Science.gov

Sample records for n-butyl glycidyl ether

  1. Epoxy resin cure. [Phenyl glycidyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.E.; Woodburn, G.L.

    1986-07-01

    The reactions that occur between the model epoxy, phenyl glycidyl ether, and the cure agent dicyandiamide (DICY) have been investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. It is shown that the reaction at 130/sup 0/C requires 90 min for completion when catalyzed by boron trifluoride monoethyl amine (BF/sub 3/-MEA). At least three major products are formed. The identity of these products is based on previously published spectroscopic data. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  2. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  7. Aliphatic polycarbonates based on carbon dioxide, furfuryl glycidyl ether, and glycidyl methyl ether: reversible functionalization and cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Hilf, Jeannette; Scharfenberg, Markus; Poon, Jeffrey; Moers, Christian; Frey, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Well-defined poly((furfuryl glycidyl ether)-co-(glycidyl methyl ether) carbonate) (P((FGE-co-GME)C)) copolymers with varying furfuryl glycidyl ether (FGE) content in the range of 26% to 100% are prepared directly from CO2 and the respective epoxides in a solvent-free synthesis. All materials are characterized by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The furfuryl-functional samples exhibit monomodal molecular weight distributions with Mw/Mn in the range of 1.16 to 1.43 and molecular weights (Mn) between 2300 and 4300 g mol(-1). Thermal properties reflect the amorphous structure of the polymers. Both post-functionalization and cross-linking are performed via Diels-Alder chemistry using maleimide derivatives, leading to reversible network formation. This transformation is shown to be thermally reversible at 110 °C.

  8. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and...-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and polyethylenepolyamines (generic). (a) Chemical... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  9. Etherification of n-butanol to di-n-butyl ether over Keggin-, Wells-Dawson-, and Preyssler-type heteropolyacid catalysts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Kwon; Choi, Jung Ho; Park, Dong Ryul; Song, In Kyu

    2013-12-01

    Etherification of n-butanol to di-n-butyl ether was carried out over various structural classes of heteropolyacid (HPA) catalysts, including Keggin- (H3PW12O40), Wells-Dawson- (H6P2W18O62), and Preyssler-type (H14[NaP5W30O110]) HPA catalysts. Successful formation of HPA catalysts was well confirmed by FT-IR, 31P NMR, and ICP-AES analyses. Acid properties of HPA catalysts were determined by NH3-TPD (temperature-programmed desorption) measurements. Acid strength of the catalysts increased in the order of H14[NaP5W30O110] < H6P2W18O62 < H3PW12O40. The catalytic performance of HPA catalysts was closely related to the acid strength of the catalysts. In the etherification of n-butanol to di-n-butyl ether over various structural classes of HPA catalysts, Conversion of n-butanol and yield for di-n-butyl ether increased with increasing acid strength of HPA catalysts. Among the catalysts tested, Keggin-type (H3PW12O40) HPA catalyst with the strongest acid strength showed the best catalytic performance. Acid strength of HPAs served as an important factor determining the catalytic performance in the etherification of n-butanol to di-n-butyl ether.

  10. 40 CFR 721.10209 - Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of phenol-formaldehyde resin...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed... Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of phenol-formaldehyde resin (generic... identified generically as epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10209 - Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of phenol-formaldehyde resin...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed... Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of phenol-formaldehyde resin (generic... identified generically as epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10209 - Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of phenol-formaldehyde resin...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed... Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of phenol-formaldehyde resin (generic... identified generically as epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10209 - Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of phenol-formaldehyde resin...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed... Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of phenol-formaldehyde resin (generic... identified generically as epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of...

  14. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955)...

  18. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3845 - Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... as alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (PMN P-97-661) is subject to reporting under this.... Requirements as specified in § 721.80(q). (iv) Release to water. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(1... in § 721.125 (a), (b), (c),(d),(e), (f), (g), (h),(i), and (k) are applicable to manufacturers...

  5. Synthesis and application of polyepoxide cardanol glycidyl ether as biobased polyepoxide reactive diluent for epoxy resin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyepoxide cardanol glycidyl ether (PECGE), a novel cardanol derivative, was synthesized and used as reactive diluent for petroleum-based epoxy resin in this work. The synthetic condition was first optimized, and the resultant PECGE diluent was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectro...

  6. Stable, hydroxyl functional polycarbonates with glycerol side chains synthesized from CO(2) and isopropylidene(glyceryl glycidyl ether).

    PubMed

    Geschwind, Jeannette; Frey, Holger

    2013-01-25

    A series of functional polycarbonates, poly((isopropylidene glyceryl glycidyl ether)-co-(glycidyl methyl ether) carbonate) (P((IGG-co-GME) C)) random copolymers with different fractions of 1,2-isopropylidene glyceryl glycidyl ether (IGG) units, is synthesized. After acidic hydrolysis of the acetal protecting groups, a new type of functional polycarbonate prepared directly from CO(2) and glycerol is obtained, namely poly((glyceryl glycerol)-co-(glycidyl methyl ether) carbonate) (P((GG-co-GME) C)). All hydroxyl functional samples exhibit monomodal molecular weight distributions with PDIs between 2.5 and 3.3 and M(n) between 12 000 and 25 000 g mol(-1) . Thermal properties reflect the amorphous structure of the polymers. The materials are stable in bulk and solution. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Copolymerization of glycidyl ethers with CO/sub 2/ on a homogeneous catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Kudashev, R.K.; Glukhov, E.A.; Kuramshina, E.A.; Monakov, Y.B.; Gailyunas, I.A.; Rafikov, S.R.

    1987-08-01

    The authors have investigated the relative reactivity of glycidyl ethers in copolymerization with CO/sub 2/ in the presence of the catalytic system Al(i-C/sub 4/H/sub 9/)/sub 3/-H/sub 2/O-epichlorohydrin. Solid CO/sub 2/ was introduced into the chilled autoclave, which contained toluene (the solvent), the epoxy compound, and epichlorohydrin. A relative reactivity series for glycidyl ethers in copolymerization with CO/sub 2/ in the presence of the system Al(i-C/sub 4/H/sub 9/)/sub 3/-H/sub 2/O-EPC has been established, which is connected with a dual type of the active centers present in the system. The viscous flow properties of the copolymers depend on the content of the CO/sub 2/-groups.

  8. Biocatalytic resolution of benzyl glycidyl ether and its derivates by Talaromyces flavus: effect of phenyl ring substituents on enantioselectivity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chun; Chen, Yunyun; Shen, Honglei; Wang, Shan; Chen, Lin; Zhu, Qing

    2012-08-01

    Talaromyces flavus containing a constitutive epoxide hydrolase (EH) resolved racemic benzyl glycidyl ether and nine derivatives into their (R)-enantiomers. After optimization of the fermentation conditions, the specific EH activity and biomass concentration were improved from 13.5 U/g DCW and 14.8 g DCW/l to 26.2 U/g DCW and 31.3 g DCW/l, respectively, with final values for e.e. ( s ) of 96 % and E of 13 with (R)-benzyl glycidyl ether. Substituents on the phenyl ring, however, gave low enantioselectivities.

  9. Rate constants for the reaction of OH radicals with n-propyl, n-butyl, iso-butyl and tert-butyl vinyl ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiault, G.; Mellouki, A.

    Rate constants for the reaction of OH radicals with n-propyl vinyl ether (PVE, CH 3CH 2CH 2OCH dbnd CH 2), n-butyl vinyl ether (BVE, CH 3CH 2CH 2CH 2OCH dbnd CH 2), iso-butyl vinyl ether (IBVE, (CH 3) 2CHCH 2OCH dbnd CH 2) and tert-butyl vinyl ether (TBVE, (CH 3) 3COCH dbnd CH 2), have been measured in the temperature and pressure ranges 232-373 K and 30-300 Torr using the pulsed laser photolysis-laser-induced fluorescence method, and at 298 K and 760 Torr using the relative method. The obtained results are k1=(9.3±0.6)×10 -12 exp[(708±20)/ T], k2=(1.5±0.2)×10 -11 exp[(572±42)/ T], k3=(1.6±0.1)×10 -11 exp[(567±20)/ T], k4=(1.7±0.2)×10 -11 exp[(549±25)/ T] cm 3 molecule -1 s -1. The values at 298 K are k1=(1.0±0.1)×10 -10, k2=(1.0±0.1)×10 -10, k3=(1.1±0.1)×10 -10, k4=(1.1±0.1)×10 -10 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1. The deduced tropospheric lifetimes of these ethers for reaction with OH are of the order of 1 h and they are comparable to those for reaction with ozone.

  10. Quantification of derivatives of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and novolac glycidyl ether (NOGE) migrated from can coatings into tuna by HPLC/fluorescence and MS detection.

    PubMed

    Berger, U; Oehme, M; Girardin, L

    2001-01-02

    A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method combined with fluorescence and mass spectrometric detection in series is presented for the separation and quantification of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and novolac glycidyl ether (NOGE) derivatives in extracts from food can coatings, tuna and oil. Fifteen samples of tuna cans bought in four European countries were investigated. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry in the positive ion mode (APCI(+)-MS) allowed to tentatively identify BADGE and NOGE related compounds originating from reactions of the glycidyl ethers with bisphenols, phenol, butanol, water and hydrochloric acid. Quantification was based on the external standard method and fluorescence detection. Mass fractions up to 3.7 micrograms/g were found for hydrochlorination products of bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE + 2HCl) in tuna. Furthermore, total migration quantities of phenolic ether compounds were estimated. The highest values found were 20 micrograms/g in tuna and 43 micrograms/g in the oil phase.

  11. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

  13. No Promoting Effect of Ethyl Tertiary-butyl Ether (ETBE) on Rat Urinary Bladder Carcinogenesis Initiated with N-Butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Akihiro; Imai, Norio; Doi, Yuko; Suguro, Mayuko; Kawabe, Mayumi; Furukawa, Fumio; Nagano, Kasuke; Fukushima, Shoji

    2013-12-01

    The effects of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) on two-stage urinary bladder carcinogenesis in male F344 rats initiated with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) were investigated at various dose levels with regard to possible promoting activity. Groups of 30 rats were given drinking water containing 500 ppm BBN, as an initiator, for 4 weeks and starting one week thereafter received ETBE by gavage (daily, 7 days/week) at dose levels of 0 (control), 100, 300, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day until experimental week 36. No statistically significant differences in incidences of preneoplastic lesions, papillomas, and carcinomas of the urinary bladder were evident in rats treated with 100-1000 mg/kg/day ETBE as compared with control values. Furthermore, the average numbers of preneoplastic or neoplastic lesions per unit length of basement membrane in rats given 100-1000 mg/kg/day ETBE were also comparable to control values. However, papillomatosis of the urinary bladder was found in 4 out of 30 rats (13%) in the group given 1000 mg/kg/day ETBE, and soft stones in the urinary bladder were found in 3 out of these 4 rats. The results thus demonstrated that ETBE did not exert promotional activity on urinary bladder carcinogenesis. However, papillomatosis of the urinary bladder developed in small numbers of the rats given ETBE at 1000 mg/kg/day but not in rats given 500 mg/kg/day or lower doses.

  14. Determining the presence of dipropylene glycol n-butyl ether (DPnB) in sediments and sands contaminated by the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehman, B.; Lyons, S. L.; Geng, Z.; White, H. K.

    2016-02-01

    In an attempt to mitigate the impact of the oil released from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, chemical dispersants (Corexit 9527 and Corexit 9500A, from Nalco Co.) were applied to the surface and subsurface waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Over the past five years studies have investigated the fate of oil from the spill and the applied dispersants, although significantly less is known about the latter. To determine the presence of dispersant in environmental samples, dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS), a component of both Corexit mixtures, has previously been examined in samples taken from the water column, coastal beaches and deep-sea sediments. This study expands upon this work by developing a method to extract dipropylene glycol n-butyl ether (DPnB), an additional compound present in Corexit, from sand and sediment samples contaminated with oil from the DWH spill. Controls spiked with a known quantity of DPnB were extracted with a range of organic solvents of different polarities to optimize the extraction of DPnB. Total organic extracts were then subjected to silica gel chromatography to isolate DPnB from any oil that was co-extracted. All samples were concentrated prior to analysis via gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using selected ion monitoring (SIM). The analysis and quantification of DPnB, which has different chemical properties than DOSS, will provide additional insight into the mechanisms that control the fate of oil and dispersant mixtures in the marine environment.

  15. No Promoting Effect of Ethyl Tertiary-butyl Ether (ETBE) on Rat Urinary Bladder Carcinogenesis Initiated with N-Butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Akihiro; Imai, Norio; Doi, Yuko; Suguro, Mayuko; Kawabe, Mayumi; Furukawa, Fumio; Nagano, Kasuke; Fukushima, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) on two-stage urinary bladder carcinogenesis in male F344 rats initiated with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) were investigated at various dose levels with regard to possible promoting activity. Groups of 30 rats were given drinking water containing 500 ppm BBN, as an initiator, for 4 weeks and starting one week thereafter received ETBE by gavage (daily, 7 days/week) at dose levels of 0 (control), 100, 300, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day until experimental week 36. No statistically significant differences in incidences of preneoplastic lesions, papillomas, and carcinomas of the urinary bladder were evident in rats treated with 100–1000 mg/kg/day ETBE as compared with control values. Furthermore, the average numbers of preneoplastic or neoplastic lesions per unit length of basement membrane in rats given 100–1000 mg/kg/day ETBE were also comparable to control values. However, papillomatosis of the urinary bladder was found in 4 out of 30 rats (13%) in the group given 1000 mg/kg/day ETBE, and soft stones in the urinary bladder were found in 3 out of these 4 rats. The results thus demonstrated that ETBE did not exert promotional activity on urinary bladder carcinogenesis. However, papillomatosis of the urinary bladder developed in small numbers of the rats given ETBE at 1000 mg/kg/day but not in rats given 500 mg/kg/day or lower doses. PMID:24526807

  16. A novel enantioselective epoxide hydrolase for (R)-phenyl glycidyl ether to generate (R)-3-phenoxy-1,2-propanediol.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shijin; Shen, Jiajia; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Chen, Jianmeng

    2007-10-01

    Bacillus sp. Z018, a novel strain producing epoxide hydrolase, was isolated from soil. The epoxide hydrolase catalyzed the stereospecific hydrolysis of (R)-phenyl glycidyl ether to generate (R)-3-phenoxy-1,2-propanediol. Epoxide hydrolase from Bacillus sp. Z018 was inducible, and (R)-phenyl glycidyl ether was able to act as an inducer. The fermentation conditions for epoxide hydrolase were 35 degrees C, pH 7.5 with glucose and NH(4)Cl as the best carbon and nitrogen source, respectively. Under optimized conditions, the biotransformation yield of 45.8% and the enantiomeric excess of 96.3% were obtained for the product (R)-3-phenoxy-1,2-propanediol.

  17. Thermoresponsive poly(glycidyl ether) brushes on gold: Surface engineering parameters and their implication for cell sheet fabrication.

    PubMed

    Heinen, Silke; Cuéllar-Camacho, José Luis; Weinhart, Marie

    2017-09-01

    Thermoresponsive polymer coatings, optimized for cell adhesion and thermally-triggered cell detachment, allow the fabrication of confluent cell sheets with intact extracellular matrix. However, rational design guidelines for such coatings are rare, since temperature-triggered cell adhesion and detachment from thermoresponsive surfaces are mechanistically not well understood. Herein, we investigated the impact of molecular weight (2, 9, 24kDa), grafting density (0.04-1.4 chains nm(-2)), morphology, and roughness of well-characterized thermoresponsive poly(glycidyl ether) brushes on the cell response at 37 and 20°C. NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts served as a model cell line for adhesion, proliferation, and cell sheet detachment. The cell response was correlated with serum protein adsorption from cell culture medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum. Intact cell sheets could be harvested from all the studied poly(glycidyl ether) coated surfaces, irrespective of the molecular weight, provided that the morphology of the coating was homogenous and the surface was fully shielded by the hydrated brush. The degree of chain overlap was estimated by the ratio of twice the polymer's Flory radius in a theta solvent to its interchain distance, which should be located in the strongly overlapping brush regime (2 Rf/l>1.4). In contrast, dense PNIPAM (2.5kDa) control monolayers did not induce protein adsorption from cell culture medium at 37°C and, as a result, did not allow a significant cell adhesion. These structural design parameters of functional poly(glycidyl ether) coatings on gold will contribute to future engineering of these thermoresponsive coatings on more common, cell culture relevant substrates. Cell sheet engineering as a scaffold-free approach towards tissue engineering resembles a milestone in regenerative medicine. The fabrication of confluent cell sheets maintains the extracellular matrix of cells which serves as the physiological cell scaffold. Thermoresponsive poly(glycidyl

  18. Efficient kinetic resolution of phenyl glycidyl ether by a novel epoxide hydrolase from Tsukamurella paurometabola.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kai; Wang, Hualei; Sun, Huihui; Wei, Dongzhi

    2015-11-01

    Enantioselective hydrolysis of racemic epoxides mediated by epoxide hydrolases (EHs) is one of the most promising approaches to obtain enantiopure epoxides. In this study, we identified and characterized a novel EH (TpEH1) from Tsukamurella paurometabola by analyzing the conserved catalytic residues of EH. TpEH1 was overexpressed and purified, and its catalytic properties were studied using racemic phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE) and its derivatives as substrates. TpEH1 showed excellent enantioselectivity to the substrates PGE, 3-methylPGE, and 3-nitroPGE. The highest enantioselectivity (E > 100) was achieved when 3-nitroPGE was used as the substrate. The recombinant Escherichia coli TpEH1 demonstrated high substrate tolerance toward PGE and could hydrolyze PGE at concentrations of up to 400 mM (60 g/L) with high enantioselectivity (E = 65), giving (R)-PGE with enantiomeric excess of more than 99 % ee and 45 % yield within 1 h. This concentration of PGE is the highest reported concentration catalyzed by native EHs to date. Thus, the easily available and highly active E. coli TpEH1 showed great potential for the practical preparation of optically pure (R)-PGE.

  19. Toxic effect and genotoxicity of the semisynthetic derivatives dillapiole ethyl ether and dillapiole n-butyl ether for control of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    da Fonseca Meireles, Sabrina; Domingos, Pedro Rauel Cândido; da Silva Pinto, Ana Cristina; Rafael, Míriam Silva

    2016-09-01

    Two derivatives of dillapiole, dillapiole ethyl ether (1KL39-B) and butyl ether-n dillapiole (1KL43-C), were studied for their toxicity and genotoxicity against Aedes albopictus, to help develop new strategies for the control of this potential vector of dengue and other arboviruses, because it is resistant to synthetic insecticides. Eggs and larvae exposed to different concentrations of 1KL39-B (25, 30, 50, 70, and 80μg/mL) and of 1KL43-C (12.5, 20, 25, 30 and 40μg/mL) exhibited toxicity and susceptibility, with 100% mortality. The LC50 was 55.86±1.57μg/mL for 1KL39-B and 25.60±1.24μg/mL for 1KL43-C, while the LC90 was 70.12μg/mL for 1KL39-B and 41.51μg/mL for 1KL43-C. The gradual decrease in oviposition of the females of the G1 to G4 generations was proportional to the increase in concentrations of these compounds, which could be related to the cumulative effect of cell anomalies in neuroblasts and oocytes (P<0.05), including micronuclei, budding, multinucleated cells and nuclear bridges. These findings showed that both 1KL39-B and 1KL43-C can serve as potential alternatives in the control of A. albopictus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Preparation and solution behavior of a thermoresponsive diblock copolymer of poly(ethyl glycidyl ether) and poly(ethylene oxide).

    PubMed

    Ogura, Michihiro; Tokuda, Hiroyuki; Imabayashi, Shin-ichiro; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2007-08-28

    A thermoresponsive diblock copolymer, poly(ethyl glycidyl ether)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEGE-b-PEO), is synthesized by successive anionic ring-opening polymerization of ethyl glycidyl ether and ethylene oxide using 2-phenoxyethanol as a starting material, and its solution behavior is elucidated in water. In a dilute 1 wt % solution, the temperature-dependent alteration in the polymer hydrodynamic radius (RH) is measured in the temperature range between 5 and 45 degrees C by pulse-gradient spin-echo NMR and dynamic light scattering. The RH value increased with temperature in two steps, where the first step at 15 degrees C corresponds to the core-shell micelle formation and the second step at 40 degrees C corresponds to the aggregation of the core-shell micelles. The formation of the core-shell micelles is supported by the solubilization of a dye (1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene) in the hydrophobic core, which is recognized for a copolymer solution in the temperature range between 20 and 40 degrees C. In this temperature range, the core-shell micelles and the unimers coexist and the fraction of the former gradually increases with increasing temperature, suggesting equilibrium between the micelles and the unimers. In the concentrated regime (40 wt % solution), the solution forms a gel and the small-angle X-ray scattering measurements reveal the successive formation of hexagonal and lamellar liquid crystal phases with increasing temperature.

  1. Biotransformation of the double bond in allyl glycidyl ether to an epoxide ring. Evidence from hemoglobin adducts in mice.

    PubMed

    Pérez, H L; Osterman-Golkar, S

    2000-02-15

    Allyl glycidyl ether (AGE) is used industrially in the production of various epoxy resins. The compound is mutagenic and evidence for carcinogenicity in mice and rats has been reported. A previous study in mice showed that AGE reacts directly, without metabolic activation, with N-terminal valine in hemoglobin to form adducts (AGEVal). Metabolism of AGE may lead to formation of diglycidyl ether (I) through epoxidation of the double bond or 1-allyloxy-2,3-dihydroxypropane (II) through hydrolysis of the epoxide ring. 2,3-Dihydroxypropyl glycidyl ether (III) may be formed either by hydrolysis of I or epoxidation of II. The main aim of the present study was to investigate if AGE is metabolized to the reactive epoxides I or III by analysis of adducts with hemoglobin. Nine male mice (C3H/Hej) were administered AGE dissolved in tricaprylin, 4 mg/mouse, by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. Eleven male mice were administered 4 mg/mouse of AGE dissolved in acetone, by skin application. Adducts of I or III with N-terminal valine, N-(2-hydroxy-3-(2,3-dihydroxy)propyloxy)propylvaline (diOHPrGEVal), were demonstrated in mice administered AGE by i.p. injection. The levels were in the range 1600-5600 pmol/g globin. The level of diOHPrGEVal in mice administered AGE by skin application (n = 5) was below the detection limit of the analytical method, 20 pmol/g globin. The level of AGEVal, analyzed in mice administered AGE by skin application (n = 6), was about 20 pmol/g globin (median value), as compared with 1600 pmol/g globin previously found in mice administered AGE by i.p. injection. Neither AGEVal nor diOHPrGEVal were detected in control animals. Both adducts were analyzed using a modified Edman method for derivatization and using gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for detection. The hydroxyl groups of the Edman derivative of diOHPrGEVal were protected by acetylation.

  2. PRODUCTS OF THE GAS-PHASE REACTIONS OF THE OH RADICAL WITH N-BUTYL METHYL ETHER AND 2-ISOPROPOXYETHANOL: REACTIONS OF ROC(O)< RADICALS. (R825252)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The products of the gas-phase reactions of the OH radical with n-butyl methyl ether and 2-isopropoxyethanol in the presence of NO have been investigated at 298 ? 2 K and 740 Torr total pressure of air by gas chromatography and in situ atmospheric pressure ionization...

  3. PRODUCTS OF THE GAS-PHASE REACTIONS OF THE OH RADICAL WITH N-BUTYL METHYL ETHER AND 2-ISOPROPOXYETHANOL: REACTIONS OF ROC(O)< RADICALS. (R825252)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The products of the gas-phase reactions of the OH radical with n-butyl methyl ether and 2-isopropoxyethanol in the presence of NO have been investigated at 298 ? 2 K and 740 Torr total pressure of air by gas chromatography and in situ atmospheric pressure ionization...

  4. Reaction products and mechanisms for the reaction of n-butyl vinyl ether with the oxidants OH and Cl: Atmospheric implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colmenar, Inmaculada; Martín, Pilar; Cabañas, Beatriz; Salgado, Sagrario; Tapia, Araceli; Martínez, Ernesto

    2015-12-01

    A reaction product study for the degradation of butyl vinyl ether (CH3(CH2)3OCHdbnd CH2) by reaction with chlorine atoms (Cl) and hydroxyl radicals (OH) has been carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) and/or Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry with a Time of Flight analyzer (GC-TOFMS). The rate coefficient for the reaction of butyl vinyl ether (BVE) with chlorine atoms has also been evaluated for the first time at room temperature (298 ± 2) K and atmospheric pressure (708 ± 8) Torr. The rate coefficient obtained was (9.9 ± 1.5) × 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and this indicates the high reactivity of butyl vinyl ether with Cl atoms. However, this value may be affected by the dark reaction of BVE with Cl2. The results of a qualitative study of the Cl reaction show that the main oxidation products are butyl formate (CH3(CH2)3OC(O)H), butyl chloroacetate (CH3(CH2)3OC(O)CH2Cl and formyl chloride (HCOCl). Individual yields in the ranges ∼16-40% and 30-70% in the absence and presence of NOx, respectively, have been estimated for these products. In the OH reaction, butyl formate and formic acid were identified as the main products, with yields of around 50 and 20%, respectively. Based on the results of this work and a literature survey, the addition of OH radicals and Cl atoms at the terminal C atom of the double bond in CH3(CH2)3OCHdbnd CH2 has been proposed as the first step in the reaction mechanism for both of the studied oxidants. The tropospheric lifetime of butyl vinyl ether is very short and, as a consequence, it will be rapidly degraded and will only be involved in tropospheric chemistry at a local level. The degradation products of these reactions should be considered when evaluating the atmospheric impact.

  5. RATE CONSTANTS FOR THE REACTIONS OF OH RADICALS AND CL ATOMS WITH DI-N-PROPYL ETHER AND DI-N-BUTYL ETHER AND THEIR DEUTERATED ANALOGS. (R825252)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using relative rate methods, rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals and Cl atoms with di-n-propyl ether, di-n-propyl ether-d14, di-n-butyl ether and di-n-butyl ether-d18 have been measured at 296 ? 2 K and atmos...

  6. Oxidation-Responsive and "Clickable" Poly(ethylene glycol) via Copolymerization of 2-(Methylthio)ethyl Glycidyl Ether.

    PubMed

    Herzberger, Jana; Fischer, Karl; Leibig, Daniel; Bros, Matthias; Thiermann, Raphael; Frey, Holger

    2016-07-27

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is a widely used biocompatible polymer. We describe a novel epoxide monomer with methyl-thioether moiety, 2-(methylthio)ethyl glycidyl ether (MTEGE), which enables the synthesis of well-defined thioether-functional poly(ethylene glycol). Random and block mPEG-b-PMTEGE copolymers (Mw/Mn = 1.05-1.17) were obtained via anionic ring opening polymerization (AROP) with molecular weights ranging from 5 600 to 12 000 g·mol(-1). The statistical copolymerization of MTEGE with ethylene oxide results in a random microstructure (rEO = 0.92 ± 0.02 and rMTEG E = 1.06 ± 0.02), which was confirmed by in situ (1)H NMR kinetic studies. The random copolymers are thermoresponsive in aqueous solution, with a wide range of tunable transition temperatures of 88 to 28 °C. In contrast, mPEG-b-PMTEGE block copolymers formed well-defined micelles (Rh ≈ 9-15 nm) in water, studied by detailed light scattering (DLS and SLS). Intriguingly, the thioether moieties of MTEGE can be selectively oxidized into sulfoxide units, leading to full disassembly of the micelles, as confirmed by detection of pure unimers (DLS and SLS). Oxidation-responsive release of encapsulated Nile Red demonstrates the potential of these micelles as redox-responsive nanocarriers. MTT assays showed only minor effects of the thioethers and their oxidized derivatives on the cellular metabolism of WEHI-164 and HEK-293T cell lines (1-1000 μg·mL(-1)). Further, sulfonium PEG polyelectrolytes can be obtained via alkylation or alkoxylation of MTEGE, providing access to a large variety of functional groups at the charged sulfur atom.

  7. Reactive Poly(Amic Acid)/ Poly(Glycidyl Methacrylate-r-Poly(ethylene Glycol) Methyl Ether Methacrylate) Blends as Gas Permeation Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, Michael; Watkins, James

    2012-02-01

    Polymers containing polar moieties, such as ether groups show an affinity for acidic gases, such as CO2 due to dipole-quadrapole interactions. Polymer blends in which one of the components is poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) have been studied extensively in literature as a CO2/light gas permeation membrane, but due to the crystallization and poor mechanical properties have been difficult to incorporate PEG above 60wt%. In this study, a series of random copolymers containing both glycidyl methacrylate and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate in different ratios are blended with a poly(amic acid) prepolymer made from 4, 4'-oxydianiline and pyromellitic dianhydride to create gas permeation membranes. By using a reactive blend PEG loadings above 70% have been realized with sufficient mechanical properties, and since the side chain on the PEGMA is short these blends do not suffer from crystallization.

  8. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  10. Poly(glycidyl ether)-Based Monolayers on Gold Surfaces: Control of Grafting Density and Chain Conformation by Grafting Procedure, Surface Anchor, and Molecular Weight.

    PubMed

    Heinen, Silke; Weinhart, Marie

    2017-03-07

    For a meaningful correlation of surface coatings with their respective biological response reproducible coating procedures, well-defined surface coatings, and thorough surface characterization with respect to layer thickness and grafting density are indispensable. The same applies to polymeric monolayer coatings which are intended to be used for, e.g., fundamental studies on the volume phase transition of surface end-tethered thermoresponsive polymer chains. Planar gold surfaces are frequently used as model substrates, since they allow a variety of straightforward surface characterization methods. Herein we present reproducible grafting-to procedures performed with thermoresponsive poly(glycidyl ether) copolymers composed of glycidyl methyl ether (GME) and ethyl glycidyl ether (EGE). The copolymers feature different molecular weights (2 kDa, 9 kDa, 24 kDa) and are equipped with varying sulfur-containing anchor groups in order to achieve adjustable grafting densities on gold surfaces and hence control the tethered polymers' chain conformation. We determined "wet" and "dry" thicknesses of these coatings by QCM-D and ellipsometry measurements and deduced anchor distances and degrees of chain overlap of the polymer chains assembled on gold. Grafting under cloud point conditions allowed for higher degrees of chain overlap compared to grafting from a good solvent like ethanol, independent of the used sulfur-containing anchor group for polymers with low (2 kDa) and medium (9 kDa) molecular weights. By contrast, the achieved grafting densities and thus chain overlaps of surface-tethered polymers with high (24 kDa) molecular weights were identical for both grafting methods. Monolayers prepared from an ethanolic solution of poly(glycidyl ether)s equipped with sterically demanding disulfide-containing anchors revealed the lowest degrees of chain overlap. The ratio of the radius of gyration to the anchor distance (2 Rg/l) of the latter coating was found to be lower than 1

  11. Novel microbial epoxide hydrolases for biohydrolysis of glycidyl derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kotik, Michael; Brichac, Jiri; Kyslík, Pavel

    2005-12-06

    Microbial isolates from biofilters and petroleum-polluted bioremediation sites were screened for the presence of enantioselective epoxide hydrolases active towards tert-butyl glycidyl ether, benzyl glycidyl ether, and allyl glycidyl ether. Out of 270 isolated strains, which comprised bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi, four were selected based on the enantioselectivities of their epoxide hydrolases determined in biotransformation reactions. The enzyme of Aspergillus niger M200 preferentially hydrolyses (S)-tert-butyl glycidyl ether to (S)-3-tert-butoxy-1,2-propanediol with a relatively high enantioselectivity (the enantiomeric ratio E is about 30 at a reaction temperature of 28 degrees C). Epoxide hydrolases of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa M002 and Rhodococcus fascians M022 hydrolyse benzyl glycidyl ether with relatively low enantioselectivities, the former reacting predominantly with the (S)-enantiomer, the latter preferring the (R)-enantiomer. Enzymatic hydrolysis of allyl glycidyl ether by Cryptococcus laurentii M001 proceeds with low enantioselectivity (E=3). (R)-tert-Butyl glycidyl ether with an enantiomeric excess (ee) of over 99%, and (S)-3-tert-butoxy-1,2-propanediol with an ee-value of 86% have been prepared on a gram-scale using whole cells of A. niger M200. An enantiomeric ratio of approximately 100 has been determined under optimised biotransformation conditions with the partially purified epoxide hydrolase from A. niger M200. The regioselectivity of this enzyme was determined to be total for both (S)-tert-butyl glycidyl ether and (R)-tert-butyl glycidyl ether.

  12. Can simultaneous contact allergies to phenyl glycidyl ether and epoxy resins of the bisphenol A/F-types be explained by contamination of the epoxy resins?

    PubMed

    Pontén, Ann; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus

    2008-11-01

    Simultaneous contact allergies to epoxy resins based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA-R) or epoxy resins of the bisphenol F-type and the reactive diluent phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE) have been reported. The reason might be cross-reactivity, exposure to an epoxy resin system with PGE as a component, or contamination by PGE in the epoxy resin. To study contamination by PGE, 20 commercial epoxy resins were analysed for the presence of PGE. To study contact allergy to PGE and its relation to epoxy resins by inserting PGE in the standard series. Among 2227 patients, 7 reacted to PGE. Of 23 (30%) patients, 7 with contact allergy to DGEBA-R and 7/19 (37%) with contact allergy to an epoxy resin of the bisphenol F-type reacted to PGE. All 7 patients with contact allergy to PGE reacted both to the DGEBA-R and to the epoxy resin of the bisphenol F-type. PGE was found in 90% of the investigated resins. The amounts of PGE ranged between 0.004% w/w and 0.18% w/w. Most probably, the presence of PGE as a contaminant in epoxy resins is of minor importance for the sensitization, but possibly the contamination of PGE might elicit contact dermatitis in individuals with a high reactivity to PGE.

  13. Adsorption induced enzyme denaturation: the role of protein surface in adsorption induced protein denaturation on allyl glycidyl ether (AGE)-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDM) copolymers.

    PubMed

    Thudi, Lahari; Jasti, Lakshmi S; Swarnalatha, Y; Fadnavis, Nitin W; Mulani, Khudbudin; Deokar, Sarika; Ponrathnam, Surendra

    2012-02-01

    The effects of protein size on adsorption and adsorption-induced denaturation of proteins on copolymers of allyl glycidyl ether (AGE)-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDM) have been studied. Different responses were observed for the amount of protein adsorbed and denatured on the polymer surface for different proteins (trypsin, alchol dehydrogenase from baker's yeast (YADH), glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) from Gluconobacter cerinus, and alkaline phosphates from calf intestinal mucosa (CIAP). Protein adsorption on the copolymer with 25% crosslink density (AGE-25) was dependent not only on the size of the protein but also on the presence of glycoside residues on the protein surface. Adsorption and denaturation of proteins follows the order YADH>trypsin>GDH>CIAP although the molecular weights of the proteins follow the order YADH>CIAP>GDH>trypsin. The lack of correlation between amount of adsorbed protein and its molecular weight was due to the presence of glycoside residues on CIAP and GDH which protect the enzyme surface from denaturation. Enzyme stabilities in aqueous solutions of 1-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CHP) correlate well with the trend in denaturation by the copolymer, strongly suggesting that hydrophobic interactions play a major role in protein binding and the mechanism of protein denaturation is similar to that for water-miscible organic solvents.

  14. Impact of a heteroatom in a structure-activity relationship study on analogues of phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE) from epoxy resin systems.

    PubMed

    Niklasson, Ida B; Delaine, Tamara; Luthman, Kristina; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2011-04-18

    Epoxy resins are among the most common causes of occupational contact dermatitis. They are normally used in so-called epoxy resin systems (ERS). These commercial products are combinations of epoxy resins, curing agents, modifiers, and reactive diluents. The most frequently used resins are diglycidyl ethers based on bisphenol A (DGEBA) and bisphenol F (DGEBF). In this study, we have investigated the contact allergenic properties of a series of analogues to the reactive diluent phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE), all with similar basic structures but with varying heteroatoms or with no heteroatom present. The chemical reactivity of the compounds in the test series toward the hexapeptide H-Pro-His-Cys-Lys-Arg-Met-OH was investigated. All epoxides were shown to bind covalently to both cysteine and proline residues. The percent depletion of nonreacted peptide was also studied resulting in ca. 60% depletion when using either PGE, phenyl 2,3-epoxypropyl sulfide (2), or N-(2,3-epoxypropyl)aniline (3), and only 15% when using 1,2-epoxy-4-phenylbutane (4) at the same time point. The skin sensitization potencies of the epoxides using the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) were evaluated in relation to the observed physicochemical and reactivity properties. To enable determination of statistical significance between structurally closely related compounds, a nonpooled LLNA was performed. It was found that all investigated compounds containing a heteroatom in the α-position to the epoxide were strong sensitizers, congruent with the reactivity data, indicating that the impact of a heteroatom is crucial for the sensitizing capacity for this type of epoxides.

  15. Effect of fungal mycelia on the HPLC-UV and UV-vis spectrophotometric assessment of mycelium-bound epoxide hydrolase using glycidyl phenyl ether.

    PubMed

    Dolcet, Marta M; Torres, Mercè; Canela, Ramon

    2016-06-25

    The use of mycelia as biocatalysts has technical and economic advantages. However, there are several difficulties in obtaining accurate results in mycelium-catalysed reactions. Firstly, sample extraction, indispensable because of the presence of mycelia, can bring into the extract components with a similar structure to that of the analyte of interest; secondly, mycelia can influence the recovery of the analyte. We prepared calibration standards of 3-phenoxy-1,2-propanediol (PPD) in the pure solvent and in the presence of mycelia (spiked before or after extraction) from five fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus terreus). The quantification of PPD was carried out by HPLC-UV and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The manuscript shows that the last method is as accurate as the HPLC method. However, the colorimetric method led to a higher data throughput, which allowed the study of more samples in a shorter time. Matrix effects were evaluated visually from the plotted calibration data and statistically by simultaneously comparing the intercept and slope of calibration curves performed with solvent, post-extraction spiked standards and pre-extraction spiked standards. Significant differences were found between the post- and pre-extraction spiked matrix-matched functions. Pre-extraction spiked matrix-matched functions based on A. tubingensis mycelia, selected as the reference, were validated and used to compensate for low recoveries. These validated functions were successfully applied to the quantification of PPD achieved during the hydrolysis of glycidyl phenyl ether by mycelium-bound epoxide hydrolases and equivalent hydrolysis yields were determined by HPLC-UV and UV-vis spectrophotometry. This study may serve as starting point to implement matrix effects evaluation when mycelium-bound epoxide hydrolases are studied.

  16. 40 CFR 721.4925 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 721.4925... Substances § 721.4925 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance methyl n-butyl ketone, CAS Number 591-78-6, is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4925 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 721.4925... Substances § 721.4925 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance methyl n-butyl ketone, CAS Number 591-78-6, is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.4925 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 721.4925... Substances § 721.4925 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance methyl n-butyl ketone, CAS Number 591-78-6, is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.4925 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 721.4925... Substances § 721.4925 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance methyl n-butyl ketone, CAS Number 591-78-6, is subject to reporting...

  20. 21 CFR 520.260 - n-Butyl chloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false n-Butyl chloride capsules. 520.260 Section 520.260... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.260 n-Butyl chloride capsules. (a)(1) Specifications. n-Butyl chloride capsules, veterinary contain 272 milligrams or 816 milligrams...

  1. 40 CFR 721.4925 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 721.4925... Substances § 721.4925 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance methyl n-butyl ketone, CAS Number 591-78-6, is subject to reporting...

  2. 27 CFR 21.118 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 21.118 Section 21.118 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....118 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Acidity (as acetic acid). 0.02 percent by weight, maximum. (b)...

  3. 27 CFR 21.118 - Methyl n-butyl ketone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl n-butyl ketone. 21.118 Section 21.118 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....118 Methyl n-butyl ketone. (a) Acidity (as acetic acid). 0.02 percent by weight, maximum. (b) Color...

  4. Evidence of chemical reactions between di- and poly-glycidyl ether resins and tannins isolated from Pinus radiata D. Don bark.

    PubMed

    Soto, Roy; Freer, Juanita; Baeza, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    This work evaluates the feasibility of reacting tannins isolated from Pinus radiata D. Don bark with epoxide resins of the diglycidyl and polyglycidyl ether type. To this end, gel times of aqueous tannin dispersions (40% w/w) with every one of nine selected resins (5% w/w), at previously established pH values (initial equal to 3.3, 4, 7 and 10), have been determined. Products of these reactions were analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy, and the results were compared with those obtained from tannin-p-formaldehyde and (+)-catechin-p-formaldehyde systems, at the same pH values. Their mechanical properties were evaluated, by dynamic mechanical analysis, at two pH values (3.3 and 10). In general, it was concluded that tannin-epoxide resin systems behave similarly to tannin-paraformaldehyde systems, especially at basic pH values.

  5. 21 CFR 520.260 - n-Butyl chloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.260 n-Butyl chloride capsules... hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma braziliense, and Uncinaria stenocephala) from dogs and of the... every 3 to 6 months is sufficient. (b) For dogs or cats that have been wormed regularly, treatment every...

  6. 21 CFR 520.260 - n-Butyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.260 n-Butyl chloride. (a)(1... (Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma braziliense, and Uncinaria stenocephala) from dogs and of the ascarid... months is sufficient. (b) For dogs or cats that have been wormed regularly, treatment every 3 to 6 months...

  7. 21 CFR 520.260 - n-Butyl chloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.260 n-Butyl chloride capsules... hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma braziliense, and Uncinaria stenocephala) from dogs and of the... every 3 to 6 months is sufficient. (b) For dogs or cats that have been wormed regularly, treatment every...

  8. 21 CFR 520.260 - n-Butyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.260 n-Butyl chloride. (a)(1... (Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma braziliense, and Uncinaria stenocephala) from dogs and of the ascarid... months is sufficient. (b) For dogs or cats that have been wormed regularly, treatment every 3 to 6 months...

  9. 27 CFR 21.100 - n-Butyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false n-Butyl alcohol. 21.100 Section 21.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  10. 27 CFR 21.100 - n-Butyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false n-Butyl alcohol. 21.100 Section 21.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  11. 27 CFR 21.100 - n-Butyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false n-Butyl alcohol. 21.100 Section 21.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  12. 27 CFR 21.100 - n-Butyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false n-Butyl alcohol. 21.100 Section 21.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  13. 27 CFR 21.100 - n-Butyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false n-Butyl alcohol. 21.100 Section 21.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  14. N-Butyl acrylate polymer composition for solar cell encapsulation and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Amitava (Inventor); Ingham, John D. (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre H. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A polymer syrup for encapsulating solar cell assemblies. The syrup includes uncrosslinked poly(n-butyl)acrylate dissolved in n-butyl acrylate monomer. Preparation of the poly(n-butyl)acrylate and preparation of the polymer syrup is disclosed. Methods for applying the polymer syrup to solar cell assemblies as an encapsulating pottant are described. Also included is a method for solar cell construction utilizing the polymer syrup as a dual purpose adhesive and encapsulating material.

  15. Biocompatibility of wollastonite-poly(N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate) composites.

    PubMed

    de Sena, Lídia Ágata; de Almeida, Marcelo Sanmartin; de Oliveira Fernandes, Gustavo V; Guerra Bretaña, Rosa M; Castro-Silva, Igor Iuco; Granjeiro, José Mauro; Achete, Carlos Alberto

    2014-08-01

    Wollastonite-poly(n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate) composite (W-BCA) has been proposed to immobilize anatomically bone fragments in order to achieve an optimal healing process. The present study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo behavior of three types of fillers: powdered natural wollastonite (Wn), synthetic pseudowollastonite powder (Ws), and synthetic pseudowollastonite powder coated with 5% acetyl tributyl citrate (Wst). The Wst-BCA composite underwent a higher degradability in the real-time degradation test and a superior cytotoxic effect; whereas the Wn-BCA composite showed a higher degradability in the accelerated test with no cytotoxicity. The formation of an extracellular collagenous matrix deposit on its surface and the most favorable new bone formation on Wn-BCA indicate its potential for bone adhesive use in unstable orthopedic traumas.

  16. The Millimeterwave Spectrum of n-BUTYL Cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordu, Matthias H.; Müller, Holger S. P.; Lewen, Frank; Schlemmer, Stephan; Nez, Marc Nu; Walters, Adam

    2011-06-01

    The rotational spectrum of n-butyl cyanide (C_4H_9CN) was measured between 75 and 130 GHz using a novel all-solid-state spectrometer with a total absorption path of 44 m. In the course of the analysis of the spectrum, about 3000 transitions were assigned and a full set of quartic centrifugal distortion parameters with some sextic and octic terms could be determined for each of the three known conformers (anti-anti, anti-gauche(methyl end) and gauche(CN end)-anti). The work was motivated by the fact that n-butyl cyanide is likely to be found in interstellar hot core environments. This is indicated by the discovery of n-propyl cyanide (C_3H_7CN), the next smaller alkyl cyanide, in the ISM. The increased accuracy of the model, which will be additionally extended by future laboratory measurements around 200 GHz, may now be employed for a prediction of the spectrum up to 300 GHz with a feasible uncertainty for astronomic line surveys. Furthermore, there are two less abundant conformers, cis-gauche-gauche and trans-gauche-gauche, which have not yet been detected in the rotational spectrum. Due to the increased sensitivity of the new spectrometer, it seems possible now for the first time to identify their sectroscopic fingerprints in the recorded data. A. Belloche, R. T. Garrod, H. S. P.Müller, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, and P. Schilke, Astronomy & Astrophysics 499, 215 (2009) R. K. Bohn, J. L. Pardus, J. August, T. Brupbacher, W. Jäger, J. Mol. Struct. 413-414, 293 (1997)

  17. Thermodynamic properties and ideal-gas enthalpies of formation for 2-aminoisobutyric acid (2-methylalanine), acetic acid, (Z)-5-ethylidene-2-norbornene, mesityl oxide (4-methyl-3-penten-2-one), 4-methylpent-1-ene, 2,2{prime}-bis(phenylthio)propane, and glycidyl phenyl ether (1,2-epoxy-3-phenoxypropane)

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Cowell, A.B.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.

    1997-11-01

    The results of a study aimed at improvement of group-contribution methodology for estimation of thermodynamic properties of organic substances are reported. Specific weaknesses where particular group-contribution terms were unknown, or estimated because of lack of experimental data, are addressed by experimental studies of enthalpies of combustion in the condensed phase, vapor-pressure measurements, and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) heat-capacity measurements. Ideal-gas enthalpies of formation of acetic acid, (Z)-5-ethylidene-2-norbornene, mesityl oxide (4-methyl-3-penten-2-one), 4-methylpent-1-ene, glycidyl phenyl ether (1,2-epoxy-3-phenoxypropane), and 2,2{prime}-bis(phenylthio)propane are reported. An enthalpy of formation of 2-aminoisobutyric acid (2-methylalanine) in the crystalline phase was determined. Using a literature value for the enthalpy of sublimation of 2-aminoisobutyric acid, a value for the ideal-gas enthalpy of formation was derived. An enthalpy of fusion was determined for 2,2{prime}-bis(phenylthio)propane. Two-phase (solid + vapor) or (liquid + vapor) heat capacities were determined from 300 K to the critical region or earlier decomposition temperature for all the compounds except acetic acid. For mesityl oxide and 4-methylpent-1-ene, critical temperatures and critical densities were determined from the DSC results and corresponding critical pressures derived from the fitting procedures. Group-additivity parameters and ring strain energies useful in the application of group-contribution correlations were derived.

  18. Transcatheter Embolotherapy with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate for Ectopic Varices

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Hyo-Cheol Jae, Hwan Jun Jung, Hyun-Seok; Hur, Saebeom; Lee, Myungsu; Chung, Jin Wook

    2015-04-15

    PurposeTo address technical feasibility and clinical outcome of transcatheter embolotherapy with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for bleeding ectopic varices.MethodsThe institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed consent. From January 2004 to June 2013, a total of 12 consecutive patients received transcatheter embolotherapy using NBCA for bleeding ectopic varices in our institute. Clinical and radiologic features of the endovascular procedures were comprehensively reviewed.ResultsPreprocedural computed tomography images revealed ectopic varices in the jejunum (n = 7), stoma (n = 2), rectum (n = 2), and duodenum (n = 1). The 12 procedures consisted of solitary embolotherapy (n = 8) and embolotherapy with portal decompression (main portal vein stenting in 3, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in 1). With regard to vascular access, percutaneous transhepatic access (n = 7), transsplenic access (n = 4), and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt tract (n = 1) were used. There was no failure in either the embolotherapy or the vascular accesses (technical success rate, 100 %). Two patients died within 1 month from the procedure from preexisting fatal medical conditions. Only one patient, with a large varix that had been partially embolized by using coils and NBCA, underwent rebleeding 5.5 months after the procedure. The patient was retreated with NBCA and did not undergo any bleeding afterward for a follow-up period of 2.5 months. The remaining nine patients did not experience rebleeding during the follow-up periods (range 1.5–33.2 months).ConclusionTranscatheter embolotherapy using NBCA can be a useful option for bleeding ectopic varices.

  19. Bilateral transrenal ureteral occlusion by means of n-butyl cyanoacrylate and AMPLATZER vascular plug

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Rosario F; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi; Luppi, Giacomo; Mercurio, Simona; Giurazza, Francesco; Vescovo, Riccardo Del; Faiella, Eliodoro; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte

    2014-01-01

    AMPLATZER vascular plug is a widely used embolic agent. In the present paper, we present a case of an 86-year-old female patient who underwent bilateral ureteral occlusion by means of AMPLATZER vascular plug II coupled to n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) because of recurring pyelonephritis following cystectomy with subsequent bilateral ureterosigmoidostomy (sec. Mainz type II). PMID:25024520

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Sphingobium yanoikuyae TJ, a Halotolerant Di-n-Butyl-Phthalate-Degrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Decai; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Xinxin; Kong, Xiao; Liu, Huijun; Wang, Yafeng

    2016-01-01

    Sphingobium yanoikuyae TJ is a halotolerant di-n-butyl-phthalate-degrading bacterium, isolated from the Haihe estuary in Bohai Bay, Tianjin, China. Here, we report the 5.1-Mb draft genome sequence of this strain, which will provide insights into the diversity of Sphingobium spp. and the mechanism of phthalate ester degradation in the estuary. PMID:27313307

  1. Percutaneous transhepatic embolization of biliary leakage with N-butyl cyanoacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Ierardi, Anna Maria; Piacentino, Filippo; Cardim, Larissa N

    2012-01-01

    Biliary leakage is a known complication after biliary surgery. In this report, we describe an uncommon treatment of a common biliary complication, wherein we used percutaneous transhepatic injection of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) to treat a biliary leak in an 83-year-old patient. PMID:22623810

  2. Use of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate in elective surgical incisions--longterm outcomes.

    PubMed

    Amiel, G E; Sukhotnik, I; Kawar, B; Siplovich, L

    1999-07-01

    Histoacryl Blue (N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate) is a tissue adhesive that has been used clinically for more than 20 years. In the last decade, N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate has been used for cutaneous closure of low-tension lacerations in children and adults and has become a preferred method for closure of pediatric facial lacerations in many emergency rooms outside the United States. Many pediatric elective surgical procedures are performed in tension-free areas and may be suitable for closure with a tissue adhesive. In order to assess this approach, a retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the cosmetic outcomes and complications of the application of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate for the approximation of elective surgical incisions in a pediatric population. Records of 1,098 patients, ages 1 month to 16 years, who, between January 1995 and December 1996, underwent one of the following: orchidopexy, inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, or hydrocele repair were analyzed. In all patients, N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate was applied to close the surgical incision. A 12-item questionnaire was created to assess the presence of complications and to determine shortterm and longterm cosmetic outcomes of the incision. Data were collected by conducting telephone interviews of family members. Among the 1,033 children who were treated, 66% had inguinal hernias, 15% hydroceles, 15% undescended testis, and 4% umbilical hernias. Redness or tenderness at the incision site (5.5%), discharge from the surgical wound (1.9%), and wound dehiscence (1.1%) were the main immediate complications after surgery. Overall satisfaction with the cosmetic outcomes of the surgical scar was high, with an average score of 4.73 out of 5 (94.6%). Our results demonstrate that administration of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate for the closure of small low-tension surgical incisions in the pediatric population is safe, has a low complication rate, and produces excellent cosmetic outcomes.

  3. [Pulmonary embolism after endoscopic injection with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate for gastric varices].

    PubMed

    Robaina, Gabriela; Albertini, Ricardo; Carranza, Martín; Herrena Najum, Pablo

    Gastric varices occur in one-third of patients with portal hypertension. Bleeding from gastric varices remains a significant cause of death. Currently the first-line of treatment for gastric varices is endoscopic obliteration with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Though relatively safe, this option has several well-known complications. We report the case of a 61-year-old male patient with cryptogenic cirrhosis, who presented with fever, tachycardia and hypoxemia after endoscopic obliteration with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Radiographic findings were consistent with pulmonary embolism of the sclerosing substance. The aim of this case report is to emphasize the clinical and radiological findings of this complication in order to distinguish it from other similar medical conditions and prevent a delay in diagnosis.

  4. Recanalization of Splenic Artery Aneurysm After Transcatheter Arterial Embolization Using N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Keiji; Ushijima, Yasuhiro Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Nishie, Akihiro; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Ishigami, Kousei; Yamaji, Yukiko; Honda, Hiroshi

    2010-02-15

    A 65-year-old woman who had been diagnosed as having microscopic polyangiitis developed sudden abdominal pain and entered a state of shock. Abdominal CT showed massive hemoperitoneum, and emergent angiography revealed a ruptured splenic artery aneurysm. After direct catheterization attempts failed due to tortuous vessels and angiospasm, transcatheter arterial embolization using an n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA)-lipiodol mixture was successfully performed. Fifty days later, the patient developed sudden abdominal pain again. Repeated angiography demonstrated recanalization of the splenic artery and splenic artery aneurysm. This time, the recanalized aneurysm was embolized using metallic coils with the isolation method. Physicians should keep in mind that recanalization can occur after transcatheter arterial embolization using N-butyl cyanoacrylate, which has been used as a permanent embolic agent.

  5. Use of a balloon and N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate for treatment of arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Dönmez, Halil; Mavili, Ertuğrul; Toker, Birgül; Oztürk, M Halil; Soylu, Serra O; Hekimoğlu, Baki

    2008-07-01

    We report a patient who developed a large arteriovenous fistula in right lower extremity after gunshot injury. Because other endovascular methods failed, the patient was successfully treated with concomitant use of detachable latex balloon and N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA). The combination of detachable balloon and NBCA can be effectively used for endovascular treatment of peripheral arteriovenous fistulas in selected cases when effective embolization could not be achieved with other embolizing agents or their various combinations.

  6. Reverse osmosis performance with solutions containing tri-n-butyl phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Siler, J.L.

    1991-10-22

    Tests were conducted to determine whether the reverse osmosis (RO) units at the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at the Savannah River could be made to process solutions containing tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). It was desired to test whether operation at a feed pH other than neutral would improve performance. Test results are discussed in this report and indicate that little improvement in the water flux can be expected at other pH values.

  7. Reverse osmosis performance with solutions containing tri-n-butyl phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Siler, J.L.

    1991-10-22

    Tests were conducted to determine whether the reverse osmosis (RO) units at the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at the Savannah River could be made to process solutions containing tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). It was desired to test whether operation at a feed pH other than neutral would improve performance. Test results are discussed in this report and indicate that little improvement in the water flux can be expected at other pH values.

  8. Use of a Balloon and N-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate for Treatment of Arteriovenous Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Doenmez, Halil Mavili, Ertugrul; Toker, Birguel; Oztuerk, M. Halil; Soylu, Serra O.; Hekimoglu, Baki

    2008-07-15

    We report a patient who developed a large arteriovenous fistula in right lower extremity after gunshot injury. Because other endovascular methods failed, the patient was successfully treated with concomitant use of detachable latex balloon and N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA). The combination of detachable balloon and NBCA can be effectively used for endovascular treatment of peripheral arteriovenous fistulas in selected cases when effective embolization could not be achieved with other embolizing agents or their various combinations.

  9. Can we trust odor databases? Example of t- and n-butyl acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, William S.; Schmidt, Roland

    The US EPA has exempted t-butyl acetate from VOC regulations, which increases the likelihood that it may replace other solvents in some settings. This investigation probes its chemosensory properties. In Study 1, subjects ( n = 29) sought to detect the odor of t-butyl acetate and of n-butyl acetate in forced-choice testing of stable concentrations, analytically confirmed. Subjects sniffed from cones with a high enough volumetric flow to insure against dilution by nonodorized air. A subject made hundreds of judgments, enough for a psychometric function for each material. The points of 50% detection above chance ("threshold") occurred at 8 and 2 ppb for t-butyl acetate and n-butyl acetate, respectively. In study 2, subjects ( n = 26) sought to detect vapor with the eye via chemesthesis (sensory irritation) in 10-s exposures. Detection at 50% occurred at 177 and 113 ppm for t-butyl acetate and n-butyl acetate, respectively, more than 10,000 times above that for odor detection. The protocols produced results of uncommon precision compared to those in often-misleading archival databases. The nose exhibits much higher sensitivity than the databases indicate. The collections rarely exhibit accuracy better than ±1000%. Collection of accurate data for a VOC can ironically bring on stricter regulation for just it, a situation that calls for a strategy to improve the database by collection of new data, importation of better data, and development of quantitative structure-activity modeling.

  10. n-Butyl cyanoacrylate synthesis. A new quality step using microwaves.

    PubMed

    Carriles, Yaquelin Ramos; Brito, Rubén Alvarez; Sánchez, Ricardo Martínez; Acevedo, Elayma Sánchez; Domínguez, Paola Rodríguez; Mueller, Wolf-Dieter

    2014-05-15

    Alkyl cyanoacrylates are interesting products for use in industry because of their properties enabling them to stick together a wide range of substrates. n-Butyl cyanoacrylate is one of the most successfully used tissue adhesives in the field of medicine because it exhibits bacteriostatic and haemostatic characteristics, in addition to its adhesive properties. At present, its synthesis is performed with good yields via Knoevenagel condensation using conventional sources of heating, but this requires a long processing time. The aim of this work was to look for a new way of synthesising n-butyl cyanoacrylate using microwave irradiation as the source of heating. This non-conventional source of heating most likely reduces the process time of the synthesis. In comparison with a conventional heating source, such as an oil bath, the results showed the advantages of this method whereby the n-butyl cyanoacrylate gave the same yield and quality with a reduction in the reaction time by a factor of 3-5-fold.

  11. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721... Substances § 721.2950 Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as carboxylic acid glycidyl ester...

  12. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721... Substances § 721.2950 Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as carboxylic acid glycidyl ester...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721... Substances § 721.2950 Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as carboxylic acid glycidyl ester...

  14. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721... Substances § 721.2950 Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as carboxylic acid glycidyl ester...

  15. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721... Substances § 721.2950 Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as carboxylic acid glycidyl...

  16. Portal Hypertension Secondary to Spontaneous Arterio-Portal Venous Fistulas: Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate and Microcoils

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagami, Takuji; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2000-09-15

    We report a 73-year-old man with recurrent variceal bleeding due to portal hypertension caused by multiple intrahepatic arterio-portal venous fistulas, which were successfully occluded by embolization with n-butyl cyanoacrylate and micro-coils.

  17. ATOM TRANSFER RADICAL POLYMERIZATION OF N-BUTYL METHACRYLATE IN AQUEOUS DISPERSED SYSTEMS: A MINIEMULSION APPROACH. (R826735)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultrasonication was applied in combination with a hydrophobe for the copper-mediated atom transfer radical polymerization of n-butyl methacrylate in an aqueous dispersed system. A controlled polymerization was successfully achieved, as demonstrated by a linear correlation between...

  18. ATOM TRANSFER RADICAL POLYMERIZATION OF N-BUTYL METHACRYLATE IN AQUEOUS DISPERSED SYSTEMS: A MINIEMULSION APPROACH. (R826735)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultrasonication was applied in combination with a hydrophobe for the copper-mediated atom transfer radical polymerization of n-butyl methacrylate in an aqueous dispersed system. A controlled polymerization was successfully achieved, as demonstrated by a linear correlation between...

  19. N-Butyl sulfide as an attractant and coattractant for male and female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Landolt, Peter J; Ohler, Bonnie; Lo, Peter; Cha, Dong; Davis, Thomas S; Suckling, David M; Brunner, Jay

    2014-04-01

    Research to discover and develop attractants for the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., has involved identification of the chemicals eliciting moth orientation to conspecific female moths, host fruits, fermented baits, and species of microbes. Pear ester, acetic acid, and N-butyl sulfide are among those chemicals reported to attract or enhance attractiveness to codling moth. We evaluated the trapping of codling moth with N-butyl sulfide alone and in combination with acetic acid and pear ester in apple orchards. Acetic acid was attractive in two tests and N-butyl sulfide was attractive in one of two tests. N-Butyl sulfide increased catches of codling moth when used with acetic acid to bait traps. N-Butyl sulfide also increased catches of codling moth when added to traps baited with the combination of acetic acid and pear ester. Male and female codling moth both responded to these chemicals and chemical combinations. These results provide a new three-component lure comprising N-butyl sulfide, acetic acid, and pear ester that is stronger for luring codling moth females than other attractants tested.

  20. Holmium Nitrate Complexation with Tri-n-butyl Phosphate in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Robert V. Fox; R. Duane Ball; Peter de B. Harrington; Harry W. Rollins; Chien M. Wai

    2005-12-01

    Holmium nitrate pentahydrate was reacted with tri-n-butyl phosphate in supercritical carbon dioxide at 308 K. The products of the complexation reaction were measured under supercritical fluid conditions using UV-vis spectroscopy. The solubility of the metal complexes in the supercritical fluid phase was measured. The mole-ratio titration method was used to determine the stoichiometry of the soluble complexes. Conditional extraction coefficients were calculated from spectral data using least-squares regression and hard-equilibria models. Data indicate that the holmium nitrate-tributyl phosphate system forms 1:2 and 1:4 holmium-tributyl phosphate complexes.

  1. Repair of Traumatic Abdominal Aortic Pseudoaneurysm Using N-Butyl-2-Cyano-Acrylate Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio Tanihata, Hirohiko; Sahara, Shinya; Takasaka, Isao; Minamiguchi, Hiroki; Nakai, Motoki

    2010-04-15

    Embolization using N-butyl-2-cyano-acrylate (NBCA) has been highly regarded for treating pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous malformation, and hemorrhage of the visceral arteries. We report the case of a patient who fell from a cliff and sustained hemorrhagic shock with blunt abdominal aortic rupture and who underwent embolization using NBCA. This treatment achieved immediate hemostasis and stabilization of vital signs. Although the long-term durability of NBCA is unknown, it appears that certain types of acute aortic hemorrhage with narrow-necked pseudoaneurysm can be controlled by embolization using NBCA.

  2. The role of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate in the repair of traumatic diaphragmatic injuries

    PubMed Central

    Bas, Gurhan; Ozkan, Orhan Veli; Alimoglu, Orhan; Eryilmaz, Ramazan; Sahin, Mustafa; Okan, Ismail; Cevikbas, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    Diaphragmatic injuries either by blunt or penetrating trauma require prompt surgical intervention and are often exigent to repair. N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (n-butyl-2-CA) is a tissue adhesive which has gained wide application in many areas of surgery including emergency. To repair the extensive injuries of the diaphragm it may be necessary the use of synthetic mesh by fixing it with sutures or staples. The use of tissue adhesives may circumvent the potential problems associated with mesh fixation. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tissue adhesives usage for mesh fixation in diaphragmatic injury repair. Twenty-four rats were divided into 3 groups each of them containing 8 rats. A 1- cm diaphragmatic defect was created in all rats. The defect was repaired by polypropylene suture in Group I, by mesh fixed with sutures in group II and by mesh fixed with n-butyl-2-CA in group III. The rats were sacrificed after 1 month. The episode of hernia and the adhesions were assessed by adhesion density score. Also, the abscess and inflammation in the repaired tissue were evaluated microscopically. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed for the histopathological analysis. No diaphragmatic hernia was detected in any group. While Group III had higher adhesion density scores than group I (P: 0.027), there were no differences between group III and II (P: 0.317) and group II and I (P = 0.095) regarding adhesion density scores. The inflammation grade was higher in group III than group I and II (P < 0.001) and was higher in group II than group I (P < 0.05). There was no differences between each groups, concerning microabcsess formation (P > 0.05). Repair of traumatic diaphragmatic injury in penetrating wound, with polypropylene mesh fixed by n-butyl-2-CA in rats appears to be as efficacious and safe as conventional methods in early period. However, further experimental and clinical study are needed to compare the long-term results of adhesive mesh repair with those of

  3. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria in the system methyl propanoate + n-butyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Susial, P.; Ortega, J. . Lab. de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica)

    1993-10-01

    Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria were determined at 74.66, 101.32, and 127.99 kPa for binary mixtures containing methyl propanoate + n-butyl alcohol by using a dynamic still with vapor and liquid circulation. No azeotrope was detected. The data were found to be thermodynamically consistent according to the point to point test. Application of the group-contribution models ASOG, UNIFAC, and modified UNIFAC to the activity coefficients at the three pressures studied gives average errors of less than 10%, 11%, and 3%, respectively.

  4. Final report of the addendum to the safety assessment of n-butyl alcohol as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    McLain, Valerie C

    2008-01-01

    n-Butyl Alcohol is a primary aliphatic alcohol historically used as a solvent in nail care cosmetic products, but new concentration of use data indicate that it also is being used at low concentrations in eye makeup, personal hygiene, and shaving cosmetic products. n-Butyl Alcohol has been generally recognized as safe for use as a flavoring substance in food and appears on the 1982 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) list of inactive ingredients for approved prescription drug products. n-Butyl Alcohol can be absorbed through the skin, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract. n-Butyl Alcohol may be formed by hydrolysis of butyl acetate in the blood, but is rapidly oxidized. The single oral dose LD(50) of n-Butyl Alcohol for rats was 0.79 to 4.36 g/kg. The dermal LD(50) for rabbits was 4.2 g/kg. Inhalation toxicity studies in humans demonstrate sensory irritation of the upper respiratory tract, but only at levels above 3000 mg/m(3). Animal studies demonstrate intoxication, restlessness, ataxia, prostration, and narcosis. Exposures of rats to levels up to 4000 ppm failed to produce hearing defects. High concentrations of n-Butyl Alcohol vapors can be fatal. Ocular irritation was observed for n-Butyl alcohol at 0.005 ml of a 40% solution. The behavioral no-effect dose for n-Butyl Alcohol injected subcutaneously (s.c.) was 120 mg/kg. Fetotoxicity has been demonstrated, but only at maternally toxic levels (1000 mg/kg). No significant behavioral or neurochemical effects were seen in offspring following either maternal or paternal exposure to 3000 or 6000 ppm. n-Butyl Alcohol was not mutagenic in Ames tests, did not induce sister-chromatid exchange or chromosome breakage in chick embryos or Chinese hamster ovary cells, did not induce micronuclei formation in V79 Chinese hamster cells, did not have any chromosome-damaging effects in a mouse micronucleus test, and did not impair chromosome distribution in the course of mitosis. Clinical testing of n-Butyl Alcohol for

  5. Use of the n-butyl cyanoacrylate adhesive and the polyglactine thread suture for corneal rhaphy in rabbit (Oryctolagus cunicullus).

    PubMed

    Mota, Francisco Cláudio Dantas; Eurides, Duvaldo; Freitas, Patricia Maria Coletto; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; Goulart, Michelle Rodriques; Cunha, Lívia Maria Ferreira; da Silva, Luiz Antonio Franco; Fioravanti, Maria Clorinda Soares

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cicatricial repair of perforating cornea in rabbits, by using the N-butyl cyanoacrylate adhesive compared to the 910-polyglactine thread suture through macroscopic and histological assays. Corneas from 18 adult rabbits were perforated and subsequently occluded with N-butyl cyanoacrylate synthetic adhesive (right cornea) or by separated single points using the 910-polyglactine thread (left cornea). The rabbits were divided into groups containing three animals per group. Examination after 7, 15, and 30 days post-operative showed that both the synthetic adhesive and the suture were efficient in the occlusion of the surgical wounds, thus stabilizing the intra-ocular content. The N-butyl cyanoacrylate adhesive was shown to be superior to the 910-polyglactine suture thread with regards to the evolution and the organization of the healing process.

  6. Bio-Source of di-n-butyl phthalate production by filamentous fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Congkui; Ni, Jinren; Chang, Fang; Liu, Sitong; Xu, Nan; Sun, Weiling; Xie, Yuan; Guo, Yongzhao; Ma, Yanrong; Yang, Zhenxing; Dang, Chenyuan; Huang, Yuefei; Tian, Zhexian; Wang, Yiping

    2016-02-01

    Although DBP (di-n-butyl phthalate) is commonly encountered as an artificially-synthesized plasticizer with potential to impair fertility, we confirm that it can also be biosynthesized as microbial secondary metabolites from naturally occurring filamentous fungi strains cultured either in an artificial medium or natural water. Using the excreted crude enzyme from the fungi for catalyzing a variety of substrates, we found that the fungal generation of DBP was largely through shikimic acid pathway, which was assembled by phthalic acid with butyl alcohol through esterification. The DBP production ability of the fungi was primarily influenced by fungal spore density and incubation temperature. This study indicates an important alternative natural waterborne source of DBP in addition to artificial synthesis, which implied fungal contribution must be highlighted for future source control and risk management of DBP.

  7. Modeling of nickel extraction between Di-n-butyl phosphorodithioate and acid

    SciTech Connect

    Bogacki, M.B.; Szymanowski, J. . Inst. of Chemical Technology and Engineering); Cote, G. . Lab. de Chimie Analytique)

    1993-11-01

    A chemical model for nickel(II) extraction from acidic sulfate solutions with O,O-di-n-butyl phosphorodithioate and for nickel stripping with hydrochloric acid solutions is presented and used for discussion of extraction-stripping systems with either conventional sequential stages of extraction and stripping or unconventional cross-current flows. A good agreement of the model with experimental extraction data is observed. The number of extraction and stripping stages necessary to obtain a given yield of transfer of nickel(II) has been found to be lower in unconventional extraction-stripping systems than in conventional systems with sequential stages of extraction and stripping. The use of hydrochloric acid for stripping instead of sulfuric acid leads to an important increase of nickel transfer from the feed to the strip liquor.

  8. Endovascular Preoperative Embolization of Orbital Hemangiopericytoma With n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate Glue

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Kaitlyn M.; Alaraj, Ali; Aakalu, Vinay K.; Aletich, Victor; Setabutr, Pete

    2014-01-01

    Hemangiopericytoma is an uncommon neoplasm that may present in myriad locations, including the lower extremities, pelvic area, and the head and neck area, including the orbit.1 Orbital hemangiopericytoma is often described as synonymous with orbital solitary fibrous tumor, giant cell angiofibroma, and fibrous histiocytoma, as they all belong to a spectrum of collagen-rich fibroblastic tumors that are often CD34-positive and have overlapping histopathologic features.2 Many cases of orbital hemangiopericytoma have been reported in the literature along with various surgical approaches, long-term outcomes, and techniques to manage recurrence; however, few have discussed preoperative embolization.1,3-5 Intraoperative hemorrhage is a concern in both the congenital and the adult form of these cases6,7 and may be an indication for preoperative embolization. A unique case of preoperative embolization was presented with n-butyl cyanoacrylate for surgical resection of a large orbital hemangiopericytoma in a 58-year-old woman. PMID:24317100

  9. Brown algae hydrolysis in 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride with mineral acid catalyst system.

    PubMed

    Malihan, Lenny B; Nisola, Grace M; Chung, Wook-Jin

    2012-08-01

    The amenability of three brown algal species, Sargassum fulvellum, Laminaria japonica and Undaria pinnatifida, to hydrolysis were investigated using the ionic liquid (IL), 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl). Compositional analyses of the brown algae reveal that sufficient amounts of sugars (15.5-29.4 wt.%) can be recovered. Results from hydrolysis experiments show that careful selection of the type of mineral acid as catalyst and control of acid loading could maximize the recovery of sugars. Optimal reaction time and temperature were determined from the kinetic studies on the sequential reducing sugar (TRS) formation and degradation. Optimal reaction times were determined based on the extent of furfurals formation as TRS degradation products. X-ray diffraction and environmental scanning electron microscopy confirmed the suitability of [BMIM]Cl as solvent for the hydrolysis of the three brown algae. Overall results show the potential of brown algae as renewable energy resources for the production of valuable chemicals and biofuels.

  10. Initiation Temperature for Runaway Tri-n-Butyl Phosphate/Nitric Acid Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.

    2001-09-14

    In a review of the safety basis for solvent extraction processes at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, a question was raised concerning the safety margin associated with a postulated accident involving a runaway tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/nitric acid reaction due to the inadvertent heating of a tank. The safety margin was based on studies which showed the maximum temperature would not exceed 128 degrees Celsius compared to 130 degrees Celsius, the minimum initiation temperature for runaway reaction established in the 1950's following damaging incidents at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites. The reviewers were concerned the minimum temperature was not conservative since data for solutions containing 20 wt percent dissolved solids showed initiation temperatures at or below 130 degrees Celsius and process solutions normally contain some dissolved solids.

  11. Exposure to mono-n-butyl phthalate disrupts the development of preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    Chu, Da-Peng; Tian, Shi; Sun, Da-Guang; Hao, Chan-Juan; Xia, Hong-Fei; Ma, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Dibutyl phthalate (DBP), a widely used phthalate, is known to cause many serious diseases, especially in the reproductive system. However, little is known about the effects of its metabolite, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), on preimplantation embryo development. In the present study, we found that treatment of embryos with 10⁻³ M MBP impaired developmental competency, whereas exposure to 10⁻⁴ M MBP delayed the progression of preimplantation embryos to the blastocyst stage. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in embryos were significantly increased following treatment with 10⁻³ M MBP. In addition, 10⁻³ M MBP increased apoptosis via the release of cytochrome c, whereas immunofluorescent analysis revealed that exposure of preimplantation embryos to MBP concentration-dependently (10⁻⁵, 10⁻⁴ and 10⁻³ M) decreased DNA methylation. Together, the results indicate a possible relationship between MBP exposure and developmental failure in preimplantation embryos.

  12. Embolization of congenital intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt by n-butyl cyanoacrylate.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vivek; Kalra, Naveen; Vyas, Sameer; Sodhi, K S; Thapa, B R; Khandelwal, N

    2009-10-01

    Congenital intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt (IHPSVS) is rare vascular anomaly. We present one case of a 14-month male child who presented with global developmental delay. Child had high ammonia levels with low glutamine and high bile salts on the previous investigations and had history of neonatal seizures since day 13 of life. On admission, serum ammonia levels were elevated to 112micromol/L. Other laboratory investigations including liver and renal function test, and electrolytes were normal. He was, diagnosed to have IHPSVS on the basis of Doppler and CT, and treated by embolization with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (glue). A brief review of diagnostic modalities and endovascular management for the IHPSVS is presented including the present case.

  13. [n-Butyl Alcohol-soluble Chemical Constituents of Psidium guajava Leaves].

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Wan, Kai-hua; Fu, Hui-zheng; Yan, Qing-wei

    2015-03-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the leaves of Psidium guajava. The chemical constituents were isolated by column chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and MPLC. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of special analysis. Seven compounds were isolated from n-butyl alcohol fraction, whose structures were elucidated as morin-3-O-α-L-arabopyranoside (1), morin-3-O-α-L-iyxopyranoside (2), 2,6-dihydroxy-4-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-benzophenone (3), casuarictin (4),2,6-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethyl-4-O-(6"-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-benzophenone(5), globulusin A(6), and kaempferol-3-O-β-D-(6"-galloyl) galactopyranoside (7). Compounds 3 and 5 ~ 7 are isolated from this plant for the first time.

  14. Bio-Source of di-n-butyl phthalate production by filamentous fungi

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Congkui; Ni, Jinren; Chang, Fang; Liu, Sitong; Xu, Nan; Sun, Weiling; Xie, Yuan; Guo, Yongzhao; Ma, Yanrong; Yang, Zhenxing; Dang, Chenyuan; Huang, Yuefei; Tian, Zhexian; Wang, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    Although DBP (di-n-butyl phthalate) is commonly encountered as an artificially-synthesized plasticizer with potential to impair fertility, we confirm that it can also be biosynthesized as microbial secondary metabolites from naturally occurring filamentous fungi strains cultured either in an artificial medium or natural water. Using the excreted crude enzyme from the fungi for catalyzing a variety of substrates, we found that the fungal generation of DBP was largely through shikimic acid pathway, which was assembled by phthalic acid with butyl alcohol through esterification. The DBP production ability of the fungi was primarily influenced by fungal spore density and incubation temperature. This study indicates an important alternative natural waterborne source of DBP in addition to artificial synthesis, which implied fungal contribution must be highlighted for future source control and risk management of DBP. PMID:26857605

  15. Study of N-n-butyl-N-(2-nitroxyethyl)nitramine in RDX based gun propellant.

    PubMed

    Damse, R S; Omprakash, B; Tope, B G; Chakraborthy, T K; Singh, Amarjit

    2009-08-15

    The current trend in the development of gun propellant is to replace the non-energetic plasticizers with the energetic plasticizer. This leads to better energetic performance of gun propellant. The purpose of the present paper is to explore the possibility of enhancing the ballistic performance of RDX based gun propellant by incorporating an energetic plasticizer into the propellant composition. Compositions containing N-n-butyl-N-(2-nitroxyethyl)nitramine (Bu-NENA) as an energetic plasticizer with varying percentage of RDX have been studied theoretically and experimentally. Performance in terms of ballistic parameters, sensitivity, thermal characteristics, stability and mechanical properties was evaluated and compared with the vis-à-vis compositions containing dioctylphthalate as a non-energetic plasticizer. Experimental data on comparative study indicates that Bu-NENA based propellants are superior to DOP based propellants in respect of ballistic performance.

  16. Dural arteriovenous fistula in the falx cerebri treated with transarterial embolization using n-butyl cyanoacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Koyanagi, Masaomi; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Oda, Masashi; Narumi, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Background: A dural arteriovenous fistula in the falx cerebri is a relatively rare lesion, with only two cases reported till date. One was treated with direct surgery, and the other was followed-up conservatively. Advances in catheter design and embolic materials have made safe and curative transarterial embolization of dural arteriovenous fistulas possible in the current era. Case Description: We describe a 67-year-old man with left putaminal hemorrhage who was diagnosed with an arteriovenous fistula in the anterior part of the falx cerebri that was treated with curative transarterial glue embolization through the middle meningeal artery by using n-butyl cyanoacrylate. Conclusion: Although the procedure was safely performed, understanding the potential risks of the migration of embolic materials into the ophthalmic and anterior cerebral artery system is mandatory. PMID:28144483

  17. Bio-Source of di-n-butyl phthalate production by filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Tian, Congkui; Ni, Jinren; Chang, Fang; Liu, Sitong; Xu, Nan; Sun, Weiling; Xie, Yuan; Guo, Yongzhao; Ma, Yanrong; Yang, Zhenxing; Dang, Chenyuan; Huang, Yuefei; Tian, Zhexian; Wang, Yiping

    2016-02-09

    Although DBP (di-n-butyl phthalate) is commonly encountered as an artificially-synthesized plasticizer with potential to impair fertility, we confirm that it can also be biosynthesized as microbial secondary metabolites from naturally occurring filamentous fungi strains cultured either in an artificial medium or natural water. Using the excreted crude enzyme from the fungi for catalyzing a variety of substrates, we found that the fungal generation of DBP was largely through shikimic acid pathway, which was assembled by phthalic acid with butyl alcohol through esterification. The DBP production ability of the fungi was primarily influenced by fungal spore density and incubation temperature. This study indicates an important alternative natural waterborne source of DBP in addition to artificial synthesis, which implied fungal contribution must be highlighted for future source control and risk management of DBP.

  18. Dose-dependent short-term study of di-n-butyl phthalate on the testicular antioxidant system of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Nair, Neena

    2015-02-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), a xenobiotic, is widely used in industries as a softener for polyvinyl chloride resins. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether DBP induces oxidative stress in testes of Wistar rats. DBP at doses of 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg/kg b.wt. (doses below LD50) was given orally for 7 days. After 24 hrs from the last dose, the animals were killed under ether anesthesia. Nonsignificant increase in testicular weight was observed. Histological studies indicated a dose-related degeneration of germinal, Leydig and Sertoli cells along with loss of spermatozoa in the lumen. The concentrations of malondialdehyde (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides, water-soluble antioxidant capacity, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase and trace elements-zinc and copper increased while concentrations of total protein, lipid soluble antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, glutathione, total superoxide dismutase (SOD), Cu-ZnSOD, MnSOD, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and metallothionein decreased at all the dose levels. The data suggests that the cellular functions were adversely affected due to impairment of spermatogenesis indicative of oxidative stress as evident by altered antioxidative defense system which appears to mediate through hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. The spectrum of changes in testes reflects its susceptibility to phthalate even at low dose with the potential to interfere with critical reproductive function.

  19. N-butyl sulfide as an attractant and co-attractant for male and female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research to discover and develop attractants for the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L., has involved identification of the chemicals eliciting moth orientation to conspecific female moths, host fruits, fermented baits, and species of microbes. Pear eester, acetic acid, and N-butyl sulfide are am...

  20. Oxidation of ethyl ether on borate glass: chemiluminescence, mechanism, and development of a sensitive gas sensor.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing; Xu, Kailai; Jia, Yunzhen; Lv, Yi; Li, Yubao; Hou, Xiandeng

    2008-11-01

    A gas sensor was developed by using the chemiluminescence (CL) emission from the oxidation of ethyl ether by oxygen in the air on the surface of borate glass. Theoretical calculation, together with experimental investigation, revealed the main CL reactions: ethyl ether is first oxidized to acetaldehyde and then to acetic acid, during which main luminous intermediates such as CH 3CO (*) are generated and emit light with a peak at 493 nm. At a reaction temperature of 245 degrees C, the overall maximal emission was found at around 460 nm, and the linear range of the CL intensity versus the concentration of ethyl ether was 0.12-51.7 microg mL (-1) ( R = 0.999, n = 7) with a limit of detection (3sigma) of 0.04 microg mL (-1). Interference from foreign substances including alcohol (methanol, ethanol and isopropanol), acetone, ethyl acetate, n-hexane, cyclohexane, dichloromethane, or ether ( n-butyl ether, tetrahydrofuran, propylene oxide, isopropyl ether and methyl tert-butyl ether) was not significant except a minimal signal from n-butyl ether (<2%). It is a simple, sensitive and selective gas sensor for the determination of trace ethyl ether.

  1. Transdermal Uptake of Diethyl Phthalate and Di(n-butyl) Phthalate Directly from Air: Experimental Verification

    PubMed Central

    Bekö, Gabriel; Koch, Holger M.; Salthammer, Tunga; Schripp, Tobias; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2015-01-01

    Background Fundamental considerations indicate that, for certain phthalate esters, dermal absorption from air is an uptake pathway that is comparable to or greater than inhalation. Yet this pathway has not been experimentally evaluated and has been largely overlooked when assessing uptake of phthalate esters. Objectives This study investigated transdermal uptake, directly from air, of diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP) in humans. Methods In a series of experiments, six human participants were exposed for 6 hr in a chamber containing deliberately elevated air concentrations of DEP and DnBP. The participants either wore a hood and breathed air with phthalate concentrations substantially below those in the chamber or did not wear a hood and breathed chamber air. All urinations were collected from initiation of exposure until 54 hr later. Metabolites of DEP and DnBP were measured in these samples and extrapolated to parent phthalate intakes, corrected for background and hood air exposures. Results For DEP, the median dermal uptake directly from air was 4.0 μg/(μg/m3 in air) compared with an inhalation intake of 3.8 μg/(μg/m3 in air). For DnBP, the median dermal uptake from air was 3.1 μg/(μg/m3 in air) compared with an inhalation intake of 3.9 μg/(μg/m3 in air). Conclusions This study shows that dermal uptake directly from air can be a meaningful exposure pathway for DEP and DnBP. For other semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) whose molecular weight and lipid/air partition coefficient are in the appropriate range, direct absorption from air is also anticipated to be significant. Citation Weschler CJ, Bekö G, Koch HM, Salthammer T, Schripp T, Toftum J, Clausen G. 2015. Transdermal uptake of diethyl phthalate and di(n-butyl) phthalate directly from air: experimental verification. Environ Health Perspect 123:928–934; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409151 PMID:25850107

  2. Carboxylesterase-involved metabolism of di-n-butyl phthalate in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qingqi; Chen, Siyuan; Chao, Yuanqing; Huang, Xiongfei; Wang, Shizhong; Qiu, Rongliang

    2017-01-01

    Uptake and accumulation by plants is a significant pathway in the migration and transformation of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the environment. However, limited information is available on the mechanisms of PAE metabolism in plants. Here, we investigated the metabolism of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), one of the most frequently detected PAEs, in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings via a series of hydroponic experiments with an initial concentration of 10 mg L(-1). DnBP hydrolysis occurred primarily in the root, and two of its metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and phthalic acid (PA), were detected in all plant tissues. The MnBP concentration was an order of magnitude higher than that of PA in shoots, which indicated MnBP was more readily transported to the shoot than was PA because of the former's dual hydrophilic and lipophilic characteristics. More than 80% of MnBP and PA were located in the cell water-soluble component except that 96% of MnBP was distributed into the two solid cellular fractions (i.e., cell wall and organelles) at 96 h. A 13-20% and 29-54% increase of carboxylesterase (CXE) activity shown in time-dependent and concentration-dependent experiments, respectively, indicated the involvement of CXEs in plant metabolism of DnBP. The level of CXE activity in root subcellular fractions was in the order: the cell water-soluble component (88-94%) > cell wall (3-7%) > cell organelles (3-4%), suggesting that the cell water-soluble component is the dominant locus of CXE activity and also the domain of CXE-catalyzed hydrolysis of DnBP. The addition of triphenyl phosphate, a CXE inhibitor, led to 43-56% inhibition of CXE activity and 16-25% increase of DnBP content, which demonstrated the involvement of CXEs in plant metabolism of DnBP. This study contributes to our understanding of enzymitic mechanisms of PAE transformation in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Conformations of n-butyl imidazole: Matrix isolation infrared and DFT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, N.; Sundararajan, K.; Sankaran, K.

    2015-03-01

    Conformations of n-butyl imidazole (B-IMID) were studied using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy by trapping in argon, xenon and nitrogen matrixes using an effusive nozzle source. The experimental studies were supported by DFT computations performed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. Computations identified nine unique minima for B-IMID, corresponding to conformers with tg±tt, tg±g∓t, tg±g±t, tg±tg±, tg±tg∓, tg±g∓g∓, tg±g±g±, tg±g∓g± and tg±g±g∓ structures, given in order of increasing energy. Computations of the transition state structures connecting the higher energy conformers to the global minimum, tg±tt structure were carried out. The barriers for the conformer inter-conversion were found to be ∼2 kcal/mol. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis was performed to understand the reasons for conformational preferences in B-IMID.

  4. Microscopy of thin polymer blend films of polystyrene and poly-n-butyl-methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, T.; Guttmann, P.; Schmidt, O.; Müller-Buschbaum, P.; Stamm, M.; Schönhense, G.; Schmahl, G.

    2000-05-01

    The structure of thin polymer blend films of polystyrene (PS) and poly-n-butyl-methacrylate (PnBMA) was examined with Transmission X-ray Microscopy (TXM), Scanning Force Microscopy (SFM), X-Ray Photoemission Electron Microscopy (X-PEEM) and Optical Microscopy (OM). Thin films were prepared by spin casting of a toluene solution of the polymer mixture onto silicon wafers retaining the native oxide. Depending on blend composition and annealing conditions smooth films with and without holes or films with well pronounced surface features (ribbons or islands) were produced. By TXM measurements a high lateral resolution study of the as cast and the annealed polymer blend samples was performed. The contrast in TXM is due to different absorption of x-radiation of the used polymers and due to variation in thickness. With X-PEEM the lateral distribution of the two polymers near the surface was mapped by employing the characteristic Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectra of the polymers. The TXM technique is a microscopic method integrating over the total film thickness, whereas the X-PEEM technique is a highly surface sensitive method. TXM and X-PEEM are therefore complementary methods which provide important information on the structure of thin polymer blend films additional to the standard techniques SFM and OM.

  5. Biotransformation at 10 C of di-n-butyl phthalate in subsurface microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Chauret, C.; Inniss, W.E.; Mayfield, C.I.

    1996-09-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) was found to be transformed by microorganisms under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at 10 C in microcosms simulating the Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Borden subsurface environment. Biotransformation of DBP was observed under aerobic, nitrate-reducing, Fe(III)-reducing, and sulfate-reducing conditions. The biotransformation of DBP in the microcosms was significantly decrease3d as the redox potential was lowered, especially under sulfate-reducing conditions. However, other factors such as nutrient depletion and buildup of toxic intermediates could have affected the biotransformation rates. The highest DBP biotransformation rate (0.57 {micro}g DBP{center_dot}g sediment{sup {minus}1}{center_dot}day{sup {minus}1}) was under sulfate-reducing conditions. Biotransformation of DBP at 10 C was significantly enhanced by the addition of 10 mM NaNO{sub 3} suggesting that both the addition of nitrate and high redox conditions favor its biotransformation in subsurface environments.

  6. Studying the Kinetics of n-Butyl-Cyanoacrylate Tissue Adhesive and Its Oily Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedvedova, Marie; Kresalek, Vojtech; Vaskova, Hana; Provaznik, Ivo

    2016-10-01

    This study deals with the measurement of the kinetics of tissue adhesives used for supporting the hemostasis and wound closure during surgical intervention. There are available several types of adhesives of different composition which is closely related with their application. When selecting an appropriate adhesive, the time of curing could play an important role because some applications may require very fast polymerization for prompt vessel or wound closure; conversely, some situations need slower solidification because of longer manipulation with the glue during surgery. The terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is used for studying the kinetics of the n-butyl-cyanoacrylate glue in this study. An oily substance is added to the glue samples to slow the reaction rate. The technique of attenuated total reflection is used in this application; the defined amount of glue sample or its mixture is applied on the silicon crystal and the terahertz response is measured in time. This time dependences are analyzed to find time constants for mathematical description of the glue kinetics. Further, the investigated samples were analyzed using light microscopy and Raman spectroscopy for description of the structures and compositions.

  7. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Intramuscular Active Hemorrhage with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Dong Hyun; Jae, Hwan Jun Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for intramuscular active hemorrhage of varied etiologies and anatomic sites. Methods: Eighteen patients who demonstrated hematoma with pseudoaneurysm and/or active extravasation of contrast media underwent TAE with NBCA. Etiologies of hematoma included trauma, postoperative complication, and coagulopathy (due to underlying disease or anticoagulation therapy). Sites of embolization included chest wall, abdomen wall, retroperitoneum, and extremity. TAE was performed by using 1:3 to 1:5 mixtures of NBCA and iodized oil, either solely (n = 15) or in combination with microcoil (n = 3). The technical and clinical success rate, procedure-related complications, and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Results: The technical and clinical success rates were 100% and 83% (15/18), respectively. Two patients expired while admitted due to other comorbidities. One patient expired due to recurrent bleeding at another site. There were no serious complications relating to the embolization procedure. Conclusions: TAE with NBCA is effective and safe treatment modality for intramuscular active hemorrhage.

  8. Biodegradation of di-n-Butyl Phthalate by Achromobacter sp. Isolated from Rural Domestic Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Decai; Kong, Xiao; Li, Yujie; Bai, Zhihui; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Zhuang, Xuliang; Deng, Ye

    2015-01-01

    A bacterial strain W-1, isolated from rural domestic wastewater, can utilize the environmental hormone di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) as the sole carbon and energy source. The isolated bacterium species was confirmed to belong to the genus Achromobacter based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence. The results of substrate utilization tests showed that the strain W-1 could utilize other common phthalates and phenol. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the optimal conditions for DBP degradation were pH 7.0, 35 °C, and an agitation rate of 175 rpm. Under these conditions, 500 mg/L of DBP was completely degraded within 30 h. The effects of heavy metals (50 mg/L Cu2+ and 500 mg/L Pb2+) and surfactants (100 mg/L SDS and 500 mg/L Tween 20) on DBP degradation were investigated. The results demonstrated that Cu2+ and SDS severely inhibited DBP degradation and Pb2+ weakly inhibited DBP degradation, while Tween 20 greatly enhanced DBP degradation. Furthermore, phthalate degradation genes were found to be located on a plasmid present in Achromobacter sp. W-1. PMID:26516878

  9. Bioremediation of endocrine disruptor di-n-butyl phthalate ester by Deinococcus radiodurans and Pseudomonas stutzeri.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chien-Sen; Chen, Lung-Chieh; Chen, Bing-Sheng; Lin, Sin-Hsien

    2010-01-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is a group of phthalate esters (PAEs) that are widely used in cosmetics, perfumes, and plasticizers. Due to its high production and application figures, DBP is commonly found in wastewater, sewage sludge, and aquatic environments. It has been classified as suspected endocrine disruptors by most countries. In this study, we isolated two DBP degradable strains from activated sludge. The strains were identified with their 16S rRNA as Deinococcus radiodurans and Pseudomonas stutzeri. We constructed the optimal condition of DBP degradation by using different kinds of incubation factors such as temperature, initial pH, yeast extract and surfactants. The optimal conditions of DBP degradation for these two strains are: 30 degrees C, pH 7.5 and static culture. Besides, addition of 0.23 mM of Triton X-100 could enhance the DBP degradation for D. radiodurans. In the end, we amended these two strains into the origin activated sludge and analyzed the whole microbial community structure of mixed cultures by PCR-DGGE technique. The result showed that only D. radiodurans could survive in the activated sludge after 7d of incubation. Based on this work, we hope that these findings could provide some useful information for applying the bioremediation of DBP in our environment.

  10. Initiation Temperature for Runaway Tri-n-Butyl Phosphate/Nitric Acid Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.

    2000-11-28

    During a review of the H-Canyon authorization basis, Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) staff members questioned the margin of safety associated with a postulated tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/nitric acid runaway reaction due to the inadvertent heating of a canyon tank containing greater than 3000 lbs (1362 kg) of TBP. The margin of safety was partially based on experiments and calculations performed by the Actinide Technology Section (ATS) to support deletion of indication of tank agitation as a Safety Class System. In the technical basis for deletion of this system, ATS personnel conservatively calculated the equilibrium temperature distribution of a canyon tank containing TBP and nitric acid layers which were inadvertently heated by a steam jet left on following a transfer. The maximum calculated temperature (128 degrees C) was compared to the minimum initiation temperature for a runaway reaction (greater than 130 degrees C) documented by experimental work in the mid 195 0s. In this work, the initiation temperature as a function of nitric acid concentration was measured for 0 and 20 wt percent dissolved solids. The DNFSB staff members were concerned that data for 0 wt percent dissolved solids were not conservative given the facts that data for 20 wt percent dissolved solids show initiation temperatures at or below 130 degrees C and H-Canyon solutions normally contained a small amount of dissolved solids.

  11. Biodegradation of di-n-Butyl Phthalate by Achromobacter sp. Isolated from Rural Domestic Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jin, Decai; Kong, Xiao; Li, Yujie; Bai, Zhihui; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Zhuang, Xuliang; Deng, Ye

    2015-10-26

    A bacterial strain W-1, isolated from rural domestic wastewater, can utilize the environmental hormone di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) as the sole carbon and energy source. The isolated bacterium species was confirmed to belong to the genus Achromobacter based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence. The results of substrate utilization tests showed that the strain W-1 could utilize other common phthalates and phenol. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the optimal conditions for DBP degradation were pH 7.0, 35 °C, and an agitation rate of 175 rpm. Under these conditions, 500 mg/L of DBP was completely degraded within 30 h. The effects of heavy metals (50 mg/L Cu(2+) and 500 mg/L Pb(2+)) and surfactants (100 mg/L SDS and 500 mg/L Tween 20) on DBP degradation were investigated. The results demonstrated that Cu(2+) and SDS severely inhibited DBP degradation and Pb(2+) weakly inhibited DBP degradation, while Tween 20 greatly enhanced DBP degradation. Furthermore, phthalate degradation genes were found to be located on a plasmid present in Achromobacter sp. W-1.

  12. Biodegradation of Di-n-Butyl Phthalate by a Newly Isolated Halotolerant Sphingobium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Decai; Kong, Xiao; Cui, Bingjian; Bai, Zhihui; Zhang, Hongxun

    2013-01-01

    A Gram-negative strain (TJ) capable of growing aerobically on mixed phthalate esters (PAEs) as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated from the Haihe estuary, Tianjin, China. It was identified as belonging to the Sphingobium genus on the basis of morphological and physiological characteristics and 16S rRNA and gyrb gene sequencing. The batch tests for biodegradation of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) by the Sphingobium sp. TJ showed that the optimum conditions were 30 °C, pH 7.0, and the absence of NaCl. Stain TJ could tolerate up to 4% NaCl in minimal salt medium supplemented with DBP, although the DBP degradation rates slowed as NaCl concentration increased. In addition, substrate tests showed that strain TJ could utilize shorter side-chained PAEs, such as dimethyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate, but could not metabolize long-chained PAEs, such as di-n-octyl phthalate, diisooctyl phthalate, and di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the biodegradation characteristics of DBP by a member of the Sphingobium genus. PMID:24336064

  13. N-butyl Cyanoacrylate Glue Embolization of Arterial Networks to Facilitate Hepatic Arterial Skeletonization before Radioembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelson, Shaun D.; Louie, John D.; Sze, Daniel Y.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. Avoidance of nontarget microsphere deposition via hepatoenteric anastomoses is essential to the safety of yttrium-90 radioembolization (RE). The hepatic hilar arterial network may remain partially patent after coil embolization of major arteries, resulting in persistent risk. We retrospectively reviewed cases where n-butyl cyanoacrylate (n-BCA) glue embolization was used to facilitate endovascular hepatic arterial skeletonization before RE. Methods. A total of 543 RE procedures performed between June 2004 and March 2012 were reviewed, and 10 were identified where n-BCA was used to embolize hepatoenteric anastomoses. Arterial anatomy, prior coil embolization, and technical details were recorded. Outcomes were reviewed to identify subsequent complications of n-BCA embolization or nontarget RE. Results. The rate of complete technical success was 80 % and partial success 20 %, with one nontarget embolization complication resulting in a minor change in treatment plan. No evidence of gastrointestinal or biliary ischemia or infarction was identified, and no microsphere-related gastroduodenal ulcerations or other evidence of nontarget RE were seen. Median volume of n-BCA used was <0.1 ml. Conclusion. n-BCA glue embolization is useful to eliminate hepatoenteric networks that may result in nontarget RE, especially in those that persist after coil embolization of major vessels such as the gastroduodenal and right gastric arteries.

  14. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Tri-n-Butyl-Phophate Liquid: A Force Field Comparative Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Shengting; de Almeida, Valmor F; Hay, Benjamin; Ye, Xianggui; Khomami, Bamin

    2012-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were conducted to compare the performance of four force fields in predicting thermophysical properties of tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) in the liquid phase. The intramolecular force parameters used were from the Assisted Model Building with Energy Refinement (AMBER) force field model. The van der Waals parameters were based on either the AMBER or the Optimized Potential for Liquid Simulation (OPLS) force fields. The atomic partial charges were either assigned by performing quantum chemistry calculations or utilized previously published data, and were scaled to approximate the average experimental value of the electric dipole moment. Canonical ensemble computations based on the aforementioned parameters were performed near the atmospheric pressure and temperature to obtain the electric dipole moment, mass density, and self-diffusion coefficient. In addition, the microscopic structure of the liquid was characterized via pair correlation functions between selected atoms. It has been demonstrated that the electric dipole moment can be approximated within 1% of the average experimental value by virtue of scaled atomic partial charges. The liquid mass density can be predicted within 0.5-1% of its experimentally determined value when using the corresponding charge scaling. However, in all cases the predicted self- diffusion coefficient is significantly smaller than a commonly quoted experimental measurement; this result is qualified by the fact that the uncertainty of the experimental value was not available.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation of tri-n-butyl-phosphate liquid: a force field comparative study.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shengting; de Almeida, Valmor F; Hay, Benjamin P; Ye, Xianggui; Khomami, Bamin

    2012-01-12

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were conducted to compare the performance of four force fields in predicting thermophysical properties of tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) in the liquid phase. The intramolecular force parameters used were from the Assisted Model Building with Energy Refinement (AMBER) force field model. The van der Waals parameters were based on either the AMBER or the Optimized Potential for Liquid Simulation (OPLS) force fields. The atomic partial charges were either assigned by performing quantum chemistry calculations or utilized previously published data, and were scaled to approximate the average experimental value of the electric dipole moment. Canonical ensemble computations based on the aforementioned parameters were performed near atmospheric pressure and temperature to obtain the electric dipole moment, mass density, and self-diffusion coefficient. In addition, the microscopic structure of the liquid was characterized via pair correlation functions between selected atoms. It has been demonstrated that the electric dipole moment can be approximated within 1% of the average experimental value by virtue of scaled atomic partial charges. The liquid mass density can be predicted within 0.5-1% of its experimentally determined value when using the corresponding charge scaling. However, in all cases, the predicted self-diffusion coefficient is significantly smaller than a commonly quoted experimental measurement; this result is qualified by the fact that the uncertainty of the experimental value was not available.

  16. Biodegradation of di-n-butyl phthalate by bacterial consortium LV-1 enriched from river sludge

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fangfang; Ruan, Xinling; Song, Jian; Lv, Lv; Chai, Liyuan; Yang, Zhihui; Luo, Lin

    2017-01-01

    A stable bacterial consortium (LV-1) capable of degrading di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) was enriched from river sludge. Community analysis revealed that the main families of LV-1 are Brucellaceae (62.78%) and Sinobacteraceae (14.83%), and the main genera of LV-1 are Brucella spp. (62.78%) and Sinobacter spp. (14.83%). The optimal pH and temperature for LV-1 to degrade DBP were pH 6.0 and 30°C, respectively. Inoculum size influenced the degradation ratio when the incubation time was < 24 h. The initial concentration of DBP also influenced the degradation rates of DBP by LV-1, and the degradation rates ranged from 69.0–775.0 mg/l/d in the first 24 h. Degradation of DBP was best fitted by first-order kinetics when the initial concentration was < 300 mg/l. In addition, Cd2+, Cr6+, and Zn2+ inhibited DBP degradation by LV-1 at all considered concentrations, but low concentrations of Pb2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+ enhanced DBP degradation. The main intermediates (mono-ethyl phthalate [MEP], mono-butyl phthalate [MBP], and phthalic acid [PA]) were identified in the DBP degradation process, thus a new biochemical pathway of DBP degradation is proposed. Furthermore, LV-1 also degraded other phthalates with shorter ester chains (DMP, DEP, and PA). PMID:28542471

  17. Pd-catalysed reactions of alkynes with model distannanes and poly[di-(n-butyl)]stannane.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aman; Lough, Alan J; Gossage, Robert A; Foucher, Daniel A

    2013-02-21

    A reinvestigation of Pd-catalysed alkyne (R'-C≡CH; R' = H, Ph) insertion chemistry involving R(3)SnSnR(3) (3a: R = Me; 3b: R = n-Bu) was undertaken. Model distannyl ethylenes 4a-b (Me(3)SnCH=CR'SnMe(3)) and 5a-b ((n-Bu)(3)SnCH=CR'Sn(n-Bu)(3)) were reproduced and further characterized by NMR ((119)Sn, (13)C, (1)H) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. In the presence of an excess of phenylacetylene, dimerization-carbostannylation of compound 4b yielded the new conjugated butadiene, (Z,Z)-1,4-bis(trimethylstannyl)-1,4-diphenyl-buta-1,3-diene (9). An X-ray structure determination of 9 reveals a symmetrical double-bond Z confirmation. Compound 9 was further characterized by NMR, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and MS. A DFT analysis of model compounds (4a-b, 5a-b, 9) and the experimental and theoretical λ(max) values from the UV-Vis spectra were also compared. Acetylene and phenylacetylene Pd-catalysed insertion into the backbone of poly[di-(n-butyl)]stannane 12 resulted in new, modest molecular weight, partially inserted alkene tin polymers (13a-b) that were also characterized by GPC, NMR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and elemental analysis.

  18. Conformations of n-butyl imidazole: matrix isolation infrared and DFT studies.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, N; Sundararajan, K; Sankaran, K

    2015-03-15

    Conformations of n-butyl imidazole (B-IMID) were studied using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy by trapping in argon, xenon and nitrogen matrixes using an effusive nozzle source. The experimental studies were supported by DFT computations performed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. Computations identified nine unique minima for B-IMID, corresponding to conformers with tg(±)tt, tg(±)g(∓)t, tg(±)g(±)t, tg(±)tg(±), tg(±)tg(∓), tg(±)g(∓)g(∓), tg(±)g(±)g(±), tg(±)g(∓)g(±) and tg(±)g(±)g(∓) structures, given in order of increasing energy. Computations of the transition state structures connecting the higher energy conformers to the global minimum, tg(±)tt structure were carried out. The barriers for the conformer inter-conversion were found to be ∼2 kcal/mol. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis was performed to understand the reasons for conformational preferences in B-IMID. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Impetigo herpetiformis occurring during N-butyl-scopolammonium bromide therapy in pregnancy: case report.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, C; Lanza Silveri, S; Sisto, T; Rosati, D; De Simone, C; Fossati, B; Pomini, F; Rotoli, M; Amerio, P; Capizzi, R

    2008-01-01

    Impetigo herpetiformis (IH) is a rare dermatosis arising during the third trimester of pregnancy which is generally considered as a form of pustular psoriasis of unknown aetiology. Clinically it is characterized by erythematous plaques surrounded by sterile pustules associated with fever, diarrhea, sweating and increasing risk of stillbirth for placental insufficiency. We describe a case of developed erythematous plaques surrounded by pustules localised initially to the trunk of a 35-year-old woman at the 34th week of gestation after 5 days of treatment with N-Butyl-Scopolammonium, and which later involved the upper and lower limbs. Skin histology confirmed the diagnosis of generalised pregnancy pustular psoriasis (impetigo herpetiformis). IH is reported to be associated with hypocalcemia, hypoparathyroidism, use of oral contraceptives and bacterial infections. This is the first report suggesting the potential role of drugs other than oral contraceptives in the pathogenetic mechanism of this disease. In this case an adverse cutaneous reaction to BB could be the cause of the development of Koebner isomorphism.

  20. N-Butyl-4-butyl­imino-2-methyl­pentan-2-aminium (E)-quercetinate

    PubMed Central

    Grosu, Ioana-Georgeta; Borodi, Gheorghe; Pop, Mihaela Maria

    2012-01-01

    The title salt, C14H31N2 +·C15H9O7 −, was obtained in the reaction of quercetin with n-butyl­amine in a mixture of acetone and hexane. The crystal structure determination shows that the quercetin donates one of its phenol H atoms to the N-butyl-4-butyl­imino-2-methyl­pentan-2-amine mol­ecule. The crystal structure of the salt is stabilized by intramolecular (N—H⋯N for the cation and O—H⋯O for the anion) and intermolecular hydrogen bonding (N—H⋯O between cation–anion pairs and O—H⋯O between anions). Quercetin molecules form dimers connected into a two-dimensional network. The dihedral angle between the quercetin ring systems is 19.61 (8)°. PMID:22904895

  1. New toxicity data for the propylene glycol ethers - a commitment to public health and safety.

    PubMed

    Spencer, P J

    2005-03-28

    Propylene glycol ethers are a class of solvents used in a wide array of industrial, commercial and consumer applications, such as in paints, cleaners and inks. A robust toxicity database exists for the propylene glycol ethers that provide strong product safety support. Standard toxicity studies conducted under good laboratory practices indicate a lack of genotoxic, developmental and reproductive hazards. Recent testing efforts have primarily focused in two areas: (1) examination of the chronic toxicity/oncogenicity potential of propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME) in rats and mice and (2) expansion of the developmental toxicity database to higher molecular weight P-series glycol ether derivatives (i.e. propylene glycol n-propyl ether (PGPE), propylene glycol n-butyl ether (PGBE) and dipropylene glycol n-butyl ether (DPGBE)). In PGME chronic toxicity/oncogenicity studies no treatment-related increases in the incidence of tumors occurred in either species. Like other previously tested P-series derivatives, PGPE, PGBE and DPGBE were negative in rodent and rabbit developmental toxicity studies. Collectively, the toxicity database for P-series glycol ether products continues to support the lack of significant health effects with proper use of the commercial products.

  2. Detonation chemistry of glycidyl azide polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, P.; Sakata, J.; Wight, C.A.

    1996-07-01

    The initial step of chemical reaction initiated by laser-generated shock waves has been observed in glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) in condensed phase. Shocks are generated by pulsed laser vaporization of thin aluminum films and launched into adjacent films of GAP at 77 K. Comparison of FTIR spectra obtained before and after shock passage shows that initial reaction involves elimination of molecular nitrogen from the azide functional groups of the polymer. The shock arrival time has been measured by a velocity interferometer as a function of thickness of GAP and laser fluence. The shock pressure has been calculated by using a universal liquid state Hugoniot. A simple model is proposed to calculate shock velocity and pressure as a function of laser fluence. The results are in agreement with experimental data.

  3. N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate Proved Beneficial to Avoid a Nontarget Embolization of the Ophthalmic Artery in Endovascular Management of Epistaxis

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, A.; Gunnarsson, T.; Klurfan, P.; Larrazabal, R.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Epistaxis is a common disorder affecting equally both genders. Posterior origin of epistaxis in some instances requires endovascular treatment. Anastomoses between external carotid artery and internal carotid or ophthalmic arteries heighten the risk of stroke or blindness, if particles of polyvinyl alcohol are used for embolization. We report a case of 90-year-old man for whom successful embolization with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate glue was performed as an alternative treatment for recurrent epistaxis. PMID:21561554

  4. Endovascular Treatment of Pseudoaneurysm of the Common Hepatic Artery with Intra-aneurysmal Glue (N-Butyl 2-Cyanoacrylate) Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, Ashwin Banait, Swati; Babhad, Sudeep; Kanchankar, Niraj; Nimade, Pradeep; Panchal, Chintan

    2007-09-15

    A 40-year-old man, a chronic alcoholic, presented with acute epigastric pain. Selective celiac arteriography showed a pseudoaneurysm arising from the common hepatic artery. We hereby describe a technical innovation where complete pseudoaneurysm exclusion was seen after intra-aneurysmal N-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate (glue) injection with preservation of antegrade hepatic arterial flow and conclude that intra-aneurysmal liquid injection may have potential as a therapeutic option to reconstruct a defective vessel wall and thereby maintain the antegrade flow.

  5. PHARMACOKINETICS OF N-BUTYL ACETATE AND ITS METABOLITES IN MALE SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS AFTER INTRAVENOUS ADMINISTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    FAMILY APPROACH PBPK MODELING OF N-BUTYL ACETATE AND ITS METABOLITES IN MALE RATS
    P.J. Deisinger1, J.G. Teeguarden2, H.A. Barton3, J.C. English1, W.D. Faber4, T.R. Tyler5, M.I. Banton6, M.E. Andersen7. 1Health & Environ. Laboratories., Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, NY, USA...

  6. {[(N-Butyl-N-methylcarbamothioyl)sulfanyl]acetato-κO}tris(2-chloro­benz­yl)tin(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Keng, Thy Chun; Lo, Kong Mun; Ng, Seik Weng

    2010-01-01

    The Sn atom in the title compound, [Sn(C7H6Cl)3(C8H14NO2S2)], is coordinated by three chlorobenzyl ligands and one carboxylate O atom of the substituted acetate ligand in a distorted tetra­hedral environment. Three of the C atoms of the n-butyl group are disordered over two sites with equal occupancies. PMID:21580249

  7. PHARMACOKINETICS OF N-BUTYL ACETATE AND ITS METABOLITES IN MALE SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS AFTER INTRAVENOUS ADMINISTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    FAMILY APPROACH PBPK MODELING OF N-BUTYL ACETATE AND ITS METABOLITES IN MALE RATS
    P.J. Deisinger1, J.G. Teeguarden2, H.A. Barton3, J.C. English1, W.D. Faber4, T.R. Tyler5, M.I. Banton6, M.E. Andersen7. 1Health & Environ. Laboratories., Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, NY, USA...

  8. Triaxial system in bronchial arterial embolization for haemoptysis using N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Abematsu, Saori; Hashizume, Takuya; Nakagawa, Motoo; Ozawa, Yoshiyuki; Sakurai, Keita; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The application of bronchial artery embolization (BAE) using N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for haemoptysis was recently reported to be useful. A triple co-axial (triaxial) system consisting of a 4-Fr catheter, 2.7-Fr microcatheter and 1.9-Fr no-taper microcatheter has been developed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of the triaxial system in BAE using NBCA. Methods: 12 patients with haemoptysis, 8 males and 4 females with a median age of 64 years (range, 49–88 years), underwent BAE between August 2012 and October 2014. Medical records and images were reviewed, and the technical success rate, clinical success rate, haemoptysis-free rate and complications were evaluated. Technical success was defined as the complete cessation of the target artery as confirmed by digital subtraction angiography, whereas clinical success was defined as the cessation of haemoptysis within 24 h of BAE. Recurrent haemoptysis was defined as a total of >30 ml of bleeding per day. Results: The target artery was embolized successfully in all patients, and the technical success rate was 100% (12/12). The cessation of haemoptysis was achieved in 11 out of 12 patients within 24 h, and thus, the clinical success rate was 92% (11/12). The 6-, 12- and 24-month haemoptysis-free rates were 89%, 89% and 76%, respectively. No patients exhibited any signs of complications such as spinal ischaemia. Conclusion: BAE using the triaxial system and NBCA appears to be a useful and safe procedure for haemoptysis. Advances in knowledge: The triaxial system contributes to safe and effective BAE using NBCA. PMID:26423598

  9. Biomarker responses in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) to soils contaminated with di-n-butyl phthalates.

    PubMed

    Du, Li; Li, Guangde; Liu, Mingming; Li, Yanqiang; Yin, Suzhen; Zhao, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalates (DBP) are recognized as ubiquitous contaminants in soil and adversely impact the health of organisms. Changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and levels of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were used as biomarkers to evaluate the impact of DBP on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) after exposure to DBP for 28 days. DBP was added to artificial soil in the amounts of 0, 5, 10, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) of soil. Earthworm tissues exposed to each treatment were collected on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day of the treatment. We found that superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels were significantly inhibited in the 100 mg kg(-1) treatment group on day 28. After 21 days of treatment, GST activity in 10-50 mg kg(-1) treatment groups was markedly stimulated compared to the control group. MDA content in treatment groups was higher than in the control group throughout the exposure time, suggesting that DBP may lead to lipid peroxidation (LPO) in cells. GSH content increased in the treatment group that received 50 mg kg(-1) DBP from 7 days of exposure to 28 days. These results suggest that DBP induces serious oxidative damage on earthworms and induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in earthworms. However, DBP concentration in current agricultural soil in China will not constitute any threat to the earthworm or other animals in the soil.

  10. Percutaneous treatment of simple renal cysts with n-butyl cyanoacrylate and iodized oil.

    PubMed

    Baysal, Tamer; Soylu, Ahmet

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) and iodized oil mixture in treatment of simple renal cysts. Twenty-three patients with 27 symptomatic or large ( > 3 cm) simple cysts were treated by computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous aspiration and injection of NBCA and iodized oil mixture. The patients (17 men and 6 women, mean age, 57.2 +/- 10.5 years) were treated with as out-patients. The volume of the treated cysts was calculated with periodic noncontrast enhanced CT examinations 1 and 6 months after the procedure. The procedure was considered successful during follow-up when the diameter of the cyst was measured less than 50% of the initial diameter in CT . The sclerotherapy was technically successful in all patients. The diameter of the cysts ranged between 3.5 and 8 cm (mean, 5.6 +/- 1.3 cm), and 1 and 3.4 cm (mean, 2.1 +/- 0.6 cm) before and after sclerotherapy, respectively (P < 0.001). Average diameter reduction was 62.5% during the follow-up period. The mean follow- up lasted 9.1 months (6-14 months). Flank pain resolved in 20 of 23 symptomatic patients (87%). In three patients, the symptoms decreased slightly. At follow-up CT, the procedure was successful in 25 of 27 cysts (93%). We did not observe any complications related to the procedure. Percutaneous sclerotherapy with NBCA and iodized oil mixture was found to be a simple, safe, effective, well tolerated alternative technique for management of simple renal cysts.

  11. [Endovascular treatment of intracranial arteriovenous malformation with n-butyl cyanoacrylate. Working methods and experience in 58 cases].

    PubMed

    Jordan González, José A; Llibre Guerra, Juan Carlos; Prince López, José A; Vázquez Luna, Frank; Rodríguez Ramos, Raúl Marino; Ugarte Suarez, José Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) constitute malformative lesions of the central nervous system vasculature and cause significant morbidity and mortality. Endovascular embolization with n-butyl cyanoacrylate is a well established modality of AVM treatment, usually combined with surgery or radiosurgery. The purpose of this study was to characterise the AVMs that were treated endovascularly with n-butyl cyanoacrylate and to evaluate the post-embolization results in the Cuban population. From February 2006 to February 2011, a group of 58 consecutive patients with brain AVMs were embolized using n-butyl cyanoacrylate in the endovascular therapy unit of the Medical Surgical Research Centre in Havana (Cuba). In all, 91sessions were carried out with intranidal embolization and mainly partial devascularization, 25-30% per session, and closing 123 arterial pedicles. Safety times for n-butyl cyanoacrylate injection were established by calculating the polymerisation times for different dilutions, using post-embolisation hypotension systematically, as well as a superselective test with propofol to determine cerebral eloquence. Haemorrhagic signs were the initial presentation in 68.8% of the patients, 24.1% presented with epileptic episodes and 1.7% with ischemic stroke. Of the AVMs, 93.2% were supratentorial; according to the Spetzler and Martin classification, 13.8% were grade II, 56.9% were grade III, 22.4% were grade IV and 6.8%, grade V. One hundred and twenty-eight selective tests with propofol were performed and 118 (92.2%) of those were negative. Partial devascularization (20-30%) prevailed; complete obliteration was achieved in 17.2% of the patients and 70%-99% in 27.5% of the patients. Safety times for n-butyl cyanoacrylate injection were established and the use of post-procedure hypotension was settled. Morbidity of 17.2%, with 6.9% haemorrhagic complications and mortality of 3.4% were registered in the whole series. The rates of total occlusion and of morbidity and

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy Secondary to Intrahepatic Portosystemic Venous Shunt: Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Embolization with n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate and Microcoils

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagami, Takuji; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Iida, Shigeharu; Kato, Takeharu; Tanaka, Osamu; Matsushima, Shigenori; Ito, Hirotoshi; Okuyama, Chio; Ushijima, Yo; Shiga, Kensuke; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2002-06-15

    We report a 70-year-old woman with hepatic encephalopathy due to an intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt that was successfully occluded by percutaneous transcatheter embolization with n-butyl cyanoacrylate and microcoils.

  13. Method for photochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate by tri-N-butyl phosphate and application of this method to nuclear fuel reprocessing

    DOEpatents

    De Poorter, Gerald L.; Rofer-De Poorter, Cheryl K.

    1978-01-01

    Uranyl ion in solution in tri-n-butyl phosphate is readily photochemically reduced to U(IV). The product U(IV) may effectively be used in the Purex process for treating spent nuclear fuels to reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III). The Pu(III) is readily separated from uranium in solution in the tri-n-butyl phosphate by an aqueous strip.

  14. Prostate magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla: Is administration of hyoscine-N-butyl-bromide mandatory?

    PubMed Central

    Roethke, Matthias C; Kuru, Timur H; Radbruch, Alexander; Hadaschik, Boris; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the value of administration of hyoscine-N-butyl-bromide (HBB) for image quality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate. METHODS: Seventy patients were retrospectively included in the study. Thirty-five patients were examined with administration of 40 milligrams of HBB (Buscopan®; Boehringer, Ingelheim, Germany); 35 patients were examined without HBB. A multiparametric MRI protocol was performed on a 3.0 Tesla scanner without using an endorectal coil. The following criteria were evaluated independently by two experienced radiologists on a five-point Likert scale: anatomical details (delineation between peripheral and transitional zone of the prostate, visualisation of the capsule, depiction of the neurovascular bundles); visualisation of lymph nodes; motion related artefacts; and overall image quality. RESULTS: Comparison of anatomical details between the two cohorts showed no statistically significant difference (3.9 ± 0.7 vs 4.0 ± 0.9, P = 0.54, and 3.8 ± 0.7 vs 4.2 ± 0.6, P = 0.07) for both readers. There was no significant advantage regarding depiction of local and iliac lymph nodes (3.9 ± 0.6 vs 4.2 ± 0.6, P = 0.07, and 3.8 ± 0.9 vs 4.1 ± 0.8, P = 0.19). Motion artefacts were rated as “none” to “few” in both groups and showed no statistical difference (2.3 ± 1.0 vs 1.9 ± 0.9, P = 0.19, and 2.3 ± 1.1 vs 1.9 ± 0.7, P = 0.22). Overall image quality was rated “good” in average for both cohorts without significant difference (4.0 ± 0.6 vs 4.0 ± 0.9, P = 0.78, and 3.8 ± 0.8 vs 4.2 ± 0.6, P = 0.09). CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated no significant effect of HBB administration on image quality. The study suggests that use of HBB is not mandatory for MRI of the prostate at 3.0 Tesla. PMID:23908696

  15. Di-n-butyl phthalate causes estrogenic effects in adult male Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis).

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Harpreet; Kumar, Anupama; Ogino, Yukiko; Gregg, Adrienne; Chapman, John; McLaughlin, Mike J; Iguchi, Taisen

    2014-04-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are a class of synthetic industrial chemicals commonly found in the aquatic environment worldwide. PAEs have been recognised as anti-androgens in male mammals but little is known about their endocrine disrupting effects in fish. This study investigated the effects of 7-day exposures to nominal (measured) concentrations of 125 (62), 250 (140), 500 (230) and 1,000 (383) μg/L of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) on the biomarkers of reproduction in adult male Murray River rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) using molecular, biochemical and histological endpoints. None of the tested concentrations of DnBP had any effect on survival or the vital body indices of the fish. The sizes of spermatogonia, Type A and B spermatocytes and spermatids were significantly smaller relative to the controls after treatment with DnBP. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the proportion of spermatogonia in fish treated with 250-1,000 μg/L of DnBP in comparison to the unexposed fish. At the end of the exposure period, the expressions of the transcripts for the androgen receptors α and β were significantly elevated in the livers of the fish treated with 500 and 1,000 μg/L of DnBP. In addition, there was also an increase in the circulating concentrations of vitellogenin in the plasma in the higher treatment groups. An induction in the activity of aromatase was noted in the brains of 1,000 μg/L DnBP-treated fish. This was accompanied by an increase in the hepatic expression of the genes (here and later, whenever the phrase gene expression is used as a synonym for gene transcription although it is acknowledged that it is also regulated, e.g., by translation, mRNA stability and protein stability) encoding for the oestrogen receptors α and β and choriogenin L. Collectively, an increase in the proportion of spermatogonia in the testes, the upregulation of the genes for the oestrogen receptors and choriogenin in the liver, an induction in the brain

  16. Transparent Films from CO2‐Based Polyunsaturated Poly(ether carbonate)s: A Novel Synthesis Strategy and Fast Curing

    PubMed Central

    Subhani, Muhammad Afzal; Köhler, Burkhard; Gürtler, Christoph; Leitner, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Transparent films were prepared by cross‐linking polyunsaturated poly(ether carbonate)s obtained by the multicomponent polymerization of CO2, propylene oxide, maleic anhydride, and allyl glycidyl ether. Poly(ether carbonate)s with ABXBA multiblock structures were obtained by sequential addition of mixtures of propylene oxide/maleic anhydride and propylene oxide/allyl glycidyl ether during the polymerization. The simultaneous addition of both monomer mixtures provided poly(ether carbonate)s with AXA triblock structures. Both types of polyunsaturated poly(ether carbonate)s are characterized by diverse functional groups, that is, terminal hydroxy groups, maleate moieties along the polymer backbone, and pendant allyl groups that allow for versatile polymer chemistry. The combination of double bonds substituted with electron‐acceptor and electron‐donor groups enables particularly facile UV‐ or redox‐initiated free‐radical curing. The resulting materials are transparent and highly interesting for coating applications. PMID:27028458

  17. Endoscopic treatment of bleeding gastric varices with histoacryl (N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate): a South European single center experience.

    PubMed

    Monsanto, Pedro; Almeida, Nuno; Rosa, Albano; Maçôas, Fernanda; Lérias, Clotilde; Portela, Francisco; Amaro, Pedro; Ferreira, Manuela; Gouveia, Hermano; Sofia, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    Endoscopic injection of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate is the current recommended treatment for gastric variceal bleeding. Despite the extensive worldwide use, there are still differences related to the technique, safety, and long term-results. We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of cyanoacrylate in patients with gastric variceal bleeding. Between January 1998 and January 2010, 97 patients with gastric variceal bleeding underwent endoscopic treatment with a mixture of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and Lipiodol(TM). Ninety-one patients had cirrhosis and 6 had non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. Child-Pugh score at presentation for cirrhotic patients was A-12.1 %; B-53.8 %; C-34.1 % and median MELD score at admission was 13 (3-26). Successful hemostasis, rebleeding rate and complications were reviewed. Median time of follow up was 19 months (0.5-126). A median mixture volume of 1.5 mL (0.6 to 5 mL), in 1 to 8 injections, was used, with immediate hemostasis rate of 95.9 % and early rebleeding rate of 14.4 %. One or more complications occurred in 17.5 % and were associated with the use of Sengstaken-Blakemore tube before cyanoacrylate and very early rebleeding (p < 0.05). Hospital mortality rate during initial bleeding episode was 9.3 %. Very early rebleeding was a strong and independent predictor for in-hospital mortality (p < 0.001). Long-term mortality rate was 58.8 %, in most of the cases secondary to hepatic failure. N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate is a rapid, easy and highly effective modality for immediate hemostasis of gastric variceal bleeding with an acceptable rebleeding rate. Patients with very early rebleeding are at higher risk of death.

  18. Ultrasonic study of the smectic-A-isotropic phase transition in p-(n-octoxy)benzylidene-p-(n-butyl)aniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralidhar, K.; Swamy, M. L. S.; Nana Rao, S.; Subba Rao, K.

    1986-05-01

    Ultrasonic absorption has been measured in the smectic-A-isotropic phase transition region of p-(n-octoxy)benzylidene-p-(n-butyl)aniline(OOBBA) as a function of both temperature and frequency. An anomalous increase of the ultrasonic absorption has been observed at the transition temperature Tc. The critical ultrasonic absorption in the smectic-A phase has been interpreted by assuming, as for helium, that the critical fluctuations and the relaxation of the smectic order parameter both contribute to the attenuation. The excess absorption in the smectic-A phase has also been analyzed in the light of the Mazenko-Ramaswamy-Toner theory.

  19. A single-surgeon randomized trial comparing sutures, N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and human fibrin glue for mesh fixation during primary inguinal hernia repair

    PubMed Central

    Testini, Mario; Lissidini, Germana; Poli, Elisabetta; Gurrado, Angela; Lardo, Domenica; Piccinni, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Background We sought to determine the efficacy of sutures, human fibrin glue and N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate for mesh fixation in patients undergoing the plug and mesh procedure for groin hernia. Methods A total of 156 patients with 167 inguinal hernias (11 bilateral) underwent a plug and mesh procedure and were randomly assigned to received either sutures (n = 59 hernias), human fibrin glue (n = 52) or N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (n = 56) for mesh fixation. Results The overall morbidity rate was 38.98% in the suture group, 9.62% in the fibrin glue group and 10.71% in the N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate group (suture v. fibrin glue, p < 0.001; suture v. N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in morbidity between the fibrin glue and N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate groups. Overall, short-term morbidity was significantly higher in the suture group (27.12%) than in the fibrin glue (9.62%, p = 0.01) or N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (8.93%, p = 0.004) groups, but there was no significant difference between the fibrin glue and N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of mean postoperative stay (32.6 h in the suture group v. 30.8 h in the fibrin glue group v. 32.0 h in the N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate group) or mean time to return to work (20.4 d in the suture group v. 20.3 d in the fibrin glue group v. 19.8 d in the N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate group). Overall, long-term morbidity was significantly higher in the suture group (11.86%) than in the fibrin glue (0%, p = 0.001) or N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (1.78%, p = 0.03) groups. There was no recurrence in any of the groups. Two cases (3.39%) of chronic groin pain were reported in patients in the suture group. A sensation of extraneous body was reported in 5 (8.47%) patients who received sutures and in 1 (1.78%) patient in the N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate group; there were no reported cases in the fibrin glue group (suture v. fibrin glue, p = 0.01; suture v. N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate

  20. Organophosphazenes. 15. Reactions of Hexafluorocyclotriphosphazene with Tert- and n-Butyl Lithium Reagents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-04

    CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMSER(,) Kolikkara Ramachandran and Chri-.opher W. Allen N001477C-06050( S. PERFORMINO ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT...chemistry. At the stage of trisubstitution solvent (diethyl ether) cleavage by t-Ayl lithium is competitive with phosphazene sub- stitution resulting in the...concomitant formation of trans-2 4,6-N P F ( 2H) (t-C H9 ). These results are discussed in terms of competing steMi • Ind elecKronic effects . The

  1. Dosimetric measurements of an n-butyl cyanoacrylate embolization material for arteriovenous malformations

    SciTech Connect

    Labby, Zacariah E.; Chaudhary, Neeraj; Gemmete, Joseph J.; Pandey, Aditya S.; Roberts, Donald A.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The therapeutic regimen for cranial arteriovenous malformations often involves both stereotactic radiosurgery and endovascular embolization. Embolization agents may contain tantalum or other contrast agents to assist the neurointerventionalists, leading to concerns regarding the dosimetric effects of these agents. This study investigated dosimetric properties of n-butyl cyanoacrylate (n-BCA) plus lipiodol with and without tantalum powder. Methods: The embolization agents were provided cured from the manufacturer with and without added tantalum. Attenuation measurements were made for the samples and compared to the attenuation of a solid water substitute using a 6 MV photon beam. Effective linear attenuation coefficients (ELAC) were derived from attenuation measurements made using a portal imager and derived sample thickness maps projected in an identical geometry. Probable dosimetric errors for calculations in which the embolized regions are overridden with the properties of water were calculated using the ELAC values. Interface effects were investigated using a parallel plate ion chamber placed at set distances below fixed samples. Finally, Hounsfield units (HU) were measured using a stereotactic radiosurgery CT protocol, and more appropriate HU values were derived from the ELAC results and the CT scanner’s HU calibration curve. Results: The ELAC was 0.0516 ± 0.0063 cm{sup −1} and 0.0580 ± 0.0091 cm{sup −1} for n-BCA without and with tantalum, respectively, compared to 0.0487 ± 0.0009 cm{sup −1} for the water substitute. Dose calculations with the embolized region set to be water equivalent in the treatment planning system would result in errors of −0.29% and −0.93% per cm thickness of n-BCA without and with tantalum, respectively. Interface effects compared to water were small in magnitude and limited in distance for both embolization materials. CT values at 120 kVp were 2082 and 2358 HU for n-BCA without and with tantalum, respectively

  2. Complex microparticulate systems based on glycidyl methacrylate and xanthan.

    PubMed

    Lungan, Maria-Andreea; Popa, Marcel; Desbrieres, Jacques; Racovita, Stefania; Vasiliu, Silvia

    2014-04-15

    Porous microparticles based on glycidyl methacrylate, dimethacrylic monomers [ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, diethylene glycol dimethacrylate, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate] and xanthan gum were synthesized by aqueous suspension polymerization method in the presence of toluene as diluent using two types of initiators: benzoyl peroxide and ammonium persulfate. The G microparticles based on glycidyl methacrylate and dimethacrylic monomers and X microparticles based on glycidyl methacrylate, xanthan and dimethacrylic monomers were characterized by various techniques including FT-IR spectroscopy, TG analysis, SEM analysis and DVS method. The specific surface areas were determined by DVS method, while the copolymer porosities and pore volume were obtained from the apparent and skeletal densities. The results have indicated that xanthan was included in the crosslinked matrix by means of covalent bonds. X microparticles have a porous structure with higher specific surface area (129-44 m(2)/g) and higher sorption capacities compared with G microparticles (69-31 m(2)/g).

  3. Tetra-μ3-iodido-tetra­kis­[(tri-n-butyl­phosphane-κP)copper(I)

    PubMed Central

    Klenk, Simon; Frey, Wolfgang; Bubrin, Martina; Laschat, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    The title complex, [Cu4I4(C12H27P)4], crystallizes with six mol­ecules in the unit cell and with three independent one-third mol­ecule fragments, completed by application of the relevant symmetry operators, in the asymmetric unit. The tetranuclear copper core shows a tetrahedral geometry (site symmetry 3..). The I atoms also form a tetra­hedron, with I⋯I distances of 4.471 (1) Å. Both tetra­hedra show an orientation similar to that of a pair of self-dual platonic bodies. The edges of the I-tetra­hedral structure are capped to the face centers of the Cu-tetra­hedron and vice versa. The Cuface⋯I distances are 2.18 Å (averaged) and the Iface⋯Cu distances are 0.78 Å (averaged). As a geometric consequence of these properties there are eight distorted trigonal–bipyramidal polyhedra evident, wherein each trigonal face builds up the equatorial site and the opposite Cu⋯I positions form the axial site. As expected, the n-butyl moieties are highly flexible, resulting in large elongations of their anisotropic displacement parameters. Some C atoms of the n-butyl groups were needed to fix alternative discrete disordered positions. PMID:24826086

  4. Ureteric Embolization for Lower Urinary Tract Fistulae: Use of Two Amplatzer Vascular Plugs and N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate Employing the 'Sandwich' Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Saad, Wael E. A. Kalagher, S.; Turba, U. C.; Sabri, S. S.; Park, A.-W.; Stone, J.; Angle, J. F.; Matsumoto, A. H.

    2013-08-01

    PurposeThis study describes and evaluated the effectiveness of occluding distal ureters in the clinical setting of urinary vaginal (vesicovaginal or enterovesicovaginal) fistulae utilizing a new technique which combines Amplatzer vascular plugs and N-butyl cyanoacrylate.MaterialsThis is a retrospective study (January 2007-December 2010) of patients with urinary-vaginal fistulae undergoing distal ureter embolization utilizing an Amplatzer- N-butyl cyanoacrylate-Amplatzer sandwich technique. An 8-12-mm type-I or type-II Amplatzer vascular plug was delivered using the sheath and deployed in the ureter distal to the pelvic brim. Instillation of 0.8-1.5 cc of N-butyl cyanoacrylate into ureter proximal to the Amplatzer plug was performed. This was followed by another set of 8-12-mm type-I or type-II Amplatzer vascular plugs in a technique referred to as the 'sandwich technique.'ResultsFive ureters in three patients were occluded utilizing the above-described technique during the 4-year study period. Mean maximum size Amplatzer used per ureter was 10.8 mm (range, 8-12). One ureter required three Amplatzer plugs and the rest required two. Two patients (3 ureters) were clinically successful with complete resolution of symptoms in 36-48 h. The third patient (2 ureters) was partly successful and required a second Amplatzer- N-butyl cyanoacrylate sandwich technique embolization. The mean clinical follow-up was 11.3 months (range, 1.7-29.2).ConclusionsThe Amplatzer- N-butyl cyanoacrylate-Amplatzer sandwich technique for occluding the distal ureter is safe and effective with a quick (probably due to the N-butyl cyanoacrylate) and durable (probably due to the Amplatzer plugs) clinical response.

  5. Molecular Engineering of Liquid Crystalline Polymers by Living Polymerization. 20. Synthesis and Characterization of Binary Copolymers of 11- (4-Cyano-4’-biphenyl) Oxy)undecanyl Vinyl Ether with n-Butyl Vinyl Ether and of 2-(4-Cyano-4’biphenyl)oxy)ethyl Vinyl Ether with n-Butyl Vinyl Ether

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-27

    only glassy. Poly[(C6l.. l -co- (BME)jX/Y) with X/Y from 2/8 to 10/0 exhibit a SA phase. Both the temperature transitions and the enthalpy changes...composition and molecular weight are available. l b-6 A general classification of side chain liquid crystalline copolymers 5 was recently discussed in a review...statistical copolymers with a random distribution of their structural units.lb,il, 16 Copolymers synthesized by chain copolymerization reactions exhibit a

  6. Refractory Cystobiliary Fistula Secondary to Percutaneous Treatment of Hydatid Cyst: Treatment with N-Butyl 2-Cyanoacrylate Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Canyigit, Murat Gumus, Mehmet; Cay, Nurdan; Erol, Bekir; Karaoglanoglu, Mustafa; Akhan, Okan

    2011-02-15

    A 27-year-old female with a type 2 hydatid cystic lesion in the liver according to the Gharbi classification (CE 3A according to the WHO classification) was referred for percutaneous treatment after albendazole treatment for 1 year. A catheterization technique was performed but hypertonic saline and alcohol were not given into the cavity due to cystobiliary leakage. During the 4-month follow-up period, sequential cavitography revealed biliary fistula, and bile-stained drainage had not been ceased despite the sphincterotomy, nasobiliary drainage catheter, and plastic stent. Since the patient refused to surgery, we embolized the biliary fistula using N-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate for the first time in the literature. At the 3-month follow-up, the patient's course was uneventful and ultrasound, multidetector-row CT, and MRI examinations revealed no collection in or adjacent to the cavity.

  7. Solvent extraction of tellurium from chloride solutions using tri-n-butyl phosphate: conditions and thermodynamic data.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongchan; Guo, Yafei; Deng, Tianlong; Chen, Yu-Wei; Belzile, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    The extractive separation of tellurium (IV) from hydrochloric acid media with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) in kerosene was investigated. The dependence on the extraction of tellurium species, concentrations of tellurium and TBP, extraction time and stage, organic/aqueous ratio, and interferences from coexist metallic ions were examined and are discussed. Besides, the stripping agent and stripping time were also studied. It was found that the extraction reaction corresponds to the neutral complex formation mechanism and the extracted species is TeCl4 · 3TBP and that the extraction process is exothermic. The thermodynamic parameters of enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS), and free energy (ΔG) of the extraction process were evaluated at -26.2 kJ · mol(-1), -65.6 J · mol(-1) · K(-1), and -7.0 kJ · mol(-1), respectively at 293 K.

  8. Understanding the large solubility of lidocaine in 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium based ionic liquids using molecular simulation.

    PubMed

    Ley, Ryan T; Paluch, Andrew S

    2016-02-28

    Room temperature ionic liquids have been proposed as replacement solvents in a wide range of industrial separation processes. Here, we focus on the use of ionic liquids as solvents for the pharmaceutical compound lidocaine. We show that the solubility of lidocaine in seven common 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium based ionic liquids is greatly enhanced relative to water. The predicted solubility is greatest in [BMIM](+)[CH3CO2](-), which we find results from favorable hydrogen bonding between the lidocaine amine hydrogen and the [CH3CO2](-) oxygen, favorable electrostatic interactions between the lidocaine amide oxygen with the [BMIM](+) aromatic ring hydrogens, while lidocaine does not interfere with the association of [BMIM](+) with [CH3CO2](-). Additionally, by removing functional groups from the lidocaine scaffold while maintaining the important amide group, we found that as the van der Waals volume increases, solubility in [BMIM](+)[CH3CO2](-) relative to water increases.

  9. Understanding the large solubility of lidocaine in 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium based ionic liquids using molecular simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, Ryan T.; Paluch, Andrew S.

    2016-02-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids have been proposed as replacement solvents in a wide range of industrial separation processes. Here, we focus on the use of ionic liquids as solvents for the pharmaceutical compound lidocaine. We show that the solubility of lidocaine in seven common 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium based ionic liquids is greatly enhanced relative to water. The predicted solubility is greatest in [BMIM]+[CH3CO2]-, which we find results from favorable hydrogen bonding between the lidocaine amine hydrogen and the [CH3CO2]- oxygen, favorable electrostatic interactions between the lidocaine amide oxygen with the [BMIM]+ aromatic ring hydrogens, while lidocaine does not interfere with the association of [BMIM]+ with [CH3CO2]-. Additionally, by removing functional groups from the lidocaine scaffold while maintaining the important amide group, we found that as the van der Waals volume increases, solubility in [BMIM]+[CH3CO2]- relative to water increases.

  10. Chitosan-graft-poly(n-butyl acrylate) copolymer: Synthesis and characterization of a natural/synthetic hybrid material.

    PubMed

    Anbinder, Pablo; Macchi, Carlos; Amalvy, Javier; Somoza, Alberto

    2016-07-10

    Two chitosan polymers with different deacetylation degree and molecular weight were subjected to grafting reactions with the aim to enhance the properties of these bio-based materials. Specifically, n-butyl acrylate in different proportions was grafted onto two different deacetylation degree (DD%) chitosan using radical initiation in a surfactant free emulsion system. Infrared spectroscopy was used to confirm grafting and products grafting percentage and efficiency were evaluated against acrylate/chitosan ratio and DD%. Thermal and structural properties and the behavior against water of the raw and grafted biopolymers were studied using several experimental techniques: differential scanning calorimetry, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, water swelling, contact angle and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. The influence of the grafting process on the morphological and physicochemical properties of the prepared natural/synthetic hybrid materials is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gas phase kinetics for the ozonolysis of n-butyl methacrylate, ethyl crotonate and vinyl propionate under atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaona Colmán, Elizabeth; Blanco, María B.; Barnes, Ian; Teruel, Mariano A.

    2013-07-01

    Rate coefficients for the reactions of ozone with n-butyl methacrylate, ethyl crotonate and vinyl propionate have been determined at 298 ± 1 K and atmospheric pressure. The following room temperature rate coefficients (in cm3 molecule-1 s-1 units) were obtained: k1(O3 + CH2dbnd C(CH3)C(O)OC4H9) = (1.0 ± 0.3) × 10-17, k2(O3 + CH3CHdbnd CHC(O)OCH2CH3) = (8.0 ± 1.8) × 10-18 and k3(O3 + CH3CH2C(O)OCHdbnd CH2) = (5.3 ± 1.3) × 10-18. This is the first kinetic study for these reactions at atmospheric pressure. The effect of substituent groups on the overall rate coefficients is analyzed. Free energy relationships are presented and atmospheric lifetimes are discussed.

  12. Addition of n-butyl cyanoacrylate to classic transarterial chemoembolization may improve the radiological response in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Monsignore, Lucas Moretti; Elias-Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Teixeira, Andreza Correa; Mente, Enio David; de Lourdes Candolo Martinelli, Ana; Abud, Daniel Giansante

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Transarterial chemoembolization is the treatment of choice for intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma. However, there are no clear data supporting transarterial chemoembolization vs. transarterial embolization or regarding the best chemotherapeutic agent, which may suggest a preponderant role of ischemia over chemotherapeutic action. This study sought to evaluate the radiological response and outcome of transarterial chemoembolization modified by n-butyl cyanoacrylate addition compared to conventional transarterial chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review identified forty-seven patients who underwent modified chemoembolization and thirty-three who underwent conventional chemoembolization between June 2006 and December 2011. The radiological response was reassessed using the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. The sustained complete response, time to progression and overall survival rates were also analyzed. RESULTS: Complete response rates were significantly higher in patients who had undergone modified chemoembolization compared to those who had undergone conventional treatment (61.7% and 24.3%, respectively; p<0.001). The rate of sustained complete response was significantly higher in the modified chemoembolization group compared to the conventional chemoembolization group (median of 236 and 37 days, respectively; p<0.001). Time to progression was significantly higher in the modified chemoembolization group compared to the conventional chemoembolization group (median of 424 and 201 days, respectively; p=0.042). Overall survival rates revealed no difference between patients who received modified chemoembolization and conventional chemoembolization (median of 483 and 399 days, respectively; p=0.316). CONCLUSION: Transarterial chemoembolization modified by n-butyl cyanoacrylate addition was superior to conventional transarterial chemoembolization in terms of the

  13. N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate, iso-amyl-2-cyanoacrylate and hypertonic glucose with 72% chromated glycerin in gastric varices

    PubMed Central

    Elwakil, Reda; Montasser, Mohamed Fawzy; Abdelhakam, Sara M; Ibrahim, Wesam A

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate, iso-amyl-2-cyanoacrylate and a mixture of 72% chromated glycerin with hypertonic glucose solution in management of gastric varices. METHODS: Ninety patients with gastric varices presented to Endoscopy Unit of Ain Shams University Hospital were included. They were randomly allocated into three groups; each group included 30 patients treated with intravariceal sclerosant injections in biweekly sessions till complete obturation of gastric varices; Group I (n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate; Histoacryl®), Group II (iso-amyl-2-cyanoacrylate; Amcrylate®) and Group III (mixture of 72% chromated glycerin; Scleremo® with glucose solution 25%). All the procedures were performed electively without active bleeding. Recruited patients were followed up for 3 mo. RESULTS: 26% of Scleremo group had bleeding during puncture vs 3.3% in each of the other two groups with significant difference, (P < 0.05). None of Scleremo group had needle obstruction vs 13.3% in each of the other two groups with no significant difference, (P > 0.05). Rebleeding occurred in 13.3% of Histoacryl and Amcrylate groups vs 0% in Scleremo group with no significant difference. The in hospital mortality was 6.6% in both Histoacryl and Amcrylate groups, while it was 0% in Scleremo group with no significant difference. In the first and second sessions, the amount of Scleremo needed for obturation was significantly high, while the amount of Histoacryl was significantly low. Scleremo was the less costly of the two treatments. CONCLUSION: All used sclerosant substances showed efficacy and success in management of gastric varices with no significant differences except in total amount, cost and bleeding during puncture. PMID:25901221

  14. Ether-bond-containing ionic liquids and the relevance of the ether bond position to transport properties.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Marcelo J; Camilo, Fernanda F; Ribeiro, Mauro C C; Torresi, Roberto M

    2010-10-07

    The ionic liquids (ILs) 1-ethoxyethyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [EtO(CH(2))(2)MMI][Tf(2)N], and N-(ethoxyethyl)-N-methylmorpholinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [EtO(CH(2))(2)MMor][Tf(2)N] were synthesized, and relevant properties, such as thermal stability, density, viscosity, electrochemical behavior, ionic conductivity, and self-diffusion coefficients for both ionic species, were measured and compared with those of their alkyl counterparts, 1-n-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [BMMI][Tf(2)N], and N-n-butyl-N-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [BMP][Tf(2)N] and N-n-butyl-N-methylmorpholinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [BMMor][Tf(2)N]. This comparison was done to evaluate the effects caused by the presence of the ether bond in either the side chain or in the organic cation ring. The salt, LiTf(2)N, was added to the systems to estimate IL behavior with regard to lithium cation transport. Pure [EtO(CH(2))(2)MMI][Tf(2)N] and their LiTf(2)N solutions showed low viscosity and the highest conductivity among the ILs studied. The H(R) (AC conductivity/NMR calculated conductivity ratio) values showed that, after addition of LiTf(2)N, ILs containing the ether bond seemed to have a greater number of charged species. Structural reasons could explain these high observed H(R) values for [EtO(CH(2))(2)MMor][Tf(2)N].

  15. Successful Pregnancy with a Full-Term Vaginal Delivery One Year After n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate Embolization of a Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, Colleen C.; Kim, Hyun S.

    2006-08-15

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) causes significant morbidity with vaginal bleeding. Traditional therapy is a hysterectomy with no potential for future pregnancy. We present a case of successful superselective embolization of uterine AVM using n-butyl cyanoacrylate with subsequent normal term pregnancy and uncomplicated vaginal delivery in 1 year.

  16. URINARY AND AMNIOTIC FLUID LEVELS OF PHTHALATE MONOESTERS IN RATS AFTER THE ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE AND DI-N-BUTYL PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two studies were designed to examine amniotic fluid and maternal urine concentrations of the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and the di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolite monobutyl phthalate (MBP) after administration of DEHP and D...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10193 - 1-Butanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-butyl-N-(2-carboxyethyl)-, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 1-Butanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-butyl-N-(2-carboxyethyl)-, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10193 Section 721.10193 Protection of... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10193 1-Butanaminium, N-(3...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10193 - 1-Butanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-butyl-N-(2-carboxyethyl)-, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 1-Butanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-butyl-N-(2-carboxyethyl)-, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10193 Section 721.10193 Protection of... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10193 1-Butanaminium, N-(3...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10193 - 1-Butanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-butyl-N-(2-carboxyethyl)-, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1-Butanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-butyl-N-(2-carboxyethyl)-, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10193 Section 721.10193 Protection of... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10193 1-Butanaminium, N-(3...

  20. Di-n-butyl Phthalate (DNBP) and Diisobutyl Phthalate (DiBP) Metabolism in a Human Volunteer after Single Oral Doses [Journal Article

    EPA Science Inventory

    An individual (male, 36 years, 87 kg) ingested two separate doses of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) at a rate of ~60 µg/kg. Key monoester and oxidized metabolites were identified and quantified in urine continuously collected until 48 hours post dos...

  1. Di-n-butyl Phthalate (DNBP) and Diisobutyl Phthalate (DiBP) Metabolism in a Human Volunteer after Single Oral Doses [Journal Article

    EPA Science Inventory

    An individual (male, 36 years, 87 kg) ingested two separate doses of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) at a rate of ~60 µg/kg. Key monoester and oxidized metabolites were identified and quantified in urine continuously collected until 48 hours post dos...

  2. URINARY AND AMNIOTIC FLUID LEVELS OF PHTHALATE MONOESTERS IN RATS AFTER THE ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE AND DI-N-BUTYL PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two studies were designed to examine amniotic fluid and maternal urine concentrations of the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and the di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolite monobutyl phthalate (MBP) after administration of DEHP and D...

  3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Shift Reagents: Abnormal 13C Shifts Produced by Complexation of Lanthanide Chelates with Saturated Amines and n-Butyl Isocyanide

    PubMed Central

    Marzin, Claude; Leibfritz, Dieter; Hawkes, Geoffrey E.; Roberts, John D.

    1973-01-01

    Lanthanide-induced shfits of 13C nuclear magnetic resonances are reported for several amines and n-butyl isocyanide. Contact contributions to such shifts, especially of β carbons, are clearly important for the chelates of Eu+3 and Pr+3. The importance of contact terms is shown to change in a rather predictable manner with the structure of the amine. PMID:16592062

  4. 40 CFR 721.10193 - 1-Butanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-butyl-N-(2-carboxyethyl)-, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1-Butanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-butyl-N-(2-carboxyethyl)-, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10193 Section 721.10193 Protection of... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10193 1-Butanaminium,...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10193 - 1-Butanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-butyl-N-(2-carboxyethyl)-, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1-Butanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-butyl-N-(2-carboxyethyl)-, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10193 Section 721.10193 Protection of... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10193 1-Butanaminium, N-(3...

  6. Structure-Activity Studies of N-Butyl-1-deoxynojirimycin (NB-DNJ) Analogs: Discovery of Potent and Selective Aminocyclopentitol Inhibitors of GBA1 and GBA2.

    PubMed

    Georg, Gunda Ingrid; Gu, Xingxiang; Gupta, Vijayalaxmi; Yang, Yan; Zhu, Jinyi; Carlson, Erick; Kingsley, Carolyn; Tash, Joseph; Schonbrunn, Ernst; Hawkinson, Jon

    2017-10-03

    Analogs of N-butyl-1-deoxynojirimycin (NB-DNJ) were prepared and assayed for inhibition of ceramide-specific glucosyltransferase (CGT), non-lysosomal -glucosidase 2 (GBA2) and the lysosomal -glucosidase 1 (GBA1). Compounds 6a-6f that carry sterically demanding nitrogen substituents, and compound 14, devoid of the C3 and C5 hydroxyl groups present in DNJ/NB-DGJ (N-butyl-deoxygalactojirimycin showed no inhibitory activity for CGT or GBA2. Inversion of stereochemistry at C4 of N-(n-butyl)- and N-(n-nonyl)-DGJ (compounds 25) also led to a loss of activity in these assays. The aminocyclopentitols N-(n-butyl)- (36a), N-(n-nonyl)-4-amino-5-(hydroxymethyl)cyclopentane- (36b), and N-(1-(pentyloxy)methyl)adamantan-1-yl)-1,2,3-triol (36f), were selective inhibitors of GBA1 and GBA2 that did not inhibit CGT (>1mM) with the exception of 36f, which inhibited CGT with an IC50 of 1 mM. The N-butyl analog 36a was 1000-fold selective for inhibiting GBA1 over GBA2 (Ki values of 32 nM and 3.3 μM for GBA1 and GBA2, respectively). The N-nonyl analog 36b displayed a Ki of <14 nM for GBA1 inhibition and a Ki of 43 nM for GBA2. The N-(1-(pentyloxy)methyl)adamantan-1-yl) derivative 36f had Ki values of ~16 nM and 14 nM for GBA1 and GBA2, respectively. The related N-bis-substituted aminocyclopentitols were significantly less potent inhibitors than their mono-substituted analogs. The aminocyclopentitol scaffold should hold promise for further inhibitor development. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. NTP-CERHR Monograph on the Potential Human Reproductive and Developmental Effects of Di-n-Butyl Phthalate (DBP).

    PubMed

    2003-04-01

    TThe National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) conducted an evaluation of the potential for di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) to cause adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans. DBP is one of 7 phthalate chemicals evaluated by the NTP CERHR Phthalates Expert Panel. These phthalates were selected for evaluation because of high production volume, extent of human exposures, use in children's products, and/or published evidence of reproductive or developmental toxicity. Unlike many phthalates, DBP is not currently used as a plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride plastics. DBP is a component of latex adhesives and is used in cosmetics and other personal care products, as a plasticizer in cellulose plastics, and as a solvent for dyes. The results of this evaluation on DBP are published in a NTP-CERHR monograph which includes: 1) the NTP Brief, 2) the Expert Panel Report on the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Di-n-Butyl Phthalate, and 3) public comments received on the Expert Panel Report. As stated in the NTP Brief, the NTP reached the following conclusions regarding the possible effects of exposure to DBP on human development and reproduction. First, although DBP could possibly affect human reproduction and development if exposures are sufficiently high, the NTP concludes that there is negligible concern for reproductive toxicity in exposed adults. Second, the NTP concludes that there is minimal concern for developmental effects when pregnant women are exposed to DBP levels estimated by the panel (2-10 mug/kg body weight/day). There is no direct evidence that exposure of people to DBP adversely affects reproduction or development, but studies reviewed by the expert panel show that oral exposure to high doses of DBP (>/=100 mg/kg body weight/day) may adversely affect the prenatal and early postnatal development in rodents. Finally, based on exposure estimates in women of reproductive age, the NTP

  8. Comparison of scaffold-enhanced albumin and n-butyl-cyanoacrylate adhesives for joining of tissue in a porcine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M.; Riley, Jill N.; Heintzelman, Douglas L.

    2003-06-01

    An ex vivo study was conducted to compare the tensile strength of tissue samples repaired using three different techniques: (i) application of a scaffold-enhanced light-activated albumin protein solder, (ii) application of a scaffold-enhanced n-butyl-cyanoacrylate adhesive, and (iii) repair via conventional suture technique. Biodegradable polymer scaffolds of controlled porosity were fabricated with poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) and salt particles using a solvent-casting and particulate-leaching technique. Group I porous scaffolds were doped with protein solder composed of 50%(w/v) bovine serum albumin solder and 0.5mg/ml indocyanine green dye mixed in deionized water, and activated with an 808-nm diode laser. Group II scaffolds were doped with n-butyl-cyanoacrylate, and required no light-activation. No stay sutures were required for Group I or II experiments. Group III repairs were performed using a single 4-0 suture. Thirteen organs were tested ranging from skin to liver to the small intestine, as well as the coronary, pulmonary, carotid, femoral and splenic arteries. Acute breaking strengths were measured and the data were analyzed by Student"s T-test. Using the protein solder of Group I, repairs formed on the ureter were most successful followed by small intestine, sciatic nerve, spleen, atrium, kidney, muscle, skin and ventricle. The strongest vascular repairs were achieved in the carotid artery and femoral artery. Overall, the tensile strength of Group III repairs performed via suture techniques were equivalent in magnitude to that of Group I repairs, however, a larger variance was observed in the suture repair group. Group II repairs utilizing the cyanoacrylate-doped scaffold all performed extremely well. Bonds formed using the Group II adhesive were approximately 30% stronger than Group I and III organ repairs and approximately 20% stronger than Group I and III vascular repairs. Application of the polymer scaffold assists in tissue alignment and reduces

  9. Uranium extraction from TRISO-coated fuel particles using supercritical CO2 containing tri-n-butyl phosphate.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liyang; Duan, Wuhua; Xu, Jingming; Zhu, Yongjun

    2012-11-30

    High-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) are advanced nuclear systems that will receive heavy use in the future. It is important to develop spent nuclear fuel reprocessing technologies for HTGR. A new method for recovering uranium from tristructural-isotropic (TRISO-) coated fuel particles with supercritical CO(2) containing tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) as a complexing agent was investigated. TRISO-coated fuel particles from HTGR fuel elements were first crushed to expose UO(2) pellet fuel kernels. The crushed TRISO-coated fuel particles were then treated under O(2) stream at 750°C, resulting in a mixture of U(3)O(8) powder and SiC shells. The conversion of U(3)O(8) into solid uranyl nitrate by its reaction with liquid N(2)O(4) in the presence of a small amount of water was carried out. Complete conversion was achieved after 60 min of reaction at 80°C, whereas the SiC shells were not converted by N(2)O(4). Uranyl nitrate in the converted mixture was extracted with supercritical CO(2) containing TBP. The cumulative extraction efficiency was above 98% after 20 min of online extraction at 50°C and 25 MPa, whereas the SiC shells were not extracted by TBP. The results suggest an attractive strategy for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from HTGR to minimize the generation of secondary radioactive waste.

  10. Selective and Quantitative Oxidation of Xanthate End-Groups of RAFT Poly(n-butyl acrylate) Latexes by Ozonolysis.

    PubMed

    Matioszek, Dimitri; Dufils, Pierre-Emmanuel; Vinas, Jérôme; Destarac, Mathias

    2015-07-01

    Although various successful strategies have been reported in the past for the postpolymerization modification of the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) terminal group in homogeneous media, no solution is proposed for the tedious case of aqueous polymer dispersions where most of the thiocarbonylthio terminal group is buried into the core of the polymer particle. In this work, ozone is proposed to tackle this important academic and industrial challenge. After preliminary model ozonolysis reactions performed on a xanthate RAFT agent and a derived low molar mass poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PBA) in dichloromethane solution, it is shown that the hydrophobic nature and strong oxidant properties of ozone are responsible for its efficient diffusion in aqueous PBA latex particles obtained by RAFT and selective and complete transformation of the xanthate terminal group into a thiocarbonate end-group. In addition to the beneficial total discoloration of the final product, this chemical treatment does not generate any volatile organic compound and leaves the colloidal stability of the polymer particles unaffected, provided that a PBA latex with a sufficiently high Mn of 5000 g mol(-1) is selected. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Short term exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) disrupts ovarian function in young CD-1 mice

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Nivedita; Liu, Xiaosong; Craig, Zelieann R.

    2015-01-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is present in many beauty and medical products. Human exposure estimates range from 0.007–0.01 mg/kg/day in the general population and up to 0.233 mg/kg/day in patients taking DBP-coated medications. Levels of phthalates tend to be higher in women, thus, evaluating ovarian effects of DBP exposure is of great importance. Mice were given corn oil (vehicle) or DBP at 0.01, 0.1, and 1000 mg/kg/day (high dose) for 10 days to test whether DBP causes ovarian toxicity. Estrous cyclicity, steroidogenesis, ovarian morphology, and apoptosis and steroidogenesis gene expression were evaluated. DBP exposure decreased serum E2 at all doses, while 0.1DBP increased FSH, decreased antral follicle numbers, and increased mRNA encoding pro-apoptotic genes (Bax, Bad, Bid). Interestingly, mRNAs encoding the steroidogenic enzymes Hsd17b1, Cyp17a1 and Cyp19a1 were increased in all DBP-treated groups. These novel findings show that DBP can disrupt ovarian function in mice at doses relevant to humans. PMID:25765776

  12. Inhibition of urinary bladder tumors induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine in rats by green tea.

    PubMed

    Sato, D

    1999-02-01

    Recently, the anticarcinogenic effects of green tea have been studied in sites other than the urinary tract. The present study examined the inhibition by green tea of vesical tumors induced in rats by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN). In the first series of experiments, 0.05% BBN was added to the drinking water of rats and remained present for 5 weeks. In one experiment, six groups of animals received either tap water, green tea, matcha, hojicha, oolong tea or black tea from week 6. In a second experiment, three groups of rats received either tap water, green tea extract or powdered green tea mixed into a pellet diet from week 6. In a third experiment, five groups of rats were fed a pellet diet with addition of either 0, 0.15, 1.5 or 3.0% powdered green tea from week 6. All rats were killed and examined at 40 weeks. Green tea, particularly green tea leaves, dose-dependently inhibited the growth of BBN-induced urinary bladder tumors when given after the carcinogen. Green tea may inhibit bladder tumor growth.

  13. Subcellular distribution and uptake mechanism of di-n-butyl phthalate in roots of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qingqi; Yang, Xiuhong; Huang, Xiongfei; Wang, Shizhong; Chao, Yuanqing; Qiu, Rongliang

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) are of particular concern due to their potential environmental risk to human and nonhuman organisms. Although uptake of PAEs by plants has been reported by several researchers, information about the intracellular distribution and uptake mechanisms of PAEs is still lacking. In this study, a series of hydroponic experiments using intact pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings was conducted to investigate how di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), one of the most frequently identified PAEs in the environment, enters and is distributed in roots. DnBP was transported into subcellular tissues rapidly in the initial uptake period (<12 h). More than 80% of DnBP was detected in the cell walls and organelles, which suggests that DnBP is primarily accumulated in these two fractions due to their high affinity to DnBP. The kinetics of DnBP uptake were fitted well with the Michaelis-Menten equation, suggesting that a carrier-mediated process was involved. The application of 2,4-dinitrophenol and sodium vanadate reduced the uptake of DnBP by 37 and 26%, respectively, while aquaporin inhibitors, silver and glycerol, had no effect on DnBP uptake. These data demonstrated that the uptake of DnBP included a carrier-mediated and energy-dependent process without the participation of aquaporins.

  14. Computational study of molecular structure and self-association of tri-n-butyl phosphates in n-dodecane.

    PubMed

    Vo, Quynh N; Hawkins, Cory A; Dang, Liem X; Nilsson, Mikael; Nguyen, Hung D

    2015-01-29

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) is an important extractant used in the solvent extraction process for recovering uranium and plutonium from used nuclear fuel. An atomistic molecular dynamics study was used to understand the fundamental molecular-level behavior of extracting agents in solution. Atomistic parametrization was carried out using the AMBER force field to model the TBP molecule and n-dodecane molecule, a commonly used organic solvent. Validation of the optimized force field was accomplished through various thermophysical properties of pure TBP and pure n-dodecane in the bulk liquid phase. The mass density, dipole moment, self-diffusion coefficient, and heat of vaporization were calculated from our simulations and compared favorably with experimental values. The molecular structure of TBPs in n-dodecane at a dilute TBP concentration was examined based on radial distribution functions. 1D and 2D potential mean force studies were carried out to establish the criteria for identifying TBP aggregates. The dimerization constant of TBP in the TBP/n-dodecane mixture was also obtained and matched the experimental value.

  15. Quantifying Dimer and Trimer Formation of Tri-n-butyl Phosphates in Different Alkane Diluents: FTIR Study.

    PubMed

    Vo, Quynh N; Unangst, Jaclynn L; Nguyen, Hung D; Nilsson, Mikael

    2016-07-21

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), a representative of neutral organophosphorous metal-ion-extracting reagents, is an important ligand used in solvent extraction processes for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel, as well as other non-nuclear applications. Ligand-ligand and organic solvent-ligand interactions play an important role in these processes. The self-association behavior of TBP in various alkane diluents of different chain lengths (8, 12, and 16 carbons) and a branched alkane (iso-octane) was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic measurements. By careful deconvolution of the spectra into multiple peaks, our results indicate that TBP self-associates to form not only dimers, as previous studies showed, but also trimers in the practical concentration range. Using a mathematical fitting procedure, the dimerization and trimerization constants were determined. As expected, these equilibrium constants are dependent on the solvent used. As the alkane chain for linear hydrocarbon solvents becomes longer, dimerization decreases whereas trimerization increases. For the more branched hydrocarbon, we observe a significantly higher dimerization constant. These effects are most likely due to the intermolecular van der Waals interactions between the butyl tails of each TBP molecule and the diluent hydrocarbon chain as all solvents in this study are relatively nonpolar.

  16. Quantifying Dimer and Trimer Formation by Tri-n-butyl Phosphates in n-Dodecane: Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Vo, Quynh N; Dang, Liem X; Nilsson, Mikael; Nguyen, Hung D

    2016-07-21

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), a representative of neutral organophosphorous ligands, is an important extractant used in the solvent extraction process for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. Microscopic pictures of TBP isomerism and its behavior in n-dodecane diluent were investigated utilizing MD simulations with previously optimized force field parameters for TBP and n-dodecane. Potential mean force (PMF) calculations on a single TBP molecule show seven probable TBP isomers. Radial distribution functions (RDFs) of TBP suggest the existence of TBP trimers at high TBP concentrations in addition to dimers. 2D PMF calculations were performed to determine the angle and distance criteria for TBP trimers. The dimerization and trimerization constants of TBP in n-dodecane were obtained and match our own experimental values using the FTIR technique. The new insights into the conformational behaviors of the TBP molecule as a monomer and as part of an aggregate could greatly aid in the understanding of the complexation between TBP and metal ions in a solvent extraction system.

  17. Computational Study of Molecular Structure and Self-Association of Tri-n-butyl Phosphates in n-Dodecane

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, Quynh N.; Hawkins, Cory; Dang, Liem X.; Nilsson, Mikael; Nguyen, Hung D.

    2015-01-29

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate is an important extractant used in solvent extraction process for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. To understand the fundamental molecular level behavior of extracting agents in solution, an atomistic parameterization study was carried out using the AMBER force field to model TBP molecule and n-dodecane molecule, a commonly used organic solvent, for molecular dynamics simulations. For validation of the optimized force field, various thermophysical properties of pure TBP and pure n-dodecane in the bulk liquid phase such as mass density, dipole moment, self-diffusion coefficient and heat of vaporization were calculated and compared favorably with experimental values. The molecular structure of TBPs in n-dodecane at various TBP concentrations was examined based on radial distribution functions and 2D potential mean force, which was used as criteria for identifying TBP aggregates. The dimerization constant of TBP in n-dodecane was also obtained and matches the experimental value. The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences funded the work performed by LXD.

  18. Rotational Spectroscopy and Quantum Chemical Calculations of a Fruit Ester: the Microwave Spectrum of n-BUTYL Acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attig, T.; Sutikdja, L. W.; Kannengiesser, R.; Stahl, W.; Kleiner, I.

    2013-06-01

    In the course of our studies on a number of aliphatic ester molecules and natural substances, the rotational spectrum of n-butyl acetate (CH_{3}-COO-C_4H_9) has been recorded for the first time in the 10-13.5 GHz frequency range, using the MB-FTMW spectrometer in Aachen, with an instrumental uncertainty of a few kHz for unblended lines. Three conformers were observed. The main conformer with C_{1} symmetry has a strong spectrum. The other two conformers have C_{s} and C_{1} symmetries. Their intensities are considerably weaker. The quantum chemical calculations of specific conformers were carried out at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, and for the main conformer different levels of theory were calculated. To analyze the internal rotation of the acetyl methyl groups the codes XIAM (based on the Combined Axis Method) and BELGI (based on the Rho-Axis-Method) were used to model the large amplitude motion. The molecular structures of the three conformers were determined and the values of the experimental rotational constants were compared with those obtained by ab initio methods. For all conformers torsional barriers of approximately 100 cm^{-1} were found. This study is part of a larger project which aims at determining the lowest energy conformers and their structures of organic esters and ketones which are of interest for flavour or perfume synthetic applications. Project partly supported by the PHC PROCOPE 25059YB

  19. Dynamic crossovers and activated regimes in a narrow distribution poly(n-butyl acrylate): an ESR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreozzi, Laura; Autiero, Ciro; Faetti, Massimo; Giordano, Marco; Zulli, Fabio

    2006-07-01

    The rotational dynamics of the spin probe cholestane dissolved in a narrow distribution poly(n-butyl acrylate) sample has been investigated via electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The measurements were carried out in a wide temperature range: different dynamic regions have been recognized, and the coupling of the probe dynamics to the α and secondary relaxations has been revealed. In particular, the coupling with the structural relaxation is ruled by two fractionary Vogel-Fulcher laws (VF). The crossover from one VF region to the other occurs at the temperature TC = 1.17Tg, signalling the onset of the cooperativity in the dynamics and confirming a behaviour previously observed in ESR studies carried out on polymeric glass-formers. Furthermore, in this work we discuss the activated regime at the highest temperatures and show that the activation energy does not depend on the length of the polymer main- and side-chains, while its onset temperature linearly depends on the chain length.

  20. Proconvulsant and 'anxiogenic' effects of n-butyl beta carboline-3-carboxylate, an endogenous benzodiazepine binding inhibitor from brain.

    PubMed

    Novas, M L; Wolfman, C; Medina, J H; de Robertis, E

    1988-06-01

    The discovery of n-butyl beta carboline-3-carboxylate (beta CCB) as an endogenous substance of brain capable of interacting with the central benzodiazepine receptor, and the fact that this beta carboline increases in the cerebral cortex of rats undergoing acute stress, led us to study the pharmacological properties of beta CCB in mice. Using 3-mercaptopropionic acid in subconvulsant doses, it was found that this beta carboline, although not being a convulsant, has a proconvulsant action, as indicated by the number of mice undergoing convulsions and the reduction in latency. This proconvulsant effect was observed both with IP or ICV injections and was blocked by the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist RO 15-1788. In an open-field test the injection of 0.3 mg/kg of diazepam increased the number of squares crossed, while beta CCB had the opposite effect, reducing the squares crossed in a dose dependent manner between 1 and 30 mg/kg. This drug also increased the time of freezing and decreased the number of rearings. These changes were partially counteracted by the injection of 3.6 mg/kg of RO 15-1788. In the plus-maze test, 10 mg/kg chlordiazepoxide increased the number of entries and the time spent in the open arms, while the beta carboline produced the opposite effect. The conclusion reached is that beta CCB has both proconvulsant and anxiogenic actions, behaving as an inverse agonist for the central benzodiazepine receptor.

  1. Protection of male reproductive toxicity in rats exposed to di-n-butyl phthalate during embryonic development by testosterone.

    PubMed

    Giribabu, Nelli; Reddy, Pamanji Sreenivasula

    2017-03-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) widely spread industrial chemical that made drastic alteration in male reproductive system. The present study elucidates the protective role of testosterone on reproductive toxicity in prenatal DBP exposed adult male rats. Pregnant rats were injected with corn oil or 100 and 500mg/kg body weight of DBP on gestation day (GD) 1, 7 and 14. F1 male rats were weaned, injected with either testosterone or vehicle. On postnatal day (PND) 100 F1 adult male rats were cohabited with untreated female rats. Then rats were sacrificed and analyzed for other reproductive end points. Prenatal DBP exposed male rat testes, seminal vesicle weight, sperm count, motility, viability and HOS tail coiled sperm were significantly decreased with increased sperm morphological abnormalities. The levels of testicular 3β, 17βHSD, serum testosterone were significantly decreased with increased FSH, LH levels in experimental rats. The fertility studies revealed that increased pre, post-implantation losses and resorptions in normal females cohabited with experimental rats. Higher testicular LPO with lower SOD, CAT and GPx activity levels in experimental rats. Administration of testosterone to prenatal DBP treated male rats showed significant protection in above all parameters. In conclusions, testosterone deteriorates prenatal DBP induced reproductive and fertility toxicity by decreased oxidative stress and increased testicular antioxidant enzymes.

  2. Growth and antioxidant defense responses of wheat seedlings to di-n-butyl phthalate and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate stress.

    PubMed

    Gao, Minling; Dong, Youming; Zhang, Ze; Song, Wenhua; Qi, Yun

    2017-04-01

    Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) are vital environmental hormone-like chemicals that are noxious to plants, animals, and human beings. In this study, the influences of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on the seed germination, root morphology, and various physiological changes of wheat seedlings were investigated by analyzing superoxide anion (O2(-)) accumulation, antioxidant enzyme activity, and lipid peroxidation. DBP and DEHP were found to obviously inhibit germination only at high concentrations, but significantly affected root morphology even at lower concentrations. Their toxic effects were the most severe on root elongation, followed by shoot elongation, and were the least severe on germination rate, indicating that root elongation was the best index for evaluating DBP and DEHP eco-toxicity. DBP and DEHP also enhanced O2(-) and malondialdehyde levels and membrane permeability, as well as produced changes in the antioxidant status and PAE content in the stem and leaf (combined tissues, hereafter shoot) and root tissues. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase increased at low and medium DBP and DEHP concentrations, but declined at high PAE concentrations. These results indicated that PAEs could exert oxidative damage in the early development stage of wheat, particularly at higher concentrations. DBP and DEHP accumulation was higher in the roots than in the shoot tissues, and their levels in these tissues increased with increasing PAE concentrations, supporting their more-serious toxic effects on roots than those on shoots. Further, the physicochemical properties of DBP rendered it more harmful than DEHP.

  3. Metabolism of n-butyl, n-hexyl, and n-octyl benzene in the bile of rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Hellou, J.; King, A.

    1987-08-01

    Exposure of fish to petroleum can occur directly in the aquatic environment, via the water, or indirectly through the diet. In previous investigations of petroleum metabolites extracted from the bile of fish, the analysis indicated the presence of ..beta..-glucuronides enriched with unsaturated vs saturated carbons, when comparing the metabolites mixture to No. 2 fuel oil. The naphthenic carbons represented a significant fraction of the total carbons and were observed at different chemical shifts than in the petroleum oil, strongly indicating that metabolic oxidations took place on the aliphatic carbons. Mass spectra analysis of the hydrolyzed metabolites isolated from the bile of trout exposed to No. 2 fuel oil, using ..beta..-glucuronidase, enabled the identification of at least eight metabolites. These two- and three-ring aromatic alcohols had side chains of two to six carbons. In order to answer some of the questions raised from the above observations, the metabolism of n-butyl benzene, n-hexyl benzene and n-octyl benzene was considered. The present study was undertaken in order to answer three questions: (1) For a given ring system, does the number of carbons in the alkyl side chain influence the rate of hydrocarbon uptake. (2) For n-alkyl aromatic molecules, are primary, secondary or aromatic alcohols formed preferentially. (3) Are long alkyl side chains attached to aromatic rings degraded to a relatively shorter number of carbon atoms prior to excretion. To the authors knowledge, these questions had not been previously considered in the study of fish metabolites.

  4. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Tri-n-butyl-phosphate/n-Dodecane Mixture: Thermophysical Properties and Molecular Structure

    SciTech Connect

    de Almeida, Valmor F; Cui, Shengting; Khomami, Bamin

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP)/n-dodecane mixture in the liquid phase have been carried out using two recently developed TBP force field models (J. Phys. Chem. B 2012, 116, 305) in combination with the all-atom optimized potentials for liquid simulations (OPLS-AA) force field model for n-dodecane. Specifically, the electric dipole moment of TBP, mass density of the mixture, and the excess volume of mixing were computed with TBP mole fraction ranging from 0 to 1. It is found that the aforementioned force field models accurately predict the mass density of the mixture in the entire mole fraction range. Commensurate with experimental measurements, the electric dipole moment of the TBP was found to slightly increase with the mole fraction of TBP in the mixture. Also, in accord with experimental data, the excess volume of mixing is positive in the entire mole fraction range, peaking at TBP mole fraction range 0.3 0.5. Finally, a close examination of the spatial pair correlation functions between TBP molecules, and between TBP and n-dodecane molecules, revealed formation of TBP dimers through self-association at close distance, a phenomenon with ample experimental evidence.

  5. Molecular dynamics simulations for the examination of mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite/ poly α-n-butyl cyanoacrylate under additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanen; Wei, Qinghua; Pan, Feilong; Yang, Mingming; Wei, Shengmin

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations emerged to be a helpful tool in the field of material science. In rapid prototyping artificial bone scaffolds process, the binder spraying volume and mechanism are very important for bone scaffolds mechanical properties. In this study, we applied MD simulations to investigating the binding energy of α-n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) on Hydroxyapatite (HA) crystallographic planes (001, 100 and 110), and to calculating and analyzing the mechanical properties and radial distribution function of the HA(110)/NBCA mixed system. The simulation results suggested that HA (110) has the highest binding energy with NBCA owing to the high planar atom density, and the mechanical properties of HA(110)/NBCA mixed system is stronger than pure HA system. Therefore, the multi-grade strength bone scaffold could be fabricated through spraying various volume NBCA binders during 3D printing process. By calculating the radial distribution function of HA(110)/NBCA, the essence of the interface interaction were successfully elucidated. The forming situation parameters can be referred to calculation results. There exists a strong interaction between HA crystallographic plane (110) and NBCA, it is mainly derived from the hydrogen bonds between O atoms which connect with C atoms of NBCA and H atoms in HA crystal. Furthermore, a strong adsorption effect can be demonstrated between HA and NBCA.

  6. Metabolism and biochemical pathway of n-butyl benzyl phthalate by Pseudomonas fluorescens B-1 isolated from a mangrove sediment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiang-Rong; Li, Hua-Bin; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2007-11-01

    n-Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical. Biodegradation of BBP was investigated using the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens B-1 isolated from mangrove sediment of Mai Po Nature Reserve of Hong Kong. The microorganism was capable of utilizing BBP as the sole source of carbon and energy while BBP was degraded in 6 days under aerobic batch culture conditions. The optimum pH, temperature, and salinity for BBP degradation by P. fluorescens B-1 was found to be 7.0, 37 degrees C, and 15 per thousand, respectively. Biodegradation of BBP was fitted to the first-order kinetics model. The process of BBP biodegradation was monitored by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultra-violet detection after solid-phase extraction. The major metabolites of BBP degradation were identified as mono-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, phthalic acid, and benzoic acid by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BBP-degrading activity of P. fluorescens B-1 was found mostly in the soluble fraction associated with the smaller fragments of cellular membranes. Results suggest that mineralization of BBP can be achieved by microorganism of the mangrove environment.

  7. Growth inhibition in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. chinensis) growth exposed to di-n-butyl phthalate.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chien-Sen; Yen, Jui-Hung; Wang, Yei-Shung

    2009-04-30

    The toxicity and effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), an endocrine disruptor, on the growth of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. chinensis) were studied. Etiolation occurred on leaves of Chinese cabbage plant treated with 50mg/L of DBP for 42 d. DBP even below 1mg/L had a significant effect on the concentration of chlorophyll in Chinese cabbage and the biomass showed a severe decrease under treatment with more than 30 mg/L of DBP. At a concentration below 1mg/L of DBP, no significant difference in accumulation was found, but treatments with concentration exceeding 10, 30, 50 and 100mg/L all resulted in significant accumulation of DBP. Six protein spots extracted from leaf tissue of DBP-treated Chinese cabbage displaying a differential expression are shown in 2-DE maps. According to proteome level studies, three protein spots were found to increase and were identified, respectively, as acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] desaturase (acyl-ACP desaturase), root phototropism protein 3 (RPT3) and ferredoxin-nitrite reductase (Fd-NiR). The other three protein spots were found to decrease and were identified respectively as dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR), aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) and ATP synthase subunit beta. The key finding is that the other closely related plant, Bok choy (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis), the subspecies of Chinese cabbage, respond differently to the same chemicals.

  8. Morphology control through hierarchical phase separation in Langmuir monolayers of poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate).

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Atsushi; Kumaki, Jiro

    2017-01-15

    Precise morphology control of ultrathin films is one of the important issues in nanotechnology. To this end, we describe that various controlled morphologies of hierarchical phase separation can be attained using poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PMMA-b-PBA) monolayers spread on a water surface. At a low surface pressure, they were miscible, but upon compression, phase separated with a monolayer of the major component block spreading on the water surface, on top of which the minor component block separated out (hierarchical phase separation). The morphology of the minor component block separated out on top of the monolayer varied from a sphere/short string mixture, to long strings, and a mesh-like structure having a regular domain-domain spacing with the increasing content of the minor block, and the hierarchical phase separation was reversible depending on the surface pressure. However, these well-ordered hierarchical phase separations were observed only in the PBA-rich polymers, and a clear morphology was not observed in the PMMA-rich polymers, because of insufficient domain growth after the hierarchical phase separation for the PMMA-rich block copolymers which are more rigid than the PBA-rich polymers. Although the clear hierarchical phase separation was limited in flexible composition, we noted that the hierarchical phase separation provided a unique well-controlled morphology in the Langmuir monolayers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic toxicity of di-n-butyl and di-n-octyl phthalate to Daphnia magna and the fathead minnow

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.F.; Whitmore, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    The toxicities of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP) were assessed by measuring the effect of exposure to these compounds on the fecundity of Daphnia magna and on the hatching and survival of the early life stages of the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas. For D. magna, exposure to 1.8 mg/L DBP or 1.0 mg/L DOP caused a significant reduction in reproduction. Doses of 0.56 mg/L DBP or 0.32 mg/L DOP had no significant effect in decreasing reproduction. Survival of fathead minnow embryos was decreased by exposure to 1.8 mg/L DBP; none of the embryos exposed to this dose hatched successfully. Hatching and larval survival were affected by exposure to 1.0 mg/L DBP, but not to 0.56 mg/L. Exposure to DOP did not affect survival of either early embryos or larvae of the fathead minnow at doses up to 10 mg/L (the highest dose tested). Hatching of the embryos was significantly decreased at 10 mg/L, but not at 3.2 mg/L DOP. 26 references, 4 figures, 11 tables.

  10. Nonabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nonabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 63936 - 56 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  11. Pentabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Pentabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 32534 - 81 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  12. Octabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Octabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 32536 - 52 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  13. Tribromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Tribromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 49690 - 94 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  14. Hexabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hexabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 36483 - 60 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  15. Ethyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl ether ; CASRN 60 - 29 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  16. Tetrabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Tetrabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 40088 - 47 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  17. Tri- n-butyl phosphate-ionic liquid mixtures for Li+ extraction from Mg2+-containing brines at 303-343 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chenglong; Jing, Yan; Jia, Yongzhong

    2017-04-01

    Extraction of Li+ ions from salt lake brine into an ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C2mim][NTf2]) mixed with tri- n-butyl was investigated. The extraction mechanism was been studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy From the temperature dependence data, the thermodynamic functions values (Δ G°, Δ H°, and Δ S°) were calculated. Furthermore, stripping of metals from ionic liquid phase to an aqueous phase by hydrochloric acid was accomplished.

  18. Use of ferric sulfate: acid media for the desulfurization of model compounds of coal. [Dibenzothiophene, diphenyl sulfide, di-n-butyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Clary, L.R.; Vermeulen, T.; Lynn, S.

    1980-12-01

    The objective of this work has been to investigate the ability of ferric sulfate-acid leach systems to oxidize the sulfur in model compounds of coal. Ferric iron-acid leach systems have been shown to be quite effective at removal of inorganic sulfur in coal. In this study, the oxidative effect of ferric iron in acid-leach systems was studied using dibenzothiophene, diphenyl sulfide, and di-n-butyl sulfide as models of organic sulfur groups in coal. Nitrogen and oxygen, as well as various transition metal catalysts and oxidants, were utilized in this investigation. Dibenzothiophene was found to be quite refractory to oxidation, except in the case where metavanadate was added, where it appears that 40% oxidation to sulfone could have occurred per hour at 150/sup 0/C and mild oxygen pressure. Diphenyl sulfide was selectively oxidized to sulfoxide and sulfone in an iron and oxygen system. Approximately 15% conversion to sulfone occurred per hour under these conditions. Some of the di-n-butyl sulfide was cracked to 1-butene and 1-butanethiol under similar conditions. Zinc chloride and ferric iron were used at 200/sup 0/C in an attempt to desulfonate dibenzothiophene sulfone, diphenyl sulfone, and di-n-butyl sulfone. Di-n-butyl sulfone was completely desulfurized on one hour and fragmented to oxidized parafins, while dibenzothiophene sulfone and diphenyl sulfone were unaffected. These results suggest that an iron-acid leach process could only selectively oxidize aryl sulfides under mild conditions, representing only 20% of the organic sulfur in coal (8% of the total sulfur). Removal through desulfonation once selective sulfur oxidation had occurred was only demonstrated for alkyl sulfones, with severe oxidation of the fragmented paraffins also occurring in one hour.

  19. Portal Vein Embolization before Right Hepatectomy: Improved Results Using n-Butyl-Cyanoacrylate Compared to Microparticles Plus Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Guiu, Boris Bize, Pierre; Gunthern, Daniel; Demartines, Nicolas; Halkic, Nermin; Denys, Alban

    2013-10-15

    Background: There is currently no consensus in the literature on which embolic agent induces the greatest degree of liver hypertrophy after portal vein embolization (PVE). Only experimental results in a pig model have demonstrated an advantage of n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) over 3 other embolic materials (hydrophilic gel, small and large polyvinyl alcohol particles) for PVE. Therefore, the aim of this human study was to retrospectively compare the results of PVE using NBCA with those using spherical microparticles plus coils. Methods: A total of 34 patients underwent PVE using either NBCA (n = 20), or spherical microparticles plus coils (n = 14). PVE was decided according to preoperative volumetry on the basis of contrast-enhanced CT. Groups were compared for age, sex, volume of the left lobe before PVE and future remnant liver ratio (FRL) (volume of the left lobe/total liver volume - tumor volume). The primary end point was the increase in left lobe volume 1 month after PVE. Secondary end points were procedure complications and biological tolerance. Results: Both groups were similar in terms of age, sex ratio, left lobe volume, and FRL before PVE. NBCA induced a greater increase in volume after PVE than did microparticles plus coils (respectively, +74 {+-} 69 % and +23 {+-} 14 %, p < 0.05). The amount of contrast medium used for the procedure was significantly larger when microparticles and coils rather than NBCA were used (respectively, 264 {+-} 43 ml and 162 {+-} 34 ml, p < 0.01). The rate of PVE complications as well as the biological tolerance was similar in both groups. Conclusion: NBCA seems more effective than spherical microparticles plus coils to induce left-lobe hypertrophy.

  20. Evaluation of DNA damage and antioxidant system induced by di-n-butyl phthalates exposure in earthworms (Eisenia fetida).

    PubMed

    Du, Li; Li, Guangde; Liu, Mingming; Li, Yanqiang; Yin, Suzhen; Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Xinyi

    2015-05-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalates (DBP) are recognized as ubiquitous contaminants in soil and adversely impact the health of organisms. The effect of DBP on the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA) content and DNA damage were used as biomarkers to analyze the relationship between DNA damage and oxidative stress and to evaluate the genotoxic effect of DBP on earthworms (Eisenia fetida). DBP was added to artificial soil in the amounts of 0, 5, 10, 50 and 100mg per kg of soil. Earthworm tissues exposed to each treatment were collected on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day of the treatment. The results showed that SOD and CAT levels were significantly inhibited in the 100mgkg(-1) treatment group on day 28. MDA content in treatment groups was higher than in the control group throughout the exposure time, suggesting that DBP may lead to oxidative stress in cells. A dose-response relationship existed between DNA damage and total soil DBP levels. The comet assay showed that increasing concentrations of DBP resulted in a gradual increase in the OTM, Comet Tail Length and Tail DNA %. The degree of DNA damage was increased with increasing concentration of DBP. These results suggested that DBP induced serious oxidative damage on earthworms and induced the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in earthworms. The excessive generation of ROS caused damage to vital macromolecules including lipids and DNA. DBP in the soils were responsible for the exerting genotoxic effects on earthworms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Effects of di-n-butyl phthalate on the antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level of Perna viridis].

    PubMed

    Qin, Jie-fang; Chen, Hai-gang; Cai, Wen-gui; Yang, Tao; Jia, Xiao-ping

    2011-07-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to examine the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and the lipid peroxidation (LPO) level presented by malondialdehyde (MDA) in visceral mass and mantle of green mussel (Perna viridis) after exposure to 0.5- 62.5 mg x L(-1) of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) for 15 days, and to study the change characteristics of these biochemical indicators after the green mussel released into DBP-free seawater for 10 days. During exposure period, the SOD activity in visceral mass was inhibited first and then reached the level of the control at 0.5 and 2.5 mg x L(-1) of DBP, but inhibited significantly (P< 0.01) at 12.5 and 62.5 mg L(-1) of DBP. The CAT activity in visceral mass was inhibited at all test concentrations of DBP, while the LPO level was obviously induced. During the chronic DBP exposure, the SOD and CAT activities in the mantle were induced significantly but had no regular pattern, and the LPO level was also obviously induced. After the exposed green mussel was released into clean seawater, the SOD and CAT activities in the visceral mass in 12.5 and 62.5 mg DBP x L(-1) groups recovered much slowly, but the LPO level gradually recovered to control level. During the recovery period, the SOD activity in the mantle showed an increasing trend with time, but the CAT activity and LPO level reached gradually to the level of the control.

  2. Oxidative Stress, Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Earthworm Eisenia fetida at Different Di-n-Butyl Phthalate Exposure Levels

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Tingting; Chen, Li’ke; Wu, Longhua; Zhang, Haibo; Luo, Yongming

    2016-01-01

    Recognized as ubiquitous contaminants in soil, the environmental risk of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) is of great concern recently. Effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), an extensively used PAE compound to Eisenia fetida have been investigated in spiked natural brown yellow soil (Alfisol) for soil contact test. The toxicity of DnBP to E. fetida on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, peroxidase (POD), reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and the apoptosis of coelomocytes and DNA damage at the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day of the incubation have been paid close attention to. In general, SOD activity and ROS content were significantly induced, opposite to total protein content and POD activity, during the toxicity test of 28 days especially under concentrations higher than 2.5 mg kg-1. The reduction in neutral red retention (NRR) time along with the increase of dead coelomocytes as the increasing of DnBP concentrations, indicating severe damage to cell viability under varying pollutant stress during cultivation, which could also be proved by comet assay results for exerting evident DNA damage in coelomocytes. DnBP in spiked natural soil could indeed cause damage to tissues, coelomocytes and the nucleus of E. fetida. The key point of the apparent change in different indices presented around 2.5 mg DnBP kg-1 soil, which could be recommended as the threshold of DnBP soil contamination, so that further investigation on threshold values to other soil animals or microorganisms could be discussed. PMID:26982081

  3. Ischemic Effects of Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate-Lipiodol on the Colon in a Swine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ikoma, Akira; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio Sonomura, Tetsuo; Minamiguchi, Hiroki; Nakai, Motoki; Takasaka, Isao; Nakata, Kouhei; Sahara, Shinya; Sawa, Naohisa; Shirai, Shintaro; Mori, Ichiro

    2010-10-15

    This study was designed to assess the safety of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with n-butyl cyanoacrylate-lipiodol (NBCA-Lp) for the large bowel and to investigate the vital response to NBCA-Lp in a swine model. In nine swine, nine arteries nourishing the colon were embolized with NBCA-Lp (1 ml of NBCA mixed with 4 ml of lipiodol): sigmoid-rectal branch artery in six swine, right colic branch artery in two, and middle colic branch artery in one. The amount of NBCA-Lp was 0.1-0.4 ml. Sacrifice was conducted 3 days after TAE to identify histological infarction. Classification was conducted retrospectively: group A, vasa recta without NBCA-Lp embolization despite TAE; group B, three or fewer vasa recta with NBCA-Lp embolization; and group C, five or more vasa recta with NBCA-Lp embolization. In one swine in group A, no necrotic focus was observed. In group B, three of four swine experienced no ischemic damage. The remaining one swine experienced necrosis of mucosal and submucosal layers in one-fourth of the circumference. In group C, all four swine with marginal artery and five vasa recta or more embolized experienced total necrosis of mucosa, submucosa, and smooth muscle layers of the whole colonic circumference. Significant difference on the extent of ischemic damage was observed between groups B and C (P < 0.05). Microscopically, NBCA-Lp induced acute vasculitis. Embolization of three or fewer vasa recta with NBCA-Lp induced no ischemic damage or limited necrosis, whereas embolization of five or more vasa recta with NBCA-Lp induced extensive necrosis.

  4. Endovascular Embolization of Intracranial Infectious Aneurysms in Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery Using n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Cheng-Ching, Esteban; John, Seby; Bain, Mark; Toth, Gabor; Masaryk, Thomas; Hui, Ferdinand; Hussain, Muhammad Shazam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mycotic aneurysms are a serious complication of infective endocarditis with increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage. Patients undergoing open heart surgery for valve repair or replacement are exposed to anticoagulants, increasing the risk of aneurysm bleeding. These patients may require endovascular or surgical aneurysm treatment prior to heart surgery, but data on this approach are scarce. Methods Retrospective review of consecutive patients with infectious endocarditis and mycotic aneurysms treated endovascularly with Trufill n-butyl cyanoacrylate (n-BCA) at the Cleveland Clinic between January 2013 and December 2015. Results Nine patients underwent endovascular treatment of mycotic aneurysms with n-BCA (mean age of 39 years). On imaging, 4 patients had intracerebral hemorrhage, 2 had multiple embolic infarcts, and the rest had no imaging findings. Twelve mycotic aneurysms were detected (3 patients with 2 aneurysms). Seven aneurysms were in the M4 middle cerebral artery segment, 4 in the posterior cerebral artery distribution, and 1 in the callosomarginal branch. n-BCA was diluted in ethiodized oil (1:1 to 1:2). Embolization was achieved in a single rapid injection with immediate microcatheter removal. Complete aneurysm exclusion was achieved in all cases without complications. All patients underwent open heart surgery and endovascular embolization within a short interval, 2 with both procedures on the same day. There were no new hemorrhages after aneurysm embolization. Conclusions Endovascular embolization of infectious intracranial aneurysms with liquid embolics can be performed successfully in critically ill patients requiring immediate open heart surgery and anticoagulation. Early embolization prior to and within a short interval from open heart surgery is feasible. PMID:28611838

  5. Laboratory measurements and analysis for two molecules of astrophysical interest: 13C-ethanol and n-butyl cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, A.; Ordu, M.; Bouchez, A.; Muller, H.; Nuñez, M.; Lewen, F.; Bottinelli, S.; Schlemmer, S.

    2011-05-01

    Ethanol is a complex organic molecule (COM), observed principally in hot core regions in the interstellar medium (e.g. Sgr B2, W51M, Orion KL, G34.3+0.15). The 13C isotopologues have not been identified in the ISM and prior to this work only scarce low-frequency laboratory data were available. Absorption spectra of both 13C isotopologues of ethanol were recorded at Cologne. We measured around 350 lines for the trans configuration of each of the two 13C isotopologues: CH_3^13CH_2OH and ^13CH_3CH_3OH. Measurements were taken in the range 80-600 GHz and a few lines between 700-800 GHz. A comparison between the abundance of the 12C and both 13C species in the ISM could give valuable clues as to the formation of this COM. Furthermore, 13C-ethanol is a potential line pollutant in particular for high-sensitivity instruments such as ALMA. We are currently investigating possible candidates for an astronomical detection of these species. n-propyl cyanide is one of the largest molecules detected in the massive star forming region Sgr B2. The next stage in complexity is n-butyl cyanide CH_3 (CH_2) _3CN for which very high-resolution laboratory data was available (1) but only up to 22 GHz. We hence decided to measure the spectrum between 75 and 130 GHz in order to make accurate predictions over the frequency band of ground-based instruments. Measurements were taken in Cologne using a new solid-state double-pass cell with total path of 44m. We assigned around 3000 transitions corresponding to three conformers (anti-anti, gauche(CN end)-anti, anti-gauche(methyl end) in fits including the lower-frequency hyperfine split data. Lines of the gauche-gauche conformer are also present in the spectra.

  6. Potentiation in the neurotoxic induction of experimental chronic neurodegenerative disorders: N-butyl benzenesulfonamide and aluminum chloride.

    PubMed

    Strong, M J; Garruto, R M

    1991-01-01

    Repeated monthly intracisternal inoculations of N-butyl benzenesulfonamide induced a chronic, slowly progressive myelopathy in young adult New Zealand white rabbits that was manifested by hyperreflexia, spasticity, hypertonia, gait impairment and altered tonic immobility responses. The neuropathological features consisted of scattered neuroaxonal spheroids, fusiform distention of the intramedullary portions of the spinal cord ventral roots and, as defined by microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP 2) immunoreactivity, an initial distention and subsequent loss of dendritic processes in neurons of the nucleus motoris lateralis with the perikaryon of these cells remaining intact. A similar chronic progressive myelopathy was induced by repeated low dose intracisternal inoculations of aluminum chloride in New Zealand white rabbits. However, the neuropathological changes were more extensive and consisted of dendritic, axonal and perikaryal inclusions of phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated neurofilament localized to spinal motor neurons in the nucleus motoris medialis, substantia grisea intermedia and select brainstem nuclei with only minimal involvement of the nucleus motoris lateralis. The co-administration of these two neurotoxins over the course of 8 months induced striking behavioral changes as well as a fulminant myelopathy. This was accompanied by a loss of neuronal perikarya in the nucleus motoris accompanied by a loss of neuronal perikarya in the nucleus motoris lateralis and topographically extensive neocortical neurofilamentous degeneration. These features suggest that potentiation occurs when the two toxins are co-administered, a view supported by an estimation of the co-neurotoxicity coefficient (CNC greater than 1). Our results have implications for understanding human neurodegenerative disorders in which potentiation of insults may occur, producing a clinical and neuropathological disease state not expected from either agent alone.

  7. Tomographic, histological, and immunohistochemical evidences on the use of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrilate for onlay graft fixation in rabbits.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Neto, Patricio José; Cricchio, Giovanni; Hawthorne, Ana Carolina; Okamoto, Roberta; Sennerby, Lars; Lungren, Stefan; Salata, Luiz Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The bone tissue responses to Cyanoacrylate have been described in the literature, but none used N-butyl-2-cyanoacrilate (NB-Cn) for bone graft fixation. The aims of the study were: (a) to analyze the bone grafts volume maintenance fixed either with NB-Cn or titanium screw; (b) to assess the incorporation of onlay grafts on perforated recipient bed; and (c) the differences of expression level of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) protein involved in bone resorption. Eighteen New Zealand White rabbits were submitted to calvaria onlay grafting on both sides of the mandible. On one side, the graft was fixed with NB-Cn, while on the other hand the bone graft was secured with an osteosynthesis screw. The computed tomography (CT) was performed just after surgery and at animals sacrifice, after 1 (n = 9) and 6 weeks (n = 9), in order to estimate the bone grafts volume along the experiments. Histological sections of the grafted areas were prepared to evaluate the healing of bone grafts and to assess the expression of TRAP protein. The CT scan showed better volume maintenance of bone grafts fixed with NB-Cn (p ≤ 0.05) compared with those fixed with screws, in both experimental times (analysis of variance). The immunohistochemical evaluation showed that the TRAP expression in a 6-week period was significantly higher compared with the 1-week period, without showing significant difference between the groups (Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney). Histological analysis revealed that the NB-Cn caused periosteum damage, but provided bone graft stabilization and incorporation similar to the control group. The perforation provided by screw insertion into the graft during fixation may have triggered early revascularization and remodeling to render increased volume loss compared with the experimental group. These results indicate that the NB-Cn possesses equivalent properties to titanium screw to be used as bone fixation material in osteosynthesis. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate and bisphenol A through infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Teresa; Latini, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Maria Antonietta; Dipaola, Lucia; Fasano, Evelina; Esposito, Francesco; Scognamiglio, Gelsomina; Francesco, Fabio Di; Cobellis, Luigi

    2015-04-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are ubiquitous contaminants identified as endocrine disruptors. Phthalates are worldwide used as plasticizers, in particular to improve the mechanical properties of polymers such as polyvinyl chloride. Because they are not chemically bound to the polymer, they tend to leach out with time and use. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are the two most common phthalates. BPA is an estrogenic compound used to manufacture polycarbonate containers for food and drink, including baby bottles. It can migrate from container into foods, especially at elevated temperatures. Diet is a predominant source of exposure for phthalates and BPA, especially for infants. The aim of this study was to test the presence of DEHP, DnBP, and BPA in infant formulas. DEHP, DnBP, and BPA concentrations were measured in 22 liquid and 28 powder milks by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and high performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection, respectively. DEHP concentrations in our samples were between 0.005 and 5.088 μg/g (median 0.906 μg/g), DnBP concentrations were between 0.008 and 1.297 μg/g (median 0.053 μg/g), and BPA concentrations were between 0.003 and 0.375 μg/g (median 0.015 μg/g). Concentrations of the investigated contaminants in liquid and powder milks were not significantly different, even though samples were packed in different types of containers. These data point out potential hazards for infants fed with baby formulas. Contamination seems more related to the production of formulas than to a release from containers.

  9. Tuning the modulus of nanostructured ionomer films of core-shell nanoparticles based on poly(n-butyl acrylate).

    PubMed

    Musa, Muhamad S; Milani, Amir H; Shaw, Peter; Simpson, Gareth; Lovell, Peter A; Eaves, Elizabeth; Hodson, Nigel; Saunders, Brian R

    2016-10-04

    In this study we investigate the structure-mechanical property relationships for nanostructured ionomer films containing ionically crosslinked core-shell polymer nanoparticles based on poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PBA). Whilst nanostructured ionomer films of core-shell nanoparticles have been previously shown to have good ductility [Soft Matter, 2014, 10, 4725], the modulus values were modest. Here, we used BA as the primary monomer to construct core-shell nanoparticles that provided films containing nanostructured polymers with much higher glass transition temperature (Tg) values. The core-shell nanoparticles were synthesised using BA, acrylonitrile (AN), methacrylic acid (MAA) and 1,4-butanediol diacrylate (BDDA). Nanostructured ionomer films were prepared by casting aqueous core-shell nanoparticle dispersions in which the shell -COOH groups were neutralised with KOH and ZnO. The film mechanical properties were studied using dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile stress-strain measurements. The use of BA-based nanoparticles increased the Tg values to close to room temperature which caused a strong dependence of the film mechanical properties on the AN content and extent of neutralisation of the -COOH groups. The Young's modulus values for the films ranged from 1.0 to 86.0 MPa. The latter is the highest modulus reported for cast films of nanostructured ionomer films prepared from core-shell nanoparticles. The films had good ductility with strain-at-break values of at least 200%. The mechanical properties of the films were successfully modelled using the isostrain model. From comparison with an earlier butadiene-based system this study demonstrates that the nature of the primary monomer used to construct the nanoparticles can profoundly change the film mechanical properties. The aqueous nanoparticle dispersion approach used here provides a simple and versatile method to prepare high modulus elastomer films with tuneable mechanical properties.

  10. Effects of endocrine disruptor di-n-butyl phthalate on the growth of Bok choy (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis).

    PubMed

    Liao, Chien-Sen; Yen, Jui-Hung; Wang, Yei-Shung

    2006-12-01

    The effects of the endocrine disrupter, di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), on the growth of leaf vegetable Bok choy (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis, white stem Bok choy) were investigated. The results showed that leaves of Bok choy became white in color with the occurrence of chlorosis and necrosis upon treating with 30 mg l(-1) DBP for 42 days. Transmission electron microscopic images revealed that changes in the chloroplast structures accompanied the chlorosis. In addition, a decrease in biomass and chlorophyll, and accumulation of DBP, were found in DBP-treated Bok choy. The growth and morphology of Bok choy showed a significant dose-response relationship upon treatment with DBP in a hydroponic culture medium. The proteome of the leaf tissue was analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS). Six protein spots were identified in 2-DE that showed reproducible differences in expression between the normal control and the DBP-treated sample. Based on proteome level studies two protein spots increased and were identified as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase 21 precursor. These proteins are believed to increase in expression in response to free radical exposure as a detoxification mechanism. The other four protein spots that disappeared on treatment with DBP were identified as heat shock cognate protein 80, protein disulfide isomerase precursor, apocytochrome f precursor, and RNA polymerase beta subunit. The first two play an important role in polypeptide folding, the third is associated with electron transport, and the last has a critical function in DNA transcription. This study indicated that DBP affects the proteome formation as well as the physiology and the morphology of Bok choy during growth. The decrease in those four proteins might be related to the growth and development of a plant.

  11. Metabolism and elimination of methyl, iso- and n-butyl paraben in human urine after single oral dosage.

    PubMed

    Moos, Rebecca K; Angerer, Jürgen; Dierkes, Georg; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2016-11-01

    Parabens are used as preservatives in personal care and consumer products, food and pharmaceuticals. Their use is controversial because of possible endocrine disrupting properties. In this study, we investigated metabolism and urinary excretion of methyl paraben (MeP), iso-butyl paraben (iso-BuP) and n-butyl paraben (n-BuP) after oral dosage of deuterium-labeled analogs (10 mg). Each volunteer received one dosage per investigated paraben separately and at least 2 weeks apart. Consecutive urine samples were collected over 48 h. In addition to the parent parabens (free and conjugated) which are already used as biomarkers of internal exposure and the known but non-specific metabolites, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA) and p-hydroxyhippuric acid (PHHA), we identified new, oxidized metabolites with hydroxy groups on the alkyl side chain (3OH-n-BuP and 2OH-iso-BuP) and species with oxidative modifications on the aromatic ring. MeP represented 17.4 % of the dose excreted in urine, while iso-BuP represented only 6.8 % and n-BuP 5.6 %. Additionally, for iso-BuP, about 16 % was excreted as 2OH-iso-BuP and for n-BuP about 6 % as 3OH-n-BuP. Less than 1 % was excreted as ring-hydroxylated metabolites. In all cases, PHHA was identified as the major but non-specific metabolite (57.2-63.8 %). PHBA represented 3.0-7.2 %. For all parabens, the majority of the oral dose captured by the above metabolites was excreted in the first 24 h (80.5-85.3 %). Complementary to the parent parabens excreted in urine, alkyl-chain-oxidized metabolites of the butyl parabens are introduced as valuable and contamination-free biomarkers of exposure.

  12. Photocatalytic Degradation of Di-n-Butyl Phthalate by N-Doped Ti/13X/MCM-41 Molecular Sieve.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hong; Nguyen, Nhat-Thien; Heil, Xiao-Hui; Liang, Xiao; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2015-07-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is a type of phthalate ester, and has been classified as an environmental endocrine disruptor. It causes serious harm to the environment and humans and it is found widely in air, waste water, rivers and soil. In recent years, an increasing number of studies examined the removal of DBP. Photocatalytic degradation has been of particular interest because of its efficient and thorough advantages and is the focus of this study. Here we use a composite material of N-Ti/13X/MCM-41, synthesized, using 13X and tetraethyl orthosilicate as raw material, CTAB as structural template, tetrabutyl titanate and urea under hydrothermal conditions. The optimized experimental conditions, such as, Si/Al (molar ratio), pH value, crystallization time, calcination temperature and N/Ti (molar ratio), were tested using photodegradation experiments of DBP. The samples were characterized by XRD, TEM, FT-IR, N2 adsorption-desorption. Experimental results reveal the surface area of the N-Ti/13X/MCM-41 to be 664 m2 g(-1) and the average pore sizes to be 2.79 nm. TEM micrographs showed the N-Ti/13X/MCM-41 consists of aggregates of spherical particles, similar to the shapes associated with standard MCM-41 synthesized under basic conditions. Photocatalytic degradation experimental results revealed that optimal synthesis of the composite material occurs when Si/Al = 15, pH = 9.0, crystallization time is 48 hours, calcination temperature is 350 °C and the N/Ti ratios is 2.0. Under such conditions, the degradation efficiency of DBP more was found to be more than 90%.

  13. Effects of neurotoxic industrial solvents on cultured neuroblastoma cells: methyl n-butyl ketone, n-hexane and derivatives.

    PubMed

    Selkoe, D J; Luckenbill-Edds, L; Shelanski, M L

    1978-01-01

    The neurotoxic effects of the commercial organic solvents n-hexane and methyl n-butyl ketone (MBK), recently discovered to cause profound peripheral neuropathy in man, were studied in neuronal-like cells in tissue culture. These agents are known to induce marked proliferation of 10nm neurofilaments in peripheral and central axons of both humans and rats. In a murine neuroblastoma cell line, previously reported to show filamentous hyperplasia when exposed to aluminum ions, both MBK and n-hexane induced a highly reproducible series of cytotoxic effects at the light and electron microscopic levels and caused dose-dependent inhibition of cellular proliferation. In contrast, two closely related but clinically non-toxic solvents, methyl isobutyl ketone and methyl ethyl ketone, caused little or no cytopathological or growth inhibiting effects. MBK and its major water soluble derivative, 2,5-hexane dione (HD), produced identical cytotoxic changes in vitro, supporting the postulate that HD is the toxically active agent in victims exposed to MBK. Although MBKlthought MBK and n-hexand adversely affected the extension of maintenance of neuritic processes, electron microscopy and immunofluorescent reaction failed to reveal any proliferation of 10 nm cytoplasmic filaments in the intoxicated cells. Also, these agents had no deleterious effect on in vitro brain microtubule polymerization. In contrast, aluminum ions produced a doserelated inhibition of neurotubule assembly, similar to that seen with the filament-inducing agents colchicine and vinblastine. The results suggest that the fibrous cytoskeleton may not be the primary or essential target of MBK n-hexane and related human neurotoxins.

  14. Characterization and degradation of functionalized chitosan with glycidyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Flores-Ramírez, Nelly; Elizalde-Peña, Eduardo A; Vásquez-García, Salomón R; González-Hernández, Jesús; Martinez-Ruvalcaba, Agustín; Sanchez, Isaac C; Luna-Bárcenas, Gabriel; Gupta, Ram B

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis, characterization and degradation of a hybrid chitosan (CTS)/glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) material are reported. These versatile materials (natural-synthetic materials) are potential candidates for dental restoratives. All materials were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction and thermal (DSC) analysis. Particular attention was paid to the thermal stability and chemical resistance of the hybrid CTS materials. From dynamical rheological tests, it was concluded that CTS-GMA solutions behave as physical hydrogels. These pH-sensitive gels are an example of stimuli-responsive polymers, also known as 'smart polymers'.

  15. Reactions of. cap alpha. -oxides in the presence of hexamethylenetetramine and glycerine diphenyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, P.V.; Sveshnikova, N.F.; Ignatov, V.A.

    1987-11-20

    Hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) is widely used as a catalyst for the condensation and hardening of compositions based on epoxide oligomer. To provide objective information about the reaction scheme and the kinetics of reactions in which epoxide oligomers participate we studied a model reaction system. The model epoxide oligomer selected was phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE) and the ..cap alpha..,..gamma..-diphenyl ether of glycerine (GDPE). The reference substances in the differential thermal analysis were magnesium oxide, aluminum oxide, and GDPE. Monitoring of the progress of the isothermal reaction was effected by determining the ..cap alpha..-oxide group mercurimetrically. The concentration of HMTA was determined iodometrically.

  16. DI(N-BUTYL) PHTHALATE AND DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE IN COMBINATION ALTER SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION IN A CUMULATIVE MANNER AS A RESULT OF DEPRESSED FETAL TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION AND INSL3 GENE EXPRESSION IN MALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plasticizers di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) and diehtylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) have similar modes of action: in utero exposure reduces testosterone (T) production in fetal male rats, inhibits reproductive tract differentiation, and induces reproductive organ malformations. In utero e...

  17. Effects of agitation in emulsion polymerization of n-butyl methacrylate and its copolymerization with N-methylol acrylamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Sitaraman

    Effects of agitation in emulsion polymerization were investigated using a 2 dm3 stirred reactor and Rushton turbine agitators and a semi-batch mode of reaction. High-solids recipes giving monodisperse polymer particles with core-shell morphology were developed for monomer-starved, semi-batch emulsion copolymerization of n-butyl methacrylate (BMA) and N-methylol acrylamide (NMA). A larger agitator, or a higher agitation speed, resulted in higher particle concentration, more viscous latex, less water-soluble polymer, and higher mass of coagulum. Better incorporation of NMA in the polymer particles was because of greater particle-water interfacial area and more efficient macromixing in the reactor. A mechanism where the surface of the polymer particles is the most favorable site for copolymerization, is proposed for the incorporation of NMA. Nucleation of a greater number of particles at higher agitation intensity was a general observation for recipes with surfactant concentrations below the critical micelle concentration (cmc). Effects of agitation on the kinetics of emulsion polymerization of BMA were studied using reaction calorimetry. At a reaction temperature of 70°C, the molecular weight was higher at higher agitation speed, while at 50°C, the converse was true. The order of dependence of the mass of coagulum on the agitation speed depended on the surfactant coverage of the polymer particles: the variation was almost two-fold (1.2 to 2.3). The coagulum mass was related to surfactant coverage using results from the DLVO theory. The volume-surface average diameter of the monomer droplets in the emulsion scaled to the 1.6 power of agitation speed, and the droplet size distribution was log-normal. Thermal crosslinking of the copolymer particles and films was investigated, and the effect of carbon tetrabromide on the gel content of the copolymer films was studied experimentally and theoretically. The increase in the gel content as a function of time during thermal

  18. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Ionic Liquid 1-n-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride and Its Binary Mixtures with Ethanol.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mo; Pendrill, Robert; Widmalm, Göran; Brady, John W; Wohlert, Jakob

    2014-10-14

    Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) of the imidazolium family have attracted much attention during the past decade for their capability to dissolve biomass. Besides experimental work, numerous compuational studies have been concerned with the physical properties of both neat ILs and their interactions with different solutes, in particular, carbohydrates. Many classical force fields designed specifically for ILs have been found to yield viscosities that are too high for the liquid state, which has been attributed to the fact that the effective charge densities are too high due to the lack of electronic polarizability. One solution to this problem has been uniform scaling of the partial charges by a scale factor in the range 0.6-0.9, depending on model. This procedure has been shown to improve the viscosity of the models, and also to positively affect other properties, such as diffusion constants and ionic conductivity. However, less attention has been paid to how this affects the overall thermodynamics of the system, and the problems it might create when the IL models are combined with other force fields (e.g., for solutes). In the present work, we employ three widely used IL force fields to simulate 1-n-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride in both the crystal and the liquid state, as well as its binary mixture with ethanol. Two approaches are used: one in which the ionic charge is retained at its full integer value and one in which the partial charges are uniformly reduced to 85%. We investigate and calculate crystal and liquid structures, molar heat capacities, heats of fusion, self-diffusion constants, ionic conductivity, and viscosity for the neat IL, and ethanol activity as a function of ethanol concentration for the binary mixture. We show that properties of the crystal are less affected by charge scaling compared to the liquid. In the liquid state, transport properties of the neat IL are generally improved by scaling, whereas values for the heat of fusion are

  19. Inorganic arsenic in drinking water accelerates N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine-induced bladder tissue damage in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Paul-Yann; Lin, Yung-Lun; Huang, Chin-Chin; Chen, Sin-Syu; Liu, Yi-Wen

    2012-02-15

    Epidemiological studies have revealed that exposure to an arsenic-contaminated environment correlates with the incidence of bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is highly recurrent after intravesical therapy, and most of the deaths from this disease are due to invasive metastasis. In our present study, the role of inorganic arsenic in bladder carcinogenesis is characterized in a mouse model. This work provides the first evidence that inorganic arsenic in drinking water promotes N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN)-induced bladder tissue damage, including the urothelium and submucosal layer. This damage to the bladder epithelium induced by BBN includes thickening of the submucosal layer, the loss of the glycosaminoglycan layer and an increase in both the deoxyguanosine oxidation and cytosine methylation levels in the DNA. Further, when 10 ppm inorganic arsenic is combined with BBN, the number of bladder submucosal capillaries is increased. In addition, inorganic arsenic also increases the deoxyguanosine oxidation level, alters the cytosine methylation state, decreases the activities of glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, decreases the protein expression of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1) and increases the protein expression of specific protein 1 (Sp1) in bladder tissues. In summary, our data reveal that inorganic arsenic in drinking water promotes the BBN-induced pre-neoplastic damage of bladder tissue in mice, and that the 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, 5-methylcytosine, NQO-1 protein and Sp1 protein levels may be pre-neoplastic markers of bladder tumors. -- Highlights: ► The role of inorganic arsenic in bladder carcinogenesis is characterized in mice. ► We examine the changes in the histology and biochemistry of bladder tissues. ► Inorganic arsenic enhances BBN-induced DNA oxidation while decreases BBN-induced DNA methylation in the mouse bladder. ► Inorganic arsenic alters the activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes in

  20. The N-butyl alcohol extract from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flowers enhances healing potential on rat excisional wounds.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui-Min; Chen, Chun; Jiang, Ji-Yang; Zheng, Yi-Lin; Cai, Wen-Feng; Wang, Bin; Ling, Zhen; Tang, Liu; Wang, Yuan-Hang; Shi, Gang-Gang

    2017-02-23

    Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (HRS), a folk medicine named Zhujin in China, possess anti-tumor, antioxidant, antibacterial, low density lipoprotein oxidation prevention and macrophage death prevention effects. The leaves and red flowers of HRS have been traditionally used to treat with furuncle and ulceration. To investigate the efficacy and possible mechanism of the N-butyl alcohol extract of HRS (NHRS) red flowers in wound healing by analyzing the collagen fiber deposition, angiogenic activity and macrophages action of the NHRS. In an excisional wound healing model in rats, different concentrations of NHRS, or recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor (rbFGF), were respectively applied twice daily for 9 days. Histopathology was assessed on day 9 via hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Masson's trichrome (MT) staining, and immunohistochemistry for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and CD68. Immunomodulation by NHRS was evaluated by a carbon clearance test in mice. Wound healing post-surgery was greater in the rbFGF-control, NHRS-M and MHRS-H groups than in the model and 5% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-control groups after the third day. By the sixth day the wound contraction of NHRS-M and MHRS-H groups was much higher than the rbFGF-control group. HE and MT staining revealed that epithelialization, fibroblast distribution, collagen deposition of NHRS-M- and NHRS-H-control groups were significantly higher than the model group. Moreover, immunohistochemistry showed more intense staining of VEGF, TGF-β1 and CD68 in the rbFGF- and NHRS-control groups, compared to that in model and 5% DMSO-control groups. The clearance and phagocytic indices of NHRS-M- and NHRS-H-control groups were significantly higher than that of the carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) group in mice. NHRS accelerates wound repair via enhancing the macrophages activity, accelerating angiogenesis and collagen fiber deposition response mediated by VEGF and TGF

  1. Gastric Varices in Cirrhosis vs. Extrahepatic Portal Venous Obstruction and Response to Endoscopic N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate Injection.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Barjesh C; Varakanahalli, Shivakumar; Singh, Jatinder P; Srivastava, Siddharth

    2017-06-01

    Gastric varices (GV) are found in patients with portal hypertension. Incidence of bleeding from GV is relatively low, but is severe, and associated with higher mortality. To compare the types of GV in cirrhosis vs. extrahepatic portal venous obstruction (EHPVO) and the results of endoscopic N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBC, glue) injection. Four hundred and fifty-four patients undergone glue injection of GV for primary prophylaxis or control of bleeding for first episode of bleeding from GV between August 2010 and August 2015 were analyzed. Of 454 patients, 64% (n = 292) were cirrhotics and 36% (n = 162) had EHPVO. Types of GV were GOV1 in 16.4% (n = 48) of cirrhotics vs. 7.4% (n = 12) of EHPVO, GOV2 in 76.7% (n = 224) of cirrhotics vs. 53.1% (n = 86) of EHPVO, Isolated gastric Varices (IGV1) in 39.5% (n = 64) of patients with EHPVO vs. 6.8% (n = 20) cirrhotics. The patients were treated with NBC injections. The mean volume of glue injected was 2.89 ± 1.59 ml over a median of 1 session (range: 1-7). The total volume of glue required was lower in cirrhotics (2.44 ± 1.17 ml vs. 3.69 ± 1.91 ml, P < 0.05) than in EHPVO patients. One hundred and seventeen (40.1%) of cirrhotics required >1 sessions of glue injection as compared to 102 (63%) of EHPVO patients. Over mean follow up of 14.7 ± 6.46 months, rebleeding (10% vs. 13%) was similar in patients with cirrhosis and EHPVO and mortality (15.4% vs. 2.5%) was higher in cirrhotics than EHPVO. In patients with bleeding from GV, GOV2 are more common in cirrhotics and IGV1 in patients with EHPVO. Patients with EHPVO required higher total volume of glue and more glue sessions for GV obturation.

  2. Polystyrene-divinylbenzene-glycidyl methacrylate stationary phase grafted with poly (amidoamine) dendrimers for ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dandan; Lou, Chaoyan; Zhang, Peimin; Zhang, Jiajie; Wang, Nani; Wu, Shuchao; Zhu, Yan

    2016-07-22

    In this work, a novel ion exchange stationary phase based on different generations of poly (amidoamine) dendrimers (PAMAM) was developed for the determination of inorganic anions and carbohydrates. Synthesis of the PAMAM was carried out with the polymerization reaction of ethylenediamine and methyl acrylate. The synthesized PAMAM was then grafted to the polystyrene-divinylbenzene-glycidyl methacrylate (PS-GMA) to form PAMAM-based beads. These beads were finally modified with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE) to generate the anion exchanger, which were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), brunauer-emmett-teller (BET), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and elemental analysis. Elemental analysis, breakthrough curves and capacity factors showed that more epoxy groups and higher PAMAM generations in stationary phase could result in higher anion exchange capacity. The efficiency, durability and stability of the proposed anion exchanger were investigated by using six inorganic anions (fluoride, chloride, nitrite, bromide, nitrate and sulfate) and four carbohydrates (trehalose, glucose, maltotriose and galacturonic acid) as analytes, respectively. The reliability of the proposed ion chromatographic stationary phase was demonstrated by determining the content of galacturonic acid in polysaccharides from Poria cocos and Atractylodes macrocephala. The relative standard deviations of retention time, peak height, and peak area for galacturonic acid were 0.39%, 1.22%, and 2.02%, respectively. The spiked recoveries were in the range of 88.29%-100.51% for plant polysaccharides. Due to the good structural homogeneity, intense internal porosity, biological compatibility and high density of active groups in PAMAM, this grafted stationary phase showed good ion-exchange characteristics, especially in biological charged molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pain control using pethidine in combination with diazepam compared to diclofenac in combination with hyoscine-n-butyl bromide: in patients undergoing extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Cecen, Kursat; Karadag, Mert Ali; Uslu, Mehmet; Arslan, Omer Erkam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) remains the preferred least invasive treatment for urinary tract stones. The main purpose of this study was to compare two treatment modalities for pain control during the ESWL procedure. Material and methods From 2013 to 2014, 220 patients received ESWL for kidney stones. Before the procedure, the weight and height were measured to determine the body mass index (BMI); in addition, oxygen saturation and the pulse of the patients, as well as pain level were determined. The pain control provided included two different methods: diclofenac sodium plus hyoscine-N-butyl bromide in the first group and pethidine plus diazepam in the second group. The pain level of the patients was determined using two different scales: the Wong-Baker and the Visual Analogue scales (VAS). At the end of three sessions, all patients were evaluated for the stone fragmentation rate by plain abdominal X-ray, and the findings were recorded and analyzed. Results A total of 220 patients were enrolled in this study. There were 91 patients in the first group (diclofenac sodium + hyoscine-N-butyl bromide) (male/female: 63/28) and 129 (male/female: 83/46) patients in the second group (pethidine HCL +diazepam). The mean age with SD according to each group was 42.03 (±16.43) and 42.56 (±14.23), respectively (p = 0.8). With regard to pain scores (using the Wong-Baker and VAS scales), the responses were significantly lower in the second group (p <0.001). Conclusions Pethidine in combination with diazepam was superior to diclofenac and Hyoscine-N-butyl bromide for pain in patients undergoing ESWL. PMID:26251744

  4. Results of treatment of esophageal variceal hemorrhage with endoscopic injection of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate in patients with Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Joao Paulo; Matuguma, Sérgio Eiji; Cheng, Spencer; Herman, Paulo; Sakai, Paulo; D'Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; Maluf-Filho, Fauze

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: The results of endoscopic treatment with elastic band ligation for esophageal variceal bleeding in patients with Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis remain poor. In comparison with treatment with elastic band ligation, we have found lower rates of rebleeding and mortality with n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate injections. Thus, the aim of the current study was to describe our unit’s 10 years of experience with injection of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate to control esophageal variceal ruptures in patients with Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis. Patients and methods: A single-center, retrospective study was conducted. Sixty-three patients with Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis had been admitted to the center with an acute episode of esophageal variceal bleeding. All were treated with injection of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. The patients were assigned to 1 of 2 groups according to their Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis scores: group I (score range, 10 through 13 points) and group II (score, 14 or 15 points). The 3 variables studied were rates of initial failure to control bleeding, failure to prevent rebleeding (secondary prophylaxis), and mortality. Patients in the 2 groups (group I, n = 50; group II, n = 13) had similar characteristics. Results: Bleeding was successfully controlled in almost 75 % of the patients during the first 5 days after treatment, with no significant differences observed between groups I and II. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups with respect to mortality rate for the first 5 days after treatment. Thirty-four patients (54 %) were free of bleeding at 6 weeks after treatment, with a significant difference noted between the groups: group I, 64 %, versus group II, 15.4 % (P < 0.001). The overall mortality rate was 44.4 %, with a significant difference noted between the groups: group I, 34 %, versus group II, 84.6 % (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Endoscopic injection of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate is a valid treatment

  5. The Effect of Tri-N-Butyl Phosphate on Tank 48 as a Result of Salt Solution Transfers within the In-Tank Precipitation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    1994-05-04

    The transfer of 12,000 gallons of In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) spent salt solution waste from the ITP Feed Tank to Tank 48H will not result in any flammability, compatibility, criticality, or combustibility problems. No impacts on downstream facilities or processes were identified. Addition of the solution to Tank 48H will not result in an increase in the rate of hydrogen production. Insoluble tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) will collect on the surface of the contents of Tank 48H. However, the quantity of TBP will be insufficient to form a layer thick enough to pose a credible combustibility hazard.

  6. A New Flow Control Technique Using Diluted Epinephrine in the N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate Embolization of Visceral Artery Pseudoaneurysms Secondary to Chronic Pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Morishita, Hiroyuki; Yamagami, Takuji; Takeuchi, Yoshito; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Asai, Shunsuke; Masui, Koji; Sato, Hideki; Taniguchi, Fumihiro; Sato, Osamu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2012-08-15

    Although n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) has been used as an effective liquid embolization material, its indication for pseudoaneurysms has seemingly been limited because of the technical difficulties of using NBCA, such as reflux to the parent artery and causing significant infarction. Thus, considerable skill in using NBCA or a device to control blood flow during its polymerization is required to achieve embolization without severe complications. We report our new technique for controlling blood flow using diluted epinephrine in transcatheter arterial NBCA embolization of five pseudoaneurysms in four cases secondary to hemosuccus pancreaticus.

  7. Fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, bisphenol F-diglycidyl ether and their derivatives in canned food and beverages.

    PubMed

    Gallart-Ayala, H; Moyano, E; Galceran, M T

    2011-03-25

    In this work a fast liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method using a C18 Fused Core™ column, was developed for the simultaneous analysis of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), bisphenol A (2,3-dihydroxypropyl) glycidyl ether (BADGE·H(2)O), bisphenol A bis(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) ether (BADGE·2H(2)O), bisphenol A (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) glycidyl ether (BADGE·HCl), bisphenol A bis(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) ether (BADGE·2HCl) and bisphenol A (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)(2,3-dihydroxypropyl ether) (BADGE·HCl·H(2)O) and bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE), bisphenol F bis(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) ether (BFDGE·2H(2)O), bisphenol F bis(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) ether (BFDGE·2HCl). The LC method was coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, using an ESI source in positive mode and using the [M+NH(4)](+) adduct as precursor ion for tandem mass spectrometry experiments. The method developed was applied to the determination of these compounds in canned soft drinks and canned food. OASIS HLB solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges were used for the analysis of soft drinks, while solid canned food was extracted with ethyl acetate. Method limits of quantitation ranged from 0.13 μgL(-1) to 1.6 μgL(-1) in soft drinks and 1.0 μgkg(-1) to 4.0 μgkg(-1) in food samples. BADGE·2H(2)O was detected in all the analyzed samples, while other BADGEs such as BADGE·H(2)O, BADGE·HCl·H(2)O, BADGE·HCl and BADGE·2HCl were also detected in canned foods.

  8. Application of ionic liquid halide nucleophilicity for the cleavage of ethers: a green protocol for the regeneration of phenols from ethers.

    PubMed

    Boovanahalli, Shanthaveerappa K; Kim, Dong Wook; Chi, Dae Yoon

    2004-05-14

    We have used the high nucleophilicity of bromide ion in the form of the ionic liquid, 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([bmim][Br]), for the nucleophilic displacement of an alkyl group to regenerate a phenol from the corresponding aryl alkyl ether. Using 2-methoxynaphthalene (1) as a model compound, we found that the combination of ionic liquid [bmim][Br] and p-toluenesulfonic acid with warming effected demethylation in 14 h, affording the desired product 2-naphthol (2) in good yield (97%). Various other protic acids (MsOH, hydrochloric acid (35%), dilute sulfuric acid (50%)) could be used as a proton source in this demethylation reaction. Under the same conditions, cleavage of alkyl alkyl ether 2-(3-methoxypropyl)naphthalene yielded mixture of corresponding 2-(3-bromopropyl)naphthalene and 2-(3-hydroxypropyl)naphthalene. Dealkylation of various aryl alkyl ethers could also be achieved using significantly reduced (i.e., stoichiometric) amounts of concentrated hydrobromic acid (47%) in the ionic liquid. Both procedures afforded the desired products in moderate to good yield; however, cleavage of aryl alkyl cyclic ether, 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran, resulted in low yield of the desired product o-2-bromoethylphenol. The convenience of this method for ether cleavage and its effectiveness using only a moderate excess of hydrobromic acid make it attractive as a green chemical method.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of poly ( n-butyl acrylate)-poly (methyl methacrylate) latex interpenetrating polymer networks by radiation-induced seeded emulsion polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haibo; Peng, Jing; Zhai, Maolin; Li, Jiuqiang; Wei, Genshuan; Qiao, Jinliang

    2007-11-01

    A series of latex interpenetrating polymer networks (LIPNs) were prepared via a two-stage emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) or mixture of MMA and n-butyl acrylate ( n-BA) on crosslinked poly( n-butyl acrylate)(PBA) seed latex using 60Co γ-ray radiation. The particles of resultant latex were produced with diameters between 150 and 250 nm. FTIR spectra identified the formation of crosslinked copolymers of PMMA or P(MMA- co-BA). Dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that with increasing n-BA concentration in second-stage monomers, the particle size of LIPN increased. Transmission electron microscope(TEM) photographs showed that the morphology of resultant acrylate interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) latex varied from the distinct core-shell structure to homogenous particle structure with the increase of n-BA concentration, and the morphology was mainly controlled by the miscibility between crosslinked PBA seed and second-stage copolymers and polarity of P(MMA- co-BA)copolymers. In addition, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements indicated the existence of reinforced miscibility between PBA seed and P(MMA- co-BA)copolymer in prepared LIPNs.

  10. Comparative study of tissue reactivity to n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and nylon monofilament thread on pericranium-cutaneous flaps in rats.

    PubMed

    Cavazana, William César; Ioshii, Sergio Osamu; Nakamura Cuman, Roberto Kenji; Passeri, Luis Augusto

    2014-04-01

    To study the repair of pericranium-cutaneous flaps fixed with suture anchored in a skull bone tunnel or N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate adhesive in Wistar rats with emphasis on the cellular inflammatory response and the production of types I and III collagen. The operated region in the cephalic region of Wistar rats was removed minutes before euthanasia, fixed in formalin, and subjected to histological preparation. Slides were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Picrosirius. Standardized counts of polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells, fibroblasts, and macrophages were performed, and the percentages of types I and III collagen were determined. Data collection occurred on days 3, 7, 14, 21, and 45 postoperatively. A value of p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Quantitative analysis of the data showed more fibroblasts in the surgical adhesive group than in the nylon monofilament thread groups (p=0.0211). Qualitative analysis showed higher reactivity in the adhesive group, with a predominance of polymorphonuclear cells from days 3-45 and macrophages from days 3-7. The amount of type I collagen exceeded 80% in the treated and control groups at the end of the experiment. Subperiosteal detachment triggers a cellular inflammatory response that is amplified using soft tissue fixation methods. The adhesive n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate was more reactive than the nylon monofilament thread anchored in the skull bone tunnel.

  11. Preparative enantioseparation of propafenone by counter-current chromatography using di-n-butyl L-tartrate combined with boric acid as the chiral selector.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shengqiang; Shen, Mangmang; Zheng, Ye; Chu, Chu; Li, Xing-Nuo; Yan, Jizhong

    2013-09-01

    This paper extends the research of the utilization of borate coordination complexes in chiral separation by counter-current chromatography (CCC). Racemic propafenone was successfully enantioseparated by CCC with di-n-butyl l-tartrate combined with boric acid as the chiral selector. The two-phase solvent system was composed of chloroform/ 0.05 mol/L acetate buffer pH 3.4 containing 0.10 mol/L boric acid (1:1, v/v), in which 0.10 mol/L di-n-butyl l-tartrate was added in the organic phase. The influence of factors in the enantioseparation of propafenone were investigated and optimized. A total of 92 mg of racemic propafenone was completely enantioseparated using high-speed CCC in a single run, yielding 40-42 mg of (R)- and (S)-propafenone enantiomers with an HPLC purity over 90-95%. The recovery for propafenone enantiomers from fractions of CCC was in the range of 85-90%. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Bronchoesophageal Fistula Repair with Intercostal Muscle Flap Followed by Occlusion of Residual Diverticula with N-butyl Cyanoacrylate (NBCA) Glue: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Saikia, Manuj Kumar; Handique, Akash; Topno, Noor; Sarma, Kalyan

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of bronchoesophageal fistula in presence of benign pathology of tracheal tree or oesophagus is rare. It is encountered in thoracic diseases like tuberculosis, syphilis or histoplasmosis due to erosion by infected lymph node or abscess to adjoining structures. The source of primary pathology has to be eliminated followed by appropriate steps of fistula tract closure is essential for optimal result. We report a 25-year-old patient with left sided bronchoesophageal fistula. He had a past history of pulmonary tuberculosis. A left lower lobectomy followed by repair of oesophageal fistula opening was performed by primary closure and reinforcement with an intercostal muscle flap based on posterior intercostal artery. Postoperative oesophagogram showed short diverticula, which was occluded with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) glue under radiological guidance. Feeding was started one week after application of glue without further complication. Reports on intercostals muscle flap repair and intervention of residual oesophageal diverticula with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) glue under radiological guidance are scanty. PMID:27656500

  13. Determination of arsenic species in solid matrices utilizing supercritical fluid extraction coupled with gas chromatography after derivatization with thioglycolic acid n-butyl ester.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhifeng; Cui, Zhaojie

    2016-12-01

    A method using derivatization and supercritical fluid extraction coupled with gas chromatography was developed for the analysis of dimethylarsinate, monomethylarsonate and inorganic arsenic simultaneously in solid matrices. Thioglycolic acid n-butyl ester was used as a novel derivatizing reagent. A systematic discussion was made to investigate the effects of pressure, temperature, flow rate of the supercritical CO2 , extraction time, concentration of the modifier, and microemulsion on extraction efficiency. The application for real environmental samples was also studied. Results showed that thioglycolic acid n-butyl ester was an effective derivatizing reagent that could be applied for arsenic speciation. Using methanol as modifier of the supercritical CO2 can raise the extraction efficiency, which can be further enhanced by adding a microemulsion that contains Triton X-405. The optimum extraction conditions were: 25 MPa, 90°C, static extraction for 10 min, dynamic extraction for 25 min with a flow rate of 2.0 mL/min of supercritical CO2 modified by 5% v/v methanol and microemulsion. The detection limits of dimethylarsinate, monomethylarsonate, and inorganic arsenic in solid matrices were 0.12, 0.26, and 1.1 mg/kg, respectively. The optimized method was sensitive, convenient, and reliable for the extraction and analysis of different arsenic species in solid samples.

  14. Gradient Architecture as Means of Phase Diagram Manipulation in Copolymers: Accessing Both LCOT and UCOT in High Molecular Weight Styrene/n-Butyl Acrylate Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, Michelle; Burghardt, Wesley; Ellison, Christopher; Torkelson, John

    2009-03-01

    Traditionally, phase transitions of block copolymers could only be tuned through molecular weight and relative block length. Here, we introduce comonomer sequence design through gradient compositions as a means of further manipulating phase diagram boundaries. In such gradient copolymers, the reduced repulsion between chain segments allows access to phase transitions even at high molecular weights (MW). Rheological and x-ray scattering studies were performed to study the impact of comonomer sequence on phase behavior in styrene/n-butyl acrylate (S/nBA) systems. In S/nBA block copolymers, only upper critical ordering behavior was observed. In contrast, by using a gradient architecture of higher MW we observed both upper and lower ordering transitions similar to those seen in very weakly segregating S/n-butyl methacrylate block copolymers, where such dual ordering transitions were first detected by Russell et al. This is the first study to access a miscibility gap in gradient copolymers. Access to such behavior is very rare in blends and block copolymers, limited to low MW and/or very weakly segregating systems.

  15. [Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activities of methylhesperetin-7-alkyl ether analogues].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao-Shun; Ye, Xiao-Li; Chen, Zhu; Yao, Boe; Tan, Ping; Li, Xue-Gang

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between the structures of methylhesperetin-7-alkyl ether analogues and their anti-inflammatory activities, nine new compounds, methyl-hesperetin (2), methylhesperetin-7-ethyl ether (3), 7-n-butyl ether (4), 7-n-hexyl ether (5), 7-n-octyl ether (6), 7-n-decyl ether (7), 7-n-dodecyl ether (8), 7-n-tetradecyl ether (9) and 7-n-hexadecyl ether (10), were synthesized with the lead compound of methylhesperidin (1). Their structures were confirmed by UV, 1H NMR, MS and HR-MS spectral data. The in vivo antiinflammatory activities of these compounds were tested on mouse paw edema induced by Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) and mouse capillary permeability induced by acetic acid with po dose of 300 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1). The result indicated that the anti-inflammatory activities of the synthetic compounds increased firstly and then decreased with the elongating of the length of alkyl chain. After 25-day oral administration of compounds 6, 7 and 8, the inhibitory rates on mouse paw edema of adjuvant arthritis (AA) were 31.9%, 38.5%, 39.1%, respectively. They showed the concentrations of COX-2 in serum of AA mice respectively were 79.3, 75.4, 73.9 ng x L(-1) and the concentrations of PGE2 were in correspondence with 275.4, 258.9, 242.6 ng x L(-1). The inhibitory rates of compounds 6 and 7 on mouse capillary permeability induced by acetic acid were, respectively, 42.4% and 41.5% after 5-day oral administration. Compared with the lead compound of methylhesperidin, the anti-inflammatory activities of compounds 6, 7 and 8 were increased and showed an effective inhibition on the symptom of adjuvant arthritis and capillary permeability in mice.

  16. A study of the adsorption of selected organic molecules to model the adhesion of epoxy resins: thermal desorption of glycidyl and phenoxy compounds from gold, iron oxide and zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, Makoto; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    1993-08-01

    The adsorption of oligomeric model compounds of the bis-phenol A epoxy resin was studied on gold, zinc oxide and iron oxide by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) in order to elucidate the relative importance of the four possible adsorption sites. Glycidyl 2-methylphenyl ether and 2-phenoxy ethanol were selected as the model compounds. It was found that the interactions of the model compounds with gold was primarily via the benzene ring, and the heat of desorption was 100-110 kJ/mol. On iron oxide, the model compounds dissociated by C-O bond and O-H bond scission. The surface interactions were via the phenoxy and hydroxyl oxygens, and the heat of desorption was 130-140 kJ/mol. On zinc oxide, the heats of adsorption were somewhat less than on iron oxide. Glycidyl 2-methylphenyl ether interacted mainly via the benzene ring and partly via the epoxy ring while 2-phenoxy ethanol interacted via phenoxy and hydroxyl oxygens. Their heats of desorption were 70-100 and 120 kJ/mol, respectively. Based on these results, an adhesion mechanism of the epoxy resin was suggested.

  17. Decomposition products of glycidyl esters of fatty acids by heating.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Wataru; Endo, Yasushi

    2017-03-01

    In this study, decomposition products of glycidyl palmitate (GP) of fatty acids heated at high temperature such as deep frying were investigated. When GP and tripalmitin (TP) were heated at 180 and 200 °C, they were decreased with heating time. The weight of GP was less than that of TP, although both GP and TP were converted to polar compounds after heating. The decomposition rate of GP was higher than TP. Both GP and TP produced considerable amounts of hydrocarbons and aldehydes during heating. Aldehydes produced from GP and TP included saturated aldehydes with carbon chain length of 3-10, while hydrocarbons consisted of carbon chain length of 8-15. It was observed that major hydrocarbons produced from GP during heating were pentadecane. Moreover, the level of carbon dioxide (CO2) released from GP was higher than that of TP. It was suggested that fatty acids in GE might be susceptible to decarboxylation. From these results, GP might be quickly decomposed to hydrocarbons, aldehydes and CO2 besides polar compounds by heating, in comparison with TP.

  18. Thermally switchable thin films of an ABC triblock copolymer of poly( n -butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shanju; Liu, Zhan; Bucknall, David G.; He, Lihong; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy W.; Allen, Mark G.

    2011-09-01

    The thermo-responsive behavior of polymer films consisting of novel linear triblock copolymers of poly( n-butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate) (PnBuMA-PMMA-P2FEMA) are reported using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), atomic forcing microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contacting angle (CA) measurements. The surface morphology, wettability and chemical structure of thin films of these triblock copolymers on silicon wafers as a function of temperature have been investigated. It has been shown that the wettability of the films is thermally switchable. Detailed structural analysis shows that thermo-responsive surface composition changes are produced. The underlying mechanism of the thermoresponsive behavior is discussed.

  19. Thermally Switchable Thin Films of an ABC Triblock Copolymer of Poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shanju; Liu, Zhan; Bucknall, David G.; He, Lihong; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy; Allen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The thermo-responsive behavior of polymer films consisting of novel linear triblock copolymers of poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate) (PnBuMA-PMMA-P2FEMA) are reported using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), atomic forcing microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contacting angle (CA) measurements. The surface morphology, wettability and chemical structure of thin films of these triblock copolymers on silicon wafers as a function of temperature have been investigated. It has been shown that the wettability of the films is thermally switchable. Detailed structural analysis shows that thermo-responsive surface composition changes are produced. The underlying mechanism of the thermoresponsive behavior is discussed.

  20. A Case of Common Peroneal Nerve Palsy Associated with Internal Iliac Artery Embolization by Using N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA).

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Keishi; Ogawa, Yukihisa; Murakami, Kenji; Arai, Yasunori; Nishimaki, Hiroshi; Mimura, Hidefumi; Nakajima, Yasuo

    2017-09-01

    A 64-year-old man was scheduled to undergo endovascular aneurysm repair for an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Since preoperative computed tomography showed an AAA with common iliac artery and internal iliac artery (IIA) aneurysms, IIA embolization was scheduled. Embolization using a coil was supposed to be performed; however, the lateral sacral artery could not be selected. For this reason, IIA embolization using N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) was undertaken. During embolization, the median sacral artery was unexpectedly embolized through the lateral sacral artery. The patient complained of drop foot just after embolization; he was diagnosed with iatrogenic common peroneal nerve palsy. We have learned that sciatic nerve palsy can occur in cases of embolization with a liquid NBCA-Lipiodol mixture to the lateral or sacral median artery.

  1. APMP.QM-S8: determination of mass fraction of benzoic acid, methyl paraben and n-butyl paraben in soy sauce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Tang Lin; Gui, Ee Mei; Lu, Ting; Sze Cheow, Pui; Giannikopoulou, Panagiota; Kakoulides, Elias; Lampi, Evgenia; Choi, Sik-man; Yip, Yiu-chung; Chan, Pui-kwan; Hui, Sin-kam; Wollinger, Wagner; Carvalho, Lucas J.; Garrido, Bruno C.; Rego, Eliane C. P.; Ahn, Seonghee; Kim, Byungjoo; Li, Xiuqin; Guo, Zhen; Styarini, Dyah; Aristiawan, Yosi; Putri Ramadhaningtyas, Dillani; Aryana, Nurhani; Ebarvia, Benilda S.; Dacuaya, Aaron; Tongson, Alleni; Aganda, Kim Christopher; Junvee Fortune, Thippaya; Tangtrirat, Pradthana; Mungmeechai, Thanarak; Ceyhan Gören, Ahmet; Gündüz, Simay; Yilmaz, Hasibe

    2017-01-01

    The supplementary comparison APMP.QM-S8: determination of mass fraction of benzoic acid, methyl paraben and n-butyl paraben in soy sauce was coordinated by the Health Sciences Authority, Singapore under the auspices of the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM). Ten national metrology institutes (NMIs) or designated institutes (DIs) participated in the comparison. All the institutes participated in the comparison for benzoic acid, while six NMIs/DIs participated in the comparison for methyl paraben and n-butyl paraben. The comparison was designed to enable participating institutes to demonstrate their measurement capabilities in the determination of common preservatives in soy sauce, using procedure(s) that required simple sample preparation and selective detection in the mass fraction range of 50 to 1000 mg/kg. The demonstrated capabilities can be extended to include other polar food preservatives (e.g. sorbic acid, propionic acid and other alkyl benzoates) in water, aqueous-based beverages (e.g. fruit juices, tea extracts, sodas, sports drinks, etc) and aqueous-based condiments (e.g. vinegar, fish sauce, etc). Liquid--liquid extraction and/or dilution were applied, followed by instrumental analyses using LC-MS/MS, LC-MS, GC-MS (with or without derivatisation) or HPLC-DAD. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry was used for quantification, except in the case of a participating institute, where external calibration method was used for quantification of all three measurands. The assigned Supplementary Comparison Reference Values (SCRVs) were the medians of ten results for benzoic acid, six results for methyl paraben and six results for n-butyl paraben. Benzoic acid was assigned a SCRV of 154.55 mg/kg with a combined standard uncertainty of 0.94 mg/kg, methyl paraben was assigned a SCRV of 100.95 mg/kg with a combined standard uncertainty of 0.40 mg/kg, and n-butyl paraben was assigned a SCRV of 99.05 mg

  2. Isolation and identification of N-butyl-tetrahydro-5-oxofuran-2-carboxamide produced by Bacillus sp. L60 and its antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Seong; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Moon, Jae-Hak; Kim, Kil-Yong

    2017-03-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is the cause of substantial economic loss in many crops. The aim of this study is to investigate biocontrol potential of Bacillus sp. L60 against R. solani and to purify an antifungal compound. In this study, Bacillus sp. L60 demonstrated significant antagonism toward R. solani with the dual culture assay. The antifungal compound was extracted from Bacillus sp. L60 culture supernatant with n-butanol, and identified as N-butyl-tetrahydro-5-oxofuran-2-carboxamide (BT-5O-2C) having molecular weights of 185.1052 Da with the formula C9 H15 NO3 using NMR and HR-ESI-MS analysis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of the antifungal compound was 256 µg ml(-1) against R. solani. Therefore, our results clearly demonstrated BT-5O-2C as well as Bacillus sp. L60 as potential biological control agents for the management of R. solani.

  3. Radiation-induced copolymerization of styrene/ n-butyl acrylate in the presence of ultra-fine powdered styrene-butadiene rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haibo; Peng, Jing; Zhai, Maolin; Li, Jiuqiang; Wei, Genshuan; Qiao, Jinliang

    2007-11-01

    Styrene (St)/ n-butyl acrylate (BA) copolymers were prepared by two-stage polymerization: St/BA was pre-polymerized to a viscous state by bulk polymerization with initiation by benzoyl peroxide (BPO) followed by 60Co γ-ray radiation curing. The resultant copolymers had higher molecular weight and narrower molecular weight distribution than conventional methods. After incorporation of ultra-fine powdered styrene-butadiene rubber (UFSBR) with a particle size of 100 nm in the monomer, the glass transition temperature ( Tg) of St-BA copolymer increased at low rubber content. Both the St-BA copolymer and the St-BA copolymer/UFSBR composites had good transparency at BA content below 40%.

  4. Kinetics of the reactions of OH radicals with n-butyl, isobutyl, n-pentyl and 3-methyl-1-butyl nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedjanian, Yuri; Morin, Julien; Romanias, Manolis N.

    2017-04-01

    The kinetics of the reactions of n-butyl (BTN), isobutyl (IBN), n-pentyl (PTN) and 3-methyl-1-butyl (3M1BN) nitrates with OH radicals has been studied using a low pressure flow tube reactor combined with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The rate constants of the title reactions were determined under pseudo-first order conditions from kinetics of OH consumption in high excess of the nitrates. The overall rate coefficients, kBTN = 1.0 × 10-13 (T/298)3.36 exp(838/T) (T = 288-500 K), kIBN = 2.8 × 10-14 (T/298)4.09 exp(1127/T) (T = 283-500 K), kPTN = 1.26 × 10-12 (T/298)4.56 exp(45/T) (T = 298-496 K) and k3M1BN = 8.47×10-14 (T/298)3.52 exp(1069/T) cm3molecule-1s-1 (T = 288-538 K) (with conservative 15% uncertainty), were determined at a total pressure of 1 Torr of helium. The yields of the carbonyl compounds, n-butanal (n-C3H7CHO) and isobutanal ((CH3)2CHCHO), resulting from the abstraction by OH of an α-hydrogen atom in n-butyl and isobutyl nitrates, followed by α-substituted alkyl radical decomposition, were determined at T = 300 K to be 0.10 ± 0.02 and 0.15 ± 0.03, respectively. The calculated tropospheric lifetimes of BTN, IBN, PTN and 3M1BN indicate that reaction of these nitrates with OH represents an important sink of these compounds in the atmosphere.

  5. Mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and mono-n-butyl phthalate activation of peroxisome proliferator activated-receptors alpha and gamma in breast.

    PubMed

    Venkata, Nagaraj Gopisetty; Robinson, Jodie A; Cabot, Peter J; Davis, Barbara; Monteith, Greg R; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J

    2006-06-01

    The phthalates di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) are environmental contaminants with significant human exposures. Both compounds are known reproductive toxins in rodents and DEHP also induces rodent hepatocarcinogenesis in a process believed to be mediated via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). DEHP and DBP are metabolised to their respective monoesters, mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), which are the active metabolites. MEHP also activates another member of the PPAR subfamily, PPARgamma. The effects of PPARalpha and PPARgamma activation in human breast cells appears to be opposing; PPARalpha activators in breast cells cause an increase in proliferation, while PPARgamma activation in breast cells is associated with differentiation and an inhibition of cell proliferation. Further to this the activation of the PPARs is cell and ligand specific, suggesting the importance of examining the effect of MEHP and MBP on the activation of PPARalpha, PPARbeta and PPARgamma in human breast. We used the common model of human breast cancer MCF-7 and examined the ability of MEHP and MBP to activate human PPARs in this system. The ability of MBP and MEHP to block PPAR responses was also assessed. We found that both human PPARalpha and PPARgamma were activated by MEHP whereas MEHP could not activate PPARbeta. MBP was unable to activate any PPAR isoforms in this breast model, despite being a weak peroxisome proliferator in liver, although MBP was an antagonist for both PPARgamma and PPARbeta. Our results suggest that the toxicological consequences of MEHP in the breast could be complex given the opposing effects of PPARalpha and PPARgamma in human breast cells.

  6. [Determination of eight bisphenol diglycidyl ethers in water by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haijing; Lin, Shaobin

    2014-07-01

    A solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of eight bisphenol diglycidyl ethers, including bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), bisphenol A (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) glycidyl ether (BADGE x HCl), bisphenol A bis (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) ether (BADGE x 2HCl), bisphenol A (2, 3-dihydroxypropyl) glycidyl ether (BADGE x H2O), bisphenol A bis(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) ether (BADGE x 2H2O), bisphenol A (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) (2,3-dihydroxypropyl) ether (BADGE x HCl x H2O), bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE) and bisphenol F bis (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) ether (BFDGE 2HCl) in water. A total of ten samples were collected from the leaching of the coatings for drinking water supply system. Then, 200 mL exposure water was preconcentrated on C18 solid-phase extraction cartridge. The eight compounds were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method on a C18 column by the gradient elution with methanol, water and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate as mobile phases in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) scan mode. The external matrix standard solutions were used for the quantitative determination and the calibration curves of the eight compounds showed good linearity in the range of 0.007-5.00 microg/L with the correlation coefficients more than 0.999 0. The limits of quantification (LOQs) of the method were 7-91 ng/L. The spiked recoveries ranged from 79.1% to 101% with the relative standard deviations of 4.0% - 12%. The method is sensitive and accurate, and is applicable to the determination of bisphenol diglycidyl ethers in water.

  7. Direct Determination of MCPD Fatty Acid Esters and Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters in Vegetable Oils by LC-TOFMS.

    PubMed

    Haines, Troy D; Adlaf, Kevin J; Pierceall, Robert M; Lee, Inmok; Venkitasubramanian, Padmesh; Collison, Mark W

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils using the indirect method proposed by the DGF gave inconsistent results when salting out conditions were varied. Subsequent investigation showed that the method was destroying and reforming MCPD during the analysis. An LC time of flight MS method was developed for direct analysis of both MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils. The results of the LC-TOFMS method were compared with the DGF method. The DGF method consistently gave results that were greater than the LC-TOFMS method. The levels of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters found in a variety of vegetable oils are reported. MCPD monoesters were not found in any oil samples. MCPD diesters were found only in samples containing palm oil, and were not present in all palm oil samples. Glycidyl esters were found in a wide variety of oils. Some processing conditions that influence the concentration of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters are discussed.

  8. Production of microencapsulate glycidyl methacrylate with melamine formaldehyde resin shell materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bel, T.; Ulku, G.; Kizilcan, N.; Cimenoglu, H.; Yahya, N.; Baydogan, N.

    2016-11-01

    This study gives some information about the preparation of Glycidyl Methacrylate (GMA) microcapsules with Melamine Formaldehyde (MF) resin as a shell material (MF-GMA). Melamine formaldehyde resin containing hydroxyl groups was synthesized in the first step. Second step includes the addition of GMA monomer along with Sodium Dodecyl Benzenesulfonate (SDBS) and Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) aqueous solution for getting emulsible solution. The resultant MF-GMA microcapsules had good enclosing performance and thermal stability. The characteristic properties and the morphology of microencapsulated Glycidyl Methacrylate were examined by using FTIR analysis and their morphology was investigated by using optical microscope.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of carbon fibers functionalized with poly (glycidyl methacrylate) via atom transfer radical polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yongwei; Xiong, Lei; Qin, Xiaokang; Wang, Zhengyue; Ding, Bei; Ren, Huan; Pi, Xiaolong

    2015-07-01

    In this work, polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fibers (CF) were chemically modified with poly (glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) to improve the interaction between the CF and polymer matrix. The FT-IR, TGA, and XPS were used to determine the chemical structure of the resulting products and the quantities of PGMA chains grafted from the CF surface. The experimental results confirm that the CF surface was functionalized and glycidyl methacrylate was graft-polymerized onto the CF, and the grafting content of polymer could reach 10.2%.

  10. Poly(arylene ether)s containing pendent ethynyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Poly(arylene ether)s containing pendent ethynyl and substituted ethynyl groups and poly(arylene ether) copolymers containing pendent ethynyl and substituted ethynyl groups are readily prepared from bisphenols containing ethynyl and substituted ethynyl groups. The resulting polymers are cured up to 350.degree. C. to provide crosslinked poly(arylene ether)s with good solvent resistance, high strength and modulus.

  11. Approach for in vivo protein binding of 5-n-butyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine bioactivated in chimeric mice with humanized liver by two-dimensional electrophoresis with accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kuribayashi, Shunji; Inoue, Tae; Tateno, Chise; Nishikura, Yasufumi; Oofusa, Ken; Harada, Daisuke; Naito, Shinsaku; Horie, Toru; Ohta, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    Drug development of a potential analgesic agent 5-n-butyl-7-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoylamino)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine was withdrawn because of its limited hepatotoxic effects in humans that could not be predicted from regulatory animal or in vitro studies. In vivo formation of glutathione conjugates and covalent binding of a model compound 5-n-butyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine were investigated in the present study after intravenous administration to chimeric mice with a human or rat liver because of an interesting capability of human cytochrome P450 1A2 in forming a covalently bound metabolite in vitro. Rapid distribution and elimination of radiolabeled 5-n-butyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine in plasma or liver fractions were seen in chimeric mice after intravenous administration. However, similar covalent binding in liver was detected over 0.17-24 h after intravenous administration. Radio-LC analyses revealed that the chimeric mice with humanized liver preferentially gave the 3-hydroxylated metabolite and its glutathione conjugate in the plasma and liver. On the contrary, chimeric mice with a rat liver had some rat-specific metabolites in vivo. Analyses by electrophoresis with accelerator mass spectrometry of in vivo radiolabeled liver proteins in chimeric mice revealed that bioactivated 5-n-butyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine bound nonspecifically to a variety of microsomal proteins including human P450 1A2 as well as cytosolic proteins in the livers from chimeric mice with humanized liver. These results suggest that the hepatotoxic model compound 5-n-butyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine was activated by human liver microsomal P450 1A2 to reactive intermediate(s) in vivo in humanized chimeric mice and could relatively nonspecifically bind to biomolecules such as P450 1A2 and other proteins.

  12. Atmospheric chemistry of toxic contaminants 2. Saturated aliphatics: Acetaldehyde, dioxane, ethylene glycol ethers, propylene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D. )

    1990-11-01

    Detailed mechanisms are outlined for the chemical reactions that contribute to in-situ formation and atmospheric removal of the saturated aliphatic contaminants acetaldehyde, dioxane, ethylene glycol ethers (methyl, ethyl, n-butyl) and propylene oxide. In-situ formation is of major importance for acetaldehyde. In-situ removal involves reaction with OH (all compounds) and, for acetaldehyde, photolysis and reaction with NO{sub 3}. Acetaldehyde, dioxane, and the ethers are rapidly removed (half-lives of less than one day), leading to PAN (acetaldehyde) and to 2-oxodioxane and formaldehyde (dioxane). Reaction products of the glycol ethers include a large number of hydroxyesters, hydroxyacids, and hydroxycarbonyls. Propylene oxide reacts only slowly with OH, with an atmospheric half-life of 3 - 10 days, to yeild formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and PAN. Uncertainties in the reaction mechanisms for dioxane, the glycol ethers, and propylene oxide are discussed and include C-C vs C-O bond scission in alkoxy radicals as well as alkoxy radical unimolecular decomposition vs reaction with oxygen.

  13. A new non-tumescent endovenous ablation method for varicose vein treatment: Early results of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (VariClose®).

    PubMed

    Yasim, Alptekin; Eroglu, Erdinc; Bozoglan, Orhan; Mese, Bulent; Acipayam, Mehmet; Kara, Hakan

    2017-04-01

    Objective This report aims to present the early results of a retrospective study of the use of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (VariClose®)-based non-tumescent endovenous ablation for the treatment of patients with varicose veins. Method One hundred and eighty patients with varicose veins due to incompetent saphenous veins were treated with the VariClose® endovenous ablation method between May 2014 and November 2014. The patient sample consisted of 86 men and 94 women, with a mean age of 47.7 ± 11.7 years. The patients had a great saphenous vein diameter greater than 5.5 mm and a small saphenous vein diameter greater than 4 mm in conjunction with reflux for more than 0.5 s. Patients with varicose veins were evaluated with venous duplex examination, Clinical, Etiological, Anatomical and Pathophysiological classification (CEAP), and their Venous Clinical Severity Scores were recorded. Results The median CEAP score of patients was three, and the saphenous vein diameters were between 5.5 and 14 mm (mean of 7.7 ± 2.1 mm). A percutaneous entry was made under local anesthesia to the great saphenous vein in 169 patients and to the small saphenous vein in 11 patients. Duplex examination immediately after the procedure showed closure of the treated vein in 100% of the treated segment. No complications were observed. The mean follow-up time was 5.5 months (ranging from three to seven months). Recanalization was not observed in any of the patients during follow-up. The average Venous Clinical Severity Scores was 10.2 before the procedure and decreased to 3.9 after three months (p < 0.001). Conclusion The application of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (VariClose®) is an effective method for treating varicose veins; it yielded a high endovenous closure rate, with no need for tumescent anesthesia. However, long-term results are currently unknown.

  14. A colloidal suspension of nanostructured poly(N-butyl benzimidazole)-graphene sheets with high oxidase yield for analytical glucose and choline detections.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Tsai, Rung-Ywan; Chen, Yen-Hsuan; Lee, Ren-Shen; Hua, Mu-Yi

    2013-08-20

    A colloidal suspension of nanostructured poly(N-butyl benzimidazole)-graphene sheets (PBBIns-Gs) was used to modify a gold electrode to form a three-dimensional PBBIns-Gs/Au electrode that was sensitive to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the presence of acetic acid (AcOH). The positively charged nanostructured poly(N-butyl benzimidazole) (PBBIns) separated the graphene sheets (Gs) and kept them suspended in an aqueous solution. Additionally, graphene sheets (Gs) formed "diaphragms" that intercalated Gs, which separated PBBIns to prevent tight packing and enhanced the surface area. The PBBIns-Gs/Au electrode exhibited superior sensitivity toward H2O2 relative to the PBBIns-modified Au (PBBIns/Au) electrode. Furthermore, a high yield of glucose oxidase (GOD) on the PBBIns-Gs of 52.3mg GOD per 1mg PBBIns-Gs was obtained from the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged PBBIns-Gs and negatively charged GOD. The non-destructive immobilization of GOD on the surface of the PBBIns-Gs (GOD-PBBIns-Gs) retained 91.5% and 39.2% of bioactivity, respectively, relative to free GOD for the colloidal suspension of the GOD-PBBIns-Gs and its modified Au (GOD-PBBIns-Gs/Au) electrode. Based on advantages including a negative working potential, high sensitivity toward H2O2, and non-destructive immobilization, the proposed glucose biosensor based on an GOD-PBBIns-Gs/Au electrode exhibited a fast response time (5.6s), broad detection range (10μM to 10mM), high sensitivity (143.5μAmM(-1)cm(-2)) and selectivity, and excellent stability. Finally, a choline biosensor was developed by dipping a PBBIns-Gs/Au electrode into a choline oxidase (ChOx) solution for enzyme loading. The choline biosensor had a linear range of 0.1μM to 0.83mM, sensitivity of 494.9μAmM(-1)cm(-2), and detection limit of 0.02μM. The results of glucose and choline measurement indicate that the PBBIns-Gs/Au electrode provides a useful platform for the development of oxidase-based biosensors. Copyright

  15. Synthesis and complexation properties of DTPA-N,N''-bis[bis(n-butyl)]-N'-methyl-tris(amide). Kinetic stability and water exchange of its Gd3+ complex.

    PubMed

    Jaszberényi, Z; Tóth, E; Kálai, T; Király, R; Burai, L; Brücher, E; Merbach, A E; Hideg, K

    2005-02-21

    A novel DTPA-tris(amide) derivative ligand, DTPA-N,N''-bis[bis(n-butyl)]-N'-methyl-tris(amide)(H2L3) was synthesized. With Gd3+, it forms a positively charged [Gd(L3)]+ complex, whereas with Cu2+ and Zn2+ [ML3], [MHL3]+ and [M2L3]2+ species are formed. The protonation constants of H2L3 and the stability constants of the complexes were determined by pH potentiometry. The stability constants are lower than those for DTPA-N,N''-bis[bis(n-butyl)amide)](H3L2), due to the lower negative charge and reduced basicity of the amine nitrogens in (L3)2-. The kinetic stability of [Gd(L3)]+ was characterised by the rates of metal exchange reactions with Eu3+, Cu2+ and Zn2+. The exchange reactions, which occur via proton and metal ion assisted dissociation of [Gd(L3)]+, are significantly slower than for [Gd(DTPA)]2-, since the amide groups cannot be protonated and interact only weakly with the attacking metal ions. The relaxivities of [Gd(L2)] and [Gd(L3)]+ are constant between 10-20 degrees C, indicating a relatively slow water exchange. Above 25 degrees C, the relaxivities decrease, similarly to other Gd3+ DTPA-bis(amide) complexes. The pH dependence of the relaxivities for [Gd(L3)]+ shows a minimum at pH approximately 9, thus differs from the behaviour of Gd3+-DTPA-bis(amides) which have constant relaxivities at pH 3-8 and an increase below and above. The water exchange rates for [Gd(L2)(H2O)] and [Gd(L3)(H2O)]+, determined from a variable temperature (17)O NMR study, are lower than that for [Gd(DTPA)(H2O)]2-. This is a consequence of the lower negative charge and decreased steric crowding at the water binding site in amides as compared to carboxylate analogues. Substitution of the third acetate of DTPA5- with an amide, however, results in a less pronounced decrease in kex than substitution of the first two acetates. The activation volumes derived from a variable pressure (17)O NMR study prove a dissociative interchange and a limiting dissociative mechanism for [Gd(L2)(H2O

  16. Gamma radiation-induced grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto water hyacinth fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrid, Jordan F.; Nuesca, Guillermo M.; Abad, Lucille V.

    2013-04-01

    Water hyacinth fibers (Eichhornia crassipes) were functionalized using radiation-induced graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate by γ-rays from 60Co source. The simultaneous grafting technique was employed wherein the water hyacinth fibers were irradiated in nitrogen atmosphere in the presence of glycidyl methacrylate dissolved in water/methanol solvent. The effects of different grafting parameters to the grafting yield were evaluated. The optimal values of solvent, absorbed dose, dose rate, and concentration of monomer were found to be 1:3 (volume/volume) water-methanol solvent, 10 kGy, 8 kGy h-1 dose rate and 5% volume/volume glycidyl methacrylate, respectively. Using the optimum conditions, degree of grafting of approximately 58% was achieved. The grafted water hyacinth fibers were characterized using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX). The results of these tests confirmed the successful grafting of glycidyl methacrylate onto water hyacinth fibers.

  17. N-n-butyl haloperidol iodide ameliorates hypoxia/reoxygenation injury through modulating the LKB1/AMPK/ROS pathway in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Binger; Wang, Bin; Zhong, Shuping; Zhang, Yanmei; Gao, Fenfei; Chen, Yicun; Zheng, Fuchun; Shi, Ganggang

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cells are highly sensitive to hypoxia and contribute to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. We have reported that N-n-butyl haloperidol iodide (F2) can attenuate hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs). However, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Neonatal rat CMECs were isolated and subjected to H/R. Pretreatment of F2 leads to a reduction in H/R injury, as evidenced by increased cell viability, decreased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and apoptosis, together with enhanced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and liver kinase B1 (LKB1) phosphorylation in H/R ECs. Blockade of AMPK with compound C reversed F2-induced inhibition of H/R injury, as evidenced by decreased cell viability, increased LDH release and apoptosis. Moreover, compound C also blocked the ability of F2 to reduce H/R-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Supplementation with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) reduced ROS levels, increased cell survival rate, and decreased both LDH release and apoptosis after H/R. In conclusion, our data indicate that F2 may mitigate H/R injury by stimulating LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway and subsequent suppression of ROS production in CMECs. PMID:27166184

  18. Physiological differences in response to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) exposure between low- and high-DBP accumulating cultivars of Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-Ming; Du, Huan; Xiang, Lei; Li, Yan-Wen; Li, Hui; Cai, Quan-Ying; Mo, Ce-Hui; Cao, Gang; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-01-01

    To increase understanding on the mechanisms of cultivar difference in contaminant accumulation in crops, this study was designed to compare the physiological responses to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) exposure between low (Lvbao70) and high (Huaguan) DBP cultivars of Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.). Under high DBP exposure, significant differences in various physiological responses were observed between the two cultivars, which might account for the variation in DBP accumulation. Ultrastructure observation also showed different alterations or damages in the mesophyll cell structures between both cultivars, especially for the chloroplast disintegration, starch grain quantity, and plastoglobuli accumulation. Compared with Huaguan, Lvbao70 suffered greater decreases in biomass, chlorophyll content, carbon assimilation, gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic electron transport capacity, and antioxidase activities, which would have resulted in a great reduction of photosynthetic capacity. Although Lvbao70 enhanced energy dissipation and activities of some antioxidant enzymes, they did not provide sufficient protection against oxidative damage caused by DBP. The result suggested that the lower DBP tolerance of Lvbao70 might be associated with its poor physiological performances, which was responsible for its lower DBP accumulation to protect itself from toxicity. Additionally, Lvbao70 had a significantly lower transpiration rate and stomatal conductance than Huaguan, which might be the factors regulating DBP-accumulation variation.

  19. Comparative Molecular Dynamics Study on Tri-n-butyl Phosphate in Organic and Aqueous Environments and Its Relevance to Nuclear Extraction Processes.

    PubMed

    Mu, Junju; Motokawa, Ryuhei; Williams, Christopher D; Akutsu, Kazuhiro; Nishitsuji, Shotaro; Masters, Andrew J

    2016-06-16

    A refined model for tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), which uses a new set of partial charges generated from our ab initio density functional theory calculations, has been proposed in this study. Molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to determine the thermodynamic properties, transport properties, and the microscopic structures of liquid TBP, TBP/water mixtures, and TBP/n-alkane mixtures. These results are compared with those obtained from four other TBP models, previously described in the literature. We conclude that our refined TBP model appears to be the only TBP model from this set that, with reasonable accuracy, can simultaneously predict the properties of TBP in bulk TBP, in organic diluents, and in aqueous solution. The other models only work well for two of the three systems mentioned above. This new TBP model is thus appropriate for the simulation of liquid-liquid extraction systems in the nuclear extraction process, where one needs to simultaneously model TBP in both aqueous and organic phases. It is also promising for the investigation of the microscopic structure of the organic phase in these processes and for the characterization of third-phase formation, where TBP again interacts simultaneously with both polar and nonpolar molecules. Because the proposed TBP model uses OPLS-2005 Lennard-Jones parameters, it may be used with confidence to model mixtures of TBP with other species whose parameters are given by the OPLS-2005 force field.

  20. Thermodynamic and kinetic verification of tetra-n-butyl ammonium nitrate (TBANO3) as a promoter for the clathrate process applicable to precombustion carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Babu, Ponnivalavan; Yao, Minghuang; Datta, Stuti; Kumar, Rajnish; Linga, Praveen

    2014-03-18

    In this study, tetra-n-butyl ammonium nitrate (TBANO3) is evaluated as a promoter for precombustion capture of CO2 via hydrate formation. New hydrate phase equilibrium data for fuel gas (CO2/H2) mixture in presence of TBANO3 of various concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 3.7 mol % was determined and presented. Heat of hydrate dissociation was calculated using Clausius-Clapeyron equation and as the concentration of TBANO3 increases, the heat of hydrate dissociation also increases. Kinetic performance of TBANO3 as a promoter at different concentrations was evaluated at 6.0 MPa and 274.2 K. Based on induction time, gas uptake, separation factor, hydrate phase CO2 composition, and rate of hydrate growth, 1.0 mol % TBANO3 solution was found to be the optimum concentration at the experimental conditions of 6.0 MPa and 274.2 K for gas hydrate formation. A 93.0 mol % CO2 rich stream can be produced with a gas uptake of 0.0132 mol of gas/mol of water after one stage of hydrate formation in the presence of 1.0 mol % TBANO3 solution. Solubility measurements and microscopic images of kinetic measurements provide further insights to understand the reason for 1.0 mol % TBANO3 to be the optimum concentration.

  1. Formation and Collapse of Single-Monomer-Thick Monolayers of Poly(n-Butyl Acrylate) at the Air-Water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, You-Yeon; Witte, Kevin; Sun, Wei; Kewalramani, Sumit; Fukuto, Masafumi; Kuzmenko, Ivan

    2010-03-01

    The behavior of poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PnBA) spread at the air-water interface has been studied for a full range of surface coverages. Beginning in the concentrated regime, and through the full coverage regime, x-ray reflectivity measurements show the formation of a continuous water-free one-monomer-thick film of the polymer. At surface concentrations above the transition point to the full coverage regime, Brewster angle microscopy shows that the excess polymer material does not distribute uniformly in the polymer film layer but instead leads to formation of micrometer-scale isolated globular domains. Further, the number of such domains increases as the surface polymer concentration is increased, whereas the size of the domains is unaffected by the concentration variation. X-ray grazing incidence diffraction indicates that these domains are regions of bulk-like polymer. We speculate that the globular domains are formed as a result of the interplay between the tendency of PnBA to adsorb to the water surface and the entropic resistance to this adsorption. A simple theoretical model based on this picture is shown to capture the main features of the experimental data.

  2. Assessing differences in toxicity and teratogenicity of three phthalates, Diethyl phthalate, Di-n-propyl phthalate, and Di-n-butyl phthalate, using Xenopus laevis embryos.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Steven T; Wood, Andrew T; Lester, Rachel; Onkst, Paitra E; Burnham, Nathaniel; Perygin, Donna H; Rayburn, James

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates, compounds used to add flexibility to plastics, are ubiquitous in the environment. In particular, the diethyl (DEP), di-n-propyl (DnPP), and di-n-butyl (DBP) phthalates were found to exert detrimental effects in both mammalian and non-mammalian studies, with toxic effects varying according to alkyl chain length. Embryos of Xenopus laevis, the African clawed frog, have been used to assess toxicity and teratogenicity of several compounds and serves as a model for assessing adverse and teratogenic effects of ortho-phthalate esters. The purpose of this study was to develop a model for comparison of developmentally toxic effects of ortho-phthalate esters using Xenopus embryos. In this study developing Xenopus laevis embryos were exposed to increasing concentrations of DEP, DnPP, and DBP using the 96-h Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX), with 96-h lethal concentrations, effective concentrations to induce malformations, teratogenic indices, and concentrations to inhibit growth determined. DEP, DnPP, and DBP showed enhanced toxicity with increasing ester length. Developing Xenopus laevis exposed to DEP, DnPP, and DBP showed similar malformations that also occurred at lower concentrations with increasing alkyl chain length. Teratogenic risk did not change markedly with alkyl chain length, with data showing only DBP to be teratogenic.

  3. Insights into the mechanism of extraction of uranium (VI) from nitric acid solution into an ionic liquid by using tri-n-butyl phosphate.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Dr Clotilde; Boltoeva, Maria; Billard, Isabelle; Georg, Sylvia; Mazan, Valérie; Ouadi, Ali; Ternova, Dariia; Hennig, Christoph

    2015-08-24

    We present new results on the liquid-liquid extraction of uranium (VI) from a nitric acid aqueous phase into a tri-n-butyl phosphate/1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (TBP/[C4 mim][Tf2 N]) phase. The individual solubilities of the ionic-liquid ions in the upper part of the biphasic system are measured over the whole acidic range and as a function of the TBP concentration. New insights into the extraction mechanism are obtained through the in situ characterization of the extracted uranyl complexes by coupling UV/Vis and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. We propose a chemical model to explain uranium (VI) extraction that describes the data through a fit of the uranyl distribution ratio DU . In this model, at low acid concentrations uranium (VI) is extracted as the cationic complex [UO2 (TBP)2 ](2+) , by an exchange with one proton and one C4 mim(+) . At high acid concentrations, the extraction proceeds through a cationic exchange between [UO2 (NO3 )(HNO3 )(TBP)2 ](+) and one C4 mim(+) . As a consequence of this mechanism, the variation of DU as a function of TBP concentration depends on the C4 mim(+) concentration in the aqueous phase. This explains why noninteger values are often derived by analysis of DU versus [TBP] plots to determine the number of TBP molecules involved in the extraction of uranyl in an ionic-liquid phase.

  4. Microscopic structures of tri-n-butyl phosphate/n-octane mixtures by X-ray and neutron scattering in a wide q range.

    PubMed

    Motokawa, Ryuhei; Suzuki, Shinichi; Ogawa, Hiroki; Antonio, Mark R; Yaita, Tsuyoshi

    2012-02-02

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) is an important extractant for separating hexavalent uranium and tetravalent plutonium from used nuclear fuel by solvent extraction. In such solvent extractions using TBP, the organic phase occasionally separates into two organic phases, namely, light and heavy organic phases. The latter one in particular is called the third phase. The purpose of this work is to elucidate the mechanism whereby the third phase forms in biphasic liquid-liquid solvent extraction of heavy metal ions. Toward this end, small- and wide-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SWAXS and SWANS) experiments were conducted to examine the microscopic structures of TBP/octane mixtures. These investigations of solute associations in TBP-containing organic phases before extraction of heavy metal ions provide insights into system performance. After the extraction of heavy metal ions, for example, the microscopic structures formed in the organic phase are likely to be correlated with the initial microscopic structures, which are revealed here. SWAXS and SWANS, with accurate estimations of incoherent scattering intensities for all solution samples, revealed the following: (i) TBP self-associates in octane, and the average distance between two TBP molecules in the TBP assemblies is evaluated as 0.9-1.0 nm; (ii) the shape of the TBP assembly is ellipsoidal; and (iii) the attractive interaction among TBP assemblies in octane is miniscule, and thus, they tend to be dispersed homogeneously due to the excluded volume effect.

  5. Photolysis of n-butyl nitrite and isoamyl nitrite at 355 nm: A time-resolved Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy and ab initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Min; Zhen Junfeng; Zhang Qun; Chen Yang

    2009-05-07

    We report on the photodissociation dynamics study of n-butyl nitrite and isoamyl nitrite by means of time-resolved Fourier transform infrared (TR-FTIR) emission spectroscopy. The obtained TR-FTIR emission spectra of the nascent NO fragments produced in the 355 nm laser photolysis of the two alkyl nitrite species showed an almost identical rotational temperature and vibrational distributions of NO. In addition, a close resemblance between the two species was also found in the measured temporal profiles of the IR emission of NO and the recorded UV absorption spectra. The experimental results are consistent with our ab initio calculations using the time-dependent density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level, which indicate that the substitution of one of the two {gamma}-H atoms in n-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}ONO with a methyl group to form (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}C{sub 3}H{sub 5}ONO has only a minor effect on the photodissociation dynamics of the two molecules.

  6. Exposure in utero to di(n-butyl) phthalate alters the vimentin cytoskeleton of fetal rat Sertoli cells and disrupts Sertoli cell-gonocyte contact.

    PubMed

    Kleymenova, Elena; Swanson, Cynthia; Boekelheide, Kim; Gaido, Kevin W

    2005-09-01

    Di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) is commonly used in personal care products and as a plasticizer to soften consumer plastic products. Male rats exposed to DBP in utero have malformations of the male reproductive tract and testicular atrophy characterized by degeneration of seminiferous epithelium and decreased sperm production. In the fetal testis, in utero exposure to DBP reportedly resulted in reduced testosterone levels, Leydig cell aggregates, and multinucleated gonocytes (MNG). We investigated whether exposure in utero to DBP affects rat fetal Sertoli cells and compromises interactions between Sertoli and germ cells in the developing testis. Histological examination showed that MNG occurred at low frequency in the normal fetal rat testis. Exposure in utero at the dose level of DBP above estimated environmental or occupational human exposure levels significantly increased the number of these abnormal germ cells. Postnatally, MNG exhibited aberrant mitoses and were detected at the basal lamina. MNG were not apoptotic in the fetal and postnatal rat testes, as indicated by TUNEL. Sertoli cells in DBP-exposed fetal testis had retracted apical processes, altered organization of the vimentin cytoskeleton, and abnormal cell-cell contacts with gonocytes. The effect of DBP on Sertoli cell morphology at the level of light microscopy was reversed after birth and cessation of exposure. Our data indicate that fetal Sertoli cells are targeted by exposure in utero to DBP and suggest that abnormal interactions between Sertoli and germ cells during fetal life play a role in the development of MNG.

  7. Effect of hyoscine-N-butyl bromide rectal suppository on labor progress in primigravid women: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Makvandi, Somayeh; Tadayon, Mitra; Abbaspour, Mohammadreza

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine the effects of hyoscine-N-butyl bromide (HBB) rectal suppository on labor progress in primigravid women. Methods A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out on 130 primigravid women admitted for spontaneous labor. The women were recruited based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria and randomized into the experimental (n = 65) and control group (n = 65). In the beginning of the active phase of labor, 20 mg of HBB rectal suppository was administered to the experimental group, while a placebo suppository was administered to the control group. Cervical dilatation and duration of active phase and second stage of labor were recorded. Results The rate of cervical dilatation was 2.6 cm/h in the experimental and 1.5 cm/h in the control group (P < 0.001). The active phase and the second stage of labor were significantly shorter in the experimental group (P = 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the fetal heart rate, maternal pulse rate, blood pressure, and the APGAR score 1 and 5 minutes after birth. Conclusion Use of HBB rectal suppository in the active management of labor can shorten both the active phase and second stage of labor without significant side-effects. Registration No IRCT138804282204N1. PMID:21495198

  8. Site-specific mutagenesis induced by single O6-alkylguanines (O6-n-propyl, O6-n-butyl, O6-n-octyl) in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Baumgart, P M; Kliem, H C; Gottfried-Anacker, J; Wiessler, M; Schmeiser, H H

    1993-01-01

    The mutagenic activity of a series of longer chain O6-n-alkylguanine residues (O6-n-propyl, O6-n-butyl, O6-n-octyl) has been analyzed using a plasmid molecule (pUC 9) in which single O6-alkylguanines were positioned in the unique Pstl recognition site by shot gun ligation (Nucleic Acids Res. 13, 3305-3316 (1985)) of overlapping synthetic oligonucleotides. After transfection of these vectors into E. coli cells having normal DNA repair systems, progeny plasmids were produced, of which 2.6%, 2.8% and 4.3% were mutated in their Pstl site when containing O6-n-propylguanine, O6-n-butylguanine, O6-n-octylguanine, respectively. DNA sequence analysis of mutant plasmid genomes revealed that O6-n-propylguanine and O6-n-butylguanine induced exclusively G-->A transitions located specifically at the preselected site. O6-n-octylguanine induced apart from G-->A transitions (70%) also targeted G-->T transversions (30%). These results indicate that the mutation frequency of longer chain O6-alkylguanines can be substantial in cells with normal repair systems and that the mutation pattern depends on the nature of the alkyl group. Images PMID:8367292

  9. Anti-tumor effect of cimetidine via inhibiting angiogenesis factors in N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine-induced mouse and rat bladder carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Yoshitomo; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Miyake, Makito; Hiasa, Yoshio; Hirao, Yoshihiko

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the anti-tumor effect and mechanisms of cimetidine in N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN)-induced bladder carcinogenesis model. Sixty-three male BALB/c mice and 67 male Wister rats were treated with BBN and cimetidine to examine the anti-tumor effect of cimetidine. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived endothelial growth factor (PDECGF), and E-selectin were examined to compare their expression in the tumor tissues. In mice, the tumor growth was reduced by cimetidine (p=0.011). The expression of PDECGF was reduced in the cimetidine-treated group (p=0.016). In rats, treatment of cimetidine reduced tumor growth (p=0.0001). Moreover, the expression of VEGF and PDECGF was reduced (p=0.02 and <0.001, respectively). The expression of E-selectin did not correlate with the tumor growth in either mice or rats. In mice, long-term cimetidine treatment proved very effective for inhibiting the tumor growth, but in rats, BBN after treatment with cimetidine showed the least tumor growth-inhibitory effect. In conclusion, cimetidine may have an inhibitory effect on tumor growth in bladder carcinogenesis via reducing the expression of angiogenesis factors including VEGF and PDECGF.

  10. Antidepressant-like effect of novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist N-n-butyl-3-ethoxyquinoxalin-2-carboxamide (6p): an approach using rodent behavioral antidepressant tests.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Shvetank; Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Devadoss, Thangaraj; Jindal, Ankur Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antidepressant potential of N-n-butyl-3-ethoxyquinoxalin-2-carboxamide (6p), a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist in rodent behavioral models of depression. The compound 6p was examined in various behavioral models like forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), mechanistic models [5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced head twitch and reserpine-induced hypothermia (RIH)], and in chronic surgery model-olfactory bulbectomy in rats. Compound 6p (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg, i.p.) exhibited antidepressant-like effect in FST and TST after acute treatment without having an effect on baseline locomotor activity. Moreover, 6p (2 mg/kg, i.p.), potentiated the 5-HTP-induced head twitch responses in mice and inhibited the RIH in rats. Chronic treatment (14 days) with 6p (1 and 2 mg/kg, p.o.) and paroxetine (10 mg/kg, p.o.) in rats significantly reversed the behavioral anomalies induced by bilateral olfactory bulbectomy using open field exploration. The preliminary studies reveal that compound 6p exhibits antidepressant-like effect in behavioral rodent models of depression.

  11. A study on the in vitro percutaneous absorption of silver nanoparticles in combination with aluminum chloride, methyl paraben or di-n-butyl phthalate.

    PubMed

    Domeradzka-Gajda, Katarzyna; Nocuń, Marek; Roszak, Joanna; Janasik, Beata; Quarles, C Derrick; Wąsowicz, Wojciech; Grobelny, Jarosław; Tomaszewska, Emilia; Celichowski, Grzegorz; Ranoszek-Soliwoda, Katarzyna; Cieślak, Małgorzata; Puchowicz, Dorota; Gonzalez, Jhanis J; Russo, Richard E; Stępnik, Maciej

    2017-04-15

    Some reports indicate that the silver released from dermally applied products containing silver nanoparticles (AgNP) (e.g. wound dressings or cosmetics) can penetrate the skin, particularly if damaged. AgNP were also shown to have cytotoxic and genotoxic activity. In the present study percutaneous absorption of AgNP of two different nominal sizes (Ag15nm or Ag45nm by STEM) and surface modification, i.e. citrate or PEG stabilized nanoparticles, in combination with cosmetic ingredients, i.e. aluminum chloride (AlCl3), methyl paraben (MPB), or di-n-butyl phthalate (DBPH) was assessed using in vitro model based on dermatomed pig skin. The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements after 24h in receptor fluid indicated low, but detectable silver absorption and no statistically significant differences in the penetration between the 4 types of AgNP studied at 47, 470 or 750μg/ml. Similarly, no significant differences were observed for silver penetration when the AgNP were used in combinations with AlCl3 (500μM), MPB (1250μM) or DBPH (35μM). The measured highest amount of Ag that penetrated was 0.45ng/cm(2) (0.365-0.974ng/cm(2)) for PEG stabilized Ag15nm+MPB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Isolation and identification in bovine cerebral cortex of n-butyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate, a potent benzodiazepine binding inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Peña, C; Medina, J H; Novas, M L; Paladini, A C; De Robertis, E

    1986-01-01

    A substance having benzodiazepine-binding inhibitory activity has been extracted from 18 kg of gray matter of bovine cerebral cortex and purified to homogeneity. This substance inhibits competitively [3H]flunitrazepam and ethyl beta-[3H]carboline-3-carboxylate binding with high affinity (Ki, 3 nM), but it is inactive upon 3H-labeled Ro 5-4864, [3H]quinuclidinyl benzylate, [3H]prazosin, [3H]clonidine, [3H]dihydroalprenolol, and upon high-affinity [3H]muscimol binding. This inhibitor has been identified as n-butyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCB) by fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy (Mr, 268) and electron bombardment fragmentography, ultraviolet and fluorescence spectra, coelution in HPLC with standard beta-CCB, and by the exact correspondence in Ki with beta-CCB on the displacement of [3H]flunitrazepam binding. The possible artificial formation of beta-CCB has been discarded by a series of control experiments including addition of tryptophan to the starting homogenate, extraction from liver, isolation and purification by an alternative procedure avoiding organic solvents, and by the impossibility of making beta-CCB from beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid or its methyl ester in the conditions of our extraction and purification procedures. PMID:3014522

  13. Histopathological alterations in the prostates of Mongolian gerbils exposed to a high-fat diet and di-n-butyl phthalate individually or in combination.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Mariana Marcielo; Negrin, Ana Carolina; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Pinto-Fochi, Maria Etelvina; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2015-04-01

    Both high-fat diet and exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals have been implicated in susceptibility to pathological prostate lesions, but the consequences of combining the two have not yet been examined. We evaluated the effects of gestational and postnatal exposure to a high-fat diet (20% fat) and low doses of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP; 5mg/kg/day), individually or in combination, on the tissue response and incidence of pathological lesions in the ventral prostate of adult gerbils. Continuous intake of a high-fat diet caused dyslipidemia, hypertrophy, and promoted the development of inflammatory, premalignant and malignant prostate lesions, even in the absence of obesity. Life-time DBP exposure was obesogenic and dyslipidemic and increased the incidence of premalignant prostate lesions. Combined exposure to DBP and a high-fat diet also caused prostate hypertrophy, but the effects were less severe than those of individual treatments; combined exposure neither induced an inflammatory response nor altered serum lipid content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Altered expression of UPIa, UPIb, UPII, and UPIIIa during urothelial carcinogenesis induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Zupančič, Daša; Ovčak, Zdenka; Vidmar, Gaj; Romih, Rok

    2011-05-01

    In normal urothelium, superficial umbrella cells express four major integral membrane proteins, uroplakins UPIa, UPIb, UPII, and UPIIIa, which compose urothelial plaques. In the apical plasma membrane, urothelial plaques form microridges. During neoplastic changes, microridges are replaced by microvilli, while uroplakin expression is retained. We correlated individual uroplakin expression with apical plasma membrane structure, cytokeratin 20 expression, and urothelial cell proliferation (Ki-67). Male Wistar rats were treated with 0.05% N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) in drinking water, which caused flat hyperplasia with mild dysplasia, low-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma, invasive low- and high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma and invasive squamous cell carcinoma with extensive keratinization, grade 2. During urothelial carcinogenesis, UPII expression was the most decreased in all urothelial lesions, while UPIa, UPIb, and UPIIIa expression was differently altered in different types of lesions. Superficial cells were covered with microvilli and ropy ridges, while microridges were disappearing. The expression of cytokeratin 20 was decreased and limited to superficial urothelial cells. Proliferation indices were increased, except for invasive squamous cell carcinoma with extensive keratinization. Our results indicate that during urothelial carcinogenesis the expression of UPII is diminished, suggesting that UPIb/UPIIIa heterodimer can still be formed, while heterodimer UPIa/UPII formation is disrupted. Correlation between decreased level of UPII expression and changed apical plasma membrane structure suggests that diminished expression of UPII hinders the urothelial plaque formation.

  15. Rescue N-butyl-2 cyanoacrylate embolectomy using a Solitaire FR device after venous glue migration during arteriovenous malformation embolization: technical note.

    PubMed

    Fahed, Robert; Clarençon, Frédéric; Sourour, Nader-Antoine; Chauvet, Dorian; Le Jean, Lise; Chiras, Jacques; Di Maria, Federico

    2016-07-01

    One of the procedural risks in arteriovenous malformation (AVM) embolization is possible migration of the embolic agent into the venous drainage with an incomplete nidus occlusion, which may lead to severe hemorrhagic complications. This report presents the case of a 29-year-old man who presented with a deep intraparenchymal hematoma on the left side secondary to the spontaneous rupture of a claustral AVM. Upon resorption of the hematoma, the patient underwent an initial therapeutic session of N-butyl-2 cyanoacrylate endovascular embolization, with the purpose of reducing the AVM volume and flow before performing Gamma Knife radiosurgery. After glue injection into one of the arterial feeders, the control angiography showed a partial migration of the glue cast into the straight sinus, with most of the nidus still visible. Because of the bleeding risk due to possible venous hypertension, it was decided to try to retrieve the glue from the vein by using a stent retriever via jugular access. This maneuver allowed a nearly complete removal of the glue cast, thereby restoring normal venous flow drainage. The patient showed no clinical worsening after the procedure. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of the use of the Solitaire FR device as a rescue glue retriever. This method should be considered by physicians in cases of unintended glue migration into the venous circulation during AVM embolization.

  16. Radiation induced graft copolymerization of n-butyl acrylate onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films and thermal properties of the obtained graft copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Xiang; Wang, Mozhen; Ge, Xuewu

    2011-05-01

    n-Butyl acrylate (BA) was successfully grafted onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film using simultaneous radiation induced graft copolymerization with gamma rays. When BA concentration ranges from 20% to 30%, the Degree of Grafting (DG), measured by gravimetry and 1H NMR, increases with the monomer concentration and absorbed dose, but decreases with dose rate from 0.83 to 2.53 kGy/h. The maximum DG can reach up to 22.1%. The thermal transition temperatures such as glass-transition temperature ( Tg) and cold-crystallization temperature ( Tcc) of PET in grafted films were little different from those in original PET film, indicating that microphase separation occurred between PBA side chains and PET backbone. This work implied that if PET/elastomers (e.g., acrylate rubber) blends are radiated by high energy gamma rays under a certain condition, PET-g-polyacrylate copolymer may be produced in-situ, which will improve the compatibility between PET and the elastomers so as to improve the integral mechanical properties of PET based engineering plastic.

  17. Portal vein embolization with n-butyl-cyanoacrylate through an ipsilateral approach before major hepatectomy: single center analysis of 50 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Luz, José Hugo Mendes; Luz, Paula Mendes; Bilhim, Tiago; Martin, Henrique Salas; Gouveia, Hugo Rodrigues; Coimbra, Élia; Gomes, Filipe Veloso; Souza, Roberto Romulo; Faria, Igor Murad; de Miranda, Tiago Nepomuceno

    2017-09-20

    To evaluate the efficacy of portal vein embolization (PVE) with n-Butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) through an ipsilateral approach before major hepatectomy. Secondary end-points were PVE safety, liver resection and patient outcome. Over a 5-year period 50 non-cirrhotic consecutive patients were included with primary or secondary liver cancer treatable by hepatectomy with a liver remnant (FLR) volume less than 25% or less than 40% in diseased livers. There were 37 men and 13 women with a mean age of 57 years. Colorectal liver metastases were the most frequent tumor and patients were previously exposed to chemotherapy. FLR increased from 422 ml to 629 ml (P < 0.001) after PVE, corresponding to anincrease of 52%. The FLR ratio increased from 29.6% to 42.3% (P < 0.001). Kinetic growth rate was 2.98%/week. A negative association was observed between increase in the FLR and FLR ratio and FLR volume before PVE (P = 0.002). In 31 patients hepatectomy was accomplished and only one patient presented with liver insufficiency within 30 days after surgery. PVE with NBCA through an ipsilateral puncture is effective before major hepatectomy. Meticulous attention is needed especially near the end of the embolization procedure to avoid complications. Clinical Study ISRCTN registration number: ISRCTN39855523 . Registered March 13th 2017.

  18. Male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to in utero di(n-butyl) phthalate: dose dependent and age-related morphological changes in Leydig cell smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Masaru; Wakui, Shin; Wempe, Michael F; Mutou, Tomoko; Oyama, Noriko; Motohashi, Masaya; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kansaku, Norio; Asari, Masao; Hano, Hiroshi; Endou, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    When 100 mg/kg/day of di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) was intragastrically administered to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats throughout gestation days 12 to 21, the male pups had similar body weights with no apparent physical differences (e.g., litter size, sex ratio) compared to that of the vehicle group. However, prominent age-related morphological alterations in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER) of testicular Leydig cells (LCs) were observed once these animals reached puberty. At weeks 5 to 7, the abundant sER with non-dilated cisternae was distributed in LCs. Subsequently, although the number of LCs significantly increased, the amount of sER was significantly decreased at 9 to 14 weeks of age and had disappeared at 17 weeks. In contrast, the number of LCs and the amount of sER in LCs of the lower dose groups (10, 30, and 50 mg/kg/day) were similar to those of the vehicle group. Further, serum testosterone levels in the 100 mg/kg dose group were significantly lower during 5 to 17 weeks of age. While their luteinizing hormone (LH) level was significantly lower at 5 to 7 weeks of age, it became significantly higher during 9 to 17 weeks. The amount of sER in LCs decreased with age with the increase in LCs proliferation and serum LH levels in rat exposed in utero to DBP in a dose-dependent manner.

  19. Copolymer Networks From Oligo(ε-caprolactone) and n-Butyl Acrylate Enable a Reversible Bidirectional Shape-Memory Effect at Human Body Temperature.

    PubMed

    Saatchi, Mersa; Behl, Marc; Nöchel, Ulrich; Lendlein, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Exploiting the tremendous potential of the recently discovered reversible bidirectional shape-memory effect (rbSME) for biomedical applications requires switching temperatures in the physiological range. The recent strategy is based on the reduction of the melting temperature range (ΔT m ) of the actuating oligo(ε-caprolactone) (OCL) domains in copolymer networks from OCL and n-butyl acrylate (BA), where the reversible effect can be adjusted to the human body temperature. In addition, it is investigated whether an rbSME in the temperature range close or even above Tm,offset (end of the melting transition) can be obtained. Two series of networks having mixtures of OCLs reveal broad ΔTm s from 2 °C to 50 °C and from -10 °C to 37 °C, respectively. In cyclic, thermomechanical experiments the rbSME can be tailored to display pronounced actuation in a temperature interval between 20 °C and 37 °C. In this way, the application spectrum of the rbSME can be extended to biomedical applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Evaluation of Superselective Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate in Treating Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Retrospective Study on Seven Cases

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuan; Li, Gang; Yu, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Background. To investigate the safety and efficacy of superselective transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) in treating lower gastrointestinal bleeding caused by angiodysplasia. Methods. A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the clinical data of the patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding caused by angiodysplasia. The patients were treated with superselective TAE with NBCA between September 2013 and March 2015. Angiography was performed after the embolization. The clinical signs including melena, anemia, and blood transfusion treatment were evaluated. The complications including abdominal pain and intestinal ischemia necrosis were recorded. The patients were followed up to evaluate the efficacy in the long run. Results. Seven cases (2 males, 5 females; age of 69.55 ± 2.25) were evaluated in the study. The embolization was successfully performed in all cases. About 0.2–0.8 mL (mean 0.48 ± 0.19 mL) NCBA was used. Immediate angiography after the embolization operation showed that the abnormal symptoms disappeared. The patients were followed up for a range of 2–19 months and six patients did not reoccur. No serious complications, such as femoral artery puncture point anomaly, vascular injury, and intestinal necrosis perforation were observed. Conclusion. For the patients with refractory and repeated lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to angiodysplasia, superselective TAE with NBCA seem to be a safe and effective alternative therapy when endoscopy examination and treatment do not work. PMID:27528867

  1. Complexation Behavior of the Tri-n-butyl Phosphate Ligand with Pu(IV) and Zr(IV): A Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Gopakumar, Gopinadhanpillai; Sreenivasulu, B; Suresh, A; Brahmmananda Rao, C V S; Sivaraman, N; Joseph, M; Anoop, Anakuthil

    2016-06-23

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), used as the extractant in nuclear fuel reprocessing, shows superior extraction abilities for Pu(IV) over a large number of fission products including Zr(IV). We have applied density functional theory (DFT) calculations to explain this selectivity by investigating differences in electronic structures of Pu(NO3)4·2TBP and Zr(NO3)4·2TBP complexes. On the basis of our quantum chemical calculations, we have established the lowest energy electronic states for both complexes; the quintet is the ground state for the former, whereas the latter exists in the singlet spin state. The calculated structural parameters for the optimized geometry of the plutonium complex are in agreement with the experimental results. Atoms in Molecules analysis revealed a considerable amount of ionic character to M-O{TBP} and M-O{NO3} bonds. Additionally, we have also investigated the extraction behavior of TBP for metal nitrates and have estimated the extraction energies to be -73.1 and -57.6 kcal/mol for Pu(IV) and Zr(IV), respectively. The large extraction energy of Pu(IV) system is in agreement with the observed selectivity in the extraction of Pu.

  2. Antidepressant-like effect of novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist N-n-butyl-3-ethoxyquinoxalin-2-carboxamide (6p): An approach using rodent behavioral antidepressant tests

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Shvetank; Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Devadoss, Thangaraj; Jindal, Ankur Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the antidepressant potential of N-n-butyl-3-ethoxyquinoxalin-2-carboxamide (6p), a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist in rodent behavioral models of depression. Materials and Methods: The compound 6p was examined in various behavioral models like forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), mechanistic models [5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced head twitch and reserpine-induced hypothermia (RIH)], and in chronic surgery model-olfactory bulbectomy in rats. Results: Compound 6p (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg, i.p.) exhibited antidepressant-like effect in FST and TST after acute treatment without having an effect on baseline locomotor activity. Moreover, 6p (2 mg/kg, i.p.), potentiated the 5-HTP–induced head twitch responses in mice and inhibited the RIH in rats. Chronic treatment (14 days) with 6p (1 and 2 mg/kg, p.o.) and paroxetine (10 mg/kg, p.o.) in rats significantly reversed the behavioral anomalies induced by bilateral olfactory bulbectomy using open field exploration. Conclusion: The preliminary studies reveal that compound 6p exhibits antidepressant-like effect in behavioral rodent models of depression. PMID:24014909

  3. [Treatment of mix gas containing butyl acetate, n-butyl alcohol and phenylacetic acid from pharmaceutical factory by bio-trickling filter].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qun-hui; Tian, Shu-lei; Xie, Wei-min; Zhang, Lan-he

    2005-03-01

    The bio-trickling filter packed with ZX02 stuffing is used to treat the mix gases containing butyl acetate, n-butyl alcohol and phenylacetic acid(BBP), which are discharged from Penicillin workshop of Pharmaceutical Factory. The reactor was operated for 110 days to investigate the effect of influent load, retention time and spray water on the removal of BBP and the biodegradation characteristics. The reactor displayed preferential utilization of BBP, when the maximum influent load of BBP were 229.5g/(m3 x h), 275.4 g/(m3 x h) and 42.5g/(m3 x h), the removal efficiencies were 96%, 95% and 100% respectively. The results show that the bio-trickling filter can effectively treat the mix gases and the optimum parameters were as followed: retention time was 31.2 s, the volume of spray water was 4 L/(L x d). The bio- trickling reactor has strong ability to resist shock of high influent load and resistance is maintained at low value, what's more, it doesn't need to carry out back washing frequently. With all these advantages it can be operated steadily for long time.

  4. Liver Hypertrophy After Percutaneous Portal Vein Embolization: Comparison of N-Butyl-2-Cyanocrylate Versus Sodium Acrylate-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer Particles in a Swine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoumakidou, Georgia; Theocharis, Stamatis; Ptohis, Nikolaos Alexopoulou, Efthimia; Mantziaras, George; Kelekis, Nikolaos L. Brountzos, Elias N.

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Percutaneous portal vein embolization (PPVE) induces hypertrophy of the future liver remnant before hepatic resection. The ideal embolic material has not yet been determined. We compared N-butyl-2-cyanocrylate (NBCA) with sodium acrylate-vinyl alcohol copolymer particles using a swine model. Materials and Methods: Twelve pigs underwent PPVE. Six pigs (group A) were embolized with NBCA, and 6 pigs (group B) were embolized with sodium acrylate-vinyl alcohol copolymer particles. Computed tomographic volumetry of the embolized lobe (EL) and the nonembolized lobe (NEL), along with liver function tests, was performed before and at 14 and 28 days after embolization. Tissue samples from both lobes were taken 14 and 28 days after PPVE. Results: NEL-volume and NEL-ratio increases were significantly higher in group A at 14 and 28 days after PPVE (78 and 52% and 91 and 66%, respectively) than in group B (32 and 12% and 28 and 10%, respectively) (p < 0.05). Percent change of the EL-volume was significantly higher for group A at 28 days after PPVE. No statistically significant difference was found between the groups regarding hepatocyte proliferation on the NEL and apoptosis on the EL at both time intervals. Conclusion: PPVE using NBCA is more efficient and causes more NEL hypertrophy than microspheres.

  5. Variation in accumulation and translocation of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) among rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes and selection of cultivars for low DBP exposure.

    PubMed

    Cai, Quan-Ying; Xiao, Pei-Yun; Zhao, Hai-Ming; Lü, Huixiong; Zeng, Qiao-Yun; Li, Yan-Wen; Li, Hui; Xiang, Lei; Mo, Ce-Hui

    2017-03-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is a typical endocrine-disrupting chemical with higher detection frequency and concentration in agricultural soil (particularly in paddy-field soil of Guangdong Province) of China. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate variation in uptake and accumulation of DBP by 20 rice cultivars and to screen low DBP-accumulating cultivars. DBP concentrations in plants varied greatly with rice cultivars, growth stages, and tissues. The highest DBP concentrations in both roots and shoots were observed at the ripening stage, with concentrations 2-100-fold higher than those at tillering, jointing, and flowering stages. At the ripening stage, DBP concentrations decreased in the order of leaf > root > stem > grain, and significant differences of DBP concentrations were observed among various rice cultivars. Moreover, the magnitude of variation in DBP concentrations among various cultivars was greater in stems and grains than in roots and leaves. The translocation factors of DBP from roots to stems and from shoots to grains were <1.0, and those from stems to leaves were almost >1.0. Overall, cultivars Yuxiangyouzhan, Jinnongsimiao, Tianyou 122, and Wuyou 380 accumulated relatively lower DBP in grains, resulting in lower DBP exposure. The DBP uptake and translocation pathways in rice require further investigation. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  6. Neurobehavioral toxicity and tolerance to the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-n-butyl ester (2,4-D ester).

    PubMed

    Schulze, G E; Dougherty, J A

    1988-04-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a commonly used herbicide and one component of Agent Orange. The subchronic neurobehavioral toxicity of 2,4-D-n-butyl ester (2,4-D ester) was assessed in rats by monitoring performance in a battery of behavioral tests. 2,4-D ester was injected daily (150-250 mg/kg sc) in four successive 14-day periods. Five- to eight-day exposure-free periods separated dosing escalations. All doses produced a significant decrease in schedule-controlled lever pressing and photocell locomotor activity while increasing landing foot splay. Peak effects occurred by the 3rd injection, while tolerance developed by the 10th injection. Neurobehavioral effects associated with 2,4-D ester exposure were rapidly reversible and disappeared within 24-48 hr. Brain and blood 2,4-D kinetics revealed that the compound accumulated in brain with repeated dosing. This observation indicates a cellular mechanism for tolerance development. Other neurobehavioral measures, rota rod and grip strength, were not consistently affected by 2,4-D ester. These studies confirm that 2,4-D ester produces behavioral toxicity, that tolerance develops to the 2,4-D ester-induced behavioral deficits with repeated exposures, and that a cellular mechanism appears to be responsible for the developed tolerance to 2,4-D ester.

  7. The n-butyl amine TPD measurement of Brönsted acidity for solid catalysts by simultaneous TG/DTG-DTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasca, V.; Avram, Livia; Verdes, Orsina; Popa, A.

    2010-06-01

    The method for Brönsted acidity measurement based on TPD of alkyl amines desorption by gas-chromatography or thermogravimetry was adapted for simultaneous TG/DTG-DTA analysis. The acidity measurements were focused on the 12-tungstophosphoric acid (H 3PW 12O 40) and its salts, especially with Cesium since these posses the highest Brönsted acidity and they are among the most interesting catalysts. The n-butyl amine (NBA) desorption takes place in three steps for Cs xH 3- xPW 12O 40, x = 0-2, and four steps for the Cs 2.5H 0.5PW 12O 40. The steps of desorption correspond to the release of NBA molecules in stages, as NBA or butene molecules resulted from the Hofmann elimination reaction and NH 3 + H 2O formed by decomposition of ammonium salt. The quantities of desorption products, C 4H 8 and NH 3 + H 2O, corresponding to the stages with the maximum desorption rates at 400-420 °C, respectively 560-600 °C, are in the stoichiometric ratio with the Brönsted acidity.

  8. Crown ethers in graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Junjie; Lee, Jaekwang; Contescu, Cristian I.; ...

    2014-11-13

    Crown ethers, introduced by Pedersen1, are at their most basic level neutral rings constructed of oxygen atoms linked by two- or three-carbon chains. They have attracted special attention for their ability to selectively incorporate various atoms2 or molecules within the cavity formed by the ring3-6. This property has led to the use of crown ethers and their compounds in a wide range of chemical and biological applications7,8. However, crown ethers are typically highly flexible, frustrating efforts to rigidify them for many uses that demand higher binding affinity and selectivity9,10. In this Letter, we report atomic-resolution images of the same basicmore » structures of the original crown ethers embedded in graphene. This arrangement constrains the crown ethers to be rigid and planar and thus uniquely suited for the many applications that crown ethers are known for. First-principles calculations show that the close similarity of the structures seen in graphene with those of crown ether molecules also extends to their selectivity towards specific metal cations depending on the ring size. Atoms (or molecules) incorporated within the crown ethers in graphene offer a simple environment that can be easily and systematically probed and modeled. Thus, we expect that this discovery will introduce a new wave of investigations and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.« less

  9. Crown ethers in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Junjie; Lee, Jaekwang; Contescu, Cristian I.; Gallego, Nidia C.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2014-11-13

    Crown ethers, introduced by Pedersen1, are at their most basic level neutral rings constructed of oxygen atoms linked by two- or three-carbon chains. They have attracted special attention for their ability to selectively incorporate various atoms2 or molecules within the cavity formed by the ring3-6. This property has led to the use of crown ethers and their compounds in a wide range of chemical and biological applications7,8. However, crown ethers are typically highly flexible, frustrating efforts to rigidify them for many uses that demand higher binding affinity and selectivity9,10. In this Letter, we report atomic-resolution images of the same basic structures of the original crown ethers embedded in graphene. This arrangement constrains the crown ethers to be rigid and planar and thus uniquely suited for the many applications that crown ethers are known for. First-principles calculations show that the close similarity of the structures seen in graphene with those of crown ether molecules also extends to their selectivity towards specific metal cations depending on the ring size. Atoms (or molecules) incorporated within the crown ethers in graphene offer a simple environment that can be easily and systematically probed and modeled. Thus, we expect that this discovery will introduce a new wave of investigations and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.

  10. Crown ethers in graphene.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junjie; Lee, Jaekwang; Contescu, Cristian I; Gallego, Nidia C; Pantelides, Sokrates T; Pennycook, Stephen J; Moyer, Bruce A; Chisholm, Matthew F

    2014-11-13

    Crown ethers are at their most basic level rings constructed of oxygen atoms linked by two- or three-carbon chains. They have attracted attention for their ability to selectively incorporate various atoms or molecules within the cavity formed by the ring. However, crown ethers are typically highly flexible, frustrating efforts to rigidify them for many uses that demand higher binding affinity and selectivity. Here we present atomic-resolution images of the same basic structures of the original crown ethers embedded in graphene. This arrangement constrains the crown ethers to be rigid and planar. First-principles calculations show that the close similarity of the structures should also extend to their selectivity towards specific metal cations. Crown ethers in graphene offer a simple environment that can be systematically tested and modelled. Thus, we expect that our finding will introduce a new wave of investigations and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.

  11. Use of glycol ethers for selective release of periplasmic proteins from Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jeffrey R; Patkar, Anant Y; Frank, Timothy C; Donate, Felipe A; Chiu, Yuk Chun; Shields, Jefry E; Gustafson, Mark E

    2007-01-01

    Genetic modification of Gram-negative bacteria to express a desired protein within the cell's periplasmic space, located between the inner cytoplasmic membrane and the outer cell wall, can offer an attractive strategy for commercial production of therapeutic proteins and industrial enzymes. In certain applications, the product expression rate is high, and the ability to isolate the product from the cell mass is greatly enhanced because of the product's compartmentalized location within the cell. Protein release methods that increase the permeability of the outer cell wall for primary recovery, but avoid rupturing the inner cell membrane, reduce contamination of the recovered product with other host cell components and simplify final purification. This article reports representative data for a new release method employing glycol ether solvents. The example involves the use of 2-butoxyethanol (commonly called ethylene glycol n-butyl ether or EB) for selective release of a proprietary biopharmaceutical protein produced in the periplasmic space of Pseudomonas fluorescens. In this example, glycol ether treatment yielded approximately 65% primary recovery with approximately 80% purity on a protein-only basis. Compared with other methods including heat treatment, osmotic shock, and the use of surfactants, the glycol ether treatment yielded significantly reduced concentrations of other host cell proteins, lipopolysaccharide endotoxin, and DNA in the recovered protein solution. The use of glycol ethers also allowed exploitation of temperature-change-induced phase splitting behavior to concentrate the desired product. Heating the aqueous EB extract solution to 55 degrees C formed two liquid phases: a glycol ether-rich phase and an aqueous product phase containing the great majority of the product protein. This phase-splitting step yielded an approximate 10-fold reduction in the volume of the initial product solution and a corresponding increase in the product's concentration.

  12. An ion-pair principle for enantioseparations of basic analytes by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis using the di-n-butyl L-tartrate-boric acid complex as chiral selector.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Juan; Liu, Xiu-Feng; Lu, Qie-Nan; Yang, Geng-Liang; Chen, Xing-Guo

    2013-04-05

    A chiral recognition mechanism of ion-pair principle has been proposed in this study. It rationalized the enantioseparations of some basic analytes using the complex of di-n-butyl l-tartrate and boric acid as the chiral selector in methanolic background electrolytes (BGEs) by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE). An approach of mass spectrometer (MS) directly confirmed that triethylamine promoted the formation of negatively charged di-n-butyl l-tartrate-boric acid complex chiral counter ion with a complex ratio of 2:1. And the negatively charged counter ion was the real chiral selector in the ion-pair principle enantioseparations. It was assumed that triethylamine should play its role by adjusting the apparent acidity (pH*) of the running buffer to a higher value. Consequently, the effects of various basic electrolytes including inorganic and organic ones on the enantioseparations in NACE were investigated. The results showed that most of the basic electrolytes tested were favorable for the enantioseparations of basic analytes using di-n-butyl l-tartrate-boric acid complex as the chiral ion-pair selector. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term exposures to di-n-butyl phthalate inhibit body growth and impair gonad development in juvenile Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis).

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Harpreet; Kumar, Anupama; Chapman, John C; McLaughlin, Mike J

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether long-term exposures to environmentally relevant concentrations of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) disrupt the reproduction-based endpoints in juvenile Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis). Fish were exposed to 5, 15 or 50 µg l(-1) DnBP for 30, 60 and 90 days each, and the effects on survival, body growth, whole-body concentrations of sex steroid hormones and gonadal development were investigated. The lowest observed effective concentration to affect the condition factor after 90 days was 5 µg l(-1). Complete feminization of the gonad was noted in fish exposed to 5 µg l(-1) for 90 days and to 15 and 50 µg l(-1) of DnBP for 30 or 60 days. After 90 days of exposure to DnBP, the ovaries were regressed and immature as opposed to the control fish which were in early-vitellogenic stage. Testes, present only in fish exposed to 5 µg l(-1) of DnBP for 30 or 60 days, were immature in comparison to the control fish that contained testes in the mid-spermatogenic phase. The E2/11-KT ratio was significantly higher only after exposures to 5 µg l(-1) DnBP for 90 days and 50 µg l(-1) DnBP for 30 days. Our data suggest that exposures to 5 µg l(-1) DnBP for 30 days did not have profound effects on body growth and gonadal differentiation of fish. However, 30 days of exposure to 15 µg l(-1) could interfere with the gonad development and to 50 µg l(-1) could compromise the hormonal profile of juvenile fish.

  14. Endoscopic management of bleeding gastric varices with N-butyl, 2-cyanoacrylate glue injection in children with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, Ujjal; Borkar, Vibhor; Yachha, Surender Kumar; Srivastava, Anshu

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: In view of the paucity of literature, we carried out this audit to evaluate the safety and efficacy of N- butyl, 2-cynoacrylate glue injection therapy in secondary prophylaxis of gastric varices in children. Patients and methods: Consecutive children (≤ 18 years) with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension who presented with bleeding from gastric varices and who had undergone cyanoacrylate glue injection therapy were included. They were evaluated for safety, efficacy and complications. Their long-term outcomes and follow-up were recorded. Results: Over 11 years, 28 children with median age 13 (range, 8 to 18) years (68 % boys), underwent cyanoacrylate glue injection for bleeding gastric varices. In 25 (89 %) cases, extrahepatic portal venous obstruction was the etiology and isolated gastric varices were the source of the bleeding. Primary and secondary gastric variceal bleeding was seen in 11 (39 %) and 17 (61 %) children, respectively. A total 36 sessions with median volume of 2 (range, 1 – 5) mL of glue injections were required (2 sessions in 8 children). Hemostasis was achieved in all and 57 % had gastric variceal obliteration. Two children had early (< 1 month) rebleeding and 2 children had late rebleeding. One child had gastric ulcer. Over a median follow-up of 24 (8 – 98) months, 14 children underwent surgery (12 porto-systemic shunt), 2 were lost to follow-up, 1 died and there was no recurrence of bleeding in the remaining 11. Conclusions: Cyanoacrylate glue injection is highly effective mode of secondary prophylaxis of bleeding gastric varices in children with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. Rebleeding occurred in 14 % but treatment-related complications were uncommon. However, a large controlled clinical trial is required to confirm our findings. PMID:27757413

  15. Liquid-liquid extraction of pertechnetic acid (TcVII) by tri-n-butyl phosphate: where is the proton? A molecular dynamics investigation.

    PubMed

    Schurhammer, Rachel; Wipff, Georges

    2011-03-17

    We report a molecular dynamics study on pertechnetic acid (PTA) extraction from water to an oil phase containing either pure TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate) or a TBP/n-hexane mixture, with the main aim to understand the state of the acid (associated TcO(4)H vs dissociated TcO(4)(-)H(+)) and its "complexation" by TBP. Experimentally, Tc(VII) is extracted from acidic water to TBP:alkane solutions in 1:3 or 1:4 Tc:TBP ratio, suggesting that three or four TBPs coordinate to TcO(4)H or TcO(4)(-). According to simulations in TBP solution, however, neither TcO(4)H nor TcO(4)(-) species displays specific coordination to TBP. We thus investigated several hypothetical states of the proton of the dissociated pertechnetic acid in organic phases and at their aqueous interfaces, comparing "pH neutral" to nitric acid containing systems. Proton hydrates are shown to coordinate 3-4 TBPs, in the form of H(3)O(+)(TBP)(3) and H(5)O(2)(+)(TBP)(4) hydrogen-bonded adducts, whereas TBPH(+) binds 1 TBP. The MD and PMF results complemented by those of QM investigations suggest that Tc(VII) is extracted as TcO(4)(-)(H(3)O)(+)(TBP)(3) or TcO(4)(-)(H(5)O(2))(+)(TBP)(4) contact ion pairs instead of the neutral form TcO(4)H of the acid. They explain why nitric acid promotes the Tc(VII) extraction. Comparison between nitric acid (mainly extracted via its neutral form NO(3)H) and pertechnetic acid is discussed. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  16. A prospective, multicenter, randomized trial of the Onyx liquid embolic system and N-butyl cyanoacrylate embolization of cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Clinical article.

    PubMed

    Loh, Yince; Duckwiler, Gary R

    2010-10-01

    The Onyx liquid embolic system (Onyx) was approved in the European Union in 1999 for embolization of lesions in the intracranial and peripheral vasculature, including brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and hypervascular tumors. In 2001 a prospective, equivalence, multicenter, randomized controlled trial was initiated to support a submission for FDA approval. The objective of this study was to verify the safety and efficacy of Onyx compared with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for the presurgical treatment of brain AVMs. One hundred seventeen patients with brain AVMs were treated with either Onyx (54 patients) or NBCA (63 patients) for presurgical endovascular embolization between May 2001 and April 2003. The primary end point was technical success in achieving ≥ 50% reduction in AVM volume. Secondary end points were operative blood loss and resection time. All adverse events (AEs) were reported and assigned a relationship to the Onyx or NBCA system, treatment, disease, surgery, or other/unknown. The Data Safety Monitoring Board adjudicated AEs, and a blinded, independent core lab assessed volume measurements. Patients were monitored through discharge after the final surgery or through a 3- and/or 12-month follow-up if resection had not been performed or was incomplete. The use of Onyx led to ≥ 50% AVM volume reduction in 96% of cases versus 85% for NBCA (p = not significant). The secondary end points of resection time and blood loss were similar. Serious AEs were also similar between the 2 treatment groups. Onyx is equivalent to NBCA in safety and efficacy as a preoperative embolic agent in reducing brain AVM volume by at least 50%.

  17. Rape (Brassica chinensis L.) seed germination, seedling growth, and physiology in soil polluted with di-n-butyl phthalate and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tingting; Christie, Peter; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yongming

    2013-08-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) pollution in agricultural soils caused by widely employed plastic products is becoming more and more widespread in China. PAEs polluted soil can lead to phytotoxicity in higher plants and potential health risks to human being. We evaluated the individual toxicity of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), two representative PAEs, to sown rape (Brassica chinensis L.) seeds within 72 h (as germination stage) and seedlings after germination for 14 days by monitoring responses and trends of different biological parameters. No significant effects of six concentrations of PAE ranging from 0 (not treated/NT) to 500 mg kg(-1) on germination rate in soil were observed. However, root length, shoot length, and biomass (fresh weight) were inhibited by both pollutants (except root length and biomass under DEHP). Stimulatory effects of both target pollutants on malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SODase) activity, ascorbate peroxidase (APXase) content, and polyphenoloxidase (PPOase) activity in shoots and roots (SODase activity in shoots excluded) were in the same trend with the promotion of proline (Pro) but differed with acetylcholinesterase activity (except in shoots under DnBP) for analyzed samples treated for 72 h and 14 days. Responses of representative storage compounds free amino acids (FAA) and total soluble sugar (TSS) under both PAEs were raised. Sensitivity of APXase and Pro in roots demonstrates their possibility in estimation of PAE phytotoxicity and the higher toxicity of DnBP, which has also been approved by the morphological photos of seedlings at day 14. Higher sensitivity of the roots was also observed. The recommended soil allowable concentration is 5 mg DnBP kg(-1) soil for the development of rape. We still need to know the phytotoxicity of DEHP at whole seedling stage for both the growing and development; on the other hand, soil criteria for PAE compounds are urgently required in

  18. Effects of di-n-butyl phthalate and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on the growth, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll fluorescence of wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Gao, Minling; Qi, Yun; Song, Wenhua; Xu, Haoran

    2016-05-01

    Phthalates are commonly used man-made chemicals that can be released into soil, water, and the atmosphere. The potential toxicity of phthalates on wheat seedlings has not been well studied. To better understand the deleterious effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on wheat seedlings, their influences on the following were investigated: plant growth, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), chlorophyll content, initial fluorescence (F0), maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), photochemical quenching (qP), non-photochemical quenching (qN), effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII), and photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR). Compared with the control, the growth indices (plant height, fresh and dry weights of shoots, fresh and dry weights of roots), Pn, Gs, Tr, Ci, chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, qP, ΦPSII, and ETR decreased in the 5 μg mL(-1) and 10 μg mL(-1) DBP and DEHP treatments, whereas F0 and qN increased. When wheat seedlings were treated with 20 μg mL(-1) of DBP and DEHP, the growth indices, Pn, Gs, Tr, chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, qP, qN, ΦPSII, and ETR decreased significantly, whereas Ci and F0 increased. A decrease in the Pn of wheat seedlings was mainly caused by stomatal limitation in the 5 μg mL(-1) and 10 μg mL(-1) DBP and DEHP treatments. However, stomatal and non-stomatal limitations may have caused the reduction in Pn in the 20 μg mL(-1) DBP and DEHP treatments. Notably, the noxious effect of DBP on the wheat seedlings was significantly greater than that of DEHP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A molecular dynamics investigation of the structural and dynamic properties of the ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongjun; Maginn, Edward

    2011-09-28

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate the structure and dynamics of the ionic liquid, 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C(4)mim][Tf(2)N]) in the temperature range of 283-460 K. Extensive analysis was carried out to characterize a number of structural and dynamic features. Transport properties were computed using a variety of equilibrium methods that employed the Green-Kubo and Einstein formulations. Nonequilibrium techniques were also used. In general, different methods mostly yielded consistent results, although some differences were observed. Computed self-diffusivities and ionic conductivities tended to be slightly lower than experimental values, while computed viscosities were significantly higher than experiment. Computed thermal conductivities agreed reasonably well with experimental data. Despite these discrepancies, the simulations capture the experimental temperature-dependent trends for all these transport properties. Single ion dynamics were studied by examining diffusional anisotropy, the self-part of the van Hove function, non-Gaussian parameters, and incoherent intermediate scattering functions. It is found that cations diffuse faster than anions and are more dynamically heterogeneous. A clear anisotropy is revealed in cation displacement, with the motion normal to the imidazolium ring plane being the most hindered and the motion along the alkyl chain in the plane of the ring being the most facile. Cations structurally relax faster than anions but they rotationally relax slower than anions. There is a pronounced temperature dependence to the rotational anisotropy of the cations, but only a weak temperature dependence for the anions. The ionic conductivity deviates from the Nernst-Einstein relation due to the correlated motion of cations and anions. The results suggest that the dynamical behavior of this and related ionic liquids is extremely complex and consists of many different modes with

  20. A molecular dynamics investigation of the structural and dynamic properties of the ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongjun; Maginn, Edward

    2011-09-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate the structure and dynamics of the ionic liquid, 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C4mim][Tf2N]) in the temperature range of 283-460 K. Extensive analysis was carried out to characterize a number of structural and dynamic features. Transport properties were computed using a variety of equilibrium methods that employed the Green-Kubo and Einstein formulations. Nonequilibrium techniques were also used. In general, different methods mostly yielded consistent results, although some differences were observed. Computed self-diffusivities and ionic conductivities tended to be slightly lower than experimental values, while computed viscosities were significantly higher than experiment. Computed thermal conductivities agreed reasonably well with experimental data. Despite these discrepancies, the simulations capture the experimental temperature-dependent trends for all these transport properties. Single ion dynamics were studied by examining diffusional anisotropy, the self-part of the van Hove function, non-Gaussian parameters, and incoherent intermediate scattering functions. It is found that cations diffuse faster than anions and are more dynamically heterogeneous. A clear anisotropy is revealed in cation displacement, with the motion normal to the imidazolium ring plane being the most hindered and the motion along the alkyl chain in the plane of the ring being the most facile. Cations structurally relax faster than anions but they rotationally relax slower than anions. There is a pronounced temperature dependence to the rotational anisotropy of the cations, but only a weak temperature dependence for the anions. The ionic conductivity deviates from the Nernst-Einstein relation due to the correlated motion of cations and anions. The results suggest that the dynamical behavior of this and related ionic liquids is extremely complex and consists of many different modes with

  1. Magnetic ionic liquids produced by the dispersion of magnetic nanoparticles in 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (BMI.NTf2).

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Anderson M M S; Parize, Alexandre L; Oliveira, Vanda M; Neto, Brenno A D; Bakuzis, Andris F; Sousa, Marcelo H; Rossi, Liane M; Rubim, Joel C

    2012-10-24

    ̀This paper reports on the advancement of magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) as stable dispersions of surface-modified γ-Fe(2)O(3), Fe(3)O(4), and CoFe(2)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in a hydrophobic ionic liquid, 1-n-butyl 3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (BMI.NTf(2)). The MNPs were obtained via coprecipitation and were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy, and magnetic measurements. The surface-modified MNPs (SM-MNPs) were obtained via the silanization of the MNPs with the aid of 1-butyl-3-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]imidazolium chloride (BMSPI.Cl). The SM-MNPs were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy and by magnetic measurements. The FTIR-ATR spectra of the SM-MNPs exhibited characteristic absorptions of the imidazolium and those of the Fe-O-Si-C moieties, confirming the presence of BMSPI.Cl on the MNP surface. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the SM-MNPs were modified by at least one BMSPI.Cl monolayer. The MILs were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and magnetic measurements. The Raman and DSC results indicated an interaction between the SM-MNPs and the IL. This interaction promotes the formation of a supramolecular structure close to the MNP surface that mimics the IL structure and is responsible for the stability of the MIL. Magnetic measurements of the MILs indicated no hysteresis. Superparamagnetic behavior and a saturation magnetization of ~22 emu/g could be inferred from the magnetic measurements of a sample containing 50% w/w γ-Fe(2)O(3) SM-MNP/BMI.NTf(2).

  2. Is Embolization of the Pancreas Safe? Pancreatic Histological Changes after Selective Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate in a Swine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Takuya Yamaguchi, Masato; Takahashi, Takuya; Izaki, Kenta; Uotani, Kensuke; Sakamoto, Noriaki; Sugimura, Kazuro; Sugimoto, Koji

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the safety of selective transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) in a swine model in terms of histological changes in the pancreas. Methods: Three groups of two female swine (58-64 kg) per group underwent TAE of the dorsal pancreatic artery, under anesthesia, with 1:1, 1:4, and 1:9 mixtures of NBCA and iodized oil. Blood parameters were evaluated at days 1, 4, and 10 after TAE, after which the animals were sacrificed and pancreatic tissues were examined under light microscopy. Results: All of the animals were asymptomatic and survived for 10 days. Cone beam computed tomographic angiography revealed occlusion of the dorsal pancreatic artery and no enhancement in the embolized area. The white blood cell count and C-reactive protein level were elevated slightly on day 1 after TAE (mean {+-} SD: 252.7 {+-} 27.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 2}/{mu}l and 0.15 {+-} 0.07 mg/l, respectively), but they normalized or remained near the upper normal limit thereafter. The serum amylase and lipase levels also were elevated on day 1 (8831.7 {+-} 2169.2 U/l and 130 {+-} 53.4 U/l, respectively) but normalized thereafter. Histologically, necrosis and fibrosis were noted only in the embolized segment, and necrosis and acute inflammatory reactions were absent in the nonembolized segment. The border between both segments was well defined. Lymphocytic infiltration and foreign body reaction were noted around the embolized vessels. Conclusions: Selective TAE with NBCA in the pancreas caused localized ischemic necrosis without clinically significant pancreatitis; therefore, this procedure is tolerable in swine.

  3. Diverse developmental toxicity of di-n-butyl phthalate in both sexes of rat offspring after maternal exposure during the period from late gestation through lactation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung-Youl; Shibutani, Makoto; Takagi, Hironori; Kato, Natsumi; Takigami, Shu; Uneyama, Chikako; Hirose, Masao

    2004-10-15

    To evaluate developmental toxicity of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) with exposure during the period from late gestation to following lactation, maternal rats were given DBP at dietary concentrations of 0, 20, 200, 2000 and 10,000 ppm from gestational day 15 to postnatal day (PND) 21. At 10,000 ppm, male offspring showed a decreased neonatal anogenital distance and retention of nipples (PND 14), while females showed a slight non-significant delay in the onset of puberty. At PND 21, reduction of testicular spermatocyte development was evident from 20 ppm, as well as mammary gland changes at low incidence in both sexes. At this time point, population changes of pituitary hormone-immunoreactive cells were observed at 10,000 ppm with a similar pattern of increase in the percentages of luteinizing hormone (LH)-positive and decrease in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin producing cells in both sexes, effects also being evident on FSH from 200 ppm and LH from 2000 ppm in females. During postnatal week (PNW) 8-11, marginal increase of the number of cases with extended diestrus was found at 10,000 ppm. At adult stage necropsy, testicular lesions appeared to be very faint in most cases, but degeneration and atrophy of mammary gland alveoli were observed in males from 20 ppm. Although without clear monotonic dose-dependence, relative pituitary weights were increased with the intermediate doses in males at PNW 11. In females, relative pituitary weights were decreased after 10,000 ppm at PNW 11, and from 200 ppm at PNW 20. The proportion of FSH-positive cells in the pituitaries at PNW 11 was increased in both sexes at 10,000 ppm. Thus, developmental exposure to DBP affected female sexual development involving pituitary function, while in males testicular toxicity was mostly reversible but mammary gland toxicity was persistent at a dose level as low as 20 ppm.

  4. Efficacy and safety of two different n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylates for the embolization of varicoceles: a prospective, randomized, blinded study.

    PubMed

    Vanlangenhove, Peter; De Keukeleire, Katrien; Everaert, Karel; Van Maele, Georges; Defreyne, Luc

    2012-06-01

    This was a prospective, randomized, blinded comparative study of the efficacy and safety of two different n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylates (NBCAs) for embolization of varicoceles. A total of 112 insufficient spermatic veins (left-sided, n=84; right-sided, n=28) that were diagnosed in 83 adult males were prospectively randomized for blinded embolization with NBCA (n=54; Histoacryl, Braun, Germany) or NBCA-MS (n=58; Glubran2, General Enterprise Marketing, Viareggio, Lucca, Italy). Handling, embolic efficacy, and safety of both NBCAs were compared according the fulfillment of a standardized embolization plan, the occlusive effect on the spermatic vein, and the sticking to the microcatheter. Statistical analysis was performed with the Mann-Whitney U test and the Fisher's exact test. Patients of both study arms were comparable for age and clinical indication. Spermatic vein characteristics were comparable for varicocele classification and embolization side. Both NBCAs were equally efficient in occluding the spermatic vein and blocking reflux (NBCA, n=54/54, 100% vs. NBCA-MS, n=54/57, 94.7%; P=0.244). The embolization plan could be accomplished in an equal number of veins for both groups (NBCA, n=45/54, 83.3% vs. NBCA-MS, n=41/58, 70.7%; P=0.124). Adhesiveness of the glue to the microcatheter was the same in both NBCA groups (NBCA, n=25/54, 46.3% vs. NBCA-MS, n=29/58, 50%; P=0.71). No glue-related complications were noted. NBCA and NBCA-MS are equally efficient and safe glues for embolization of varicoceles.

  5. Effects of in utero exposure to DI(n-Butyl) phthalate on development of male reproductive tracts in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Sung; Jung, Ki Kyung; Kim, Soon Sun; Kang, Il Hyun; Baek, Jung Hee; Nam, Hye-Seon; Hong, Soon-Keun; Lee, Byung Mu; Hong, Jin Tae; Oh, Ki Wan; Kim, Hyung Sik; Han, Soon Young; Kang, Tae Seok

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) administration on male reproductive organ development in F1 Sprague-Dawley rats following in utero exposure. During gestation days (GD) 10-19, pregnant rats were administered daily, orally, DBP at 250, 500, or 700 mg/kg or flutamide (1, 12.5, or 25 mg/kg/d) as a positive control. The male offspring were sacrificed at 31 d of age. DBP and flutamide dose-dependently significantly increased the incidence of hypospadias and cryptorchidism in F1 male offspring. The weights of testes and accessory sex organs (epididymides, seminal vesicles, ventral prostate, levator ani plus bulbocavernosus muscles (LABC), and Cowper's glands) were significantly reduced in DBP-treated animals. Furthermore, cauda agenesis of epididymides and ventral prostate atrophy were observed in high-dose 700-mg/kg DBP males. Anogenital distance (AGD) and levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and testosterone were significantly decreased in the DBP (700 mg/kg/d)-treated groups. In particular, the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and 5α-reductase type 2 in the proximal penis was markedly depressed following administration of DBP (700 mg/kg/d) or flutamide (25 mg/kg/d). The expression of sonic hedgehog (Shh) in the urethral epithelium of the proximal penis was significantly less in the DBP (700 mg/kg/d)- or flutamide (25 mg/kg/d)-treated groups. In addition, DBP dose-dependently significantly increased the expression of estrogen receptor (ER α) in the undescended testis. Data demonstrated that in utero exposure to DBP produced several abnormal responses in male reproductive organs, and these effects may be due to disruption of the stage-specific expression of genes related to androgen-dependent organs development.

  6. N-n-butyl Haloperidol Iodide Protects against Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Injury in Cardiac Microvascular Endothelial Cells by Regulating the ROS/MAPK/Egr-1 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shishi; Zhang, Yanmei; Zhong, Shuping; Gao, Fenfei; Chen, Yicun; Li, Weiqiu; Zheng, Fuchun; Shi, Ganggang

    2016-01-01

    Endothelium dysfunction induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important initial event at the onset of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion in which the Egr-1 transcription factor often serves as a master switch for various damage pathways following reperfusion injury. We hypothesized that an intracellular ROS/MAPK/Egr-1 signaling pathway is activated in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) following hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). ROS generation, by either H/R or the ROS donor xanthine oxidase-hypoxanthine (XO/HX) activated all three MAPKs (ERK1/2, JNK, p38), and induced Egr-1 expression and Egr-1 DNA-binding activity in CMECs, whereas ROS scavengers (EDA and NAC) had the opposite effect following H/R. Inhibitors of all three MAPKs individually inhibited induction of Egr-1 expression by H/R in CMECs. Moreover, N-n-butyl haloperidol (F2), previously shown to protect cardiomyocytes subjected to I/R, dose-dependently downregulated H/R-induced ROS generation, MAPK activation, and Egr-1 expression and activity in CMECs, whereas XO/HX and MAPK activators (EGF, anisomycin) antagonized the effects of F2. Inhibition of the ROS/MAPK/Egr-1 signaling pathway, by either F2, NAC, or inhibition of MAPK, increased CMEC viability and the GSH/GSSG ratio, and decreased Egr-1 nuclear translocation. These results show that the ROS/MAPK/Egr-1 signaling pathway mediates H/R injury in CMECs, and F2 blocks this pathway to protect against H/R injury and further alleviate myocardial I/R injury.

  7. Structural relaxation and thermal conductivity of high-pressure formed, high-density di-n-butyl phthalate glass and pressure induced departures from equilibrium state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johari, G. P.; Andersson, Ove

    2017-06-01

    We report a study of structural relaxation of high-density glasses of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) by measuring thermal conductivity, κ, under conditions of pressure and temperature (p,T) designed to modify both the vibrational and configurational states of a glass. Various high-density glassy states of DBP were formed by (i) cooling the liquid under a fixed high p and partially depressurizing the glass, (ii) isothermal annealing of the depressurized glass, and (iii) pressurizing the glass formed by cooling the liquid under low p. At a given low p, κ of the glass formed by cooling under high p is higher than that of the glass formed by cooling under low p, and the difference increases as glass formation p is increased. κ of the glass formed under 1 GPa is ˜20% higher at ambient p than κ of the glass formed at ambient p. On heating at low p, κ decreases until the glass to liquid transition range is reached. This is the opposite of the increase in κ observed when a glass formed under a certain p is heated under the same p. At a given high p, κ of the low-density glass formed by cooling at low p is lower than that of the high-density glass formed by cooling at that high p. On heating at high p, κ increases until the glass to liquid transition range is reached. The effects observed are due to a thermally assisted approach toward equilibrium at p different from the glass formation p. In all cases, the density, enthalpy, and entropy would change until the glasses become metastable liquids at a fixed p, thus qualitatively relating κ to variation in these properties.

  8. Structural relaxation and thermal conductivity of high-pressure formed, high-density di-n-butyl phthalate glass and pressure induced departures from equilibrium state.

    PubMed

    Johari, G P; Andersson, Ove

    2017-06-21

    We report a study of structural relaxation of high-density glasses of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) by measuring thermal conductivity, κ, under conditions of pressure and temperature (p,T) designed to modify both the vibrational and configurational states of a glass. Various high-density glassy states of DBP were formed by (i) cooling the liquid under a fixed high p and partially depressurizing the glass, (ii) isothermal annealing of the depressurized glass, and (iii) pressurizing the glass formed by cooling the liquid under low p. At a given low p, κ of the glass formed by cooling under high p is higher than that of the glass formed by cooling under low p, and the difference increases as glass formation p is increased. κ of the glass formed under 1 GPa is ∼20% higher at ambient p than κ of the glass formed at ambient p. On heating at low p, κ decreases until the glass to liquid transition range is reached. This is the opposite of the increase in κ observed when a glass formed under a certain p is heated under the same p. At a given high p, κ of the low-density glass formed by cooling at low p is lower than that of the high-density glass formed by cooling at that high p. On heating at high p, κ increases until the glass to liquid transition range is reached. The effects observed are due to a thermally assisted approach toward equilibrium at p different from the glass formation p. In all cases, the density, enthalpy, and entropy would change until the glasses become metastable liquids at a fixed p, thus qualitatively relating κ to variation in these properties.

  9. Topical and systemic immunoreaction triggered by intravesical chemotherapy in an N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitorosamine induced bladder cancer mouse model.

    PubMed

    Hori, Shunta; Miyake, Makito; Tatsumi, Yoshihiro; Onishi, Sayuri; Morizawa, Yosuke; Nakai, Yasushi; Tanaka, Nobumichi; Fujimoto, Kiyohide

    2017-01-01

    Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) treatment is the most common therapy to prevent progression and recurrence of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Although the immunoreaction elicited by BCG treatment is well documented, those induced by intravesical treatment with chemotherapeutic agents are much less known. We investigated the immunological profiles caused by mitomycin C, gemcitabine, adriamycin and docetaxel in the N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN)-induced orthotopic bladder cancer mouse model. Ninety mice bearing orthotopic bladder cancer induced by BBN were randomly divided into six groups and treated with chemotherapeutic agents once a week for four weeks. After last treatment, bladder and serum samples were analyzed for cell surface and immunological markers (CD4, CD8, CD56, CD204, Foxp3, and PD-L1) using immunohistochemistry staining. Serum and urine cytokine levels were evaluated by ELISA. All chemotherapeutic agents presented anti-tumor properties similar to those of BCG. These included changes in immune cells that resulted in fewer M2 macrophages and regulatory T cells around tumors. This result was compatible with those in human samples. Intravesical chemotherapy also induced systemic changes in cytokines, especially urinary interleukin (IL)-17A and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), as well as in the distribution of blood neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. Our findings suggest that intravesical treatment with mitomycin C and adriamycin suppresses protumoral immunity while enhancing anti-tumor immunity, possibly through the action of specific cytokines. A better understanding of the immunoreaction induced by chemotherapeutic agents can lead to improved outcomes and fewer side effects in intravesical chemotherapy against NMIBC.

  10. Endoscopic management of bleeding gastric varices with N-butyl, 2-cyanoacrylate glue injection in children with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Poddar, Ujjal; Borkar, Vibhor; Yachha, Surender Kumar; Srivastava, Anshu

    2016-10-01

    Background and study aims: In view of the paucity of literature, we carried out this audit to evaluate the safety and efficacy of N- butyl, 2-cynoacrylate glue injection therapy in secondary prophylaxis of gastric varices in children. Patients and methods: Consecutive children (≤ 18 years) with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension who presented with bleeding from gastric varices and who had undergone cyanoacrylate glue injection therapy were included. They were evaluated for safety, efficacy and complications. Their long-term outcomes and follow-up were recorded. Results: Over 11 years, 28 children with median age 13 (range, 8 to 18) years (68 % boys), underwent cyanoacrylate glue injection for bleeding gastric varices. In 25 (89 %) cases, extrahepatic portal venous obstruction was the etiology and isolated gastric varices were the source of the bleeding. Primary and secondary gastric variceal bleeding was seen in 11 (39 %) and 17 (61 %) children, respectively. A total 36 sessions with median volume of 2 (range, 1 - 5) mL of glue injections were required (2 sessions in 8 children). Hemostasis was achieved in all and 57 % had gastric variceal obliteration. Two children had early (< 1 month) rebleeding and 2 children had late rebleeding. One child had gastric ulcer. Over a median follow-up of 24 (8 - 98) months, 14 children underwent surgery (12 porto-systemic shunt), 2 were lost to follow-up, 1 died and there was no recurrence of bleeding in the remaining 11. Conclusions: Cyanoacrylate glue injection is highly effective mode of secondary prophylaxis of bleeding gastric varices in children with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. Rebleeding occurred in 14 % but treatment-related complications were uncommon. However, a large controlled clinical trial is required to confirm our findings.

  11. Efficacy and Safety of Two Different n-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylates for the Embolization of Varicoceles: A Prospective, Randomized, Blinded Study

    SciTech Connect

    Vanlangenhove, Peter Keukeleire, Katrien De; Everaert, Karel; Maele, Georges Van; Defreyne, Luc

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: This was a prospective, randomized, blinded comparative study of the efficacy and safety of two different n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylates (NBCAs) for embolization of varicoceles. Methods: A total of 112 insufficient spermatic veins (left-sided, n = 84; right-sided, n = 28) that were diagnosed in 83 adult males were prospectively randomized for blinded embolization with NBCA (n = 54; Histoacryl, Braun, Germany) or NBCA-MS (n = 58; Glubran2, General Enterprise Marketing, Viareggio, Lucca, Italy). Handling, embolic efficacy, and safety of both NBCAs were compared according the fulfillment of a standardized embolization plan, the occlusive effect on the spermatic vein, and the sticking to the microcatheter. Statistical analysis was performed with the Mann-Whitney U test and the Fisher's exact test. Results: Patients of both study arms were comparable for age and clinical indication. Spermatic vein characteristics were comparable for varicocele classification and embolization side. Both NBCAs were equally efficient in occluding the spermatic vein and blocking reflux (NBCA, n = 54/54, 100% vs. NBCA-MS, n = 54/57, 94.7%; P = 0.244). The embolization plan could be accomplished in an equal number of veins for both groups (NBCA, n = 45/54, 83.3% vs. NBCA-MS, n = 41/58, 70.7%; P = 0.124). Adhesiveness of the glue to the microcatheter was the same in both NBCA groups (NBCA, n = 25/54, 46.3% vs. NBCA-MS, n = 29/58, 50%; P = 0.71). No glue-related complications were noted. Conclusions: NBCA and NBCA-MS are equally efficient and safe glues for embolization of varicoceles.

  12. N-n-butyl Haloperidol Iodide Protects against Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Injury in Cardiac Microvascular Endothelial Cells by Regulating the ROS/MAPK/Egr-1 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shishi; Zhang, Yanmei; Zhong, Shuping; Gao, Fenfei; Chen, Yicun; Li, Weiqiu; Zheng, Fuchun; Shi, Ganggang

    2017-01-01

    Endothelium dysfunction induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important initial event at the onset of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion in which the Egr-1 transcription factor often serves as a master switch for various damage pathways following reperfusion injury. We hypothesized that an intracellular ROS/MAPK/Egr-1 signaling pathway is activated in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) following hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). ROS generation, by either H/R or the ROS donor xanthine oxidase-hypoxanthine (XO/HX) activated all three MAPKs (ERK1/2, JNK, p38), and induced Egr-1 expression and Egr-1 DNA-binding activity in CMECs, whereas ROS scavengers (EDA and NAC) had the opposite effect following H/R. Inhibitors of all three MAPKs individually inhibited induction of Egr-1 expression by H/R in CMECs. Moreover, N-n-butyl haloperidol (F2), previously shown to protect cardiomyocytes subjected to I/R, dose-dependently downregulated H/R-induced ROS generation, MAPK activation, and Egr-1 expression and activity in CMECs, whereas XO/HX and MAPK activators (EGF, anisomycin) antagonized the effects of F2. Inhibition of the ROS/MAPK/Egr-1 signaling pathway, by either F2, NAC, or inhibition of MAPK, increased CMEC viability and the GSH/GSSG ratio, and decreased Egr-1 nuclear translocation. These results show that the ROS/MAPK/Egr-1 signaling pathway mediates H/R injury in CMECs, and F2 blocks this pathway to protect against H/R injury and further alleviate myocardial I/R injury. PMID:28111550

  13. Reactivity of lithium n-butyl amidinates towards group 14 metal(II) chlorides providing series of hetero- and homoleptic tetrylenes.

    PubMed

    Chlupatý, Tomáš; Padělková, Zdeňka; Lyčka, Antonín; Brus, Jiří; Růžička, Aleš

    2012-04-28

    The new class of homo- and heteroleptic n-butyl-N,N'-disubstituted amidinato group 14 metal(II) complexes were prepared by salt elimination from starting lithium amidinates and metal(II) chlorides both in stoichiometric ratio 2:1 and 1:1, respectively. The target amidinates contain less bulky isopropyl or cyclohexyl as well as a sterically demanding aromatic substituent. Desired 1:1 Pb(II) complexes are not accessible by the described procedure. Ligand transfer from Pb to Sn is taking place if homoleptic Pb(II) compounds are reacted with SnCl(2). Prepared tetrylenes were characterized by (1)H, (13)C, (119)Sn and (207)Pb NMR spectroscopy in C(6)D(6) or THF-d(8). X-Ray diffraction studies of one heteroleptic Ge(II) monomeric where the coordination polyhedron of the three coordinated germanium atoms is a trigonal pyramid, two different dimeric structures of heteroleptic Sn(II) complexes, one amidine hydroiodide byproduct and the oxidation product of the heteroleptic chloro Sn(II) amidinate as a tetranuclear species with two Sn(IV) and two Sn(II) atoms in central Sn(2)O(2) planar ring were performed on appropriate single crystals. The dimer of one of the heteroleptic stannylenes reveals a new type of monomeric units connection, weak Sn-Cl contact and an interaction of the tin atom with delocalized N-C(C)-N system of the amidinato ligand of the second molecule. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  14. Di-n-Butyl Phthalate Disrupts the Expression of Genes Involved in Cell Cycle and Apoptotic Pathways in Mouse Ovarian Antral Follicles1

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Zelieann R.; Hannon, Patrick R.; Wang, Wei; Ziv-Gal, Ayelet; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is present in many consumer products, such as infant, beauty, and medical products. Several studies have shown that DBP causes reproductive toxicity in rodents, but no studies have evaluated its effects on ovarian follicles. Therefore, we used a follicle culture system to evaluate the effects of DBP on antral follicle growth, cell cycle and apoptosis gene expression, cell cycle staging, atresia, and 17β-estradiol (E2) production. Antral follicles were isolated from adult CD-1 mice and exposed to DBP at 1, 10, 100, and 1000 μg/ml for 24 or 168 h. Follicles treated with vehicle or DBP at 1–100 μg/ml grew over time, but DBP at 1000 μg/ml significantly suppressed follicle growth. Regardless of effect on follicle growth, DBP-treated follicles had decreased mRNA for cyclins D2, E1, A2, and B1 and increased p21. Levels of the proapoptotic genes Bax, Bad, and Bok were not altered by DBP treatment, but DBP 1000 μg/ml increased levels of Bid and decreased levels of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl2. DBP-treated follicles contained significantly more cells in G1 phase, significantly less cells in S, and exhibited a trend for fewer cells in G2. Although DBP did not affect E2 production and atresia at 24 h, follicles treated with DBP had reduced levels of E2 at 96 h and underwent atresia at 168 h. These data suggest that DBP targets antral follicles and alters the expression of cell cycle and apoptosis factors, causes cell cycle arrest, decreases E2, and triggers atresia, depending on dose. PMID:23242528

  15. Effect of N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide and 3,4 dimethylpyrazole phosphate on gaseous emissions from grasslands under different soil water contents.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, S; Merino, P; Pinto, M; González-Murua, C; Estavillo, J M

    2009-01-01

    The intensification of grassland systems is leading to serious environmental risks due to the large input of nitrogen (N) in fertilizers and the subsequent gaseous losses. Addition of nitrification inhibitors (NI) or urease activity inhibitors to fertilizers could reduce these losses to the atmosphere. In the present study, the effects of the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) and the urease activity inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) were evaluated on NH3, N2O, NO, and CO2 emissions. Ammonium sulphate nitrate (ASN), urea and cattle slurry were applied at a rate of 70 kg N ha(-1) to a mixed clover-ryegrass sward in the Basque Country (northern Spain) under different soil water contents. NH3 and NO emissions were determined by photoacoustic and chemiluminescence respectively using an open chamber technique while N2O and CO2 emissions were measured by photoacoustic using a closed chamber technique. When the water filled pore space (WFPS) was under 60%, the application of NBPT reduced NO emissions a 34% on urea and an 18% on slurry, and the application of DMPP reduced them a 2% on ASN and a 4% on slurry. No significant effect was observed on NH3 losses. When WFPS was over 60%, no effect could be observed on NO and N2O emissions after the application of both inhibitors, but NH3 losses were reduced a 31% by NBPT when applied with the slurry. Carbon dioxide emissions were unaffected by the use of DMPP or NBPT at any soil water content. Neither grassland yield nor herbage N concentration were influenced by the application of both inhibitors.

  16. Molecular recognition at methyl methacrylate/n-butyl acrylate (MMA/nBA) monomer unit boundaries of phospholipids at p-MMA/nBA copolymer surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yu, Min; Urban, Marek W; Sheng, Yinghong; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2008-09-16

    Lipid structural features and their interactions with proteins provide a useful vehicle for further advances in membrane proteins research. To mimic one of potential lipid-protein interactions we synthesized poly(methyl methacrylate/ n-butyl acrylate) (p-MMA/nBA) colloidal particles that were stabilized by phospholipid (PLs). Upon the particle coalescence, PL stratification resulted in the formation of surface localized ionic clusters (SLICs). These entities are capable of recognizing MMA/nBA monomer interfaces along the p-MMA/nBA copolymer backbone and form crystalline SLICs at the monomer interface. By utilizing attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction (SAD) combined with ab initio calculations, studies were conducted that identified the origin of SLICs as well as their structural features formed on the surface of p-MMA/nBA copolymer films stabilized by 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC) PL. Specific entities responsible for SLIC formation are selective noncovalent bonds of anionic phosphate and cationic quaternary ammonium segments of DLPC that interact with two neighboring carbonyl groups of nBA and MMA monomers of the p-MMA/nBA polymer backbone. To the best of our knowledge this is the first example of molecular recognition facilitated by coalescence of copolymer colloidal particles and the ability of PLs to form SLICs at the boundaries of the neighboring MMA and nBA monomer units of the p-MMA/nBA chain. The dominating noncovalent bonds responsible for the molecular recognition is a combination of H-bonding and electrostatic interactions.

  17. Catalytic oxidation of dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenay, Piotr; Wu, Gang; Johnston, Christina M.; Li, Qing

    2016-05-10

    A composition for oxidizing dimethyl ether includes an alloy supported on carbon, the alloy being of platinum, ruthenium, and palladium. A process for oxidizing dimethyl ether involves exposing dimethyl ether to a carbon-supported alloy of platinum, ruthenium, and palladium under conditions sufficient to electrochemically oxidize the dimethyl ether.

  18. Preparation of monodisperse porous silica particles using poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres as a template.

    PubMed

    Grama, S; Horák, D

    2015-01-01

    Monodisperse macroporous poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) microspheres were used as a template for preparing porous silica particles. The starting polymer microspheres that were 9.3 microm in size were synthesized by multistep swelling polymerization using a modified Ugelstad technique. Subsequently, silica (SiO2) was deposited on the surface and inside the PGMA microspheres to produce poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-silica hybrid particles (PGMA-SiO2). Upon calcination of the PGMA-SiO2 microspheres, porous silica particles were formed. The morphology, particle size, polydispersity and inner structure of the silica microspheres were investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis and dynamic adsorption of nitrogen determined the amount of silica formed and its specific surface area. Compared with the starting PGMA microspheres, the size of the porous silica particles decreased by up to 30%. These porous silica microspheres are promising for chromatography and biomedical applications.

  19. Evaluation of polymer inclusion membranes containing crown ethers for selective cesium separation from nuclear waste solution.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, P K; Lakshmi, D S; Bhattacharyya, A; Manchanda, V K

    2009-09-30

    Transport behaviour of (137)Cs from nitric acid feed was investigated using cellulose triacetate plasticized polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) containing several crown ether carriers viz. di-benzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6), di-benzo-21-crown-7 (DB21C7) and di-tert-butylbenzo-18-crown-6 (DTBB18C6). The PIM was prepared from cellulose triacetate (CTA) with various crown ethers and plasticizers. DTBB18C6 and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) were found to give higher transport rate for (137)Cs as compared to other carriers and plasticizers. Effect of crown ether concentration, nitric acid concentration, plasticizer and CTA concentration on the transport rate of Cs was also studied. The Cs selectivity with respect to various fission products obtained from an irradiated natural uranium target was found to be heavily dependent on the nature of the plasticizer. The present work shows that by choosing a proper plasticizer, one can get either good transport efficiency or selectivity. Though TBP plasticized membranes showed good transport efficiency, it displayed poor selectivities. On the other hand, an entirely opposite separation behaviour was observed with 2-nitrophenyloctylether (NPOE) plasticized membranes suggesting the possible application of the later membranes for the removal of bulk (137)Cs from the nuclear waste. The stability of the membrane was tested by carrying out transport runs for nearly 25 days.

  20. Radiation-grafting of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto silicone rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Rojas, G. G.; Bucio, E.

    2016-10-01

    Silicone rubber (SR) was modified with a graft of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) using either gamma-radiation or azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN). The graft efficiency was evaluated as a function of monomer concentration, absorbed dose, reaction temperature, and concentration of AIBN. The hydrophilicity of the grafted films was measured by contact angle and their equilibrium swelling time in ethanol. Additional characterization by infrared (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is also reported.

  1. PRESENTED AT THE TRIANGLE CONSORTIUM FOR REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY MEETING ON 2/11/06: DI(N-BUTYL) PHTHALATE AND DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE IN COMBINATION ALTER SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION IN A CUMULATIVE MANNER AS A RESULT OF DEPRESSED FETAL TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION AND INSL3 GENE EXPRESSION IN MALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plasticizers di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) and diehtylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) have similar modes of action: in utero exposure reduces testosterone (T) production in fetal male rats, inhibits reproductive tract differentiation, and induces reproductive organ malformations. In utero e...

  2. Cross-linking carbon nanotubes by glycidyl azide polymer via click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhong; Du, Liang; Wang, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Functionalization and cross linking of carbon nanotubes was necessary to fabricate nanotube composites with good interfacial properties and mechanical performance. Glycidyl azide polymer was used as cross-linker of carbon nanotubes via a simple clickable one step reaction initiated by decomposition of azide groups. Both heating and UV irradiation were used to carry out the reaction. FTIR and Raman spectra confirmed the decomposition of azide groups and the anchoring of glycidyl azide polymer onto the surface of carbon nanotubes. Thermal gravity analysis showed that the polymer anchored onto carbon nanotubes was about 10% of the total mass in the solid product, but the efficiency of the reaction was low. The result of tensile test using bulky paper infiltrated with 10% GAP showed that cross linking could bring forth a higher strength, about 4 times higher than the not cross linked. The success of cross linking carbon nanotubes by glycidyl azide polymer paves a new way to fabrication of ultra strong carbon nanotube composites.

  3. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-A soft template for the facile preparation of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) core-copper nanoparticle shell nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed Safiullah, S.; Abdul Wasi, K.; Anver Basha, K.

    2015-12-01

    Poly(glycidyl methacrylate) core/copper nanoparticle shell nanocomposite (PGMA/Cu nanohybrid) was prepared by simple two step method (i) The synthesis of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) beads by free radical suspension polymerization followed by (ii) direct deposition of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) on activated PGMA beads. The PGMA beads were used as a soft template to host the CuNPs without surface modification of it. In this method the CuNPs were formed by chemical reduction of copper salts using sodium borohydride in water medium and deposited directly on the activated PGMA. Two different concentrations of copper salts were employed to know the effect of concentration on the shape and size of nanoparticles. The results showed that, the different sizes and shapes of CuNPs were deposited on the PGMA matrix. The X-ray Diffraction study results showed that the CuNPs were embedded on the surface of the PGMA matrix. The scanning electron microscopic images revealed that the fabrication of CuNPs on the PGMA matrix possess different shapes and changes the morphology and nature of PGMA beads significantly. The fluorescent micrograph also confirmed that the CuNPs were doped on the PGMA surface. The thermal studies have demonstrated that the CuNPs deposition on the surface of PGMA beads had a significant effect.

  4. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (third edition). Fourth supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-15

    The NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 3rd edition, was updated for the following chemicals: allyl-glycidyl-ether, 2-aminopyridine, aspartame, bromine, chlorine, n-butylamine, n-butyl-glycidyl-ether, carbon-dioxide, carbon-monoxide, chlorinated-camphene, chloroacetaldehyde, p-chlorophenol, crotonaldehyde, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, dinitro-o-cresol, ethyl-acetate, ethyl-formate, ethylenimine, sodium-fluoride, hydrogen-fluoride, cryolite, sodium-hexafluoroaluminate, formic-acid, hexachlorobutadiene, hydrogen-cyanide, hydrogen-sulfide, isopropyl-acetate, isopropyl-ether, isopropyl-glycidyl-ether, lead, lead-oxide, maleic-anhydride, methyl-acetate, methyl-acrylate, methyl-tert-butyl ether, methyl-cellosolve-acetate, methylcyclohexanol, 4,4'-methylenedianiline, monomethylaniline, monomethylhydrazine, nitric-oxide, p-nitroaniline, phenyl-ether, phenyl-ether-biphenyl mixture, phenyl-glycidyl-ether, phenylhydrazine, phosphine, ronnel, sulfuryl-fluoride, talc, tributyl-phosphate, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, trimellitic-anhydride, triorthocresyl-phosphate, triphenyl-phosphate, and vinyl-acetate.

  5. Atom transfer radical polymerization to fabricate monodisperse poly[glycidyl methacrylate-co-poly (ethylene glycol) methacrylate] microspheres and its application for protein affinity purification.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ling; Shi, Zhuan Zhuan; Li, Chang Ming

    2015-09-01

    Poly[glycidyl methacrylate-co-poly (ethylene glycol) methacrylate] microspheres for the first time were successfully synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method at room temperature. The co-polymerization approach was investigated to delicately control the microsphere morphology and size-distribution by reaction conditions including solvent percentage, monomer loading and rotation speed. The results show that the average size of the microspheres is ∼5.7 μm with coexistence of epoxy, hydroxyl and ether groups, which provide plentiful functional sites for protein anchoring. The mechanism of the microsphere formation is proposed. The microsphere successfully demonstrates its unique application for affinity purification of proteins, in which the functional epoxy group facilitates a simple and efficient protein covalent immobilization to purify immunoglobulin G on the microspheres, while the hydrophilic poly (ethylene glycol) motif can repulse nonspecific protein adsorption for good specificity. This microspheres can be used in broad protein biosensors due to their abundant functional groups and high surface to volume ratio.

  6. Effects of di(n-butyl) phthalate exposure on foetal rat germ-cell number and differentiation: identification of age-specific windows of vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Jobling, M S; Hutchison, G R; van den Driesche, S; Sharpe, R M

    2011-01-01

    Environmental factors are implicated in increased incidence of human testicular germ-cell cancer (TGCC). TGCC has foetal origins and may be one component of a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). Certain phthalates induce TDS in rats, including effects on foetal germ cells (GC). As humans are widely exposed to phthalates, study of the effects of phthalates on foetal rat GC could provide an insight into the vulnerability of foetal GC to disruption by environmental factors, and thus to origins of TGCC. This study has therefore characterized foetal GC development in rats after in utero exposure to di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) with emphasis on GC numbers/proliferation, differentiation and time course for inducing effects. Pregnant rats were treated orally from embryonic day 13.5 (e13.5) with 500 mg/kg/day DBP for varying periods. GC number, proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation (loss of OCT4, DMRT1 expression, DMRT1 re-expression, GC migration) and aggregation were evaluated at various foetal and postnatal ages. DBP exposure reduced foetal GC number by ∼60% by e15.5 and prolonged GC proliferation, OCT4 and DMRT1 immunoexpression; these effects were induced in the period immediately after testis differentiation (e13.5–e15.5). In contrast, DBP-induced GC aggregation stemmed from late gestation effects (beyond e19.5). Foetal DBP exposure delayed postnatal resumption of GC proliferation, leading to bigger deficits in numbers, and delayed re-expression of DMRT1 and radial GC migration. Therefore, DBP differentially affects foetal GC in rats according to stage of gestation, effects that may be relevant to the human because of their nature (OCT4, DMRT1 effects) or because similar effects are demonstrable in vitro on human foetal testes (GC number). Identification of the mechanisms underlying these effects could give a new insight into environment-sensitive mechanisms in early foetal GC development that could potentially be relevant to TGCC origins. PMID:21332505

  7. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous sclerotherapy of simple renal cysts with n-butyl cyanoacrylate and iodized oil mixture as an outpatient procedure.

    PubMed

    Ali, Tamer A; Abdelaal, Mohamed A; Enite, Ashraf; Badran, Yasser A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ultrasound guided percutaneous sclerotherapy of symptomatic simple renal cysts with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) and iodized oil mixture as an outpatient single session procedure. A total of ninety two patients with 100 symptomatic simple renal cysts (larger than 5 cm) were treated by ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous aspiration and injection of NBCA and iodized oil mixture. The patients (68 men and 24 women, mean age, 42.4 ± 10.5 years) were treated with as out-patients. The volume of the treated cysts was calculated with periodic noncontrast enhanced CT examinations 3, 6 and 9, months after the procedure. The procedure was considered successful at follow-up CT when there was total ablation or greater than 80% reduction of size with resolution of symptoms, respectively. Failure was defined as less than 80% reduction and/or persistent symptoms. The sclerotherapy was technically successful in all patients. The diameter of the cysts ranged between 5.5 and 13.5 cm (mean, 8.8 ± 1.4 cm), and 1.5 and 3.8 cm (mean, 2.1 ± 0.4 cm) before and after sclerotherapy, respectively (P < 0.001). Average diameter reduction was 83.7% during the follow-up period. The mean follow- up lasted 7.1 months (3-11 months). Flank pain resolved in 86 of 92 symptomatic patients (93.48%). In six patients, the symptoms decreased slightly. The procedure was successful in 98 of 100 cysts (98%), demonstrated by follow-up CT. The only two failed cyst was larger than 10 cm in diameter and don't required any further treatment. We did not observe any procedure related complications. Ultrasound guided percutaneous sclerotherapy with NBCA and iodized oil mixture for management of symptomatic simple renal cysts was found to be a real time, effective, safe, well tolerated, alternative and simple technique that can be carried out by urologists as an outpatient procedure.

  8. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous sclerotherapy of simple renal cysts with n-butyl cyanoacrylate and iodized oil mixture as an outpatient procedure

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Tamer A.; Abdelaal, Mohamed A.; Enite, Ashraf; Badran, Yasser A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ultrasound guided percutaneous sclerotherapy of symptomatic simple renal cysts with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) and iodized oil mixture as an outpatient single session procedure. Materials and Methods: A total of ninety two patients with 100 symptomatic simple renal cysts (larger than 5 cm) were treated by ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous aspiration and injection of NBCA and iodized oil mixture. The patients (68 men and 24 women, mean age, 42.4 ± 10.5 years) were treated with as out-patients. The volume of the treated cysts was calculated with periodic noncontrast enhanced CT examinations 3, 6 and 9, months after the procedure. The procedure was considered successful at follow-up CT when there was total ablation or greater than 80% reduction of size with resolution of symptoms, respectively. Failure was defined as less than 80% reduction and/or persistent symptoms. Results: The sclerotherapy was technically successful in all patients. The diameter of the cysts ranged between 5.5 and 13.5 cm (mean, 8.8 ± 1.4 cm), and 1.5 and 3.8 cm (mean, 2.1 ± 0.4 cm) before and after sclerotherapy, respectively (P < 0.001). Average diameter reduction was 83.7% during the follow-up period. The mean follow- up lasted 7.1 months (3–11 months). Flank pain resolved in 86 of 92 symptomatic patients (93.48%). In six patients, the symptoms decreased slightly. The procedure was successful in 98 of 100 cysts (98%), demonstrated by follow-up CT. The only two failed cyst was larger than 10 cm in diameter and don’t required any further treatment. We did not observe any procedure related complications. Conclusion: Ultrasound guided percutaneous sclerotherapy with NBCA and iodized oil mixture for management of symptomatic simple renal cysts was found to be a real time, effective, safe, well tolerated, alternative and simple technique that can be carried out by urologists as an outpatient procedure. PMID

  9. The effect of raw materials on thermo-oxidative stability and glycidyl ester content of palm oil during frying.

    PubMed

    Aniołowska, Magda A; Kita, Agnieszka M

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effects of the water content of food incorporated into frying oil on oil degradation and the content of glycidyl esters. Potato chips, French fries and snacks were fried intermittently in palm oil, which was heated at 180 °C for 8 h per day over five consecutive days. Thermo-oxidative and physical alterations, changes in fatty acid composition, total polar components, polar fraction composition, and water content were analysed. The content of glycidyl esters was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. More polar compounds were formed in the oil used for frying chips (252 g kg(-1)) than for French fries (229 g kg(-1)) or snacks (196 g kg(-1)). Reductions in glycidyl esters were found in oils used for frying--greater for frying snacks and French fries (95% and 93%) than for potato chips (87%). The rate of decrease of glycidyl esters was correlated with frying parameters, most strongly with the concentrations of diacylglycerols (r = 0.98) and total polar components (r = -0.98). The raw material had a greater influence on polymerization conversion and glycidyl ester content than on hydrolytic and oxidative changes in the frying oil. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Direct Determination of MCPD Fatty Acid Esters and Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters in Vegetable Oils by LC–TOFMS

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Troy D.; Adlaf, Kevin J.; Pierceall, Robert M.; Lee, Inmok; Venkitasubramanian, Padmesh

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils using the indirect method proposed by the DGF gave inconsistent results when salting out conditions were varied. Subsequent investigation showed that the method was destroying and reforming MCPD during the analysis. An LC time of flight MS method was developed for direct analysis of both MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils. The results of the LC–TOFMS method were compared with the DGF method. The DGF method consistently gave results that were greater than the LC–TOFMS method. The levels of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters found in a variety of vegetable oils are reported. MCPD monoesters were not found in any oil samples. MCPD diesters were found only in samples containing palm oil, and were not present in all palm oil samples. Glycidyl esters were found in a wide variety of oils. Some processing conditions that influence the concentration of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters are discussed. PMID:21350591

  11. Influence of Non-fundamental Modes on Mid-infrared Spectra: Anharmonic DFT Study of Aliphatic Ethers.

    PubMed

    Beć, Krzysztof B; Grabska, Justyna; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Hawranek, Jerzy P; Huck, Christian W

    2017-02-23

    Fundamental and non-fundamental vibrational modes, first overtones, and binary combination modes of selected aliphatic ethers (di-n-propylether, di-iso-propylether, n-butylmethyl ether, n-butylethyl ether, di-n-butyl ether, tert-buytlmethyl ether, and tert-amylmethyl ether) were modeled in a fully anharmonic generalized second-order vibrational perturbation theory (GVPT2) approach on the DFT-B2PLYP/SNST level. The modeling procedure of theoretical line shapes took into account conformational isomers of studied molecules. The calculated spectra of the above ethers were compared to the corresponding experimental spectra in the infrared (IR) region (4000-560 cm(-1)) of the absorption index k(ν) derived from the neat liquid thin-film transmission data. It was found that IR spectra of aliphatic ethers are heavily influenced by the bands originating from non-fundamental modes, particularly from the combination modes in the C-H stretching region (3200-2800 cm(-1)). Because of the effects of vibrational resonances, the intensities of overtones and combination bands originating from methyl and methylene deformation modes increase sufficiently to influence the experimental line shape in this region. Less significant contributions from non-fundamental vibrational modes were noticed in the lower IR region (1600-560 cm(-1)), particularly in the vicinity of the C-O stretching band. The 2700-1600 cm(-1) region, which is rich in weak bands due to non-fundamental vibrations, was reproduced accurately as well. It was concluded that a fully anharmonic approach allows significantly more accurate reproduction of the complex IR line shapes, particularly in the C-H stretching region of aliphatic ethers. On the basis of the achieved agreement between the experimental and calculated spectra, it may be concluded that the anharmonic GVPT2 method can adequately reproduce the anharmonic effects and vibrational resonances in particular, influencing the IR spectra of aliphatic ethers. The

  12. The quest for complex molecules in space: laboratory spectroscopy of n-butyl cyanide, n-C4H9CN, in the millimeter wave region and its astronomical search in Sagittarius B2(N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordu, M. H.; Müller, H. S. P.; Walters, A.; Nuñez, M.; Lewen, F.; Belloche, A.; Menten, K. M.; Schlemmer, S.

    2012-05-01

    Context. The saturated n-propyl cyanide was recently detected in Sagittarius B2(N). The next largest unbranched alkyl cyanide is n-butyl cyanide. Aims: We provide accurate rest frequency predictions beyond the millimeter wave range to search for this molecule in the Galactic center source Sagittarius B2(N) and facilitate its detection in space. Methods: We investigated the laboratory rotational spectrum of n-butyl cyanide between 75 GHz and 348 GHz. We searched for emission lines produced by the molecule in our sensitive IRAM 30 m molecular line survey of Sagittarius B2(N). Results: We identified more than one thousand rotational transitions in the laboratory for each of the three conformers for which limited data had been obtained previously in a molecular beam microwave study. The quantum number range was greatly extended to J ≈ 120 or more and Ka > 35, resulting in accurate spectroscopic parameters and accurate rest frequency calculations up to about 500 GHz for strong to moderately weak transitions of the two lower energy conformers. Upper limits to the column densities of N ≤ 3 × 1015 cm-2 and 8 × 1015 cm-2 were derived towards Sagittarius B2(N) for the two lower energy conformers, anti-anti and gauche-anti, respectively. Conclusions: Our present data will be helpful for identifying n-butyl cyanide at millimeter or longer wavelengths with radio telescope arrays such as ALMA, NOEMA, or EVLA. In particular, its detection in Sagittarius B2(N) with ALMA seems feasible. Full Table 3 and Tables 4-5 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/541/A121

  13. Triethylene glycol monoethyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Triethylene glycol monoethyl ether ; CASRN 112 - 50 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  14. Triethylene glycol monobutyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Triethylene glycol monobutyl ether ; CASRN 143 - 22 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  15. p-Bromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    p - Bromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 101 - 55 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  16. Propylene glycol monoethyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propylene glycol monoethyl ether ; CASRN 52125 - 53 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  17. Chloromethyl methyl ether (CMME)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chloromethyl methyl ether ( CMME ) ; CASRN 107 - 30 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  18. Treatment of Hemodialysis Vascular Access Rupture Irresponsive to Prolonged Balloon Tamponade: Retrospective Evaluation of the Effectiveness of N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate Seal-Off Technique

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Mei-Jui; Liang, Huei-Lung; Pan, Huay-Ben

    2013-01-01

    Objective The current study retrospectively evaluated whether the percutaneous N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) seal-off technique is an effective treatment for controlling the angioplasty-related ruptures, which are irresponsive to prolonged balloon tamponade, during interventions for failed or failing hemodialysis vascular accesses. Materials and Methods We reviewed 1588 interventions performed during a 2-year period for dysfunction and/or failed hemodialysis vascular access sites in 1569 patients. For the angioplasty-related ruptures, which could not be controlled with repeated prolonged balloon tamponade, the rupture sites were sealed off with an injection of a glue mixture (NBCA and lipiodol), via a needle/needle sheath to the rupture site, under a sonographic guidance. Technical success rate, complications and clinical success rate were reported. The post-seal-off primary and secondary functional patency rates were calculated by a survival analysis with the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Twenty ruptures irresponsive to prolonged balloon tamponade occurred in 1588 interventions (1.3%). Two technical failures were noted; one was salvaged with a bailout stent-graft insertion and the other was lost after access embolization. Eighteen accesses (90.0%) were salvaged with the seal-off technique; of them, 16 ruptures were completely sealed off, and two lesions were controlled as acute pseudoaneurysms. Acute pseudoaneurysms were corrected with stentgraft insertion in one patient, and access ligation in the other. The most significant complication during the follow-up was delayed pseudoaneurysm, which occurred in 43.8% (7 of 16) of the completely sealed off accesses. Delayed pseudoaneurysms were treated with surgical revision (n = 2), access ligation (n = 2) and observation (n = 3). During the follow-up, despite the presence of pseudoaneurysms (acute = 1, delayed = 7), a high clinical success rate of 94.4% (17 of 18) was achieved, and they were utilized for hemodialysis at

  19. Interaction of angiogenically stimulated intermediate CD163+ monocytes/macrophages with soft hydrophobic poly(n-butyl acrylate) networks with elastic moduli matched to that of human arteries.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Anke; Kratz, Karl; Hiebl, Bernhard; Lendlein, Andreas; Jung, Friedrich

    2012-03-01

    The cell population of peripheral blood monocytes/macrophages (MO) is heterogeneous: The majority of the MO are CD14++ CD16- and named "classical" (= MO1). Furthermore, two other subpopulations were described: CD14++ CD16+ ("intermediate" = MO2) and CD14+ CD16++ ("non-classical" = MO3). It is reported that MO2 possess anti-inflammatory properties and express the MO lineage marker CD163. On a hydrophilic neutrally charged acrylamide-based hydrogel human intermediate (CD14++ CD16+ ), angiogenically stimulated CD163++ monocytes/macrophages (aMO2) maintained a proangiogenic and noninflammatory status for at least 14 days. Here, we explored whether this aMO2 subset adhered to hydrophobic poly(n-butyl acrylate) networks (cPnBA) and also remained in its proangiogenic and noninflammatory status. Because substrate elasticity can impact adherence, morphology, and function of cells, cPnBAs with different Young's modulus (250 and 1100 kPa) were investigated, whereby their elasticity was tailored by variation of the cross-linker content and matched to the elasticity of human arteries. The cPnBAs exhibited similar surface properties (e.g., surface roughness), which were maintained after ethylene oxide sterilization and exposure in serum-free cell culture medium for 18 h at 37°C. aMO2 were seeded on cPnBA samples (1.7 × 10(5) cells/1.33 cm(2) ) in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM high glucose) supplemented with vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF-A(165) , 10 ng/mL) and fetal calf serum (10 vol%) for 3 and 72 h. On both polymeric samples (n = 3 each), the numbers of adherent cells per unit area were significantly higher (P < 0.01; cPnBA0250: 3 h 13 ± 5 cells/mm(2) , 72 h 234 ± 106 cells/mm(2) ; cPnBA1100: 3 h 14 ± 3 cells/mm(2) , 72 h 198 ± 113 cells/mm(2) ) compared to control cultures (glass, 3 h: 6 ± 3 cells/mm(2) , 72 h: 130 ± 83 cells/mm(2) ) and showed a typically spread morphology. The

  20. Amine functionalization of cellulose surface grafted with glycidyl methacrylate by γ-initiated RAFT polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsbay, Murat; Güven, Olgun; Kodama, Yasko

    2016-07-01

    This study presents the functionalization of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) grafted cellulose filter paper by a model compound, ethylenediamine (EDA), through the epoxy groups of PGMA. Cellulose based copolymers were prepared via the radiation-induced and RAFT-mediated graft polymerization. The samples were characterized by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), elemental analysis, contact angle measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An efficient modification density of around 1 mmol EDA/mg copolymer was attained within ca. 8 h, indicating that chemical composition of well-defined copolymers may further be tuned by appropriately selecting the reactive agents for use in many emerging fields.

  1. Propenyl ether monomers for photopolymerization

    DOEpatents

    Crivello, J.V.

    1996-10-22

    Propenyl ether monomers of formula A(OCH{double_bond}CHCH{sub 3}){sub n} wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of the above formula together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

  2. Propenyl ether monomers for photopolymerization

    DOEpatents

    Crivello, James V.

    1996-01-01

    Propenyl ether monomers of formula V A(OCH.dbd.CHCH.sub.3).sub.n wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of formula V together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

  3. Glycol Ethers As Groundwater Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Benjamin; Johannson, Gunnar; Foster, Gregory D.; Eckel, William P.

    1992-01-01

    Ether derivatives of dihydroxy alcohols, which are formed from ethylene or propylene, comprise an important group of groundwater contaminants known as glycol ethers. Compounds in this group are used as solvents, cleaning agents, and emulsifiers in many chemical products and manufacturing operations. Glycol ethers have been associated with a variety of toxic effects, and some compounds in the group are relatively potent teratogens. The limited information available suggests that glycol ethers are contaminants in groundwater, especially in anaerobic plumes emanating from disposal of mixed industrial and household waste. Most methods used to analyze groundwater samples cannot adequately detect μg/? (ppb) concentrations of glycol ethers, and the existing methods perform worst for the most widely used and toxic species. A new method capable of analyzing μg/? concentrations of glycol ethers was recently developed, and its use is recommended for groundwater samples where glycol ethers are likely to be present.

  4. Preparation and characterization of new low melting ammonium-based ionic liquids with ether functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kärnä, Minna; Lahtinen, Manu; Valkonen, Jussi

    2009-03-01

    Eighteen new and three previously known but insufficiently characterized RŔ 3N +A - and R 2Ŕ 2N +A - type ( R = 2-ethoxyethyl or 4-methoxybenzyl, Ŕ = methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, n-butyl, n-pentyl or n-hexyl, A = Br, BF 4 or PF 6) quaternary ammonium (QA) salts were synthesized and characterized by using 1H and 13C NMR techniques, mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The bromide salts were synthesized either by treating dimethyl formamide with an ether functionalized alkyl bromide in the presence of potassium carbonate or by treating a tertiary amine with an ether functionalized alkyl bromide. The QA tetrafluoroborates and hexafluorophosphates were synthesized by metathesis reaction between a prepared QA bromide and HBF 4 or KPF 6. The crystal structures of four compounds were determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction and powder diffraction was used to study the crystallinity of the solid compounds and to compare the structural similarities between the single crystals and the microcrystalline bulk form. Thermal properties of all compounds were studied by using TG/DTA and DSC methods. The anion exchange had a clear lowering effect on the melting points and enhanced the thermal stability of the BF4- and PF6- salts compared to the analogous bromides. Most of the compounds melted clearly below 100 °C, of which four are liquid at room temperature.

  5. Thermoresponsive cellulose ether and its flocculation behavior for organic dye removal.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Ju, Benzhi; Zhang, Shufen; Hou, Linan

    2016-01-20

    A thermoresponsive polymer, 2-hydroxy-3-butoxypropyl hydroxyethyl cellulose (HBPEC), was prepared by grafting butyl glycidyl ether (BGE) onto hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC). The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and critical flocculation temperature (CFT) of HBPEC were varied by changing the molar substitution (MS) and salt concentrations. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and fluorescence spectroscopy showed that HBPEC can assemble into micelles. Additionally, using Nile Red as a model dye, the performance of HBPEC for the removing Nile Red from aqueous solutions via cloud point extraction procedures was investigated in detail. The encapsulation behavior of dye in the aqueous solution of HBPEC was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence microscope. The experimental results indicated that 99.4% of dye was removed from the aqueous solutions, and the HBPEC was recycled and reused easily, Furthermore, the recycle efficiency (RE) and maximum loading capacity portrayed little loss with the number of cycles.

  6. Versatility of Alkyne-Modified Poly(Glycidyl Methacrylate) Layers for Click Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Soto-Cantu, Dr. Erick; Lokitz, Bradley S; Hinestrosa Salazar, Juan Pablo; Deodhar, Chaitra; Messman, Jamie M; Ankner, John Francis; Kilbey, II, S Michael

    2011-01-01

    Functional soft interfaces are of interest for a variety of technologies. We describe three methods for preparing substrates with alkyne groups, which show versatility for 'click' chemistry reactions. Two of the methods have the same root: formation of thin, covalently attached, reactive interfacial layers of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) via spin coating onto silicon wafers followed by reactive modification with either propargylamine or 5-hexynoic acid. The amine or the carboxylic acid moieties react with the epoxy groups of PGMA, creating interfacial polymer layers decorated with alkyne groups. The third method consists of using copolymers comprising glycidyl methacrylate and propargyl methacrylate (pGP). The pGP copolymers are spin coated and covalently attached on silicon wafers. For each method, we investigate the factors that control film thickness and content of alkyne groups using ellipsometry, and study the nanophase structure of the films using neutron reflectometry. Azide-terminated polymers of methacrylic acid and 2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization were attached to the alkyne-modified substrates using 'click' chemistry, and grafting densities in the range of 0.007-0.95 chains nm{sup -2} were attained. The maximum density of alkyne groups attained by functionalization of PGMA with propargylamine or 5-hexynoic acid was approximately 2 alkynes nm{sup -3}. The alkyne content obtained by the three decorating approaches was sufficiently high that it was not the limiting factor for the click reaction of azide-capped polymers.

  7. Iodinated glycidyl methacrylate copolymer as a radiopaque material for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Dawlee, S; Jayabalan, M

    2013-07-01

    Polymeric biomaterial was synthesized by copolymerizing 50:50 mol% of monomers, glycidyl methacrylate and methyl methacrylate. Iodine atoms were then grafted to the epoxide groups of glycidyl methacrylate units, rendering the copolymer radiopaque. The percentage weight of iodine in the present copolymer was found to be as high as 23%. The iodinated copolymer showed higher glass transition temperature and thermal stability in comparison with unmodified polymer. Radiographic analysis showed that the copolymer possessed excellent radiopacity. The iodinated copolymer was cytocompatible to L929 mouse fibroblast cells. The in vivo toxicological evaluation by intracutaneous reactivity test of the copolymer extracts has revealed that the material was nontoxic. Subcutaneous implantation of iodinated copolymer in rats has shown that the material was well tolerated. Upon explantation and histological examination, no hemorrhage, infection or necrosis was observed. The samples were found to be surrounded by a vascularized capsule consisting of connective tissue cells. The results indicate that the iodinated copolymer is biocompatible and may have suitable applications as implantable materials.

  8. Novel nitric oxide generating compound glycidyl nitrate enhances the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapy and radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Shoucheng; Bednarski, Mark; Oronsky, Bryan; Scicinski, Jan; Knox, Susan J.

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • Glycidyl nitrate (GLYN) is a NO generating small molecule and has ability to release NO on bioactivation in tumor cells. • GLYN-induced intracellular NO generation was attenuated by NO scavengers. • GLYN increases tumor blood flow in tumor-bearing animal model. • GLYN significantly increased the anti-tumor efficacy of cisplatin and radiation therapy in mice. • GLYN is well tolerated with no obvious systemic toxicities at its effective therapeutic doses in preclinical animal studies. - Abstract: Selective release of nitric oxide (NO) in tumors could improve the tumor blood flow and drug delivery for chemotherapeutic agents and radiotherapy, thereby increasing the therapeutic index. Glycidyl nitrate (GLYN) is a NO generating small molecule, and has ability to release NO on bioactivation in SCC VII tumor cells. GLYN-induced intracellular NO generation was significantly attenuated by NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO (cPTIO) and NAC. GLYN significantly increases tumor blood flow, but has no effect on the blood flow of normal tissues in tumor-bearing mice. When used with cisplatin, GLYN significantly increased the tumor growth inhibition effect of cisplatin. GLYN also had a modest radiosensitizing effect in vitro and in vivo. GLYN was well tolerated and there were no acute toxicities found at its effective therapeutic doses in preclinical studies. These results suggest that GLYN is a promising new drug for use with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and provide a compelling rationale for future studies of GLYN and related compounds.

  9. Effect of Montmorillonite Modification on Ultra Violet Radiation Cured Nanocomposite Filled with Glycidyl Methacrylate Modified Kenaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozyanty, A. R.; Rozman, H. D.; Zhafer, S. F.; Musa, L.; Zuliahani, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this study nanocomposite cured by ultra violet radiation, were produced using modified montmorillonite (MMT) as reinforcing agent, chemically modified kenaf bast fiber as filler and unsaturated polyester as the matrix. Kenaf bast fiber was chemically modified with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) whilst MMT were modified with cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). Fixed 12 percent of GMA modified kenaf bast fiber with different percentage (i.e., 1, 3 and 5) of unmodified and modified MMT loading was used to produce the composite. The performed of GMA reaction with hydroxyl group of cellulose in kenaf bast fiber was evaluated using Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. GMA-MMT filled composite showed higher mechanical properties than MMT and CTAB-MMT filled composite. However, the increase of MMT, CTAB-MMT and GMA- MMT loading resulted in the reduction of mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed the evidence of compatibility enhancement between MMT and kenaf bast fiber with unsaturated polyester matrix.

  10. Sequence dependent conformations of glycidyl methacrylate/butyl methacrylate copolymers in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Erin Shammel; Gidden, Jennifer; Simonsick, William J.; Grady, Michael C.; Bowers, Michael T.

    2004-11-01

    Sequence dependent conformations of a series of glycidyl methacrylate/butyl methacrylate (GMA/BMA) copolymers cationized by sodium were analyzed in the gas phase using ion mobility methods. GMA and BMA have the same nominal mass but vary in exact mass by 0.036 Da (CH4 versus O). Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) was used to form Na+(GMA/BMA) copolymer ions and their collision cross-sections were measured in helium using ion mobility methods. The copolymer sequences from Na+(GMA/BMA)3 to Na+(GMA/BMA)5 (i.e. for the trimer to the pentamer) were studied. Analysis by molecular mechanics/dynamics indicates that each copolymer (regardless of sequence) forms a ring around the sodium ions due to Na+/oxygen electrostatic interactions. However, the structures vary in size, since the epoxy oxygen atoms in the glycidyl groups are attracted to the sodium ions while the carbon-composed butyl groups are not. This allows copolymers with more GMA segments to fold tighter (more spherically) around the sodium ion and have smaller cross-sections than copolymers with a larger amount of BMA segments in the sequence. Due to this cross-sectional difference, the GMA/BMA sequence compositions of the trimer and tetramer could be quantified.

  11. Bio-based alternative to the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A with controlled materials properties.

    PubMed

    Maiorana, Anthony; Spinella, Stephen; Gross, Richard A

    2015-03-09

    A series of biobased epoxy monomers were prepared from diphenolic acid (DPA) by transforming the free acid into n-alkyl esters and the phenolic hydroxyl groups into diglycidyl ethers. NMR experiments confirmed that the diglycidyl ethers of diphenolates (DGEDP) with methyl and ethyl esters have 6 and 3 mol % of glycidyl ester. Increasing the chain length of DGEDP n-alkyl esters from methyl to n-pentyl resulted in large decreases in epoxy resin viscosity (700-to-11 Pa·s). Storage modulus of DPA epoxy resins, cured with isophorone diamine, also varied with n-alkyl ester chain length (e.g., 3300 and 2100 MPa for the methyl and n-pentyl esters). The alpha transition temperature of the cured materials showed a linear decrease from 158 to 86 °C as the ester length increases. The Young's modulus and tensile strengths were about 1150 and 40 MPa, respectively, for all the cured resins tested (including DGEBA) and varied little as a function of ester length. Degree of cure for the different epoxy resins, determined by FTIR and DSC, closely approached the theoretical maximum. The result of this work demonstrates that diglycidyl ethers of n-alkyl diphenolates represent a new family of biobased liquid epoxy resins that, when cured, have similar properties to those from DGEBA.

  12. Marchantin M trimethyl ether.

    PubMed

    Mombrú, A W; Suescun, L; Pandolfi, E; Seoane, G; López, G; Mariezcurrena, R

    2000-11-01

    The title macrocycle, C(31)H(30)O(5), is comprised of two bibenzyl ether moieties linked cyclically by spacers which each consist of two-carbon alkyl chains. The observed conformation of the macrocycle may be partly stabilized by intramolecular C-H.O close contacts. The packing appears to be directed by van der Waals forces. This work explains the occurrence of a signal found in the (1)H NMR spectra of both marchantinquinone and marchantin M trimethyl ether at delta = 5. 49 and 5.56 p.p.m., respectively. The shift in the position of the expected peak can be explained by the proximity of an H atom belonging to one of the aromatic rings to another ring in the same molecule.

  13. Glycidyl fatty acid esters in refined edible oils: A review on formation, occurrence, analysis, and elimination methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glycidyl fatty acid esters (GEs), one of the main contaminants in processed oil, are mainly formed during the deodorization step in the oil refining process of edible oils and therefore occur in almost all refined edible oils. GEs are potential carcinogens, due to the fact that they hydrolyze into t...

  14. Surface functionalization of cotton cellulose with glycidyl methacrylate and its application for the adsorption of aromatic pollutants from wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Vismara, Elena; Melone, Lucio; Gastaldi, Giuseppe; Cosentino, Cesare; Torri, Giangiacomo

    2009-10-30

    Cellulose material C1 was prepared by grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) in the presence of Fenton-type reagent. This one-pot procedure provided C1 with glycidyl isobutyrate branches. Glycidyl epoxide ring opening with water turned C1-C2 material branched with glycerol isobutyrate. So, C1 surface bears hydrophobic branches ending with the glycidyl group, while C2 surface presents hydrophilic branches ending with the glycerol group. The adsorption of aromatic polluting substances like phenol (Ph), 4-nitrophenol (pNPh), 2,4-dinitrophenol (dNPh), 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (picric acid, tNPh) and 2-naphtol (BN) from their water solutions was tested with C1, C2 and with the untreated cellulose material C0. Phenol adsorption did not occur. All the other aromatic molecules were removed in different amount both by C1 and C2. C1 and C2 showed different affinities towards nitrophenols and 2-naphtol. While C1 was much more effective for removing the hydrophobic 2-naphtol, C2 had higher adsorption capacity towards the hydrophilic nitrophenols, in agreement with their branches polarity, respectively.

  15. New Functionalities of PA6,6 Fabric Modified by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma and Grafted Glycidyl Methacrylate Derivatives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oxidative atmospheric pressure plasma was utilized to activate surface of PA 6,6 fabrics followed by graft copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and further reacted with triethylene tetramine (TETA), quaternary ammonium chitosan (HTCC) or cyclodextrin (CD). The inner CD cavity was complexe...

  16. Mitigated reactive oxygen species generation leads to an improvement of cell proliferation on poly[glycidyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate] functionalized polydimethylsiloxane surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ling; Shi, ZhuanZhuan; Gao, LiXia; Li, ChangMing

    2015-09-01

    In vitro cell-based analysis is strongly affected by material's surface chemical properties. The cell spreading, migration, and proliferation on a substrate surface are initiated and controlled by successful adhesion, particularly for anchor-dependent cells. Unfortunately, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), one of the most used polymeric materials for construction of microfluidic and miniaturized biomedical analytic devices, is not a cell-friendly surface because of its inherent hydrophobic property. Herein, a poly[glycidyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate] (poly(GMA-co-pEGMA)) polymer brush was synthesized on a PDMS surface through a surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization method. Contact angle and Fourier transform infrared characterization show that the poly (GMA-co-pEGMA) polymer brush functionalization can increase wettability of PDMS and introduce epoxy, hydroxyl, and ether groups into PDMS surface. In vitro cell growth assay demonstrates that cell adhesion and proliferation on poly(GMA-co-pEGMA) polymer brush-functionalized PDMS (poly(GMA-co-pEGMA)@PDMS) are better than on pristine PDMS. Additionally, immobilization of collagen type I (CI) and fibronectin (FN) on poly(GMA-co-pEGMA)@PDMS is better than direct coating of CI and FN on pristine PDMS to promote cell adhesion. Furthermore, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species and cell mitochondrial membrane depolarization, two indicators of cell oxidative stress, are observed from cells growing on pristine PDMS, but not from those on poly(GMA-co-pEGMA)@PDMS. Collectively, we demonstrate that poly(GMA-co-pEGMA) functionalization can enhance cell adhesion and proliferation on PDMS, and thus can be potentially used for microfluidic cell assay devices for cellular physiology study or drug screening. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, morpholinepropanamine...-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, morpholinepropanamine, propylene glycol diamine and aliphatic polyamine, N... products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether,...

  18. Derivation of a human equivalent concentration for n-butanol using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for n-butyl acetate and metabolites n-butanol and n-butyric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Deisinger, P. J.; Poet, Torka S.; English, J C.; Faber, W D.; Barton, H. A.; Corley, Rick A.; Clewell, III, H. J.

    2005-05-01

    The metabolic series (family) approach for risk assessment uses a dosimetry-based analysis to develop toxicity information for a group of metabolically linked compounds using pharmacokinetic (PK) data for each compound and toxicity data for the parent compound. An initial physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to support the implementation of the metabolic series approach for n-butyl acetate and its subsequent metabolites, n-butanol, and n-butyric acid (the butyl series) (Barton et al. 2000). In conjunction with pilot pharmacokinetic studies, the model was used to design the definitive intravenous (i.v.) PK studies. Rats were implanted with dual indwelling cannulae and administered test compounds by i.v. bolus dose, i.v. infusion, or by inhalation in a recirculating closed chamber. Hepatic, vascular and extravascular metabolic constants for metabolism were estimated by fitting the model to the blood time course data from these experiments. The respiratory bioavailability of n-butyl acetate and n-butanol was estimated from closed chamber inhalation studies and measured ventilation rates. The resulting butyl series PBPK model successfully reproduces the blood time course of these compounds following i.v. administration, and inhalation exposure to n-butyl acetate and n-butanol. A fully scaled human version of the model successfully reproduces arterial blood n-butanol kinetics following inhalation exposure to n-butanol. These validated i.v (rat) and inhalation route models (rat, butyl acetate, n-butanol; human, butanol only) can be used to support species and dose-route extrapolations required for risk assessment of butyl series family of compounds. Further, this work demonstrates the usefulness of i.v. kinetic data for parameterization of systemic metabolism and the value of collaboration between experimentalists and kineticists in the development of PBPK models. The product of this effort, validated rat and human PBPK models for the butyl

  19. Formation of secondary organic aerosol and oligomers from the ozonolysis of enol ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadezky, A.; Chaimbault, P.; Mellouki, A.; Römpp, A.; Winterhalter, R.; Le Bras, G.; Moortgat, G. K.

    2006-10-01

    Formation of secondary organic aerosol has been observed in the gas phase ozonolysis of a series of enol ethers, among them several alkyl vinyl ethers (AVE, ROCH=CH2), such as ethyl, propyl, n-butyl, iso-butyl, t-butyl vinyl ether, and ethyl propenyl ether (EPE, C2H5OCH=CHCH3). The ozonolysis has been studied in a 570 l spherical glass reactor at ambient pressure (730 Torr) and room temperature (296 K). Gas phase reaction products were investigated by in-situ FTIR spectroscopy, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation was monitored by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The chemical composition of the formed SOA was analysed by a hybrid mass spectrometer using electrospray ionization (ESI). The main stable gas phase reaction product is the respective alkyl formate ROC(O)H, formed with yields of 60 to 80%, implying that similar yields of the corresponding excited Criegee Intermediates (CI) CH2O2 for the AVE and CH3CHO2 for EPE are generated. Measured SOA yields are between 2 to 4% for all enol ethers. Furthermore, SOA formation is strongly reduced or suppressed by the presence of an excess of formic acid, which acts as an efficient CI scavenger. Chemical analysis of the formed SOA by ESI(+)/MS-TOF allows to identify oligomeric compounds in the mass range 200 to 800 u as its major constituents. Repetitive chain units are identified as CH2O2 (mass 46) for the AVE and C2H4O2 (mass 60) for EPE and thus have the same chemical compositions as the respective major Criegee Intermediates formed during ozonolysis of these ethers. The oligomeric structure and chain unit identity are confirmed by HPLC/ESI(+)/MS-TOF and ESI(+)/MS/MS-TOF experiments, whereby successive and systematic loss of a fragment with mass 46 for the AVE (and mass 60 for EPE) is observed. It is proposed that the oligomer has the following basic structure of an oligoperoxide, -[CH(R)-O-O]n-, where R=H for the AVE and R=CH3 for the EPE. Oligoperoxide formation is thus suggested to be another, so

  20. Formation of secondary organic aerosol and oligomers from the ozonolysis of enol ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadezky, A.; Chaimbault, P.; Mellouki, A.; Römpp, A.; Winterhalter, R.; Le Bras, G.; Moortgat, G. K.

    2006-06-01

    Formation of secondary organic aerosol has been observed in the gas phase ozonolysis of a series of enol ethers, among them several alkyl vinyl ethers (AVE, ROCH=CH2), such as ethyl, propyl, n-butyl, iso-butyl, t-butyl vinyl ether, and ethyl propenyl ether (EPE, C2H5OCH=CHCH3). The ozonolysis has been studied in a 570 l spherical glass reactor at atmospheric pressure (730 Torr) and temperature (296 K). Gas phase reaction products were investigated by in-situ FTIR spectroscopy, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation was monitored by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The chemical composition of the formed SOA was analysed by a hybrid mass spectrometer using electrospray ionization (ESI). The main stable gas phase reaction product is the respective alkyl formate ROC(O)H, formed with yields of 60 to 80%, implying that similar yields of the corresponding Criegee Intermediates (CI) CH2O2 for the AVE and CH3CHO2 for EPE are generated. Measured SOA yields are between 2 to 4% for all enol ethers. Furthermore, SOA formation is strongly reduced or suppressed by the presence of an excess of formic acid, which acts as an efficient CI scavenger. Chemical analysis of the formed SOA by ESI(+)/MS-TOF allows to identify oligomeric compounds in the mass range 200 to 800 u as its major constituents. Repetitive chain units are identified as CH2O2 (mass 46) for the AVE and C2H4O2 (mass 60) for EPE and thus have the same chemical compositions as the respective major Criegee Intermediates formed during ozonolysis of these ethers. The oligomeric structure and chain unit identity are confirmed by HPLC/ESI(+)/MS-TOF and ESI(+)/MS/MS-TOF experiments, whereby successive and systematic loss of a fragment with mass 46 for the AVE (and mass 60 for EPE) is observed. It is proposed that the oligomer has the following basic structure of an oligoperoxide, -[CH(R)-O-O]n-, where R=H for the AVE and R=CH3 for the EPE. Oligoperoxide formation is thus suggested to be another, so far

  1. Poly(arylene ether)s That Resist Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Novel poly(arylene ether)s containing phosphine oxide (PAEPO's) made via aromatic nucleophilic displacement reactions of activated aromatic dihalides (or, in some cases, activated aromatic dinitro compounds) with new bisphenol monomers containing phosphine oxide. Exhibited favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties and resistance to monatomic oxygen in oxygen plasma environment. Useful as adhesives, coatings, films, membranes, moldings, and composite matrices.

  2. Luminescence techniques and characterization of the morphology of polymer latices. 3. An investigation of the microenvironments within stabilized aqueous latex dispersions of poly(n-butyl methacrylate) and polyurethane.

    PubMed

    Soutar, I; Swanson, L; Annable, T; Padget, J C; Satgurunathan, R

    2006-06-20

    Fluorescence techniques (including time-resolved anisotropy measurements, TRAMS) have been used to probe differences in morphology between two stabilized aqueous latex dispersions (poly(n-butyl methacrylate), PBMA, and polyurethane, PU). Use of the emission characteristics of probes such as pyrene and phenanthrene dispersed within particles reveals that the PU latices are more heterogeneous in nature: evidence exists, particularly from quenching measurements and TRAMS, that voids and channels of water permeate the PU structure, resulting in a relatively soft, open particle, swollen by ingress of the bulk aqueous phase. Fluorescence measurements indicate that PBMA colloids, however, are composed of relatively hard, hydrophobic particles. In addition, TRAMS are considered to be a valuable tool both for probing the morphological characteristics of such dispersions and in estimating the average particle size.

  3. Synthesis of block copolymer poly (n-butyl acrylate)-b-polystyrene by DPE seeded emulsion polymerization with monodisperse latex particles and morphology of self-assembly film surface.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Qiuyu

    2012-05-15

    Synthesis of poly (n-butyl acrylate)-b-polystyrene (PnBA-b-PSt) with high molecular weight in an environmentally benign medium was carried out in seeded emulsion polymerization, using a novel chain transfer active DPE (1,1-diphenylethylene) agent. Seed latex containing precursor P(nBA-DPE) was prepared first, and the second monomer styrene was swelled into seed latex particles, yielding block copolymer at high conversion. Structures as well as molecular weight of precursor and block copolymer were characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR, and SEC, respectively. Furthermore, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) observation and Laser Light Scattering (LLS) manifested that monodisperse latex particles were obtained. Self-assembly morphology of block copolymer membrane surface was examined by atom force microscopy (AFM). Phase separation was observed clearly, which was confirmed by the observation of two glass transitions in DSC curve. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effects of N-Butyl-1-(4-dimethylamino)phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxamide against Leishmania amazonensis Are Mediated by Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Volpato, Hélito; Desoti, Vânia Cristina; Cogo, Juliana; Panice, Manuela Ribeiro; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena; Silva, Sueli de Oliveira; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The drugs that are available for the treatment of this infection exhibit high toxicity and various side effects. Several studies have focused on the development of new chemotherapeutic agents that are less toxic and more effective against trypanosomatids. We investigated the effects of N-butyl-1-(4-dimethylamino)phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxamide (C4) and its possible targets against L. amazonensis. The results showed morphological and ultrastructural alterations, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, the loss of cell membrane integrity, and an increase in the formation of mitochondrial superoxide anions in L. amazonensis treated with C4. Our results indicate that C4 is a selective antileishmanial agent, and its effects appear to be mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:23843887

  5. Structure and spectral properties of a squarylium dye, 2,4-bis((1-n-butyl-2(1H)-quinolylidene)methyl)-1,3-cyclobutadienediylium-1,3-diolate

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, J.; Tristani-Kendra, M.; Eckhardt, C.J.

    1986-03-13

    Structural and spectral characterizations of the title compound, 2,4-bis((1-n-butyl-2(1H)-quinolylidene)methyl)-1,3-cyclobutadienediylium-1,3-diolate (BQMS), a prime candidate for a solar energy material, have been carried out. Crystals are monoclinic, P2/sub 1//n with a = 9.586 (2) A, b = 9.730 (2) A, c = 13.894 (3) A, ..beta.. = 99.77 (9)/sup 0/, and Z = 2. The structure has been solved by direct methods and refined by using 1078 reflections for which F > 2 sigma (F) with anisotropic temperature factors on the non-hydrogen atoms to R = 0.098 and R/sub w/ = 0.074. Quasi-metallic reflection is observed along both principal directions for the (101) and (001) faces. The transition moment is found to be polarized along the long axis of the molecule. 16 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  6. 1-n-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium-2-carboxylate: a versatile precatalyst for the ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone and rac-lactide under solvent-free conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hoppe, Astrid; Sadaka, Faten; Brachais, Claire-Hélène; Boni, Gilles; Couvercelle, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Summary The ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) and rac-lactide (rac-LA) under solvent-free conditions and using 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-2-carboxylate (BMIM-2-CO2) as precatalyst is described. Linear and star-branched polyesters were synthesized by successive use of benzyl alcohol, ethylene glycol, glycerol and pentaerythritol as initiator alcohols, and the products were fully characterized by 1H and 13C{1H} NMR spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). BMIM-2-CO2 acts as an N-heterocyclic carbene precursor, resulting from in situ decarboxylation, either by heating under vacuo (method A) or by addition of NaBPh4 (method B). Possible catalytic and deactivation mechanisms are proposed. PMID:23616809

  7. (2Z)-2-Benzyl­idene-4-n-butyl-3,4-di­hydro-2H-1,4-benzo­thia­zin-3-one

    PubMed Central

    Sebbar, Nada Kheira; El Fal, Mohammed; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, C19H19NOS, the six-membered hetero­cyclic ring of the benzo­thia­zine fragment exhibits a screw boat conformation. The plane of the fused benzene ring makes a dihedral angle of 72.38 (12)° with that of the terminal phenyl ring, and is nearly perpendicular to the mean plane formed by the atoms through the n-butyl chain, as indicated by the dihedral angle of 88.1 (2)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯O inter­actions to form supra­molecular chains along [110]. PMID:24940264

  8. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by N-Butyl-1-(4-Dimethylamino)Phenyl-1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-β-Carboline-3-Carboxamide Is Required for Cell Death of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Volpato, Hélito; Desoti, Vânia Cristina; Valdez, Rodrigo Hinojosa; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Silva, Sueli de Oliveira; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2015-01-01

    Background Chagas’ disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and affects thousands of people worldwide. The available treatments are unsatisfactory, and new drugs must be developed. Our group recently reported the trypanocidal activity of the synthetic compound N-butyl-1-(4-dimethylamino)phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxamide (C4), but the mechanism of action of this compound was unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the mechanism of action of C4 against epimastigote and trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi. The results showed alterations in mitochondrial membrane potential, alterations in cell membrane integrity, an increase in the formation of reactive oxygen species, phosphatidylserine exposure, a reduction of cell volume, DNA fragmentation, and the formation of lipid inclusions. Conclusion/Significance These finding suggest that mitochondria are a target of C4, the dysfunction of which can lead to different pathways of cell death. PMID:26086449

  9. Studies on novel radiopaque methyl methacrylate: glycidyl methacrylate based polymer for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Dawlee, S; Jayakrishnan, A; Jayabalan, M

    2009-12-01

    A new class of radiopaque copolymer using methyl methacrylate (MMA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monomers was synthesized and characterized. The copolymer was made radiopaque by the epoxide ring opening of GMA using the catalyst o-phenylenediamine and the subsequent covalent attachment of elemental iodine. The copolymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, energy dispersive X-ray analysis using environmental scanning electron microscope (EDAX), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). X-ray visibility of the copolymer was checked by X-radiography. Blood compatibility and cytotoxicity of the newly synthesized copolymer were also evaluated. The iodinated copolymer was thermally stable, blood compatible, non-cytotoxic, and highly radiopaque. The presence of bulky iodine group created a new copolymer with modified properties for potential use in biomedical applications.

  10. Cellulose functionalization via high-energy irradiation-initiated grafting of glycidyl methacrylate and cyclodextrin immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmet, Gilles; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László; Borsa, Judit

    2011-12-01

    Cotton-cellulose was functionalized using gamma-irradiation-induced grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) to obtain a hydrophobic cellulose derivative with epoxy groups suitable for further chemical modification. Two grafting techniques were applied. In pre-irradiation grafting (PIG) cellulose was irradiated in air and then immersed in a GMA monomer solution, whereas in simultaneous grafting (SG) cellulose was irradiated in an inert atmosphere in the presence of the monomer. PIG led to a more homogeneous fiber surface, while SG resulted in higher grafting yield but showed clear indications of some GMA-homopolymerization. Effects of the reaction parameters (grafting method, absorbed dose, monomer concentration, solvent composition) were evaluated by SEM, gravimetry (grafting yield) and FTIR spectroscopy. Water uptake of the cellulose decreased while adsorption of a pesticide molecule increased upon grafting. The adsorption was further enhanced by β-cyclodextrin immobilization during SG. This method can be applied to produce adsorbents from cellulose based agricultural wastes.

  11. AFM study of the morphologic change of HDPE surface photografted with glycidyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiliang; Han, Jianmei

    2009-05-01

    The UV-induced grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and the atomic force microscopy (AFM) study of the morphologic change of the grafted surface are reported. The grafting was carried out in GMA acetone solutions with different monomer concentrations. Grafting was much faster in a solution with a higher monomer concentration. FTIR analyses proved that GMA had been successfully grafted onto HDPE. The morphologies of grafted HDPE surfaces changed with UV irradiation time. The monomer concentration had a significant effect on the morphologies of the grafted HDPE surfaces. The HDPE surface grafted in a solution with a higher monomer concentration was much rougher than that grafted in a solution with a lower monomer concentration. The growth models of the grafted granules or clusters are also proposed.

  12. Thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-glycidyl methacrylate) microgels for controlled drug release.

    PubMed

    Li, Penghui; Xu, Ruizhen; Wang, Wenhao; Li, Xiaolong; Xu, Zushun; Yeung, Kelvin W K; Chu, Paul K

    2013-01-01

    A new type of thermosensitive microgels with epoxy functional groups is designed and synthesized for drug delivery. The thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-glycidyl methacrylate) (designated as P(NIPAM-co-GMA)) microgels are prepared by an emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization method and the chemical composition of the copolymer is determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR). The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the microgels is 32°C based on the transmittance changes at 500 nm monitored by UV/visible spectrophotometry. The hydrodynamic diameter and morphology of the microgel particles are examined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The drug release properties determined using 5-FU as the drug model in vitro reveal temperature dependence and low cytotoxicity. The thermosensitive microgels have large potential as targeted anti-cancer drug carriers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Decreased serum free testosterone in workers exposed to high levels of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP): a cross-sectional study in China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Guowei; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Yoshimura, Mariko; Zhang, Shujuan; Wang, Ping; Tsukino, Hiromasa; Inoue, Koichi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Takahashi, Ken

    2006-11-01

    Observations of adverse developmental and reproductive effects in laboratory animals and wildlife have fueled increasing public concern regarding the potential for various chemicals to impair human fertility. Our objective in this study was to assess the effect of occupational exposure to high levels of phthalate esters on the balance of gonadotropin and gonadal hormones including luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, free testosterone (fT), and estradiol. We examined urine and blood samples of 74 male workers at a factory producing unfoamed polyvinyl chloride flooring exposed to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and compared them with samples from 63 male workers from a construction company, group matched for age and smoking status. Compared to the unexposed workers, the exposed workers had substantially and significantly elevated concentrations of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP; 644.3 vs. 129.6 microg/g creatinine, p < 0.001) and mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP; 565.7 vs. 5.7 microg/g creatinine, p < 0.001). fT was significantly lower (8.4 vs. 9.7 microg/g creatinine, p = 0.019) in exposed workers than in unexposed workers. fT was negatively correlated to MBP (r = -0.25, p = 0.03) and MEHP (r = -0.19, p = 0.095) in the exposed worker group. Regression analyses revealed that fT decreases significantly with increasing total phthalate ester score (the sum of quartiles of MBP and MEHP; r = -0.26, p = 0.002). We observed a modest and significant reduction of serum fT in workers with higher levels of urinary MBP and MEHP compared with unexposed workers.

  14. Pharmacological characterization of the newly synthesized 5-amino-N-butyl-2-(4-ethoxyphenoxy)-benzamide hydrochloride (BED) as a potent NCX3 inhibitor that worsens anoxic injury in cortical neurons, organotypic hippocampal cultures, and ischemic brain.

    PubMed

    Secondo, Agnese; Pignataro, Giuseppe; Ambrosino, Paolo; Pannaccione, Anna; Molinaro, Pasquale; Boscia, Francesca; Cantile, Maria; Cuomo, Ornella; Esposito, Alba; Sisalli, Maria Josè; Scorziello, Antonella; Guida, Natascia; Anzilotti, Serenella; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Severino, Beatrice; Santagada, Vincenzo; Caliendo, Giuseppe; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Annunziato, Lucio

    2015-08-19

    The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX), a 10-transmembrane domain protein mainly involved in the regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, plays a crucial role in cerebral ischemia. In the present paper, we characterized the effect of the newly synthesized compound 5-amino-N-butyl-2-(4-ethoxyphenoxy)-benzamide hydrochloride (BED) on the activity of the three NCX isoforms and on the evolution of cerebral ischemia. BED inhibited NCX isoform 3 (NCX3) activity (IC50 = 1.9 nM) recorded with the help of single-cell microflorimetry, (45)Ca(2+) radiotracer fluxes, and patch-clamp in whole-cell configuration. Furthermore, this drug displayed negligible effect on NCX2, the other isoform expressed within the CNS, and it failed to modulate the ubiquitously expressed NCX1 isoform. Concerning the molecular site of action, the use of chimera strategy and deletion mutagenesis showed that α1 and α2 repeats of NCX3 represented relevant molecular determinants for BED inhibitory action, whereas the intracellular regulatory f-loop was not involved. At 10 nM, BED worsened the damage induced by oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by reoxygenation in cortical neurons through a dysregulation of [Ca(2+)]i. Furthermore, at the same concentration, BED significantly enhanced cell death in CA3 subregion of hippocampal organotypic slices exposed to OGD and aggravated infarct injury after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice. These results showed that the newly synthesized 5-amino-N-butyl-2-(4-ethoxyphenoxy)-benzamide hydrochloride is one of the most potent inhibitor of NCX3 so far identified, representing an useful tool to dissect the role played by NCX3 in the control of Ca(2+) homeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions.

  15. Occurrence of 3-monochloropropanediol esters and glycidyl esters in commercial infant formulas in the United States.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Jessica; MacMahon, Shaun

    2017-03-01

    This work presents occurrence data for fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and glycidol in 98 infant formula samples purchased in the United States. These contaminants are considered potentially carcinogenic and/or genotoxic, making their presence in refined oils and foods a potential health risk. Recently, attention has focused on methodology to quantify MCPD and glycidyl esters in infant formula for risk-assessment purposes. Occurrence data for 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters were produced using a procedure for extracting fat from infant formula and an LC-MS/MS method for analysing fat extracts for intact esters. Infant formulas were produced by seven manufacturers, five of which use palm oil and/or palm olein in their formulations. In formulas containing palm/palm olein, concentrations for bound 3-MCPD and glycidol ranged from 0.021 to 0.92 mg kg(-)(1) (ppm) and from < LOQ to 0.40 mg kg(-)(1) (ppm), respectively. Formulas not containing palm/palm olein, bound 3-MCPD and glycidol concentrations ranged from 0.072 to 0.16 mg kg(-)(1) (ppm) and from 0.005 to 0.15 mg kg(-)(1) (ppm), respectively. Although formulas from manufacturers A and G did not contain palm/palm olein, formulas from manufacturer E (containing palm olein) had the lowest concentrations of bound 3-MCPD and glycidol, demonstrating the effectiveness of industrial mitigation strategies.

  16. Allene ether Nazarov cyclization.

    PubMed

    Tius, Marcus A

    2014-05-07

    The ease of synthesis and the exceptional reactivity of alkoxyallenes has led to their use in a large number of highly diverse applications. This Report describes their use in various versions of the allene ether Nazarov cyclization. Following a brief introduction to the Nazarov cyclization (Section 1), the oxidative cyclization of vinyl alkoxyallenes is discussed first (Section 2). Nazarov cyclizations of α-alkoxyallenyl vinyl ketones and of α-alkoxyallenyl vinyl tertiary carbinols are covered (Section 3). The discovery and the subsequent rational design of acetals that serve as chiral auxiliaries on the allene in highly enantioselective Nazarov cyclizations is explained (Section 4). Interrupted Nazarov cyclizations of alkoxyallenes that are generated in situ from the isomerization of propargyl ethers on solid supports are discussed, including the evolution of a highly diastereoselective, chiral auxiliary controlled version of the reaction. Some applications of the methodology to natural products total synthesis have been included so as to provide the reader with benchmarks with which to judge the utility of the methodology.

  17. Monomers for thermosetting and toughening epoxy resins. [glycidyl amine derivatives, propargyl-containing amines, and mutagenic testing of aromatic diamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Eight glycidyl amines were prepared by alkylating the parent amine with epichlorohydrin to form chlorohydrin, followed by cyclization with aqueous NaOH. Three of these compounds contained propargyl groups with postcuring studies. A procedure for quantitatively estimating the epoxy content of these glycidyl amines was employed for purity determination. Two diamond carbonates and several model propargly compounds were prepared. The synthesis of three new diamines, two which contain propargyloxy groups, and another with a sec-butyl group is in progress. These materials are at the dinitro stage ready for the final hydrogenation step. Four aromatic diamines were synthesized for mutagenic testing purposes. One of these compounds rapidly decomposes on exposure to air.

  18. Polymer electrolyte based on crosslinked poly(glycidyl methacrylate) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, Beatrice Wong Chui; Hanifah, Sharina Abu; Ahmad, Azizan; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda

    2015-09-25

    Polymer electrolytes based on crosslinked poly(glycidyl methacrylate) as polymer host and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BmimTFSI) as incorporated salt were prepared by in-situ photopolymerization technique. The complexes with different mass ratio of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monomer to BmimTFSI were investigated. The ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte was increased and reach the highest value of 7.50 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} at the ratio of 3:7 (GMA: BmimTFSI). The interaction between the polymer host and ionic liquid was proved by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transformation Infra-Red Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Meanwhile, the X-ray diffraction analysis shows the amorphousity of the polymer electrolyte film increase with the ionic liquid ratio.

  19. Imide/Arylene Ether Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Bass, Robert G.

    1991-01-01

    New imide/arylene ether copolymers prepared by reacting anhydride-terminated poly(amic acids) with amine-terminated poly(arylene ethers) in polar aprotic solvents. Each resulting copolymer may have one glass-transition temperature or two, depending on chemical structure and/or compatibility of block units. Most of copolymers form tough, solvent-resistant films with high tensile properties. Films cast from solution tough and flexible, and exhibit useful thermal and mechanical properties. Potentially useful as moldings, adhesives, or composite matrices. Because of flexible arylene ether blocks, these copolymers easier to process than polyimides.

  20. Polyarylene Ethers with Improved Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M. (Inventor); Jensen, B. J. (Inventor); Havens, S. J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to novel polyarylene ethers which possess the combination of high strength, toughness, and high use temperature with ease of extrusion and formation into complex objects. These polyarylene ethers are suitable for use in adhesives, coatings, films, membranes, and composite matrices. The polyarylene ethers of this invention are the polycondensation products from the reaction of either 1,3-bis (4-chloro or fluorobenzoyl) benzene with any one of the following bisphenolic compounds: bis (3-hydroxyphenyl) methane; bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) methane; 1,1-dimethyl-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl)methane, or 9,9-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) fluorene. Random and block copolymers are also comprehended.

  1. Relaxation behavior and nonlinear properties of thermally stable polymers based on glycidyl derivatives of quercetin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishurov, Dmytro; Voronkin, Andrii; Roshal, Alexander; Brovko, Oleksandr

    2016-07-01

    Cross-linked polymers on the basis of di-, tri and tetraglycidyl ethers of quercetin (3,3‧,4‧,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) were synthesized, and then, poled in electrical field of corona discharge. Investigations of structural, thermal and optical parameters of the polymer films were carried out. It was found that the polymers obtained from di- and triglycidyl quercetin ethers had high values of macroscopic quadratic susceptibilities and substantial stability of nonlinear optical (NLO) properties after the poling. Tetraglycidyl ether of quercetin forms the polymer of lower quadratic susceptibility, which demonstrates noticeable relaxation process resulting in decrease of the NLO effect. It is supposed that the difference of the NLO properties is due to peculiarities of physical network of the polymers, namely to the ratio between numbers of hydrogen bonds formed by hydroxyl groups of chromophore fragments and by the ones of interfragmental parts of the polymeric chains.

  2. Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Detection of 3-Monochloropropanediol Esters and Glycidyl Esters in Infant Formula.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Jessica K; MacMahon, Shaun

    2016-12-14

    A method was developed for the extraction of fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and glycidol from infant formula, followed by quantitative analysis of the extracts using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These process-induced chemical contaminants are found in refined vegetable oils, and studies have shown that they are potentially carcinogenic and/or genotoxic, making their presence in edible oils (and processed foods containing these oils) a potential health risk. The extraction procedure involves a liquid-liquid extraction, where powdered infant formula is dissolved in water and extracted with ethyl acetate. Following shaking, centrifugation, and drying of the organic phase, the resulting fat extract is cleaned-up using solid-phase extraction and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Method performance was confirmed by verifying the percent recovery of each 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester in a homemade powdered infant formula reference material. Average ester recoveries in the reference material ranged from 84.9 to 109.0% (0.6-9.5% RSD). The method was also validated by fortifying three varieties of commercial infant formulas with a 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester solution. Average recoveries of the esters across all concentrations and varieties of infant formula ranged from 88.7 to 107.5% (1.0-9.5% RSD). Based on the validation results, this method is suitable for producing 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester occurrence data in all commercially available varieties of infant formula.

  3. Organic monolith frits encased in polyether ether ketone tubing with improved durability for liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Park, Sin Young; Cheong, Won Jo

    2015-09-01

    This study introduces a preparation method for polymer-encased monolith frits with improved durability for liquid chromatography columns. The inner surface of the polyether ether ketone tubing is pretreated with sulfuric acid in the presence of catalysts (vanadium oxide and sodium sulfate). The tubing was rinsed with water and acetone, flushed with nitrogen, and treated with glycidyl methacrylate. After washing, the monolith reaction mixture composed of lauryl methacrylate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, initiator, and porogenic solvent was filled in the tubing and subjected to in situ polymerization. The tubing was cut into thin slices and used as frits for microcolumns. To check their durability, the frit slices were placed in a vial and a heavy impact was applied on the vial by a vortex mixer for various periods. The frits made in the presence of catalysts were found to be more durable than those made without catalysts. Furthermore, when the monolith-incorporated tubing was used as a chromatography column, the column prepared in the presence of catalysts resulted in a better separation efficiency. The separation performance of the columns installed with the polyether ether ketone encased monolith frits was comparable to that of the columns installed with the commercial stainless-steel screen frits.

  4. Imide/arylene ether copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Bass, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Imide/arylene ether block copolymers are prepared by reacting anhydride terminated poly(amic acids) with amine terminated poly(arylene ethers) in polar aprotic solvents and by chemically or thermally cyclodehydrating the resulting intermediate poly(amic acids). The resulting block copolymers have one glass transition temperature or two, depending upon the particular structure and/or the compatibility of the block units. Most of these block copolymers form tough, solvent resistant films with high tensile properties.

  5. Sources of propylene glycol and glycol ethers in air at home.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyunok; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Spengler, John; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf

    2010-12-01

    Propylene glycol and glycol ether (PGE) in indoor air have recently been associated with asthma and allergies as well as sensitization in children. In this follow-up report, sources of the PGEs in indoor air were investigated in 390 homes of pre-school age children in Sweden. Professional building inspectors examined each home for water damages, mold odour, building's structural characteristics, indoor temperature, absolute humidity and air exchange rate. They also collected air and dust samples. The samples were analyzed for four groups of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-VOCs (SVOCs), including summed concentrations of 16 PGEs, 8 terpene hydrocarbons, 2 Texanols, and the phthalates n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). Home cleaning with water and mop ≥ once/month, repainting ≥ one room prior to or following the child's birth, and "newest" surface material in the child's bedroom explained largest portion of total variability in PGE concentrations. High excess indoor humidity (g/m³) additionally contributed to a sustained PGE levels in indoor air far beyond several months following the paint application. No behavioral or building structural factors, except for water-based cleaning, predicted an elevated terpene level in air. No significant predictor of Texanols emerged from our analysis. Overall disparate sources and low correlations among the PGEs, terpenes, Texanols, and the phthalates further confirm the lack of confounding in the analysis reporting the associations of the PGE and the diagnoses of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, respectively.

  6. Modification of flax fibres by radiation induced emulsion graft copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moawia, Rihab Musaad; Nasef, Mohamed Mahmoud; Mohamed, Nor Hasimah; Ripin, Adnan

    2016-05-01

    Flax fibres were modified by radiation induced graft copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) by pre-irradiation method in an emulsion medium. The effect of reaction parameters on the degree of grafting (DOG) such as concentration of bleaching agent, absorbed dose, monomer concentration, temperature and reaction time were investigated. The DOG was found to be dependent on the investigated parameters. The incorporation of poly(GMA) grafts in the bleached flax fibres was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The structural and mechanical changes were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and mechanical tester, respectively. The results revealed that reacting bleached flax fibres irradiated with 20 kGy with 5% GMA emulsion containing 0.5% polyoxyethylene-sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20) surfactant at 40 °C for 1 h led to a maximum DOG of 148%. The grafted fibres showed sufficient mechanical strength and hydrophobicity which make them promising precursors for development of adsorbents after appropriate chemical treatments.

  7. The effect of frying on glycidyl esters content in palm oil.

    PubMed

    Aniołowska, Magda; Kita, Agnieszka

    2016-07-15

    The changes in palm oil, as affected by frying temperature, and content of the glycidyl esters (GEs) were studied. Potato chips were fried intermittently in palm oil, which was heated for 8 h daily over five consecutive days. Frying was conducted at three frying temperatures: 150, 165 and 180 °C. Thermo-oxidative alterations of the oil were measured by acid and anisidine values, changes in fatty acid composition, total polar components, polar fraction composition and colour components formation. Content of GE was measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that amount of products of hydrolysis, oxidation and polymerization (excluding decrease of degree of unsaturation) increased significantly as a function of frying temperature and time. Between GEs of fatty acids the most abundant were esters of palmitic and oleic acids. With increasing temperature and frying time, the content of GE decreased. The extent of GE decrease was correlated with degree of oil degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hexanediamine functionalized poly (glycidyl methacrylate-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone) particles for bilirubin removal.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xing; Zhou, Dongxu; Huang, Xueliang; Zhao, Weifeng; Zhao, Changsheng

    2017-10-15

    In this study, we provided a facile method to prepare adsorbents with high content of amino groups for bilirubin removal. Poly (glycidyl methacrylate-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone) particle adsorbents were prepared through free radical solution copolymerization followed by a phase inversion technique. Amino groups were further introduced onto the particles by grafting 1,6-hexanediamine molecules. The porosity and specific surface area of the functional particles were 92.9% and 11.8m(2)/g, respectively. Flourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis confirmed the successful functionalization of polymeric particles. The cross-linker content and N-vinylpyrrolidone ratios had significant influence on the pore structure of the polymeric particles, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to verify bilirubin adsorption behavior of the particles, and a particle column was fabricated to further study the bilirubin removal. The particles exhibited good adsorption capacity of bilirubin without procoagulant activity, and had great potential to be used in hemoperfusion. The study opens a new route to fabricate functional polymer adsorbents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Improved performance of α-amylase immobilized on poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylenedimethacrylate) beads.

    PubMed

    He, Tian; Tian, Yong-Le; Qi, Liang; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zhi-Qi

    2014-04-01

    α-Amylase was successfully immobilized onto poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylenedimethacrylate) (PGMA/EDMA) beads with high immobilization efficiency of 87.8%. PGMA/EDMA beads with a relatively uniform diameter of 2-3 μm were prepared by single-step swelling polymerization. After amination with ethanediamine and activation with glutaraldehyde, PGMA/EDMA beads showed commendable α-amylase immobilization capacity of 35.1 mg g(-1) carrier. Compared with free form, immobilized α-amylase had increasement of 12.94 mg mL(-1) for Km and 0.124 mmol mL(-1) min(-1) for Vmax, improved acid resistance (the optimal pH from 7 to 5), presented better thermal stability by retaining 61% activity than 40% at 90 °C, and displayed high operational reusability by retaining 58% of its initial activity after nine uses. Moreover, less than 10% of the free enzyme and more than 80% of the immobilized enzyme retained activity after 180 min pre-incubation at 50 °C. The easy modification, high immobilization efficiency and good properties of immobilized α-amylase in the present study indicate that PGMA/EDMA beads are suitable for α-amylase immobilization. The enhancement of acid resistance and thermo stability is doubtless of benefit for the industrial use of α-amylase.

  10. Syntheses of amine-type adsorbents with emulsion graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seko, N.; Bang, L. T.; Tamada, M.

    2007-12-01

    Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) which was precursor monomer for the synthesis of metal ion adsorbent was emulsified by surfactant of Tween 20 (Tw-20). The emulsion of 5% GMA in the water was stable for 48 h at Tw-20 concentration of 0.5%. Graft polymerization of GMA on polyethylene fiber was carried out in the emulsion state at various pre-irradiation doses. Degree of grafting (Dg) reached 103%, 301% and 348% for 1 h grafting at 40 °C with pre-irradiation of 10, 30 and 40 kGy, respectively. But the Dg was depressed when the pre-irradiation dose was over 50 kGy since cross-linking occurred simultaneously in the trunk polymer. Dg decreased with increment of Tw-20 concentration in emulsion of 5% GMA at pre-irradiation of 40 kGy. The three kinds of amine-type adsorbents were synthesized by reacting diethylenetriamine (DETA), triethylenetetramine (TETA) and ethylenediamine (EDA) with GMA-grafted polyethylene fiber. The synthesized EDA-type adsorbent had the highest selectivity against U ion and the distribution coefficient was 2.0 × 10 6.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of a hybrid (chitosan-g-glycidyl methacrylate)-xanthan hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Elizalde-Peña, E A; Zarate-Triviño, D G; Nuño-Donlucas, S M; Medina-Torres, L; Gough, J E; Sanchez, I C; Villaseñor, F; Luna-Barcenas, G

    2013-01-01

    This work reports the synthesis and characterization of a new material obtained by mixing the hybrid natural-synthetic chitosan-g-glycidyl methacrylate (CTS-g-GMA) biopolymer and xanthan gum (X). All materials were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction, and thermal analysis (DSC and TGA) and the results were contrasted with those of the precursor materials. The swelling index of the hydrogels decreases when the GMA mass percentage increases. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that the hybrid hydrogels are amorphous in contrast to chitosan (CTS), which is semi-crystalline. FTIR analysis confirms the existence of physical interactions among constituents. Rheological properties, η, G', and G", were determined as a function of flow allowing one to conclude that (CTS-g-GMA)-X behaves as physical hydrogel. Additionally, we report viability of fibroblasts when cultured onto the synthesized hydrogels. This study shows that these hydrogels support cell viability and have potential for use in biomedical engineering applications.

  12. Occurrence of 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters in edible oils in the United States.

    PubMed

    MacMahon, Shaun; Begley, Timothy H; Diachenko, Gregory W

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid esters of 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD) and glycidol are processing contaminants found in a wide range of edible oils. While both 3 MCPD and glycidol have toxicological properties that at present has concerns for food safety, the published occurrence data are limited. Occurrence information is presented for the concentrations of 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters in 116 retail and/or industrial edible oils and fats using LC-MS/MS analysis of intact esters. The concentrations for bound 3-MCPD ranged from below the limit of quantitation (

  13. PEGylation of magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microparticles for microfluidic bioassays.

    PubMed

    Kucerova, Jana; Svobodova, Zuzana; Knotek, Petr; Palarcik, Jiri; Vlcek, Milan; Kincl, Miloslav; Horak, Daniel; Autebert, Julien; Viovy, Jean-Louis; Bilkova, Zuzana

    2014-07-01

    In this study, magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microparticles containing carboxyl groups (PGMA-COOH) were coated using highly hydrophilic polymer poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). PEG was used to reduce nonspecific interactions with proteins and cells while decreasing adhesion of particles to the walls of a microfluidic devices from poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and cyclic olefin copolymer (COC). Zeta potential measurement, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, anti-PEG ELISA assay, and bioaffinity interactions between biotin and streptavidin-HRP successfully proved the presence of PEG on the surface of microspheres. Both neat and PEGylated microspheres were then incubated with the inert protein bovine serum albumin or cells to evaluate the rate of nonspecific adsorption (NSA). PEG with Mr of 30,000 Da was responsible for 45% reduction in NSA of proteins and 74% for cells compared to neat particles. The microspheres' behavior in PDMS and COC microchannels was then evaluated. Aggregation and adhesion of PEGylated microspheres significantly decreased compared to neat particles. Finally, the model enzyme horseradish peroxidase was immobilized on the microspheres through the heterobifunctional PEG chain. The possibility for subsequent covalent coupling of the ligand of interest was confirmed. Such PEGylated microparticles can be efficiently used in PDMS microchips as a carrier for bioaffinity separation or of enzyme for catalysis.

  14. Space, Time, Ether, and Kant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Wing-Chun Godwin

    This dissertation focused on Kant's conception of physical matter in the Opus postumum. In this work, Kant postulates the existence of an ether which fills the whole of space and time with its moving forces. Kant's arguments for the existence of an ether in the so-called Ubergang have been acutely criticized by commentators. Guyer, for instance, thinks that Kant pushes the technique of transcendental deduction too far in trying to deduce the empirical ether. In defense of Kant, I held that it is not the actual existence of the empirical ether, but the concept of the ether as a space-time filler that is subject to a transcendental deduction. I suggested that Kant is doing three things in the Ubergang: First, he deduces the pure concept of a space-time filler as a conceptual hybrid of the transcendental object and permanent substance to replace the category of substance in the Critique. Then he tries to prove the existence of such a space-time filler as a reworking of the First Analogy. Finally, he takes into consideration the empirical determinations of the ether by adding the concept of moving forces to the space -time filler. In reconstructing Kant's proofs, I pointed out that Kant is absolutely committed to the impossibility of action-at-a-distance. If we add this new principle of no-action-at-a-distance to the Third Analogy, the existence of a space-time filler follows. I argued with textual evidence that Kant's conception of ether satisfies the basic structure of a field: (1) the ether is a material continuum; (2) a physical quantity is definable on each point in the continuum; and (3) the ether provides a medium to support the continuous transmission of action. The thrust of Kant's conception of ether is to provide a holistic ontology for the transition to physics, which can best be understood from a field-theoretical point of view. This is the main thesis I attempted to establish in this dissertation.

  15. Sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, methods for producing the same, and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hofmann, Michael A.

    2006-11-14

    The present invention is directed to sulfonimide-containing polymers, specifically sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, and processes for making the sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, for use conductive membranes and fuel cells.

  16. Poly[μ2-aqua-aqua­[μ3-N-butyl-N-(2-hy­droxy­ethyl)di­thio­carbamato-κ3 O,O′:S]sodium

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Muzzaffar A.; Jain, Shalini; Srivastava, Sanjay K.; Butcher, Ray J.; Wikaira, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, [Na(C7H14NOS2)(H2O)2]n, the NaI cation is coordinated by five O atoms [Na—O = 2.3142 (11)–2.4677 (10) Å] from three aqua and two N-butyl-N-(2-hy­droxy­eth­yl)di­thio­carbamate (L) ligands and one S atom [Na—S = 3.0074 (6) Å] from a third L ligand in a highly distorted octa­hedral geometry. Two aqua ligands related by an inversion center bridge two NaI cations, and each L ligand coordinates three NaI cations, leading to a layered arrangement aligned parallel to the bc plane. Inter­molecular O—H⋯S hydrogen bonds are observed in the inner part of each polymeric layer; these are packed along the a axis and held together by weak van der Waals forces. PMID:26958386

  17. Frequency dependent study of the correlation functions in EPR spectroscopy--The Cole-Davidson approach. II. 2,N-(4-n-Butyl benzilidene) 4-amino 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl piperidine 1-oxide in toluene.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jimmy S; Al-Janabi, Yahya T; Oweimreen, Ghassan A

    2010-11-01

    EPR linewidth measurements of 2,N-(4-n-butyl benzilidene) 4-amino 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl piperidine 1-oxide (BBTMPO) in toluene at 1 GHz (L-Band), 4 GHz (S-Band), 9 GHz (X-Band) and 34 GHz (Q-Band) microwave frequencies indicate the presence of a distribution of relaxation times. The empirical response parameter introduced by Cole-Davidson for the analysis of dielectric relaxation in liquids has been used for the analysis of EPR relaxation data in the L-Band and S-Band frequency regions. The Cole-Davidson parameter can assume values in the range 0 < β ≤ 1. When β = 1, one obtains the Debye-type spectral density. The calculated linewidth data at 1 GHz and 4 GHz agree with a Cole-Davidson parameter of 0.7 for the spherocone shaped BBMTPO solute. β < 1 at the L- and S-bands suggests the presence of an asymmetrical distribution of relaxation times associated with different modes of relaxation mechanisms or internal molecular motions. This study shows EPR experiments at low microwave frequencies are more sensitive to the shape of the correlation function. Differences between this study and an earlier study [6] on perdeuterated 2,2,6,6-tetramethly-4-piperidone N oxide (PD-Tempone) in toluene are attributed to the size of and absence of deuteration in the BBTMPO probe.

  18. Di-n-butyl-bis-[N-(2-meth-oxy-eth-yl)-N-methyl-dithio-carbamato-κ(2)S,S']tin(IV): crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Rapidah; Awang, Normah; Kamaludin, Nurul F; Jotani, Mukesh M; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2017-02-01

    The complete mol-ecule of the title compound, [Sn(C4H9)2(C5H10NOS2)2], is generated by a crystallographic mirror plane, with the Sn(IV) atom and the two inner methyl-ene C atoms of the butyl ligands lying on the mirror plane; statistical disorder is noted in the two terminal ethyl groups, which deviate from mirror symmetry. The di-thio-carbamate ligand coordinates to the metal atom in an asymmetric mode with the resulting C2S4 donor set defining a skew trapezoidal bipyramidal geometry; the n-butyl groups are disposed to lie over the longer Sn-S bonds. Supra-molecular chains aligned along the a-axis direction and sustained by methyl-ene-C-H⋯S(weakly coordinating) inter-actions feature in the mol-ecular packing. A Hirshfeld surface analysis reveals the dominance of H⋯H contacts in the crystal.

  19. Effective biosynthesis of ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate by supplementation of l-glutamine, d-xylose and β-cyclodextrin in n-butyl acetate-water media.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Cai; Tao, Zhi-Cheng; Ding, Yun; Zhang, Dan-Ping; Wu, Yin-Qin; Lu, Yun; Liu, Feng; Xue, Yu-Feng; Wang, Cheng; Xu, Jian-He

    2015-06-10

    To avoid adding NAD(+) and effectively transform ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate, the mixture of l-glutamine (200mM) and d-xylose (250mM) was added into in n-butyl acetate-water (10:90, v/v) biphasic system instead of NAD(+) for increasing the biocatalytic efficiency. To further improve the synthesis of optically pure ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate (>99% ee), β-cyclodextrin was also added into this reaction media, and ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate (>99% ee) could be effectively synthesized from 800mM ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate in the yield of 100% by whole-cells of recombinant E. coli CCZU-A13. Finally, the possible mechanism for improving the reductase activity by supplementation of l-glutamine, d-xylose and β-CD was proposed. In conclusion, this strategy has high potential for the effective biosynthesis of ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate (>99% ee). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The tolerability and pharmacokinetics of N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin in patients with advanced HIV disease (ACTG 100). The AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Tierney, M; Pottage, J; Kessler, H; Fischl, M; Richman, D; Merigan, T; Powderly, W; Smith, S; Karim, A; Sherman, J

    1995-12-15

    Twenty-nine patients were enrolled in a phase I dose-escalating tolerance trial of N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin, an alpha-glucosidase I inhibitor that inhibits human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 replication by altering glycosylation of gp120. Dosing was begun at 8 mg/kg/day and subsequent doses were 16, 32, 48, and 64 mg/kg/day. The maximum tolerated dose was not achieved because of slow accrual and because the study was stopped after the finding of cataracts in initial long-range rat toxicology studies. These cataracts were later shown to be transient and not found in other animals. The most common side effects were gastrointestinal, with diarrhea and flatulence occurring in most subjects, which seemed to partially improve on a modified diet that excluded complex carbohydrates. Grade III elevations in liver function tests were seen in two patients. Grade III leukopenia and neutropenia were seen in seven patients, but were only severe enough in two to require discontinuation. No significant trends in CD4 cell counts or HIV-1 p24 levels were noted.

  1. Male rats exposed in utero to di(n-butyl) phthalate: Age-related changes in Leydig cell smooth endoplasmic reticulum and testicular testosterone-biosynthesis enzymes/proteins.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Masaya; Wempe, Michael F; Mutou, Tomoko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kansaku, Norio; Ikegami, Masahiro; Inomata, Tomo; Asari, Masao; Wakui, Shin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the age-related (i.e., weeks 5, 7, 9, 14 and 17) morphological changes of Leydig cell smooth endoplasmic reticulum (LCs-ER) and testicular testosterone biosynthesis/protein expression in rats in utero exposed to di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) (intragastrically; 100mg/kg/day) on days 12-21 post-conception. Ultrastructural observations revealed the LCs-ER of the DBP group were non-dilated until peri-puberty, and thereafter decreased and disappeared. RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses revealed that StAR and P450scc levels in the DBP group were significantly lower at 5 and 7 weeks compared with the vehicle group but became similar during weeks 9-17. Although 3β-HSD, P450c17, and 17β-HSD levels of mRNA and protein in the DBP group were similar to the vehicle control group at 5 and 7 weeks of age, they were significantly lower during weeks 9-17. In utero DBP exposure results in age-related LCs-ER changes corresponding to reduction of testicular testosterone biosynthesis enzymes/associated proteins. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Oxidation of Pu(III) by nitric acid in tri-n-butyl phosphate solutions. Part II. Chemical methods for the suppression of oxidation to improve plutonium separation in contactor operation

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, Y.K.; Gosselin, J.A.

    1983-12-01

    A systematic method has been used to screen a number of potential stabilizers (holding reductants) for Pu(III) in tri-n-butyl phosphate/diluent solutions used in irradiated fuel reprocessing systems. The conditions assumed were similar to those used in solvent extraction contactor operations. Of the reagents tested, oximes as a group appeared to be very effective. Acetaldoxime, in particular, was selected for extensive tests and was used as a Pu(III) stabilizer, in both the aqueous and organic phases, in contactor runs for plutonium partition from thorium and uranium. In the best results, the plutonium loss to the thorium/uranium stream was 2.8 X 10/sup -5/ g/l or 0.0046%; without using acetaldoxime, the loss was 12%. Rates of plutonium reduction in 1.5 M nitric acid have been compared for a number of reducing agents under identical conditions. Some derivatives of hydroxylamine were found to be much more effective than hydroxylamine itself.

  3. Short-Term Treatment with the Urease Inhibitor N-(n-Butyl) Thiophosphoric Triamide (NBPT) Alters Urea Assimilation and Modulates Transcriptional Profiles of Genes Involved in Primary and Secondary Metabolism in Maize Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zanin, Laura; Venuti, Silvia; Tomasi, Nicola; Zamboni, Anita; De Brito Francisco, Rita M; Varanini, Zeno; Pinton, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    To limit nitrogen (N) losses from the soil, it has been suggested to provide urea to crops in conjunction with the urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT). However, recent studies reported that NBPT affects urea uptake and urease activity in plants. To shed light on these latter aspects, the effects of NBPT were studied analysing transcriptomic and metabolic changes occurring in urea-fed maize seedlings after a short-term exposure to the inhibitor. We provide evidence that NBPT treatment led to a wide reprogramming of plant metabolism. NBPT inhibited the activity of endogenous urease limiting the release and assimilation of ureic-ammonium, with a simultaneous accumulation of urea in plant tissues. Furthermore, NBPT determined changes in the glutamine, glutamate, and asparagine contents. Microarray data indicate that NBPT affects ureic-N assimilation and primary metabolism, such as glycolysis, TCA cycle, and electron transport chain, while activates the phenylalanine/tyrosine-derivative pathway. Moreover, the expression of genes relating to the transport and complexation of divalent metals was strongly modulated by NBPT. Data here presented suggest that when NBPT is provided in conjunction with urea an imbalance between C and N compounds might occur in plant cells. Under this condition, root cells also seem to activate a response to maintain the homeostasis of some micronutrients.

  4. Di-n-butyl­bis­[N-(2-meth­oxy­eth­yl)-N-methyl­dithio­carbamato-κ2 S,S′]tin(IV): crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kamaludin, Nurul F.; Jotani, Mukesh M.

    2017-01-01

    The complete mol­ecule of the title compound, [Sn(C4H9)2(C5H10NOS2)2], is generated by a crystallographic mirror plane, with the SnIV atom and the two inner methyl­ene C atoms of the butyl ligands lying on the mirror plane; statistical disorder is noted in the two terminal ethyl groups, which deviate from mirror symmetry. The di­thio­carbamate ligand coordinates to the metal atom in an asymmetric mode with the resulting C2S4 donor set defining a skew trapezoidal bipyramidal geometry; the n-butyl groups are disposed to lie over the longer Sn—S bonds. Supra­molecular chains aligned along the a-axis direction and sustained by methyl­ene-C—H⋯S(weakly coordinating) inter­actions feature in the mol­ecular packing. A Hirshfeld surface analysis reveals the dominance of H⋯H contacts in the crystal. PMID:28217355

  5. Viscosity of binary mixtures. II. n-butyl, n-hexyl, n-octyl, n-decyl, and n-dodecylamine with benzene and n-hexyl, n-decyl, and n-dodecylamine with cyclohexane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswal, S. L.; Patel, A. T.

    1992-07-01

    Viscosities of eight binary systems of n-butylamine, n-hexylamine, n-octylamine, n-decylamine, and n-dodecylamine with benzene and n-hexylamine, n-decylamine, and n-dodecylamine with cyclohexane have been measured at 303.15 K with an Ubbelohde suspended level viscometer. Based on Eyring's theory, values of excess Gibbs energy of activation ΔG *E of viscous flow have been calculated. Deviations of viscosities from linear dependence on the mole fraction and values of ΔG *E are attributed to H-bonding and to the size of alkylamine molecules. The free volume theory of Prigogine-Flory-Patterson in combination with the work of Bloomfield-Dewan has been used to estimate the excess viscosity Δ In η and the terms corresponding to enthalpy, entropy, and free volume contributions for 10 binary mixtures containing n-butyl, n-hexyl, n-octyl, n-decyl, and n-dodecylamine with benzene and cyclohexane.

  6. Short-Term Treatment with the Urease Inhibitor N-(n-Butyl) Thiophosphoric Triamide (NBPT) Alters Urea Assimilation and Modulates Transcriptional Profiles of Genes Involved in Primary and Secondary Metabolism in Maize Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Zanin, Laura; Venuti, Silvia; Tomasi, Nicola; Zamboni, Anita; De Brito Francisco, Rita M.; Varanini, Zeno; Pinton, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    To limit nitrogen (N) losses from the soil, it has been suggested to provide urea to crops in conjunction with the urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT). However, recent studies reported that NBPT affects urea uptake and urease activity in plants. To shed light on these latter aspects, the effects of NBPT were studied analysing transcriptomic and metabolic changes occurring in urea-fed maize seedlings after a short-term exposure to the inhibitor. We provide evidence that NBPT treatment led to a wide reprogramming of plant metabolism. NBPT inhibited the activity of endogenous urease limiting the release and assimilation of ureic-ammonium, with a simultaneous accumulation of urea in plant tissues. Furthermore, NBPT determined changes in the glutamine, glutamate, and asparagine contents. Microarray data indicate that NBPT affects ureic-N assimilation and primary metabolism, such as glycolysis, TCA cycle, and electron transport chain, while activates the phenylalanine/tyrosine-derivative pathway. Moreover, the expression of genes relating to the transport and complexation of divalent metals was strongly modulated by NBPT. Data here presented suggest that when NBPT is provided in conjunction with urea an imbalance between C and N compounds might occur in plant cells. Under this condition, root cells also seem to activate a response to maintain the homeostasis of some micronutrients. PMID:27446099

  7. Comparison of Hemostatic Durability between N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate and Gelatin Sponge Particles in Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Acute Arterial Hemorrhage in a Coagulopathic Condition in a Swine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Yonemitsu, Takafumi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio Sonomura, Tetsuo; Takasaka, Isao; Nakai, Motoki; Minamiguchi, Hiroki; Sahara, Shinya; Iwasaki, Yasuhiro; Naka, Toshio; Shinozaki, Masahiro

    2010-12-15

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) or gelatin sponge particles (GSP) for acute arterial bleeding in a coagulopathic condition using a swine model. Four healthy swine were divided into two coagulopathic conditions: mild and severe. Five hemorrhages were created in each swine (10 hemorrhages per coagulopathy). Mild coagulopathy was achieved by bloodletting 10% of the total circulatory whole blood and preserving activated clotting time (ACT) less than 200 s (ACT < 200 s state); severe coagulopathy was achieved by bloodletting 30% and preserving ACT > 400 s (ACT > 400-second state). For each state, of ACT < 200 s or ACT > 400 s, TAE was conducted with GSP or NBCA to control five hemorrhages arising from artificially created renal and splenic injuries. Angiography immediately after TAE with GSP or NBCA showed complete occlusion in both coagulopathic conditions. In the ACT < 200-second state, follow-up angiography at 5-30 min after TAE with GSP or NBCA showed no evidence of recurrent hemorrhage. In the ACT > 400-second state, follow-up angiography showed recurrent hemorrhage in four (80%) of the five hemorrhages embolized with GSP and in one (20%) of the five hemorrhages embolized with NBCA. Microscopically, red thrombi were observed densely surrounding GSP in mild coagulopathy but were scarce in severe coagulopathy. In a condition with severe coagulopathy, TAE with NBCA was more effective in durability to cease active arterial bleeding than with GSP.

  8. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A in rat liver by the Diorganotin (IV) compound di-n-Butyl-di-(4-chlorobenzo-hydroxamato)tin (IV) and Its Probable Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunxia; Li, Yunlan; Li, Qingshan

    2012-09-12

    The specific aims of this study were to evaluate the inhibition effect on CYP3A of di-n-butyl-di-(4-chlorobenzohydroxamato)tin (IV) (DBDCT), a tin-based complex with high antitumor activity, and the probable mechanism(s) of this action. Adult male SD rats were treated separately with natural saline (NS), lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg), DBDCT (1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg) intraperitoneally for 2 days after induction of CYP3A with dexamethasone (DEX, 100 mg/kg) for 4 days. Western blot analysis and fluorescent quantitation PCR (FQ-PCR) were conducted to determine the changes in expression of CYP3A, PXR, CAR and RXR. The biological accumulation of DBDCT and total Sn were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). CYP450 content and CYP3A activities were significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) in DBDCT-treated rats compared with the control group, as was the expression of CYP3A (p < 0.05) at both protein and mRNA levels. In DBDCT-treated groups, the expression of PXR protein and mRNA increased, while the expression of CAR decreased. The biological accumulation of DBDCT and Sn in rat livers treated with DBDCT was high. The accumulation of DBDCT and Sn due to the inhibition of CYP3A may be involved in the mechanism of toxicity of DBDCT in rat liver.

  9. Glove permeation by semiconductor processing mixtures containing glycol-ether derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zellers, E T; Ke, H Q; Smigiel, D; Sulewski, R; Patrash, S J; Han, M W; Zhang, G Z

    1992-02-01

    Results of permeation tests of several glove materials challenged with semiconductor processing formulations containing glycolether derivatives are described. Commercial glove samples of nitrile rubber (Edmont), natural rubber (Edmont and Baxter), butyl rubber (North), PVC Baxter), a natural rubber/neoprene/nitrile blend (Pioneer), and a natural rubber/neoprene blend (Playtex) were tested according to the ASTM F739-85 permeation test method (open-loop configuration). The liquid formulations examined included a positive photoresist thinner containing 2-ethoxyethyl acetate (2-EEA), n-butyl acetate, and xylene; a positive photoresist containing 2-EEA, n-butyl acetate, xylene, polymer resins, and photoactive compounds; a negative photoresist containing 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME), xylene, and cyclized poly(isoprene); and pure 2-methoxyethyl acetate (2-MEA), which is the solvent used in a commercial electron-beam resist. With the exception of the negative photoresist, butyl rubber provided the highest level of protection against the solvent mixtures tested, with no breakthrough observed after 4 hr of continuous exposure at 25 degrees C. Nitrile rubber provided the highest level of protection against the negative photoresist and reasonably good protection against initial exposure to the other solvent mixtures. Gloves consisting of natural rubber or natural rubber blends provided less protection against the mixtures than either nitrile or butyl rubber. For most of the glove samples, permeation of the glycol-ether derivatives contained in the mixtures was faster than that predicted from the permeation of the pure solvents. Increasing the exposure temperature from 25 to 37 degrees C did not significantly affect the performance of the butyl rubber glove. For the other gloves, however, exposures at 37 degrees C resulted in decreases in breakthrough times of 25-75% and increases in steady-state permeation rates of 80-457% relative to values obtained at 25 degrees C. Repeated

  10. Fabrication of electrospun HPGL scaffolds via glycidyl methacrylate cross-linker: Morphology, mechanical and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Baratéla, Fernando José Costa; Higa, Olga Zazuco; Dos Passos, Esdras Duarte; de Queiroz, Alvaro Antonio Alencar

    2017-04-01

    Electrospinning is a suitable method to produce scaffolds composed of nanoscale to microscale fibers, which are comparable to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPGL) is a highly biocompatible polyether polyol potentially useful for the design of fibrous scaffolds mimicking the ECM architecture. However, scaffolds developed from HPGL have poor mechanical properties and morphological stability in the aqueous environments required for tissue engineering applications. This work reports the production of stable electrospun HPGL scaffolds (EHPGLS) using glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) as cross-linker to enhance the water stability and mechanical property of electrospun HPGL. The diameter and morphology of the produced EHPGLS were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was observed that electrical fields in the range of 0.2kV·cm(-1) to 1.0kV·cm(-1) decrease the average fiber diameter of EHPGLS. The increase in porosity of EHPGLS with GMA concentration indicates the in situ formation of a heterogeneous structure resultant from the phase separation during crosslinking of HPGL by GMA. EHPGLS containing 20% (w/w) GMA concentration possessed highest tensile strength (295.4±11.32kPa), which is approximately 58 times higher than that of non-crosslinked EHPGLS (5.1±2.12kPa). The MTS cell viability results showed that the EHPGLS have no significant cytotoxicity effect on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicates that the cultured BALB/3T3 fibroblasts cells were able to keep contact each other's, thus forming a homogeneous monolayer on the internal surface of the EHPGLS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. New CO2 adsorbent containing aminated poly(glycidyl methacrylate) grafted onto irradiated PE-PP nonwoven sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud Nasef, Mohamed; Abbasi, Ali; Ting, T. M.

    2014-10-01

    A new CO2 adsorbent containing triethylamine (TEA) was prepared by radiation induced grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto polyethylene coated polypropylene (PE-PP) non-woven sheet followed by amination reaction. The degree of grafting (DOG%) was controlled by variation of monomer concentration and absorbed dose. The incorporation of aminated poly(GMA) was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The adsorbent with DOG of 350% and amination yield of 60% exhibited CO2 adsorption capacity of 4.52 mol/kg at ambient temperature and pressure.

  12. Preferential Enrichment of a range of Proteins Distinguishes the Corona of PEGylated poly(glycidyl methacrylate) Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Priya S R; Norret, Marck; Smith, Nicole M; Dunlop, Sarah A; Taylor, Nicolas L; Fitzgerald, Melinda; Iyer, K Swaminathan

    2017-10-12

    Composition of the protein corona formed on poly(ethylene glycol)-functionalised (PEGylated) poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) nanoparticles (NPs) was qualitatively and quantitatively compared to the protein corona on non-PEGylated PGMA NPs. Despite the reputation of PEGylated NPs for 'stealth' functionality, we demonstrate preferential enrichment of specific serum proteins of varied biological functions in the protein corona on PEGylated NPs when compared to non-PEGylated NPs. Additionally, we suggest that the base material of polymeric NPs plays a role in the preferential enrichment of select serum proteins to the hard corona.

  13. 21 CFR 868.5420 - Ether hook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ether hook. 868.5420 Section 868.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5420 Ether hook. (a) Identification. An ether hook is a...

  14. 21 CFR 868.5420 - Ether hook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ether hook. 868.5420 Section 868.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5420 Ether hook. (a) Identification. An ether hook is a device...

  15. Hypoxia-sensitive bis(2-(2'-benzothienyl)pyridinato-N,C3')iridium[poly(n-butyl cyanoacrylate]/chitosan nanoparticles and their phosphorescence tumor imaging in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yun; Zhang, Shaojuan; Jia, Menghui; Liu, Yang; Shang, Jin; Guo, Youmin; Xu, Jianhua; Wu, Daocheng

    2013-11-01

    A new hypoxia-sensitive coordination compound, bis(2-(2'-benzothienyl)pyridinato-N,C3')iridium[poly(n-butyl cyanoacrylate)], hereafter denoted as (btp)2Ir(PBCA), is synthesized and characterized by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). (btp)2Ir(PBCA)/chitosan [(btp)2Ir(PBCA)/CS] nanoparticles (NPs) with a core-shell structure are prepared by a two-step fabrication process. The size distributions of these NPs are measured with a Malvern size analyzer, and their morphology is observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The functional groups on the surface are confirmed by FTIR. Phosphorescence spectra are obtained and lifetimes are determined with a spectrophotofluorometer and a time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) apparatus, respectively. HeLa and CT26 cell lines are used to examine the cytotoxicity by the MTT assay, as well as to determine the imaging capability of the samples in air and nitrogen atmospheres, respectively. Tumor-bearing mouse models of colon adenocarcinoma are used for tumor imaging in vivo, and the imaging effect is evaluated with a Maestro 2 fluorescence imaging system. Compared with the hypoxia-associated probe bis(2-(2'-benzothienyl)pyridinato-N,C3')iridium(acetylacetonate) (BTP), the phosphorescence lifetime of (btp)2Ir(PBCA)/CS NPs significantly decreases, but the hypoxia-sensitivity increases after preparation of NPs. Apart from the significantly lower cytotoxicity, (btp)2Ir(PBCA)/CS NPs also enhance the tumor imaging effect by more than 10 times, maintaining the phosphorescence signal in tumor tissue for over 24 h and significantly decreasing the phosphorescence signal in normal tissue in vivo compared with the BTP probe.A new hypoxia-sensitive coordination compound, bis(2-(2'-benzothienyl)pyridinato-N,C3')iridium[poly(n-butyl cyanoacrylate)], hereafter denoted as (btp)2Ir(PBCA), is synthesized and characterized by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform

  16. Exposure to di(n-butyl)phthalate and benzo(a)pyrene alters IL-1{beta} secretion and subset expression of testicular macrophages, resulting in decreased testosterone production in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Shanjun; Tian Huaijun; Cao Jia; Gao Yuqi

    2010-10-01

    Di(n-butyl)phthalate (DBP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) are environmental endocrine disruptors that are potentially hazardous to humans. These chemicals affect testicular macrophage immuno-endocrine function and testosterone production. However, the underlying mechanisms for these effects are not fully understood. It is well known that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1{beta}), which is secreted by testicular macrophages, plays a trigger role in regulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis. The purpose of this study was to reveal the effects of co-exposure to DBP and BaP on testicular macrophage subset expression, IL-1{beta} secretion and testosterone production. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven groups; two groups received DBP plus BaP (DBP + BaP: 50 + 1 or 250 + 5 mg/kg/day) four groups received DBP or BaP alone (DBP: 50 or 250 mg/kg/day; BaP: 1 or 5 mg/kg/day), and one group received vehicle alone (control). After co-exposure for 90 days, the relative expression of macrophage subsets and their functions changed. ED2{sup +} testicular macrophages (reactive with a differentiation-related antigen present on the resident macrophages) were activated and IL-1{beta} secretion was enhanced. DBP and BaP acted additively, as demonstrated by greater IL-1{beta} secretion relative to each compound alone. These observations suggest that exposure to DBP plus BaP exerted greater suppression on testosterone production compared with each compound alone. The altered balance in the subsets of testicular macrophages and the enhanced ability of resident testicular macrophages to secrete IL-1{beta}, resulted in enhanced production of IL-1{beta} as a potent steroidogenesis repressor. This may represent an important mechanism by which DBP and BaP repress steroidogenesis.

  17. Nitrous oxide emission and nitrogen use efficiency in response to nitrophosphate, N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide and dicyandiamide of a wheat cultivated soil under sub-humid monsoon conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, W. X.; Chen, Z. M.; Yu, H. Y.; Luo, J. F.; Yoo, G. Y.; Xiang, J.; Zhang, H. J.; Yuan, J. J.

    2014-09-01

    A field experiment was designed to study the effects of nitrogen (N) source and urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) or nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission and N use efficiency (NUE) in a sandy loam soil. Six treatments including no N fertilizer (control), N fertilizer urea alone (U), urea plus NBPT (NBPT), urea plus DCD (DCD), urea plus NBPT and DCD (NBPT + DCD), and nitrate-based fertilizer nitrophosphate (NP) were designed and implemented separately during the wheat growth period. Seasonal cumulative N2O emissions with urea alone amounted to 0.49 ± 0.12 and were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced to 0.28 ± 0.03, 0.31 ± 0.01 and 0.26 ± 0.01kg N2O-N ha-1 by application of DCD, NBPT and NBPT + DCD, respectively. Cumulative N2O emissions from NP were 0.28 ± 0.01kg N2O-N ha-1. A single N2O flux peak was identified following basal fertilization, and DCD and/or NBPT inhibition effects mainly occurred during the peak emission period. The NP application significantly (P < 0.05) increased wheat yield by 12.3% and NUE from 28.8% (urea alone) to 35.9%, while urease and/or nitrification inhibitors showed a slight increase effect. Our results clearly indicated that the application of urea as basal fertilizer, but not as supplemental fertilizer, together with DCD and NBPT is an effective practice to reduce N2O emissions. The application of NP instead of urea would be an optimum agricultural strategy for reducing N2O emissions and increasing crop yield and NUE for wheat cultivation in soils of the North China Plain.

  18. Nitrous oxide emission and nitrogen use efficiency in response to nitrophosphate, N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide and dicyandiamide of a wheat cultivated soil under sub-humid monsoon conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, W. X.; Chen, Z. M.; Yu, H. Y.; Luo, J. F.; Yoo, G. Y.; Xiang, J.; Zhang, H. J.; Yuan, J. J.

    2015-02-01

    A field experiment was designed to study the effects of nitrogen (N) source and urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) or nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission and N use efficiency (NUE) in a sandy loam soil. Six treatments including no N fertilizer (control), N fertilizer urea alone (U), urea plus NBPT (NBPT), urea plus DCD (DCD), urea plus NBPT and DCD (NBPT plus DCD) and nitrate-based fertilizer nitrophosphate (NP) were designed and implemented separately during the wheat growth period. Seasonal cumulative N2O emissions with urea alone amounted to 0.49 ± 0.12 kg N2O-N ha-1 and were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced to 0.28 ± 0.03, 0.31 ± 0.01 and 0.26 ± 0.01 kg N2O-N ha-1 by application of DCD, NBPT and NBPT plus DCD, respectively. Cumulative N2O emissions from NP were 0.28 ± 0.01 kg N2O-N ha-1. A single N2O flux peak was identified following basal fertilization, and DCD and/or NBPT inhibition effects mainly occurred during the peak emission period. The NP application significantly (P < 0.05) increased wheat yield by 12.3% and NUE from 28.8% (urea alone) to 35.9%, while urease and/or nitrification inhibitors showed a slight increase effect. Our results clearly indicated that the application of urea as basal fertilizer, but not as supplemental fertilizer, together with DCD and NBPT is an effective practice to reduce N2O emissions. The application of NP instead of urea would be an optimum agricultural strategy for reducing N2O emissions and increasing crop yield and NUE for wheat cultivation in soils of the North China Plain.

  19. Susceptibility of p27 kip1 knockout mice to urinary bladder carcinogenesis induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine may not simply be due to enhanced proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hikosaka, Atsuya; Ogawa, Kumiko; Sugiura, Satoshi; Asamoto, Makoto; Takeshita, Fumitaka; Sato, Shin-Ya; Nakanishi, Makoto; Kohri, Kenjiro; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2008-03-15

    Deregulated proliferation is one of the fundamental characteristics of carcinogenesis. p27 is one of the most well characterized negative cell cycle regulator. In our previous study, expression of p27 protein was found to be dramatically suppressed on stimulation of cell proliferation by calculi in the rodent urinary bladder, withdrawal of the insult resulting in re-expression of p27 and regression of urothelial hyperplastic lesions. In the present study, to evaluate how loss of function impacts on urinary bladder carcinogenesis, N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN), a bladder carcinogen was given to p27 knockout mice. Males and females with either null, hetero or wild-type p27 alleles were divided into 2 groups, one given drinking water containing 0.05% BBN for 10 weeks and the other receiving distilled water, then, killed at week 20. The experiment was repeated for confirmation of the outcome. In the second experiment, performed with a larger number of animals, the incidence of urinary bladder carcinomas was significantly higher in female p27-null mice than in their wild-type counterparts. p27 deficiency also resulted in their increase of relative weights of urinary bladders and section areas of carcinomas in BBN-treated mice. Interestingly, while BrdU labeling indices generally increased with progression of mucosal proliferative lesions, from normal epithelium, through hyperplasia to carcinoma, there was no significant variation with the p27 genotype, in tumors as well as normal urothelium. These findings suggest that p27 deficient mice have elevated susceptibility to BBN-induction of urinary bladder carcinogenesis through a mechanism which might be independent of acceleration of cell cycling.

  20. In utero-exposed di(n-butyl) phthalate induce dose dependent, age-related changes of morphology and testosterone-biosynthesis enzymes/associated proteins of Leydig cell mitochondria in rats.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Masaya; Wempe, Michael F; Mutou, Tomoko; Okayama, Yuya; Kansaku, Norio; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Ikegami, Masahiro; Asari, Masao; Wakui, Shin

    2016-04-01

    Female pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were intragastrically (ig) administered di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) at four doses (0, 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg) during gestation days (GD) 12-21 (n = 5 per group). The age-related morphological changes of Leydig cell mitochondrion (LC-Mt) and testosterone biosynthesis enzymes/associated genes/proteins expression levels were investigated. As compared to the control (no DBP), the 10 mg, and 50 mg DBP dose groups, the 100 mg DBP dose group at weeks 5 and 7 showed a significant amount of small LC-Mt. Thereafter, from weeks 9 to 17, the LC-Mt size and quantity in the 100 mg DBP dose group increased and became statistically similar to the other dose groups; hence, dose and time-dependent LC-Mt changes were observed. Throughout the study, the 100 mg DBP dose group had significantly lower testosterone levels. In addition, the 100 mg DBP dose group displayed lower StAR (StAR, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) and P450scc (CYP11a1, cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme) levels at weeks 5 and 7, but they became statistically similar to all other dose groups at weeks 9 to 17; in contrast, the SR-B1 (Sarb1, scavenger receptor class B member 1) levels were similar for all DBP dose groups. The rats in utero 100 mg DBP /kg/day (GD 12-21) exposure results from this study indicate a dose-dependent, age-related morphological change in LC-Mt which are linked to reductions in testosterone biosynthesis genes / proteins expression, specifically StAR and P450scc.

  1. Percutaneous Direct Needle Puncture and Transcatheter N-butyl Cyanoacrylate Injection Techniques for the Embolization of Pseudoaneurysms and Aneurysms of Arteries Supplying the Hepato-pancreato-biliary System and Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Rajanikant R; Boruah, Deb K; Bhattacharyya, Vishwaroop; Prasad, Raghunandan; Kumar, Sheo; Saraswat, V A; Kapoor, V K; Saxena, Rajan

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of percutaneous direct needle puncture and transcatheter N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) injection techniques for the embolization of pseudoaneurysms and aneurysms of arteries supplying the hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) system and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Subjects and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted, where the study group comprised 11 patients with pseudoaneurysms/aneurysms of arteries supplying the HPB system and GI tract presenting to a tertiary care center from January 2015 to June 2016. Four patients (36.4%) underwent percutaneous direct needle puncture of pseudoaneurysms with NBCA injection, 3 patients (27.3%) underwent transcatheter embolization with NBCA as sole embolic agent, and in 4 patients (36.4%), transcatheter NBCA injection was done along with coil embolization. Results: This retrospective study comprised 11 patients (8 males and 3 females) with mean age of 35.8 years ± 1.6 (standard deviation [SD]). The mean volume of NBCA: ethiodized oil (lipiodol) mixture injected by percutaneous direct needle puncture was 0.62 ml ± 0.25 (SD) (range = 0.5–1 ml), and by transcatheter injection, it was 0.62 ml ± 0.37 (SD) (range = 0.3–1.4 ml). Embolization with NBCA was technically and clinically successful in all patients (100%). No recurrence of bleeding or recurrence of pseudoaneurysm/aneurysm was noted in our study. Conclusions: Percutaneous direct needle puncture of visceral artery pseudoaneurysms and NBCA glue injection and transcatheter NBCA injection for embolization of visceral artery pseudoaneurysms and aneurysms are cost-effective techniques that can be used when coil embolization is not feasible or has failed. PMID:28123838

  2. High Cytotoxic Activity of Phosphonium Salts and Their Complementary Selectivity towards HeLa and K562 Cancer Cells: Identification of Tri-n-butyl-n-hexadecylphosphonium bromide as a Highly Potent Anti-HeLa Phosphonium Salt

    PubMed Central

    Bachowska, Barbara; Kazmierczak-Baranska, Julia; Cieslak, Marcin; Nawrot, Barbara; Szczęsna, Dorota; Skalik, Joanna; Bałczewski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium and phosphonium salts have been screened for their toxic effect on HeLa and K562 cancer cell lines, as well as on normal HUVEC cells. Tri-n-butyl-n-hexadecylphosphonium bromide, the first phosphonium salt with a halogen anion tested against HeLa cells, was 12 times more potent (IC50 <5 μm after 24 and 48 h) than the clinically used reference compound cisplatin and 17 times more potent than tri-n-hexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first phosphonium salt to be evaluated in HeLa cells. However, it was inactive against K562 cells (24 and 48 h). According to a caspase-3/7 assay, its toxicity has not been connected with the induction of apoptosis. In contrast, triphenylalkylphosphonium iodides with shorter C1–5 alkyl chains were inactive against HeLa cells but very active against K562 cells (IC50=6–10 μm after 48 h). Phosphonium cations with halide counterions proved to be more potent than those with (CF3SO2)2N− as the anion, as in the anticancer agent NSC 747251, or other anions in molecules with similar alkyl chain lengths. On the other hand, a series of ammonium salts containing a short methylthiomethyl or methoxymethyl side chain revealed low cytotoxicity (IC50 >500 μm after 24 and 48 h) against both HeLa and K562 cancer cell lines as well as normal HUVEC cells, showing that the nontoxic N+CH2YMe (Y=S, O) structural motif in ammonium salts could be suitable for further optimization and development, especially in transfection experiments. PMID:24551490

  3. High Cytotoxic Activity of Phosphonium Salts and Their Complementary Selectivity towards HeLa and K562 Cancer Cells: Identification of Tri-n-butyl-n-hexadecylphosphonium bromide as a Highly Potent Anti-HeLa Phosphonium Salt.

    PubMed

    Bachowska, Barbara; Kazmierczak-Baranska, Julia; Cieslak, Marcin; Nawrot, Barbara; Szczęsna, Dorota; Skalik, Joanna; Bałczewski, Piotr

    2012-02-01

    Quaternary ammonium and phosphonium salts have been screened for their toxic effect on HeLa and K562 cancer cell lines, as well as on normal HUVEC cells. Tri-n-butyl-n-hexadecylphosphonium bromide, the first phosphonium salt with a halogen anion tested against HeLa cells, was 12 times more potent (IC50 <5 μm after 24 and 48 h) than the clinically used reference compound cisplatin and 17 times more potent than tri-n-hexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first phosphonium salt to be evaluated in HeLa cells. However, it was inactive against K562 cells (24 and 48 h). According to a caspase-3/7 assay, its toxicity has not been connected with the induction of apoptosis. In contrast, triphenylalkylphosphonium iodides with shorter C1-5 alkyl chains were inactive against HeLa cells but very active against K562 cells (IC50=6-10 μm after 48 h). Phosphonium cations with halide counterions proved to be more potent than those with (CF3SO2)2N(-) as the anion, as in the anticancer agent NSC 747251, or other anions in molecules with similar alkyl chain lengths. On the other hand, a series of ammonium salts containing a short methylthiomethyl or methoxymethyl side chain revealed low cytotoxicity (IC50 >500 μm after 24 and 48 h) against both HeLa and K562 cancer cell lines as well as normal HUVEC cells, showing that the nontoxic N(+)CH2YMe (Y=S, O) structural motif in ammonium salts could be suitable for further optimization and development, especially in transfection experiments.

  4. Protective effects of a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, N-n-butyl-3-methoxy quinoxaline-2-carboxamide (6o) against chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced behavioral changes and biochemical alterations.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Shvetank; Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Jindal, Ankur; Devadoss, Thangaraj

    2014-07-01

    Stimulation of high oxidative stress in the brain is considered as an important factor for neurotoxicity towards the pathophysiology of chronic stress-induced depression disorder. In the present research, a potential 5-HT₃ receptor antagonist N-n-butyl-3-methoxy quinoxaline-2-carboxamide (6o) having good Log P (2.60) and pA₂ (7.7) values was examined for its effect on the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model. In the current investigation mice were introduced to different stress procedures daily for a period of 28 days to induce a depressive-like behavior. The results show that CUMS caused a depression-like behavior in mice, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose consumption and locomotor activity and increase in immobility in the forced swim test (FST). Moreover, it was found that oxidative stress markers such as lipid peroxide and nitrite levels were significantly increased, whereas, antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels were decreased in the brain tissue of CUMS-subjected mice. "Compound 6o" (1 and 2 mg/kg, p.o.) and fluoxetine treatment (20 mg/kg, p.o.) for a period of 21 days altered the CUMS-induced behavioral (increased immobility period, reduced sucrose preference and decreased locomotor activity) and biochemical (increased lipid peroxide, increased brain nitrite; decreased GSH, SOD and CAT levels) alterations. Moreover normal mice treated with "compound 6o" (2 mg/kg, p.o.) showed a significant decrease in the duration of immobility in FST as compared to normal vehicle treated mice. In conclusion, "compound 6o" produced antidepressant-like effects in behavioral despair paradigm in chronically stressed mice by restoring antioxidant enzyme activity.

  5. Cell growth of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells is promoted by di-n-butyl phthalate and hexabromocyclododecane via upregulation of the cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 genes.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Ah; Hwang, Kyung-A; Lee, Hye-Rim; Yi, Bo-Rim; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2012-03-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are environmentally persistent exogenous compounds released from various industrial products such as plastics, pesticides, drugs, detergents and cosmetics. They can cause a variety of adverse effects to the reproductive, developmental, immune and nervous systems in humans and wildlife. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is the main compound of phthalates and is reported to inhibit estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated gene expression and to interfere with normal fetal development of the male reproductive system. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD or HBCDD) is one of the brominated flame retardants (BFRs) which have been widely used in plastic, electronic and textile applications and are known to cause endocrine disruption with toxicity of the nervous system. In the present study, the estrogenic effects of DBP and HBCD were examined in an ovarian cancer cell line, BG-1, expressing high levels of ER via MTT assay and semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Treatment with DBP (10(-8)-10(-5) M) or HBCD (2 x 10(-8) -2 x 10(-6) M) resulted in increased cell proliferation of BG-1 cells as observed with 17-β estradiol (E2). In addition, both DBP and HBCD upregulated the expression levels of cell cycle-regulatory genes, such as cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (cdk-4), which are downstream target genes of ER, at 6 h after treatment. However, the expression of the p21 gene was not altered by DBP or HBCD at any time as with E2. Taken together, these results suggest that DBP and HBCD are EDCs which have apparent estrogenic activities by stimulating the cell proliferation of BG-1 cells and by inducing the expression of cyclin D and cdk-4. Our results suggest that DBP and HBCD have sufficient potency to disrupt the endocrine system and to stimulate cell growth in ER-positive cancer cells.

  6. The effect of 7-(2'-oxopropyl)-1,3-di-n-butyl-xanthine (BRL 30892) on ischaemic skeletal muscle pO2, pH and contractility in cats and rats.

    PubMed

    Angersbach, D; Ochlich, P

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study in animal experiments whether 7-(2'-oxopropyl)-1,3-di-n-butyl-xanthine (BRL 30892) could be of potential value for the treatment of peripheral vascular disease (PVD). In order to obtain information on oxygen supply, energy metabolism and function of ischaemic calf muscle in rats and cats, muscle pO2, pH and contractility were measured before and after dosing of BRL 30892. In cats, pO2 histograms of the ischaemic gastrocnemius muscle demonstrate an improved supply after dosing of BRL 30892. A dosage of 0.1 mg/kg intraduodenally (i.d.) increased tissue pO2 by an average of 6 Torr. Dose-effect relationships showed BRL 30892 to be of high potency, the lowest effective dose being 0.025 mg/kg i.d. BRL 30892 also increased pO2 in the ischaemic rat gastrocnemius. Furthermore, an increase in pH in this tissue was seen, a dosage of 0.2 mg/kg increasing pH by ca. 0.1 unit. Contractility of the cat ischaemic calf muscle was increased by 13% after 0.0125 mg/kg i.v. and by nearly 50% after 0.3 mg/kg i.d. BRL 30892. Pentoxifylline used as a reference compound showed qualitatively similar effects to BRL 30892 but pentoxifylline was ca. 100 times less potent. Furthermore, pentoxifylline produced lower maximum effects than BRL 30892. Thus, BRL 30892 could be a useful compound for the treatment of PVD.

  7. Propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propylene glycol monomethyl ether ( PGME ) ; CASRN 107 - 98 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assess

  8. Desoxyhemigossypol-6-methyl-ether

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Desoxyhemigossypol-6-methyl ether is an antimicrobial compound produced by the cotton plant in response to attack by pathogens. For the first time, we now report the crystal structure of this compound. This may prove useful in studies on the interaction of the compound with pathogenic fungal cells...

  9. Lacinilene C 7-methyl ether

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lacinilene C 7-methyl ether is an antimicrobial compound produced by the cotton plant in response to attack by pathogens. For the first time, we now report the crystal structure of this compound. This may prove useful in studies on the interaction of the compound with pathogenic fungal cells....

  10. p,p\\'-Dibromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    p , p ' - Dibromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 2050 - 47 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  11. Bis(chloroethyl)ether (BCEE)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Bis ( chloroethyl ) ether ( BCEE ) ; CASRN 111 - 44 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  12. Bis(chloromethyl)ether (BCME)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Bis ( chloromethyl ) ether ( BCME ) ; CASRN 542 - 88 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments f

  13. Poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(glycidyl methacrylate) with oligoamine side chains as efficient gene vectors.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming; Li, Feng; Chen, Fu-jie; Cheng, Si-xue; Zhuo, Ren-xi

    2010-02-11

    Well-defined diblock copolymers, poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(glycidyl methacrylate)s (PEG-b-PGMAs), with different poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) chains, were prepared via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from the same macromolecular initiator 2-bromoisobutyryl-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Ethyldiamine (EDA), diethylenetriamine (DETA), triethylenetetramine (TETA), and polyethyleneimine (PEI) with an M(W) of 400 (PEI(400)) were used to decorate PEG-b-PGMAs to get the cationic polymers PEG-b-PGMA- oligoamines. These cationic polymers possessed high buffer capability and could condense plasmid DNA (pDNA) into nanoscaled complexes of 125-530 nm. These complexes showed the positive zeta potential of 20-35 mV at N/P ratios of 10-50. Most of them exhibited very low cytotoxicity and good transfection efficiency in 293T cells. The presence of the serum medium did not decrease the transfection efficiency due to the steric stabilization of the PEG chains.

  14. Affinity chromatography of proteins on non-porous copolymerized particles of styrene, methyl methacrylate and glycidyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Chen, C H; Lee, W C

    2001-06-29

    Non-porous particles having an average diameter of 2.1 microm were prepared by co-polymerization of styrene, methyl methacrylate and glycidyl methacrylate, which was abbreviated as P(S-MMA-GMA). The particles were mechanically stable due to the presence of benzene rings in the backbone of polymer chains, and could withstand high pressures when a column packed with these particles was operated in the HPLC mode. The polymer particles were advantaged by immobilization of ligands via the epoxy groups on the particle surface that were introduced by one of the monomers, glycidyl methacrylate. As a model system, Cibacron Blue 3G-A was covalently immobilized onto the non-porous copolymer beads. The dye-immobilized P(S-MMA-GMA) particles were slurry packed into a 1.0 cm x 0.46 cm I.D. column. This affinity column was effective for the separation of turkey egg white lysozyme from a protein mixture. The bound lysozyme could be eluted to yield a sharp peak by using a phosphate buffer containing 1 M NaCl. For a sample containing up to 8 microg of lysozyme, the retained portion of proteins could be completely eluted without any slit peak. Due to the use of a shorter column, the analysis time was shorter in comparison with other affinity systems reported in the literature. The retention time could be reduced significantly by increasing the flow-rate, while the capacity factor remained at the same level.

  15. Development of erbium phosphate doped poly(glycidyl methacrylate/ethylene dimethacrylate) spin columns for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Güzel, Yüksel; Rainer, Matthias; Messner, Christoph B; Hussain, Shah; Meischl, Florian; Sasse, Michael; Tessadri, Richard; Bonn, Günther K

    2015-05-01

    In this study, a novel method for the highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides using erbium phosphate doped poly(glycidyl methacrylate/ethylene dimethacrylate) spin columns is presented. Erbium phosphate was synthesized by precipitation from boiling phosphoric acid and incubated overnight in erbium chloride solutions. The resulting powder was embedded in a monolithic poly(glycidyl methacrylate/ethylene dimethacrylate) polymer. The monolith was synthesized in a spin column by radical polymerization. Erbium phosphate demonstrated a high affinity and selectivity for phosphopeptides due to the strong interaction of trivalent erbium ions with the phosphate groups of phosphopeptides. The high selectivity and performance of the designed spin columns were demonstrated by successfully enriching phosphopeptides from tryptically digested protein mixtures containing the model phosphoproteins α- and β-casein, bovine milk, and human saliva. By the implementation of several washing steps, unspecific components were removed and the enriched phosphopeptides were effectively eluted from the spin columns under alkaline conditions. The selective performance of the presented method was further demonstrated by the enrichment of two synthetic phosphopeptides, which were spiked in tryptically digested and dephosphorylated HeLa cell lysates at low ratios. Finally, the presented approach was compared to conventional phosphopeptide enrichment by titanium oxide and revealed higher recoveries for the erbium phosphate doped monoliths.

  16. Improved chromatographic performances of glycidyl methacrylate anion-exchange monolith for fast nano-ion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bruchet, Anthony; Dugas, Vincent; Mariet, Clarisse; Goutelard, Florence; Randon, Jérôme

    2011-08-01

    An efficient and reproducible photopolymerized poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) was synthesized in Teflon-coated fused-silica capillaries (100 μm id) and functionalized by reaction of triethylamine with reactive epoxy groups. We report here the successful transfer of a standard polymerization mixture optimized for the thermally initiated synthesis of glycidyl-based monolith to photo-induced polymerization. The monolith obtained after optimization of the photo-initiation conditions was characterized in reverse-phase chromatography evaluating its suitability in terms of efficiency, retention and hydrodynamic permeability. Reproducibility of the photo-induced procedure was satisfactory with RSD below 6% for retention and efficiency and slightly higher for hydrodynamic permeability (12%). The functionalized generic support was then used in nano-ion-exchange chromatography. Efficiencies up to 75,000 plates/m, ion-exchange capacity of 8 nano-equivalents/cm of monolithic column, with a combination of a satisfactory hydrodynamic permeability allowed to perform fast separations of five inorganic anions in <3 min maintaining baseline resolution. The efficiency of the monolith was not retention-dependent, demonstrating its wide range of possible applications for highly retained anions. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Reactive compatibilization of PBT/ABS blends by methyl methacrylate, glycidyl methacrylate, ethyl acrylate terpolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, Wesley Raymond

    The impact resistance of poly(butylene terephthalate), PBT, has been improved by blending with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymers, ABS, as a minor dispersed phase; however, extensive coarsening of the dispersed phase in the blends occurs under certain heat fabrication conditions. The incorporation of certain reactive polymers (compatibilizers) that are miscible with the styrene/acrylonitrile (SAN) matrix of ABS should result in more stable morphologies. Terpolymers of methyl methacrylate, glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), ethyl acrylate, MGE, are effective as reactive compatibilizers for blends of PBT with SAN and ABS materials. The epoxide groups of MGE react with the carboxyl endgroups of PBT to form a MGE-g-PBT graft copolymer at the PBT/SAN interface to provide improved SAN or ABS dispersion, morphological stability, and a broadening of the melt processing window. Additionally, compatibilization produces large improvements in the low temperature fracture toughness of PBT/ABS blends; however, the toughness depends on the order of mixing blend components due to crosslinking reactions involving the epoxide groups of MGE catalyzed by residual acids present in some emulsion-made ABS materials. The PBT, ABS, and MGE type, content, and composition have been examined to evaluate their effects on the mechanical and morphological properties of PBT/ABS blends. Additionally, the effects of different processing conditions have been examined. High PBT melt viscosity is desirable for improving ABS dispersion and low temperature toughness of the blends. Generally, ABS materials with a high rubber content and low melt viscosity are desirable for toughening PBT. Moderate amounts of GMA in the blend were found to significantly improve blend properties. Melt blending can be performed using a variety of equipment; however, a co-rotating intermeshing twin screw extruder is the most effective for producing blends with excellent properties. The fracture properties of PBT

  18. Grafting glycidyl methacrylate to Sepharose gel for fabricating high-capacity protein anion exchangers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qianqian; Yu, Linling; Sun, Yan

    2016-04-22

    To develop ion exchangers of high protein adsorption capacity, we have herein introduced atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method to graft glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto Sepharose FF gel. GMA-grafted Sepharose FF resins of four grafting densities and different grafting chain lengths were obtained by adjusting reaction conditions. The epoxy groups on the grafted chains were functionalized by modification with diethylamine (DEA), leading to the fabrication of Sepharose-based anion exchangers of 14 different grafting densities and/or grafting chain lengths. The resins were first characterized for the effects of grafting density, chain length and ionic strength on pore sizes by inverse size exclusion chromatography. Then, the resins were evaluated by adsorption equilibria of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a function of ionic capacity (IC) (chain length) at individual grafting densities. It was observed that at each grafting density there was a specific IC value (chain length) that offered the maximum equilibrium capacity. Of the resins with maximum values at individual grafting densities, the resin of the second grafting density with an IC value of 330 mmol/L (denoted as FF-Br2-pG-D330) showed the highest capacity, 264 mg/mL, about two times higher than that of the traditional ungrafted resin Q Sepharose FF (137 mg/mL). This resin also showed the most favorable uptake kinetics among the resins of similar IC values but different grafting densities, or of the same grafting density but different IC values. Effects of ionic strength showed that the capacities of FF-Br2-pG-D330 were much higher than Q Sepharose FF at a wide range of NaCl concentrations (0-200 mmol/L), and the uptake rates of the two resins were similar in the ionic strength range. Therefore, the dynamic binding capacity values of BSA on FF-Br2-pG-D330 were much higher than Q Sepharose FF as demonstrated at different residence times and ionic strengths. Taken together, the research has proved the

  19. Study of a Li-air battery having an electrolyte solution formed by a mixture of an ether-based aprotic solvent and an ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchetto, Laura; Salomon, Mark; Scrosati, Bruno; Croce, Fausto

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies have clearly demonstrated that cyclic and linear carbonates are unstable when used in rechargeable Li-air batteries employing aprotic solvents mostly due to the cathodic formation of superoxide during the oxygen reduction reaction. In particular, it has been ascertained that nucleophilic attack by superoxide anion radical, O2-rad , at O-alkyl carbon is a common mechanism of decomposition of organic carbonates. Moreover, theoretical calculations showed that ether chemical functionalities are stable against nucleophilic substitution induced by superoxide. Aim of this study is to report on a new electrolyte solution for Li-air battery formed by a mixture of an ether-based aprotic solvent with an ionic liquid (IL). The IL-based electrolyte was obtained by mixing the pure ionic liquid N-methyl-(n-butyl) pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl) imide (here denoted as PYR14TFSI) to a 0.91 M solution of lithium triflate (LiCF3SO3) in tetra ethylene glycol dimethyl etcher (TEGDME). We observed that the presence of IL beneficially affects the kinetics and the reversibility of the oxygen reactions involved at the cathode. The most significant result being a lower overvoltage for the charge reaction, compared to a Li/air cell containing the same electrolyte solution without IL.

  20. Controllable Biotinylated Poly(Ethylene-co-Glycidyl Methacrylate) (PE-co-GMA) Nanofibers to Bind Streptavidin-Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) for Potential Biosensor Applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Poly(ethylene-co-glycidyl methacrylate) (PE-co-GMA) nanofibers with abundant active epoxy groups on surfaces were fabricated through a novel manufacturing process. The prepared PE-co-GMA nanofibers with different average diameters ranging from 100 to 400 nm were aminated by reacting the epoxy groups...

  1. A new alternative to expandable pedicle screws: Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell.

    PubMed

    Demir, Teyfik

    2015-05-01

    Screw pullout is a very common problem in the fixation of sacrum with pedicle screws. The principal cause of this problem is that the cyclic micro motions in the fixation of sacrum are higher than the other regions of the vertebrae that limit the osteo-integration between bone and screw. In addition to that, the bone quality is very poor at sacrum region. This study investigated a possible solution to the pullout problem without the expandable screws' handicaps. Newly designed poly-ether-ether-ketone expandable shell and classical pedicle screws were biomechanically compared. Torsion test, pullout tests, fatigue tests, flexion/extension moment test, axial gripping capacity tests and torsional gripping capacity tests were conducted in accordance with ASTM F543, F1798 and F1717. Standard polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae were used as embedding medium for pullout tests. Classical pedicle screw pullout load on polyurethane foam was 564.8 N compared to the failure load for calf vertebrae's 1264 N. Under the same test conditions, expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell system's pullout loads from polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae were 1196.3 and 1890 N, respectively. The pullout values for expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell were 33% and 53% higher than classical pedicle screw on polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae, respectively. The expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell exhibited endurance on its 90% of yield load. Contrary to poly-ether-ether-ketone shell, classical pedicle screw exhibited endurance on 70% of its yield load. Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell exhibited much higher pullout performance than classical pedicle screw. Fatigue performance of expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell is also higher than classical pedicle screw due to damping the micro motion capacity of the poly-ether-ether-ketone. Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell is a safe alternative to all other expandable pedicle screw systems on mechanical perspective.

  2. Gestational and lactational exposition to Di-N-butyl-phthalate (DBP) increases inflammation and preneoplastic lesions in prostate of wistar rats after carcinogenic N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) plus testosterone protocol.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, André R; Santos, Talita M; Brandt, Joyce Z; Delella, Flávia K; Gonçalves, Bianca F; Campos, Silvana G P; Taboga, Sebastião R; Favaro, Wagner J; Domeniconi, Raquel F; Scarano, Wellerson R

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, it was evaluated the susceptibility of prostatic lesions in male adult rats exposed to Di-N-butyl-phthalate during fetal and lactational periods and submitted to MNU plus testosterone carcinogenesis protocol. Pregnant females were distributed into four experimental groups: CN (negative control); CMNU (MNU control); TDBP100 (100 mg/kg of DBP); TDBP500 (500 mg/kg of DBP). Females from the TDBP groups received DBP, by gavage, from gestation day 15 (GD15) to postnatal day 21 (DPN21), while C animals received the vehicle (corn oil). CMNU, TDBP100, and TDBP500 groups received a single intraperitoneal injection of MNU (50 mg/kg) on the sixth postnatal week. After that, testosterone cypionate was administered subcutaneously two times a week (2 mg/kg) for 24 weeks. The animals were euthanized on PND220. Distal segment fragments of the ventral (VP) and dorsolateral prostate (DLP) were fixed and processed for histopathological analysis. Protein extracts from ventral prostate were obtained, and western blotting was performed to AR, ERα, MAPK (ERK1/2), and pan-AKT. Stereological analysis showed an increase in the epithelial compartment in TDBP100 and TDBP500 compared to CN. In general, there was increase in the incidence of inflammation and metaplasia/dysplasia in the DBP-treated groups, mainly in DLP, compared to CN and CMNU. Proliferation index was significant higher in TDBP500 and PIN (prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia) was more frequent in this group compared to CMNU. Western blot assays showed an increase in the expressions of AR and MAPK (ERK1/2) in the TDBP100 compared to CN, and ERα and AKT expressions were higher in the TDBP500 group compared do CN. These results showed that different doses of DBP during prostate organogenesis in Wistar rats could increase the incidence of premalignant lesions in initiated rats inducing distinct biological responses in the adulthood. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1185-1195, 2016.

  3. In vivo effect of DNA repair on the transition frequency produced from a single O6-methyl- or O6-n-butyl-guanine in a T:G base pair.

    PubMed

    Chambers, R W; Sledziewska-Gojska, E; Hirani-Hojatti, S

    1988-08-01

    We have previously reported some effects of DNA repair on the transition frequencies produced by an O6-methyl-guanine (MeG) or an O6-n-butyl-guanine (BuG) paired with C at the first position of the third codon in gene G of bacteriophage phi X174 form I' DNA (Chambers et al. 1985). We now report experiments in which the transition is produced from T:MeG or T:BuG, instead of C:MeG or C:BuG, located at this site. The site-modified DNAs were transfected into cells with normal DNA repair as well as into cells with repair defects (uvrA, uvrB, uvrC, recA, uvrArecA). The lysates were screened for phage carrying the expected transition using a characteristic change in phenotype. The data demonstrate that the transition frequency from T:BuG is low (0.3% of total phage progeny) in cells with normal repair (Escherichia coli AB1157) and increases 7-fold in uvrA cells (E. coli AB1886). A similar increase is seen in uvrB and uvrC cells (AB1885, AB1884). These data, like our previous data, indicate BuG is repaired primarily by excision. In contrast to this, the transition frequency from T:MeG is high (5 +/- 2%) in cells with normal repair. After induction of alkyl transfer repair in E. coli AB1157, the transition frequency goes up 5-fold. Compared with cells with normal repair, the transition frequency goes up 2-fold in uvrA, uvrB and uvrC cells; it goes up 1.5-fold in recA cells (E. coli AB2463). The data reinforce our earlier conclusion that MeG is repaired primarily by alkyl transfer, but the ABC excinuclease as well as RecA protein inhibit this repair process.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Measuring exposures to glycol ethers.

    PubMed

    Clapp, D E; Zaebst, D D; Herrick, R F

    1984-08-01

    In 1981, NIOSH began investigating the potential reproductive health effects resulting from exposures to a class of organic solvents known generically as glycol ethers (GE). This research was begun as a result of the NIOSH criteria document development program which revealed little data available on the health effects of glycol ether exposure. Toxicologic research was begun by NIOSH and other researchers which suggested substantial reproductive effects in animals. These animal data motivated a study of human exposures in the occupational setting. In 1981 and 1982 NIOSH conducted several walk-through surveys which included preliminary measurements of exposures in a variety of industries including painting trades, coal mining, production blending and distribution facilities, aircraft fueling, and communications equipment repair facilities. The human exposure data from these surveys is summarized in this paper with most results well below 1 parts per million (ppm) and only a few values approaching 10 ppm. Blood samples were collected at one site resulting in GE concentrations below the limit of detection. Exposures to airborne glycol ethers, in the industries investigated during the collection of this data, revealed several problems in reliably sampling GE at low concentrations. It became apparent, from the data and observations of work practices, that air monitoring alone provided an inadequate index of GE exposure. Further field studies of exposure to GE are anticipated, pending location of additional groups of exposed workers and development of more reliable methods for characterizing exposure, especially biological monitoring.

  5. Simultaneous determination and differentiation of glycidyl esters and 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (MCPD) esters in different foodstuffs by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Küsters, Markus; Bimber, Ute; Reeser, Sebastian; Gallitzendörfer, Rainer; Gerhartz, Michael

    2011-06-08

    The aim of this study was the development of a method for the simultaneous determination and differentiation of fatty acid esters of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD esters) and glycidol (glycidyl esters) in different foodstuffs. The esters were isolated from fat-rich food samples using a single extraction step and separated from interfering substances. For differentiation of 3-MCPD esters and glycidyl esters the glycidol moiety was converted into 3-methoxypropane-1,2-diol (3-MPD) by acidic alcoholysis. Subsequent determination was achieved by isotope dilution GC-MS after transesterification using an isotope-labeled 3-MCPD ester as internal standard. During optimization of the procedure, critical parameters affecting simultaneous determination and differentiation of these analytes were investigated. Rapid ester cleavage and derivatization at ambient temperature proved to be essential for the simultaneous determination of these analytes. The method was validated for various fat-rich foodstuffs such as bakery products, sweets, gravy, and soup powders as well as edible fats and oils. LODs of 8 and 15 μg/kg (fat-rich foodstuffs) as well as 50 and 65 μg/kg (edible oils and fats) were obtained for 3-MCPD esters and glycidyl esters, respectively. Recoveries for 3-MCPD esters and glycidyl esters ranged within 98 ± 4 and 88 ± 2% in all tested foodstuffs (0.05-2.5 mg/kg) and within 99 ± 16 and 93 ± 13% for edible oils and fats (0.15-3 mg/kg) over a wide concentration range. These results proved an accurate and differentiated determination of 3-MCPD esters and glycidyl esters with successful application to the fast screening of samples, avoiding tedious and laborious sample preparation.

  6. Sources of Propylene Glycol and Glycol Ethers in Air at Home

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyunok; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Spengler, John; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf

    2010-01-01

    Propylene glycol and glycol ether (PGE) in indoor air have recently been associated with asthma and allergies as well as sensitization in children. In this follow-up report, sources of the PGEs in indoor air were investigated in 390 homes of pre-school age children in Sweden. Professional building inspectors examined each home for water damages, mold odour, building’s structural characteristics, indoor temperature, absolute humidity and air exchange rate. They also collected air and dust samples. The samples were analyzed for four groups of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-VOCs (SVOCs), including summed concentrations of 16 PGEs, 8 terpene hydrocarbons, 2 Texanols, and the phthalates n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). Home cleaning with water and mop ≥ once/month, repainting ≥ one room prior to or following the child’s birth, and “newest” surface material in the child’s bedroom explained largest portion of total variability in PGE concentrations. High excess indoor humidity (g/m3) additionally contributed to a sustained PGE levels in indoor air far beyond several months following the paint application. No behavioral or building structural factors, except for water-based cleaning, predicted an elevated terpene level in air. No significant predictor of Texanols emerged from our analysis. Overall disparate sources and low correlations among the PGEs, terpenes, Texanols, and the phthalates further confirm the lack of confounding in the analysis reporting the associations of the PGE and the diagnoses of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, respectively. PMID:21318004

  7. Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.O.; McBreen, J.

    1998-08-04

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

  8. Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xiao-Oing; McBreen, James

    1998-08-04

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

  9. Crystalline Imide/Arylene Ether Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Bass, Robert G.

    1991-01-01

    Series of imide/arylene ether block copolymers prepared by using arylene ether blocks to impart low melt viscosity, and imide blocks to provide high strength and other desirable mechanical properties. Work represents extension of LAR-14159 on imide/arylene ether copolymers in form of films, moldings, adhesives, and composite matrices. Copolymers potentially useful in variety of high-temperature aerospace and microelectronic applications.

  10. Polyphenylene ethers with imide linking groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Novel polyphenylene ethers with imide linking units are disclosed. These polymers incorporate the solvent and thermal resistance of polyimides and the processability of polyphenylene ethers. Improved physical properties over those of the prior art are obtained by incorporating meta linked ethers and/or polyphenylene oxides into the polymer backbone. A novel process for making polymers of this type is also disclosed. The process is unique in that the expected need of high process temperatures and/or special atmospheres are eliminated.

  11. Is the ether group hydrophilic or hydrophobic?

    PubMed

    Menger, Fredric M; Chlebowski, Mary E

    2005-03-29

    A series of six surfactants, each with two ether oxygens within otherwise all-hydrocarbon chains, were synthesized and examined for their colloidal properties. Since an ether oxygen is sterically and conformationally similar to the methylene group it has replaced, the ether effect on micellization should stem mainly from solvation of the oxygen and, possibly, disrupted hydrophobicity of its adjacent carbons. It was found that critical aggregation values among the surfactants differ only modestly despite the total length of the ether-separated carbon segments ranging from 12 to 18. Shorter ether surfactants with only 12 or 14 total carbons appear to form small, loose aggregates owing, presumably, to a mild hydrophilicity of the ether groups. A surfactant with 18 chain carbons has a greater tendency to associate hydrophobically, but this is counterbalanced by a relatively water-free environment encountered by the ether groups within a more conventional micelle interior. The result is a leveling effect in which the critical aggregation concentration (cac) loses it sensitivity to chain length. Above their cac's, none of the ether surfactants is a good solubilizer of tetramethysilane or mesitylene. This is not necessarily a predictable finding since it was conceivable that the presence of interior ether groups might actually enhance solubilization (much as ether is a better solvent than hexane). Foamability and solid adsorption studies also indicate that the ethers impair surface activity. In response to the question posed in the paper's title, two ether groups are not sufficiently hydrophilic to prevent aggregation, but they do manage to alter the micelles' morphology and properties considerably.

  12. Multifunctional copolymer coating of polyethylene glycol, glycidyl methacrylate, and REDV to enhance the selectivity of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu; Zhang, Jingxun; Li, Haolie; Zhang, Li; Bi, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Multifunctional polymer coatings have potential applications in biomaterials. These coatings possess reactive functional groups for the immobilization of specific biological factors that can influence cellular behavior. These coatings also display low nonspecific protein adsorption. In this study, we prepared a multifunctional polymer coating through the deposition of random copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) to prevent nonspecific attachment and enable the covalence of Arg-Glu-Asp-Val (REDV) peptide with endothelial cells (ECs) selectivity. Coatings were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The adhesion and proliferation of ECs and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) onto the REDV-modified surface were investigated to understand the synergistic action of antifouling PEG and EC selective REDV peptide conjugated GMA. The copolymers containing GMA and PEG groups are very useful as a multifunctional coating material with anti-fouling and ECs specific adhesion for implant materials surface modification.

  13. LaRC-ITPI/arylene ether copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Working, Dennis C.

    1991-01-01

    As part of an effort to develop high performance structural resins for aerospace applications, work has continued on block copolymers containing imide and arylene ether segments. The arylene ether block used in this study contains a bulky fluorene group in the polymer backbone while the imide block contains an arylene ketone segment similar to that in the arylene ether block and has been named LaRC-ITPI. A series of imide/arylene ether block and segmented copolymers were prepared and characterized. Films were prepared from these copolymers and mechanical properties were measured.

  14. Reactive magnetic poly(divinylbenzene-co-glycidyl methacrylate) colloidal particles for specific antigen detection using microcontact printing technique.

    PubMed

    Eissa, Mohamed M; Mahbubor Rahman, Md; Zine, Nadia; Jaffrezic, Nicole; Errachid, Abdelhamid; Fessi, Hatem; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2013-03-01

    Epoxy-functionalized magnetic poly(divinylbenzene-co-glycidyl methacrylate) colloidal particles (mPDGs) were prepared by co-polymerization of 1,4-divinylbenzene and glycidyl methacrylate monomers. The reaction was conducted by batch emulsion polymerization in the presence of an oil in water magnetic emulsion as a seed. The chemical composition, morphology, iron oxide content, magnetic properties, particle size and colloidal stability of the prepared magnetic polymer particles were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, vibrating sample magnetometry, dynamic light scattering, and zeta potential determination, respectively. The prepared mPDGs were immobilized on a self-assembled monolayer of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)/octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS), which were patterned on glass using microcontact printing technique, forming mPDGs-APTES/OTS reactive surface. This construction (mPDGs-APTES/OTS) was used as a solid support for immunoassay. The immobilized magnetic particles were bioconjugated with monoclonal anti-human IL-10 antibody to provide specific and selective recognition sites for the recombinant human IL-10 protein (antigen). Fluorescence microscopic examination was carried out to follow this immunoassay using fluorescently labeled anti-human IL-10 antibody. The results obtained proved the successful use of mPDGs-APTES/OTS microcontact printed surfaces in an immunoassay, which can be exploited and integrated into microsystems in order to elaborate medical devices (e.g. biosensors) which could provide rapid analysis at high sensitivity with low volumes of analyte. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of an analytical method for the simultaneous analysis of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in oil-based foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Ermacora, Alessia; Hrnčiřík, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Substantial progress has been recently made in the development and optimisation of analytical methods for the quantification of 2-MCPD, 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters in oils and fats, and there are a few methods currently available that allow a reliable quantification of these contaminants in bulk oils and fats. On the other hand, no standard method for the analysis of foodstuffs has yet been established. The aim of this study was the development and validation of a new method for the simultaneous quantification of 2-MCPD, 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters in oil-based food products. The developed protocol includes a first step of liquid-liquid extraction and purification of the lipophilic substances of the sample, followed by the application of a previously developed procedure based on acid transesterification, for the indirect quantification of these contaminants in oils and fats. The method validation was carried out on food products (fat-based spreads, creams, margarine, mayonnaise) manufactured in-house, in order to control the manufacturing process and account for any food matrix-analyte interactions (the sample spiking was carried out on the single components used for the formulations rather than the final products). The method showed good accuracy (the recoveries ranged from 97% to 106% for bound 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD and from 88% to 115% for bound glycidol) and sensitivity (the LOD was 0.04 and 0.05 mg kg(-1) for bound MCPD and glycidol, respectively). Repeatability and reproducibility were satisfactory (RSD below 2% and 5%, respectively) for all analytes. The levels of salts and surface-active compounds in the formulation were found to have no impact on the accuracy and the other parameters of the method.

  16. Conformational Study of Dibenzyl Ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Castillo, Alicia O.; Abeysekera, Chamara; Hewett, Daniel M.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the initial stages of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) aggregation, the onset of soot formation, is an important goal on the pathway to cleaner combustion processes. PAHs with short alkyl chains, present in fuel-rich combustion environments, can undergo reactions that will chemically link aromatic rings together. One such example of a linked diaryl compound is dibenzyl ether, C_{6}H_{5}-CH_{2}-O-CH_{2}-C_{6}H_{5}. The -CH_{2}-O-CH_{2}- linkage has a length and flexibility well-suited to forming a π-stacked conformation between the two phenyl rings. In this talk, we will explore the single-conformation spectroscopy of dibenzyl ether under jet-cooled conditions in the gas phase. Laser-induced fluorescence, chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave (8-18 GHz region), and single-conformation infrared spectroscopy in the alkyl CH stretch region were all carried out on the molecule, thereby interrogating its full array of electronic, vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom. This work is the first step in a broader study to determine the extent of π-stacking in linked aryl compounds as a function of linkage and PAH size.

  17. Purification of aqueous cellulose ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Bartscherer, K.A.; de Pablo, J.J.; Bonnin, M.C.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1990-07-01

    Manufacture of cellulose ethers usually involves high amounts of salt by-products. For application of the product, salt must be removed. In this work, we have studied the injection of high-pressure CO{sub 2} into an aqueous polymer-salt solution; we find that upon addition of isopropanol in addition to CO{sub 2}, the solution separates into two phases. One phase is rich in polymer and water, and the other phase contains mostly isopropanol, water and CO{sub 2}. The salt distributes between the two phases, thereby offering interesting possibilities for development of a new purification process for water-soluble polymers. This work presents experimental phase-equilibrium data for hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose with sodium acetate and potassium sulfate, respectively, in the region 40{degree}C and 30 to 80 bar. Based on these data, we suggest a process for the manufacture and purification of water-soluble cellulose ethers. 15 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Bacterial Utilization of Ether Glycols

    PubMed Central

    Fincher, Edward L.; Payne, W. J.

    1962-01-01

    A soil bacterium capable of using oligo- and polyethylene glycols and ether alcohols as sole sources of carbon for aerobic growth was isolated. The effects of substituent groups added to the ether bonds on the acceptability of the compounds as substrates were studied. Mechanisms for the incorporation of two-carbon compounds were demonstrated by the observation that acetate, glyoxylate, ethylene glycol, and a number of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates served as growth substrates in minimal media. The rate of oxidation of the short-chained ethylene glycols by adapted resting cells varied directly with increasing numbers of two-carbon units in the chains from one to four. The amount of oxygen consumed per carbon atom of oligo- and polyethylene glycols was 100% of theoretical, but only 67% of theoretical for ethylene glycol. Resting cells oxidized oligo- and polyethylene glycols with 2 to 600 two-carbon units in the chains. Longer chained polyethylene glycols (up to 6,000) were oxidized at a very slow rate by these cells. Dehydrogenation of triethylene glycol by adapted cells was observed, coupling the reaction with methylene blue reduction. PMID:13945208

  19. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific gravity at 15.56 °/15.56 °C. Not...

  20. Polymeric Electrolyte Containing 12-Crown-4 Ether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesa; Distefano, Salvador

    1992-01-01

    Experiments show incorporation of 12-crown-4 ether into solid electrolytes based on polyethylene oxide enhances their electrochemical properties. More specifically, 12-crown-4 ether increases Faradaic efficiency for Li+ ions in low-power secondary Li cells and enables operation of these cells at lower temperatures with higher efficiencies.

  1. An expedient synthesis of linden ether.

    PubMed

    Serra, Stefano; Cominetti, Alessandra A

    2014-03-01

    We here describe a comprehensive study on the preparation of the intensive flavor 3,9-epoxy-p-mentha-1,4(8)-diene (1). Key steps of the presented synthesis are the selective addition of MeLi to the keto-ester 7, the regioselective cyclization of the obtained triol to give the ethers 4 and 8 and the selective dehydration of ether 4 through the use of POCI3 and pyridine. It is worth noting that the presented synthesis represents the first expedient and reliable entry to ether 1. Being present in linden honey, 1 is also known as linden ether and it has been regarded as a potential marker for the authentication of the linden honey origin. Therefore, ether 1 can be used as a useful reference standard for the analysis of the natural flavors, as we demonstrated by means of its identification in a sample ofunifloral linden honey.

  2. Determination of 3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol and 2-Monochloropropane-1,3-diol (MCPD) Esters and Glycidyl Esters by Microwave Extraction in Different Foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Marc, Corinne; Drouard-Pascarel, Valérie; Rétho, Cécile; Janvion, Patrice; Saltron, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes a method for the determination of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol and 2-monochloropropane-1,3-diol (MCPD) esters and glycidyl esters in various foodstuffs, which are isolated using microwave extraction. The next step is based on alkaline-catalyzed ester cleavage. The released glycidol is transformed into monobromopropanediol (MBPD). All compounds are derivatized in free diols (MCPD and MBPD) with phenylboronic acid and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The method was validated for oils with a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.1 mg/kg, for chips and crisps with a LOQ of 0.02 mg/kg, and for infant formula with a LOQ of 0.0025 mg/L. Recoveries of each sample were controlled by standard addition on extracts before derivatization. Quantitation was performed by the addition of isotopically labeled glycidyl and 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters.

  3. Preparation of novel poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate)-grafted core-shell magnetic chitosan microspheres and immobilization of lactase.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Yang, Rui-Jin; Qian, Ting-Ting; Hua, Xiao; Zhang, Wen-Bin; Katiyo, Wendy

    2013-06-06

    Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate)-grafted magnetic chitosan microspheres (HG-MCM) were prepared using reversed-phase suspension polymerization method. The HG-MCM presented a core-shell structure and regular spherical shape with poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate) grafted onto the chitosan layer coating the Fe3O4 cores. The average diameter of the magnetic microspheres was 10.67 μm, within a narrow size distribution of 6.6-17.4 μm. The saturation magnetization and retentivity of the magnetic microspheres were 7.0033 emu/g and 0.6273 emu/g, respectively. The application of HG-MCM in immobilization of lactase showed that the immobilized enzyme presented higher storage, pH and thermal stability compared to the free enzyme. This indicates that HG-MCM have potential applications in bio-macromolecule immobilization.

  4. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-N-methylolacrylamide-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of adenosine phosphates in royal jelly.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Zhang, Tianbin; Cheng, Yechun; Jia, Qiong

    2014-07-01

    A polymer monolith microextraction method coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was developed for the determination of adenosine triphosphate, adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine monophosphate. The monolithic column was synthesized inside fused-silica capillaries using thermal initiation free-radical polymerization with glycidyl methacrylate as the monomer, ethylene dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, cyclohexanol, and 1-dodecanol as the porogen. N-Methylolacrylamide, an important hydrophilic monomer, was incorporated into the polymerization mixture to enhance the hydrophilicity of the poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) column. The obtained poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-N-methylolacrylamide-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Optimum conditions for the preconcentration and separation of the target adenosines were also investigated. Under the optimum conditions, we obtained acceptable linearities, low limits of detection, and good relative standard deviations. The developed polymer monolith microextraction with high-performance liquid chromatography method exhibited a good performance with recovery values in the range of 76.9-104.7% when applied to the determination of the adenosines in five royal jelly samples.

  5. The Effect of Type of Oil and Degree of Degradation on Glycidyl Esters Content During the Frying of French Fries.

    PubMed

    Aniołowska, Magda; Kita, Agnieszka

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of oil degradation on the content of glycidyl esters (GEs) in oils used for the frying of French fries. As frying media, refined oils such as rapeseed, palm, palm olein and blend were used. French fries were fried for 40 h in oils heated to 180 °C in 30-min cycles. After every 8 h of frying, fresh oil and samples were analyzed for acid and anisidine values, color, refractive index, fatty acid composition, and content and composition of the polar fraction. GEs were determined by LC-MS. Hydrolysis and polymerization occurred most intensively in palm olein, while oxidation was reported for rapeseed oil. The degradation of oil caused increased changes in the RI of frying oils. Losses of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed in all samples, with the largest share in blend. The highest content of GE found in fresh oil was in palm olein (25 mg kg(-1)) and the lowest content of GE was found in rapeseed oil (0.8 mg kg(-1)). The palm oil, palm olein and blend were dominated by GEs of palmitic and oleic acids, while rapeseed oil was dominated by GE of oleic acid. With increasing frying time, the content of GEs decreased with losses from 47 % in rapeseed oil to 78 % in palm oil after finishing frying.

  6. Ultrasound assisted free radical polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate by a new disite phase-transfer catalyst system: A kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Kavitha; Rajendran, Venugopal

    2012-11-01

    The kinetics of multi-site phase-transfer catalyzed free radical polymerisation of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) using potassium peroxy disulphate (PDS) as water soluble initiator and newly synthesized 1,4-dihexadecylpyrazine-1,4-diium dibromide as multi-site phase-transfer catalyst (MPTC) has been investigated in ethyl acetate/water two phase system at constant temperature 65±1°C under nitrogen atmosphere and ultrasound irradiation conditions. The rate of polymerization increases with an increase in concentrations of GMA, PDS and MPTC. The order with respect to monomer, initiator and MPTC were found to be 1.0, 0.5 and 1.0, respectively. The comparative study reveals that the Rp of GMA determined in the presence of PTC combined with ultrasound has shown more enhancements in the activity than PTC alone. Based on the observed results a suitable mechanism has been proposed to account for the experimental observations and its significance was discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Macroporous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-triallyl isocyanurate-divinylbenzene) matrix as an anion-exchange resin for protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y; Sun, Y

    1999-09-03

    A novel macroporous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-triallyl isocyanurate-divinylbenzene) matrix was prepared by a radical suspension copolymerization. The matrix contained epoxy groups, so diethylaminohydroxypropyl groups were coupled to the matrix, leading to an anion-exchange resin. We studied the components, surface and pore structures of the anion-exchange resin by Fourier transform infared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM observations showed that the resin abounded in macropores as large as 3 to 8 microns both in the surface and the interior. The back-pressure of the column packed with the resin was modest even at a high flow-rate (60.2 cm/min). Then, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein to examine the adsorption properties of the anion-exchange resin. The results showed that under optimum conditions the resin had a capacity as high as 22.8 mg BSA/g wet resin, or 68.7 mg/g dry resin. The adsorbed protein could be desorbed by increasing the liquid phase ionic strength. Most importantly, the matrix had little nonspecific adsorption for BSA before introducing the ion-exchange groups.

  8. Intensifying radiation induced grafting of 4-vinylpyridine/glycidyl methacrylate mixtures onto poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) films using ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasef, Mohamed Mahmoud; Sithambaranathan, Paveswari; Ahmad, Arshad; Abouzari-lotf, Ebrahim

    2017-05-01

    A new ultrasound-aided method was used to enhance grafting of 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monomers mixtures onto electron beam (EB) irradiated poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) film for the first time. The effects of reaction parameters such as absorbed dose, monomer concentration, reaction time on both of degree of grafting (DG) and grafting efficiency (GE) were investigated under sonication and conventional grafting at similar temperatures. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to monitor the impact of the applied ultrasound on composition and surfaces of the grafted films whereas 1H-NMR was used to investigate composition of the grafting residues. The ultrasound-aided grafting of 4-VP/GMA was found to enhance both of DG% and GE remarkably. Moreover, it produced grafted ETFE films having smoother surfaces without homopolymer contamination compared to grafted films obtained from conventional grafting. The results of this study suggest that the use of ultrasound is a promising way for intensifying grafting process and improving its economy.

  9. Surface modification of glycidyl-containing poly(methyl methacrylate) microchips using surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuefei; Liu, Jikun; Lee, Milton L

    2008-02-01

    Fabrication of microfluidic systems from polymeric materials is attractive because of simplicity and low cost. Unfortunately, the surfaces of many polymeric materials can adsorb biological samples. Therefore, it is necessary to modify their surfaces before these polymeric materials can be used for separation and analysis. Oftentimes it is difficult to modify polymeric surfaces because of their resistance to chemical reaction. Recently, we introduced a surface-reactive acrylic polymer, poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) (PGMAMMA), which can be modified easily and is suitable for fabrication of microfluidic devices. Epoxy groups on the surface can be activated by air plasma treatment, hydrolysis, or aminolysis. In this work, the resulting hydroxyl or amino groups were reacted with 2-bromoisobutylryl bromide to introduce an initiator for surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Polyethylene glycol (PEG) layers grown on the surface using this method were uniform, hydrophilic, stable, and resistant to protein adsorption. Contact angle measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize activated polymer surfaces, initiator-bound surfaces, and PEG-grafted surfaces. We obtained excellent capillary electrophoresis (CE) separations of proteins and peptides with the PEG-modified microchips. A separation efficiency of 4.4 x 10(4) plates for a 3.5 cm long separation channel was obtained.

  10. An enhanced adsorption in puerarin retention on oligo-beta-cyclodextrin grafted poly(glycidyl methacrylate) media.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Tan, Tianwei

    2010-01-01

    The poly(glycidyl methacrylate) adsorbents P(GMA-EDMA) and P(GMA-DVB) were synthesized by the radical suspension-polymerization method and farther coupled by oligo-beta-cyclodextrin (CDP) to obtain P(GMA-EDMA)-CDP and P(GMA-DVB)-CDP. The synthesized polymeric media were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, scanning electron microscopy, and BET surface area. The adsorption of puerarin from aqueous solution onto the four media, i.e., P(GMA-EDMA), P(GMA-DVB), P(GMA-EDMA)-CDP, and P(GMA-DVB)-CDP, was studied. An enhanced adsorption of puerarin apparently presented on grafted media. The interaction between the polymeric media and the puerarin was researched by FTIR. The result shows that the adsorption efficiency on P(GMA-DVB)-CDP driven by multiple weak interactions is much higher than that on P(GMA-EDMA) driven by hydrogen bonding interaction only and on P(GMA-DVB) or P(GMA-EDMA)-CDP driven by two interactions.

  11. Monitoring of glycidyl fatty acid esters in refined vegetable oils from retail outlets by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Aniołowska, Magda; Kita, Agnieszka

    2016-09-01

    Glycidyl fatty acid esters (GEs) are a newly identified class of food process contaminants. The main source of these compounds is refined oils. Because of the potential release of free glycidol, it is necessary to enable a more accurate exposure assessment. In this study a method based on liquid chromatography-single-quadrupole mass spectrometry was used for the analysis of GEs in refined vegetable oils from retail outlets in Poland. The amount of GEs detected in 20 edible oils ranged from 0.00 to 44.33 mg kg(-1) . Refined palm oils exhibited a several times higher contamination ratio in comparison with other oils (average 31.24 mg kg(-1) ). The average content of esters in sunflower oils (2.46 mg kg(-1) ) was higher than in rapeseed oils (1.04 mg kg(-1) ). C18:2-GE was found to be the prevailing GE in sunflower oil, with the highest concentration in all studied samples, while C18:1-GE was the prevailing GE in rapeseed and palm oils. No trace of C18:3-GE was found in the analysed oils. The concentrations of major GEs were correlated with the fatty acid composition of the oils. The GE content varied with the type of oil and the producer. The tested oils had a higher or similar GE content compared with those analysed by other researchers. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Manipulating Interfaces through Surface Confinement of Poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-poly(vinyldimethylazlactone), a Dually Reactive Block Copolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Lokitz, Bradley S; Wei, Jifeng; Hinestrosa Salazar, Juan P; Ivanov, Ilia N; Browning, James B; Ankner, John Francis; Kilbey, II, S Michael; Messman, Jamie M

    2012-01-01

    The assembly of dually reactive, well-defined diblock copolymers incorporating the chemoselective/functional monomer, 4,4-dimethyl-2-vinylazlactone (VDMA) and the surface-reactive monomer glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) is examined to understand how competition between surface attachment and microphase segregation influences interfacial structure. Reaction of the PGMA block with surface hydroxyl groups not only anchors the copolymer to the surface, but limits chain mobility, creating brush-like structures comprising PVDMA blocks, which contain reactive azlactone groups. The block copolymers are spin coated at various solution concentrations and annealed at elevated temperature to optimize film deposition to achieve a molecularly uniform layer. The thickness and structure of the polymer thin films are investigated by ellipsometry, infrared spectroscopy, and neutron reflectometry. The results show that deposition of PGMA-b-PVDMA provides a useful route to control film thickness while preserving azlactone groups that can be further modified with biotin-poly(ethylene glycol)amine to generate designer surfaces. The method described herein offers guidance for creating highly functional surfaces, films, or coatings through the use of dually reactive block copolymers and postpolymerization modification.

  13. Glycidyl esters in refined palm (Elaeis guineensis) oil and related fractions. Part II: practical recommendations for effective mitigation.

    PubMed

    Craft, Brian D; Nagy, Kornél; Seefelder, Walburga; Dubois, Mathieu; Destaillats, Frédéric

    2012-05-01

    In a previous work, it was shown that at high temperatures (up to 280°C) glycidyl esters (GE) are formed from diacylglycerols (DAG) via elimination of free fatty acid (FFA). In the present study, the impact of DAG content and temperature on the formation of GE using a model vacuum system mimicking industrial edible oil deodorization is investigated. These deodorization experiments confirmed that the formation of GE from DAG is extensive at temperatures above 230-240°C, and therefore, this value should be considered as an upper limit for refining operations. Furthermore, experimental data suggest that the formation of GE accelerates in particular when the DAG levels in refined oils exceed 3-4% of total lipids. Analysis of the lipid composition of crude palm oil (CPO) samples allowed the estimation that this critical DAG content corresponds to about 1.9-2.5% of FFA, which is the conventional quality marker of CPO. Moreover, high levels (>100ppm) of GE were also found in palm fatty acid distillate samples, which may indicate that the level of GE in fully refined palm oils also depends on the elimination rate of GE into the fatty acid distillate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Fe(3+) and Antioxidants on Glycidyl Ester Formation in Plant Oil at High Temperature and Their Influencing Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weiwei; Liu, Guoqin; Liu, Xinqi

    2017-05-24

    This research investigated the effects of Fe(3+) and antioxidants on the formation of glycidyl esters (GEs) and the free radical mediated mechanisms involving the recognition of cyclic acyloxonium free radical intermediate (CAFRI) for GE formation in both the plant oil model (palm oil, camellia oil, soybean oil, and linseed oil) system and the chemical model (dipalmitin and methyl linoleate) system heated at 200 °C. Results show that Fe(3+) can promote the formation of GEs, which can be inhibited by antioxidants in plant oil during high-temperature exposure. Based on the monitoring of cyclic acyloxonium and ester carbonyl group by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the promotion of Fe(3+) and the inhibition of antioxidants (tert-butylhydroquinone and α-tocopherol) for GE formation occurred not only through lipid oxidation but also through directly affecting the formation of cyclic acyloxonium intermediate. Additionally, a quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry measurement was conducted to identify the presence of radical adduct captured by 5,5-dimethylpyrroline N-oxide, which provided strong evidence for the formation of CAFRI. Thus, one possible influencing mechanism can be that free radical generated in lipid oxidation may be transferred to dipalmitin and promote CAFRI formation. Fe(3+) can catalyze free radical generation while antioxidants can scavenge free radical, and therefore they also can directly affect CAFRI formation.

  15. Radiation grafting of glycidyl methacrylate and divinylbenzene onto polyethylene terephthalate fabrics for improving anti-dripping performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xu; Wang, Yue; Dai, Guoliang; Peng, Jing; Li, Jiuqiang; Shi, Meiwu; Zhai, Maolin

    2016-10-01

    A new kind of anti-dripping polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric was successfully prepared by simultaneous gamma radiation-induced grafting polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and divinylbenzene (DVB) onto the surface of PET fabrics. The grafting yield (GY) and anti-dripping effect were optimized by changing the total absorbed dose, dose rate, concentration and the feed ratio of GMA and DVB. The grafting yield increased with the increase of absorbed dose and GMA monomer concentration, and decreased with the dose rate. It is confirmed that PET fabrics had been modified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. The tensile strength and elongation at break of modified PET fabrics were improved compared with original PET fabrics. The limiting oxygen index (LOI) of modified PET fabrics with the GY of 23-25% was 21.5, which was similar to that of unmodified PET fabrics. However, the anti-dripping performance of PET fabrics was improved remarkably after radiation modification due to the crosslinking of the sidechains grafted on the PET surface. This anti-dripping fabric may be promising for fire protective clothing.

  16. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-3-thienylmethylmethacrylate) as an immobilization matrix for microbial glycerol biosensing based on Gluconobacter oxydans.

    PubMed

    Ergön-Can, Tülay; Erhan, Elif; Algur, Ömer Faruk

    2015-11-01

    A commercial strain of Gluconobacter oxydans together with a new co-polymer Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-3-thienylmethylmethacrylate) (Poly(GMA-co-MTM)), which provides effective immobilization in the continuous flow system, was used in the sensor design. By taking the advantages of the nano-technology, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were also added to the cell film and the sensitivity of the sensor was increased about 15 times. During the glycerol analysis in the continuous system, it was shown that composite film was not removed from the electrode surface and film elements were not washed out from the system. Glycerol analyses were performed by using batch loaded continuously flow cell at different flow rates of 1, 2, 4, and 6mL/min. The linear range was found as 2-100mM with the detection limit (LOD) of 0.057mM according to S/N=3. The calibration graphs were obtained for Poly(GMA-co-MTM)/G. oxydans and Poly(GMA-co-MTM)/CNT/G. oxydans biofilm electrodes in FIA mode, and sensitivities were found to be 1.50nA/mM and 19.13nA/mM, respectively. In this study, Poly(GMA-co-MTM) was used for the first time as a microbial matrix and was shown to be an effective immobilization agent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Posidonia oceanica as a Renewable Lignocellulosic Biomass for the Synthesis of Cellulose Acetate and Glycidyl Methacrylate Grafted Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Coletti, Alessia; Valerio, Antonio; Vismara, Elena

    2013-01-01

    High-grade cellulose (97% α-cellulose content) of 48% crystallinity index was extracted from the renewable marine biomass waste Posidonia oceanica using H2O2 and organic peracids following an environmentally friendly and chlorine-free process. This cellulose appeared as a new high-grade cellulose of waste origin quite similar to the high-grade cellulose extracted from more noble starting materials like wood and cotton linters. The benefits of α-cellulose recovery from P. oceanica were enhanced by its transformation into cellulose acetate CA and cellulose derivative GMA-C. Fully acetylated CA was prepared by conventional acetylation method and easily transformed into a transparent film. GMA-C with a molar substitution (MS) of 0.72 was produced by quenching Fenton’s reagent (H2O2/FeSO4) generated cellulose radicals with GMA. GMA grafting endowed high-grade cellulose from Posidonia with adsorption capability. GMA-C removes β-naphthol from water with an efficiency of 47%, as measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy. After hydrolysis of the glycidyl group to glycerol group, the modified GMA-C was able to remove p-nitrophenol from water with an efficiency of 92%, as measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy. α-cellulose and GMA-Cs from Posidonia waste can be considered as new materials of potential industrial and environmental interest. PMID:28809259

  18. Lectin-functionalized poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-poly(vinyldimethyl azlactone) surface supports for high avidity microbial capture

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Ryan R; Hinestrosa Salazar, Juan P; Shubert, Katherine R; Morrell, Jennifer L.; Pelletier, Dale A; Messman, Jamie M; Kilbey, II, S Michael; Lokitz, Bradley S; Retterer, Scott T

    2013-01-01

    Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS) play a critical and dynamic role in shaping the interactions between microbial community members and their local environment. The capture of targeted microbes using surface immobilized lectins that recognize specific extracellular oligosaccharide moieties offers a non-destructive method for functional characterization based on EPS content. In this report, we evaluate the use of the block co-polymer, poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-4,4-dimethyl-2-vinylazlactone (PGMA-b-PVDMA), as a surface support for lectin-specific microbial capture. Arrays of circular polymer supports ten micron in diameter were generated on silicon substrates to provide discrete, covalent coupling sites for Triticum vulgare and Lens culinaris lectins. These supports promoted microbe adhesion and colony formation in a lectin-specific manner. Silicon posts with similar topography containing only physisorbed lectins showed significantly less activity. These results demonstrate that micropatterned PGMA-b-PVDMA supports provide a unique platform for microbial capture and screening based on EPS content by combining high avidity lectin surfaces with three-dimensional topography.

  19. A transferable force field to predict phase equilibria and surface tension of ethers and glycol ethers.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Nicolas; Lachet, Véronique; Pérez-Pellitero, Javier; Mackie, Allan D; Malfreyt, Patrice; Boutin, Anne

    2011-09-15

    We propose a new transferable force field to simulate phase equilibrium and interfacial properties of systems involving ethers and glycol ethers. On the basis of the anisotropic united-atom force field, only one new group is introduced: the ether oxygen atom. The optimized Lennard-Jones (LJ) parameters of this atom are identical whatever the molecule simulated (linear ether, branched ether, cyclic ether, aromatic ether, diether, or glycol ether). Accurate predictions are achieved for pure compound saturated properties, critical properties, and surface tensions of the liquid-vapor interface, as well as for pressure-composition binary mixture diagrams. Multifunctional molecules (1,2-dimethoxyethane, 2-methoxyethanol, diethylene glycol) have also been studied using a recently proposed methodology for the calculation of the intramolecular electrostatic energy avoiding the use of additional empirical parameters. This new force field appears transferable for a wide variety of molecules and properties. It is furthermore worth noticing that binary mixtures have been simulated without introducing empirical binary parameters, highlighting also the transferability to mixtures. Hence, this new force field gives future opportunities to simulate complex systems of industrial interest involving molecules with ether functions.

  20. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) Action Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used as flame retardants in a number of applications. EPA is concerned that some of the component congeners are persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic.