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Sample records for n-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase

  1. Localization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) in cells expressing the Ca(2+)-binding proteins calbindin, calretinin, and parvalbumin in the adult rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Patricia; Arrabal, Sergio; Vargas, Antonio; Blanco, Eduardo; Serrano, Antonia; Pavón, Francisco J; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmithylethanolamide (PEA) are known to be endogenous ligands of PPARα receptors, and their presence requires the activation of a specific phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) associated with intracellular Ca(2+) fluxes. Thus, the identification of a specific population of NAPE-PLD/PPARα-containing neurons that express selective Ca(2+)-binding proteins (CaBPs) may provide a neuroanatomical basis to better understand the PPARα system in the brain. For this purpose, we used double-label immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy for the characterization of the co-existence of NAPE-PLD/PPARα and the CaBPs calbindin D28k, calretinin and parvalbumin in the rat hippocampus. PPARα expression was specifically localized in the cell nucleus and, occasionally, in the cytoplasm of the principal cells (dentate granular and CA pyramidal cells) and some non-principal cells of the hippocampus. PPARα was expressed in the calbindin-containing cells of the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus (DG) and the SP of CA1. These principal PPARα(+)/calbindin(+) cells were closely surrounded by NAPE-PLD(+) fiber varicosities. No pyramidal PPARα(+)/calbindin(+) cells were detected in CA3. Most cells containing parvalbumin expressed both NAPE-PLD and PPARα in the principal layers of the DG and CA1/3. A small number of cells containing PPARα and calretinin was found along the hippocampus. Scattered NAPE-PLD(+)/calretinin(+) cells were specifically detected in CA3. NAPE-PLD(+) puncta surrounded the calretinin(+) cells localized in the principal cells of the DG and CA1. The identification of the hippocampal subpopulations of NAPE-PLD/PPARα-containing neurons that express selective CaBPs should be considered when analyzing the role of NAEs/PPARα-signaling system in the regulation of hippocampal functions.

  2. Localization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) in cells expressing the Ca(2+)-binding proteins calbindin, calretinin, and parvalbumin in the adult rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Patricia; Arrabal, Sergio; Vargas, Antonio; Blanco, Eduardo; Serrano, Antonia; Pavón, Francisco J; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmithylethanolamide (PEA) are known to be endogenous ligands of PPARα receptors, and their presence requires the activation of a specific phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) associated with intracellular Ca(2+) fluxes. Thus, the identification of a specific population of NAPE-PLD/PPARα-containing neurons that express selective Ca(2+)-binding proteins (CaBPs) may provide a neuroanatomical basis to better understand the PPARα system in the brain. For this purpose, we used double-label immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy for the characterization of the co-existence of NAPE-PLD/PPARα and the CaBPs calbindin D28k, calretinin and parvalbumin in the rat hippocampus. PPARα expression was specifically localized in the cell nucleus and, occasionally, in the cytoplasm of the principal cells (dentate granular and CA pyramidal cells) and some non-principal cells of the hippocampus. PPARα was expressed in the calbindin-containing cells of the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus (DG) and the SP of CA1. These principal PPARα(+)/calbindin(+) cells were closely surrounded by NAPE-PLD(+) fiber varicosities. No pyramidal PPARα(+)/calbindin(+) cells were detected in CA3. Most cells containing parvalbumin expressed both NAPE-PLD and PPARα in the principal layers of the DG and CA1/3. A small number of cells containing PPARα and calretinin was found along the hippocampus. Scattered NAPE-PLD(+)/calretinin(+) cells were specifically detected in CA3. NAPE-PLD(+) puncta surrounded the calretinin(+) cells localized in the principal cells of the DG and CA1. The identification of the hippocampal subpopulations of NAPE-PLD/PPARα-containing neurons that express selective CaBPs should be considered when analyzing the role of NAEs/PPARα-signaling system in the regulation of hippocampal functions. PMID:24672435

  3. Localization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) in cells expressing the Ca2+-binding proteins calbindin, calretinin, and parvalbumin in the adult rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Patricia; Arrabal, Sergio; Vargas, Antonio; Blanco, Eduardo; Serrano, Antonia; Pavón, Francisco J.; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmithylethanolamide (PEA) are known to be endogenous ligands of PPARα receptors, and their presence requires the activation of a specific phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) associated with intracellular Ca2+ fluxes. Thus, the identification of a specific population of NAPE-PLD/PPARα-containing neurons that express selective Ca2+-binding proteins (CaBPs) may provide a neuroanatomical basis to better understand the PPARα system in the brain. For this purpose, we used double-label immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy for the characterization of the co-existence of NAPE-PLD/PPARα and the CaBPs calbindin D28k, calretinin and parvalbumin in the rat hippocampus. PPARα expression was specifically localized in the cell nucleus and, occasionally, in the cytoplasm of the principal cells (dentate granular and CA pyramidal cells) and some non-principal cells of the hippocampus. PPARα was expressed in the calbindin-containing cells of the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus (DG) and the SP of CA1. These principal PPARα+/calbindin+ cells were closely surrounded by NAPE-PLD+ fiber varicosities. No pyramidal PPARα+/calbindin+ cells were detected in CA3. Most cells containing parvalbumin expressed both NAPE-PLD and PPARα in the principal layers of the DG and CA1/3. A small number of cells containing PPARα and calretinin was found along the hippocampus. Scattered NAPE-PLD+/calretinin+ cells were specifically detected in CA3. NAPE-PLD+ puncta surrounded the calretinin+ cells localized in the principal cells of the DG and CA1. The identification of the hippocampal subpopulations of NAPE-PLD/PPARα-containing neurons that express selective CaBPs should be considered when analyzing the role of NAEs/PPARα-signaling system in the regulation of hippocampal functions. PMID:24672435

  4. Identification of N-Acyl Phosphatidylserine Molecules in Eukaryotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Ziqiang; Li, Shengrong; Smith, Dale C.; Shaw, Walter A.; Raetz, Christian R. H.

    2008-01-01

    While profiling the lipidome of the mouse brain by mass spectrometry, we discovered a novel family of N-acyl phosphatidylserine (N-acyl-PS) molecules. These N-acyl-PS species were enriched by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, and they were then characterized by accurate mass measurements, tandem mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, and comparison to an authentic standard. Mouse brain N-acyl-PS molecules are heterogeneous and constitute about 0.1 % of the total lipid. In addition to various ester-linked fatty acyl chains on their glycerol backbones, the complexity of the N-acyl-PS series is further increased by the presence of diverse amide-linked N-acyl chains, which include saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated species. N-acyl-PS molecular species were also detected in the lipids of pig brain, mouse RAW264.7 macrophage tumor cells and yeast, but not E. coli. N-acyl-PSs may be biosynthetic precursors of N-acyl serine molecules, such as the recently reported signaling lipid N-arachidonoyl serine from bovine brain. We suggest that a phospholipase D might cleave N-acyl-PS to generate N-acyl serine, in analogy to the biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (anadamide) from N-arachidonoyl phosphatidylethanolamine. PMID:18031065

  5. Ochnaflavone, naturally occurring biflavonoid, inhibits phospholipase A2 dependent phosphatidylethanolamine degradation in a CCl4-induced rat liver microsome.

    PubMed

    Moon, Tae Chul; Hwang, Hwa Shin; Quan, Zhejiu; Son, Kun Ho; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Kim, Hyun Pyo; Kang, Sam Sik; Son, Jong Keun; Chang, Hyeun Wook

    2006-12-01

    This study investigated the protective effects of a group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA) inhibitor, ochnaflavone, on the progression of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury in rat liver microsomes in vitro. When rat liver was incubated at 37 degrees C in the presence of CCl4, the level of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) degradation increased markedly compared with the control. The rat 14 kDa platelet PLA2 antibody, R377, suppressed the degradation of PE. Pretreating the microsome with ochnaflavone (2-16 microM) reduced the level of PE degradation in a dose dependent manner. In addition, p-bromophenacy bromide (p-BPB), which is a PLA2 inhibitor, also inhibited PE degradation. However, the inhibitory activity was weaker than that of ochnaflavone. Further investigation showed that ochnaflavone not only inhibited the purified rat platelet sPLA2 activity in a dose dependent manner with an IC50 value of 3.45 microM, when arachidonyl PE was used as a substrate, but also inhibited lipid peroxidation in a dose dependent manner with an IC50 value of 7.16 microM. This result suggests that ochnaflavone prevents the progression of CCl4-induced PE hydrolysis by inhibiting the endogenous sPLA2 activity.

  6. ABHD4 regulates multiple classes of N-acyl phospholipids in the mammalian central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeon-Cheol; Simon, Gabriel M.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2016-01-01

    N-acyl phospholipids are atypical components of cell membranes that bear three acyl chains and serve as potential biosynthetic precursors for lipid mediators such as endocannabinoids. Biochemical studies have implicated ABHD4 as a brain N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) lipase, but in vivo evidence for this functional assignment is lacking. Here, we describe ABHD4−/− mice and their characterization using untargeted lipidomics to discover that ABHD4 regulates multiple classes of brain N-acyl phospholipids. In addition to showing reductions in brain glycerophospho-NAEs (GP-NAEs) and plasmalogen-based lyso-NAPEs (lyso-pNAPEs), ABHD4−/− mice exhibited decreases in a distinct set of brain lipids that were structurally characterized as N-acyl lysophosphatidylserines (lyso-NAPSs). Biochemical assays confirmed that NAPS lipids are direct substrates of ABHD4. These findings, taken together, designate ABHD4 as a principal regulator of N-acyl phospholipid metabolism in the mammalian nervous system. PMID:25853435

  7. Generation of N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine by members of the phospholipase A/acyltransferase (PLA/AT) family.

    PubMed

    Uyama, Toru; Ikematsu, Natsuki; Inoue, Manami; Shinohara, Naoki; Jin, Xing-Hua; Tsuboi, Kazuhito; Tonai, Takeharu; Tokumura, Akira; Ueda, Natsuo

    2012-09-14

    Bioactive N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), including N-palmitoylethanolamine, N-oleoylethanolamine, and N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide), are formed from membrane glycerophospholipids in animal tissues. The pathway is initiated by N-acylation of phosphatidylethanolamine to form N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE). Despite the physiological importance of this reaction, the enzyme responsible, N-acyltransferase, remains molecularly uncharacterized. We recently demonstrated that all five members of the HRAS-like suppressor tumor family are phospholipid-metabolizing enzymes with N-acyltransferase activity and are renamed HRASLS1-5 as phospholipase A/acyltransferase (PLA/AT)-1-5. However, it was poorly understood whether these proteins were involved in the formation of NAPE in living cells. In the present studies, we first show that COS-7 cells transiently expressing recombinant PLA/AT-1, -2, -4, or -5, and HEK293 cells stably expressing PLA/AT-2 generated significant amounts of [(14)C]NAPE and [(14)C]NAE when cells were metabolically labeled with [(14)C]ethanolamine. Second, as analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, the stable expression of PLA/AT-2 in cells remarkably increased endogenous levels of NAPEs and NAEs with various N-acyl species. Third, when NAPE-hydrolyzing phospholipase D was additionally expressed in PLA/AT-2-expressing cells, accumulating NAPE was efficiently converted to NAE. We also found that PLA/AT-2 was partly responsible for NAPE formation in HeLa cells that endogenously express PLA/AT-2. These results suggest that PLA/AT family proteins may produce NAPEs serving as precursors of bioactive NAEs in vivo.

  8. Endogenous N-acyl taurines regulate skin wound healing.

    PubMed

    Sasso, Oscar; Pontis, Silvia; Armirotti, Andrea; Cardinali, Giorgia; Kovacs, Daniela; Migliore, Marco; Summa, Maria; Moreno-Sanz, Guillermo; Picardo, Mauro; Piomelli, Daniele

    2016-07-26

    The intracellular serine amidase, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), degrades a heterogeneous family of lipid-derived bioactive molecules that include amides of long-chain fatty acids with taurine [N-acyl-taurines (NATs)]. The physiological functions of the NATs are unknown. Here we show that genetic or pharmacological disruption of FAAH activity accelerates skin wound healing in mice and stimulates motogenesis of human keratinocytes and differentiation of human fibroblasts in primary cultures. Using untargeted and targeted lipidomics strategies, we identify two long-chain saturated NATs-N-tetracosanoyl-taurine [NAT(24:0)] and N-eicosanoyl-taurine [NAT(20:0)]-as primary substrates for FAAH in mouse skin, and show that the levels of these substances sharply decrease at the margins of a freshly inflicted wound to increase again as healing begins. Additionally, we demonstrate that local administration of synthetic NATs accelerates wound closure in mice and stimulates repair-associated responses in primary cultures of human keratinocytes and fibroblasts, through a mechanism that involves tyrosine phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and an increase in intracellular calcium levels, under the permissive control of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 receptors. The results point to FAAH-regulated NAT signaling as an unprecedented lipid-based mechanism of wound-healing control in mammalian skin, which might be targeted for chronic wound therapy. PMID:27412859

  9. New N-acyl taurine from the sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuefeng; Xu, Tunhai; Wen, Kewei; Yang, Xian-Wen; Xu, Shi-Hai; Liu, Yonghong

    2010-01-01

    A new N-acyl taurine (1), together with a new natural product, l-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-1,2,4-triazole (4), and two known compounds (2 and 3), were isolated from the sea urchin, Glyptocidaris crenularis. The new N-acyl taurine was elucidated as 2-(5R,15S-dihydroxyeicosanoylamino) ethanesulfonic acid on the basis of spectroscopic (NMR, MS) analyses and the modified Mosher ester method. Compound 2 showed significant toxicity against brine shrimp larvae.

  10. Sphingosine and phorbol ester preferentially stimulate phosphatidylethanolamine hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kiss, Z.; Chattopadhyay, J. )

    1991-03-11

    It is generally accepted that agonist-stimulated phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C and phosphatidyl-choline (PrdCho)-specific phospholipase D are the major systems to produce the lipid messengers phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) and 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG). Here the authors show that simultaneous treatment of ({sup 14}C)palmitate-prelabeled NIH 3T3 fibroblasts with two synergistically acting mitogens, sphingosine and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), resulted in about a two-fold increase in the cellular level of PtdOH, and that both sphingosine, and to a lesser extent, TPA preferentially stimulated phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (PtdEtn) hydrolysis. This latter point was demonstrated by using NIG 3T3 cells prelabeled with {sup 14}C-labeled bases, {sup 32}P-labeled phospholipids or ({sup 14}C)palmitate. Treatment of ({sup 14}C)palmitate-prelabeled cells with TPA alone did not result in significant accumulation of PtdOH, due to rapid metabolism of this phospholipid. On the other hand, sphingosine inhibited the rapid metabolism of the PtdOH pool, formed through the action of phospholipase D, by inhibiting PtdCho synthesis. Since PtdOH is a potent mitogen in these cells, it is possible that these effects of sphingosine on PtdOH metabolism are related to its recently reported co-mitogenic effects.

  11. A reappraisal of the dog-heart infarct plasmalogen, its conception as a bis-phosphatidic acid and current recognition as an N-acyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Hack, M H; Helmy, F M

    1982-01-01

    1. We have re-examined the lipids from myocardial infarcts of cat, dog, rabbit and man, mainly through TLC methods, and confirm the identity of cat and dog "infarct plasmalogen" as an N-acyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine (NAPE). This substance was not detected in infarcts of rabbit and man. 2. We have extended our observations on a similar phosphatide, as the plasmalogen form, naturally occurring in the brain and optic nerve of fish. 3. Supporting evidence for the NAPE identity was provided from non-plasmalogen forms isolated from peas and lentils. 4. NAPE in all of its forms was shown to be a reluctant substrate for the phospholipase A2 of snake venoms. 5. Co-chromatography problems involving NAPE, semi-lyso cardiolipin and bis-phosphatidic acid are documented and their relationship to the infarct phenomenon discussed.

  12. In vivo metabolism of fumonisin B1 to N-acylated ceramide-like compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxins found in corn-based foods. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) metabolism to ceramide-like cytotoxic N-acylated FB1 (NAFB1) compounds has been shown in vitro, but in vivo metabolism has not been reported. Therefore, male Sprague-Dawley rats (2/group) were given 5 da...

  13. Synthesis, Surface Active Properties and Cytotoxicity of Sodium N-Acyl Prolines.

    PubMed

    Sreenu, Madhumanchi; Narayana Prasad, Rachapudi Badari; Sujitha, Pombala; Kumar, Chityal Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Sodium N-acyl prolines (NaNAPro) were synthesized using mixture of fatty acids obtained from coconut, palm, karanja, Sterculia foetida and high oleic sunflower oils via Schotten-Baumann reaction in 58-75% yields to study the synergetic effect of mixture of hydrophobic fatty acyl functionalities like saturation, unsaturation and cyclopropene fatty acids with different chain lengths and aliphatic hetero cyclic proline head group on their surface and cytotoxicity activities. The products were characterized by chromatographic and spectral techniques. The synthesized products were evaluated for their surface active properties such as surface tension, wetting power, foaming characteristics, emulsion stability, calcium tolerance, critical micelle concentration (CMC) and thermodynamic properties. The results revealed that all the products exhibited superior surface active properties like CMC, calcium tolerance and emulsion stability as compared to the standard surfactant, sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS). In addition, palm, Sterculia foetida and high oleic sunflower fatty N-acyl prolines exhibited promising cytotoxicity against different tumor cell lines.

  14. Extended hydrogen-bonded structures of phosphatidylethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Sen, A; Yang, P W; Mantsch, H H; Hui, S W

    1988-06-01

    The structure of phosphatidylethanolamine in pure dry hexane was studied. Viscosity measurements show that the hexane solution of PE has a very high viscosity, while freeze fracture electron microscopy revealed extensive fibre-like structures. These extended structures are disrupted by the addition of small amounts of water or organic solvents which are capable of hydrogen-bonding. The Fourier transform infrared spectra of the lipid solutions in dry and hydrated hexane show considerable differences in the phosphate and ethanolamine absorption bands, and demonstrate that the viscous fibre-like structures formed by phosphatidylethanolamine in dry hexane consist of extended intermolecular hydrogen-bonds, similar to those found in the solid lipid, with the ammonium group as the hydrogen-donor and the phosphate group as the hydrogen-acceptor. The high viscosity is not observed in hexane solution of phosphatidylcholine.

  15. Synthesis, Surface Active Properties and Cytotoxicity of Sodium N-Acyl Prolines.

    PubMed

    Sreenu, Madhumanchi; Narayana Prasad, Rachapudi Badari; Sujitha, Pombala; Kumar, Chityal Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Sodium N-acyl prolines (NaNAPro) were synthesized using mixture of fatty acids obtained from coconut, palm, karanja, Sterculia foetida and high oleic sunflower oils via Schotten-Baumann reaction in 58-75% yields to study the synergetic effect of mixture of hydrophobic fatty acyl functionalities like saturation, unsaturation and cyclopropene fatty acids with different chain lengths and aliphatic hetero cyclic proline head group on their surface and cytotoxicity activities. The products were characterized by chromatographic and spectral techniques. The synthesized products were evaluated for their surface active properties such as surface tension, wetting power, foaming characteristics, emulsion stability, calcium tolerance, critical micelle concentration (CMC) and thermodynamic properties. The results revealed that all the products exhibited superior surface active properties like CMC, calcium tolerance and emulsion stability as compared to the standard surfactant, sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS). In addition, palm, Sterculia foetida and high oleic sunflower fatty N-acyl prolines exhibited promising cytotoxicity against different tumor cell lines. PMID:26521810

  16. N-Acylation During Glidobactin Biosynthesis by the Tridomain Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Module GlbF

    PubMed Central

    Imker, Heidi J.; Krahn, Daniel; Clerc, Jérôme; Kaiser, Markus; Walsh, Christopher T.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Glidobactins are hybrid NRPS-PKS natural products that function as irreversible proteasome inhibitors. A variety of medium chain 2(E),4(E)-diene fatty acids N-acylate the peptidolactam core and contribute significantly to the potency of proteasome inhibition. We have expressed the initiation NRPS module GlbF (C-A-T) in Escherichia coli and observe soluble active protein only on co-expression with the 8 kDa MbtH-like protein, GlbE. Following adenylation and installation of Thr as a T-domain thioester, the starter condensation domain utilizes fatty acyl-CoA donors to acylate the Thr1 amino group and generate the fatty acyl-Thr1-S-pantetheinyl-GlbF intermediate to be used in subsequent chain elongation. Previously proposed to be mediated via acyl carrier protein fatty acid donors, direct utilization of fatty acyl-CoA donors for N-acylation of T-domain tethered amino acids is likely a common strategy for chain initiation in NRPS-mediated lipopeptide biosynthesis. PMID:21035730

  17. N-acylation during glidobactin biosynthesis by the tridomain nonribosomal peptide synthetase module GlbF.

    PubMed

    Imker, Heidi J; Krahn, Daniel; Clerc, Jérôme; Kaiser, Markus; Walsh, Christopher T

    2010-10-29

    Glidobactins are hybrid NRPS-PKS natural products that function as irreversible proteasome inhibitors. A variety of medium chain 2(E),4(E)-diene fatty acids N-acylate the peptidolactam core and contribute significantly to the potency of proteasome inhibition. We have expressed the initiation NRPS module GlbF (C-A-T) in Escherichia coli and observe soluble active protein only on coexpression with the 8 kDa MbtH-like protein, GlbE. Following adenylation and installation of Thr as a T-domain thioester, the starter condensation domain utilizes fatty acyl-CoA donors to acylate the Thr(1) amino group and generate the fatty acyl-Thr(1)-S-pantetheinyl-GlbF intermediate to be used in subsequent chain elongation. Previously proposed to be mediated via acyl carrier protein fatty acid donors, direct utilization of fatty acyl-CoA donors for N-acylation of T-domain tethered amino acids is likely a common strategy for chain initiation in NRPS-mediated lipopeptide biosynthesis.

  18. Ground-State Distortion in N-Acyl-tert-butyl-carbamates (Boc) and N-Acyl-tosylamides (Ts): Twisted Amides of Relevance to Amide N-C Cross-Coupling.

    PubMed

    Szostak, Roman; Shi, Shicheng; Meng, Guangrong; Lalancette, Roger; Szostak, Michal

    2016-09-01

    Amide N-C(O) bonds are generally unreactive in cross-coupling reactions employing low-valent transition metals due to nN → π*C═O resonance. Herein we demonstrate that N-acyl-tert-butyl-carbamates (Boc) and N-acyl-tosylamides (Ts), two classes of acyclic amides that have recently enabled the development of elusive amide bond N-C cross-coupling reactions with organometallic reagents, are intrinsically twisted around the N-C(O) axis. The data have important implications for the design of new amide cross-coupling reactions with the N-C(O) amide bond cleavage as a key step. PMID:27480938

  19. Comparing Cyclophellitol N-Alkyl and N-Acyl Cyclophellitol Aziridines as Activity-Based Glycosidase Probes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianbing; Beenakker, Thomas J M; Kallemeijn, Wouter W; van der Marel, Gijsbert A; van den Elst, Hans; Codée, Jeroen D C; Aerts, Johannes M F G; Overkleeft, Herman S

    2015-07-20

    The synthesis and evaluation as activity-based probes (ABPs) of three configurationally distinct, fluorescent N-alkyl cyclophellitol aziridine isosteres for profiling GH1 β-glucosidase (GBA), GH27 α-galactosidase (GLA) and GH29 α-fucosidase (FUCA) is described. In comparison with the corresponding acyl aziridine ABPs reported previously, the alkyl aziridine ABPs are synthesized easily and are more stable in mild acidic and basic media, and are thus easier to handle. The β-glucose-configured alkyl aziridine ABP proves equally effective in labeling GBA as its N-acyl counterpart, whereas the N-acyl aziridines targeting GLA and FUCA outperform their N-alkyl counterparts. Alkyl aziridines can therefore be an attractive alternative in retaining glycosidase ABP design, but in targeting a new retaining glycosidase both N-alkyl and N-acyl aziridines are best considered at the onset of a new study.

  20. Synthesis of isoprostanyl phosphatidylcholine and isoprostanyl phosphatidylethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Shizuka, Manami; Schrader, Thomas O; Snapper, Marc L

    2006-02-17

    The syntheses of two isoprostanyl phospholipids are described. A newly established route to 15-F(2t)-isoprostane and ent-15-epi-F(2t)-isoprostane has allowed for the selective preparation of 15-F(2t)-isoprostanyl phosphatidylethanolamine and ent-15-epi-F(2t)-isoprostanyl phosphatidylcholine. The nature of the headgroups dictates the coupling strategy used to attach the appropriately protected isoprostanes to the corresponding lysophospholipids. Preliminary 1H NMR and 31P NMR studies indicate that these isoprostanyl phospholipids aggregate in apolar solvents.

  1. ABCA4 is an N-retinylidene-phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylethanolamine importer.

    PubMed

    Quazi, Faraz; Lenevich, Stepan; Molday, Robert S

    2012-06-26

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters comprise a superfamily of proteins, which actively transport a variety of compounds across cell membranes. Mammalian and most eukaryotic ABC transporters function as exporters, flipping or extruding substrates from the cytoplasmic to the extracellular or lumen side of cell membranes. Prokaryotic ABC transporters function either as exporters or importers. Here we show that ABCA4, an ABC transporter found in retinal photoreceptor cells and associated with Stargardt macular degeneration, is a novel importer that actively flips N-retinylidene-phosphatidylethanolamine from the lumen to the cytoplasmic leaflet of disc membranes, thereby facilitating the removal of potentially toxic retinoid compounds from photoreceptors. ABCA4 also actively transports phosphatidylethanolamine in the same direction. Mutations known to cause Stargardt disease decrease N-retinylidene-phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylethanolamine transport activity of ABCA4. These studies provide the first direct evidence for a mammalian ABC transporter that functions as an importer and provide insight into mechanisms underlying substrate transport and the molecular basis of Stargardt disease.

  2. N-acyl-homoserine lactones-producing bacteria protect plants against plant and human pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Reyes, Casandra; Schenk, Sebastian T; Neumann, Christina; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schikora, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of beneficial microorganisms for plant protection has a long history. Many rhizobia bacteria are able to influence the immune system of host plants by inducing resistance towards pathogenic microorganisms. In this report, we present a translational approach in which we demonstrate the resistance-inducing effect of Ensifer meliloti (Sinorhizobium meliloti) on crop plants that have a significant impact on the worldwide economy and on human nutrition. Ensifer meliloti is usually associated with root nodulation in legumes and nitrogen fixation. Here, we suggest that the ability of S. meliloti to induce resistance depends on the production of the quorum-sensing molecule, oxo-C14-HSL. The capacity to enhanced resistance provides a possibility to the use these beneficial bacteria in agriculture. Using the Arabidopsis-Salmonella model, we also demonstrate that the application of N-acyl-homoserine lactones-producing bacteria could be a successful strategy to prevent plant-originated infections with human pathogens. PMID:25234390

  3. Biofilm activity and sludge characteristics affected by exogenous N-acyl homoserine lactones in biofilm reactors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huizhi; He, Junguo; Liu, Jian; Yu, Huarong; Zhang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    This study verified the effect of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) concentrations on mature biofilm systems. Three concentrations of an AHL mixture were used in the batch test. Introducing of 5nM AHLs significantly increased biofilm activity and increased sludge characteristics, which resulted in better pollutant removal performance, whereas exogenous 50nM and 500nM AHLs limited pollutant removal, especially COD and nitrogen removal. To further identify how exogenous signal molecular affects biofilm system nitrogen removal, analyzing of nitrifying bacteria through real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that these additional signal molecules affect nitrifying to total bacteria ratio. In addition, the running state of the system was stable during 15days of operation without an AHL dose, which suggests that the changes in the system due to AHL are irreversible. PMID:27030953

  4. Inhibiting N-acyl-homoserine lactone synthesis and quenching Pseudomonas quinolone quorum sensing to attenuate virulence

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Liu, Yi-Chia; Chang, Chien-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria sense their own population size, tune the expression of responding genes, and behave accordingly to environmental stimuli by secreting signaling molecules. This phenomenon is termed as quorum sensing (QS). By exogenously manipulating the signal transduction bacterial population behaviors could be controlled, which may be done through quorum quenching (QQ). QS related regulatory networks have been proven their involvement in regulating many virulence determinants in pathogenic bacteria in the course of infections. Interfering with QS signaling system could be a novel strategy against bacterial infections and therefore requires more understanding of their fundamental mechanisms. Here we review the development of studies specifically on the inhibition of production of N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL), a common proteobacterial QS signal. The opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, equips the alkylquinolone (AQ)-mediated QS which also plays crucial roles in its pathogenicity. The studies in QQ targeting on AQ are also discussed. PMID:26539190

  5. Pseudomonas cremoricolorata Strain ND07 Produces N-acyl Homoserine Lactones as Quorum Sensing Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Yunos, Nina Yusrina Muhamad; Tan, Wen-Si; Koh, Chong-Lek; Sam, Choon-Kook; Mohamad, Nur Izzati; Tan, Pui-Wan; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a bacterial cell-to-cell communication system controlling QS-mediated genes which is synchronized with the population density. The regulation of specific gene activity is dependent on the signaling molecules produced, namely N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). We report here the identification and characterization of AHLs produced by bacterial strain ND07 isolated from a Malaysian fresh water sample. Molecular identification showed that strain ND07 is clustered closely to Pseudomonas cremoricolorata. Spent culture supernatant extract of P. cremoricolorata strain ND07 activated the AHL biosensor Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. Using high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, it was confirmed that P. cremoricolorata strain ND07 produced N-octanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C8-HSL) and N-decanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation on the production of C10-HSL in P. cremoricolorata strain ND07. PMID:24984061

  6. Pantoea sp. isolated from tropical fresh water exhibiting N-acyl homoserine lactone production.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen-Si; Muhamad Yunos, Nina Yusrina; Tan, Pui-Wan; Mohamad, Nur Izzati; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    N-Acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) serves as signaling molecule for quorum sensing (QS) in Gram-negative bacteria to regulate various physiological activities including pathogenicity. With the aim of isolating freshwater-borne bacteria that can cause outbreak of disease in plants and portrayed QS properties, environmental water sampling was conducted. Here we report the preliminary screening of AHL production using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Escherichia coli [pSB401] as AHL biosensors. The 16S rDNA gene sequence of isolate M009 showed the highest sequence similarity to Pantoea stewartii S9-116, which is a plant pathogen. The isolated Pantoea sp. was confirmed to produce N-3-oxohexanoyl-L-HSL (3-oxo-C6-HSL) through analysis of high resolution mass tandem mass spectrometry.

  7. gfp-based N-acyl homoserine-lactone sensor systems for detection of bacterial communication.

    PubMed

    Andersen, J B; Heydorn, A; Hentzer, M; Eberl, L; Geisenberger, O; Christensen, B B; Molin, S; Givskov, M

    2001-02-01

    In order to perform single-cell analysis and online studies of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated communication among bacteria, components of the Vibrio fischeri quorum sensor encoded by luxR-P(luxI) have been fused to modified versions of gfpmut3* genes encoding unstable green fluorescent proteins. Bacterial strains harboring this green fluorescent sensor detected a broad spectrum of AHL molecules and were capable of sensing the presence of 5 nM N-3-oxohexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone in the surroundings. In combination with epifluorescent microscopy, the sensitivity of the sensor enabled AHL detection at the single-cell level and allowed for real-time measurements of fluctuations in AHL concentrations. This green fluorescent AHL sensor provides a state-of-the-art tool for studies of communication between the individuals present in mixed bacterial communities.

  8. Pantoea sp. Isolated from Tropical Fresh Water Exhibiting N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone Production

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wen-Si; Tan, Pui-Wan; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    N-Acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) serves as signaling molecule for quorum sensing (QS) in Gram-negative bacteria to regulate various physiological activities including pathogenicity. With the aim of isolating freshwater-borne bacteria that can cause outbreak of disease in plants and portrayed QS properties, environmental water sampling was conducted. Here we report the preliminary screening of AHL production using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Escherichia coli [pSB401] as AHL biosensors. The 16S rDNA gene sequence of isolate M009 showed the highest sequence similarity to Pantoea stewartii S9-116, which is a plant pathogen. The isolated Pantoea sp. was confirmed to produce N-3-oxohexanoyl-L-HSL (3-oxo-C6-HSL) through analysis of high resolution mass tandem mass spectrometry. PMID:25197715

  9. Triazole-containing N-acyl homoserine lactones targeting the quorum sensing system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mette R; Jakobsen, Tim H; Bang, Claus G; Cohrt, Anders Emil; Hansen, Casper L; Clausen, Janie W; Le Quement, Sebastian T; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael; Nielsen, Thomas E

    2015-04-01

    In an attempt to devise new antimicrobial treatments for biofilm infections, the bacterial cell-cell communication system termed quorum sensing has emerged as an attractive target. It has proven possible to intercept the communication system by synthetic non-native ligands and thereby lower the pathogenesis and antibiotic tolerance of a bacterial biofilm. To identify the structural elements important for antagonistic or agonistic activity against the Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasR protein, we report the synthesis and screening of new triazole-containing mimics of natural N-acyl homoserine lactones. A series of azide- and alkyne-containing homoserine lactone building blocks was used to prepare an expanded set of 123 homoserine lactone analogues through a combination of solution- and solid-phase synthesis methods. The resulting compounds were subjected to cell-based quorum sensing screening assays, thereby revealing several bioactive compounds, including 13 compounds with antagonistic activity and 9 compounds with agonistic activity.

  10. Inhibition of Lux quorum-sensing system by synthetic N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone analogous.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenzhao; Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa; Chen, Liang

    2008-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated the inhibition of the Lux quorum-sensing system by N-acyl cyclopentylamine (Cn-CPA). The Lux quorum-sensing system regulates luminescence gene expression in Vibrio fischeri. We have already reported on the synthesis of Cn-CPA and their abilities as inhibitors of the quorum-sensing systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens. In the case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Las and Rhl quorum-sensing system) and Serratia marcescens (Spn quorum-sensing system), specific Cn-CPA with a particular acyl chain length showed the strongest inhibitory effect. In the case of the Lux quorum-sensing system, it was found that several kinds of Cn-CPA with a range from C5 to C10 showed similar strong inhibitory effects. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of Cn-CPA on the Lux quorum-sensing system was stronger than that of halogenated furanone, a natural quorum-sensing inhibitor.

  11. In Vitro Assay to Measure Phosphatidylethanolamine Methyltransferase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zufferey, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferases are biosynthetic enzymes that catalyze the transfer of one or more methyl group(s) from S-adenosyl-L-methionine onto phosphatidylethanolamine, monomethyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, or dimethyl-phosphatidylethanolamine to give either monomethyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, dimethyl-phosphatidylethanolamine or phosphatidylcholine. These enzymes are ubiquitous in animal cells, fungi, and are also found in approximately 10% of bacteria. They fulfill various important functions in cell physiology beyond their direct role in lipid metabolism such as in insulin resistance, diabetes, atherosclerosis, cell growth, or virulence. The present manuscript reports on a simple cell-free enzymatic assay that measures the transfer of tritiated methyl group(s) from S-[Methyl-3H]adenosyl-L-methionine onto phosphatidylethanolamine using whole cell extracts as an enzyme source. The resulting methylated forms of phosphatidylethanolamine are hydrophobic and thus, can be separated from water soluble S-[Methyl-3H]adenosyl-L-methionine by organic extraction. This assay can potentially be applied to any other cell types and used to test inhibitors/drugs specific to a phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase of interest without the need to purify the enzyme. PMID:26780155

  12. Direct N-acylation of azoles via a metal-free catalyzed oxidative cross-coupling strategy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingjing; Li, Pan; Xia, Chungu; Li, Fuwei

    2014-05-11

    The KI-catalyzed N-acylation of azoles via direct oxidative coupling of C-H and N-H bonds has been developed. It could be smoothly scaled up to gram synthesis of acyl azoles. The reaction occurred by the coupling of acyl radicals and azoles to form the acyl azole radical anion, followed by its further oxidation.

  13. A General and Selective Rhodium-Catalyzed Reduction of Amides, N-Acyl Amino Esters, and Dipeptides Using Phenylsilane.

    PubMed

    Das, Shoubhik; Li, Yuehui; Lu, Liang-Qiu; Junge, Kathrin; Beller, Matthias

    2016-05-17

    This article describes a selective reduction of functionalized amides, including N-acyl amino esters and dipeptides, to the corresponding amines using simple [Rh(acac)(cod)]. The catalyst shows excellent chemoselectivity in the presence of different sensitive functional moieties. PMID:26991132

  14. Phospholipid composition and phospholipase A activity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed Central

    Senff, L M; Wegener, W S; Brooks, G F; Finnerty, W R; Makula, R A

    1976-01-01

    Exponential-phase cells of Neisseria gonorrhaeae 2686 were examined for phospholipid composition and for membrane-associated phospholipase A activity. When cells were harvested by centrifugation, washed, and lyophilized before extraction, approximately 74% of the total phospholipid was phosphatidylethanolamine, 18% was phosphatidylglycerol, 2% was cardiolipin, and 10% was lysophosphatidylethanolamine. However, when cells still suspended in growth medium were extracted, the amount of lysophosphatidylethanolamine decreased to approximately 1% of the phospholipid composition. This suggests that a gonococcal phospholipase A may be activated by conditions encountered during centrifugation and/or lyophilization of cells preceding extraction. Phospholipase A activity associated with cell membranes was assayed by measuring the conversion of tritiated phosphatidylethanolamine to lysophosphatidylethanolamine. Optimal activity was demonstrated in 10% methanol at pH 8.0 to 8.5, in the presence of calcium ions. The activity was both detergent sensitive and thermolabile. Comparisons of gonococcal colony types 1 and 4 showed no significant differences between the two types with respect to either phospholipid content or phospholipase A activity. Images PMID:821921

  15. Phospholipid composition and phospholipase A activity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Senff, L M; Wegener, W S; Brooks, G F; Finnerty, W R; Makula, R A

    1976-08-01

    Exponential-phase cells of Neisseria gonorrhaeae 2686 were examined for phospholipid composition and for membrane-associated phospholipase A activity. When cells were harvested by centrifugation, washed, and lyophilized before extraction, approximately 74% of the total phospholipid was phosphatidylethanolamine, 18% was phosphatidylglycerol, 2% was cardiolipin, and 10% was lysophosphatidylethanolamine. However, when cells still suspended in growth medium were extracted, the amount of lysophosphatidylethanolamine decreased to approximately 1% of the phospholipid composition. This suggests that a gonococcal phospholipase A may be activated by conditions encountered during centrifugation and/or lyophilization of cells preceding extraction. Phospholipase A activity associated with cell membranes was assayed by measuring the conversion of tritiated phosphatidylethanolamine to lysophosphatidylethanolamine. Optimal activity was demonstrated in 10% methanol at pH 8.0 to 8.5, in the presence of calcium ions. The activity was both detergent sensitive and thermolabile. Comparisons of gonococcal colony types 1 and 4 showed no significant differences between the two types with respect to either phospholipid content or phospholipase A activity.

  16. Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein 1 in vacular endothelial cell autophagy and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Li, HaiYing; Zhang, JinFeng; Lu, Wei; Zhao, Jing; Su, Le; Zhao, BaoXiang; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, ShangLi; Miao, JunYing

    2013-01-01

    We previously found that phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) was a key inducing element of atherosclerosis, and might negatively regulate human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) autophagy. To further investigate the mechanism of PC-PLC action, we initially identified phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein 1 (PEBP1) as a binding partner of PC-PLC by using mass spectrometry (MS, MALDI-TOF/TOF). We found that PEBP1 positively regulated PC-PLC activity in HUVECs, and inhibition of PC-PLC by its inhibitor D609 suppressed PEBP1 expression dramatically. Moreover, both PC-PLC and PEBP1 negatively regulated HUVEC autophagy independently of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Furthermore, the PEBP1 level was elevated during the development of atherosclerosis, while D609 significantly decreased the upregulated PEBP1 level in apoE−/− mice. PMID:23959677

  17. Accessibility of N-acyl-d-mannosamines to N-acetyl-d-neuraminic acid aldolase

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yanbin; Ayani, Tiffany; Nadas, Janos; Wen, Shouming; Guo, Zhongwu

    2011-01-01

    N-Acetyl-d-neuraminic acid (NeuNAc) aldolase is an important enzyme for the metabolic engineering of cell surface NeuNAc using chemically modified d-mannosamines. To explore the optimal substrates for this application, eight N-acyl derivatives of d-mannosamine were prepared, and their accessibility to NeuNAc aldolase was investigated quantitatively. The N-propionyl-, N-butanoyl-, N-iso-butanoyl-, N-pivaloyl- and N-phenylacetyl-d-mannosamines proved to be as good substrates as, or even better than, the natural N-acetyl-d-mannosamine, while the N-trifluoropropionyl and benzoyl derivatives were poor. It was proposed that the electronic effects might have a significant influence on the enzymatic aldol condensation reaction of d-mannosamine derivatives, with electron-deficient acyl groups having a negative impact. The results suggest that N-propionyl-, N-butanoyl-, N-iso-butanoyl- and N-phenylacetyl-d-mannosamines may be employed to bioengineer NeuNAc on cells. PMID:15280054

  18. Novel cinchona carbamate selectors with complementary enantioseparation characteristics for N-acylated amino acids.

    PubMed

    Krawinkler, Karl Heinz; Maier, Norbert M; Ungaro, Rocco; Sansone, Francesco; Casnati, Alessandro; Lindner, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis and chromatographic evaluation of the enantiomer separation capabilities of covalently immobilized calix[4]arene-cinchona carbamate hybrid type receptors derived from quinine (QN) and its corresponding C9-epimer (eQN) in different solvents are reported. The receptors display complementary enantiomer separation profiles in terms of elution order, chiral substrate specificity, and mobile phase characteristics, indicating the existence of two distinct chiral recognition mechanisms. The QN-derived receptor binds the (S)-enantiomers of N-acylated amino acids more strongly, shows preferential recognition of open-chained amino acids, and superior enantioselectivity in polar media such as methanol/acetic acid. In contrast, the eQN congener preferentially recognizes the corresponding (R)-enantiomers, displays good enantioselectivity (alpha up to 1.74) for cyclic amino acids, and enhanced stereodiscriminating properties in apolar mobile phases, e.g., chloroform/acetic acid. A comparison of the enantiomer separation profiles with those of the corresponding QN and eQN tert-butyl carbamate congeners indicates no significant level of cooperativity between the calix[4]arene module and the cinchona units in terms of overall chiral recognition, most probably as a consequence of residual conformational flexibility of the calixarene module and the carbamate linkage.

  19. N-acyl dopamine derivates as lead compound for implementation in transplantation medicine.

    PubMed

    Wedel, Johannes; Pallavi, Prama; Stamellou, Eleni; Yard, Benito A

    2015-07-01

    Conjugates of fatty acids with ethanolamine, amino acids or monoamine neurotransmitters occur widely in nature giving rise to so-called endocannabinoids. Anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol are the best characterized endocannabinoids activating both cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels (anandamide) or activating cannabinoid receptors only (2-arachidonoyl glycerol). TRPV1 is also activated by vanilloids, such as capsaicin, and endogenous neurolipins, e.g. N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) and N-oleoyl dopamine (OLDA). Because donor dopamine treatment has shown to improve transplantation outcome in renal and heart recipients, this review will mainly focus on the biological activities of N-acyl dopamine derivates (NADD) as potential non-hemodynamic alternative for implementation in transplantation medicine. Hence the influence of NADD on transplantation relevant entities, i.e. cold inflicted injury, cytoprotection, I/R-injury, immune-modulation and inflammation will be summarized. The cytoprotective properties of endogenous endocannabinoids in this context will be briefly touched upon.

  20. Construction of a dual fluorescence whole-cell biosensor to detect N-acyl homoserine lactones.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xuemei; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Ma, Anzhou; Yu, Qing; Zhuang, Xuliang

    2014-02-01

    Detection of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) is useful for understanding quorum sensing (QS) behaviors, including biofilm formation, virulence and metabolism. For detecting AHLs and indicating the host cells in situ, we constructed the plasmid pUCGMA2T(1-4) to make a dual fluorescent whole-cell biosensor based on the AhlIR AHL system of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a. The plasmid contains three components: constitutively expressed P(npatII::gfp) for indicating host cells, P(ahlI::mcherry) that produces red fluorescence in response to AHL, and the ahlR gene that encodes an AHL regulatory protein. Meanwhile, two copies of T(1-4) (four tandem copies of a transcriptional terminator) were added into the plasmid to reduce background. The results showed that when the plasmid was placed into Escherichia coli, the dual fluorescence whole-cell biosensor was able to respond with red fluorescence within 6 hr to 5 x 10(-8)-1 x 10(-5) mol/L of 3OC6-HSL. Bright green fluorescence indicated the host cells. Furthermore, when the plasmid was transferred to wildtype Pseudomonas PhTA125 (an AHL-producing bacterium), it also showed both green and red fluorescence. This result demonstrates that this plasmid can be used to construct whole-cell indicators that can indicate the AHL response and spatial behaviors of microbes in a microenvironmental niche.

  1. Action of N-acylated ambroxol derivatives on secretion of chloride ions in human airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takahiro; Takemura, Yoshizumi; Niisato, Naomi; Mitsuyama, Etsuko; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2009-03-13

    We report the effects of new N-acylated ambroxol derivatives (TEI-588a, TEI-588b, TEI-589a, TEI-589b, TEI-602a and TEI-602b: a, aromatic amine-acylated derivative; b, aliphatic amine-acylated derivative) induced from ambroxol (a mucolytic agent to treat human lung diseases) on Cl(-) secretion in human submucosal serous Calu-3 cells under a Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter-1 (NKCC1)-mediated hyper-secreting condition. TEI-589a, TEI-589b and TEI-602a diminished hyper-secretion of Cl(-) by diminishing the activity of NKCC1 without blockade of apical Cl(-) channel (TEI-589a>TEI-602a>TEI-589b), while any other tested compounds including ambroxol had no effects on Cl(-) secretion. These indicate that the inhibitory action of an aromatic amine-acylated derivative on Cl(-) secretion is stronger that that of an aliphatic amine-acylated derivative, and that 3-(2,5-dimethyl)furoyl group has a strong action in inhibition of Cl(-) secretion than cyclopropanoyl group. We here indicate that TEI-589a, TEI-589b and TEI-602a reduce hyper-secretion to an appropriate level in the airway, providing a possibility that the compound can be an effective drug in airway obstructive diseases including COPD by reducing the airway resistance under a hyper-secreting condition.

  2. Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacterium Nitrobacter winogradskyi Produces N-Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Autoinducers

    PubMed Central

    Bottomley, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrobacter winogradskyi is a chemolithotrophic bacterium that plays a role in the nitrogen cycle by oxidizing nitrite to nitrate. Here, we demonstrate a functional N-acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) synthase in this bacterium. The N. winogradskyi genome contains genes encoding a putative acyl-HSL autoinducer synthase (nwi0626, nwiI) and a putative acyl-HSL autoinducer receptor (nwi0627, nwiR) with amino acid sequences 38 to 78% identical to those in Rhodopseudomonas palustris and other Rhizobiales. Expression of nwiI and nwiR correlated with acyl-HSL production during culture. N. winogradskyi produces two distinct acyl-HSLs, N-decanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL) and a monounsaturated acyl-HSL (C10:1-HSL), in a cell-density- and growth phase-dependent manner, during batch and chemostat culture. The acyl-HSLs were detected by bioassay and identified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography with information-dependent acquisition mass spectrometry (UPLC-IDA-MS). The C=C bond in C10:1-HSL was confirmed by conversion into bromohydrin and detection by UPLC-IDA-MS. PMID:26092466

  3. Production of N-acyl Homoserine Lactones and Virulence Factors of Waterborne Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Chu, Weihua; Liu, Yongwang; Jiang, Yan; Zhu, Wei; Zhuang, Xiyi

    2013-09-01

    Aeromonads are inhabitants of aquatic ecosystems and are described as being involved in intestinal disturbances and other infections. The purpose of this study was to investigate the production of N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signal molecules and some virulence factors, including hemolysins, proteases, extracellular nucleases production and cytotoxicity by waterborne Aeromonas hydrophila. A total of 24 strains isolated from fresh-water or diseased fish were used in the study. The majority A.hydrophila strains produce two AHL molecules (21/24), one is N-butanoyl homoserine lactone (BHL), and the other is N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone (HHL) according to thin-layer chromatography analysis. Among the virulence factors tested, more than 83 % of the isolates produced β haemolysin when inoculated on sheep blood agar, only 50 % of the isolates displayed DNase activity, 75 % of the isolates shown proteolytic activity on skimmed milk plate, and cytotoxic activity was detected in 20 of 24 of the isolates. The strains producing AHLs possessed one or more virulence factors. In conclusion, the production of quorum sensing signal molecules is common among the strains that we examined, and there seems to some relationships between quorum sensing signal production and virulence factors in A. hydrophila.

  4. Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacterium Nitrobacter winogradskyi Produces N-Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Autoinducers.

    PubMed

    Mellbye, Brett L; Bottomley, Peter J; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A

    2015-09-01

    Nitrobacter winogradskyi is a chemolithotrophic bacterium that plays a role in the nitrogen cycle by oxidizing nitrite to nitrate. Here, we demonstrate a functional N-acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) synthase in this bacterium. The N. winogradskyi genome contains genes encoding a putative acyl-HSL autoinducer synthase (nwi0626, nwiI) and a putative acyl-HSL autoinducer receptor (nwi0627, nwiR) with amino acid sequences 38 to 78% identical to those in Rhodopseudomonas palustris and other Rhizobiales. Expression of nwiI and nwiR correlated with acyl-HSL production during culture. N. winogradskyi produces two distinct acyl-HSLs, N-decanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL) and a monounsaturated acyl-HSL (C10:1-HSL), in a cell-density- and growth phase-dependent manner, during batch and chemostat culture. The acyl-HSLs were detected by bioassay and identified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography with information-dependent acquisition mass spectrometry (UPLC-IDA-MS). The C=C bond in C10:1-HSL was confirmed by conversion into bromohydrin and detection by UPLC-IDA-MS.

  5. Toxicological safety assessment of genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis with additional N-acyl homoserine lactonase gene.

    PubMed

    Peng, Donghai; Zhou, Chenfei; Chen, Shouwen; Ruan, Lifang; Yu, Ziniu; Sun, Ming

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the toxicology safety to mammals of a genetically modified (GM) Bacillus thuringiensis with an additional N-acyl homoserine lactones gene (aiiA), which possesses insecticidal activity together with restraint of bacterial pathogenicity and is intended for use as a multifunctional biopesticide. Safety assessments included an acute oral toxicity test and 28-d animal feeding study in Wistar rats, primary eye and dermal irritation in Zealand White rabbits, and delayed contact hypersensitivity in guinea pigs. Tests were conducted using spray-dried powder preparation. This GM product showed toxicity neither in oral acute toxicity test nor in 28-d animal feeding test at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight. During the animal feeding test, there were no significant differences in growth, food and water consumption, hematology, blood biochemical indices, organ weights, and histopathology finding between rats in controls and tested groups. Tested animals in primary eye and dermal irritation and delayed contact hypersensitivity test were also devoid of any toxicity compared to controls. All the above results demonstrated that the GM based multifunctional B. thuringiensis has low toxicity and low eye and dermal irritation and would not cause hypersensitivity to laboratory mammals and therefore could be regarded as safe for use as a pesticide.

  6. Bacterial phospholipases C.

    PubMed Central

    Titball, R W

    1993-01-01

    A variety of pathogenic bacteria produce phospholipases C, and since the discovery in 1944 that a bacterial toxin (Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin) possessed an enzymatic activity, there has been considerable interest in this class of proteins. Initial speculation that all phospholipases C would have lethal properties has not been substantiated. Most of the characterized enzymes fall into one of four groups of structurally related proteins: the zinc-metallophospholipases C, the sphingomyelinases, the phosphatidylinositol-hydrolyzing enzymes, and the pseudomonad phospholipases C. The zinc-metallophospholipases C have been most intensively studied, and lethal toxins within this group possess an additional domain. The toxic phospholipases C can interact with eukaryotic cell membranes and hydrolyze phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin, leading to cell lysis. However, measurement of the cytolytic potential or lethality of phospholipases C may not accurately indicate their roles in the pathogenesis of disease. Subcytolytic concentrations of phospholipase C can perturb host cells by activating the arachidonic acid cascade or protein kinase C. Nonlethal phospholipases C, such as the Listeria monocytogenes PLC-A, appear to enhance the release of the organism from the host cell phagosome. Since some phospholipases C play important roles in the pathogenesis of disease, they could form components of vaccines. A greater understanding of the modes of action and structure-function relationships of phospholipases C will facilitate the interpretation of studies in which these enzymes are used as membrane probes and will enhance the use of these proteins as models for eukaryotic phospholipases C. PMID:8336671

  7. MomL, a novel marine-derived N-acyl homoserine lactonase from Muricauda olearia.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kaihao; Su, Ying; Brackman, Gilles; Cui, Fangyuan; Zhang, Yunhui; Shi, Xiaochong; Coenye, Tom; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria use N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) as quorum sensing (QS) signaling molecules for interspecies communication, and AHL-dependent QS is related with virulence factor production in many bacterial pathogens. Quorum quenching, the enzymatic degradation of the signaling molecule, would attenuate virulence rather than kill the pathogens, and thereby reduce the potential for evolution of drug resistance. In a previous study, we showed that Muricauda olearia Th120, belonging to the class Flavobacteriia, has strong AHL degradative activity. In this study, an AHL lactonase (designated MomL), which could degrade both short- and long-chain AHLs with or without a substitution of oxo-group at the C-3 position, was identified from Th120. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that MomL functions as an AHL lactonase catalyzing AHL degradation through lactone hydrolysis. MomL is an AHL lactonase belonging to the metallo-β-lactamase superfamily that harbors an N-terminal signal peptide. The overall catalytic efficiency of MomL for C6-HSL is ∼2.9 × 10(5) s(-1) M(-1). Metal analysis and site-directed mutagenesis showed that, compared to AiiA, MomL has a different metal-binding capability and requires the histidine and aspartic acid residues for activity, while it shares the "HXHXDH" motif with other AHL lactonases belonging to the metallo-β-lactamase superfamily. This suggests that MomL is a representative of a novel type of secretory AHL lactonase. Furthermore, MomL significantly attenuated the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model, which suggests that MomL has the potential to be used as a therapeutic agent.

  8. Chemically modified N-acylated hyaluronan fragments modulate proinflammatory cytokine production by stimulated human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Babasola, Oladunni; Rees-Milton, Karen J; Bebe, Siziwe; Wang, Jiaxi; Anastassiades, Tassos P

    2014-09-01

    Low molecular mass hyaluronans are known to induce inflammation. To determine the role of the acetyl groups of low molecular mass hyaluronan in stimulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines, partial N-deacetylation was carried out by hydrazinolysis. This resulted in 19.7 ± 3.5% free NH2 functional groups, which were then acylated by reacting with an acyl anhydride, including acetic anhydride. Hydrazinolysis resulted in bond cleavage of the hyaluronan chain causing a reduction of the molecular mass to 30-214 kDa. The total NH2 and N-acetyl moieties in the reacetylated hyaluronan were 0% and 98.7 ± 1.5% respectively, whereas for butyrylated hyaluronan, the total NH2, N-acetyl, and N-butyryl moieties were 0, 82.2 ± 4.6, and 22.7 ± 3.8%, respectively, based on (1)H NMR. We studied the effect of these polymers on cytokine production by cultured human macrophages (THP-1 cells). The reacetylated hyaluronan stimulated proinflammatory cytokine production to levels similar to LPS, whereas partially deacetylated hyaluronan had no stimulatory effect, indicating the critical role of the N-acetyl groups in the stimulation of proinflammatory cytokine production. Butyrylated hyaluronan significantly reduced the stimulatory effect on cytokine production by the reacetylated hyaluronan or LPS but had no stimulatory effect of its own. The other partially N-acylated hyaluronan derivatives tested showed smaller stimulatory effects than reacetylated hyaluronan. Antibody and antagonist experiments suggest that the acetylated and partially butyrylated lower molecular mass hyaluronans exert their effects through the TLR-4 receptor system. Selectively N-butyrylated lower molecular mass hyaluronan shows promise as an example of a novel semisynthetic anti-inflammatory molecule.

  9. Chemically Modified N-Acylated Hyaluronan Fragments Modulate Proinflammatory Cytokine Production by Stimulated Human Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Babasola, Oladunni; Rees-Milton, Karen J.; Bebe, Siziwe; Wang, Jiaxi; Anastassiades, Tassos P.

    2014-01-01

    Low molecular mass hyaluronans are known to induce inflammation. To determine the role of the acetyl groups of low molecular mass hyaluronan in stimulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines, partial N-deacetylation was carried out by hydrazinolysis. This resulted in 19.7 ± 3.5% free NH2 functional groups, which were then acylated by reacting with an acyl anhydride, including acetic anhydride. Hydrazinolysis resulted in bond cleavage of the hyaluronan chain causing a reduction of the molecular mass to 30–214 kDa. The total NH2 and N-acetyl moieties in the reacetylated hyaluronan were 0% and 98.7 ± 1.5% respectively, whereas for butyrylated hyaluronan, the total NH2, N-acetyl, and N-butyryl moieties were 0, 82.2 ± 4.6, and 22.7 ± 3.8%, respectively, based on 1H NMR. We studied the effect of these polymers on cytokine production by cultured human macrophages (THP-1 cells). The reacetylated hyaluronan stimulated proinflammatory cytokine production to levels similar to LPS, whereas partially deacetylated hyaluronan had no stimulatory effect, indicating the critical role of the N-acetyl groups in the stimulation of proinflammatory cytokine production. Butyrylated hyaluronan significantly reduced the stimulatory effect on cytokine production by the reacetylated hyaluronan or LPS but had no stimulatory effect of its own. The other partially N-acylated hyaluronan derivatives tested showed smaller stimulatory effects than reacetylated hyaluronan. Antibody and antagonist experiments suggest that the acetylated and partially butyrylated lower molecular mass hyaluronans exert their effects through the TLR-4 receptor system. Selectively N-butyrylated lower molecular mass hyaluronan shows promise as an example of a novel semisynthetic anti-inflammatory molecule. PMID:25053413

  10. Small-molecule inhibitor binding to an N-acyl-homoserine lactone synthase.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jiwoung; Goo, Eunhye; Yu, Sangheon; Choi, Okhee; Lee, Jeehyun; Kim, Jinwoo; Kim, Hongsup; Igarashi, Jun; Suga, Hiroaki; Moon, Jae Sun; Hwang, Ingyu; Rhee, Sangkee

    2011-07-19

    Quorum sensing (QS) controls certain behaviors of bacteria in response to population density. In gram-negative bacteria, QS is often mediated by N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs). Because QS influences the virulence of many pathogenic bacteria, synthetic inhibitors of acyl-HSL synthases might be useful therapeutically for controlling pathogens. However, rational design of a potent QS antagonist has been thwarted by the lack of information concerning the binding interactions between acyl-HSL synthases and their ligands. In the gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia glumae, QS controls virulence, motility, and protein secretion and is mediated by the binding of N-octanoyl-L-HSL (C8-HSL) to its cognate receptor, TofR. C8-HSL is synthesized by the acyl-HSL synthase TofI. In this study, we characterized two previously unknown QS inhibitors identified in a focused library of acyl-HSL analogs. Our functional and X-ray crystal structure analyses show that the first inhibitor, J8-C8, binds to TofI, occupying the binding site for the acyl chain of the TofI cognate substrate, acylated acyl-carrier protein. Moreover, the reaction byproduct, 5'-methylthioadenosine, independently binds to the binding site for a second substrate, S-adenosyl-L-methionine. Closer inspection of the mode of J8-C8 binding to TofI provides a likely molecular basis for the various substrate specificities of acyl-HSL synthases. The second inhibitor, E9C-3oxoC6, competitively inhibits C8-HSL binding to TofR. Our analysis of the binding of an inhibitor and a reaction byproduct to an acyl-HSL synthase may facilitate the design of a new class of QS-inhibiting therapeutic agents.

  11. Inhibition of phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis by glucagon in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Tijburg, L B; Houweling, M; Geelen, M J; Van Golde, L M

    1989-01-01

    Exposure of isolated rat hepatocytes to glucagon or chlorophenylthio cyclic AMP led to an inhibition of the incorporation of [1,2-14C]ethanolamine into phosphatidylethanolamine. Pulse-chase experiments and measurement of the activities of the enzymes involved in the CDP-ethanolamine pathway provided evidence that the inhibitory effect of glucagon on the synthesis de novo of phosphatidylethanolamine was not caused by a diminished conversion of ethanolamine phosphate into CDP-ethanolamine. The observations suggested that the glucagon-induced inhibition of the biosynthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine is probably due to a decreased supply of diacylglycerols, resulting in a decreased formation of phosphatidylethanolamine from CDP-ethanolamine and diacylglycerols. PMID:2539092

  12. Efficient and chemoselective N-acylation of 10-amino-7-ethyl camptothecin with poly(ethylene glycol).

    PubMed

    Guiotto, Andrea; Canevari, Mirta; Orsolini, Piero; Lavanchy, Olivier; Deuschel, Christine; Kaneda, Norimasa; Kurita, Akinobu; Matsuzaki, Takeshi; Yaegashi, Takeshi; Sawada, Seigo; Veronese, Francesco M

    2004-04-01

    A new poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) conjugate of 10-amino-7-ethyl camptothecin, a potent antitumor analogue of camptothecin, has been synthesized and preliminary in vivo tests have been performed. Successful chemoselective N-acylation of 10-amino-7-ethyl camptothecin was accomplished using phenyl dichlorophosphate, a coupling reagent used in esterification of alcohols, while other coupling methods failed, due to the low nucleophilicity of the amino group in position 10. The conjugate was tested against P388 murine leukemia cell lines and resulted equipotent to CPT-11, a camptothecin analogue already in clinical use.

  13. Base-promoted C→N acyl rearrangement: an unconventional approach to α-amino acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ugarriza, Iratxe; Uria, Uxue; Carrillo, Luisa; Vicario, Jose L; Reyes, Efraim

    2014-09-01

    We have discovered that N-alkyl aminomalonates undergo a fast and selective intramolecular C→N acyl rearrangement reaction in the presence of a strong base, leading to N-protected glycinates in excellent yield. Moreover, the fact that the reaction proceeds through a nucleophilic enolate intermediate has been used for implementing a tandem rearrangement/alkylation sequence that has been applied to the preparation of synthetically relevant nonproteinogenic tertiary and quaternary N-alkyl α-amino acids in a very simple and reliable way.

  14. Lipid substrate specificity of phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase of Tetrahymena

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.D.

    1986-05-01

    The ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila forms about 60% of its phosphatidylcholine by methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine with S-adenosylmethionine using the enzyme phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. Analogues of ethanolamine or of ethanolamine phosphate are incorporated into the phospholipids of Tetrahymena when cells are cultured in their presence. These compounds, 3-amino-1-propanol, 2-aminoethylphosphonate, 3-aminopropylphosphonate and N,N-dimethylaminoethylphosphonate replace from 50 to 75% of the ethanolamine phosphate in phosphatidylethanolamine. However, analysis of the phospholipids of lipid-altered Tetrahymena showed that none of the phosphatidylethanolamine analogues had been converted to the corresponding phosphatidylcholine analogue. No incorration of (/sup 14/C-CH/sub 3/)methionine into the phosphatidylcholine analogues could be demonstrated in vivo, nor was label from (/sup 3/H-CH/sub 3/)S-adenosylmethionine incorporated in virto. Thus, only phosphatidylethanolamine and its monomethyl and dimethyl derivatives have been found to be substrates for the phosphatidylethanoiamine N-methyltransferase. The enzyme therefore requires a phospholipid substrate containing an ester linkage between the alkylamine and phosphorus, with the amino group required to be ..beta.. to the alcohol.

  15. Suppressing Erwinia carotovora pathogenicity by projecting N-acyl homoserine lactonase onto the surface of Pseudomonas putida cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Qianqian; Ni, Hong; Meng, Shan; He, Yan; Yu, Ziniu; Li, Lin

    2011-12-01

    N-Acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) serve as the vital quorum-sensing signals that regulate the virulence of the pathogenic bacterium Erwinia carotovora. In the present study, an approach to efficiently restrain the pathogenicity of E. carotovora-induced soft rot disease is described. Bacillus thuringiensis-derived N-acyl homoserine lactonase (AiiA) was projected onto the surface of Pseudomonas putida cells, and inoculation with both strains was challenged. The previously identified N-terminal moiety of the ice nucleation protein, InaQ-N, was applied as the anchoring motif. A surface display cassette with inaQ-N/ aiiA was constructed and expressed under the control of a constitutive promoter in P. putida AB92019. Surface localization of the fusion protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence microscopy. The antagonistic activity of P. putida MB116 expressing InaQ-N/AiiA toward E. carotovora ATCC25270 was evaluated by challenge inoculation in potato slices at different ratios. The results revealed a remarkable suppressing effect on E. carotovora infection. The active component was further analyzed using different cell fractions, and the cell surface-projected fusion protein was found to correspond to the suppressing effect. PMID:22210621

  16. Asymmetric Synthesis of a CBI-Based Cyclic N-Acyl O-Amino Phenol Duocarmycin Prodrug

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A short, asymmetric synthesis of a cyclic N-acyl O-amino phenol duocarmycin prodrug subject to reductive activation based on the simplified 1,2,9,9a-tetrahydrocyclopropa[c]benz[e]indol-4-one (CBI) DNA alkylation subunit is described. A key element of the approach entailed treatment of iodo-epoxide 7, prepared by N-alkylation of 6 with (S)-glycidal 3-nosylate, with EtMgBr at room temperature to directly provide the optically pure alcohol 8 in 78% yield (99% ee) derived from an effective metal–halogen exchange and subsequent regioselective intramolecular 6-endo-tet cyclization. Following O-debenzylation, introduction of a protected N-methylhydroxamic acid, direct trannannular spirocyclization, and subsequent stereoelectronically controlled acid-catalyzed cleavage of the resulting cyclopropane (HCl), further improvements in a unique intramolecular cyclization with N–O bond formation originally introduced for formation of the reductively labile prodrug functionality are detailed. PMID:25247380

  17. On the cytotoxic activity of Pd(II) complexes of N,N-disubstituted-N'-acyl thioureas.

    PubMed

    Plutín, Ana M; Mocelo, Raúl; Alvarez, Anislay; Ramos, Raúl; Castellano, Eduardo E; Cominetti, Marcia R; Graminha, Angelica E; Ferreira, Antonio G; Batista, Alzir A

    2014-05-01

    The rational design of anticancer drugs is one of the most promising strategies for increasing their cytotoxicity and for minimizing their toxicity. Manipulation of the structure of ligands or of complexes represents a strategy for which is possible to modify the potential mechanism of their action against the cancer cells. Here we present the cytotoxicity of some new palladium complexes and our intention is to show the importance of non-coordinated atoms of the ligands in the cytotoxicity of the complexes. New complexes of palladium (II), with general formulae [Pd(PPh3)2(L)]PF6 or [PdCl(PPh3)(L)], where L=N,N-disubstituted-N'-acyl thioureas, were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, melting points, IR, NMR((1)H, (13)C and (31)P{(1)H}) spectroscopy. The spectroscopic data are consistent with the complexes containing an O, S chelated ligand. The structures of complexes with N,N-dimethyl-N'-benzoylthiourea, N,N-diphenyl-N'-benzoylthiourea, N,N-diethyl-N'-furoylthiourea, and N,N-diphenyl-N'-furoylthiourea were determined by X-ray crystallography, confirming the coordination of the ligands with the metal through sulfur and oxygen atoms, forming distorted square-planar structures. The N,N-disubstituted-N'-acyl thioureas and their complexes were screened with respect to their antitumor cytotoxicity against DU-145 (human prostate cancer cells), MDA-MB-231 (human breast cancer cells) and their toxicity against the L929 cell line (health cell line from mouse). PMID:24561278

  18. N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone quorum sensing controls butanediol fermentation in Serratia plymuthica RVH1 and Serratia marcescens MG1.

    PubMed

    Van Houdt, Rob; Moons, Pieter; Hueso Buj, Maria; Michiels, Chris W

    2006-06-01

    Butanediol fermentation in two Serratia species is shown to be affected by N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone-dependent quorum sensing. Knockout of quorum-sensing signal production caused a shift towards enhanced acid production, resulting in early growth arrest, which was reversible by the addition of synthetic signal molecules.

  19. Hypoximimetic activity of N-acyl-dopamines. N-arachidonoyl-dopamine stabilizes HIF-1α protein through a SIAH2-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Soler-Torronteras, Rafael; Lara-Chica, Maribel; García, Victor; Calzado, Marco A; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2014-11-01

    The N-acyl conjugates of amino acids and neurotransmitters (NAANs) are a class of endogenous lipid messengers that are expressed in the mammalian central and peripheral nervous system. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a transcription factor that plays a key role in the cellular adaptation to hypoxia and ischemia, and hypoxic preconditioning through HIF-1α has been shown to be neuroprotective in ischemic models. This study showed that N-acyl-dopamines induce HIF-1α stabilization on human primary astrocytes and neurons as well as in transformed cell lines. N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA)-induced HIF-1α stabilization depends on the dopamine moiety of the molecule and is independent of cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1) and transient receptor potential vanilloid type I (TRPV1) activation. NADA increases the activity of the E3 ubiquitin ligase seven in absentia homolog-2 (SIAH2), inhibits prolyl-hydroxylase-3 (PHD3) and stabilizes HIF-1α. NADA enhances angiogenesis in endothelial vascular cells and promotes the expression of genes such as erythropoietin (EPO), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX-1), hexokinase 2 (HK2) and Bcl-2/E1B-nineteen kiloDalton interacting protein (BNIP3) in primary astrocytes. These findings indicate a link between N-acyl-dopamines and hypoxic preconditioning and suggest that modulation of the N-acyl-dopamine metabolism might prove useful for prevention against hypoxic diseases. PMID:25090972

  20. Hypoximimetic activity of N-acyl-dopamines. N-arachidonoyl-dopamine stabilizes HIF-1α protein through a SIAH2-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Soler-Torronteras, Rafael; Lara-Chica, Maribel; García, Victor; Calzado, Marco A; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2014-11-01

    The N-acyl conjugates of amino acids and neurotransmitters (NAANs) are a class of endogenous lipid messengers that are expressed in the mammalian central and peripheral nervous system. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a transcription factor that plays a key role in the cellular adaptation to hypoxia and ischemia, and hypoxic preconditioning through HIF-1α has been shown to be neuroprotective in ischemic models. This study showed that N-acyl-dopamines induce HIF-1α stabilization on human primary astrocytes and neurons as well as in transformed cell lines. N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA)-induced HIF-1α stabilization depends on the dopamine moiety of the molecule and is independent of cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1) and transient receptor potential vanilloid type I (TRPV1) activation. NADA increases the activity of the E3 ubiquitin ligase seven in absentia homolog-2 (SIAH2), inhibits prolyl-hydroxylase-3 (PHD3) and stabilizes HIF-1α. NADA enhances angiogenesis in endothelial vascular cells and promotes the expression of genes such as erythropoietin (EPO), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX-1), hexokinase 2 (HK2) and Bcl-2/E1B-nineteen kiloDalton interacting protein (BNIP3) in primary astrocytes. These findings indicate a link between N-acyl-dopamines and hypoxic preconditioning and suggest that modulation of the N-acyl-dopamine metabolism might prove useful for prevention against hypoxic diseases.

  1. Phospholipase D activation mediates cobalamin-induced downregulation of Multidrug Resistance-1 gene and increase in sensitivity to vinblastine in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Marguerite, Véronique; Gkikopoulou, Effrosyni; Alberto, Jean-Marc; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Merten, Marc

    2013-02-01

    Failure of cancer chemotherapy due to multidrug resistance is often associated with altered Multidrug Resistance-1 gene expression. Cobalamin is the cofactor of methionine synthase, a key enzyme of the methionine cycle which synthesizes methionine, the precursor of cell S-adenosyl-methionine synthesis. We previously showed that cobalamin was able to down-regulate Multidrug Resistance-1 gene expression. Herein we report that this effect occurs through cobalamin-activation of phospholipase D activity in HepG2 cells. Cobalamin-induced down-regulation of Multidrug Resistance-1 gene expression was similar to that induced by the phospholipase D activator oleic acid and was negatively modulated by the phospholipase D inhibitor n-butanol. Cobalamin increased cell S-adenosyl-methionine content, which is the substrate for phosphatidylethanolamine-methyltransferase-dependent phosphatidylcholine production. We showed that cobalamin-induced increase in cell phosphatidylcholine production was phosphatidylethanolamine-methyltransferase-dependent. Oleic acid-dependent activation of phospholipase D was accompanied by an increased sensitivity to vinblastine of HepG2 cells while n-butanol enhanced the resistance of the cells to vinblastine. These data indicate that cobalamin mediates down-regulation of Multidrug Resistance-1 gene expression through increased S-adenosyl-methionine and phosphatidylcholine productions and phospholipase D activation. This points out phospholipase D as a potential target to down-regulate Multidrug Resistance-1 gene expression for improving chemotherapy efficacy.

  2. Identification of N-acyl homoserine lactones produced by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 cultured in complex and synthetic media.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Peñalver, Carlos G; Bertini, Elisa V; de Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2012-07-01

    The endophytic diazotrophic Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 was originally isolated from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum). The biological nitrogen fixation, phytohormones secretion, solubilization of mineral nutrients and phytopathogen antagonism allow its classification as a plant growth-promoting bacterium. The recent genomic sequence of PAL5 unveiled the presence of a quorum sensing (QS) system. QS are regulatory mechanisms that, through the production of signal molecules or autoinducers, permit a microbial population the regulation of the physiology in a coordinated manner. The most studied autoinducers in gram-negative bacteria are the N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). The usage of biosensor strains evidenced the presence of AHL-like molecules in cultures of G. diazotrophicus PAL5 grown in complex and synthetic media. Analysis of AHLs performed by LC-APCI-MS permitted the identification of eight different signal molecules, including C6-, C8-, C10-, C12- and C14-HSL. Mass spectra confirmed that this diazotrophic strain also synthesizes autoinducers with carbonyl substitutions in the acyl chain. No differences in the profile of AHLs could be determined under both culture conditions. However, although the level of short-chain AHLs was not affected, a decrease of 30% in the production of long-chain AHLs could be measured in synthetic medium. PMID:22350020

  3. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Triazole-Containing N-Acyl Homoserine Lactones as Quorum Sensing Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Stacy, Danielle M.; Le Quement, Sebastian T.; Hansen, Casper L.; Clausen, Janie W.; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Brummond, Jacob W.; Givskov, Michael; Nielsen, Thomas E.; Blackwell, Helen E.

    2013-01-01

    Many bacterial species are capable of assessing their local population densities through a cell-cell signaling mechanism termed quorum sensing (QS). This intercellular communication process is mediated by small molecule or peptide ligands and their cognate protein receptors. Numerous pathogens use QS to initiate virulence once they achieve a threshold cell number on a host. Consequently, approaches to intercept QS have attracted considerable attention as potential anti-infective therapies. Our interest in the development of small molecule tools to modulate QS pathways motivated us to evaluate triazole-containing analogs of natural N-acyl L-homoserine lactone (AHL) signals as non-native QS agonists and antagonists in Gram-negative bacteria. We synthesized 72 triazole derivatives of five broad structure types in high yields and purities using efficient Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne couplings. These compounds were evaluated for their ability to activate or inhibit two QS receptors from two prevalent pathogens – LasR from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and AbaR from Acinetobacter baumannii – using bacterial reporter strains. Several triazole derivatives were identified that were capable of strongly modulating the activity of LasR and AbaR. These compounds represent a new and synthetically accessible class of AHL analogs, and could find utility as chemical tools to study QS and its role in bacterial virulence. PMID:23258305

  4. Immunomodulatory N-acyl Dopamine Glycosides from the Icelandic Marine Sponge Myxilla incrustans Collected at a Hydrothermal Vent Site.

    PubMed

    Einarsdottir, Eydis; Liu, Hong-Bing; Freysdottir, Jona; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held; Omarsdottir, Sesselja

    2016-06-01

    A chemical investigation of the sponge (Porifera) Myxilla incrustans collected from the unique submarine hydrothermal vent site Strytan, North of Iceland, revealed a novel family of closely related N-acyl dopamine glycosides. Three new compounds, myxillin A (1), B (2) and C (3), were isolated and structurally elucidated using several analytical techniques, such as HR-MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Myxillin A (1) and B (2)were shown to be structurally similar, composed of a dopamine moiety, but differ in the acyl chain length and saturation. The myxillin C (3) has a dehydrotyrosine moiety composing the same acyl chain and glycosylation as myxillin B (2). Myxillins A (1) and C (3) were tested for immunomodulating activity in an in vitro dendritic cell model. Dendritic cells matured and stimulated in the presence of myxillin A (1) secreted lower levels of IL-12p40, whilst dendritic cells matured and stimulated in the presence of myxillin C (3) secreted lower levels of IL-10 compared with dendritic cells matured and stimulated in the presence of the solvent alone. These opposing results indicate that the structural differences in the aromatic ring part of the molecules could have an impact on the immunological effects of dendritic cells. These molecules could, therefore, prove to be important in preventing inflammatory diseases on the one hand, and inducing a response to fight tumors and/or pathogens on the other hand. Further studies will be needed to confirm these potential uses. PMID:27135626

  5. The quorum sensing molecule N-acyl homoserine lactone produced by Acinetobacter baumannii displays antibacterial and anticancer properties.

    PubMed

    John, James; Saranathan, Rajagopalan; Adigopula, Lakshmi Narayana; Thamodharan, Vasanth; Singh, Satya Prakash; Lakshmi, T Pragna; CharanTej, Mallu Abhiram; Rao, R Srinivasa; Krishna, R; Rao, H Surya Prakash; Prashanth, K

    2016-10-01

    Secretory N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) mediate quorum sensing (QS) in bacteria. AHLs are shown to be inhibitory for an unrelated group of bacteria and might mimic host signalling elements, thereby subverting the regulatory events in host cells. This study investigated the AHL produced by Acinetobacter baumannii and analysed its effect on other bacterial species and mammalian cells. Chemically characterized AHL had an m/z value of 325 with a molecular formula C18H31NO4 and showed its inhibitory potential against Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular docking studies identified D-alanine-D-alanine synthetase A, a cell wall synthesizing enzyme of S. aureus having a strong binding affinity towards AHL. Electron microscopy showed the disruption and sloughing off of the S. aureus cell wall when treated with AHL. In vitro experiments revealed that this bacteriostatic AHL showed time-dependent activity and induced apoptosis in cancer cell lines. This compound could be a potential structural backbone for constructing new AHL analogues against S. aureus. The findings emphasize the need to re-evaluate all previously characterized AHLs for any additional new biological functions other than QS. PMID:27643959

  6. Diversity and N-acyl-homoserine lactone production by Gammaproteobacteria associated with Avicennia marina rhizosphere of South Indian mangroves.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Ganga; Jegan, Sekar; Baskaran, Viswanathan; Kathiravan, Raju; Prabavathy, Vaiyapuri Ramalingam

    2015-07-01

    The diversity of N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-producing rhizosphere bacterial community associated with Avicennia marina in the mangrove ecosystems of South India was investigated. Approximately 800 rhizobacteria were isolated from A. marina, and they were screened for the production of AHL using two biosensors, Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4 (pZLR4). Among the total isolates screened, 7% of the rhizobacteria showed positive induction for AHL signals. The BOX-PCR profile of 56 positive isolates represented 11 distinct genotypic groups. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA sequences of 16 representatives showed that the isolates belonged to the class Gammaproteobacteria, which represented six different genera: Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Vibrio, Photobacterium, Serratia and Halomonas. The study also identified three AHL-producing species, namely, Photobacterium halotolerans MSSRF QS48, Vibrio xiamenensis MSSRF QS47 and Pseudomonas sp. MSSRF QS1 that had not been reported previously. AHL profiling by TLC detected short chains C4, C6 and C8-HSL, and long chains C10 and C12-HSL with both unsubstituted and substituted side chains among the 16 representative AHL positives. This is the first report concerning the diversity of AHL-producing Gammaproteobacteria from mangrove ecosystems exhibiting diverse AHL profiles. PMID:25956585

  7. Production of N-acyl homoserine lactones by gram-negative bacteria isolated from contact lens wearers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, H; Thuruthyil, S J; Willcox, M D

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the production of N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signal molecules in ocular gram-negative bacteria. A total of 91 ocular strains isolated from contact lens adverse response patients and asymptomatic subjects were used in the study. These included Acinetobacter, Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia liquefaciens, Serratia marcescens, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The biosensor strains Chromobacterium violaceum mutant CV026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136 were used for detection of AHL signal molecules. The majority of A. hydrophila, P. aeruginosa, and S. liquefaciens strains produced more than one AHL molecule. Serratia marcescens strains were AHL positive only under detection of A136. The rest of the test species did not show any AHL production under the current detection system. These findings indicate that AHL-mediated quorum-sensing systems are present in some of the ocular bacteria, and the different signal molecules may be involved with the quorum-sensing pathway in the other bacterial species.

  8. Targeting N-acyl-homoserine-lactones to mitigate membrane biofouling based on quorum sensing using a biofouling reducer.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Muhammad Faisal; Sakinah, Mimi; Singh, Lakhveer; Zularisam, A W

    2012-10-31

    Exploring novel biological anti-quorum sensing (QS) agents to control membrane biofouling is of great worth in order to allow sustainable performance of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for wastewater treatment. In recent studies, QS inhibitors have provided evidence of alternative route to control membrane biofouling. This study investigated the role of Piper betle extract (PBE) as an anti-QS agent to mitigate membrane biofouling. Results demonstrated the occurrence of the N-acyl-homoserine-lactone (AHL) autoinducers (AIs), correlate QS activity and membrane biofouling mitigation. The AIs production in bioreactor was confirmed using an indicator strain Agrobacterium tumefaciens (NTL4) harboring plasmid pZLR4. Moreover, three different AHLs were found in biocake using thin layer chromatographic analysis. An increase in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and transmembrane pressure (TMP) was observed with AHL activity of the biocake during continuous MBR operation, which shows that membrane biofouling was in close relationship with QS activity. PBE was verified to mitigate membrane biofouling via inhibiting AIs production. SEM analysis further confirmed the effect of PBE on EPS and biofilm formation. These results exhibited that PBE could be a novel agent to target AIs for mitigation of membrane biofouling. Further work can be carried out to purify the active compound of Piper betle extract to target the QS to mitigate membrane biofouling.

  9. Metabolomic Profiling Reveals the N-Acyl-Taurine Geodiataurine in Extracts from the Marine Sponge Geodia macandrewii (Bowerbank).

    PubMed

    Olsen, Elisabeth K; Søderholm, Kine L; Isaksson, Johan; Andersen, Jeanette H; Hansen, Espen

    2016-05-27

    A metabolomic approach was used to identify known and new natural products from the marine sponges Geodia baretti and G. macandrewii. G. baretti is known to produce bioactive natural products such as barettin (1), 8,9-dihydrobarettin (2), and bromobenzisoxazolone barettin (3), while secondary metabolites from G. macandrewii are not reported in the literature. Specimens of the two sponges were collected from different sites along the coast of Norway, and their extracts were analyzed using UHPLC-HR-MS. Metabolomic analyses revealed that extracts from both species contained barettin (1) and 8,9-dihydrobarettin (2), and all samples of G. baretti contained higher amounts of both compounds compared to G. macandrewii. The analysis of the MS data also revealed that samples of G. macandrewii contained a compound that was not present in any of the G. baretti samples. This new compound was isolated and identified as the N-acyl-taurine geodiataurine (4), and it was tested for antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties.

  10. Sodium houttuyfonate affects production of N-acyl homoserine lactone and quorum sensing-regulated genes expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Daqiang; Huang, Weifeng; Duan, Qiangjun; Li, Fang; Cheng, Huijuan

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a means of cell-to-cell communication that uses diffusible signaling molecules that are sensed by the population to determine population density, thus allowing co-ordinate gene regulation in response to population density. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, production of the QS signaling molecule, N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL), co-ordinates expression of key factors of pathogenesis, including biofilm formation and toxin secretion. It is predicted that the inhibition of AHL sensing would provide an effective clinical treatment to reduce the expression of virulence factors and increase the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents. We previously demonstrated that sodium houttuyfonate (SH), commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat infectious diseases, can effectively inhibit QS-regulated processes, including biofilm formation. Here, using a model system, we demonstrate that SH causes the dose-dependent inhibition of AHL production, through down-regulation of the AHL biosynthesis gene, lasI. Addition of SH also resulted in down-regulation of expression of the AHL sensor and transcriptional regulator, LasR, and inhibited the production of the QS-regulated virulence factors, pyocyanin and LasA. These results suggest that the antimicrobial activity of SH may be due to its ability to disrupt QS in P. aeruginosa. PMID:25505457

  11. N-Acyl Homoserine Lactones in Diverse Pectobacterium and Dickeya Plant Pathogens: Diversity, Abundance, and Involvement in Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Crépin, Alexandre; Beury-Cirou, Amélie; Barbey, Corinne; Farmer, Christine; Hélias, Valérie; Burini, Jean-François; Faure, Denis; Latour, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Soft-rot bacteria Pectobacterium and Dickeya use N-acyl homoserine lactones (NAHSLs) as diffusible signals for coordinating quorum sensing communication. The production of NAHSLs was investigated in a set of reference strains and recently-collected isolates, which belong to six species and share the ability to infect the potato host plant. All the pathogens produced different NAHSLs, among which the 3-oxo-hexanoyl- and the 3-oxo-octanoyl-l-homoserine lactones represent at least 90% of total produced NAHSL-amounts. The level of NAHSLs varied from 0.6 to 2 pg/cfu. The involvement of NAHSLs in tuber maceration was investigated by electroporating a quorum quenching vector in each of the bacterial pathogen strains. All the NAHSL-lactonase expressing strains produced a lower amount of NAHSLs as compared to those harboring the empty vector. Moreover, all except Dickeya dadantii 3937 induced a lower level of symptoms in potato tuber assay. Noticeably, aggressiveness appeared to be independent of both nature and amount of produced signals. This work highlights that quorum sensing similarly contributed to virulence in most of the tested Pectobacterium and Dickeya, even the strains had been isolated recently or during the past decades. Thus, these key regulatory-molecules appear as credible targets for developing anti-virulence strategies against these plant pathogens. PMID:22737020

  12. A New N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone Synthase in an Uncultured Symbiont of the Red Sea Sponge Theonella swinhoei

    PubMed Central

    Britstein, Maya; Devescovi, Giulia; Handley, Kim M.; Malik, Assaf; Haber, Markus; Saurav, Kumar; Teta, Roberta; Costantino, Valeria; Burgsdorf, Ilia; Gilbert, Jack A.; Sher, Noa; Venturi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Sponges harbor a remarkable diversity of microbial symbionts in which signal molecules can accumulate and enable cell-cell communication, such as quorum sensing (QS). Bacteria capable of QS were isolated from marine sponges; however, an extremely small fraction of the sponge microbiome is amenable to cultivation. We took advantage of community genome assembly and binning to investigate the uncultured majority of sponge symbionts. We identified a complete N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-QS system (designated TswIR) and seven partial luxI homologues in the microbiome of Theonella swinhoei. The TswIR system was novel and shown to be associated with an alphaproteobacterium of the order Rhodobacterales, here termed Rhodobacterales bacterium TS309. The tswI gene, when expressed in Escherichia coli, produced three AHLs, two of which were also identified in a T. swinhoei sponge extract. The taxonomic affiliation of the 16S rRNA of Rhodobacterales bacterium TS309 to a sponge-coral specific clade, its enrichment in sponge versus seawater and marine sediment samples, and the presence of sponge-specific features, such as ankyrin-like domains and tetratricopeptide repeats, indicate a likely symbiotic nature of this bacterium. PMID:26655754

  13. Lipoprotein N-acyl transferase (Lnt1) is dispensable for protein O-mannosylation by Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Córdova-Dávalos, Laura Elena; Espitia, Clara; González-Cerón, Gabriela; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto; Soberón-Chávez, Gloria; Servín-González, Luis

    2014-01-01

    A protein glycosylation system related to that for protein mannosylation in yeast is present in many actinomycetes. This system involves polyprenyl phosphate mannose synthase (Ppm), protein mannosyl transferase (Pmt), and lipoprotein N-acyl transferase (Lnt). In this study, we obtained a series of mutants in the ppm (sco1423), lnt1 (sco1014), and pmt (sco3154) genes of Streptomyces coelicolor, which encode Ppm, Lnt1, and Pmt, to analyze their requirement for glycosylation of the heterologously expressed Apa glycoprotein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The results show that both Ppm and Pmt were required for Apa glycosylation, but that Lnt1 was dispensable for both Apa and the bacteriophage φC31 receptor glycosylation. A bacterial two-hybrid assay revealed that contrary to M. tuberculosis, Lnt1 of S. coelicolor does not interact with Ppm. The D2 catalytic domain of M. tuberculosisPpm was sufficient for complementation of an S. coelicolor double mutant lacking Lnt1 and Ppm, both for Apa glycosylation and for glycosylation of φC31 receptor. On the other hand, M. tuberculosisPmt was not active in S. coelicolor, even when correctly localized to the cytoplasmic membrane, showing fundamental differences in the requirements for Pmt activity in these two species.

  14. Metabolomic Profiling Reveals the N-Acyl-Taurine Geodiataurine in Extracts from the Marine Sponge Geodia macandrewii (Bowerbank).

    PubMed

    Olsen, Elisabeth K; Søderholm, Kine L; Isaksson, Johan; Andersen, Jeanette H; Hansen, Espen

    2016-05-27

    A metabolomic approach was used to identify known and new natural products from the marine sponges Geodia baretti and G. macandrewii. G. baretti is known to produce bioactive natural products such as barettin (1), 8,9-dihydrobarettin (2), and bromobenzisoxazolone barettin (3), while secondary metabolites from G. macandrewii are not reported in the literature. Specimens of the two sponges were collected from different sites along the coast of Norway, and their extracts were analyzed using UHPLC-HR-MS. Metabolomic analyses revealed that extracts from both species contained barettin (1) and 8,9-dihydrobarettin (2), and all samples of G. baretti contained higher amounts of both compounds compared to G. macandrewii. The analysis of the MS data also revealed that samples of G. macandrewii contained a compound that was not present in any of the G. baretti samples. This new compound was isolated and identified as the N-acyl-taurine geodiataurine (4), and it was tested for antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties. PMID:27100857

  15. A New N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone Synthase in an Uncultured Symbiont of the Red Sea Sponge Theonella swinhoei.

    PubMed

    Britstein, Maya; Devescovi, Giulia; Handley, Kim M; Malik, Assaf; Haber, Markus; Saurav, Kumar; Teta, Roberta; Costantino, Valeria; Burgsdorf, Ilia; Gilbert, Jack A; Sher, Noa; Venturi, Vittorio; Steindler, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Sponges harbor a remarkable diversity of microbial symbionts in which signal molecules can accumulate and enable cell-cell communication, such as quorum sensing (QS). Bacteria capable of QS were isolated from marine sponges; however, an extremely small fraction of the sponge microbiome is amenable to cultivation. We took advantage of community genome assembly and binning to investigate the uncultured majority of sponge symbionts. We identified a complete N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-QS system (designated TswIR) and seven partial luxI homologues in the microbiome of Theonella swinhoei. The TswIR system was novel and shown to be associated with an alphaproteobacterium of the order Rhodobacterales, here termed Rhodobacterales bacterium TS309. The tswI gene, when expressed in Escherichia coli, produced three AHLs, two of which were also identified in a T. swinhoei sponge extract. The taxonomic affiliation of the 16S rRNA of Rhodobacterales bacterium TS309 to a sponge-coral specific clade, its enrichment in sponge versus seawater and marine sediment samples, and the presence of sponge-specific features, such as ankyrin-like domains and tetratricopeptide repeats, indicate a likely symbiotic nature of this bacterium. PMID:26655754

  16. Cell adhesion, ammonia removal and granulation of autotrophic nitrifying sludge facilitated by N-acyl-homoserine lactones.

    PubMed

    Li, An-Jie; Hou, Bao-Lian; Li, Mei-Xi

    2015-11-01

    In this study, six N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) molecules (C6-HSL, C8-HSL, C10-HSL, 3-oxo-C6-HSL, 3-oxo-C8-HSL and 3-oxo-C10-HSL) were each dosed into a bioreactor and seeded using autotrophic nitrifying sludge (ANS). The effects of the AHLs on cell adhesion, nitrification and sludge granulation were investigated. The results indicated that the efficiencies of cell adhesion and ammonia removal both had a close correlation with the side chain length and β position substituent group of the AHLs. The best-performing AHL in terms of accelerating bacterial attached-growth was 3-oxo-C6-HSL, whereas C6-HSL outperformed the others in terms of the ammonia degradation rate. The addition of 3-oxo-C6-HSL or C6-HSL increased the biomass growth rate, microbial activity, extracellular proteins and nitrifying bacteria, which can accelerate the formation of nitrifying granules. Consequently, selecting AHL molecules that could improve bacteria in attached-growth mode and nitrification efficiency simultaneously will most likely facilitate the rapid granulation of nitrifying sludge.

  17. Beneficial effects of bacteria-plant communication based on quorum sensing molecules of the N-acyl homoserine lactone group.

    PubMed

    Schikora, Adam; Schenk, Sebastian T; Hartmann, Anton

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) mechanisms play a crucial role in the proper performance and ecological fitness of bacterial populations. Many key physiological processes are regulated in a QS-dependent manner by auto-inducers, like the N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) in numerous Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, also the interaction between bacteria and eukaryotic hosts can be regulated by AHLs. Those mechanisms gained much attention, because of the positive effects of different AHL molecules on plants. This positive impact ranges from growth promotion to induced resistance and is quite contrasting to the rather negative effects observed in the interactions between bacterial AHL molecules and animals. Only very recently, we began to understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning plant responses to AHL molecules. In this review, we gathered the latest information in this research field. The first part gives an overview of the bacterial aspects of quorum sensing. Later we focus on the impact of AHLs on plant growth and AHL-priming, as one of the most understood phenomena in respect to the inter-kingdom interactions based on AHL-quorum sensing molecules. Finally, we discuss the potential benefits of the understanding of bacteria-plant interaction for the future agricultural applications.

  18. Phase transitions in methyl parben doped dipalmitoyl phosphatidylethanolamine vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panicker, Lata

    2013-02-01

    Influence of the preservative, methyl paraben (MPB), on the thermal properties of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) vesicles was investigated using DSC. DSC measurement of the lipid acyl chain melting transition in DPPE membrane doped with MPB, showed MPB concentration dependant modifications in the membrane thermal properties. The interesting findings are: (1) the presence of parabens increases the membrane fluidity. (2) the MPB molecules seem to be present in the aqueous bilayer interfacial region intercalated between the neighboring lipid polar headgroup (3) high concentration of MPB favored formation of crystalline and glassy phases.

  19. Glycogen phosphorylase as a target for type 2 diabetes: synthetic, biochemical, structural and computational evaluation of novel N-acyl-N´-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) urea inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kantsadi, Anastassia L; Parmenopoulou, Vanessa; Bakalov, Dimitar N; Snelgrove, Laura; Stravodimos, George A; Chatzileontiadou, Demetra S M; Manta, Stella; Panagiotopoulou, Angeliki; Hayes, Joseph M; Komiotis, Dimitri; Leonidas, Demetres D

    2015-01-01

    Glycogen phosphorylase (GP), a validated target for the development of anti-hyperglycaemic agents, has been targeted for the design of novel glycopyranosylamine inhibitors. Exploiting the two most potent inhibitors from our previous study of N-acyl-β-D-glucopyranosylamines (Parmenopoulou et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2014, 22, 4810), we have extended the linking group to -NHCONHCO- between the glucose moiety and the aliphatic/aromatic substituent in the GP catalytic site β-cavity. The N-acyl-N´-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) urea inhibitors were synthesized and their efficiency assessed by biochemical methods, revealing inhibition constant values of 4.95 µM and 2.53 µM. Crystal structures of GP in complex with these inhibitors were determined and analyzed, providing data for further structure based design efforts. A novel Linear Response - Molecular Mechanics Coulomb Surface Area (LR-MM-CBSA) method has been developed which relates predicted and experimental binding free energies for a training set of N-acyl-N´-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) urea ligands with a correlation coefficient R(2) of 0.89 and leave-one-out cross-validation (LOO-cv) Q(2) statistic of 0.79. The method has significant applications to direct future lead optimization studies, where ligand entropy loss on binding is revealed as a key factor to be considered. ADMET property predictions revealed that apart from potential permeability issues, the synthesized N-acyl-N´-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) urea inhibitors have drug-like potential without any toxicity warnings.

  20. Characterization of nonexchangeable radioactivity in L1210 cells incubated with ( sup 14 C)thiotepa: Labeling of phosphatidylethanolamine

    SciTech Connect

    Egorin, M.J.; Snyder, S.W. )

    1990-07-01

    N,N',N''-Triethylenethiophosphoramide ((14C)thiotepa) accumulation by L1210 cells is a biphasic process. A very rapid initial phase is followed by a much slower second phase that reflects accumulation of radioactivity in a form that is not lost or exchanged when cells are resuspended and incubated in drug-free medium for up to 8 h. In this study we attempted to characterize this nonexchangeable radioactivity. Nuclei (10(7)) isolated from L1210 cells and incubated with (14C)thiotepa did not accumulate 14C during incubations of up to 5 h. Similarly, nuclei isolated from 10(7) L1210 cells that had been shown to accumulate nonexchangeable 14C after incubation with (14C)thiotepa did not show an increase in nuclear-associated 14C. Eighty to 85% of nonexchangeable 14C in L1210 cells incubated with (14C)thiotepa was soluble in ethanol or chloroform:methanol (2:1, v/v), and although most of this cell-associated nonexchangeable 14C was precipitated by trichloroacetic acid, subsequent treatment of that precipitate with methanol solubilized most of the 14C so that only 15 to 20% remained with the final precipitate. When chloroform:methanol-soluble nonexchangeable 14C was analyzed with thin-layer chromatography systems suitable for thiotepa or simple lipids, all radioactivity remained at the origin. In contrast, when analyzed with one- and two-dimensional thin-layer chromatographic systems suitable for complex lipids, all chloroform:methanol-soluble radioactivity was associated with a single lipid spot. This lipid cochromatographed with phosphatidylethanolamine, reacted with ninhydrin but not with 4-(p-nitrobenzyl)pyridine or the Dragendorff choline reagent, and was digested by phospholipases C and D, all of which lead to its identification as phosphatidylethanolamine.

  1. Substituent-controlled selective synthesis of N-acyl 2-aminothiazoles by intramolecular Zwitterion-mediated C-N bond cleavage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhao, Fei; Chi, Yue; Zhang, Wen-Xiong; Xi, Zhenfeng

    2014-11-21

    The cleavage of C-N bonds is an interesting and challenging subject in modern organic synthesis. We have achieved the first zwitterion-controlled C-N bond cleavage in the MCR reaction among lithium alkynethiolates, bulky carbodiimides, and acid chlorides to construct N-acyl 2-aminothiazoles. This is a simple, highly efficient, and general method for the preparation of N-acyl 2-aminothiazoles with a broad range of substituents. The selective synthesis of N-acyl 2-aminothiazoles significantly depends on the steric hindrance of carbodiimides. The result is in striking contrast with our previous convergent reaction giving 5-acyl-2-iminothiazolines via 1,5-acyl migration. It is indeed interesting that the slight change of the substituents on the carbodiimides can completely switch the product structure. Experimental and theoretical results demonstrate the reason why the C-N bond cleavage in the present system is prior to the acyl migration. The intramolecular hydrogen relay via unprecedented Hofmann-type elimination is essential for this totally new zwitterion-controlled C-N bond cleavage.

  2. N-acyl-homoserine lactone confers resistance toward biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens via altered activation of AtMPK6.

    PubMed

    Schikora, Adam; Schenk, Sebastian T; Stein, Elke; Molitor, Alexandra; Zuccaro, Alga; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2011-11-01

    Pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria rely on quorum sensing to coordinate the collective behavior during the interactions with their eukaryotic hosts. Many Gram-negative bacteria use N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) as signals in such communication. Here we show that plants have evolved means to perceive AHLs and that the length of acyl moiety and the functional group at the γ position specify the plant's response. Root treatment with the N-3-oxo-tetradecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (oxo-C14-HSL) reinforced the systemic resistance to the obligate biotrophic fungi Golovinomyces orontii in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei in barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants. In addition, oxo-C14-HSL-treated Arabidopsis plants were more resistant toward the hemibiotrophic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. Oxo-C14-HSL promoted a stronger activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases AtMPK3 and AtMPK6 when challenged with flg22, followed by a higher expression of the defense-related transcription factors WRKY22 and WRKY29, as well as the PATHOGENESIS-RELATED1 gene. In contrast to wild-type Arabidopsis and mpk3 mutant, the mpk6 mutant is compromised in the AHL effect, suggesting that AtMPK6 is required for AHL-induced resistance. Results of this study show that AHLs commonly produced in the rhizosphere are crucial factors in plant pathology and could be an agronomic issue whose full impact has to be elucidated in future analyses. PMID:21940998

  3. Indole inhibition of N-acylated homoserine lactone-mediated quorum signalling is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Romano, Benjamin; Gollihar, Jimmy; Brown, Stacie A; Whiteley, Marvin; Valenzuela, Ernesto; Kaplan, Heidi B; Wood, Thomas K; McLean, Robert J C

    2014-11-01

    The LuxI/R quorum-sensing system and its associated N-acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) signal is widespread among Gram-negative bacteria. Although inhibition by indole of AHL quorum signalling in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter oleivorans has been reported previously, it has not been documented among other species. Here, we show that co-culture with wild-type Escherichia coli, but not with E. coli tnaA mutants that lack tryptophanase and as a result do not produce indole, inhibits AHL-regulated pigmentation in Chromobacterium violaceum (violacein), Pseudomonas chlororaphis (phenazine) and Serratia marcescens (prodigiosin). Loss of pigmentation also occurred during pure culture growth of Chro. violaceum, P. chlororaphis and S. marcescens in the presence of physiologically relevant indole concentrations (0.5-1.0 mM). Inhibition of violacein production by indole was counteracted by the addition of the Chro. violaceum cognate autoinducer, N-decanoyl homoserine lactone (C10-HSL), in a dose-dependent manner. The addition of exogenous indole or co-culture with E. coli also affected Chro. violaceum transcription of vioA (violacein pigment production) and chiA (chitinase production), but had no effect on pykF (pyruvate kinase), which is not quorum regulated. Chro. violaceum AHL-regulated elastase and chitinase activity were inhibited by indole, as was motility. Growth of Chro. violaceum was not affected by indole or C10-HSL supplementation. Using a nematode-feeding virulence assay, we observed that survival of Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to Chro. violaceum, P. chlororaphis and S. marcescens was enhanced during indole supplementation. Overall, these studies suggest that indole represents a general inhibitor of AHL-based quorum signalling in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25165125

  4. Plant Responses to Bacterial N-Acyl l-Homoserine Lactones are Dependent on Enzymatic Degradation to l-Homoserine

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many bacteria use quorum sensing (QS) to regulate phenotypes that ultimately benefit the bacterial population at high cell densities. These QS-dependent phenotypes are diverse and can have significant impacts on the bacterial host, including virulence factor production, motility, biofilm formation, bioluminescence, and root nodulation. As bacteria and their eukaryotic hosts have coevolved over millions of years, it is not surprising that certain hosts appear to be able to sense QS signals, potentially allowing them to alter QS outcomes. Recent experiments have established that eukaryotes have marked responses to the N-acyl l-homoserine lactone (AHL) signals used by Gram-negative bacteria for QS, and the responses of plants to AHLs have received considerable scrutiny to date. However, the molecular mechanisms by which plants, and eukaryotes in general, sense bacterial AHLs remain unclear. Herein, we report a systematic analysis of the responses of the model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula to a series of native AHLs and byproducts thereof. Our results establish that AHLs can significantly alter seedling growth in an acyl-chain length dependent manner. Based upon A. thaliana knockout studies and in vitro biochemical assays, we conclude that the observed growth effects are dependent upon AHL amidolysis by a plant-derived fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) to yield l-homoserine. The accumulation of l-homoserine appears to encourage plant growth at low concentrations by stimulating transpiration, while higher concentrations inhibit growth by stimulating ethylene production. These results offer new insights into the mechanisms by which plant hosts can respond to QS signals and the potential role of QS in interkingdom associations. PMID:24918118

  5. Indole inhibition of N-acylated homoserine lactone-mediated quorum signalling is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Romano, Benjamin; Gollihar, Jimmy; Brown, Stacie A; Whiteley, Marvin; Valenzuela, Ernesto; Kaplan, Heidi B; Wood, Thomas K; McLean, Robert J C

    2014-11-01

    The LuxI/R quorum-sensing system and its associated N-acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) signal is widespread among Gram-negative bacteria. Although inhibition by indole of AHL quorum signalling in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter oleivorans has been reported previously, it has not been documented among other species. Here, we show that co-culture with wild-type Escherichia coli, but not with E. coli tnaA mutants that lack tryptophanase and as a result do not produce indole, inhibits AHL-regulated pigmentation in Chromobacterium violaceum (violacein), Pseudomonas chlororaphis (phenazine) and Serratia marcescens (prodigiosin). Loss of pigmentation also occurred during pure culture growth of Chro. violaceum, P. chlororaphis and S. marcescens in the presence of physiologically relevant indole concentrations (0.5-1.0 mM). Inhibition of violacein production by indole was counteracted by the addition of the Chro. violaceum cognate autoinducer, N-decanoyl homoserine lactone (C10-HSL), in a dose-dependent manner. The addition of exogenous indole or co-culture with E. coli also affected Chro. violaceum transcription of vioA (violacein pigment production) and chiA (chitinase production), but had no effect on pykF (pyruvate kinase), which is not quorum regulated. Chro. violaceum AHL-regulated elastase and chitinase activity were inhibited by indole, as was motility. Growth of Chro. violaceum was not affected by indole or C10-HSL supplementation. Using a nematode-feeding virulence assay, we observed that survival of Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to Chro. violaceum, P. chlororaphis and S. marcescens was enhanced during indole supplementation. Overall, these studies suggest that indole represents a general inhibitor of AHL-based quorum signalling in Gram-negative bacteria.

  6. Cloning and expression of quorum sensing N-acyl-homoserine synthase (LuxI) gene detected in Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Modarresi, Farzan; Azizi, Omid; Shakibaie, Mohammad Reza; Motamedifar, Mohammad; Mansouri, Shahla

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In present study we aimed to clone the luxI gene encoding N-acyl-homoserine synthase detected in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and study its expression in Escherichia coli transformants. Materials and Methods: Four A. baumannii hospital strains which demonstrated strong biofilm activity were selected in this investigation. The presence of luxI gene was detected using PCR technique. Purified PCR product DNA was initially cloned into pTG19 and transformed to E. coli DH5α. The gene was then recovered from agarose gel and ligated by T4 DNA ligase into pET28a expression vector using NdeI and XhoI enzymes. pET28a + luxI was transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3). The luxI putative gene was further detected in the transformants by colony PCR. Expression of the luxI gene in the recombinant E. coli BL21 cells was studied by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) and the presence of N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) was checked by colorimetric assay and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Results: We successfully cloned AHL gene from A. baumannii strain 23 to pET28a expression vector. There was four fold increases in expression of luxI in the transformants (P ≤ 0.05). It was found that, strain 23 and the transformants showed highest amount of AHL activity (OD = 1.524). The FT-IR analysis indicated stretching C=O bond of the lactone ring and primary amides (N=H) at 1764.69 cm−1 and 1659.23 cm−1 respectively. Conclusion: From above results we concluded that, luxI in A. baumannii is indeed responsible for AHL production and not regulation and pET28a vector allows efficient AHL expression in E. coli BL21 transformants. PMID:27307980

  7. Head group specificity of phospholipase D isoenzymes from poppy seedlings (Papaver somniferum L.).

    PubMed

    Oblozinsky, M; Ulbrich-Hofmann, R; Bezakova, L

    2005-02-01

    The biocatalytical potential of two new phospholipase D (PLD) isoenzymes from poppy seedlings (Papaver somniferum L.), PLD-A and PLD-B, was examined by comparing their activities in phospholipid transformation. Both enzymes showed the same ratio in rates of hydrolysis [phosphatidylcholine (PC):phosphatidylglycerol (PG):phosphatidylserine:phosphatidylinositol = 1:0.5:0.3:0.1] and were inactive towards phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). PLD-A did not catalyze head group exchange whereas PLD-B showed a high transphosphatidylation potential in the conversion of PC into PG and PE. This enzyme also catalyzed the transesterification of octadecylphosphocholine into octadecylphosphoglycerol or octadecylphosphoethanolamine.

  8. Long N-acyl fatty acids on sphingolipids are responsible for miscibility with phospholipids to form liquid-ordered phase.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Peter J

    2009-10-01

    :phospholipid at 25 degrees C with pure phospholipid in gel phase and 42:58 mole ratio at 65 degrees C when the phospholipid was in the fluid phase. The results are discussed with reference to the role of the length of the N-acyl substituent of the sphingolipids in formation of complexes with phospholipids. PMID:19576168

  9. Phospholipase C (heat-labile hemolysin) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: purification and preliminary characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Berka, R M; Vasil, M L

    1982-01-01

    Phospholipase C (heat-labile hemolysin) was purified from Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture supernatants to near homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by a novel application of DEAE-Sephacel chromatography. Enzymatic activity remained associated with DEAE-Sephacel even in the presence of 1 M NaCl, but was eluted with a linear gradient of 0 to 5% tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide. Elution from DEAE-Sephacel was also obtained with 2% lysophosphatidylcholine, and to a lesser extent with 2% phosphorylcholine, but not at all with choline. The enzyme was highly active toward phospholipids possessing substituted ammonium groups (e.g., phosphatidycholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, and sphingomyelin); however, it had little if any activity toward phospholipids lacking substituted ammonium groups (e.g., phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphaditylglycerol). Collectively, these data suggest that phospholipase C from P. aeruginosa exhibits high affinity for substituted ammonium groups, but requires an additional hydrophobic moiety for optimum binding. The specific activity of the purified enzyme preparation increased 1,900-fold compared with that of culture supernatants. The molecular weight of the phospholipase C was estimated to be 78,000 by both sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Sephacryl S-200 column chromatography and was 76,000 by high-performance size exclusion chromatography. The isoelectric point was 5.5. Amino acid analysis showed that phospholipase C was rich in glycine, serine, threonine, aspartyl, glutamyl, and aromatic amino acids, but was cystine free. Images PMID:6811552

  10. Regulation of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in cultured chick embryonic muscle treated with phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Sleight, R; Kent, C

    1980-11-25

    Cultures of embryonic chick muscle cells grown in medium containing phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens incorporated [3H]choline into lipid at a rate 3- to 5-fold higher than control cultures. To determine the mechanism by which stimulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis occurred in phospholipase C-treated cells, activities of enzymes and levels of intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway for phosphatidylcholine were examined. Activities of choline kinase, choline phosphotransferase, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, and phosphatidic acid phosphatase in phospholipase C-treated cells were the same or only slightly higher than in control cells. CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, on the other hand, was 3 times as active in homogenates from phospholipase C-treated cells. Levels of phosphocholine decreased and levels of CDP-choline increased in phospholipase C-treated cells, and a calculation of the disequilibrium ratio indicated that the cytidylyltransferase reaction was not at equilibrium. The cytidylyltransferase was, thus, identified as the regulatory enzyme for choline flux in these cells. The cytidylyltransferase was located in both the cytosolic and particulate fractions from cultured muscle cells and a much larger portion of enzyme activity was associated with the particulate fraction in cells treated with phospholipase C. Sonicated preparations of total chick lipids, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine greatly stimulated the cytosolic cytidylyltransferase activity but had no effect on the particulate enzyme. Neither stimulation of incorporation of [3H]choline into lipid nor activation of the cytidylyltransferase was dependent on protein synthesis. A model for the mechanism of regulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis in embryonic chick muscle is presented.

  11. Insights into the Genome Sequences of an N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone Molecule Producing Two Pseudomonas spp. Isolated from the Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Dharmaprakash, Akhilandeswarre; Reghunathan, Dinesh; Sivakumar, Krishnakutty C.; Prasannakumar, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    We report for the first time the draft genome sequence of two psychrotrophic Pseudomonas species, Pseudomonas simiae RGCB 73 and Pseudomonas brenneri RGCB 108, from the Arctic that produce more than one acyl homoserine lactone molecule of varied N-acyl length. The study confirms the presence of a LuxR-LuxI (type) mediated quorum-sensing system in both the Pseudomonas species and enables us to understand the role of quorum sensing in their survival in extremely cold environments. PMID:27491995

  12. Hydrophobic Surfactant Proteins Induce a Phosphatidylethanolamine to Form Cubic Phases

    PubMed Central

    Chavarha, Mariya; Khoojinian, Hamed; Schulwitz, Leonard E.; Biswas, Samares C.; Rananavare, Shankar B.; Hall, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The hydrophobic surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C promote rapid adsorption of pulmonary surfactant to an air/water interface. Previous evidence suggests that they achieve this effect by facilitating the formation of a rate-limiting negatively curved stalk between the vesicular bilayer and the interface. To determine whether the proteins can alter the curvature of lipid leaflets, we used x-ray diffraction to investigate how the physiological mixture of these proteins affects structures formed by 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine, which by itself undergoes the lamellar-to-inverse hexagonal phase transition at 71°C. In amounts as low as 0.03% (w:w) and at temperatures as low as 57°C, the proteins induce formation of bicontinuous inverse cubic phases. The proteins produce a dose-related shift of diffracted intensity to the cubic phases, with minimal evidence of other structures above 0.1% and 62°C, but no change in the lattice-constants of the lamellar or cubic phases. The induction of the bicontinuous cubic phases, in which the individual lipid leaflets have the same saddle-shaped curvature as the hypothetical stalk-intermediate, supports the proposed model of how the surfactant proteins promote adsorption. PMID:20409474

  13. Phosphatidylethanolamine Synthesis Is Required for Optimal Virulence of Brucella abortus▿

    PubMed Central

    Bukata, Lucas; Altabe, Silvia; de Mendoza, Diego; Ugalde, Rodolfo A.; Comerci, Diego J.

    2008-01-01

    The Brucella cell envelope contains the zwitterionic phospholipids phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Synthesis of PC occurs exclusively via the PC synthase pathway, implying that the pathogen depends on the choline synthesized by the host cell to form PC. Notably, PC is necessary to sustain a chronic infection process, which suggests that the membrane lipid content is relevant for Brucella virulence. In this study we investigated the first step of PE biosynthesis in B. abortus, which is catalyzed by phosphatidylserine synthase (PssA). Disruption of pssA abrogated the synthesis of PE without affecting the growth in rich complex medium. In minimal medium, however, the mutant required choline supplementation for growth, suggesting that at least PE or PC is necessary for Brucella viability. The absence of PE altered cell surface properties, but most importantly, it impaired several virulence traits of B. abortus, such as intracellular survival in both macrophages and HeLa cells, the maturation of the replicative Brucella-containing vacuole, and mouse colonization. These results suggest that membrane phospholipid composition is critical for the interaction of B. abortus with the host cell. PMID:18931122

  14. Methylation effects on the microdomain structures of phosphatidylethanolamine monolayers.

    PubMed

    Yu, H; Hui, S W

    1992-07-01

    Increasing methylation of the headgroup in DPPE results in an increase of minimum area per molecule in highly compressed monolayers at the air-water interface. The shape of solid domains, as observed by epifluorescence microscopy, also exhibits marked changes upon increasing headgroup methylation. Branching domains are observed in DPPE and DP(Me)PE, whereas U-shaped or round domains are observed in DP(Me)2PE and DPPC under our experimental conditions. The domain shape is determined more by the headgroup methylatin than by the corresponding shift in critical temperatures, as shown by the study of PCs of different acyl chain moieties. In mixed lipid monolayers, PC (phosphatidylcholine) and PE (phosphatidylethanolamine) do not mix ideally, as indicated by the non-linear variation of the average area per molecule with composition, and by distinct domain shapes in LE/LC (liquid expanded/liquid condensed) coexisting phases representing PE-enriched or PC-enriched domains in those mixed monolayers.

  15. Phospholipases in arterial tissue

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, S.; Stein, Y.; Stein, O.

    1969-01-01

    The role of phospholipases in the regulation of the changing phospholipid composition of normal human aortae with age was studied. Portions of grossly and histologically lesion-free ascending aortae from 16 females and 29 males obtained at autopsy, were analyzed for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), phospholipid, and cholesterol content and phospholipid composition. Enzymic activity toward four substrates, lecithin (LE), phosphatidyl ethanolamine, lysolecithin, and sphingomyelin (SP), was determined on portions of the same homogenate. By regression analysis for correlation between all determinations and age the following results were obtained: (a) total phospholipids and choleserol increased linearly with age; (b) the increase in sphingomyelin accounted for about 70% of the phospholipid increment; (c) hydrolysis of lecithin and phosphatidyl ethanolamine increased markedly with age, that of lysolecithin only moderately; (d) hydrolysis of sphingomyelin decreased with age; and (e) an inverse relation between the SP/LE ratio and age and sphingomyelinase/lecithinase activity and age was obtained. These results were interpreted to indicate that a causal relation exists between the fall in sphingomyelinase activity, both absolute and relative to lecithinase activity, and the accumulation of sphingomyelin with age. PMID:5355343

  16. Aluminum Elicits Exocellular Phosphatidylethanolamine Production in Pseudomonas fluorescens

    PubMed Central

    Appanna, V. D.; Pierre, M. S.

    1996-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 was found to grow in a minimal mineral medium supplemented with millimolar amounts of aluminum, a known environmental toxicant. During the stationary phase of growth, the trivalent metal was localized in a phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)-containing residue. The concentration of PE in pellets ranged from 1.7 to 13.9 mg ml of culture(sup-1) in media supplemented with 1 to 30 mM aluminum. Although the gelatinous residue was observed during the stationary phase of growth, ultracentrifugation and dialysis experiments revealed that PE was produced from earlier stages of incubation and was associated with aluminum. A sharp diminution in the levels of PE and aluminum in the spent fluid was concomitant with the formation of the insoluble deposit. The aluminum content of the soluble cellular fraction increased during growth and reached an optimum of 1.85 mM of test metal at 45 h in cultures with 15 mM aluminum. Further incubation, however, led to a marked decrease in the cellular aluminum content, and during the stationary phase of growth, only trace amounts of the trivalent metal were detected in this fraction. When 45-h cells were incubated in fresh citrate medium, most of the intracellular aluminum was secreted in the spent fluid and citrate was rapidly consumed. Aluminum efflux was also observed in cultures in which d-glucose was substituted for citrate. However, no efflux of this trivalent metal was evident in media devoid of either citrate or d-glucose. Scanning electron microscopic studies and X-ray energy-dispersive analyses of the dialyzed supernatant aided in the visualization of nodule-like aluminum- and phosphorus-rich bodies associated with thread-like carbon-, oxygen-, and phosphorus-containing structures. Transmission electron microscopic and electron energy loss spectroscopic analyses revealed the presence of aluminum within bacteria after 45 h of incubation. Cells harvested after aluminum insolubilization did not shown

  17. Novel acridine-based N-acyl-homoserine lactone analogs induce endoreduplication in the human oral squamous carcinoma cell line SAS.

    PubMed

    Chai, Hongbo; Hazawa, Masaharu; Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Igarashi, Jun; Suga, Hiroaki; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2012-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of novel acridine-based N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) analogs was investigated on the human oral squamous carcinoma cell line SAS. One analog induced G2/M phase arrest at 5.3-10.6 µM and induced polyploidy at a higher dose (21.2 µM). Importantly, treatment of SAS cells with a combination of the AHL analog and the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, SP600125, prevented mitosis and induced polyploidy. The AHL analog synergized with X-irradiation to inhibit clonogenic survival of SAS cells; however, its radiosensitizing effects were relative to not X-irradiation-induced apoptosis but mitotic failure following enhanced expression of Aurora A and B. These results suggest that the active AHL analog showed growth-suppressive and radiosensitizing effects, which involve polyploidy followed by G2/M accumulation and atypical cell death in the SAS cell line.

  18. [Activation of the bioluminescence of the sensor Escherichia coli strains used for detecting N-acyl-homoserine lactones in the presence of nitrofurans and NO generators].

    PubMed

    Zaĭtseva, Iu V; Granik, V G; Belik, A S; Koksharova, O A; Khmel', I A

    2010-01-01

    Nitrofurans (nitrofurazone, nitrofurantoin, furazidin, nifuroxazide), and nitric oxide generators (sodium nitroprusside and isosorbide mononitrate) in subinhibitory concentrations were shown to significantly increase the bioluminescence of the sensor Escherichia coli strains used for detecting N-acyl-homoserine lactones, signaling molecules of Quorum Sensing (QS) regulatory systems. The highest activation of bioluminescence (up to 250-400 fold) was observed in the presence of nitrofurazone on E. coli DH5alpha biosensors containing lux-reporter plasmids pSB401 or pSB536. However, this activation was not specifically associated with the functioning of QS systems. We suggest that the effect observed results from a direct action of nitrofurans and NO donors on the process of bioluminescence. The data indicate the necessity of using the biosensors that make it possible to detect specific effects of substances tested on QS regulation. PMID:20540359

  19. Synthesis, characterization stereochemistry and anti-bacterial evaluation of certain N-acyl-c-3,t-3-dimethyl-r-2,c-6-diphenylpiperidin-4-ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponnuswamy, S.; Kayalvizhi, R.; Jamesh, M.; Uma Maheswari, J.; Thenmozhi, M.; Ponnuswamy, M. N.

    2016-09-01

    A new series of N-acyl-c-3,t-3-dimethyl-r-2,c-6-diphenylpiperidin-4-ones 2-6 has been synthesized and characterized using IR, mass, 1H, 13C, DEPT and 2D (COSY and HSQC) NMR spectral techniques. The NMR spectral data indicate that the N-acylpiperidin-4-ones 2-6 prefer to exist in a distorted boat conformation B1 with coplanar orientation of N-C=O moiety. The stereodynamics of these systems have been studied by recording the dynamic 1H NMR spectra of compound 4, and the energy barrier for N-CO rotation is determined to be 52.75 kJ/mol. Furthermore the compounds 1-5 show significant antibacterial activity.

  20. Anti-cancer agents based on N-acyl-2, 3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b] quinoline derivatives and a method of making

    DOEpatents

    Gakh, Andrei; Krasavin, Mikhail; Karapetian, Ruben; Rufanov, Konstantin A; Konstantinov, Igor; Godovykh, Elena; Soldatkina, Olga; Sosnov, Andrey V

    2013-04-16

    The present disclosure relates to novel compounds that can be used as anti-cancer agents in the prostate cancer therapy. In particular, the invention relates to N-acyl derivatives of 2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]quinolines having the structural Formula (I), ##STR00001## stereoisomers, tautomers, racemics, prodrugs, metabolites thereof, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt and/or solvate thereof. The meaning of R1 is independently selected from H; C1-C6 Alkyl, cyclo-Alkyl or iso-Alkyl substituents; R2 is selected from C1-C6 Alkyl, cyclo-Alkyl or iso-Alkyl; substituted or non-substituted, fused or non-fused to substituted or non-substituted aromatic ring, aryl or heteroaryl groups. The invention also relates to methods for preparing said compounds, and to pharmaceutical compositions comprising said compounds.

  1. Lysis of erythrocytes from stored human blood by phospholipase C (Bacillus cereus).

    PubMed Central

    Little, C; Rumsby, M G

    1980-01-01

    The ability of phospholipase C (Bacillus cereus) to lyse erythrocytes from human blood that had been stored under Transfusion Service conditions for up to 16 weeks has been examined. When incubated at 20 degrees C with enzyme (0.03 mg/ml, 55 units/ml) for up to 1 h fresh erythrocytes were not lysed. After about 4 weeks of storage a population of very readily lysed erythrocytes appeared. The morphological changes in erythrocytes from blood stored up to 16 weeks were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The proportion of very readily lysed erythrocytes correlated well with the proportion of spheroechinocytes I. This morphological form was shown to be preferentially removed by phospholipase C and before lysis a transient appearance of smooth spheres occurred. The decrease in blood ATP concentrations on storage was measured and found to correlate with the disappearance of discoid erythrocyte forms, but not directly with the increased susceptibility of the erythrocytes to lysis by the enzyme. However, erythrocytes of up to at least 15 weeks of age could be made less susceptible to lysis by pre-incubation in a medium designed to cause intracellular regeneration of ATP. During the lysis of spheroechinocytes I by electrophoretically pure recrystallized phospholipase C a rapid degradation of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine + phosphatidylinositol) occurred together with a slower degradation of sphingomyelin. Images PLATE 2 PLATE 1 PMID:6773524

  2. Phosphatidylethanolamine Is Required for Normal Cell Morphology and Cytokinesis in the Fission Yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe▿

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jun; Matsuo, Yasuhiro; Gulis, Galina; Hinz, Haylee; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Marcus, Stevan

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the contributions of phosphatidylethanolamine to the growth and morphogenesis of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we have characterized three predicted genes in this organism, designated psd1, psd2, and psd3, encoding phosphatidylserine decarboxylases, which catalyze the conversion of phosphatidylserine to phosphatidylethanolamine in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. S. pombe mutants carrying deletions in any one or two psd genes are viable in complex rich medium and synthetic defined minimal medium. However, mutants carrying deletions in all three psd genes (psd1-3Δ mutants) grow slowly in rich medium and are inviable in minimal medium, indicating that the psd1 to psd3 gene products share overlapping essential cellular functions. Supplementation of growth media with ethanolamine, which can be converted to phosphatidylethanolamine by the Kennedy pathway, restores growth to psd1-3Δ cells in minimal medium, indicating that phosphatidylethanolamine is essential for S. pombe cell growth. psd1-3Δ cells produce lower levels of phosphatidylethanolamine than wild-type cells, even in medium supplemented with ethanolamine, indicating that the Kennedy pathway can only partially compensate for the loss of phosphatidylserine decarboxylase activity in S. pombe. psd1-3Δ cells appear morphologically indistinguishable from wild-type S. pombe cells in medium supplemented with ethanolamine, but when cultured in nonsupplemented medium, they produce high frequencies of abnormally shaped cells as well as cells exhibiting severe septation defects, including multiple, mispositioned, deformed, and misoriented septa. Our results demonstrate that phosphatidylethanolamine is essential for cell growth and for normal cytokinesis and cellular morphogenesis in S. pombe, and they illustrate the usefulness of this model eukaryote for investigating potentially conserved biological and molecular functions of phosphatidylethanolamine. PMID:19286980

  3. Antioxidant activity of Maillard type reaction products between phosphatidylethanolamine and glucose.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Kshitij; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2014-10-15

    Phosphatidylethanolamine and glucose were added to the degummed mustard seed oil (20.16μmol/g oil) to prepare blank oil (O), glucose added oil (OG), phosphatidylethanolamine added oil (OP), and both phosphatidylethanolamine and glucose added oil (OPG). These oils were heated at 160°C for 10min. Absorbance and fluorescence measurement confirmed the occurrence of Maillard type reactions. During oil incubation (both at 40 and 104°C), the heated OP and OPG oils showed the highest oxidative stability. Moreover, the degradations of tocols in these oils were 16-17% (72h at 104°C) and 7-20% (53days at 40°C), while that in other oils (O and OG) were 56-65% (24h at 104°C) and 20-57% (19days at 40°C), respectively. Maillard type reaction products of phosphatidylethanolamine showed potent antioxidant activity. Some of the reaction products such as Amadori product, phosphatidylethanolamine-linked pyrrolecarbaldehyde and 2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo[1,2-α]pyridine-4-ylium derivatives were identified using LC-TOF MS analysis. PMID:24837915

  4. High-level production of Bacillus cereus phospholipase C in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Ravasi, Pablo; Braia, Mauricio; Eberhardt, Florencia; Elena, Claudia; Cerminati, Sebastián; Peirú, Salvador; Castelli, Maria Eugenia; Menzella, Hugo G

    2015-12-20

    Enzymatic oil degumming (removal of phospholipids) using phospholipase C (PLC) is a well-established and environmentally friendly process for vegetable oil refining. In this work, we report the production of recombinant Bacillus cereus PLC in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13869 in a high cell density fermentation process and its performance in soybean oil degumming. A final concentration of 5.5g/L of the recombinant enzyme was achieved when the respective gene was expressed from the tac promoter in a semi-defined medium. After treatment with trypsin to cleave the propeptide, the mature enzyme completely hydrolyzed phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, which represent 70% of the phospholipids present in soybean oil. The results presented here show the feasibility of using B. cereus PLC for oil degumming and provide a manufacturing process for the cost effective production of this enzyme. PMID:26519562

  5. Uptake, degradation and chiral discrimination of N-acyl-D/L-homoserine lactones by barley (Hordeum vulgare) and yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) plants.

    PubMed

    Götz, Christine; Fekete, Agnes; Gebefuegi, Istvan; Forczek, Sándor T; Fuksová, Kvetoslava; Li, Xiaojing; Englmann, Matthias; Gryndler, Milan; Hartmann, Anton; Matucha, Miroslav; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schröder, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Bacterial intraspecies and interspecies communication in the rhizosphere is mediated by diffusible signal molecules. Many Gram-negative bacteria use N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) as autoinducers in the quorum sensing response. While bacterial signalling is well described, the fate of AHLs in contact with plants is much less known. Thus, adsorption, uptake and translocation of N-hexanoyl- (C6-HSL), N-octanoyl- (C8-HSL) and N-decanoyl-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL) were studied in axenic systems with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and the legume yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban) as model plants using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) and tritium-labelled AHLs. Decreases in AHL concentration due to abiotic adsorption or degradation were tolerable under the experimental conditions. The presence of plants enhanced AHL decline in media depending on the compounds' lipophilicity, whereby the legume caused stronger AHL decrease than barley. All tested AHLs were traceable in root extracts of both plants. While all AHLs except C10-HSL were detectable in barley shoots, only C6-HSL was found in shoots of yam bean. Furthermore, tritium-labelled AHLs were used to determine short-term uptake kinetics. Chiral separation by GC-MS revealed that both plants discriminated D-AHL stereoisomers to different extents. These results indicate substantial differences in uptake and degradation of different AHLs in the plants tested.

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Wild-Type Sinorhizobium meliloti Responses to N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone Quorum-Sensing Signals and the Transition to Stationary Phase†

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hancai; Teplitski, Max; Robinson, Jayne B.; Rolfe, Barry G.; Bauer, Wolfgang D.

    2003-01-01

    Proteome analysis revealed that two long-chain N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) produced by Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 induced significant differences in the accumulation of more than 100 polypeptides in early-log-phase cultures of the wild type. Fifty-six of the corresponding proteins have been identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. The proteins affected by addition of these two AHLs had diverse functions in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, energy cycles, metabolite transport, DNA synthesis, and protein turnover. Two hours of exposure to 3-oxo-C16:1-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C16:1-HL) affected the accumulation of 40 of the 56 identified proteins, whereas comparable exposure to C14-HL affected 13 of the 56 proteins. Levels of four proteins were affected by both AHLs. Exposure to 3-oxo-C16:1-HL for 8 h affected the accumulation of 17 proteins, 12 of which had reduced accumulation. Of the 80 proteins identified as differing in accumulation between early-log- and early-stationary-phase cultures, only 13 were affected by exposure to 3-oxo-C16:1-HL or C14-HL. These results provide a foundation for future studies of the functions regulated by AHL quorum sensing in S. meliloti and help to establish proteomic analysis as a powerful global approach to the identification of quorum-sensing regulatory patterns in wild-type bacteria. PMID:12923075

  7. Antipathogenic potential of marine Bacillus sp. SS4 on N-acyl-homoserine-lactone-mediated virulence factors production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1).

    PubMed

    Musthafa, K Syed; Saroja, V; Pandian, S Karutha; Ravi, A Veera

    2011-03-01

    Antipathogenic therapy is an outcome of the quorum-sensing inhibition (QSI) mechanism, which targets autoinducer-dependent virulent gene expression in bacterial pathogens. N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) acts as a key regulator in the production of virulence factors and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and violacein pigment production in Chromobacterium violaceum. In the present study, the marine bacterial strain SS4 showed potential QSI activity in a concentration-dependent manner (0.5-2 mg/ml) against the AHL-mediated violacein production in C. violaceum (33-86%) and biofilm formation (33-88%), total protease (20-65%), LasA protease (59-68%), LasB elastase (36-68%), pyocyanin (17-86%) and pyoverdin productions in PAO1. The light and confocal laser scanning microscopic analyses confirmed the reduction of the biofilm-forming ability of PAO1 when treated with SS4 extract. Furthermore, the antibiofilm potential was confirmed through static biofilm ring assay, in which ethyl acetate extract of SS4 showed concentration-dependent reduction in the biofilm-forming ability of PAO1. Thus, the result of this study clearly reveals the antipathogenic and antibiofilm properties of the bacterial isolate SS4. Through 16S rDNA analysis, the strain SS4 was identified as Bacillus sp. (GenBank Accession Number: GU471751). PMID:21451248

  8. N-acylated alanine methyl esters (NAMEs) from Roseovarius tolerans, structural analogs of quorum-sensing autoinducers, N-acylhomoserine lactones.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Hilke; Thiel, Verena; Voget, Sonja; Patzelt, Diana; Daniel, Rolf; Wagner-Döbler, Irene; Schulz, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    The Roseobacter clade is one of the most important bacteria group living in the ocean. Liquid cultures of Roseovarius tolerans EL 164 were investigated for the production of autoinducers such as N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) and other secondary metabolites. The XAD extracts were analyzed by GC/MS. Two AHLs, Z7-C14 : 1-homoserine lactone (HSL) and C15 : 1-HSL, were identified. Additionally, the extract contained five compounds with molecular-ion peaks at m/z 104, 145, and 158, thus exhibiting mass spectra similar to those of AHLs with corresponding peaks at m/z 102, 143, and 156. Isolation of the main compound by column chromatography, NMR analysis, dimethyl disulfide derivatization for the determination of the location of the CC bond and finally synthesis of the compound with the proposed structure confirmed the compound to be (Z)-N-(hexadec-9-enoyl)alanine methyl ester. Four additional minor compounds were identified as C14 : 0-, C15 : 0-, C16 : 0-, and C17 : 1-N-acylated alanine methyl esters (NAMEs). All NAMEs have not been described from natural sources before. A BLASTp search showed the presence of AHL-producing luxI genes, but no homologous genes potentially responsible for the structurally closely related NAMEs were found. The involvement of the NAMEs in chemical communication processes of the bacteria is discussed.

  9. N-Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Primes Plants for Cell Wall Reinforcement and Induces Resistance to Bacterial Pathogens via the Salicylic Acid/Oxylipin Pathway[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, Sebastian T.; Hernández-Reyes, Casandra; Samans, Birgit; Stein, Elke; Neumann, Christina; Schikora, Marek; Reichelt, Michael; Mithöfer, Axel; Becker, Annette; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schikora, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The ability of plants to monitor their surroundings, for instance the perception of bacteria, is of crucial importance. The perception of microorganism-derived molecules and their effector proteins is the best understood of these monitoring processes. In addition, plants perceive bacterial quorum sensing (QS) molecules used for cell-to-cell communication between bacteria. Here, we propose a mechanism for how N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), a group of QS molecules, influence host defense and fortify resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana against bacterial pathogens. N-3-oxo-tetradecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (oxo-C14-HSL) primed plants for enhanced callose deposition, accumulation of phenolic compounds, and lignification of cell walls. Moreover, increased levels of oxylipins and salicylic acid favored closure of stomata in response to Pseudomonas syringae infection. The AHL-induced resistance seems to differ from the systemic acquired and the induced systemic resistances, providing new insight into inter-kingdom communication. Consistent with the observation that short-chain AHLs, unlike oxo-C14-HSL, promote plant growth, treatments with C6-HSL, oxo-C10-HSL, or oxo-C14-HSL resulted in different transcriptional profiles in Arabidopsis. Understanding the priming induced by bacterial QS molecules augments our knowledge of plant reactions to bacteria and suggests strategies for using beneficial bacteria in plant protection. PMID:24963057

  10. N-Methyltaurine N-acyl amidated bile acids and deoxycholic acid in the bile of angelfish (Pomacanthidae): a novel bile acid profile in Perciform fish.

    PubMed

    Satoh Née Okihara, Rika; Saito, Tetsuya; Ogata, Hiroaki; Ohsaki, Ayumi; Iida, Takashi; Asahina, Kiyoshi; Mitamura, Kuniko; Ikegawa, Shigeo; Hofmann, Alan F; Hagey, Lee R

    2014-02-01

    Two novel N-acyl amidated bile acids, N-methyltaurine conjugated cholic acid and N-methyltaurine conjugated deoxycholic acid, were found to be major biliary bile acids in two species of angelfish the regal (Pygoplites diacanthus) and the blue-girdled (Pomacanthus navarchus) angelfish. The identification was based on their having MS and NMR spectra identical to those of synthetic standards. A survey of biliary bile acids of 10 additional species of angelfish found 7 with N-methyltaurine conjugation. In all 12 species, conjugated deoxycholic acid (known to be formed by bacterial 7-dehydroxylation of cholic acid) was a major bile acid. In all previous studies of biliary bile acids in fish, deoxycholic acid has been present in only trace proportions. In addition, bile acid conjugation with N-methyltaurine has not been detected previously in any known vertebrate. N-methyltaurine conjugated bile acids are resistant to bacterial deconjugation and dehydroxylation, and such resistance to bacterial enzymes should aid in the maintenance of high concentrations of bile acids during lipid digestion. Our findings suggest that these species of angelfish have a novel microbiome in their intestine containing anaerobic bacteria, and describe the presence of N-methyltaurine conjugated bile acids that are resistant to bacterial attack.

  11. Uptake, degradation and chiral discrimination of N-acyl-D/L-homoserine lactones by barley (Hordeum vulgare) and yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) plants.

    PubMed

    Götz, Christine; Fekete, Agnes; Gebefuegi, Istvan; Forczek, Sándor T; Fuksová, Kvetoslava; Li, Xiaojing; Englmann, Matthias; Gryndler, Milan; Hartmann, Anton; Matucha, Miroslav; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schröder, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Bacterial intraspecies and interspecies communication in the rhizosphere is mediated by diffusible signal molecules. Many Gram-negative bacteria use N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) as autoinducers in the quorum sensing response. While bacterial signalling is well described, the fate of AHLs in contact with plants is much less known. Thus, adsorption, uptake and translocation of N-hexanoyl- (C6-HSL), N-octanoyl- (C8-HSL) and N-decanoyl-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL) were studied in axenic systems with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and the legume yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban) as model plants using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) and tritium-labelled AHLs. Decreases in AHL concentration due to abiotic adsorption or degradation were tolerable under the experimental conditions. The presence of plants enhanced AHL decline in media depending on the compounds' lipophilicity, whereby the legume caused stronger AHL decrease than barley. All tested AHLs were traceable in root extracts of both plants. While all AHLs except C10-HSL were detectable in barley shoots, only C6-HSL was found in shoots of yam bean. Furthermore, tritium-labelled AHLs were used to determine short-term uptake kinetics. Chiral separation by GC-MS revealed that both plants discriminated D-AHL stereoisomers to different extents. These results indicate substantial differences in uptake and degradation of different AHLs in the plants tested. PMID:17899036

  12. Complete genome sequencing of Pandoraea pnomenusa RB38 and Molecular Characterization of Its N-acyl homoserine lactone synthase gene ppnI

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yan-Lue; Ee, Robson; How, Kah-Yan; Lee, Siew-Kim; Yong, Delicia; Tee, Kok Keng; Yin, Wai-Fong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we sequenced the genome of Pandoraea pnomenusa RB38 using Pacific Biosciences RSII (PacBio) Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing technology. A pair of cognate luxI/R homologs was identified where the luxI homolog, ppnI, was found adjacent to a luxR homolog, ppnR1. An additional orphan luxR homolog, ppnR2, was also discovered. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that ppnI is an N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) synthase gene that is distinct from those of the nearest phylogenetic neighbor viz. Burkholderia spp. High resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis showed that Escherichia coli BL21 harboring ppnI produced a similar AHL profile (N-octanoylhomoserine lactone, C8-HSL) as P. pnomenusa RB38, the wild-type donor strain, confirming that PpnI directed the synthesis of AHL in P. pnomenusa RB38. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of the luxI/R homologs of the genus Pandoraea. PMID:26336650

  13. New N-acyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerases from cyanobacteria with high activity in the absence of ATP and low inhibition by pyruvate.

    PubMed

    Klermund, Ludwig; Groher, Anna; Castiglione, Kathrin

    2013-11-01

    N-Acetylneuraminic acid, an important component of glycoconjugates with various biological functions, can be produced from N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and pyruvate using a one-pot, two-enzyme system consisting of N-acyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase (AGE) and N-acetylneuraminate lyase (NAL). In this system, the epimerase catalyzes the conversion of GlcNAc into N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc). However, all currently known AGEs have one or more disadvantages, such as a low specific activity, substantial inhibition by pyruvate and strong dependence on allosteric activation by ATP. Therefore, four novel AGEs from the cyanobacteria Acaryochloris marina MBIC 11017, Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413, Nostoc sp. PCC 7120, and Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102 were characterized. Among these enzymes, the AGE from the Anabaena strain showed the most beneficial characteristics. It had a high specific activity of 117±2 U mg(-1) at 37 °C (pH 7.5) and an up to 10-fold higher inhibition constant for pyruvate as compared to other AGEs indicating a much weaker inhibitory effect. The investigation of the influence of ATP revealed that the nucleotide has a more pronounced effect on the Km for the substrate than on the enzyme activity. At high substrate concentrations (≥200 mM) and without ATP, the enzyme reached up to 32% of the activity measured with ATP in excess. PMID:23850800

  14. N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone-Mediated Quorum Sensing with Special Reference to Use of Quorum Quenching Bacteria in Membrane Biofouling Control

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Diby

    2014-01-01

    Membrane biofouling remains a severe problem to be addressed in wastewater treatment systems affecting reactor performance and economy. The finding that many wastewater bacteria rely on N-acyl homoserine lactone-mediated quorum sensing to synchronize their activities essential for biofilm formations; the quenching bacterial quorum sensing suggests a promising approach for control of membrane biofouling. A variety of quorum quenching compounds of both synthetic and natural origin have been identified and found effective in inhibition of membrane biofouling with much less environmental impact than traditional antimicrobials. Work over the past few years has demonstrated that enzymatic quorum quenching mechanisms are widely conserved in several prokaryotic organisms and can be utilized as a potent tool for inhibition of membrane biofouling. Such naturally occurring bacterial quorum quenching mechanisms also play important roles in microbe-microbe interactions and have been used to develop sustainable nonantibiotic antifouling strategies. Advances in membrane fabrication and bacteria entrapment techniques have allowed the implication of such quorum quenching bacteria for better design of membrane bioreactor with improved antibiofouling efficacies. In view of this, the present paper is designed to review and discuss the recent developments in control of membrane biofouling with special emphasis on quorum quenching bacteria that are applied in membrane bioreactors. PMID:25147787

  15. Construction of self-transmissible green fluorescent protein-based biosensor plasmids and their use for identification of N-acyl homoserine-producing bacteria in lake sediments.

    PubMed

    Lumjiaktase, Putthapoom; Aguilar, Claudio; Battin, Tom; Riedel, Kathrin; Eberl, Leo

    2010-09-01

    Many bacteria utilize quorum sensing (QS) systems to communicate with each other by means of the production, release, and response to signal molecules. N-Acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based QS systems are particularly widespread among the Proteobacteria, in which they regulate various functions. It has become evident that AHLs can also serve as signals for interspecies communication. However, knowledge on the impact of AHLs for the ecology of bacteria in their natural habitat is scarce, due mainly to the lack of tools that allow the study of QS in bacterial communities in situ. Here, we describe the construction of self-mobilizable green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based AHL sensors that utilize the conjugation and replication properties of the broad-host-range plasmid RP4. We show that these novel AHL sensor plasmids can be easily transferred to different bacterial species by biparental mating and that they give rise to green fluorescent cells in case the recipient is an AHL producer. We also demonstrate that these sensor plasmids are capable of self-spreading within mixed biofilms and are a suitable tool for the identification of AHL-producing bacteria in lake sediment.

  16. N-acyl-homoserine lactone-mediated regulation of phenazine gene expression by Pseudomonas aureofaciens 30-84 in the wheat rhizosphere.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, D W; Gong, F; Daykin, M M; Williams, P; Pierson, L S

    1997-01-01

    Pseudomonas aureofaciens 30-84 is a soilborne bacterium that colonizes the wheat rhizosphere. This strain produces three phenazine antibiotics which suppress take-all disease of wheat by inhibition of the causative agent Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. Phenazines also enhance survival of 30-84 within the wheat rhizosphere in competition with other organisms. Expression of the phenazine biosynthetic operon is controlled by the phzR/phzI N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) response system (L. S. Pierson III et al., J. Bacterial 176:3966-3974, 1994; D. W. Wood and L. S. Pierson III, Gene 168:49-53, 1996). By using high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry, the AHL produced by PhzI has now been identified as N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone (HHL). In addition, the ability of HHL to serve as an interpopulation signal molecule in the wheat rhizosphere has been examined by using isogenic reporter strains. Disruption of phzI reduced expression of the phenazine biosynthetic operon 1,000-fold in the wheat rhizosphere. Coinoculation of an isogenic strain which produced the endogenous HHL signal restored phenazine gene expression in the phzI mutant to wild-type levels in situ. These results demonstrate that HHL is required for phenazine expression in situ and is an effective interpopulation signal molecule in the wheat rhizosphere. PMID:9401023

  17. Haloperoxidase Mediated Quorum Quenching by Nitzschia cf pellucida: Study of the Metabolization of N-Acyl Homoserine Lactones by a Benthic Diatom

    PubMed Central

    Syrpas, Michail; Ruysbergh, Ewout; Blommaert, Lander; Vanelslander, Bart; Sabbe, Koen; Vyverman, Wim; De Kimpe, Norbert; Mangelinckx, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Diatoms are known to produce a variety of halogenated compounds, which were recently shown to have a role in allelopathic interactions between competing species. The production of these compounds is linked to haloperoxidase activity. This research, has shown that this system may also be involved in diatom-bacteria interactions via the H2O2 dependent inactivation of a type of quorum sensing (QS) molecule, i.e., N-β-ketoacylated homoserine lactones (AHLs), by a natural haloperoxidase system from the benthic diatom Nitzschia cf pellucida. The AHL degradation pathway towards corresponding halogenated derivatives was elucidated via HPLC-MS analysis and the synthesis of a broad series of novel halogenated AHL analogues as reference compounds. Furthermore, their biological activity as quorum sensing modulators was directly compared and evaluated against a series of naturally occurring β-keto-AHLs. It has been demonstrated that the loss of the QS activity results from the final cleavage of the halogenated N-acyl chain of the signal molecules. PMID:24445305

  18. N-acyl homoserine lactone-mediated quorum sensing with special reference to use of quorum quenching bacteria in membrane biofouling control.

    PubMed

    Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby; Kweon, Ji Hyang

    2014-01-01

    Membrane biofouling remains a severe problem to be addressed in wastewater treatment systems affecting reactor performance and economy. The finding that many wastewater bacteria rely on N-acyl homoserine lactone-mediated quorum sensing to synchronize their activities essential for biofilm formations; the quenching bacterial quorum sensing suggests a promising approach for control of membrane biofouling. A variety of quorum quenching compounds of both synthetic and natural origin have been identified and found effective in inhibition of membrane biofouling with much less environmental impact than traditional antimicrobials. Work over the past few years has demonstrated that enzymatic quorum quenching mechanisms are widely conserved in several prokaryotic organisms and can be utilized as a potent tool for inhibition of membrane biofouling. Such naturally occurring bacterial quorum quenching mechanisms also play important roles in microbe-microbe interactions and have been used to develop sustainable nonantibiotic antifouling strategies. Advances in membrane fabrication and bacteria entrapment techniques have allowed the implication of such quorum quenching bacteria for better design of membrane bioreactor with improved antibiofouling efficacies. In view of this, the present paper is designed to review and discuss the recent developments in control of membrane biofouling with special emphasis on quorum quenching bacteria that are applied in membrane bioreactors.

  19. N-Acyl-N-phenyl ureas of piperidine and substituted piperidines endowed with anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities.

    PubMed

    Ranise, A; Schenone, S; Bruno, O; Bondavalli, F; Filippelli, W; Falcone, G; Rivaldi, B

    2001-09-01

    Six series of N-acyl-N-phenyl ureas 1-6 of piperidine (1), and 2-ethyl- (2), 3-methyl- (3), 4-methyl- (4), 4-phenyl- (5), cis-2,6-dimethyl- (6) piperidine were synthesised and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory, anaesthetic, anti-pyretic properties. Some derivatives of series 1 and 5 were also assayed for anti-proliferative activity. Several compounds showed an anti-inflammatory activity comparable or slighty inferior to that of indomethacin in rats (1c,d, 2a,b,g,h, 3b, 4h, 5d,e). Moreover, an appreciable anti-inflammatory activity was also found in 2c,e, 3e,f,g, 4g, 5a,b,c,f,h, and 6a,b,d. All the compounds were devoid of anti-pyretic activity and only a few of them exhibited a low level of infiltration anaesthesia in mice. Compound 5a showed a broad spectrum anti-cancer activity (at low micromolar concentrations), particulary significant against leukemia subpanel. PMID:11680808

  20. Investigation of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) molecule production in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from cooling tower water and biofilm samples.

    PubMed

    Haslan, Ezgi; Kimiran-Erdem, Ayten

    2013-09-01

    In this study, 99 Gram-negative rod bacteria were isolated from cooling tower water, and biofilm samples were examined for cell-to-cell signaling systems, N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signal molecule types, and biofilm formation capacity. Four of 39 (10 %) strains isolated from water samples and 14 of 60 (23 %) strains isolated from biofilm samples were found to be producing a variety of AHL signal molecules. It was determined that the AHL signal molecule production ability and the biofilm formation capacity of sessile bacteria is higher than planktonic bacteria, and there was a statistically significant difference between the AHL signal molecule production of these two groups (p < 0.05). In addition, it was found that bacteria belonging to the same species isolated from cooling tower water and biofilm samples produced different types of AHL signal molecules and that there were different types of AHL signal molecules in an AHL extract of bacteria. In the present study, it was observed that different isolates of the same strains did not produce the same AHLs or did not produce AHL molecules, and bacteria known as AHL producers did not produce AHL. These findings suggest that detection of signal molecules in bacteria isolated from cooling towers may contribute to prevention of biofilm formation, elimination of communication among bacteria in water systems, and blockage of quorum-sensing controlled virulence of these bacteria. PMID:23250628

  1. Turnover of fatty acids in the 1-position of phosphatidylethanolamine in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rock, C O

    1984-05-25

    Phosphatidylethanolamine is the major membrane phospholipid of Escherichia coli, and two experimental approaches were used to investigate the metabolic activity of the fatty acids occupying the 1-position of this phospholipid. [3H]Acetate pulse-chase experiments with logarithmically growing cells indicated that 3-5% of the acyl groups were removed from the phosphatidylethanolamine pool/generation. The reacylation aspect of the turnover cycle was demonstrated by the incorporation of fatty acids into the 1-position of pre-existing phosphatidylethanolamine when de novo phospholipid biosynthesis was inhibited using the plsB acyltransferase mutant. 2- Acylglycerophosphoethanolamine would be the intermediate in a 1-position turnover cycle, and this lysophospholipid was identified as a membrane component that could re-esterified by a membrane-bound acyltransferase. The acyltransferase either utilized acyl-acyl carrier protein directly as an acyl donor or activated fatty acids for acyl transfer in the presence of ATP and Mg2+. Acyl-acyl carrier protein was also indicated as an intermediate in the latter reacylation reaction by the complete inhibition of phosphatidylethanolamine formation from fatty acids by acyl carrier protein-specific antibodies and by the observation that the inhibition of the acyltransferase by LiCl was reversed by the addition of acyl carrier protein. Coenzyme A thioesters were not substrates for this acyltransferase. These results suggest the existence of a metabolic cycle for the utilization of 1-position acyl moieties of phosphatidylethanolamine followed by the resynthesis of this membrane phospholipid from 2- acylglycerophosphoethanolamine by an acyl carrier protein-dependent 1-position acyltransferase.

  2. Release of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored enzyme ecto-5'-nucleotidase by phospholipase C: catalytic activation and modulation by the lipid bilayer.

    PubMed Central

    Lehto, M T; Sharom, F J

    1998-01-01

    Many hydrolytic enzymes are attached to the extracellular face of the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Little is currently known about the consequences for enzyme function of anchor cleavage by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. We have examined this question for the GPI-anchored protein 5'-nucleotidase (5'-ribonucleotide phosphohydrolase; EC 3.1.3.5), both in the native lymphocyte plasma membrane, and following purification and reconstitution into defined lipid bilayer vesicles, using Bacillus thuringiensis phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). Membrane-bound, detergent-solubilized and cleaved 5'-nucleotidase all obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a Km for 5'-AMP in the range 11-16 microM. The GPI anchor was removed from essentially all 5'-nucleotidase molecules, indicating that there is no phospholipase-resistant pool of enzyme. However, the phospholipase was much less efficient at cleaving the GPI anchor when 5'-nucleotidase was present in detergent solution, dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine, egg phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin, compared with the native plasma membrane, egg phosphatidylcholine and a sphingolipid/cholesterol-rich mixture. Lipid molecular properties and bilayer packing may affect the ability of PI-PLC to gain access to the GPI anchor. Catalytic activation, characterized by an increase in Vmax, was observed following PI-PLC cleavage of reconstituted 5'-nucleotidase from vesicles of several different lipids. The highest degree of activation was noted for 5'-nucleotidase in egg phosphatidylethanolamine. An increase in Vmax was also noted for a sphingolipid/cholesterol-rich mixture, the native plasma membrane and egg phosphatidylcholine, whereas vesicles of sphingomyelin and dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine showed little activation. Km generally remained unchanged following cleavage, except in the case of the sphingolipid/cholesterol-rich mixture. Insertion

  3. N-Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Confers Resistance toward Biotrophic and Hemibiotrophic Pathogens via Altered Activation of AtMPK61[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Schikora, Adam; Schenk, Sebastian T.; Stein, Elke; Molitor, Alexandra; Zuccaro, Alga; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria rely on quorum sensing to coordinate the collective behavior during the interactions with their eukaryotic hosts. Many Gram-negative bacteria use N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) as signals in such communication. Here we show that plants have evolved means to perceive AHLs and that the length of acyl moiety and the functional group at the γ position specify the plant’s response. Root treatment with the N-3-oxo-tetradecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (oxo-C14-HSL) reinforced the systemic resistance to the obligate biotrophic fungi Golovinomyces orontii in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei in barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants. In addition, oxo-C14-HSL-treated Arabidopsis plants were more resistant toward the hemibiotrophic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. Oxo-C14-HSL promoted a stronger activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases AtMPK3 and AtMPK6 when challenged with flg22, followed by a higher expression of the defense-related transcription factors WRKY22 and WRKY29, as well as the PATHOGENESIS-RELATED1 gene. In contrast to wild-type Arabidopsis and mpk3 mutant, the mpk6 mutant is compromised in the AHL effect, suggesting that AtMPK6 is required for AHL-induced resistance. Results of this study show that AHLs commonly produced in the rhizosphere are crucial factors in plant pathology and could be an agronomic issue whose full impact has to be elucidated in future analyses. PMID:21940998

  4. Identification of Unanticipated and Novel N-Acyl L-Homoserine Lactones (AHLs) Using a Sensitive Non-Targeted LC-MS/MS Method

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nishaben M.; Moore, Joseph D.; Blackwell, Helen E.; Amador-Noguez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    N-acyl L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) constitute a predominant class of quorum-sensing signaling molecules used by Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we report a sensitive and non-targeted HPLC-MS/MS method based on parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) to identify and quantitate known, unanticipated, and novel AHLs in microbial samples. Using a hybrid quadrupole-high resolution mass analyzer, this method integrates MS scans and all-ion fragmentation MS/MS scans to allow simultaneous detection of AHL parent-ion masses and generation of full mass spectra at high resolution and high mass accuracy in a single chromatographic run. We applied this method to screen for AHL production in a variety of Gram-negative bacteria (i.e. B. cepacia, E. tarda, E. carotovora, E. herbicola, P. stewartii, P. aeruginosa, P. aureofaciens, and R. sphaeroides) and discovered that nearly all of them produce a larger set of AHLs than previously reported. Furthermore, we identified production of an uncommon AHL (i.e. 3-oxo-C7-HL) in E. carotovora and P. stewartii, whose production has only been previously observed within the genera Serratia and Yersinia. Finally, we used our method to quantitate AHL degradation in B. cepacia, E. carotovora, E. herbicola, P. stewartii, P. aeruginosa, P. aureofaciens, the non-AHL producer E. coli, and the Gram-positive bacterium B. subtilis. We found that AHL degradation ability varies widely across these microbes, of which B. subtilis and E. carotovora are the best degraders, and observed that there is a general trend for AHLs containing long acyl chains (≥10 carbons) to be degraded at faster rates than AHLs with short acyl chains (≤6 carbons). PMID:27706219

  5. A Sinorhizobium meliloti-specific N-acyl homoserine lactone quorum-sensing signal increases nodule numbers in Medicago truncatula independent of autoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Veliz-Vallejos, Debora F.; van Noorden, Giel E.; Yuan, Mengqi; Mathesius, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) act as quorum sensing signals that regulate cell-density dependent behaviors in many gram-negative bacteria, in particular those important for plant-microbe interactions. AHLs can also be recognized by plants, and this may influence their interactions with bacteria. Here we tested whether the exposure to AHLs affects the nodule-forming symbiosis between legume hosts and rhizobia. We treated roots of the model legume, Medicago truncatula, with a range of AHLs either from its specific symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, or from the potential pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Agrobacterium vitis. We found increased numbers of nodules formed on root systems treated with the S. meliloti-specific AHL, 3-oxo-C14-homoserine lactone, at a concentration of 1 μM, while the other AHLs did not result in significant changes to nodule numbers. We did not find any evidence for altered nodule invasion by the rhizobia. Quantification of flavonoids that could act as nod gene inducers in S. meliloti did not show any correlation with increased nodule numbers. The effects of AHLs were specific for an increase in nodule numbers, but not lateral root numbers or root length. Increased nodule numbers following 3-oxo-C14-homoserine lactone treatment were under control of autoregulation of nodulation and were still observed in the autoregulation mutant, sunn4 (super numeric nodules4). However, increases in nodule numbers by 3-oxo-C14-homoserine lactone were not found in the ethylene-insensitive sickle mutant. A comparison between M. truncatula with M. sativa (alfalfa) and Trifolium repens (white clover) showed that the observed effects of AHLs on nodule numbers were specific to M. truncatula, despite M. sativa nodulating with the same symbiont. We conclude that plant perception of the S. meliloti-specific 3-oxo-C14-homoserine lactone influences nodule numbers in M. truncatula via an ethylene-dependent, but autoregulation-independent mechanism. PMID

  6. Genome sequencing-assisted identification and the first functional validation of N-acyl-homoserine-lactone synthases from the Sphingomonadaceae family

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Han Ming; Dailey, Lucas K.; Halliday, Nigel; Williams, Paul; Hudson, André O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Members of the genus Novosphingobium have been isolated from a variety of environmental niches. Although genomics analyses have suggested the presence of genes associated with quorum sensing signal production e.g., the N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) synthase (luxI) homologs in various Novosphingobium species, to date, no luxI homologs have been experimentally validated. Methods In this study, we report the draft genome of the N-(AHL)-producing bacterium Novosphingobium subterraneum DSM 12447 and validate the functions of predicted luxI homologs from the bacterium through inducible heterologous expression in Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain NTL4. We developed a two-dimensional thin layer chromatography bioassay and used LC-ESI MS/MS analyses to separate, detect and identify the AHL signals produced by the N. subterraneum DSM 12447 strain. Results Three predicted luxI homologs were annotated to the locus tags NJ75_2841 (NovINsub1), NJ75_2498 (NovINsub2), and NJ75_4146 (NovINsub3). Inducible heterologous expression of each luxI homologs followed by LC-ESI MS/MS and two-dimensional reverse phase thin layer chromatography bioassays followed by bioluminescent ccd camera imaging indicate that the three LuxI homologs are able to produce a variety of medium-length AHL compounds. New insights into the LuxI phylogeny was also gleemed as inferred by Bayesian inference. Discussion This study significantly adds to our current understanding of quorum sensing in the genus Novosphingobium and provide the framework for future characterization of the phylogenetically interesting LuxI homologs from members of the genus Novosphingobium and more generally the family Sphingomonadaceae.

  7. Inhibition by chestnut honey of N-Acyl-L-homoserine lactones and biofilm formation in Erwinia carotovora, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Truchado, Pilar; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco; Allende, Ana

    2009-12-01

    Bacteria are able to communicate and coordinate certain processes using small secreted signaling molecules called autoinducers. This phenomenon, known as "quorum sensing" (QS), may be essential for the synchronization of virulence factors as well as biofilm development. The interruption of bacterial QS is acknowledged to attenuate virulence and considered to be a potential new therapy to treat infections caused by pathogenic bacteria. N-Acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) have been identified as the main bacterial signaling molecules in Gram-negative bacteria. This study evaluates the capacity of chestnut honey and its aqueous and methanolic extracts to inhibit bacterial AHL-controlled processes in Erwinia carotovora , Yersinia enterocolitica , and Aeromonas hydrophila . This study is the first in applying liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry to determine the QS inhibitory activity of honey against pathogenic bacteria. The tandem mass spectrometry analysis of culture supernatants confirmed the presence of three main AHLs: N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) and N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) in E. carotovora and Y. enterocolitica and N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) in A. hydrophila. The effect of chestnut honey and its aqueous and methanolic extracts (0.2 g/mL) on AHL concentration and biofilm formation in bacterial cultures was determined. The obtained results revealed their potential use as QS inhibitors or regulators of the degradation of QS signals, with the methanolic extract showing less inhibitory capacity. Thus, the QS inhibitory activity of chestnut honey seems to be related to the aqueous phase, suggesting that the carbohydrate fraction contains an antipathogenic substance responsible for the inhibitory activity.

  8. Genome sequencing-assisted identification and the first functional validation of N-acyl-homoserine-lactone synthases from the Sphingomonadaceae family

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Han Ming; Dailey, Lucas K.; Halliday, Nigel; Williams, Paul; Hudson, André O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Members of the genus Novosphingobium have been isolated from a variety of environmental niches. Although genomics analyses have suggested the presence of genes associated with quorum sensing signal production e.g., the N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) synthase (luxI) homologs in various Novosphingobium species, to date, no luxI homologs have been experimentally validated. Methods In this study, we report the draft genome of the N-(AHL)-producing bacterium Novosphingobium subterraneum DSM 12447 and validate the functions of predicted luxI homologs from the bacterium through inducible heterologous expression in Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain NTL4. We developed a two-dimensional thin layer chromatography bioassay and used LC-ESI MS/MS analyses to separate, detect and identify the AHL signals produced by the N. subterraneum DSM 12447 strain. Results Three predicted luxI homologs were annotated to the locus tags NJ75_2841 (NovINsub1), NJ75_2498 (NovINsub2), and NJ75_4146 (NovINsub3). Inducible heterologous expression of each luxI homologs followed by LC-ESI MS/MS and two-dimensional reverse phase thin layer chromatography bioassays followed by bioluminescent ccd camera imaging indicate that the three LuxI homologs are able to produce a variety of medium-length AHL compounds. New insights into the LuxI phylogeny was also gleemed as inferred by Bayesian inference. Discussion This study significantly adds to our current understanding of quorum sensing in the genus Novosphingobium and provide the framework for future characterization of the phylogenetically interesting LuxI homologs from members of the genus Novosphingobium and more generally the family Sphingomonadaceae. PMID:27635318

  9. Influence of bacterial N-acyl-homoserine lactones on growth parameters, pigments, antioxidative capacities and the xenobiotic phase II detoxification enzymes in barley and yam bean.

    PubMed

    Götz-Rösch, Christine; Sieper, Tina; Fekete, Agnes; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Hartmann, Anton; Schröder, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria are able to communicate with each other and sense their environment in a population density dependent mechanism known as quorum sensing (QS). N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are the QS signaling compounds of Gram-negative bacteria which are frequent colonizers of rhizospheres. While cross-kingdom signaling and AHL-dependent gene expression in plants has been confirmed, the responses of enzyme activities in the eukaryotic host upon AHLs are unknown. Since AHL are thought to be used as so-called plant boosters or strengthening agents, which might change their resistance toward radiation and/or xenobiotic stress, we have examined the plants' pigment status and their antioxidative and detoxifying capacities upon AHL treatment. Because the yield of a crop plant should not be negatively influenced, we have also checked for growth and root parameters. We investigated the influence of three different AHLs, namely N-hexanoyl- (C6-HSL), N-octanoyl- (C8-HSL), and N-decanoyl- homoserine lactone (C10-HSL) on two agricultural crop plants. The AHL-effects on Hordeum vulgare (L.) as an example of a monocotyledonous crop and on the tropical leguminous crop plant Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) were compared. While plant growth and pigment contents in both plants showed only small responses to the applied AHLs, AHL treatment triggered tissue- and compound-specific changes in the activity of important detoxification enzymes. The activity of dehydroascorbate reductase in barley shoots after C10-HSL treatment for instance increased up to 384% of control plant levels, whereas superoxide dismutase activity in barley roots was decreased down to 23% of control levels upon C6-HSL treatment. Other detoxification enzymes reacted similarly within this range, with interesting clusters of positive or negative answers toward AHL treatment. In general the changes on the enzyme level were more severe in barley than in yam bean which might be due to the different abilities of the plants to

  10. Influence of bacterial N-acyl-homoserine lactones on growth parameters, pigments, antioxidative capacities and the xenobiotic phase II detoxification enzymes in barley and yam bean

    PubMed Central

    Götz-Rösch, Christine; Sieper, Tina; Fekete, Agnes; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Hartmann, Anton; Schröder, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria are able to communicate with each other and sense their environment in a population density dependent mechanism known as quorum sensing (QS). N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are the QS signaling compounds of Gram-negative bacteria which are frequent colonizers of rhizospheres. While cross-kingdom signaling and AHL-dependent gene expression in plants has been confirmed, the responses of enzyme activities in the eukaryotic host upon AHLs are unknown. Since AHL are thought to be used as so-called plant boosters or strengthening agents, which might change their resistance toward radiation and/or xenobiotic stress, we have examined the plants’ pigment status and their antioxidative and detoxifying capacities upon AHL treatment. Because the yield of a crop plant should not be negatively influenced, we have also checked for growth and root parameters. We investigated the influence of three different AHLs, namely N-hexanoyl- (C6-HSL), N-octanoyl- (C8-HSL), and N-decanoyl- homoserine lactone (C10-HSL) on two agricultural crop plants. The AHL-effects on Hordeum vulgare (L.) as an example of a monocotyledonous crop and on the tropical leguminous crop plant Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) were compared. While plant growth and pigment contents in both plants showed only small responses to the applied AHLs, AHL treatment triggered tissue- and compound-specific changes in the activity of important detoxification enzymes. The activity of dehydroascorbate reductase in barley shoots after C10-HSL treatment for instance increased up to 384% of control plant levels, whereas superoxide dismutase activity in barley roots was decreased down to 23% of control levels upon C6-HSL treatment. Other detoxification enzymes reacted similarly within this range, with interesting clusters of positive or negative answers toward AHL treatment. In general the changes on the enzyme level were more severe in barley than in yam bean which might be due to the different abilities of the plants to

  11. Characterization of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) producing bacteria isolated from vacuum-packaged refrigerated turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and possible influence of exogenous AHLs on bacterial phenotype.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Caili; Zhu, Suqin; Jatt, Abdul-Nabi; Zeng, Mingyong

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-to-cell communication mechanism through which microbial cells communicate and regulate their wide variety of biological activities. N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) are considered to be the most important QS signaling molecules produced by several Gram-negative bacteria. The present study aimed to screen the AHLs-producing bacteria from spoiled vacuum-packaged refrigerated turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) by biosensor assays, and the profiles of AHLs produced by these bacteria were determined using reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (RP-TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Effects of exogenous AHLs and QS inhibitor (QSI) on the phenotypes (i.e., extracellular proteolytic activity and biofilm formation) of the AHLs-producing bacteria were also evaluated. Our results demonstrated that eight out of twenty-two isolates were found to produce AHLs. Three of the AHLs-producing isolates were identified as Serratia sp., and the other five were found to belong to the family of Aeromonas. Two isolates (i.e., S. liquefaciens A2 and A. sobria B1) with higher AHLs-producing activities were selected for further studies. Mainly, RP-TLC and GC-MS analysis revealed three AHLs, i.e., 3-oxo-C6-HSL, C8-HSL and C10-HSL were produced by S. liquefaciens A2, while five AHLs, i.e., C4-HSL, C6-HSL, C8-HSL, C10-HSL, and C12-HSL, were produced by A. sobria B1. Moreover, production of AHLs in both bacterial strains were found to be density-dependent, and the AHLs activity reached a maximum level in their middle logarithmic phase and decreased in the stationary phase. The addition of exogenous AHLs and QSI decreased the specific protease activity both of the Serratia A2 and Aeromonas B1. Exogenous AHLs inhibited the biofilm formation of Serratia A2 while it enhanced the biofilm formation in Aeromonas B1. QSI inhibited the specific protease activity and biofilm formation in both bacterial strains. PMID:27118073

  12. N-Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Inhibition of Rhizobial Growth Is Mediated by Two Quorum-Sensing Genes That Regulate Plasmid Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, A.; Danino, V.; Wisniewski-Dyé, F.; Lithgow, J. K.; Downie, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    The growth of some strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae is inhibited by N-(3-hydroxy-7-cis tetradecenoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3OH-C14:1-HSL), which was previously known as the small bacteriocin before its characterization as an N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL). Tn5-induced mutants of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae resistant to 3OH-C14:1-HSL were isolated, and mutations in two genes were identified. These genes, bisR and triR, which both encode LuxR-type regulators required for plasmid transfer, were found downstream of an operon containing trb genes involved in the transfer of the symbiotic plasmid pRL1JI. The first gene in this operon is traI, which encodes an AHL synthase, and the trbBCDEJKLFGHI genes were found between traI and bisR. Mutations in bisR, triR, traI, or trbL blocked plasmid transfer. Using gene fusions, it was demonstrated that bisR regulates triR in response to the presence of 3OH-C14:1-HSL. In turn, triR is then required for the induction of the traI-trb operon required for plasmid transfer. bisR also represses expression of cinI, which is chromosomally located and determines the level of production of 3OH-C14:1-HSL. The cloned bisR and triR genes conferred 3OH-C14:1-HSL sensitivity to strains of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae normally resistant to this AHL. Furthermore, bisR and triR made Agrobacterium tumefaciens sensitive to R. leguminosarum bv. viciae strains producing 3OH-C14:1-HSL. Analysis of patterns of growth inhibition using mutant strains and synthetic AHLs revealed that maximal growth inhibition required, in addition to 3OH-C14:1-HSL, the presence of other AHLs such as N-octanoyl-l-homoserine lactone and/or N-(3-oxo-octanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone. In an attempt to identify the causes of growth inhibition, a strain of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae carrying cloned bisR and triR was treated with an AHL extract containing 3OH-C14:1-HSL. N-terminal sequencing of induced proteins revealed one with significant similarity to the protein

  13. Characterization of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) producing bacteria isolated from vacuum-packaged refrigerated turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and possible influence of exogenous AHLs on bacterial phenotype.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Caili; Zhu, Suqin; Jatt, Abdul-Nabi; Zeng, Mingyong

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-to-cell communication mechanism through which microbial cells communicate and regulate their wide variety of biological activities. N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) are considered to be the most important QS signaling molecules produced by several Gram-negative bacteria. The present study aimed to screen the AHLs-producing bacteria from spoiled vacuum-packaged refrigerated turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) by biosensor assays, and the profiles of AHLs produced by these bacteria were determined using reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (RP-TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Effects of exogenous AHLs and QS inhibitor (QSI) on the phenotypes (i.e., extracellular proteolytic activity and biofilm formation) of the AHLs-producing bacteria were also evaluated. Our results demonstrated that eight out of twenty-two isolates were found to produce AHLs. Three of the AHLs-producing isolates were identified as Serratia sp., and the other five were found to belong to the family of Aeromonas. Two isolates (i.e., S. liquefaciens A2 and A. sobria B1) with higher AHLs-producing activities were selected for further studies. Mainly, RP-TLC and GC-MS analysis revealed three AHLs, i.e., 3-oxo-C6-HSL, C8-HSL and C10-HSL were produced by S. liquefaciens A2, while five AHLs, i.e., C4-HSL, C6-HSL, C8-HSL, C10-HSL, and C12-HSL, were produced by A. sobria B1. Moreover, production of AHLs in both bacterial strains were found to be density-dependent, and the AHLs activity reached a maximum level in their middle logarithmic phase and decreased in the stationary phase. The addition of exogenous AHLs and QSI decreased the specific protease activity both of the Serratia A2 and Aeromonas B1. Exogenous AHLs inhibited the biofilm formation of Serratia A2 while it enhanced the biofilm formation in Aeromonas B1. QSI inhibited the specific protease activity and biofilm formation in both bacterial strains.

  14. Lipase and phospholipase biosensors: a review.

    PubMed

    Herrera-López, Enrique J

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of biology, electronics, and nanotechnology have improved the development of biosensors. A biosensor is a device composed of a biological recognition element and a sensor element. Biosensor applications are becoming increasingly important in areas such as biotechnology, pharmaceutics, food, and environment. Lipases and phospholipases are enzymes which have been used widely in food industry, oleochemical industry, biodegradable polymers, detergents, and other applications. In the medical industry, lipases and phospholipases are used as diagnostic tools to detect triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids levels in blood samples. Therefore, the development of lipase and phospholipase biosensors is of paramount importance in the clinical area. This chapter introduces the reader into the preliminaries of biosensor and reviews recent developments of lipase and phospholipase biosensors. PMID:22426738

  15. Plasmodium falciparum Choline Kinase Inhibition Leads to a Major Decrease in Phosphatidylethanolamine Causing Parasite Death.

    PubMed

    Serrán-Aguilera, Lucía; Denton, Helen; Rubio-Ruiz, Belén; López-Gutiérrez, Borja; Entrena, Antonio; Izquierdo, Luis; Smith, Terry K; Conejo-García, Ana; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by different species of the protozoan parasite Plasmodium, with P. falciparum being the deadliest. Increasing parasitic resistance to existing antimalarials makes the necessity of novel avenues to treat this disease an urgent priority. The enzymes responsible for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine are attractive drug targets to treat malaria as their selective inhibition leads to an arrest of the parasite's growth and cures malaria in a mouse model. We present here a detailed study that reveals a mode of action for two P. falciparum choline kinase inhibitors both in vitro and in vivo. The compounds present distinct binding modes to the choline/ethanolamine-binding site of P. falciparum choline kinase, reflecting different types of inhibition. Strikingly, these compounds primarily inhibit the ethanolamine kinase activity of the P. falciparum choline kinase, leading to a severe decrease in the phosphatidylethanolamine levels within P. falciparum, which explains the resulting growth phenotype and the parasites death. These studies provide an understanding of the mode of action, and act as a springboard for continued antimalarial development efforts selectively targeting P. falciparum choline kinase. PMID:27616047

  16. Plasmodium falciparum Choline Kinase Inhibition Leads to a Major Decrease in Phosphatidylethanolamine Causing Parasite Death

    PubMed Central

    Serrán-Aguilera, Lucía; Denton, Helen; Rubio-Ruiz, Belén; López-Gutiérrez, Borja; Entrena, Antonio; Izquierdo, Luis; Smith, Terry K.; Conejo-García, Ana; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by different species of the protozoan parasite Plasmodium, with P. falciparum being the deadliest. Increasing parasitic resistance to existing antimalarials makes the necessity of novel avenues to treat this disease an urgent priority. The enzymes responsible for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine are attractive drug targets to treat malaria as their selective inhibition leads to an arrest of the parasite’s growth and cures malaria in a mouse model. We present here a detailed study that reveals a mode of action for two P. falciparum choline kinase inhibitors both in vitro and in vivo. The compounds present distinct binding modes to the choline/ethanolamine-binding site of P. falciparum choline kinase, reflecting different types of inhibition. Strikingly, these compounds primarily inhibit the ethanolamine kinase activity of the P. falciparum choline kinase, leading to a severe decrease in the phosphatidylethanolamine levels within P. falciparum, which explains the resulting growth phenotype and the parasites death. These studies provide an understanding of the mode of action, and act as a springboard for continued antimalarial development efforts selectively targeting P. falciparum choline kinase. PMID:27616047

  17. Synthesis and Anti-microbial Activity of Novel Phosphatidylethanolamine-N-amino Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Vijeetha, Tadla; Balakrishna, Marrapu; Karuna, Mallampalli Sri Lakshmi; Surya Koppeswara Rao, Bhamidipati Venkata; Prasad, Rachapudi Badari Narayana; Kumar, Koochana Pranay; Surya Narayana Murthy, Upadyaula

    2015-01-01

    The study involved synthesis of five novel amino acid derivatives of phosphatidylethanolamine isolated from egg yolk lecithin employing a three step procedure i) N-protection of L-amino acids with BOC anhydride in alkaline medium ii) condensation of - CO2H group of N-protected amino acid with free -NH2 of PE by a peptide linkage and iii) deprotection of N-protected group of amino acids to obtain phosphatidylethanolamine-N-amino acid derivatives in 60-75% yield. The five L-amino acids used were L glycine, L-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine and L-phenylalanine. The amino acid derivatives were screened for anti-baterial activity against B. subtilis, S. aureus, P. aeroginosa and E. coli taking Streptomycin as reference compound and anti-fungal activity against C. albicans, S. cervisiae, A. niger taking AmphotericinB as reference compound. All the amino acid derivatives exhibited extraordinary anti-bacterial activities about 3 folds or comparable to Streptomycin and moderate or no anti-fungal activity against Amphotericin-B.

  18. The phosphatidylethanolamine derivative diDCP-LA-PE mimics intracellular insulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Nishizaki, Tomoyuki; Gotoh, Akinobu; Shimizu, Tadashi; Tanaka, Akito

    2016-06-02

    Insulin facilitates glucose uptake into cells by translocating the glucose transporter GLUT4 towards the cell surface through a pathway along an insulin receptor (IR)/IR substrate 1 (IRS-1)/phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1)/Akt axis. The newly synthesized phosphatidylethanolamine derivative 1,2-O-bis-[8-{2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl}-octanoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (diDCP-LA-PE) has the potential to inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and to directly activate PKCζ, an atypical isozyme, and PKCε, a novel isozyme. PTP1B inhibition enhanced insulin signaling cascades downstream IR/IRS-1 by preventing tyrosine dephosphorylation. PKCζ and PKCε directly activated Akt2 by phosphorylating at Thr309 and Ser474, respectively. diDCP-LA-PE increased cell surface localization of GLUT4 and stimulated glucose uptake into differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, still with knocking-down IR or in the absence of insulin. Moreover, diDCP-LA-PE effectively reduced serum glucose levels in type 1 diabetes (DM) model mice. diDCP-LA-PE, thus, may enable type 1 DM therapy without insulin injection.

  19. The phosphatidylethanolamine derivative diDCP-LA-PE mimics intracellular insulin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nishizaki, Tomoyuki; Gotoh, Akinobu; Shimizu, Tadashi; Tanaka, Akito

    2016-01-01

    Insulin facilitates glucose uptake into cells by translocating the glucose transporter GLUT4 towards the cell surface through a pathway along an insulin receptor (IR)/IR substrate 1 (IRS-1)/phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1)/Akt axis. The newly synthesized phosphatidylethanolamine derivative 1,2-O-bis-[8-{2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl}-octanoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (diDCP-LA-PE) has the potential to inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and to directly activate PKCζ, an atypical isozyme, and PKCε, a novel isozyme. PTP1B inhibition enhanced insulin signaling cascades downstream IR/IRS-1 by preventing tyrosine dephosphorylation. PKCζ and PKCε directly activated Akt2 by phosphorylating at Thr309 and Ser474, respectively. diDCP-LA-PE increased cell surface localization of GLUT4 and stimulated glucose uptake into differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, still with knocking-down IR or in the absence of insulin. Moreover, diDCP-LA-PE effectively reduced serum glucose levels in type 1 diabetes (DM) model mice. diDCP-LA-PE, thus, may enable type 1 DM therapy without insulin injection. PMID:27251941

  20. Bacterial Sphingomyelinases and Phospholipases as Virulence Factors.

    PubMed

    Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Monturiol-Gross, Laura; Naylor, Claire; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Flieger, Antje

    2016-09-01

    Bacterial sphingomyelinases and phospholipases are a heterogeneous group of esterases which are usually surface associated or secreted by a wide variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These enzymes hydrolyze sphingomyelin and glycerophospholipids, respectively, generating products identical to the ones produced by eukaryotic enzymes which play crucial roles in distinct physiological processes, including membrane dynamics, cellular signaling, migration, growth, and death. Several bacterial sphingomyelinases and phospholipases are essential for virulence of extracellular, facultative, or obligate intracellular pathogens, as these enzymes contribute to phagosomal escape or phagosomal maturation avoidance, favoring tissue colonization, infection establishment and progression, or immune response evasion. This work presents a classification proposal for bacterial sphingomyelinases and phospholipases that considers not only their enzymatic activities but also their structural aspects. An overview of the main physiopathological activities is provided for each enzyme type, as are examples in which inactivation of a sphingomyelinase- or a phospholipase-encoding gene impairs the virulence of a pathogen. The identification of sphingomyelinases and phospholipases important for bacterial pathogenesis and the development of inhibitors for these enzymes could generate candidate vaccines and therapeutic agents, which will diminish the impacts of the associated human and animal diseases. PMID:27307578

  1. Phospholipase activity in Malassezia furfur pathogenic strains.

    PubMed

    Riciputo, R M; Oliveri, S; Micali, G; Sapuppo, A

    1996-01-01

    The lipophilic dimorphic yeast Malassezia furfur is a common skin commensal and the aetiological agent of pityriasis versicolor. A source of lipids is essential for its growth, and there are already demonstrations of in vitro lipase and lipoxygenase production. In eight wild strains, isolated from patients with pityriasis versicolor, we showed a phospholipase activity using a medium containing egg yolk emulsion as the only source of lipids; in this medium M. furfur grows and produces a phospholipase zone. Adding manganese sulphate, an unspecific inhibitor of phospholipase activity, M. furfur does not grow, because the lipophilic fungus cannot utilize the egg yolk as a source of fatty acids. Adding Tween 60 to the same medium, M. furfur also grows in presence of manganese sulphate.

  2. Phospholipases in food industry: a review.

    PubMed

    Casado, Víctor; Martín, Diana; Torres, Carlos; Reglero, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Mammal, plant, and mainly microbial phospholipases are continuously being studied, experimented, and some of them are even commercially available at industrial scale for food industry. This is because the use of phospholipases in the production of specific foods leads to attractive advantages, such as yield improvement, energy saving, higher efficiency, improved properties, or better quality of the final product. Furthermore, biocatalysis approaches in the food industry are of current interest as non-pollutant and cleaner technologies. The present chapter reviews the most representative examples of the use of phospholipases in food industry, namely edible oils, dairy, and baking products, emulsifying agents, as well as the current trend to the development of novel molecular species of phospholipids with added-value characteristics. PMID:22426737

  3. Importance of adenosine triphosphate in phospholipase A2-induced rabbit renal proximal tubule cell injury.

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, V D; Cieslinski, D A; Humes, H D

    1988-01-01

    The pathogenesis of ischemic renal tubular cell injury involves a complex interaction of different processes, including membrane phospholipid alterations and depletion of high-energy phosphate stores. To assess the role of membrane phospholipid changes due to activation of phospholipases in renal tubule cell injury, suspensions enriched in rabbit renal proximal tubule segments were incubated with exogenous phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Exogenous PLA2 did not produce any significant change in various metabolic parameters reflective of cell injury in control nonhypoxic preparations despite a significant decrease in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and moderate increases in lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE). In contrast, exogenous PLA2 treatment of hypoxic tubules resulted in a severe degree of cell injury, as demonstrated by marked declines in tubule K+ and ATP contents and significant decreases in tubule uncoupled respiratory rates, and was associated with significant phospholipid alterations, including marked declines in phosphatidylcholine (PC) and PE and significant rises in LPC, LPE, and free fatty acids (FFA). The injurious metabolic effects of exogenous PLA2 on hypoxic tubules were reversed by addition of ATP-MgCl2 to the tubules. The protective effect of ATP-MgCl2 was associated with increases in tubule PC and PE contents and declines in LPC, LPE, and FFA contents. These experiments thus indicate that an increase in exogenous PLA2 activity produces renal proximal tubule cell injury when cell ATP levels decline, at which point phospholipid resynthesis cannot keep pace with phospholipid degradation with resulting depletion of phospholipids and accumulation of lipid by-products. High-energy phosphate store depletion appears to be an important condition for exogenous PLA2 activity to induce renal tubule cell injury. PMID:3417866

  4. Chania multitudinisentens gen. nov., sp. nov., an N-acyl-homoserine-lactone-producing bacterium in the family Enterobacteriaceae isolated from landfill site soil.

    PubMed

    Ee, Robson; Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Ji, Lianghui; Lim, Yan-Lue; Nor, Nuruddin Muhammad; Tee, Kok-Keng; Chen, Jian-Woon; Yin, Wai-Fong

    2016-06-01

    Phylogenetic and taxonomic characterization was performed for bacterium RB-25T, which was isolated from a soil sample collected in a former municipal landfill site in Puchong, Malaysia. Growth occurred at 20-37 °C at pH 5-8 but not in the presence of 9 % (w/v) NaCl or higher. The principal fatty acids were C16:0, C18:1ω7c and summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH). Ubiquinone-8 was the only isoprenoid quinone detected. Polar lipid analysis revealed the presence of phospholipid, phosphoaminolipid, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and one unidentified aminolipid. DNA G+C content was 50.9 mol% phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain RB-25T formed a distinct lineage within the family Enterobacteriaceae of the class Gammaproteobacteria. It exhibited a low level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with its phylogenetic neighbours Pantoea rwandensis LMG 26275T (96.6 %), Rahnella aquatilis CIP 78.65T (96.5 %), Pectobacterium betavasculorum ATCC 43762T (96.4 %), Pantoea rodasii LMG 26273T (96.3 %), Gibbsiella dentisursi NUM 1720T (96.3 %) and Serratia glossinae C1T (96.2 %). Multilocus sequence analyses based on fusA, pyrG, rplB, rpoB and sucA sequences showed a clear distinction of strain RB-25T from the most closely related genera. Isolate RB-25T could also be distinguished from members of these genera by a combination of the DNA G+C content, respiratory quinone system, fatty acid profile, polar lipid composition and other phenotypic features. Strain RB-25T represents a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Chaniamultitudinisentens gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RB-25T (=DSM 28811T=LMG 28304T). PMID:26978486

  5. The anticancer natural product ophiobolin A induces cytotoxicity by covalent modification of phosphatidylethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Chidley, Christopher; Trauger, Sunia A; Birsoy, Kıvanç; O'Shea, Erin K

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic screens allow the identification of small molecules with promising anticancer activity, but the difficulty in characterizing the mechanism of action of these compounds in human cells often undermines their value as drug leads. Here, we used a loss-of-function genetic screen in human haploid KBM7 cells to discover the mechanism of action of the anticancer natural product ophiobolin A (OPA). We found that genetic inactivation of de novo synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) mitigates OPA cytotoxicity by reducing cellular PE levels. OPA reacts with the ethanolamine head group of PE in human cells to form pyrrole-containing covalent cytotoxic adducts and these adducts lead to lipid bilayer destabilization. Our characterization of this unusual cytotoxicity mechanism, made possible by unbiased genetic screening in human cells, suggests that the selective antitumor activity displayed by OPA may be due to altered membrane PE levels in cancer cells. PMID:27403889

  6. Calorimetric Behavior of Phosphatidylcholine/Phosphatidylethanolamine Bilayers is Compatible with the Superlattice Model

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kwan Hon; Virtanen, Jorma; Somerharju, Pentti

    2012-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry was used to study the phase behavior of binary lipid bilayers consisting of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) of varying acyl chain length. A 2-state transition model was used to resolve the individual transition components, and the 2-state transition enthalpy, the relative enthalpy and the transition temperature of each component were plotted as a function of composition. Intriguingly, abrupt changes in these thermodynamic parameters were observed at or close to many “critical” XPE values predicted by the Superlattice model proposing that phospholipids with different headgroups tend to adopt regular rather than random lateral distributions. Statistical analysis indicated that the agreement between the observed and predicted “critical” compositions is highly significant. Accordingly, these data provide strong evidence for that the molecules in PC/PE bilayers tend to adopt regular, superlattice-like lateral arrangements, which could be involved in the regulation of the lipid compositions of biological membranes. PMID:22251448

  7. The intrinsic pKa values for phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine in phosphatidylcholine host bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, F C; Ojcius, D M; Hubbell, W L

    1986-01-01

    Potentiometric titrations and surface potential measurements have been used to determine the intrinsic pKa values of both the carboxyl and amino groups of phosphatidylserine (PS) in mixed vesicles of PS and phosphatidylcholine (PC), and also of the amino group of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in mixed PE-PC vesicles. The pKa of the carboxyl group of PS in liposomes with different PS/PC lipid ratios measured by the two different methods is 3.6 +/- 0.1, and the pKa of its amino group is 9.8 +/- 0.1. The pKa of the amino group of PE in PE-PC vesicles, determined solely by surface potential measurements, is 9.6 +/- 0.1. These pKa values are independent of the aqueous phase ionic strength and of the effect of the liposome's surface potential due to the presence of these partially charged lipids. PMID:3955180

  8. A gene encoding phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase from Acetobacter aceti and some properties of its disruptant.

    PubMed

    Hanada, T; Kashima, Y; Kosugi, A; Koizumi, Y; Yanagida, F; Udaka, S

    2001-12-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major component of membranes not only in eukaryotes, but also in several bacteria, including Acetobacter. To identify the PC biosynthetic pathway and its role in Acetobacter sp., we have studied Acetobacter aceti IFO3283, which is characterized by high ethanol oxidizing ability and high resistance to acetic acid. The pmt gene of A. aceti, encoding phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (Pmt), which catalyzes methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) to PC, has been cloned and sequenced. One recombinant plasmid that complemented the PC biosynthesis was isolated from a gene library of the genomic DNA of A. aceti. The pmt gene encodes a polypeptide with molecular mass of either 25125, 26216, or 29052 for an about 27-kDa protein. The sequence of this gene showed significant similarity (44.3% identity in the similar sequence region) with the Rhodobacter sphaeroides pmtA gene which is involved in PE N-methylation. When the pmt gene was expressed in E. coli, which lacks PC, the Pmt activity and PC formation were clearly demonstrated. A. aceti strain harboring an interrupted pmt allele, pmt::Km, was constructed. The pmt disruption was confirmed by loss of Pmt and PC, and by Southern blot analyses. The null pmt mutant contained no PC, but tenfold more PE and twofold more phosphatidylglycerol (PG). The pmt disruptant did not show any dramatic effects on growth in basal medium supplemented with ethanol, but the disruption caused slow growth in basal medium supplemented with acetate. These results suggest that the lack of PC in the A. aceti membrane may be compensated by the increases of PE and PG by an unknown mechanism, and PC in A. aceti membrane is related to its acetic acid tolerance.

  9. Location and Effects of an Antitumoral Catechin on the Structural Properties of Phosphatidylethanolamine Membranes.

    PubMed

    Casado, Francisco; Teruel, José A; Casado, Santiago; Ortiz, Antonio; Rodríguez-López, José N; Aranda, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    Green tea catechins exhibit high diversity of biological effects including antioncogenic properties, and there is enormous interest in their potential use in the treatment of a number of pathologies. It is recognized that the mechanism underlying the activity of catechins relay in part in processes related to the membrane, and many studies revealed that the ability of catechins to interact with lipids plays a probably necessary role in their mechanism of action. We present in this work the characterization of the interaction between an antitumoral synthetically modified catechin (3-O-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)-(-)-catechin, TMCG) and dimiristoylphosphatidyl-ethanolamine (DMPE) membranes using an array of biophysical techniques which include differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations. We found that TMCG incorporate into DMPE bilayers perturbing the thermotropic transition from the gel to the fluid state forming enriched domains which separated into different gel phases. TMCG does not influence the overall bilayer assembly of phosphatidylethanolamine systems but it manages to influence the interfacial region of the membrane and slightly decrease the interlamellar repeat distance of the bilayer. TMCG seems to be located in the interior of the phosphatidylethanolamine bilayer with the methoxy groups being in the deepest position and some portion of the molecule interacting with the water interface. We believe that the reported interactions are significant not only from the point of view of the known antitumoral effect of TMCG, but also might contribute to understanding the basic molecular mechanism of the biological effects of the catechins found at the membrane level. PMID:27347914

  10. Enzymatic properties of stingray Dasyatis pastinaca group V, IIA and IB phospholipases A(2): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ben Bacha, Abir; Abid, Islem; Horchani, Habib; Mejdoub, Hafedh

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, we have purified the group V phospholipase from the heart of cartilaginous fish stingray Dasyatis pastinaca and compared its biochemical properties with group IIA (sPLA2-IIA) and IB (sPLA2-IB) phospholipases previously purified from pancreas and intestine, respectively. Group V phospholipase (sPLA2-V) was purified to homogeneity by heat treatment, ammonium sulphate precipitation and RP-HPLC. The N-terminal sequence of the purified sPLA2-V exhibits a high degree of homology with those of mammal. The enzyme was found to be monomeric with a molecular mass estimation of 14 kDa. The specific activity of the purified enzyme, measured at pH 8 and 37 °C was 52 U/mg. Like sPLA2-IB and sPLA2-IIA, the sPLA2-V is found to be stable between pH 3 and 11 after 30 min of incubation. The purified sPLA2-V retained 65% of its activity after 10 min of incubation at 70 °C and it absolutely requires Ca(2+) for enzymatic activity. In addition it displayed high tolerance to organic solvents. Kinetic parameters Kmapp, kcat and the deduced catalytic efficiency (kcat/Kmapp) of the purified group-V, -IB and -IIA PLA2s were determined using phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC) or phosphatidylserine (PS) as substrate. The three enzymes hydrolyze the zwiterionic PE and PC substrates more efficiently than anionic PS substrate. PMID:24120965

  11. N-acyl-2-substituted-1,3-thiazolidines, a new class of non-narcotic antitussive agents: studies leading to the discovery of ethyl 2-[(2-methoxyphenoxy)methyl]-beta-oxothiazolidine-3-propanoate.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, C A; Di Domenico, R; Spinelli, S; Gallico, L; Fiocchi, L; Lotto, A; Menta, E; Borghi, A; Dalla Rosa, C; Tognella, S

    1995-02-01

    The synthesis of a novel class of antitussive agents is described. The compounds were examined for antitussive activity in guinea pig after cough induction by electrical or chemical stimulation. Ethyl 2-[(2-methoxyphenoxy)methyl]-beta-oxothiazolidine-3-propanoate (BBR 2173, moguisteine, 7) and other structurally related compounds showed a significant level of activity, comparable to that of codeine and dextromethorphan. The compounds presented in this paper are characterized by the N-acyl-2-substituted-1,3-thiazolidine moiety, which is a novel entry in the field of antitussive agents. The serendipitous discovery of the role played by the thiazolidine moiety in determining the antitussive effect promoted extensive investigations on these structures. This optimization process on N-acyl-2-substituted-1,3-thiazolidines led to the initial identification of 2-[(2-methoxypheoxy)methyl]-3-[2-(acetylthio)acetyl]- 1,3-thiazolidine (18a) as an interesting lead compound. The careful study of the rapid and very complicated metabolism of 18a provided further insights for the design of newer related derivatives. The observation that the metabolic oxidation on the lateral chain's sulfur of 18a to sulfoxide maintained the antitussive properties suggested the introduction of isosteric functional groups with respect to the sulfoxide moiety. Subsequent structural modifications showed that hydrolyzable malonic residues in the 3-position of the thiazolidine ring were able to assure high antitussive activity. This optimization ultimately led to the selection of moguisteine (7) as the most effective and safest representative of the series. Moguisteine is completely devoid of unwanted side effects (such as sedation and addiction), and its activity was demonstrated also in clinical studies.

  12. MALDI-TOF MS to monitor the kinetics of phospholipase A2-digestion of oxidized phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Schröter, Jenny; Süß, Rosmarie; Schiller, Jürgen

    2016-07-15

    Free fatty acids (FFA) are released through phospholipase A2 (PLA2), which cleaves the fatty acyl residue at the sn-2 position of phospholipids (PL). During inflammatory diseases, reactive oxygen species (such as HOCl) lead to the formation of oxidatively modified PL (e.g., chlorohydrin generation). It is still widely unknown to which extent the oxidation of PL influences their digestibility by PLA2. Additionally, investigations on the impact of the position of the unsaturated fatty acyl residue (sn-1 versus sn-2 position) and modifications of the headgroup (for instance phosphatidylcholine (PC) versus phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)) are also lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study is the investigation of these aspects using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry to elucidate the PL/lysophospholipid (LPL) ratios as measures of the PLA2 digestibility. We will show that oxidative modifications of PL by HOCl have a considerable impact on the PLA2 digestibility, i.e., oxidation of the unsaturated fatty acyl residues leads to a reduced digestibility of both PC and PE. Besides, it will be shown that MALDI MS is a convenient and reliable tool to investigate the related changes.

  13. Phosphatidic Acid Produced by Phospholipase D Promotes RNA Replication of a Plant RNA Virus

    PubMed Central

    Hyodo, Kiwamu; Taniguchi, Takako; Manabe, Yuki; Kaido, Masanori; Mise, Kazuyuki; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Taniguchi, Hisaaki; Okuno, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic positive-strand RNA [(+)RNA] viruses are intracellular obligate parasites replicate using the membrane-bound replicase complexes that contain multiple viral and host components. To replicate, (+)RNA viruses exploit host resources and modify host metabolism and membrane organization. Phospholipase D (PLD) is a phosphatidylcholine- and phosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing enzyme that catalyzes the production of phosphatidic acid (PA), a lipid second messenger that modulates diverse intracellular signaling in various organisms. PA is normally present in small amounts (less than 1% of total phospholipids), but rapidly and transiently accumulates in lipid bilayers in response to different environmental cues such as biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. However, the precise functions of PLD and PA remain unknown. Here, we report the roles of PLD and PA in genomic RNA replication of a plant (+)RNA virus, Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV). We found that RCNMV RNA replication complexes formed in Nicotiana benthamiana contained PLDα and PLDβ. Gene-silencing and pharmacological inhibition approaches showed that PLDs and PLDs-derived PA are required for viral RNA replication. Consistent with this, exogenous application of PA enhanced viral RNA replication in plant cells and plant-derived cell-free extracts. We also found that a viral auxiliary replication protein bound to PA in vitro, and that the amount of PA increased in RCNMV-infected plant leaves. Together, our findings suggest that RCNMV hijacks host PA-producing enzymes to replicate. PMID:26020241

  14. The Phosphatidylserine and Phosphatidylethanolamine Receptor CD300a Binds Dengue Virus and Enhances Infection

    PubMed Central

    Carnec, Xavier; Meertens, Laurent; Dejarnac, Ophélie; Perera-Lecoin, Manuel; Hafirassou, Mohamed Lamine; Kitaura, Jiro; Ramdasi, Rasika; Schwartz, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dengue virus (DENV) is the etiological agent of the major human arboviral disease. We previously demonstrated that the TIM and TAM families of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) receptors involved in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells mediate DENV entry into target cells. We show here that human CD300a, a recently identified phospholipid receptor, also binds directly DENV particles and enhances viral entry. CD300a facilitates infection of the four DENV serotypes, as well as of other mosquito-borne viruses such as West Nile virus and Chikungunya virus. CD300a acts as an attachment factor that enhances DENV internalization through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. CD300a recognizes predominantly phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEth) and to a lesser extent PtdSer associated with viral particles. Mutation of residues in the IgV domain critical for phospholipid binding abrogate CD300a-mediated enhancement of DENV infection. Finally, we show that CD300a is expressed at the surface of primary macrophages and anti-CD300a polyclonal antibodies partially inhibited DENV infection of these cells. Overall, these data indicate that CD300a is a novel DENV binding receptor that recognizes PtdEth and PtdSer present on virions and enhance infection. IMPORTANCE Dengue disease, caused by dengue virus (DENV), has emerged as the most important mosquito-borne viral disease of humans and is a major global health concern. The molecular bases of DENV-host cell interactions during virus entry are poorly understood, hampering the discovery of new targets for antiviral intervention. We recently discovered that the TIM and TAM proteins, two receptor families involved in the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-dependent phagocytic removal of apoptotic cells, interact with DENV particles-associated PtdSer through a mechanism that mimics the recognition of apoptotic cells and mediate DENV infection. In this study, we show that CD300a, a novel identified phospholipid receptor, mediates DENV infection. CD300a

  15. Hyaluronan-phosphatidylethanolamine polymers form pericellular coats on keratinocytes and promote basal keratinocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Symonette, Caitlin J; Kaur Mann, Aman; Tan, Xiao Cherie; Tolg, Cornelia; Ma, Jenny; Perera, Francisco; Yazdani, Arjang; Turley, Eva A

    2014-01-01

    Aged keratinocytes have diminished proliferative capacity and hyaluronan (HA) cell coats, which are losses that contribute to atrophic skin characterized by reduced barrier and repair functions. We formulated HA-phospholipid (phosphatidylethanolamine, HA-PE) polymers that form pericellular coats around cultured dermal fibroblasts independently of CD44 or RHAMM display. We investigated the ability of these HA-PE polymers to penetrate into aged mouse skin and restore epidermal function in vivo. Topically applied Alexa(647)-HA-PE penetrated into the epidermis and dermis, where it associated with both keratinocytes and fibroblasts. In contrast, Alexa(647)-HA was largely retained in the outer cornified layer of the epidermis and quantification of fluorescence confirmed that significantly more Alexa(647)-HA-PE penetrated into and was retained within the epidermis than Alexa(647)-HA. Multiple topical applications of HA-PE to shaved mouse skin significantly stimulated basal keratinocyte proliferation and epidermal thickness compared to HA or vehicle cream alone. HA-PE had no detectable effect on keratinocyte differentiation and did not promote local or systemic inflammation. These effects of HA-PE polymers are similar to those reported for endogenous epidermal HA in youthful skin and show that topical application of HA-PE polymers can restore some of the impaired functions of aged epidermis. PMID:25276814

  16. Less Grease, Please. Phosphatidylethanolamine Is the Only Lipid Required for Replication of a (+)RNA Virus

    PubMed Central

    Belov, George A.

    2015-01-01

    All positive strand RNA viruses of eukaryotes replicate their genomes in association with membranes. These viruses actively change cellular lipid metabolism to build replication membranes enriched in specific lipids. The ubiquitous use of membranes by positive strand RNA viruses apparently holds major evolutionary advantages; however our understanding of the mechanistic role of membranes, let alone of specific lipid components of the membrane bilayer, in the viral replication cycle is minimal. The replication complexes that can be isolated from infected cells, or reconstituted in vitro from crude cell lysates, do not allow controlled manipulation of the membrane constituents thus limiting their usefulness for understanding how exactly membranes support the replication reaction. Recent work from Peter Nagy group demonstrates that replication of a model positive strand RNA virus can be reconstituted in the in vitro reaction with liposomes of chemically defined composition and reveals an exclusive role of phosphatidylethanolamine in sustaining efficient viral RNA replication. This study opens new possibilities for investigation of membrane contribution in the replication process that may ultimately lead to development of novel broad spectrum antiviral compounds targeting the membrane-dependent elements of the replication cycle conserved among diverse groups of viruses. PMID:26131959

  17. RNA virus replication depends on enrichment of phosphatidylethanolamine at replication sites in subcellular membranes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kai; Nagy, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular membranes are critical for replication of positive-strand RNA viruses. To dissect the roles of various lipids, we have developed an artificial phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) vesicle-based Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) replication assay. We demonstrate that the in vitro assembled viral replicase complexes (VRCs) in artificial PE vesicles can support a complete cycle of replication and asymmetrical RNA synthesis, which is a hallmark of (+)-strand RNA viruses. Vesicles containing ∼85% PE and ∼15% additional phospholipids are the most efficient, suggesting that TBSV replicates within membrane microdomains enriched for PE. Accordingly, lipidomics analyses show increased PE levels in yeast surrogate host and plant leaves replicating TBSV. In addition, efficient redistribution of PE leads to enrichment of PE at viral replication sites. Expression of the tombusvirus p33 replication protein in the absence of other viral compounds is sufficient to promote intracellular redistribution of PE. Increased PE level due to deletion of PE methyltransferase in yeast enhances replication of TBSV and other viruses, suggesting that abundant PE in subcellular membranes has a proviral function. In summary, various (+)RNA viruses might subvert PE to build membrane-bound VRCs for robust replication in PE-enriched membrane microdomains. PMID:25810252

  18. Regulation of Phosphatidylethanolamine Homeostasis—The Critical Role of CTP:Phosphoethanolamine Cytidylyltransferase (Pcyt2)

    PubMed Central

    Pavlovic, Zvezdan; Bakovic, Marica

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is the most abundant lipid on the protoplasmatic leaflet of cellular membranes. It has a pivotal role in cellular processes such as membrane fusion, cell cycle regulation, autophagy, and apoptosis. CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (Pcyt2) is the main regulatory enzyme in de novo biosynthesis of PE from ethanolamine and diacylglycerol by the CDP-ethanolamine Kennedy pathway. The following is a summary of the current state of knowledge on Pcyt2 and how splicing and isoform specific differences could lead to variations in functional properties in this family of enzymes. Results from the most recent studies on Pcyt2 transcriptional regulation, promoter function, autophagy, and cell growth regulation are highlighted. Recent data obtained from Pcyt2 knockout mouse models is also presented, demonstrating the essentiality of this gene in embryonic development as well as the major physiological consequences of deletion of one Pcyt2 allele. Those include development of symptoms of the metabolic syndrome such as elevated lipogenesis and lipoprotein secretion, hypertriglyceridemia, liver steatosis, obesity, and insulin resistance. The objective of this review is to elucidate the nature of Pcyt2 regulation by linking its catalytic function with the regulation of lipid and energy homeostasis. PMID:23354482

  19. Intracellular localization of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis in cotyledons of cotton seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, K.D.; Trelease, R.N. )

    1991-01-01

    Subfractionation of clarified cotyledon homogenates of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seedlings on sucrose gradients revealed a single coincident peak of cholinephosphotransferase (CPT) and ethanolaminephosphotransferase (EPT) activities, which equilibrated with the main peak of Anti-mycin A-insensitive NADH: cytochrome c reductase (CCR) activity. The small percentage of CPT and EPT activities in glyoxysome-enriched pellets equilibrated with cytochrome c oxidase activity, not with catalase activity. Preincubation of microsomes in 0.2 millimolar MgCl{sub 2} followed by subfractionation on sucrose gradients resulted in peak CPT and EPT activities equilibrating with peak CCR activity at 24% (w/w) sucrose. Preincubation of microsomes with {sup 14}C-CCP choline (or {sup 14}C-CDPethanolamine) resulted in synthesis and incorporation of {sup 14}C-phosphatidylcholine (PC) (or {sup 14}C-phosphatidylethanolamine, PE) into membranes at the same density. Increasing the Mg{sup 2+} concentration to 2.0 millimolar facilitated binding of ribosomes and caused a concomitant shift in density (to 34% w/w sucrose) of peak CPT, EPT, and CCR activities. under these conditions, newly synthesized and incorporated {sup 14}C-PC (or PE) was recovered in these membranes. These results indicate that Er in cotyledons of germinated cotton seedlings is the primary subcellular site of PC and PE synthesis. This is similar to the situation in endosperm tissue but distinctly different from root and hypocotyl tissue where Golgi are a major subcellular site of PC and PE synthesis.

  20. Insufficiency of phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase is risk for lean non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsuka, Atsuko; Matsuyama, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Katayama, Akihiro; Eguchi, Jun; Murakami, Kazutoshi; Teshigawara, Sanae; Ogawa, Daisuke; Wada, Nozomu; Yasunaka, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Fusao; Takaki, Akinobu; Watanabe, Eijiro; Wada, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Although obesity is undoubtedly major risk for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the presence of lean NASH patients with normal body mass index has been recognized. Here, we report that the insufficiency of phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) is a risk for the lean NASH. The Pemt−/− mice fed high fat-high sucrose (HFHS) diet were protected from diet-induced obesity and diabetes, while they demonstrated prominent steatohepatitis and developed multiple liver tumors. Pemt exerted inhibitory effects on p53-driven transcription by forming the complex with clathrin heavy chain and p53, and Pemt−/− mice fed HFHS diet demonstrated prominent apoptosis of hepatocytes. Furthermore, hypermethylation and suppressed mRNA expression of F-box protein 31 and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α resulted in the prominent activation of cyclin D1. PEMT mRNA expression in liver tissues of NASH patients was significantly lower than those with simple steatosis and we postulated the distinct clinical entity of lean NASH with insufficiency of PEMT activities. PMID:26883167

  1. Phosphatidylethanolamine Is a Key Regulator of Membrane Fluidity in Eukaryotic Cells.

    PubMed

    Dawaliby, Rosie; Trubbia, Cataldo; Delporte, Cédric; Noyon, Caroline; Ruysschaert, Jean-Marie; Van Antwerpen, Pierre; Govaerts, Cédric

    2016-02-12

    Adequate membrane fluidity is required for a variety of key cellular processes and in particular for proper function of membrane proteins. In most eukaryotic cells, membrane fluidity is known to be regulated by fatty acid desaturation and cholesterol, although some cells, such as insect cells, are almost devoid of sterol synthesis. We show here that insect and mammalian cells present similar microviscosity at their respective physiological temperature. To investigate how both sterols and phospholipids control fluidity homeostasis, we quantified the lipidic composition of insect SF9 and mammalian HEK 293T cells under normal or sterol-modified condition. As expected, insect cells show minimal sterols compared with mammalian cells. A major difference is also observed in phospholipid content as the ratio of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) to phosphatidylcholine (PC) is inverted (4 times higher in SF9 cells). In vitro studies in liposomes confirm that both cholesterol and PE can increase rigidity of the bilayer, suggesting that both can be used by cells to maintain membrane fluidity. We then show that exogenously increasing the cholesterol amount in SF9 membranes leads to a significant decrease in PE:PC ratio whereas decreasing cholesterol in HEK 293T cells using statin treatment leads to an increase in the PE:PC ratio. In all cases, the membrane fluidity is maintained, indicating that both cell types combine regulation by sterols and phospholipids to control proper membrane fluidity.

  2. The anticancer natural product ophiobolin A induces cytotoxicity by covalent modification of phosphatidylethanolamine

    PubMed Central

    Chidley, Christopher; Trauger, Sunia A; Birsoy, Kıvanç; O'Shea, Erin K

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic screens allow the identification of small molecules with promising anticancer activity, but the difficulty in characterizing the mechanism of action of these compounds in human cells often undermines their value as drug leads. Here, we used a loss-of-function genetic screen in human haploid KBM7 cells to discover the mechanism of action of the anticancer natural product ophiobolin A (OPA). We found that genetic inactivation of de novo synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) mitigates OPA cytotoxicity by reducing cellular PE levels. OPA reacts with the ethanolamine head group of PE in human cells to form pyrrole-containing covalent cytotoxic adducts and these adducts lead to lipid bilayer destabilization. Our characterization of this unusual cytotoxicity mechanism, made possible by unbiased genetic screening in human cells, suggests that the selective antitumor activity displayed by OPA may be due to altered membrane PE levels in cancer cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14601.001 PMID:27403889

  3. Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Is a Conserved Feature of Cyclotide-Membrane Interactions*

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Sónia Troeira; Huang, Yen-Hua; Castanho, Miguel A. R. B.; Bagatolli, Luis A.; Sonza, Secondo; Tachedjian, Gilda; Daly, Norelle L.; Craik, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Cyclotides are bioactive cyclic peptides isolated from plants that are characterized by a topologically complex structure and exceptional resistance to enzymatic or thermal degradation. With their sequence diversity, ultra-stable core structural motif, and range of bioactivities, cyclotides are regarded as a combinatorial peptide template with potential applications in drug design. The mode of action of cyclotides remains elusive, but all reported biological activities are consistent with a mechanism involving membrane interactions. In this study, a diverse set of cyclotides from the two major subfamilies, Möbius and bracelet, and an all-d mirror image form, were examined to determine their mode of action. Their lipid selectivity and membrane affinity were determined, as were their toxicities against a range of targets (red blood cells, bacteria, and HIV particles). Although they had different membrane-binding affinities, all of the tested cyclotides targeted membranes through binding to phospholipids containing phosphatidylethanolamine headgroups. Furthermore, the biological potency of the tested cyclotides broadly correlated with their ability to target and disrupt cell membranes. The finding that a broad range of cyclotides target a specific lipid suggests their categorization as a new lipid-binding protein family. Knowledge of their membrane specificity has the potential to assist in the design of novel drugs based on the cyclotide framework, perhaps allowing the targeting of peptide drugs to specific cell types. PMID:22854971

  4. Effects of dexamethasone on palate mesenchymal cell phospholipase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Bulleit, R.F.; Zimmerman, E.F.

    1984-09-15

    Corticosteroids will induce cleft palate in mice. One suggested mechanism for this effect is through inhibition of phospholipase activity. This hypothesis was tested by measuring the effects of dexamethasone, a synthetic corticosteroid, on phospholipase activity in cultures of palate mesenchymal cells. Palate mesenchymal cells were prelabeled with (3H)arachidonic acid. The cells were subsequently treated with various concentrations of dexamethasone. Concurrently, cultures of M-MSV-transformed 3T3 cells were prepared identically. After treatment, phospholipase activity was stimulated by the addition of serum or epidermal growth factor (EGF), and radioactivity released into the medium was taken as a measure of phospholipase activity. Dexamethasone (1 X 10(-5) or 1 X 10(-4) M) could inhibit serum-stimulated phospholipase activity in transformed 3T3 cells after 1 to 24 hr of treatment. However, no inhibition of activity was measured in palate mesenchymal cells following this period of treatment. Not until 120 hr of treatment with dexamethasone (1 X 10(-4) M) was any significant inhibition of serum-stimulated phospholipase activity observed in palate mesenchymal cells. When EGF was used to stimulate phospholipase activity, dexamethasone (1 X 10(-5) M) caused an increase in phospholipase activity in palate mesenchymal cells. These observations suggested that phospholipase in transformed 3T3 cells was sensitive to inhibition by dexamethasone. However, palate mesenchymal cell phospholipase is only minimally sensitive to dexamethasone, and in certain instances can be enhanced. These results cannot support the hypothesis that corticosteroids mediate their teratogenic effect via inhibition of phospholipase activity.

  5. Phosphatidylserine and Phosphatidylethanolamine Bind to Protein Z Cooperatively and with Equal Affinity.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Tanusree; Manoj, Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Protein Z (PZ) is an anticoagulant that binds with high affinity to Protein Z-dependent protease inhibitor (ZPI) and accelerates the rate of ZPI-mediated inhibition of factor Xa (fXa) by more than 1000-fold in the presence of Ca2+ and phospholipids. PZ promotion of the ZPI-fXa interaction results from the anchoring of the Gla domain of PZ onto phospholipid surfaces and positioning the bound ZPI in close proximity to the Gla-anchored fXa, forming a ternary complex of PZ/ZPI/fXa. Although interaction of PZ with phospholipid membrane appears to be absolutely crucial for its cofactor activity, little is known about the binding of different phospholipids to PZ. The present study was conceived to understand the interaction of different phospholipids with PZ. Experiments with both soluble lipids and model membranes revealed that PZ binds to phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) with equal affinity (Kd~48 μM); further, PS and PE bound to PZ synergistically. Equilibrium dialysis experiments revealed two lipid-binding sites for both PS and PE. PZ binds with weaker affinity to other phospholipids, e.g., phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and binding of these lipids is not synergistic with respect to PS. Both PS and PE -containing membranes supported the formation of a fXa-PZ complex. PZ protection of fXa from antithrombin inhibition were also shown to be comparable in presence of both PS: PC and PE: PC membranes. These findings are particularly important and intriguing since they suggest a special affinity of PZ, in vivo, towards activated platelets, the primary membrane involved in blood coagulation process. PMID:27584039

  6. Homeostasis of phospholipids - The level of phosphatidylethanolamine tightly adapts to changes in ethanolamine plasmalogens.

    PubMed

    Dorninger, Fabian; Brodde, Alexander; Braverman, Nancy E; Moser, Ann B; Just, Wilhelm W; Forss-Petter, Sonja; Brügger, Britta; Berger, Johannes

    2015-02-01

    Ethanolamine plasmalogens constitute a group of ether glycerophospholipids that, due to their unique biophysical and biochemical properties, are essential components of mammalian cellular membranes. Their importance is emphasized by the consequences of defects in plasmalogen biosynthesis, which in humans cause the fatal disease rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP). In the present lipidomic study, we used fibroblasts derived from RCDP patients, as well as brain tissue from plasmalogen-deficient mice, to examine the compensatory mechanisms of lipid homeostasis in response to plasmalogen deficiency. Our results show that phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), a diacyl glycerophospholipid, which like ethanolamine plasmalogens carries the head group ethanolamine, is the main player in the adaptation to plasmalogen insufficiency. PE levels were tightly adjusted to the amount of ethanolamine plasmalogens so that their combined levels were kept constant. Similarly, the total amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in ethanolamine phospholipids was maintained upon plasmalogen deficiency. However, we found an increased incorporation of arachidonic acid at the expense of docosahexaenoic acid in the PE fraction of plasmalogen-deficient tissues. These data show that under conditions of reduced plasmalogen levels, the amount of total ethanolamine phospholipids is precisely maintained by a rise in PE. At the same time, a shift in the ratio between ω-6 and ω-3 PUFAs occurs, which might have unfavorable, long-term biological consequences. Therefore, our findings are not only of interest for RCDP but may have more widespread implications also for other disease conditions, as for example Alzheimer's disease, that have been associated with a decline in plasmalogens. PMID:25463479

  7. Profiling and relative quantification of phosphatidylethanolamine based on acetone stable isotope derivatization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Wei, Fang; Xu, Ji-qu; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xu-yan; Han, Xianlin; Quek, Siew-young; Huang, Feng-hong; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is considered to be one of the pivotal lipids for normal cellular function as well as disease initiation and progression. In this study, a simple, efficient, reliable, and inexpensive method for the qualitative analysis and relative quantification of PE, based on acetone stable isotope derivatization combined with double neutral loss scan-shotgun electrospray ionization tandem-quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis (ASID-DNLS-Shotgun ESI-MS/MS), was developed. The ASID method led to alkylation of the primary amino groups of PE with an isopropyl moiety. The use of acetone (d0-acetone) and deuterium-labeled acetone (d6-acetone) introduced a 6 Da mass shift that was ideally suited for relative quantitative analysis, and enhanced sensitivity for mass analysis. The DNLS model was introduced to simultaneously analyze the differential derivatized PEs by shotgun ESI-MS/MS with high selectivity and accuracy. The reaction specificity, labeling efficiency, and linearity of the ASID method were thoroughly evaluated in this study. Its excellent applicability was validated by qualitative and relative quantitative analysis of PE species presented in liver samples from rats fed different diets. Using the ASID-DNLS-Shotgun ESI-MS/MS method, 45 PE species from rat livers have been identified and quantified in an efficient manner. The level of total PEs tended to decrease in the livers of rats on high fat diets compared with controls. The levels of PE 32:1, 34:3, 34:2, 36:3, 36:2, 42:10, plasmalogen PE 36:1 and lyso PE 22:6 were significantly reduced, while levels of PE 36:1 and lyso PE 16:0 increased.

  8. Fermentation temperature modulates phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol levels in the cell membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Clark M; Zeno, Wade F; Lerno, Larry A; Longo, Marjorie L; Block, David E

    2013-09-01

    During alcoholic fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to a host of environmental and physiological stresses. Extremes of fermentation temperature have previously been demonstrated to induce fermentation arrest under growth conditions that would otherwise result in complete sugar utilization at "normal" temperatures and nutrient levels. Fermentations were carried out at 15°C, 25°C, and 35°C in a defined high-sugar medium using three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with diverse fermentation characteristics. The lipid composition of these strains was analyzed at two fermentation stages, when ethanol levels were low early in stationary phase and in late stationary phase at high ethanol concentrations. Several lipids exhibited dramatic differences in membrane concentration in a temperature-dependent manner. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used as a tool to elucidate correlations between specific lipid species and fermentation temperature for each yeast strain. Fermentations carried out at 35°C exhibited very high concentrations of several phosphatidylinositol species, whereas at 15°C these yeast strains exhibited higher levels of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine species with medium-chain fatty acids. Furthermore, membrane concentrations of ergosterol were highest in the yeast strain that experienced stuck fermentations at all three temperatures. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements of yeast cell membrane fluidity during fermentation were carried out using the lipophilic fluorophore diphenylhexatriene. These measurements demonstrate that the changes in the lipid composition of these yeast strains across the range of fermentation temperatures used in this study did not significantly affect cell membrane fluidity. However, the results from this study indicate that fermenting S. cerevisiae modulates its membrane lipid composition in a temperature-dependent manner.

  9. pH Alters PEG-Mediated Fusion of Phosphatidylethanolamine-Containing Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Hirak; Sengupta, Tanusree; Lentz, Barry R.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we examine the different mechanisms of poly(ethylene glycol)-mediated fusion of small unilamellar vesicles composed of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine/dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE)/sphingomyelin/cholesterol in a molar ratio of 35:30:15:20 at pH 7.4 versus pH 5. In doing so, we test the hypothesis that fusion of this lipid mixture should be influenced by differences in hydration of DOPE at these two pH values. An examination of the literature reveals that DOPE should be less hydrated at pH 5 (where influenza virus particles fuse with endosome membranes) than at pH 7.4 (where synaptic vesicles or HIV virus particles fuse with plasma membrane). Ensemble kinetic experiments revealed substantial differences in fusion of this plasma membrane mimetic system at these two pH values. The most dramatic difference was the observation of two intermediates at pH 5 but loss of one of these fusion intermediates at pH 7.4. Analysis of data collected at several temperatures also revealed that formation of the initial fusion intermediate (stalk) was favored at pH 7.4 due to increased activation entropy. Our observations support the hypothesis that the different negative intrinsic curvature of DOPE can account for different fusion paths and activation thermodynamics in steps of the fusion process at these two pH values. Finally, the effects of 2 mol % hexadecane on fusion at both pH values seemed to have similar origins for step 1 (promotion of acyl chain or hydrocarbon excursion into interbilayer space) and step 3 (reduction of interstice energy leading to expansion to a critical stalk radius). Different hexadecane effects on activation thermodynamics at these two pH values can also be related to altered DOPE hydration. The results support our kinetic model for fusion and offer insight into the critical role of phosphatidylethanolamine in fusion. PMID:25229141

  10. Neo1 and phosphatidylethanolamine contribute to vacuole membrane fusion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuantai; Takar, Mehmet; Cuentas-Condori, Andrea A.; Graham, Todd R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT NEO1 is an essential gene in budding yeast and belongs to a highly conserved subfamily of P-type ATPase genes that encode phospholipid flippases. Inactivation of temperature sensitive neo1ts alleles produces pleiomorphic defects in the secretory and endocytic pathways, including fragmented vacuoles. A screen for multicopy suppressors of neo1-2ts growth defects yielded YPT7, which encodes a Rab7 homolog involved in SNARE-dependent vacuolar fusion. YPT7 suppressed the vacuole fragmentation phenotype of neo1-2, but did not suppress Golgi-associated protein trafficking defects. Neo1 localizes to Golgi and endosomal membranes and was only observed in the vacuole membrane, where Ypt7 localizes, in retromer mutants or when highly overexpressed in wild-type cells. Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) has been implicated in Ypt7-dependent vacuolar membrane fusion in vitro and is a potential transport substrate of Neo1. Strains deficient in PE synthesis (psd1Δ psd2Δ) displayed fragmented vacuoles and the neo1-2 fragmented vacuole phenotype was also suppressed by overexpression of PSD2, encoding a phosphatidylserine decarboxylase that produces PE at endosomes. In contrast, neo1-2 was not suppressed by overexpression of VPS39, an effector of Ypt7 that forms a membrane contact site potentially involved in PE transfer between vacuoles and mitochondria. These results support the crucial role of PE in vacuole membrane fusion and implicate Neo1 in concentrating PE in the cytosolic leaflet of Golgi and endosomes, and ultimately the vacuole membrane. PMID:27738552

  11. A rapidly metabolizing pool of phosphatidylglycerol as a precursor of phosphatidylethanolamine and diglyceride in Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, F J; Chen, S L; Fulco, A J

    1980-02-01

    Pulse-chase experiments in Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581 with [U-14C]palmitate, L-[U-14C]serine, and [U-14C]glycerol showed that a large pool of phosphatidylglycerol (PG) which exhibited rapid turnover in the phosphate moiety (PGt) underwent very rapid interconversion with the large diglyceride (DG) pool. Kinetics of DG labeling indicated that the fatty acyl and diacylated glycerol moieties of PGt were also utilized as precursors for net DG formation. The [U-14C]glycerol pulse-chase results also confirmed the presence of a second, metabolically stable pool of PG (PGs), which was deduced from [32P]phosphate studies. The other major phospholipid, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), exhibited pronounced lags relative to PG and DG in 14C-fatty acid, [14C]glycerol, and [32P]phosphate incorporation, but not for incorporation of L-[U-14C]serine into the ethanolamine group of PE or into the serine moiety of the small phosphatidylserine (PS) pool. Furthermore, initial rates of L-[U-14C]serine incorporation into the serine and ethanolamine moieties of PS and PE were unaffected by cerulenin. The results provided compelling in vivo evidence that de novo PGt, PS, and PE synthesis in this organism proceed for the most part sequentially in the order PGt yields PS yields PE rather than via branching pathways from a common intermediate and that the phosphatidyl moiety in PS and PE is derived largely from the corresponding moiety in PGt, whereas the DG pool indirectly provides an additional source for this conversion by way of the facile PGt in equilibrium or formed from DG interconversion. PMID:6767686

  12. A rapidly metabolizing pool of phosphatidylglycerol as a precursor of phosphatidylethanolamine and diglyceride in Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, F J; Chen, S L; Fulco, A J

    1980-01-01

    Pulse-chase experiments in Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581 with [U-14C]palmitate, L-[U-14C]serine, and [U-14C]glycerol showed that a large pool of phosphatidylglycerol (PG) which exhibited rapid turnover in the phosphate moiety (PGt) underwent very rapid interconversion with the large diglyceride (DG) pool. Kinetics of DG labeling indicated that the fatty acyl and diacylated glycerol moieties of PGt were also utilized as precursors for net DG formation. The [U-14C]glycerol pulse-chase results also confirmed the presence of a second, metabolically stable pool of PG (PGs), which was deduced from [32P]phosphate studies. The other major phospholipid, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), exhibited pronounced lags relative to PG and DG in 14C-fatty acid, [14C]glycerol, and [32P]phosphate incorporation, but not for incorporation of L-[U-14C]serine into the ethanolamine group of PE or into the serine moiety of the small phosphatidylserine (PS) pool. Furthermore, initial rates of L-[U-14C]serine incorporation into the serine and ethanolamine moieties of PS and PE were unaffected by cerulenin. The results provided compelling in vivo evidence that de novo PGt, PS, and PE synthesis in this organism proceed for the most part sequentially in the order PGt yields PS yields PE rather than via branching pathways from a common intermediate and that the phosphatidyl moiety in PS and PE is derived largely from the corresponding moiety in PGt, whereas the DG pool indirectly provides an additional source for this conversion by way of the facile PGt in equilibrium or formed from DG interconversion. PMID:6767686

  13. Rapidly metabolizing pool of phosphatidylglycerol as a precursor for phosphatidylethanolamine and diglyceride in Bacillus megaterium

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, F.J.; Chen, S.L.; Fulco, A.J.

    1980-02-01

    Pulse-chase experiments in Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581 with (U-/sup 14/C)-palmitate, L-(U-/sup 14/C)serine, and (U-/sup 14/C)glycerol showed that a large pool of phosphatidylglycerol (PG) which exhibited rapid turnover in the phosphate moiety (PG/sub t/) underwent very rapid interconversion with the large diglyceride (DG) pool. Kinetics of DG labeling indicated that the fatty acyl and diacylated glycerol moieties of PG/sub t/ were also utilized as precursors for net DG formation. The (U-/sup 14/C)glycerol pulse-chase results also confirmed the presence of a second, metabolically stable pool of PG (PG/sub s/), which was deduced from (/sup 32/P)phosphate studies. The other major phospholipid, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), exhibited pronounced lags relative to PG and DG in /sup 14/C-fatty acid, (/sup 14/C)glycerol, and (/sup 32/P)-phosphate incorporation, but not for incorporation of L-(U-/sup 14/C)serine into the ethanolamine group of PE or into the serine moiety of the small phosphatidylserine (PS) pool. Furthermore, initial rates of L-(U-/sup 14/C)serine incorporation into the serine and ethanolamine moieties of PS and PE were unaffected by cerulenin. The results provided compelling in vivo evidence that de novo PG/sub t/, PS, and PE syntheses in this organism proceed for the most part sequentially in the order PG/sub t/ ..-->.. PS ..-->.. PE rather than via branching pathways from a common intermediate and that the phosphatidyl moiety in PS and PE is derived largely from the corresponding moiety in PG/sub t/, whereas the DG pool indirectly provides an additional source for this conversion by way of the facile PG/sub t/ in equilibrium DG interconversion.

  14. Phosphatidylserine and Phosphatidylethanolamine Bind to Protein Z Cooperatively and with Equal Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Tanusree; Manoj, Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Protein Z (PZ) is an anticoagulant that binds with high affinity to Protein Z-dependent protease inhibitor (ZPI) and accelerates the rate of ZPI-mediated inhibition of factor Xa (fXa) by more than 1000-fold in the presence of Ca2+ and phospholipids. PZ promotion of the ZPI-fXa interaction results from the anchoring of the Gla domain of PZ onto phospholipid surfaces and positioning the bound ZPI in close proximity to the Gla-anchored fXa, forming a ternary complex of PZ/ZPI/fXa. Although interaction of PZ with phospholipid membrane appears to be absolutely crucial for its cofactor activity, little is known about the binding of different phospholipids to PZ. The present study was conceived to understand the interaction of different phospholipids with PZ. Experiments with both soluble lipids and model membranes revealed that PZ binds to phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) with equal affinity (Kd~48 μM); further, PS and PE bound to PZ synergistically. Equilibrium dialysis experiments revealed two lipid-binding sites for both PS and PE. PZ binds with weaker affinity to other phospholipids, e.g., phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and binding of these lipids is not synergistic with respect to PS. Both PS and PE -containing membranes supported the formation of a fXa-PZ complex. PZ protection of fXa from antithrombin inhibition were also shown to be comparable in presence of both PS: PC and PE: PC membranes. These findings are particularly important and intriguing since they suggest a special affinity of PZ, in vivo, towards activated platelets, the primary membrane involved in blood coagulation process. PMID:27584039

  15. Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein 4 (PEBP4) is a secreted protein and has multiple functions.

    PubMed

    He, Huan; Liu, Dan; Lin, Hui; Jiang, Shanshan; Ying, Ying; Chun, Shao; Deng, Haiteng; Zaia, Joseph; Wen, Rong; Luo, Zhijun

    2016-07-01

    Phosphatidylethanolamine binding proteins (PEBP) represent a superfamily of proteins that are conserved from bacteria to humans. In mammals, four members have been identified, PEBP1-4. To determine the functional differences among PEBP1-4 and the underlying mechanism for their actions, we performed a sequence alignment and found that PEBP4 contains a signal peptide and potential glycosylation sites, whereas PEBP1-3 are intracellular proteins. To test if PEBP4 is secreted, we made constructs with Myc epitope at the amino (N) terminus or carboxyl (C) terminus to mask the signal sequence or keep it free, respectively. Our data revealed that both mouse and human PEBP4 were secreted when the epitope was tagged at their C-terminus. To our surprise, secretion was dependent upon the C-terminal conserved domain in addition to the N-terminal signal sequence. When the epitope was placed to the N-terminus, the recombinant protein failed to secrete and instead, was retained in the cytoplasm. Mass spectrometry detected asparagine (N)-glycosylation on the secreted PEBP4. Although overexpression of N-terminal tagged PEBP4 resulted in an inhibition of ERK activation by EGF, that with a C-terminal epitope tag did not have such an effect. Likewise, transfection of PEBP4 shRNA did not appear to affect ERK activation, suggesting that PEBP4 does not participate in the regulation of this pathway. In contrast, PEBP4 siRNA suppressed phosphorylation of Act at S473. Therefore, our results suggest that PEBP4 is a multifunctional protein and can be secreted. It will be important to investigate the mechanism by which PEBP4 is secreted and regulates cellular events.

  16. Fermentation Temperature Modulates Phosphatidylethanolamine and Phosphatidylinositol Levels in the Cell Membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Clark M.; Zeno, Wade F.; Lerno, Larry A.; Longo, Marjorie L.

    2013-01-01

    During alcoholic fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to a host of environmental and physiological stresses. Extremes of fermentation temperature have previously been demonstrated to induce fermentation arrest under growth conditions that would otherwise result in complete sugar utilization at “normal” temperatures and nutrient levels. Fermentations were carried out at 15°C, 25°C, and 35°C in a defined high-sugar medium using three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with diverse fermentation characteristics. The lipid composition of these strains was analyzed at two fermentation stages, when ethanol levels were low early in stationary phase and in late stationary phase at high ethanol concentrations. Several lipids exhibited dramatic differences in membrane concentration in a temperature-dependent manner. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used as a tool to elucidate correlations between specific lipid species and fermentation temperature for each yeast strain. Fermentations carried out at 35°C exhibited very high concentrations of several phosphatidylinositol species, whereas at 15°C these yeast strains exhibited higher levels of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine species with medium-chain fatty acids. Furthermore, membrane concentrations of ergosterol were highest in the yeast strain that experienced stuck fermentations at all three temperatures. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements of yeast cell membrane fluidity during fermentation were carried out using the lipophilic fluorophore diphenylhexatriene. These measurements demonstrate that the changes in the lipid composition of these yeast strains across the range of fermentation temperatures used in this study did not significantly affect cell membrane fluidity. However, the results from this study indicate that fermenting S. cerevisiae modulates its membrane lipid composition in a temperature-dependent manner. PMID:23811519

  17. Human autoantibodies to diacyl-phosphatidylethanolamine recognize a specific set of discrete cytoplasmic domains

    PubMed Central

    Laurino, C C F C; Fritzler, M J; Mortara, R A; Silva, N P; Almeida, I C; Andrade, L E C

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize a novel human autoantibody–autoantigen system represented as cytoplasmic discrete speckles (CDS) in indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). A distinct CDS IIF pattern represented by 3–20 discrete speckles dispersed throughout the cytoplasm was identified among other cytoplasmic speckled IIF patterns. The cytoplasmic domains labelled by human anti-CDS-1 antibodies did not co-localize with endosome/lysosome markers EEA1 and LAMP-2, but showed partial co-localization with glycine–tryptophan bodies (GWB). CDS-1 sera did not react with several cellular extracts in immunoblotting and did not immunoprecipitate recombinant GW182 or EEA1 proteins. The typical CDS-1 IIF labelling pattern was abolished after delipidation of HEp-2 cells. Moreover, CDS-1 sera reacted strongly with a lipid component co-migrating with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC)-immunostaining of HEp-2 cell total lipid extracts. The CDS-1 major molecular targets were established by electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), HPTLC-immunostaining and chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as diacyl-PE species, containing preferentially a cis-C18 : 1 fatty acid chain at C-2 of the glycerol moiety, namely 1,2-cis-C18 : 1-PE and 1-C16 : 0-2-cis-C18 : 1-PE. The clinical association of CDS-1 sera included a variety of systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases but they were also observed in patients with no evidence of autoimmune disease. PMID:16487257

  18. LasR receptor for detection of long-chain quorum-sensing signals: identification of N-acyl-homoserine lactones encoded by the avsI locus of Agrobacterium vitis.

    PubMed

    Savka, Michael A; Le, Phuong T; Burr, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial biosensor strains have greatly facilitated the rapid discovery, isolation, and study of quorum-sensing systems. In this study, we determined the relative sensitivity of a LasR-based E. coli bacterial bioluminescence biosensor JM109 (pSB1075) for 13 diverse long-chain N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) including oxygen-substituted and -unsubstituted AHLs containing 14, 16, and 18 carbons and with and without double bonds. Furthermore, we show by bioassay, HPLC, and GC/MS that four long-chain AHLs of the C16-HSL family are encoded by the avsI gene of Agrobacterium vitis strain F2/5, a non-tumorigenic strain that inhibits pathogenic strains of A. vitis from causing crown gall on grape. The four C16-HSLs include: C16-HSL, N-hexadecanoyl homoserine lactone; 3-oxo-C16-HSL, N-(3-oxohexadecanoyl)homoserine lactone; C16:1-HSL, N-(cis-9-octadecenoyl)homoserine lactone; and 3-oxo-C16:1-HSL, N-(3-oxo-cis-11-hexadecenoyl)homoserine lactone. Thus, the LasR-based bioluminescent biosensor tested in this study should serve as a useful tool for the detection of various long-chain AHLs with and without double bonds as well as those oxylated at the third carbon from uninvestigated species. PMID:20514483

  19. Ru(II)-based complexes with N-(acyl)-N',N'-(disubstituted)thiourea ligands: Synthesis, characterization, BSA- and DNA-binding studies of new cytotoxic agents against lung and prostate tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Correa, Rodrigo S; de Oliveira, Katia M; Delolo, Fábio G; Alvarez, Anislay; Mocelo, Raúl; Plutin, Ana M; Cominetti, Marcia R; Castellano, Eduardo E; Batista, Alzir A

    2015-09-01

    Four ruthenium(II)-based complexes with N-(acyl)-N',N'-(disubstituted)thiourea derivatives (Th) were obtained. The compounds, with the general formula trans-[Ru(PPh3)2(Th)(bipy)]PF6, interact with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and DNA. BSA-binding constants, which were in the range of 3.3-6.5×10(4) M(-1), and the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS), suggest spontaneous interactions with this protein by electrostatic forces due to the positive charge of the complexes. Also, binding constant by spectrophotometric DNA titration (Kb = 0.8-1.8×10(4) M(-1)) and viscosity studies indicate weak interactions between the complexes and DNA. Cytotoxicity assays against DU-145 (prostate cancer) and A549 (lung cancer) tumour cells revealed that the complexes are more active in tumour cells than in normal (L929) cells, and that they present high cytotoxicity (low IC50 values) compared with the reference metallodrug, cisplatin.

  20. Ru(II)-based complexes with N-(acyl)-N',N'-(disubstituted)thiourea ligands: Synthesis, characterization, BSA- and DNA-binding studies of new cytotoxic agents against lung and prostate tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Correa, Rodrigo S; de Oliveira, Katia M; Delolo, Fábio G; Alvarez, Anislay; Mocelo, Raúl; Plutin, Ana M; Cominetti, Marcia R; Castellano, Eduardo E; Batista, Alzir A

    2015-09-01

    Four ruthenium(II)-based complexes with N-(acyl)-N',N'-(disubstituted)thiourea derivatives (Th) were obtained. The compounds, with the general formula trans-[Ru(PPh3)2(Th)(bipy)]PF6, interact with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and DNA. BSA-binding constants, which were in the range of 3.3-6.5×10(4) M(-1), and the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS), suggest spontaneous interactions with this protein by electrostatic forces due to the positive charge of the complexes. Also, binding constant by spectrophotometric DNA titration (Kb = 0.8-1.8×10(4) M(-1)) and viscosity studies indicate weak interactions between the complexes and DNA. Cytotoxicity assays against DU-145 (prostate cancer) and A549 (lung cancer) tumour cells revealed that the complexes are more active in tumour cells than in normal (L929) cells, and that they present high cytotoxicity (low IC50 values) compared with the reference metallodrug, cisplatin. PMID:26160296

  1. Two G-protein-coupled-receptor candidates, Cand2 and Cand7, are involved in Arabidopsis root growth mediated by the bacterial quorum-sensing signals N-acyl-homoserine lactones.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guoping; Liu, Fang; Ma, Hong; Hao, Shaoyan; Zhao, Qian; Bian, Zirui; Jia, Zhenhua; Song, Shuishan

    2012-01-20

    Many Gram-negative bacteria use N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) as quorum sensing (QS) signaling molecules to coordinate their group behavior. Recently, it was shown that plants can perceive and respond to these bacterial AHLs. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying the response of plants to bacterial QS signals. In this study, we show that the promotion of root elongation in wild type Arabidopsis thaliana induced by the AHLs N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone (3OC6-HSL) or N-3-oxo-octanoyl-homoserine lactone (3OC8-HSL) was completely abolished in plants with loss-of-function mutations in two candidate G-protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs), Cand2 and Cand7. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression levels of Cand2 and Cand7 were elevated in plants treated with 3OC6-HSL or 3OC8-HSL. These results suggest that Cand2 and Cand7 are involved in the regulation of root growth by bacterial AHLs and that GPCRs play a role in mediating interactions between plants and microbes.

  2. Interactions of the amphiphiles arbutin and tryptophan with phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine bilayers in the dry state

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Water is essential for life, but some organisms can survive complete desiccation, while many more survive partial dehydration during drying or freezing. The function of some protective molecules, such as sugars, has been extensively studied, but much less is known about the effects of amphiphiles such as flavonoids and other aromatic compounds. Amphiphiles may be largely soluble under fully hydrated conditions, but will partition into membranes upon removal of water. Little is known about the effects of amphiphiles on membrane stability and how amphiphile structure and function are related. Here, we have used two of the most intensively studied amphiphiles, tryptophan (Trp) and arbutin (Arb), along with their isolated hydrophilic moieties glycine (Gly) and glucose (Glc) to better understand structure-function relationships in amphiphile-membrane interactions in the dry state. Results Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to measure gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition temperatures (Tm) of liposomes formed from phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in the presence of the different additives. In anhydrous samples, both Glc and Arb strongly depressed Tm, independent of lipid composition, while Gly had no measurable effect. Trp, on the other hand, either depressed or increased Tm, depending on lipid composition. We found no evidence for strong interactions of any of the compounds with the lipid carbonyl or choline groups, while all additives except Gly seemed to interact with the phosphate groups. In the case of Arb and Glc, this also had a strong effect on the sugar OH vibrations in the FTIR spectra. In addition, vibrations from the hydrophobic indole and phenol moieties of Trp and Arb, respectively, provided evidence for interactions with the lipid bilayers. Conclusions The two amphiphiles Arb and Trp interact differently with dry bilayers. The interactions of Arb are dominated by contributions of the Glc moiety, while

  3. Characterization of Plp, a phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase and hemolysin of Vibrio anguillarum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vibrio anguillarum is the causative agent of vibriosis in fish. Several extracellular proteins secreted by V. anguillarum have been shown to contribute to virulence. While two hemolysin gene clusters, vah1-plp and rtxACHBDE, have been previously identified and described, the activities of the protein encoded by the plp gene were not known. Here we describe the biochemical activities of the plp-encoded protein and its role in pathogenesis. Results The plp gene, one of the components in vah1 cluster, encodes a 416-amino-acid protein (Plp), which has homology to lipolytic enzymes containing the catalytic site amino acid signature SGNH. Hemolytic activity of the plp mutant increased 2-3-fold on sheep blood agar indicating that plp represses vah1; however, hemolytic activity of the plp mutant decreased by 2-3-fold on fish blood agar suggesting that Plp has different effects against erythrocytes from different species. His6-tagged recombinant Plp protein (rPlp) was over-expressed in E. coli. Purified and re-folded active rPlp exhibited phospholipase A2 activity against phosphatidylcholine and no activity against phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine, or sphingomyelin. Characterization of rPlp revealed broad optimal activities at pH 5–9 and at temperatures of 30-64°C. Divalent cations and metal chelators did not affect activity of rPlp. We also demonstrated that Plp was secreted using thin layer chromatography and immunoblot analysis. Additionally, rPlp had strong hemolytic activity towards rainbow trout erythrocytes, but not to sheep erythrocytes suggesting that rPlp is optimized for lysis of phosphatidylcholine-rich fish erythrocytes. Further, only the loss of the plp gene had a significant effect on hemolytic activity of culture supernatant on fish erythrocytes, while the loss of rtxA and/or vah1 had little effect. However, V. anguillarum strains with mutations in plp or in plp and vah1 exhibited no significant reduction in virulence compared to

  4. Reminiscence of phospholipase B in Penicillium notatum

    PubMed Central

    SAITO, Kunihiko

    2014-01-01

    Since the phospholipase B (PLB) was reported as a deacylase of both lecithin and lysolecithin yielding fatty acids and glycerophosphocholine (GPC), there was a question as to whether it is a single enzyme or a mixture of a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and a lysophospholipase (LPL). We purified the PLB in Penicillium notatum and showed that it catalyzed deacylation of sn-1 and sn-2 fatty acids of 1,2-diacylphospholipids and also sn-1 or sn-2 fatty acids of 1- or 2-monoacylphospholipids (lysophospholipids). Further, it also has a monoacyllipase activity. The purified PLB is a glycoprotein with m.w. of 91,300. The sugar moiety is M9 only and the protein moiety consists of 603 amino acids. PLB, different from PLA2, shows other enzymatic activities, such as transacylase, lipase and acylesterase. PLB activity is influenced by various substances, e.g. detergents, deoxycholate, diethylether, Fe3+, and endogenous protease. Therefore, PLB might have broader roles than PLA2 in vivo. The database shows an extensive sequence similarity between P. notatum PLB and fungal PLB, cPLA2 and patatin, suggesting a homologous relationship. The catalytic triad of cPLA2, Ser, Asp and Arg, is also present in P. notatum PLB. Other related PLBs, PLB/Lipases are discussed. PMID:25391318

  5. Reminiscence of phospholipase B in Penicillium notatum.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kunihiko

    2014-01-01

    Since the phospholipase B (PLB) was reported as a deacylase of both lecithin and lysolecithin yielding fatty acids and glycerophosphocholine (GPC), there was a question as to whether it is a single enzyme or a mixture of a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and a lysophospholipase (LPL). We purified the PLB in Penicillium notatum and showed that it catalyzed deacylation of sn-1 and sn-2 fatty acids of 1,2-diacylphospholipids and also sn-1 or sn-2 fatty acids of 1- or 2-monoacylphospholipids (lysophospholipids). Further, it also has a monoacyllipase activity. The purified PLB is a glycoprotein with m.w. of 91,300. The sugar moiety is M9 only and the protein moiety consists of 603 amino acids. PLB, different from PLA2, shows other enzymatic activities, such as transacylase, lipase and acylesterase. PLB activity is influenced by various substances, e.g. detergents, deoxycholate, diethylether, Fe(3+), and endogenous protease. Therefore, PLB might have broader roles than PLA2 in vivo. The database shows an extensive sequence similarity between P. notatum PLB and fungal PLB, cPLA2 and patatin, suggesting a homologous relationship. The catalytic triad of cPLA2, Ser, Asp and Arg, is also present in P. notatum PLB. Other related PLBs, PLB/Lipases are discussed. PMID:25391318

  6. Improved method for quantitative analysis of methylated phosphatidylethanolamine species and its application for analysis of diabetic mouse liver samples

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Miao; Kim, Geun Hyang; Wei, Fang; Chen, Hong; Altarejos, Judith; Han, Xianlin

    2015-01-01

    N-monomethyl phosphatidylethanolamine (MMPE) and N,N-dimethyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE) species are intermediates of phosphatidylcholine (PC) de novo biosynthesis through methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). This synthesis pathway for PC is especially important in the liver when choline is deficient in the diet. In spite of some efforts on the analysis of MMPE and DMPE species, cost effective and high throughput method for determination of individual MMPE and DMPE species including their regioisomeric structures is still missing. Therefore, we adopted and improved the “mass-tag” strategy for determining these PE-like species by methylating PE, MMPE, and DMPE molecules with deuterated methyl iodide to generate PC molecules with 9, 6, and 3 deuterium atoms, respectively. Based on the principles of multidimensional mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomics, we could directly identify and quantify these methylated PE species including their fatty acyl chains and regiospecific positions. This established method provided remarkable sensitivity with a limit of detection at 0.5 fmol/μl, high specificity, and a broad linear dynamics range of > 2500 folds. By applying this method to the liver samples of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice and their controls, we found that the levels of PC species had the trends to decrease and the amounts of PE species tended to increase in the liver of STZ-induced diabetic mice comparing to their controls, but not significant changes in MMPE and DMPE species were determined. However, remodeling of fatty acyl chains in these determined lipids was observed in the liver of STZ-induced diabetic mice with reduction of 16:1 and increases in 18:2, 18:1, and 18:0 acyl chains. These results demonstrated that the improved method would serve as a powerful tool to reveal the role of the PC de novo biosynthesis pathway through methylation of PE species in biological systems. PMID:25725579

  7. Improved method for quantitative analysis of methylated phosphatidylethanolamine species and its application for analysis of diabetic-mouse liver samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Kim, Geun Hyang; Wei, Fang; Chen, Hong; Altarejos, Judith; Han, Xianlin

    2015-07-01

    N-monomethyl phosphatidylethanolamine (MMPE) and N,N-dimethyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE) species are intermediates of phosphatidylcholine (PC) de-novo biosynthesis through methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). This synthesis pathway for PC is especially important in the liver when choline is deficient in the diet. Despite some efforts focused on the analysis of MMPE and DMPE species, a cost-effective and high-throughput method for determination of individual MMPE and DMPE species, including their regioisomeric structures, is still missing. Therefore we adopted and improved the "mass-tag" strategy for determining these PE-like species by methylating PE, MMPE, and DMPE molecules with deuterated methyl iodide to generate PC molecules with nine, six, and three deuterium atoms, respectively. On the basis of the principles of multidimensional mass-spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomics we could directly identify and quantify these methylated PE species, including their fatty-acyl chains and regiospecific positions. The method provided remarkable sensitivity, with a limit of detection at 0.5 fmol μL(-1), high specificity, and a broad linear-dynamics range of >2500 folds. By applying this method to liver samples from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice and controls, we found that the levels of PC species tended to decrease and the amounts of PE species tended to increase in the liver of STZ-induced diabetic mice compared with controls, but no significant changes in MMPE and DMPE species were determined. However, remodeling of fatty-acyl chains in the determined lipids was observed in the liver of STZ-induced diabetic mice, with reduction in 16:1 and increases in 18:2, 18:1, and 18:0 acyl chains. These results indicated the improved method to be a powerful tool to reveal the function of the PC de-novo biosynthesis pathway through methylation of PE species in biological systems.

  8. Purification, sequencing and characterization of phospholipase D from Indian mustard seeds.

    PubMed

    Khatoon, Hafeeza; Mansfeld, Johanna; Schierhorn, Angelika; Ulbrich-Hofmann, Renate

    2015-09-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD; E.C. 3.1.4.4) is widespread in plants where it fulfills diverse functions in growth and in the response to stresses. The enzyme occurs in multiple forms that differ in their biochemical properties. In the present paper PLD from medicinally relevant Indian mustard seeds was purified by Ca(2+)-mediated hydrophobic interaction and anion exchange chromatography to electrophoretic homogeneity. Based on mass-spectrometric sequence analysis of tryptic protein fragments, oligonucleotide primers for cloning genomic DNA fragments that encoded the enzyme were designed and used to derive the complete amino acid sequence of this PLD. The sequence data, as well as the molecular properties (molecular mass of 92.0 kDa, pI 5.39, maximum activity at pH 5.5-6.0 and Ca(2+) ion concentrations ⩾60 mM), allowed the assignment of this enzyme to the class of α-type PLDs. The apparent kinetic parameters Vmax and Km, determined for the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in an aqueous mixed-micellar system were 356±15 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) and 1.84±0.17 mM, respectively. Phosphate analogs such as NaAlF4 and Na3VO4 displayed strong inhibition of the enzyme. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate had a strong activating effect at 2-10 mM CaCl2. PLD was inactivated at temperatures >45 °C. The enzyme exhibited the highest activity toward PC followed by phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. PCs with short-chain fatty acids were better substrates than PCs with long fatty acid chains. Lyso-PC was not accepted as substrate. PMID:26057230

  9. High specificity of human secretory class II phospholipase A2 for phosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Snitko, Y; Yoon, E T; Cho, W

    1997-02-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a potent lipid second messenger which stimulates platelet aggregation, cell proliferation and smooth-muscle contraction. The phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-catalysed hydrolysis of phosphatidic acid (PA) is thought to be a primary synthetic route for LPA. Of the multiple forms of PLA2 present in human tissues, human secretory class-II PLA2 (hs-PLA2) has been implicated in the production of LPA from platelets and whole blood cells challenged with inflammatory stimuli. To explore further the possibility that hs-PLA2 is involved in the production of LPA, we rigorously measured the phospholipid head group specificity of hs-PLA2 by a novel PLA2 kinetic system using polymerized mixed liposomes. Kinetic analysis of recombinant hs-PLA2 demonstrates that hs-PLA2 strongly prefers PA as substrate over other phospholipids found in the mammalian plasma membrane including phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The order of preference is PA > PE approximately PS > PC. To identify amino acid residues of hs-PLA2 that are involved in its unique substrate specificity, we mutated two residues, Glu-56 and Lys-69, which were shown to interact with the phospholipid head group in the X-ray-crystallographic structure of the hs-PLA2-transition-state-analogue complex. The K69Y mutant showed selective inactivation toward PA whereas the E56K mutant displayed a most pronounced inactivation to PE. Thus it appears that Lys-69 is at least partially involved in the PA specificity of hs-PLA2 and Glu-56 in the distinction between PE and PC. In conjunction with a recent cell study [Fourcade, Simon, Viode, Rugani, Leballe, Ragab, Fournie, Sarda and Chap (1995) Cell 80, 919-927], these studies suggest that hs-PLA2 can rapidly hydrolyse PA molecules exposed to the outer layer of cell-derived microvesicles and thereby produce LPA.

  10. Regulation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 phosphorylation and eicosanoid production by colony-stimulating factor 1.

    PubMed

    Xu, X X; Rock, C O; Qiu, Z H; Leslie, C C; Jackowski, S

    1994-12-16

    A colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1)-dependent murine macrophage cell line (BAC1.2F5) and peritoneal macrophages were used to investigate the relationship between growth factor-dependent phosphorylation/activation of the 85-kDa cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and arachidonic acid metabolism. The addition of CSF-1 to quiescent BAC1.2F5 cells was followed by the rapid phosphorylation, electrophoretic gel retardation, and stable increase in the specific activity of cPLA2 that correlated with the activation of ERK kinases. cPLA2 phosphorylation depended on the presence of growth factor and persisted throughout the cell cycle. CSF-1 inhibited prostaglandin E2 production and did not enhance arachidonic acid release or increase the levels of lysophosphatidylcholine or glycerophosphocholine. Treatment of BAC1.2F5 cells with the calcium ionophore A23187 plus CSF-1 did not stimulate eicosanoid release. Instead, CSF-1 enhanced the rate of exogenous arachidonic acid incorporation into phosphatidylcholine and its subsequent transfer to phosphatidylethanolamine suggesting that higher rates of arachidonic acid acylation may contribute to the suppression of prostaglandin production. In peritoneal macrophages, ERK kinase activity was stimulated and cPLA2 was phosphorylated and activated in response to CSF-1. However, CSF-1 did not trigger eicosanoid release but did augment arachidonic acid mobilization and prostaglandin E2 production elicited by zymosan and A23187. Thus, cPLA2 phosphorylation/activation and calcium mobilization are not the only determinants for eicosanoid release, and additional components in differentiated tissue macrophages are also required.

  11. Identification of two secreted phospholipases A2 in human epidermis.

    PubMed

    Maury, E; Prévost, M C; Simon, M F; Redoules, D; Ceruti, I; Tarroux, R; Charveron, M; Chap, H

    2000-05-01

    Phospholipases A2 are enzymes that catalyze the release of fatty acids from the sn-2 position of phospholipids. Fatty acids have been suggested to play a key role in the barrier function of the epidermis. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the type of secretory phospholipase A2 expressed in human epidermis. We report the molecular cloning of two secretory phospholipase A2 in the human epidermis. The first enzyme is identical to human pancreatic type IB phospholipase A2. Western blots revealed a 14 kDa protein localized in the soluble fraction. The second phospholipase A2 is identical to human synovial type IIA enzyme and is localized in the membrane fraction. By semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction performed on horizontal sections of the epidermis, we found that the mRNAs of both phospholipases A2 were expressed mainly in the basal layers of the epidermis. Our data thus provide evidence for the expression of two secretory phospholipases A2 in human epidermis. The different localization of these two secretory proteins strongly suggests that each enzyme might have a specific role in skin physiology and probably in the barrier function. Taken together, these data validate the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technique performed on thin sections as a first approach to detect gene expression in different layers of the epidermis.

  12. The relationship between calcium and the metabolism of plasma membrane phospholipids in hemolysis induced by brown spider venom phospholipase-D toxin.

    PubMed

    Chaves-Moreira, Daniele; Souza, Fernanda N; Fogaça, Rosalvo T H; Mangili, Oldemir C; Gremski, Waldemiro; Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea; Chaim, Olga M; Veiga, Silvio S

    2011-09-01

    Brown spider venom phospholipase-D belongs to a family of toxins characterized as potent bioactive agents. These toxins have been involved in numerous aspects of cell pathophysiology including inflammatory response, platelet aggregation, endothelial cell hyperactivation, renal disorders, and hemolysis. The molecular mechanism by which these toxins cause hemolysis is under investigation; literature data have suggested that enzyme catalysis is necessary for the biological activities triggered by the toxin. However, the way by which phospholipase-D activity is directly related with human hemolysis has not been determined. To evaluate how brown spider venom phospholipase-D activity causes hemolysis, we examined the impact of recombinant phospholipase-D on human red blood cells. Using six different purified recombinant phospholipase-D molecules obtained from a cDNA venom gland library, we demonstrated that there is a correlation of hemolytic effect and phospholipase-D activity. Studying recombinant phospholipase-D, a potent hemolytic and phospholipase-D recombinant toxin (LiRecDT1), we determined that the toxin degrades synthetic sphingomyelin (SM), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and lyso-platelet-activating factor. Additionally, we determined that the toxin degrades phospholipids in a detergent extract of human erythrocytes, as well as phospholipids from ghosts of human red blood cells. The products of the degradation of synthetic SM and LPC following recombinant phospholipase-D treatments caused hemolysis of human erythrocytes. This hemolysis, dependent on products of metabolism of phospholipids, is also dependent on calcium ion concentration because the percentage of hemolysis increased with an increase in the dose of calcium in the medium. Recombinant phospholipase-D treatment of human erythrocytes stimulated an influx of calcium into the cells that was detected by a calcium-sensitive fluorescent probe (Fluo-4). This calcium influx was shown to be channel

  13. Potential Role of Phospholipases in Virulence and Fungal Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

    2000-01-01

    Microbial pathogens use a number of genetic strategies to invade the host and cause infection. These common themes are found throughout microbial systems. Secretion of enzymes, such as phospholipase, has been proposed as one of these themes that are used by bacteria, parasites, and pathogenic fungi. The role of extracellular phospholipase as a potential virulence factor in pathogenic fungi, including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus, has gained credence recently. In this review, data implicating phospholipase as a virulence factor in C. albicans, Candida glabrata, C. neoformans, and A. fumigatus are presented. A detailed description of the molecular and biochemical approaches used to more definitively delineate the role of phospholipase in the virulence of C. albicans is also covered. These approaches resulted in cloning of three genes encoding candidal phospholipases (caPLP1, caPLB2, and PLD). By using targeted gene disruption, C. albicans null mutants that failed to secrete phospholipase B, encoded by caPLB1, were constructed. When these isogenic strain pairs were tested in two clinically relevant murine models of candidiasis, deletion of caPLB1 was shown to lead to attenuation of candidal virulence. Importantly, immunogold electron microscopy studies showed that C. albicans secretes this enzyme during the infectious process. These data indicate that phospholipase B is essential for candidal virulence. Although the mechanism(s) through which phospholipase modulates fungal virulence is still under investigations, early data suggest that direct host cell damage and lysis are the main mechanisms contributing to fungal virulence. Since the importance of phospholipases in fungal virulence is already known, the next challenge will be to utilize these lytic enzymes as therapeutic and diagnostic targets. PMID:10627494

  14. Partial coverage of phospholipid model membranes with annexin V may completely inhibit their degradation by phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Speijer, H; Jans, S W; Reutelingsperger, C P; Hack, C E; van der Vusse, G J; Hermens, W T

    1997-02-01

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-mediated hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids was measured by ellipsometry, and the inhibition of this process by annexin V was studied. Planar membranes, consisting of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine (PC/PE/PS; 54:33:13, on molar basis), were degraded by pancreatic PLA2, and the rate of hydrolysis was limited to about 0.7%/min. The influence of graded coverage of the membrane with annexin V was studied. The degree of PLA2 inhibition was nonlinearly related to the amount of membrane-bound annexin V, and binding of only 12% and 54% of full membrane coverage resulted in, respectively, 50% and 93% inhibition. These findings indicate that the inhibition of PLA2-mediated hydrolysis by annexin V cannot be simply explained by shielding of phospholipid substrates from the enzyme. Moreover, the present results leave room for a role of endogenous annexin V in regulating phospholipid turnover in the plasma membrane of parenchymal cells such as cardiomyocytes.

  15. The role of phospholipase D in Glut-4 translocation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Frohman, Michael A

    2003-01-01

    Insulin-stimulated Glut-4 translocation is regulated through a complex pathway. Increasing attention is being paid to the role undertaken in this process by Phospholipase D, a signal transduction-activated enzyme that generates the lipid second-messenger phosphatidic acid. Phospholipase D facilitates Glut-4 translocation at potentially multiple steps in its outward movement. Current investigation is centered on Phospholipase D promotion of Glut-4-containing membrane vesicle trafficking and vesicle fusion into the plasma membrane, in part through activation of atypical protein kinase C isoforms. PMID:14648804

  16. N-ACYL HOMOSERINE LACTONe LACTONASE, AiiA, INACTIVATION OF QUORUM-SENSING AGONISTS PRODUCED BY CHLAMYDOMONAS REINHARDTII (CHLOROPHYTA) AND CHARACTERIZATION OF aiiA TRANSGENIC ALGAE(1).

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Sathish; Teplitski, Max; Kumar, Anil; Krediet, Cory J; Sayre, Richard T; Bauer, Wolfgang D

    2011-10-01

    Eukaryotes such as plants and the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii P. A. Dang. produce and secrete compounds that mimic N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) bacterial quorum-sensing (QS) signals and alter QS-regulated gene expression in the associated bacteria. Here, we show that the set of C. reinhardtii signal-mimic compounds that activate the CepR AHL receptor of Burkholderia cepacia are susceptible to inactivation by AiiA, an AHL lactonase enzyme of Bacillus. Inactivation of these algal mimics by AiiA suggests that the CepR-stimulatory class of mimics produced by C. reinhardtii may have a conserved lactone ring structure in common with AHL QS signals. To examine the role of AHL mimic compounds in the interactions of C. reinhardtii with bacteria, the aiiA gene codon optimized for Chlamydomonas was generated for the expression of AiiA as a chimeric fusion with cyan fluorescent protein (AimC). Culture filtrates of transgenic strains expressing the fusion protein AimC had significantly reduced levels of CepR signal-mimic activities. When parental and transgenic algae were cultured with a natural pond water bacterial community, a morphologically distinct, AHL-producing isolate of Aeromonas veronii was observed to colonize the transgenic algal cultures and form biofilms more readily than the parental algal cultures, indicating that secretion of the CepR signal mimics by the alga can significantly affect its interactions with bacteria it encounters in natural environments. The parental alga was also able to sequester and/or destroy AHLs in its growth media to further disrupt or manipulate bacterial QS.

  17. Novel phosphatidylethanolamine derivatives accumulate in circulation in hyperlipidemic ApoE−/− mice and activate platelets via TLR2

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Sudipta; Xin, Liang; Panigrahi, Soumya; Zimman, Alejandro; Wang, Hua; Yakubenko, Valentin P.; Byzova, Tatiana V.; Salomon, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    A prothrombotic state and increased platelet reactivity are common in dyslipidemia and oxidative stress. Lipid peroxidation, a major consequence of oxidative stress, generates highly reactive products, including hydroxy-ω-oxoalkenoic acids that modify autologous proteins generating biologically active derivatives. Phosphatidylethanolamine, the second most abundant eukaryotic phospholipid, can also be modified by hydroxy-ω-oxoalkenoic acids. However, the conditions leading to accumulation of such derivatives in circulation and their biological activities remain poorly understood. We now show that carboxyalkylpyrrole-phosphatidylethanolamine derivatives (CAP-PEs) are present in the plasma of hyperlipidemic ApoE−/− mice. CAP-PEs directly bind to TLR2 and induces platelet integrin αIIbβ3 activation and P-selectin expression in a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-dependent manner. Platelet activation by CAP-PEs includes assembly of TLR2/TLR1 receptor complex, induction of downstream signaling via MyD88/TIRAP, phosphorylation of IRAK4, and subsequent activation of tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated factor 6. This in turn activates the Src family kinases, spleen tyrosine kinase and PLCγ2, and platelet integrins. Murine intravital thrombosis studies demonstrated that CAP-PEs accelerate thrombosis in TLR2-dependent manner and that TLR2 contributes to accelerate thrombosis in mice in the settings of hyperlipidemia. Our study identified the novel end-products of lipid peroxidation, accumulating in circulation in hyperlipidemia and inducing platelet activation by promoting cross-talk between innate immunity and integrin activation signaling pathways. PMID:27015965

  18. The structure of Plasmodium vivax phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein suggests a functional motif containing a left-handed helix

    SciTech Connect

    Arakaki, Tracy; Neely, Helen; Boni, Erica; Mueller, Natasha; Buckner, Frederick S.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Lauricella, Angela; DeTitta, George; Luft, Joseph; Hol, Wim G. J.; Merritt, Ethan A.

    2007-03-01

    The crystal structure of a phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein from P. vivax, a homolog of Raf-kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP), has been solved to a resolution of 1.3 Å. The inferred interaction surface near the anion-binding site is found to include a distinctive left-handed α-helix. The structure of a putative Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) homolog from the eukaryotic parasite Plasmodium vivax has been studied to a resolution of 1.3 Å using multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction at the Se K edge. This protozoan protein is topologically similar to previously studied members of the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) sequence family, but exhibits a distinctive left-handed α-helical region at one side of the canonical phospholipid-binding site. Re-examination of previously determined PEBP structures suggests that the P. vivax protein and yeast carboxypeptidase Y inhibitor may represent a structurally distinct subfamily of the diverse PEBP-sequence family.

  19. Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) gene expression is induced by estrogen in human and mouse primary hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Resseguie, Mary; Song, Jiannan; Niculescu, Mihai D.; da Costa, Kerry-Ann; Randall, Thomas A.; Zeisel, Steven H.

    2008-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient for humans, though some of the requirement can be met by endogenous synthesis catalyzed by phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT). Premenopausal women are relatively resistant to choline deficiency compared with postmenopausal women and men. Studies in animals suggest that estrogen treatment can increase PEMT activity. In this study we investigated whether the PEMT gene is regulated by estrogen. PEMT transcription was increased in a dose-dependent manner when primary mouse and human hepatocytes were treated with 17-β-estradiol for 24 h. This increased message was associated with an increase in protein expression and enzyme activity. In addition, we report a region that contains a perfect estrogen response element (ERE) ∼7.5 kb from the transcription start site corresponding to transcript variants NM_007169 and NM-008819 of the human and murine PEMT genes, respectively, three imperfect EREs in evolutionarily conserved regions and multiple imperfect EREs in nonconserved regions in the putative promoter regions. We predict that both the mouse and human PEMT genes have three unique transcription start sites, which are indicative of either multiple promoters and/or alternative splicing. This study is the first to explore the underlying mechanism of why dietary requirements for choline vary with estrogen status in humans.—Resseguie, M., Song, J., Niculescu, M. D., da Costa, K., Randall, T. A., Zeisel, S. H. Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) gene expression is induced by estrogen in human and mouse primary hepatocytes. PMID:17456783

  20. Synthesis of phospholipase A2 inhibitory biflavonoids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianjun; Chang, Hyeun Wook; Kim, Hyun Pyo; Park, Haeil

    2006-05-01

    A series of C-C biflavones was designed to investigate the relationship between structural array of different flavone-flavone subunit linkage and the inhibitory activity against phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Among six classes of C-C biflavones designed, four classes of C-C biflavones, which have flavone-flavone subunit linkages at A ring-A ring, A ring-B ring, B ring-B ring, and B ring-C ring, were synthesized. The synthetic biflavones exhibited somewhat different inhibitory activities against sPLA2-IIA. Among them, the biflavone a having a C-C 4'-4' linkage showed comparable inhibitory activity with that of the natural biflavonoid, ochnaflavone, and 7-fold stronger activity than that of amentoflavone. Further chemical modification is being carried out in order to obtain the chemically optimized biflavonoids.

  1. Primary phospholipase C and brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong Ryoul; Kang, Du-Seock; Lee, Cheol; Seok, Heon; Follo, Matilde Y; Cocco, Lucio; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2016-05-01

    In the brain, the primary phospholipase C (PLC) proteins, PLCβ, and PLCγ, are activated primarily by neurotransmitters, neurotrophic factors, and hormones through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Among the primary PLC isozymes, PLCβ1, PLCβ4, and PLCγ1 are highly expressed and differentially distributed, suggesting a specific role for each PLC subtype in different regions of the brain. Primary PLCs control neuronal activity, which is important for synapse function and development. In addition, dysregulation of primary PLC signaling is linked to several brain disorders including epilepsy, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Huntington's disease, depression and Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we included current knowledge regarding the roles of primary PLC isozymes in brain disorders. PMID:26639088

  2. Plant phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C

    PubMed Central

    Rupwate, Sunny D.; Rajasekharan, Ram

    2012-01-01

    Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) belongs to an important class of enzymes involved in signaling related to lipids. They hydrolyze a membrane-associated phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, to produce inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. The role of PI-PLC and the mechanism behind its functioning is well studied in animal system; however, mechanism of plant PI-PLC functioning remains largely obscure. Here, we attempted to summarize the understanding regarding plant PI-PLC mechanism of regulation, localization, and domain association. Using sedimentation based phospholipid binding assay and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, it was demonstrated that C2 domain of plant PI-PLC alone is capable of targeting membranes. Moreover, change in surface hydrophobicity upon calcium stimulus is the key element in targeting plant PI-PLC from soluble fractions to membranes. This property of altering surface hydrophobicity plays a pivot role in regulation of PI-PLC activity. PMID:22902702

  3. Inactivation of phospholipase A2 by naturally occurring biflavonoid, ochnaflavone.

    PubMed

    Chang, H W; Baek, S H; Chung, K W; Son, K H; Kim, H P; Kang, S S

    1994-11-30

    Ochnaflavone, a medicinal herb product isolated from Lonicera japonica, strongly inhibited rat platelet phospholipase A2 (IC50, about 3 microM). Inactivation was concentration and pH dependent (maximum inactivation occurred between pH 9.0 and 10.0). Ochnaflavone inhibited the enzyme by a noncompetitive manner, with the apparent Ki value of 3 x 10(-5) M. Reversibility was studied directly by dialysis method; the inhibition was irreversible. In addition, the inhibitory activity of ochnaflavone is rather specific against group II phospholipase A2 than group I phospholipase A2 (IC50, about 20 microM). Addition of excess Ca2+ concentration up to 8 mM did not antagonize the inhibitory activity of ochnaflavone. These results indicate that the inhibition of phospholipase A2 by ochnaflavone may result from direct interaction with the enzyme.

  4. Association between phospholipase production by Malassezia pachydermatis and skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, C; Otranto, D

    2004-10-01

    An evaluation was made of the phospholipase activities of Malassezia pachydermatis strains isolated from healthy dogs versus those from dogs with dermatitis and otitis. A high percentage of strains of M. pachydermatis obtained from lesion sites (93.9%) produced phospholipase, compared to the strains obtained from healthy skin of the same dog with localized lesions (41.4%) and healthy dogs (10.6%). PMID:15472366

  5. Characterization of Leishmania major phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferases LmjPEM1 and LmjPEM2 and their inhibition by choline analogs.

    PubMed

    Bibis, Stergios S; Dahlstrom, Kelly; Zhu, Tongtong; Zufferey, Rachel

    2014-09-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant phospholipid in the membranes of the human parasite Leishmania. It is synthesized via two metabolic routes, the de novo pathway that starts with the uptake of choline, and the threefold methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine. Choline was shown to be dispensable for Leishmania; thus, the methylation pathway likely represents the primary route for PC production. Here, we have identified and characterized two phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferases, LmjPEM1 and LmjPEM2. Both enzymes are expressed in promastigotes as well as in the vertebrate form amastigotes, suggesting that these methyltransferases are important for the development of the parasite throughout its life cycle. These enzymes are maximally expressed during the log phase of growth which correlates with the demand of PC synthesis during cell multiplication. Immunofluorescence studies combined with cell fractionation have shown that both methyltransferases are localized at the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Heterologous expression in yeast has demonstrated that LmjPEM1 and LmjPEM2 complement the choline auxotrophy phenotype of a yeast double null mutant lacking phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase activity. LmjPEM1 catalyzes the first, and to a lesser extent, the second methylation reaction. In contrast, LmjPEM2 has the capacity to add the second and third methyl group onto phosphatidylethanolamine to yield (lyso)PC; it can also add the first methyl group, albeit with very low efficiency. Finally, we have demonstrated using inhibition studies with choline analogs that miltefosine and octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide are potent inhibitors of this metabolic pathway. PMID:25176160

  6. Characterization of Leishmania major phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferases LmjPEM1 and LmjPEM2 and their inhibition by choline analogs.

    PubMed

    Bibis, Stergios S; Dahlstrom, Kelly; Zhu, Tongtong; Zufferey, Rachel

    2014-09-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant phospholipid in the membranes of the human parasite Leishmania. It is synthesized via two metabolic routes, the de novo pathway that starts with the uptake of choline, and the threefold methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine. Choline was shown to be dispensable for Leishmania; thus, the methylation pathway likely represents the primary route for PC production. Here, we have identified and characterized two phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferases, LmjPEM1 and LmjPEM2. Both enzymes are expressed in promastigotes as well as in the vertebrate form amastigotes, suggesting that these methyltransferases are important for the development of the parasite throughout its life cycle. These enzymes are maximally expressed during the log phase of growth which correlates with the demand of PC synthesis during cell multiplication. Immunofluorescence studies combined with cell fractionation have shown that both methyltransferases are localized at the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Heterologous expression in yeast has demonstrated that LmjPEM1 and LmjPEM2 complement the choline auxotrophy phenotype of a yeast double null mutant lacking phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase activity. LmjPEM1 catalyzes the first, and to a lesser extent, the second methylation reaction. In contrast, LmjPEM2 has the capacity to add the second and third methyl group onto phosphatidylethanolamine to yield (lyso)PC; it can also add the first methyl group, albeit with very low efficiency. Finally, we have demonstrated using inhibition studies with choline analogs that miltefosine and octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide are potent inhibitors of this metabolic pathway.

  7. Membrane associated phospholipase C from bovine brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.; Ryu, S.H.; Suh, P.; Choi, W.C.; Rhee, S.G.

    1987-05-01

    Cytosolic fractions of bovine brain contain 2 immunologically distinct phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase (PLC), PLC-I and PLC-II, whose MW are 150,000 and 145,000 respectively, under a denaturing condition. Monoclonal antibodies were derived against each form and specific radioimmunoassays were developed. Distribution of PLC-I and PLC-II in cytosolic and particulate fractions was measured using the radioimmunoassay. More than 90% of PLC-II was found in the cytosolic fraction, while the anti-PLC-I antibody cross-reacting protein was distributed nearly equally between the soluble fraction and the 2 M KCl extract of particulate fraction. The PLC enzyme in the particulate fraction was purified to homogeneity, yielding 2 proteins of 140 KDa and 150 KDa when analyzed on SDS-PAGE. Neither of the 2 enzymes cross-reacted with anti-PLC-II antibodies, but both could be immunoblotted by all 4 different anti-PLC-I antibodies. This suggests that the 140 KDa PLC was derived from the 150 KDa form. The 150 Kda form from particulate fraction was indistinguishable from the cytosolic PLC-I when their mixture was analyzed on SDS-PAGE. In addition, the elution profile of tryptic peptides derived from the 150 KDa particulate form was identical to that of cytosolic PLC-I. This result indicates that PLC-I is reversibly associated to membranes.

  8. Purification of lipases, phospholipases and kinases by heparin-Sepharose chromatography.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, A A; Yang, H C; Horrocks, L A

    1994-07-01

    Heparin interacts with lipases, phospholipases and kinases. Immobilized heparin can be used for the purification of diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol lipases, phospholipases A2 and C and protein and lipid kinases. The use of heparin-Sepharose is an important development in analytical and preparative techniques for the separation and isolation of lipases, phospholipases and kinases.

  9. Human epidermis is a novel site of phospholipase B expression.

    PubMed

    Maury, Eric; Prévost, Marie Claude; Nauze, Michel; Redoulès, Daniel; Tarroux, Roger; Charvéron, Marie; Salles, Jean Pierre; Perret, Bertrand; Chap, Hugues; Gassama-Diagne, Ama

    2002-07-12

    Phospholipase B (PLB) is an enzyme that displays both phospholipase A(2) and lysophospholipase activities. Analysis of human epidermis homogenates indicated the presence of a 97 kDa PLB protein, as well as a phospholipase A(2) activity, both being enriched in the soluble fraction. Immunolabelling and in situ hybridization experiments showed that this enzyme is expressed in the different layers of epidermis with an accumulation at the dermo-epidermis junction. RT-PCR data indicated that PLB is specifically expressed in natural and reconstructed epidermis. By 3'-RACE-PCR and screening of human genome databases, we obtained a 3600 bp cDNA coding for human PLB highly homologous to already described intestinal brush border PLBs. These data led us to conclude that the soluble PLB corresponds to a proteolytic cleavage of the membrane anchored protein. Altogether, our results provide the first characterization of human PLB which should play an important role in epidermal barrier function.

  10. The action of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipases C on membranes.

    PubMed

    Low, M G; Finean, J B

    1976-01-15

    A phospholipase C prepared from lymphocytes readily hydrolysed pure phosphatidyl-inositol but was relatively ineffective against phosphatidylinositol in erythrocyte "ghosts" and rat liver microsomal fraction and also against sonicated lipid extracts from these membranes. In contrast, a phospholipase C prepared from Staphylcoccus aureus readily hydrolysed phosphatidylinositol in sonicated lipid extracts but had only low activity against purified phosphatidylinositol. Unlike the enzyme from lymphocytes, the S. aureus phospholipase C did not require Ca2+ for its activity and was inhibited by cations. The previously reported specificity of this enzyme was confirmed by our observation of hydrolysis of approx. 75% of the phosphatidylinositol in ox, sheep and cat erythrocyte "ghosts" together with no detectable effect on the major erythrocyte membrane phospholipids. The phosphatidylinositol of rat liver microsomal fraction was hydrolysed only to a maximum of 15%. Some preliminary experiments showed that approx. 60% of the phosphatidylinositol of ox or sheep erythrocytes could be hydrolysed without causing substantial haemolysis.

  11. Biochemical and molecular analysis of phospholipase C and phospholipase D activity in mycobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, K A; Gill, R E; Vasil, M L

    1996-01-01

    Resurgence of mycobacterial infections in the United States has led to an intense effort to identify potential virulence determinants in the genus Mycobacterium, particularly ones that would be associated with the more virulent species (e.g., Mycobacterium tuberculosis). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) using radiolabeled phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin as substrates indicated that cell extracts of M. tuberculosis contain both phospholipase C (PLC) and phospholipase D (PLD) activities. In contrast, only PLD activity was detected in cell extracts of M. smegmatis. Neither activity was detected in cell-free culture supernatants from these organisms. We and others recently identified two open reading frames in M. tuberculosis with the potential to encode proteins which are highly homologous to the nonhemolytic (PlcN) and hemolytic (PlcH) phospholipase C enzymes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In contrast to the plc genes in P. aeruginosa, which are considerably distal to each other (min 34 and 64 on the chromosome), the mycobacterial genes, designated mpcA and mpcB, are tandemly arranged in the same relative orientation and separated by only 191 bp. Both the mpcA and the mpcB genes were individually cloned in M. smegmatis, and PLC activity was expressed from each gene in this organism. Hybridization experiments using the mpcA and the mpcB genes as probes under conditions of moderate stringency identified sequences homologous to these genes in M. bovis, M. bovis BCG, and M. marinum but not in several other Mycobacterium species, including M. smegmatis, M. avium, and M. intracellulare. TLC analysis using radiolabeled substrates indicated that M. bovis and M. marinum cell extracts contain PLC and PLD activities, but only PLD activity was detected in M. bovis BCG cell extracts. Sphingomyelinase activity was also detected in whole-cell extracts of M. tuberculosis, M. marinum, M. bovis, and M. bovis BCG, but this activity was not detected in extracts of M. smegmatis

  12. Alopecia in a Viable Phospholipase C Delta 1 and Phospholipase C Delta 3 Double Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Runkel, Fabian; Hintze, Maik; Griesing, Sebastian; Michels, Marion; Blanck, Birgit; Fukami, Kiyoko; Guénet, Jean-Louis; Franz, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background Inositol 1,4,5trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) are important intracellular signalling molecules in various tissues. They are generated by the phospholipase C family of enzymes, of which phospholipase C delta (PLCD) forms one class. Studies with functional inactivation of Plcd isozyme encoding genes in mice have revealed that loss of both Plcd1 and Plcd3 causes early embryonic death. Inactivation of Plcd1 alone causes loss of hair (alopecia), whereas inactivation of Plcd3 alone has no apparent phenotypic effect. To investigate a possible synergy of Plcd1 and Plcd3 in postnatal mice, novel mutations of these genes compatible with life after birth need to be found. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterise a novel mouse mutant with a spontaneously arisen mutation in Plcd3 (Plcd3mNab) that resulted from the insertion of an intracisternal A particle (IAP) into intron 2 of the Plcd3 gene. This mutation leads to the predominant expression of a truncated PLCD3 protein lacking the N-terminal PH domain. C3H mice that carry one or two mutant Plcd3mNab alleles are phenotypically normal. However, the presence of one Plcd3mNab allele exacerbates the alopecia caused by the loss of functional Plcd1 in Del(9)olt1Pas mutant mice with respect to the number of hair follicles affected and the body region involved. Mice double homozygous for both the Del(9)olt1Pas and the Plcd3mNab mutations survive for several weeks and exhibit total alopecia associated with fragile hair shafts showing altered expression of some structural genes and shortened phases of proliferation in hair follicle matrix cells. Conclusions/Significance The Plcd3mNab mutation is a novel hypomorphic mutation of Plcd3. Our investigations suggest that Plcd1 and Plcd3 have synergistic effects on the murine hair follicle in specific regions of the body surface. PMID:22723964

  13. Characterisation of Lipid Changes in Ethylene-Promoted Senescence and Its Retardation by Suppression of Phospholipase Dδ in Arabidopsis Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yanxia; Li, Weiqi

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) both accelerate senescence of detached Arabidopsis leaves. We previously showed that suppression of Phospholipase Dδ (PLDδ) retarded ABA-promoted senescence. Here, we report that ethylene-promoted senescence is retarded in detached leaves lacking PLDδ. We further used lipidomics to comparatively profile the molecular species of membrane lipids between wild-type and PLDδ-knockout (PLDδ-KO) Arabidopsis during ethylene-promoted senescence. Lipid profiling revealed that ethylene caused a decrease in all lipids levels, except phosphatidic acid (PA), caused increases in the ratios of digalactosyl diglyceride/monogalactosyl diglyceride (MGDG) and phosphatidylcholine (PC)/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and caused degradation of plastidic lipids before that of extraplastidic lipids in wild-type plants. The accelerated degradation of plastidic lipids during ethylene-promoted senescence in wild-type plants was attenuated in PLDδ-KO plants. No obvious differences in substrate and product of PLDδ-catalyzed phospholipid hydrolysis were detected between wild-type and PLDδ-KO plants, which indicated that the retardation of ethylene-promoted senescence by suppressing PLDδ might not be related to the role of PLDδ in catalyzing phospholipid degradation. In contrast, higher plastidic lipid content, especially of MGDG, in PLDδ-KO plants was crucial for maintaining photosynthetic activity. The lower relative content of PA and higher PC/PE ratio in PLDδ-KO plants might contribute to maintaining cell membrane integrity. The integrity of the cell membrane in PLDδ-KO plants facilitated maintenance of the membrane function and of the proteins associated with the membrane. Taking these findings together, higher plastidic lipid content and the integrity of the cell membrane in PLDδ-KO plants might contribute to the retardation of ethylene-promoted senescence by the suppression of PLDδ. PMID:26648950

  14. Platelet Lipidomic Profiling: Novel Insight into Cytosolic Phospholipase A2α Activity and Its Role in Human Platelet Activation.

    PubMed

    Duvernay, Matthew T; Matafonov, Anton; Lindsley, Craig W; Hamm, Heidi E

    2015-09-15

    With a newer, more selective and efficacious cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) inhibitor available, we revisited the role of cPLA2α activity in platelet activation and discovered that a component of platelet signaling, even larger than previously appreciated, relies on this enzyme. In a whole blood shear-based flow chamber assay, giripladib, a cPLA2α inhibitor, reduced platelet adhesion and accumulation on collagen. Moreover, giripladib differentially affected P-selectin expression and GPIIbIIIa activation depending on the agonist employed. While protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1)-mediated platelet activation was unaffected by giripladib, the levels of PAR4- and GPVI-mediated platelet activation were significantly reduced. Meanwhile, the thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist SQ29548 had no effect on PAR-, GPVI-, or puriniergic receptor-mediated platelet activation, suggesting that another eicosanoid produced downstream of arachidonic acid liberation by cPLA2α was responsible for this large component of PAR4- and GPVI-mediated platelet activation. In parallel, we profiled PAR-mediated changes in glycerophospholipid (GPL) mass with and without giripladib to better understand cPLA2α-mediated lipid metabolism. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) demonstrated the largest consumption of mass during thrombin stimulation. Additionally, we confirm phosphatidylinositol as a major substrate of cPLA2α. A comparison of PAR1- and PAR4-induced metabolism revealed the consumption of more putative arachidonyl-PE species downstream of PAR1 activation. Instead of enhanced cPLA2α activity and therefore more arachidonic acid liberation downstream of PAR4, these results indicate the major role that cPLA2α activity plays in platelet function and suggest that a novel eicosanoid is produced in response to platelet activation that represents a large component of PAR4- and GPVI-mediated responses.

  15. Platelet Lipidomic Profiling: Novel Insight into Cytosolic Phospholipase A2α Activity and Its Role in Human Platelet Activation.

    PubMed

    Duvernay, Matthew T; Matafonov, Anton; Lindsley, Craig W; Hamm, Heidi E

    2015-09-15

    With a newer, more selective and efficacious cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) inhibitor available, we revisited the role of cPLA2α activity in platelet activation and discovered that a component of platelet signaling, even larger than previously appreciated, relies on this enzyme. In a whole blood shear-based flow chamber assay, giripladib, a cPLA2α inhibitor, reduced platelet adhesion and accumulation on collagen. Moreover, giripladib differentially affected P-selectin expression and GPIIbIIIa activation depending on the agonist employed. While protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1)-mediated platelet activation was unaffected by giripladib, the levels of PAR4- and GPVI-mediated platelet activation were significantly reduced. Meanwhile, the thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist SQ29548 had no effect on PAR-, GPVI-, or puriniergic receptor-mediated platelet activation, suggesting that another eicosanoid produced downstream of arachidonic acid liberation by cPLA2α was responsible for this large component of PAR4- and GPVI-mediated platelet activation. In parallel, we profiled PAR-mediated changes in glycerophospholipid (GPL) mass with and without giripladib to better understand cPLA2α-mediated lipid metabolism. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) demonstrated the largest consumption of mass during thrombin stimulation. Additionally, we confirm phosphatidylinositol as a major substrate of cPLA2α. A comparison of PAR1- and PAR4-induced metabolism revealed the consumption of more putative arachidonyl-PE species downstream of PAR1 activation. Instead of enhanced cPLA2α activity and therefore more arachidonic acid liberation downstream of PAR4, these results indicate the major role that cPLA2α activity plays in platelet function and suggest that a novel eicosanoid is produced in response to platelet activation that represents a large component of PAR4- and GPVI-mediated responses. PMID:26295742

  16. Characterisation of Lipid Changes in Ethylene-Promoted Senescence and Its Retardation by Suppression of Phospholipase Dδ in Arabidopsis Leaves.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yanxia; Li, Weiqi

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) both accelerate senescence of detached Arabidopsis leaves. We previously showed that suppression of Phospholipase Dδ (PLDδ) retarded ABA-promoted senescence. Here, we report that ethylene-promoted senescence is retarded in detached leaves lacking PLDδ. We further used lipidomics to comparatively profile the molecular species of membrane lipids between wild-type and PLDδ-knockout (PLDδ-KO) Arabidopsis during ethylene-promoted senescence. Lipid profiling revealed that ethylene caused a decrease in all lipids levels, except phosphatidic acid (PA), caused increases in the ratios of digalactosyl diglyceride/monogalactosyl diglyceride (MGDG) and phosphatidylcholine (PC)/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and caused degradation of plastidic lipids before that of extraplastidic lipids in wild-type plants. The accelerated degradation of plastidic lipids during ethylene-promoted senescence in wild-type plants was attenuated in PLDδ-KO plants. No obvious differences in substrate and product of PLDδ-catalyzed phospholipid hydrolysis were detected between wild-type and PLDδ-KO plants, which indicated that the retardation of ethylene-promoted senescence by suppressing PLDδ might not be related to the role of PLDδ in catalyzing phospholipid degradation. In contrast, higher plastidic lipid content, especially of MGDG, in PLDδ-KO plants was crucial for maintaining photosynthetic activity. The lower relative content of PA and higher PC/PE ratio in PLDδ-KO plants might contribute to maintaining cell membrane integrity. The integrity of the cell membrane in PLDδ-KO plants facilitated maintenance of the membrane function and of the proteins associated with the membrane. Taking these findings together, higher plastidic lipid content and the integrity of the cell membrane in PLDδ-KO plants might contribute to the retardation of ethylene-promoted senescence by the suppression of PLDδ.

  17. Characterisation of Lipid Changes in Ethylene-Promoted Senescence and Its Retardation by Suppression of Phospholipase Dδ in Arabidopsis Leaves.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yanxia; Li, Weiqi

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) both accelerate senescence of detached Arabidopsis leaves. We previously showed that suppression of Phospholipase Dδ (PLDδ) retarded ABA-promoted senescence. Here, we report that ethylene-promoted senescence is retarded in detached leaves lacking PLDδ. We further used lipidomics to comparatively profile the molecular species of membrane lipids between wild-type and PLDδ-knockout (PLDδ-KO) Arabidopsis during ethylene-promoted senescence. Lipid profiling revealed that ethylene caused a decrease in all lipids levels, except phosphatidic acid (PA), caused increases in the ratios of digalactosyl diglyceride/monogalactosyl diglyceride (MGDG) and phosphatidylcholine (PC)/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and caused degradation of plastidic lipids before that of extraplastidic lipids in wild-type plants. The accelerated degradation of plastidic lipids during ethylene-promoted senescence in wild-type plants was attenuated in PLDδ-KO plants. No obvious differences in substrate and product of PLDδ-catalyzed phospholipid hydrolysis were detected between wild-type and PLDδ-KO plants, which indicated that the retardation of ethylene-promoted senescence by suppressing PLDδ might not be related to the role of PLDδ in catalyzing phospholipid degradation. In contrast, higher plastidic lipid content, especially of MGDG, in PLDδ-KO plants was crucial for maintaining photosynthetic activity. The lower relative content of PA and higher PC/PE ratio in PLDδ-KO plants might contribute to maintaining cell membrane integrity. The integrity of the cell membrane in PLDδ-KO plants facilitated maintenance of the membrane function and of the proteins associated with the membrane. Taking these findings together, higher plastidic lipid content and the integrity of the cell membrane in PLDδ-KO plants might contribute to the retardation of ethylene-promoted senescence by the suppression of PLDδ. PMID:26648950

  18. LINE-1 methylation in leukocyte DNA, interaction with phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase variants and bladder cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Tajuddin, S M; Amaral, A F S; Fernández, A F; Chanock, S; Silverman, D T; Tardón, A; Carrato, A; García-Closas, M; Jackson, B P; Toraño, E G; Márquez, M; Urdinguio, R G; García-Closas, R; Rothman, N; Kogevinas, M; Real, F X; Fraga, M F; Malats, N; Kogevinas, M; Malats, N; Real, F X; Sala, M; Castaño, G; Torà, M; Puente, D; Villanueva, C; Murta-Nascimento, C; Fortuny, J; López, E; Hernández, S; Jaramillo, R; Vellalta, G; Palencia, L; Fermández, F; Amorós, A; Alfaro, A; Carretero, G; Lloreta, J; Serrano, S; Ferrer, L; Gelabert, A; Carles, J; Bielsa, O; Villadiego, K; Cecchini, L; Saladié, J M; Ibarz, L; Céspedes, M; Serra, C; García, D; Pujadas, J; Hernando, R; Cabezuelo, A; Abad, C; Prera, A; Prat, J; Domènech, M; Badal, J; Malet, J; García-Closas, R; Rodríguez de Vera, J; Martín, A I; Taño, J; Cáceres, F; Carrato, A; García-López, F; Ull, M; Teruel, A; Andrada, E; Bustos, A; Castillejo, A; Soto, J L; Tardón, A; Guate, J L; Lanzas, J M; Velasco, J; Fernández, J M; Rodríguez, J J; Herrero, A; Abascal, R; Manzano, C; Miralles, T; Rivas, M; Arguelles, M; Díaz, M; Sánchez, J; González, O; Mateos, A; Frade, V; Asturias, Mieres; Muntañola, P; Pravia, C; Huescar, A M; Huergo, F; Mosquera, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aberrant global DNA methylation is shown to increase cancer risk. LINE-1 has been proven a measure of global DNA methylation. The objectives of this study were to assess the association between LINE-1 methylation level and bladder cancer risk and to evaluate effect modification by environmental and genetic factors. Methods: Bisulphite-treated leukocyte DNA from 952 cases and 892 hospital controls was used to measure LINE-1 methylation level at four CpG sites by pyrosequencing. Logistic regression model was fitted to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Interactions between LINE-1 methylation levels and environmental and genetic factors were assessed. Results: The risk of bladder cancer followed a nonlinear association with LINE-1 methylation. Compared with subjects in the middle tertile, the adjusted OR for subjects in the lower and the higher tertiles were 1.26 (95% CI 0.99–1.60, P=0.06) and 1.33 (95% CI 1.05–1.69, P=0.02), respectively. This association significantly increased among individuals homozygous for the major allele of five single-nucleotide polymorphisms located in the phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene (corrected P-interaction<0.05). Conclusions: The findings from this large-scale study suggest that both low and high levels of global DNA methylation are associated with the risk of bladder cancer. PMID:24595004

  19. Key Amino Acid Residues of Ankyrin-Sensitive Phosphatidylethanolamine/Phosphatidylcholine-Lipid Binding Site of βI-Spectrin

    PubMed Central

    Wolny, Marcin; Grzybek, Michał; Bok, Ewa; Chorzalska, Anna; Lenoir, Marc; Czogalla, Aleksander; Adamczyk, Klaudia; Kolondra, Adam; Diakowski, Witold; Overduin, Michael; Sikorski, Aleksander F.

    2011-01-01

    It was shown previously that an ankyrin-sensitive, phosphatidylethanolamine/phosphatidylcholine (PE/PC) binding site maps to the N-terminal part of the ankyrin-binding domain of β-spectrin (ankBDn). Here we have identified the amino acid residues within this domain which are responsible for recognizing monolayers and bilayers composed of PE/PC mixtures. In vitro binding studies revealed that a quadruple mutant with substituted hydrophobic residues W1771, L1775, M1778 and W1779 not only failed to effectively bind PE/PC, but its residual PE/PC-binding activity was insensitive to inhibition with ankyrin. Structure prediction and analysis, supported by in vitro experiments, suggests that “opening” of the coiled-coil structure underlies the mechanism of this interaction. Experiments on red blood cells and HeLa cells supported the conclusions derived from the model and in vitro lipid-protein interaction results, and showed the potential physiological role of this binding. We postulate that direct interactions between spectrin ankBDn and PE-rich domains play an important role in stabilizing the structure of the spectrin-based membrane skeleton. PMID:21738695

  20. Activation of the alternative complement pathway by exposure of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine on erythrocytes from sickle cell disease patients.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, R H; Phillips, G; Medof, M E; Mold, C

    1993-01-01

    Deoxygenation of erythrocytes from sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients alters membrane phospholipid distribution with increased exposure of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) on the outer leaflet. This study investigated whether altered membrane phospholipid exposure on sickle erythrocytes results in complement activation. In vitro deoxygenation of sickle but not normal erythrocytes resulted in complement activation measured by C3 binding. Additional evidence indicated that this activation was the result of the alterations in membrane phospholipids. First, complement was activated by normal erythrocytes after incubation with sodium tetrathionate, which produces similar phospholipid changes. Second, antibody was not required for complement activation by sickle or tetrathionate-treated erythrocytes. Third, the membrane regulatory proteins, decay-accelerating factor (CD55) and the C3b/C4b receptor (CD35), were normal on sickle and tetrathionate-treated erythrocytes. Finally, insertion of PE or PS into normal erythrocytes induced alternative pathway activation. SCA patients in crisis exhibited increased plasma factor Bb levels compared with baseline, and erythrocytes isolated from hospitalized SCA patients had increased levels of bound C3, indicating that alternative pathway activation occurs in vivo. Activation of complement may be a contributing factor in sickle crisis episodes, shortening the life span of erythrocytes and decreasing host defense against infections. Images PMID:7690777

  1. Doxorubicin-loaded phosphatidylethanolamine-conjugated nanoliposomes: in vitro characterization and their accumulation in liver, kidneys, and lungs in rats

    PubMed Central

    Rudra, Anandamoy; Deepa, R Manasa; Ghosh, Miltu Kumar; Ghosh, Subhajit; Mukherjee, Biswajit

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)-conjugated nanoliposomes were developed, characterized, and investigated for their accumulation in liver, kidneys, and lungs in rats. Methods Drug-excipient interaction was studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), surface morphology by field emission scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, zeta potential and size distribution using a Zetasizer and particle size analyzer, and in vitro drug release by dialysis membrane. In vivo accumulation of liposomes in tissues was also studied. Results No chemical reaction was observed between drug and excipients. EDX study confirmed PE-conjugation in liposomes. Doxorubicin-loaded liposomes (DOX-L) and PE-conjugated doxorubicin-loaded liposomes (DOX-PEL) were of smooth surface and homogenously distributed in nanosize range (32–37 nm) with a negative surface charge. Loading efficiencies were 49.25% ± 1.05% and 52.98% ± 3.22% respectively, for DOX-L and DOX-PEL. In vitro drug release study showed 69.91% ± 1.05% and 77.07% ± 1.02% doxorubicin released, from DOX-L and DOX-PEL, respectively, in nine hours. Fluorescence microscopic study showed that liposomes were well distributed in liver, lungs, and kidneys. Conclusion Data suggests that PE-conjugated nanoliposomes released the drug in a sustained manner and were capable of distributing them in various organs. This may be used for cell/ tissue targeting, attaching specific antibodies to PE. PMID:21042545

  2. Genetic Ablation of Calcium-independent Phospholipase A2γ Leads to Alterations in Hippocampal Cardiolipin Content and Molecular Species Distribution, Mitochondrial Degeneration, Autophagy, and Cognitive Dysfunction*

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, David J.; Kotzbauer, Paul; Wozniak, David F.; Sims, Harold F.; Jenkins, Christopher M.; Guan, Shaoping; Han, Xianlin; Yang, Kui; Sun, Gang; Malik, Ibrahim; Conyers, Sara; Green, Karen G.; Schmidt, Robert E.; Gross, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    Genetic ablation of calcium-independent phospholipase A2γ (iPLA2γ) results in profound alterations in hippocampal phospholipid metabolism and mitochondrial phospholipid homeostasis resulting in enlarged and degenerating mitochondria leading to autophagy and cognitive dysfunction. Shotgun lipidomics demonstrated multiple alterations in hippocampal lipid metabolism in iPLA2γ−/− mice including: 1) a markedly elevated hippocampal cardiolipin content with an altered molecular species composition characterized by a shift to shorter chain length molecular species; 2) alterations in both choline and ethanolamine glycerophospholipids, including a decreased plasmenylethanolamine content; 3) increased oxidized phosphatidylethanolamine molecular species; and 4) an increased content of ceramides. Electron microscopic examination demonstrated the presence of enlarged heteromorphic lamellar structures undergoing degeneration accompanied by the presence of ubiquitin positive spheroid inclusion bodies. Purification of these enlarged heteromorphic lamellar structures by buoyant density centrifugation and subsequent SDS-PAGE and proteomics identified them as degenerating mitochondria. Collectively, these results identify the obligatory role of iPLA2γ in neuronal mitochondrial lipid metabolism and membrane structure demonstrating that iPLA2γ loss of function results in a mitochondrial neurodegenerative disorder characterized by degenerating mitochondria, autophagy, and cognitive dysfunction. PMID:19840936

  3. The adipocyte-inducible secreted phospholipases PLA2G5 and PLA2G2E play distinct roles in obesity.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroyasu; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Ushida, Ayako; Isogai, Yuki; Kojima, Takumi; Hirabayashi, Tetsuya; Miki, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Kei; Nishito, Yasumasa; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Ryo; Hara, Shuntaro; Ida, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Yuji; Watanabe, Masayuki; Baba, Hideo; Miyata, Keishi; Oike, Yuichi; Gelb, Michael H; Murakami, Makoto

    2014-07-01

    Metabolic disorders, including obesity and insulin resistance, have their basis in dysregulated lipid metabolism and low-grade inflammation. In a microarray search of unique lipase-related genes whose expressions are associated with obesity, we found that two secreted phospholipase A2s (sPLA2s), PLA2G5 and PLA2G2E, were robustly induced in adipocytes of obese mice. Analyses of Pla2g5(-/-) and Pla2g2e(-/-) mice revealed distinct roles of these sPLA2s in diet-induced obesity. PLA2G5 hydrolyzed phosphatidylcholine in fat-overladen low-density lipoprotein to release unsaturated fatty acids, which prevented palmitate-induced M1 macrophage polarization. As such, PLA2G5 tipped the immune balance toward an M2 state, thereby counteracting adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. PLA2G2E altered minor lipoprotein phospholipids, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine, and moderately facilitated lipid accumulation in adipose tissue and liver. Collectively, the identification of "metabolic sPLA2s" adds this gene family to a growing list of lipolytic enzymes that act as metabolic coordinators.

  4. The effect of variations in dietary fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in human infants.

    PubMed

    Putnam, J C; Carlson, S E; DeVoe, P W; Barness, L A

    1982-07-01

    Human milk, or one of two formulas that derive their fat from vegetable oil, was fed to infants from birth until 4.5 to 6 months of age. Infants fed human mild received 2% of total fatty acids as 20 to 22 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids. These fatty acids which are not found in vegetable oils, are synthesized by animals from the essential vegetable-derived fatty acids, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids. Enfamil (Mead Johnson, Evansville, IN) contained three times as much linoleic acid as human milk or SMA (Wyeth Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA); however, the ratios of linoleic/alpha-linolenic acid were 9.0, 18.8, and 11.7 for Enfamil, human milk, and SMA, respectively. Erythrocyte phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine in infants fed human milk had significantly more 20 to 22 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids than did those infants consuming only vegetable fat. Concentrations of 20 to 22 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids in the erythrocyte membrane phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine of SMA and Enfamil-fed infants were similar despite very significant differences in the amount of dietary 18 carbon precursor. The degree of unsaturation of both erythrocyte phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine was highest with the feeding of human milk compared to the formulas, but the relative concentration of the four major erythrocyte phospholipids, and the ratio of membrane phosphorus/cholesterol were not affected by these diets.

  5. The mechanism of lamellar-to-inverted hexagonal phase transitions in phosphatidylethanolamine: implications for membrane fusion mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Siegel, D P; Epand, R M

    1997-12-01

    We studied the mechanism of the lamellar-to-inverted hexagonal (L alpha/H[II]) phase transition, using time-resolved cryotransmission electron microscopy (TRC-TEM), 31P-NMR, and differential scanning calorimetry. The transition was initiated in dispersions of large unilamellar vesicles of dipalmitoleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DiPoPE). We present evidence that the transition proceeds in three steps. First, many small connections form between apposed membranes. Second, the connections aggregate within the planes of the bilayers, forming arrays with hexagonal order in some projections. Third, these quasihexagonal structures elongate into small domains of H(II) phase, acquiring lipid molecules by diffusion from contiguous bilayers. A previously proposed membrane fusion mechanism rationalizes these results. The modified stalk theory predicts that the L alpha/H(II) phase transition involves some of the same intermediate structures as membrane fusion. The small interbilayer connections observed via TRC-TEM are compatible with the structure of a critical intermediate in the modified stalk mechanism: the trans monolayer contact (TMC). The theory predicts that 1) TMCs should form starting at tens of degrees below TH; 2) when TMCs become sufficiently numerous, they should aggregate into transient arrays like the quasihexagonal arrays observed here by TRC-TEM; and 3) these quasihexagonal arrays can then elongate directly into H(II) phase domains. These predictions rationalize the principal features of our data, which are incompatible with the other transition mechanisms proposed to date. Thus these results support the modified stalk mechanism for both membrane fusion and the L alpha/H(II) phase transition. We also discuss some implications of the modified stalk theory for fusion in protein-containing systems. Specifically, we point out that recent data on the effects of hydrophobic peptides and viral fusion peptides on lipid phase behavior are consistent with an effect of

  6. The mechanism of lamellar-to-inverted hexagonal phase transitions in phosphatidylethanolamine: implications for membrane fusion mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, D P; Epand, R M

    1997-01-01

    We studied the mechanism of the lamellar-to-inverted hexagonal (L alpha/H[II]) phase transition, using time-resolved cryotransmission electron microscopy (TRC-TEM), 31P-NMR, and differential scanning calorimetry. The transition was initiated in dispersions of large unilamellar vesicles of dipalmitoleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DiPoPE). We present evidence that the transition proceeds in three steps. First, many small connections form between apposed membranes. Second, the connections aggregate within the planes of the bilayers, forming arrays with hexagonal order in some projections. Third, these quasihexagonal structures elongate into small domains of H(II) phase, acquiring lipid molecules by diffusion from contiguous bilayers. A previously proposed membrane fusion mechanism rationalizes these results. The modified stalk theory predicts that the L alpha/H(II) phase transition involves some of the same intermediate structures as membrane fusion. The small interbilayer connections observed via TRC-TEM are compatible with the structure of a critical intermediate in the modified stalk mechanism: the trans monolayer contact (TMC). The theory predicts that 1) TMCs should form starting at tens of degrees below TH; 2) when TMCs become sufficiently numerous, they should aggregate into transient arrays like the quasihexagonal arrays observed here by TRC-TEM; and 3) these quasihexagonal arrays can then elongate directly into H(II) phase domains. These predictions rationalize the principal features of our data, which are incompatible with the other transition mechanisms proposed to date. Thus these results support the modified stalk mechanism for both membrane fusion and the L alpha/H(II) phase transition. We also discuss some implications of the modified stalk theory for fusion in protein-containing systems. Specifically, we point out that recent data on the effects of hydrophobic peptides and viral fusion peptides on lipid phase behavior are consistent with an effect of

  7. Gas-Phase Chemical Separation of Phosphatidylcholine and Phosphatidylethanolamine Cations via Charge Inversion Ion/Ion Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Betancourt, Stella; Stutzman, John R; Londry, Frank A; Blanksby, Stephen J; McLuckey, Scott A

    2015-11-17

    The [M + H](+) cations formed upon electrospray ionization of the glycerophospholipids phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) show distinct reactivities upon gas-phase reactions with doubly deprotonated 1,4-phenylenedipropionic acid (PDPA). PC cations undergo charge inversion via adduct formation with subsequent methyl cation and proton transfer to the acid to yield [PC - CH3](-) anions. These demethylated PC anions fragment upon ion trap collision-induced dissociation (CID) to yield products that reveal fatty acid chain lengths and degrees of unsaturation. PE cations, on the other hand, undergo charge inversion via double proton transfer to the two carboxylate moieties in doubly deprotonated PDPA to yield [PE - H](-) anions. These anions also fragment upon ion trap CID to yield product ions indicative of chain lengths and degrees of unsaturation in the fatty acyl moieties. Advantage is taken of this distinct reactivity to separate isomeric and isobaric PC and PE cations present in mass spectra of lipid mixtures. A cation precursor ion population containing a mixture of PE and PC cations is mass-selected and subjected to ion/ion charge inversion reactions that result in separation of PC and PE anions into different mass-to-charge ratios. Mass selection and subsequent ion trap CID of the lipid anions allows for the characterization of the isomeric lipids within each subclass. The charge inversion approach described here is demonstrated to provide increased signal-to-noise ratios for detection of PCs and PEs relative to the standard negative ionization approach as well as improved mixture analysis performance. PMID:26477819

  8. Determination of L(alpha)-H(II) phase transition temperature for 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Toombes, Gilman E S; Finnefrock, Adam C; Tate, Mark W; Gruner, Sol M

    2002-05-01

    The thermodynamic properties of fully-hydrated lipids provide important information about the stability of membranes and the energetic interactions of lipid bilayers with membrane proteins (Nagle and Scott, Physics Today, 2:39, 1978). The lamellar/inverse hexagonal (L(alpha)-H(II)) phase transition of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) water mixtures is a first-order transition and, therefore, at constant pressure, must have a thermodynamically well-defined equilibrium transition temperature. The observed transition temperature is known to be dependent upon the rate at which the temperature is changed, which accounts for the many different values in the literature. X-ray diffraction was used to study the phase transition of fully-hydrated DOPE to determine the rate-independent transition temperature, T(LH). Samples were heated or cooled for a range of rates, 0.212 < r < 225 degrees C/hr, and the rate-dependent apparent phase transition temperatures, T(A)(r) were determined from the x-ray data. By use of a model-free extrapolation method, the transition temperature was found to be T(LH) = 3.33 +/- 0.16 degrees C. The hysteresis, /T(A)(r) - T(LH)/, was identical for heating and cooling rates, +/-r, and varied as /r/beta for beta approximately 1/4. This unexpected power-law relationship is consistent with a previous study (Tate et al., Biochemistry, 31:1081-1092, 1992) but differs markedly from the exponential behavior of activation barrier kinetics. The methods used in this study are general and provide a simple way to determine the true mesomorphic phase transition temperatures of other lipid and lyotropic systems.

  9. Determination of L(alpha)-H(II) phase transition temperature for 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine.

    PubMed Central

    Toombes, Gilman E S; Finnefrock, Adam C; Tate, Mark W; Gruner, Sol M

    2002-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of fully-hydrated lipids provide important information about the stability of membranes and the energetic interactions of lipid bilayers with membrane proteins (Nagle and Scott, Physics Today, 2:39, 1978). The lamellar/inverse hexagonal (L(alpha)-H(II)) phase transition of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) water mixtures is a first-order transition and, therefore, at constant pressure, must have a thermodynamically well-defined equilibrium transition temperature. The observed transition temperature is known to be dependent upon the rate at which the temperature is changed, which accounts for the many different values in the literature. X-ray diffraction was used to study the phase transition of fully-hydrated DOPE to determine the rate-independent transition temperature, T(LH). Samples were heated or cooled for a range of rates, 0.212 < r < 225 degrees C/hr, and the rate-dependent apparent phase transition temperatures, T(A)(r) were determined from the x-ray data. By use of a model-free extrapolation method, the transition temperature was found to be T(LH) = 3.33 +/- 0.16 degrees C. The hysteresis, /T(A)(r) - T(LH)/, was identical for heating and cooling rates, +/-r, and varied as /r/beta for beta approximately 1/4. This unexpected power-law relationship is consistent with a previous study (Tate et al., Biochemistry, 31:1081-1092, 1992) but differs markedly from the exponential behavior of activation barrier kinetics. The methods used in this study are general and provide a simple way to determine the true mesomorphic phase transition temperatures of other lipid and lyotropic systems. PMID:11964238

  10. The intrinsic pKa values for phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine in monolayers deposited on mercury electrodes.

    PubMed Central

    Moncelli, M R; Becucci, L; Guidelli, R

    1994-01-01

    The intrinsic pKa values of the phosphate groups of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and of the phosphate and carboxyl groups of phosphatidylserine (PS) in self-organized monolayers deposited on a hanging mercury drop electrode were determined by a novel procedure based on measurements of the differential capacity C of this lipid-coated electrode. In view of the Gouy-Chapman theory, plots of 1/C at constant bulk pH and variable KCl concentration against the reciprocal of the calculated diffuse-layer capacity Cd,0 at zero charge exhibit slopes that decrease from an almost unit value to vanishingly low values as the absolute value of the charge density on the lipid increases from zero to approximately 2 microC cm-2. The intrinsic pKa values so determined are 0.5 for PE and 0.8 for PC. The plots of 1/C against 1/Cd,0 for pure PS exhibit slopes that pass from zero to a maximum value and then back to zero as pH is varied from 7.5 to 3, indicating that the charge density of the lipid film passes from slight negative to slight positive values over this pH range. An explanation for this anomalous behavior, which is ascribed to the phosphate group of PS, is provided. Interdispersion of PS and PC molecules in the film decreases the "formal" pKa value of the latter group by about three orders of magnitude. PMID:8075331

  11. Autophagy Competes for a Common Phosphatidylethanolamine Pool with Major Cellular PE-Consuming Pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Zbinden, Caroline; dos Santos, Aline Xavier da Silveira; Stoffel-Studer, Ingrid; van der Vaart, Aniek; Hofmann, Kay; Reggiori, Fulvio; Riezman, Howard; Kraft, Claudine; Peter, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly regulated pathway that selectively degrades cellular constituents such as protein aggregates and excessive or damaged organelles. This transport route is characterized by engulfment of the targeted cargo by autophagosomes. The formation of these double-membrane vesicles requires the covalent conjugation of the ubiquitin-like protein Atg8 to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). However, the origin of PE and the regulation of lipid flux required for autophagy remain poorly understood. Using a genetic screen, we found that the temperature-sensitive growth and intracellular membrane organization defects of mcd4-174 and mcd4-P301L mutants are suppressed by deletion of essential autophagy genes such as ATG1 or ATG7. MCD4 encodes an ethanolamine phosphate transferase that uses PE as a precursor for an essential step in the synthesis of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor used to link a subset of plasma membrane proteins to lipid bilayers. Similar to the deletion of CHO2, a gene encoding the enzyme converting PE to phosphatidylcholine (PC), deletion of ATG7 was able to restore lipidation and plasma membrane localization of the GPI-anchored protein Gas1 and normal organization of intracellular membranes. Conversely, overexpression of Cho2 was lethal in mcd4-174 cells grown at restrictive temperature. Quantitative lipid analysis revealed that PE levels are substantially reduced in the mcd4-174 mutant but can be restored by deletion of ATG7 or CHO2. Taken together, these data suggest that autophagy competes for a common PE pool with major cellular PE-consuming pathways such as the GPI anchor and PC synthesis, highlighting the possible interplay between these pathways and the existence of signals that may coordinate PE flux. PMID:25519895

  12. Incidence and identification of phospholipase C-producing bacteria in fresh and spoiled homogenized milk.

    PubMed

    Fox, C W; Chrisope, G L; Marshall, R T

    1976-11-01

    Bacteria which produced phospholipase C were isolated from 13 of 34 fresh and 15 of 35 spoiled samples of homogenized milk. No single off flavor was assigned consistently to samples with phospholipase producers, but 75% of them were bitter. Pseudomonads constituted 62% of the isolates. Other phospholipase C-producing genera and their numbers were Acinetobacter, two; Alcaligenes, three; Bacillus, two; Citrobacter, one; Enterobacter, three; and Flavobacterium, two. Two unidentified yeasts also were isolated.

  13. Diagnosis of snake envenomation using a simple phospholipase A2 assay

    PubMed Central

    Maduwage, Kalana; O'Leary, Margaret A.; Isbister, Geoffrey K.

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of snake envenomation is challenging but critical for deciding on antivenom use. Phospholipase A2 enzymes occur commonly in snake venoms and we hypothesized that phospholipase activity detected in human blood post-bite may be indicative of envenomation. Using a simple assay, potentially a bedside test, we detected high phospholipase activity in sera of patients with viper and elapid envenomation compared to minimal activity in non-envenomed patients. PMID:24777205

  14. Phospholipase D in Endocytosis and Endosomal Recycling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Julie G.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery that Arf GTPases, mediators of membrane traffic, activate phospholipase D (PLD) raised the possibility that Arfs could facilitate membrane traffic by altering membrane lipid composition. PLD hydrolyzes phosphatidylcholine to generate phosphatidic acid (PA), a lipid that favors membranes with negative curvature and thus can facilitate both membrane fission and fusion. This review examines studies that have reported a role for PLD in endocytosis and membrane recycling from endocytic pathways. PMID:19540357

  15. Reduced phospholipase A2 activity is not accompanied by reduced arachidonic acid release.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, H; Maxwell, P; Hack, N; Skorecki, K

    1994-01-14

    Arachidonic acid release in cells highly over expressing cytosolic phospholipase A2 has been attributed to mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 on serine-505. To investigate the role of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in cellular physiology, we attempted to inhibit cytosolic phospholipase A2 in the intact cell employing an antisense RNA strategy. Swiss 3T3 cells were stably transfected with an antisense cytosolic phospholipase A2 expression vector. A clone of cells with reduced immunodetectable cytosolic phospholipase A2, compared to a vector transfected cell line, was identified by Western blotting and a corresponding decrease in phospholipase A2 activity was confirmed by enzymatic assay in cell free extracts. However, arachidonic acid release from intact cells in response to agonists was not different between antisense and control cell lines. Thus, arachidonic acid release in intact cells with decreased cytosolic phospholipase A2 activity is likely to be modulated by rate limiting factors that are extrinsic to cytosolic phospholipase A2.

  16. Evaluation of the recombinant turkey pancreatic lipase phospholipase activity: A monolayer study.

    PubMed

    Bou Ali, Madiha; Jallouli, Raida; Gargouri, Youssef; Ben Ali, Yassine

    2015-11-01

    Classical lipases are well known for being enzymes hydrolysing triacylglycérols as substrate, except the porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) which was able to hydrolyze phosphatidylcholine. Amino acid sequence alignments revealed that Valine 260 residue in PPL lid, postulated to be responsible for the PPL phospholipase activity, was present in the Turkey pancreatic lipase (TPL). The importance of Val 260 in the phospholipase activities expression has been reported. To confirm this fact, Val 260 was mutated to Alanine in the TPL lid. Mutated protein has conserved its phospholipase activity as well as the non mutated TPL. Therefore, Valine 260 residue in the lid is not involved in the pancreatic lipases phospholipase activity. The rTPL phospholipase activity was also studied using monolayer technique. This avian pancreatic lipase has shown phospholipase activity toward differently charged phospholipids. The highest phospholipase activity was found on phosphatidylglycerol (negatively charged substrate) at a surface pressure of 20mN/m, but when a zwitterionic substrate was used (DLPC), a lower activity was found at a surface pressure of 10mN/m. However, it is worth noticing that the TPL phospholipase activity is about 100 fold lower than its lipase activity. GC chromatography analyses of the released fatty acids from the hydrolysis of 1,2-POPC have shown that rTPL hydrolyses esters bonds at the sn-1 as well as the sn-2 position of phospholipids. Hence, rTPL shows a low phospholipase activity in comparison to its activity toward triacylglycerols. PMID:26277750

  17. Phosphatidylinositol Specific Phospholipase C of Plant Stems 1

    PubMed Central

    Pfaffmann, Helmut; Hartmann, Elmar; Brightman, Andrew O.; Morré, D. James

    1987-01-01

    A phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C of plant stems (EC 3.1.4.10) assayed at pH 6.6 and at 30°C cleaved phosphatidylinositol such that more than 85% of the product was inositol-1-phosphate. Other phospholipids were cleaved 5 to 10% or less under these conditions. The phospholipase had both a soluble and a membrane-associated form. The soluble activity accounted for approximately 85 to 90% of the activity and 15% was associated with membranes. The membrane-associated activity was most concentrated in the plasma membranes of hypocotyl segments of both soybean (Glycine max) and bushbean (Phaseolus vulgaris). The plasma membrane location was verified by analysis of highly purified plasma membranes prepared both by aqueous two-phase partitioning and by preparative free-flow electrophoresis and from the quantitation of the activity in all major cell fractions. Internal membranes also contained phospholipase C activity but at specific activity levels of about 0.1 those present in plasma membranes. Golgi apparatus-enriched fractions from which plasma membrane contaminants were removed by two-phase partition contained the activity at specific activity levels 0.2 those of plasma membrane. Both the soluble and the membrane-associated activity was stimulated by calcium but not by calmodulin, either alone or in the presence of calcium. PMID:16665820

  18. [Do phospholipases, key enzymes in sperm physiology, represent therapeutic challenges?].

    PubMed

    Arnoult, Christophe; Escoffier, Jessica; Munch, Léa; Pierre, Virginie; Hennebicq, Sylviane; Lambeau, Gérard; Ray, Pierre

    2012-05-01

    The spermatozoon is one of the most differentiated cells in mammals and its production requires an extremely complex machinery. Subtle but critical molecular changes take place during capacitation, which comprises the last series of maturation steps that naturally occur between the cauda epididymidis where spermatozoa are stored and their ultimate destination inside the oocyte. Phospholipases, by hydrolyzing various phospholipids, have been found to be critical in sperm processes such as 1) the control of flagellum beats, 2) capacitation - the molecular transformations preparing the sperm for fertilization, 3) acrosome reaction and 4) oocyte activation by eliciting calcium oscillations. The emerging important role of phospholipases is also emphasized by the fact that alterations of sperm lipids can lead to infertility. Phospholipases may represent valuable targets to develop anti- and pro-fertility drugs. Results obtained in mice are encouraging, since treatment of sperm with recombinant sPLA(2) of group X, known to be involved in capacitation, improves fertilization in vitro, while co-injection of PLCζ RNA with infertile sperm restores oocyte activation. PMID:22643005

  19. Restoration of Responsiveness of Phospholipase Cγ2-Deficient Platelets by Enforced Expression of Phospholipase Cγ1

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yongwei; Adams, Tamara; Zhi, Huiying; Yu, Mei; Wen, Renren; Newman, Peter J.; Wang, Demin; Newman, Debra K.

    2015-01-01

    Receptor-mediated platelet activation requires phospholipase C (PLC) activity to elevate intracellular calcium and induce actin cytoskeleton reorganization. PLCs are classified into structurally distinct β, γ, δ, ε, ζ, and η isoforms. There are two PLCγ isoforms (PLCγ1, PLCγ2), which are critical for activation by tyrosine kinase-dependent receptors. Platelets express both PLCγ1 and PLCγ2. Although PLCγ2 has been shown to play a dominant role in platelet activation, the extent to which PLCγ1 contributes has not been evaluated. To ascertain the relative contributions of PLCγ1 and PLCγ2 to platelet activation, we generated conditionally PLCγ1-deficient, wild-type (WT), PLCγ2-deficient, and PLCγ1/PLCγ2 double-deficient mice and measured the ability of platelets to respond to different agonists. We found that PLCγ2 deficiency abrogated αIIbβ3-dependent platelet spreading, GPVI-dependent platelet aggregation, and thrombus formation on collagen-coated surfaces under shear conditions, which is dependent on both GPVI and αIIbβ3. Addition of exogenous ADP overcame defective spreading of PLCγ2-deficient platelets on immobilized fibrinogen, suggesting that PLCγ2 is required for granule secretion in response to αIIbβ3 ligation. Consistently, αIIbβ3-mediated release of granule contents was impaired in the absence of PLCγ2. In contrast, PLCγ1-deficient platelets spread and released granule contents normally on fibrinogen, exhibited normal levels of GPVI-dependent aggregation, and formed thrombi normally on collagen-coated surfaces. Interestingly, enforced expression of PLCγ1 fully restored GPVI-dependent aggregation and αIIbβ3-dependent spreading of PLCγ2-deficient platelets. We conclude that platelet activation through GPVI and αIIbβ3 utilizes PLCγ2 because PLCγ1 levels are insufficient to support responsiveness, but that PLCγ1 can restore responsiveness if expressed at levels normally achieved by PLCγ2. PMID:25793864

  20. Effect of prolonged physical exercise on muscular phospholipase A2 activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Federspil, G; Baggio, B; De Palo, C; De Carlo, E; Borsatti, A; Vettor, R

    1987-06-01

    Prolonged muscular exercise stimulates glucose uptake by the working muscles themselves. The mechanism of this phenomenon is at present unclear. It has been proposed that the kallikrein-kinin-prostaglandin system plays a role in the physiological regulation of muscular glucose metabolism during exercise. Since bradykinin can stimulate phospholipase A2, a key enzymatic step in prostaglandin synthesis, phospholipase A2 activity was assayed in rats at rest and in rats compelled to swim for 60 minutes. The physiological significance of an increase in muscular phospholipase A2 activity is not clear. Since bradykinin can stimulate both muscular glucose uptake and phospholipase A2 activity, it is possible that the increased activity of this enzyme is involved in the exercise-induced increase of muscular glucose uptake. Phospholipase A2 activity was strongly increased in the exercising rat muscles. A small but significant increase in phospholipase A2 activity was observed in the heart, whereas no variation in activity was demonstrated in either the kidney or the liver of exercising rats. These findings strongly indicate that prolonged exercise increases muscular phospholipase A2 activity only in the muscle and heart. This phenomenon appears to be strongly related to muscular contraction, since other stress situations such as cold exposure did not modify phospholipase A2 activity. Our data are in agreement with the hypothesis of a possible involvement of prostaglandins in the priming action of insulin on glucose uptake during muscular work.

  1. Interaction of epidermal growth factor with vasoactive hormones in the regulation of phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Hack, N; Margolis, B; Schlessinger, J; Skorecki, K

    1991-01-01

    The interaction of growth factors with their receptors initiates a series of intracellular events that are of critical importance in the control of normal cell proliferation. In this regard considerable attention has focused on the coupling of phospholipase C-gamma to growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases. In contrast, the interaction of growth factors with phospholipase A2 has received less attention, most likely because the arachidonic acid release response has been considered to be an accompaniment of phospholipase C activation. Work from our laboratory using a well defined model system demonstrated a distinct coupling relationship of epidermal growth factor to phospholipase A2. This review focuses on the interaction of the epidermal growth factor receptor with phospholipases involved in both mitogenic and non-mitogenic responses and discusses their possible relation with vasoactive hormones.

  2. Calcitriol transmembrane signalling: regulation of rat muscle phospholipase D activity.

    PubMed

    Facchinetti, M M; Boland, R; de Boland, A R

    1998-01-01

    In rat skeletal muscle, calcitriol, the hormonal form of vitamin D3, rapidly stimulates the biphasic formation of diacylglycerol (DAG), the second phase being independent of phosphoinositide hydrolysis driven by phospholipase C. In this work we showed that the effect of calcitriol on the second phase of DAG formation was totally inhibited in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ and by the Ca2+-channel blockers nifedipine and verapamil, whereas the Ca2+ ionophore A23184, similar to calcitriol, increased DAG formation by 100%. GTPgammaS, which activates G protein-mediated signals, mimicked the effects of the hormone while GDPbetaS, an inhibitor of G proteins, suppressed calcitriol-induced DAG formation. To elucidate the metabolic pathway of the late phase of DAG production, we examined the contribution of phospholipase D (PLD), which acts on phosphatidylcholine (PC) generating phosphatidic acid that is converted to DAG by a phosphatidate phosphohydrolase. In [3H]arachidonate-labeled muscle, calcitriol increased [3H]phosphatidylethanol (PEt) formation in the presence of ethanol, a reaction specific for PLD. The effects of the hormone were time- and dose-dependent with maximum PEt levels achieved at 10(-9) M. The phorbol ester TPA also stimulated PEt formation. The combination of calcitriol and TPA was more effective than either compound alone. In rat muscle, calcitriol increased PKC activity in a time-dependent fashion. Bisindolymaleimide, a selective inhibitor of the enzyme, completely suppressed TPA-induced PEt and attenuated the effects of the hormone. These results provide the first evidence concerning calcitriol stimulation of the hydrolysis of PC in a mammalian tissue through a phospholipase D catalyzed mechanism involving Ca2+, protein kinase C, and G proteins.

  3. Messenger molecules of the phospholipase signaling system have dual effects on vascular smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Vidulescu, Cristina; Mironneau, J.; Mironneau, Chantal; Popescu, L. M.

    2000-01-01

    Background and methods. In order to investigate the role of phospholipases and their immediately derived messengers in agonist-induced contraction of portal vein smooth muscle, we used the addition in the organ bath of exogenous molecules such as: phospholipases C, A(2), and D, diacylglycerol, arachidonic acid, phosphatidic acid, choline. We also used substances modulating activity of downstream molecules like protein kinase C, phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase, or cyclooxygenase. Results. a) Exogenous phospholipases C or A(2), respectively, induced small agonist-like contractions, while exogenous phospholipase D did not. Moreover, phospholipase D inhibited spontaneous contractions. However, when added during noradrenaline-induced plateau, phospholipase D shortly potentiated it. b) The protein kinase C activator, phorbol dibutyrate potentiated both the exogenous phospholipase C-induced contraction and the noradrenaline-induced plateau, while the protein kinase C inhibitor 1-(-5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methyl-piperazine relaxed the plateau. c) When added before noradrenaline, indomethacin inhibited both phasic and tonic contractions, but when added during the tonic contraction shortly potentiated it. Arachidonic acid strongly potentiated both spontaneous and noradrenaline-induced contractions, irrespective of the moment of its addition. d) In contrast, phosphatidic acid inhibited spontaneous contractile activity, nevertheless it was occasionally capable of inducing small contractions, and when repetitively added during the agonist-induced tonic contraction, produced short potentiations of the plateau. Pretreatment with propranolol inhibited noradrenaline-induced contractions and further addition of phosphatidic acid augmented this inhibition. Choline augmented the duration and amplitude of noradrenaline-induced tonic contraction and final contractile oscillations. Conclusions. These data suggest that messengers produced by phospholipase C and phospholipase A(2

  4. A role for Phospholipase D in Drosophila embryonic cellularization

    PubMed Central

    LaLonde, Mary; Janssens, Hilde; Yun, Suyong; Crosby, Juan; Redina, Olga; Olive, Virginie; Altshuller, Yelena M; Choi, Seok-Yong; Du, Guangwei; Gergen, J Peter; Frohman, Michael A

    2006-01-01

    Background Cellularization of the Drosophila embryo is an unusually synchronous form of cytokinesis in which polarized membrane extension proceeds in part through incorporation of new membrane via fusion of apically-translocated Golgi-derived vesicles. Results We describe here involvement of the signaling enzyme Phospholipase D (Pld) in regulation of this developmental step. Functional analysis using gene targeting revealed that cellularization is hindered by the loss of Pld, resulting frequently in early embryonic developmental arrest. Mechanistically, chronic Pld deficiency causes abnormal Golgi structure and secretory vesicle trafficking. Conclusion Our results suggest that Pld functions to promote trafficking of Golgi-derived fusion-competent vesicles during cellularization. PMID:17156430

  5. Phospholipases as GTPase activity accelerating proteins (GAPs) in plants.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sona

    2016-05-01

    GTPase activity accelerating proteins (GAPs) are key regulators of the G-protein signaling cycle. By facilitating effective hydrolysis of the GTP bound on Gα proteins, GAPs control the timing and amplitude of the signaling cycle and ascertain the availability of the inactive heterotrimer for the next round of activation. Until very recently, the studies of GAPs in plants were focused exclusively on the regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) protein. We now show that phospholipase Dα1 (PLDα1) is also a bona fide GAP in plants and together with the RGS protein controls the level of active Gα protein. PMID:27124090

  6. Regulation of rat kidney mesangial cell phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Hack, N; Tay, A; Schultz, A; Muzin, N; Clayman, P; Egan, S; Skorecki, K L

    1996-01-01

    1. The precursor of eicosanoids is arachidonic acid, which emanates from the cleavage of the sn-2 position of phospholipids by phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Eicosanoids have diverse physiological and pathophysiological effects in the kidney. The regulation of phospholipase A2 has important implications for kidney function. 2. In the current communication we focus our attention on mesangial cell cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) and its regulation at the post-translational and post-transcriptional level. 3. At the post-translational level, using site directed mutagenesis of cPLA2 and a dominant negative ras, we have demonstrated that cPLA2 can be phosphorylated by mitogen activated protein (MAP-2) kinase leading to increased cPLA2 enzymatic activity. 4. At the post-transcriptional level we show that the half-life of cPLA2 mRNA in mesangial cells is significantly increased when mesangial cells are stimulated by mitogens. We further demonstrate the presence of three ATTTA motifs in the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of the cPLA2 cDNA. 5. Using chimeric constructs bearing the 3' UTR from rat cPLA2 fused downstream of the luciferase reporter, we demonstrate that this region exerts a destabilizing effect on cPLA2. 6. We have isolated and mapped genomic DNA and polymorphic markers for cPLA2 in the human and rat.

  7. Secretory phospholipase A2 in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Lima, Luciana Moreira; Carvalho, Maria das Graças; da Fonseca Neto, Cirilo Pereira; Garcia, José Carlos Faria; Sousa, Marinez Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the correlation of sPLA2 (secretory phospholipase A2) activity with the atheromatosis extent in subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing coronary angiography. We analyzed 123 patients, including 35 subjects with angiographically normal coronary arteries (controls), 31 with mild/moderate atheromatosis (stenosis of 30-70% of the luminal diameter in one or more coronary arteries) and 57 with severe atheromatosis (>70% stenosis). Plasma sPLA2 activity was significantly higher in subjects with severe [127.7 U/ml (102.3-162.7); p < 0.0001] and mild/moderate [112.0 U/ml (100.6-146.9); p < 0.0001] atheromatosis than in controls [19.8 U/ml (15.1-32.1)]. In a multiple logistic regression model, adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, tabagism, hypertension, sedentarism, family history for coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, total cholesterol, HDLc, LDLc, triglycerides, high sensitivity C-reactive protein and phospholipase A2, only sPLA2 was observed to be independently associated with severe CAD (>70% of stenosis) (p < 0.0001). PMID:19449149

  8. Interactions of phospholipase D and cytochrome P450 protein stability

    SciTech Connect

    Zangar, Richard C.; Fan, Yang-Yi; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2004-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested a relationship between cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A (CYP3A) conformation and the phospholipid composition of the associated membrane. In this study, we utilized a novel microsomal incubation system that mimics many of the characteristics of CYP3A degradation pathway that have been observed in vivo and in cultured cells to study the effects of phospholipid composition on protein stability. We found that addition of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase D (PLD) stabilized CYP3A in this system, but that phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC) was without effect. Addition of phosphatidic acid also stabilized CYP3A protein in the microsomes. The use of 1,10-phenanthroline (phenanthroline), an inhibitor of PLD activity, decreased CYP3A stability in incubated microsomes. Similarly, 6-h treatment of primary cultures of rat hepatocytes with phenanthroline resulted in nearly complete loss of CYP3A protein. Treatment of rats with nicardipine or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which have been shown to affect CYP3A stability, altered the phospholipid composition of hepatic microsomes. It did not appear, though, that the changes in phospholipid composition that resulted from these in vivo treatments accounted for the change in CYP3A stability observed in hepatic microsomes from these animals.

  9. Biochemical and monolayer characterization of Tunisian snake venom phospholipases.

    PubMed

    Baîram, Douja; Aissa, Imen; Louati, Hanen; Othman, Houcemeddine; Abdelkafi-Koubaa, Zaineb; Krayem, Najeh; El Ayeb, Mohamed; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Marrakchi, Naziha; Gargouri, Youssef

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated the kinetic and interfacial properties of two secreted phospholipases isolated from Tunisian vipers'venoms: Cerastes cerastes (CC-PLA2) and Macrovipera lebetina transmediterranea (MVL-PLA2). Results show that these enzymes have great different abilities to bind and hydrolyse phospholipids. Using egg-yolk emulsions as substrate at pH 8, we found that MVL-PLA2 has a specific activity of 1473U/mg at 37°C in presence of 1mM CaCl2. Furthermore the interfacial kinetic and binding data indicate that MVL-PLA2 has a preference to the zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine monolayers (PC). Conversely, CC-PLA2 was found to be able to hydrolyse preferentially negatively charged head group phospholipids (PG and PS) and exhibits a specific activity 9 times more important (13333U/mg at 60°C in presence of 3mM CaCl2). Molecular models of both CC-PLA2 and MVL-PLA2 3D structures have been built and their electrostatic potentials surfaces have been calculated. A marked anisotropy of the overall electrostatic charge distribution leads to a significantly difference in the dipole moment intensity between the two enzymes explaining the great differences in catalytic and binding properties, which seems to be governed by the electrostatic and hydrophobic forces operative at the surface of the two phospholipases. PMID:27164498

  10. The Role of Phospholipase D and MAPK Signaling Cascades in the Adaption of Lichen Microalgae to Desiccation: Changes in Membrane Lipids and Phosphoproteome.

    PubMed

    Gasulla, Francisco; Barreno, Eva; Parages, María L; Cámara, Joaquín; Jiménez, Carlos; Dörmann, Peter; Bartels, Dorothea

    2016-09-01

    Classically, lichen phycobionts are described as poikilohydric organisms able to undergo desiccation due to the constitutive presence of molecular protection mechanisms. However, little is known about the induction of cellular responses in lichen phycobionts during drying. The analysis of the lipid composition of the desiccated lichen microalga Asterochloris erici revealed the unusual accumulation of highly polar lipids (oligogalactolipids and phosphatidylinositol), which prevents the fusion of membranes during stress, but also the active degradation of cone-shaped lipids (monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine) to stabilize membranes in desiccated cells. The level of phosphatidic acid increased 7-fold during desiccation, implicating a possible role for phospholipase D (PLD) in the response to osmotic stress. Inhibition of PLD with 1-butanol markedly impaired the recovery of photosynthesis activity in A. erici upon desiccation and salt stress (2 M NaCl). These two hyperosmotic stresses caused the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-like mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the dephosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). The incubation with 1-butanol reduced the phosphorylation of JNK-like proteins and increased the dephosphorylation of ERK-like proteins, which indicates an upstream control of MAPK cascades by PLD. The phosphoproteome showed that desiccation caused the phosphorylation of several proteins in A. erici, most of them involved in protein turnover. The results demonstrate that lichen phycobionts possess both constitutive and inducible protective mechanisms to acquire desiccation tolerance. Among others, these responses are controlled by the PLD pathway through the activation of MAPK cascades. PMID:27335354

  11. The Role of Phospholipase D and MAPK Signaling Cascades in the Adaption of Lichen Microalgae to Desiccation: Changes in Membrane Lipids and Phosphoproteome.

    PubMed

    Gasulla, Francisco; Barreno, Eva; Parages, María L; Cámara, Joaquín; Jiménez, Carlos; Dörmann, Peter; Bartels, Dorothea

    2016-09-01

    Classically, lichen phycobionts are described as poikilohydric organisms able to undergo desiccation due to the constitutive presence of molecular protection mechanisms. However, little is known about the induction of cellular responses in lichen phycobionts during drying. The analysis of the lipid composition of the desiccated lichen microalga Asterochloris erici revealed the unusual accumulation of highly polar lipids (oligogalactolipids and phosphatidylinositol), which prevents the fusion of membranes during stress, but also the active degradation of cone-shaped lipids (monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine) to stabilize membranes in desiccated cells. The level of phosphatidic acid increased 7-fold during desiccation, implicating a possible role for phospholipase D (PLD) in the response to osmotic stress. Inhibition of PLD with 1-butanol markedly impaired the recovery of photosynthesis activity in A. erici upon desiccation and salt stress (2 M NaCl). These two hyperosmotic stresses caused the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-like mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the dephosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). The incubation with 1-butanol reduced the phosphorylation of JNK-like proteins and increased the dephosphorylation of ERK-like proteins, which indicates an upstream control of MAPK cascades by PLD. The phosphoproteome showed that desiccation caused the phosphorylation of several proteins in A. erici, most of them involved in protein turnover. The results demonstrate that lichen phycobionts possess both constitutive and inducible protective mechanisms to acquire desiccation tolerance. Among others, these responses are controlled by the PLD pathway through the activation of MAPK cascades.

  12. Role of Phospholipases in Fungal Fitness, Pathogenicity, and Drug Development – Lessons from Cryptococcus Neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Djordjevic, Julianne Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Many pathogenic microbes, including many fungi, produce phospholipases which facilitate survival of the pathogen in vivo, invasion and dissemination throughout the host, expression of virulence traits and evasion of host immune defense mechanisms. These phospholipases are either secreted or produced intracellularly and act by physically disrupting host membranes, and/or by affecting fungal cell signaling and production of immunomodulatory effectors. Many of the secreted phospholipases acquire a glycosylphosphatidylinositol sorting motif to facilitate membrane and/or cell wall association and secretion. This review focuses primarily on the role of two members of the phospholipase enzyme family, phospholipase B (Plb) and phosphatidylinositol (PI)-specific phospholipase C (PI-C/Plc), in fungal pathogenesis and in particular, what has been learnt about their function from studies performed in the model pathogenic yeast, Cryptococcus neoformans. These studies have revealed how Plb has adapted to become an important part of the virulence repertoire of pathogenic fungi and how its secretion is regulated. They have also provided valuable insight into how the intracellular enzyme, Plc1, contributes to fungal fitness and pathogenicity – via a putative role in signal transduction pathways that regulate the production of stress-protecting pigments, polysaccharide capsule, cell wall integrity, and adaptation to growth at host temperature. Finally, this review will address the role fungal phospholipases have played in the development of a new class of antifungal drugs, which mimic their phospholipid substrates. PMID:21687772

  13. Purification and immunological analysis of phospholipase D from castor bean endosperm.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Dyer, J H; Zheng, L

    1993-11-01

    Phospholipase D (EC 3.1.4.4) has been implicated in diverse cellular processes, but its physiological role is not well established in plants. In order to develop immunological and molecular biology approaches to address the problem, we report here the immunological analysis and N-terminal amino acid sequence of a cytosolic phospholipase D from castor bean (Ricinus communis L.). The enzyme was purified to apparent homogeneity from germinating castor bean endosperm. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was enhanced by approximately 670-fold with an overall yield of 4%. Its molecular mass was estimated at 92 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this enzyme was KLVENIEETVGFGKG. Polyclonal antibodies were raised against the purified enzyme. The antibodies inhibited the activity of transphosphatidylation more than that of hydrolysis of phospholipase D. The differential effect on the two activities of this enzyme implies that different active sites on this enzyme may be involved in the two reactions. Immunoblot analyses showed that the amounts of phospholipase D protein relative to the total endosperm proteins increased during the first 5 days of germination. The antibodies cross-reacted to proteins from several tested plant species, and those proteins had molecular masses similar to that of castor bean phospholipase D. These results indicate that the expression of phospholipase D in castor bean changes according to growth stages and that phospholipase D enzymes of different plant species are structurally related.

  14. Modulation of radiation induced lipid peroxidation by phospholipase A 2 and calmodulin antagonists: Relevance to detoxification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshney, Rajeev; Kale, R. K.

    1995-04-01

    Ghost membranes prepared from erythrocytes of Swiss albino mice were irradiated with 0.9 Gy s -1. Lipid peroxidation initiated by ionizing radiation was enhanced by phospholipase A 2, and required both phospholipase A 2 and GSH-peroxidase for consecutive action to convert fatty acid peroxides into corresponding alcohols. The ability of phospholipase A 2 to enhance lipid peroxidation was increased in presence of Ca 2+. However, in combination, phospholipase A 2 and GSH-peroxidase were effective in inhibiting lipid peroxidation. These findings show that free fatty acid peroxides considerably increase the peroxidation. Calmodulin antagonists inhibit lipid peroxidation and decrease the radiation induced release of Ca 2+ from the membranes. Our results suggest the importance of Ca 2+ dependent phospholipase A 2 in detoxification of fatty acid peroxides in the membranes. It is quite possible that scavenging of free radicals by calmodulin antagonists lower the formation of hydroperoxides, resulting in the decrease in activity of phospholipase A 2. Alternatively, decrease in Ca 2+ release due to the calmodulin antagonists might have affected the activity of phospholipase A 2. Our observations might be of considerable significance in the understanding of post irradiation effect on biological membranes.

  15. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phospholipase C and phosphomonoesterase in Dunaliella salina membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Einspahr, K.J.; Peeler, T.C.; Thompson, G.A. Jr. )

    1989-07-01

    In comparison with other cell organelles, the Dunaliella salina plasma membrane was found to be highly enriched in phospholipase C activity toward exogenous ({sup 3}H)phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}). Based on release of ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphates, the plasma membrane exhibited a PIP{sub 2}-phospholipase C activity nearly tenfold higher than the nonplasmalemmal, nonchloroplast bottom phase (BP) membrane fraction and 47 times higher than the chloroplast membrane fraction. The majority of phospholipase activity was clearly of a phospholipase C nature since over 80% of ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphates released were recovered as ({sup 3}H)inositol trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}). These results suggest a plausible mechanism for the rapid breakdown of PIP{sub 2} and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) following hypoosmotic shock. The authors have also examined some of the in vitro characteristics of the plasma membrane phospholipase C activity and have found it to be calcium sensitive, reaching maximal activity at 10 micromolar free (Ca{sup 2+}). They also report here that 100 micromolar GTP{gamma}S stimulates phospholipase C activity over a range of free (Ca{sup 2+}). Together, these results provide evidence that the plasma membrane PIP{sub 2}-phospholipase C of D. salina may be subject to Ca{sup 2+} and G-protein regulation.

  16. [Phospholipase, proteinase and hemolytic activities of Candida albicans isolates obtained from clinical specimens].

    PubMed

    Yenişehirli, Gülgün; Bulut, Yunus; Tunçoglu, Ebru

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the phospholipase, proteinase and hemolytic activities of Candida albicans strains isolated from clinical specimens. A total of 147 C. albicans strains isolated from blood (n = 29), respiratory specimens (n = 44), urine (n = 52), pus (n = 17) and stool (n = 5) were included in the study. Proteinase and phospholipase activities were determined in 81% and 76% of C. albicans isolates, respectively. All C. albicans isolates revealed beta-hemolytic activity on Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with 7% fresh sheep blood and 3% glucose. Phospholipase and proteinase positivity were highest among the respiratory isolates. Proteinase activity of respiratory (93%) and blood (83%) isolates were statistically significantly higher than that of urine (77%; p = 0.032), pus (65%; p = 0.007) and stool isolates (60%; p = 0.026). While phospholipase activity showed statistically significant difference between respiratory (84%) and pus (53%) isolates (p = 0.014), no statistically significant difference was determined for blood (79%), urine (75%) and stool (80%) isolates (p > 0.05). Two blood isolates with 4+ proteinase activity and 3 urine isolates with 3+ proteinase activity were phospholipase negative. One urine isolate with 4+ phospholipase activity and 4 with 3+ phospholipase activity were proteinase negative. Phospholipase and proteinase negative 1 isolate from stool and 1 isolate from pus were found to have 4+ hemolytic activity. In conclusion, besides proteinase and phospholipase enzyme activities, hemolytic activity may play an important role for the C.albicans infections. The pathogenetic role of these virulence factors should be evaluated by further clinical studies.

  17. A rapid phospholipase A2 bioassay using 14C-oleate-labelled E. coli bacterias.

    PubMed

    Meyer, T; von Wichert, P; Weins, D

    1989-02-01

    Two methods of phospholipase A2 determination using 14C-labelled E. coli bacterias as substrate were compared. One method works with a filter membrane for separation of cleaved 14C-oleate from remaining phospholipids, the other uses the well-known thin-layer chromatography for lipid analysis. Some features of human serum phospholipase A2 regarding pH and Ca2+ dependency were investigated. Possible sources of errors were discussed. It was shown that either method can differentiate between normal and pathologically elevated phospholipase A2 levels, but that the filter method is superior in terms of sensitivity and workload.

  18. Down-regulation of phospholipase C-beta1 following chronic muscarinic receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, S D; Linseman, D A; Fisher, S K

    1998-04-01

    To determine whether prolonged activation of a phospholipase C-coupled receptor can lead to a down-regulation of its effector enzyme, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were incubated for 24 h with the muscarinic receptor agonist, oxotremorine-M. Under these conditions, significant reductions (46-53%) in muscarinic cholinergic receptor density, G(alphaq/11) and phospholipase C-beta1 (but not the beta3-or gamma1 isoforms) were observed. These results suggest that a selective down-regulation of phospholipase C-beta1 may play a role in adaptation to chronic muscarinic receptor activation. PMID:9617763

  19. Modulation of the kinetics of 3β-hydroxy-5-oxo-5,6-secocholestan-6-al/phosphatidylethanolamine Schiff base formation by cholesterol and cholesterol crystallization.

    PubMed

    Bach, D; Wachtel, E; Miller, I R

    2015-02-01

    We have previously shown that the oxidized cholesterol 3β-hydroxy-5-oxo-5,6-secocholestan-6-al (atheronal A) reacts covalently with the free amino group of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or phosphatidylserine (PS) to produce a Schiff base. Accompanying this interaction, the biophysical properties of the phospholipid membranes are also changed. In the present report, we extend our earlier study of the rate of Schiff base formation in dimyristoyl PE/atheronal A binary mixtures to the more biologically relevant case in which varying amounts of cholesterol are also present. Using optical spectroscopy to monitor reaction kinetics, we demonstrate that the presence of cholesterol reduces the accessibility of the aldehyde moiety of the atheronal A to the free headgroup amine. We also find that the presence of atheronal A promotes the early onset of cholesterol crystallization in the ternary mixtures, perhaps with the Schiff base serving as a site for heterogeneous nucleation.

  20. Lipocalin 2 binds to membrane phosphatidylethanolamine to induce lipid raft movement in a PKA-dependent manner and modulates sperm maturation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hitomi; Takeo, Toru; Tojo, Hiromasa; Sakoh, Kazuhito; Berger, Thorsten; Nakagata, Naomi; Mak, Tak W; Kondoh, Gen

    2014-05-01

    Mammalian sperm undergo multiple maturation steps after leaving the testis in order to become competent for fertilization, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. In terms of identifying factors crucial for these processes in vivo, we found that lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), which is known as an innate immune factor inhibiting bacterial and malarial growth, can modulate sperm maturation. Most sperm that migrated to the oviduct of wild-type females underwent lipid raft reorganization and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein shedding, which are signatures of sperm maturation, but few did so in Lcn2 null mice. Furthermore, we found that LCN2 binds to membrane phosphatidylethanolamine to reinforce lipid raft reorganization via a PKA-dependent mechanism and promotes sperm to acquire fertility by facilitating cholesterol efflux. These observations imply that mammals possess a mode for sperm maturation in addition to the albumin-mediated pathway.

  1. Inactivation of the phospholipase B gene PLB5 in wild-type Candida albicans reduces cell-associated phospholipase A2 activity and attenuates virulence

    PubMed Central

    Theiss, Stephanie; Ishdorj, Ganchimeg; Brenot, Audrey; Kretschmar, Marianne; Lan, Chung-Yu; Nichterlein, Thomas; Hacker, Jörg; Nigam, Santosh; Agabian, Nina; Köhler, Gerwald A.

    2008-01-01

    Phospholipases are critical for modification and redistribution of lipid substrates, membrane remodeling and microbial virulence. Among the many different classes of phospholipases, fungal phospholipase B (Plb) proteins show the broadest range of substrate specificity and hydrolytic activity, hydrolyzing acyl ester bonds in phospholipids and lysophospholipids and further catalyzing lysophospholipase-transacylase reactions. The genome of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans encodes a PLB multigene family with five putative members; we present the first characterization of this group of potential virulence determinants. CaPLB5, the third member of this multigene family characterized herein is a putative secretory protein with a predicted GPI-anchor attachment site. Real-time RT-PCR gene expression analysis of CaPLB5 and the additional CaPLB gene family members revealed that filamentous growth and physiologically relevant environmental conditions are associated with increased phospholipase B gene activity. The phenotypes expressed by null mutant and revertant strains of CaPLB5 indicate that this lipid hydrolase plays an important role for cell-associated phospholipase A2 activity and in vivo organ colonization. PMID:16759910

  2. Defective phosphatidic acid-phospholipase C signaling in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Tappia, Paramjit S; Maddaford, Thane G; Hurtado, Cecilia; Dibrov, Elena; Austria, J Alejandro; Sahi, Nidhi; Panagia, Vincenzo; Pierce, Grant N

    2004-03-26

    The effects of exogenous phosphatidic acid (PA) on Ca2+ transients and contractile activity were studied in cardiomyocytes isolated from chronic streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In control cells, 25 microM PA induced a significant increase in active cell shortening and Ca2+ transients. PA increased IP3 generation in the control cardiomyocytes and its inotropic effects were blocked by a phospholipase C inhibitor. In cardiomyocytes from diabetic rats, PA induced a 25% decrease in active cell shortening and no significant effect on Ca2+ transients. Basal and PA-induced IP3 generation in diabetic rat cardiomyocytes was 3-fold lower as compared to control cells. Sarcolemmal membrane PLC activity was impaired. Insulin treatment of the diabetic animals resulted in a partial recovery of PA responses. Our results, therefore, identify an important defect in the PA-PLC signaling pathway in diabetic rat cardiomyocytes, which may have significant implications for heart dysfunction during diabetes. PMID:15003542

  3. Inactivation of Phospholipase D Diminishes Acinetobacter baumannii Pathogenesis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Anna C.; Hood, Indriati; Boyd, Kelli L.; Olson, Patrick D.; Morrison, John M.; Carson, Steven; Sayood, Khalid; Iwen, Peter C.; Skaar, Eric P.; Dunman, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging bacterial pathogen of considerable health care concern. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about the organism's virulence factors or their regulatory networks. Septicemia and ventilator-associated pneumonia are two of the more severe forms of A. baumannii disease. To identify virulence factors that may contribute to these disease processes, genetically diverse A. baumannii clinical isolates were evaluated for the ability to proliferate in human serum. A transposon mutant library was created in a strain background that propagated well in serum and screened for members with decreased serum growth. The results revealed that disruption of A. baumannii phospholipase D (PLD) caused a reduction in the organism's ability to thrive in serum, a deficiency in epithelial cell invasion, and diminished pathogenesis in a murine model of pneumonia. Collectively, these results suggest that PLD is an A. baumannii virulence factor. PMID:20194595

  4. Evolution of phospholipase A2 toxins in venomous animals.

    PubMed

    Kordiš, Dušan

    2011-12-01

    Franc Gubenšek devoted much of his research career to the phospholipases A2 (PLA2), which are the major pharmacologically active components of snake venoms. Our long collaboration started with an analysis of Vipera ammodytes ammodytoxin and ammodytin cDNAs and genes. These PLA2 genes provided us with an entry into the exciting area of molecular evolution. We studied the structures of the PLA2 genes, the evolution of multigene families encoding PLA2 toxins, and the horizontal transfer of unusual retroelements that we found in these genes. In the last decade a number of novel features have emerged concerning the evolution of PLA2s in venomous animals. The large amount of recently accumulated data has provided a timely opportunity to review current understanding of the evolution of PLA2 toxins in venomous animals.

  5. Aberrant accumulation of phospholipase C-delta in Alzheimer brains.

    PubMed Central

    Shimohama, S.; Homma, Y.; Suenaga, T.; Fujimoto, S.; Taniguchi, T.; Araki, W.; Yamaoka, Y.; Takenawa, T.; Kimura, J.

    1991-01-01

    Since phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) is one of the key molecules in signal transduction, the authors assessed its involvement in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Immunostaining of a specific antibody against the PLC isozyme, PLC-delta, demonstrated that this enzyme was abnormally accumulated in neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), the neurites surrounding senile plaque (SP) cores, and neuropil threads in AD brains. Western blot analysis confirmed that PLC-delta was concentrated in the paired helical filament (PHF)-rich fraction of AD brains. Antibodies to other PLC isozymes did not produce positive immunostaining of these pathologic structures. Moreover, diffuse and amorphous deposits of PLC-delta were found to precede the accumulation of fibrillary deposits. These results suggest that PLC-delta accumulation is a crucial event that ultimately may contribute to the formation of PHF. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1928298

  6. Defective phosphatidic acid-phospholipase C signaling in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Tappia, Paramjit S; Maddaford, Thane G; Hurtado, Cecilia; Dibrov, Elena; Austria, J Alejandro; Sahi, Nidhi; Panagia, Vincenzo; Pierce, Grant N

    2004-03-26

    The effects of exogenous phosphatidic acid (PA) on Ca2+ transients and contractile activity were studied in cardiomyocytes isolated from chronic streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In control cells, 25 microM PA induced a significant increase in active cell shortening and Ca2+ transients. PA increased IP3 generation in the control cardiomyocytes and its inotropic effects were blocked by a phospholipase C inhibitor. In cardiomyocytes from diabetic rats, PA induced a 25% decrease in active cell shortening and no significant effect on Ca2+ transients. Basal and PA-induced IP3 generation in diabetic rat cardiomyocytes was 3-fold lower as compared to control cells. Sarcolemmal membrane PLC activity was impaired. Insulin treatment of the diabetic animals resulted in a partial recovery of PA responses. Our results, therefore, identify an important defect in the PA-PLC signaling pathway in diabetic rat cardiomyocytes, which may have significant implications for heart dysfunction during diabetes.

  7. Loss of phospholipase D2 impairs VEGF-induced angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Sup; Ghim, Jaewang; Song, Parkyong; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key mediator of angiogenesis and critical for normal embryonic development and repair of pathophysiological conditions in adults. Although phospholipase D (PLD) activity has been implicated in angiogenic processes, its role in VEGF signaling during angiogenesis in mammals is unclear. Here, we found that silencing of PLD2 by siRNA blocked VEGF-mediated signaling in immortalized human umbilical vein endothelial cells (iHUVECs). Also, VEGF-induced endothelial cell survival, proliferation, migration, and tube formation were inhibited by PLD2 silencing. Furthermore, while Pld2-knockout mice exhibited normal development, loss of PLD2 inhibited VEGF-mediated ex vivo angiogenesis. These findings suggest that PLD2 functions as a key mediator in the VEGF-mediated angiogenic functions of endothelial cells. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(3): 191-196] PMID:26818087

  8. Recent research progress with phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Yan; Ye, Lidan; Xu, Jun; Yang, Xiaohong; Chen, Weiwei; Yu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospholipids to produce phosphate monoesters and diacylglycerol. It has many applications in the enzymatic degumming of plant oils. PLC Bc , a bacterial PLC from Bacillus cereus, is an optimal choice for this activity in terms of its wide substrate spectrum, high activity, and approved safety. Unfortunately, its large-scale production and reliable high-throughput screening of PLC Bc remain challenging. Herein, we summarize the research progress regarding PLC Bc with emphasis on the screening methods, expression systems, catalytic mechanisms and inhibitor of PLC Bc . This review hopefully will inspire new achievements in related areas, to promote the sustainable development of PLC Bc and its application. PMID:26437973

  9. Reconstitution of Phospholipase A2-Dependent Golgi Membrane Tubules.

    PubMed

    Cluett, Edward B; de Figueiredo, Paul; Bechler, Marie E; Thorsen, Kevin D; Brown, William J

    2016-01-01

    The Golgi complex is the Grand Central Station of intracellular membrane trafficking in the secretory and endocytic pathways. Anterograde and retrograde export of cargo from the Golgi complex involves a complex interplay between the formation of coated vesicles and membrane tubules, although much less is known about tubule-mediated trafficking. Recent advances using in vitro assays have identified several cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes that are required for the biogenesis of membrane tubules and their roles in the functional organization of the Golgi complex. In this chapter we describe methods for the cell-free reconstitution of PLA2-dependent Golgi membrane tubule formation. These methods should facilitate the identification of other proteins that regulate this process. PMID:27632003

  10. Functional Regulation of Phospholipase D Expression in Cancer and Inflammation*

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dong Woo; Choi, Kang-Yell; Min, Do Sik

    2014-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) regulates downstream effectors by generating phosphatidic acid. Growing links of dysregulation of PLD to human disease have spurred interest in therapeutics that target its function. Aberrant PLD expression has been identified in multiple facets of complex pathological states, including cancer and inflammatory diseases. Thus, it is important to understand how the signaling network of PLD expression is regulated and contributes to progression of these diseases. Interestingly, small molecule PLD inhibitors can suppress PLD expression as well as enzymatic activity of PLD and have been shown to be effective in pathological mice models, suggesting the potential for use of PLD inhibitors as therapeutics against cancer and inflammation. Here, we summarize recent scientific developments regarding the regulation of PLD expression and its role in cancer and inflammatory processes. PMID:24990948

  11. Phospholipases of Mineralization Competent Cells and Matrix Vesicles: Roles in Physiological and Pathological Mineralizations

    PubMed Central

    Mebarek, Saida; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Magne, David; Do, Le Duy; Bandorowicz-Pikula, Joanna; Pikula, Slawomir; Buchet, René

    2013-01-01

    The present review aims to systematically and critically analyze the current knowledge on phospholipases and their role in physiological and pathological mineralization undertaken by mineralization competent cells. Cellular lipid metabolism plays an important role in biological mineralization. The physiological mechanisms of mineralization are likely to take place in tissues other than in bones and teeth under specific pathological conditions. For instance, vascular calcification in arteries of patients with renal failure, diabetes mellitus or atherosclerosis recapitulates the mechanisms of bone formation. Osteoporosis—a bone resorbing disease—and rheumatoid arthritis originating from the inflammation in the synovium are also affected by cellular lipid metabolism. The focus is on the lipid metabolism due to the effects of dietary lipids on bone health. These and other phenomena indicate that phospholipases may participate in bone remodelling as evidenced by their expression in smooth muscle cells, in bone forming osteoblasts, chondrocytes and in bone resorbing osteoclasts. Among various enzymes involved, phospholipases A1 or A2, phospholipase C, phospholipase D, autotaxin and sphingomyelinase are engaged in membrane lipid remodelling during early stages of mineralization and cell maturation in mineralization-competent cells. Numerous experimental evidences suggested that phospholipases exert their action at various stages of mineralization by affecting intracellular signaling and cell differentiation. The lipid metabolites—such as arachidonic acid, lysophospholipids, and sphingosine-1-phosphate are involved in cell signaling and inflammation reactions. Phospholipases are also important members of the cellular machinery engaged in matrix vesicle (MV) biogenesis and exocytosis. They may favour mineral formation inside MVs, may catalyse MV membrane breakdown necessary for the release of mineral deposits into extracellular matrix (ECM), or participate in

  12. Release of alkaline phosphatase from membranes by a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Low, M G; Finean, J B

    1977-10-01

    Purified phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from Staphylococcus aureus released a substantial proportion of the total alkaline phosphatase activity from a wide range of tissues from several mammalian species. Co-purification of the phospholipase C and alkaline phosphatase-releasing activities and the inhibition of both these activities by iso-osmotic salt solutions suggested that the releasing effect was unlikely to be due to a contaminant.

  13. Recombinant Lipases and Phospholipases and Their Use as Biocatalysts for Industrial Applications.

    PubMed

    Borrelli, Grazia M; Trono, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Lipases and phospholipases are interfacial enzymes that hydrolyze hydrophobic ester linkages of triacylglycerols and phospholipids, respectively. In addition to their role as esterases, these enzymes catalyze a plethora of other reactions; indeed, lipases also catalyze esterification, transesterification and interesterification reactions, and phospholipases also show acyltransferase, transacylase and transphosphatidylation activities. Thus, lipases and phospholipases represent versatile biocatalysts that are widely used in various industrial applications, such as for biodiesels, food, nutraceuticals, oil degumming and detergents; minor applications also include bioremediation, agriculture, cosmetics, leather and paper industries. These enzymes are ubiquitous in most living organisms, across animals, plants, yeasts, fungi and bacteria. For their greater availability and their ease of production, microbial lipases and phospholipases are preferred to those derived from animals and plants. Nevertheless, traditional purification strategies from microbe cultures have a number of disadvantages, which include non-reproducibility and low yields. Moreover, native microbial enzymes are not always suitable for biocatalytic processes. The development of molecular techniques for the production of recombinant heterologous proteins in a host system has overcome these constraints, as this allows high-level protein expression and production of new redesigned enzymes with improved catalytic properties. These can meet the requirements of specific industrial process better than the native enzymes. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the structural and functional features of lipases and phospholipases, to describe the recent advances in optimization of the production of recombinant lipases and phospholipases, and to summarize the information available relating to their major applications in industrial processes.

  14. Phospholipase D Signaling Pathways and Phosphatidic Acid as Therapeutic Targets in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bruntz, Ronald C.; Lindsley, Craig W.

    2014-01-01

    Phospholipase D is a ubiquitous class of enzymes that generates phosphatidic acid as an intracellular signaling species. The phospholipase D superfamily plays a central role in a variety of functions in prokaryotes, viruses, yeast, fungi, plants, and eukaryotic species. In mammalian cells, the pathways modulating catalytic activity involve a variety of cellular signaling components, including G protein–coupled receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, polyphosphatidylinositol lipids, Ras/Rho/ADP-ribosylation factor GTPases, and conventional isoforms of protein kinase C, among others. Recent findings have shown that phosphatidic acid generated by phospholipase D plays roles in numerous essential cellular functions, such as vesicular trafficking, exocytosis, autophagy, regulation of cellular metabolism, and tumorigenesis. Many of these cellular events are modulated by the actions of phosphatidic acid, and identification of two targets (mammalian target of rapamycin and Akt kinase) has especially highlighted a role for phospholipase D in the regulation of cellular metabolism. Phospholipase D is a regulator of intercellular signaling and metabolic pathways, particularly in cells that are under stress conditions. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the regulation of phospholipase D activity and its modulation of cellular signaling pathways and functions. PMID:25244928

  15. Recombinant Lipases and Phospholipases and Their Use as Biocatalysts for Industrial Applications.

    PubMed

    Borrelli, Grazia M; Trono, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Lipases and phospholipases are interfacial enzymes that hydrolyze hydrophobic ester linkages of triacylglycerols and phospholipids, respectively. In addition to their role as esterases, these enzymes catalyze a plethora of other reactions; indeed, lipases also catalyze esterification, transesterification and interesterification reactions, and phospholipases also show acyltransferase, transacylase and transphosphatidylation activities. Thus, lipases and phospholipases represent versatile biocatalysts that are widely used in various industrial applications, such as for biodiesels, food, nutraceuticals, oil degumming and detergents; minor applications also include bioremediation, agriculture, cosmetics, leather and paper industries. These enzymes are ubiquitous in most living organisms, across animals, plants, yeasts, fungi and bacteria. For their greater availability and their ease of production, microbial lipases and phospholipases are preferred to those derived from animals and plants. Nevertheless, traditional purification strategies from microbe cultures have a number of disadvantages, which include non-reproducibility and low yields. Moreover, native microbial enzymes are not always suitable for biocatalytic processes. The development of molecular techniques for the production of recombinant heterologous proteins in a host system has overcome these constraints, as this allows high-level protein expression and production of new redesigned enzymes with improved catalytic properties. These can meet the requirements of specific industrial process better than the native enzymes. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the structural and functional features of lipases and phospholipases, to describe the recent advances in optimization of the production of recombinant lipases and phospholipases, and to summarize the information available relating to their major applications in industrial processes. PMID:26340621

  16. Effects of intra- and extracellularly applied phospholipases C on excitability of squid giant axons.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, M; Ikezawa, H; Yamagishi, S

    1986-01-01

    The effects of phospholipases C on the membrane excitability of the squid giant axon were investigated using phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase C and sphingomyelinase C of Bacillus cereus, and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C of Bacillus thuringiensis. When the squid axon was perfused internally with phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase C in KF or K-glutamate solution, the action potential was blocked in 4-7 min and membrane resistance decreased with time to a level less than one-tenth that of control. These effects were irreversible. When the axon was perfused internally with sphingomyelinase C in KF solution, the action potential was decreased to 30% in 3 min. Perfusion with enzyme-free KF solution fully restored the action potential. When the axon was perfused internally with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in K - glutamate solution, the action potential was gradually decreased and blocked after 10 min. Perfusion with enzyme-free KF solution restored the action potential by 70%. When phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase C was applied externally to the squid axon, the action potential and the membrane resistance were slowly but irreversibly decreased. These results suggest that membrane phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol, may be associated with the excitability of the membrane of the squid axon.

  17. Recombinant Lipases and Phospholipases and Their Use as Biocatalysts for Industrial Applications

    PubMed Central

    Borrelli, Grazia M.; Trono, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Lipases and phospholipases are interfacial enzymes that hydrolyze hydrophobic ester linkages of triacylglycerols and phospholipids, respectively. In addition to their role as esterases, these enzymes catalyze a plethora of other reactions; indeed, lipases also catalyze esterification, transesterification and interesterification reactions, and phospholipases also show acyltransferase, transacylase and transphosphatidylation activities. Thus, lipases and phospholipases represent versatile biocatalysts that are widely used in various industrial applications, such as for biodiesels, food, nutraceuticals, oil degumming and detergents; minor applications also include bioremediation, agriculture, cosmetics, leather and paper industries. These enzymes are ubiquitous in most living organisms, across animals, plants, yeasts, fungi and bacteria. For their greater availability and their ease of production, microbial lipases and phospholipases are preferred to those derived from animals and plants. Nevertheless, traditional purification strategies from microbe cultures have a number of disadvantages, which include non-reproducibility and low yields. Moreover, native microbial enzymes are not always suitable for biocatalytic processes. The development of molecular techniques for the production of recombinant heterologous proteins in a host system has overcome these constraints, as this allows high-level protein expression and production of new redesigned enzymes with improved catalytic properties. These can meet the requirements of specific industrial process better than the native enzymes. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the structural and functional features of lipases and phospholipases, to describe the recent advances in optimization of the production of recombinant lipases and phospholipases, and to summarize the information available relating to their major applications in industrial processes. PMID:26340621

  18. Modulation of membrane phospholipids, the cytosolic calcium influx and cell proliferation following treatment of B16-F10 cells with recombinant phospholipase-D from Loxosceles intermedia (brown spider) venom.

    PubMed

    Wille, Ana Carolina Martins; Chaves-Moreira, Daniele; Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Magnoni, Mariana Gabriel; Boia-Ferreira, Marianna; Gremski, Luiza Helena; Gremski, Waldemiro; Chaim, Olga Meiri; Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea; Veiga, Silvio Sanches

    2013-06-01

    The mechanism through which brown spiders (Loxosceles genus) cause dermonecrosis, dysregulated inflammatory responses, hemolysis and platelet aggregation, which are effects reported following spider bites, is currently attributed to the presence of phospholipase-D in the venom. In the present investigation, through two-dimensional immunoblotting, we observed immunological cross-reactivity for at least 25 spots in crude Loxosceles intermedia venom, indicating high expression levels for different isoforms of phospholipase-D. Using a recombinant phospholipase-D from the venom gland of L. intermedia (LiRecDT1) in phospholipid-degrading kinetic experiments, we determined that this phospholipase-D mainly hydrolyzes synthetic sphingomyelin in a time-dependent manner, generating ceramide 1-phosphate plus choline, as well as lysophosphatidylcholine, generating lysophosphatidic acid plus choline, but exhibits little activity against phosphatidylcholine. Through immunofluorescence assays with antibodies against LiRecDT1 and using a recombinant GFP-LiRecDT1 fusion protein, we observed direct binding of LiRecDT1 to the membrane of B16-F10 cells. We determined that LiRecDT1 hydrolyzes phospholipids in detergent extracts and from ghosts of B16-F10 cells, generating choline, indicating that the enzyme can access and modulate and has activity against membrane phospholipids. Additionally, using Fluo-4, a calcium-sensitive fluorophore, it was shown that treatment of cells with phospholipase-D induced an increase in the calcium concentration in the cytoplasm, but without altering viability or causing damage to cells. Finally, based on the known endogenous activity of phospholipase-D as an inducer of cell proliferation and the fact that LiRecDT1 binds to the cell surface, hydrolyzing phospholipids to generate bioactive lipids, we employed LiRecDT1 as an exogenous source of phospholipase-D in B16-F10 cells. Treatment of the cells was effective in increasing their proliferation in a

  19. Novel lysophospholipid acyltransferase PLAT1 of Aurantiochytrium limacinum F26-b responsible for generation of palmitate-docosahexaenoate-phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Abe, Eriko; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Nutahara, Eri; Hayashi, Masahiro; Yamashita, Atsushi; Taguchi, Ryo; Doi, Kosaku; Honda, Daiske; Okino, Nozomu; Ito, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), have been reported to play roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The major source of DHA is fish oils but a recent increase in the global demand of DHA and decrease in fish stocks require a substitute. Thraustochytrids, unicellular marine protists belonging to the Chromista kingdom, can synthesize large amounts of DHA, and, thus, are expected to be an alternative to fish oils. DHA is found in the acyl chain(s) of phospholipids as well as triacylglycerols in thraustochytrids; however, how thraustochytrids incorporate DHA into phospholipids remains unknown. We report here a novel lysophospholipid acyltransferase (PLAT1), which is responsible for the generation of DHA-containing phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in thraustochytrids. The PLAT1 gene, which was isolated from the genomic DNA of Aurantiochytrium limacinum F26-b, was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the FLAG-tagged recombinant enzyme was characterized after purification with anti-FLAG affinity gel. PLAT1 shows wide specificity for donor substrates as well as acceptor substrates in vitro, i.e, the enzyme can adopt lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylserine and lysophosphatidylinositol as acceptor substrates, and 15:0/16:0-CoA and DHA-CoA as donor substrates. In contrast to the in vitro experiment, only lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase and lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase activities were decreased in plat1-knockout mutants, resulting in a decrease of 16:0-DHA-phosphatidylcholine (PC) [PC(38:6)] and 16:0-DHA-phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) [PE(38:6)], which are two major DHA-containing phospholipids in A. limacinum F26-b. However, the amounts of other phospholipid species including DHA-DHA-PC [PC(44:12)] and DHA-DHA-PE [PE(44:12)] were almost the same in plat-knockout mutants and the wild-type. These results indicate that PLAT1 is the enzyme

  20. Lipid vesicle fusion induced by phospholipase C activity in model bile.

    PubMed

    Little, T E; Madani, H; Lee, S P; Kaler, E W

    1993-02-01

    Using a system of phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol vesicles to model the vesicle phase of mammalian bile (1:1 molar ratio) we evaluated whether very small amounts of C. perfringens phospholipase C activity (0.5-6.5 nmol/min per ml) could lead to vesicle fusion, a precursor step for cholesterol precipitation in gallbladder bile. Quasielastic light scattering spectroscopy (QLS) was used to monitor vesicle growth and aggregation in model bile (0.89 mM total lipid) in the presence of phospholipase C. Vesicle growth over 2 h could be detected with phospholipase activity as little as 0.5 nmol/min per ml. Vesicle growth was sustainable over days in the absence of Ca2+ once as little as 3-7 mol% diacylglycerol had been generated as a result of the initial phospholipase C treatment. The presence of fusion intermediates was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy. In addition, kinetically slow vesicle fusion with intravesicle content mixing and minimal leakage was also confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy using two populations of vesicles containing 5 mM TbCl3 or 50 mM dipicolinic acid. Efficient fusion (40% maximum fluorescence) was obtained at 30 min at 25 degrees C with phospholipase C activity. This level of enzyme activity approximates that found in human gallbladder bile (1.2 nmol/min per ml). We conclude that the hydrolysis products of phospholipase C activity can, in very small amounts (3-7 mol% diacylglycerol), lead to destabilization and fusion of cholesterol-saturated biliary vesicles. A reappraisal of the importance of phospholipase C hydrolysis products in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones is warranted based on these observations.

  1. Enrichment of Phosphatidylethanolamine in Viral Replication Compartments via Co-opting the Endosomal Rab5 Small GTPase by a Positive-Strand RNA Virus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kai; Nagy, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Positive-strand RNA viruses build extensive membranous replication compartments to support replication and protect the virus from antiviral responses by the host. These viruses require host factors and various lipids to form viral replication complexes (VRCs). The VRCs built by Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) are enriched with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) through a previously unknown pathway. To unravel the mechanism of PE enrichment within the TBSV replication compartment, in this paper, the authors demonstrate that TBSV co-opts the guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound active form of the endosomal Rab5 small GTPase via direct interaction with the viral replication protein. Deletion of Rab5 orthologs in a yeast model host or expression of dominant negative mutants of plant Rab5 greatly decreases TBSV replication and prevents the redistribution of PE to the sites of viral replication. We also show that enrichment of PE in the viral replication compartment is assisted by actin filaments. Interestingly, the closely related Carnation Italian ringspot virus, which replicates on the boundary membrane of mitochondria, uses a similar strategy to the peroxisomal TBSV to hijack the Rab5-positive endosomes into the viral replication compartments. Altogether, usurping the GTP-Rab5–positive endosomes allows TBSV to build a PE-enriched viral replication compartment, which is needed to support peak-level replication. Thus, the Rab family of small GTPases includes critical host factors assisting VRC assembly and genesis of the viral replication compartment. PMID:27760128

  2. Mitochondrially-targeted bacterial phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase sustained phosphatidylcholine synthesis of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Δpem1 Δpem2 double mutant without exogenous choline supply.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shingo; Mizuike, Aya; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Ohta, Akinori

    2014-09-01

    In eukaryotic cells, phospholipids are synthesized exclusively in the defined organelles specific for each phospholipid species. To explain the reason for this compartmental specificity in the case of phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis, we constructed and characterized a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that lacked endogenous phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) methyltransferases but had a recombinant PE methyltransferase from Acetobacter aceti, which was fused with a mitochondrial targeting signal from yeast Pet100p and a 3×HA epitope tag. This fusion protein, which we named as mitopmt, was determined to be localized to the mitochondria by fluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation. The expression of mitopmt suppressed the choline auxotrophy of a double deletion mutant of PEM1 and PEM2 (pem1Δpem2Δ) and enabled it to synthesize PC in the absence of choline. This growth suppression was observed even if the Kennedy pathway was inactivated by the repression of PCT1 encoding CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, suggesting that PC synthesized in the mitochondria is distributed to other organelles without going through the salvage pathway. The pem1Δpem2Δ strain deleted for PSD1 encoding the mitochondrial phosphatidylserine decarboxylase was able to grow because of the expression of mitopmt in the presence of ethanolamine, implying that PE from other organelles, probably from the ER, was converted to PC by mitopmt. These results suggest that PC could move out of the mitochondria, and raise the possibility that its movement is not under strict directional limitations.

  3. Decoding the membrane activity of the cyclotide kalata B1: the importance of phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipids and lipid organization on hemolytic and anti-HIV activities.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Sónia Troeira; Huang, Yen-Hua; Rosengren, K Johan; Franquelim, Henri G; Carvalho, Filomena A; Johnson, Adam; Sonza, Secondo; Tachedjian, Gilda; Castanho, Miguel A R B; Daly, Norelle L; Craik, David J

    2011-07-01

    Cyclotides, a large family of cyclic peptides from plants, have a broad range of biological activities, including insecticidal, cytotoxic, and anti-HIV activities. In all of these activities, cell membranes seem likely to be the primary target for cyclotides. However, the mechanistic role of lipid membranes in the activity of cyclotides remains unclear. To determine the role of lipid organization in the activity of the prototypic cyclotide, kalata B1 (kB1), and synthetic analogs, their bioactivities and affinities for model membranes were evaluated. We found that the bioactivity of kB1 is dependent on the lipid composition of target cell membranes. In particular, the activity of kB1 requires specific interactions with phospholipids containing phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) headgroups but is further modulated by nonspecific peptide-lipid hydrophobic interactions, which are favored in raft-like membranes. Negatively charged phospholipids do not favor high kB1 affinity. This lipid selectivity explains trends in antimicrobial and hemolytic activities of kB1; it does not target bacterial cell walls, which are negatively charged and lacking PE-phospholipids but can insert in the membranes of red blood cells, which have a low PE content and raft domains in their outer layer. We further show that the anti-HIV activity of kB1 is the result of its ability to target and disrupt the membranes of HIV particles, which are raft-like membranes very rich in PE-phospholipids.

  4. Amygdala-Hippocampal Phospholipase D (PLD) Signaling As Novel Mechanism of Cocaine-Environment Maladaptive Conditioned Responses

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Drug-environment associative memory mechanisms and the resulting conditioned behaviors are key contributors in relapse to cocaine dependence. Recently, we reported rat amygdala phospholipase D as a key convergent downstream signaling partner in the expression of cocaine-conditioned behaviors mediated by glutamatergic and dopaminergic pathways. In the present study, 1 of the 2 known upstream serotonergic targets of phospholipase D, the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) 2C receptor, was investigated for its role in recruiting phospholipase D signaling in cocaine-conditioned behaviors altered in the rat amygdala and dorsal hippocampus. Methods: Using Western-blot analysis, amygdala phospholipase D phosphorylation and total expression of phospholipase D/5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptor were observed in early (Day-1) and late (Day-14) withdrawal (cocaine-free) states among male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to 7-day cocaine-conditioned hyperactivity training. Functional studies were conducted using Chinese Hamster Ovary cells with stably transfected human unedited isoform of 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptor. Results: Phosphorylation of phospholipase D isoforms was altered in the Day-1 group of cocaine-conditioned animals, while increased amygdala and decreased dorsal hippocampus phospholipase D/5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptor protein expression were observed in the Day-14 cocaine-conditioned rats. Functional cellular studies established that increased p phospholipase D is a mechanistic response to 5-HT2CR activation and provided the first evidence of a biased agonism by specific 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptor agonist, WAY163909 in phospholipase D phosphorylation 2, but not phospholipase D phosphorylation 1 activation. Conclusions: Phospholipase D signaling, activated by dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and serotonergic signaling, can be a common downstream element recruited in associative memory mechanisms altered by cocaine, where increased expression in amygdala

  5. The galactolipase activity of Fusarium solani (phospho)lipase.

    PubMed

    Jallouli, Raida; Othman, Houcemeddine; Amara, Sawsan; Parsiegla, Goetz; Carriere, Frédéric; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Gargouri, Youssef; Bezzine, Sofiane

    2015-03-01

    The purified (phospho)lipase of Fusarium solani (FSL), was known to be active on both triglycerides and phospholipids. This study aimed at assessing the potential of this enzyme in hydrolyzing galactolipids. FSL was found to hydrolyze at high rates of synthetic medium chains monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (4658±146U/mg on DiC8-MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (3785±83U/mg on DiC8-DGDG) and natural long chain monogalactosyldiacylglycerol extracted from leek leaves (991±85U/mg). It is the microbial enzyme with the highest activity on galactolipids identified so far with a level of activity comparable to that of pancreatic lipase-related protein 2. FSL maximum activity on galactolipids was measured at pH8. The analysis of the hydrolysis product of natural MGDG from leek showed that FSL hydrolyzes preferentially the ester bond at the sn-1 position of galactolipids. To investigate the structure-activity relationships of FSL, a 3D model of this enzyme was built. In silico docking of medium chains MGDG and DGDG and phospholipid in the active site of FSL reveals structural solutions which are in concordance with in vitro tests.

  6. The application of rational design on phospholipase A(2) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mouchlis, V D; Barbayianni, E; Mavromoustakos, T M; Kokotos, G

    2011-01-01

    The phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) superfamily consists of different groups of enzymes which are characterized by their ability to catalyze the hydrolysis of the sn-2 ester bond in a variety of phospholipid molecules. The products of PLA(2s) activity play divergent roles in a variety of physiological processes. There are four main types of PLA(2s): the secreted PLA(2s) (sPLA(2s)), the cytosolic PLA(2s) (cPLA(2s)), the calcium-independent PLA(2s) (iPLA(2)) and the lipoprotein-associated PLA(2s) (LpPLA(2s)). Various potent and selective PLA2 inhibitors have been reported up to date and have provided outstanding support in understanding the mechanism of action and elucidating the function of these enzymes. The current review focuses on the implementation of rational design through computer-aided drug design (CADD) on the discovery and development of new PLA(2) inhibitors. PMID:21568891

  7. Identification of a new phospholipase D in Carica papaya latex.

    PubMed

    Abdelkafi, Slim; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Fendri, Imen; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Barouh, Nathalie; Fouquet, Benjamin; Scheirlinckx, Frantz; Villeneuve, Pierre; Carrière, Frédéric

    2012-05-15

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is a lipolytic enzyme involved in signal transduction, vesicle trafficking and membrane metabolism. It catalyzes the hydrolysis and transphosphatidylation of glycerophospholipids at the terminal phosphodiester bond. The presence of a PLD in the latex of Carica papaya (CpPLD1) was demonstrated by transphosphatidylation of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) in the presence of 2% ethanol. Although the protein could not be purified to homogeneity due to its presence in high molecular mass aggregates, a protein band was separated by SDS-PAGE after SDS/chloroform-methanol/TCA-acetone extraction of the latex insoluble fraction. This material was digested with trypsin and the amino acid sequences of the tryptic peptides were determined by micro-LC/ESI/MS/MS. These sequences were used to identify a partial cDNA (723 bp) from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of C. papaya. Based upon EST sequences, a full-length gene was identified in the genome of C. papaya, with an open reading frame of 2424 bp encoding a protein of 808 amino acid residues, with a theoretical molecular mass of 92.05 kDa. From sequence analysis, CpPLD1 was identified as a PLD belonging to the plant phosphatidylcholine phosphatidohydrolase family.

  8. Variable Substrate Preference among Phospholipase D Toxins from Sicariid Spiders.

    PubMed

    Lajoie, Daniel M; Roberts, Sue A; Zobel-Thropp, Pamela A; Delahaye, Jared L; Bandarian, Vahe; Binford, Greta J; Cordes, Matthew H J

    2015-04-24

    Venoms of the sicariid spiders contain phospholipase D enzyme toxins that can cause severe dermonecrosis and even death in humans. These enzymes convert sphingolipid and lysolipid substrates to cyclic phosphates by activating a hydroxyl nucleophile present in both classes of lipid. The most medically relevant substrates are thought to be sphingomyelin and/or lysophosphatidylcholine. To better understand the substrate preference of these toxins, we used (31)P NMR to compare the activity of three related but phylogenetically diverse sicariid toxins against a diverse panel of sphingolipid and lysolipid substrates. Two of the three showed significantly faster turnover of sphingolipids over lysolipids, and all three showed a strong preference for positively charged (choline and/or ethanolamine) over neutral (glycerol and serine) headgroups. Strikingly, however, the enzymes vary widely in their preference for choline, the headgroup of both sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine, versus ethanolamine. An enzyme from Sicarius terrosus showed a strong preference for ethanolamine over choline, whereas two paralogous enzymes from Loxosceles arizonica either preferred choline or showed no significant preference. Intrigued by the novel substrate preference of the Sicarius enzyme, we solved its crystal structure at 2.1 Å resolution. The evolution of variable substrate specificity may help explain the reduced dermonecrotic potential of some natural toxin variants, because mammalian sphingolipids use primarily choline as a positively charged headgroup; it may also be relevant for sicariid predatory behavior, because ethanolamine-containing sphingolipids are common in insect prey.

  9. Cell wounding activates phospholipase D in primary mouse keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Senthil N.; Xie, Ding; Howard, Amber C.; Zhong, Quincy; Zhong, Xiaofeng; McNeil, Paul L.; Bollag, Wendy B.

    2013-01-01

    Plasma membrane disruptions occur in mechanically active tissues such as the epidermis and can lead to cell death if the damage remains unrepaired. Repair occurs through fusion of vesicle patches to the damaged membrane region. The enzyme phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in membrane traffickiing; therefore, the role of PLD in membrane repair was investigated. Generation of membrane disruptions by lifting epidermal keratinocytes from the substratum induced PLD activation, whereas removal of cells from the substratum via trypsinization had no effect. Pretreatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, previously shown to increase PLD1 expression and activity, had no effect on, and a PLD2-selective (but not a PLD1-selective) inhibitor decreased, cell lifting-induced PLD activation, suggesting PLD2 as the isoform activated. PLD2 interacts functionally with the glycerol channel aquaporin-3 (AQP3) to produce phosphatidylglycerol (PG); however, wounding resulted in decreased PG production, suggesting a potential PG deficiency in wounded cells. Cell lifting-induced PLD activation was transient, consistent with a possible role in membrane repair, and PLD inhibitors inhibited membrane resealing upon laser injury. In an in vivo full-thickness mouse skin wound model, PG accelerated wound healing. These results suggest that PLD and the PLD2/AQP3 signaling module may be involved in membrane repair and wound healing. PMID:23288946

  10. Roles of secreted phospholipases A₂ in the mammalian immune system.

    PubMed

    Krizaj, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) molecules constitute a family of proteins that are involved functionally in many biological processes. In particular, they participate in diverse pathophysiological settings as enzymes that release free fatty acids and lysophospholipids from phospholipids in biological membranes, or as ligands for various cellular receptors. In this review the confirmed or expected functions of sPLA2s in the mammalian immune system are surveyed. Some of the twelve mammalian sPLA2 molecules constitute part of the so-called innate immune system by virtue of their antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal activities. They are also involved in acute inflammation, a protective reaction of the body to infection or injury. The acute inflammation sometimes escapes regulation, becomes chronic and can evolve into a severe pathology. One or more types of sPLA2 are involved in asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, sepsis, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and cancer. sPLA2s are thus important therapeutic targets as well as biotherapeutic molecules. Improving the selectivity of inhibitors of sPLA2s to be able to target a particular sPLA2 could therefore be one of the most important tasks for future research.

  11. Phospholipase Cε Modulates Rap1 Activity and the Endothelial Barrier

    PubMed Central

    DiStefano, Peter V.; Smrcka, Alan V.; Glading, Angela J.

    2016-01-01

    The phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C, PLCε, is a unique signaling protein with known roles in regulating cardiac myocyte growth, astrocyte inflammatory signaling, and tumor formation. PLCε is also expressed in endothelial cells, however its role in endothelial regulation is not fully established. We show that endothelial cells of multiple origins, including human pulmonary artery (HPAEC), human umbilical vein (HUVEC), and immortalized brain microvascular (hCMEC/D3) endothelial cells, express PLCε. Knockdown of PLCε in arterial endothelial monolayers decreased the effectiveness of the endothelial barrier. Concomitantly, RhoA activity and stress fiber formation were increased. PLCε-deficient arterial endothelial cells also exhibited decreased Rap1-GTP levels, which could be restored by activation of the Rap1 GEF, Epac, to rescue the increase in monolayer leak. Reintroduction of PLCε rescued monolayer leak with both the CDC25 GEF domain and the lipase domain of PLCε required to fully activate Rap1 and to rescue endothelial barrier function. Finally, we demonstrate that the barrier promoting effects PLCε are dependent on Rap1 signaling through the Rap1 effector, KRIT1, which we have previously shown is vital for maintaining endothelial barrier stability. Thus we have described a novel role for PLCε PIP2 hydrolytic and Rap GEF activities in arterial endothelial cells, where PLCε-dependent activation of Rap1/KRIT1 signaling promotes endothelial barrier stability. PMID:27612188

  12. Variable Substrate Preference among Phospholipase D Toxins from Sicariid Spiders*

    PubMed Central

    Lajoie, Daniel M.; Roberts, Sue A.; Zobel-Thropp, Pamela A.; Delahaye, Jared L.; Bandarian, Vahe; Binford, Greta J.; Cordes, Matthew H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Venoms of the sicariid spiders contain phospholipase D enzyme toxins that can cause severe dermonecrosis and even death in humans. These enzymes convert sphingolipid and lysolipid substrates to cyclic phosphates by activating a hydroxyl nucleophile present in both classes of lipid. The most medically relevant substrates are thought to be sphingomyelin and/or lysophosphatidylcholine. To better understand the substrate preference of these toxins, we used 31P NMR to compare the activity of three related but phylogenetically diverse sicariid toxins against a diverse panel of sphingolipid and lysolipid substrates. Two of the three showed significantly faster turnover of sphingolipids over lysolipids, and all three showed a strong preference for positively charged (choline and/or ethanolamine) over neutral (glycerol and serine) headgroups. Strikingly, however, the enzymes vary widely in their preference for choline, the headgroup of both sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine, versus ethanolamine. An enzyme from Sicarius terrosus showed a strong preference for ethanolamine over choline, whereas two paralogous enzymes from Loxosceles arizonica either preferred choline or showed no significant preference. Intrigued by the novel substrate preference of the Sicarius enzyme, we solved its crystal structure at 2.1 Å resolution. The evolution of variable substrate specificity may help explain the reduced dermonecrotic potential of some natural toxin variants, because mammalian sphingolipids use primarily choline as a positively charged headgroup; it may also be relevant for sicariid predatory behavior, because ethanolamine-containing sphingolipids are common in insect prey. PMID:25752604

  13. The galactolipase activity of Fusarium solani (phospho)lipase.

    PubMed

    Jallouli, Raida; Othman, Houcemeddine; Amara, Sawsan; Parsiegla, Goetz; Carriere, Frédéric; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Gargouri, Youssef; Bezzine, Sofiane

    2015-03-01

    The purified (phospho)lipase of Fusarium solani (FSL), was known to be active on both triglycerides and phospholipids. This study aimed at assessing the potential of this enzyme in hydrolyzing galactolipids. FSL was found to hydrolyze at high rates of synthetic medium chains monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (4658±146U/mg on DiC8-MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (3785±83U/mg on DiC8-DGDG) and natural long chain monogalactosyldiacylglycerol extracted from leek leaves (991±85U/mg). It is the microbial enzyme with the highest activity on galactolipids identified so far with a level of activity comparable to that of pancreatic lipase-related protein 2. FSL maximum activity on galactolipids was measured at pH8. The analysis of the hydrolysis product of natural MGDG from leek showed that FSL hydrolyzes preferentially the ester bond at the sn-1 position of galactolipids. To investigate the structure-activity relationships of FSL, a 3D model of this enzyme was built. In silico docking of medium chains MGDG and DGDG and phospholipid in the active site of FSL reveals structural solutions which are in concordance with in vitro tests. PMID:25529980

  14. Microglial phospholipase D4 deficiency influences myelination during brain development.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Terumasa; Otani, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Yoshihide; Ishibashi, Tomoko; Hayashi, Akiko; Tanaka, Kenji F; Yamazaki, Maya; Sakimura, Kenji; Baba, Hiroko

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase D4 (PLD4) is expressed in activated microglia that transiently appear in white matter during postnatal brain development. Previous knockdown experiments using cultured microglia showed PLD4 involvement in phagocytosis and proliferation. To elucidate the role of PLD4 in vivo, PLD4-deficient mice were generated and the cerebella were examined at postnatal day 5 (P5) and P7, when PLD4 expression is highest in microglia. Wild type microglia showed strong immunoreactivity for microglial marker CD68 at P5, whereas CD68 signals were weak in PLD4-deficient microglia, suggesting that loss of PLD4 affects microglial activation. At P5 and P7, immunostaining for anti-myelin basic protein (MBP) antibody indicated a mild but significant delay in myelination in PLD4-deficient cerebellum. Similar change was also observed in the corpus callosum at P7. However, this difference was not apparent at P10, suggesting that microglial PLD4-deficiency primarily influences the early myelination stage. Thus, microglia may have a transient role in myelination via a PLD4-related mechanism during development. PMID:27477458

  15. Membrane and inhibitor interactions of intracellular phospholipases A2.

    PubMed

    Mouchlis, Varnavas D; Dennis, Edward A

    2016-05-01

    Studying phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) is a challenging task since they act on membrane-like aggregated substrates and not on monomeric phospholipids. Multidisciplinary approaches that include hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (DXMS) and computational techniques have been employed with great success in order to address important questions about the mode of interactions of PLA2 enzymes with membranes, phospholipid substrates and inhibitors. Understanding the interactions of PLA2s is crucial since these enzymes are the upstream regulators of the eicosanoid pathway liberating free arachidonic acid (AA) and other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The liberation of AA by PLA2 enzymes sets off a cascade of molecular events that involves downstream regulators such as cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) metabolites leading to inflammation. Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) work by inhibiting COX, while Zileuton inhibits LOX and both rely on PLA2 enzymes to provide them with AA. That means PLA2 enzymes can potentially also be targeted to diminish inflammation at an earlier point in the process. In this review we describe extensive efforts reported in the past to define the interactions of PLA2 enzymes with membranes, substrate phospholipids and inhibitors using DXMS, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. PMID:26774606

  16. Anti-phospholipase A2 receptor antibody in membranous nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Qin, Weisong; Beck, Laurence H; Zeng, Caihong; Chen, Zhaohong; Li, Shijun; Zuo, Ke; Salant, David J; Liu, Zhihong

    2011-06-01

    The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) is a target autoantigen in adult idiopathic membranous nephropathy (MN), but the prevalence of autoantibodies against PLA2R is unknown among Chinese patients with MN. Here, we measured anti-PLA2R antibody in the serum of 60 patients with idiopathic MN, 20 with lupus-associated MN, 16 with hepatitis B (HBV)-associated MN, and 10 with tumor-associated MN. Among patients with idiopathic MN, 49 (82%) had detectable anti-PLA2R autoantibodies using a Western blot assay; an assay with greater sensitivity detected very low titers of anti-PLA2R in 10 of the remaining 11 patients. Using the standard assay, we detected anti-PLA2R antibody in only 1 patient with lupus, 1 with HBV, and 3 with cancer, producing an overall specificity of 89% in this cohort limited to patients with secondary MN. The enhanced assay detected low titers of anti-PLA2R in only 2 additional samples of HBV-associated MN. In summary, these results suggest that PLA2R is a major target antigen in Chinese idiopathic MN and that detection of anti-PLA2R is a sensitive test for idiopathic MN.

  17. A new era of secreted phospholipase A2

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Makoto; Sato, Hiroyasu; Miki, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Kei; Taketomi, Yoshitaka

    2015-01-01

    Among more than 30 members of the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) superfamily, secreted PLA2 (sPLA2) enzymes represent the largest family, being Ca2+-dependent low-molecular-weight enzymes with a His-Asp catalytic dyad. Individual sPLA2s exhibit unique tissue and cellular distributions and enzymatic properties, suggesting their distinct biological roles. Recent studies using transgenic and knockout mice for nearly a full set of sPLA2 subtypes, in combination with sophisticated lipidomics as well as biochemical and cell biological studies, have revealed distinct contributions of individual sPLA2s to various pathophysiological events, including production of pro- and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators, regulation of membrane remodeling, degradation of foreign phospholipids in microbes or food, or modification of extracellular noncellular lipid components. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of the in vivo functions of sPLA2s and the underlying lipid pathways as revealed by a series of studies over the last decade. PMID:25805806

  18. Anti-Phospholipase A2 Receptor Antibody in Membranous Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Weisong; Beck, Laurence H.; Zeng, Caihong; Chen, Zhaohong; Li, Shijun; Zuo, Ke; Salant, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) is a target autoantigen in adult idiopathic membranous nephropathy (MN), but the prevalence of autoantibodies against PLA2R is unknown among Chinese patients with MN. Here, we measured anti-PLA2R antibody in the serum of 60 patients with idiopathic MN, 20 with lupus-associated MN, 16 with hepatitis B (HBV)-associated MN, and 10 with tumor-associated MN. Among patients with idiopathic MN, 49 (82%) had detectable anti-PLA2R autoantibodies using a Western blot assay; an assay with greater sensitivity detected very low titers of anti-PLA2R in 10 of the remaining 11 patients. Using the standard assay, we detected anti-PLA2R antibody in only 1 patient with lupus, 1 with HBV, and 3 with cancer, producing an overall specificity of 89% in this cohort limited to patients with secondary MN. The enhanced assay detected low titers of anti-PLA2R in only 2 additional samples of HBV-associated MN. In summary, these results suggest that PLA2R is a major target antigen in Chinese idiopathic MN and that detection of anti-PLA2R is a sensitive test for idiopathic MN. PMID:21566055

  19. Secretory phospholipase A2 induces dendritic cell maturation

    PubMed Central

    Perrin-Cocon, Laure; Agaugué, Sophie; Coutant, Frédéric; Masurel, Aurélie; Bezzine, Sofiane; Lambeau, Gérard; André, Patrice; Lotteau, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    High level of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity is found in serum and biological fluids during the acute phase response (APR). Extracellular PLA2 in fluids of patients with inflammatory diseases such as sepsis, acute pancreatitis or rheumatoid arthritis is also associated with propagation of inflammation. PLA2 activity is involved in the release of both pro- and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators from phospholipids of cellular membranes or circulating lipoproteins. PLA2 may thus generate signals that influence immune responses. Here, group III secretory PLA2s were tested for their ability to promote generation of functionally mature human dendritic cells (DC). PLA2 treatment of differentiating monocytes in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4 yielded cells with phenotypical and functional characteristics of mature DC. This maturation was dependent on the dose of PLA2 and PLA2-generated DC stimulated interferon gamma secretion by allogeneic T cells. The effects of PLA2 on DC maturation was mainly dependent on enzyme activity and correlated with the activation of NF-κB, AP-1 and NFAT. The data suggest that transient increase in PLA2 activity generates signals that promote transition of innate to adaptive immunity during the APR. PMID:15259027

  20. Immobilization of Lipid Substrates: Application on Phospholipase A2 Determination.

    PubMed

    Karkabounas, Athanassios; Georgiadou, Dimitra G; Argitis, Panagiotis; Psycharis, Vassilios; Nakos, George; Kosmas, Agni M; Lekka, Marilena E

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess a fluorimetric assay for the determination of total phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity in biological samples introducing the innovation of immobilized substrates on crosslinked polymeric membranes. The immobilized C(12)-NBD-PtdCho, a fluorescent analogue of phosphatidylcholine, exhibited excellent stability for 3 months at 4 °C and was not desorbed in the aqueous reaction mixture during analysis. The limit of detection was 0.5 pmol FA (0.2 pg) and the linear part of the response curve extended from 1 up to 190 nmol FA/h/mL sample. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (%RSD), were ≤6 and ≤9 %, respectively. Statistical comparison with other fluorescent methods showed excellent correlation and agreement. Semiempirical calculations showed a fair amount of electrostatic interaction between the NBD-labeled substrate and the crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol with the styryl pyridinium residues (PVA-SbQ) material, from the plane of which, the sn-2 acyl chain of the phospholipid stands out and is accessible by PLA(2). Atomic Force Microscopy revealed morphological alterations of the immobilized substrate after the reaction with PLA(2). Mass spectrometry showed that only C(12)-NBD-FA, the PLA(2 )hydrolysis product, was detected in the reaction mixture, indicating that PLA(2) recognizes PVA-SbQ/C(12)-NBD-PtdCho as a surface to perform catalysis. PMID:26449236

  1. Microglial phospholipase D4 deficiency influences myelination during brain development.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Terumasa; Otani, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Yoshihide; Ishibashi, Tomoko; Hayashi, Akiko; Tanaka, Kenji F; Yamazaki, Maya; Sakimura, Kenji; Baba, Hiroko

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase D4 (PLD4) is expressed in activated microglia that transiently appear in white matter during postnatal brain development. Previous knockdown experiments using cultured microglia showed PLD4 involvement in phagocytosis and proliferation. To elucidate the role of PLD4 in vivo, PLD4-deficient mice were generated and the cerebella were examined at postnatal day 5 (P5) and P7, when PLD4 expression is highest in microglia. Wild type microglia showed strong immunoreactivity for microglial marker CD68 at P5, whereas CD68 signals were weak in PLD4-deficient microglia, suggesting that loss of PLD4 affects microglial activation. At P5 and P7, immunostaining for anti-myelin basic protein (MBP) antibody indicated a mild but significant delay in myelination in PLD4-deficient cerebellum. Similar change was also observed in the corpus callosum at P7. However, this difference was not apparent at P10, suggesting that microglial PLD4-deficiency primarily influences the early myelination stage. Thus, microglia may have a transient role in myelination via a PLD4-related mechanism during development.

  2. Stimulation and binding of myocardial phospholipase C by phosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Henry, R A; Boyce, S Y; Kurz, T; Wolf, R A

    1995-08-01

    Exposure of adult ventricular myocytes to exogenous natural phosphatidic acid results in the production of inositol phosphates by unknown mechanism(s). We characterized stimulation of myocytic phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) by synthetic dioleoyl phosphatidic acid (PA) as a potential mechanism for modulation of inositol phosphate production. Our data demonstrate that exogenous PA, at 10(-8)-10(-5) M, caused a concentration-dependent increase in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in adult rabbit ventricular myocytes. PA also caused a concentration-dependent increase in in vitro activity of myocytic PLC in the presence or absence of ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA). PLC-delta 1, the predominant isozyme of PLC expressed in adult rabbit ventricular myocytes, bound to liposomes of PA with high affinity in the presence of EGTA. The phosphomonoester group of PA was critical to in vitro stimulation of myocytic PLC activity and high-affinity binding of PLC-delta 1. We propose that binding of PLC-delta 1 to phosphatidic acid may be a novel mechanism for dynamic membrane association and modulation of PLC in adult ventricular myocytes.

  3. Cytosolic phospholipase A2: physiological function and role in disease

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Christina C.

    2015-01-01

    The group IV phospholipase A2 (PLA2) family is comprised of six intracellular enzymes (GIVA, -B, -C, -D, -E, and -F) commonly referred to as cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2)α, -β, -γ, -δ, -ε, and -ζ. They contain a Ser-Asp catalytic dyad and all except cPLA2γ have a C2 domain, but differences in their catalytic activities and subcellular localization suggest unique regulation and function. With the exception of cPLA2α, the focus of this review, little is known about the in vivo function of group IV enzymes. cPLA2α catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospholipids to arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids that are precursors of numerous bioactive lipids. The regulation of cPLA2α is complex, involving transcriptional and posttranslational processes, particularly increases in calcium and phosphorylation. cPLA2α is a highly conserved widely expressed enzyme that promotes lipid mediator production in human and rodent cells from a variety of tissues. The diverse bioactive lipids produced as a result of cPLA2α activation regulate normal physiological processes and disease pathogenesis in many organ systems, as shown using cPLA2α KO mice. However, humans recently identified with cPLA2α deficiency exhibit more pronounced effects on health than observed in mice lacking cPLA2α, indicating that much remains to be learned about this interesting enzyme. PMID:25838312

  4. Structure, function, and control of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Rebecchi, M J; Pentyala, S N

    2000-10-01

    Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) subtypes beta, gamma, and delta comprise a related group of multidomain phosphodiesterases that cleave the polar head groups from inositol lipids. Activated by all classes of cell surface receptor, these enzymes generate the ubiquitous second messengers inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. The last 5 years have seen remarkable advances in our understanding of the molecular and biological facets of PLCs. New insights into their multidomain arrangement and catalytic mechanism have been gained from crystallographic studies of PLC-delta(1), while new modes of controlling PLC activity have been uncovered in cellular studies. Most notable is the realization that PLC-beta, -gamma, and -delta isoforms act in concert, each contributing to a specific aspect of the cellular response. Clues to their true biological roles were also obtained. Long assumed to function broadly in calcium-regulated processes, genetic studies in yeast, slime molds, plants, flies, and mammals point to specific and conditional roles for each PLC isoform in cell signaling and development. In this review we consider each subtype of PLC in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals and discuss their molecular regulation and biological function. PMID:11015615

  5. Phospholipase Cε Modulates Rap1 Activity and the Endothelial Barrier.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Peter V; Smrcka, Alan V; Glading, Angela J

    2016-01-01

    The phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C, PLCε, is a unique signaling protein with known roles in regulating cardiac myocyte growth, astrocyte inflammatory signaling, and tumor formation. PLCε is also expressed in endothelial cells, however its role in endothelial regulation is not fully established. We show that endothelial cells of multiple origins, including human pulmonary artery (HPAEC), human umbilical vein (HUVEC), and immortalized brain microvascular (hCMEC/D3) endothelial cells, express PLCε. Knockdown of PLCε in arterial endothelial monolayers decreased the effectiveness of the endothelial barrier. Concomitantly, RhoA activity and stress fiber formation were increased. PLCε-deficient arterial endothelial cells also exhibited decreased Rap1-GTP levels, which could be restored by activation of the Rap1 GEF, Epac, to rescue the increase in monolayer leak. Reintroduction of PLCε rescued monolayer leak with both the CDC25 GEF domain and the lipase domain of PLCε required to fully activate Rap1 and to rescue endothelial barrier function. Finally, we demonstrate that the barrier promoting effects PLCε are dependent on Rap1 signaling through the Rap1 effector, KRIT1, which we have previously shown is vital for maintaining endothelial barrier stability. Thus we have described a novel role for PLCε PIP2 hydrolytic and Rap GEF activities in arterial endothelial cells, where PLCε-dependent activation of Rap1/KRIT1 signaling promotes endothelial barrier stability. PMID:27612188

  6. Phospholipase D from savoy cabbage: purification and preliminary kinetic characterization.

    PubMed

    Allgyer, T T; Wells, M A

    1979-11-27

    Phospholipase D has been purified 680-fold from an acetone powder of savoy cabbage in an overall yield of 30%. The purification involves solubilization of the acetone powder in a Ca2+-containing buffer and subsequent ammonium sulfate fractionation. Gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 and hydrophobic affinity chromatography using a gamma-aminopropane-agarose gel complete the purification. The two chromatographic steps were conducted in buffers containing 50% ethylene glycol, which was necessary in order to maintain stability of the enzyme. Purity was established on the basis of gel electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. A preliminary kinetic characterization of the enzyme was carried out by using lecithins with short-chain fatty acids below the critical micelle concentration. A complex series of results were obtained which demonstrated the following. (1) The enzyme is quite sensitive to ionic strength, being inhibited at high ionic strength. (2) The pH optimum depends on the concentration of Ca2+ used in the assay. At 0.5 mM Ca2+ the pH optimum is 7.25, but it is 6.0 at 50 mM Ca2+. (3) The effect of substrate concentration at a given pH and ionic strength did not show simple hyperbolic kinetics but rather regions of parabolic and hyperbolic kinetics.

  7. Effects of Phospholipase C on Fusarium graminearum Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qili; Zhou, Benguo; Gao, Zhengliang; Liang, Yuancun

    2015-12-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) plays important roles in regulating various biological processes in eukaryotes. Currently, little is known about the function of PLC in filamentous fungi, especially the plant pathogenic fungi. Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in many cereal crops. BLAST search revealed that Fusarium genome contains six FgPLC genes. Using quantitative RT-PCR, different FgPLC gene expressions in mycelia were analyzed. To investigate the role of FgPLC in F. graminearum biology, a pharmacological study using a known inhibitor of PLC (U73122) was conducted. Results showed that inhibition of FgPLC resulted in significant alterations of mycelial growth, conidiation, conidial germination, perithecium formation, and expressions of Tri5 and Tri6 genes. As expected, the treatment of F. graminearum with U73343, an inactive analog of U73122, showed no effect on F. graminearum biology. Our results suggested strongly that FgPLC plays important roles in F. graminearum growth and development. PMID:26316232

  8. Effects of Phospholipase C on Fusarium graminearum Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qili; Zhou, Benguo; Gao, Zhengliang; Liang, Yuancun

    2015-12-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) plays important roles in regulating various biological processes in eukaryotes. Currently, little is known about the function of PLC in filamentous fungi, especially the plant pathogenic fungi. Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in many cereal crops. BLAST search revealed that Fusarium genome contains six FgPLC genes. Using quantitative RT-PCR, different FgPLC gene expressions in mycelia were analyzed. To investigate the role of FgPLC in F. graminearum biology, a pharmacological study using a known inhibitor of PLC (U73122) was conducted. Results showed that inhibition of FgPLC resulted in significant alterations of mycelial growth, conidiation, conidial germination, perithecium formation, and expressions of Tri5 and Tri6 genes. As expected, the treatment of F. graminearum with U73343, an inactive analog of U73122, showed no effect on F. graminearum biology. Our results suggested strongly that FgPLC plays important roles in F. graminearum growth and development.

  9. In vivo formation of N-acyl-fumonisin B1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are fungal toxins found in corn and in corn-based foods. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is the most common and is toxic to animals, causes cancer in rodents, and is a suspected risk factor for cancer and birth defects in humans. The hydrolyzed form of FB1 (HFB1) also occurs in foods and is metabolize...

  10. Mechanical stimulation of skeletal muscle generates lipid-related second messengers by phospholipase activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, H. H.; Shansky, J.; Karlisch, P.; Solerssi, R. L.

    1993-01-01

    Repetitive mechanical stimulation of cultured avian skeletal muscle increases the synthesis of prostaglandins (PG) E2 and F2 alpha which regulate protein turnover rates and muscle cell growth. These stretch-induced PG increases are reduced in low extracellular calcium medium and by specific phospholipase inhibitors. Mechanical stimulation increases the breakdown rate of 3H-arachidonic acid labelled phospholipids, releasing free 3H-arachidonic acid, the rate-limiting precursor of PG synthesis. Mechanical stimulation also increases 3H-arachidonic acid labelled diacylglycerol formation and intracellular levels of inositol phosphates from myo-[2-3H]inositol labelled phospholipids. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2), phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC), and phospholipase D (PLD) are all activated by stretch. The stretch-induced increases in PG production, 3H-arachidonic acid labelled phospholipid breakdown, and 3H-arachidonic acid labelled diacylglycerol formation occur independently of cellular electrical activity (tetrodotoxin insensitive) whereas the formation of inositol phosphates from myo-[2-3H]inositol labelled phospholipids is dependent on cellular electrical activity. These results indicate that mechanical stimulation increases the lipid-related second messengers arachidonic acid, diacylglycerol, and PG through activation of specific phospholipases such as PLA2 and PLD, but not by activation of phosphatidylinositol-specific PLC.

  11. Conductimetric assays for the hydrolase and transferase activities of phospholipase D enzymes.

    PubMed

    Mezna, M; Lawrence, A J

    1994-05-01

    Measurement of solution electrical conductance (conductimetry) is a simple direct assay method for the protogenic, hydrolytic reactions catalyzed by all phospholipase enzymes. The technique is especially suitable for assay of phospholipase D (PLD) enzymes where cleavage of zwitterionic substrates reinforces the pH dependent conductance change and allows the method to be used over a much wider pH range than the equivalent titrimetric assay. The ability to detect zwitterion cleavage enables the method to assay reactions in which phospholipase D transfers neutral, or anionic, alcohol species to the zwitterionic substrates phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. The method can follow the sequential attack by different phospholipases and provides a simple technique for investigating the effect of substrate structure on susceptibility to various phospholipase enzymes. The results confirm that PLD from Streptomyces chromofuscus can attack lysophospholipids, but cannot transfer primary alcohols to the phosphatidyl residue, while the PLD from savoy cabbage is an efficient transferase, but cannot attack lysophospholipids. The data suggest that the bacterial PLD fails to act as a transferase because it hydrolyzes the transphosphatidylation products. Some phosphatidyl alcohols are more highly susceptible to PLA2 attack than the parent phosphatidyl choline derivatives.

  12. Disruption of phospholipase B gene, PLB1, increases the survival of baker's yeast Torulaspora delbrueckii.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Y; Imai, K; Oishi, H; Tamai, Y

    1996-12-15

    An uracil auxotrophic mutant of baker's yeast Torulaspora delbrueckii, which is resistant to 5-fluoro-orotic acid, was complemented by transformation with YEp24 which harbors 2 microns origin and URA3 derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The phospholipase B in T. delbrueckii cells is active in both acidic and alkaline conditions. However, activity of phospholipase B gene (PLB1) in cells of disruption mutant (plb1:: URA3) was lost in both conditions, which indicates that all phospholipase B activity is encoded by a single gene (or a single polypeptide) in these yeast cells. Over-expression of PLB1 with YEp plasmid vector in T. delbrueckii cells showed approximately 2.5-fold increase in phospholipase B activity, comparing with that in wild-type cells. Cells of plb1 delta mutant showed increased survival when cells of plb1 delta mutant and wild-type strain were incubated in water at 30 degrees C. Cells of PLB1-over-expressed strain died rapidly even during the cultivation period, indicating that phospholipase B activity may be a determinant for the survival of this yeast.

  13. Effects of endotoxin and dexamethasone on group I and II phospholipase A2 in rat ileum and stomach.

    PubMed Central

    Lilja, I; Dimberg, J; Sjödahl, R; Tagesson, C; Gustafson-Svärd, C

    1994-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 (EC 3.1.1.4) is a key enzyme in inflammation and is thought to play an important part in inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. To investigate the nature and regulation of phospholipase A2 activity in the gastrointestinal mucosa, the distribution of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) for group II phospholipase A2 in various parts of the rat gastrointestinal tract was studied, as well as the influence of endotoxin or dexamethasone, or both, on the group I and II phospholipase A2 mRNA expression and activity in the rat glandular stomach and distal ileum. The results show that (a) group II phospholipase A2 is present along the whole gastrointestinal tract, but in particularly large amounts in the distal ileum, (b) endotoxin increases group II, but not group I, phospholipase A2 mRNA expression in the glandular stomach and distal ileum, and (c) dexamethasone reduces the endotoxin induced increases in group II phospholipase mRNA expression and activity in the gastrointestinal mucosa. These findings suggest that phospholipase A2 of type II is a mediator of endotoxin effects in the gastrointestinal mucosa and that its expression at the mRNA level can be inhibited by corticosteroids. Images Figure 1 PMID:8307447

  14. Preliminary crystallographic study of an acidic phospholipase A2 from Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra).

    PubMed

    Xu, Sujuan; Gu, Lichuan; Wang, Qiuyan; Shu, Yuyan; Lin, Zhengjiong

    2002-10-01

    An acidic phospholipase A(2) (OH APLA(2)-II) with an isoelectric point (pI) of 4.0 was recently isolated from Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra) from Guangxi province, China. Comparison of this enzyme to a previously reported homologous phospholipase A(2) from the same venom shows that it lacks toxicity and exhibits a greater phospholipase activity. OH APLA(2)-II has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 1,6-hexanediol and magnesium chloride as precipitants. The crystal belongs to space group P6(3), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 98.06, c = 132.39 A. The diffraction data were collected under cryoconditions (100 K) and reduced to 2.1 A resolution. A molecular-replacement solution has been determined and shows that there are six molecules in one asymmetric unit. PMID:12351830

  15. Preliminary crystallographic study of an acidic phospholipase A2 from Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra).

    PubMed

    Xu, Sujuan; Gu, Lichuan; Wang, Qiuyan; Shu, Yuyan; Lin, Zhengjiong

    2002-10-01

    An acidic phospholipase A(2) (OH APLA(2)-II) with an isoelectric point (pI) of 4.0 was recently isolated from Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra) from Guangxi province, China. Comparison of this enzyme to a previously reported homologous phospholipase A(2) from the same venom shows that it lacks toxicity and exhibits a greater phospholipase activity. OH APLA(2)-II has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 1,6-hexanediol and magnesium chloride as precipitants. The crystal belongs to space group P6(3), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 98.06, c = 132.39 A. The diffraction data were collected under cryoconditions (100 K) and reduced to 2.1 A resolution. A molecular-replacement solution has been determined and shows that there are six molecules in one asymmetric unit.

  16. Sphingosine induces phospholipase D and mitogen activated protein kinase in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Taher, M M; Abd-Elfattah, A S; Sholley, M M

    1998-12-01

    The enzymes phospholipase D and diacylglycerol kinase generate phosphatidic acid which is considered to be a mitogen. Here we report that sphingosine produced a significant amount of phosphatidic acid in vascular smooth muscle cells from the rat aorta. The diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R59 949 partially depressed sphingosine induced phosphatidic acid formation, suggesting that activation of phospholipase C and diacylglycerol kinase can not account for the bulk of phosphatidic acid produced and that additional pathways such as phospholipase D may contribute to this. Further, we have shown that phosphatidylethanol was produced by sphingosine when vascular smooth muscle cells were stimulated in the presence of ethanol. Finally, as previously shown for other cell types, sphingosine stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  17. Vascular smooth muscle cell spreading onto fibrinogen is regulated by calpains and phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Paulhe, F; Bogyo, A; Chap, H; Perret, B; Racaud-Sultan, C

    2001-11-01

    Fibrinogen deposition and smooth muscle cell migration are important causes of atherosclerosis and angiogenesis. Involvement of calpains in vascular smooth muscle cell adhesion onto fibrinogen was investigated. Using calpain inhibitors, we showed that activation of calpains was required for smooth muscle cell spreading. An increase of (32)P-labeled phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate, respective products of phospholipase C and phosphoinositide 3-kinase activities, was measured in adherent cells. Addition of the calpain inhibitor calpeptin strongly decreased phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate. However, smooth muscle cell spreading was prevented by the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122, but poorly modified by phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY-294002. Moreover, PLC was found to act upstream of the PI 3-kinase IA isoform. Thus, our data provide the first evidence that calpains are required for smooth muscle cell spreading. Further, phospholipase C activation is pointed as a key step of cell-spreading regulation by calpains.

  18. Action and Inhibition of Endogenous Phospholipases during Isolation of Plant Membranes.

    PubMed

    Scherer, G F; Morré, D J

    1978-12-01

    Endogenous phospholipase D and phosphatidic acid phosphatase activities were demonstrated in membrane fractions isolated from soybean (Glycine max L.) hypocotyls. Phospholipase D activity was distributed widely among different membrane fractions while phosphatidic acid phosphatase was found predominantly in membranes equilibrating in lower sucrose densities. Phospholipase D action was unaffected by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium salt or ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid but was prevented by a mixture of 4% choline and 4% ethanolamine. Phosphatidic acid phosphatase was inhibited by 10 millimolar glycerol 1-phosphate or by homogenization media prepared with coconut milk as a solvent instead of water. Under fully protected conditions the phospholipid composition of soybean membrane fractions remained unchanged for at least 1 hour at 20 C. Membranes prepared under protected conditions had low phosphatidic acid contents and the phospholipid compositions closely resembled those of corresponding animal membranes.

  19. Functional interaction between Cerebratulus lacteus cytolysin A-III and phospholipase A/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.; Blumenthal, K.M.

    1988-05-15

    A study on the interaction between bee venom phospholipase A/sub 2/ and Cerebratulus lacteus cytolysin A-III, a major hemolysin secreted by this organism has been carried out. The hemolytic activity of A-III in phosphate-buffered saline is increased 5-fold in the presence of phospholipase A/sub 2/ from bee venom. Dansylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPE) labeled, phosphatidylcholine-containing liposomes and human erythrocyte membranes were employed to study the interaction between these two proteins. In DPE-liposomes, A-III alone had no effect on DPE fluorescence nor did it enhance either the phospholipase A/sub 2/-dependent fluorescence increase or blue shift in emission maximum, indicating that the cytolysis is not a major phospholipase A/sub 2/-activator. However, when DPE was incorporated into erythrocyte membranes, A-III alone induced a 40% fluorescence increase and a 5 nm blue shift, implying a transient activation of an endogenous phospholipase A/sub 2/. Further studies using synthetic lysophosphatidylcholine and free fatty acids demonstrated that the hemolytic activity of A-III is potentiated by free fatty acids, a product of phospholipid degradation catalyzed by phospholipase A/sub 2/. Subsequent analysis of this phenomenon by gel filtration chromatography, analytical ultracentrifugation, chemical cross-linking, and measurement of (/sup 14/C)oleic acid binding by the cytolysin demonstrated that binding of oleic acid to A-III causes aggregation of the toxin molecules to a tetrameric form which has a higher ..cap alpha..-helix content and a greater activity than the monomer.

  20. Properties of bovine erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase solubilized by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C1.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, R; Ikezawa, H

    1987-10-01

    The properties of acetylcholinesterase solubilized from bovine erythrocyte membrane by phosphatidylinositol (PI)-specific phospholipase C of Bacillus thuringiensis or with a detergent, Lubrol-PX, were studied. The activity of Lubrol-PX-solubilized acetylcholinesterase was broadly distributed in the fractions having Ve/Vo = 1.0-2.0 in gel filtration on a Sepharose 6B column. The intermediary fractions (Ve/Vo = 1.3-1.7) were collected as "the middle active Sepharose 6B eluate" and characterized on the basis of enzymology and protein chemistry. When this eluate was treated with PI-specific phospholipase C, the major activity peak was obtained in the later fractions with Ve/Vo = 1.75-2.0 on the same column chromatography. Lubrol-solubilized and phospholipase C-treated acetylcholinesterase preparations were different in the thermostability, the elution profiles of chromatography on Mono Q, butyl-Toyopearl and phenyl-Sepharose columns, and the affinity to phospholipid micelles. On treatment with PI-specific phospholipase C, Lubrol-solubilized acetylcholinesterase became more thermostable. The phospholipase C-treated enzyme was eluted at lower NaCl concentration from the Mono Q column than the Lubrol-solubilized enzyme. The most important difference was observed in the hydrophobicity of these two enzyme preparations. The Lubrol-solubilized enzyme shows high affinity to phospholipid micelles and hydrophobic adsorbents such as butyl-Toyopearl and phenyl-Sepharose. However, this hydrophobicity was lost when acetylcholinesterase was solubilized from bovine erythrocyte membrane by PI-specific phospholipase C. The presence of myo-inositol was confirmed in the purified preparation of acetylcholinesterase by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Phospholipase D Controls Dictyostelium Development By Regulating G Protein Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Sibnath; Chen, Yi; Ayoung, Joanna; Hanna, Rachel; Brazill, Derrick

    2010-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum cells normally exist as individual amoebae, but will enter a period of multicellular development upon starvation. The initial stages of development involve the aggregation of individual cells, using cAMP as a chemoattractant. Chemotaxis is initiated when cAMP binds to its receptor, cAR1, and activates the associated G protein, Gα2βγ. However, chemotaxis will not occur unless there is a high density of starving cells present, as measured by high levels of the secreted quorum sensing molecule, CMF. We previously demonstrated that cells lacking PldB bypass the need for CMF and can aggregate at low cell density, whereas cells overexpressing pldB do not aggregate even at high cell density. Here, we found that PldB controlled both cAMP chemotaxis and cell sorting. PldB was also required by CMF to regulate G protein signaling. Specifically, CMF used PldB, to regulate the dissociation of Gα2 from Gβγ. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we found that along with cAMP, CMF increased the dissociation of the G protein. In fact, CMF augmented the dissociation induced by cAMP. This augmentation was lost in cells lacking PldB. PldB appears to mediate the CMF signal through the production of phosphatidic acid, as exogenously added phosphatidic acid phenocopies overexpression of pldB. These results suggest that phospholipase D activity is required for CMF to alter the kinetics of cAMP-induced G protein signaling. PMID:20950684

  2. Anti-phospholipase A₂ receptor antibodies in recurrent membranous nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Kattah, A; Ayalon, R; Beck, L H; Sethi, S; Sandor, D G; Cosio, F G; Gandhi, M J; Lorenz, E C; Salant, D J; Fervenza, F C

    2015-05-01

    About 70% of patients with primary membranous nephropathy (MN) have circulating anti-phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) antibodies that correlate with disease activity, but their predictive value in post-transplant (Tx) recurrent MN is uncertain. We evaluated 26 patients, 18 with recurrent MN and 8 without recurrence, with serial post-Tx serum samples and renal biopsies to determine if patients with pre-Tx anti-PLA2R are at increased risk of recurrence as compared to seronegative patients and to determine if post-Tx changes in anti-PLA2R correspond to the clinical course. In the recurrent group, 10/17 patients had anti-PLA2R at the time of Tx versus 2/7 patients in the nonrecurrent group. The positive predictive value of pre-Tx anti-PLA2R for recurrence was 83%, while the negative predictive value was 42%. Persistence or reappearance of post-Tx anti-PLA2R was associated with increasing proteinuria and resistant disease in 6/18 cases; little or no proteinuria occurred in cases with pre-Tx anti-PLA2R and biopsy evidence of recurrence in which the antibodies resolved with standard immunosuppression. Some cases with positive pre-Tx anti-PLA2R were seronegative at the time of recurrence. In conclusion, patients with positive pre-Tx anti-PLA2R should be monitored closely for recurrent MN. Persistence or reappearance of antibody post-Tx may indicate a more resistant disease.

  3. Enzymatic action of phospholipase A₂ on liposomal drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anders H; Mouritsen, Ole G; Arouri, Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    The overexpression of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) in tumors has opened new avenues for enzyme-triggered active unloading of liposomal antitumor drug carriers selectively at the target tumor. However, the effects of the liposome composition, drug encapsulation, and tumor microenvironment on the activity of sPLA2 are still not well understood. We carried out a physico-chemical study to characterize the sPLA2-assisted breakdown of liposomes using dye-release assays in the context of drug delivery and under physiologically relevant conditions. The influence of temperature, lipid concentration, enzyme concentration, and drug loading on the hydrolysis of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC, Tm=42°C) liposomes with snake venom sPLA2 was investigated. The sensitivity of human sPLA2 to the liposome composition was checked using binary lipid mixtures of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) phospholipids with C14 and C16 acyl chains. Increasing temperature (36-41°C) was found to mainly shorten the enzyme lag-time, whereas the effect on lipid hydrolysis rate was modest. The enzyme lag-time was also found to be inversely dependent on the lipid-to-enzyme ratio. Drug encapsulation can alter the hydrolysis profile of the carrier liposomes. The activity of human sPLA2 was highly sensitive to the phospholipid acyl-chain length and negative surface charge density of the liposomes. We believe our work will prove useful for the optimization of sPLA2-susceptible liposomal formulations as well as will provide a solid ground for predicting the hydrolysis profile of the liposomes in vivo at the target site.

  4. Maternal choline supplementation programs greater activity of the phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) pathway in adult Ts65Dn trisomic mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jian; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Powers, Brian; Alldred, Melissa J; Saltzman, Arthur; Strupp, Barbara J; Caudill, Marie A

    2014-10-01

    Maternal choline supplementation (MCS) induces lifelong cognitive benefits in the Ts65Dn mouse, a trisomic mouse model of Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects, we conducted a study to test the hypothesis that MCS alters choline metabolism in adult Ts65Dn offspring. Deuterium-labeled methyl-d9-choline was administered to adult Ts65Dn and disomic (2N) female littermates born to choline-unsupplemented or choline-supplemented Ts65Dn dams. Enrichment of d9-choline metabolites (derived from intact choline) and d3 + d6-choline metabolites [produced when choline-derived methyl groups are used by phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT)] was measured in harvested tissues. Adult offspring (both Ts65Dn and 2N) of choline-supplemented (vs. choline-unsupplemented) dams exhibited 60% greater (P≤0.007) activity of hepatic PEMT, which functions in de novo choline synthesis and produces phosphatidylcholine (PC) enriched in docosahexaenoic acid. Higher (P<0.001) enrichment of PEMT-derived d3 and d6 metabolites was detected in liver, plasma, and brain in both genotypes but to a greater extent in the Ts65Dn adult offspring. MCS also yielded higher (P<0.05) d9 metabolite enrichments in liver, plasma, and brain. These data demonstrate that MCS exerts lasting effects on offspring choline metabolism, including up-regulation of the hepatic PEMT pathway and enhanced provision of choline and PEMT-PC to the brain. PMID:24963152

  5. Decreased lipogenesis in white adipose tissue contributes to the resistance to high fat diet-induced obesity in phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xia; van der Veen, Jelske N; Hermansson, Martin; Ordoñez, Marta; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Vance, Dennis E; Jacobs, René L

    2015-02-01

    Mice lacking phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT, Pemt(-/-) mice) are resistant to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity (DIO) but develop non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. PEMT expression is strongly induced during differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Hence, we hypothesized that white adipose tissue (WAT) might be a key player in the protection against DIO in Pemt(-/-) mice. We fed Pemt(-/-) and Pemt(+/+) mice the HFD for 2 weeks, after which we examined adipocyte differentiation, adipogenesis and lipolysis in WAT. Pemt(-/-) mice gained less body weight, had reduced WAT mass and had smaller adipocytes than Pemt(+/+) mice. The protein levels of adipose differentiation markers FABP4, PPARγ and C/EBPβ were not altered by genotype, but acetyl-CoA carboxylase expression and activation was reduced in the Pemt(-/-) mice. The in vivo conversion of [¹⁴C]acetate to [¹⁴C]TG in WAT was also lower in Pemt(-/-) mice. The release of glycerol from WAT explants was comparable between Pemt(+/+) and Pemt(-/-) mice under basal condition and in the presence of isoproterenol, indicating unaffected lipolytic capacity. Furthermore, the amounts of leptin, cytokines and chemokines in WAT were not altered by genotype in mice fed the HFD for 2 weeks. However, after 10 weeks of HFD, WAT from Pemt(-/-) mice had dramatically lower leptin, inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 and TNF-α) and chemokines (MCP-1 and RANTES), and significantly higher anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 than Pemt(+/+) mice. Together, our data show that PEMT deficiency did not affect the capability for differentiation and lipolysis in WAT. Decreased lipogenesis in WAT may contribute to the resistance to DIO in Pemt(-/-) mice.

  6. Structural comparison of phospholipase-A2-binding regions in phospholipase-A2 receptors from various mammals.

    PubMed

    Higashino, K; Ishizaki, J; Kishino, J; Ohara, O; Arita, H

    1994-10-01

    We determined the nucleotide sequence of a mouse cDNA encoding the receptor for pancreatic group I phospholipase A2 (PLA2-I). Interspecies structural comparison of the mouse receptor with bovine PLA2-I receptor, whose structure had been clarified, revealed that the fourth carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD)-like domain (CRD-like 4) was the most conserved among the domains in the PLA2-I receptor, suggesting the functional importance of CRD-like 4. A transient expression experiment with a truncated form of the receptor consisting of three CRD-like domains, from the third to the fifth, demonstrated that the PLA2-I-binding site of the receptor is constituted from these three CRD-like domains, supporting the functional indispensability of CRD-like 4 in the receptor. Since the PLA2-I-binding region was thus assigned to be CRD-like domains 3-5, we further analyzed the structures of the PLA2-I-binding regions in the PLA2-I receptors from the rat, rabbit and human. Furthermore, the obtained PLA2-I receptor cDNA fragments from these animals made it possible to examine the tissue expression patterns of this receptor in various mammals. The results, together with the results of the genomic structural analysis of this gene, indicated that a PLA2 receptor recently characterized by Lambeau et al. [Lambeau, G., Ancian, P., Barhanin, J. & Lazdunski, M. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 1575-1578] is a rabbit counterpart of the PLA2-I receptor although these two PLA2 receptors have distinctive PLA2-binding specificities.

  7. Up-regulation of the expressions of phospholipase A2 inhibitors in the liver of a venomous snake by its own venom phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Kinkawa, Kohshi; Shirai, Ryoichi; Watanabe, Shin; Toriba, Michihisa; Hayashi, Kyozo; Ikeda, Kiyoshi; Inoue, Seiji

    2010-05-01

    Venomous snakes such as Gloydius brevicaudus have three distinct types of phospholipase A(2) inhibitors (PLIalpha, PLIbeta, and PLIgamma) in their blood so as to protect themselves from their own venom phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)s). Expressions of these PLIs in G. brevicaudus liver were found to be enhanced by the intramuscular injection of its own venom. The enhancement of gene expressions of PLIalpha and PLIbeta in the liver was also found to be induced by acidic PLA(2) contained in this venom. Furthermore, these effects of acidic PLA(2) on gene expression of PLIs were shown to be unrelated to its enzymatic activity. These results suggest that these venomous snakes have developed the self-protective system against their own venom, by which the venom components up-regulate the expression of anti-venom proteins in their liver.

  8. Selective and programmed cleavage of GPI-anchored proteins from the surface membrane by phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Müller, Alexandra; Klöppel, Christine; Smith-Valentine, Megan; Van Houten, Judith; Simon, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Many surface proteins of eukaryotic cells are tethered to the membrane by a GPI-anchor which is enzymatically cleavable. Here, we investigate cleavage and release of different GPI-proteins by phospholipase C from the outer membrane of the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. Our data indicate that different GPI-proteins are not equally cleaved as proteins of the surface antigen family are preferentially released in vitro compared to several smaller GPI-proteins. Likewise, the analysis of culture medium indicates exclusive in vivo release of surface antigens by two phospholipase C isoforms (PLC2 and PLC6). This suggests that phospholipase C shows affinity for select groups of GPI-anchored proteins. Our data also reveal an up-regulation of PLC isoforms in GPI-anchored protein cleavage during antigenic switching. As a consequence, silencing of these PLCs leads to a drastic decrease of antigen concentration in the medium. These results suggest a higher order of GPI-regulation by phospholipase C as cleavage occurs programmed and specific for single GPI-proteins instead of an unspecific shedding of the entire surface membrane GPI-content.

  9. Mechanical stimulation of skeletal muscle generates lipid-related second messengers by phospholipase activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.; Shansky, Janet; Karlisch, Patricia; Solerssi, Rosa Lopez

    1991-01-01

    Repetitive mechanical stimulation of cultured avian skeletal muscle increases the synthesis of prostaglandins E2 and F2(alpha) which regulate protein turnover rates and muscle cell growth. Mechnical stimulation significantly increases the breakdown rate of (3)H-arachidonic acid labelled phospholipids, releasing free (3)H-arachidonic acid, and the rate-limiting precursor of prostaglandin synthesis. Mechanical stimulation also significantly increases (3)H-arachidonic acid labelled diacylglycerol formation and intracellular levels of inositol phosphates from myo-2-(3)H inositol labelled phospholipids. Phospholipase A2, phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC), and phospholipase D (PLD) are activated by stretch. The lipase inhibitors bromophenacylbromide and RHC80267 together reduce stretch-induced prostaglandin production by 73-83 percent. The stretch-induced increases in prostaglandin production, (3)H-arachidonic acid labelled phospholipid breakdown, and (3)H-arachidonic acid labelled diacylglycerol formation occur independently of cellular electrical activity (tetrodotoxin insensitive) whereas the formation of inositol phosphates from myo-2-(3)H inositol labelled phospholipids are dependent on cellular electrical activity. These results indicate that mechanical stimulation increases the lipid-related second messengers arachidonic acid, diacylglycerol, and prostaglandins through activation of specific phospholipases such as PLA2 and PLD, but not by activation of phosphatidylinositol-specific PLC.

  10. The lung lysosomal hydrolases and phospholipase A in acute experimental pancreatitis with reference to heparin treatment.

    PubMed

    Wereszczyńska, U; Długosz, J; Gabryelewicz, A; Andrzejewska, A

    1986-10-01

    The pulmonary complications are severe sequeles of acute pancreatitis. The pathogenesis of these complications is unsolved. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the status of lung lysosomes and phospholipase A activity in acute experimental pancreatitis (AEP) and the effect of heparin as a potentially protective agent. Taurocholate-induced AEP in rats lasting 24 and 48 hours was treated with heparin intraperitoneally (2 mg/kg every 8 hours). The total activity of cathepsins and B-glucuronidase in lysosomal enriched subfraction increased markedly during 48 hours of AEP in untreated animals, but the relative free activity was maximal after 24 hours. Free activity of cathepsins and acid phosphatase in supernatant was maximal after 24 hours. The phospholipase A activity was maximally elevated (more than twofold) after 48 hours. Heparin prevented the increase of activity of B-glucuronidase, depressed the relative free activity of all investigated lysosomal hydrolases and inhibited the phospholipase A activity in the lung homogenate. Our results indicate the significance of labilization of lung lysosomes and increment of phospholipase A activity in the lungs in the damage of this organ during AEP in the rats, and suggest the beneficial effect of heparin on these factors. PMID:2431400

  11. Role of polyamines and phospholipase D in maize (Zea mays L.) response to drought stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroponic experiment was conducted to elucidate the role of polyamines and phospholipase D (PLD) in regulating response of maize plants to drought stress (DS). During the early stage of DS, an increase in PLD activity, independent of polyamines contents, was mainly responsible for stomatal closure...

  12. Transfected adenosine A1 receptor-mediated modulation of thrombin-stimulated phospholipase C and phospholipase A2 activity in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Dickenson, J M; Hill, S J

    1997-02-19

    ]inositol phosphates and the release of [3H]arachidonic acid through pertussis-toxin-insensitive G-proteins. Experiments using PMA suggest that protein kinase C differentially regulates thrombin receptor activation of phospholipase C and phospholipase A2. Co-activation of the transfected human adenosine A1 receptor augments thrombin-stimulated phospholipase C and phospholipase A2 activity. Finally, the augmentation of phospholipase A2 activity by the adenosine A1 receptor is inhibited by selective protein kinase C inhibitors, suggesting the involvement of protein kinase C. PMID:9083789

  13. The selective activation of the cardiac sarcolemmal sodium-calcium exchanger by plasmalogenic phosphatidic acid produced by phospholipase D.

    PubMed

    Hale, C C; Ebeling, E G; Hsu, F F; Ford, D A

    1998-01-30

    Since plasmalogens are the predominant phospholipid of cardiac sarcolemma, the activation of the sodium-calcium exchanger by either plasmenylethanolamine or plasmalogenic phosphatidic acid generated by phospholipase D was explored. Sodium-calcium exchange activity was 7-fold greater in proteoliposomes comprised of plasmenylethanolamine compared to proteoliposomes comprised of only plasmenylcholine. Phospholipase D treatment of proteoliposomes resulted in 1 mol % conversion of plasmenylcholine or phosphatidylcholine to their respective phosphatidic acid molecular species with a concomitant 8-fold or 2-fold activation of sodium-calcium exchange activity, respectfully. Thus, phospholipase D-mediated hydrolysis of plasmalogens to phosphatidic acid may be an important mechanism for the regulation of the sodium-calcium exchanger.

  14. Expression of Enzymatically Inactive Wasp Venom Phospholipase A1 in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Borodina, Irina; Jensen, Bettina M.; Wagner, Tim; Hachem, Maher A.; Søndergaard, Ib; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2011-01-01

    Wasp venom allergy is the most common insect venom allergy in Europe. It is manifested by large local reaction or anaphylactic shock occurring after a wasp sting. The allergy can be treated by specific immunotherapy with whole venom extracts. Wasp venom is difficult and costly to obtain and is a subject to composition variation, therefore it can be advantageous to substitute it with a cocktail of recombinant allergens. One of the major venom allergens is phospholipase A1, which so far has been expressed in Escherichia coli and in insect cells. Our aim was to produce the protein in secreted form in yeast Pichia pastoris, which can give high yields of correctly folded protein on defined minimal medium and secretes relatively few native proteins simplifying purification. Residual amounts of enzymatically active phospholipase A1 could be expressed, but the venom protein had a deleterious effect on growth of the yeast cells. To overcome the problem we introduced three different point mutations at the critical points of the active site, where serine137, aspartate165 or histidine229 were replaced by alanine (S137A, D165A and H229A). All the three mutated forms could be expressed in P. pastoris. The H229A mutant did not have any detectable phospholipase A1 activity and was secreted at the level of several mg/L in shake flask culture. The protein was purified by nickel-affinity chromatography and its identity was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The protein could bind IgE antibodies from wasp venom allergic patients and could inhibit the binding of wasp venom to IgE antibodies specific for phospholipase A1 as shown by Enzyme Allergo-Sorbent Test (EAST). Moreover, the recombinant protein was allergenic in a biological assay as demonstrated by its capability to induce histamine release of wasp venom-sensitive basophils. The recombinant phospholipase A1 presents a good candidate for wasp venom immunotherapy. PMID:21731687

  15. Expression of enzymatically inactive wasp venom phospholipase A1 in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Borodina, Irina; Jensen, Bettina M; Wagner, Tim; Hachem, Maher A; Søndergaard, Ib; Poulsen, Lars K

    2011-01-01

    Wasp venom allergy is the most common insect venom allergy in Europe. It is manifested by large local reaction or anaphylactic shock occurring after a wasp sting. The allergy can be treated by specific immunotherapy with whole venom extracts. Wasp venom is difficult and costly to obtain and is a subject to composition variation, therefore it can be advantageous to substitute it with a cocktail of recombinant allergens. One of the major venom allergens is phospholipase A1, which so far has been expressed in Escherichia coli and in insect cells. Our aim was to produce the protein in secreted form in yeast Pichia pastoris, which can give high yields of correctly folded protein on defined minimal medium and secretes relatively few native proteins simplifying purification.Residual amounts of enzymatically active phospholipase A1 could be expressed, but the venom protein had a deleterious effect on growth of the yeast cells. To overcome the problem we introduced three different point mutations at the critical points of the active site, where serine137, aspartate165 or histidine229 were replaced by alanine (S137A, D165A and H229A). All the three mutated forms could be expressed in P. pastoris. The H229A mutant did not have any detectable phospholipase A1 activity and was secreted at the level of several mg/L in shake flask culture. The protein was purified by nickel-affinity chromatography and its identity was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The protein could bind IgE antibodies from wasp venom allergic patients and could inhibit the binding of wasp venom to IgE antibodies specific for phospholipase A1 as shown by Enzyme Allergo-Sorbent Test (EAST). Moreover, the recombinant protein was allergenic in a biological assay as demonstrated by its capability to induce histamine release of wasp venom-sensitive basophils.The recombinant phospholipase A1 presents a good candidate for wasp venom immunotherapy. PMID:21731687

  16. Exosomes account for vesicle-mediated transcellular transport of activatable phospholipases and prostaglandins[S

    PubMed Central

    Subra, Caroline; Grand, David; Laulagnier, Karine; Stella, Alexandre; Lambeau, Gérard; Paillasse, Michael; De Medina, Philippe; Monsarrat, Bernard; Perret, Bertrand; Silvente-Poirot, Sandrine; Poirot, Marc; Record, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Exosomes are bioactive vesicles released from multivesicular bodies (MVB) by intact cells and participate in intercellular signaling. We investigated the presence of lipid-related proteins and bioactive lipids in RBL-2H3 exosomes. Besides a phospholipid scramblase and a fatty acid binding protein, the exosomes contained the whole set of phospholipases (A2, C, and D) together with interacting proteins such as aldolase A and Hsp 70. They also contained the phospholipase D (PLD) / phosphatidate phosphatase 1 (PAP1) pathway leading to the formation of diglycerides. RBL-2H3 exosomes also carried members of the three phospholipase A2 classes: the calcium-dependent cPLA2-IVA, the calcium-independent iPLA2-VIA, and the secreted sPLA2-IIA and V. Remarkably, almost all members of the Ras GTPase superfamily were present, and incubation of exosomes with GTPγS triggered activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2)and PLD2. A large panel of free fatty acids, including arachidonic acid (AA) and derivatives such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandinJ2 (15-d PGJ2), were detected. We observed that the exosomes were internalized by resting and activated RBL cells and that they accumulated in an endosomal compartment. Endosomal concentrations were in the micromolar range for prostaglandins; i.e., concentrations able to trigger prostaglandin-dependent biological responses. Therefore exosomes are carriers of GTP-activatable phospholipases and lipid mediators from cell to cell. PMID:20424270

  17. Phospholipase PlaB of Legionella pneumophila Represents a Novel Lipase Family

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Jennifer; Rydzewski, Kerstin; Broich, Markus; Schunder, Eva; Heuner, Klaus; Flieger, Antje

    2009-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila possesses several phospholipases capable of host cell manipulation and lung damage. Recently, we discovered that the major cell-associated hemolytic phospholipase A (PlaB) shares no homology to described phospholipases and is dispensable for intracellular replication in vitro. Nevertheless, here we show that PlaB is the major lipolytic activity in L. pneumophila cell infections and that PlaB utilizes a typical catalytic triad of Ser-Asp-His for effective hydrolysis of phospholipid substrates. Crucial residues were found to be located within the N-terminal half of the protein, and amino acids embedding these active sites were unique for PlaB and homologs. We further showed that catalytic activity toward phosphatidylcholine but not phosphatidylglycerol is directly linked to hemolytic potential of PlaB. Although the function of the prolonged PlaB C terminus remains to be elucidated, it is essential for lipolysis, since the removal of 15 amino acids already abolishes enzyme activity. Additionally, we determined that PlaB preferentially hydrolyzes long-chain fatty acid substrates containing 12 or more carbon atoms. Since phospholipases play an important role as bacterial virulence factors, we examined cell-associated enzymatic activities among L. pneumophila clinical isolates and non-pneumophila species. All tested clinical isolates showed comparable activities, whereas of the non-pneumophila species, only Legionella gormanii and Legionella spiritensis possessed lipolytic activities similar to those of L. pneumophila and comprised plaB-like genes. Interestingly, phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase A activity and hemolytic potential were more pronounced in L. pneumophila. Therefore, hydrolysis of the eukaryotic membrane constituent phosphatidylcholine triggered by PlaB could be an important virulence tool for Legionella pathogenicity. PMID:19640837

  18. In vivo detection of phospholipase C by enzyme-activated near-infrared probes.

    PubMed

    Mawn, Theresa M; Popov, Anatoliy V; Beardsley, Nancy J; Stefflova, Klara; Milkevitch, Matthew; Zheng, Gang; Delikatny, E James

    2011-12-21

    In this article, the characterization of the first near-infrared (NIR) phospholipase-activated molecular beacon is reported, and its utility for in vivo cancer imaging is demonstrated. The probe consists of three elements: a phospholipid (PL) backbone to which the NIR fluorophore, pyropheophorbide a (Pyro), and the NIR Black Hole Quencher 3 (BHQ) were conjugated. Because of the close proximity of BHQ to Pyro, the Pyro-PtdEtn-BHQ probe is self-quenched until enzyme hydrolysis releases the fluorophore. The Pyro-PtdEtn-BHQ probe is highly specific to one isoform of phospholipase C, phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC), responsible for catabolizing phosphatidylcholine directly to phosphocholine. Incubation of Pyro-PtdEtn-BHQ in vitro with PC-PLC demonstrated a 150-fold increase in fluorescence that could be inhibited by the specific PC-PLC inhibitor tricyclodecan-9-yl xanthogenate (D609) with an IC(50) of 34 ± 8 μM. Since elevations in phosphocholine have been consistently observed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a wide array of cancer cells and solid tumors, we assessed the utility of Pyro-PtdEtn-BHQ as a probe for targeted tumor imaging. Injection of Pyro-PtdEtn-BHQ into mice bearing DU145 human prostate tumor xenografts followed by in vivo NIR imaging resulted in a 4-fold increase in tumor radiance over background and a 2 fold increase in the tumor/muscle ratio. Tumor fluorescence enhancement was inhibited with the administration of D609. The ability to image PC-PLC activity in vivo provides a unique and sensitive method of monitoring one of the critical phospholipase signaling pathways activated in cancer, as well as the phospholipase activities that are altered in response to cancer treatment.

  19. Raised serum activity of phospholipase A2 immunochemically related to group II enzyme in inflammatory bowel disease: its correlation with disease activity of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed Central

    Minami, T; Tojo, H; Shinomura, Y; Tarui, S; Okamoto, M

    1992-01-01

    Calcium dependent phospholipase A2 activity in the mixed micelles of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol and cholate was measured in sera of 39 patients with Crohn's disease, 40 patients with ulcerative colitis, and 40 healthy controls. The phospholipase A2 activity was significantly raised in those sera of the patients with active Crohn's disease and those with moderate and severe ulcerative colitis. The major phospholipase A2 activity derived from the sera was separated into two peaks by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. The phospholipase A2 active fractions were immunochemically characterised using specific antibody directed against human group II phospholipase A2 purified from rheumatoid synovial fluid. The results suggest that raised serum phospholipase A2 activity in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis was mainly attributed to the two forms of phospholipase A2 immunochemically related to group II enzyme. In patients with Crohn's disease, serum phospholipase A2 activity decreased in parallel with clinical improvement, and correlated with serum C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The results suggest that serum phospholipase A2 activity may serve as an additional indicator of disease activity. Serum phospholipase A2 activity in patients with ulcerative colitis tends to increase in relation with endoscopic severity, and may be a more sensitive laboratory index than serum C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate to evaluate disease activity. Images Figure 3 PMID:1644331

  20. Fluorometric assay of oleate-activated phospholipase D isoenzyme in membranes of rat nervous tissue and human platelets.

    PubMed

    Krzystanek, Marek; Trzeciak, Henryk I; Krzystanek, Ewa; Małecki, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Phospholipase D plays a key role in the biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid, a second messenger involved in essential cellular processes. Oleate-activated phospholipase D was the first mammalian phospholipase D isoform to be discovered but is the least known. The study was aimed to test a fluorometric method of assessment of oleate-activated phospholipase D activity in different biological materials. The brain cortex of male Wistar rats, cultured rat brain astrocytes, and human platelets were processed to yield plasmatic membranes for experiments. To assess phospholipase D activity the modified fluorometric method was used. Previously, the method was used only to determine H₂O₂. In this enzyme-coupled assay phospholipase D activity is monitored indirectly using 10-acetyl-3,7-dihydroxyphenoxazine. First, phospholipase D cleaves exogenous phosphatidylcholine to yield choline and phosphatidic acid. Second, choline is oxidized by choline oxidase to betaine and H₂O₂. Finally, in the presence of horseradish peroxidase, H₂O₂ reacts with 10-acetyl-3,7-dihydroxyphenoxazine to generate the highly fluorescent product, resorufin. The concentration of resorufin was measured using excitation and emission at 560 nm and 590 nm, respectively. The proposed optimal parameters of the tested assay are 25 µg of rat brain cortex protein, 50 µg of rat brain astrocyte protein, and 50 µg of human platelet protein in a reaction volume of 200 µL, and 2 min enzymatic reaction at 37°C. The fluorometric method may be applied to assay phospholipase D in different biological materials. PMID:20835407

  1. Rapid isolation and partial characterization of two phospholipases from Kenyan Echis carinatus leakeyi (Leakey's saw-scaled viper) venom.

    PubMed

    Desmond, H P; Crampton, J M; Theakston, R D

    1991-01-01

    The purification and partial sequencing of two phospholipase A2 toxins from the venom of Kenyan E. carinatus leakeyi is described. The two proteins exhibit sequence homology with other toxic phospholipases. Both have a molecular weight in the region of 16,000 and are purified to homogeneity from crude venom by a single high performance liquid chromatography. The role of these proteins in the toxicity of the venom remains to be established. PMID:1862528

  2. Redox-active antioxidant modulation of lipid signaling in vascular endothelial cells: vitamin C induces activation of phospholipase D through phospholipase A2, lipoxygenase, and cyclooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Steinhour, Emily; Sherwani, Shariq I.; Mazerik, Jessica N.; Ciapala, Valorie; Butler, Elizabeth O’Connor; Cruff, Jason P.; Magalang, Ulysses; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Sen, Chandan K.; Marsh, Clay B.; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2015-01-01

    We have earlier reported that the redox-active antioxidant, vitamin C (ascorbic acid), activates the lipid signaling enzyme, phospholipase D (PLD), at pharmacological doses (mM) in the bovine lung microvascular endothelial cells (BLMVECs). However, the activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), another signaling phospholipase, and the modulation of PLD activation by PLA2 in the ECs treated with vitamin C at pharmacological doses have not been reported to date. Therefore, this study aimed at the regulation of PLD activation by PLA2 in the cultured BLMVECs exposed to vitamin C at pharmacological concentrations. The results revealed that vitamin C (3–10 mM) significantly activated PLA2 starting at 30 min; however, the activation of PLD resulted only at 120 min of treatment of cells under identical conditions. Further studies were conducted utilizing specific pharmacological agents to understand the mechanism(s) of activation of PLA2 and PLD in BLMVECs treated with vitamin C (5 mM) for 120 min. Antioxidants, calcium chelators, iron chelators, and PLA2 inhibitors offered attenuation of the vitamin C-induced activation of both PLA2 and PLD in the cells. Vitamin C was also observed to significantly induce the formation and release of the cyclooxygenase (COX)- and lipoxygenase (LOX)-catalyzed arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites and to activate the AA LOX in BLMVECs. The inhibitors of PLA2, COX, and LOX were observed to effectively and significantly attenuate the vitamin C-induced PLD activation in BLMVECs. For the first time, the results of the present study revealed that the vitamin C-induced activation of PLD in vascular ECs was regulated by the upstream activation of PLA2, COX, and LOX through the formation of AA metabolites involving oxidative stress, calcium, and iron. PMID:18496733

  3. Purification of an acidic phospholipase A2 from Bothrops lanceolatus (fer de lance) venom: molecular and enzymatic properties.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, A L; Radvanyi, F; Bon, C

    1994-09-01

    The acidic phospholipase A2 from Bothrops lanceolatus venom has been purified by gel filtration on Sephadex G-50 and ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose. Analysis by FPLC on Mono-Q column of the purified phospholipase A2 indicated that it is a mixture of several isoenzymes. The two major isoforms consist of a single polypeptide chain with mol. wts of 14,500 and 15,000, which slightly differ in their isoelectric point (4.9 and 5.3) and amino acid composition. However, enzymatic and pharmacological properties of the various isoenzymes are identical. The phospholipase from B. lanceolatus venom is characterized by a progressive increase in the rate of hydrolysis when enzymatic activity is determined with crude egg yolk as substrate in the absence of detergent. This phenomenon, which is not observed with mixed micelles of lecithin-detergent, is not due to the presence of a phospholipase A2 inhibitor in the venom, as previously suggested by several investigators in the case of other Bothrops and Cobra venoms. It is rather a catalytic characteristics of B. lanceolatus venom phospholipase, the enzymatic activity of which depends on the physical state of phospholipids. Bothrops lanceolatus acidic phospholipase A2 is non-toxic. PMID:7801343

  4. Serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor activation induces 2-arachidonoylglycerol release through a phospholipase c-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Jason C; Nichols, David E

    2006-11-01

    To date, several studies have demonstrated that phospholipase C-coupled receptors stimulate the production of endocannabinoids, particularly 2-arachidonoylglycerol. There is now evidence that endocannabinoids are involved in phospholipase C-coupled serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor-mediated behavioral effects in both rats and mice. The main objective of this study was to determine whether activation of the 5-HT(2A) receptor leads to the production and release of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol. NIH3T3 cells stably expressing the rat 5-HT(2A) receptor were first incubated with [(3)H]-arachidonic acid for 24 h. Following stimulation with 10 mum serotonin, lipids were extracted from the assay medium, separated by thin layer chromatography, and analyzed by liquid scintillation counting. Our results indicate that 5-HT(2A) receptor activation stimulates the formation and release of 2-arachidonoylglycerol. The 5-HT(2A) receptor-dependent release of 2-arachidonoylglycerol was partially dependent on phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C activation. Diacylglycerol produced downstream of 5-HT(2A) receptor-mediated phospholipase D or phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C activation did not appear to contribute to 2-arachidonoylglycerol formation in NIH3T3-5HT(2A) cells. In conclusion, our results support a functional model where neuromodulatory neurotransmitters such as serotonin may act as regulators of endocannabinoid tone at excitatory synapses through the activation of phospholipase C-coupled G-protein coupled receptors. PMID:17010161

  5. Role of membrane oxidation in controlling the activity of human group IIa secretory phospholipase A(2) toward apoptotic lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Elizabeth; Nelson, Jennifer; Anderson, Lynn; Brewer, Kelly; Melchor, Stephanie; Judd, Allan M; Bell, John D

    2013-02-01

    The membranes of healthy lymphocytes normally resist hydrolysis by secretory phospholipase A(2). However, they become susceptible during the process of apoptosis. Previous experiments have demonstrated the importance of certain physical changes to the membrane during cell death such as a reduction in membrane lipid order and exposure of phosphatidylserine on the membrane surface. Nevertheless, those investigations also showed that at least one additional factor was required for rapid hydrolysis by the human group IIa phospholipase isozyme. This study was designed to test the possibility that oxidation of membrane lipids is the additional factor. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy with a fluorescent probe of oxidative potential suggested that oxidation of the plasma membrane occurs during apoptosis stimulated by thapsigargin. When oxidative potential was high, the activity of human group IIa secretory phospholipase A(2) was enhanced 30- to 100-fold compared to that observed with conditions sufficient for maximal hydrolysis by other secretory phospholipase A(2) isoforms. Direct oxidation of cell membranes with either of two oxidizing agents also stimulated hydrolysis by secretory phospholipase A(2). Both oxidizers caused externalization of phosphatidylserine, but a change in lipid order did not always occur. These results demonstrated that membrane oxidation strongly stimulates human group IIa secretory phospholipase A(2) activity toward apoptotic cells. Interestingly, the change in membrane order, previously thought to be imperative for high rates of hydrolysis, was not required when membrane lipids were oxidized. Whether phosphatidylserine exposure is still necessary with oxidation remains unresolved since the two events could not be deconvoluted.

  6. Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 4 promotes lung cancer cells proliferation and invasion via PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guiping; Chen, Guoqiang; Mi, Yedong

    2015-01-01

    Background While phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 4 (PEBP4) is a key factor in the malignant proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells, the exact regulatory network governing its roles remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the effect of PEBP4 on PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and explore its molecular network that governs the proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells. Methods After the recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1-PEBP4 was constructed, the recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1-PEBP4 and PEBP4-targeting siRNA were transfected into lung cancer HCC827 cell line. The expressions of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway components in HCC827 cells in each group were determined using Western blotting. In the HCC827 cells, the effect of PI3K pathway inhibitor LY294002 on the expressions of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway components under the effect of PEBP4 was determined using Western blotting, and the effects of LY294002 on the cell viability, proliferation, and migration capabilities under the overexpression of PEBP4 were determined using MTT method, flow cytometry, and Transwell migration assay. Furthermore, the effect of mTOR inhibitor rapamycin (RAPA) on the expressions of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway components under the effect of PEBP4 was determined using Western blotting, and the effects of RAPA on the cell viability, proliferation, and migration capabilities under the overexpression of PEBP4 were determined using MTT method, flow cytometry, and Transwell migration assay. Results As shown by Western blotting, the protein expressions of p-Akt and phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR) were significantly higher in the pcDNA3.1-PEBP4-transfected group than in the normal control group and PEBP4 siRNA group (P<0.05); furthermore, the protein expressions of p-Akt and p-mTOR significantly decreased in the PEBP4 targeting siRNA-transfected group (P<0.05). Treatment with LY294002 significantly inhibited the protein expressions of p-Akt and p-mTOR in HCC827 cells (P<0.05). In contrast, treatment with

  7. Inhibitory effect of polyozellin on secretory group IIA phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Ku, Sae-Kwang; Yang, Eun-Ju; Kang, Hyejin; Jung, Byeongjin; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2016-02-01

    The expression of secretory group IIA phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA) is enhanced by development of inflammatory disorders. In this study, sPLA2-IIA expression was induced in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells and mice to evaluate the effect of polyozellin. Polyozellin, a major constituent of a Korea edible mushroom Polyozellus multiplex, has been known to exhibit the biological activities such as anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Polyozellin remarkably suppressed the LPS-mediated protein expression and activity of sPLA2-IIA via inhibition of phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. These results demonstrated that polyozellin might play an important role in the modulation of sPLA2-IIA expression and activity in response to the inflammatory diseases.

  8. Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored renal dipeptidase is released by a phospholipase C in vivo.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Wook; Choi, Kyong; Lee, Hwanghee Blaise; Park, Sung Kwang; Turner, Anthony J; Hooper, Nigel M; Park, Haeng Soon

    2002-01-01

    The release mechanism of the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored renal dipeptidase (EC 3.4.13.19) in vivo has been investigated. Triton X-114 phase separation indicated that the dipeptidase is exclusively present as a hydrophilic form in urine from porcine, rat, rabbit and human. Western blot analysis of human and porcine purified dipeptidase and the urine concentrates with anti-(cross-reacting determinant) serum demonstrated the presence of inositol 1,2-cyclic monophosphate indicating that the renal dipeptidase had been released from the membrane by the action of a phospholipase C. This is the first direct evidence for cleavage of a human GPI-anchored protein by a responsible phospholipase C in vivo.

  9. Phospholipase A and the interaction of Rickettsia prowazekii and mouse fibroblasts (L-929 cells)

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, H.H.; Miller, E.T.

    1982-10-01

    L-929 cells were killed when approximately 50 viable Rickettsia prowazekii organisms per L-cell were centrifuged onto a monolayer. The glycerophospholipids of the L-cell were hydrolyzed to lysophosphatides and free fatty acids. Concomitantly, there was a loss of membrane integrity as shown by release of lactate dehydrogenase and 86Rb and permeability to trypan blue dye. No glycerophospholipid hydrolysis or cytotoxicity occurred when the rickettsiae were inactivated by heat, UV irradiation, N-ethylmaleimide, or metabolic inhibitors before their addition to the L-929 cells. On the other hand, treatment of the L929 cells with the cytoskeleton agents colchicine or cytochalasin B or with N-ethylmaleimide inhibited neither the phospholipase A activity nor the loss of membrane integrity. Cytochalasin B-treated cells could be damaged by even small numbers of rickettsiae. We suggest that this phospholipase A activity is used by the rickettsiae to escape from the phagosomes into the cytoplasm of host cells.

  10. Measurement of the phospholipase activity of endothelial lipase in mouse plasma.

    PubMed

    Basu, Debapriya; Lei, Xia; Josekutty, Joby; Hussain, M Mahmood; Jin, Weijun

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL) is a major negative regulator of plasma HDL levels in mice, rabbits, and most probably, humans. Although this regulatory function is critically dependent on EL's hydrolysis of HDL phospholipids, as yet there is no phospholipase assay specific for EL in plasma. We developed such an assay for the mouse enzyme using a commercially available phospholipid-like fluorescent substrate in combination with an EL neutralizing antibody. The specificity of the assay was established using EL knockout mice and its utility demonstrated by detection of an increase in plasma EL phospholipase activity following exposure of wild-type mice to lipopolysaccharide. The assay revealed that murine pre-heparin plasma does not contain measurable EL activity, indicating that the hydrolysis of HDL phospholipids by EL in vivo likely occurs on the cell surface. PMID:23103358

  11. Analysis and pharmacological targeting of phospholipase C beta interactions with G proteins.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, David M; Yuan, Chujun; Smrcka, Alan V

    2007-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C enzymes (PLC) catalyze hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate generating the second messengers diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate. Mammalian phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C beta (PLCbeta) activity is regulated by the alpha(q) family of G-protein alpha subunits and by Gbetagamma subunits. Regulation of PLCbeta enzymatic activity can be assayed by reconstituting purified G-protein subunits with purified PLCbeta in the presence of phospholipid vesicles containing the substrate phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. This chapter describes methods for expression and purification of PLCbeta and Gbetagamma from insect cells, assay of G-protein-dependent regulation of PLC activity, and assessment of G-protein-PLC direct binding interactions. This combination of functional and direct binding analysis provides a powerful approach to characterizing PLC and G-protein interfaces, identifying inhibitors of this interaction, and potentially uncovering new modes of PLC regulation.

  12. Modification of erythrocyte membranes by a purified phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (Staphylococcus aureus).

    PubMed

    Low, M G; Finean, J B

    1977-02-15

    A phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from Staphylococcus aureus was purified by a three-step procedure. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was approx. 6000 times that of the culture supernatant, with an overall recovery of approx. 10%. Estimation of the molecular weight by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and by gel filtration gave values of 33000 and 20000 respectively. A thiol group appears to be necessary for the activity of the enzyme. The purified enzyme had no detectable delta-haemolytic activity and was unable to hydrolyse S. aureus phospholipids. Phosphatidyl-inositol in erythrocyte 'ghosts' was readily hydrolysed by the purified phospholipase C. However, in contrast with our previous preliminary observations, phosphatidylinositol in intact erythrocytes was not significantly hydrolysed. These results suggest that at least 75-80% of the phosphatidylinositol is located at the inner leaflet of the membrane.

  13. Spider, bacterial and fungal phospholipase D toxins make cyclic phosphate products.

    PubMed

    Lajoie, Daniel M; Cordes, Matthew H J

    2015-12-15

    Phospholipase D (PLD) toxins from sicariid spiders, which cause disease in mammals, were recently found to convert their primary substrates, sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine, to cyclic phospholipids. Here we show that two PLD toxins from pathogenic actinobacteria and ascomycete fungi, which share distant homology with the spider toxins, also generate cyclic phospholipids. This shared function supports divergent evolution of the PLD toxins from a common ancestor and suggests the importance of cyclic phospholipids in pathogenicity.

  14. Design and synthesis of phospholipase C and A2-activatable near-infrared fluorescent smart probes.

    PubMed

    Popov, Anatoliy V; Mawn, Theresa M; Kim, Soungkyoo; Zheng, Gang; Delikatny, E James

    2010-10-20

    The primary focus of this work was to develop activatable probes suitable for in vivo detection of phospholipase activity. Phospholipases (PLs) are ubiquitous enzymes that perform a number of critical regulatory functions. They catalyze phospholipid breakdown and are categorized as A(1), A(2) (PLA(2)), C (PLC), and D (PLD) based on their site of action. Here, we report the design, synthesis, and characterization of self-quenching reporter probes that release fluorescent moieties upon cleavage with PLA(2) or PLC. A series of phospholipids were synthesized bearing the NIR fluorophore pyropheophorbide a (Pyro) at the sn-2 position. Fluorescence quenching was achieved by attachment of either a positively charged black hole quencher-3 (BHQ-3) to the phospholipid headgroup or another neutral Pyro moiety at the sn-1 position. The specificity to different phospholipases was modulated by insertion of spacers (C(6), C(12)) between Pyro and the lipid backbone. The specificity of the quenched fluorescent phospholipids was assayed on a plate reader against a number of phospholipases and compared with two commercial probes bearing the visible fluorophore BODIPY. While PyroC(6)-PyroC(6)-PtdCho revealed significant background fluorescence, and a 10% fluorescence increase under the action of PLA(2), Pyro-PtdEtn-BHQ demonstrated high selective sensitivity to PLC, particularly to the PC-PLC isoform, and its sensitivity to PLA(2) was negligible due to steric hindrance at the sn-2 position. In contrast, the C(12)-spacered PyroC(12)-PtdEtn-BHQ demonstrated a remarkable selectivity for PLA(2) and the best relative PLA(2)/PLC sensitivity, significantly outperforming previously known probes. These results open an avenue for future in vivo experiments and for new probes to detect PL activity. PMID:20882956

  15. Total syntheses of (+)- and (-)-cacospongionolide B: new insight into structural requirements for phospholipase A(2) inhibition.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Atwood K; Snapper, Marc L

    2002-10-01

    The first total synthesis of the antiinflammatory marine sponge metabolite (+)-cacospongionolide B has been accomplished in 12 linear steps. The pivotal transformations include a three-step sequence coupling the two main regions of the natural product as well as generating the side chain dihydropyran ring. The activity of the synthetic analogues against bee venom phospholipase A(2) suggests that cacospongionolide B has an enantiospecific interaction with the enzyme that is independent of the gamma-hydroxybutenolide moiety.

  16. Aging modulates calcium-dependent phosphatidylinositol degradation by cerebral cortex synaptic plasma membrane phospholipases.

    PubMed

    Strosznajder, J; Samochocki, M; Wikieł, H; Małecki, A

    1994-01-01

    The synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) and cytosol fractions from cerebral cortex of adult (4-mo-old) and aged (27-mo-old) rats were used as a source of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and phospholipase C (PLC). The activity of PLC acting on [3H-inositol]phosphatidylinositol ([3H]PtdIns) was investigated in the presence of endogenous and 2 mM Ca2+. Arachidonic acid (AA) release was studied in the same conditions, using 1-stearoyl-[2-14C]arachidonyl-sn-glycerophosphoinositol ([14C]PtdIns) as a substrate. In the presence of endogenous Ca2+ (i.e., no added Ca2+) SPM-bound PLC and PLA2 or diacylglycerol (DAG) lipase of aged brain exert significantly higher activity in degradation of PtdIns as compared to their activities in adult brain. Moreover, these enzymes of aged brain are less or not further activated by 2 mM Ca2+, contrary to the enzymes isolated from adult brain. The activity of cytosolic enzymes involved in degradation [3H]PtdIns and [14C]PtdIns and their regulation by Ca2+ ions are not significantly changed in senescent cerebral cortex as compared to the adult. The intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), measured with fura-2, is lower in aged brain compared to adult brain, which may suggest the modification in Ca2+ ion redistribution in aged brain and probably its higher concentration in membranes. These results indicate that aging modifies significantly the activity of membrane-bound, Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipase(s) degrading PtdIns, which may be connected with alteration of Ca2+ ion redistribution and may influence the formation and accumulation of very potent lipid messengers as diacylglycerol, lysophospholipid, and arachidonic acid, known to be involved in neurotransmission processes. PMID:8179775

  17. M-type Phospholipase A2 Receptor Autoantibodies and Renal Function in Patients with Primary Membranous Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Hoxha, Elion; Harendza, Sigrid; Pinnschmidt, Hans; Panzer, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Loss of renal function in patients with primary membranous nephropathy cannot be reliably predicted by laboratory or clinical markers at the time of diagnosis. M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies have been shown to be associated with changes in proteinuria. Their eventual effect on renal function, however, is unclear. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this prospective, open, multicenter study, the potential role of M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies levels on the increase of serum creatinine in 118 consecutive patients with membranous nephropathy and positivity for serum M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies was analyzed. Patients were included in the study between April of 2010 and December of 2012 and observed until December of 2013. The clinical end point was defined as an increase of serum creatinine by ≥25% and serum creatinine reaching ≥1.3 mg/dl. Results Patients were divided into tertiles according to their M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibody levels at the time of inclusion in the study: tertile 1 levels=20–86 units/ml (low), tertile 2 levels=87–201 units/ml (medium), and tertile 3 levels ≥202 units/ml (high). The median follow-up time of all patients in the study was 27 months (interquartile range=18–33 months). The clinical end point was reached in 69% of patients with high M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies levels (tertile 3) but only 25% of patients with low M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies levels. The average time to reach the study end point was 17.7 months in patients with high M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies levels and 30.9 months in patients with low M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies levels. A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that high M-type phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies levels—in addition to men and older age—are an independent predictor for progressive loss of renal

  18. Possible regulation of cation-induced pinocytosis in Amoeba proteus by phospholipase A.

    PubMed

    Josefsson, J O; Arvidson, G; Cobbold, P

    1988-04-01

    We have studied the effects of exogenous phospholipids and compounds which are known to alter the activity of phospholipase A (PLA) on Ca2+-dependent, Na+-induced pinocytosis in Amoeba proteus. The PLA-inhibitors mepacrine, p-bromophenacyl bromide (pBPB) and Rosenthal's inhibitor depressed pinocytosis. Normal pinocytotic intensity was restored by the addition of Ca2+ or picomolar concentrations of lysolecithin. Very low concentrations of lysophospholipids and different molecular species of lecithins increased the capacity for pinocytosis in starved amoebae. The effect of the lecithins but not of the corresponding lysolecithins was abolished by PLA-inhibitors. Also, the restoration of the pinocytotic capacity of starved amoebae by melittin and mastoparan, which are known to stimulate PLA, was inhibited by mepacrine and pBPB. Isolated amoeba plasma membranes contain phospholipase A1 and A2 activity and the amoebae secrete a lipid (PRF, pinocytosis regulating factor) which has lysolecithin-like effects on pinocytosis. The enzyme activities and the release of PRF were markedly decreased by the PLA-inhibitors. Our observations support the hypothesis that PRF is a lysophospholipid that may constitute a signal for the formation of pinocytotic channels in the initial stages of pinocytosis. The phospholipase A activity of the amoeba must therefore be assigned an important role in the regulation of the Ca2+-dependent, cation-induced pinocytosis.

  19. Arabidopsis non-specific phospholipase C1: characterization and its involvement in response to heat stress

    PubMed Central

    Krčková, Zuzana; Brouzdová, Jitka; Daněk, Michal; Kocourková, Daniela; Rainteau, Dominique; Ruelland, Eric; Valentová, Olga; Pejchar, Přemysl; Martinec, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis non-specific phospholipase C1 (NPC) protein family is encoded by the genes NPC1 – NPC6. It has been shown that NPC4 and NPC5 possess phospholipase C activity; NPC3 has lysophosphatidic acid phosphatase activity. NPC3, 4 and 5 play roles in the responses to hormones and abiotic stresses. NPC1, 2 and 6 has not been studied functionally yet. We found that Arabidopsis NPC1 expressed in Escherichia coli possesses phospholipase C activity in vitro. This protein was able to hydrolyse phosphatidylcholine to diacylglycerol. NPC1-green fluorescent protein was localized to secretory pathway compartments in Arabidopsis roots. In the knock out T-DNA insertion line NPC1 (npc1) basal thermotolerance was impaired compared with wild-type (WT); npc1 exhibited significant decreases in survival rate and chlorophyll content at the seventh day after heat stress (HS). Conversely, plants overexpressing NPC1 (NPC1-OE) were more resistant to HS compared with WT. These findings suggest that NPC1 is involved in the plant response to heat. PMID:26581502

  20. Isolation and preliminary crystallographic studies of two new phospholipases A2 from Vipera nikolskii venom

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Starkov, Vladislav G.; Tsetlin, Victor I.; Utkin, Yuri N.; Lin, Zheng-jiong; Bi, Ru-chang

    2005-01-01

    Snake-venom phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) represent a good model for studies of structure–function relationships, mainly because of their small size and diverse pharmacological and toxicological activities. To obtain new members of the abundant PLA2 family, the venom of the viper Vipera nikolskii was fractionated for the first time and two new proteins, VN5-3 and VN4-3, were isolated. Both proteins show phospholipase A2 activity and may possess neurotoxic activity. Based on the determined partial amino-acid sequences, the new proteins can be classified as basic Asp49 phospholipases A2. They were crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and crystals of both proteins belong to space group R32, with similar unit-cell parameters: a = b = 76.29, c = 303.35 Å for protein VN5-3 and a = b = 76.28, c = 304.39 Å for protein VN4-3. Diffraction data sets to 3.0 and 2.2 Å resolution were collected and processed for the VN5-3 and VN4-3 crystals, respectively. Preliminary analysis indicates that there are two molecules in the asymmetric unit for both crystals. Further crystallographic studies will help in understanding the structural basis for the multiple functions of snake-venom PLA2s. PMID:16510990

  1. Arabidopsis non-specific phospholipase C1: characterization and its involvement in response to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Krčková, Zuzana; Brouzdová, Jitka; Daněk, Michal; Kocourková, Daniela; Rainteau, Dominique; Ruelland, Eric; Valentová, Olga; Pejchar, Přemysl; Martinec, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis non-specific phospholipase C (NPC) protein family is encoded by the genes NPC1 - NPC6. It has been shown that NPC4 and NPC5 possess phospholipase C activity; NPC3 has lysophosphatidic acid phosphatase activity. NPC3, 4 and 5 play roles in the responses to hormones and abiotic stresses. NPC1, 2 and 6 has not been studied functionally yet. We found that Arabidopsis NPC1 expressed in Escherichia coli possesses phospholipase C activity in vitro. This protein was able to hydrolyse phosphatidylcholine to diacylglycerol. NPC1-green fluorescent protein was localized to secretory pathway compartments in Arabidopsis roots. In the knock out T-DNA insertion line NPC1 (npc1) basal thermotolerance was impaired compared with wild-type (WT); npc1 exhibited significant decreases in survival rate and chlorophyll content at the seventh day after heat stress (HS). Conversely, plants overexpressing NPC1 (NPC1-OE) were more resistant to HS compared with WT. These findings suggest that NPC1 is involved in the plant response to heat. PMID:26581502

  2. Mutations in phospholipase DDHD2 cause autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG54).

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Michael; Nampoothiri, Sheela; Kornblum, Cornelia; Oteyza, Andrés Caballero; Walter, Jochen; Konidari, Ioanna; Hulme, William; Speziani, Fiorella; Schöls, Ludger; Züchner, Stephan; Schüle, Rebecca

    2013-11-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) are a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by a distal axonopathy of the corticospinal tract motor neurons leading to progressive lower limb spasticity and weakness. Intracellular membrane trafficking, mitochondrial dysfunction and myelin formation are key functions involved in HSP pathogenesis. Only recently defects in metabolism of complex lipids have been implicated in a number of HSP subtypes. Mutations in the 23 known autosomal recessive HSP genes explain less than half of autosomal recessive HSP cases. To identify novel autosomal recessive HSP disease genes, exome sequencing was performed in 79 index cases with autosomal recessive forms of HSP. Resulting variants were filtered and intersected between families to allow identification of new disease genes. We identified two deleterious mutations in the phospholipase DDHD2 gene in two families with complicated HSP. The phenotype is characterized by early onset of spastic paraplegia, mental retardation, short stature and dysgenesis of the corpus callosum. Phospholipase DDHD2 is involved in intracellular membrane trafficking at the golgi/ endoplasmic reticulum interface and has been shown to possess phospholipase A1 activity in vitro. Discovery of DDHD2 mutations in HSP might therefore provide a link between two key pathogenic themes in HSP: membrane trafficking and lipid metabolism.

  3. In Vitro Antiplasmodial Activity of Phospholipases A2 and a Phospholipase Homologue Isolated from the Venom of the Snake Bothrops asper

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Juan Carlos Quintana; Vargas, Leidy Johana; Segura, Cesar; Gutiérrez, José María; Pérez, Juan Carlos Alarcón

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobial and antiparasite activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from snakes and bees has been extensively explored. We studied the antiplasmodial effect of the whole venom of the snake Bothrops asper and of two fractions purified by ion-exchange chromatography: one containing catalytically-active phospholipases A2 (PLA2) (fraction V) and another containing a PLA2 homologue devoid of enzymatic activity (fraction VI). The antiplasmodial effect was assessed on in vitro cultures of Plasmodium falciparum. The whole venom of B. asper, as well as its fractions V and VI, were active against the parasite at 0.13 ± 0.01 µg/mL, 1.42 ± 0.56 µg/mL and 22.89 ± 1.22 µg/mL, respectively. Differences in the cytotoxic activity on peripheral blood mononuclear cells between the whole venom and fractions V and VI were observed, fraction V showing higher toxicity than total venom and fraction VI. Regarding toxicity in mice, the whole venom showed the highest lethal effect in comparison to fractions V and VI. These results suggest that B. asper PLA2 and its homologue have antiplasmodial potential. PMID:23242318

  4. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of phospholipases A2 and a phospholipase homologue isolated from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Juan Carlos Quintana; Vargas, Leidy Johana; Segura, Cesar; Gutiérrez, José María; Pérez, Juan Carlos Alarcón

    2012-12-01

    The antimicrobial and antiparasite activity of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) from snakes and bees has been extensively explored. We studied the antiplasmodial effect of the whole venom of the snake Bothrops asper and of two fractions purified by ion-exchange chromatography: one containing catalytically-active phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)) (fraction V) and another containing a PLA(2) homologue devoid of enzymatic activity (fraction VI). The antiplasmodial effect was assessed on in vitro cultures of Plasmodium falciparum. The whole venom of B. asper, as well as its fractions V and VI, were active against the parasite at 0.13 ± 0.01 µg/mL, 1.42 ± 0.56 µg/mL and 22.89 ± 1.22 µg/mL, respectively. Differences in the cytotoxic activity on peripheral blood mononuclear cells between the whole venom and fractions V and VI were observed, fraction V showing higher toxicity than total venom and fraction VI. Regarding toxicity in mice, the whole venom showed the highest lethal effect in comparison to fractions V and VI. These results suggest that B. asper PLA(2) and its homologue have antiplasmodial potential. PMID:23242318

  5. Angiotensin II induces phosphatidic acid formation in neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts: evaluation of the roles of phospholipases C and D.

    PubMed

    Booz, G W; Taher, M M; Baker, K M; Singer, H A

    1994-12-21

    Phosphatidic acid has been proposed to contribute to the mitogenic actions of various growth factors. In 32P-labeled neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts, 100 nM [Sar1]angiotensin II was shown to rapidly induce formation of 32P-phosphatidic acid. Levels peaked at 5 min (1.5-fold above control), but were partially sustained over 2 h. Phospholipase D contributed in part to phosphatidic acid formation, as 32P- or 3H-phosphatidylethanol was produced when cells labeled with [32P]H3PO4 or 1-O-[1,2- 3H]hexadecyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine were stimulated in the presence of 1% ethanol. [Sar1]angiotensin II-induced phospholipase D activity was transient and mainly mediated through protein kinase C (PKC), since PKC downregulation reduced phosphatidylethanol formation by 68%. Residual activity may have been due to increased intracellular Ca2+, as ionomycin also activated phospholipase D in PKC-depleted cells. Phospholipase D did not fully account for [Sar1]angiotensin II-induced phosphatidic acid: 1) compared to PMA, a potent activator of phospholipase D, [Sar1]angiotensin II produced more phosphatidic acid relative to phosphatidylethanol, and 2) PKC downregulation did not affect [Sar1]angiotensin II-induced phosphatidic acid formation. The diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R59949 depressed [Sar1]angiotensin II-induced phosphatidic acid formation by only 21%, indicating that activation of a phospholipase C and diacylglycerol kinase also can not account for the bulk of phosphatidic acid. Thus, additional pathways not involving phospholipases C and D, such as de novo synthesis, may contribute to [Sar1]angiotensin II-induced phosphatidic acid in these cells. Finally, as previously shown for [Sar1]angiotensin II, phosphatidic acid stimulated mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Alpha 1-adrenergic receptor-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis and prostaglandin E2 formation in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Possible parallel activation of phospholipase C and phospholipase A2

    SciTech Connect

    Slivka, S.R.; Insel, P.A.

    1987-03-25

    alpha 1-Adrenergic receptors mediate two effects on phospholipid metabolism in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK-D1) cells: hydrolysis of phosphoinositides and arachidonic acid release with generation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The similarity in concentration dependence for the agonist (-)-epinephrine in eliciting these two responses implies that they are mediated by a single population of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors. However, we find that the kinetics of the two responses are quite different, PGE2 production occurring more rapidly and transiently than the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides. The antibiotic neomycin selectively decreases alpha 1-receptor-mediated phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis without decreasing alpha 1-receptor-mediated arachidonic acid release and PGE2 generation. In addition, receptor-mediated inositol trisphosphate formation is independent of extracellular calcium, whereas release of labeled arachidonic acid is largely calcium-dependent. Moreover, based on studies obtained with labeled arachidonic acid, receptor-mediated generation of arachidonic acid cannot be accounted for by breakdown of phosphatidylinositol monophosphate, phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate, or phosphatidic acid. Further studies indicate that epinephrine produces changes in formation or turnover of several classes of membrane phospholipids in MDCK cells. We conclude that alpha 1-adrenergic receptors in MDCK cells appear to regulate phospholipid metabolism by the parallel activation of phospholipase C and phospholipase A2. This parallel activation of phospholipases contrasts with models described in other systems which imply sequential activation of phospholipase C and diacylglycerol lipase or phospholipase A2.

  7. Stimulation of phospholipase A2 activity in bovine rod outer segments by the beta gamma subunits of transducin and its inhibition by the alpha subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Jelsema, C L; Axelrod, J

    1987-01-01

    In the rod outer segments (ROS) of bovine retina, light activation of phospholipase A2 has been shown to occur by a transducin-dependent mechanism. In this report, the transducin-mediated stimulation of phospholipase A2 is shown to require dissociation of the alpha beta gamma heterotrimer. Addition of transducin to dark-adapted transducin-poor ROS stimulated phospholipase A2 activity only with coincident exposure to white light or, in the dark, with addition of the hydrolysis-resistant GTP analog, guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[gamma-S]). Both light and GTP[gamma-S] induced dissociation of the transducin subunits and led to severalfold increases in the phospholipase A2 activity of transducin-rich, but not transducin-poor, ROS. In contrast, pertussis toxin treatment of transducin, which stabilizes the associated state of this G protein, prevented the stimulation of phospholipase A2 by exogenous transducin in the presence of light. Addition of purified transducin subunits to dark-adapted transducin-poor ROS revealed that phospholipase A2 stimulation occurred by action of the beta gamma subunits. This is in contrast to the transducin-mediated increase in cGMP phosphodiesterase activity, where activation occurs by action of the alpha subunit. The alpha subunit, which itself slightly stimulated phospholipase A2 activity, inhibited the beta gamma-induced stimulation of phospholipase A2. This inhibition appears to be the result of subunit reassociation since addition of GTP[gamma-S] abolished the inhibitory effect of the alpha subunit on the beta gamma-induced increase in phospholipase A2, while pertussis toxin treatment of the subunits further inhibited phospholipase A2 activity. Modulation of phospholipase A2 activity by the transducin subunit is, therefore, a mode of action for these subunits in signal transduction. PMID:3108876

  8. Candida albicans isolates from a Malaysian hospital exhibit more potent phospholipase and haemolysin activities than non-albicans Candida isolates.

    PubMed

    Chin, V K; Foong, K J; Maha, A; Rusliza, B; Norhafizah, M; Ng, K P; Chong, P P

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed at determining the phospholipase and haemolysin activity of Candida isolates in Malaysia. A total of 37 Candida clinical isolates representing seven species, Candida albicans (12), Candida tropicalis (8), Candida glabrata (4), Candida parapsilosis (1), Candida krusei (4), Candida orthopsilosis (1) and Candida rugosa (7) were tested. In vitro phospholipase activity was determined by using egg yolk plate assay whereas in vitro haemolysin activity was tested by using blood plate assay on sheep blood Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) enriched with glucose. Phospholipase activity was detected in 75% (9 out of 12) of the C. albicans isolates. Among the 25 non- C. albicans Candida isolates, phospholipase activity was detected in only 24% of these isolates. The phospholipase activity of C. albicans was significantly higher than that of the non- C. albicans Candida isolates (P=0.002). Haemolysin activity was detected in 100% of the C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis isolates while 75% of the C. krusei isolates and 12.3% of the C. rugosa isolates showed haemolysin activity. The haemolytic activity of C. albicans was significantly higher than that of the non- C. albicans Candida isolates (P=0.0001).The findings in this study indicate that C. albicans isolates in Malaysia may possess greater virulence potential than the non-albicans species.

  9. Description of Loxtox protein family and identification of a new group of Phospholipases D from Loxosceles similis venom gland.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Arthur Estanislau; Carmo, A O; Horta, Carolina Campolina Rebello; Leal, Hortênsia Gomes; Oliveira-Mendes, Bárbara Bruna Ribeiro; Martins, Ana Paula Vimieiro; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes

    2016-09-15

    Envenoming resulting from Loxosceles spider bites (loxoscelism) is a recognized public health problem in Brazil. However, the pathophysiology of loxoscelism caused by L. similis bites, which is widespread in Brazil, remains poorly understood. In the present work, the RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq - Next Generation sequencing - NGS) of the L. similis venom gland was performed to identify and analyze the sequences of the key component phospholipase D. The sequences were aligned based on their classical domains, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. In the bioinformatics analysis, 23 complete sequences of phospholipase D proteins were found and classified as Loxtox proteins, as they contained the characteristic domains of phospholipase D: the active site, the Mg(2+)-binding domain, and the catalytic loop. Three phospholipase D sequences with non-canonical domains were also found in this work. They were analyzed separately and named PLDs from L. similis (PLD-Ls). This study is the first to characterize phospholipase D sequences from Loxosceles spiders by RNA-Seq. These results contribute new knowledge about the composition of L. similis venom, revealing novel tools that could be used for pharmacological, immunological, and biotechnological applications. PMID:27496061

  10. Description of Loxtox protein family and identification of a new group of Phospholipases D from Loxosceles similis venom gland.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Arthur Estanislau; Carmo, A O; Horta, Carolina Campolina Rebello; Leal, Hortênsia Gomes; Oliveira-Mendes, Bárbara Bruna Ribeiro; Martins, Ana Paula Vimieiro; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes

    2016-09-15

    Envenoming resulting from Loxosceles spider bites (loxoscelism) is a recognized public health problem in Brazil. However, the pathophysiology of loxoscelism caused by L. similis bites, which is widespread in Brazil, remains poorly understood. In the present work, the RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq - Next Generation sequencing - NGS) of the L. similis venom gland was performed to identify and analyze the sequences of the key component phospholipase D. The sequences were aligned based on their classical domains, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. In the bioinformatics analysis, 23 complete sequences of phospholipase D proteins were found and classified as Loxtox proteins, as they contained the characteristic domains of phospholipase D: the active site, the Mg(2+)-binding domain, and the catalytic loop. Three phospholipase D sequences with non-canonical domains were also found in this work. They were analyzed separately and named PLDs from L. similis (PLD-Ls). This study is the first to characterize phospholipase D sequences from Loxosceles spiders by RNA-Seq. These results contribute new knowledge about the composition of L. similis venom, revealing novel tools that could be used for pharmacological, immunological, and biotechnological applications.

  11. Cloning, Sequencing, and Role in Virulence of Two Phospholipases (A1 and C) from Mesophilic Aeromonas sp. Serogroup O:34

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Susana; Aguilar, Alicia; Nogueras, Maria Mercedes; Regue, Miguel; Swift, Simon; Tomás, Juan M.

    1999-01-01

    Two different representative recombinant clones encoding Aeromonas hydrophila lipases were found upon screening on tributyrin (phospholipase A1) and egg yolk agar (lecithinase-phospholipase C) plates of a cosmid-based genomic library of Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3 (serogroup O34) introduced into Escherichia coli DH5α. Subcloning, nucleotide sequencing, and in vitro-coupled transcription-translation experiments showed that the phospholipase A1 (pla) and C (plc) genes code for an 83-kDa putative lipoprotein and a 65-kDa protein, respectively. Defined insertion mutants of A. hydrophila AH-3 defective in either pla or plc genes were defective in phospholipase A1 and C activities, respectively. Lecithinase (phospholipase C) was shown to be cytotoxic but nonhemolytic or poorly hemolytic. A. hydrophila AH-3 plc mutants showed a more than 10-fold increase in their 50% lethal dose on fish and mice, and complementation of the plc single gene on these mutants abolished this effect, suggesting that Plc protein is a virulence factor in the mesophilic Aeromonas sp. serogroup O:34 infection process. PMID:10417167

  12. Inhibition of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors, a Novel Facet in the Pleiotropic Activities of Snake Venom Phospholipases A2

    PubMed Central

    Vulfius, Catherine A.; Kasheverov, Igor E.; Starkov, Vladislav G.; Osipov, Alexey V.; Andreeva, Tatyana V.; Filkin, Sergey Yu.; Gorbacheva, Elena V.; Astashev, Maxim E.; Tsetlin, Victor I.; Utkin, Yuri N.

    2014-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 represent the most abundant family of snake venom proteins. They manifest an array of biological activities, which is constantly expanding. We have recently shown that a protein bitanarin, isolated from the venom of the puff adder Bitis arietans and possessing high phospholipolytic activity, interacts with different types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and with the acetylcholine-binding protein. To check if this property is characteristic to all venom phospholipases A2, we have studied the capability of these enzymes from other snakes to block the responses of Lymnaea stagnalis neurons to acetylcholine or cytisine and to inhibit α-bungarotoxin binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and acetylcholine-binding proteins. Here we present the evidence that phospholipases A2 from venoms of vipers Vipera ursinii and V. nikolskii, cobra Naja kaouthia, and krait Bungarus fasciatus from different snake families suppress the acetylcholine- or cytisine-elicited currents in L. stagnalis neurons and compete with α-bungarotoxin for binding to muscle- and neuronal α7-types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, as well as to acetylcholine-binding proteins. As the phospholipase A2 content in venoms is quite high, under some conditions the activity found may contribute to the deleterious venom effects. The results obtained suggest that the ability to interact with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors may be a general property of snake venom phospholipases A2, which add a new target to the numerous activities of these enzymes. PMID:25522251

  13. Identification and properties of very high affinity brain membrane-binding sites for a neurotoxic phospholipase from the taipan venom

    SciTech Connect

    Lambeau, G.; Barhanin, J.; Schweitz, H.; Qar, J.; Lazdunski, M. )

    1989-07-05

    Four new monochain phospholipases were purified from the Oxyuranus scutellatus (taipan) venom. Three of them were highly toxic when injected into mice brain. One of these neurotoxic phospholipases, OS2, was iodinated and used in binding experiments to demonstrate the presence of two families of specific binding sites in rat brain synaptic membranes. The affinities were exceptionally high, Kd1 = 1.5 +/- 0.5 pM and Kd2 = 45 +/- 10 pM, and the maximal binding capacities were Bmax 1 = 1 +/- 0.4 and Bmax 2 = 3 +/- 0.5 pmol/mg of protein. Both binding sites were sensitive to proteolysis and demonstrated to be located on proteins of Mr 85,000-88,000 and 36,000-51,000 by cross-linking and photoaffinity labeling techniques. The binding of {sup 125}I-OS2 to synaptic membranes was dependent on Ca2+ ions and enhanced by Zn2+ ions which inhibit phospholipase activity. Competition experiments have shown that, except for beta-bungarotoxin, a number of known toxic snake or bee phospholipases have very high affinities for the newly identified binding sites. A good correlation (r = 0.80) was observed between toxicity and affinity but not between phospholipase activity and affinity.

  14. Involvement of Protein cAMP-dependent Kinase, Phospholipase A2 and Phospholipase C in Sperm Acrosome Reaction of Chinchilla lanigera.

    PubMed

    Gramajo-Bühler, M C; Zelarayán, L; Sánchez-Toranzo, G

    2016-02-01

    The mechanisms involved in fertilization are the centre of attention in order to determine the conditions required to reproduce in vitro the events that take place in vivo, with special interest in endangered species. Previous data from mouse sperm, where acrosome reaction (AR) occurs more often in the interstitium of the cumulus oophorus, contribute to strengthen the use of progesterone as a physiological inducer of this process. We studied the participation of protein kinase A (PKA), phospholipases A2 and C (PLA2 , PLC) in the AR induced by progesterone from Chinchilla epididymal spermatozoa. The addition of db-cAMP to the incubation medium caused an increase of 58% in the AR, while the use of H89 (30 μm), a PKA inhibitor, reflected a decrease of 40% in the percentage of reacted gametes. The assays conducted with arachidonic acid showed a maximum increase of 23% in the AR. When gametes were pre-incubated with PLA2 inhibitors, a dose-dependent inhibitory effect was observed. The addition of phorbol12-myristate13-acetate (10 μm) revealed higher percentages of AR induction (60%). When PLC was inhibited with neomycin and U73122, a dose-dependent decrease in AR percentages was observed. Combined inhibition of PKA, PLA2 and PLC, AR values similar to control were obtained. This work shows evidence, for the first time in Chinchilla, that progesterone activates the AC/cAMP/PKA system as well as sperm phospholipases and that these signalling pathways participate jointly and cooperatively in AR. These results contribute to the understanding of the complex regulation that is triggered in sperm after the effect of progesterone. PMID:26699205

  15. Differential activation of human neutrophil cytosolic phospholipase A2 and secretory phospholipase A2 during priming by 1,2-diacyl- and 1-O-alkyl-2-acylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Seeds, M C; Nixon, A B; Wykle, R L; Bass, D A

    1998-11-01

    We have shown previously that both 1,2-diacylglycerol (AAG) and 1-O-alkyl-2-acylglycerol (EAG) prime neutrophil release of arachidonic acid via uncharacterized phospholipases A2. Therefore, we investigated the actions of EAG and AAG specifically on neutrophil cytosolic (cPLA2) and secretory (sPLA2) phospholipase A2s. We hypothesized that AAG as a protein kinase activator would activate cPLA2 via phosphorylation events. EAG is antagonistic to the AAG activation of PKC, thus it was not expected to act via phosphorylation of cPLA2. Neutrophils were primed with either AAG or EAG and then stimulated with fMLP. When neutrophils were primed with 5-20 microM 1,2-diacylglycerol, a shift was observed in cPLA2 migration on SDS-PAGE gels, consistent with phosphorylation of the protein. This gel shift was not seen after exposure to EAG. AAG also caused a parallel increase in enzymatic activity of cPLA2 that was not seen with EAG. We also investigated whether either diglyceride would cause similar priming or direct secretion of sPLA2. Both AAG and EAG directly caused significant secretion of neutrophil sPLA2. EAG also increased the release of sPLA2 in cells subsequently stimulated with fMLP. Thus, AAG activated cPLA2 and stimulated secretion of sPLA2. In contrast, EAG did not activate cPLA2, but directly activated secretion of sPLA2. We also demonstrated that human synovial fluid sPLA2 increased AA release from resting and fMLP-stimulated neutrophils. Given that diglycerides prime for release of AA, PAF, and LTB4, these current data support the hypothesis that such priming may be mediated by phosphorylation dependent (cPLA2) or phosphorylation independent (e.g. secretion of sPLA2) events.

  16. Changes in lipid metabolism and cell morphology following attack by phospholipase C (Clostridium perfringens) on red cells or lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Allan, D; Low, M G; Finean, J B; Michell, R H

    1975-12-01

    When intact human erythrocytes were treated with phospholipase C (Clostridium perfringens), up to 30% of the membrane phospholipids were broken down without significant cell lysis. Only phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin were attacked. Ceramide (derived from sphingomyelin) accumulated, but 1,2-diacylglycerol (derived from phosphatidylcholine) was largely converted into phosphatidate. Up to 12% of the cell phospholipid could be converted into phosphatidate in this way. Pig erythrocytes and lymphocytes showed a similar but smaller synthesis of phosphatidate after phospholipase C attack. Phospholipase C also caused a marked morphological change in erythrocytes, giving rise to spherical cells containing internal membrane vesicles. This change appeared to be due to ceramide and de and diacylglycerol accumulation rather than to increased phosphatidate content of the cells.

  17. Angiotensin II stimulates phospholipases C and A/sub 2/ in cultured rat mesangial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schlondorff, D.; DeCandido, S.; Satriano, J.A.

    1987-07-01

    Angiotensin II stimulates prostaglandin (PG) E/sub 2/ formation in mesangial cells cultured from rat renal glomeruli. The interactions between angiotensin II and PGE/sub 2/ are important in modulating glomerular function. The authors examined the mechanism for stimulation of PGE/sub 2/ production in mesangial cells using the putative diacylglycerol-lipase inhibitor RHC 80267 and trifluoperazine (TFP), an agent interfering with Ca/sup 2 +/-CaM-mediated processes. Although RHC 80267 inhibited diacylglycerol-lipase activity in mesangial cells, it did not influence PGE/sub 2/ production in response to either angiotensin II or A23187. TFP also decreased /sup 14/C release in response to either angiotensin II of A23187. In contrast, TFP (50 ..mu..M) inhibited basal PGE/sub 2/ production and stimulation by angiotensin II and A23187. TFP also decreased /sup 14/C release in response to angiotensin from cells prelabeled with (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid, which was associated with inhibition of /sup 14/C loss from phosphatidylinositol. In cells prelabeled with /sup 32/P, orthophosphate angiotensin II caused a rapid hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. TFP enhanced formation of (/sup 3/H)inositol trisphosphate both under basal- and angiotensin II-stimulated conditions. Thus TFP did not inhibit phospholipase C activation by angiotensin. Angiotensin II caused marked increases in (/sup 32/P)lysophospholipids, indicating activation of also phospholipase A/sub 2/. Taken together, these results are consistent with stimulation of both phospholipase C and A/sub 2/ by angiotensin, the latter step responsible for the release of arachidonic acid and PGE/sub 2/ formation.

  18. Phospholipase D1 increases Bcl-2 expression during neuronal differentiation of rat neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Shin-Young; Ma, Weina; Yoon, Sung Nyo; Kang, Min Jeong; Han, Joong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    We studied the possible role of phospholipase D1 (PLD1) in the neuronal differentiation, including neurite formation of neural stem cells. PLD1 protein and PLD activity increased during neuronal differentiation. Bcl-2 also increased. Downregulation of PLD1 by transfection with PLD1 siRNA or a dominant-negative form of PLD1 (DN-PLD1) inhibited both neurite outgrowth and Bcl-2 expression. PLD activity was dramatically reduced by a PLCγ (phospholipase Cγ) inhibitor (U73122), a Ca(2+)chelator (BAPTA-AM), and a PKCα (protein kinase Cα) inhibitor (RO320432). Furthermore, treatment with arachidonic acid (AA) which is generated by the action of PLA2 (phospholipase A2) on phosphatidic acid (a PLD1 product), increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and CREB, as well as Bcl-2 expression, indicating that PLA2 is involved in the differentiation process resulting from PLD1 activation. PGE2 (prostaglandin E2), a cyclooxygenase product of AA, also increased during neuronal differentiation. Moreover, treatment with PGE2 increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and CREB, as well as Bcl-2 expression, and this effect was inhibited by a PKA inhibitor (Rp-cAMP). As expected, inhibition of p38 MAPK resulted in loss of CREB activity, and when CREB activity was blocked with CREB siRNA, Bcl-2 production also decreased. We also showed that the EP4 receptor was required for the PKA/p38MAPK/CREB/Bcl-2 pathway. Taken together, these observations indicate that PLD1 is activated by PLCγ/PKCα signaling and stimulate Bcl-2 expression through PLA2/Cox2/EP4/PKA/p38MAPK/CREB during neuronal differentiation of rat neural stem cells.

  19. Trichomonas vaginalis acidic phospholipase A2: isolation and partial amino acid sequence.

    PubMed

    Escobedo-Guajardo, Brenda L; González-Salazar, Francisco; Palacios-Corona, Rebeca; Torres de la Cruz, Víctor M; Morales-Vallarta, Mario; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito D; Garza-González, Jesús N; Rivera-Silva, Gerardo; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier

    2013-12-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are a major cause of acute disease worldwide, and trichomoniasis is the most common and curable disease, generating more than 170 million cases annually worldwide. Trichomonas vaginalis is the causal agent of trichomoniasis and has the ability to destroy in vitro cell monolayers of the vaginal mucosa, where the phospholipases A2 (PLA2) have been reported as potential virulence factors. These enzymes have been partially characterized from the subcellular fraction S30 of pathogenic T. vaginalis strains. The main objective of this study was to purify a phospholipase A2 from T. vaginalis, make a partial characterization, obtain a partial amino acid sequence, and determine its enzymatic participation as hemolytic factor causing lysis of erythrocytes. Trichomonas S30, RF30 and UFF30 sub-fractions from GT-15 strain have the capacity to hydrolyze [2-(14)C-PA]-PC at pH 6.0. Proteins from the UFF30 sub-fraction were separated by affinity chromatography into two eluted fractions with detectable PLA A2 activity. The EDTA-eluted fraction was analyzed by HPLC using on-line HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry and two protein peaks were observed at 8.2 and 13 kDa. Peptide sequences were identified from the proteins present in the eluted EDTA UFF30 fraction; bioinformatic analysis using Protein Link Global Server charged with T. vaginalis protein database suggests that eluted peptides correspond a putative ubiquitin protein in the 8.2 kDa fraction and a phospholipase preserved in the 13 kDa fraction. The EDTA-eluted fraction hydrolyzed [2-(14)C-PA]-PC lyses erythrocytes from Sprague-Dawley in a time and dose-dependent manner. The acidic hemolytic activity decreased by 84% with the addition of 100 μM of Rosenthal's inhibitor. PMID:24338313

  20. The phenotype of a phospholipase C (plc-1) mutant in a filamentous fungus, Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Lew, Roger R; Giblon, Rachel E; Lorenti, Miranda S H

    2015-09-01

    In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, phospholipase C may play a role in hyphal extension at the growing tips as part of a growth-sensing mechanism that activates calcium release from internal stores to mediate continued expansion of the hyphal tip. One candidate for a tip-localized phospholipase C is PLC-1. We characterized morphology and growth characteristics of a knockout mutant (KO plc-1) and a RIP mutated strain (RIP plc-1) (missense mutations and a nonsense mutation render the gene product non-functional). Growth and hyphal cytology of wildtype and KO plc-1 were similar, but the RIP plc-1 mutant grew slower and exhibited abnormal membrane structures at the hyphal tip, imaged using the fluorescence dye FM4-64. To test for causes of the slower growth of the RIP plc-1 mutant, we examined its physiological poise compared to wildtype and the KO plc-1 mutant. The electrical properties of all three strains and the electrogenic contribution of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (identified by cyanide inhibition) were the same. Responses to high osmolarity were also similar. However, the RIP plc-1 mutant had a significantly lower turgor, a possible cause of its slower growth. While growth of all three strains was inhibited by the phospholipase C inhibitor 3-nitrocoumarin, the RIP plc-1 mutant did not exhibit hyphal bursting after addition of the inhibitor, observed in both wildtype and the KO plc-1 mutant. Although the plc-1 gene is not obligatory for tip growth, the phenotype of the RIP plc-1 mutant - abnormal tip cytology, lower turgor and resistance to inhibitor-induced hyphal bursting - suggest it does play a role in tip growth. The expression of a dysfunctional plc-1 gene may cause a shift to alternative mechanism(s) of growth sensing in hyphal extension.

  1. Phospholipase A2 induced airway hyperreactivity to cooling and acetylcholine in rat trachea: pharmacological modulation.

    PubMed Central

    Chand, N.; Diamantis, W.; Mahoney, T. P.; Sofia, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    1. Rat isolated tracheal smooth muscle preparations respond to phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and phospholipase C (PLC) with contractile responses of highly variable magnitudes. Rat tracheae exposed to PLA2 or PLC for a period of 10-30 min, exhibit airway hyperreactivity (AH) to cooling (10 degrees C), i.e., respond with strong contractile responses. Phospholipase D neither contracted rat tracheae nor induced AH to cooling. 2. PLA2-induced AH to cooling was dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca2+ in the physiological solution. 3. Verapamil, azelastine, diltiazem and TMB-8 (each 10 microM) significantly attenuated PLA2-induced AH. This effect was not shared by nifedipine (10 microM). 4. Bepridil (10 microM), a Ca2+ and calmodulin antagonist, also significantly attenuated AH induced by PLA2. 5. Indomethacin (a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor), AA-861 (a selective 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor), FPL 55712 (a leukotriene receptor antagonist), methysergide (a 5-hydroxytryptamine D-receptor antagonist) and pyrilamine (a histamine H1-receptor antagonist) exerted little or no effect on PLA2-induced AH to cooling. 6. Atropine significantly attenuated PLA2-induced AH suggesting the participation of acetylcholine. 7. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (an antioxidant; 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor) and BW 755C (an antioxidant; a dual inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase) significantly attenuated PLA2-induced AH to cooling. 8. In conclusion, these data show that PLA2 (an enzyme involved in the synthesis of Paf-acether, prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, diacylglycerol, superoxide free radicals and lipid peroxides, etc.) induces AH to cooling and acetylcholine in rat trachea. The induction of AH to cooling is dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca2+ and is significantly attenuated by verapamil, diltiazem, bepridil, atropine and azelastine (an antiallergic/antiasthmatic drug). PMID:3207972

  2. [Manoalide: a new phospholipase A2 inhibitor of marine origin with potential immunoregulatory effect].

    PubMed

    Mayer, A M

    1989-01-01

    Manoalide, a non-steroidal sesterterpenoid isolated from a marine sponge, is a potent analgesic and antiinflammatory compound. Manoalide inhibits phospholipase A2 from extracellular sources (snake venoms, bee, etc.), the release of arachidonic acid from rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes as well as calcium mobilization. This suggests that the anti-inflamatory effect might be caused by the regulation of eicosanoid biosynthesis. The macrophage plays a major role in the immune response and the inflammatory process, it has the capacity to synthesize and secrete arachidonic acid oxygenation products derived from both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase catalyzed pathways, and has been used extensively to study the effect of inhibitors of phospholipases, cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes. Our results demonstrate that Manoalide modified the release of arachidonic acid and its further metabolism into prostaglandins and leukotrienes in mouse cultured peritoneal macrophages stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate, calcium ionophore A23187 and zymosan. Since eicosanoids have been shown to cause pain, we studied the possibility that the analgesic effect of Manoalide might be correlated with a decrease of eicosanoid release in vivo. The fact that Manoalide reduced both zymosan-induced peritoneal writhing in the mouse and the synthesis of both 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alfa and leukotriene C4 suggests that the analgesic effect of Manoalide is at least in part linked to the inhibition of eicosanoid production in vivo. Since it has been shown that eicosanoids have immunoregulatory functions, a future possibility is that a phospholipase A2 inhibitor such as Manoalide may prove useful to investigate the biological role of eicosanoid metabolites on the immune function.

  3. Non-specific phospholipase C4 mediates response to aluminum toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Pejchar, Přemysl; Potocký, Martin; Krčková, Zuzana; Brouzdová, Jitka; Daněk, Michal; Martinec, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum ions (Al) have been recognized as a major toxic factor for crop production in acidic soils. The first indication of the Al toxicity in plants is the cessation of root growth, but the mechanism of root growth inhibition is largely unknown. Here we examined the impact of Al on the expression, activity, and function of the non-specific phospholipase C4 (NPC4), a plasma membrane-bound isoform of NPC, a member of the plant phospholipase family, in Arabidopsis thaliana. We observed a lower expression of NPC4 using β-glucuronidase assay and a decreased formation of labeled diacylglycerol, product of NPC activity, using fluorescently labeled phosphatidylcholine as a phospholipase substrate in Arabidopsis WT seedlings treated with AlCl3 for 2 h. The effect on in situ NPC activity persisted for longer Al treatment periods (8, 14 h). Interestingly, in seedlings overexpressing NPC4, the Al-mediated NPC-inhibiting effect was alleviated at 14 h. However, in vitro activity and localization of NPC4 were not affected by Al, thus excluding direct inhibition by Al ions or possible translocation of NPC4 as the mechanisms involved in NPC-inhibiting effect. Furthermore, the growth of tobacco pollen tubes rapidly arrested by Al was partially rescued by the overexpression of AtNPC4 while Arabidopsis npc4 knockout lines were found to be more sensitive to Al stress during long-term exposure of Al at low phosphate conditions. Our observations suggest that NPC4 plays a role in both early and long-term responses to Al stress. PMID:25763003

  4. Short-chain phosphatidylinositol conformation and its relevance to phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Zhou, C; Garigapati, V; Roberts, M F

    1997-12-16

    The solution conformation of chiral diheptanoylphosphatidylinositol (D- and L-inositol isomers) has been characterized by NMR spectroscopy. A positive NOE between the inositol C2 proton and an sn-3 glycerol CH2 proton has been observed in the D- but not in the L-inositol isomer of diheptanoylphosphatidylinositol (PI). Computer modeling using QUANTA constrained by this NOE and ring coupling constants suggests that the inositol ring is nearly parallel to the chain packing direction, leaving the phosphate ester accessible to attack by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C enzymes. In this model, the hydroxyl groups in the 2- and 6-positions of inositol form hydrogen bonds with the pro-R and ester oxygens, respectively. Chemical shifts and 13C spin-lattice relaxation times were also used to assess conformation and lipid dynamics in monomer and micelle states. The 13C T1's of inositol C2 and C6 in monomeric phosphatidylinositol were markedly less than for other inositol ring carbons. These results are consistent with the hydrogen bonds to the phosphate constraining the motions of C2 and C6. Diheptanoylphosphatidyl-2-O-methylinositol is a good inhibitor of PI-specific phospholipase C because it blocks the initial phosphotransferase step in PI hydrolysis. Introduction of the methyl group on the C-2 hydroxyl group lowers the CMC of the derivative compared to diheptanoylphosphatidylinositol. However, an NOE between an sn-3 glycerol proton and the inositol C2 proton constrains the orientation of the inositol ring with respect to the glycerol backbone in a conformation similar to diheptanoylphosphatidylinositol. Modeling of the 2-O-methylinositol derivative suggests that the methyl group blocks one side of the phosphate, consistent with the observation that nonspecific phospholipase C enzymes which are able to hydrolyze PI, albeit poorly, are unable to hydrolyze diheptanoylphosphatidyl-2-O-methylinositol.

  5. Phospholipase C activation during elicitation of the oxidative burst in cultured plant cells.

    PubMed

    Legendre, L; Yueh, Y G; Crain, R; Haddock, N; Heinstein, P F; Low, P S

    1993-11-25

    Although phospholipase C hydrolysis of polyphosphoinositides constitutes one of the major second messenger pathways in animal cells, its participation in signal transduction in higher plants has not been established. To determine whether activation of phosphatidylinositol-directed phospholipase C might be involved in signaling the elicitor-induced oxidative burst in plants, suspension-cultured soybean cells were treated with two stimulants of the H2O2 burst and examined for polyphosphoinositide turnover. Both polygalacturonic acid elicitor and the G protein activator, mastoparan, promoted a transient increase in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) content that exceeded basal IP3 levels (0.9 +/- 0.4 pmol of IP3/10(6) cells, n = 28) by 2.6- and 7-fold, respectively. In each case, intracellular IP3 content reached a maximum at 1 min post-stimulation and declined to near basal levels during the subsequent 5-10 min. Neomycin sulfate, an inhibitor of polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis, blocked the IP3 transient, and Mas-17, an inactive analogue of mastoparan, induced no change in IP3. Thin layer chromatography of lipid extracts of the soybean cells corroborated the above results by revealing a rapid decrease in phosphatidyl-inositol monophosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate following polygalacturonic acid elicitor and mastoparan (but not Mas-17) stimulation. Since the rise in IP3 preceded H2O2 production and since neomycin sulfate inhibited the appearance of both, we hypothesize that phospholipase C activation might constitute one pathway by which elicitors trigger the soybean oxidative burst.

  6. Trichomonas vaginalis acidic phospholipase A2: isolation and partial amino acid sequence.

    PubMed

    Escobedo-Guajardo, Brenda L; González-Salazar, Francisco; Palacios-Corona, Rebeca; Torres de la Cruz, Víctor M; Morales-Vallarta, Mario; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito D; Garza-González, Jesús N; Rivera-Silva, Gerardo; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier

    2013-12-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are a major cause of acute disease worldwide, and trichomoniasis is the most common and curable disease, generating more than 170 million cases annually worldwide. Trichomonas vaginalis is the causal agent of trichomoniasis and has the ability to destroy in vitro cell monolayers of the vaginal mucosa, where the phospholipases A2 (PLA2) have been reported as potential virulence factors. These enzymes have been partially characterized from the subcellular fraction S30 of pathogenic T. vaginalis strains. The main objective of this study was to purify a phospholipase A2 from T. vaginalis, make a partial characterization, obtain a partial amino acid sequence, and determine its enzymatic participation as hemolytic factor causing lysis of erythrocytes. Trichomonas S30, RF30 and UFF30 sub-fractions from GT-15 strain have the capacity to hydrolyze [2-(14)C-PA]-PC at pH 6.0. Proteins from the UFF30 sub-fraction were separated by affinity chromatography into two eluted fractions with detectable PLA A2 activity. The EDTA-eluted fraction was analyzed by HPLC using on-line HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry and two protein peaks were observed at 8.2 and 13 kDa. Peptide sequences were identified from the proteins present in the eluted EDTA UFF30 fraction; bioinformatic analysis using Protein Link Global Server charged with T. vaginalis protein database suggests that eluted peptides correspond a putative ubiquitin protein in the 8.2 kDa fraction and a phospholipase preserved in the 13 kDa fraction. The EDTA-eluted fraction hydrolyzed [2-(14)C-PA]-PC lyses erythrocytes from Sprague-Dawley in a time and dose-dependent manner. The acidic hemolytic activity decreased by 84% with the addition of 100 μM of Rosenthal's inhibitor.

  7. Calcium-independent phospholipases A2 and their roles in biological processes and diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ramanadham, Sasanka; Ali, Tomader; Ashley, Jason W.; Bone, Robert N.; Hancock, William D.; Lei, Xiaoyong

    2015-01-01

    Among the family of phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are the Ca2+-independent PLA2s (iPLA2s) and they are designated group VI iPLA2s. In relation to secretory and cytosolic PLA2s, the iPLA2s are more recently described and details of their expression and roles in biological functions are rapidly emerging. The iPLA2s or patatin-like phospholipases (PNPLAs) are intracellular enzymes that do not require Ca2+ for activity, and contain lipase (GXSXG) and nucleotide-binding (GXGXXG) consensus sequences. Though nine PNPLAs have been recognized, PNPLA8 (membrane-associated iPLA2γ) and PNPLA9 (cytosol-associated iPLA2β) are the most widely studied and understood. The iPLA2s manifest a variety of activities in addition to phospholipase, are ubiquitously expressed, and participate in a multitude of biological processes, including fat catabolism, cell differentiation, maintenance of mitochondrial integrity, phospholipid remodeling, cell proliferation, signal transduction, and cell death. As might be expected, increased or decreased expression of iPLA2s can have profound effects on the metabolic state, CNS function, cardiovascular performance, and cell survival; therefore, dysregulation of iPLA2s can be a critical factor in the development of many diseases. This review is aimed at providing a general framework of the current understanding of the iPLA2s and discussion of the potential mechanisms of action of the iPLA2s and related involved lipid mediators. PMID:26023050

  8. Characterization of antigen association with accessory cells: specific removal of processed antigens from the cell surface by phospholipases.

    PubMed Central

    Falo, L D; Haber, S I; Herrmann, S; Benacerraf, B; Rock, K L

    1987-01-01

    To characterize the basis for the cell surface association of processed antigen with the antigen-presenting cell (APC) we analyzed its sensitivity to enzymatic digestion. Antigen-exposed APC that are treated with phospholipase and then immediately fixed lose their ability to stimulate antigen-plus-Ia-specific T-T hybridomas. This effect is seen with highly purified phospholipase A2 and phospholipase C. In addition it is observed with three distinct antigens--ovalbumin, bovine insulin, and poly(LGlu56LLys35LPhe9) [(GluLysPhe)n]. The effect of phospholipases is highly specific. Identically treated APC are equivalent to controls in their ability to stimulate alloreactive hybridomas specific for precisely the same Ia molecule that is corecognized by antigen-plus-Ia-specific hybrids. Furthermore, the antigen-presenting function of enzyme-treated, fixed APC can be reconstituted by the addition of exogenous in vitro processed or "processing independent" antigens. In parallel studies 125I-labeled avidin was shown to specifically bind to APC that were previously exposed and allowed to process biotin-insulin. Biotin-insulin-exposed APC that are pretreated with phospholipase bind significantly less 125I-labeled avidin than do untreated, exposed APC. Identical enzyme treatment does not reduce the binding of avidin to a biotinylated antibody already bound to class II major histocompatibility complex molecules of APC. At least some of the biotin-insulin surface sites are immunologically relevant, because the presentation of processed biotin-insulin by fixed APC is blocked by avidin. This effect is specific. Avidin binding to biotin-insulin-exposed APC does not inhibit allospecific stimulation nor the presentation of unconjugated insulin. These studies demonstrate that phospholipase effectively removes processed cell surface antigen. PMID:3467371

  9. Phospholipase and Aspartyl Proteinase Activities of Candida Species Causing Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bassyouni, Rasha H; Wegdan, Ahmed Ashraf; Abdelmoneim, Abdelsamie; Said, Wessam; AboElnaga, Fatma

    2015-10-01

    Few research had investigated the secretion of phospholipase and aspartyl proteinase from Candida spp. causing infection in females with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This research aimed to investigate the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in diabetic versus non-diabetic women and compare the ability of identified Candida isolates to secrete phospholipases and aspartyl proteinases with characterization of their genetic profile. The study included 80 females with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 100 non-diabetic females within the child-bearing period. Candida strains were isolated and identified by conventional microbiological methods and by API Candida. The isolates were screened for their extracellular phospholipase and proteinase activities by culturing them on egg yolk and bovine serum albumin media, respectively. Detection of aspartyl proteinase genes (SAP1 to SAP8) and phospholipase genes (PLB1, PLB2) were performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Our results indicated that vaginal candidiasis was significantly higher among the diabetic group versus nondiabetic group (50% versus 20%, respectively) (p = 0.004). C. albicans was the most prevalent species followed by C. glabrata in both groups. No significant association between diabetes mellitus and phospholipase activities was detected (p = 0.262), whereas high significant proteinase activities exhibited by Candida isolated from diabetic females were found (82.5%) (p = 0.000). Non-significant associations between any of the tested proteinase or phospholipase genes and diabetes mellitus were detected (p > 0.05). In conclusion, it is noticed that the incidence of C. glabrata causing VVC is increased. The higher prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among diabetics could be related to the increased aspartyl proteinase production in this group of patients.

  10. Role of cardiotoxin and phospholipase A in the blockade of nerve conduction and depolarization of skeletal muscle induced by cobra venom

    PubMed Central

    Chang, C. C.; Chuang, Sing-Tai; Lee, C. Y.; Wei, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    1. The effects of phospholipase A (PhA), cardiotoxin (CTX) and neurotoxin (cobrotoxin) isolated from Formosan cobra (Naja naja atra) venom on conduction of the rat phrenic nerve and membrane potential of the rat diaphragm were studied. 2. Phospholipase A, lysolecithin and cobrotoxin were without effect on the axonal conduction. Cardiotoxin was the only active agent in cobra venom, but it was less potent than the crude venom. 3. The blocking action of cardiotoxin was markedly accelerated by the simultaneous administration of phospholipase A. However, the minimum effective concentration of cardiotoxin (100 μg/ml), was not decreased by phospholipase A. Pretreatment of the nerve with phospholipase A, followed by washout, did not alter the activity of cardiotoxin. 4. Cardiotoxin (3 μg/ml) completely depolarized the membrane of superficial muscle fibres within 60 min, being 3 times more potent than the crude venom. Phospholipase A, on the other hand, needed a dose 30 times higher and a prolonged period of incubation to induce depolarization of similar extent. Cobrotoxin was without effect on membrane potentials. 5. CaCl2 (10 mM) effectively antagonized the nerve blocking as well as the depolarizing effect of the crude venom, cardiotoxin or cardiotoxin plus phospholipase A. By contrast, the slow depolarizing effect of phospholipase A was enhanced by high concentrations of calcium. 6. Cardiotoxic fractions of Indian cobra venom affected both nerve conduction and diaphragm membrane potential in exactly the same way as cardiotoxin. Toxin A of the same venom was without effect. 7. It is concluded that the active agent in cobra venoms either on axonal conduction or on muscle membrane is cardiotoxin. The synergistic effect of phospholipase A on cardiotoxin appears to be due to acceleration rather than potentiation of its action. The mechanism of action of cardiotoxin and its synergism by phospholipase A are discussed. PMID:5041453

  11. Proteinase, phospholipase, hyaluronidase and chondroitin-sulphatase production by Malassezia pachydermatis.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, S D; Paula, C R

    2000-02-01

    The production of four functional enzyme categories was investigated in 30 strains of Malassezia pachydermatis isolated from dogs with otitis or dermatitis. The most appropriate reading intervals for these assays were determined with the aid of statistical comparisons. All strains produced proteinase and chondroitin-sulphatase; hyaluronidase and phospholipase were produced by all skin isolates (15/15) and 14 out of 15 ear canal isolates. Strains from ear canals did not differ significantly as a group from skin strains in quantitative production of any of the four enzymes; production of proteinase and chondroitin-sulphatase in particular was markedly uniform. PMID:10746230

  12. Structure of a cardiotoxic phospholipase A(2) from Ophiophagus hannah with the "pancreatic loop".

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Long; Xu, Su-Juan; Wang, Qiu-Yan; Song, Shi-Ying; Shu, Yu-Yan; Lin, Zheng-Jiong

    2002-06-01

    The crystal structure of an acidic phospholipase A(2) from Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra) has been determined by molecular replacement at 2.6-A resolution to a crystallographic R factor of 20.5% (R(free)=23.3%) with reasonable stereochemistry. The venom enzyme contains an unusual "pancreatic loop." The conformation of the loop is well defined and different from those in pancreas PLA(2), showing its structural variability. This analysis provides the first structure of a PLA(2)-type cardiotoxin. The sites related to the cardiotoxic and myotoxic activities are explored and the oligomer observed in the crystalline state is described. PMID:12217659

  13. Phytophthora infestans Has a Plethora of Phospholipase D Enzymes Including a Subclass That Has Extracellular Activity

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Harold J. G.; Hassen, Hussen Harrun; Govers, Francine

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotes phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in many cellular processes. Currently little is known about PLDs in oomycetes. Here we report that the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans has a large repertoire of PLDs divided over six subfamilies: PXPH-PLD, PXTM-PLD, TM-PLD, PLD-likes, and type A and B sPLD-likes. Since the latter have signal peptides we developed a method using metabolically labelled phospholipids to monitor if P. infestans secretes PLD. In extracellular medium of ten P. infestans strains PLD activity was detected as demonstrated by the production of phosphatidic acid and the PLD specific marker phosphatidylalcohol. PMID:21423760

  14. Phytophthora infestans has a plethora of phospholipase D enzymes including a subclass that has extracellular activity.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Harold J G; Hassen, Hussen Harrun; Govers, Francine

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotes phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in many cellular processes. Currently little is known about PLDs in oomycetes. Here we report that the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans has a large repertoire of PLDs divided over six subfamilies: PXPH-PLD, PXTM-PLD, TM-PLD, PLD-likes, and type A and B sPLD-likes. Since the latter have signal peptides we developed a method using metabolically labelled phospholipids to monitor if P. infestans secretes PLD. In extracellular medium of ten P. infestans strains PLD activity was detected as demonstrated by the production of phosphatidic acid and the PLD specific marker phosphatidylalcohol. PMID:21423760

  15. Highly Specific and Broadly Potent Inhibitors of Mammalian Secreted Phospholipases A2

    PubMed Central

    Oslund, Rob C.; Cermak, Nathan; Gelb, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    We report a series of inhibitors of secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) based on substituted indoles, 6,7-benzoindoles, and indolizines derived from LY315920, a well-known indole-based sPLA2 inhibitor. Using the human group X sPLA2 crystal structure, we prepared a highly potent and selective indole-based inhibitor of this enzyme. Also, we report human and mouse group IIA and IIE specific inhibitors and a substituted 6,7-benzoindole that inhibits nearly all human and mouse sPLA2s in the low nanomolar range. PMID:18605714

  16. Specific release of plasma membrane enzymes by a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Low, M G; Finean, J B

    1978-04-20

    The release of plasma membrane ecto-enzymes by a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. There was no effect on L-leucyl-beta-naphthylamidase, alkaline phosphodeisterase I and Ca2+- or MG2+-ATPase, but substantial proportions of the alkaline phosphatase and 5-nucleotidase were released. There was no simultaneous release of phospholipid and the solubilized enzymes were not exluded from Sepharose 6-B. It was therefore concluded that release was not a secondary consequence of membrane vesiculation but occurred as a result of the disruption of specific interactions involving the phosphatidylinositol molecule.

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of myotoxin I, a Lys49-phospholipase A2 from Bothrops moojeni

    PubMed Central

    Marchi-Salvador, D. P.; Silveira, L. B.; Soares, A. M.; Fontes, M. R. M.

    2005-01-01

    A new myotoxic Lys49-phospholipase A2 isolated from Bothrops moojeni snake venom has been crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.18 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source and belong to space group C2. The unit-cell parameters are a = 56.8, b = 125.0, c = 64.7 Å, β = 105.5°. Preliminary analysis indicates the presence of four molecules in the asymmetric unit. This may suggest a new quaternary structure for this Lys49-phospholipase A2 in contrast to the dimeric and monomeric structures solved so far for this class of proteins. PMID:16511185

  18. Cocaine-Induced Behavioral Sensitization Is Associated With Changes in the Expression of Endocannabinoid and Glutamatergic Signaling Systems in the Mouse Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Eduardo; Pavón, Francisco J.; Palomino, Ana; Luque-Rojas, María Jesús; Serrano, Antonia; Rivera, Patricia; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Alen, Francisco; Vida, Margarita; Suárez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endocannabinoids modulate the glutamatergic excitatory transmission by acting as retrograde messengers. A growing body of studies has reported that both signaling systems in the mesocorticolimbic neural circuitry are involved in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying drug addiction. Methods: We investigated whether the expression of both endocannabinoid and glutamatergic systems in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were altered by an acute and/or repeated cocaine administration schedule that resulted in behavioral sensitization. We measured the protein and mRNA expression of the main endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes and the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1). We also analyzed the mRNA expression of relevant components of the glutamate-signaling system, including glutamate-synthesizing enzymes, metabotropic receptors, and ionotropic receptors. Results: Although acute cocaine (10mg/kg) produced no significant changes in the endocannabinoid-related proteins, repeated cocaine administration (20mg/kg daily) induced a pronounced increase in the CB1 receptor expression. In addition, acute cocaine administration (10mg/kg) in cocaine-sensitized mice (referred to as cocaine priming) induced a selective increase in the endocannabinoid-degrading enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). These protein changes were accompanied by an overall decrease in the ratios of endocannabinoid synthesis/degradation, especially the N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D/FAAH and diacylglycerol lipase alpha/MAGL ratios. Regarding mRNA expression, while acute cocaine administration produced a decrease in CB1 receptors and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D, repeated cocaine treatment enhanced CB1 receptor expression. Cocaine-sensitized mice that were administered priming injections of cocaine mainly displayed an increased FAAH expression. These endocannabinoid changes were associated with modifications in glutamatergic

  19. Fluorometric High-Throughput Screening Assay for Secreted Phospholipases A2 Using Phospholipid Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Heather; Fernández-Vega, Virneliz; Spicer, Timothy P; Chase, Peter; Brown, Steven; Scampavia, Louis; Roush, William R; Riley, Sean; Rosen, Hugh; Hodder, Peter; Lambeau, Gerard; Gelb, Michael H

    2016-08-01

    There is interest in developing inhibitors of human group III secreted phospholipase A2 (hGIII-sPLA2) because this enzyme plays a role in mast cell maturation. There are no potent inhibitors for hGIII-sPLA2 reported to date, so we adapted a fluorescence-based enzyme activity monitoring method to a high-throughput screening format. We opted to use an assay based on phospholipid substrate present in phospholipid vesicles since this matrix more closely resembles the natural substrate of hGIII-sPLA2, as opposed to phospholipid/detergent mixed micelles. The substrate is a phospholipid analogue containing BODIPY fluorophores dispersed as a minor component in vesicles of nonfluorescent phospholipids. Action of hGIII-sPLA2 liberates a free fatty acid from the phospholipid, leading to a reduction in quenching of the fluorophore and hence an increase in fluorescence. The assay uses optical detection in a 1536-well plate format with an excitation wavelength far away from the UV range so as to minimize false-positive library hits that result from quenching of the fluorescence. The high-throughput screen was successfully carried out on a library of 370,276 small molecules. Several hits were discovered, and data have been uploaded to PubChem. This study describes the first high-throughput optical screening assay for secreted phospholipase A2 inhibitors based on a phospholipid vesicle substrate. PMID:27146384

  20. Detection by in vitro amplification of the alpha-toxin (phospholipase C) gene from Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Fach, P; Guillou, J P

    1993-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with thermostable DNA polymerase from Thermus aquaticus is described for the specific amplification of the phospholipase C (alpha-toxin) gene of Clostridium perfringens. A set of primers selected for their high specificity could detect Cl. perfringens in stools with a detection limit of approximately 5 x 10(2) bacteria, after bi-amplification. A modified PCR without thermal steps was performed to rapidly amplify, with a yield of 60%, the DNA template. With this PCR method Cl. perfringens alpha-toxin gene could be detected within 2 h. The PCR method detected alpha-toxin positive Cl. perfringens but did not react with phospholipase C-producing Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cl. sordellii and Cl. bifermentans. The amplified PCR products were screened through ethidium bromide agarose gel electrophoresis or, in only 1 h, with the PhastSystem (Pharmacia). This PCR satisfies the criteria of specificity, sensitivity and rapidity required for a useful tool in epidemiology and for the diagnosis of the pathogen Cl. perfringens as it may be used directly on stool samples.

  1. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa type VI secretion phospholipase D effector targets both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Feng; Waterfield, Nicholas R; Yang, Jian; Yang, Guowei; Jin, Qi

    2014-05-14

    Widely found in animal and plant-associated proteobacteria, type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are potentially capable of facilitating diverse interactions with eukaryotes and/or other bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes three distinct T6SS haemolysin coregulated protein (Hcp) secretion islands (H1, H2, and H3-T6SS), each involved in different aspects of the bacterium's interaction with other organisms. Here we describe the characterization of a P. aeruginosa H3-T6SS-dependent phospholipase D effector, PldB, and its three tightly linked cognate immunity proteins. PldB targets the periplasm of prokaryotic cells and exerts an antibacterial activity. Surprisingly, PldB also facilitates intracellular invasion of host eukaryotic cells by activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, revealing it to be a trans-kingdom effector. Our findings imply a potentially widespread T6SS-mediated mechanism, which deploys a single phospholipase effector to influence both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic hosts.

  2. PRMT8 as a phospholipase regulates Purkinje cell dendritic arborization and motor coordination

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun-Dal; Park, Kyung-Eui; Ishida, Junji; Kako, Koichiro; Hamada, Juri; Kani, Shuichi; Takeuchi, Miki; Namiki, Kana; Fukui, Hajime; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Hibi, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Makoto; Kanaho, Yasunori; Kasuya, Yoshitoshi; Mochizuki, Naoki; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The development of vertebrate neurons requires a change in membrane phosphatidylcholine (PC) metabolism. Although PC hydrolysis is essential for enhanced axonal outgrowth mediated by phospholipase D (PLD), less is known about the determinants of PC metabolism on dendritic arborization. We show that protein arginine methyltransferase 8 (PRMT8) acts as a phospholipase that directly hydrolyzes PC, generating choline and phosphatidic acid. We found that PRMT8 knockout mice (prmt8−/−) displayed abnormal motor behaviors, including hindlimb clasping and hyperactivity. Moreover, prmt8−/− mice and TALEN-induced zebrafish prmt8 mutants and morphants showed abnormal phenotypes, including the development of dendritic trees in Purkinje cells and altered cerebellar structure. Choline and acetylcholine levels were significantly decreased, whereas PC levels were increased, in the cerebellum of prmt8−/− mice. Our findings suggest that PRMT8 acts both as an arginine methyltransferase and as a PC-hydrolyzing PLD that is essential for proper neurological functions. PMID:26665171

  3. PLC-δ1-Lf, a novel N-terminal extended phospholipase C-δ1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na Young; Ahn, Sang Jung; Kim, Moo-Sang; Seo, Jung Soo; Kim, Bo Seong; Bak, Hye Jin; Lee, Jin Young; Park, Myoung-Ae; Park, Ju Hyeon; Lee, Hyung Ho; Chung, Joon Ki

    2013-10-10

    Phospholipase C-δ (PLC-δ), a key enzyme in phosphoinositide turnover, is involved in a variety of physiological functions. The widely expressed PLC-δ1 isoform is the best characterized and the most well understood phospholipase family member. However, the functional and molecular mechanisms of PLC-δ1 remain obscure. Here, we identified that the N-terminal region of mouse PLC-δ1 gene has two variants, a novel alternative splicing form, named as long form (mPLC-δ1-Lf) and the previously reported short form (mPLC-δ1-Sf), having exon 2 and exon 1, respectively, while both the gene variants share exons 3-16 for RNA transcription. Furthermore, the expression, identification and enzymatic characterization of the two types of PLC-δ1 genes were compared. Expression of mPLC-δ1-Lf was found to be tissue specific, whereas mPLC-δ1-Sf was widely distributed. The recombinant mPLC-δ1-Sf protein exhibited higher activity than recombinant mPLC-δ1-Lf protein. Although, the general catalytic and regulatory properties of mPLC-δ1-Lf are similar to those of PLC-δ1-Sf isozyme, the mPLC-δ1-Lf showed some distinct regulatory properties, such as tissue-specific expression and lipid binding specificity, particularly for phosphatidylserine.

  4. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 prognostic role in atherosclerotic complications

    PubMed Central

    Maiolino, Giuseppe; Bisogni, Valeria; Rossitto, Giacomo; Rossi, Gian Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis manifests itself clinically at advanced stages when plaques undergo hemorrhage and/or rupture with superimposed thrombosis, thus abruptly stopping blood supply. Identification of markers of plaque destabilization at a pre-clinical stage is, therefore, a major goal of cardiovascular research. Promising results along this line were provided by studies investigating the lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), a member of phospholipase A2 proteins family that plays a key role in the metabolism of pro-inflammatory phospholipids, as oxidized low-density lipoproteins, and in the generation of pro-atherogenic metabolites, including lysophosphatidylcholine and oxidized free fatty acids. We herein review the experimental and clinical studies supporting use of Lp-PLA2 activity for predicting cardiovascular events. To his end we considered not only Lp-PLA2 activity and mass, but also Lp-PLA2 gene variations and their association with incident coronary artery disease, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality. Based on these evidences the major scientific societies have included in their guidelines the measurement of Lp-PLA2 activity among the biomarkers that are useful in risk stratification of adult asymptomatic patients at intermediate cardiovascular risk. The results of two recently published major clinical trials with the Lp-PLA2 inhibitor darapladib, which seem to challenge the pathogenic role of Lp-PLA2, will also be discussed. PMID:26516415

  5. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 prognostic role in atherosclerotic complications.

    PubMed

    Maiolino, Giuseppe; Bisogni, Valeria; Rossitto, Giacomo; Rossi, Gian Paolo

    2015-10-26

    Atherosclerosis manifests itself clinically at advanced stages when plaques undergo hemorrhage and/or rupture with superimposed thrombosis, thus abruptly stopping blood supply. Identification of markers of plaque destabilization at a pre-clinical stage is, therefore, a major goal of cardiovascular research. Promising results along this line were provided by studies investigating the lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), a member of phospholipase A2 proteins family that plays a key role in the metabolism of pro-inflammatory phospholipids, as oxidized low-density lipoproteins, and in the generation of pro-atherogenic metabolites, including lysophosphatidylcholine and oxidized free fatty acids. We herein review the experimental and clinical studies supporting use of Lp-PLA2 activity for predicting cardiovascular events. To his end we considered not only Lp-PLA2 activity and mass, but also Lp-PLA2 gene variations and their association with incident coronary artery disease, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality. Based on these evidences the major scientific societies have included in their guidelines the measurement of Lp-PLA2 activity among the biomarkers that are useful in risk stratification of adult asymptomatic patients at intermediate cardiovascular risk. The results of two recently published major clinical trials with the Lp-PLA2 inhibitor darapladib, which seem to challenge the pathogenic role of Lp-PLA2, will also be discussed. PMID:26516415

  6. OKT3-induced nephrotoxicity is associated with release of group II secretory phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Wever, P C; Roest, R W; Wolbink-Kamp, A M; Wolbink, G J; Weening, J J; Hack, C E; ten Berge, J M

    1996-10-01

    Administration of the murine IgG2a CD3 monoclonal antibody OKT3 exerts a transient nephrotoxic effect. Increased levels of group II secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-II) might account for this nephrotoxicity as sPLA2-II induces the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, vasoactive lipid mediators that influence glomerular haemodynamics and renal function. Furthermore, extracellular phospholipases seem to be involved in proximal tubular cell injury. We studied plasma sPLA2-II levels in relation to circulating creatinine, tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein levels in 15 renal allograft recipients receiving rejection treatment with OKT3. As a control group, we studied 15 renal allograft recipients receiving rejection treatment with methylprednisolone. A maximal fourfold increase in sPLA2-II levels was observed 48 h after the first OKT3 administration, preceded by increased tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6 levels and accompanied by increased C-reactive protein levels. Creatinine levels reached a maximal increase 72 h after initiation of treatment. During methylprednisolone treatment no increase in any of the studied parameters was observed. Thus, administration of OKT3 induces increased sPLA2-II levels, presumably via generation of cytokines. We hypothesize that sPLA2-II may contribute to the nephrotoxic effect of OKT3 by inducing vasoconstrictive prostaglandins and renal tubular cell injury.

  7. Regulation of phospholipase D by muscarinic receptors in rat submandibular ductal cells.

    PubMed

    Pochet, Stéphanie; Métioui, Mourad; Grosfils, Katrina; Gómez-Muñoz, Antonio; Marino, Aida; Dehaye, Jean-Paul

    2003-01-01

    The muscarinic agonist carbachol stimulated phospholipase D (PLD) in rat submandibular gland (RSMG) ductal cells in a time and concentration-dependent manner. This effect was inhibited by chelation of extracellular calcium with ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA). PLD could also be activated by epinephrine and AlF(4)(-), two polyphosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PPI-PLC) activators, and by the phorbol ester o-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) which activates protein kinase C (PKC). Ionomycin and thapsigargin only slightly increased PLD activity. Ortho-vanadate, a tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, also stimulated PLD activity. Both carbachol and o-vanadate increased the formation of inositol phosphates and the tyrosine phosphorylation of at least two proteins (55-60 and 120 kDa). Calphostin C (a PKC inhibitor), U73122 (a PPI-PLC inhibitor) and genistein (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor) blocked the activation of PLD, of PLC and the phosphorylation of tyrosyl residues in response to carbachol and vanadate. Taken together, these results suggest that rat submandibular gland ductal cells express a calcium-dependent PLD activity. This enzyme is regulated by carbachol via a PLC-PKC-tyrosine kinase pathway. PMID:12401525

  8. Phospholipase D δ knock-out mutants are tolerant to severe drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Distéfano, Ayelen M; Valiñas, Matías A; Scuffi, Denise; Lamattina, Lorenzo; ten Have, Arjen; García-Mata, Carlos; Laxalt, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in different plant processes, ranging from responses to abiotic and biotic stress to plant development. Phospholipase Dδ (PLDδ) is activated in dehydration and salt stress, producing the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid. In this work we show that pldδ Arabidopsis mutants were more tolerant to severe drought than wild-type plants. PLDδ has been shown to be required for ABA regulation of stomatal closure of isolated epidermal peels. However, there was no significant difference in stomatal conductance at the whole plant level between wild-type and pldδ mutants. Since PLD hydrolyses structural phospholipids, then we looked at membrane integrity. Ion leakage measurements showed that during dehydration of leaf discs pldδ mutant has less membrane degradation compared to the wild-type. We further analyzed the mutants and showed that pldδ have higher mRNA levels of RAB18 and RD29A compared to wild-type plants under normal growth conditions. Transient expression of AtPLDδ in Nicotiana benthamiana plants induced a wilting phenotype. These findings suggest that, in wt plants PLDδ disrupt membranes in severe drought stress and, in the absence of the protein (PLDδ knock-out) might drought-prime the plants, making them more tolerant to severe drought stress. The results are discussed in relation to PLDδ role in guard cell signaling and drought tolerance. PMID:26340512

  9. Inhibitory effects on phospholipase A2 and antivenin activity of melanin extracted from Thea sinensis Linn.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yao-Ching; Sava, Vasyl; Hong, Meng-Yen; Huang, G Steven

    2004-03-01

    Antivenin activity of melanin extracted from black tea (MEBT) was reported for the first time. The antagonistic effect of MEBT was evaluated for Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus (broadbanded copperhead), Agkistrodon halys blomhoffii (Japanese mamushi), and Crotalus atrox (western diamondback rattlesnake) snake venoms administered i.p. to ICR mice. MEBT was injected i.p. immediately after the venom administration in dose of 3 mg per mouse in the same place of venom injection. MEBT demonstrated neutralization effect against all venoms tested. The greatest antivenin effect of MEBT was found against Japanese mamushi snake venom. In this case, half the mice died within 2.5 +/- 0.7 h after injection of 0.9 mg/kg of venom. An immediate injection of MEBT substantially reduced the toxic effect of venom and extended time at the 50% level of survival up to 52.3 +/- 2.3 h. The antivenin activity of MEBT is due to chelating of Ca++ and non-specific binding of phospholipase A2. The inhibitory effect of MEBT on phospholipase A2 assessed for different venoms was similar to that obtained with pure enzyme. Low toxicity of MEBT in combination with its antagonistic activity against different venoms may allow effective life-saving treatment against snakebites. Such application of MEBT is important when identification of the snake is impossible or if specific treatment is unavailable.

  10. A continuous spectrophotometric assay that distinguishes between phospholipase A1 and A2 activities[S

    PubMed Central

    El Alaoui, Meddy; Soulère, Laurent; Noiriel, Alexandre; Popowycz, Florence; Khatib, Abdallah; Queneau, Yves; Abousalham, Abdelkarim

    2016-01-01

    A new spectrophotometric assay was developed to measure, continuously and specifically, phospholipase A1 (PLA1) or phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities using synthetic glycerophosphatidylcholines (PCs) containing α-eleostearic acid, either at the sn-1 position [1-α-eleostearoyl-2-octadecyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (EOPC)] or at the sn-2 position [1-octadecyl-2-α-eleostearoyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (OEPC)]. The substrates were coated onto the wells of microtiter plates. A nonhydrolyzable ether bond, with a non-UV-absorbing alkyl chain, was introduced at the other sn position to prevent acyl chain migration during lipolysis. Upon enzyme action, α-eleostearic acid is liberated and then solubilized into the micellar phase. The PLA1 or PLA2 activity was measured by the increase in absorbance at 272 nm due to the transition of α-eleostearic acid from the adsorbed to the soluble state. EOPC and OEPC differentiate, with excellent accuracy, between PLA1 and PLA2 activity. Lecitase®, guinea pig pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (known to be a PLA1 enzyme), bee venom PLA2, and porcine pancreatic PLA2 were all used to validate the assay. Compared with current assays used for continuously measuring PLA1 or PLA2 activities and/or their inhibitors, the development of this sensitive enzymatic method, using coated PC substrate analogs to natural lipids and based on the UV spectroscopic properties of α-eleostearic acid, is a significant improvement. PMID:27194811

  11. Long-wave ultraviolet light induces phospholipase activation in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.; DeLeo, V. )

    1990-08-01

    Long wave ultraviolet radiation (UVA) has been shown to play an important role in the overall response of skin to solar radiation, including sunburn, tanning, premature aging, and non-melanoma skin cancer. UVA induction of inflammation in human skin is thought to be mediated by membrane lipid derived products. In order to investigate the mechanism of this response we examined the effect of UVA on phospholipid metabolism of human epidermal keratinocytes in culture. Keratinocytes were grown in serum free low calcium medium. The cells were prelabeled with (3H) arachidonic acid or (3H) choline and irradiated with UVA (Honle 2002-Hg vapor lamp). Identification and quantitation of specific membrane phospholipid-derived components was achieved using high-performance liquid chromatography, paper chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. UVA resulted in a linear dose dependent release of (3H) arachidonic acid into medium between 1 and 20 joule/cm2. This response was inhibited in an oxygen-reduced environment. The radiolabel released was predominantly free arachidonate and cyclooxygenase metabolites. Cyclooxygenase metabolites prostaglandin E2 and prostacyclin derivative, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1a, were stimulated following UVA irradiation, but the lipoxygenase metabolite, leukotriene B was not detected. Maximal release was measured immediately after irradiation and changed little over 24 h post-irradiation. UVA stimulated an increase of (3H) choline metabolites glycerophosphorylcholine and phosphorylcholine in media extracts suggesting UVA activation of phospholipase C and phospholipase A2 or diacylglyceride lipase.

  12. The electrostatic basis for the interfacial binding of secretory phospholipases A2.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, D L; Mandel, A M; Sigler, P B; Honig, B

    1994-01-01

    Biochemical and structural data suggest that electrostatic forces play a critical role in the binding of secretory phospholipases A2 to substrate aggregates (micelles, vesicles, monolayers, and membranes). This initial binding (adsorption) of the enzyme to the interface is kinetically distinct from the subsequent binding of substrate to the buried active site. Thus, in the absence of specific active-site interactions, electrostatic forces operating at the molecular surface may orient and hold the enzyme at the interface. We have calculated the electrostatic potentials for 10 species of secretory phospholipases A2 whose atomic coordinates have been determined by x-ray crystallography. Most of these enzymes show a marked electrostatic sidedness that is accentuated to a variable degree by the presence of the essential cofactor calcium ion. This asymmetry suggests a discrete interfacial binding region on the protein's surface, the location of which is in general agreement with proposals derived from the results of chemical modification, mutational, and crystallographic experiments. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 5 PMID:7948668

  13. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C activity of chromaffin granule-binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, C.E.; Dowling, L.G.; Kyger, E.M.; Franson, R.C.

    1985-06-25

    Using (U-/sup 14/C)phosphatidylinositol as substrate, Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent phospholipase C activity was detected in a group of bovine adrenal medullary proteins that bind to chromaffin granule membranes in the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/. The activity was maximal at neutral pH and represented an 80- to 240-fold enrichment of adrenal medullary cytosol phospholipase C activity measured at pH 7.3. The stimulation of activity by Ca/sup 2 +/ was complex; no activity was present in the absence of Ca/sup 2 +/, 25% activation occurred at 1 microM Ca/sup 2 +/, and full activation at 5 mM Ca/sup 2 +/. The enzyme bound to chromaffin granule membranes in the presence of 2 mM Ca/sup 2 +/ but was released at 40 microM Ca/sup 2 +/, suggesting that intrinsic enzyme activity may be regulated by (Ca/sup 2 +/) at 1 microM, but additional activation at higher concentrations of Ca/sup 2 +/ is seen in vitro as a result of Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent binding of the active enzyme to substrate-containing membranes. This enzyme may generate diacylglycerol and phosphorylated inositol to act as intracellular messengers in the vicinity of the chromaffin granule membrane during the process of exocytosis.

  14. Involvement of phospholipase D and NADPH-oxidase in salicylic acid signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Kalachova, Tetiana; Iakovenko, Oksana; Kretinin, Sergii; Kravets, Volodymyr

    2013-05-01

    Salicylic acid is associated with the primary defense responses to biotic stress and formation of systemic acquired resistance. However, molecular mechanisms of early cell reactions to phytohormone application are currently undisclosed. The present study investigates the participation of phospholipase D and NADPH-oxidase in salicylic acid signal transduction cascade. The activation of lipid signaling enzymes within 15 min of salicylic acid application was shown in Arabidopsis thaliana plants by measuring the phosphatidic acid accumulation. Adding of primary alcohol (1-butanol) to the incubation medium led to phosphatidylbutanol accumulation as a result of phospholipase D (PLD) action in wild-type and NADPH-oxidase RbohD deficient plants. Salicylic acid induced rapid increase in NADPH-oxidase activity in histochemical assay with nitroblue tetrazolium but the reaction was not observed in presence of 1-butanol and NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodide (DPI). The further physiological effect of salicylic acid and inhibitory analysis of the signaling cascade were made in the guard cell model. Stomatal closure induced by salicylic acid was inhibited by 1-butanol and DPI treatment. rbohD transgenic plants showed impaired stomatal reaction upon phytohormone effect, while the reaction to H2O2 did not differ from that of wild-type plants. Thus a key role of NADPH-oxidase D-isoform in the process of stomatal closure in response to salicylic acid has been postulated. It has enabled to predict a cascade implication of PLD and NADPH oxidase to salicylic acid signaling pathway.

  15. Substance P receptor desensitization requires receptor activation but not phospholipase C

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiya, Hiroshi; Putney, J.W. Jr. )

    1988-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposure of parotid acinar cells to substance P at 37{degree}C results in activation of phospholipase C, formation of ({sup 3}H)inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}), and persistent desensitization of the substance P response. In cells treated with antimycin in medium containing glucose, ATP was decreased to {approximately}20% of control values, IP{sub 3} formation was completely inhibited, but desensitization was unaffected. When cells were treated with antimycin in the absence of glucose, cellular ATP was decreased to {approximately}5% of control values, and both IP{sub 3} formation and desensitization were blocked. A series of substance P-related peptides increased the formation of ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 3} and induced desensitization of the substance P response with a similar rank order of potencies. The substance P antagonist, (D-Pro{sup 2}, D-Try{sup 7,9})-substance P, inhibited substance P-induced IP{sub 3} formation and desensitization but did not induce desensitization. These results suggest that the desensitization of substance P-induced IP{sub 3} formation requires agonist activation of a P-type substance P receptor, and that one or more cellular ATP-dependent processes are required for this reaction. However, activation of phospholipase C and the generation of inositol phosphates does not seem to be a prerequisite for desensitization.

  16. Saccharomyces cerevisiae phospholipase C regulates transcription of Msn2p-dependent stress-responsive genes.

    PubMed

    Demczuk, Agnieszka; Guha, Nilanjan; Nguyen, Peter H; Desai, Parima; Chang, Jennifer; Guzinska, Katarzyna; Rollins, Janet; Ghosh, Chandra C; Goodwin, Leslie; Vancura, Ales

    2008-06-01

    Phosphatidylinositol phosphates are involved in signal transduction, cytoskeletal organization, and membrane trafficking. Inositol polyphosphates, produced from phosphatidylinositol phosphates by the phospholipase C-dependent pathway, regulate chromatin remodeling. We used genome-wide expression analysis to further investigate the roles of Plc1p (phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C in Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and inositol polyphosphates in transcriptional regulation. Plc1p contributes to the regulation of approximately 2% of yeast genes in cells grown in rich medium. Most of these genes are induced by nutrient limitation and other environmental stresses and are derepressed in plc1 Delta cells. Surprisingly, genes regulated by Plc1p do not correlate with gene sets regulated by Swi/Snf or RSC chromatin remodeling complexes but show correlation with genes controlled by Msn2p. Our results suggest that the increased expression of stress-responsive genes in plc1 Delta cells is mediated by decreased cyclic AMP synthesis and protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of Msn2p and increased binding of Msn2p to stress-responsive promoters. Accordingly, plc1 Delta cells display other phenotypes characteristic of cells with decreased PKA activity. Our results are consistent with a model in which Plc1p acts together with the membrane receptor Gpr1p and associated G(alpha) protein Gpa2p in a pathway separate from Ras1p/Ras2p and converging on PKA.

  17. Naegleria fowleri amoebae express a membrane-associated calcium-independent phospholipase A(2).

    PubMed

    Barbour, S E; Marciano-Cabral, F

    2001-02-26

    Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba, is the causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. Previous reports have demonstrated that N. fowleri expresses one or more forms of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) and that a secreted form of this enzyme is involved in pathogenesis. However, the molecular nature of these phospholipases remains largely unknown. This study was initiated to determine whether N. fowleri expresses analogs of the well-characterized PLA(2)s that are expressed by mammalian macrophages. Amoeba cell homogenates contain a PLA(2) activity that hydrolyzes the substrate that is preferred by the 85 kDa calcium-dependent cytosolic PLA(2), cPLA(2). However, unlike the cPLA(2) enzyme in macrophages, this activity is largely calcium-independent, is constitutively associated with membranes and shows only a modest preference for phospholipids that contain arachidonate. The amoeba PLA(2) activity is sensitive to inhibitors that block the activities of cPLA(2)-alpha and the 80 kDa calcium-independent PLA(2), iPLA(2), that are expressed by mammalian cells. One of these compounds, methylarachidonyl fluorophosphonate, partially inhibits the constitutive release of [(3)H]arachidonic acid from pre-labeled amoebae. Together, these data suggest that N. fowleri expresses a constitutively active calcium-independent PLA(2) that may play a role in the basal phospholipid metabolism of these cells.

  18. Phospholipase D δ knock-out mutants are tolerant to severe drought stress.

    PubMed

    Distéfano, Ayelen M; Valiñas, Matías A; Scuffi, Denise; Lamattina, Lorenzo; Ten Have, Arjen; García-Mata, Carlos; Laxalt, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in different plant processes, ranging from responses to abiotic and biotic stress to plant development. Phospholipase Dδ (PLDδ) is activated in dehydration and salt stress, producing the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid. In this work we show that pldδ Arabidopsis mutants were more tolerant to severe drought than wild-type plants. PLDδ has been shown to be required for ABA regulation of stomatal closure of isolated epidermal peels. However, there was no significant difference in stomatal conductance at the whole plant level between wild-type and pldδ mutants. Since PLD hydrolyses structural phospholipids, then we looked at membrane integrity. Ion leakage measurements showed that during dehydration of leaf discs pldδ mutant has less membrane degradation compared to the wild-type. We further analyzed the mutants and showed that pldδ have higher mRNA levels of RAB18 and RD29A compared to wild-type plants under normal growth conditions. Transient expression of AtPLDδ in Nicotiana benthamiana plants induced a wilting phenotype. These findings suggest that, in wt plants PLDδ disrupt membranes in severe drought stress and, in the absence of the protein (PLDδ knock-out) might drought-prime the plants, making them more tolerant to severe drought stress. The results are discussed in relation to PLDδ role in guard cell signaling and drought tolerance. PMID:26340512

  19. Role of beta-endorphin on phospholipase production in Malassezia pachydermatis in dogs: new insights into the pathogenesis of this yeast.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, C; Dell'Aquila, M E; Capelli, G; Minoia, P; Otranto, D

    2007-02-01

    Malassezia spp. are lipophilic yeasts that are part of the normal cutaneous microflora and sometimes act as pathogens causing dermatitis. This study investigated the interactions occurring between beta-endorphin and phospholipase activity in isolates of M. pachydermatis in dogs presenting cutaneous lesions. Phospholipase production was evaluated and quantified on 144 isolates suspended in Dixon broth to which different beta-endorphin concentrations (from 600 to 0.6 pM) were added. The isolates were divided into three groups: group A comprised isolates from lesional skin of dogs with dermatitis confined to one site, group B consisted of isolates from the healthy skin of the same dogs with localized lesions, and group C was made up of isolates from assorted skin sites of healthy dogs. A statistically higher phospholipase activity than that of the controls was recorded in group B at all tested beta-endorphin concentrations. In groups A (Pz=0.62) and C (Pz=0.62) phospholipase activity was statistically higher than the controls only at a concentration of 600 pM. This study suggests that beta-endorphin plays an important role in the production of phospholipase in M. pachydermatis isolates and provides evidence that beta-endorphin concentrations affect the number but not the Pz value of phospholipase-producing isolates. B-endorphin concentrations may play a relevant role in inducing M. pachydermatis cell differentiation towards the production or non-production of phospholipase. PMID:17325939

  20. GDP beta S enhances the activation of phospholipase C caused by thrombin in human platelets: evidence for involvement of an inhibitory GTP-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Oberdisse, E.; Lapetina, E.G.

    1987-05-14

    Guanosine 5'-O-thiotriphosphate (GTP gamma S) and thrombin stimulate the activity of phospholipase C in platelets that have been permeabilized with saponin and whose inositol phospholipids have been prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)inositol. Ca/sup 2 +/ has opposite effects on the formation of (/sup 3/H)inositol phosphates induced by thrombin or GTP gamma S. While the action of GTP gamma S on the formation of (/sup 3/H)inositol phosphates is inhibited by Ca/sup 2 +/, action of thrombin is stimulated by Ca/sup 2 +/. Guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDP beta S), which inhibits the function of GTP-binding proteins, also inhibits the effect of GTP gamma S on phospholipase C stimulation but, surprisingly, increases the effect of thrombin. Ca/sup 2 +/ increases the inhibitory effect of GDP beta S on GTP gamma S activation of phospholipase C, but Ca/sup 2 +/ further enhances the stimulatory effect of GDP beta S on the thrombin activation of phospholipase C. This indicates that two mechanisms are responsible for the activation of phospholipase C in platelets. A GTP-binding protein is responsible for regulation of phospholipase C induced by GTP gamma S, while the effect of thrombin on the stimulation of phospholipase C is independent of GTP-binding proteins. However, the effect of thrombin may be modulated by the action of an inhibitory GTP-binding protein.

  1. A Cell-Permeable Phospholipase C[gamma]1-Binding Peptide Transduces Neurons and Impairs Long-Term Spatial Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Sonja; Dash, Pramod K.

    2004-01-01

    Growth factor-mediated signaling has emerged as an essential component of memory formation. In this study, we used a phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLC[gamma]1) binding, cell-penetrating peptide to sequester PLC[gamma]1 away from its target, the phosphotyrosine residues within the activated growth factor receptor. Peptides appear to transduce neurons…

  2. Effects of a phospholipase A/sub 2/ inhibitor on uptake and toxicity of liposomes containing plant phosphatidylinositol

    SciTech Connect

    Jett, M.; Alving, C.R.

    1986-05-01

    Plant phosphatidylinositol (PI) has been shown by us to have a direct cytotoxic effect on cultured tumor cells but not on normal cells. Synthetic PI containing /sup 14/C-linoleic acid in the sn-2 position, also showed the same pattern of selective cytotoxicity. When the metabolic fate of synthetic PI was examined with tumor cells, the radioactivity which no longer occurred as PI, was found as either products of phospholipase A/sub 2/ (93%, free fatty acids and phosphatidylcholine) or phospholipase C (7%, diglycerides). Uptake of liposomal PI was directly correlated with cytotoxicity. They tested a variety of inhibitors to see the effect on uptake and/or cytotoxicity of plant PI. General metabolic inhibitors such as metrizamide or sodium azide did not alter cellular uptake of the plant PI liposomes. Inhibitors of lipoxygenase formation, such as indomethacin, also did not alter the uptake or cytotoxicity induced by plant PI. Quinacrine, an inhibitor of phospholipase A/sub 2/, decreased the uptake of the PI containing liposomes to 50% of that seen in the presence or absence of any other inhibitor. Although quinacrine is itself toxic to cells, at low concentrations of quinacrine, plant PI did not show the same degree of cytotoxicity as in the absence of quinacrine. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that plant PI exerts cytotoxicity by serving as a substrate for phospholipase A/sub 2/.

  3. The effect of centrally injected CDP-choline on respiratory system; involvement of phospholipase to thromboxane signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Topuz, Bora B; Altinbas, Burcin; Yilmaz, Mustafa S; Saha, Sikha; Batten, Trevor F; Savci, Vahide; Yalcin, Murat

    2014-05-01

    CDP-choline is an endogenous metabolite in phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. Exogenous administration of CDP-choline has been shown to affect brain metabolism and to exhibit cardiovascular, neuroendocrine neuroprotective actions. On the other hand, little is known regarding its respiratory actions and/or central mechanism of its respiratory effect. Therefore the current study was designed to investigate the possible effects of centrally injected CDP-choline on respiratory system and the mediation of the central cholinergic receptors and phospholipase to thromboxane signaling pathway on CDP-choline-induced respiratory effects in anaesthetized rats. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administration of CDP-choline induced dose- and time-dependent increased respiratory rates, tidal volume and minute ventilation of male anaesthetized Spraque Dawley rats. İ.c.v. pretreatment with atropine failed to alter the hyperventilation responses to CDP-choline whereas mecamylamine, cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonist, mepacrine, phospholipase A2 inhibitor, and neomycin phospholipase C inhibitor, blocked completely the hyperventilation induced by CDP-choline. In addition, central pretreatment with furegrelate, thromboxane A2 synthesis inhibitor, also partially blocked CDP-choline-evoked hyperventilation effects. These data show that centrally administered CDP-choline induces hyperventilation which is mediated by activation of central nicotinic receptors and phospholipase to thromboxane signaling pathway.

  4. The correlation between anti phospholipase A2 specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers

    PubMed Central

    Matysiak, Joanna; Bręborowicz, Anna; Dereziński, Paweł; Kokot, Zenon J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Beekeepers are a group of people with high exposure to honeybee stings and with a very high risk of allergy to bee venom. Therefore, they are a proper population to study the correlations between clinical symptoms and results of diagnostic tests. Aim The primary aim of our study was to assess the correlations between total IgE, venom- and phospholipase A2-specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers. The secondary aim was to compare the results of diagnostic tests in beekeepers and in individuals with standard exposure to bees. Material and methods Fifty-four individuals were divided into two groups: beekeepers and control group. The levels of total IgE (tIgE), venom-specific IgE (venom sIgE), and phospholipase A2-specific IgE (phospholipase A2 sIgE) were analyzed. Results Our study showed no statistically significant correlation between the clinical symptoms after a sting and tIgE in the entire analyzed group. There was also no correlation between venom sIgE level and clinical symptoms either in beekeepers or in the group with standard exposure to bees. We observed a statistically significant correlation between phospholipase A2 sIgE level and clinical signs after a sting in the group of beekeepers, whereas no such correlation was detected in the control group. Significantly higher venom-specific IgE levels in the beekeepers, as compared to control individuals were shown. Conclusions In beekeepers, the severity of clinical symptoms after a bee sting correlated better with phospholipase A2 sIgE than with venom sIgE levels. PMID:27512356

  5. Phospholipase A{sub 2} is involved in the mechanism of activation of neutrophils by polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Tithof, P.K.; Schiamberg, E.; Ganey, P.E.; Peters-Golden, M.

    1996-01-01

    Aroclor 1242, a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), activates neutrophils to produce superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) by a mechanism that involves phospholipase C-dependent hydrolysis of membrane phosphoinositides; however, subsequent signal transduction mechanisms are unknown. This study determines whether phospholipase A{sub 2}-dependent release of arachidonic acid is involved in PCB-induced O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} production. O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} production was measured in vitro in glycogen-elicited, rat neutrophils in the presence and absence of the inhibitors of phospholipase A{sub 2}: quinacrine, 4-bromophenacyl bromide (BPB), and manoalide. All three agents significantly decreased the amount of O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} detected during stimulation of neutrophils with Aroclor 1242. Similar inhibition occurred when neutrophils were activated with the classical stimuli, formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) or phorbol myristate acetate. The effects of BPB and manoalide were not a result of cytotoxicity or other nonspecific effects. Significant release of {sup 3}H-arachidonic acid preceded O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} production in neutrophils stimulated with Aroclor 1242 or fMLP. Manoalide, at a concentration that abolished O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} production, also inhibited the release of {sup 3}H-arachidonate. Aspirin, zileuton, or WEB 2086 did not affect Aroclor 1242-induced O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} production, suggesting that eicosanoids and platelet-activating factor are not needed for neutrophil activation by PCBs. Activation of phos-pholipase A{sub 2} and O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} production do not appear to involve the Ah receptor. These data suggest that Aroclor 1242 stimulates neutrophils to produce O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} by a mechanism that involves phospholipase A{sub 2}-dependent release of arachiodonic acid. 49 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. The hydrophobic amino acids involved in the interdomain association of phospholipase D1 regulate the shuttling of phospholipase D1 from vesicular organelles into the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Jang, Young Hoon; Min, Do Sik

    2012-10-31

    Phospholipase D (PLD) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to generate the lipid second messenger, phosphatidic acid. PLD is localized in most cellular organelles, where it is likely to play different roles in signal transduction. PLD1 is primarily localized in vesicular structures such as endosomes, lysosomes and autophagosomes. However, the factors defining its localization are less clear. In this study, we found that four hydrophobic residues present in the N-terminal HKD catalytic motif of PLD1, which is involved in intramolecular association, are responsible for vesicular localization. Site-directed mutagenesis of the residues dramatically disrupted vesicular localization of PLD1. Interestingly, the hydrophobic residues of PLD1 are also involved in the interruption of its nuclear localization. Mutation of the residues increased the association of PLD1 with importin-β, which is known to mediate nuclear importation, and induced the localization of PLD1 from vesicles into the nucleus. Taken together, these data suggest that the hydrophobic amino acids involved in the interdomain association of PLD1 are required for vesicular localization and disturbance of its nuclear localization.

  7. Combining phospholipases and a liquid lipase for one-step biodiesel production using crude oils

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Enzymatic biodiesel is becoming an increasingly popular topic in bioenergy literature because of its potential to overcome the problems posed by chemical processes. However, the high cost of the enzymatic process still remains the main drawback for its industrial application, mostly because of the high price of refined oils. Unfortunately, low cost substrates, such as crude soybean oil, often release a product that hardly accomplishes the final required biodiesel specifications and need an additional pretreatment for gums removal. In order to reduce costs and to make the enzymatic process more efficient, we developed an innovative system for enzymatic biodiesel production involving a combination of a lipase and two phospholipases. This allows performing the enzymatic degumming and transesterification in a single step, using crude soybean oil as feedstock, and converting part of the phospholipids into biodiesel. Since the two processes have never been studied together, an accurate analysis of the different reaction components and conditions was carried out. Results Crude soybean oil, used as low cost feedstock, is characterized by a high content of phospholipids (900 ppm of phosphorus). However, after the combined activity of different phospholipases and liquid lipase Callera Trans L, a complete transformation into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs >95%) and a good reduction of phosphorus (P <5 ppm) was achieved. The combination of enzymes allowed avoidance of the acid treatment required for gums removal, the consequent caustic neutralization, and the high temperature commonly used in degumming systems, making the overall process more eco-friendly and with higher yield. Once the conditions were established, the process was also tested with different vegetable oils with variable phosphorus contents. Conclusions Use of liquid lipase Callera Trans L in biodiesel production can provide numerous and sustainable benefits. Besides reducing the costs derived from

  8. Rickettsia typhi Possesses Phospholipase A2 Enzymes that Are Involved in Infection of Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. Sayeedur; Gillespie, Joseph J.; Kaur, Simran Jeet; Sears, Khandra T.; Ceraul, Shane M.; Beier-Sexton, Magda; Azad, Abdu F.

    2013-01-01

    The long-standing proposal that phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes are involved in rickettsial infection of host cells has been given support by the recent characterization of a patatin phospholipase (Pat2) with PLA2 activity from the pathogens Rickettsia prowazekii and R. typhi. However, pat2 is not encoded in all Rickettsia genomes; yet another uncharacterized patatin (Pat1) is indeed ubiquitous. Here, evolutionary analysis of both patatins across 46 Rickettsia genomes revealed 1) pat1 and pat2 loci are syntenic across all genomes, 2) both Pat1 and Pat2 do not contain predicted Sec-dependent signal sequences, 3) pat2 has been pseudogenized multiple times in rickettsial evolution, and 4) ubiquitous pat1 forms two divergent groups (pat1A and pat1B) with strong evidence for recombination between pat1B and plasmid-encoded homologs. In light of these findings, we extended the characterization of R. typhi Pat1 and Pat2 proteins and determined their role in the infection process. As previously demonstrated for Pat2, we determined that 1) Pat1 is expressed and secreted into the host cytoplasm during R. typhi infection, 2) expression of recombinant Pat1 is cytotoxic to yeast cells, 3) recombinant Pat1 possesses PLA2 activity that requires a host cofactor, and 4) both Pat1 cytotoxicity and PLA2 activity were reduced by PLA2 inhibitors and abolished by site-directed mutagenesis of catalytic Ser/Asp residues. To ascertain the role of Pat1 and Pat2 in R. typhi infection, antibodies to both proteins were used to pretreat rickettsiae. Subsequent invasion and plaque assays both indicated a significant decrease in R. typhi infection compared to that by pre-immune IgG. Furthermore, antibody-pretreatment of R. typhi blocked/delayed phagosomal escapes. Together, these data suggest both enzymes are involved early in the infection process. Collectively, our study suggests that R. typhi utilizes two evolutionary divergent patatin phospholipases to support its intracellular life cycle, a

  9. Inherited human group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 deficiency abolishes platelet, endothelial, and leucocyte eicosanoid generation

    PubMed Central

    Kirkby, Nicholas S.; Reed, Daniel M.; Edin, Matthew L.; Rauzi, Francesca; Mataragka, Stefania; Vojnovic, Ivana; Bishop-Bailey, David; Milne, Ginger L.; Longhurst, Hilary; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Mitchell, Jane A.; Warner, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Eicosanoids are important vascular regulators, but the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isoforms supporting their production within the cardiovascular system are not fully understood. To address this, we have studied platelets, endothelial cells, and leukocytes from 2 siblings with a homozygous loss-of-function mutation in group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α). Chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine levels of a broad range of eicosanoids produced by isolated vascular cells, and in plasma and urine. Eicosanoid release data were paired with studies of cellular function. Absence of cPLA2α almost abolished eicosanoid synthesis in platelets (e.g., thromboxane A2, control 20.5 ± 1.4 ng/ml vs. patient 0.1 ng/ml) and leukocytes [e.g., prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), control 21.9 ± 7.4 ng/ml vs. patient 1.9 ng/ml], and this was associated with impaired platelet activation and enhanced inflammatory responses. cPLA2α-deficient endothelial cells showed reduced, but not absent, formation of prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin; control 956 ± 422 pg/ml vs. patient 196 pg/ml) and were primed for inflammation. In the urine, prostaglandin metabolites were selectively influenced by cPLA2α deficiency. For example, prostacyclin metabolites were strongly reduced (18.4% of control) in patients lacking cPLA2α, whereas PGE2 metabolites (77.8% of control) were similar to healthy volunteer levels. These studies constitute a definitive account, demonstrating the fundamental role of cPLA2α to eicosanoid formation and cellular responses within the human circulation.—Kirkby, N. S., Reed, D. M., Edin, M. L., Rauzi, F., Mataragka, S., Vojnovic, I., Bishop-Bailey, D., Milne, G. L., Longhurst, H., Zeldin, D. C., Mitchell, J. A., Warner, T. D. Inherited human group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 deficiency abolishes platelet, endothelial, and leucocyte eicosanoid generation. PMID:26183771

  10. Dynamic Surface Activity of a Fully Synthetic Phospholipase-Resistant Lipid/Peptide Lung Surfactant

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Frans J.; Waring, Alan J.; Hernandez-Juviel, Jose M.; Gordon, Larry M.; Schwan, Adrian L.; Jung, Chun-Ling; Chang, Yusuo; Wang, Zhengdong; Notter, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    Background This study examines the surface activity and resistance to phospholipase degradation of a fully-synthetic lung surfactant containing a novel diether phosphonolipid (DEPN-8) plus a 34 amino acid peptide (Mini-B) related to native surfactant protein (SP)-B. Activity studies used adsorption, pulsating bubble, and captive bubble methods to assess a range of surface behaviors, supplemented by molecular studies using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD), and plasmon resonance. Calf lung surfactant extract (CLSE) was used as a positive control. Results DEPN-8+1.5% (by wt.) Mini-B was fully resistant to degradation by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in vitro, while CLSE was severely degraded by this enzyme. Mini-B interacted with DEPN-8 at the molecular level based on FTIR spectroscopy, and had significant plasmon resonance binding affinity for DEPN-8. DEPN-8+1.5% Mini-B had greatly increased adsorption compared to DEPN-8 alone, but did not fully equal the very high adsorption of CLSE. In pulsating bubble studies at a low phospholipid concentration of 0.5 mg/ml, DEPN-8+1.5% Mini-B and CLSE both reached minimum surface tensions <1 mN/m after 10 min of cycling. DEPN-8 (2.5 mg/ml)+1.5% Mini-B and CLSE (2.5 mg/ml) also reached minimum surface tensions <1 mN/m at 10 min of pulsation in the presence of serum albumin (3 mg/ml) on the pulsating bubble. In captive bubble studies, DEPN-8+1.5% Mini-B and CLSE both generated minimum surface tensions <1 mN/m on 10 successive cycles of compression/expansion at quasi-static and dynamic rates. Conclusions These results show that DEPN-8 and 1.5% Mini-B form an interactive binary molecular mixture with very high surface activity and the ability to resist degradation by phospholipases in inflammatory lung injury. These characteristics are promising for the development of related fully-synthetic lipid/peptide exogenous surfactants for treating diseases of surfactant deficiency or dysfunction. PMID

  11. Lipidomics profile of a NAPE-PLD KO mouse provides evidence of a broader role of this enzyme in lipid metabolism in the brain.

    PubMed

    Leishman, Emma; Mackie, Ken; Luquet, Serge; Bradshaw, Heather B

    2016-06-01

    A leading hypothesis of N-acyl ethanolamine (NAE) biosynthesis, including the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (AEA), is that it depends on hydrolysis of N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamines (NAPE) by a NAPE-specific phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD). Thus, deletion of NAPE-PLD should attenuate NAE levels. Previous analyses of two different NAPE-PLD knockout (KO) strains produced contradictory data on the importance of NAPE-PLD to AEA biosynthesis. Here, we examine this hypothesis with a strain of NAPE-PLD KO mice whose lipidome is uncharacterized. Using HPLC/MS/MS, over 70 lipids, including the AEA metabolite, N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly), the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG) and prostaglandins (PGE(2) and PGF(2α)), and over 60 lipoamines were analyzed in 8 brain regions of KO and wild-type (WT) mice. Lipidomics analysis of this third NAPE-PLD KO strain shows a broad range of lipids that were differentially affected by lipid species and brain region. Importantly, all 6 NAEs measured were significantly reduced, though the magnitude of the effect varied by fatty acid saturation length and brain region. 2-AG levels were only impacted in the brainstem, where levels were significantly increased in KO mice. Correspondingly, levels of arachidonic acid were significantly decreased exclusively in brainstem. NAGly levels were significantly increased in 4 brain regions and levels of PGE(2) increased in 6 of 8 brain regions in KO mice. These data indicate that deletion of NAPE-PLD has far broader effects on the lipidome than previously recognized. Therefore, behavioral characteristics of suppressing NAPE-PLD activity may be due to a myriad of effects on lipids and not simply due to reduced AEA biosynthesis. PMID:26956082

  12. Lipidomics profile of a NAPE-PLD KO mouse provides evidence of a broader role of this enzyme in lipid metabolism in the brain.

    PubMed

    Leishman, Emma; Mackie, Ken; Luquet, Serge; Bradshaw, Heather B

    2016-06-01

    A leading hypothesis of N-acyl ethanolamine (NAE) biosynthesis, including the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (AEA), is that it depends on hydrolysis of N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamines (NAPE) by a NAPE-specific phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD). Thus, deletion of NAPE-PLD should attenuate NAE levels. Previous analyses of two different NAPE-PLD knockout (KO) strains produced contradictory data on the importance of NAPE-PLD to AEA biosynthesis. Here, we examine this hypothesis with a strain of NAPE-PLD KO mice whose lipidome is uncharacterized. Using HPLC/MS/MS, over 70 lipids, including the AEA metabolite, N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly), the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG) and prostaglandins (PGE(2) and PGF(2α)), and over 60 lipoamines were analyzed in 8 brain regions of KO and wild-type (WT) mice. Lipidomics analysis of this third NAPE-PLD KO strain shows a broad range of lipids that were differentially affected by lipid species and brain region. Importantly, all 6 NAEs measured were significantly reduced, though the magnitude of the effect varied by fatty acid saturation length and brain region. 2-AG levels were only impacted in the brainstem, where levels were significantly increased in KO mice. Correspondingly, levels of arachidonic acid were significantly decreased exclusively in brainstem. NAGly levels were significantly increased in 4 brain regions and levels of PGE(2) increased in 6 of 8 brain regions in KO mice. These data indicate that deletion of NAPE-PLD has far broader effects on the lipidome than previously recognized. Therefore, behavioral characteristics of suppressing NAPE-PLD activity may be due to a myriad of effects on lipids and not simply due to reduced AEA biosynthesis.

  13. Molecular and mesoscopic properties of hydrophilic polymer-grafted phospholipids mixed with phosphatidylcholine in aqueous dispersion: interaction of dipalmitoyl N-poly(ethylene glycol)phosphatidylethanolamine with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine studied by spectrophotometry and spin-label electron spin resonance.

    PubMed Central

    Belsito, S; Bartucci, R; Montesano, G; Marsh, D; Sportelli, L

    2000-01-01

    Spin-label electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, together with optical density measurements, has been used to investigate, at both the molecular and supramolecular levels, the interactions of N-poly(ethylene glycol)-phosphatidylethanolamines (PEG-PE) with phosphatidylcholine (PC) in aqueous dispersions. PEG-PEs are micelle-forming hydrophilic polymer-grafted lipids that are used extensively for steric stabilization of PC liposomes to increase their lifetimes in the blood circulation. All lipids had dipalmitoyl (C16:0) chains, and the polymer polar group of the PEG-PE lipids had a mean molecular mass of either 350 or 2000 Da. PC/PEG-PE mixtures were investigated over the entire range of relative compositions. Spin-label ESR was used quantitatively to investigate bilayer-micelle conversion with increasing PEG-PE content by measurements at temperatures for which the bilayer membrane component of the mixture was in the gel phase. Both saturation transfer ESR and optical density measurements were used to obtain information on the dependence of lipid aggregate size on PEG-PE content. It is found that the stable state of lipid aggregation is strongly dependent not only on PEG-PE content but also on the size of the hydrophilic polar group. These biophysical properties may be used for optimized design of sterically stabilized liposomes. PMID:10692327

  14. Synthesis of substrates for periodate-coupled assay of phospholipases C and sphingomyelinases.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Kira Løw; Andersen, Rokhsana J; Brask, Jesper

    2016-09-01

    A series of 4-nitrophenyl (pNP) and 4-methylumbelliferyl (4MU) substrate analogues of phosphatidyl choline (PC) and phosphatidic acid (PA) were synthesized from 4-bromo-1-butene by ether formation, olefin epoxidation and ring opening with the phosphate head group. The pNP PC analogue, 4-(4-nitrophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-butyl-1-phosphoryl choline (1) was evaluated in assays of fungal sphingomyelinases, also displaying phospholipase C activity. Reactions were terminated with a periodate-containing stop solution, leading to liberation of pNP, quantified spectrophotometrically in an end-point measurement. A kinetic evaluation of sphingomyelinases from Kionochaeta sp. and Penicillium emersonii showed relatively high KM and low kcat values for this substrate, limiting its practical applicability in assays with low sphingomyelinase concentrations. PMID:27444331

  15. Discovery of desketoraloxifene analogues as inhibitors of mammalian, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and NAPE phospholipase D enzymes.

    PubMed

    Scott, Sarah A; Spencer, Cierra T; O'Reilly, Matthew C; Brown, Kyle A; Lavieri, Robert R; Cho, Chul-Hee; Jung, Dai-Il; Larock, Richard C; Brown, H Alex; Lindsley, Craig W

    2015-02-20

    Phospholipase D (PLD) hydrolyses cellular lipids to produce the important lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid. A PLD enzyme expressed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PldA) has been shown to be important in bacterial infection, and NAPE-PLD has emerged as being key in the synthesis of endocannabinoids. In order to better understand the biology and therapeutic potential of these less explored PLD enzymes, small molecule tools are required. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) have been previously shown to inhibit mammalian PLD (PLD1 and PLD2). By targeted screening of a library of SERM analogues, additional parallel synthesis, and evaluation in multiple PLD assays, we discovered a novel desketoraloxifene-based scaffold that inhibited not only the two mammalian PLDs but also structurally divergent PldA and NAPE-PLD. This finding represents an important first step toward the development of small molecules possessing universal inhibition of divergent PLD enzymes to advance the field.

  16. Structural Insights into Substrate Binding of Brown Spider Venom Class II Phospholipases D.

    PubMed

    Coronado, M A; Ullah, A; da Silva, L S; Chaves-Moreira, D; Vuitika, L; Chaim, O M; Veiga, S S; Chahine, J; Murakami, M T; Arni, R K

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipases D (PLDs), the major dermonecrotic factors from brown spider venoms, trigger a range of biological reactions both in vitro and in vivo. Despite their clinical relevance in loxoscelism, structural data is restricted to the apo-form of these enzymes, which has been instrumental in understanding the functional differences between the class I and II spider PLDs. The crystal structures of the native class II PLD from Loxosceles intermedia complexed with myo-inositol 1-phosphate and the inactive mutant H12A complexed with fatty acids indicate the existence of a strong ligand-dependent conformation change of the highly conserved aromatic residues, Tyr 223 and Trp225 indicating their roles in substrate binding. These results provided insights into the structural determinants for substrate recognition and binding by class II PLDs.

  17. Regulation of Phosphatidylinositol-specific Phospholipase C at the Nuclear Envelope in Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Smrcka, Alan V.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate hydrolysis at the plasma membrane by phospholipase C is one of the major hormone regulated intracellular signaling systems. The system generates the diffusible second messenger IP3 and the membrane bound messenger diacylglycerol. Spatial regulation of this system has been thought to be through specific subcellular distributions of the IP3 receptor or PKC. As is becoming increasingly apparent, receptor-stimulated signaling systems are also found at intracellular membranes. As discussed in this issue, GPCRs have been identified at the nuclear envelope implying intracellular localization of the signaling systems that respond to GPCRs. Here we discuss the evidence for the existence of PLC signals that regulate nuclear processes, as well as the evidence for nuclear and nuclear envelope localization of PLC signaling components, and their implications for cardiac physiology and disease. PMID:25658460

  18. Cognitive Stimulation Modulates Platelet Total Phospholipases A2 Activity in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Balietti, Marta; Giuli, Cinzia; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Fabbietti, Paolo; Postacchini, Demetrio; Conti, Fiorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of cognitive stimulation (CS) on platelet total phospholipases A2 activity (tPLA2A) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI_P). At baseline, tPLA2A negatively correlated with Mini-Mental State Examination score (MMSE_s): patients with MMSE_s <26 (Subgroup 1) had significantly higher activity than those with MMSE_s ≥26 (Subgroup 2), who had values similar to the healthy elderly. Regarding CS effect, Subgroup 1 had a significant tPLA2A reduction, whereas Subgroup 2 did not significantly changes after training. Our results showed for the first time that tPLA2A correlates with the cognitive conditions of MCI_P, and that CS acts selectively on subjects with a dysregulated tPLA2A. PMID:26836161

  19. Endogenous glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C releases renal dipeptidase from kidney proximal tubules in vitro.

    PubMed

    Park, S W; Choi, K; Kim, I C; Lee, H H; Hooper, N M; Park, H S

    2001-01-15

    Spontaneous enzymic release of renal dipeptidase (RDPase; EC 3.4.13.19), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked ectoenzyme, was observed in vitro during incubation of porcine proximal tubules at 37 degrees C. Triton X-114 phase separation of the released RDPase showed that the majority of the enzyme activity partitioned into the aqueous phase, indicating its hydrophilic nature. Immunoblot analyses using an antibody against the cross-reacting determinant (CRD) inositol 1,2-cyclic monophosphate, the epitope formed by phospholipase C (PLC) cleavage of the GPI anchor on a protein, detected the released RDPase. Reprobing the immunoblot with an anti-RDPase serum showed the RDPase band co-migrating with the CRD band. The release of RDPase from the proximal tubules was a Ca(2+)-dependent process and had a pH optimum of 9.0. These results indicate that RDPase is released from the proximal tubules by the action of a distinct endogenous GPI-specific PLC.

  20. Regulation of Transient Receptor Potential channels by the phospholipase C pathway

    PubMed Central

    Rohacs, Tibor

    2013-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels were discovered while analyzing visual mutants in drosophila. The protein encoded by the transient receptor potential (trp) gene is a Ca2+ permeable cation channel activated downstream of the phospholipase C (PLC) pathway. While searching for homologues in other organisms, a surprisingly large number of mammalian TRP channels were cloned. The regulation of TRP channels is quite diverse, but many of them are either activated downstream of the PLC pathway, or modulated by it. This review will summarize the current knowledge on regulation of TRP channels by the PLC pathway, with special focus on TRPC-s, which can be considered as effectors of the PLC pathway, and the heat and capsaicin sensitive TRPV1, which is modulated by the PLC pathway in a complex manner. PMID:23916247

  1. Structure and function of lysosomal phospholipase A2 and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhova, Alisa; Hinkovska-Galcheva, Vania; Kelly, Robert; Abe, Akira; Shayman, James A.; Tesmer, John J. G.

    2015-03-01

    Lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) belong to a structurally uncharacterized family of key lipid-metabolizing enzymes responsible for lung surfactant catabolism and for reverse cholesterol transport, respectively. Whereas LPLA2 is predicted to underlie the development of drug-induced phospholipidosis, somatic mutations in LCAT cause fish eye disease and familial LCAT deficiency. Here we describe several high-resolution crystal structures of human LPLA2 and a low-resolution structure of LCAT that confirms its close structural relationship to LPLA2. Insertions in the α/β hydrolase core of LPLA2 form domains that are responsible for membrane interaction and binding the acyl chains and head groups of phospholipid substrates. The LCAT structure suggests the molecular basis underlying human disease for most of the known LCAT missense mutations, and paves the way for rational development of new therapeutics to treat LCAT deficiency, atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndrome.

  2. Phospholipase A2 receptor positive membranous nephropathy long after living donor kidney transplantation between identical twins.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hisako; Hamasaki, Yoshifumi; Tojo, Akihiro; Shintani, Yukako; Shimizu, Akira; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2015-07-01

    Although membranous nephropathy (MN) is a commonly observed cause of post-transplant glomerulonephritis, distinguishing de novo from recurrent MN in kidney allograft is often difficult. Phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) staining is useful for diagnosing recurrent MN in allografts similarly to idiopathic MN in native kidney. No specific treatment strategy has been established for MN, especially when accompanied with HCV infection in kidney transplant recipients. This report describes a 66-year-old man who was diagnosed as having PLA2R positive membranous nephropathy accompanied with already-known IgA nephropathy and HCV infection 26 years after kidney transplantation conducted between identical twins. PLA2R was detected along capillary loops, implying that this patient is affected by the same pathogenic mechanism as idiopathic MN, not secondary MN associated with other disorders such as HCV infection. The patient successfully achieved clinical remission after steroid therapy.

  3. AGN 190383, a novel phospholipase inhibitor with topical anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    De Vries, G W; Lee, G; Amdahl, L; Wenzel, M; Garst, M; Wheeler, L A

    1991-09-01

    AGN 190383 is a 5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone ring analog of the marine natural product manoalide. When applied topically, AGN 190383 inhibits phorbol ester induced mouse ear edema. It is a potent inhibitor of bee venom phospholipase A2 and blocks the release of arachidonic acid from calcium ionophore A23187 stimulated human neutrophils. AGN 190383 also inhibits both hormone-operated and depolarization-dependent calcium mobilization in GH3 cells, as well as fMLP stimulated increases in free cytosolic calcium in human PMNs. Furthermore, it is also able to block the release of the neutral protease elastase from stimulated neutrophils. The effects of AGN 190383 on arachidonic acid metabolism and leukocyte function may account, in part, for its anti-inflammatory activity in vivo.

  4. Itraconazole-resistant Candida auris with phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity from a case of vulvovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dharmendra; Banerjee, Tuhina; Pratap, Chandra Bhan; Tilak, Ragini

    2015-04-15

    Since the emergence of pathogenic non-albicans Candida species, a number of new isolates have been added to the list. One such unusual species is Candida auris (C. auris), recently isolated and studied in few reports. In this study, a case of vulvovaginitis caused by Candida auris incidentally identified by molecular methods using internal transcribed spacer polymerase chain reaction (ITS PCR) is described. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed the isolate to be resistant to itraconazole (MIC ≥ 2 µg/ml) and expressed important virulence factors including phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity. The patient was successfully treated with oral fluconazole and did not have any invasive fungemia. Very few cases of this emerging pathogen have been reported. However, its isolation from clinical specimens reveals the significance of non-albicans candida species over C. albicans and the diversity of Candida spp causing infections.

  5. Phospholipase A2 Receptor-Positive Idiopathic Membranous Glomerulonephritis with Onset at 95 Years: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Keiichi; Hoshino, Junichi; Ueno, Toshiharu; Mise, Koki; Hazue, Ryo; Sekine, Akinari; Yabuuchi, Junko; Yamanouchi, Masayuki; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Kikuchi, Koichi; Sumida, Keiichi; Hayami, Noriko; Sawa, Naoki; Takaichi, Kenmei; Fujii, Takeshi; Ohashi, Kenichi; Akiyama, Shinichi; Maruyama, Shoichi; Ubara, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    A 95-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for evaluation of bilateral lower-limb edema persisting for 3 months. Serum creatinine was 1.55 mg/dl, and urinary protein excretion was 9.1 g/day. Renal biopsy revealed stage 1 membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) with immunoglobulin G4-dominant staining. This patient did not have any underlying disease such as infection with hepatitis B or C virus or malignancy, and anti-phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) antibody was detected in the serum. Accordingly, idiopathic MGN was diagnosed. Corticosteroid therapy was avoided, but hemodialysis was required to treat generalized edema. The patient is currently doing well. This is the oldest reported case of idiopathic MGN with positivity for anti-PLA2R antibody. PMID:27390744

  6. Expression of phospholipase A2 receptor in primary cultured podocytes derived from dog kidneys.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Go; Kamiie, Junichi; Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Mineshige, Takayuki; Shirota, Kinji

    2016-06-01

    Phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) expressed in human podocytes has been highlighted as a causative autoantigen of human idiopathic membranous nephropathy. However, its expression was found to be minimal or absent in murine and rat podocytes. In this study, immunofluorescence revealed the expression of PLA2R in the glomerular podocytes in the kidney tissue sections of dogs. We then attempted to culture canine podocytes and investigate the expression of PLA2R in these cells. Glomeruli were isolated from dog kidneys and cultured to obtain podocytes using nylon mesh-based isolation method as followed for isolating rat podocytes. The cultured cells expressed PLA2R mRNA and protein in addition to other podocyte markers (synaptopodin, podocin and nephrin). These results indicate that the canine podocytes express PLA2R.

  7. Expression of phospholipase A2 receptor in primary cultured podocytes derived from dog kidneys

    PubMed Central

    SUGAHARA, Go; KAMIIE, Junichi; KOBAYASHI, Ryosuke; MINESHIGE, Takayuki; SHIROTA, Kinji

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) expressed in human podocytes has been highlighted as a causative autoantigen of human idiopathic membranous nephropathy. However, its expression was found to be minimal or absent in murine and rat podocytes. In this study, immunofluorescence revealed the expression of PLA2R in the glomerular podocytes in the kidney tissue sections of dogs. We then attempted to culture canine podocytes and investigate the expression of PLA2R in these cells. Glomeruli were isolated from dog kidneys and cultured to obtain podocytes using nylon mesh-based isolation method as followed for isolating rat podocytes. The cultured cells expressed PLA2R mRNA and protein in addition to other podocyte markers (synaptopodin, podocin and nephrin). These results indicate that the canine podocytes express PLA2R. PMID:26854253

  8. Antibodies to m-type phospholipase A2 receptor in children with idiopathic membranous nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Ramachandran, Raja; Kumar, Ashwani; Nada, Ritambhra; Suri, Deepti; Gupta, Anju; Kohli, Harbir Singh; Gupta, Krishan Lal; Jha, Vivekanand

    2015-08-01

    Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN), the commonest cause of adult nephrotic syndrome (NS), accounts for only a minority of paediatric NS. Antibodies to m-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) are seen in two-thirds of adult IMN cases. PLA2R staining in glomerular deposits is observed in 74% and 45% of adult and paediatric IMN cases, respectively. However, there are no reports of anti-PLA2R in paediatric IMN. We evaluated anti-PLA2R levels and PLA2R in gloemrular deposits in paediatric IMN seen at our center. Five cases were enrolled, all the cases stained for PLA2R in glomeruli and three (60%) had antibodies to PLA2R antigen. There was a parellel reduction in proteinuria and anti-PLA2R titer. The present report suggests that PLA2R has a contributory role in the pathogenesis of paediatric IMN.

  9. The bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila inhibits phospholipases A2 from insect, prokaryote, and vertebrate sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngjin; Kim, Yonggyun; Stanley, David

    The bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila, is a virulent insect pathogen. Part of its pathogenicity is due to impairing cellular immunity by blocking biosynthesis of eicosanoids, the major recognized signal transduction system in insect cellular immunity. X. nematophila inhibits the first step in eicosanoid biosynthesis, phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Here we report that the bacterium inhibits PLA2 from two insect immune tissues, hemocytes and fat body, as well as PLA2s selected to represent a wide range of organisms, including prokaryotes, insects, reptiles, and mammals. Our finding on a bacterial inhibitor of PLA2 activity contributes new insight into the chemical ecology of microbe-host interactions, which usually involve actions rather than inhibitors of PLA2s.

  10. Structure and function of lysosomal phospholipase A2 and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Glukhova, Alisa; Hinkovska-Galcheva, Vania; Kelly, Robert; Abe, Akira; Shayman, James A; Tesmer, John J G

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) belong to a structurally uncharacterized family of key lipid-metabolizing enzymes responsible for lung surfactant catabolism and for reverse cholesterol transport, respectively. Whereas LPLA2 is predicted to underlie the development of drug-induced phospholipidosis, somatic mutations in LCAT cause fish eye disease and familial LCAT deficiency. Here we describe several high-resolution crystal structures of human LPLA2 and a low-resolution structure of LCAT that confirms its close structural relationship to LPLA2. Insertions in the α/β hydrolase core of LPLA2 form domains that are responsible for membrane interaction and binding the acyl chains and head groups of phospholipid substrates. The LCAT structure suggests the molecular basis underlying human disease for most of the known LCAT missense mutations, and paves the way for rational development of new therapeutics to treat LCAT deficiency, atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndrome. PMID:25727495

  11. Pharmacophore-based discovery of a novel cytosolic phospholipase A2α inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Noha, Stefan M.; Jazzar, Bianca; Kuehnl, Susanne; Rollinger, Judith M.; Stuppner, Hermann; Schaible, Anja M.; Werz, Oliver; Wolber, Gerhard; Schuster, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    The release of arachidonic acid, a precursor in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes, is achieved by activity of the cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α). Signaling mediated by this class of bioactive lipids, which are collectively referred to as eicosanoids, has numerous effects in physiological and pathological processes. Herein, we report the development of a ligand-based pharmacophore model and pharmacophore-based virtual screening of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) database, leading to the identification of 4-(hexadecyloxy)-3-(2-(hydroxyimino)-3-oxobutanamido)benzoic acid (NSC 119957) as cPLA2α inhibitor in cell-free and cell-based in vitro assays. PMID:22192589

  12. Involvement of phospholipase D in store-operated calcium influx in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Walter, M; Tepel, M; Nofer, J R; Neusser, M; Assmann, G; Zidek, W

    2000-08-11

    In non-excitable cells, sustained intracellular Ca2+ increase critically depends on influx of extracellular Ca2+. Such Ca2+ influx is thought to occur by a 'store-operated' mechanism, i.e. the signal for Ca2+ entry is believed to result from the initial release of Ca2+ from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive intracellular stores. Here we show that the depletion of cellular Ca2+ stores by thapsigargin or bradykinin is functionally linked to a phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase D (PLD) activity in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), and that phosphatidic acid formed via PLD enhances sustained calcium entry in this cell type. These results suggest a regulatory role for PLD in store-operated Ca2+ entry in VSMC.

  13. Requirement for a phospholipase C in odor response: overlap between olfaction and vision in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Riesgo-Escovar, J; Raha, D; Carlson, J R

    1995-01-01

    A central problem in sensory system biology is the identification of the signal transduction pathways used in different sensory modalities. Genetic analysis of transduction mutants provides a means of studying in vivo the contributions of different pathways. This report shows that odorant response in one olfactory organ of Drosophila melanogaster depends on the norpA phospholipase C (EC 3.1.4.3) gene, providing evidence for use of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) signal transduction pathway. Since the norpA gene is also essential to phototransduction, this work demonstrates overlap in the genetic and molecular underpinnings of vision and olfaction. Genetic and molecular data also indicate that some olfactory information flows through a pathway which does not depend on norpA. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 5 PMID:7708738

  14. Conformationally restricted (+)-cacospongionolide B analogues. Influence on secretory phospholipase A2 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Murelli, Ryan P; Cheung, Atwood K; Snapper, Marc L

    2007-03-01

    A new approach to (+)-cacospongionolide was developed to access conformationally restricted variants of the natural product. The flexible aliphatic region between the decalin and side chain portion of the natural product was replaced with alkenyl and alkynyl linkers to probe the influence of structural rigidity in the inhibition of secretary phospholipase A2 (sPLA2). It was found that when the aliphatic section is replaced with a Z-olefin or an alkyne, sPLA2 inhibitory activity suffered relative to the natural product; however, an E-olefin-containing analogue led to an enhanced activity. These results suggest that preferred sPLA2 binding conformation of the natural product is similar to the geometry of the E-olefin-containing analogue.

  15. Effect of neuroleptics on phospholipase A2 activity in the brain of rats.

    PubMed

    Trzeciak, H I; Kalaciński, W; Małecki, A; Kokot, D

    1995-01-01

    The effect of neuroleptics on phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity in rat brain plasma membranes was studied. Chlorpromazine (10 mg/kg), fluphenazine (5 mg/kg), thioridazine (5 mg/kg), trifluoperazine (5 mg/kg), haloperidol (2 mg/kg), and sulpiride (100 mg/kg) were administered to rats intraperitoneally as a single dose or long-term treatment (4 weeks). The PLA2 activity was determined 24, 48, and 72 h after the last injection of a drug. The enzyme activity was decreased after a single or 4-week administration of chlorpromazine, trifluoperazine, haloperidol, and sulpiride. Fluphenazine and thioridazine caused an increase of PLA2 activity in rat brain both after a single dose and long-term administration. For the first time it was shown that neuroleptics cannot only inhibit but also increase, PLA2 activity. Elucidation of this fact requires further studies. PMID:7669826

  16. The role of secretory phospholipase A2 in acute chest syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, F A; Styles, L A

    2004-02-01

    Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is the leading cause of death in sickle cell disease. Severe ACS often develops in the course of a vasoocclusive crisis (VOC), and frequently involves pulmonary fat embolism. Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), a potent inflammatory mediator, is elevated in ACS, and sPLA2 levels in serum or plasma predict impending ACS. In addition sPLA2 may play a major role in the actual damage to the lung resulting in a new pulmonary infiltrate on chest radiography, respiratory symptoms, and ultimately alveolar collapse and the impairment of gas exchange. The data indicate that measurement of sPLA2 can be useful in alerting the clinician to patients with impending ACS, and suggest that instituting early therapies based on sPLA2 levels, including inhibition of sPLA2 activity, may be useful to prevent or reduce the clinical morbidity of ACS in sickle cell disease. PMID:15040432

  17. Expression of group XIIA phospholipase A2 in human digestive organs.

    PubMed

    Peuravuori, Heikki; Kollanus, Sinikka; Nevalainen, Timo J

    2014-12-01

    Cellular distribution of group XIIA phospholipase A2 (GXIIA PLA2) was studied in human digestive organs by immunohistochemistry. GXIIA PLA2 protein was detected in epithelial cells of normal gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder and pancreatic acinar cells. The GXIIA PLA2 protein was evenly distributed in the cytoplasm in contrast to secretory granular distribution of GIB PLA2 and GIIA PLA2 in pancreatic acinar cells and small intestinal Paneth cells respectively. Epithelial cells of intestinal glands in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis expressed abundant GXIIA PLA2 , whereas inflammatory cells were devoid of the enzyme protein. Tumour cells in colonic adenomas and carcinomas and pancreatic ductogenic carcinomas expressed GXIIA PLA2 protein at varying intensity levels. The putative functions of GXIIA PLA2 remain to be investigated and its role in healthy and diseased digestive organs can only be speculated on at present. PMID:24862647

  18. Impaired brain development and reduced cognitive function in phospholipase D-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Ute; Stegner, David; Hattingen, Elke; Beyer, Sandra; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Klein, Jochen

    2014-06-20

    The phospholipases D (PLD1 and 2) are signaling enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidic acid, a lipid second messenger involved in cell proliferation, and choline, a precursor of acetylcholine (ACh). In the present study, we investigated development and cognitive function in mice that were deficient for PLD1, or PLD2, or both. We found that PLD-deficient mice had reduced brain growth at 14-27 days post partum when compared to wild-type mice. In adult PLD-deficient mice, cognitive function was impaired in social and object recognition tasks. Using brain microdialysis, we found that wild-type mice responded with a 4-fold increase of hippocampal ACh release upon behavioral stimulation in the open field, while PLD-deficient mice released significantly less ACh. These results may be relevant for cognitive dysfunctions observed in fetal alcohol syndrome and in Alzheimer' disease. PMID:24813107

  19. Phospholipase cleavage of D- and L-chiro-glycosylphosphoinositides asymmetrically incorporated into liposomal membranes.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Julia B; Cid, M Belén; Contreras, F-Xabier; Goñi, Félix M; Martín-Lomas, Manuel

    2006-02-01

    The nature of chiro-inositol-containing inositolphosphoglycans (IPGs), reported to be putative insulin mediators, was studied by examination of the substrate specificities of the phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) and the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D (GPI-PLD) by using a series of synthetic D- and L-chiro-glycosylphosphoinositides. 3-O-alpha-D-Glucosaminyl- (3) and -galactosaminyl-2-phosphatidyl-L-chiro-inositol (4), which show the maximum stereochemical similarity to the 6-O-alpha-D-glucosaminylphosphatidylinositol pseudodisaccharide motifs of GPI anchors, were synthesized and asymmetrically incorporated into phospholipid bilayers in the form of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs). Similarly, 2-O-alpha-D-glucosaminyl- (5) and -galactosaminyl-1-phosphatidyl-D-chiro-inositol (6), which differ from the corresponding pseudodisaccharide motif of the GPI anchors only in the axial orientation of the phosphatidyl moiety, were also synthesized and asymmetrically inserted into LUVs. The cleavage of these synthetic molecules in the liposomal constructs by PI-PLC from Bacillus cereus and by GPI-PLD from bovine serum was studied with the use of 6-O-alpha-D-glucosaminylphosphatidylinositol (7) and the conserved GPI anchor structure (8) as positive controls. Although PI-PLC cleaved 3 and 4 with about the same efficiency as 7 and 8, this enzyme did not accept 5 or 6. GPI-PLD accepted both the L-chiro- (3 and 4) and the D-chiro- (5 and 6) glycosylinositolphosphoinositides. Therefore, IPGs containing L-chiro-inositol only are expected to be released from chiro-inositol-containing GPIs if the cleavage is effected by a PI-PLC, whereas GPI-PLD cleavage could result in both L-chiro- and D-chiro-inositol-containing IPGs. PMID:16315198

  20. Point of care testing of phospholipase A2 group IIA for serological diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nathan J.; Chapman, Robert; Lin, Yiyang; Mmesi, Jonas; Bentham, Andrew; Tyreman, Matthew; Abraham, Sonya; Stevens, Molly M.

    2016-02-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA2-IIA) was examined as a point of care marker for determining disease activity in rheumatoid (RA) and psoriatic (PsA) arthritis. Serum concentration and activity of sPLA2-IIA were measured using in-house antibodies and a novel point of care lateral flow device assay in patients diagnosed with varying severities of RA (n = 30) and PsA (n = 25) and found to correlate strongly with C-reactive protein (CRP). Levels of all markers were elevated in patients with active RA over those with inactive RA as well as both active and inactive PsA, indicating that sPLA2-IIA can be used as an analogue to CRP for RA diagnosis at point of care.Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA2-IIA) was examined as a point of care marker for determining disease activity in rheumatoid (RA) and psoriatic (PsA) arthritis. Serum concentration and activity of sPLA2-IIA were measured using in-house antibodies and a novel point of care lateral flow device assay in patients diagnosed with varying severities of RA (n = 30) and PsA (n = 25) and found to correlate strongly with C-reactive protein (CRP). Levels of all markers were elevated in patients with active RA over those with inactive RA as well as both active and inactive PsA, indicating that sPLA2-IIA can be used as an analogue to CRP for RA diagnosis at point of care. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08423g

  1. Phospholipase D catalyzes phospholipid metabolism in chemotactic peptide-stimulated HL-60 granulocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, J.K.; Siegel, M.I.; Egan, R.W.; Billah, M.M.

    1988-09-05

    There exists circumstantial evidence for activation of phospholipase D (PLD) in intact cells. However, because of the complexity of phospholipid remodeling processes, it is essential to distinguish PLD clearly from other phospholipases and phospholipid remodeling enzymes. Therefore, to establish unequivocally PLD activity in dimethyl sulfoxide-differentiated HL-60 granulocytes, to demonstrate the relative contribution of PLD to phospholipid turnover, and to validate the hypothesis that the formation of phosphatidylethanol is an expression of PLD-catalyzed transphosphatidylation, we have developed methodologies to label HL-60 granulocytes in 1-O-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (alkyl-PC) with 32P without labeling cellular ATP. These methodologies involve (a) synthesis of alkyl-lysoPC containing 32P by a combination of enzymatic and chemical procedures and (b) incubation of HL-60 granulocytes with this alkyl-(32P) lysoPC which enters the cell and becomes acylated into membrane-associated alkyl-(32P)PC. Upon stimulation of these 32P-labeled cells with the chemotactic peptide, N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP), alkyl-(32P)phosphatidic acid (alkyl-(32P)PA) is formed rapidly. Because, under these conditions, cellular ATP has not been labeled with 32P, alkyl-(32P)PA must be formed via PLD-catalyzed hydrolysis of alkyl-(32P)PC at the terminal phosphodiester bond. This result conclusively demonstrates fMLP-induced activation of PLD in HL-60 granulocytes. These 32P-labeled HL-60 granulocytes have also been stimulated in the presence of ethanol to produce alkyl-(32P)phosphatidylethanol (alkyl-(32P)PEt). Formation of alkyl-(32P)PEt parallels that of alkyl-(32P)PA with respect to time course, fMLP concentration, inhibition by a specific fMLP antagonist (t-butoxycarbonyl-Met-Leu-Phe), and Ca2+ concentration.

  2. Human cardiac phospholipase D activity is tightly controlled by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Thomas; Kemken, Dorit; Mier, Kenneth; Weber, Isabel; Richardt, Gert

    2004-02-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) plays a central role in receptor-mediated breakdown of choline phospholipids and formation of phosphatidic acid (PA), an important regulator of cardiac function. However, specific mechanisms that regulate myocardial PLD activity remain largely unknown, particularly in the human heart. We hypothesized that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), best known as substrate for phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes, plays a critical role in regulating myocardial PLD activity. We examined the effect of PIP2 on human myocardial PLD activity in vitro by utilizing a fluorescence HPLC assay. PIP2 increased 10-fold the maximal activity of a partially solubilized PLD from human atrial myocardium. PIP2-stimulated PLD activity was accompanied by a consecutive increase in diacylglycerol, indicating dephosphorylation of PA by PA phosphohydrolase. Likewise, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate, which is produced from PIP2 by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, increased PLD activity with about the same potency but with somewhat lower efficacy. In contrast, other phospholipids were ineffective, indicating that the action of PIP2 on PLD is highly specific. Neomycin, a high-affinity ligand of PIP2, inhibited PLD activity in human atrial myocardium, but had no effect on the activity of partially solubilized enzyme. The addition of PIP2 restored the sensitivity of solubilized PLD to neomycin inhibition, indicating that neomycin inhibits PLD activity by binding to endogenous PIP2. Our results demonstrate a critical role for PIP2 in human cardiac PLD activity and suggest that PIP2 synthesis (by phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase) and hydrolysis (by PIP2-specific PLC) could be important determinants in regulating PLD signal transduction in the human heart. PMID:14871550

  3. Phylogenetic and structural analysis of the phospholipase A2 gene family in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, QI; WU, YUAN; QIN, CHAO; HE, WENWU; WEI, XING

    2015-01-01

    The phospholipase A (PLA)2 family is the most complex gene family of phospholipases and plays a crucial role in a number of physiological activities. However, the phylogenetic background of the PLA2 gene family and the amino acid residues of the PLA2G7 gene following positive selection gene remain undetermined. In this study, we downloaded 49 genomic data sets of PLA from different species, including the human, house mouse, Norway rat, pig, dog, chicken, cattle, African clawed frog, Sumatran orangutan and the zebrafish species. Phylogenetic relationships were determined using the neighbor-joining (NJ), minimum evolution (ME) and maximum parsimony (MP) methods, as well as the Bayesian information criterion. The results were then presented as phylogenetic trees. Positive selection sites were detected using site, branch and branch-site models. These methods led us to the following assumptions: i) closer lineages were observed between PLA2G16 and PLA2G6, PLA2G7 and PLA2G4, PLA2G3 and PLA2G12, as well as among PLA2G10, PLA2G5 and PLA2G15; ii) PLA2G5 appeared to be the origin of the PLA2 family, and PLA2G7 was one of the most evolutionarily distant PLA2 proteins; iii) 16 positive-selection sites were detected and were marked in the PLA2G7 protein sequence as 327D, 257Q, 276G, 34s, 66G, 67C, 319S, 28N, 50S, 54T, 58R, 75T, 88Q, 92R, 179H and 191K. PMID:25543670

  4. Identification of a secretory phospholipase A2 from Papaver somniferum L. that transforms membrane phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Jablonická, Veronika; Mansfeld, Johanna; Heilmann, Ingo; Obložinský, Marek; Heilmann, Mareike

    2016-09-01

    The full-length sequence of a new secretory phospholipase A2 was identified in opium poppy seedlings (Papaver somniferum L.). The cDNA of poppy phospholipase A2, denoted as pspla2, encodes a protein of 159 amino acids with a 31 amino acid long signal peptide at the N-terminus. PsPLA2 contains a PLA2 signature domain (PA2c), including the Ca(2+)-binding loop (YGKYCGxxxxGC) and the catalytic site motif (DACCxxHDxC) with the conserved catalytic histidine and the calcium-coordinating aspartate residues. The aspartate of the His/Asp dyad playing an important role in animal sPLA2 catalysis is substituted by a serine residue. Furthermore, the PsPLA2 sequence contains 12 conserved cysteine residues to form 6 structural disulfide bonds. The calculated molecular weight of the mature PsPLA2 is 14.0 kDa. Based on the primary structure PsPLA2 belongs to the XIB group of PLA2s. Untagged recombinant PsPLA2 obtained by expression in Escherichia coli, renaturation from inclusion bodies and purification by cation-exchange chromatography was characterized in vitro. The pH optimum for activity of PsPLA2 was found to be pH 7, when using mixed micelles of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and Triton X-100. PsPLA2 specifically cleaves fatty acids from the sn-2 position of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and shows a pronounced preference for PC over phosphatidyl ethanolamine, -glycerol and -inositol. The active recombinant enzyme was tested in vitro against natural phospholipids isolated from poppy plants and preferably released the unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, from the naturally occurring mixture of substrate lipids.

  5. Phospholipase C-delta1 expression is linked to proliferation, DNA synthesis, and cyclin E levels.

    PubMed

    Stallings, Jonathan D; Zeng, Yue X; Narvaez, Francisco; Rebecchi, Mario J

    2008-05-16

    We previously reported that phospholipase C-delta1 (PLC-delta1) accumulates in the nucleus at the G1/S transition, which is largely dependent on its binding to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate ( Stallings, J. D., Tall, E. G., Pentyala, S., and Rebecchi, M. J. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 22060-22069 ). Here, using small interfering RNA (siRNA) that specifically targets rat PLC-delta1, we investigated whether this enzyme plays a role in cell cycle control. Inhibiting expression of PLC-delta1 significantly decreased proliferation of rat C6 glioma cells and altered S phase progression. [3H]Thymidine labeling and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis indicated that the rates of G1/S transition and DNA synthesis were enhanced. On the other hand, knockdown cultures released from the G1/S boundary were slower to reach full G2/M DNA content, consistent with a delay in S phase. The levels of cyclin E, a key regulator of the G1/S transition and DNA synthesis, were elevated in asynchronous cultures as well as those blocked at the G1/S boundary. Epifluorescence imaging showed that transient expression of human phospholipase C-delta1, resistant to these siRNA, suppressed expression of cyclin E at the G1/S boundary despite treatment of cultures with rat-specific siRNA. Although whole cell levels of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate were unchanged, suppression of PLC-delta1 led to a significant rise in the nuclear levels of this phospholipid at the G1/S boundary. These results support a role for PLC-delta1 and nuclear phospholipid metabolism in regulating cell cycle progression.

  6. Role of the Phospholipase A2 Receptor in Liposome Drug Delivery in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R1) is a member of the C-type lectin superfamily and can internalize secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) via endocytosis in non-cancer cells. sPLA2 itself was recently shown to be overexpressed in prostate tumors and to be a possible mediator of metastasis; however, little is known about the expression of PLA2R1 or its function in prostate cancers. Thus, we examined PLA2R1 expression in primary prostate cells (PCS-440-010) and human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP, DU-145, and PC-3), and we determined the effect of PLA2R1 knockdown on cytotoxicity induced by free or liposome-encapsulated chemotherapeutics. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that the expression of PLA2R1 was higher in prostate cancer cells compared to that in primary prostate cells. Knockdown of PLA2R1 expression in PC-3 cells using shRNA increased cell proliferation and did not affect the toxicity of cisplatin, doxorubicin (Dox), and docetaxel. In contrast, PLA2R1 knockdown increased the in vitro toxicity of Dox encapsulated in sPLA2 responsive liposomes (SPRL) and correlated with increased Dox and SPRL uptake. Knockdown of PLA2R1 also increased the expression of Group IIA and X sPLA2. These data show the novel findings that PLA2R1 is expressed in prostate cancer cells, that PLA2R1 expression alters cell proliferation, and that PLA2R1 modulates the behavior of liposome-based nanoparticles. Furthermore, these studies suggest that PLA2R1 may represent a novel molecular target for controlling tumor growth or modulating delivery of lipid-based nanomedicines. PMID:25189995

  7. Group III secreted phospholipase A2 regulates epididymal sperm maturation and fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hiroyasu; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Isogai, Yuki; Miki, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Kei; Masuda, Seiko; Hosono, Tomohiko; Arata, Satoru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Ishii, Toshiharu; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Ryo; Hara, Shuntaro; Kudo, Ichiro; Murakami, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    Although lipid metabolism is thought to be important for the proper maturation and function of spermatozoa, the molecular mechanisms that underlie this dynamic process in the gonads remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that group III phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-III), a member of the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) family, is expressed in the mouse proximal epididymal epithelium and that targeted disruption of the gene encoding this protein (Pla2g3) leads to defects in sperm maturation and fertility. Although testicular spermatogenesis in Pla2g3–/– mice was grossly normal, spermatozoa isolated from the cauda epididymidis displayed hypomotility, and their ability to fertilize intact eggs was markedly impaired. Transmission EM further revealed that epididymal spermatozoa in Pla2g3–/– mice had both flagella with abnormal axonemes and aberrant acrosomal structures. During epididymal transit, phosphatidylcholine in the membrane of Pla2g3+/+ sperm underwent a dramatic shift in its acyl groups from oleic, linoleic, and arachidonic acids to docosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, whereas this membrane lipid remodeling event was compromised in sperm from Pla2g3–/– mice. Moreover, the gonads of Pla2g3–/– mice contained less 12/15-lipoxygenase metabolites than did those of Pla2g3+/+ mice. Together, our results reveal a role for the atypical sPLA2 family member sPLA2-III in epididymal lipid homeostasis and indicate that its perturbation may lead to sperm dysfunction. PMID:20424323

  8. Cloning and Recombinant Expression of a Structurally Novel Human Secreted Phospholipase A2*

    PubMed Central

    Gelb, Michael H.; Valentin, Emmanuel; Ghomashchi, Farideh; Lazdunski, Michel; Lambeau, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    Mammals contain a diverse set of secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) that liberate arachidonic acid from phospholipids for the production of eicosanoids and exert a variety of physiological and pathological effects. We report the cloning, recombinant expression, and kinetic properties of a novel human sPLA2 that defines a new structural class of sPLA2s called group XII. The human group XII (hGXII) cDNA contains a putative signal peptide of 22 residues followed by a mature protein of 167 amino acids that displays homology to all known sPLA2s only over a short stretch of amino acids in the active site region. Northern blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses show that the tissue distribution of hGXII is distinct from the other human sPLA2s with strong expression in heart, skeletal muscle, kidney, and pancreas and weaker expression in brain, liver, small intestine, lung, placenta, ovaries, testis, and prostate. Catalytically active hGXII was produced in Escherichia coli and shown to be Ca2+-dependent despite the fact that it is predicted to have an unusual Ca2+-binding loop. Similar to the previously characterized mouse group IIE sPLA2s, the specific activity of hGXII is low in comparison to that of other mammalian sPLA2, suggesting that hGXII could have novel functions that are independent of its phospholipase A2 activity. PMID:11031251

  9. Phospholipase cleavage of D- and L-chiro-glycosylphosphoinositides asymmetrically incorporated into liposomal membranes.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Julia B; Cid, M Belén; Contreras, F-Xabier; Goñi, Félix M; Martín-Lomas, Manuel

    2006-02-01

    The nature of chiro-inositol-containing inositolphosphoglycans (IPGs), reported to be putative insulin mediators, was studied by examination of the substrate specificities of the phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) and the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D (GPI-PLD) by using a series of synthetic D- and L-chiro-glycosylphosphoinositides. 3-O-alpha-D-Glucosaminyl- (3) and -galactosaminyl-2-phosphatidyl-L-chiro-inositol (4), which show the maximum stereochemical similarity to the 6-O-alpha-D-glucosaminylphosphatidylinositol pseudodisaccharide motifs of GPI anchors, were synthesized and asymmetrically incorporated into phospholipid bilayers in the form of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs). Similarly, 2-O-alpha-D-glucosaminyl- (5) and -galactosaminyl-1-phosphatidyl-D-chiro-inositol (6), which differ from the corresponding pseudodisaccharide motif of the GPI anchors only in the axial orientation of the phosphatidyl moiety, were also synthesized and asymmetrically inserted into LUVs. The cleavage of these synthetic molecules in the liposomal constructs by PI-PLC from Bacillus cereus and by GPI-PLD from bovine serum was studied with the use of 6-O-alpha-D-glucosaminylphosphatidylinositol (7) and the conserved GPI anchor structure (8) as positive controls. Although PI-PLC cleaved 3 and 4 with about the same efficiency as 7 and 8, this enzyme did not accept 5 or 6. GPI-PLD accepted both the L-chiro- (3 and 4) and the D-chiro- (5 and 6) glycosylinositolphosphoinositides. Therefore, IPGs containing L-chiro-inositol only are expected to be released from chiro-inositol-containing GPIs if the cleavage is effected by a PI-PLC, whereas GPI-PLD cleavage could result in both L-chiro- and D-chiro-inositol-containing IPGs.

  10. Vasopressin-stimulated Ca2+ spiking in vascular smooth muscle cells involves phospholipase D.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Shiels, A J; Maszak, G; Byron, K L

    2001-06-01

    Physiological concentrations of [Arg(8)]vasopressin (AVP; 10-500 pM) stimulate oscillations of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+ spikes) in A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells. We previously reported that this effect of AVP was blocked by a putative phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor, ONO-RS-082 (5 microM). In the present study, the products of PLA2, arachidonic acid (AA), and lysophospholipids were found to be ineffective in stimulating Ca2+ spiking, and inhibitors of AA metabolism did not prevent AVP-stimulated Ca2+ spiking. Thin layer chromatography was used to monitor the release of AA and phosphatidic acid (PA), which are the products of PLA2 and phospholipase D (PLD), respectively. AVP (100 pM) stimulated both AA and PA formation, but only PA formation was inhibited by ONO-RS-082 (5 microM). Exogenous PLD (type VII; 2.5 U/ml) stimulated Ca2+ spiking equivalent to the effect of 100 pM AVP. AVP stimulated transphosphatidylation of 1-butanol (a PLD-catalyzed reaction) but not 2-butanol, and 1-butanol (but not 2-butanol) completely prevented AVP-stimulated Ca2+ spiking. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibition, which completely prevents AVP-stimulated Ca2+ spiking, did not inhibit AVP-stimulated phosphatidylbutanol formation. These results suggest that AVP-stimulated Ca2+ spiking depends on activation of PLD rather than PLA2 and that PKC activation may be downstream of PLD in the signaling cascade.

  11. Purification and analysis of a phospholipase A2-like lytic factor of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Lubick, Kirk J; Burgess, Donald E

    2004-03-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis produces soluble factors that have been reported to have the ability to damage target cells in vitro, and it has been hypothesized that these factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of human trichomoniasis. A lytic factor (LF) was purified from T. vaginalis, and the molecular characteristics of LF were determined. T. vaginalis extract was subjected to hydrophobic chromatography with a 10 to 60% N-propanol gradient in 0.1 M ammonium acetate, resulting in the elution of LF from the column at 30% N-propanol. Cytotoxicity assays revealed that LF was cytotoxic to WEHI 164 cells and bovine red blood cells, and inactivation of LF by treatment with trypsin suggested that the active component of LF was a protein. Size exclusion chromatography of LF produced two fractions at 144 and 168 kDa, and analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of LF under reducing conditions revealed two subunits of 57 and 60 kDa. Results of a fluorescence assay of LF on carboxyfluorescein-labeled liposomes composed of phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol showed that liposomes were hydrolyzed, suggesting that LF had phospholipase activity. Thin-layer chromatography analysis of BODIPY (4,4-difluoro-3a,4adiaza-s-indacene)-labeled phosphatidylcholine treated with LF demonstrated products that migrated identically to the products produced by treatment with phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)). These results suggest that LF is a PLA(2) and may be an important virulence factor of T. vaginalis mediating the destruction of host cells and contributing to tissue damage and inflammation in trichomoniasis. PMID:14977929

  12. Identification of a secretory phospholipase A2 from Papaver somniferum L. that transforms membrane phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Jablonická, Veronika; Mansfeld, Johanna; Heilmann, Ingo; Obložinský, Marek; Heilmann, Mareike

    2016-09-01

    The full-length sequence of a new secretory phospholipase A2 was identified in opium poppy seedlings (Papaver somniferum L.). The cDNA of poppy phospholipase A2, denoted as pspla2, encodes a protein of 159 amino acids with a 31 amino acid long signal peptide at the N-terminus. PsPLA2 contains a PLA2 signature domain (PA2c), including the Ca(2+)-binding loop (YGKYCGxxxxGC) and the catalytic site motif (DACCxxHDxC) with the conserved catalytic histidine and the calcium-coordinating aspartate residues. The aspartate of the His/Asp dyad playing an important role in animal sPLA2 catalysis is substituted by a serine residue. Furthermore, the PsPLA2 sequence contains 12 conserved cysteine residues to form 6 structural disulfide bonds. The calculated molecular weight of the mature PsPLA2 is 14.0 kDa. Based on the primary structure PsPLA2 belongs to the XIB group of PLA2s. Untagged recombinant PsPLA2 obtained by expression in Escherichia coli, renaturation from inclusion bodies and purification by cation-exchange chromatography was characterized in vitro. The pH optimum for activity of PsPLA2 was found to be pH 7, when using mixed micelles of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and Triton X-100. PsPLA2 specifically cleaves fatty acids from the sn-2 position of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and shows a pronounced preference for PC over phosphatidyl ethanolamine, -glycerol and -inositol. The active recombinant enzyme was tested in vitro against natural phospholipids isolated from poppy plants and preferably released the unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, from the naturally occurring mixture of substrate lipids. PMID:27473012

  13. Prognostic Utility of Secretory Phospholipase A2 in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    O’Donoghue, Michelle; Mallat, Ziad; Morrow, David A; Benessiano, Joelle; Sloan, Sarah; Omland, Torbjørn; Solomon, Scott D.; Braunwald, Eugene; Tedgui, Alain; Sabatine, Marc S

    2011-01-01

    Background Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) may contribute to atherogenesis. To date, few prospective studies have examined the utility of sPLA2 for risk stratification in coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods Plasma sPLA2 activity was measured at baseline in 3708 subjects in the PEACE randomized trial of trandolapril versus placebo in stable CAD. Median follow-up was 4.8 years. Cox regression was used to adjust for demographics, clinical risk factors, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A1, and medications. Results After multivariable adjustment, sPLA2 was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction or stroke (adjusted hazard ratio quartile 4:quartile 1 1.55, 95% CI 1.13–2.14) and cardiovascular death or heart failure (adjusted hazard ratio quartile 4:quartile 1 1.91, 95% CI 1.20–3.03). In further multivariable assessment, increased activities of sPLA2 were associated with the risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction or stroke (adjusted hazard ratio 1.47, 95% CI 1.06–2.04) independent of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 mass and C-reactive protein, and modestly improved the area under the curve (AUC) beyond established clinical risk factors (AUC 0.668 to 0.675, P=0.01). sPLA2, NT-pro B-type natriuretic peptide and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T were all independently associated with cardiovascular death or heart failure and each improved risk discrimination (P=0.02, P<0.001, P<0.001, respectively). Conclusion sPLA2 activity provides independent prognostic information beyond established risk markers in patients with stable CAD. These data are encouraging for studies designed to evaluate the role of sPLA2 as a therapeutic target. PMID:21784767

  14. Light controls phospholipase A2alpha and beta gene expression in Citrus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hui-Ling; Burns, Jacqueline K

    2010-05-01

    The low-molecular weight secretory phospholipase A2alpha (CssPLA2alpha) and beta (CsPLA2beta) cloned in this study exhibited diurnal rhythmicity in leaf tissue of Citrus sinensis. Only CssPLA2alpha displayed distinct diurnal patterns in fruit tissues. CssPLA2alpha and CsPLA2beta diurnal expression exhibited periods of approximately 24 h; CssPLA2alpha amplitude averaged 990-fold in the leaf blades from field-grown trees, whereas CsPLA2beta amplitude averaged 6.4-fold. Diurnal oscillation of CssPLA2alpha and CsPLA2beta gene expression in the growth chamber experiments was markedly dampened 24 h after transfer to continuous light or dark conditions. CssPLA2alpha and CsPLA2beta expressions were redundantly mediated by blue, green, red and red/far-red light, but blue light was a major factor affecting CssPLA2alpha and CsPLA2beta expression. Total and low molecular weight CsPLA2 enzyme activity closely followed diurnal changes in CssPLA2alpha transcript expression in leaf blades of seedlings treated with low intensity blue light (24 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). Compared with CssPLA2alpha basal expression, CsPLA2beta expression was at least 10-fold higher. Diurnal fluctuation and light regulation of PLA2 gene expression and enzyme activity in citrus leaf and fruit tissues suggests that accompanying diurnal changes in lipophilic second messengers participate in the regulation of physiological processes associated with phospholipase A2 action.

  15. The stimulation by transmitter substances and putative transmitter substances of the net activity of phospholipase A2 of synaptic membranes of cortex of guinea-pig brain.

    PubMed Central

    Gullis, R J; Rowe, C E

    1975-01-01

    1. The distribution of the hydrolyses of phosphatidylcholine by phospholipase A2 and phospholipase A1, and the hydrolysis of lysophosphatidylcholine by lysophospholipase, in subcellular and subsynaptosomal fractions of cerebral cortices of guinea-pig brain, was determined. 2. Noradrenaline stimulated hydrolysis by phospholipase A2 in whole synaptosomes, synaptic membranes and fractions containing synaptic vesicles. 3. Stimulation of hydrolysis by phospholipase A2 in synaptic membranes by noradrenaline was enhanced by CaCl2, and by a mixture of ATP and MgCl2. The optimum concentration of CaCl2, in the presence of ATP and MgCl2, for stimulation by 10 muM-noradrenaline was in the range 1-10muM. The optimum concentration for ATP-2MgCl2 in the presence of 1 muM-CaCl2 was in the range 0.1-1mM. 4. Hydrolysis by phospholipase A2 of synaptic membranes was also stimulated by acetylcholine, carbamoylcholine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine (3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine), histamine, psi-aminobutyric acid, glutamic acid and aspartic acid. With appropriate concentrations of cofactors, sigmoidal dose-response curves were obtained, half-maximum stimulations being obtained with concentrations of stimulant in the range 0.1-1muM. 5. Taurine also stimulated hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine by phospholipase A2. There were only slight stimulations with methylamine, ethylenediamine or spermidine. No stimulation was obtained with glucagon. PMID:239707

  16. Expression of Phospholipases A2 in Primary Human Lung Macrophages. Role of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2–α in Arachidonic Acid Release and Platelet Activating Factor Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Giannattasio, Giorgio; Lai, Ying; Granata, Francescopaolo; Mounier, Carine M.; Nallan, Laxman; Oslund, Rob; Leslie, Christina C.; Marone, Gianni; Lambeau, Gérard; Gelb, Michael H.; Triggiani, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    Summary Macrophages are a major source of lipid mediators in the human lung. Expression and contribution of cytosolic (cPLA2) and secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2) to the generation of lipid mediators in human macrophages is unclear. We investigated the expression and role of different PLA2s in the production of lipid mediators in primary human lung macrophages. Macrophages express the alpha, but not the zeta isoform of group IV and group VIA cPLA2 (iPLA2). Two structurally-divergent inhibitors of group IV cPLA2 completely block arachidonic acid release by macrophages in response to non-physiological (Ca2+ ionophores and phorbol esters) and physiological agonists (lipopolysaccharide and Mycobacterium protein derivative). These inhibitors also reduce by 70% the synthesis of platelet-activating factor by activated macrophages. Among the full set of human sPLA2s, macrophages express group IIA, IID, IIE, IIF, V, X and XIIA, but not group IB and III enzymes. Me-Indoxam, a potent and cell impermeable inhibitor of several sPLA2s, has no effect on arachidonate release or platelet-activating factor production. Agonist-induced exocytosis is not influenced by cPLA2 inhibitors at concentrations that block arachidonic acid release. Our results indicate that human macrophages express cPLA2-alpha, iPLA2 and several sPLA2s. Cytosolic PLA2-alpha is the major enzyme responsible for lipid mediator production in human macrophages. PMID:19130898

  17. Chitosan-induced phospholipase A2 activation and arachidonic acid mobilization in P388D1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bianco, I D; Balsinde, J; Beltramo, D M; Castagna, L F; Landa, C A; Dennis, E A

    2000-01-28

    We have found that chitosan, a polysaccharide present in fungal cell walls, is able to activate macrophages for enhanced mobilization of arachidonic acid in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Studies aimed at identifying the intracellular effector(s) implicated in chitosan-induced arachidonate release revealed the involvement of the cytosolic Group IV phospholipase A2 (PLA2), as judged by the inhibitory effect of methyl arachidonoyl fluorophosphonate but not of bromoenol lactone. Interestingly, priming of the macrophages with lipopolysaccharide renders the cells more sensitive to a subsequent stimulation with chitosan, and this enhancement is totally blocked by the secretory PLA2 inhibitor 3-(3-acetamide)-1-benzyl-2-ethylindolyl-5-oxy-propanesulfonic acid (LY311727). Collectively, the results of this work establish chitosan as a novel macrophage-activating factor that elicits AA mobilization in P388D1 macrophages by a mechanism involving the participation of two distinct phospholipases A2. PMID:10682846

  18. Purification and characterization of two acidic phospholipase A2 enzymes from king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) snake venom.

    PubMed

    Tan, N H; Saifuddin, M N

    1990-01-01

    1. The two major phospholipase A2 enzymes (OHPLA-DE1 and OHPLA-DE2) of king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom have been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. 2. The isoelectric points of OHPLA-DE1 and OHPLA-DE2 were 3.81 and 3.89, respectively and the Mws were 14,000 and 15,000, respectively, as estimated by Sephadex G-75 gel filtration chromatography; and 14,000 as estimated by SDS-PAGE. 3. The enzymes were not lethal to mice at a dosage of 10 micrograms/g body wt by i.v. route. Both phospholipase A2 enzymes, however, exhibited moderate edema-inducing and anti-coagulant activities. 4. Bromophenacylation of the enzymes reduced the enzymatic activity drastically but did not affect the edema-inducing activity of the enzymes.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a phospholipase A2 from the venom of the Brazilian snake Bothrops moojeni.

    PubMed

    Nonato, M C; Garratt, R C; Mascarenhas, Y P; Jesus, W D; Assakura, M T; Serrano, S M; Oliva, G

    2001-04-01

    A phospholipase A(2) purified from the venom of the snake Bothrops moojeni has been crystallized by vapour-diffusion techniques in hanging drops at 291 K. The crystals, which were grown in the absence of Ca(2+), belong to the cubic system, space group P432, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 91.86 A, and contain one molecule in the asymmetric unit (V(M) = 2.71 A(3) Da(-1)). X-ray diffraction experiments provide data to 2.35 A resolution collected on a rotating-anode home source at cryogenic temperatures. The structure has been solved via molecular-replacement techniques using a single monomer of the crystallographic structure of the phospholipase from the Western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) as a search model. PMID:11264594

  20. Characterization of polymorphisms and isoforms of the Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C gene (plc) reveals high genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Flávia F; Almeida, Marcelle O; Barroca, Tatiana M; Horta, Carolina C R; Carmo, Anderson O; Silva, Rodrigo O S; Pires, Prhiscylla S; Lobato, Francisco C F; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes

    2012-10-12

    Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C (Cp-PLC), also called alpha-toxin, is encoded by the plc gene and has been implicated in several diseases; however, only a few studies have described polymorphisms in this gene. The aim of this study was to analyze polymorphisms in the Cp-PLC nucleotide and amino acid sequences obtained from isolates from different regions and to compare them to Clostridium phospholipase C sequences deposited in the NCBI database. Environmental samples (sediment, poultry feed, sawdust) and stool samples (from poultry, bovine, swine, horse, caprine, bird, dog, rabbit, toucan) were collected from healthy and sick animals. A total of 73 isolates were analyzed with the majority of samples belonging to the toxin type A subtype and possessing the gene encoding for the beta-2 toxin. Comparison of plc gene sequences from respective isolates revealed a high genetic diversity in the nucleotide sequences of mature Cp-PLC. Sequence comparisons identified 30 amino acid substitutions and 34 isoforms including some isoforms with substitutions in amino acids critical to toxin function. Comparison of sequences obtained in this study to Cp-PLC sequences obtained from the NCBI database resulted in the identification of 11 common haplotypes and 22 new isoforms. Phylogenetic analysis of phospholipase C sequences obtained from other Clostridium species identified relationships previously described. This report describes a broad characterization of the genetic diversity in the C. perfringens plc gene resulting in the identification of various isoforms. A better understanding of sequences encoding phospholipase C isoforms may reveal changes associated with protein function and C. perfringens virulence.

  1. A role for secretory phospholipase A2 and C-reactive protein in the removal of injured cells.

    PubMed

    Hack, C E; Wolbink, G J; Schalkwijk, C; Speijer, H; Hermens, W T; van den Bosch, H

    1997-03-01

    The acute phase response is initiated in response to infection or physical trauma and is characterized by an increase in the levels of some plasma proteins. Here, Erik Hack and colleagues suggest that the combined actions of two of these acute phase proteins, secretory phospholipase A2 and C-reactive protein, may serve to promote phagocytosis of injured cells and tissue debris, thereby enhancing inflammation and tissue damage.

  2. The first report on coagulation and phospholipase A2 activities of Persian Gulf lionfish, Pterois russelli, an Iranian venomous fish.

    PubMed

    Memar, Bahareh; Jamili, Shahla; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar; Bagheri, Kamran Pooshang

    2016-04-01

    Pterois russelli is a venomous fish belonging to scorpionidae family. Regarding to high significance value for tracing potential therapeutic molecules and special agents from venomous marine creatures, the present study was aimed to characterization of the Persian Gulf lionfish venom. Proteolytic, phospholipase, hemolytic, coagulation, edematogenic and dermonecrotic activities were determined for extracted venom. The LD50 of P. russelli venom was determined by intravenous injection in white Balb/c mice. Phospholipase A2 activity was recorded at 20 μg of total venom. Coagulation activity on human plasma was shown by Prothrombin Time (PT) and activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) assays and coagulation visualized after 7 and 14 s respectively for 60 μg of crude venom. LD50 was calculated as 10.5 mg/kg. SDS-PAGE revealed the presence of major and minor protein bands between 6 and 205 kDa. Different amounts of crude venom ranged from 1.87 to 30 μg showed proteolytic activity on casein. The highest edematic activity was detected at 20 μg. Our findings showed that the edematic activity was dose dependent and persisted for 48 h after injection. The crude venom did not induce dermonecrotic activity on rabbit skin and showed no hemolytic activity on human, mouse and rabbit erythrocytes. This is the first report for phospholipase A2 and coagulation activity in venomous fish and venomous marine animals respectively. Proteolytic activity of P. russelli venom is in accordance with the other genara of scorpionidae family. According to venom activity on intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways, lionfish venom would be contained an interesting pharmaceutical agent. This study is pending to further characterization of phospholipase A2, coagulation, and protease activities and also in vivo activity on animal model of surface and internal bleeding.

  3. Comparison Between Biofilm Production, Phospholipase and Haemolytic Activity of Different Species of Candida Isolated from Dental Caries Lesions in Children

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Neetha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction C.albicans is the most commonly isolated fungal pathogen in the oral cavity, but isolation of non-albicans Candida is increasing in recent years. We wish to demonstrate the virulence factors of Candida spp. isolated from the dental caries lesion of the children as presence of virulence factors determines the pathogenic potential of any microorganism. Aim To compare biofilm production, phospholipase and haemolytic activity of C.albicans with that of non-albicans species of Candida isolated from dental caries lesions of children to evaluate the role of non- albicans species of Candida in formation of dental caries. Materials and Methods Oral swabs were collected from caries lesion of 100 school children of age 5-10 years with dental caries. Candida isolates were tested for biofilm production, phospholipase and haemolytic activity. Statistical analysis was done by Chi-Square test and Mann-Whitney U test wherever applicable using SPSS version 11.5. Results Out of the 100 children with dental caries 37 were positive for Candida by smear or culture and 31 by culture. C.albicans was the most prevalent isolate followed by C.krusei, C.tropicalis and C.albicans. Out of 21 C.albicans isolates, 10 (47.6%) showed phospholipase activity and 18 (85.71%) produced biofilm. Of the 10 non-albicans strains, 5 (50%) showed phospholipase activity and 6 (60%) produced biofilm. All isolates of Candida produced haemolysin (100%). Conclusion There was no statistically relevant difference between the virulence factor production by C.albicans and non-albicans species of Candida. In other words, our study shows that both C.albicans and non-albicans species of Candida isolated from caries lesions of the children, produce these virulence factors. So we can say that non-albicans species of Candida also are involved in caries formation. PMID:27190803

  4. Development of a Direct and Continuous Phospholipase D Assay Based on the Chelation-Enhanced Fluorescence Property of 8-Hydroxyquinoline.

    PubMed

    Rahier, Renaud; Noiriel, Alexandre; Abousalham, Abdelkarim

    2016-01-01

    Through its production of phosphatidic acid (PA), phospholipase D (PLD) is strongly involved in vesicular trafficking and cell signaling, making this enzyme an important therapeutic target. However, most PLD assays developed so far are either discontinuous or based on the indirect determination of choline released during PLD-catalyzed phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis, making its kinetic characterization difficult. We present here the development of a direct, specific, and continuous PLD assay that is based on the chelation-enhanced fluorescence property of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) following Ca(2+) complexation with PLD-generated PA. The real-time fluorescence intensity from 8HQ/Ca(2+)/PA complexes can be converted to concentrations of product using a calibration curve, with a detection limit of 1.2 μM of PA on a microplate scale, thus allowing measurement of the PLD-catalyzed reaction rate parameters. Hence, this assay is well adapted for studying the substrate specificity of PLD, together with its kinetic parameters, using natural phospholipids with various headgroups. In addition, the assay was found to be effective in monitoring the competitive inhibition of PA formation in the production of phosphatidylalcohols following the addition of primary alcohols, such as ethanol, propan-1-ol, or butan-1-ol. Finally, this assay was validated using the purified recombinant Vigna unguiculata PLD, as well as the PLD from Streptomyces chromofuscus, cabbage, or peanuts, and no PA production could be detected using phospholipase A1, phospholipase A2, or phospholipase C, allowing for a reliable determination of PLD activity in crude protein extract samples. This easy to handle PLD assay constitutes, to our knowledge, the first direct and continuous PA determination method on a microplate scale. PMID:26636829

  5. Lysosomal phospholipase A1 in Trypanosoma cruzi: an enzyme with a possible role in the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Wainszelbaum, M; Isola, E; Wilkowsky, S; Cannata, J J; Florin-Christensen, J; Florin-Christensen, M

    2001-01-01

    We found that, as in African trypanosomes, endogenous phospholipase A(1) (Plase A(1)) activity can catalyse extensive deacylation of phospholipids upon cell death in all life stages of Trypanosoma cruzi. A major lysosomal Plase A(1) was purified and characterized. The enzyme products can explain the lesions surrounding degenerating T. cruzi cells in host tissues. Thus Plase A(1) emerges as a target to block pathogenesis in trypanosomal infections. PMID:11311140

  6. Refolding and purification of the human secreted group IID phospholipase A2 expressed as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Raquel Gomes; Ferreira, Tatiana Lopes; Ward, Richard J

    2009-10-01

    The secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) are water-soluble enzymes that bind to the surface of both artificial and biological lipid bilayers and hydrolyze the membrane phospholipids. The tissue expression pattern of the human group IID secretory phospholipase A2 (hsPLA2-IID) suggests that the enzyme is involved in the regulation of the immune and inflammatory responses. With an aim to establish an expression system for the hsPLA2-IID in Escherichia coli, the DNA-coding sequence for hsPLA2-IID was subcloned into the vector pET3a, and expressed as inclusion bodies in E. coli (BL21). A protocol has been developed to refold the recombinant protein in the presence of guanidinium hydrochloride, using a size-exclusion chromatography matrix followed by dilution and dialysis to remove the excess denaturant. After purification by cation-exchange chromatography, far ultraviolet circular dichroism spectra of the recombinant hsPLA2-IID indicated protein secondary structure content similar to the homologous human group IIA secretory phospholipase A2. The refolded recombinant hsPLA2-IID demonstrated Ca(2+)-dependent hydrolytic activity, as measuring the release free fatty acid from phospholipid liposomes. This protein expression and purification system may be useful for site-directed mutagenesis experiments of the hsPLA2-IID which will advance our understanding of the structure-function relationship and biological effects of the protein.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of apitoxin, melittin and phospholipase A₂ of honey bee (Apis mellifera) venom against oral pathogens.

    PubMed

    Leandro, Luís F; Mendes, Carlos A; Casemiro, Luciana A; Vinholis, Adriana H C; Cunha, Wilson R; de Almeida, Rosana; Martins, Carlos H G

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we used the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) technique to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the apitoxin produced by Apis mellifera bees against the causative agents of tooth decay. Apitoxin was assayed in natura and in the commercially available form. The antibacterial actions of the main components of this apitoxin, phospholipase A2, and melittin were also assessed, alone and in combination. The following bacteria were tested: Streptococcus salivarius, S. sobrinus, S. mutans, S. mitis, S. sanguinis, Lactobacillus casei, and Enterococcus faecalis. The MIC results obtained for the commercially available apitoxin and for the apitoxin in natura were close and lay between 20 and 40 µg / mL, which indicated good antibacterial activity. Melittin was the most active component in apitoxin; it displayed very promising MIC values, from 4 to 40 µg / mL. Phospholipase A2 presented MIC values higher than 400 µg / mL. Association of mellitin with phospholipase A2 yielded MIC values ranging between 6 and 80 µg / mL. Considering that tooth decay affects people's health, apitoxin and its component melittin have potential application against oral pathogens. PMID:25806982

  8. Role of Inositol Phosphosphingolipid Phospholipase C1, the Yeast Homolog of Neutral Sphingomyelinases in DNA Damage Response and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Kaushlendra

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids play a very crucial role in many diseases and are well-known as signaling mediators in many pathways. Sphingolipids are produced during the de novo process in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) from the nonsphingolipid precursor and comprise both structural and bioactive lipids. Ceramide is the central core of the sphingolipid pathway, and its production has been observed following various treatments that can induce several different cellular effects including growth arrest, DNA damage, apoptosis, differentiation, and senescence. Ceramides are generally produced through the sphingomyelin hydrolysis and catalyzed by the enzyme sphingomyelinase (SMase) in mammals. Presently, there are many known SMases and they are categorized into three groups acid SMases (aSMases), alkaline SMases (alk-SMASES), and neutral SMases (nSMases). The yeast homolog of mammalians neutral SMases is inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C. Yeasts generally have inositol phosphosphingolipids instead of sphingomyelin, which may act as a homolog of mammalian sphingomyelin. In this review, we shall explain the structure and function of inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C1, its localization inside the cells, mechanisms, and its roles in various cell responses during replication stresses and diseases. This review will also give a new basis for our understanding for the mechanisms and nature of the inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C1/nSMase. PMID:26346287

  9. A novel cold-adapted phospholipase A(1) from Serratia sp. xjF1: Gene cloning, expression and characterization.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jianhong; Huang, Huoqing; Meng, Kun; Yuan, Tiezheng; Yao, Bin; Shi, Yuhu; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2008-01-01

    The gene encoding a cold-adapted phospholipase A(1) (PLA(1)) from a psychrotrophic, glacier soil bacterium Serratia sp. xjF1 was cloned by two-step PCR (general PCR and TAIL-PCR). The full-length fragment comprised two open reading frames plA and plS. The gene product of plA encoding 320 amino acids with a molecular weight of 33.8kDa was identified as a phospholipase A(1). Its amino acid sequence exhibited the highest homology to PLA(1) of Serratia marcescens (71%). plS encoded a protein of 251 amino acids, which showed no enzymatic activity. The result of plA expression in Escherichia coli indicated that plS might improve the efficient expression of PLA(1) in E. coli. Furthermore, PLA(1) was functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris, yielding 41.8U/mL in a 3.7L fermentor. The purified recombinant phospholipase A(1) (rPLA(1)) had features typical of cold-adapted enzymes with a temperature optimum of 35°C and a maximum activity of 70% at 10°C. The rate of catalysis was optimal at pH 9.0 and the enzyme could be slightly activated by Ca(2+). This is the first report on gene isolation and expression of cold-adapted PLA(1).

  10. Cloning and characterization of a basic phospholipase A2 homologue from Micrurus corallinus (coral snake) venom gland.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Ursula Castro; Assui, Alessandra; da Silva, Alvaro Rossan de Brandão Prieto; de Oliveira, Jane Silveira; Ho, Paulo Lee

    2003-09-01

    During the cloning of abundant cDNAs expressed in the Micrurus corallinus coral snake venom gland, several putative toxins, including a phospholipase A2 homologue cDNA (clone V2), were identified. The V2 cDNA clone codes for a potential coral snake toxin with a signal peptide of 27 amino acid residues plus a predicted mature protein with 119 amino acid residues. The deduced protein is highly similar to known phospholipases A2, with seven deduced S-S bridges at the same conserved positions. This protein was expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged protein that allowed the rapid purification of the recombinant protein. This protein was used to generate antibodies, which recognized the recombinant protein in Western blot. This antiserum was used to screen a large number of venoms, showing a ubiquitous distribution of immunorelated proteins in all elapidic venoms but not in the viperidic Bothrops jararaca venom. This is the first description of a complete primary structure of a phospholipase A2 homologue deduced by cDNA cloning from a coral snake.

  11. Metabolites of the phospholipase D pathway regulate H2O2-induced filamin redistribution in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hastie, L E; Patton, W F; Hechtman, H B; Shepro, D

    1998-03-15

    Hypoxia/reoxygenation injury to cultured endothelial cells results in cytoskeletal rearrangement and second messenger activation related to increased monolayer junctional permeability. Cytoskeletal rearrangement by reactive oxygen species may be related to specific activation of the phospholipase D (PLD) pathway. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers are exposed to H2O2 (100 microM) or metabolites of the PLD pathway for 1-60 min. Changes in cAMP levels, Ca2+ levels, PIP2 production, filamin distribution, and intercellular gap formation are then quantitated. H2O2-induced filamin translocation from the membrane to the cytosol occurs after 1-min H2O2 treatment, while intercellular gap formation significantly increases after 15 min. H2O2 and phosphatidic acid exp