic risperidone were also examined. Methods Continuous 21-day treatments with ramping doses of d-amphetamine (days 1–7: 0.032 mg/kg/h; days 8–21: 0.1 mg/kg/h, i.v.) or risperidone (days 1–7: 0.001 mg/kg/h; days 8–14: 0.0032 mg/kg/h; days 15–21: 0.0056 mg/kg/h, i.v.) were administered to rhesus monkeys (n = 4) with daily access to two types of cocaine self-administration sessions: (1) a 2-h ‘choice’ session with concurrent availability of 1-g food pellets and intravenous cocaine injections (0–0.1 mg/kg per injection) and (2) a 20-h ‘extended-access’ session with 0.1 mg/kg per injection cocaine availability. Results Total daily cocaine intake increased >6-fold during extended cocaine access. d-Amphetamine significantly decreased total cocaine intake, but not cocaine vs food choice. In contrast, risperidone did not significantly alter either total cocaine intake or cocaine vs. food choice. Conclusions These results confirm and extend previous results supporting treatment effectiveness for monoamine releasers, but not dopamine antagonists, to reduce cocaine self-administration. Moreover, these results suggest amphetamine treatment efficacy to decrease preclinical cocaine vs. food choice may depend upon cocaine access conditions. PMID:27615401

  4. Dopamine transporter occupancy by RTI-55 determined using labeled cocaine, and displacement of RTI-55 with unlabeled cocaine

    SciTech Connect

    Gatley, S.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.

    We have previously visualized dopamine transporters (DAT) in human and baboon striatum using PET and C-11 cocaine. Cocaine analogs such as 3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl) tropane-2{beta}-carboxylic acid methyl ester (RTI-55 or {beta}CIT) with a higher affinity for the DAT may be potentially useful in interfering with cocaine`s actions in brain. We evaluated the time course of the effects of RTI-55 on C-11 cocaine binding in baboon brain prior to and 90 minutes, 24 hours, 4-5 days and 11-13 days after RTI-55(0.3 mg/kg iv). RTI-55 significantly inhibited C-11 cocaine binding at 90 minutes and 24 hours after administration. The half life for the clearancemore » of RTI-55 from the DAT was estimated to be 2 to 3 days in the baboon brain. Parallel studies with H-3 cocaine and RTI-55 (0.5 mg/kg iv or 2 mg/kg ip) were performed in mice, where RTI-55 significantly inhibited 5 minute striatum-to-cerebellium ratios (S/C) at 60 and 180 minutes after administration, and recovery was obtained at 12 hours. However, unlabeled cocaine (20 mg/Kg, i/p) given 60 minutes after RTI-55 led to a greater recovery of H-3 cocaine uptake measured at 180 minutes (S/C = 1.23 {plus_minus} 0.07, n= 5), than in control animals given saline after RTI-55 (S/C = 9.5{plus_minus}0.08). Animals given saline instead of RTI-55 had S/C = 1.45{plus_minus}0.04. These results document long lasting inhibition of cocaine binding by RTI-55 and corroborate the assumption that the binding kinetics of RTI-55 in striatum observed in SPECT imaging studies with I-123 RTI-55 represents binding to DAT`s. However, a pharmacological dose of cocaine is able to displace a fraction of the previously bound RTI-55 from the DAT. These findings have implications for drug development strategies for cocaine abuse.« less

  5. Cocaine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter ... The Brain & the Actions of Cocaine, Opioids and Marijuana The first in a 5-part series, offers ...

  6. Effects of N-acetylcysteine on noise-induced temporary threshold shift and temporary emission shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinette, Martin

    2004-05-01

    Animal research has shown that antioxidants can provide significant protection to the cochlea from traumatic noise exposure with some benefit when given after the exposure. Similar results in humans would have a significant impact on both prevention and treatment of noise-induced hearing loss. The current study evaluates the effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on temporary threshold shift (TTS) by using both behavioral and physiological measures. Sixteen healthy, normal-hearing subjects were given NAC or a placebo prior to exposure to a 10-min, 102-dB narrow-band noise, centered at 2 kHz. This exposure was designed to induce a 10-15-dB TTS. Following the noise exposure, pure-tone thresholds (Bekesy) and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) were measured for 60 min to monitor the effects of NAC on TTS recovery. Postexposure measures were compared to baseline data. [Work supported by American BioHealth Group.

  7. Cocaine sensitization models an anhedonia-like condition in rats.

    PubMed

    Scheggi, Simona; Marchese, Giovanna; Grappi, Silvia; Secci, Maria Elena; De Montis, Maria Graziella; Gambarana, Carla

    2011-04-01

    Anhedonia is a core symptom of depression that also characterizes substance abuse-related mood disorders, in particular those secondary to stimulant abuse. This study investigated the long-lasting condition of cocaine sensitization as an inducing condition for anhedonia in rats. Cortical-mesolimbic dopamine plays a central role in assessing the incentive value of a stimulus and an increased dopamine output in these areas after a novel palatable meal seems to correlate with the ability to acquire an instrumental behaviour aimed at earning it again. This dopaminergic response is associated with consistent modifications in the phosphorylation pattern of some cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) substrates and it is mediated by dopamine D1 receptor stimulation. Thus, since behavioural cocaine sensitization is characterized by tonically increased levels of phospho-Thr75 DARPP-32 that is a potent PKA inhibitor, we hypothesized that cocaine-sensitized rats might reveal deficits in palatable food responding. Indeed, non-food-deprived cocaine-sensitized rats showed no interest in palatable food, no dopaminergic response after a palatable meal in terms of increased dopamine output and DARPP-32 phosphorylation changes, and no ability to acquire a palatable food-sustained instrumental behaviour. Repeated administration of an established antidepressant compound, imipramine, corrected these deficits and reinstated the dopaminergic response in the cortico-mesolimbic areas to control values. Thus, the behavioural modifications observed in cocaine-sensitized rats satisfy some requirements for an experimental model of anhedonia since they are induced by repeated cocaine administration (aetiological validity), they mimic an anhedonia-like symptom (construct validity), and are reversed by the administration of imipramine (predictive validity).

  8. Anti-Cocaine Vaccine Based on Coupling a Cocaine Analog to a Disrupted Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Koob, George; Hicks, Martin J.; Wee, Sunmee; Rosenberg, Jonathan B.; De, Bishnu P.; Kaminksy, Stephen M.; Moreno, Amira; Janda, Kim D.; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2012-01-01

    The challenge in developing an anti-cocaine vaccine is that cocaine is a small molecule, invisible to the immune system. Leveraging the knowledge that adenovirus (Ad) capsid proteins are highly immunogenic in humans, we hypothesized that linking a cocaine hapten to Ad capsid proteins would elicit high-affinity, high-titer antibodies against cocaine, sufficient to sequester systemically administered cocaine and prevent access to the brain, thus suppressing cocaine-induced behaviors. Based on these concepts, we developed dAd5GNE, a disrupted E1−E3− serotype 5 Ad with GNE, a stable cocaine analog, covalently linked to the Ad capsid proteins. In pre-clinical studies, dAd5GNE evoked persistent, high titer, high affinity IgG anti-cocaine antibodies, and was highly effective in blocking cocaine-induced hyperactivity and cocaine self-administration behavior in rats. Future studies will be designed to expand the efficacy studies, carry out relevant toxicology studies, and test dAd5GNE in human cocaine addicts. PMID:22229312

  9. Electroencephalographic activity and mood in cocaine-dependent outpatients: effects of cocaine cue exposure.

    PubMed

    Bauer, L O; Kranzler, H R

    1994-08-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) and subjective reactions to cocaine cues were evaluated in 18 cocaine-dependent outpatients, after 14 or fewer days of abstinence, and 16 noncocaine-dependent controls. EEG activity and desire for cocaine were recorded while subjects viewed three 5-min films that featured either cocaine-associated, erotic, or neutral stimuli. Other measures of mood state and cocaine craving, derived from the Mood Adjective Checklist and the Cocaine Craving Questionnaire, respectively, were recorded immediately after each film. Analyses of absolute EEG power within six frequency bands (delta, theta, slow and fast alpha, slow and fast beta) revealed no EEG abnormalities in the cocaine-dependent group under any condition. In both subject groups, the cocaine-associated and erotic films produced a similar reduction in total EEG power. The cocaine-associated and erotic films also produced a similar increase in the self-rated desire for cocaine, but this change only occurred in the cocaine-dependent group.

  10. New regimens for intravenous acetylcysteine, where are we now?

    PubMed

    Bateman, D Nicholas; Dear, James W; Thomas, Simon H L

    2016-01-01

    Acetylcysteine has been used as a treatment for paracetamol overdose as a 20.25- or 21-h infusion for nearly 40 years. These regimens give 50% of the dose in the first 15 min or 1 h, and are associated with high rates of adverse reactions. A randomised controlled trial has demonstrated that a shorter (12 h) and simpler (two infusions) acetylcysteine regimen using a slower initial infusion rate produces lower rates of adverse events than the original 20.25-h regimen. However, this study was not sufficiently large to show therapeutic equivalence as a hepatoprotective therapy in paracetamol overdose. Two further studies are now reported, which also suggest lower rates of adverse reactions with lower initial rates of acetylcysteine administration. These modified regimens can now be accepted as better tolerated, but it is unlikely that a randomised study of sufficient size to demonstrate non-inferiority of any novel regimen would ever be funded. Against this background we suggest what can be done to establish the efficacy of these less toxic and potentially shorter alternative acetylcysteine regimens and to establish them into routine clinical use.

  11. N-Acetylcysteine in the treatment of pediatric trichotillomania: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled add-on trial.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Michael H; Panza, Kaitlyn E; Grant, Jon E; Pittenger, Christopher; Leckman, James F

    2013-03-01

    To examine the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for the treatment of pediatric trichotillomania (TTM) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, add-on study. A total of 39 children and adolescents aged 8 to 17 years with pediatric trichotillomania were randomly assigned to receive NAC or matching placebo for 12 weeks. Our primary outcome was change in severity of hairpulling as measured by the Massachusetts General Hospital-Hairpulling Scale (MGH-HPS). Secondary measures assessed hairpulling severity, automatic versus focused pulling, clinician-rated improvement, and comorbid anxiety and depression. Outcomes were examined using linear mixed models to test the treatment×time interaction in an intention-to-treat population. No significant difference between N-acetylcysteine and placebo was found on any of the primary or secondary outcome measures. On several measures of hairpulling, subjects significantly improved with time regardless of treatment assignment. In the NAC group, 25% of subjects were judged as treatment responders, compared to 21% in the placebo group. We observed no benefit of NAC for the treatment of children with trichotillomania. Our findings stand in contrast to a previous, similarly designed trial in adults with TTM, which demonstrated a very large, statistically significant benefit of NAC. Based on the differing results of NAC in pediatric and adult TTM populations, the assumption that pharmacological interventions demonstrated to be effective in adults with TTM will be as effective in children, may be inaccurate. This trial highlights the importance of referring children with TTM to appropriate behavioral therapy before initiating pharmacological interventions, as behavioral therapy has demonstrated efficacy in both children and adults with trichotillomania. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of chronic binge-like ethanol consumption on cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Czoty, Paul W

    2015-08-01

    Most cocaine abusers also abuse alcohol, but little is known about interactions that promote co-abuse. These experiments in rhesus monkeys determined the effects of >8 weeks of ethanol (EtOH) consumption on cocaine self-administration (n=6), effects of dopamine (DA) receptor antagonists on cocaine reinforcement (n=3-4 per drug) and the ability of the D2-like DA receptor agonist quinpirole to elicit yawning (n=3). Monkeys self-administered cocaine (0.0-1.0mg/kg/injection, i.v.) under a 300-s fixed-interval schedule and the above-listed variables were measured before EtOH exposure. Next, monkeys consumed a sweetened, 4% EtOH solution in the home cage under binge-like conditions: 1h, 5 days/week with daily intake equaling 2.0g/kg EtOH. After approximately 8 weeks, measures were re-determined, then EtOH drinking was discontinued. Finally, acute effects of EtOH on cocaine self-administration were determined by infusing EtOH (0.0-1.0g/kg. i.v.) prior to cocaine self-administration sessions (n=4). In five of six monkeys, EtOH drinking increased self-administration of low cocaine doses but did not alter reinforcing effects of higher doses. Self-administration returned to baseline after EtOH access was terminated (n=3). Effects of DA receptor antagonists on cocaine self-administration were not consistently altered after EtOH consumption, but the ability of quinpirole to induce yawning was enhanced in two of three monkeys. Acute EtOH infusions only decreased self-administration of lower cocaine doses. Taken together, the data suggest that long-term EtOH exposure can increase sensitivity to cocaine, possibly by increasing D3 receptor sensitivity. Data do not support a role for acute pharmacological interactions in promoting cocaine/EtOH co-abuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preclinical High-Dose Acetaminophen With N-Acetylcysteine Rescue Enhances the Efficacy of Cisplatin Chemotherapy in Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Neuwelt, Alexander J.; Nguyen, Tam; Wu, Y. Jeffrey; Donson, Andrew M.; Vibhakar, Rajeev; Venkatamaran, Sujatha; Amani, Vladimir; Neuwelt, Edward A.; Rapkin, Louis B.; Foreman, Nicholas K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (AT-RT) are pediatric tumors of the central nervous system with limited treatment options and poor survival rate. We investigated whether enhancing chemotherapy toxicity by depleting intracellular glutathione (GSH; a key molecule in cisplatin resistance) with high dose acetaminophen (AAP), may improve therapeutic efficacy in AT-RT in vitro. Procedure BT16 (cisplatin-resistant) and BT12 (cisplatin-sensitive) AT-RT cell lines were treated with combinations of AAP, cisplatin, and the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Cell viability, GSH and peroxide concentrations, mitochondrial damage, and apoptosis were evaluated in vitro. Results AAP enhanced cisplatin cytotoxicity in cisplatin-resistant BT16 cells but not cisplatin-sensitive BT12 cells. Baseline GSH levels were elevated in BT16 cells compared to BT12 cells, and AAP decreased GSH to a greater magnitude in BT16 cells than BT12 cells. Unlike BT12 cells, BT16 cells did not have elevated peroxide levels upon treatment with cisplatin alone, but did have elevated levels when treated with AAP + cisplatin. Both cell lines had markedly increased mitochondrial injury when treated with AAP + cisplatin relative to either drug treatment alone. The enhanced toxic effects were partially reversed with concurrent administration of NAC. Conclusions Our results suggest that AAP could be used as a chemo-enhancement agent to potentiate cisplatin chemotherapeutic efficacy particularly in cisplatin-resistant AT-RT tumors with high GSH levels in clinical settings. PMID:23956023

  14. Cytotoxic Effects of Ochratoxin A in Neuro-2a Cells: Role of Oxidative Stress Evidenced by N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Pratiksha V; Pandareesh; Khanum, Farhath; Tamatam, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Ochratoxin-A (OTA), is toxic secondary metabolite and is found to be a source of vast range of toxic effects like hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity. However, the information available currently regarding neurotoxic effects exerted by OTA is scanty. Hence, the present study was aimed to evaluate the neurotoxic effects of OTA and the possible mechanisms of toxicity as well as the role of cytotoxic oxidative stress on neuronal (Neuro-2a) cell line was evaluated in vitro. Results of the MTT and LDH assay showed that, OTA induced dose-dependent cell death in Neuro-2a cells and EC50 value was determined as 500 nM. OTA induced high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and elevated levels of malondialdehyde, also loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was observed in a dose depended manner. Effects of OTA on ROS induced chromosomal DNA damage was assessed by Comet assay and plasmid DNA damage assay in which increase in DNA damage was observed in Neuro-2a cells by increasing the OTA concentration. Further western blotting analysis of OTA treated Neuro-2a cells indicated elevated expression levels of c-Jun, JNK3 and cleaved caspase-3 leading to apoptotic cell death. Other hand realtime-Q-PCR analysis clearly indicates the suppressed expression of neuronal biomarker genes including AChE, BDNF, TH and NOS2. Further N-acetylcysteine (NAC) pretreatment to Neuro-2a cells followed by OTA treatment clearly evidenced that, the significant reversal of toxic effects exerted by OTA on Neuro-2a cells. In the present study, results illustrate that ROS a principle event in oxidative stress was elevated by OTA toxicity in Neuro-2a cells. However, further in vivo, animal studies are in need to conclude the present study reports and the use of NAC as a remedy for OTA induced neuronal stress.

  15. Cocaine-related deaths.

    PubMed

    Lora-Tamayo, C; Tena, T; Rodriguez, A

    1994-07-15

    Cocaine availability has been increasing in Spain in the past few years. A review of all the toxicological analyses carried out at the Madrid Department of the Instituto Nacional de Toxicología, with subjects who had died of drugs from 1990 to 1992, found 533 persons who had cocaine in their blood and/or tissues; 450 (84%) deaths involved cocaine and heroin together whereas 83 (16%) deaths involved cocaine with an absence of heroin. This paper reports the circumstances, cocaine and benzoylecgonine concentrations in the blood and other toxicological findings for the two major groups of deaths where cocaine was found with an absence of heroin, i.e., possible overdose cases (35 cases) and traffic accidents (23 cases).

  16. Vitamin B5 and N-acetylcysteine in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a pre-clinical study in a dietary mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Mariana Verdelho; Kruger, Leandi; Jewell, Mark L.; Michelotti, Gregory Alexander; de Almeida Pereira, Thiago; Xie, Guanhua; Moylan, Cynthia A.; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2015-01-01

    Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the number one cause of chronic liver disease and second indication for liver transplantation in the Western world. Effective therapy is still not available. Previously we showed a critical role for caspase-2 in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the potentially progressive form of NAFLD. An imbalance between free Coenzyme A (CoA) and acyl-CoA ratio is known to induce caspase-2 activation. Objectives We aimed to evaluate CoA metabolism and the effects of supplementation with CoA precursors, pantothenate and cysteine, in mouse models of NASH. Methods CoA metabolism was evaluated in methionine-choline deficient (MCD) and Western diet mouse models of NASH. MCD-diet fed mice were treated with pantothenate and N-acetylcysteine or placebo to determine effects on NASH. Results Liver free CoA content was reduced, pantothenate kinase (PANK), the rate-limiting enzyme in the CoA biosynthesis pathway, was down-regulated, and CoA degrading enzymes were increased in mice with NASH. Decreased hepatic free CoA content was associated with increased caspase-2 activity, and correlated with worse liver cell apoptosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Treatment with pantothenate and N-acetylcysteine did not inhibit caspase-2 activation, improve NASH, normalize PANK expression, or restore free CoA levels in MCD diet-fed mice. Conclusion In mice with NASH, hepatic CoA metabolism is impaired, leading to decreased free CoA content, activation of caspase-2, and increased liver cell apoptosis. Dietary supplementation with CoA precursors did not restore CoA levels or improve NASH, suggesting that alternative approaches are necessary to normalize free CoA during NASH. PMID:26403427

  17. Modafinil attenuates reinstatement of cocaine seeking: role for cystine-glutamate exchange and metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Stephen V; Hensley-Simon, Megan; Tahsili-Fahadan, Pouya; LaLumiere, Ryan T; Thomas, Charles; Fallon, Rebecca V; Kalivas, Peter W; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Modafinil may be useful for treating stimulant abuse, but the mechanisms by which it acts to do so are unknown. Indeed, a primary effect of modafinil is to inhibit dopamine transport, which typically promotes rather than inhibits motivated behavior. Therefore, we examined the role of nucleus accumbens extracellular glutamate and the group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2/3) in modafinil effects. One group of rats was trained to self-administer cocaine for 10 days and extinguished, then given priming injections of cocaine to elicit reinstatement. Modafinil (300 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) inhibited reinstated cocaine seeking (but did not alter extinction responding by itself), and this effect was prevented by pre-treatment with bilateral microinjections of the mGluR2/3 antagonist LY-341495 (LY) into nucleus accumbens core. No reversal of modafinil effects was seen after unilateral accumbens core LY, or bilateral LY in the rostral pole of accumbens. Next, we sought to explore effects of modafinil on extracellular glutamate levels in accumbens after chronic cocaine. Separate rats were administered non-contingent cocaine, and after 3 weeks of withdrawal underwent accumbens microdialysis. Modafinil increased extracellular accumbens glutamate in chronic cocaine, but not chronic saline-pre-treated animals. This increase was prevented by reverse dialysis of cystine-glutamate exchange or voltage-dependent calcium channel antagonists. Voltage-dependent sodium channel blockade partly attenuated the increase in glutamate, but mGluR1 blockade did not. We conclude that modafinil increases extracellular glutamate in nucleus accumbens from glial and neuronal sources in cocaine-exposed rats, which may be important for its mGluR2/3-mediated antirelapse properties. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Development of a translational model to screen medications for cocaine use disorder II: Choice between intravenous cocaine and money in humans

    PubMed Central

    Lile, Joshua A.; Stoops, William W.; Rush, Craig R.; Negus, S. Stevens; Glaser, Paul E. A.; Hatton, Kevin W.; Hays, Lon R.

    2016-01-01

    Background A medication for treating cocaine use disorder has yet to be approved. Laboratory-based evaluation of candidate medications in animals and humans is a valuable means to demonstrate safety, tolerability and initial efficacy of potential medications. However, animal-to-human translation has been hampered by a lack of coordination. Therefore, we designed homologous cocaine self-administration studies in rhesus monkeys (see companion article) and human subjects in an attempt to develop linked, functionally equivalent procedures for research on candidate medications for cocaine use disorder. Methods Eight (N=8) subjects with cocaine use disorder completed 12 experimental sessions in which they responded to receive money ($0.01, $1.00 and $3.00) or intravenous cocaine (0, 3, 10 and 30 mg/70 kg) under independent, concurrent progressive-ratio schedules. Prior to the completion of 9 choice trials, subjects sampled the cocaine dose available during that session and were informed of the monetary alternative value. Results The allocation of behavior varied systematically as a function of cocaine dose and money value. Moreover, a similar pattern of cocaine choice was demonstrated in rhesus monkeys and humans across different cocaine doses and magnitudes of the species-specific alternative reinforcers. The subjective and cardiovascular responses to IV cocaine were an orderly function of dose, although heart rate and blood pressure remained within safe limits. Conclusions These coordinated studies successfully established drug vs. non-drug choice procedures in humans and rhesus monkeys that yielded similar cocaine choice behavior across species. This translational research platform will be used in future research to enhance the efficiency of developing interventions to reduce cocaine use. PMID:27269368

  19. Development of a translational model to screen medications for cocaine use disorder II: Choice between intravenous cocaine and money in humans.

    PubMed

    Lile, Joshua A; Stoops, William W; Rush, Craig R; Negus, S Stevens; Glaser, Paul E A; Hatton, Kevin W; Hays, Lon R

    2016-08-01

    A medication for treating cocaine use disorder has yet to be approved. Laboratory-based evaluation of candidate medications in animals and humans is a valuable means to demonstrate safety, tolerability and initial efficacy of potential medications. However, animal-to-human translation has been hampered by a lack of coordination. Therefore, we designed homologous cocaine self-administration studies in rhesus monkeys (see companion article) and human subjects in an attempt to develop linked, functionally equivalent procedures for research on candidate medications for cocaine use disorder. Eight (N=8) subjects with cocaine use disorder completed 12 experimental sessions in which they responded to receive money ($0.01, $1.00 and $3.00) or intravenous cocaine (0, 3, 10 and 30mg/70kg) under independent, concurrent progressive-ratio schedules. Prior to the completion of 9 choice trials, subjects sampled the cocaine dose available during that session and were informed of the monetary alternative value. The allocation of behavior varied systematically as a function of cocaine dose and money value. Moreover, a similar pattern of cocaine choice was demonstrated in rhesus monkeys and humans across different cocaine doses and magnitudes of the species-specific alternative reinforcers. The subjective and cardiovascular responses to IV cocaine were an orderly function of dose, although heart rate and blood pressure remained within safe limits. These coordinated studies successfully established drug versus non-drug choice procedures in humans and rhesus monkeys that yielded similar cocaine choice behavior across species. This translational research platform will be used in future research to enhance the efficiency of developing interventions to reduce cocaine use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hapten optimization for cocaine vaccine with improved cocaine recognition.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Muthu; Kinsey, Berma M; Singh, Rana A; Kosten, Thomas R; Orson, Frank M

    2014-09-01

    In the absence of any effective pharmacotherapy for cocaine addiction, immunotherapy is being actively pursued as a therapeutic intervention. While several different cocaine haptens have been explored to develop anticocaine antibodies, none of the hapten was successfully designed, which had a protonated tropane nitrogen as is found in native cocaine under physiological conditions, including the succinyl norcocaine (SNC) hapten that has been tested in phase II clinical trials. Herein, we discuss three different cocaine haptens: hexyl norcocaine (HNC), bromoacetamido butyl norcocaine (BNC), and succinyl butyl norcocaine (SBNC), each with a tertiary nitrogen structure mimicking that of native cocaine which could optimize the specificity of anticocaine antibodies for better cocaine recognition. Mice immunized with these haptens conjugated to immunogenic proteins produced high titre anticocaine antibodies. However, during chemical conjugation of HNC and BNC haptens to carrier proteins, the 2β methyl ester group is hydrolyzed, and immunizing mice with these conjugate vaccines in mice produced antibodies that bound both cocaine and the inactive benzoylecgonine metabolite. While in the case of the SBNC conjugate, vaccine hydrolysis of the methyl ester did not appear to occur, leading to antibodies with high specificity to cocaine over BE. Although we observed similar specificity with a SNC hapten, the striking difference is that SBNC carries a positive charge on the tropane nitrogen atom, and therefore, it is expected to have better binding of cocaine. The 50% cocaine inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) value for SBNC antibodies (2.8 μm) was significantly better than the SNC antibodies (9.4 μm) when respective hapten-BSA was used as a substrate. In addition, antibodies from both sera had no inhibitory effect from BE. In contrast to BNC and HNC, the SBNC conjugate was also found to be highly stable without any noticeable hydrolysis for several months at 4 °C and 2-3

  1. Oral Fluid Cocaine and Benzoylecgonine Concentrations Following Controlled Intravenous Cocaine Administration

    PubMed Central

    Ellefsen, Kayla N.; Concheiro, Marta; Pirard, Sandrine; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Limited oral fluid (OF) pharmacokinetic data collected with commercially available collection devices after controlled cocaine administration hinder OF result interpretations. Ten cocaine-using adults provided OF, collected with Oral-Eze® (OE) and StatSure Saliva Sampler™ (SS) devices, an hour prior to and up to 69 h after 25 mg intravenous (IV) cocaine administration. Cocaine and benzoylecgonine (BE) were quantified by a validated 2D-GC-MS method. Large inter-subject variability was observed. Cocaine was detected in OF in the first 0.17 h sample after IV administration, with much more rapid elimination than BE. OE median observed Cmax (range) was 932 (394–1,574) μg/L for cocaine and 248 (96.9–953) μg/L for BE. SS median (range) observed cocaine and BE Cmax trended lower at 732 (83.3–1,892) μg/L and 360 (77.2–836) μg/L, respectively. OE and SS cocaine OF detection times were 12.5 and 6.5 h and for BE 30.5 and 28.0 h, respectively at 1 μg/L. There were no significant pharmacokinetic differences between OE and SS OF collection devices, except cocaine half-life was significantly shorter in SS OF specimens. This difference could be attributed to differences in stabilizing buffers present in OF collection devices, which may affect cocaine stability in OF specimens, or decreased recovery from collection pads. Both OE and SS OF collection devices were effective in monitoring cocaine and metabolite concentrations with similar detection windows. Furthermore, we demonstrated that different confirmatory OF cutoffs can be selected to produce shorter or longer cocaine and metabolite detection windows to address specific needs of clinical and forensic drug testing programs. PMID:26851651

  2. Toward early estimation and treatment of addiction vulnerability: radial arm maze and N-acetyl cysteine before cocaine sensitization or nicotine self-administration in neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion rats.

    PubMed

    Rao, Kalyan N; Sentir, Alena M; Engleman, Eric A; Bell, Richard L; Hulvershorn, Leslie A; Breier, Alan; Chambers, R Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Prefrontal cortical (PFC)-hippocampal-striatal circuits, interconnected via glutamatergic signaling, are dysfunctional in mental illnesses that involve addiction vulnerability. In healthy and neurodevelopmentally altered rats, we examined how Radial Arm Maze (RAM) performance estimates addiction vulnerability, and how starting a glutamatergic modulating agent, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) in adolescence alters adult mental illness and/or addiction phenotypes. Rats with neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions (NVHL) vs. SHAM-operated controls were randomized to NAC vs. saline in adolescence followed by cognitive testing (RAM) in early adulthood and then cocaine behavioral sensitization (experiment 1; n = 80) or nicotine self-administration (experiment 2; n = 12). In experiment 1, NVHL rats showed over-consumption of food (Froot-Loops (FL)) baiting the RAM with poor working memory (low-arm entries to repeat (ETR)), producing an elevated FL to ETR ratio ("FLETR"; p < 0.001). FLETR was the best linear estimator (compared to FL or ETR) of magnitude of long-term cocaine sensitization (R 2  = 0.14, p < 0.001). NAC treatment did not alter FL, ETR, FLETR, or cocaine sensitization. In experiment 2, FLETR also significantly and uniquely correlated with subsequent drug seeking during nicotine-induced reinstatement after extinction of nicotine self-administration (R 2  = 0.47, p < 0.01). NAC did not alter RAM performance, but significantly reversed NVHL-induced increases in nicotine seeking during extinction and reinstatement. These findings demonstrate the utility of animal models of mental illness with addiction vulnerability for developing novel diagnostic measures of PFC-hippocampal-striatal circuit dysfunction that may reflect addiction risk. Such tests may direct pharmacological treatments prior to adulthood and addictive drug exposure, to prevent or treat adult addictions.

  3. Cocaine use may induce telomere shortening in individuals with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shenghan; Heaphy, Christopher M; Rizzo, Anthony J; Celentano, David D; Gerstenblith, Gary; Li, Ji; Moore, Richard D; Treisman, Glenn; Chen, Shaoguang; Foster, Parker; Kickler, Thomas; Lai, Hong

    2018-06-08

    Although cocaine use may induce/accelerate HIV-associated comorbidities in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and that HIV itself may accelerate aging, the issue of whether cocaine use plays a role in HIV-associated aging in HIV-infected cocaine users has not been reported. The goals of this study were (1) to explore factor(s) associated with peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length, a marker of cellular replicative history, and telomere shortening in HIV-infected individuals, and (2) to assess whether cocaine use plays a role in accelerating telomere shortening in cocaine users with HIV infection. Between June 2010 and December 2016, 147 HIV-infected participants in Baltimore, Maryland, were enrolled in a cross-sectional study investigating factor(s) associated with telomere length. Of these 147, 93 participated in a follow-up study to examine factor(s) associated with telomere shortening. Robust regression model was used to analyze cross-sectional data and the generalized estimating equation approach was used to analyze follow-up data. Cross-sectional analyses demonstrated that (1) both daily alcohol consumption and use of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) were independently associated with telomere length, and cocaine use modified the associations of daily alcohol use and NNRTI use with telomere length. Longitudinal analyses suggested that both daily alcohol consumption and duration of NNRTI use were independently associated with telomere shortening, and (2) cocaine use induced/accelerated telomere shortening in HIV-infected individuals. Our findings suggest that cocaine use may promote premature aging in HIV-infected individuals who are on ART. Our results emphasize the importance of cocaine abstinence/reduced use, which may retard HIV-associated premature aging. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Monitoring cocaine use and abstinence among cocaine users for contingency management interventions.

    PubMed

    Holtyn, August F; Knealing, Todd W; Jarvis, Brantley P; Subramaniam, Shrinidhi; Silverman, Kenneth

    2017-06-01

    During contingency management interventions, reinforcement of cocaine abstinence is arranged by delivering an incentive when a urine sample tests cocaine-negative. The use of qualitative versus quantitative urinalysis testing may have important implications for effects on cocaine abstinence. Qualitative testing (i.e., testing that solely identifies whether a particular substance is present or absent) may not detect short-term cocaine abstinence because a single instance of cocaine use can result in cocaine-positive urine over many days. Quantitative testing (i.e., testing that identifies how much of a substance is present) may be more sensitive to short-term cocaine abstinence; however, the selection of a criterion for distinguishing new use versus carryover from previous use is an important consideration. The present study examined benzoylecgonine concentrations, the primary metabolite of cocaine, in urine samples collected three times per week for 30 weeks from 28 cocaine users who were exposed to a cocaine abstinence contingency. Of the positive urine samples (benzoylecgonine concentration >300 ng/ml), 29%, 21%, 14%, and 5% of the samples decreased in benzoylecgonine concentration by more than 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% per day, respectively. As the size of the decrease increased, the likelihood of that sample occurring during a period leading to a cocaine-negative urine sample (benzoylecgonine concentration ≤300 ng/ml) also increased. The number of days required to produce a cocaine-negative sample following a positive sample ranged from 1 to 10 days and was significantly correlated with the starting benzoylecgonine level ( r = 0.43, p < 0.001). The present analyses may aid in the development of procedures that allow for the precise reinforcement of recent cocaine abstinence during contingency management interventions.

  5. A single-arm clinical trial of a 48-hour intravenous N-acetylcysteine protocol for treatment of acetaminophen poisoning.

    PubMed

    Heard, K; Rumack, B H; Green, J L; Bucher-Bartelson, B; Heard, S; Bronstein, A C; Dart, R C

    2014-06-01

    Acetylcysteine prevents hepatic injury when administered soon after acetaminophen overdose. The most commonly used treatment protocols are a 72-hour oral and a 21-hour intravenous (IV) protocol. Between 1984 and 1994, 409 patients were enrolled in a study to describe the outcomes of patients who were treated using a 48-hour IV protocol. In 1991, an interim analysis reported the first 223 patients. The objective of this manuscript is to report the rates of hepatotoxicity and adverse events occurring during a 48-hour IV acetylcysteine protocol in the entire 409 patient cohort. This was a multicenter, single-arm, open-label clinical trial enrolling patients who presented with a toxic serum acetaminophen concentration within 24 h of acute acetaminophen ingestion. Patients were treated with 140 mg/kg loading dose followed by 70 mg/kg every 4 h for 12 doses. Serum aminotransferase activities were measured every 8 h during the protocol, and adverse events were recorded. The primary outcome was the percentage of subjects who developed hepatotoxicity defined as a peak serum aminotransferase greater than 1000 IU/L. Four hundred and nine patients were enrolled, and 309 met inclusion for the outcome analysis. The overall percentage of patients developing hepatotoxicity was 18.1%, and 3.4% of patients treated within 10 h developed hepatotoxicity. One acetaminophen-related death occurred in a patient treated at 22 h. Adverse events occurred in 28.9% of enrolled subjects; the most common adverse events were nausea, vomiting, and flushing, and no events were rated as serious by the investigator. Acetaminophen-overdosed patients treated with IV acetylcysteine administered as 140 mg/kg loading dose followed by 70 mg/kg every 4 h for 12 doses had a low rate of hepatotoxicity and few adverse events. This protocol delivers a higher dose of acetylcysteine which may be useful in selected cases involving very large overdoses.

  6. N-acetylcysteine ameliorates contrast‑induced kidney injury in rats with unilateral hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qiang; Liu, Chunxiao; Zheng, Xia

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of N‑acetylcysteine (NAC) on contrast‑induced acute kidney injury in rats with unilateral hyronephrosis. Eighty‑two male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to undergo sham operation (n=14) or unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) (n=68). After 3 weeks, the UUO animals were randomized to three groups: NAC gastric perfusion, UUO+iohexol+NAC (n=24); normal saline perfusion, UUO+iohexol (n=24); and controls, UUO (n=20). After 3 days, UUO+iohexol+NAC and UUO+iohexol rats were injected with iohexol. One day after contrast, half of the rats were sacrificed to assess the pathological changes to the kidneys, serum creatinine, serum neutrophil gelatinase‑associated lipocalin (NGAL), renal cell apoptosis rate and expression of apoptosis regulators Bcl‑2/Bax. The remaining rats underwent obstruction relief and were analyzed 3 weeks later. Compared with the controls, serum NGAL levels were high in UUO+iohexol rats 1 day following injection and 3 weeks after obstruction relief, but UUO+iohexol+NAC rats exhibited lower serum NGAL levels compared with UUO+iohexol rats (all P<0.05). Following modeling, UUO+iohexol rats exhibited a significantly higher apoptosis rate of renal tubular cells, higher expression of Bax mRNA, and lower ratio of Bcl‑2/Bax (all P<0.05). Three weeks after obstruction relief, UUO+iohexol+NAC rats exhibited a lower apoptosis rate, lower Bax mRNA expression, higher expression of Bcl‑2 mRNA and higher ratio of Bcl‑2/Bax (all P<0.05) compared with day 1 following drug administration. The prophylactic use of NAC reduced the apoptotic rate of renal tubular cells following contrast exposition, which was accompanied by changes in the expression of Bcl‑2/Bax mRNA.

  7. Estradiol increases choice of cocaine over food in male rats.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Jared R; Adams, Julia; Bozadjian, Rachel V; Bubalo, Lana; Ploense, Kyle L; Kippin, Tod E

    2017-10-19

    Estradiol modulates the rewarding and reinforcing properties of cocaine in females, including an increase in selection of cocaine over alternative reinforcers. However, the effects of estradiol on male cocaine self-administration behavior are less studied despite equivalent levels of estradiol in the brains of adult males and females, estradiol effects on motivated behaviors in males that share underlying neural substrates with cocaine reinforcement as well as expression of estrogen receptors in the male brain. Therefore, we sought to characterize the effects of estradiol in males on choice between concurrently-available cocaine and food reinforcement as well as responding for cocaine or food in isolation. Male castrated rats (n=46) were treated daily with estradiol benzoate (EB) (5μg/0.1, S.C.) or vehicle (peanut oil) throughout operant acquisition of cocaine (1mg/kg, IV; FI20 sec) and food (3×45mg; FI20 sec) responding, choice during concurrent access and cocaine and food reinforcement under progressive ratio (PR) schedules. EB increased cocaine choice, both in terms of percent of trials on which cocaine was selected and the proportion of rats exhibiting a cocaine preference as well as increased cocaine, but not food, intake under PR. Additionally, within the EB treated group, cocaine-preferring rats exhibited enhanced acquisition of cocaine, but not food, reinforcement whereas no acquisition differences were observed across preferences in the vehicle treated group. These findings demonstrate that estradiol increases cocaine choice in males similarly to what is observed in females. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Levamisole and cocaine synergism: a prevalent adulterant enhances cocaine's action in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tallarida, Christopher S; Egan, Erin; Alejo, Gissel D; Raffa, Robert; Tallarida, Ronald J; Rawls, Scott M

    2014-04-01

    Levamisole is estimated by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) to be present in about 80% of cocaine seized in the United States and linked to debilitating, and sometimes fatal, immunologic effects in cocaine abusers. One explanation for the addition of levamisole to cocaine is that it increases the amount of product and enhances profits. An alternative possibility, and one investigated here, is that levamisole alters cocaine's action in vivo. We specifically investigated effects of levamisole on cocaine's stereotypical and place-conditioning effects in an established invertebrate (planarian) assay. Acute exposure to levamisole or cocaine produced concentration-dependent increases in stereotyped movements. For combined administration of the two agents, isobolographic analysis revealed that the observed stereotypical response was enhanced relative to the predicted effect, indicating synergism for the interaction. In conditioned place preference (CPP) experiments, cocaine produced a significant preference shift; in contrast, levamisole was ineffective at all concentrations tested. For combination experiments, a submaximal concentration of cocaine produced CPP that was enhanced by inactive concentrations of levamisole, indicating synergism. The present results provide the first experimental evidence that levamisole enhances cocaine's action in vivo. Most important is the identification of synergism for the levamisole/cocaine interaction, which now requires further study in mammals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrochemistry of norcocaine nitroxide and related compounds: implications for cocaine hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Charkoudian, J C; Shuster, L

    1985-08-15

    Norcocaine nitroxide, a free radical metabolite of cocaine, displays a reversible one-electron cyclic voltammogram which is abolished by the addition of reduced glutathione. The corresponding nitrosonium ion was synthesized. It showed the same electrochemical characteristics as the nitroxide. The spin label 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl piperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPOL) and its nitrosonium ion behaved like morcocaine nitroxide and its nitrosonium ion. The nitrosonium ion of TEMPOL caused hemolysis of red blood cells, but TEMPOL did not. These observations suggest that the highly reactive nitrosonium ion may be involved in the production of cocaine-induced hepatic necrosis in mice.

  10. The effects of cocaine, alcohol and cocaine/alcohol combinations in conditioned taste aversion learning.

    PubMed

    Busse, Gregory D; Verendeev, Andrey; Jones, Jermaine; Riley, Anthony L

    2005-09-01

    We have recently reported that alcohol attenuates cocaine place preferences. Although the basis for this effect is unknown, alcohol may attenuate cocaine reward by potentiating its aversive effects. To examine this possibility, these experiments assessed the effects of alcohol on cocaine-induced taste aversions under conditions similar to those that resulted in attenuated place preferences. Specifically, Experiments 1 and 2 assessed the effects of alcohol (0.5 g/kg) on taste aversions induced by 20, 30 and 40 mg/kg cocaine. Experiment 3 examined the role of intertrial interval in the effects of alcohol (0.5 g/kg) on cocaine (30 mg/kg) taste aversions. In Experiments 1 and 2, cocaine was effective at conditioning aversions. Alcohol produced no measurable effect. Combining cocaine and alcohol produced no greater aversion than cocaine alone (and, in fact, weakened aversions at the lowest dose of cocaine). In Experiment 3, varying the intertrial interval from 3 days (as in the case of Experiments 1 and 2) to 1 day (a procedure identical to that in which alcohol attenuated cocaine place preferences) resulted in significant alcohol- and cocaine-induced taste aversions. Nonetheless, alcohol remained ineffective in potentiating cocaine aversions. Thus, under these conditions alcohol does not potentiate cocaine's aversiveness. These results were discussed in terms of their implication for the effects of alcohol on cocaine-induced place preferences. Further, the effects of alcohol on place preferences conditioned by cocaine were discussed in relation to other assessments of the effects of alcohol on the affective properties of cocaine and the implications of these interactions for alcohol and cocaine co-use.

  11. Prognosis of cocaine body-packers.

    PubMed

    de Prost, Nicolas; Lefebvre, Aurélie; Questel, Frank; Roche, Nicolas; Pourriat, Jean-Louis; Huchon, Gérard; Rabbat, Antoine

    2005-07-01

    To study the prognosis and complications of cocaine body-packing (concealment of cocaine in the body for transportation between countries). We retrospectively reviewed the files of all cocaine body-packers hospitalized during a 4-year period in a medico-judiciary emergency unit. Subjects included in the survey were identified from the hospital databases using ICD-10 codes. The Medico-Judiciary Emergency Unit of Hôtel-Dieu university hospital in Paris is a unique medical and surgical emergency unit receiving all patients in legal custody arrested at the two Paris international airports and suspected of body-packing. All the cases of cocaine body-packers (n=581) hospitalized between January 1999 and December 2002 were studied. They had been arrested at Paris airports while arriving from drug-producing countries. The mean number of carried packets was 70.0+/-20.4 (range 18-150). The mean duration of hospitalization was 5.0+/-1.6 days (range 1-18). No complication occurred in 573 body-packers cases. Eight subjects developed a complication requiring admission to an intensive care unit: six acute cocaine intoxications due to packet rupture and two intestinal occlusions. No one died. Surgical treatment was necessary in six cases. Good prognosis observed in these body-packers cases is due to the careful monitoring of asymptomatic patients, allowing early detection and treatment of complications. Surgical removal of the packets when complication occurs is warranted.

  12. Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... That People Abuse » Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Listen Cocaine is a white ... 69 KB) "My life was built around getting cocaine and getting high." ©istock.com/ Marjot Stacey is ...

  13. Inhibition of development of peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Sagara, M; Satoh, J; Wada, R; Yagihashi, S; Takahashi, K; Fukuzawa, M; Muto, G; Muto, Y; Toyota, T

    1996-03-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a precursor of glutathione (GSH) synthesis, a free radical scavenger and an inhibitor of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF). Because these functions might be beneficial in diabetic complications, in this study we examined whether NAC inhibits peripheral neuropathy. Motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) was significantly decreased in streptozotocin-induced-diabetic Wistar rats compared to control rats. Oral administration of NAC reduced the decline of MNCV in diabetic rats. Structural analysis of the sural nerve disclosed significant reduction of fibres undergoing myelin wrinkling and inhibition of myelinated fibre atrophy in NAC-treated diabetic rats. NAC treatment had no effect on blood glucose levels or on the nerve glucose, sorbitol and cAMP contents, whereas it corrected the decreased GSH levels in erythrocytes, the increased lipid peroxide levels in plasma and the increased lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF activity in sera of diabetic rats. Thus, NAC inhibited the development of functional and structural abnormalities of the peripheral nerve in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  14. N-acetylcysteine possesses antidepressant-like activity through reduction of oxidative stress: behavioral and biochemical analyses in rats.

    PubMed

    Smaga, Irena; Pomierny, Bartosz; Krzyżanowska, Weronika; Pomierny-Chamioło, Lucyna; Miszkiel, Joanna; Niedzielska, Ewa; Ogórka, Agata; Filip, Małgorzata

    2012-12-03

    The growing body of evidence implicates the significance of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of depression. The aim of this paper was to examine N-acetylcysteine (NAC) - a putative precursor of the most important tissue antioxidant glutathione - in an animal model of depression and in ex vivo assays to detect oxidative stress parameters. Imipramine (IMI), a classical and clinically-approved antidepressant drug was also under investigation. Male Wistar rats which underwent either bulbectomy (BULB; removal of the olfactory bulbs) or sham surgery (SHAM; olfactory bulbs were left undestroyed) were treated acutely or repeatedly with NAC (50-100mg/kg, ip) or IMI (10mg/kg, ip). Following 10-daily injections with NAC or IMI or their solvents, or 9-daily injections with a corresponding solvent plus acute NAC or acute IMI forced swimming test on day 10, and locomotor activity were performed; immediately after behavioral tests animals were decapitated. Biochemical tests (the total antioxidant capacity - TAC and the superoxide dismutase activity - SOD) were performed on homogenates in several brain structures. In behavioral studies, chronic (but not acute) administration of NAC resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the immobility time seen only in BULB rats while chronic IMI produced a significant decrease in this parameter in both SHAM and BULB animals. On the other hand, chronic administration of NAC and IMI resulted in a significant increase in cellular antioxidant mechanisms (SOD activity) that reversed the effects of BULB in the frontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Our study further supports the antidepressant-like activity of NAC and links its effect as well as IMI actions with the enhancement of brain SOD activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of prenatal cocaine use on infant development.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Gale A; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Willford, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of prenatal cocaine use on infant physical, cognitive, and motor development, and temperamental characteristics, controlling for other factors that affect infant development. Women were, on average, 26.8 years old, had 12 years of education, and 46% were African American. During the first trimester, 18% were frequent users of cocaine (> or =1 line/day). The infants were, on average, 14.6 months old at this follow-up phase. Women who used cocaine during pregnancy rated their infants as more fussy/difficult and unadaptable than did women who did not use cocaine. Cocaine use in the second trimester was associated with significantly lower motor scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) [N. Bayley, Manual for the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Psychological Corporation, New York, 1969.]. There was no effect of prenatal cocaine use on BSID mental performance or on growth. These findings are consistent with other reports in the literature and with the hypothesis that prenatal cocaine exposure affects development through changes in neurotransmitter systems.

  16. Maternal Cocaine Use: Estimated Effects on Mother-Child Play Interactions in the Preschool Period

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Arnise L.; Morrow, Connie E.; Accornero, Veronica H.; Xue, Lihua; Anthony, James C.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2009-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the quality of parent-child interactions in preschool-aged children exposed prenatally to cocaine. African-American mothers and their full-term newborns (n = 343) were enrolled prospectively at birth and classified as either prenatally cocaine-exposed (n = 157) or non–cocaine-exposed (n = 186) on the basis of maternal self-report and bioassays. Follow-up evaluations at 3 years of age (mean age, 40 mo) included a videotaped dyadic play session and maternal interviews to assess ongoing drug use and maternal psychological distress. Play interactions were coded using a modified version of Egeland et al’s Teaching Task coding scheme. Regression analyses indicated cocaine-associated deficits in mother-child interaction, even with statistical adjustment for multiple suspected influences on interaction dynamics. Mother-child interactions were most impaired in cocaine-exposed dyads when the mother continued to report cocaine use at the 3-year follow-up. Multivariate profile analysis of the Egeland interaction subscales indicated greater maternal intrusiveness and hostility, poorer quality of instruction, lower maternal confidence, and diminished child persistence in the cocaine-exposed dyads. PMID:12177564

  17. Effects of the kappa opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) on cocaine versus food choice and extended-access cocaine intake in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Hutsell, Blake A; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C; Negus, Sidney Stevens; Banks, Matthew L

    2016-03-01

    The dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system has been implicated as one potential neurobiological modulator of the abuse-related effects of cocaine and as a potential target for medications development. This study determined effects of the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) on cocaine self-administration under a novel procedure that featured two daily components: (1) a 2-hour 'choice' component (9:00-11:00 am) when monkeys could choose between food pellets and cocaine injections (0-0.1 mg/kg per injection, intravenous) and (2) a 20-hour 'extended-access' component (noon to 8:00 am) when cocaine (0.1 mg/kg per injection) was available under a fixed-ratio schedule to promote high daily cocaine intakes. Rhesus monkeys (n = 4) were given 14 days of exposure to the choice + extended-access procedure then treated with nor-BNI (3.2 or 10.0 mg/kg, intramuscular), and cocaine choice and extended-access cocaine intake were evaluated for an additional 14 days. Consistent with previous studies, cocaine maintained both a dose-dependent increase in cocaine choice during choice components and a high level of cocaine intake during extended-access components. Neither 3.2 nor 10 mg/kg nor-BNI significantly altered cocaine choice or extended-access cocaine intake. In two additional monkeys, nor-BNI also had no effect on cocaine choice or extended-access cocaine intake when it was administered at the beginning of exposure to the extended-access components. Overall, these results do not support a major role for the dynorphin/KOR system in modulating cocaine self-administration under these conditions in non-human primates nor do they support the clinical utility of KOR antagonists as a pharmacotherapeutic strategy for cocaine addiction. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Effects of the kappa opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) on cocaine vs. food choice and extended-access cocaine intake in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Hutsell, Blake A; Cheng, K; Rice, Kenner C; Negus, S Stevens; Banks, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    The dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor system (KOR) has been implicated as one potential neurobiological modulator of the abuse-related effects of cocaine and as a potential target for medications development. This study determined effects of the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) on cocaine self-administration under a novel procedure that featured two daily components: (1) a 2 h “choice” component (9-11 am) when monkeys could choose between food pellets and cocaine injections (0-0.1 mg/kg/inj, IV), and (2) a 20 h “extended-access” component (noon-8 am) when cocaine (0.1 mg/kg/inj) was available under a fixed-ratio schedule to promote high daily cocaine intakes. Rhesus monkeys (n=4) were given 14 days of exposure to the choice + extended-access procedure, then treated with nor-BNI (3.2 or 10.0 mg/kg, IM), and cocaine choice and extended-access cocaine intake were evaluated for an additional 14 days. Consistent with previous studies, cocaine maintained both a dose-dependent increase in cocaine choice during choice components and a high level of cocaine intake during extended-access components. Neither 3.2 nor 10 mg/kg nor-BNI significantly altered cocaine choice or extended-access cocaine intake. In two additional monkeys, nor-BNI also had no effect on cocaine choice or extended-access cocaine intake when it was administered at the beginning of exposure to the extended-access components. Overall, these results do not support a major role for the dynorphin/KOR system in modulating cocaine self-administration under these conditions in nonhuman primates, nor do they support the clinical utility of KOR antagonists as a pharmacotherapeutic strategy for cocaine addiction. PMID:25581305

  19. Antiapoptotic and antigenotoxic effects of N-acetylcysteine in human cells of endothelial origin.

    PubMed

    Aluigi, M G; De Flora, S; D'Agostini, F; Albini, A; Fassina, G

    2000-01-01

    N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is a drug bearing multiple preventive properties that can inhibit genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. NAC also inhibits invasion and metastasis of malignant cells, as well as tumor take. We recently demonstrated the effects of NAC on Kaposi's sarcoma cells supernatant-induced invasion in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo. Many anticancer agents act through cytotoxicity of rapidly proliferating cells and several antineoplastic drugs induce apoptosis of cancer cells. Since endothelial cells are the target for the inhibition of angiogenesis, we wanted to verify that NAC, while inhibiting tumor vascularization and endothelial cell invasion would not induce endothelial cell apoptosis. We tested the ability of NAC to modulate apoptosis and cytogenetic damage in vitro and to promote differentiation on a reconstituted basement membrane (matrigel) in two endothelial cell lines (EAhy926 and HUVE). Treatment with NAC protected endothelial cells from TGF-beta-induced apoptosis and paraquat-induced cytogenetic damage. Therefore, NAC acts as an antiangiogenic agent and, at the same time, appears to prevent apoptosis and oxygen-related genotoxicity in endothelial cells.

  20. The 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist lorcaserin reduces cocaine self-administration, reinstatement of cocaine-seeking and cocaine induced locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Harvey-Lewis, Colin; Li, Zhaoxia; Higgins, Guy A; Fletcher, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    Lorcaserin (Lorqess, Belviq(®)) is a selective 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist that has received FDA approval for the treatment of obesity. 5-HT(2C) receptor agonists are also efficacious in decreasing multiple aspects of cocaine motivation and reward in preclinical models. This would suggest that lorcaserin is a clinically available therapeutic with the potential to treat cocaine addiction. Here we report the effects of lorcaserin (0.1 mg/kg-1.0 mg/kg) on multiple aspects of cocaine-related behaviours in rats. We find that lorcaserin dose-dependently decreases cocaine self-administration on progressive and fixed ratio schedules of reinforcement. Lorcaserin also reduces reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behaviour in response to priming injections of cocaine and/or reintroduction of cocaine-associated cues. Finally, lorcaserin dose-dependently decreases cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion. Our results, when considered in concert with similar emergent findings in non-human primates, strongly support continued research into the potential of lorcaserin as a clinical treatment for cocaine addiction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Late Reduction of Cocaine Cravings in a Randomized, Double-Blind Trial of Aripiprazole vs Perphenazine in Schizophrenia and Comorbid Cocaine Dependence.

    PubMed

    Beresford, Thomas; Buchanan, Jennifer; Thumm, Elizabeth Brie; Emrick, Chad; Weitzenkamp, David; Ronan, Patrick J

    2017-12-01

    Co-occurring schizophrenia spectrum disorder and International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision cocaine dependence present a particularly destructive constellation that is often difficult to treat. Both conditions raise dopamine transmission effects in the brain. Traditional neuroleptics block dopamine receptors, whereas aripiprazole modulates dopamine activity as an agonist/antagonist. We tested whether dopamine modulation is superior to dopamine blocking in dual-diagnosis patients. In a randomized, double-blind, comparison design, cocaine-dependent schizophrenic subjects actively using cocaine received either aripiprazole or perphenazine in an 8-week trial. Primary outcome targeted cocaine-free urine sample proportions, whereas cocaine craving scores were a secondary variable. Subjects (N = 44) randomized (n = 22 per group) did not differ at baseline. The proportion of cocaine-free urine samples did not differ by medication group. Contrasting weeks 3 to 5 vs 6 to 8 revealed significant late reductions in craving with aripiprazole. On the respective 5-point subscales, craving intensity decreased by 1.53 ± 0.43 (P < 0.0005) points, craving frequency by 1.4 ± 0.40 (P > 0.0004) points, and craving duration by 1.76 ± 0.44 (P > 0.0001) points. A drug effect of aripiprazole on craving items appeared at week 6 of treatment, on average, and was not seen before that length of drug exposure. The data suggest that dopamine modulation reduces cocaine cravings but requires an acclimation period. To understand the mechanism of action better, a trial of depot aripiprazole may be useful. Clinically, a reduction in craving potentially offers a clearer focus for ongoing behavioral treatment. It may also offer a longer-term treatment effect with respect to the severity of relapse.

  2. Interactions of Neonates and Infants with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Shirley N.; Gushurst, Colette

    1995-01-01

    The effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on gaze of neonates and recovery of gaze of 2-month old infants (n=11) was studied. Compared to nonexposed controls, cocaine-exposed neonates had shorter gaze, and 2-month-old exposed infants had longer gaze. (Author/SW)

  3. Oral Cysteamine bitartrate and N-acetylcysteine combination for patients with infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis:a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Sondra W.; Baker, Eva H.; Zein, Wadih M.; Zhang, Zhongjian; Quezado, Zenaide M.N.; Miao, Ning; Gropman, Andrea; Griffin, Kurt J.; Bianconi, Simona; Chandra, Goutam; Khan, Omar I.; Caruso, Rafael C.; Liu, Aiyi; Mukherjee, Anil B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL) is a devastating neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the CLN1 gene encoding palmitoyl-protein thioesterase-1 (PPT1). PPT1-deficiency causes lysosomal ceroid accumulation leading to INCL pathogenesis. Previously, we reported that phosphocysteamine and N-acetylcysteine mediated ceroid depletion in cultured cells from INCL patients. We conducted a pilot study to determine whether a combination of cysteamine bitartrate and N-acetylcysteine is beneficial for these patients. Methods Patients (6-month to 3-years old) with any combination of 2 of the 7 most lethal PPT1 mutations were admitted. All patients were recruited from physician referrals and the PPT1 mutations were analyzed prior to admission. Patients were evaluated by electroretinography(ERG), brain MRI and MRS, electroencephalography (EEG), and electron microscopic analyses of leukocytes for granular osmiophilic deposits (GRODs). Patients received oral cysteamine bitartrate (60mg/kg/day) and N-acetylcysteine (60mg/kg/day) and were evaluated every 6 to 12 months until they showed isoelectric EEG attesting to a vegetative state or were too sick to travel. Outcomes were compared with the reported INCL natural history. In two cases, the disease progression was compared with that of a sibling who was above the age limit for inclusion into the protocol. Findings Between March, 2001, and June, 2011, we recruited 10 children with INCL but one was lost to follow-up after the first visit. Thus, a total of 9 patients (5 females and 4 males) were studied. At the first follow-up visit, peripheral leukocytes in all 9 patients showed virtually complete depletion of GRODs and 7 of 9 patients manifested less irritability and/or improved alertness based upon parental and physician observations. Evaluation by Denver scale showed acquisition of no new developmental skills and retinal function assessed by ERG progressively declined

  4. Driving under the influence of cocaine: Quantitative determination of basic drugs in oral fluid obtained during roadside controls and a controlled study with cocaine users.

    PubMed

    Di Fazio, Vincent; Wille, Sarah M R; Toennes, Stefan W; van Wel, Janelle H P; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Samyn, Nele

    2018-03-10

    Using the Belgian Drugs and Driving procedure, 36% of the cocaine-positive oral fluid (OF) screening results were not confirmed in plasma. This study investigates the impact of the choice of screening devices and confirmation matrix on the detection of cocaine use. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method quantifying cocaine, benzoylecgonine (BZE), and other basic drugs in OF was developed and validated. This method monitored OF samples obtained either from a roadside (n = 12) or a double-blind controlled study with cocaine users (n = 10) who were given either a capsule containing 300 mg of cocaine-HCl or a placebo. The OF data were compared to plasma concentrations to obtain concentration-time profiles. In addition, the sensitivity and accuracy of the Drugwipe5S® was assessed. A significant difference between the OF volume collected at baseline/placebo (median 0.93 mL [range 0.43-1.92 mL]) or after cocaine-HCL intake (0.79 mL [0.30-1.21 mL]) was observed. The median OF/Plasma at the 3 collection time points were 10.7, 13.8, 6.7 for cocaine and 0.8, 1.7, 0.8 for BZE, respectively. The Drugwipe5S® detected cocaine use until at least 4 hours after intake. When applying the Belgian legal confirmation decision limit of 10 ng/mL in OF, an accuracy of 75%-98% was observed, depending on the study setting. Cocaine concentrations in OF were much higher and were detected longer as compared to plasma, when applying the same decision limit. From a toxicological viewpoint, the longer detection window with the higher sensitivity of Cocaine and BZE is beneficial to detect drivers in the crash/fatigue phase. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Reward and Toxicity of Cocaine Metabolites Generated by Cocaine Hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Vishakantha; Geng, Liyi; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Bin; Miller, Jordan D; Reyes, Santiago; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) gene therapy is emerging as a promising concept for treatment of cocaine addiction. BChE levels after gene transfer can rise 1000-fold above those in untreated mice, making this enzyme the second most abundant plasma protein. For months or years, gene transfer of a BChE mutated into a cocaine hydrolase (CocH) can maintain enzyme levels that destroy cocaine within seconds after appearance in the blood stream, allowing little to reach the brain. Rapid enzyme action causes a sharp rise in plasma levels of two cocaine metabolites, benzoic acid (BA) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), a smooth muscle relaxant that is mildly hypotensive and, at best, only weakly rewarding. The present study, utilizing Balb/c mice, tested reward effects and cardiovascular effects of administering EME and BA together at molar levels equivalent to those generated by a given dose of cocaine. Reward was evaluated by conditioned place preference. In this paradigm, cocaine (20 mg/kg) induced a robust positive response but the equivalent combined dose of EME + BA failed to induce either place preference or aversion. Likewise, mice that had undergone gene transfer with mouse CocH (mCocH) showed no place preference or aversion after repeated treatments with a near-lethal 80 mg/kg cocaine dose. Furthermore, a single administration of that same high cocaine dose failed to affect blood pressure as measured using the noninvasive tail-cuff method. These observations confirm that the drug metabolites generated after CocH gene transfer therapy are safe even after a dose of cocaine that would ordinarily be lethal.

  6. (-)-Stepholidine reduces cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking and cocaine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Manuszak, M; Harding, W; Gadhiya, S; Ranaldi, R

    2018-05-31

    Dopamine receptors are implicated in cocaine reward and seeking. We hypothesize that (-)-stepholidine, a dopamine D1/D2/D3 multi-receptor agent, would be effective in reducing cocaine reward and seeking in an animal model. We investigated the effects of (-)-stepholidine in cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking and cocaine self-administration (reward). Cue-induced reinstatement experiment: Rats were trained to press a lever reinforced by cocaine (1 mg/kg/injection) for 15 consecutive daily sessions, after which the response was extinguished by withholding cocaine and cocaine-paired cues (light and pump activation). This was followed by a cue-induced reinstatement test where subjects were exposed to two cocaine cue presentations and presses on the active lever produced cues. Subjects were treated with one of four (-)-stepholidine doses prior to the reinstatement test. Cocaine self-administration (reward) experiment: Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. After stable breakpoints were established, rats were injected with four doses of (-)-stepholidine prior to testing; each dose was injected prior to a separate test session with no-treatment sessions intervening to re-establish break points. (-)-Stepholidine significantly reduced cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking in a dose-related manner. Additionally, (-)-stepholidine significantly reduced break points for cocaine reward. (-)-Stepholidine did not significantly affect locomotor activity. (-)-Stepholidine reduces cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking and cocaine reward, suggesting that it may be useful in treating relapse in cocaine addiction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Anhydroecgonine methyl ester, a cocaine pyrolysis product, may contribute to cocaine behavioral sensitization.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Raphael Caio Tamborelli; Torres, Larissa Helena; Balestrin, Natália Trigo; Andrioli, Tatiana Costa; Flório, Jorge Camilo; de Oliveira, Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues; da Costa, José Luiz; Yonamine, Mauricio; Sandoval, Maria Regina Lopes; Camarini, Rosana; Marcourakis, Tania

    2017-02-01

    Crack cocaine has a high potential to induce cocaine addiction and its smoke contains cocaine's pyrolysis product anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME), a partial agonist at M 1 - and M 3 -muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and an antagonist at the remaining subtypes. No reports have assessed AEME's role in addiction. Adult male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally administered with saline, 3mg/kg AEME, 15mg/kg cocaine, or a cocaine-AEME combination on every other day during a period of 9 days. After a 7-days withdrawal period, a challenge injection of the respective drugs was performed on the 17th day. The locomotor activity was evaluated on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 17, as well as dopamine levels (9th day) and dopaminergic receptors proteins (D 1 R and D 2 R on the 17th day) in the caudate-putamen (CPu) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). AEME was not able to induce the expression of behavioral sensitization, but it substantially potentiates cocaine-effects, with cocaine-AEME combination presenting higher expression than cocaine alone. An increase in the dopamine levels in the CPu in all non-saline groups was observed, with the highest levels in the cocaine-AEME group. There was a decrease in D 1 R protein level in this brain region only for cocaine and cocaine-AEME groups. In the NAc, an increase in the dopamine levels was only observed for cocaine and cocaine-AEME groups, with no changes in both D 1 R and D 2 R protein levels. These behavioral and neurochemical data indicate that AEME alone does not elicit behavioral sensitization but it significantly potentiates cocaine effects when co-administered, resulting in dopamine increase in CPu and NAc, brain regions where dopamine release is mediated by cholinergic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Outcomes after Angiography with Sodium Bicarbonate and Acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Weisbord, Steven D; Gallagher, Martin; Jneid, Hani; Garcia, Santiago; Cass, Alan; Thwin, Soe-Soe; Conner, Todd A; Chertow, Glenn M; Bhatt, Deepak L; Shunk, Kendrick; Parikh, Chirag R; McFalls, Edward O; Brophy, Mary; Ferguson, Ryan; Wu, Hongsheng; Androsenko, Maria; Myles, John; Kaufman, James; Palevsky, Paul M

    2018-02-15

    Intravenous sodium bicarbonate and oral acetylcysteine are widely used to prevent acute kidney injury and associated adverse outcomes after angiography without definitive evidence of their efficacy. Using a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 5177 patients at high risk for renal complications who were scheduled for angiography to receive intravenous 1.26% sodium bicarbonate or intravenous 0.9% sodium chloride and 5 days of oral acetylcysteine or oral placebo; of these patients, 4993 were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. The primary end point was a composite of death, the need for dialysis, or a persistent increase of at least 50% from baseline in the serum creatinine level at 90 days. Contrast-associated acute kidney injury was a secondary end point. The sponsor stopped the trial after a prespecified interim analysis. There was no interaction between sodium bicarbonate and acetylcysteine with respect to the primary end point (P=0.33). The primary end point occurred in 110 of 2511 patients (4.4%) in the sodium bicarbonate group as compared with 116 of 2482 (4.7%) in the sodium chloride group (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 1.22; P=0.62) and in 114 of 2495 patients (4.6%) in the acetylcysteine group as compared with 112 of 2498 (4.5%) in the placebo group (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.33; P=0.88). There were no significant between-group differences in the rates of contrast-associated acute kidney injury. Among patients at high risk for renal complications who were undergoing angiography, there was no benefit of intravenous sodium bicarbonate over intravenous sodium chloride or of oral acetylcysteine over placebo for the prevention of death, need for dialysis, or persistent decline in kidney function at 90 days or for the prevention of contrast-associated acute kidney injury. (Funded by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Office of Research and Development and the National Health and Medical Research

  9. Cocaine-induced endocannabinoid release modulates behavioral and neurochemical sensitization in mice.

    PubMed

    Mereu, Maddalena; Tronci, Valeria; Chun, Lauren E; Thomas, Alexandra M; Green, Jennifer L; Katz, Jonathan L; Tanda, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the development of synaptic plasticity induced by several drugs abused by humans, including cocaine. However, there remains some debate about the involvement of cannabinoid receptors/ligands in cocaine-induced plasticity and corresponding behavioral actions. Here, we show that a single cocaine injection in Swiss-Webster mice produces behavioral and neurochemical alterations that are under the control of the endocannabinoid system. This plasticity may be the initial basis for changes in brain processes leading from recreational use of cocaine to its abuse and ultimately to dependence. Locomotor activity was monitored with photobeam cell detectors, and accumbens shell/core microdialysate dopamine levels were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Development of single-trial cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization, measured as increased distance traveled in sensitized mice compared to control mice, was paralleled by a larger stimulation of extracellular dopamine levels in the core but not the shell of the nucleus accumbens. Both the behavioral and neurochemical effects were reversed by CB1 receptor blockade produced by rimonabant pre-treatments. Further, both behavioral and neurochemical cocaine sensitization were facilitated by pharmacological blockade of endocannabinoid metabolism, achieved by inhibiting the fatty acid amide hydrolase enzyme. In conclusion, our results suggest that a single unconditioned exposure to cocaine produces sensitization through neuronal alterations that require regionally specific release of endocannabinoids. Further, the present results suggest that endocannabinoids play a primary role from the earliest stage of cocaine use, mediating the inception of long-term brain-adaptive responses, shaping central pathways and likely increasing vulnerability to stimulant abuse disorders. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the

  10. The cocaine-abused heart.

    PubMed

    Keller, Kathryn Buchanan; Lemberg, Louis

    2003-11-01

    Recreational use of cocaine dates back to the Incas in South America 5000 years ago. Cocaine is derived from the leaves of Erythroxylon coca, a shrub native to South America. In the late 1800s, Sigmund Freud popularized the drug in Europe. He used cocaine to treat depression, asthma, cachexia, and for overcoming morphine addiction. Also in this period cocaine rapidly gained acceptance in surgical procedures as a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor. Cocaine reached the United States in the early 1900s, and its popularity led President Taft to declare it public enemy number one in 1910. Cocaine became popular again in the 1980s. Currently cocaine use is responsible for more ED visits then any of the other illicit drugs. Because most cocaine users are young, they are at a lower risk for coronary artery atherosclerotic disease. An estimated 25 million people between the ages of 26 and 34 years have used cocaine at least once, 20% were women and 30% men. Habitual users of cocaine are estimated to number 1.5 million. Most cocaine-induced chest pains do not progress to MI, and in fact many originate in the chest wall. The chest pains due to cocaine, however, are induced by myocardial ischemia, a result of vasospasm and not a thrombotic occlusion of a coronary artery that has a ruptured atheromatous plaque. ECG findings can be misleading in the diagnosis because the early repolarization syndrome, a normal variant, is a frequent finding in young African American men. Measurement of cardiac troponin levels is the most reliable diagnostic test. Percutaneous coronary intervention and angioplasty, rather than thrombolysis, is the treatment of choice because intense coronary vasospasm is the primary pathophysiology in cocaine-induced MI.

  11. Bioaccumulation and toxicodynamics of cadmium to freshwater planarian and the protective effect of N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jui-Pin; Chen, Hon-Cheng; Li, Mei-Hui

    2012-08-01

    Although toxic responses of freshwater planarians after exposure to environmental toxicants can be observed through external toxicological end points, physiological responses inside the bodies of treated planarians have rarely been investigated. The present study was designed, using cadmium (Cd) as a reference toxicant, to determine its bioaccumulation and toxicodynamics in the freshwater planarian, Dugesia japonica, after acute toxicity was obtained. Accumulated Cd concentrations, metallothionein levels, and the oxidative status in planarians were determined after exposure to Cd. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the acute death of Cd-treated planarians was associated with increased oxidative stress. After Cd-treated planarians were coexposed to antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), we found that NAC protected planarians from Cd lethality by maintaining the oxidative status and decreasing the bioaccumulation of Cd. The results of the present study support planarians being used as a practical model for toxicological studies of environmental contaminants in the future.

  12. Impaired insight in cocaine addiction: laboratory evidence and effects on cocaine-seeking behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Thomas; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Woicik, Patricia A.; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are often characterized by impaired insight into behaviour. Such an insight deficit has been suggested, but never directly tested, in drug addiction. Here we tested for the first time this impaired insight hypothesis in drug addiction, and examined its potential association with drug-seeking behaviour. We also tested potential modulation of these effects by cocaine urine status, an individual difference known to impact underlying cognitive functions and prognosis. Sixteen cocaine addicted individuals testing positive for cocaine in urine, 26 cocaine addicted individuals testing negative for cocaine in urine, and 23 healthy controls completed a probabilistic choice task that assessed objective preference for viewing four types of pictures (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral and cocaine). This choice task concluded by asking subjects to report their most selected picture type; correspondence between subjects’ self-reports with their objective choice behaviour provided our index of behavioural insight. Results showed that the urine positive cocaine subjects exhibited impaired insight into their own choice behaviour compared with healthy controls; this same study group also selected the most cocaine pictures (and fewest pleasant pictures) for viewing. Importantly, however, it was the urine negative cocaine subjects whose behaviour was most influenced by insight, such that impaired insight in this subgroup only was associated with higher cocaine-related choice on the task and more severe actual cocaine use. These findings suggest that interventions to enhance insight may decrease drug-seeking behaviour, especially in urine negative cocaine subjects, potentially to improve their longer-term clinical outcomes. PMID:20395264

  13. Impaired insight in cocaine addiction: laboratory evidence and effects on cocaine-seeking behaviour

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, S.J.; Moeller, S.J.; Maloney, T.

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are often characterized by impaired insight into behaviour. Such an insight deficit has been suggested, but never directly tested, in drug addiction. Here we tested for the first time this impaired insight hypothesis in drug addiction, and examined its potential association with drug-seeking behaviour. We also tested potential modulation of these effects by cocaine urine status, an individual difference known to impact underlying cognitive functions and prognosis. Sixteen cocaine addicted individuals testing positive for cocaine in urine, 26 cocaine addicted individuals testing negative for cocaine in urine, and 23 healthy controls completed a probabilistic choice task that assessedmore » objective preference for viewing four types of pictures (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral and cocaine). This choice task concluded by asking subjects to report their most selected picture type; correspondence between subjects self-reports with their objective choice behaviour provided our index of behavioural insight. Results showed that the urine positive cocaine subjects exhibited impaired insight into their own choice behaviour compared with healthy controls; this same study group also selected the most cocaine pictures (and fewest pleasant pictures) for viewing. Importantly, however, it was the urine negative cocaine subjects whose behaviour was most influenced by insight, such that impaired insight in this subgroup only was associated with higher cocaine-related choice on the task and more severe actual cocaine use. These findings suggest that interventions to enhance insight may decrease drug-seeking behaviour, especially in urine negative cocaine subjects, potentially to improve their longer-term clinical outcomes.« less

  14. Levamisole: a Common Adulterant in Cocaine Street Samples Hindering Electrochemical Detection of Cocaine.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Mats; Florea, Anca; Vries, Anne-Mare de; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Covaci, Adrian; Van Durme, Filip; Martins, José C; Samyn, Nele; De Wael, Karolien

    2018-04-17

    The present work investigates the electrochemical determination of cocaine in the presence of levamisole, one of the most common adulterants found in cocaine street samples. Levamisole misleads cocaine color tests, giving a blue color (positive test) even in the absence of cocaine. Moreover, the electrochemical detection of cocaine is also affected by the presence of levamisole, with a suppression of the oxidation signal of cocaine. When levamisole is present in the sample in ratios higher than 1:1, the cocaine signal is no longer detected, thus leading to false negative results. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance were used to investigate if the signal suppression is due to the formation of a complex between cocaine and levamisole in bulk solution. Strategies to eliminate this suppressing effect are further suggested in this manuscript. In a first approach, the increase of the pH of the sample solution from pH 7 to pH 12 allowed the voltammetric determination of cocaine in the presence of levamisole in a concentration range from 10 to 5000 μM at nonmodified graphite disposable electrodes with a detection limit of 5 μM. In a second approach, the graphite electrode was cathodically pretreated, resulting in the presence of oxidation peaks of both cocaine and levamisole, with a detection limit for cocaine of 3 μM over the linear range of concentrations from 10 to 2500 μM. Both these strategies have been successfully applied for the simultaneous detection of cocaine and levamisole in three street samples on unmodified graphite disposable electrodes.

  15. Passive inhalation of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Cone, E J; Yousefnejad, D; Hillsgrove, M J; Holicky, B; Darwin, W D

    1995-10-01

    Six healthy male volunteers were exposed to the vapor of 100 and 200 mg freebase cocaine heated to a temperature of 200 degrees C in an unventilated room (12,600-L volume) for a period of 1 h. No pharmacological effects were detected as a result of the exposure. Blood specimens collected immediately following exposure were negative for cocaine and metabolites. Urine specimens analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry contained peak concentrations of benzoylecgonine that ranged from 22 to 123 ng/mL. The peak excretion time for benzoylecgonine following passive exposure was approximately 5 h. The amount of cocaine inhaled by the subjects during passive exposure was estimated from room air measurements of cocaine to be approximately 0.25 mg. The total amount of cocaine (cocaine plus metabolites) excreted in urine by the six subjects ranged from 0.04 to 0.21 mg. For comparison, the six subjects also received an intravenous injection of 1 mg cocaine hydrochloride. Four of six subjects screened positive (300-ng/mL cutoff concentration) following the injection, indicating that the minimum amount of cocaine in these subjects necessary to produce positive results was approximately 1 mg. A second passive inhalation study was undertaken in which specimens were collected from research staff who assisted in a series of experimental studies with "crack" (freebase cocaine) smokers. The research staff remained in close vicinity while the crack smokers smoked three doses of freebase cocaine (12.5, 25, and 50 mg) over a period of 4 h. As a result, staff members were passively exposed to sidestream smoke from crack pipes and to breath exhalation from the crack smokers. Urine specimens from the staff members contained a maximum of 6 ng/mL benzoylecgonine. Only traces (less than 1 ng/mL) of cocaine were detected in any specimen. Overall, these studies demonstrated that individuals exposed to cocaine smoke under naturalistic or artificial conditions absorbed small amounts of

  16. Intravenous lipid emulsion in the resuscitation of cocaine-induced cardiovascular arrest in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Chai, Peter R; Hack, Jason B

    2016-08-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) is a potential antidote for severe overdose of certain lipophilic drugs. Cocaine overdose is often fatal and has no antidote. The use of ILE after cocaine-induced cardiac arrest has been suggested but is not well characterized. The objective of the study is to determine if ILE would reverse cocaine-induced cardiac arrest in a rat model. Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats with intra-arterial and intravenous access were sedated with isoflurane and split into 2 cocaine dose groups, then given either ILE or normal saline (NS) intravenously (IV)-group A, 7 animals received cocaine (10 mg/kg IV) with 6 of 7 given ILE (15 mg/kg IV) and 1 of 7 given NS (equal volume); group B, 5 animals received cocaine (5 mg/kg IV) with 3 of 5 given ILE (15 mg/kg IV) and 2 of 5 given NS (equal volume). Closed chest compressions were initiated for asystole and continued for 15 minutes with rhythm checks every minute. All 12 rats experienced cardiac arrest after cocaine bolus. Resuscitation was successful in 1 of 7 rats in group A and 0 of 5 in group B. Intravenous lipid emulsion administration did not affect outcome of cocaine-induced cardiac arrest compared with control in this model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ethical issues in using a cocaine vaccine to treat and prevent cocaine abuse and dependence.

    PubMed

    Hall, W; Carter, L

    2004-08-01

    A "cocaine vaccine" is a promising immunotherapeutic approach to treating cocaine dependence which induces the immune system to form antibodies that prevent cocaine from crossing the blood brain barrier to act on receptor sites in the brain. Studies in rats show that cocaine antibodies block cocaine from reaching the brain and prevent the reinstatement of cocaine self administration. A successful phase 1 trial of a human cocaine vaccine has been reported. The most promising application of a cocaine vaccine is to prevent relapse to dependence in abstinent users who voluntarily enter treatment. Any use of a vaccine to treat cocaine addicts under legal coercion raises major ethical issues. If this is done at all, it should be carefully trialled first, and only after considerable clinical experience has been obtained in using the vaccine to treat voluntary patients. There will need to be an informed community debate about what role, if any, a cocaine vaccine may have as a way of preventing cocaine addiction in children and adolescents.

  18. Piezoelectric affinity sensors for cocaine and cholinesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Halámek, Jan; Makower, Alexander; Knösche, Kristina; Skládal, Petr; Scheller, Frieder W

    2005-01-30

    We report here the development of piezoelectric affinity sensors for cocaine and cholinesterase inhibitors based on the formation of affinity complexes between an immobilized cocaine derivative and an anti-cocaine antibody or cholinesterase. For both binding reactions benzoylecgonine-1,8-diamino-3,4-dioxaoctane (BZE-DADOO) was immobilized on the surface of the sensor. For immobilization, pre-conjugated BZE-DADOO with 11-mercaptomonoundecanoic acid (MUA) via 2-(5-norbornen-2,3-dicarboximide)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyluronium-tetrafluoroborate (TNTU) allowed the formation of a chemisorbed monolayer on the piezosensor surface. The detection of cocaine was based on a competitive assay. The change of frequency measured after 300s of the binding reaction was used as the signal. The maximum binding of the antibody resulted in a frequency decrease of 35Hz (with an imprecision 3%, n = 3) while the presence of 100pmoll(-1) cocaine decreased the binding by 11%. The limit of detection was consequently below 100pmoll(-1) for cocaine. The total time of one analysis was 15min. This BZE-DADOO-modified sensor was adapted for the detection of organophosphates. BZE-DADOO - a competitive inhibitor - served as binding element for cholinesterase in a competitive assay.

  19. Cocaine self-administration disrupts mesolimbic dopamine circuit function and attenuates dopaminergic responsiveness to cocaine.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Cody A; Ferris, Mark J; Jones, Sara R

    2015-08-01

    Dopaminergic projections from the ventral midbrain to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) have long been implicated in encoding associations between reward availability and environmental stimuli. As such, this circuit is instrumental in guiding behaviors towards obtaining maximal rewards based on previous experience. Cocaine acts on the dopamine system to exert its reinforcing effects and it is thought that cocaine-induced dysregulation of dopamine neurotransmission contributes to the difficulty that cocaine addicts exhibit in selecting environmentally appropriate behaviors. Here we used cocaine self-administration combined with in vivo fast scan cyclic voltammetry in anesthetised rats to examine the function of the ventral tegmental area to NAc projection neurons. Over 5 days of cocaine self-administration (fixed-ratio 1; 1.5 mg/kg/injection; 40 injections/day), animals increased their rate of intake. Following cocaine self-administration, there was a marked reduction in ventral tegmental area-stimulated NAc dopamine release. Additionally, there was a decreased augmentation of stimulated dopamine overflow in response to a cocaine challenge. These findings demonstrate that cocaine induces a hypodopaminergic state, which may contribute to the inflexible drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors observed in cocaine abusers. Additionally, tolerance to the ability of cocaine to elevate dopamine may lead to increased cocaine intake in order to overcome decreased effects, another hallmark of cocaine abuse. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Preclinical Assessment of Lisdexamfetamine as an Agonist Medication Candidate for Cocaine Addiction: Effects in Rhesus Monkeys Trained to Discriminate Cocaine or to Self-Administer Cocaine in a Cocaine Versus Food Choice Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Hutsell, Blake A.; Blough, Bruce E.; Poklis, Justin L.; Negus, S. Stevens

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic amphetamine treatment decreases cocaine consumption in preclinical and human laboratory studies and in clinical trials. Lisdexamfetamine is an amphetamine prodrug in which L-lysine is conjugated to the terminal nitrogen of d-amphetamine. Prodrugs may be advantageous relative to their active metabolites due to slower onsets and longer durations of action; however, lisdexamfetamine treatment’s efficacy in decreasing cocaine consumption is unknown. Methods: This study compared lisdexamfetamine and d-amphetamine effects in rhesus monkeys using two behavioral procedures: (1) a cocaine discrimination procedure (training dose = 0.32mg/kg cocaine, i.m.); and (2) a cocaine-versus-food choice self-administration procedure. Results: In the cocaine-discrimination procedure, lisdexamfetamine (0.32–3.2mg/kg, i.m.) substituted for cocaine with lower potency, slower onset, and longer duration of action than d-amphetamine (0.032–0.32mg/kg, i.m.). Consistent with the function of lisdexamfetamine as an inactive prodrug for amphetamine, the time course of lisdexamfetamine effects was related to d-amphetamine plasma levels by a counter-clockwise hysteresis loop. In the choice procedure, cocaine (0–0.1mg/kg/injection, i.v.) and food (1g banana-flavored pellets) were concurrently available, and cocaine maintained a dose-dependent increase in cocaine choice under baseline conditions. Treatment for 7 consecutive days with lisdexamfetamine (0.32–3.2mg/kg/day, i.m.) or d-amphetamine (0.032–0.1mg/kg/h, i.v.) produced similar dose-dependent rightward shifts in cocaine dose-effect curves and decreases in preference for 0.032mg/kg/injection cocaine. Conclusions: Lisdexamfetamine has a slower onset and longer duration of action than amphetamine but retains amphetamine’s efficacy to reduce the choice of cocaine in rhesus monkeys. These results support further consideration of lisdexamfetamine as an agonist-based medication candidate for cocaine addiction. PMID

  1. Attachment Status in Children Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine and Other Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifer, Ronald; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Wright, Linda L.; Smeriglio, Vincent L.; Liu, Jing

    2004-01-01

    Attachment status of children exposed in utero to cocaine, opiates, and other substances was examined at 18 months (n=860) and 36 months (n=732) corrected age. Children exposed to cocaine and opiates had slightly lower rates of attachment security (but not disorganization), and their insecurity was skewed toward ambivalent, rather than avoidant,…

  2. Thiol redox transitions in cell signaling: a lesson from N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Parasassi, Tiziana; Brunelli, Roberto; Costa, Graziella; De Spirito, Marco; Krasnowska, Ewa; Lundeberg, Thomas; Pittaluga, Eugenia; Ursini, Fulvio

    2010-06-29

    The functional status of cells is under the control of external stimuli affecting the function of critical proteins and eventually gene expression. Signal sensing and transduction by messengers to specific effectors operate by post-translational modification of proteins, among which thiol redox switches play a fundamental role that is just beginning to be understood. The maintenance of the redox status is, indeed, crucial for cellular homeostasis and its dysregulation towards a more oxidized intracellular environment is associated with aberrant proliferation, ultimately related to diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Redox transitions occur in sensitive cysteine residues of regulatory proteins relevant to signaling, their evolution to metastable disulfides accounting for the functional redox switch. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a thiol-containing compound that is able to interfere with redox transitions of thiols and, thus, in principle, able to modulate redox signaling. We here review the redox chemistry of NAC, then screen possible mechanisms to explain the effects observed in NAC-treated normal and cancer cells; such effects involve a modification of global gene expression, thus of functions and morphology, with a leitmotif of a switch from proliferation to terminal differentiation. The regulation of thiol redox transitions in cell signaling is, therefore, proposed as a new tool, holding promise not only for a deeper explanation of mechanisms, but indeed for innovative pharmacological interventions.

  3. N-acetylcysteine inhibits in vivo oxidation of native low-density lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuqi; Narasimhulu, Chandrakala A.; Liu, Lingjuan; Zhang, Qingbin; Liu, Patrick Z.; Li, Xin; Xiao, Yuan; Zhang, Jia; Hao, Hong; Xie, Xiaoyun; He, Guanglong; Cui, Lianqun; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is non-atherogenic, while oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) is critical to atherosclerosis. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has anti-atherosclerotic effect with largely unknown mechanisms. The present study aimed to determine if NAC could attenuate in vivo LDL oxidation and inhibit atherosclerosis. A single dose of human native LDL was injected intravenously into male C57BL/6 mice with and without NAC treatment. Serum human ox-LDL was detected 30 min after injection, reached the peak in 3 hours, and became undetectable in 12 hours. NAC treatment significantly reduced serum ox-LDL level without detectable serum ox-LDL 6 hours after LDL injection. No difference in ox-LDL clearance was observed in NAC-treated animals. NAC treatment also significantly decreased serum ox-LDL level in patients with coronary artery diseases and hyperlipidemia without effect on LDL level. Intracellular and extracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS) production was significantly increased in the animals treated with native LDL, or ox-LDL and in hyperlipidemic LDL receptor knockout (LDLR−/−) mice that was effectively prevented with NAC treatment. NAC also significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque formation in hyperlipidemic LDLR−/− mice. NAC attenuated in vivo oxidation of native LDL and ROS formation from ox-LDL associated with decreased atherosclerotic plaque formation in hyperlipidemia. PMID:26536834

  4. Methylphenidate attenuates limbic brain inhibition after cocaine-cues exposure in cocaine abusers.

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.

    Dopamine (phasic release) is implicated in conditioned responses. Imaging studies in cocaine abusers show decreases in striatal dopamine levels, which we hypothesize may enhance conditioned responses since tonic dopamine levels modulate phasic dopamine release. To test this we assessed the effects of increasing tonic dopamine levels (using oral methylphenidate) on brain activation induced by cocaine-cues in cocaine abusers. Brain metabolism (marker of brain function) was measured with PET and {sup 18}FDG in 24 active cocaine abusers tested four times; twice watching a Neutral video (nature scenes) and twice watching a Cocaine-cues video; each video was preceded once by placebo andmore » once by methylphenidate (20 mg). The Cocaine-cues video increased craving to the same extent with placebo (68%) and with methylphenidate (64%). In contrast, SPM analysis of metabolic images revealed that differences between Neutral versus Cocaine-cues conditions were greater with placebo than methylphenidate; whereas with placebo the Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism (p<0.005) in left limbic regions (insula, orbitofrontal, accumbens) and right parahippocampus, with methylphenidate it only decreased in auditory and visual regions, which also occurred with placebo. Decreases in metabolism in these regions were not associated with craving; in contrast the voxel-wise SPM analysis identified significant correlations with craving in anterior orbitofrontal cortex (p<0.005), amygdala, striatum and middle insula (p<0.05). This suggests that methylphenidate's attenuation of brain reactivity to Cocaine-cues is distinct from that involved in craving. Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism in limbic regions (reflects activity over 30 minutes), which contrasts with activations reported by fMRI studies (reflects activity over 2-5 minutes) that may reflect long-lasting limbic inhibition following activation. Studies to evaluate the clinical significance of methylphenidate's blunting of cue

  5. Methylphenidate Attenuates Limbic Brain Inhibition after Cocaine-Cues Exposure in Cocaine Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Tomasi, Dardo; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S.; Pradhan, Kith; Jayne, Millard; Logan, Jean; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Wong, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine (phasic release) is implicated in conditioned responses. Imaging studies in cocaine abusers show decreases in striatal dopamine levels, which we hypothesize may enhance conditioned responses since tonic dopamine levels modulate phasic dopamine release. To test this we assessed the effects of increasing tonic dopamine levels (using oral methylphenidate) on brain activation induced by cocaine-cues in cocaine abusers. Brain metabolism (marker of brain function) was measured with PET and 18FDG in 24 active cocaine abusers tested four times; twice watching a Neutral video (nature scenes) and twice watching a Cocaine-cues video; each video was preceded once by placebo and once by methylphenidate (20 mg). The Cocaine-cues video increased craving to the same extent with placebo (68%) and with methylphenidate (64%). In contrast, SPM analysis of metabolic images revealed that differences between Neutral versus Cocaine-cues conditions were greater with placebo than methylphenidate; whereas with placebo the Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism (p<0.005) in left limbic regions (insula, orbitofrontal, accumbens) and right parahippocampus, with methylphenidate it only decreased in auditory and visual regions, which also occurred with placebo. Decreases in metabolism in these regions were not associated with craving; in contrast the voxel-wise SPM analysis identified significant correlations with craving in anterior orbitofrontal cortex (p<0.005), amygdala, striatum and middle insula (p<0.05). This suggests that methylphenidate's attenuation of brain reactivity to Cocaine-cues is distinct from that involved in craving. Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism in limbic regions (reflects activity over 30 minutes), which contrasts with activations reported by fMRI studies (reflects activity over 2–5 minutes) that may reflect long-lasting limbic inhibition following activation. Studies to evaluate the clinical significance of methylphenidate's blunting of cue-induced limbic

  6. Effects of a cocaine hydrolase engineered from human butyrylcholinesterase on metabolic profile of cocaine in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiabin; Zheng, Xirong; Zhou, Ziyuan; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Zheng, Fang

    2016-11-25

    Accelerating cocaine metabolism through enzymatic hydrolysis at cocaine benzoyl ester is recognized as a promising therapeutic approach for cocaine abuse treatment. Our more recently designed A199S/F227A/S287G/A328W/Y332G mutant of human BChE, denoted as cocaine hydrolase-3 (CocH3), has a considerably improved catalytic efficiency against cocaine and has been proven active in blocking cocaine-induced toxicity and physiological effects. In the present study, we have further characterized the effects of CocH3 on the detailed metabolic profile of cocaine in rats administrated intravenously (IV) with 5 mg/kg cocaine, demonstrating that IV administration of 0.15 mg/kg CocH3 dramatically changed the metabolic profile of cocaine. Without CocH3 administration, the dominant cocaine-metabolizing pathway in rats was cocaine methyl ester hydrolysis to benzoylecgonine (BZE). With the CocH3 administration, the dominant cocaine-metabolizing pathway in rats became cocaine benzoyl ester hydrolysis to ecgonine methyl ester (EME), and the other two metabolic pathways (i.e. cocaine methyl ester hydrolysis to BZE and cocaine oxidation to norcocaine) became insignificant. The CocH3-catalyzed cocaine benzoyl ester hydrolysis to EME was so efficient such that the measured maximum blood cocaine concentration (∼38 ng/ml) was significantly lower than the threshold blood cocaine concentration (∼72 ng/ml) required to produce any measurable physiological effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical Changes in Nonthermal Plasma-Treated N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) Solution and Their Contribution to Bacterial Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Utku K; Smith, Josh; Ji, Hai-Feng; Brooks, Ari D; Joshi, Suresh G

    2016-02-02

    In continuation of our previous reports on the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of atmospheric non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma treated N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) solution against planktonic and biofilm forms of different multidrug resistant microorganisms, we present here the chemical changes that mediate inactivation of Escherichia coli. In this study, the mechanism and products of the chemical reactions in plasma-treated NAC solution are shown. UV-visible spectrometry, FT-IR, NMR, and colorimetric assays were utilized for chemical characterization of plasma treated NAC solution. The characterization results were correlated with the antimicrobial assays using determined chemical species in solution in order to confirm the major species that are responsible for antimicrobial inactivation. Our results have revealed that plasma treatment of NAC solution creates predominantly reactive nitrogen species versus reactive oxygen species, and the generated peroxynitrite is responsible for significant bacterial inactivation.

  8. Extinction Training Regulates Neuroadaptive Responses to Withdrawal from Chronic Cocaine Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Self, David W.; Choi, Kwang-Ho; Simmons, Diana; Walker, John R.; Smagula, Cynthia S.

    2004-01-01

    Cocaine produces multiple neuroadaptations with chronic repeated use. Many of these neuroadaptations can be reversed or normalized by extinction training during withdrawal from chronic cocaine self-administration in rats. This article reviews our past and present studies on extinction-induced modulation of the neuroadaptive response to chronic cocaine in the mesolimbic dopamine system, and the role of this modulation in addictive behavior in rats. Extinction training normalizes tyrosine hydroxylase levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell, an effect that could help ameliorate dysphoria and depression associated with withdrawal from chronic cocaine use. Extinction training also increases levels of GluR1 and GluR2/3 AMPA receptor subunits, while normalizing deficits in NR1 NMDA receptor subunits, in a manner consistent with long-term potentiation of excitatory synapses in the NAc shell. Our results suggest that extinction-induced increases in AMPA and NMDA receptors may restore deficits in cortico-accumbal neurotransmission in the NAc shell and facilitate inhibitory control over cocaine-seeking behavior. Other changes identified by gene expression profiling, including up-regulation in the AMPA receptor aggregating protein Narp, suggest that extinction training induces extensive synaptic reorganization. These studies highlight potential benefits for extinction training procedures in the treatment of drug addiction. PMID:15466321

  9. Reinforcing effects of sigma-receptor agonists in rats trained to self-administer cocaine.

    PubMed

    Hiranita, Takato; Soto, Paul L; Tanda, Gianluigi; Katz, Jonathan L

    2010-02-01

    sigma-Receptor (sigmaR) antagonists have been reported to block certain effects of psychostimulant drugs. The present study examined the effects of sigmaR ligands in rats trained to self-administer cocaine (0.032-1.0 mg/kg/inj i.v.) under fixed-ratio 5-response schedules of reinforcement. Maximal rates of responding were maintained by 0.32 mg/kg/inj cocaine, or by the sigmaR agonists, 1,3-di-(2-tolyl)guanidine (DTG; 1.0 mg/kg/inj) or 2-(4-morpholinethyl) 1-phenylcyclohexane-1-carboxylate hydrochloride (PRE-084; 0.32 mg/kg/inj), when substituted for cocaine. Lower response rates were maintained at higher and lower doses of the compounds. No dose of the sigmaR antagonists [N-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-N-methyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)ethylamine (BD 1008), N-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-N-methyl-2-(dimethylamino)ethylamine (BD 1047), N-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-4-methylpiperazine (BD 1063)] maintained responding appreciably above levels obtained when responding had no consequences. Presession treatment with sigmaR agonists dose-dependently shifted the cocaine self-administration dose-effect curve leftward. The dopamine-uptake inhibitor, (-)-2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (WIN 35,428), dose-dependently shifted the DTG and PRE-084 self-administration dose-effect curves leftward. Treatment with the sigmaR antagonists dose-dependently decreased response rates maintained by DTG or PRE-084, but did not affect cocaine self-administration. Response rates maintained by maximally effective DTG or PRE-084 doses were decreased by sigmaR antagonists at lower doses than those that decreased response rates maintained by food reinforcement. Although sigmaR antagonists block some cocaine-induced effects, the lack of effect on cocaine self-administration suggests that the primary reinforcing effects of cocaine do not involve direct effects at sigmaRs. However, the self-administration of sigmaR agonists in cocaine-trained subjects, facilitation of cocaine self

  10. Reinforcing Effects of σ-Receptor Agonists in Rats Trained to Self-Administer Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Hiranita, Takato; Soto, Paul L.; Tanda, Gianluigi

    2010-01-01

    σ-Receptor (σR) antagonists have been reported to block certain effects of psychostimulant drugs. The present study examined the effects of σR ligands in rats trained to self-administer cocaine (0.032–1.0 mg/kg/inj i.v.) under fixed-ratio 5-response schedules of reinforcement. Maximal rates of responding were maintained by 0.32 mg/kg/inj cocaine, or by the σR agonists, 1,3-di-(2-tolyl)guanidine (DTG; 1.0 mg/kg/inj) or 2-(4-morpholinethyl) 1-phenylcyclohexane-1-carboxylate hydrochloride (PRE-084; 0.32 mg/kg/inj), when substituted for cocaine. Lower response rates were maintained at higher and lower doses of the compounds. No dose of the σR antagonists [N-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-N-methyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)ethylamine (BD 1008), N-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-N-methyl-2-(dimethylamino)ethylamine (BD 1047), N-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-4-methylpiperazine (BD 1063)] maintained responding appreciably above levels obtained when responding had no consequences. Presession treatment with σR agonists dose-dependently shifted the cocaine self-administration dose-effect curve leftward. The dopamine-uptake inhibitor, (−)-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (WIN 35,428), dose-dependently shifted the DTG and PRE-084 self-administration dose-effect curves leftward. Treatment with the σR antagonists dose-dependently decreased response rates maintained by DTG or PRE-084, but did not affect cocaine self-administration. Response rates maintained by maximally effective DTG or PRE-084 doses were decreased by σR antagonists at lower doses than those that decreased response rates maintained by food reinforcement. Although σR antagonists block some cocaine-induced effects, the lack of effect on cocaine self-administration suggests that the primary reinforcing effects of cocaine do not involve direct effects at σRs. However, the self-administration of σR agonists in cocaine-trained subjects, facilitation of cocaine self-administration by

  11. Subtypes of cocaine abusers.

    PubMed

    Weiss, R D; Mirin, S M

    1986-09-01

    We have characterized five subtypes of cocaine abusers on the basis of clinical presentation, family history data, and response to specific treatment interventions. These include depressed patients who value the euphorigenic effects of the drug, patients with bipolar or cyclothymic disorder who use cocaine to augment manic or hypomanic symptoms or to alleviate depression, adults with ADD, residual type, who find that cocaine has a paradoxical effect of increasing attention span and decreasing motor restlessness, patients with narcissistic and borderline personality disorders who use cocaine for its social prestige and because it bolsters self-esteem, and patients with antisocial personality disorder who use cocaine as part of an overall pattern of antisocial behavior. Although not all cocaine abusers fit neatly into these categories, careful psychiatric evaluation and subtyping is essential in designing a specific treatment program for these patients. As the prevalence rate of cocaine abuse increases, studies that examine the efficacy of various treatment approaches for specific subtypes of cocaine abusers will be essential. It is hoped that our work will be a step in that direction.

  12. Cocaine intoxication

    MedlinePlus

    ... head, if head injury or bleeding is suspected ECG (electrocardiogram, to measure electrical activity in the heart) ... to amputation Alternative Names Intoxication - cocaine Images Electrocardiogram (ECG) References Aronson JK. Cocaine. In: Aronson JK, ed. ...

  13. Discriminative and Reinforcing Stimulus Effects of Nicotine, Cocaine, and Cocaine + Nicotine Combinations in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Nancy K.; Newman, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Concurrent cigarette smoking and cocaine use is well documented. However, the behavioral pharmacology of cocaine and nicotine combinations is poorly understood, and there is a need for animal models to examine this form of polydrug abuse. The purpose of this study was two-fold: first to assess the effects of nicotine on the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine, and second, to study self-administration of nicotine/cocaine combinations in a novel polydrug abuse model. In drug discrimination experiments, nicotine increased the discriminative stimulus effects of low cocaine doses in two of three monkeys, but nicotine did not substitute for cocaine in any monkey. Self-administration of cocaine and nicotine alone, and cocaine + nicotine combinations was studied under a second-order fixed ratio 2, variable ratio 16 (FR2[VR16:S]) schedule of reinforcement. Cocaine and nicotine alone were self-administered in a dose-dependent manner. The combination of marginally reinforcing doses of cocaine and nicotine increased drug self-administration behavior above levels observed with the same dose of either cocaine or nicotine alone. These findings indicate that nicotine may increase cocaine’s discriminative stimulus and reinforcing effects in rhesus monkeys, and illustrate the feasibility of combining cocaine and nicotine in a preclinical model of polydrug abuse. Further studies of the behavioral effects of nicotine + cocaine combinations will contribute to our understanding the pharmacology of dual nicotine and cocaine dependence, and will be useful for evaluation of new treatment medications. PMID:21480727

  14. Extrasynaptic targeting of NMDA receptors following D1 dopamine receptor activation and cocaine self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Ortinski, Pavel I.; Turner, Jill R.; Pierce, R. Christopher

    2013-01-01

    We previously showed that after repeated exposure to cocaine, D1-like dopamine receptor (D1DR) stimulation reverses plastic changes of AMPA receptor-mediated signaling in the nucleus accumbens shell. However, there is little information on the impact of cocaine self-administration on D1-NMDA receptor interactions in this brain region. Here, we assessed whether cocaine self-administration alters the effects of D1DR stimulation on synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs) using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. In slices from cocaine-naïve rats, pre-treatment with a D1DR agonist decreased synaptic NMDAR receptor-mediated currents and increased the contribution of extrasynaptic NMDARs. In contrast, neither cocaine self-administration alone nor cocaine experience followed by D1DR stimulation had an effect on synaptic or extrasynaptic NMDAR signaling. Activation of extrasynaptic NMDARs relies on the availability of extracellular glutamate, which is regulated primarily by glutamate transporters. In cocaine-experienced animals, administration of a glutamate re-uptake blocker, DL-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA), revealed increased extrasynaptic NMDAR activity and stronger baseline activity of glutamate uptake transporters relative to cocaine-naïve rats. In cocaine-naïve rats, the D1DR-mediated increase in extrasynaptic NMDAR signaling was independent of the activity of glutamate re-uptake transporters. Taken together, these results indicate that cocaine experience blunts the influence of D1DRs on synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDAR signaling. Additionally, prior cocaine self-administration limits activation of the extrasynaptic NMDAR pool by increasing glutamate re-uptake. These findings outline a pattern of adaptive interactions between D1DRs and NMDARs in the nucleus accumbens shell and demonstrate up-regulation of extrasynaptic NMDAR signaling as a novel consequence of cocaine self-administration. PMID:23719812

  15. Accelerating cocaine metabolism as an approach to the treatment of cocaine abuse and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Charles W; Goldberg, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    One pharmacokinetic approach to the treatment of cocaine abuse and toxicity involves the development of compounds that can be safely administered to humans and that accelerate the metabolism of cocaine to inactive components. Catalytic antibodies have been developed and shown to accelerate cocaine metabolism, but their catalytic efficiency for cocaine is relatively low. Mutations of human butyrylcholinesterase and a bacterial cocaine esterase found in the soil of coca plants have also been developed. These compounds accelerate cocaine metabolism and antagonize the behavioral and toxic effects of cocaine in animal models. Of these two approaches, the human butyrylcholinesterase mutants show the most immediate promise as they would not be expected to evoke an immune response in humans. PMID:22300096

  16. Longitudinal Modeling of Depressive Trajectories Among HIV-Infected Men Using Cocaine.

    PubMed

    Mukerji, Shibani; Haghighat, Roxanna; Misra, Vikas; Lorenz, David R; Holman, Alex; Dutta, Anupriya; Gabuzda, Dana

    2017-07-01

    Cocaine use is prevalent among HIV-infected individuals. While cross-sectional studies suggest that cocaine users may be at increased risk for depression, long-term effects of cocaine on depressive symptoms remain unclear. This is a longitudinal study of 341 HIV-infected and uninfected men (135 cocaine users and 206 controls) ages 30-60 enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study during 1996-2009. The median baseline age was 41; 73% were African-American. In mixed-effects models over a median of 4.8 years of observation, cocaine use was associated with higher depressive symptoms independent of age, education level, and smoking (n = 288; p = 0.02); HIV infection modified this association (p = 0.03). Latent class mixed models were used to empirically identify distinct depressive trajectories (n = 160). In adjusted models, cocaine use was associated with threefold increased odds of membership in the class with persistent high depressive symptoms (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.38-6.69) and eightfold increased odds (95% CI (2.73-25.83) when tested among HIV-infected subjects only. Cocaine use is a risk factor for chronic depressive symptoms, particularly among HIV-infected men, highlighting the importance of integrating mental health and substance use treatments to address barriers to well-being and successful HIV-care.

  17. Retrotransposition of Long Interspersed Element 1 Induced by Methamphetamine or Cocaine*

    PubMed Central

    Okudaira, Noriyuki; Ishizaka, Yukihito; Nishio, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    Long interspersed element 1 (L1) is a retroelement constituting ∼17% of the human genome. A single human cell has 80–100 copies of L1 capable of retrotransposition (L1-RTP), ∼10% of which are “hot L1” copies, meaning they are primed for “jumping” within the genome. Recent studies demonstrated induction of L1 activity by drugs of abuse or low molecular weight compounds, but little is known about the underlying mechanism. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism and effects of methamphetamine (METH) and cocaine on L1-RTP. Our results revealed that METH and cocaine induced L1-RTP in neuronal cell lines. This effect was found to be reverse transcriptase-dependent. However, METH and cocaine did not induce double-strand breaks. RNA interference experiments combined with add-back of siRNA-resistant cDNAs revealed that the induction of L1-RTP by METH or cocaine depends on the activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). METH or cocaine recruited the L1-encoded open reading frame 1 (ORF1) to chromatin in a CREB-dependent manner. These data suggest that the cellular cascades underlying METH- and cocaine-induced L1-RTP are different from those behind L1-RTP triggered by DNA damage; CREB is involved in drug-induced L1-RTP. L1-RTP caused by drugs of abuse is a novel type of genomic instability, and analysis of this phenomenon might be a novel approach to studying substance-use disorders. PMID:25053411

  18. N-acetylcysteine supplementation reduces oxidative stress for cytosine arabinoside in rat model.

    PubMed

    Balci, Yasemin Isik; Acer, Semra; Yagci, Ramazan; Kucukatay, Vural; Sarbay, Hakan; Bozkurt, Kerem; Polat, Aziz

    2017-02-01

    Cytosine arabinoside (ARA-C) is a pyrimidine analog that may cause keratoconjunctivitis when used in high doses. The underlying mechanism may be the increased amounts of reactive oxygen radicals that may damage the DNA synthesis of corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells. Topical corticosteroids are one of the prophylactic treatments for keratoconjunctivitis induced by ARA-C. Forty Wistar-type albino rats were included in this study the rats were divided into four groups. The first group (Group 1) received only ARA-C, the second group (Group 2) received ARA-C and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), the third group (Group 3) received only NAC and the fourth group (Group 4) was the control group. The total oxidant status (TOS), the total antioxidant capacity and the oxidative stress index (OSI) measurements of the cornea and the conjunctiva were evaluated in these four groups. The mean TOS and OSI value was the highest in Group 1 and the lowest in Group 3. The differences in TOS and OSI values were statistically significant between Group 1 and Group 2. There are decreases in TOS and OSI values in rats which received ARA-C with NAC administration. NAC may have a protective effect on ARA-C-induced keratoconjunctivitis.

  19. N-acetylcysteine in contrast-induced acute kidney injury: clinical use against principles of evidence-based clinical medicine!

    PubMed

    Sadat, Umar

    2014-01-01

    Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is one of the most widely discussed and debated topic in cardiovascular medicine and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is the most widely used pharmacological agent assessed in clinical trials for offering renal protection against CI-AKI. Results of these clinical trials are though split between those that favor its use and vice versa. In this brief communication we discuss the latest research advances regarding the use of NAC against CI-AKI. Recent clinical evidence and overview of in-depth statistical analyses of relevant clinical trials and their meta-analyses do not support the use of NAC in prophylaxis against CI-AKI. Adequate hydration before and after contrast media exposure, along with avoidance of nephrotoxic drugs, remains the recommended prophylaxis against CI-AKI.

  20. Contribution of Cystine-Glutamate Antiporters to the Psychotomimetic Effects of Phencyclidine

    PubMed Central

    Baker, David. A.; Madayag, Aric; Kristiansen, Lars V.; Meador-Woodruff, James H.; Haroutunian, Vahram; Raju, Ilangovan

    2014-01-01

    Altered glutamate signaling contributes to a myriad of neural disorders, including schizophrenia. While synaptic levels are intensely studied, nonvesicular release mechanisms, including cystine-glutamate exchange, maintain high steady-state glutamate levels in the extrasynaptic space. The existence of extrasynaptic receptors, including metabotropic group II glutamate receptors (mGluR), pose nonvesicular release mechanisms as unrecognized targets capable of contributing to pathological glutamate signaling. We tested the hypothesis that activation of cystine-glutamate antiporters using the cysteine prodrug N-acetylcysteine would blunt psychotomimetic effects in the rodent phencyclidine (PCP) model of schizophrenia. First, we demonstrate that PCP elevates extracellular glutamate in the prefrontal cortex; an effect that is blocked by N-acetylcysteine pretreatment. To determine the relevance of the above finding, we assessed social interaction and found that N-acetylcysteine reverses social withdrawal produced by repeated PCP. In a separate paradigm, acute PCP resulted in working memory deficits assessed using a discrete trial T-maze task, and this effect was also reversed by N-acetylcysteine pretreatment. The capacity of N-acetylcysteine to restore working memory was blocked by infusion of the cystine-glutamate antiporter inhibitor (S)-4-carboxyphenylglycine into the prefrontal cortex or systemic administration of the group II mGluR antagonist LY341495 indicating that the effects of N-acetylcysteine requires cystine-glutamate exchange and group II mGluR activation. Lastly, protein levels from post mortem tissue obtained from schizophrenic patients revealed significant changes in the level of xCT, the active subunit for cystine-glutamate exchange, in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These data advance cystine-glutamate antiporters as novel targets capable of reversing the psychotomimetic effects of PCP. PMID:17728701

  1. College students' use of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jenny; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Chaloupka, Frank J; Wechsler, Henry

    2006-01-01

    After experiencing a period of rapid decline between 1986 and 1994, cocaine use is once again on the rise in the United States. The increased prevalence of use among college students is particularly troubling because of its potential impact on human capital acquisition and long-term labor market success. Merging information on the price of cocaine and marijuana from the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency with data on cocaine use from the College Alcohol Study, we investigate the demand for cocaine in the college population. We find evidence that participation in cocaine use by college students is responsive to changes in the price of cocaine and marijuana and that cocaine and marijuana are economic complements for this population. Further investigation revealed significant differences in the demand for cocaine by those less than age 21 and those at least age 21, years, with the younger age group being more responsive to changes in the price of cocaine. No difference is found, however, in the demand for cocaine across gender.

  2. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on endothelial dysfunction in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Garip; Yalcin, Ahmet Ugur; Akcar, Nevbahar

    2007-01-01

    Patients with K/DOQI stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) have higher incidence of cardiovascular events due to the oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction (ED). The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which might prevent cardiovascular events by improving oxidative stress on endothelial cells in patients with CKD. Thirty uremic patients (age 40 +/- 12 years, 6 males) on hemodialysis (HD) were evaluated for ED by using high-resolution Doppler ultrasound of brachial artery before and after 6 weeks of oral NAC (2 x 600 mg) medication. Also, 13 healthy controls (35 +/- 9 years, 5 males) were included in the study. Reactive hyperemia following 5 min forearm ischemia was accepted as endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (flow-mediated dilatation; FMD) and compared to endothelium-independent vasodilatation in response to sublingual glyceril trinitrate (GTN). Patients on HD had lower DeltaFMD (0.28 +/- 0.17 vs. 0.41 +/- 0.11, p < 0.05) and FMD% (7.5 +/- 5.05 vs. 11.33 +/- 2.95, p < 0.05) than the controls. Baseline DeltaGTN and GTN% were similar in two groups. NAC treatment significantly increased the DeltaFMD (0.41 +/- 0.11, p < 0.001 vs. baseline) and FMD% (10.59 +/- 3.22, p < 0.01 vs. baseline) of patients on HD, while it had no effect on DeltaGTN and GTN%. These results suggest that NAC treatment could improve the ED by preventing the reduction of FMD in patients on HD. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. N-acetylcysteine for major mental disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Zheng, W; Zhang, Q-E; Cai, D-B; Yang, X-H; Qiu, Y; Ungvari, G S; Ng, C H; Berk, M; Ning, Y-P; Xiang, Y-T

    2018-05-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examined the efficacy and safety of adjunctive N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant drug, in treating major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. The PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, CNKI, CBM, and WanFang databases were independently searched and screened by two researchers. Standardized mean differences (SMDs), risk ratios, and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed. Six RCTs (n = 701) of NAC for schizophrenia (three RCTs, n = 307), bipolar disorder (two RCTs, n = 125), and MDD (one RCT, n = 269) were identified and analyzed as separate groups. Adjunctive NAC significantly improved total psychopathology (SMD = -0.74, 95% CI: -1.43, -0.06; I 2 = 84%, P = 0.03) in schizophrenia, but it had no significant effect on depressive and manic symptoms as assessed by the Young Mania Rating Scale in bipolar disorder and only a small effect on major depressive symptoms. Adverse drug reactions to NAC and discontinuation rates between the NAC and control groups were similar across the three disorders. Adjunctive NAC appears to be a safe treatment that has efficacy for schizophrenia, but not for bipolar disorder or MDD. Further higher quality RCTs are warranted to determine the role of adjunctive NAC in the treatment of major psychiatric disorders. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Protective effect of N-acetylcysteine against oxygen radical-mediated coronary artery injury.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, A J; Evora, P R B; Schaff, H V

    2004-08-01

    The present study investigated the protective effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against oxygen radical-mediated coronary artery injury. Vascular contraction and relaxation were determined in canine coronary arteries immersed in Kreb's solution (95% O2-5% CO2), incubated or not with NAC (10 mM), and exposed to free radicals (FR) generated by xanthine oxidase (100 mU/ml) plus xanthine (0.1 mM). Rings not exposed to FR or NAC were used as controls. The arteries were contracted with 2.5 microM prostaglandin F2alpha. Subsequently, concentration-response curves for acetylcholine, calcium ionophore and sodium fluoride were obtained in the presence of 20 microM indomethacin. Concentration-response curves for bradykinin, calcium ionophore, sodium nitroprusside, and pinacidil were obtained in the presence of indomethacin plus Nomega-nitro-L-arginine (0.2 mM). The oxidative stress reduced the vascular contraction of arteries not exposed to NAC (3.93 +/- 3.42 g), compared to control (8.56 +/- 3.16 g) and to NAC group (9.07 +/- 4.0 g). Additionally, in arteries not exposed to NAC the endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO)-dependent relaxation promoted by acetylcholine (1 nM to 10 microM) was also reduced (maximal relaxation of 52.1 +/- 43.2%), compared to control (100%) and NAC group (97.0 +/- 4.3%), as well as the NO/cyclooxygenase-independent receptor-dependent relaxation provoked by bradykinin (1 nM to 10 microM; maximal relaxation of 20.0 +/- 21.2%), compared to control (100%) and NAC group (70.8 +/- 20.0%). The endothelium-independent relaxation elicited by sodium nitroprusside (1 nM to 1 microM) and pinacidil (1 nM to 10 microM) was not affected. In conclusion, the vascular dysfunction caused by the oxidative stress, expressed as reduction of the endothelium-dependent relaxation and of the vascular smooth muscle contraction, was prevented by NAC.

  5. N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Minarini, Alessandro; Ferrari, Silvia; Galletti, Martina; Giambalvo, Nina; Perrone, Daniela; Rioli, Giulia; Galeazzi, Gian Maria

    2017-03-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is widely known for its role as a mucolytic and as an antidote to paracetamol overdose. There is increasing interest in the use of NAC in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. The rationale for the administration of NAC in psychiatric conditions is based on its role as a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione, and its action as a modulating agent of glutamatergic, dopaminergic, neurotropic and inflammatory pathways. Areas covered: This study reviews the available data regarding the use of NAC in different psychiatric disorders including substance use disorders, autism, obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder. Promising results were found in trials testing the use of NAC, mainly as an add-on treatment, in cannabis use disorder in young people, depression in bipolar disorder, negative symptoms in schizophrenia, and excoriation (skin-picking) disorder. Despite initial optimism, recent findings regarding NAC efficacy in autism have been disappointing. Expert opinion: These preliminary positive results require further confirmation in larger samples and with longer follow-ups. Given its high tolerability and wide availability, NAC represents an important target to investigate in the field of new adjunctive treatments for psychiatric conditions.

  6. Inactivation of the central nucleus of the amygdala reduces the effect of punishment on cocaine self-administration in rats

    PubMed Central

    Xue, YueQiang; Steketee, Jeffery D.; Sun, WenLin

    2012-01-01

    Continued cocaine use despite the negative consequences is a hallmark of cocaine addiction. One such consequence is punishment that is often used by society to curb cocaine use. Unfortunately, we know little about the mechanism involved in regulation by punishment of cocaine use. The fact that cocaine addicts continue cocaine use despite potential severe punishment suggests that the mechanism may be impaired. Such impairment is expected to critically contribute to compulsive cocaine use. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the central nucleus of amygdala (CeN) plays a critical role in such regulation. To this end, rats were trained to press a lever to self-administer cocaine under a chained schedule: a response on one lever (cocaine-seeking lever) led to access to the other lever (cocaine-taking lever) on which a response was reinforced by cocaine and cues. Thereafter, responses on the seeking lever were punished by footshock with a probability of 0.5. Cocaine self-administration (SA) was significantly suppressed by punishment in an intensity-dependent manner. Interestingly, rats trained with daily 6-h (extended access) but not 2-h (limited access) sessions showed resistance to the lower intensity of punishment. Inactivation of the CeN induced a robust anti-punishment effect in both groups. These data provided evidence that the CeN is a critical neural substrate involved in regulation by punishment of cocaine SA. Rats with a history of extended cocaine SA appeared to be less sensitive to punishment. The decreased sensitivity could result from the neuroplastic changes induced by extended cocaine SA in the CeN. PMID:22304754

  7. THE mPER2 CLOCK GENE MODULATES COCAINE ACTIONS IN THE MOUSE CIRCADIAN SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Brager, Allison J.; Stowie, Adam C.; Prosser, Rebecca A.; Glass, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine is a potent disruptor of photic and non-photic pathways for circadian entrainment of the master circadian clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). These actions of cocaine likely involve its modulation of molecular (clock gene) components for SCN clock timekeeping. At present, however, the physiological basis of such an interaction is unclear. To address this question, we compared photic and non-photic phase-resetting responses between wild-type (WT) and Per2 mutant mice expressing nonfunctional PER2 protein to systemic and intra-SCN cocaine administrations. In the systemic trials, cocaine was administered i.p. (20 mg/kg) either at midday or prior to a light pulse in the early night to assess its non-photic and photic behavioral phase-resetting actions, respectively. In the intra-SCN trial, cocaine was administered by reverse microdialysis at midday to determine if the SCN is a direct target for its non-photic phase-resetting action. Non-photic phase-advancing responses to i.p. cocaine at midday were significantly (~3.5-fold) greater in Per2 mutants than WTs. However, the phase-advancing action of intra-SCN cocaine perfusion at midday did not differ between genotypes. In the light pulse trial, Per2 mutants exhibited larger photic phase-delays than did WTs, and the attenuating action of cocaine on this response was proportionately larger than in WTs. These data indicate that the Per2 clock gene is a potent modulator of cocaine’s actions in the circadian system. With regard to non-photic phase-resetting, the SCN is confirmed as a direct target of cocaine action; however, Per2 modulation of this effect likely occurs outside of the SCN. PMID:23333842

  8. Isolation of tissue layers in hermatypic corals by N-acetylcysteine: morphological and proteomic examinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, S.-E.; Luo, Y.-J.; Huang, H.-J.; Lee, I.-T.; Hou, L.-S.; Chen, W.-N. U.; Fang, L.-S.; Chen, C.-S.

    2008-03-01

    Corals are diploblastic in body pattern and include two tissue layers, the epidermis and gastrodermis, interconnected by an acellular matrix mesoglea. During development, cells in these tissue layers differentiate morphologically and functionally. In most hermatypic corals, the gastrodermis further develops an ability to associate with microalgae dinoflagellates. This endosymbiosis occurs inside specific host gastrodermal cells, and its mechanism still remains unclear notwithstanding decades of research. The delay in progress is partly due to the difficulty in separating the gastrodermis and its symbionts from the epidermis for detailed cellular and biochemical investigations. The present study reports a simple method to separate these two tissue layers in hermatypic corals using the reducing agent, N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Efficient tissue and proteomic isolations are demonstrated by microscopy and two-dimensional SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D SDS-PAGE). The NAC treatment was able to separate tissue layers without inducing protein degradation. Furthermore, the sensitivity of protein detection greatly increases in the isolated tissue layers. The application of the present technique provides future research on endosymbiosis and coral development with a tool for higher accuracy and sensitivity.

  9. N-acetylcysteine induces shedding of selectins from liver and intestine during orthotopic liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Taut, F J H; Schmidt, H; Zapletal, C M; Thies, J C; Grube, C; Motsch, J; Klar, E; Martin, E

    2001-01-01

    In orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduces ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, improves liver synthesis function and prevents primary nonfunction of the graft. To further elucidate the mechanisms of these beneficial effects of NAC, we investigated influence of high-dose NAC therapy on the pattern of adhesion molecule release from liver and intestine during OLT. Nine patients receiving allograft OLT were treated with 150 mg NAC/kg during the first hour after reperfusion; 10 patients received the carrier only. One hour after reperfusion, samples of arterial, portal venous and hepatic venous plasma were taken and blood flow in the hepatic artery and the portal vein was measured. Absolute concentrations of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sP-selectin and sE-selectin were not markedly different. However, balance calculations showed release of selectins from NAC-treated livers as opposed to net uptake in controls (P ≤ 0·02 for sP-selectin). This shedding of selectins might be a contributing factor to the decrease in leucocyte adherence and improved haemodynamics found experimentally with NAC-treatment. PMID:11422213

  10. Determination of the radioprotective effects of topical applications of MEA, WR-2721, and N-acetylcysteine on murine skin

    SciTech Connect

    Verhey, L.J.; Sedlacek, R.

    1983-01-01

    Topical applications of MEA (beta-mercaptoethylamine or cysteamine), WR-2721 (S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)-ethylphosphorothioic acid), and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) were tested for their ability to protect the normal skin of the hind legs of mice against acute and late damage from single doses of /sup 137/Cs radiation. No significant protection was observed with either WR-2721 or NAC. MEA was shown to offer significant protection against acute skin damage in both buffered and unbuffered forms, but no significant protection against late contraction. The use of topical MEA on unanesthetized animals breathing carbogen (95% O2, 5% CO2) appears to give an enhanced level of radioprotection over that shownmore » for anesthetized, air-breathing animals.« less

  11. Differences in social interaction- vs. cocaine reward in mouse vs. rat.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Kai K; Hofhansel, Lena; Barwitz, Constanze M; Schardl, Aurelia; Prast, Janine M; Salti, Ahmad; El Rawas, Rana; Zernig, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    We previously developed rat experimental models based on the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in which only four 15-min episodes of dyadic social interaction with a sex- and weight-matched male Sprague Dawley (SD) rat (1) reversed CPP from cocaine to social interaction despite continuing cocaine training, and (2) prevented the reacquisition/re-expression of cocaine CPP. In a concurrent conditioning schedule, pairing one compartment with social interaction and the other compartment with 15 mg/kg cocaine injections, rats spent the same amount of time in both compartments and the most rewarding sensory component of the composite stimulus social interaction was touch (taction). In the present study, we validated our experimental paradigm in C57BL/6 mice to investigate if our experimental paradigm may be useful for the considerable number of genetically modified mouse models. Only 71% of the tested mice developed place preference for social interaction, whereas 85% of the rats did. Accordingly, 29% of the mice developed conditioned place aversion (CPA) to social interaction, whereas this was true for only 15% of the rats. In support of the lesser likelihood of mice to develop a preference for social interaction, the average amount of time spent in direct contact was 17% for mice vs. 79% for rats. In animals that were concurrently conditioned for social interaction vs. cocaine, the relative reward strength for cocaine was 300-fold higher in mice than in rats. Considering that human addicts regularly prefer drugs of abuse to drug-free social interaction, the present findings suggest that our experimental paradigm of concurrent CPP for cocaine vs. social interaction is of even greater translational power if performed in C57BL/6 mice, the genetic background for most transgenic rodent models, than in rats.

  12. N-acetylcysteine-induced vasodilation involves voltage-gated potassium channels in rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei-Qing; Zhu, Ding-Liang; Wu, Ling-Yun; Chen, Qi-Zhi; Guo, Shu-Jie; Gao, Ping-Jin

    2009-05-22

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has a protective effect against vascular dysfunction by decreasing the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in experimental and human hypertension. This study was designed to examine whether NAC would relax vascular rings in vitro via nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) pathway, extracellular Ca2+ and/or K+ channels. Rat aortic arteries were mounted in an organ bath, contracted with 0.1, 0.5 or 1 micromol/L phenylephrine to plateau, and the vasodilatory effect of NAC was examined in the absence or presence of ROS scavengers, inhibitors of NO-cGMP pathway or K+ channels. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were loaded with a calcium sensitive fluorescent dye fluo-3 AM, and [Ca2+](i) was determined with laser-scanning confocal microscopy. NAC (0.1-4 mmol/L) dose-dependently relaxed rat aorta pre-contracted with phenylephrine. Endothelium removal, endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(omega)-Nitro-l-arginine (L-NNA) (100 micromol/L) or soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor (ODQ) (10 micromol/L) did not affect NAC-induced vasodilation. In contrast, NAC-induced vasodilation was blunted after extracellular calcium was removed and calcium imaging showed that 4 mmol/L NAC quickly decreased [Ca2+](i) in fluo-3 AM loaded VSMCs. NAC-induced vasodilation was significantly reduced in the presence of voltage-gated K+ channels (Kv) inhibitor 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). The vasodilatory effect of NAC may be explained at least partly by activation of voltage-gated K+ channels.

  13. Familiar companions diminish cocaine conditioning and attenuate cocaine-stimulated dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Wen-Yu; Cherng, Chian-Fang G; Wang, Shyi-Wu; Yu, Lung

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of companions on the rewarding effects of cocaine. Three cage mates, serving as companions, were housed with each experimental mouse throughout cocaine-place conditioning in a cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm using conditioning doses of 10 and 20mg/kg. The presence of companions decreased the magnitude of the CPP. At 20mg/kg, cocaine stimulated dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens as evidenced by a significant decrease in total (spontaneous and electrical stimulation-provoked) DA release in accumbal superfusate samples. The presence of companions prevented this cocaine-stimulated DA release; such a reduction in cocaine-induced DA release may account for the reduction in the magnitude of the CPP in the presence of the companions. Furthermore, cocaine pretreatment (2.5mg/kg) was found to prevent the companion-produced decreases in cocaine (10mg/kg/conditioning)-induced CPP as well as the cocaine (10mg/kg)-stimulated DA release. Moreover, the presence of methamphetamine (MA) (1mg/kg)-treated companions decreased cocaine (20mg/kg/conditioning)-induced CPP and prevented the cocaine (20mg/kg)-stimulated DA release. Finally, the presence of companions decreased the magnitude of the CPP could not seem to be accounted for by cocaine-stimulated corticosterone (CORT) release. Taken together, these results indicate that familiar companions, regardless of their pharmacological status, may exert dampening effects on CPP induced by moderate to high conditioning doses of cocaine, at least in part, by preventing cocaine-stimulated DA release in the nucleus accumbens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Increased intra-individual reaction time variability in cocaine-dependent subjects: role of cocaine-related cues.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shijing; Lane, Scott D; Schmitz, Joy M; Green, Charles E; Cunningham, Kathryn A; Moeller, F Gerard

    2012-02-01

    Neuroimaging data suggest that impaired performance on response inhibition and information processing tests in cocaine-dependent subjects is related to prefrontal and frontal cortical dysfunction and that dysfunction in these brain areas may underlie some aspects of cocaine addiction. In subjects with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and other psychiatric disorders, the Intra-Individual Reaction Time Variability (IIRTV) has been associated with frontal cortical dysfunction. In the present study, we evaluated IIRTV parameters in cocaine-dependent subjects vs. controls using a cocaine Stroop task. Fifty control and 123 cocaine-dependent subjects compiled from three studies completed a cocaine Stroop task. Standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV) for reaction times (RT) were calculated for both trials with neutral and trials with cocaine-related words. The parameters mu, sigma, and tau were calculated using an ex-Gaussian analysis employed to characterize variability in RTs. The ex-Gaussian analysis divides the RTs into normal (mu, sigma) and exponential (tau) components. Using robust regression analysis, cocaine-dependent subjects showed greater SD, CV and Tau on trials with cocaine-related words compared to controls (p<0.05). However, in trials with neutral words, there was no evidence of group differences in any IIRTV parameters (p>0.05). The Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test showed that for cocaine-dependent subjects, both SD and tau were larger in trials with cocaine-related words than in trials with neutral words (p<0.05). The observation that only cocaine-related words increased IIRTV in cocaine-dependent subjects suggests that cocaine-related stimuli might disrupt information processing subserved by prefrontal and frontal cortical circuits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. N-acetylcysteine and vitamin E rescue animal longevity and cellular oxidative stress in pre-clinical models of mitochondrial complex I disease.

    PubMed

    Polyak, Erzsebet; Ostrovsky, Julian; Peng, Min; Dingley, Stephen D; Tsukikawa, Mai; Kwon, Young Joon; McCormack, Shana E; Bennett, Michael; Xiao, Rui; Seiler, Christoph; Zhang, Zhe; Falk, Marni J

    2018-04-01

    Oxidative stress is a known contributing factor in mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) disease pathogenesis. Yet, no efficient means exists to objectively evaluate the comparative therapeutic efficacy or toxicity of different antioxidant compounds empirically used in human RC disease. We postulated that pre-clinical comparative analysis of diverse antioxidant drugs having suggested utility in primary RC disease using animal and cellular models of RC dysfunction may improve understanding of their integrated effects and physiologic mechanisms, and enable prioritization of lead antioxidant molecules to pursue in human clinical trials. Here, lifespan effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), vitamin E, vitamin C, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), mitochondrial-targeted CoQ10 (MS010), lipoate, and orotate were evaluated as the primary outcome in a well-established, short-lived C. elegans gas-1(fc21) animal model of RC complex I disease. Healthspan effects were interrogated to assess potential reversal of their globally disrupted in vivo mitochondrial physiology, transcriptome profiles, and intermediary metabolic flux. NAC or vitamin E fully rescued, and coenzyme Q, lipoic acid, orotic acid, and vitamin C partially rescued gas-1(fc21) lifespan toward that of wild-type N2 Bristol worms. MS010 and CoQ10 largely reversed biochemical pathway expression changes in gas-1(fc21) worms. While nearly all drugs normalized the upregulated expression of the "cellular antioxidant pathway", they failed to rescue the mutant worms' increased in vivo mitochondrial oxidant burden. NAC and vitamin E therapeutic efficacy were validated in human fibroblast and/or zebrafish complex I disease models. Remarkably, rotenone-induced zebrafish brain death was preventable partially with NAC and fully with vitamin E. Overall, these pre-clinical model animal data demonstrate that several classical antioxidant drugs do yield significant benefit on viability and survival in primary mitochondrial disease, where their major

  16. Environmental enrichment reduces cocaine neurotoxicity during cocaine-conditioned place preference in male rats.

    PubMed

    Freese, Luana; Almeida, Felipe Borges; Heidrich, Nubia; Hansen, Alana Witt; Steffens, Luiza; Steinmetz, Aline; Moura, Dinara Jaqueline; Gomez, Rosane; Barros, Helena Maria Tannhauser

    2018-06-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) has a neuroprotective role and prevents the development of cocaine addiction behavior in rats. Studies showing the role of EE in cocaine toxicity are nonexistent. We hypothesized that rats exposed to EE are protected from cocaine-induced changes in the redox profile and DNA damage after undergoing conditioned place preference (CPP). Ten male Wistar rats were placed in EE cages equipped with toys, a ladder and tunnels, and ten were provided clean, standard laboratory housing (non-EE). EE and non-EE rats were randomly allocated to the classical CPP cocaine vs. saline (COC/Saline) group, where cocaine (15 mg/kg; i.p.) was tested alternately with saline. Afterwards, intracellular reactive species and antioxidant enzymes were evaluated and the comet essay was performed in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of rats. As expected, EE rats spent less time in the cocaine-paired chamber, and as a new result, less cocaine-induced DNA damage was observed in the two brain structures. Altogether, our results demonstrate that EE decreases neurotoxicity in brain regions linked to cocaine addiction but does not extinguish it completely. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Changes in endocannabinoid and N-acylethanolamine levels in rat brain structures following cocaine self-administration and extinction training.

    PubMed

    Bystrowska, Beata; Smaga, Irena; Frankowska, Małgorzata; Filip, Małgorzata

    2014-04-03

    Preclinical investigations have demonstrated that drugs of abuse alter the levels of lipid-based signalling molecules, including endocannabinoids (eCBs) and N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), in the rodent brain. In addition, several drugs targeting eCBs and/or NAEs are implicated in reward and/or seeking behaviours related to the stimulation of dopamine systems in the brain. In our study, the brain levels of eCBs (anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)) and NAEs (oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA)) were analyzed via an LC-MS/MS method in selected brain structures of rats during cocaine self-administration and after extinction training according to the "yoked" control procedure. Repeated (14days) cocaine (0.5mg/kg/infusion) self-administration and yoked drug delivery resulted in a significant decrease (ca. 52%) in AEA levels in the cerebellum, whereas levels of 2-AG increased in the frontal cortex, the hippocampus and the cerebellum and decreased in the hippocampus and the dorsal striatum. In addition, we detected increases (>150%) in the levels of OEA and PEA in the limbic areas in both cocaine treated groups, as well as an increase in the tissue levels of OEA in the dorsal striatum in only the yoked cocaine group and increases in the tissue levels of PEA in the dorsal striatum (both cocaine groups) and the nucleus accumbens (yoked cocaine group only). Compared to the yoked saline control group, extinction training (10days) resulted in a potent reduction in AEA levels in the frontal cortex, the hippocampus and the nucleus accumbens and in 2-AG levels in the hippocampus, the dorsal striatum and the cerebellum. The decreases in the limbic and subcortical areas were more apparent for rats that self-administered cocaine. Following extinction, there was a region-specific change in the levels of NAEs in rats previously injected with cocaine; a potent increase (ca. 100%) in the levels of OEA and PEA was detected in the prefrontal cortex and the

  18. Associations between behavioral disinhibition and cocaine use history in individuals with cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Prisciandaro, James J; Korte, Jeffrey E; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Brady, Kathleen T

    2012-10-01

    Behavioral disinhibition has been suggested as both a cause and consequence of substance use disorders. Many studies examining associations between behavioral disinhibition and substance use history have focused on individuals with alcohol dependence or non-dependent college students. In the present study, the relationship between behavioral disinhibition and cocaine use history in individuals with cocaine dependence is examined. Forty-six non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent men and women completed impulsivity (Barratt impulsiveness scale; BIS) and novelty seeking (temperament and character inventory; TCI) questionnaires at the baseline visit of an ongoing study. Unadjusted, and adjusted for gender and age, Pearson correlations were calculated between BIS, TCI, and cocaine use variables from the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV and timeline follow-back (age of onset, quantity/frequency of past 30 day cocaine use). As expected, elevated motor impulsivity and novelty seeking were each associated with younger age of dependence onset. Also, individuals with lower levels of persistence on the TCI reported more days of cocaine use over the previous month. Unexpectedly, increased novelty seeking and attentional impulsivity were associated with fewer days of cocaine use and less money spent on cocaine, respectively. Controlling for age and gender did not substantially change the pattern of observed associations. The present study provides preliminary evidence for associations between behavioral disinhibition and cocaine use history in cocaine-dependent individuals. Given our relatively small sample size and the correlational nature of our findings, further research is needed to replicate and extend our results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of N-acetylcysteine on the hepatic microcirculation after orthotopic liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Koeppel, T A; Lehmann, T G; Thies, J C; Gehrcke, R; Gebhard, M M; Herfarth, C; Otto, G; Post, S

    1996-05-15

    Recent observations showed an improvement of hepatic macro- and microhemodynamics as well as survival rates after warm ischemia of the liver following treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC). In this study we assessed the influence of NAC on the hepatic microcirculation after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) using intravital fluorescence microscopy. OLT with simultaneous arterialization was performed in 16 male Lewis rats following cold storage in University of Wisconsin solution for 24 hr. Within the experimental group (n = 8) donors received NAC (400 mg/kg) 25 min before hepatectomy. In addition, high-dose treatment of recipients with NAC (400 mg/kg) was started with reperfusion. Control animals (n = 8) received an equivalent amount of Ringer's solution. Intravital fluorescence microscopy was performed 30-90 min after reperfusion assessing acinar and sinusoidal perfusion, leukocyte-endothelium interaction, and phagocytic activity. Treatment with NAC reduced the number of nonperfused sinusoid from 52.4 +/- 0.8% to 15.7 +/- 0.5% (p = 0.0001) (mean +/- SEM). Furthermore, we achieved a significant reduction of leukocytes adhering to sinusoidal endothelium (per mm2 liver surface) from 351.9 +/- 13.0 in controls to 83.6 +/- 4.2 in the experimental group (P = 0.0001). In postsinusoidal venules, treatment with NAC decreased the number of sticking leukocytes (per mm2 endothelium) from 1098.5 +/- 59.6 to 425.9 +/- 37.7 (P = 0.0001). Moreover, bile flow was significantly increased after therapy with NAC (4.3 +/- 1.2 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.7 ml/90 min x 100g liver) (P < 0.05). Phagocytic activity was not influenced by application of NAC. We conclude that high-dose therapy with NAC in OLT attenuates manifestations of microvascular perfusion failure early after reperfusion and should be considered as a means to reduce reperfusion injury.

  20. Comparative behavioral pharmacology and toxicology of cocaine and its ethanol-derived metabolite, cocaine ethyl-ester (cocaethylene)

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.L.; Terry, P.; Witkin, J.M.

    The present study compared the behavioral and toxic effects of cocaine and its ethanol derived metabolite, cocaine ethyl-ester (cocaethylene). Both drugs produced qualitatively similar psychomoter stimulant effects. Cocaine and cocaethylene increased locomotor activity in mice, with cocaine approximately four times more potent than cocaethylene. The durations of action of ED{sub 75} doses of each of the drugs were comparable. Each of the drugs also produced stimulation of operant responding in rats. In rats and squirrel monkeys trained to discriminate cocaine injections from saline, cocaine was approximately three to five times more potent than cocaethylene in producing these cocaine-like interoceptive effects.more » In contrast to the behavioral effects, cocaine and cocaethylene were equipotent in producing convulsions, and cocaethylene was more potent than cocaine in producing lethality. These results suggest that the conversion of cocaine to cocaethylene with simultaneous cocaine and alcohol use may produce an increased risk of toxicity due to a decrease in the potency of cocaethylene in producing psychomotor stimulant effects, and its increased potency in producing toxicity.« less

  1. Effects of prior cocaine self-administration on cognitive performance in female cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kromrey, Sarah A; Gould, Robert W; Nader, Michael A; Czoty, Paul W

    2015-06-01

    Cocaine use has been associated with cognitive impairments that may contribute to poor treatment outcomes. However, the degree to which these deficits extend into periods of abstinence has not been completely elucidated. This study tested whether prior experience self-administering cocaine affected acquisition of two cognitive tasks in 16 adult female cynomolgus monkeys. Seven monkeys had previously self-administered cocaine but had not had access to cocaine for 2 months at the start of this study. After monkeys were trained to respond on a touchscreen, associative learning and behavioral flexibility were assessed using a stimulus discrimination (SD) and reversal (SDR) task from the CANTAB battery. Performance on this task was monitored over the subsequent 3 months. Additionally, working memory was assessed with a delayed match-to-sample (DMS) task. Cocaine-naïve monkeys required fewer total trials and made fewer errors and omissions before acquiring the SD and SDR tasks compared with monkeys who had previously self-administered cocaine; two monkeys in the latter group did not acquire the task. However, this cognitive impairment dissipated over several months of exposure to the task. The number of sessions for touch training and delays required to establish a performance-based curve on the DMS task did not differ between groups. Results suggest that cocaine exposure can impair the ability to learn a novel task requiring behavioral inhibition and flexibility, even after an extended period of abstinence. However, this deficit did not extend to maintenance of the task or to acquisition of a working memory task.

  2. Chemical Changes in Nonthermal Plasma-Treated N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) Solution and Their Contribution to Bacterial Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, Utku K.; Smith, Josh; Ji, Hai-Feng; Brooks, Ari D.; Joshi, Suresh G.

    2016-01-01

    In continuation of our previous reports on the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of atmospheric non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma treated N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) solution against planktonic and biofilm forms of different multidrug resistant microorganisms, we present here the chemical changes that mediate inactivation of Escherichia coli. In this study, the mechanism and products of the chemical reactions in plasma-treated NAC solution are shown. UV-visible spectrometry, FT-IR, NMR, and colorimetric assays were utilized for chemical characterization of plasma treated NAC solution. The characterization results were correlated with the antimicrobial assays using determined chemical species in solution in order to confirm the major species that are responsible for antimicrobial inactivation. Our results have revealed that plasma treatment of NAC solution creates predominantly reactive nitrogen species versus reactive oxygen species, and the generated peroxynitrite is responsible for significant bacterial inactivation. PMID:26832829

  3. Bacterial cocaine esterase: a protein-based therapy for cocaine overdose and addiction

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Diwahar; Woods, James H; Sunahara, Roger K

    2012-01-01

    Cocaine is highly addictive and there are no pharmacotherapeutic drugs available to treat acute cocaine toxicity or chronic abuse. Antagonizing an inhibitor such as cocaine using a small molecule has proven difficult. The alternative approach is to modify cocaine’s pharmacokinetic properties by sequestering or hydrolyzing it in serum and limiting access to its sites of action. We took advantage of a bacterial esterase (CocE) that has evolved to hydrolyze cocaine and have developed it as a therapeutic that rapidly and specifically clears cocaine from the subject. Native enzyme was unstable at 37°C, thus limiting CocE’s potential. Innovative computational methods based on the protein’s structure helped elucidate its mechanism of destabilization. Novel protein engineering methodologies were applied to substantially improve its stability in vitro and in vivo. These improvements rendered CocE as a powerful and efficacious therapeutic to treat cocaine intoxication and lead the way towards developing a therapy for addiction. PMID:22300094

  4. Dyadic social interaction as an alternative reward to cocaine.

    PubMed

    Zernig, Gerald; Kummer, Kai K; Prast, Janine M

    2013-09-12

    Individuals suffering from substance use disorders often show severely impaired social interaction, preferring drugs of abuse to the contact with others. Their impaired social interaction is doubly harmful for them as (1) therapy itself is based and dependent on social interaction and as (2) social interaction is not available to them as an "alternative", i.e., non-drug reward, decreasing their motivation to stop drug use. We therefore developed an animal experimental model to investigate the neurobiology of dyadic social interaction- vs. cocaine reward. We took care to avoid: (a) engaging sexual attraction-related aspects of such a social interaction and (b) hierarchical difference as confounding stimuli. The cocaine- or social interaction stimulus was offered - in a mutually exclusive setting - within the confines of a conditioned place preference (CPP) apparatus. In our paradigm, only four 15-min episodes of social interaction proved sufficient to (i) switch the rats' preference from cocaine-associated contextual stimuli to social interaction CPP and (ii) inhibit the subsequent reacquisition/reexpression of cocaine CPP. This behavioral effect was paralleled by a reversal of brain activation (i.e., EGR1 expression) in the nucleus accumbens, the central and basolateral amygdala, and the ventral tegmental area. Of relevance for the psychotherapy of addictive disorders, the most rewarding sensory component of the composite stimulus "social interaction" was touch. To test our hypothesis that motivation is encoded in neuron ensembles dedicated to specific reward scenarios, we are currently (1) mapping the neural circuits involved in cocaine- vs. social-interaction reward and (2) adapting our paradigm for C57BL/6 mice to make use of the plethora of transgenic models available in this species.

  5. Early adolescent cocaine use as determined by hair analysis in a prenatal cocaine exposure cohort

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Tamara Duckworth; Behnke, Marylou; Eyler, Fonda Davis; Szabo, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Preclinical and other research suggest that youth with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) may be at high risk for cocaine use due to both altered brain development and exposure to unhealthy environments. Methods Participants are early adolescents who were prospectively enrolled in a longitudinal study of PCE prior to or at birth. Hair samples were collected from the youth at ages 10½ and 12½ (N=263). Samples were analyzed for cocaine and its metabolites using ELISA screening with gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) confirmation of positive samples. Statistical analyses included comparisons between the hair-positive and hair-negative groups on risk and protective factors chosen a priori as well as hierarchical logistical regression analyses to predict membership in the hair-positive group. Results Hair samples were positive for cocaine use for 14% (n=36) of the tested cohort. Exactly half of the hair-positive preteens had a history of PCE. Group comparisons revealed that hair-negative youth had significantly higher IQ scores at age 10½; the hair-positive youth had greater availability of cigarettes, alcohol, and other drugs in the home; caregivers with more alcohol problems and depressive symptoms; less nurturing home environments; and less positive attachment to their primary caregivers and peers. The caregivers of the hair-positive preteens reported that the youth displayed more externalizing and social problems, and the hair-positive youth endorsed more experimentation with cigarettes, alcohol, and/or other drugs. Mental health problems, peer drug use, exposure to violence, and neighborhood characteristics did not differ between the groups. Regression analyses showed that the availability of drugs in the home had the greatest predictive value for hair-positive group membership while higher IQ, more nurturing home environments, and positive attachment to caregivers or peers exerted some protective effect. Conclusion The results do not support a

  6. New potentiometric sensor based on molecularly imprinted nanoparticles for cocaine detection.

    PubMed

    Smolinska-Kempisty, K; Ahmad, O Sheej; Guerreiro, A; Karim, K; Piletska, E; Piletsky, S

    2017-10-15

    Here we present a potentiometric sensor for cocaine detection based on molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) produced by the solid-phase imprinting method. The composition of polymers with high affinity for cocaine was optimised using molecular modelling. Four compositions were selected and polymers prepared using two protocols: chemical polymerisation in water and UV-initiated polymerisation in organic solvent. All synthesised nanoparticles had very good affinity to cocaine with dissociation constants between 0.6nM and 5.3nM. Imprinted polymers produced in organic solvent using acrylamide as a functional monomer demonstrated the highest yield and affinity, and so were selected for further sensor development. For this, nanoparticles were incorporated within a PVC matrix which was then used to prepare an ion-selective membrane integrated with a potentiometric transducer. It was demonstrated that the sensor was able to quantify cocaine in blood serum samples in the range of concentrations between 1nM and 1mM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of buspirone on the immediate positive and delayed negative properties of intravenous cocaine as measured in the conditioned place preference test

    PubMed Central

    Ettenberg, Aaron; Bernardi, Rick E.

    2007-01-01

    In prior work, we have demonstrated that the behavioral effects of cocaine adhere to the predictions of the opponent-process theory of drug action. Animals develop conditioned place preferences for distinct locations paired with the immediate effects of IV cocaine, but learn to avoid places paired with the effects present 15-min post injection. It was of interest to assess the putative role of 5-HT in producing the negative properties of cocaine since cocaine acts to inhibit the reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) and since such actions have been associated with anxiogenic consequences. Male rats were administered a reinforcing dose of cocaine (1.0 mg/kg IV) and then placed – either immediately or after a 15-min delay -- into one side of a two-compartment (black-white) Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) box for 5-min. On alternate days, the animals received IV saline injections and were placed in the opposite side of the CPP box. This continued for eight days after which animals had experienced 4 pairings of cocaine with one side (black or white) of the CPP apparatus, and 4 saline pairings with the opposite side. Other groups of rats were treated identically except that 30-min prior to placement into the apparatus, these animals received an IP injection of saline or buspirone (a partial 5-HT1A agonist) at a dose that we have shown to be anxiolytic (2.5 mg/kg IP). Control animals experienced either buspirone or saline pretreatments without cocaine. Our results confirm that animals increase the time spent on the side paired with the immediate effects of cocaine (compared to baseline), but tend to avoid the side paired with effects present 15-min post-injection. Buspirone had no effect on the immediate rewarding properties of cocaine, but completely reversed the negative properties present 15-min post-cocaine. These results are consistent with the view that attenuation of 5-HT neurotransmission (via the autoreceptor agonist properties of buspirone) can reverse the negative

  8. Treadmill Exercise Improves Fitness and Reduces Craving and Use of Cocaine in Individuals with Concurrent Cocaine and Tobacco-use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    De La Garza, Richard; Yoon, Jin H.; Thompson-Lake, Daisy G.Y.; Haile, Colin N.; Eisenhofer, Joel D.; Newton, Thomas F.; Mahoney, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise may be a useful treatment for substance use disorders. Participants (N=24) included treatment-seeking individuals with concurrent cocaine and tobacco-use disorder (cigarette smokers). Participants were randomized to either running or walking (30 min per session, 3 times per week) or sitting (control condition) for 4 consecutive weeks. Several metrics indicated significant differences among runners, walkers, and sitters during sessions, including mean distance covered and calories burned. In addition, remote physiological monitoring showed that the groups differed significantly according to mean maximum heart rate (HR), respiration, and locomotor activity. Across the 4-week study, exercise improved fitness measures including significantly decreasing resting HR. Though not statistically significant, exercise improved abstinence from cocaine and increased self-reports of no cocaine use in last 24h. In general, reductions in tobacco use and craving were not as robust. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the effects of a multi-week exercise program in individuals with concurrent cocaine and tobacco-use disorder. The data clearly show significant improvements in basic fitness measures and several indices reveal that exercise improved both self-report and biochemically verified reports of cocaine abstinence. Taken together, the data from this study provides preliminary evidence for the efficacy of exercise for improving fitness and reducing cocaine use. PMID:27541349

  9. Inactivation of the central nucleus of the amygdala reduces the effect of punishment on cocaine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Xue, YueQiang; Steketee, Jeffery D; Sun, WenLin

    2012-03-01

    Continued cocaine use despite the negative consequences is a hallmark of cocaine addiction. One such consequence is punishment, which is often used by society to curb cocaine use. Unfortunately, we know little about the mechanism involved in regulation by punishment of cocaine use. The fact that cocaine addicts continue to use cocaine despite potentially severe punishment suggests that the mechanism may be impaired. Such impairment is expected to critically contribute to compulsive cocaine use. This study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeN) plays a critical role in such regulation. To this end, rats were trained to press a lever to self-administer cocaine under a chained schedule: a response on one lever (cocaine-seeking lever) led to access to the other lever (cocaine-taking lever), on which a response was reinforced by cocaine and cues. Thereafter, responses on the seeking lever were punished by footshock with a probability of 0.5. Cocaine self-administration (SA) was significantly suppressed by punishment in an intensity-dependent manner. Interestingly, rats trained with daily 6-h (extended access) but not 2-h (limited access) sessions showed resistance to the lower intensity of punishment. Inactivation of the CeN induced a robust anti-punishment effect in both groups. These data provided evidence that the CeN is a critical neural substrate involved in regulation by punishment of cocaine SA. Rats with a history of extended cocaine SA appeared to be less sensitive to punishment. The decreased sensitivity could result from the neuroplastic changes induced by extended cocaine SA in the CeN. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Acute morphine and cocaine related death after trimethoprim-adultered cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Fucci, Nadia; Pascali, Vincenzo L

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few decades, cocaine and morphine (heroin) have been among the primary causes of deaths related to drug abuse. Cocaine is frequently altered by dilution, substitution, contamination, and adulteration. Trimethoprim has never been identified in the powders of cocaine, making this the first post-mortem case report in which the presence of this compound is described. The case reported here is that of a 46-year-old woman with a history of cocaine and morphine abuse who was found dead inside her bathroom. The police found the corpse next to a syringe, with a telephone card containing trace of cocaine on the sink. Toxicological analysis was performed, and drug levels were measured by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In addition to the presence of cocaine and smaller alkaloids, trimethoprim was also detected on the syringe and telephone card and in the woman's nasal mucosa. Trimethoprim analysis is very quick and easy and can be added to the routine analysis of drugs of abuse seized on the illicit market to obtain more information. © 2014 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  11. The effects of the novel DA D3 receptor antagonist SR 21502 on cocaine reward, cocaine seeking and cocaine-induced locomotor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Galaj, E; Ananthan, S; Saliba, M; Ranaldi, Robert

    2014-02-01

    There is a focus on developing D3 receptor antagonists as cocaine addiction treatments. We investigated the effects of a novel selective D3 receptor antagonist, SR 21502, on cocaine reward, cocaine-seeking, food reward, spontaneous locomotor activity and cocaine-induced locomotor activity in rats. In Experiment 1, rats were trained to self-administer cocaine under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement and tested with vehicle or one of three doses of SR 21502. In Experiment 2, animals were trained to self-administer cocaine under a fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement followed by extinction of the response. Then, animals were tested with vehicle or one of the SR 21502 doses on cue-induced reinstatement of responding. In Experiment 3, animals were trained to lever press for food under a PR schedule and tested with vehicle or one dose of the compound. In Experiments 4 and 5, in separate groups of animals, the vehicle and three doses of SR 21502 were tested on spontaneous or cocaine (10 mg/kg, IP)-induced locomotor activity, respectively. SR 21502 produced significant, dose-related (3.75, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg) reductions in breakpoint for cocaine self-administration, cue-induced reinstatement (3.75, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg) and cocaine-induced locomotor activity (3.75, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg) but failed to reduce food self-administration and spontaneous locomotor activity. SR 21502 decreases cocaine reward, cocaine-seeking and locomotor activity at doses that have no effect on food reward or spontaneous locomotor activity. These data suggest SR 21502 may selectively inhibit cocaine's rewarding, incentive motivational and stimulant effects.

  12. Dissociable effects of cocaine and yohimbine on impulsive action and relapse to cocaine seeking.

    PubMed

    Broos, Nienke; van Mourik, Yvar; Schetters, Dustin; De Vries, Taco J; Pattij, Tommy

    2017-11-01

    A strong association has been demonstrated between various forms of impulsivity and addiction-like behavior in both humans and rats. In this study, we investigated how impulsive action, as measured in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), is affected during various stages of cocaine taking and seeking and by relapse-provoking stimuli in animals that were trained both in an intravenous cocaine self-administration paradigm and in the 5-CSRTT. Rats were concurrently trained in the 5-CSRTT and cocaine self-administration protocol, and subsequently, the effects of cocaine (7.5 mg/kg) and the pharmacological stressor yohimbine (1.25 mg/kg) were tested in both paradigms. Cocaine self-administration (5 h/day) transiently altered impulsive action and increased errors of omission in the 5-CSRTT. Pharmacological challenges with cocaine and yohimbine induced increments in impulsive action and reinstated cocaine-seeking responses within the same animals. Further analyses revealed that the effects of cocaine and yohimbine on impulsive action did not correlate with their effects on reinstatement of cocaine seeking. These data suggest that although impulsive action and relapse can be pharmacologically modulated in the same direction within individuals, these effects appear not to be directly coupled.

  13. The Neuropsychology of Cocaine Addiction: Recent Cocaine Use Masks Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Woicik, Patricia A; Moeller, Scott J; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Maloney, Thomas; Lukasik, Tanya M; Yeliosof, Olga; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with current cocaine use disorders (CUD) form a heterogeneous group, making sensitive neuropsychological (NP) comparisons with healthy individuals difficult. The current study examined the effects on NP functioning of four factors that commonly vary among CUD: urine status for cocaine (positive vs negative on study day), cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and dysphoria. Sixty-four cocaine abusers were matched to healthy comparison subjects on gender and race; the groups also did not differ in measures of general intellectual functioning. All subjects were administered an extensive NP battery measuring attention, executive function, memory, facial and emotion recognition, and motor function. Compared with healthy control subjects, CUD exhibited performance deficits on tasks of attention, executive function, and verbal memory (within one standard deviation of controls). Although CUD with positive urine status, who had higher frequency and more recent cocaine use, reported greater symptoms of dysphoria, these cognitive deficits were most pronounced in the CUD with negative urine status. Cigarette smoking, frequency of alcohol consumption, and dysphoria did not alter these results. The current findings replicate a previously reported statistically significant, but relatively mild NP impairment in CUD as compared with matched healthy control individuals and further suggest that frequent/recent cocaine may mask underlying cognitive (but not mood) disturbances. These results call for development of pharmacological agents targeted to enhance cognition, without negatively impacting mood in individuals addicted to cocaine. PMID:18496524

  14. N-Acetylcysteine and deferoxamine reduce pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation in rats after coal dust exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Pinho, R.A.; Silveira, P.C.L.; Silva, L.A.

    2005-11-01

    Coal dust inhalation induces oxidative damage and inflammatory infiltration on lung parenchyma. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC) administered alone or in combination with deferoxamine (DFX), significantly reduced the inflammatory infiltration and oxidative damage in the lungs of rats exposed to coal dust. Forty-two male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were exposed to the coal dust (3 mg/0.5 mL saline, 3 days/week, for 3 weeks) by intratracheal instillation. The animals were randomly divided into three groups: saline 0.9% (n = 8), supplemented with NAC (20 mg/kg of body weight/day, intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)) (n = 8),more » and supplemented with NAC (20 mg/kg of body weight/day, i.p.) plus DFX (20 mg/kg of body weight/week) (n = 8). Control animals received only saline solution (0.5 mL). Lactate dehydrogenase activity and total cell number were determined in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. We determined lipid peroxidation and oxidative protein damage parameters and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities in the lungs of animals. Intratracheal instillation of coal dust in the lungs of rats led to an inflammatory response and induced significant oxidative damage. The administration of NAC alone or in association with DFX reduced the inflammatory response and the oxidative stress parameters in rats exposed to coal dust.« less

  15. [Cocaine - Characteristics and addiction].

    PubMed

    Girczys-Połedniok, Katarzyna; Pudlo, Robert; Jarząb, Magdalena; Szymlak, Agnieszka

    Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4):537-544. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  16. Cocaine detection using piezoresistive microcantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srijanto, Bernadeta; Cheney, Christine P.; Hedden, David L.; Gehl, Anthony; Ferrell, Thomas L.

    2008-03-01

    Sensitive and inexpensive sensors play a significant role in the analysis of drugs and drug metabolites. Specifically, reliable in vivo detection of cocaine and cocaine metabolites serves as a useful tool in research of the body's reaction to the drug and in the treatment of the drug addiction. We present here a promising cocaine biosensor to be used in the human body. The sensor's active element consists of piezoresistive microcantilevers coated with an oligonucleotide-based aptamer as the cocaine binder. In vitro cocaine detection was carried out by flowing a cocaine solution over the microcantilevers. Advantages of this device are its low power consumption, its high sensitivity, and its potential for miniaturization into an implantable capsule. The limit of detection for cocaine in distilled water was found to be 1 ng/ml.

  17. Single prolonged stress effects on sensitization to cocaine and cocaine self-administration in rats

    PubMed Central

    Eagle, Andrew L.; Singh, Robby; Kohler, Robert J.; Friedman, Amy L.; Liebowitz, Chelsea P.; Galloway, Matthew P.; Enman, Nicole M.; Jutkiewicz, Emily M.; Perrine, Shane A.

    2017-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often comorbid with substance use disorders (SUD). Single prolonged stress (SPS) is a well-validated rat model of PTSD that provides a framework to investigate drug-induced behaviors as a preclinical model of the comorbidity. We hypothesized that cocaine sensitization and self-administration would be increased following exposure to SPS. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to SPS or control treatment. After SPS, cocaine (0,10 or 20mg/kg, i.p.) was administered for 5 consecutive days and locomotor activity was measured. Another cohort was assessed for cocaine self-administration (0.1 or 0.32 mg/kg/i.v.) after SPS. Rats were tested for acquisition, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement behaviors. Control animals showed a dose-dependent increase in cocaine-induced locomotor activity after acute cocaine whereas SPS rats did not. Using a sub-threshold sensitization paradigm, control rats did not exhibit enhanced locomotor activity at Day 5 and therefore did not develop behavioral sensitization, asexpected. However, compared to control ratson Day 5 the locomotor response to 20mg/kg repeated cocaine was greatly enhanced in SPS-treated rats, which exhibited enhanced cocaine locomotor sensitization. The effect of SPS on locomotor activity was unique in that SPS did not modify cocaine self-administration behaviors under a simple schedule of reinforcement. These data show that SPS differentially affects cocaine-mediated behaviors causing no effect to cocaine self-administration, under a simple schedule of reinforcement, but significantly augmenting cocaine locomotor sensitization. These results suggest that SPS shares common neurocircuitry with stimulant-induced plasticity, but dissociable from that underlying psychostimulant-induced reinforcement. PMID:25712697

  18. Single prolonged stress effects on sensitization to cocaine and cocaine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Eagle, Andrew L; Singh, Robby; Kohler, Robert J; Friedman, Amy L; Liebowitz, Chelsea P; Galloway, Matthew P; Enman, Nicole M; Jutkiewicz, Emily M; Perrine, Shane A

    2015-05-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often comorbid with substance use disorders (SUD). Single prolonged stress (SPS) is a well-validated rat model of PTSD that provides a framework to investigate drug-induced behaviors as a preclinical model of the comorbidity. We hypothesized that cocaine sensitization and self-administration would be increased following exposure to SPS. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to SPS or control treatment. After SPS, cocaine (0, 10 or 20 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered for 5 consecutive days and locomotor activity was measured. Another cohort was assessed for cocaine self-administration (0.1 or 0.32 mg/kg/i.v.) after SPS. Rats were tested for acquisition, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement behaviors. Control animals showed a dose-dependent increase in cocaine-induced locomotor activity after acute cocaine whereas SPS rats did not. Using a sub-threshold sensitization paradigm, control rats did not exhibit enhanced locomotor activity at Day 5 and therefore did not develop behavioral sensitization, as expected. However, compared to control rats on Day 5 the locomotor response to 20mg/kg repeated cocaine was greatly enhanced in SPS-treated rats, which exhibited enhanced cocaine locomotor sensitization. The effect of SPS on locomotor activity was unique in that SPS did not modify cocaine self-administration behaviors under a simple schedule of reinforcement. These data show that SPS differentially affects cocaine-mediated behaviors causing no effect to cocaine self-administration, under a simple schedule of reinforcement, but significantly augmenting cocaine locomotor sensitization. These results suggest that SPS shares common neurocircuitry with stimulant-induced plasticity, but dissociable from that underlying psychostimulant-induced reinforcement. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. A randomized controlled trial of pre-procedure simethicone and N-acetylcysteine to improve mucosal visibility during gastroscopy - NICEVIS.

    PubMed

    Basford, Peter John; Brown, James; Gadeke, Lisa; Fogg, Carole; Haysom-Newport, Ben; Ogollah, Reuben; Bhattacharyya, Rupam; Longcroft-Wheaton, Gaius; Thursby-Pelham, Fergus; Neale, James R; Bhandari, Pradeep

    2016-11-01

    Background and study aims: Mucosal views can be impaired by residual bubbles and mucus during gastroscopy. This study aimed to determine whether a pre-gastroscopy drink containing simethicone and N-acetylcysteine improves mucosal visualisation. Patients and methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial recruiting 126 subjects undergoing routine gastroscopy. Subjects were randomized 1:1:1 to receive: A-pre-procedure drink of water, simethicone and N-acetylcysteine (NAC); B-water alone; or C-no preparation. Study endoscopists were blinded to group allocation. Digital images were taken at 4 locations (lower esophagus/upper gastric body/antrum/fundus), and rated for mucosal visibility (MV) using a 4-point scale (1 = best, 4 = worst) by 4 separate experienced endoscopists. The primary outcome measure was mean mucosal visibility score (MVS). Secondary outcome measures were procedure duration and volume of fluid flush required to achieve adequate mucosal views. Results: Mean MVS for Group A was significantly better than for Group B (1.35 vs 2.11, P  < 0.001) and Group C (1.35 vs 2.21, P  < 0.001). Mean flush volume required to achieve adequate mucosal views was significantly lower in Group A than Group B (2.0 mL vs 31.5 mL, P  = 0.001) and Group C (2.0 mL vs 39.2 mL P  < 0.001). Procedure duration did not differ significantly between any of the 3 groups. MV scores at each of the 4 locations demonstrated significantly better mucosal visibility in Group A compared to Group B and Group C ( P  < 0.0025 for all comparisons). Conclusions: A pre-procedure drink containing simethicone and NAC significantly improves mucosal visibility during gastroscopy and reduces the need for flushes during the procedure. Effectiveness in the lower esophagus demonstrates potential benefit in Barrett's oesophagus surveillance gastroscopy.

  20. Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, inhibits cocaine-induced seizures in mice: Possible role of the mTOR pathway and reduction in glutamate release.

    PubMed

    Gobira, Pedro H; Vilela, Luciano R; Gonçalves, Bruno D C; Santos, Rebeca P M; de Oliveira, Antonio C; Vieira, Luciene B; Aguiar, Daniele C; Crippa, José A; Moreira, Fabricio A

    2015-09-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotomimetic constituent of Cannabis sativa, has therapeutic potential for certain psychiatric and neurological disorders. Studies in laboratory animals and limited human trials indicate that CBD has anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties. Its effects against cocaine neurotoxicity, however, have remained unclear. Thus, the present study tested the hypothesis that CBD protects against cocaine-induced seizures and investigated the underlying mechanisms. CBD (30 mg/kg) pre-treatment increased the latency and reduced the duration of cocaine (75 mg/kg)-induced seizures in mice. The CB1 receptor antagonist, AM251 (1 and 3mg/kg), and the CB2 receptor antagonist, AM630 (2 and 4 mg/kg), failed to reverse this protective effect, suggesting that alternative mechanisms are involved. Synaptosome studies with the hippocampus of drug-treated animals revealed that cocaine increases glutamate release, whereas CBD induces the opposite effect. Finally, the protective effect of this cannabinoid against cocaine-induced seizure was reversed by rapamycin (1 and 5mg/kg), an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) intracellular pathway. In conclusion, CBD protects against seizures in a model of cocaine intoxication. These effects possibly occur through activation of mTOR with subsequent reduction in glutamate release. CBD should be further investigated as a strategy for alleviating psychostimulant toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [EFFECT OF ACETYLCYSTEINE, CORVITIN AND THEIR COMBINATION ON THE FUNCTIONAL STATE OF LIVER IN RATS WITH PARACETAMOL INDUCED TOXIC HEPATITIS].

    PubMed

    Ghonghadze, M; Antelava, N; Liluashvili, K; Okujava, M; Pachkoria, K

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays drug-induced hepatotoxicity is urgent problem worldwide. Currently more than 1000 drugs are hepatotoxic and most often are the reason of acute fulminant hepatitis and hepatocellular failure, the states requiring liver transplantation. The paracetamol induced liver toxicity is related with accumulation of its toxic metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), which is the free radical and enhances peroxidation of lipids, disturbs the energy status and causes death of hepatocytes. During our research we investigated and assessed the efficacy of acetylcysteine, corvitin and their combination in rat model of paracetamol induced acute toxic hepatitis. The study was performed on mature white male Wistar rates with body mass 150-180 g. 50 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (10 rats in each group). To get the model of acute toxic hepatitis single intraperitoneal injection of paracetamol solution was used (750 mg/kg). Toxic hepatitis was treated with intrapertoneal administration of 40mg/kg acetylcysteine or 100mg/kg corvitin, as well as with combination of these drugs. Monotherapy with acetylcysteine and corvitin of paracetamol induced toxic hepatitis improved the liver function, decreased relative mass of the liver and animal mortality. The treatment of toxic hepatitis was most effective in the case of simultaneous administration of acetylcysteine and corvitin. The normal value of laboratory tests (ALT, ACT, alkaline phosphatase, total and unconjugated bilirubin) was reached and mortality was not more observed. On the bases of obtained data was concluded that acetylcysteine and corvitin have almost equal hepatoprotective activity. The combination of two drugs actually improves the liver function. The most pronounced hepatoprotective effect may be due to synergic action of acetylcysteine and corvitin and such regime can be recommended for correction of liver function.

  2. Application of novel Ni(II) complex and ZrO2 nanoparticle as mediators for electrocatalytic determination of N-acetylcysteine in drug samples.

    PubMed

    Karimi-Maleh, Hassan; Salehi, Mehdi; Faghani, Fatemeh

    2017-10-01

    The electrooxidation of N-acetylcysteine (N-AC) was studied by a novel Ni(II) complex modified ZrO 2 nanoparticle carbon paste electrode [Ni(II)/ZrO 2 /NPs/CPE] using voltammetric methods. The results showed that Ni(II)/ZrO 2 /NPs/CPE had high electrocatalytic activity for the electrooxidation of N-AC in aqueous buffer solution (pH = 7.0). The electrocatalytic oxidation peak currents increase linearly with N-AC concentrations over the concentration ranges of 0.05-600μM using square wave voltammetric methods. The detection limit for N-AC was equal to 0.009μM. The catalytic reaction rate constant, k h , was calculated (7.01 × 10 2  M -1  s -1 ) using the chronoamperometry method. Finally, Ni(II)/ZrO 2 /NPs/CPE was also examined as an ultrasensitive electrochemical sensor for the determination of N-AC in real samples such as tablet and urine. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Synergistic protective effect of N-acetylcysteine and taurine against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, Wessam M; Moussa, Farouzia I; Saad, Najwa A

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin (cis-diaminedichloroplatinum II; CDDP) is an effective anticancer drug, but it has limitations because of its nephrotoxicity. This study investigates the protective effect of N -acetylcysteine (NAC) and taurine (TAU), both individually and in combination, against CDDP nephrotoxicity in rats. For this purpose, 48 male rats were assigned into eight groups (n=6) as follows: 1) control group, 2) NAC group, 3) TAU group, 4) NAC-TAU group, 5) CDDP group, 6) CDDP-NAC group, 7) CDDP-TAU group, and 8) CDDP-NAC-TAU group. Cisplatin was administered as a single intraperitoneal injection at a concentration of 6 mg/kg. Three days after CDDP administration, NAC (50 mg/kg) and/or TAU (50 mg/kg) were administered three times weekly for four consecutive weeks. Kidney function markers in serum, urinary glucose and protein, as well as oxidant and antioxidant parameters in renal tissue were assessed. Administration of CDDP significantly elevated urinary glucose and protein, as well as serum creatinine, urea, and uric acid. Moreover, CDDP enhanced lipid peroxidation and suppressed the major enzymatic antioxidants in the kidney tissue. Treatment with NAC or TAU protected against the alterations in the serum, urine, and renal tissue when used individually along with CDDP. Furthermore, a combined therapy of both was more effective in ameliorating CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity, which points out to their synergistic effect.

  4. Effects of oral N-acetylcysteine on fatigue, critical power, and W' in exercising humans.

    PubMed

    Corn, Sarah D; Barstow, Thomas J

    2011-09-15

    The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is associated with muscular fatigue. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) can extend time to fatigue (TTF), but the effect appears to be exercise intensity dependent. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an acute oral dose of NAC on time to fatigue (TTF), critical power (CP), W' (curvature constant), V(O2) kinetics and muscle EMG during cycling exercise. Male (n=7) subjects performed four tests at power outputs corresponding to 80, 90, 100, and 110% of the peak power output achieved during the incremental test (Pmax) under NAC and placebo (PLA) conditions. TTF was increased only in the 80% Pmax trial (p=0.033). CP was higher with NAC (NAC: 232±28 W versus PLA: 226±31 W; p=0.032), but W' tended to decrease (NAC: 15.5±3.8 kJ versus W': 16.4±4.5 kJ; p=0.10). The change in W' was negatively related to the change in CP (r = -0.96). MdPF and RMS of EMG tended to change less with NAC. There were no significant differences in V(O2) kinetics. These results demonstrate that oral NAC was successful in extending time to fatigue at 80% Pmax but not at higher work rates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibitory Motor Control at Five Years as a Function of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    BENDERSKY, MARGARET; GAMBINI, GIORGIA; LASTELLA, ANNA; BENNETT, DAVID S.; LEWIS, MICHAEL

    2006-01-01

    This study examined children’s (n = 140, age 5 years) ability to inhibit a motor response as a function of prenatal cocaine exposure. We hypothesized that cocaine-exposed children would perform worse than unexposed children on the Contrary Tapping task. Results indicated that cocaine exposure, high environmental risk, male gender, and low child IQ each were related to poorer inhibitory control. An interaction indicated that cocaine effects were specific to children who lived in relatively low-risk environments. Cocaine-exposed children made an error sooner than unexposed children if they lived in low-risk environments but not if they lived in high-risk environments. Potential underlying mechanisms and the importance of examining cocaine exposure effects in the context of children’s existing environment are discussed. PMID:14578695

  6. Modification of pharmacokinetic and abuse-related effects of cocaine by human-derived cocaine hydrolase in monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Charles W.; Justinova, Zuzana; Lafleur, David; Woods, Doug; Roschke, Viktor; Hallak, Hussein; Sklair-Tavron, Liora; Redhi, Godfrey H.; Yasar, Sevil; Bergman, Jack; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Although substantial research effort has focused on developing pharmacological treatments for cocaine abuse, no effective medications have been developed. Recent studies show that enzymes that metabolize cocaine in the periphery, forestalling its entry into the brain, can prevent cocaine toxicity and its behavioral effects in rodents. Here we report on effects of one such enzyme (Albu-CocH) on the pharmacokinetic and behavioral effects of cocaine in squirrel monkeys. Albu-CocH was developed from successive mutations of human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and has 1000-fold greater catalytic activity against cocaine than naturally occurring BChE. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that Albu-CocH (5 mg/kg) had a half-life of 56.6 hours in squirrel monkeys. In these studies, plasma levels of cocaine following i.v. 1 mg/kg cocaine were reduced two hours after administration of Albu-CocH, whereas plasma levels of the cocaine metabolite ecgonine methyl ester were increased. These effects were still evident 72 hrs following Albu-CocH administration. In behavioral experiments in monkeys, pretreatment with 5 mg/kg Albu-CocH dramatically decreased self-administration of a reinforcing dose of i.v. cocaine (30 μg/kg/injection) for over 24 hours. Pretreatment with 5 mg/kg Albu-CocH also attenuated the reinstatement of extinguished cocaine self-administration by an i.v. priming injection of cocaine (0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg) and, in separate studies, attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine. The ability of Albu-CocH to attenuate the abuse-related effects of cocaine in squirrel monkeys indicates that further investigation of BChE mutants as potential treatment for cocaine abuse and toxicity is warranted. PMID:22264200

  7. Cocaine evokes a profile of oxidative stress and impacts innate antiviral response pathways in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, Irma E; Erdenizmenli, Mert; Cunningham, Kathryn A; Paessler, Slobodan; Dineley, Kelly T

    2018-06-01

    HIV-1 and Zika virus (ZIKV) represent RNA viruses with neurotropic characteristics. Infected individuals suffer neurocognitive disorders aggravated by environmental toxins, including drugs of abuse such as cocaine, exacerbating HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders through a combination of astrogliosis, oxidative stress and innate immune signaling; however, little is known about how cocaine impacts the progression of ZIKV neural perturbations. Impaired innate immune signaling is characterized by weakened antiviral activation of interferon signaling and alterations in inflammatory signaling, factors contributing to cognitive sequela associated with cocaine in HIV-1/ZIKV infection. We employed cellular/molecular biology techniques to test if cocaine suppresses the efficacy of astrocytes to initiate a Type 1 interferon response to HIV-1/ZIKV, in vitro. We found cocaine activated antiviral signaling pathways and type I interferon in the absence of inflammation. Cocaine pre-exposure suppressed antiviral responses to HIV-1/ZIKV, triggering antiviral signaling and phosphorylation of interferon regulatory transcription factor 3 to stimulate type I interferon gene transcription. Our data indicate that oxidative stress is a major driver of cocaine-mediated astrocyte antiviral immune responses. Although astrocyte antiviral signaling is activated following detection of foreign pathogenic material, oxidative stress and increased cytosolic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) can drive antiviral signaling via stimulation of pattern recognition receptors. Pretreatment with the glial modulators propentofylline (PPF) or pioglitazone (PIO) reversed cocaine-mediated attenuation of astrocyte responses to HIV-1/ZIKV. Both PPF/PIO protected against cocaine-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased dsDNA, antiviral signaling pathways and increased type I interferon, indicating that cocaine induces astrocyte type I interferon signaling in the absence of virus and oxidative

  8. N-acetylcysteine protects against star fruit-induced acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Maria Heloisa Massola; Gois, Pedro Henrique França; Volpini, Rildo Aparecido; Canale, Daniele; Luchi, Weverton Machado; Froeder, Leila; Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman; Seguro, Antonio Carlos

    2017-11-01

    Star fruit (SF) is a popular fruit, commonly cultivated in many tropical countries, that contains large amount of oxalate. Acute oxalate nephropathy and direct renal tubular damage through release of free radicals are the main mechanisms involved in SF-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on SF-induced nephrotoxicity due to its potent antioxidant effect. Male Wistar rats received SF juice (4 mL/100 g body weight) by gavage after a 12 h fasting and water deprivation. Fasting and water deprivation continued for 6 h thereafter to warrant juice absorption. Thereafter, animals were allocated to three experimental groups: SF (n = 6): received tap water; SF + NAC (n = 6): received NAC (4.8 g/L) in drinking water for 48 h after gavage; and Sham (n = 6): no interventions. After 48 h, inulin clearance studies were performed to determine glomerular filtration rate. In a second series of experiment, rats were housed in metabolic cages for additional assessments. SF rats showed markedly reduced inulin clearance associated with hyperoxaluria, renal tubular damage, increased oxidative stress and inflammation. NAC treatment ameliorated all these alterations. Under polarized light microscopy, SF rats exhibited intense calcium oxalate birefringence crystals deposition, dilation of renal tubules and tubular epithelial degeneration, which were attenuate by NAC therapy. Our data show that therapeutic NAC attenuates renal dysfunction in a model of acute oxalate nephropathy following SF ingestion by reducing oxidative stress, oxaluria, and inflammation. This might represent a novel indication of NAC for the treatment of SF-induced AKI.

  9. Differentiation of South American crack and domestic (US) crack cocaine via headspace-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Colley, Valerie L; Casale, John F

    2015-03-01

    South American 'crack' cocaine, produced directly from coca leaf, can be distinguished from US domestically produced crack on the basis of occluded solvent profiles. In addition, analysis of domestically produced crack indicates the solvents that were used for cocaine hydrochloride (HCl) processing in South America. Samples of cocaine base (N=3) from South America and cocaine from the USA (N=157 base, N=88 HCl) were analyzed by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) to determine their solvent profiles. Each cocaine HCl sample was then converted to crack cocaine using the traditional crack production method and re-examined by HS-GC-MS. The resulting occluded solvent profiles were then compared to their original HCl solvent profiles. Analysis of the corresponding crack samples confirmed the same primary processing solvents found in the original HCl samples, but at reduced levels. Domestically seized crack samples also contained reduced levels of base-to-HCl conversion solvents. In contrast, analysis of South American crack samples confirmed the presence of low to high boiling hydrocarbons and no base-to-HCl conversion solvents. The presented study showed analysis of crack cocaine samples provides data on which processing solvents were originally utilized in the production of cocaine HCl in South America, prior to conversion to crack cocaine. Determination of processing solvents provides valuable information to the counter-drug intelligence community and assists the law enforcement community in determining cocaine distribution and trafficking routes throughout the world. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Vaccines for cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Orson, Frank M; Kinsey, Berma M; Singh, Rana A K; Wu, Yan; Kosten, Thomas R

    2009-04-01

    Treatments for cocaine abuse have been disappointingly ineffective, especially in comparison with those for some other abused substances. A new approach, using vaccination to elicit specific antibodies to block the access of cocaine to the brain, has shown considerable promise in animal models, and more recently in human trials. The mechanism of action for the antibody effect on cocaine is very likely to be the straightforward and intuitive result of the binding of the drug in circulation by antibodies, thereby reducing its entry into the central nervous system and thus its pharmacological effects. The effectiveness of such antibodies on drug pharmacodynamics is a function of both the quantitative and the qualitative properties of the antibodies, and this combination will determine the success of the clinical applications of anti-cocaine vaccines in helping addicts discontinue cocaine abuse. This review will discuss these issues and present the current developmental status of cocaine conjugate vaccines.

  11. The effect of L-cysteine and N-acetylcysteine on porphyrin/heme biosynthetic pathway in cells treated with 5-aminolevulinic acid and exposed to radiation.

    PubMed

    He, D; Behar, S; Roberts, J E; Lim, H W

    1996-10-01

    The effects of L-cysteine (LC) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on porphyrin accumulation in a human dermal microvascular endothelial cell line (HMEC-1) and a human epidermoid carcinoma cell line (A431) loaded with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and exposed to ultraviolet A (UVA) and blue light radiation were determined. Porphyrin accumulation was decreased in the presence of 0.1-7.5 mM LC (24.8%-31.4% suppression in HMEC-1 cell; 35.8%-48.9% suppression in A431 cells), and in the presence of 0.1-10.0 mM NAC (30.9%-58.0% suppression in HMEC-1 cells; 8.5%-45.3% in A431 cells). The suppression occurred in a LC or NAC dose-dependent fashion. The above was associated with partial reversal of suppression of ferrochelatase (FeC) activity in HMEC-1 cells and in A431 cells. As compared to FeC activity in cells treated with ALA and irradiation, enzyme activity was higher (by 31.9%-62.1%) in the presence of LC (1.0 mM or 5.0 mM) and in the presence of NAC (1.0 mM or 5.0 mM). These data indicate that LC and NAC have protective effects on porphyrin- and irradiation-induced diminution of FeC activity in HMEC-1 cells and A341 cells in vitro.

  12. Acetylcysteine for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy after intravascular angiography: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bagshaw, Sean M; Ghali, William A

    2004-01-01

    Background Contrast-induced nephropathy is an important cause of acute renal failure. We assess the efficacy of acetylcysteine for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy among patients undergoing intravascular angiography. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing prophylactic acetylcysteine plus hydration versus hydration alone in patients undergoing intravascular angiography. Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases. Our main outcome measures were the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy and the difference in serum creatinine between acetylcysteine and control groups at 48 h. Results Fourteen studies involving 1261 patients were identified and included for analysis, and findings were heterogeneous across studies. Acetylcysteine was associated with a significantly reduced incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy in five studies, and no difference in the other nine (with a trend toward a higher incidence in six of the latter studies). The pooled odds ratio for contrast-induced nephropathy with acetylcysteine relative to control was 0.54 (95% CI, 0.32–0.91, p = 0.02) and the pooled estimate of difference in 48-h serum creatinine for acetylcysteine relative to control was -7.2 μmol/L (95% CI -19.7 to 5.3, p = 0.26). These pooled values need to be interpreted cautiously because of the heterogeneity across studies, and due to evidence of publication bias. Meta-regression suggested that the heterogeneity might be partially explained by whether the angiography was performed electively or as emergency. Conclusion These findings indicate that published studies of acetylcysteine for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy yield inconsistent results. The efficacy of acetylcysteine will remain uncertain unless a large well-designed multi-center trial is performed. PMID:15500690

  13. Plasma concentrations of BDNF and IGF-1 in abstinent cocaine users with high prevalence of substance use disorders: relationship to psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Pedraz, María; Martín-Velasco, Ana Isabel; García-Marchena, Nuria; Araos, Pedro; Serrano, Antonia; Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; Suárez, Juan; Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Barrios, Vicente; Campos-Cloute, Rafael; Ruiz, Juan Jesús; Torrens, Marta; Chowen, Julie Ann; Argente, Jesús; de la Torre, Rafael; Santín, Luis Javier; Villanúa, María Ángeles; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Pavón, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have identified biomarkers related to the severity and pathogenesis of cocaine addiction and common comorbid psychiatric disorders. Monitoring these plasma mediators may improve the stratification of cocaine users seeking treatment. Because the neurotrophic factors are involved in neural plasticity, neurogenesis and neuronal survival, we have determined plasma concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-1 binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) in a cross-sectional study with abstinent cocaine users who sought outpatient treatment for cocaine (n = 100) and age/body mass matched controls (n = 85). Participants were assessed with the diagnostic interview 'Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders'. Plasma concentrations of these peptides were not different in cocaine users and controls. They were not associated with length of abstinence, duration of cocaine use or cocaine symptom severity. The pathological use of cocaine did not influence the association of IGF-1 with age observed in healthy subjects, but the correlation between IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 was not significantly detected. Correlation analyses were performed between these peptides and other molecules sensitive to addiction: BDNF concentrations were not associated with inflammatory mediators, lipid derivatives or IGF-1 in cocaine users, but correlated with chemokines (fractalkine/CX3CL1 and SDF-1/CXCL12) and N-acyl-ethanolamines (N-palmitoyl-, N-oleoyl-, N-arachidonoyl-, N-linoleoyl- and N-dihomo-γ-linolenoyl-ethanolamine) in controls; IGF-1 concentrations only showed association with IGFBP-3 concentrations in controls; and IGFBP-3 was only correlated with N-stearoyl-ethanolamine concentrations in cocaine users. Multiple substance use disorders and life-time comorbid psychopathologies were common in abstinent cocaine users. Interestingly, plasma BDNF concentrations were exclusively found to be decreased in users diagnosed

  14. Plasma Concentrations of BDNF and IGF-1 in Abstinent Cocaine Users with High Prevalence of Substance Use Disorders: Relationship to Psychiatric Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Araos, Pedro; Serrano, Antonia; Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; Suárez, Juan;