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Sample records for n-ge ii change

  1. Microstructural and surface characterization of thin gold films on n-Ge (1 1 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nel, J. M.; Chawanda, A.; Auret, F. D.; Jordaan, W.; Odendaal, R. Q.; Hayes, M.; Coelho, S.

    2009-12-01

    Thin gold films were fabricated by vacuum resistive deposition on the n-Ge (1 1 1) wafers. The films were annealed between 300 and 600 °C. These resulting thin films were then characterised using scanning electron microscopy (field emission and back-scattering modes), Rutherford back scattering spectroscopy and time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS). For temperatures below the eutectic temperature the distribution of both the gold and the germanium on the surface are uniform. Above the eutectic temperature, the formation of gold rich islands on the surface of the Germanium were observed. These changes in the microstructure were found to correspond to changes in the electrical characteristics of the diodes.

  2. Donor-vacancy pairs in irradiated n-Ge: A searching look at the problem

    SciTech Connect

    Emtsev, Vadim; Oganesyan, Gagik

    2014-02-21

    The present situation concerning the identification of vacancy-donor pairs in irradiated n-Ge is discussed. The challenging points are the energy states of these defects deduced from DLTS spectra. Hall effect data seem to be at variance with some important conclusions drawn from DLTS measurements. Critical points of the radiation-produced defect modeling in n-Ge are highlighted.

  3. Metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of narrow-band distributed Bragg reflectors realized by GaN:Ge modulation doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Christoph; Lesnik, Andreas; Zettler, Thomas; Schmidt, Gordon; Veit, Peter; Dadgar, Armin; Bläsing, Jürgen; Christen, Jürgen; Strittmatter, André

    2016-04-01

    We report on metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) of distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) applying a periodic modulation of the GaN doping concentration only. The doping modulation changes the refractive index of GaN via the Burstein-Moss-effect. MOVPE growth of highly doped GaN:Ge and modulation of the dopant concentration by at least two orders of magnitude within few nanometers is required to achieve a refractive index contrast of 2-3%. Such modulation characteristic is achieved despite the presence of Ge memory effects and incorporation delay. We realized DBRs with up to 100 layer pairs by combining GaN:Ge with a nominal doping concentration of 1.6×1020 cm-3 as low-refractive index material with unintentionally doped GaN as high-refractive index layer. Scanning transmission electron microscope images reveal DBR structures with abrupt interfaces and homogenous layer thicknesses in lateral and vertical direction. Reflectance measurements of DBRs designed for the blue and near UV-spectral region show a narrow stopband with a maximum reflectivity of 85% at 418 nm and even 95% at 370 nm. InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well structures grown on top of such DBRs exhibit narrow emission spectra with linewidths below 3 nm and significantly increased emission intensity.

  4. Properties of n-Ge epilayer on Si substrate with in-situ doping technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi-Hao, Huang; Cheng, Li; Cheng-Zhao, Chen; Chen, Wang; Wen-Ming, Xie; Shu-Yi, Lin; Ming, Shao; Ming-Xing, Nie; Cai-Yun, Chen

    2016-06-01

    The properties of n-Ge epilayer deposited on Si substrate with in-situ doping technology in a cold-wall ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHVCVD) system are investigated. The growth temperature of ˜500 °C is optimal for the n-Ge growth in our equipment with a phosphorus concentration of ˜1018 cm-3. In the n-Ge epilayer, the depth profile of phosphorus concentration is box-shaped and the tensile strain of 0.12% confirmed by x-ray diffraction measurement is introduced which results in the red shift of the photoluminescence. The enhancements of photoluminescence intensity with the increase of the doping concentration are observed, which is consistent with the modeling of the spontaneous emission spectrum for direct transition of Ge. The results are of significance for guiding the growth of n-Ge epilayer with in-situ doping technology. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB632103), the National Key Technology Support Program of China (Grant No. 2015BAF24B01), the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province of China (Grant No. 2016J05147), the Key Sci-Tech Research and Development Platform of Fujian Province, China (Grant No. 2014H2002), the Provincial University Foundation of Fujian Province, China (Grant No. JK2013030), the Educational Youth Key Foundation of Fujian Province, China (Grant No. JA13210), and the Scientific Research Fund of Fujian University of Technology, China (Grant No. GY-Z14073).

  5. Photoinduced changes in photosystem II pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Atanaska S.; Busheva, Mira C.; Stoitchkova, Katerina V.; Tzonova, Iren K.

    2010-11-01

    The photosynthetic apparatus in higher plants performs two seemingly opposing tasks: efficient harvest of sunlight, but also rapid and harmless dissipation of excess light energy as heat to avoid deleterious photodamage. In order to study this process in pigment-protein supercomplexes of photosystem II (PSII), 77 K fluorescence and room temperature resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy were applied to investigate the changes in structure and spectral properties of the pigments in spinach PSII membranes. The high-light treatment results in a strong quenching of the fluorescence (being largest when the excitation is absorbed by carotenoids) and a red-shift of the main maximum. Decomposition of the fluorescence spectra into four bands revealed intensive quenching of F685 and F695 bands, possible bleaching of chlorophyll a, enhanced extent of light harvesting complexes (LHCII) aggregation and increased energy transfer to aggregated LHCII. The analysis of RR spectra revealed the predominant contribution of ß-carotene (ß-Car) upon 457.8 and 488 nm excitations and lutein (Lut) at 514.5 nm. During prolonged exposure to strong light no significant bleaching of ß-Car and weak photobleaching of Lut is observed. The results will contribute to the efforts to produce more efficient and robust solar cells when exposed to fluctuations in light intensity.

  6. Managing changes during a clinical investigation, Part II.

    PubMed

    Donawa, Maria

    2003-10-01

    What are the European requirements for managing changes that may occur during a clinical investigation? Part II of this article discusses these requirements and the development of a standard operating procedure to help ensure consistent compliance.

  7. Listening to PS II: enthalpy, entropy, and volume changes.

    PubMed

    Hou, Harvey J M; Mauzerall, David

    2011-01-01

    Photosystem II, located in the thylakoid membranes of green plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, uses sunlight to split water into protons, electrons, and a dioxygen molecule. The mechanism of its electron transfers and oxygen evolution including the structure of the protein and rates of the S-state cycle has been extensively investigated. Substantial progress has been made; however, the thermodynamics of PS II electron transfer and of the oxygen cycle are poorly understood. Recent progress in thermodynamic measurements in photosynthesis provides novel insights on the enthalpic and entropic contribution to electron transfer in proteins. In this review the thermodynamic parameters including quantum yield, enthalpy, entropy, and volume changes of PS II photochemistry determined by photoacoustics and other laser techniques are summarized and evaluated. Light-driven volume changes via electrostriction are directly related to the photoreaction in PS II and thus can be a useful measurement of PS II activity and function. The enthalpy changes of the reactions observed can be directly measured by photoacoustics. The apparent reaction entropy can also be estimated when the free energy is known. Dissecting the free energy of a photoreaction into enthalpic and entropic components provides critical information about mechanisms of PS II function. Potential limitations and future direction of the study of the thermodynamics of PS II electron transfer and oxygen evolution are presented.

  8. Platinum-assisted post deposition annealing of the n-Ge/Y2O3 interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, C.; Bethge, O.; Lutzer, B.; Bertagnolli, E.

    2016-07-01

    The impact of annealing temperature and annealing duration on the interface properties of n-Ge/Y2O3/Pt MOS-capacitors is investigated employing an ultrathin catalytically acting Pt-layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis has been used to verify an enhanced growth of GeO2 and thermally stabilizing yttrium germanate at the n-Ge/Y2O3 interface induced by an oxygen post deposition annealing (PDA). Especially at 500 °C and 550 °C high quality Ge/Y2O3 interfaces have been achieved resulting in very low interface trap density of 7.41*1010 eV-1 cm-2. It is shown that either a short oxygen annealing at higher temperatures (550 °C) or a long time annealing at lower temperatures (450 °C) are appropriate to realize low interface trap density (D it). It turns out that a Pt-assisted PDA in combination with a final PMA are needed to reduce hysteresis width significantly and to bring flat band voltages toward ideal values.

  9. [Changes necessary for continuing health reform: II. The "internal" change].

    PubMed

    Martín Martín, J; de Manuel Keenoy, E; Carmona López, G; Martínez Olmos, J

    1990-01-01

    The article desired organizational and managerial changes in Primary Health Care, so as to develop a sound and feasible social marketing strategy. Key elements that should be changed are: 1. Rigid and centralized administrative structures and procedures. 2. Incentives system centralized and dissociated from the managerial structure. 3. Primary Health Care management units immersed in political conflict. 4. Absence of alternative in the margin. Users cannot choose. 5. Lack of an internal marketing strategy. Several ways of internal markets simulation are assessed as potential means for internal change. The need for an administration reform leading to a less inflexible system in the Spanish national and regional health services in reviewed too. Three changes are considered essential: a) Payment systems in Primary Health Care. b) Modifications in the personnel contracts. c) Reform of the budgeting processes. Specific strategies in each of these issues are suggested, making emphasizing the need of their interrelationship and coherence.

  10. Ohmic contact formation of metal/amorphous-Ge/n-Ge junctions with an anomalous modulation of Schottky barrier height

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hanhui; Wang, Peng; Qi, Dongfeng; Li, Xin; Han, Xiang; Wang, Chen; Chen, Songyan Li, Cheng; Huang, Wei

    2014-11-10

    The modulation of Schottky barrier height of metal/Ge inserting an amorphous Ge layer has been demonstrated. It is interested that the Schottky barrier height of Al/amorphous-Ge/n-Ge junctions is oscillated with increase of the a-Ge thickness from 0 to 10 nm, and when the thickness reaches above 10 nm, the Al/amorphous-Ge/n-Ge shows ohmic characteristics. Electron hopping through localized states of a-Ge layer, the alleviation of metal induced gap states, as well as the termination of dangling bonds at the amorphous-Ge/n-Ge interface are proposed to explain the anomalous modulation of Schottky barrier height.

  11. Infrared photoresponse of GeSn/n-Ge heterojunctions grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangcheol; Bhargava, Nupur; Gupta, Jay; Coppinger, Matthew; Kolodzey, James

    2014-05-05

    Heterojunction devices of Ge(1-x)Sn(x) / n-Ge were grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and the mid-infrared (IR) photocurrent response was measured. With increasing Sn composition from 4% to 12%, the photocurrent spectra became red-shifted, suggesting that the bandgap of Ge(1-x)Sn(x) alloys was lowered compared to pure Ge. At a temperature of 100 K, the wavelengths of peak photocurrent were shifted from 1.42 µm for pure Ge (0% Sn) to 2.0 µm for 12% Sn. The bias dependence of the device response showed that the optimum reverse bias was > 0.5 volts for saturated photocurrent. The responsivity of the Ge(1-x)Sn(x) devices was estimated to be 0.17 A/W for 4% Sn. These results suggest that Ge(1-x)Sn(x) photodetectors may have practical applications in the near/mid IR wavelength regime.

  12. Room-temperature spin transport in n-Ge probed by four-terminal nonlocal measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Michihiro; Tsukahara, Makoto; Fujita, Yuichi; Naito, Takahiro; Yamada, Shinya; Sawano, Kentarou; Hamaya, Kohei

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate electrical spin injection and detection in n-type Ge (n-Ge) at room temperature using four-terminal nonlocal spin-valve and Hanle-effect measurements in lateral spin-valve (LSV) devices with Heusler-alloy Schottky tunnel contacts. The spin diffusion length (λGe) of the Ge layer used (n ˜ 1 × 1019 cm-3) at 296 K is estimated to be ˜0.44 ± 0.02 µm. Room-temperature spin signals can be observed reproducibly in the low bias voltage range (≤0.7 V) for LSVs with relatively low resistance-area product (RA) values (≤1 kΩ µm2). This means that the Schottky tunnel contacts used here are more suitable than ferromagnet/MgO tunnel contacts (RA ≥ 100 kΩ µm2) for developing Ge spintronic applications.

  13. France: demographic change and family policy since World War II.

    PubMed

    Roussel, L; Thery, I

    1988-09-01

    Major demographic trends and changes in family policy in France since World War II are analyzed, with a focus on fertility and marriage patterns (including divorce). The effects of political and economic factors on family policy and legislation since 1945 are also discussed. Data are from official and other published sources.

  14. Reactivity Studies on a Binuclear Ruthenium(0) Complex Equipped with a Bridging κ(2)N,Ge-Amidinatogermylene Ligand.

    PubMed

    Cabeza, Javier A; Fernández-Colinas, José M; García-Álvarez, Pablo; Pérez-Carreño, Enrique; Polo, Diego

    2015-05-18

    The amidinatogermylene-bridged diruthenium(0) complex [Ru2{μ-κ(2)Ge,N-Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(HMDS)}(CO)7] (2; (i)Pr2bzam = N,N'-bis(iso-propyl)benzamidinate; HMDS = N(SiMe3)2) reacted at room temperature with (t)BuNC and PMe3 to give [Ru2{μ-κ(2)Ge,N-Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(HMDS)}(L)(CO)6] (L = (t)BuNC, 3; PMe3, 4), which contain the new ligand in an axial position on the Ru atom that is not attached to the amidinato fragment. At 70 °C, 2 reacted with PPh3, PMe3, dppm, and dppe to give the equatorially substituted derivatives [Ru2{μ-κ(2)Ge,N-Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(HMDS)}(L)(CO)6] (L = PPh3, 5; PMe3, 6) and [Ru2{μ-κ(2)Ge,N-Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(HMDS)}(μ-κ(2)P,P'-L2)(CO)5] (L2 = dppm, 7; dppe, 8). HSiEt3 and HSnPh3 were oxidatively added to complex 2 at 70 °C, leading to the coordinatively unsaturated products [Ru2(ER3)(μ-H){μ-κ(2)Ge,N-Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(HMDS)}(CO)5] (ER3 = SiEt3, 9; SnPh3, 10), which easily reacted with (t)BuNC and CO to give the saturated derivatives [Ru2(ER3)(μ-H){μ-κ(2)Ge,N-Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(HMDS)}((t)BuNC)(CO)5] (ER3 = SiEt3, 11; SnPh3, 12) and [Ru2(ER3)(μ-H){μ-κ(2)Ge,N-Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(HMDS)}(CO)6] (ER3 = SiEt3, 13; SnPh3, 14), respectively. Compounds 9-14 have their ER3 group on the Ru atom that is not attached to the amidinato fragment. In contrast, the reaction of 2 with H2 at 70 °C led to the unsaturated tetranuclear complex [Ru4(μ-H)2{μ-κ(2)Ge,N-Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(HMDS)}2(CO)10] (15), which also reacted with (t)BuNC and CO to give the saturated derivatives [Ru4(μ-H)2{μ-κ(2)Ge,N-Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(HMDS)}2(L)2(CO)10] (L = (t)BuNC, 16; CO, 17). All tetraruthenium complexes contain an unbridged metal-metal connecting two germylene-bridged diruthenium units. Under CO atmosphere, complex 17 reverted to compound 2. All of the coordinatively unsaturated products (9, 10, and 15) have their unsaturation(s) located on the Ru atom(s) that is(are) attached to the amidinato fragment(s). In the absence of added reagents, the thermolysis of 2 in refluxing toluene led to [Ru4{

  15. Myometrial angiotensin II receptor subtypes change during ovine pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, B E; Ipson, M A; Shaul, P W; Kamm, K E; Rosenfeld, C R

    1993-01-01

    Although regulation of angiotensin II receptor (AT) binding in vascular and uterine smooth muscle is similar in nonpregnant animals, studies suggest it may differ during pregnancy. We, therefore, examined binding characteristics of myometrial AT receptors in nulliparous (n = 7), pregnant (n = 24, 110-139 d of gestation), and postpartum (n = 21, 5 to > or = 130 d) sheep and compared this to vascular receptor binding. We also determined if changes in myometrial binding reflect alterations in receptor subtype. By using plasma membrane preparations from myometrium and medial layer of abdominal aorta, we determined receptor density and affinity employing radioligand binding; myometrial AT receptor subtypes were assessed by inhibiting [125I]-ANG II binding with subtype-specific antagonists. Compared to nulliparous ewes, myometrial AT receptor density fell approximately 90% during pregnancy (1,486 +/- 167 vs. 130 +/- 16 fmol/mg protein) and returned to nulliparous values > or = 4 wk postpartum; vascular binding was unchanged. Nulliparous myometrium expressed predominantly AT2 receptors (AT1/AT2 congruent to 15%/85%), whereas AT1 receptors predominated during pregnancy (AT1/AT2 congruent to 80%/20%). By 5 d postpartum AT1/AT2 congruent to 40%/60%, and > 4 wk postpartum AT2 receptors again predominated (AT1/AT2 congruent to 15%/85%). In studies of ANG II-induced force generation, myometrium from pregnant ewes (n = 10) demonstrated dose-dependent increases in force (P < 0.001), which were inhibited with an AT1 receptor antagonist. Postpartum myometrial responses were less at doses > or = 10(-9) M (P < 0.05) and unaffected by AT2 receptor antagonists. Vascular and myometrial AT receptor binding are differentially regulated during ovine pregnancy, the latter primarily reflecting decreases in AT2 receptor expression. This is the first description of reversible changes in AT receptor subtype in adult mammals. PMID:8227339

  16. Physiology and endocrine changes underlying human lactogenesis II.

    PubMed

    Neville, M C; Morton, J

    2001-11-01

    Lactogenesis stage II, the onset of copious milk secretion, takes place during the first 4 d postpartum in women and involves a carefully programmed set of changes in milk composition and volume. The evidence is summarized that progesterone withdrawal at parturition provides the trigger for lactogenesis in the presence of high plasma concentrations of prolactin and adequate plasma concentrations of cortisol. Although the process is generally robust, delayed lactogenesis does occur with stressful deliveries and in poorly controlled diabetes. Failure of early removal of colostrum from the breast is associated with high milk sodium and poor prognosis for successful lactation in many women. We speculate that this problem may result from accumulation of a substance in the mammary alveolus that inhibits lactogenesis, even in the face of appropriate hormonal changes after parturition.

  17. Work disability following major organisational change: the Whitehall II study

    PubMed Central

    Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Gimeno, David; Shipley, Martin J.; Vahtera, Jussi; Akbaraly, Tasnime N.; Marmot, Michael G.; Ferrie, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Privatisation and private sector practices have been increasingly applied to the public sector in many industrialised countries. Over the same period, long-term work disability has risen substantially. We examined whether a major organizational change - the transfer of public sector work to executive agencies run on private sector lines - was associated with an increased risk of work disability. Methods The study uses self-reported data from the prospective Whitehall II cohort study. Associations between transfer to an executive agency assessed at baseline (1991–1994) and work disability ascertained over a period of approximately 8 years at three follow-up surveys (1995–1996, 1997–1999, 2001) were examined using Cox proportional hazard models. Results In age- and sex-adjusted models, risk of work disability was higher among the 1263 employees who were transferred to an executive agency (hazard ratio 1.90, 95% confidence interval 1.46–2.48) compared with the 3419 employees whose job was not transferred. These findings were robust to additional adjustment for physical and mental health, and health behaviours at baseline. Conclusions Increased work disability was observed among employees exposed to the transfer of public sector work to executive agencies run on private sector lines. This may highlight an unintentional cost for employees, employers and society. PMID:20445214

  18. Work disability following major organisational change: the Whitehall II study.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, M; Kivimäki, M; Singh-Manoux, A; Gimeno, D; Shipley, M J; Vahtera, J; Akbaraly, T N; Marmot, M G; Ferrie, J E

    2010-05-01

    Privatisation and private sector practices have been increasingly applied to the public sector in many industrialised countries. Over the same period, long-term work disability has risen substantially. We examined whether a major organisational change--the transfer of public sector work to executive agencies run on private sector lines--was associated with an increased risk of work disability. The study uses self-reported data from the prospective Whitehall II cohort study. Associations between transfer to an executive agency assessed at baseline (1991-1994) and work disability ascertained over a period of approximately 8 years at three follow-up surveys (1995-1996, 1997-1999 and 2001) were examined using Cox proportional hazard models. In age- and sex-adjusted models, risk of work disability was higher among the 1263 employees who were transferred to an executive agency (HR 1.90, 95% CI 1.46 to 2.48) compared with the 3419 employees whose job was not transferred. These findings were robust to additional adjustment for physical and mental health and health behaviours at baseline. Increased work disability was observed among employees exposed to the transfer of public sector work to executive agencies run on private sector lines. This may highlight an unintentional cost for employees, employers and society.

  19. Slaying Dragons II: Survival Strategies for Changing Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Mary R.

    1995-01-01

    Offers reflections on the roles of youth librarians. Topics include the impact of societal changes on library services; librarians as change agents for new technology; community needs; marketing and programming strategies; and cooperation and visibility. (LRW)

  20. Slaying Dragons II: Survival Strategies for Changing Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Mary R.

    1995-01-01

    Offers reflections on the roles of youth librarians. Topics include the impact of societal changes on library services; librarians as change agents for new technology; community needs; marketing and programming strategies; and cooperation and visibility. (LRW)

  1. Do changes on MCMI-II personality disorder scales in short-term psychotherapy reflect trait or state changes?

    PubMed

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) has become an important and commonly used instrument to assess personality functioning. Several studies report significant changes on MCMI personality disorder scales after psychological treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate whether pre-post-treatment changes in 39-session psychodynamic group psychotherapy as measured with the MCMI reflect real personality change or primarily reflect symptomatic state changes. Pre-post-treatment design included 236 psychotherapy outpatients. Personality changes were measured on the MCMI-II and symptomatic state changes on the Symptom Check List 90-R (SCL-90-R). The MCMI Schizoid, Avoidant, Self-defeating, and severe personality disorder scales revealed substantial changes, which could be predicted from changes on SCL-90-R global symptomatology (GSI) and on the SCL-90-R Depression scale. The MCMI Dependent personality score was the only MCMI personality scale showing significant change when the SCL-90-R Depression change score was included as a covariate. Splitting patients into those with and without personality disorders did not change the results. Observed changes on MCMI-II personality disorder scales in short-term psychotherapy reflect change in symptomatic state. The MCMI-II Base Rate cut-off points probably include too many patients, justifying the introduction of new scoring procedures in the MCMI-III.

  2. On the tensoresistance of n-Ge and n-Si crystals with radiation-induced defects

    SciTech Connect

    Gaidar, G. P.

    2015-09-15

    A variation in the tensoresistance of n-Ge:Sb and n-Si:As crystals as a result of irradiation with γ-ray photons ({sup 60}Co source) at fixed temperatures under conditions of the application of uniaxial elastic stress (0 ≤ X ≤ 1.2 GPa) along the main crystallographic direction is studied. It is found that, in the case of the deformation axis being in an asymmetric position relative to the isoenergetic ellipsoids, there is a maximum for the dependences of the tensoresistance ρ{sub X}/ρ{sub 0} = f(X); an explanation as to the nature of the observed effect is suggested. Tensoresistance is revealed in unirradiated n-Si:As crystals in the case of the deformation axis being in a symmetric position relative to all isoenergetic ellipsoids; the value of the tensoresistance as a result of irradiation with γ-ray photons decreases. It is shown that this effect can be attributed to a variation in the mobility of electrons in the conduction band as a result of an increase in the transverse effective mass and the appearance of new deep-level centers under the effect of irradiation, respectively.

  3. Change of motion and localization of cholesterol molecule during L(alpha)-H(II) transition.

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, E; Naganuma, M; Mukasa, K; Shimozawa, T; Araiso, T

    1998-01-01

    Formation of the inverted hexagonal (H(II)) phase from the lamellar (L(alpha)) phase of bovine brain-extracted phosphatidylcholine (BBPC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (BBPE) was investigated using 31P-NMR with or without cholesterol. When the ratio of BBPC to BBPE was 1:1, the H(II) formation was observed in the presence of 33 mol% cholesterol (i.e., BBPC:BBPE:cholesterol = 1:1:1) at 47 degrees C. The fraction of the H(II) phase in the BBPC/BBPE/cholesterol system could be controlled by the addition of dioleoylglycerol. The change of molecular motion of cholesterol affected by the H(II) formation was measured at various ratios of the L(alpha) to H(II) phase with the time-resolved fluorescence depolarization method, using dehydroergosterol as a fluorescent probe. It is observed that the motion of cholesterol became vigorous in the mixture state of the L(alpha) and the H(II) phases compared to that in the L(alpha) or the H(II) phase only. These facts show that cholesterol has the strong ability to induce the H(II) phase, probably by special molecular motion, which includes change of its location from the headgroup area to the acyl-chain area. PMID:9533700

  4. Hydrogen bonding changes of internal water molecules in rhodopsin during metarhodopsin I and metarhodopsin II formation.

    PubMed Central

    Rath, P; Delange, F; Degrip, W J; Rothschild, K J

    1998-01-01

    Rhodopsin is a 7-helix, integral membrane protein found in the rod outer segments, which serves as the light receptor in vision. Light absorption by the retinylidene chromophore of rhodopsin triggers an 11-cis-->all-trans isomerization, followed by a series of protein conformational changes, which culminate in the binding and activation of the G-protein transducin by the metarhodopsin II (Meta II) intermediate. Fourier transform IR difference spectroscopy has been used to investigate the structural changes that water, as well as other OH- and NH-containing groups, undergo during the formation of the metarhodopsin I (Meta I) and Meta II intermediates. Bands associated with the OH stretch modes of water are identified by characteristic downshifts upon substitution of H2(18)O for H2O. Compared with earlier work, several negative bands associated with water molecules in unphotolysed rhodopsin were detected, which shift to lower frequencies upon formation of the Meta I and Meta II intermediates. These data indicate that at least one water molecule undergoes an increase in hydrogen bonding upon formation of the Meta I intermediate, while at least one other increases its hydrogen bonding during Meta II formation. Amino acid residue Asp-83, which undergoes a change in its hydrogen bonding during Meta II formation, does not appear to interact with any of the structurally active water molecules. Several NH and/or OH groups, which are inaccessible to hydrogen/deuterium exchange, also undergo alterations during Meta I and Meta II formation. PMID:9445403

  5. Variations inf Ninbus-7 cloud estimates. Part II: Regional changes

    SciTech Connect

    Weare, B.C. )

    1992-12-01

    Regional estimates of low, middle, high and total cloud amounts derived from bispectral measurements from Nimbus-7 have been analyzed for the six-year period April 1979 through March 1985. Fractional cloud cover for the three height categories was used to calculate a proxy mean cloud-top height. Intra- and interannual standard deviations of total cloud amount and mean cloud height show realistic patterns throughout most of the globe except at very high latitudes. Over much of the earth, intra-annual and interannual variations in total cloud amount are strongly positively correlated with variations in cloud height. Furthermore, both total cloud amount and cloud height variations are moderately correlated with sea surface temperature variations. The strongest correlations are positive in the tropics for both intra-annual and interannual variations. In middle latitudes, moderate negative correlations are associated with intra-annual variations, whereas moderate positive correlations occur on interannual time frames. In the tropics 1[degrees]C changes in temperature are statistically related to a change of total cloudiness of a least 2% and a change in cloud height of more than 0.5 km. 15 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Rice caryopsis development II: Dynamic changes in the endosperm.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoba; Liu, Jinxin; Li, Dongqi; Liu, Chun-Ming

    2016-09-01

    The rice endosperm plays crucial roles in nourishing the embryo during embryogenesis and seed germination. Although previous studies have provided the general information about rice endosperm, a systematic investigation throughout the entire endosperm developmental process is still lacking. In this study, we examined in detail rice endosperm development on a daily basis throughout the 30-day period of post-fertilization development. We observed that coenocytic nuclear division occurred in the first 2 days after pollination (DAP), cellularization occurred between 3 and 5 DAP, differentiation of the aleurone and starchy endosperm occurred between 6 and 9 DAP, and accumulation of storage products occurred concurrently with the aleurone/starchy endosperm differentiation from 6 DAP onwards and was accomplished by 21 DAP. Changes in cytoplasmic membrane permeability, possibly caused by programmed cell death, were observed in the central region of the starchy endosperm at 8 DAP, and expanded to the whole starchy endosperm at 21 DAP when the aleurone is the only living component in the endosperm. Further, we observed that a distinct multi-layered dorsal aleurone formed near the dorsal vascular bundle, while the single- or occasionally two-cell layered aleurone was located in the lateral and ventral positions of endosperm. Our results provide in detail the dynamic changes in mitotic divisions, cellularization, cell differentiation, storage product accumulation, and programmed cell death that occur during rice endosperm development.

  7. Energy band structure of the single crystalline MgO/n-Ge(001) heterojunction determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Kun-Rok; Lee, Sang-Jun; Park, Chang-Yup; Lee, Hun-Sung; Shin, Sung-Chul

    2010-09-01

    We report the energy band structure of the single crystalline MgO/n-Ge(001) heterojunction characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The valence band offset of ΔEV=3.64±0.07 eV with a 1.49±0.02 eV band bending was obtained. Given the experimental band gap of MgO (7.83 eV), a type-I band alignment with a conduction band offset of ΔEC=3.52±0.07 eV is found. The band alignment of the MgO/n-Ge heterojunction including the large band bending was analyzed by a theoretical model taking into account the formation of the interface dipole.

  8. Long-term pharyngeal airway changes after bionator treatment in adolescents with skeletal Class II malocclusions

    PubMed Central

    Han, Seimin; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Chung, Chooryung J.; Kim, Ji Young

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term changes in the pharyngeal airway dimensions after functional appliance treatment in adolescents with skeletal Class II malocclusions. Methods Pharyngeal airway dimensions were compared between subjects with skeletal Class II malocclusions (n = 24; mean age: 11.6 ± 1.29 years) treated with a Class II bionator and age-matched control subjects with skeletal Class I occlusions (n = 24; mean age: 11.0 ± 1.21 years) using a series of lateral cephalograms obtained at the initial visit (T0), after treatment (T1), and at the completion of growth (T2). Results The length of the nasopharyngeal region was similar between adolescents with skeletal Class I and Class II malocclusions at all time points, while the lengths of the upper and lower oropharyngeal regions and the pharyngeal airway areas were significantly smaller in the skeletal Class II adolescents before treatment when compared to the control adolescents (p < 0.05). However, following treatment with a functional appliance, the skeletal Class II adolescents had increased pharyngeal airway dimensions, which became similar to those of the control subjects. Conclusions Functional appliance therapy can increase the pharyngeal airway dimensions in growing adolescents with skeletal Class II malocclusions, and this effect is maintained until the completion of growth. PMID:24511511

  9. Detecting changes following the provision of assistive devices: utility of the WHO-DAS II.

    PubMed

    Raggi, Alberto; Albanesi, Francesca; Gatti, Valeria; Andrich, Renzo; Leonardi, Matilde

    2010-12-01

    The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) is a non-disease-specific International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health-based disability assessment instrument developed to measure activity limitations and restrictions to participation. The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate WHO-DAS II responsiveness in detecting short-time changes following the provision of an Assistive Technology,which is important to define its utility in performing daily activities. Adult inpatients with a diagnosis of Disease of the Nervous System (included in Chapter VI of the ICD-10),who were prescribed an Assistive Technology to be used in the household settings, were enrolled. The WHO-DAS II was administered in individual interview at baseline and at a 2 months follow-up: in this period patients were transitioning from the hospital to home. Changes in disability profiles were detected by calculating the effect size (ES) for each WHO-DAS II domain. Ten patients with different neurological diseases were enrolled. Few longitudinal changes in disability level are reported: mild improvement is observed in the household activities (ES0.28), whereas mild worsening is reported in self-care and participation in society domains (ES – 0.27 and – 0.26,respectively). Our study shows that the WHO-DAS II is responsive in detecting domain-specific changes over a short-term period and provides preliminary encouraging evidence for the utility of its utilization in clinical settings.However, changes in setting between baseline and follow up could have an impact on the findings and interpretation of this study.

  10. External conditions inversely change the RNA polymerase II elongation rate and density in yeast.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Ana; Montón, Fernando; Li, Tianlu; Gómez-Herreros, Fernando; Chávez, Sebastián; Alepuz, Paula; Pérez-Ortín, José E

    2013-11-01

    Elongation speed is a key parameter in RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II) activity. It affects the transcription rate, while it is conditioned by the physicochemical environment it works in at the same time. For instance, it is well-known that temperature affects the biochemical reactions rates. Therefore in free-living organisms that are able to grow at various environmental temperatures, such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, evolution should have not only shaped the structural and functional properties of this key enzyme, but should have also provided mechanisms and pathways to adapt its activity to the optimal performance required. We studied the changes in RNA pol II elongation speed caused by alternations in growth temperature in yeast to find that they strictly follow the Arrhenius equation, and that they also provoke an almost inverse proportional change in RNA pol II density within the optimal growth temperature range (26-37 °C). Moreover, we discovered that yeast cells control the transcription initiation rate by changing the total amount of available RNA pol II.

  11. Subtle conformational changes induced in major histocompatibility complex class II molecules by binding peptides.

    PubMed

    Chervonsky, A V; Medzhitov, R M; Denzin, L K; Barlow, A K; Rudensky, A Y; Janeway, C A

    1998-08-18

    Intracellular trafficking of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules is characterized by passage through specialized endocytic compartment(s) where antigenic peptides replace invariant chain fragments in the presence of the DM protein. These changes are accompanied by structural transitions of the MHC molecules that can be visualized by formation of compact SDS-resistant dimers, by changes in binding of mAbs, and by changes in T cell responses. We have observed that a mAb (25-9-17) that is capable of staining I-Ab on the surface of normal B cells failed to interact with I-Ab complexes with a peptide derived from the Ealpha chain of the I-E molecule but bound a similar covalent complex of I-Ab with the class II binding fragment (class II-associated invariant chain peptides) of the invariant chain. Moreover, 25-9-17 blocked activation of several I-Ab-reactive T cell hybridomas but failed to block others, suggesting that numerous I-Ab-peptide complexes acquire the 25-9-17(+) or 25-9-17(-) conformation. Alloreactive T cells were also able to discriminate peptide-dependent variants of MHC class II molecules. Thus, peptides impose subtle structural transitions upon MHC class II molecules that affect T cell recognition and may thus be critical for T cell selection and autiommunity.

  12. Activation Induces Structural Changes in the Liganded Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Clément, Martin; Cabana, Jérôme; Holleran, Brian J.; Leduc, Richard; Guillemette, Gaétan; Lavigne, Pierre; Escher, Emanuel

    2009-01-01

    The octapeptide hormone angiotensin II (AngII) binds to and activates the human angiotensin II type 1 receptor (hAT1) of the G protein-coupled receptor class A family. Several activation mechanisms have been proposed for this family, but they have not yet been experimentally validated. We previously used the methionine proximity assay to show that 11 residues in transmembrane domain (TMD) III, VI, and VII of the hAT1 receptor reside in close proximity to the C-terminal residue of AngII. With the exception of a single change in TMD VI, the same contacts are present on N111G-hAT1, a constitutively active mutant; this N111G-hAT1 is a model for the active form of the receptor. In this study, two series of 53 individual methionine mutations were constructed in TMD I, II, IV, and V on both receptor forms. The mutants were photolabeled with a neutral antagonist, 125I-[Sar1,p-benzoyl-l-Phe8]AngII, and the resulting complexes were digested with cyanogen bromide. Although no new contacts were found for the hAT1 mutants, two were found in the constitutively active mutants, Phe-77 in TMD II and Asn-200 in TMD V. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a direct ligand contact with TMD II and TMD V has been reported. These contact point differences were used to identify the structural changes between the WT-hAT1 and N111G-hAT1 complexes through homology-based modeling and restrained molecular dynamics. The model generated revealed an important structural rearrangement of several TMDs from the basal to the activated form in the WT-hAT1 receptor. PMID:19635801

  13. Developmental changes in the Sciara II/9A initiation zone for DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Lunyak, Victoria V; Ezrokhi, Michael; Smith, Heidi S; Gerbi, Susan A

    2002-12-01

    Developmentally regulated initiation of DNA synthesis was studied in the fly Sciara at locus II/9A. PCR analysis of nascent strands revealed an initiation zone that spans approximately 8 kb in mitotic embryonic cells and endoreplicating salivary glands but contracts to 1.2 to 2.0 kb during DNA amplification of DNA puff II/9A. Thus, the amplification origin occurs within the initiation zone used for normal replication. The initiation zone left-hand border is constant, but the right-hand border changes during development. Also, there is a shift in the preferred site for initiation of DNA synthesis during DNA amplification compared to that in preamplification stages. This is the first demonstration that once an initiation zone is defined in embryos, its borders and preferred replication start sites can change during development. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that the RNA polymerase II 140-kDa subunit occupies the promoter of gene II/9-1 during DNA amplification, even though intense transcription will not start until the next developmental stage. RNA polymerase II is adjacent to the right-hand border of the initiation zone at DNA amplification but not at preamplification, suggesting that it may influence the position of this border. These findings support a relationship between the transcriptional machinery and establishment of the replication initiation zone.

  14. Molecular dynamics simulation study of conformational changes of transcription factor TFIIS during RNA polymerase II transcriptional arrest and reactivation.

    PubMed

    Eun, Changsun; Ortiz-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Da, Lintai; Wang, Dong; McCammon, J Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factor IIS (TFIIS) is a protein known for catalyzing the cleavage reaction of the 3'-end of backtracked RNA transcript, allowing RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to reactivate the transcription process from the arrested state. Recent structural studies have provided a molecular basis of protein-protein interaction between TFIIS and Pol II. However, the detailed dynamic conformational changes of TFIIS upon binding to Pol II and the related thermodynamic information are largely unknown. Here we use computational approaches to investigate the conformational space of TFIIS in the Pol II-bound and Pol II-free (unbound) states. Our results reveal two distinct conformations of TFIIS: the closed and the open forms. The closed form is dominant in the Pol II-free (unbound) state of TFIIS, whereas the open form is favorable in the Pol II-bound state. Furthermore, we discuss the free energy difference involved in the conformational changes between the two forms in the presence or absence of Pol II. Additionally, our analysis indicates that hydrophobic interactions and the protein-protein interactions between TFIIS and Pol II are crucial for inducing the conformational changes of TFIIS. Our results provide novel insights into the functional interplay between Pol II and TFIIS as well as mechanism of reactivation of Pol II transcription by TFIIS.

  15. Mechanism of adrenal angiotensin II receptor changes after nephrectomy in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, J G

    1981-01-01

    At 48 h after bilateral nephrectomy in rats there is a two- to threefold increase in the number of adrenal angiotensin II receptors and a decrease in Kd of smooth muscle angiotensin II receptors. These changes have been attributed to the absence of circulating angiotensin II. Serum K+, which increases after nephrectomy may be an important and overlooked modulator. Therefore, the present experiments were designed to assess the role of K+ as a regulator of angiotensin II receptors after nephrectomy. Serum K+ was controlled with Na polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate), a resin designed to exchange Na+ for K+ in the gastrointestinal tract. Acutely nephrectomized rats were divided into two groups: experimental animals received Kayexalate resin every 12 h for four doses, and controls received Kayexalate exchanged with KCl in vitro before gavage. There was a significant positive correlation serum K+ and aldosterone (r = 0.78, P less than 0.001). Kayexalate maintained a normal serum K+ of 5.9 +/- 0.2 meq/liter (n = 27), aldosterone 25 +/- 3 ng/dl (n = 27) and adrenal receptor concentration of 934 +/- 156 fmol/mg protein (n = 4). Control animals had significantly higher serum K+ of 10.5 +/- 0.4 meq/liter (n = 23), aldosterone 435 +/- 32 (n = 23), and adrenal receptors of 2726 +/- 235 fmol/mg protein (n = 4). There was a linear relationship between serum K+ and number of adrenal receptors (r = 0.87). No such relationship was present in uterine smooth muscle. Therefore, these studies demonstrate that K+ modulates the number of adrenal but not smooth muscle angiotensin II receptors after nephrectomy. This is the first evidence that potassium modulates angiotensin II receptors independently of changes in angiotensin II blood levels. PMID:6259213

  16. Detecting change in advance tree regeneration using forest inventory data: the implications of type II error.

    PubMed

    Westfall, James A; McWilliams, William H

    2012-09-01

    Achieving adequate and desirable forest regeneration is necessary for maintaining native tree species and forest composition. Advance tree seedling and sapling regeneration is the basis of the next stand and serves as an indicator of future composition. The Pennsylvania Regeneration Study was implemented statewide to monitor regeneration on a subset of Forest Inventory and Analysis plots measured by the U.S. Forest Service. As management techniques are implemented to improve advance regeneration, assessments of the change in the forest resource are needed. When the primary focus is on detecting change, hypothesis tests should have small type II (β) error rates. However, most analyses are based on minimizing type I (α) error rates and type II error rates can be quite large. When type II error rates are high, actual improvements in regeneration can remain undetected and the methods that brought these improvements may be deemed ineffective. The difficulty in detecting significant change in advance regeneration when small type I error rates are given priority is illustrated. For statewide assessments, power (1-β) to detect changes in proportion of area having adequate advance regeneration is relatively weak (≤0.5) when the change is smaller than 0.05. For evaluations conducted at smaller spatial scales, such as wildlife management units, the reduced sample size results in only marginal power even when relatively large changes (≥0.20) in area proportion occur. For fixed sample sizes, analysts can consider accepting larger type I error rates to increase the probability of detecting change (smaller type II error rates) when it occurs, such that management methods that positively affect regeneration can be identified.

  17. Effective Schottky Barrier Height Lowering of Metal/n-Ge with a TiO2/GeO2 Interlayer Stack.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gwang-Sik; Kim, Sun-Woo; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Park, June; Seo, Yujin; Cho, Byung Jin; Shin, Changhwan; Shim, Joon Hyung; Yu, Hyun-Yong

    2016-12-28

    A perfect ohmic contact formation technique for low-resistance source/drain (S/D) contact of germanium (Ge) n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is developed. A metal-interlayer-semiconductor (M-I-S) structure with an ultrathin TiO2/GeO2 interlayer stack is introduced into the contact scheme to alleviate Fermi-level pinning (FLP), and reduce the electron Schottky barrier height (SBH). The TiO2 interlayer can alleviate FLP by preventing formation of metal-induced gap states (MIGS) with its very low tunneling resistance and series resistance and can provide very small electron energy barrier at the metal/TiO2 interface. The GeO2 layer can induce further alleviation of FLP by reducing interface state density (Dit) on Ge which is one of main causes of FLP. Moreover, the proposed TiO2/GeO2 stack can minimize interface dipole formation which induces the SBH increase. The M-I-S structure incorporating the TiO2/GeO2 interlayer stack achieves a perfect ohmic characteristic, which has proved unattainable with a single interlayer. FLP can be perfectly alleviated, and the SBH of the metal/n-Ge can be tremendously reduced. The proposed structure (Ti/TiO2/GeO2/n-Ge) exhibits 0.193 eV of effective electron SBH which achieves 0.36 eV of SBH reduction from that of the Ti/n-Ge structure. The proposed M-I-S structure can be suggested as a promising S/D contact technique for nanoscale Ge n-channel transistors to overcome the large electron SBH problem caused by severe FLP.

  18. Early treatment outcomes of class II malocclusion with twin-block facial profile and cephalometric changes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mousumi Goswami; Vashisth, Pallavi; Chaudhary, Seema; Sinha, Ashish

    2012-01-01

    Esthetic improvement is highly valued by patients seeking orthodontic treatment. Subjects with a class II malocclusion are a good example of patients who seek treatment primarily for esthetic improvement. A young growing child with convex profile due to a small, retropositioned mandible, normal midface and lower tip trap is more suitable for functional appliance treatment. Functional appliances encourage adaptive skeletal growth by maintaining the mandible in a corrected forward position for a sufficient period of time to allow adaptive skeletal changes to occur in response to a functional stimulus. The aim of this article is to describe two cases of class II malocclusion in late mixed dentition period treated with twin-block. The cephalometric and facial profile changes have been discussed PMID:25756036

  19. Period Changes, Evolution, and Multiperiodicity in the Peculiar Population II Cepheid RU Camelopardalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, John R.; Hale, Jonathan

    1998-12-01

    We have studied the period change in the peculiar Population II Cepheid RU Cam, which abruptly decreased in amplitude in 1965-1966. The O-C diagram prior to 1965-1966 can best be explained as the superposition of small, random, cycle-to-cycle changes in period, plus a constant linear decrease whose timescale (31,000 yr) is consistent with evolutionary predictions. The O-C diagram after 1965-1966 can best be explained as the superposition of much larger random, cycle-to-cycle changes (which mask the evolutionary changes), plus wavelike changes in O-C on a timescale of 10-20 periods. These-and the variations in the amplitude of the star that occur on the same timescale-may be due to multiperiodicity.

  20. Conformational changes in actin-myosin isoforms probed by Ni(II).Gly-Gly-His reactivity.

    PubMed

    Van Dijk, Juliette; Lafont, Chrystel; Knetsch, Menno L W; Derancourt, Jean; Manstein, Dietmar J; Long, Eric C; Chaussepied, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Crucial information concerning conformational changes that occur during the mechanochemical cycle of actin-myosin complexes is lacking due to the difficulties encountered in obtaining their three-dimensional structures. To obtain such information, we employed a solution-based approach through the reaction of Ni(II).tripeptide chelates which are able to induce protein cleavage and cross-linking reactions. Three different myosin motor domain isoforms in the presence of actin and nucleotides were treated with a library of Ni(II).tripeptide chelates and two reactivities were observed: (1) muscle motor domains were cross-linked to actin, as also observed for the skeletal muscle isoform, while (2) the Dictyostelium discoideum motor domain was cleaved at a single locus. All Ni(II).tripeptide chelates tested generated identical reaction products, with Ni(II).Gly-Gly-His, containing a C-terminal carboxylate, exhibiting the highest reactivity. Mass spectrometric analysis showed that protein cleavage occurred within segment 242-265 of the Dictyostelium discoideum myosin heavy chain sequence, while the skeletal myosin cross-linking site was as localized previously within segment 506-561. Using a fusion protein consisting of the yellow and cyan variants of green fluorescent protein linked by Dictyostelium discoideum myosin segment 242-265, we demonstrated that the primary sequence of this segment alone is not a sufficient substrate for Ni(II).Gly-Gly-His-induced cleavage. Importantly, the cross-linking and cleavage reactions both exhibited specific structural sensitivities to the nature of the nucleotide bound to the active site, validating the conformational changes suggested from crystallographic data of the actin-free myosin motor domain.

  1. PERIOD CHANGE SIMILARITIES AMONG THE RR LYRAE VARIABLES IN OOSTERHOFF I AND OOSTERHOFF II GLOBULAR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Kunder, Andrea; Walker, Alistair; De Propris, Roberto; Stetson, Peter B.; Bono, Giuseppe; Di Cecco, Alessandra; Nemec, James M.; Monelli, Matteo; Cassisi, Santi; Andreuzzi, Gloria; Dall'Ora, Massimo; Zoccali, Manuela

    2011-01-15

    We present period change rates (dP/dt) for 42 RR Lyrae variables in the globular cluster IC 4499. Despite clear evidence of these period increases or decreases, the observed period change rates are an order of magnitude larger than predicted from theoretical models of this cluster. We find that there is a preference for increasing periods, a phenomenon observed in most RR Lyrae stars in Milky Way globular clusters. The period change rates as a function of position in the period-amplitude plane are used to examine possible evolutionary effects in OoI clusters, OoII clusters, field RR Lyrae stars, and the mixed-population cluster {omega} Centauri. It is found that there is no correlation between the period change rate and the typical definition of Oosterhoff groups. If the RR Lyrae period changes correspond with evolutionary effects, this would be in contrast to the hypothesis that RR Lyrae variables in OoII systems are evolved horizontal-branch stars that spent their zero-age horizontal-branch phase on the blue side of the instability strip. This may suggest that age may not be the primary explanation for the Oosterhoff types.

  2. Changes in Cranial Base Morphology in Class I and Class II Division 1 Malocclusions.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anirudh; Pandey, Harsh; Bajaj, Kamal; Pandey, Lavesh

    2013-02-01

    The cranial base plays a key role in craniofacial growth; it helps to integrate spatially and functionally different patterns of growth in various adjoining regions of the skull such as components of the brain, the nasal and oral cavity and the pharynx. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in cranial base flexure between skeletal and dental Class I and Class II division 1. Lateral cephalometric radiograph, of Class I and Class II with an average growth pattern were analyzed and compared. A total of 103 patients having class I (n=52) and class II (n=51) malocclusion, were taken from Department of Orthodontics, Rajasthan Dental College & Hospital, Jaipur. Cranial base angle (N-S-Ar) and ANB were measured on pre treatment lateral cephalograms. In this study cranial base angle did not show statistically significant difference between the two groups studied. In the assessment of orthodontic problems involving anteroposterior malrelationships of the jaws, the problem is usually the result of size, form and position of the jaw. The present study failed to find any differences in cranial base angle between sagittal malocclusions. How to cite this article: Agarwal A, Pandey H, Bajaj K, Pandey L. Changes in Cranial Base Morphology in Class I and Class II Division 1 Malocclusion. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):39-42.

  3. Period Changes of Type II Cepheids in the Globular Cluster M5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Jill M.; Rabidoux, K.; Smith, H. A.; De Lee, N.; Pritzl, B.; Osborn, W.

    2007-05-01

    The observed period changes of a pulsating variable star can, in principle, provide a sensitive test of the movement of the variable through the instability strip of the HR diagram. We revisit the long term period behavior of variables V42 and V84 in M5, making use of new BVI light curves of these type II Cepheids. V42 has shown a small decrease in period since 1889. The period changes of V84 are more difficult to ascertain, with possible short term changes in the observed phase of maximum light. The observed period changes, in both cases based upon observations spanning more than a century, are consistent with the earlier determinations of Coutts Clement & Sawyer Hogg (1977, JRASC, 71, 281). (This research is supported by the College of Science of the Florida Institute of Technology.)

  4. Skeletal and dental changes with nonextraction Begg mechanotherapy in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P; Kharbanda, O P; Duggal, R; Parkash, H

    2000-12-01

    This prospective cephalometric study was undertaken to assess the mode and magnitude of Class II correction with nonextraction Begg mechanotherapy in growing children. The sample comprised subjects with similar malocclusion and age range (9-12 years) who were specifically selected for nonextraction Begg mechanotherapy. Cephalograms were analyzed to assess the skeletal, dental, and soft tissue changes that occurred after correction of the molar relationship, the overjet, and the overbite during the 9-month treatment period. The results revealed a significant improvement in the anteroposterior jaw relationship, suggested by the significant reduction in the ANB angle (1.62 degrees ) and in Wits AO-BO (1.42 mm). The mandibular length increase of 0.56 mm suggests that the Class II elastics used in nonextraction Begg mechanotherapy had a minimal stimulatory effect on mandibular growth. There was a significant increase in the anterior and posterior facial heights and the ramal height. Almost all of the dental changes were significant. The most striking feature were a significant retraction and extrusion of the maxillary incisors and proclination and intrusion of the lower incisors accompanied by extrusion of the mandibular molars. The maxillary incisors extruded by 1.64 mm under the influence of the undesirable downward component of the Class II elastic forces. The major contribution to overjet and molar correction was predominantly dentoalveolar.

  5. A Primary Investigation on Serum CTX-II Changes in Patients Infected with Brucellosis in Qinghai Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi Jun; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Xin; Ma, Li; Xu, Li Qing; Yang, Pei Zhen; Meng, Xian Ya; Yu, Hui Zhen; Xu, Xiao Qing; Cao, Jian Ying

    2016-03-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases, with the most frequent complication being osteoarticular changes. The aim of this study was to assess the changes of C-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) in patients infected with brucellosis. A total of 84 brucellosis patients and 43 volunteers were selected and divided into brucellosis vs. control groups. Serum samples were subjected to serological tests for brucellosis, and CTX-II levels in all samples were measured simultaneously with ELISA. The results showed that serum CTX-II levels in human brucellosis were higher than those of healthy controls, without a statistically significant difference, but serum CTX-II levels in male patients were significantly higher than those of female patients (P<0.05). This finding could indicate the biological changes in the cartilage and bone in human brucellosis.

  6. The Changing Face of War in Textbooks: Depictions of World War II and Vietnam, 1970-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachmann, Richard; Mitchell, Lacy

    2014-01-01

    How have U.S. high school textbook depictions of World War II and Vietnam changed since the 1970s? We examined 102 textbooks published from 1970 to 2009 to see how they treated U.S. involvement in World War II and Vietnam. Our content analysis of high school history textbooks finds that U.S. textbooks increasingly focus on the personal experiences…

  7. The Changing Face of War in Textbooks: Depictions of World War II and Vietnam, 1970-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachmann, Richard; Mitchell, Lacy

    2014-01-01

    How have U.S. high school textbook depictions of World War II and Vietnam changed since the 1970s? We examined 102 textbooks published from 1970 to 2009 to see how they treated U.S. involvement in World War II and Vietnam. Our content analysis of high school history textbooks finds that U.S. textbooks increasingly focus on the personal experiences…

  8. Intracrine action of angiotensin II in the intact ventricle of the failing heart: angiotensin II changes cardiac excitability from within

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The influence of intracellular injection of angiotensin II (Ang II) on electrical properties of single right ventricular fibers from the failing heart of cardiomyopathic hamsters (TO2) was investigated in the intact ventricle of 8-month-old animals. Intracellular injection was performed using pressure pulses (40–70 psi) for short periods of time (20 ms) while recoding the action potential simultaneously from the same fiber. The results indicated that intracellular Ang II caused a hyperpolarization of 7.7 mV ± 4.3 mV (n = 39) (4 animals) (P < 0.05) followed by a small fall in membrane potential. The action potential duration was significantly increased at 50% and at 90% repolarization, and the refractoriness was significantly enhanced. The effect of intracellular Ang II on action potential duration was related to the inhibition of potassium conductance through PKC activation because Bis-1 (360 nM), a selective PKC inhibitor, abolished the effect of the peptide. Injections performed in different fibers of the same ventricle showed a variable effect of Ang II on action potential duration and generated spontaneous rhythmicity. The effect of intracellular Ang II on action potential duration and cardiac refractoriness remains for more than 1 h after interruption of the intracellular injection of the peptide. PMID:21744071

  9. Fermi-level depinning and contact resistance reduction in metal/n-Ge junctions by insertion of W-encapsulating Si cluster films

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Naoya; Uchida, Noriyuki; Kanayama, Toshihiko

    2014-02-10

    We demonstrate Fermi-level depinning in metal/Ge junctions and a significant reduction of specific contact resistivity of n-Ge by inserting an ultra-thin semiconducting Si-rich W silicide film (WSi{sub n}, n = 12–14) composed of W-encapsulating Si clusters. Dependence of the specific contact resistivity on the electron Schottky barrier height followed the ideal exponential relation for various contact metal species. This result indicates that the insertion of the WSi{sub n} film provides a negligible contribution to contact resistivity because its tunneling resistance is very low owing to the low offset of the conduction band edge of Ge.

  10. Dental arch changes in postretention in Class II division 1 extraction cases.

    PubMed

    Anuwongnukroh, Niwat; Dechkunakorn, Surachai; Kunakornporamut, Kannida; Tua-Ngam, Peerapong

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the postretention stability of the dental arches in Class II division 1 patients treated with four bicuspid extractions and the edgewise technique. A digital caliper was used to analyze the dental casts from 29 Class II division 1 malocclusion patients with skeletal type II (14 males, 15 females; ages ranging from 10.2-18.0 years), treated with four bicuspid extractions and the edgewise technique. Intercanine width, intermolar width, arch length, irregularity index, overjet and overbite were evaluated at three times: pretreatment (T1), posttreatment (T2) and postretention (T3) (mean: 4.15 years). Student's t-tests were used to compare the pretreatment-posttreatment, posttreatment-postretention and pretreatment-postretention. Significance was determined at P<0.05. The results of the study are listed as: (1) The upper and lower intercanine widths significantly increased (P<0.05) between T1-T2 and decreased between T2-T3. However, no significant changes were observed between T1-T3; (2) The upper and lower intermolar widths significantly decreased (P<0.05) between T1-T2, between T2-T3 and between T1-T3, except for the upper intermolar width between T2-T3 which showed no significant change; (3) The upper and lower arch lengths significantly decreased (P<0.05) at posttreatment and postretention due to the closure of extraction spaces. Both the upper and lower arch lengths significantly decreased between T1-T2, T2-T3, and T1-T3, except for the upper arch length between T2-T3, which showed no significant change; (4) The irregularity index was significantly improved after treatment. However, there was a slight increase in incisor irregularity at postretention. At postretention, 75.86% of the patients had mild crowding, 20.68% had moderate crowding, 3.48% had severe crowding; (5) The overjet and overbite significantly decreased (P<0.05) between T1-T2 and increased between T2-T3. The changes in the dental arches were small at

  11. Changes in the adsorbate dipole layer with changing d-filling of the metal (II) (Co, Ni, Cu) phthalocyanines on Au(111).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jie; Dowben, Peter A

    2009-02-04

    In combined photoemission and inverse photoemission spectroscopy studies, we observe changes in the metal phthalocyanine molecular orbital offsets with respect to the conducting gold substrate Fermi level, with the changing d-electron filling of the metal (II) (Co, Ni, Cu) phthalocyanines. The implication is that the interfacial dipole layer depends upon the choice of metal (Co, Ni, Cu) centers within the metal (II) phthalocyanines adsorbed on Au(111).

  12. Cardiac function in types II and III spinal muscular atrophy: should we change standards of care?

    PubMed

    Bianco, Flaviana; Pane, Marika; D'Amico, Adele; Messina, Sonia; Delogu, Angelica Bibiana; Soraru, Gianni; Pera, Maria Carmela; Mongini, Tiziana; Politano, Luisa; Baranello, Giovanni; Vita, Gianluca; Tiziano, Francesco Danilo; Morandi, Lucia; Bertini, Enrico; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2015-02-01

    In the last years, there has been increasing evidence of cardiac involvement in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Autonomic dysfunction has been reported in animal models and in several patients with types I and III SMA, these findings raising the question whether heart rate should be routinely investigated in all SMA patients. The aim of our study was to detect possible signs of autonomic dysfunction and, more generally, of cardiac involvement in types II and III SMA. We retrospectively reviewed 24-hour electrocardiography (ECG) in 157 types II and III SMA patients (age range, 2-74 years). Of them, 82 also had echocardiography. None of the patients had signs of bradycardia, atrial fibrillation, or the other previously reported rhythm disturbances regardless of the age at examination or the type of SMA. Echocardiography was also normal. There were no signs of congenital cardiac defects with the exception of one patient with a history of ventricular septal defects. Our results suggest that cardiac abnormalities are not common in type II and type III SMA. These findings provide no evidence to support a more accurate cardiac surveillance or changes in the existing standards of care. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. A new way of phase identification, of AgGaGeS{sub 4}∙nGeS{sub 2} crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, R.E. Vasilyeva, I.G.

    2013-07-15

    The phase identification of AgGaGeS{sub 4}·nGeS{sub 2} (n=0–4) crystals grown by vertical Bridgman–Stockbarger technique was carried out to find the boundary value n between a homogeneous solid solution and its mixture with GeS{sub 2}. To obtain reliable results, the conventional methods of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were completed by less common vapor pressure measurement in a closed volume and precise density measurements, which are very sensitive to the detection of small amounts of crystalline and glassy GeS{sub 2} and heterogeneous state of the crystals. The boundary value n=1.5 at 1045 K and the coexistence of the solid solution AgGaGeS{sub 4}·1.5GeS{sub 2} with the β-GeS{sub 2} phase for n>1.5 was found. Glassy GeS{sub 2} (∼2 mol%) was revealed by vapor pressure measurement and XRD studies in all the crystals. This is discussed in terms of the supersaturated solid solution decomposition upon temperature decreasing and the microphase separation of overcooled melt near the melting point under non-equilibrium crystallization. For the first time, the p–T dependence for glassy GeS{sub 2} was measured by the vapor pressure measurements. - Graphical abstract: lg p–1/T dependences of as-grown AgGaGeS{sub 4}·nGeS{sub 2} crystals. - Highlights: • Vapor pressure measurement as a powerful tool of phase identification. • Thermal characteristics of glassy GeS{sub 2}. • The homogeneity range of AgGaGeS{sub 4} from the GeS{sub 2} side.

  14. Changes in the oropharyngeal airway of Class II patients treated with the mandibular anterior repositioning appliance.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Susan; Kulbersh, Valmy Pangrazio; Al-Qawasmi, Riyad

    2016-11-01

     To evaluate the effects of functional appliance treatment on the oropharyngeal airway volume, airway dimensions, and anteroposterior hyoid bone position of growing Class II patients.  Twenty Class II white patients (mean age, 11.7 ± 1.75 years) treated with the MARA followed by fixed appliances were matched to an untreated control sample by cervical vertebrae maturation stage at pretreatment (T1) and posttreatment (T2) time points. Cone beam computed tomography scans were taken at T1 and T2. Dolphin3D imaging software was used to determine oropharyngeal airway volume, dimensions, and anteroposterior hyoid bone position.  Multivariate ANOVA was used to evaluate changes between T1 and T2. Oropharyngeal airway volume, airway dimensions, and A-P position of the hyoid bone increased significantly with functional appliance treatment. SNA and ANB decreased significantly in the experimental group (P ≤ .05). Changes in SNB and Sn-GoGn failed to reach statistical significance.  Functional appliance therapy increases oropharyngeal airway volume, airway dimensions, and anteroposterior hyoid bone position in growing patients.

  15. Broadway High School: Moving Ahead in Math. Onward to Excellence II: Committing to CHANGE with OTE II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR. School Improvement Program.

    This document describes the school reform movement at Broadway High School in rural Virginia which has led to great success in mathematics achievement as proven by the Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL) tests. The Onward to Excellence II model provided a way for the faculty to focus on math, especially Algebra I, and to involve the entire school…

  16. Numerical calculation of strain-N+-Ge1- x Sn x /P+-δGe1- x Sn x /N--Ge1- y - z Si y Sn z /P+-Ge1- y - z Si y Sn z heterojunction tunnel field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Suyuan; Zheng, Jun; Xue, Chunlai; Li, Chuanbo; Zuo, Yuhua; Cheng, Buwen; Wang, Qiming

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we present a theoretical calculation of the insertion of a δ-doping layer in double gate N+-Ge1- x Sn x /N-Ge1- y - z Si y Sn z /P+-Ge1- y - z Si y Sn z heterojunction p-type tunnel field-effect transistors (PTFETs) by semiconductor device simulation. The compositions of Ge1- x Sn x and Ge1- y - z Si y Sn z and the optimization of the δ-layer are analyzed in detail. It is shown that the use of narrow-bandgap Ge1- x Sn x in the source region and large-bandgap Ge1- y - z Si y Sn z in the drain region is favorable for increasing the on-state current (I ON) and suppressing the ambipolar effect. The P+ δ-layer in the Ge1- x Sn x considerably improves the PTFET performance compared with other structures. The best I ON of 69.56 µA/µm and the subthreshold swing (SS) of 22 mV/dec were achieved at a low applied voltage of -0.5 V.

  17. A Unique Cause of Proteinuria in Pregnancy: Class II Lupus Nephritis with Concomitant Minimal Change Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kunjal, Ryan; Adam-Eldien, Rabie; Makary, Raafat; Jo-Hoy, Francois; Heilig, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 22-year-old African American female who presented to another facility for routine follow-up in the 34th week of pregnancy with lower extremity swelling and nephrotic-range proteinuria. Although she was normotensive, it was initially thought that she had preeclampsia. She was monitored carefully and delivery was induced at 37 weeks of gestation. She was transferred to our hospital, where she was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) based on clinical and laboratory criteria. Renal biopsy revealed a surprising finding of minimal change disease (MCD) concomitant with class II lupus nephritis (LN). She was managed with pulses and then tapering doses of steroid therapy with dramatic resolution of the nephrotic syndrome. This case demonstrates not only the rare de novo occurrence of SLE in pregnancy, but the unique finding of MCD coexisting with class II LN. We propose that altered T cell activity may be the link between these seemingly distinct entities. PMID:27781205

  18. Incisor inclination changes produced by two compliance-free Class II correction protocols for the treatment of mild to moderate Class II malocclusions.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert A; Tieu, Long; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2013-05-01

    To compare the changes in incisor inclination between two compliance-free Class II correction protocols for the treatment of mild to moderate Class II malocclusions. Among Class II malocclusion patients a total of 38 consecutive patients treated with the Xbow appliance and later with full brackets (XB) were compared to 36 consecutive patients treated with Forsus connected to the archwire while on full brackets (FO). Evaluated cephalometric variables were overjet, overbite, skeletal Class II, lower incisor inclination, and upper incisor inclination. Factors that were analyzed were gender, treatment type, age at start of treatment (T1), and treatment length. Independent t-tests, χ(2), multiple analysis of variance, and Pearson correlations were applied. No differences in incisor inclination between both treatment protocols were identified. At T1 no statistical difference for any cephalometric variable was demonstrated with regard to gender and treatment type. Gender was also not associated with a different treatment time or age at T1. The mean treatment time was 24.2 months for XB and 30.2 months for the FO group (P  =  .037). XB patients averaged 10 fewer months of fixed edgewise appliances compared to FO patients. Neither gender nor treatment type had any influence on the changes of the evaluated dependent variables between T1 and the end of treatment. Lower incisors proclined more the longer the treatment (P  =  .005). Both overjet and upper incisor inclination were affected by age at T1 (P  =  .001 and P  =  .014, respectively). Both compliance-free Class II correction protocols for the treatment of mild to moderate Class II malocclusions appear to generate the same amount of incisor inclination. Large variability was identified.

  19. Post-treatment occlusal changes in Class II division 2 subjects treated with the Herbst appliance.

    PubMed

    Bock, Niko; Ruf, Sabine

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse and compare the post-treatment occlusal changes of Class II division 2 treatment with the Herbst appliance in early adolescent, late adolescent, and adult subjects. The subjects were 37 Class II division 2 patients (19 females and 18 males) treated at the Orthodontic Department, University of Giessen, Germany. All were in the late mixed or permanent dentition and exhibited a Class II molar relationship > or =0.5 cusp width (CW) bilaterally or > or =1.0 CW unilaterally, an overbite (OB) >3.0 mm, and two upper central incisors retroclined. The subjects were divided into three skeletal maturity groups based on evaluation of hand wrist radiographs: early adolescent (n = 10, stages MP3-E to MP3-FG at start of treatment, age range: 11.3-13.2 years), late adolescent (n = 14, stages MP3-G to MP3-I at start of treatment, age range: 14.1-16.4 years), and adult (n = 13, stages R-I to R-J at the start of treatment, age range: 16.3-25.6 years). Study casts from before treatment (T1), after Herbst-Tip-Edge-Multibracket appliance treatment (T2), and after an average retention time of 27 months (T3) were analysed. Statistical analysis was undertaken using t-tests for paired and unpaired samples. For the whole sample, the molar relationship at T3 was stable in 82.4 per cent, the canine relationship in 82.9 per cent, and OB in 75.7 per cent of the cases. In the different skeletal maturity groups, the stability of the molars, canines, and overbite was as follows: early adolescents: 95.0, 100.0, and 70.0 per cent, respectively; late adolescents: 92.9, 74.1, and 85.7 per cent, respectively; and adults 61.5, 80.8, 69.2 per cent, respectively. Occlusal correction of Class II division 2 malocclusions with Herbst treatment was relatively stable 2 years post-treatment. The outcome of treatment of adolescents was more stable than that of adults.

  20. Abrupt change of Antarctic moisture origin at the end of Termination II.

    PubMed

    Masson-Delmotte, V; Stenni, B; Blunier, T; Cattani, O; Chappellaz, J; Cheng, H; Dreyfus, G; Edwards, R L; Falourd, S; Govin, A; Kawamura, K; Johnsen, S J; Jouzel, J; Landais, A; Lemieux-Dudon, B; Lourantou, A; Marshall, G; Minster, B; Mudelsee, M; Pol, K; Röthlisberger, R; Selmo, E; Waelbroeck, C

    2010-07-06

    The deuterium excess of polar ice cores documents past changes in evaporation conditions and moisture origin. New data obtained from the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica Dome C East Antarctic ice core provide new insights on the sequence of events involved in Termination II, the transition between the penultimate glacial and interglacial periods. This termination is marked by a north-south seesaw behavior, with first a slow methane concentration rise associated with a strong Antarctic temperature warming and a slow deuterium excess rise. This first step is followed by an abrupt north Atlantic warming, an abrupt resumption of the East Asian summer monsoon, a sharp methane rise, and a CO(2) overshoot, which coincide within dating uncertainties with the end of Antarctic optimum. Here, we show that this second phase is marked by a very sharp Dome C centennial deuterium excess rise, revealing abrupt reorganization of atmospheric circulation in the southern Indian Ocean sector.

  1. A Crisis Framework Applied to Macrosociological Family Changes: Marriage, Divorce, and Occupational Trends Associated with World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman-Blumen, Jean

    1975-01-01

    A typology of crises is developed to be used with critical aspects of the social system to predict both crisis and postcrisis period role changes. The crisis framework is then applied to macro-changes in family structure in response to an archetypal crisis, World War II. Census data generally support the hypotheses. (Author)

  2. H-, He-like recombination spectra - II. l-changing collisions for He Rydberg states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, F.; Badnell, N. R.; Williams, R. J. R.; van Hoof, P. A. M.; Chatzikos, M.; Ferland, G. J.

    2017-01-01

    Cosmological models can be constrained by determining primordial abundances. Accurate predictions of the He I spectrum are needed to determine the primordial helium abundance to a precision of <1 per cent in order to constrain big bang nucleosynthesis models. Theoretical line emissivities at least this accurate are needed if this precision is to be achieved. In the first paper of this series, which focused on H I, we showed that differences in l-changing collisional rate coefficients predicted by three different theories can translate into 10 per cent changes in predictions for H I spectra. Here, we consider the more complicated case of He atoms, where low-l subshells are not energy degenerate. A criterion for deciding when the energy separation between l subshells is small enough to apply energy-degenerate collisional theories is given. Moreover, for certain conditions, the Bethe approximation originally proposed by Pengelly & Seaton is not sufficiently accurate. We introduce a simple modification of this theory which leads to rate coefficients which agree well with those obtained from pure quantal calculations using the approach of Vrinceanu et al. We show that the l-changing rate coefficients from the different theoretical approaches lead to differences of ˜10 per cent in He I emissivities in simulations of H II regions using spectral code CLOUDY.

  3. The ten most important changes in psychiatry since World War II.

    PubMed

    Micale, Mark S

    2014-12-01

    Writing the recent history of a subject is notoriously difficult because of the lack of perspective and impartiality. One way to gain insight and understanding into the recent past of a discipline of knowledge is to consult directly the living practitioners who actually experienced first-hand the major changing circumstances in the discipline during the period under study. This article seeks to explore the most significant changes occurring in Western, and especially American, psychiatry from the end of World War II up to the present by interrogating a representative selection of psychiatrists and psychologists about the subject. Over a three-year period, the author surveyed approximately 200 mental health experts on their perceptions of change in the world of psychiatric theory and practice during this enormously eventful 70-year period. After presenting the survey results, the article then attempts to analyse the answers that the author did (and did not) obtain from his poll-taking subjects. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Carboxylate metabolism changes induced by Fe deficiency in barley, a Strategy II plant species.

    PubMed

    López-Millán, Ana-Flor; Grusak, Michael A; Abadía, Javier

    2012-07-15

    The effects of iron (Fe) deficiency on carboxylate metabolism were investigated in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using two cultivars, Steptoe and Morex, which differ in their Fe efficiency response. In both cultivars, root extracts of plants grown in Fe-deficient conditions showed higher activities of enzymes related to organic acid metabolism, including citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, compared to activities measured in root extracts of Fe-sufficient plants. Accordingly, the concentration of total carboxylates was higher in Fe-deficient roots of both cultivars, with citrate concentration showing the greatest increase. In xylem sap, the concentration of total carboxylates was also higher with Fe deficiency in both cultivars, with citrate and malate being the major organic acids. Leaf extracts of Fe-deficient plants also showed increases in citric acid concentration and in the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and fumarase activities, and decreases in aconitase activity. Our results indicate that changes in root carboxylate metabolism previously reported in Strategy I species also occur in barley, a Strategy II plant species, supporting the existence of anaplerotic carbon fixation via increases in the root activities of these enzymes, with citrate playing a major role. However, these changes occur less intensively than in Strategy I plants. Activities of the anaerobic metabolism enzymes pyruvate decarboxylase and lactate dehydrogenase did not change in barley roots with Fe deficiency, in contrast to what occurs in Strategy I plants, suggesting that these changes may be Strategy I-specific. No significant differences were observed in overall carboxylate metabolism between cultivars, for plants challenged with high or low Fe treatments, suggesting that carboxylate metabolism changes are not behind the Fe-efficiency differences between these cultivars. Citrate synthase was the only measured enzyme with

  5. [Relation of intramyocardial collagen remodeling to the changes of myocardial systolic property and angiotensin II on the overtraining rats].

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhen-Jun

    2002-02-01

    To investigate the relation of intramyocardial collagen (IMC) remodeling to the changes of myocardial systolic property (MSP) and angiotensin II (Ang II) on the overtraining rats. Morphologic remodeling of IMC and changes of contents of IMC and Ang II in myocardium local and circulation, and MSP in SD rat overtraining models were observed and determined by RM-6200 polygraph, Beckman-42 automatic biochemistry analyser, and gamma automatic radio-immunity analyzer and S-570 scanning electron microscope under the conditions. IMC forms a spatial three-dimensional network structure, consisting of collagenous fiber connection among myocardial bundles, cardiac muscle cell group, cardiac muscle cells, endocardium and capillary. There are some regularities in its interlacing. Overtraining could lead to over hyperplasia of IMC in myocardial bundles, cardiac muscle cell group, cardiac muscle cell, endocardium and capillary, and serious injury of MLSP. The relation closes to remodeling of IMC and MSP and Ang II on the overtraining.

  6. Changes in mandibular position in treated Class II division 2 malocclusions in growing and non-growing subjects.

    PubMed

    AL-Nimri, Kazem; Abo-Zomor, Mohamad; Alomari, Sawsan

    2016-05-01

    To determine changes in mandibular position after the treatment of patients presenting with Class II division 2 malocclusions and to test the null hypothesis that there is posterior displacement of the mandible in these patients, in comparison with a control group of Class II division 1 subjects. The assessed data consisted of pre- and post-treatment cephalometric radiographs of 77 subjects identified with Class II division 1 and Class II division 2 malocclusions matched according to age, gender and treatment duration. All completed fixed appliance orthodontic treatment. The changes in the position of point B, Pogonion and Articulare were determined at the end of treatment by superimposing the cephalometric radiographs on Sella-Nasion line at Sella. Thirteen cephalometric parameters including the distance between Basion and Articular (Ba-Art) were measured at each stage. In both groups, SNB angle, SNPog angle and Ba-Art distance showed no statistically significant changes. Pogonion was displaced significantly in a forward and downward direction in the growing group, with no significant differences identified between Class I division 1 and Class II division 2 subjects. The null hypothesis that there is posterior displacement of the mandible in Class II division 2 malocclusion is rejected. The growth pattern of the mandible in both divisions of a Class I malocclusion after orthodontic treatment was found to be similar

  7. The CCTC Quick-Reacting General War Gaming System (QUICK). Volume IV. Sortie Generation Subsystem. Parts I and II. Program Maintenance Manual. Change 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-03

    No. Change No. Title Page, Part I 0 215 1 ii 2 216-260 0 iii-viii 2 260.1-260.2 2 ix 0 Title Page, Part II 0 1-1.2 2 ii -iii 2 2 2 iv 1 3 0 v 2 4-b 1 vi...Page ACKNOWLEDGMENT ......................................... ii ABSTRACT .................... ....................... ix 1. GENERAL...260.1 DD Form 1473 ............. . .......... .... .. .............. .. 260.3 Part II 4. PLANOUT MODULE

  8. Enhanced thermal stability of Ti/TiO2/n-Ge contacts through plasma nitridation of TiO2 interfacial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Dipankar; Biswas, Jayeeta; Ghosh, Sayantan; Wood, Bingxi; Lodha, Saurabh

    2017-01-01

    This work demonstrates a solution to the problem of increase in Schottky barrier height ( ϕ B ) with thermal annealing (thermal instability) in unpinned (low ϕ B ) Ti/Ti O 2 /n-Ge metal-interfacial layer (IL)-semiconductor (MIS) contacts through plasma nitridation of the Ti O 2 layer. Unlike TiO2, unpinned ( ϕ B = 0.09 eV) Ti O x N y contacts are thermally stable for anneals up to 30 min at 400 °C. The thermal stability improves with increasing nitrogen concentration ([N], 2.5-9.5%) and is independent of thickness (2-5 nm) for [N] = 9.5%. Additionally, the plasma nitridation process is shown to increase the oxygen vacancy concentration (n-type doping) and reduce the ϕ B dependence on Ti O x N y thickness in unannealed Ti O x N y contacts. Enhanced thermal stability is attributed to the incorporated nitrogen acting as a diffusion barrier that prevents contact pinning through reduction of the TiO2 layer by contact metal during the anneal, as well as preserves the amorphous nature of the IL along with its fixed charge and interfacial dipoles that contribute to ϕ B reduction.

  9. Fabricating a n+-Ge contact with ultralow specific contact resistivity by introducing a PtGe alloy as a contact metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, C. C.; Chou, C. H.; Wang, S. Y.; Chi, W. C.; Chien, C. H.; Luo, G. L.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we developed an Ohmic contact structure to an in situ n+-Ge film that has an ultralow specific contact resistivity of [(6.8 ±2.1 ) ×10-8 Ωṡcm2] . This structure was developed by introducing a PtGe alloy as the contact metal. We observed that Ohmic contact behavior can be achieved with several other metals, and the contact resistance is related to the work function of the metal. A physical model of the band diagram was created for the Schottky tunneling width, which can provide insight into the validation and explanation of work function-dependent specific contact resistivity. Dopant segregation at the interface and increased interface roughness induced by the formation of the alloy are crucial in further reducing the specific contact resistivity. As a result, a stable PtGe alloy and high doping concentration in Ge are critical in pursuing a lower contact resistance for a Ge n-channel device.

  10. Structural changes of the oxygen-evolving complex in photosystem II during the catalytic cycle.

    PubMed

    Glöckner, Carina; Kern, Jan; Broser, Matthias; Zouni, Athina; Yachandra, Vittal; Yano, Junko

    2013-08-02

    The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) in the membrane-bound protein complex photosystem II (PSII) catalyzes the water oxidation reaction that takes place in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. We investigated the structural changes of the Mn4CaO5 cluster in the OEC during the S state transitions using x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Overall structural changes of the Mn4CaO5 cluster, based on the manganese ligand and Mn-Mn distances obtained from this study, were incorporated into the geometry of the Mn4CaO5 cluster in the OEC obtained from a polarized XAS model and the 1.9-Å high resolution crystal structure. Additionally, we compared the S1 state XAS of the dimeric and monomeric form of PSII from Thermosynechococcus elongatus and spinach PSII. Although the basic structures of the OEC are the same for T. elongatus PSII and spinach PSII, minor electronic structural differences that affect the manganese K-edge XAS between T. elongatus PSII and spinach PSII are found and may originate from differences in the second sphere ligand atom geometry.

  11. Seasonal changes in cyclists' performance. Part II. The British Olympic track squad.

    PubMed Central

    White, J. A.; Quinn, G.; Al-Dawalibi, M.; Mulhall, J.

    1982-01-01

    In Part II of the study, the British Olympic track (sprint) squad cyclists demonstrated reductions in body fat index, % body fat and endomorphy (p greater than .05), increased Hb and PCV % (p greater than .05), and lowered HR at rest and in warm-up exercise (p greater than .05), but no change in leg power. Repeated interval sprints of short duration, maximal exercise on an "ergowheel" ergometer, at standardised power output, showed increased anaerobic index (p greater than .05) and acceleratory power (p greater than .01) but no change in sustained power output. Compared with "non-select" riders, a case study of the single "select" rider showed anthropometric differences in terms of lower height, weight, body fat index, % body fat and endomorphy, but enhanced mesomorphy and FEV %. Furthermore, the "select" rider demonstrated temporarily latent functional performance capabilities, in that increased anaerobic index, acceleratory and sustained power indices, as well as enhanced relative power output, were not identified until late in the competitive season. Images p13-a p16-a PMID:7066610

  12. A kinetic model for type I and II IP3R accounting for mode changes.

    PubMed

    Siekmann, Ivo; Wagner, Larry E; Yule, David; Crampin, Edmund J; Sneyd, James

    2012-08-22

    Based upon an extensive single-channel data set, a Markov model for types I and II inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)R) is developed. The model aims to represent accurately the kinetics of both receptor types of IP(3)R depending on the concentrations of inositol trisphosphate (IP(3)), adenosine trisphosphate (ATP), and intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)). In particular, the model takes into account that for some combinations of ligands the IP(3)R switches between extended periods of inactivity alternating with intervals of bursting activity (mode changes). In a first step, the inactive and active modes are modeled separately. It is found that, within modes, both receptor types are ligand-independent. In a second step, the submodels are connected by transition rates. Ligand-dependent regulation of the channel activity is achieved by modulating these transitions between active and inactive modes. As a result, a compact representation of the IP(3)R is obtained that accurately captures stochastic single-channel dynamics including mode changes in a model with six states and 10 rate constants, only two of which are ligand-dependent.

  13. Properly timed exposure to central ANG II prevents behavioral sensitization and changes in angiotensin receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Santollo, Jessica; Whalen, Philip E.; Speth, Robert C.; Clark, Stewart D.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies show that the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) is susceptible to rapid desensitization, but that more chronic treatments that stimulate ANG II lead to sensitization of several responses. It is unclear, however, if the processes of desensitization and sensitization interact. To test for differences in AT1R expression associated with single or repeated injections of ANG II, we measured AT1R mRNA in nuclei that control fluid intake of rats given ANG II either in a single injection or divided into three injections spaced 20 min apart. Rats given a single injection of ANG II had more AT1R mRNA in the subfornical organ (SFO) and the periventricular tissue surrounding the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) than did controls. The effect was not observed, however, when the same cumulative dose of ANG II was divided into multiple injections. Behavioral tests found that single daily injections of ANG II sensitized the dipsogenic response to ANG II, but a daily regimen of four injections did not cause sensitization. Analysis of 125I-Sar1-ANG II binding revealed a paradoxical decrease in binding in the caudal AV3V and dorsal median preoptic nucleus after 5 days of single daily injections of ANG II; however, this effect was absent in rats treated for 5 days with four daily ANG II injections. Taken together, these data suggest that a desensitizing treatment regimen prevents behavior- and receptor-level effects of repeated daily ANG II. PMID:25354729

  14. The FT-IR spectrometric analysis of the changes of polyphenol oxidase II secondary structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chunhua; Dai, Ya; Liu, Qingliang; Xie, Yongshu; Xu, Xiaolong

    2003-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidase II is a novel protein purified from tobacco, which acts as a key role in plant defense system. From the analysis of FT-IR spectrums, Fourier self-deconvolution (FSD) spectrums and second-derivative spectrums of PPO II at different pH and peroxide PPO II adduct, the secondary structure fractions are analyzed. PPO II at low pH (pH=3.0) and peroxide PPO II adduct almost keep the same secondary structure of native PPO II. The percentages of β-turn and random coil increase rapidly and the percentages of α-helix and anti-parallel β-sheet decrease rapidly at high pH (pH=10.0) comparing with that of native PPO II. All these conclusions are proved by the secondary structure calculations of circular dichroism spectrums in different states.

  15. Herbal prescription Chang'an II repairs intestinal mucosal barrier in rats with post-inflammation irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng-yun; Su, Min; Zheng, Yong-qiu; Wang, Xiao-ge; Kang, Nan; Chen, Ting; Zhu, En-lin; Bian, Zhao-xiang; Tang, Xu-dong

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The herbal prescription Chang'an II is derived from a classical TCM formula Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang for the treatment of liver-qi stagnation and spleen deficiency syndrome of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In this study we investigated the effects of Chang'an II on the intestinal mucosal immune barrier in a rat post-inflammation IBS (PI-IBS) model. Methods: A rat model of PI-IBS was established using a multi-stimulation paradigm including early postnatal sibling deprivation, bondage and intrarectal administration of TNBS. Four weeks after TNBS administration, the rats were treated with Chang'an II (2.85, 5.71 and 11.42 g·kg−1·d−1, ig) for 14 d. Intestinal sensitivity was assessed based on the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) scores and fecal water content. Open field test and two-bottle sucrose intake test were used to evaluate the behavioral changes. CD4+ and CD8+ cells were counted and IL-1β and IL-4 levels were measured in intestinal mucosa. Transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate ultrastructural changes of the intestinal mucosal barrier. Results: PI-IBS model rats showed significantly increased AWR reactivity and fecal water content, and decreased locomotor activity and sucrose intake. Chang'an II treatment not only reduced AWR reactivity and fecal water content, but also suppressed the anxiety and depressive behaviors. Ultrastructural study revealed that the gut mucosal barrier function was severely damaged in PI-IBS model rats, whereas Chang'an II treatment relieved intestinal mucosal inflammation and repaired the gut mucosal barrier. Furthermore, PI-IBS model rats showed a significantly reduced CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio in lamina propria and submucosa, and increased IL-1β and reduced IL-4 expression in intestinal mucosa, whereas Chang'an II treatment reversed PI-IBS-induced changes in CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and expression of IL-1β and IL-4. Conclusion: Chang'an II treatment protects the intestinal mucosa against PI-IBS through anti

  16. Herbal prescription Chang'an II repairs intestinal mucosal barrier in rats with post-inflammation irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-yun; Su, Min; Zheng, Yong-qiu; Wang, Xiao-ge; Kang, Nan; Chen, Ting; Zhu, En-lin; Bian, Zhao-xiang; Tang, Xu-dong

    2015-06-01

    The herbal prescription Chang'an II is derived from a classical TCM formula Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang for the treatment of liver-qi stagnation and spleen deficiency syndrome of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In this study we investigated the effects of Chang'an II on the intestinal mucosal immune barrier in a rat post-inflammation IBS (PI-IBS) model. A rat model of PI-IBS was established using a multi-stimulation paradigm including early postnatal sibling deprivation, bondage and intrarectal administration of TNBS. Four weeks after TNBS administration, the rats were treated with Chang'an II (2.85, 5.71 and 11.42 g · kg(-1) · d(-1), ig) for 14 d. Intestinal sensitivity was assessed based on the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) scores and fecal water content. Open field test and two-bottle sucrose intake test were used to evaluate the behavioral changes. CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells were counted and IL-1β and IL-4 levels were measured in intestinal mucosa. Transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate ultrastructural changes of the intestinal mucosal barrier. PI-IBS model rats showed significantly increased AWR reactivity and fecal water content, and decreased locomotor activity and sucrose intake. Chang'an II treatment not only reduced AWR reactivity and fecal water content, but also suppressed the anxiety and depressive behaviors. Ultrastructural study revealed that the gut mucosal barrier function was severely damaged in PI-IBS model rats, whereas Chang'an II treatment relieved intestinal mucosal inflammation and repaired the gut mucosal barrier. Furthermore, PI-IBS model rats showed a significantly reduced CD4(+)/CD8(+) cell ratio in lamina propria and submucosa, and increased IL-1β and reduced IL-4 expression in intestinal mucosa, whereas Chang'an II treatment reversed PI-IBS-induced changes in CD4(+)/CD8(+) cell ratio and expression of IL-1β and IL-4. Chang'an II treatment protects the intestinal mucosa against PI-IBS through anti

  17. Relationship between angiotensin-(1-7) and angiotensin II correlates with hemodynamic changes in human liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Vilas-Boas, Walkíria Wingester; Ribeiro-Oliveira Jr, Antônio; Pereira, Regina Maria; da Cunha Ribeiro, Renata; Almeida, Jerusa; Nadu, Ana Paula; Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina; dos Santos, Robson Augusto Souza

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To measure circulating angiotensins at different stages of human cirrhosis and to further evaluate a possible relationship between renin angiotensin system (RAS) components and hemodynamic changes. METHODS: Patients were allocated into 4 groups: mild-to-moderate liver disease (MLD), advanced liver disease (ALD), patients undergoing liver transplantation, and healthy controls. Blood was collected to determine plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin (Ang) I, Ang II, and Ang-(1-7) levels using radioimmunoassays. During liver transplantation, hemodynamic parameters were determined and blood was simultaneously obtained from the portal vein and radial artery in order to measure RAS components. RESULTS: PRA and angiotensins were elevated in ALD when compared to MLD and controls (P < 0.05). In contrast, Ang II was significantly reduced in MLD. Ang-(1-7)/Ang II ratios were increased in MLD when compared to controls and ALD. During transplantation, Ang II levels were lower and Ang-(1-7)/Ang II ratios were higher in the splanchnic circulation than in the peripheral circulation (0.52 ± 0.08 vs 0.38 ± 0.04, P < 0.02), whereas the peripheral circulating Ang II/Ang I ratio was elevated in comparison to splanchnic levels (0.18 ± 0.02 vs 0.13 ± 0.02, P < 0.04). Ang-(1-7)/Ang II ratios positively correlated with cardiac output (r = 0.66) and negatively correlated with systemic vascular resistance (r = -0.70). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the relationship between Ang-(1-7) and Ang II may play a role in the hemodynamic changes of human cirrhosis. PMID:19469002

  18. Abrupt change of Antarctic moisture origin at the end of Termination II

    PubMed Central

    Masson-Delmotte, V.; Stenni, B.; Blunier, T.; Cattani, O.; Chappellaz, J.; Cheng, H.; Dreyfus, G.; Edwards, R. L.; Falourd, S.; Govin, A.; Kawamura, K.; Johnsen, S. J.; Jouzel, J.; Landais, A.; Lemieux-Dudon, B.; Lourantou, A.; Marshall, G.; Minster, B.; Mudelsee, M.; Pol, K.; Röthlisberger, R.; Selmo, E.; Waelbroeck, C.

    2010-01-01

    The deuterium excess of polar ice cores documents past changes in evaporation conditions and moisture origin. New data obtained from the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica Dome C East Antarctic ice core provide new insights on the sequence of events involved in Termination II, the transition between the penultimate glacial and interglacial periods. This termination is marked by a north–south seesaw behavior, with first a slow methane concentration rise associated with a strong Antarctic temperature warming and a slow deuterium excess rise. This first step is followed by an abrupt north Atlantic warming, an abrupt resumption of the East Asian summer monsoon, a sharp methane rise, and a CO2 overshoot, which coincide within dating uncertainties with the end of Antarctic optimum. Here, we show that this second phase is marked by a very sharp Dome C centennial deuterium excess rise, revealing abrupt reorganization of atmospheric circulation in the southern Indian Ocean sector. PMID:20566887

  19. Electronic Structure and Oxidation State Changes in the Mn4Ca Cluster of Photosystem II

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, Junko; Pushkar, Yulia; Messinger, Johannes; Bergmann, Uwe; Glatzel, Pieter; Yachandra, Vittal K

    2007-08-03

    Oxygen-evolving complex (Mn4Ca cluster) of Photosystem II cycles through five intermediate states (Si-states, i =0-4) before a molecule of dioxygen is released. During the S-state transitions, electrons are extracted from the OEC, either from Mn or alternatively from a Mn ligand. The oxidation state of Mn is widely accepted as Mn4(III2,IV2) and Mn4(III,IV3) for S1 and S2 states, while it is still controversial for the S0 and S3 states. We used resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) to study the electronic structure of Mn4Ca complex in the OEC. The RIXS data yield two-dimensional plots that provide a significant advantage by obtaining both K-edge pre-edge and L-edge-like spectra (metal spin state) simultaneously. We have collected data from PSII samples in the each of the S-states and compared them with data from various inorganic Mncomplexes. The spectral changes in the Mn 1s2p3/2 RIXS spectra between the S-states were compared to those of the oxides of Mn and coordination complexes. The results indicate strong covalency for the electronic configuration in the OEC, and we conclude that the electron is transferred from a strongly delocalized orbital, compared to those in Mn oxides or coordination complexes. The magnitude for the S0 to S1, and S1 to S2 transitions is twice as large as that during the S2 to S3 transition, indicating that the electron for this transition is extracted from a highly delocalized orbital with little change in charge density at the Mn atoms.

  20. Electronic Structure and Oxidation State Changes in the Mn (4) Ca Cluster of Photosystem II

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, J.; Pushkar, Y.; Messinger, J.; Bergmann, U.; Glatzel, P.; Yachandra, V.K.; /SLAC

    2012-08-17

    Oxygen-evolving complex (Mn{sub 4}Ca cluster) of Photosystem II cycles through five intermediate states (S{sub i}-states, i = 0-4) before a molecule of dioxygen is released. During the S-state transitions, electrons are extracted from the OEC, either from Mn or alternatively from a Mn ligand. The oxidation state of Mn is widely accepted as Mn{sub 4}(III{sub 2},IV{sub 2}) and Mn{sub 4}(III,IV{sub 3}) for S{sub 1} and S{sub 2} states, while it is still controversial for the S{sub 0} and S{sub 3} states. We used resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) to study the electronic structure of Mn{sub 4}Ca complex in the OEC. The RIXS data yield two-dimensional plots that provide a significant advantage by obtaining both K-edge pre-edge and L-edge-like spectra (metal spin state) simultaneously. We have collected data from PSII samples in the each of the S-states and compared them with data from various inorganic Mn complexes. The spectral changes in the Mn 1s2p{sub 3/2} RIXS spectra between the S-states were compared to those of the oxides of Mn and coordination complexes. The results indicate strong covalency for the electronic configuration in the OEC, and we conclude that the electron is transferred from a strongly delocalized orbital, compared to those in Mn oxides or coordination complexes. The magnitude for the S{sub 0} to S{sub 1}, and S{sub 1} to S{sub 2} transitions is twice as large as that during the S{sub 2} to S{sub 3} transition, indicating that the electron for this transition is extracted from a highly delocalized orbital with little change in charge density at the Mn atoms.

  1. Relationship between markers of type II collagen metabolism and tibiofemoral joint space width changes after ACL injury and reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tourville, Timothy W; Johnson, Robert J; Slauterbeck, James R; Naud, Shelly; Beynnon, Bruce D

    2013-04-01

    Those who suffer anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) disruptions are at increased risk of experiencing posttraumatic osteoarthritis (OA); however, by the time they become symptomatic, irreversible damage has likely occurred. Little is known regarding the physiological changes in articular cartilage that occur after an ACL injury and the onset of OA. To assess whether patient, functional, and clinical outcomes and type II collagen metabolism are associated with abnormal tibiofemoral joint space width (JSW) 4 years after injury and reconstruction. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 35 ACL-injured patients who underwent ACL reconstruction were enrolled soon after injury, as were 32 matched controls. At baseline and 1- and 4-year follow-ups, patient-oriented subjective and objective outcomes and markers of type II collagen metabolism (considered as the ratio of cleavage to synthesis of type II collagen) were evaluated, as were radiographic measurements of JSW changes about the medial and lateral compartments of the knee. ACL-injured patients were divided into normal and abnormal JSW groups. Both ACL-injured groups (normal and abnormal JSW) had an increased ratio of collagen type I and II cleavage product (uC1,2C) to serum procollagen II C-propeptide (sCPII) compared with controls at 1- and 4-year follow-ups. Patients in the ACL group with an abnormal JSW difference had significantly increased cleavage-to-synthesis ratios of type II collagen (assessed as C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type II collagen [uCTX-II]/sCPII ratio) compared with controls at 4-year follow-up. ACL-injured patients with an abnormal JSW difference had significantly increased pain and decreased quality of life (Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score [KOOS]) scores than did ACL-injured patients with a normal JSW difference. ACL-injured patients with an abnormal tibiofemoral JSW had diminished quality of life, increased pain, and increased type II collagen uCTX-II/sCPII ratios

  2. Facial Soft Tissue Changes after Maxillary Impaction and Mandibular Advancement in High Angle Class II Cases

    PubMed Central

    Aydil, Barış; Özer, Nedim; Marşan, Gülnaz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the vertical and anteroposterior alterations in the soft, the dental and the skeletal tissues associated with the facial profile after Le Fort I maxillary impaction in conjunction with sagittal split osteotomy for mandibular advancement performed in patients with a high angle Class II skeletal deformity. The study population consists of 21 patients (11 females and 10 males, mean age 24.5±1.6 years) who underwent Le Fort I maxillary impaction in conjunction with sagittal split osteotomy for mandibular advancement. Lateral cephalograms were obtained prior to the surgery and 1.3±0.2 years postoperatively. Wilcoxon test was performed to compare the pre- and postsurgical cephalometric measurements. Pearson correlation test was carried out to determine the relative changes in skeletal, dental and the facial soft tissues. The insignificant decrease in the nasolabial angle was correlated with the significant decrease in the vertical position of the nose due to the nasal protraction noticed after bimaxillary surgery. The retraction of both the upper lip and the upper incisors was correlated with the insignificant decrease in the columella-lobular angle. The insignificant decrease in both the vertical height of the mandibular B point and the lower incisors was correlated with the insignificant decrease in vertical height of the soft tissue pogonion, attributable to the resulting superior movement of the soft tissues of the chin and the counter clockwise rotation of the mandible after maxillary impaction and bilateral sagittal split osteotomy, respectively. Le Fort I maxillary impaction in conjunction with mandibular sagittal split osteotomy for mandibular advancement significantly affected the vertical and anteroposterior positions of the maxilla and the mandible, respectively. When performed in combination, these surgical techniques may efficiently alter the position of upper incisor and the nasal position in both vertical and

  3. Detecting Changes Following the Provision of Assistive Devices: Utility of the WHO-DAS II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raggi, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) is a non-disease-specific International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health-based disability assessment instrument developed to measure activity limitations and restrictions to participation. The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate WHO-DAS II…

  4. Detecting Changes Following the Provision of Assistive Devices: Utility of the WHO-DAS II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raggi, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) is a non-disease-specific International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health-based disability assessment instrument developed to measure activity limitations and restrictions to participation. The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate WHO-DAS II…

  5. Changes in spectrochemical and catalytic properties of biopolymer anchored Cu(II) and Ni(II) catalysts by electron beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Antony, R; Suja Pon Mini, P S; Theodore David Manickam, S; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Mitu, Liviu; Balakumar, S

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan (a biopolymer) anchored Cu(II) and Ni(II) Schiff base complexes, [M(OIAC)Cl2] (M: Cu/Ni and OIAC: ([2-oxo-1H-indol-3-ylidene]amino)chitosan) were electron beam irradiated by different doses (100 Gy, 1 kGy and 10 kGy). The electron beam has shown potential impact on biopolymer's support, in detail chain linking and chain scissoring, as evidenced by viscosity studies, FT-IR and X-ray diffraction spectroscopic techniques. Due to these structural changes, thermal properties of the complexes were found to be changed. The surface of these heterogeneous complexes was also effectually altered by electron beam. As a consequence, pores and holes were created as probed by SEM technique. The catalytic activity of both non-irradiated and irradiated complexes was investigated in the aerobic oxidation of cyclohexane using hydrogen peroxide oxidant. The catalytic ability of the complexes was enhanced significantly after irradiation as the result of surface changes. The reusability of the complexes was also greatly affected because of the structural variations in polymeric support. In terms of both better catalytic activity along with the reusability, 1 kGy is suggested as the best dose to attain adequate increase in catalytic activity and good reusability.

  6. Changes in photochemically significant solar UV spectral irradiance as estimated by the composite Mg II index and scale factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deland, Matthew T.; Cebula, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of the impact of solar ultraviolet irradiance variations on stratospheric ozone abundances currently requires the use of proxy indicators. The Mg II core-to-wing index has been developed as an indicator of solar UV activity between 175-400 nm that is independent of most instrument artifacts, and measures solar variability on both rotational and solar cycle time scales. Linear regression fits have been used to merge the individual Mg II index data sets from the Nimbus-7, NOAA-9, and NOAA-11 instruments onto a single reference scale. The change in 27-dayrunning average of the composite Mg II index from solar maximum to solar minimum is approximately 8 percent for solar cycle 21, and approximately 9 percent for solar cycle 22 through January 1992. Scaling factors based on the short-term variations in the Mg II index and solar irradiance data sets have been developed to estimate solar variability at mid-UV and near-UV wavelengths. Near 205 nm, where solar irradiance variations are important for stratospheric photo-chemistry and dynamics, the estimated change in irradiance during solar cycle 22 is approximately 10 percent using the composite Mg II index and scale factors.

  7. Rosuvastatin prevents angiotensin II-induced vascular changes by inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase and COX-1

    PubMed Central

    Colucci, Rocchina; Fornai, Matteo; Duranti, Emiliano; Antonioli, Luca; Rugani, Ilaria; Aydinoglu, Fatma; Ippolito, Chiara; Segnani, Cristina; Bernardini, Nunzia; Taddei, Stefano; Blandizzi, Corrado; Virdis, Agostino

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose NAD(P)H oxidase and COX-1 participate in vascular damage induced by angiotensin II. We investigated the effect of rosuvastatin on endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodelling, changes in extracellular matrix components and mechanical properties of small mesenteric arteries from angiotensin II-infused rats. Experimental Approach Male rats received angiotensin II (120 ng·kg−1·min−1, subcutaneously) for 14 days with or without rosuvastatin (10 mg·kg−1·day−1, oral gavage) or vehicle. Vascular functions and morphological parameters were assessed by pressurized myography. Key Results In angiotensin II-infused rats, ACh-induced relaxation was attenuated compared with controls, less sensitive to L-NAME, enhanced by SC-560 (COX-1 inhibitor) or SQ-29548 (prostanoid TP receptor antagonist), and normalized by the antioxidant ascorbic acid or NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors. After rosuvastatin, relaxations to ACh were normalized, fully sensitive to L-NAME, and no longer affected by SC-560, SQ-29548 or NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors. Angiotensin II enhanced intravascular superoxide generation, eutrophic remodelling, collagen and fibronectin depositions, and decreased elastin content, resulting in increased vessel stiffness. All these changes were prevented by rosuvastatin. Angiotensin II increased phosphorylation of NAD(P)H oxidase subunit p47phox and its binding to subunit p67phox, effects inhibited by rosuvastatin. Rosuvastatin down-regulated vascular Nox4/NAD(P)H isoform and COX-1 expression, attenuated the vascular release of 6-keto-PGF1α, and enhanced copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase expression. Conclusion and Implications Rosuvastatin prevents angiotensin II-induced alterations in resistance arteries in terms of function, structure, mechanics and composition. These effects depend on restoration of NO availability, prevention of NAD(P)H oxidase-derived oxidant excess, reversal of COX-1 induction and its prostanoid production, and stimulation of

  8. Factors influencing soft tissue profile changes following orthodontic treatment in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Maetevorakul, Suhatcha; Viteporn, Smorntree

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown soft tissue profile changes after orthodontic treatment in Class II Division 1 patients. However, a few studies have described factors influencing the soft tissue changes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing the soft tissue profile changes following orthodontic treatment in Class II Division 1 patients. The subjects comprised 104 Thai patients age 8-16 years who presented Class II Division 1 malocclusions and were treated with different orthodontic modalities comprising cervical headgear, Class II traction and extraction of the four first premolars. The profile changes were evaluated from the lateral cephalograms before and after treatment by means of the X-Y coordinate system. Significant soft tissue profile changes were evaluated by paired t test at a 0.05 significance level. The correlations among significant soft tissue changes and independent variables comprising treatment modality, age, sex, pretreatment skeletal, dental and soft tissue morphology were evaluated by stepwise multiple regression analysis at a 0.05 significance level. The multiple regression analysis indicated that different treatment modalities, age, sex, pretreatment skeletal, dental and soft tissue morphology were related to the profile changes. The predictive power of these variables on the soft tissue profile changes ranged from 9.9 to 40.3%. Prediction of the soft tissue profile changes following treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion from initial patient morphology, age, sex and types of treatment was complicated and required several variables to explain their variations. Upper lip change in horizontal direction could be found only at the stomion superius and was less predictable than those of the lower lip. Variations in upper lip retraction at the stomion superius were explained by types of treatment (R(2) = 0.099), whereas protrusion of the lower lip at the labrale inferius was correlated with initial inclination of

  9. Photosystem II Functionality in Barley Responds Dynamically to Changes in Leaf Manganese Status

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Sidsel B.; Powikrowska, Marta; Krogholm, Ken S.; Naumann-Busch, Bianca; Schjoerring, Jan K.; Husted, Søren; Jensen, Poul E.; Pedas, Pai R.

    2016-01-01

    A catalytic manganese (Mn) cluster is required for the oxidation of water in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) in plants. Despite this essential role of Mn in generating the electrons driving photosynthesis, limited information is available on how Mn deficiency affects PSII functionality. We have here used parameters derived from measurements of fluorescence induction kinetics (OJIP transients), non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and PSII subunit composition to investigate how latent Mn deficiency changes the photochemistry in two barley genotypes differing in Mn efficiency. Mn deficiency caused dramatic reductions in the quantum yield of PSII and led to the appearance of two new inflection points, the K step and the D dip, in the OJIP fluorescence transients, indicating severe damage to the OEC. In addition, Mn deficiency decreased the ability to induce NPQ in the light, rendering the plants incapable of dissipating excess energy in a controlled way. Thus, the Mn deficient plants became severely affected in their ability to recover from high light-induced photoinhibition, especially under strong Mn deficiency. Interestingly, the Mn-efficient genotype was able to maintain a higher NPQ than the Mn-inefficient genotype when exposed to mild Mn deficiency. However, during severe Mn deficiency, there were no differences between the two genotypes, suggesting a general loss of the ability to disassemble and repair PSII. The pronounced defects of PSII activity were supported by a dramatic decrease in the abundance of the OEC protein subunits, PsbP and PsbQ in response to Mn deficiency for both genotypes. We conclude that regulation of photosynthetic performance by means of maintaining and inducing NPQ mechanisms contribute to genotypic differences in the Mn efficiency of barley genotypes growing under conditions with mild Mn deficiency. PMID:27933084

  10. The Seeds of Growth and the Winds of Change. Part II: Change and Stability: Classroom Life in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Court, Deborah; Riecken, Ted

    1992-01-01

    Analyzes the anticipation of educational change in British Columbia associated with the Year 2000 document. The perspective on change involves positive and negative aspects dependent on values and beliefs embedded in the culture. The study of four teachers and their classrooms shows that the seeds of change have been planted. (KS)

  11. Dentoskeletal changes in adult Class II division 1 Herbst treatment--how much is left after the retention period?

    PubMed

    Bock, Niko C; Ruf, Sabine

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess dentoskeletal changes following Herbst-Multibracket treatment in adult Class II division 1 patients. The subject material comprised 15 adult Class II division 1 subjects exhibiting a Class II molar relationship more than or equal to 0.5 cusps bilaterally or more than or equal to 1.0 cusps unilaterally and an overjet more than or equal to 6.0 mm. The average treatment time was 9 months (Herbst phase) plus 13.9 months (Multibracket phase). Lateral headfilms from before treatment (T1), after Herbst-Multibracket treatment (T2), and after at least 24 months of retention (T3) were analysed using the 'sagittal-occlusal analysis' (Pancherz, 1982) as well as standard cephalometric variables. During the treatment period (T2-T1), molar relationship, overjet (-6.2 mm), and overbite (-2.1 mm) were successfully corrected. The Class II jaw base relationship improved (ANB -0.8 degrees and Wits -1.1 mm) and the hard as well as soft tissue profile straightened (NApg +1.5 degrees, NsNoPgs +1.2 degrees, and NsSnPgs +1.5 degrees). During the retention period of on average 35.5 months (T3-T2), the amount of occlusal relapse (T3-T2) was small (less than or equal to 1.0 mm). The jaw base relationship (ANB +0.3 degrees and Wits +0.7 mm) and the profile convexities (NApg -0.3 degrees, NsNoPgs -0.6 degrees, and NsSnPgs +0.6 degrees) deteriorated slightly. Following the retention period, only minimal amounts of skeletal changes contributing to Class II correction in adult Herbst-Multibracket treatment were retained. Thus, adult Herbst-Multibracket treatment results in mainly dental changes, which however, showed good stability.

  12. Short-term hard and soft tissue changes after mandibular advancement surgery in Class II patients: a retrospective cephalometric study.

    PubMed

    Storms, A S; Miclotte, A; Grosjean, L; Cadenas de Llano-Pérula, M; Alqerban, A; Fieuws, S; Sun, Y; Politis, C; Verdonck, A; Willems, G

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe hard and soft tissue changes after mandibular advancement surgery and to investigate the possible differences between Class II facial patterns. Lateral cephalograms of 109 patients who underwent combined orthodontic treatment and bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) were studied. Radiographs were taken within 6 weeks before surgery (T0) and at least 6 months postoperatively (T1). Patients were classified into 3 groups according to the preoperative mandibular plane angle. Hard- and soft-tissue changes were analysed with an x-y cranial base coordinate system. Measurements were evaluated statistically. Soft and hard tissues of the chin moved forward and downward. The position of the upper lip remained unchanged, while the lower lip moved forward and upward and decreased in thickness. The soft tissue points of the chin follow their corresponding skeletal points almost completely, while the change of the lower lip was only 76 per cent of the movement of the underlying hard tissue. The increase of SNB was more evident in the low-angle group, as well as improvement of the facial convexity. Stomium superius moved more forward in the low- and medium-angle cases. Ratios of hard and soft tissue changes showed no differences for different facial patterns. Limitations derived from the retrospective study design. Only short-term changes could be addressed. The distinction between surgical changes and changes due to skeletal relapse is difficult to assess. Also, the difficulty to reproduce a relaxed lip position during imaging may influence our results. Class II characteristics improved after mandibular advancement. Soft tissues of the chin follow their skeletal structures almost in a 1:1 relationship, while movement of the lower lip was less predictable. The facial pattern of Class II patients should be considered in treatment planning.

  13. Myosin II-mediated cell shape changes and cell intercalation contribute to primitive streak formation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Feifei; Sang, Helen M.; Martin, René; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; MacDonald, Michael P; Weijer, Cornelis J

    2016-01-01

    Primitive streak formation in the chick embryo involves large scale highly coordinated flows of over 100.000 cells in the epiblast. These large scale tissue flows and deformations can be correlated with specific anisotropic cell behaviours in the forming mesendoderm through a combined light-sheet microscopy and computational analysis. Relevant behaviours include apical contraction, elongation along the apical-basal axis followed by ingression as well as asynchronous directional cell intercalation of small groups of mesendoderm cells. Cell intercalation is associated with sequential, directional contraction of apical junctions, the onset, localisation and direction of which correlate strongly with the appearance of active Myosin II cables in aligned apical junctions in neighbouring cells. Use of a class specific Myosin inhibitors and gene specific knockdowns show that apical contraction and intercalation are Myosin II dependent and also reveal critical roles for Myosin I and Myosin V family members in the assembly of junctional Myosin II cables. PMID:25812521

  14. Change of Mandibular Position during Two-Phase Orthodontic Treatment of Skeletal Class II in the Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Hägg, Urban; Wong, Ricky Wing Kit; Liao, Chongshan; Yang, Yanqi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in mandibular position during a two-phase orthodontic treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion. Thirty consecutively treated Chinese male adolescents who had undergone two-phase treatment with Herbst appliance and fixed appliance and fulfilled the specific selection criteria were sampled. Cephalograms taken at T0 (before treatment), T1 (at the end of functional appliance treatment), and T2 (at the end of fixed appliance treatment) were analyzed. The change in sagittal positioning of the mandible was 6.8±3.44 mm in phase I (T0-T1), 0.4±2.79 mm in phase II (T1-T2), and 7.2±4.61 mm in total. The mandible came forward in 100% of the patients at T1. In phase II, it came forward in one-third (positive group) remained unchanged in one-third (stable group) and went backward in one-third (negative group) of the patients. At T2, it came forward twice as much in the positive group compared to the negative group. Mandibular length was significantly increased in 100% of the patients in both phases. In conclusion, during the treatment with functional appliance, the mandibular prognathism increases in all patients, whereas during the treatment with fixed appliance there is no significant change in mandibular prognathism. PMID:25695103

  15. Change of mandibular position during two-phase orthodontic treatment of skeletal class II in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Rhonda Nga Yi; Hägg, Urban; Wong, Ricky Wing Kit; Liao, Chongshan; Yang, Yanqi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in mandibular position during a two-phase orthodontic treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion. Thirty consecutively treated Chinese male adolescents who had undergone two-phase treatment with Herbst appliance and fixed appliance and fulfilled the specific selection criteria were sampled. Cephalograms taken at T0 (before treatment), T1 (at the end of functional appliance treatment), and T2 (at the end of fixed appliance treatment) were analyzed. The change in sagittal positioning of the mandible was 6.8 ± 3.44 mm in phase I (T0-T1), 0.4 ± 2.79 mm in phase II (T1-T2), and 7.2 ± 4.61 mm in total. The mandible came forward in 100% of the patients at T1. In phase II, it came forward in one-third (positive group) remained unchanged in one-third (stable group) and went backward in one-third (negative group) of the patients. At T2, it came forward twice as much in the positive group compared to the negative group. Mandibular length was significantly increased in 100% of the patients in both phases. In conclusion, during the treatment with functional appliance, the mandibular prognathism increases in all patients, whereas during the treatment with fixed appliance there is no significant change in mandibular prognathism.

  16. Anisotropic Change in the Magnetic Susceptibility of a Dynamic Single Crystal of a Cobalt(II) Complex.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zi-Shuo; Wu, Shu-Qi; Kitagawa, Yasutaka; Su, Sheng-Qun; Huang, You-Gui; Li, Guo-Ling; Ni, Zhong-Hai; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Shiota, Yoshihito; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Kang, Soonchul; Kanegawa, Shinji; Sato, Osamu

    2017-01-16

    Atypically anisotropic and large changes in magnetic susceptibility, along with a change in crystalline shape, were observed in a Co(II) complex at near room temperature. This was achieved by combining oxalate molecules, acting as rotor, and a Co(II) ion with unquenched orbital angular momentum. A thermally controlled 90° rotation of the oxalate counter anion triggered a symmetry-breaking ferroelastic phase transition, accompanied by contraction-expansion behavior (ca. 4.5 %) along the long axis of a rod-like single crystal. The molecular rotation induced a minute variation in the coordination geometry around the Co(II) ion, resulting in an abrupt decrease and a remarkable increase in magnetic susceptibility along the direction perpendicular and parallel to the long axis of the crystal, respectively. Theoretical calculations suggested that such an unusual anisotropic change in magnetic susceptibility was due to a substantial reorientation of magnetic anisotropy induced by slight disruption in the ideal D3 coordination environment of the complex cation.

  17. Behavior Change; Weight Loss, and Physiological Improvements in Type II Diabetic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Rena R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Investigated whether behavior modification would improve short- and long-term results of weight control programs for obese patients (N=53) with Type II diabetes. The behavior modification group lost more weight than the nutrition education or standard-care condition during the 16-week treatment, but at 16-month follow-up, weight loss differences…

  18. Meal-specific dietary changes from Squires Quest! II: A serious video game intervention

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    "Squire's Quest! II: Saving the Kingdom of Fivealot", an online video-game, promotes fruit-vegetable (FV) consumption. An evaluation study varied type of implementation intentions used during the goal setting process (none; Action, Coping, or both Action + Coping plans). Participants who created Ac...

  19. Partnerships for Reform: Changing Teacher Preparation through the Title II HEA Partnership Program. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In 1998, Congress reauthorized and amended the "Higher Education Act of 1965 (HEA)", creating, under Title II, the Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program for States and Partnerships. One initiative under this amendment, the partnership grants program, funded partnerships among colleges of education, schools of arts and sciences, and…

  20. Antimicrobial Exposure Assessment Task Force II (AEATF II) Volume 5: Governing Document for a Multi-Year Antimicrobial Chemical Exposure Monitoring Program (interim draft document with changes)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes the overall scope of the AEATF II program, demonstrates the need for additional human exposure monitoring data and explains the proposed methodology for the exposure monitoring studies proposed for conduct by the AEATF II.

  1. Electronic structural changes of Mn in the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II during the catalytic cycle.

    PubMed

    Glatzel, Pieter; Schroeder, Henning; Pushkar, Yulia; Boron, Thaddeus; Mukherjee, Shreya; Christou, George; Pecoraro, Vincent L; Messinger, Johannes; Yachandra, Vittal K; Bergmann, Uwe; Yano, Junko

    2013-05-20

    The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) in photosystem II (PS II) was studied in the S0 through S3 states using 1s2p resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy. The spectral changes of the OEC during the S-state transitions are subtle, indicating that the electrons are strongly delocalized throughout the cluster. The result suggests that, in addition to the Mn ions, ligands are also playing an important role in the redox reactions. A series of Mn(IV) coordination complexes were compared, particularly with the PS II S3 state spectrum to understand its oxidation state. We find strong variations of the electronic structure within the series of Mn(IV) model systems. The spectrum of the S3 state best resembles those of the Mn(IV) complexes Mn3(IV)Ca2 and saplnMn2(IV)(OH)2. The current result emphasizes that the assignment of formal oxidation states alone is not sufficient for understanding the detailed electronic structural changes that govern the catalytic reaction in the OEC.

  2. On the polymorphic and morphological changes of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC-I) upon mercerization and conversion to CNC-II.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ersuo; Guo, Jiaqi; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Yangyang; Song, Junlong; Jin, Yongcan; Rojas, Orlando J

    2016-06-05

    Polymorphic and morphological transformations of cellulosic materials are strongly associated to their properties and applications, especially in the case of emerging nanocelluloses. Related changes that take place upon treatment of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) in alkaline conditions are studied here by XRD, TEM, AFM, and other techniques. The results indicate polymorphic transformation of CNC proceeds gradually in a certain range of alkali concentrations, i.e. from about 8% to 12.5% NaOH. In such transition alkali concentration, cellulose I and II allomorphs coexists. Such value and range of the transition concentration is strongly interdependent with the crystallite size of CNCs. In addition, it is distinctively lower than that for macroscopic fibers (12-15% NaOH). Transmission electron microscopy and particle sizing reveals that after mercerization CNCs tend to associate. Furthermore, TEMPO-oxidized mercerized CNC reveals the morphology of individual nanocrystal of the cellulose II type, which is composed of some interconnected granular structures. Overall, this work reveals how the polymorphism and morphology of individual CNC change in alkali conditions and sheds light onto the polymorphic transition from cellulose I to II.

  3. [Soft and hard tissue changes in Class II division 1 patients treated with Tip-Edge plus appliance].

    PubMed

    Xu, Lu-lu; Chen, Li-li; Xu, Juan; E, Ling-ling; Bei, Dan-dan; Liu, Hong-chen

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the soft and hard tissue changes in Class II division 1 patients treated with Tip-Edge plus technique. Sixteen Class II division 1 patients (7 boys and 9 girls) with mandibular retrusion in permanent dentition were selected and treated with Tip-Edge plus appliance. Lateral cephalometric films were analyzed before and after treatment. The effects were evaluated with Holdaway soft tissues analysis and routine cephalometric analysis methods. The arithmetic mean and standard deviation were calculated for each variable. Paired t-test was performed. The average treatment time was 16 months. Normal overjet and overbite were established with retroclination of upper incisors and proclination of lower incisors. U1-NA(°) and U1-NA (mm) decreaed by (15.40 ± 5.31)° and (4.16 ± 1.82) mm (P < 0.01). NLA showed an average increase of (-16.60 ± 5.29)° (P < 0.01). Remarkable soft tissue change was noted after the treatment. The profile in Class II division 1 patients could be quickly and efficiently improved after treatment with Tip-Edge plus technique.

  4. Mechanism of change in enantiomer migration order of enantioseparation of tartaric acid by ligand exchange capillary electrophoresis with Cu(II) and Ni(II)-D-quinic acid systems.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Sen-Ichi; Kodama, Shuji

    2012-02-01

    The mechanism of change in the enantiomer migration order (EMO) of tartarate on ligand exchange CE with Cu(II)- and Ni(II)-D-quinic acid systems was investigated thoroughly by circular dichroism (CD) spectropolarimetry. The (13) C NMR spectra of solutions containing D-quinate (pH 5.0) with Cu(II) or Ni(II) revealed the coordination of carboxylate and hydroxyl groups on D-quinate. The D-quinic acid concentration dependence of the CD spectra at a fixed Cu(II) concentration at pH 5.0 indicates that the 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 Cu(II)-D-quinate complexes were formed with an increase in the concentration of D-quinic acid. The CD spectral behavior revealed that D-tartarate is selectively coordinated to the 1:1 complex to give the 1:1:1 Cu(II)-D-quinate-D-tartarate ternary complex while L-tartarate is selectively bound to the 1:2 and 1:3 complexes to form the 1:2:1 ternary complex. In the Ni(II)-D-quinic acid system, it became apparent that the 1:2 Ni(II)-D-quinate complex is mainly formed in the wide range of D-quinic acid concentration at pH 5.0 and D-tartarate is selectively coordinated to the 1:2 complex to form the 1:2:1 ternary complex. The change in EMO of tartarate on ligand exchange CE was explainable by the change in coordination selectivity for D- and L-tartarates in the Cu(II)- and Ni(II)-D-quinic acid systems depending on the compositions of the complexes formed in BGE. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Proton-mediated electron configuration change in high-spin iron(II) porphyrinates.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chuanjiang; Noll, Bruce C; Schulz, Charles E; Scheidt, W Robert

    2005-11-02

    The synthesis, molecular structure, and electronic structure characterization of two five-coordinate high-spin imidazolate-ligated iron(II) porphyrinates are reported. Their electronic structure, as deduced from Mössbauer spectra obtained in strong magnetic fields, is distinctly different from that of the analogous imidazole-ligated species. The resulting electronic structure models are consistent with all observed differing features in the two classes.

  6. Change in the vertical dimension of Class II Division 1 patients after use of cervical or high-pull headgear.

    PubMed

    Zervas, Erin Dobbins; Galang-Boquiren, Maria Therese S; Obrez, Ales; Costa Viana, Maria Grace; Oppermann, Nelson; Sanchez, Flavio; Romero, Enrique Garcia; Kusnoto, Budi

    2016-11-01

    The goals of this study were to compare the effects that cervical and high-pull headgear have on the vertical dimensions in Class II Division 1 patients during phase 1 treatment and to compare these effects with untreated predicted growth for the sample population. Pretreatment and posttreatment cephalometric radiographs of children who had undergone Class II Division 1 correction with cervical (n = 22) or high-pull headgear (n = 19) were analyzed for the measurements that describe the changes in the vertical component of growth and mandibular position. The groups were matched for age (mean, 9 ± 2.5 years), treatment time (mean, 14 months), malocclusion, and similar skeletal features. The groups were compared with each other and also with an untreated growth model. Treatment with cervical headgear resulted in smaller increases in measurements that describe the vertical dimension than with high-pull headgear. Cervical headgear showed more favorable changes in mandibular growth that were statistically significant when compared with the untreated growth models. In this study, the cervical headgear showed more control over the vertical dimension and produced more favorable changes in mandibular position by normalizing the occlusal plane. Compared with the untreated growth model, cervical headgear worked synergistically with growth to produce more optimal changes in mandibular position. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes in the vertical profile of the Indonesian Throughflow during Termination II: Evidence from the Timor Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Kuhnt, Wolfgang; Holbourn, Ann; Andersen, Nils; Bartoli, Gretta

    2006-12-01

    We use a multiproxy approach to monitor changes in the vertical profile of the Indonesian Throughflow as well as monsoonal wind and precipitation patterns in the Timor Sea on glacial-interglacial, precessional, and suborbital timescales. We focus on an interval of extreme climate change and sea level variation: marine isotope (MIS) 6 to MIS 5e. Paleoproductivity fluctuations in the Timor Sea follow a precessional beat related to the intensity of the Australian (NW) monsoon. Paired Mg/Ca and δ18O measurements of surface- and thermocline-dwelling planktonic foraminifers (G. ruber and P. obliquiloculata) indicate an increase of >4°C in both surface and thermocline water temperatures during Termination II. Tropical sea surface temperature changed synchronously with ice volume (benthic δ18O) during deglaciation, implying a direct coupling of high- and low-latitude climate via atmospheric and/or upper ocean circulation. Substantial cooling and freshening of thermocline waters occurred toward the end of Termination II and during MIS 5e, indicating a change in the vertical profile of the Indonesian Throughflow from surface- to thermocline-dominated flow.

  8. Changes in joint space dimension after the correction of Class II division 1 malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Cacho, Alberto; Ono, Tsuyoshi; Kuboki, Takuo; Martin, Conchita

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this prospective longitudinal investigation was to compare the relationship between the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyles and the temporal fossae by means of tomography before and after the orthodontic correction of Class II, division 1 malocclusion using the activator appliance. The final sample consisted of 26 consecutively treated Class II, division 1 patients (19 boys and 7 girls with an average pre-treatment age of 11 years) who underwent orthodontic treatment by means of an activator appliance. Before treatment all patients were free of signs and symptoms associated to TMJ disorders. Bilateral tomographic records before and after treatment were taken and analyzed. Outlines of the condyle and temporal fossa were automatically determined by an edge-detection protocol, and the minimum joint space dimension was automatically measured every 2 degrees. For further analysis, the joint space was divided into anterior, superior, and posterior joint spaces. The average treatment time with the activator appliance was 366 days. In all subjects, activator treatment resulted in a Class I dental arch relationship. After activator treatment, no differences were found in the joint space measurements in any direction. Comparisons between the right and left condyles were not significantly different. Joint space dimension in Class II division I children was similar before and after treatment in both TMJs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Cephalometric changes in Class II division 1 patients treated with two maxillary premolars extraction.

    PubMed

    Seben, Marisana Piano; Valarelli, Fabricio Pinelli; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Cançado, Rodrigo Hermont; Bittencourt Neto, Aristeu Correa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cephalometric alterations in patients with Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion, orthodontically treated with extraction of two maxillary premolars. The sample comprised 68 initial and final lateral cephalograms of 34 patients of both sex (mean initial age of 14.03 years and mean final age of 17.25 years), treated with full fixed appliances and extraction of the first maxillary premolars. In order to evaluate the alterations due the treatment between initial and final phases, the dependent t test was applied to the studied cephalometric variables. The dentoskeletal alterations due to extraction of two maxillary premolars in the Class II division 1 malocclusion were: maxillary retrusion, improvement of the maxillomandibular relation, increase of lower anterior facial height, retrusion of the maxillary incisors, buccal inclination, protrusion and extrusion of the mandibular incisors, besides the reduction of overjet and overbite. The tissue alterations showed decrease of the facial convexity and retrusion of the upper lip. The extraction of two maxillary premolars in Class II division 1 malocclusion promotes dentoskeletal and tissue alterations that contribute to an improvement of the relation between the bone bases and the soft tissue profile.

  10. Review of Salient Points of Volume II: Implications for Education of Prospective Changes in Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratta, Anthony N.

    This paper looks at the state of education and the society in 1980 and compares major changes occurring in the last 15 years with predictions made in a 1967 publication called "Designing Education for the Future No. 2: Implications for Education of Prospective Changes in Society." The author identifies on-target predictions and major changes that…

  11. Review of Salient Points of Volume II: Implications for Education of Prospective Changes in Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratta, Anthony N.

    This paper looks at the state of education and the society in 1980 and compares major changes occurring in the last 15 years with predictions made in a 1967 publication called "Designing Education for the Future No. 2: Implications for Education of Prospective Changes in Society." The author identifies on-target predictions and major changes that…

  12. Volume change of segments II and III of the liver after gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ozutemiz, Can; Obuz, Funda; Taylan, Abdullah; Atila, Koray; Bora, Seymen; Ellidokuz, Hulya

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the relationship between gastrectomy and the volume of liver segments II and III in patients with gastric cancer. METHODS Computed tomography images of 54 patients who underwent curative gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma were retrospectively evaluated by two blinded observers. Volumes of the total liver and segments II and III were measured. The difference between preoperative and postoperative volume measurements was compared. RESULTS Total liver volumes measured by both observers in the preoperative and postoperative scans were similar (P > 0.05). High correlation was found between both observers (preoperative r=0.99; postoperative r=0.98). Total liver volumes showed a mean reduction of 13.4% after gastrectomy (P = 0.977). The mean volume of segments II and III showed similar decrease in measurements of both observers (38.4% vs. 36.4%, P = 0.363); the correlation between the observers were high (preoperative r=0.97, P < 0.001; postoperative r=0.99, P < 0.001). Volume decrease in the rest of the liver was not different between the observers (8.2% vs. 9.1%, P = 0.388). Time had poor correlation with volume change of segments II and III and the total liver for each observer (observer 1, rseg2/3=0.32, rtotal=0.13; observer 2, rseg2/3=0.37, rtotal=0.16). CONCLUSION Segments II and III of the liver showed significant atrophy compared with the rest of the liver and the total liver after gastrectomy. Volume reduction had poor correlation with time. PMID:26899148

  13. Changing concepts about the distribution of Photosystems I and II between grana-appressed and stroma-exposed thylakoid membranes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jan M

    2002-01-01

    Thylakoid membranes of higher plants and some green algae, which house the light-harvesting and energy transducing functions of the chloroplast, are structurally unique. The concept of the photosynthetic unit of the 1930s (Robert Emerson, William Arnold and Hans Gaffron), needing one reaction center per hundreds of antenna molecules, was modified by the discovery of the Enhancement effect in oxygen evolution in two different wavelengths of light (Robert Emerson and his coworkers) in the late 1950s, followed by the 1960 Z scheme of Robin Hill and Fay Bendall. It was realized that two light reactions and two pigment systems were needed for oxygenic photosynthesis. Changing ideas about the distribution of Photosystem II (PS II) and PS I between the green-appressed and stroma-exposed thylakoid membrane domains, which led to the concept of lateral heterogeneity, are discussed.

  14. Changing Populations, Changing Schools. Ninety-fourth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaxman, Erwin, Ed.; Passow, A. Harry, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The contributors to this yearbook attempt to explain the reasons for the poor fit between schools and poor, immigrant, linguistically different, and racial minority students. The problems that confront schools because of changing populations and increased diversity are discussed in the following chapters: (1) "The Old Problem of 'New…

  15. Changing Populations, Changing Schools. Ninety-fourth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaxman, Erwin, Ed.; Passow, A. Harry, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The contributors to this yearbook attempt to explain the reasons for the poor fit between schools and poor, immigrant, linguistically different, and racial minority students. The problems that confront schools because of changing populations and increased diversity are discussed in the following chapters: (1) "The Old Problem of 'New…

  16. [Correction of tetralogy of Fallot and its influence to oxygen transport and lung changes. Part II: Lung changes (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Reichart, B; Brunner, L; Hügel, W; Klinner, W; Weinhold, C; Westerburg, K W; Heinze, G

    1977-02-01

    22 children got lung scans 3 weeks respectively 12 months after the correction of a tetralogy of Fallot. In 18 cases previous operations were done: 12 times a Blalock-Taussig shunt and 6 times a Brock procedure. For the scan 20-70 mu diameter albumin macrospheres were used, which were labeled with Technetium 99m. The following pathologicla lung changes were seen: 1. Loss of perfusion, typical after Blalock-Taussig shunt procedure; these findings were always on the left side, the site of the anastomosis. 2. Anomalous flow distrubution (=more spheres in the upper than in the lower lobe) in the left lung; these changes were also caused by the Blalock-Taussing shunts, but disappeared within the one year follow-up after the correction. 3. Intrapulmonary rigt-left shunts (according to the dilatation of the alveolar capillaries). These decreased within one year from 9.9+/-1.3 to 4.6+/-0.9%.

  17. Assessment of the risks of climate change in the Working Group II contribution to the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mach, K. J.; Field, C. B.; Mastrandrea, M.; Barros, V.

    2013-12-01

    For the past two decades, IPCC Working Group II has developed comprehensive periodic assessments of climate change impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. In multiple rounds of drafting and review, author teams for each report evaluate the state of knowledge based on extensive scientific and technical information across disciplines. The Working Group II contribution to the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report (WGII AR5), to be completed in 2014, explores the ways climate change is shifting patterns of risks and the implications for response. The risks of climate change often emerge from complex interactions typified by inherent uncertainties. Most fundamentally, climate-related risks result from physical hazards interacting with vulnerable and exposed people, assets, and ecosystems. The WGII AR5 assesses observed impacts of climate change, which may in some cases demonstrate risks already influenced by climate change, and it also assesses future risks affected by climate change and societal development. In communicating risks over the coming century, the assessment uses timeframe as a key distinction. Risks over the next few decades will evolve as socioeconomic trends interact with global temperature increase that is similar across emissions scenarios. During this near-term era of committed climate change, societal responses, particularly adaptations, will influence near-term outcomes. Other risks evolve in the longer term, varying across alternative climate change and development futures. Near-term and ongoing mitigation efforts, as well as development, will determine the risks of climate change in the second half of the 21st century, which can be considered an era of climate options. The WGII AR5 evaluates the ways impacts are experienced through extremes, not just through mean changes, and it considers the different types of vulnerability across regions and contexts. Ultimately, managing the risks of climate change can be considered a challenge of decisionmaking under

  18. Structural changes in the S3 state of the oxygen evolving complex in photosystem II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatakeyama, Makoto; Ogata, Koji; Fujii, Katsushi; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Yano, Junko; Nakamura, Shinichiro

    2016-05-01

    The S3 state of the Mn4CaO5-cluster in photosystem II was investigated by DFT calculations and compared with EXAFS data. Considering previously proposed mechanism; a water molecule is inserted into an open coordination site of Mn upon S2 to S3 transition that becomes a substrate water, we examined if the water insertion is essential for the S3 formation, or if one cannot eliminate other possible routes that do not require a water insertion at the S3 stage. The novel S3 state structure consisting of only short 2.7-2.8 Å Mnsbnd Mn distances was discussed.

  19. Nine-year change in statistical design, profile, and success rates of Phase II oncology trials.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Anastasia; Paul, Barry; Marchenko, Olga; Song, Guochen; Patel, Neerali; Moschos, Stergios J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated nine-year trends in statistical design and other features of Phase II oncology clinical trials published in 2005, 2010, and 2014 in five leading oncology journals: Cancer, Clinical Cancer Research, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology, and Lancet Oncology. The features analyzed included cancer type, multicenter vs. single-institution, statistical design, primary endpoint, number of treatment arms, number of patients per treatment arm, whether or not statistical methods were well described, whether the drug was found effective based on rigorous statistical testing of the null hypothesis, and whether the drug was recommended for future studies.

  20. PERCEPTION OF CONTOUR: II. EFFECT OF RATE OF CHANGE OF RETINAL INTENSITY GRADIENT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    upon the appearance of an edge, and the rate of change of energy with respect to retinal distance was an unimportant factor in the production of edges... rate of change of the rate of change of intensity on the retina is maximal. The separation of this doublet edge will be smaller the greater the value of the fourth derivative of energy with respect to retinal distance.

  1. Changes of 25-OH-Vitamin D during Overwintering at the German Antarctic Stations Neumayer II and III

    PubMed Central

    Steinach, Mathias; Kohlberg, Eberhard; Maggioni, Martina Anna; Mendt, Stefan; Opatz, Oliver; Stahn, Alexander; Tiedemann, Josefine; Gunga, Hanns-Christian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Humans in Antarctica face different environmental challenges, such as low ultra-violet radiation, which is crucial for vitamin D production in humans. Therefore we assessed changes in 25-OH-vitamin D serum concentration during 13 months of overwintering at the German Stations Neumayer II and III (2007–2012). We hypothesized that (i) 25-OH-vitamin D serum concentration would significantly decrease, (ii) changes would be affected by age, gender, baseline (i.e. pre-overwintering) fat mass, baseline 25-OH-vitamin D serum concentration, and station residence, and (iii) our results would not differ from similar previous studies in comparable high latitudes. Materials & Methods 25-OH-vitamin D serum concentrations were determined before, after, and monthly during the campaigns from venous blood samples of n = 43 participants (28 men, 15 women). Baseline fat mass was determined via bio impedance analysis and body plethysmography. Data were analyzed for change over time, dependency on independent parameters, and after categorization for sufficiency (>50nmol/l), insufficiency (25-50nmol/l), and deficiency (<25nmol/l). Results were compared with data from similar previous studies. Results We found a significant decrease of 25-OH-vitamin D with dependency on month. Age, gender, fat mass, and station residence had no influence. Only baseline 25-OH-vitamin D serum concentrations significantly affected subsequent 25-OH-vitamin D values. Conclusions Overwinterings at the Antarctic German research stations Neumayer II and III are associated with a decrease in 25-OH-vitamin D serum concentrations, unaffected by age, gender, baseline fat mass, and station residence. Higher baseline vitamin D serum concentrations might protect from subsequent deficiencies. Residence at the Neumayer Stations may lead to lower vitamin D serum concentrations than found in other comparable high latitudes. PMID:26641669

  2. An organ culture system to model early degenerative changes of the intervertebral disc II: profiling global gene expression changes.

    PubMed

    Markova, Dessislava Z; Kepler, Christopher K; Addya, Sankar; Murray, Hallie B; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Shapiro, Irving M; Anderson, D Greg; Albert, Todd J; Risbud, Makarand V

    2013-01-01

    Despite many advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of disc degeneration, there remains a paucity of preclinical models which can be used to study the biochemical and molecular events that drive disc degeneration, and the effects of potential therapeutic interventions. The goal of this study is to characterize global gene expression changes in a disc organ culture system that mimics early nontraumatic disc degeneration. To mimic a degenerative insult, rat intervertebral discs were cultured in the presence of TNF-α, IL-1β and serum-limiting conditions. Gene expression analysis was performed using a microarray to identify differential gene expression between experimental and control groups. Differential pattern of gene expression was confirmed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) or Western blot. Treatment resulted in significant changes in expression of more than 1,000 genes affecting many aspects of cell function including cellular movement, the cell cycle, cellular development, and cell death and proliferation. Many of the most highly upregulated and downregulated genes have known functions in disc degeneration and extracellular matrix hemostasis. Construction of gene networks based on known cellular pathways and expression data from our analysis demonstrated that the network associated with cell death, cell cycle regulation and DNA replication and repair was most heavily affected in this model of disc degeneration. This rat organ culture model uses cytokine exposure to induce wide gene expression changes with the most affected genes having known reported functions in disc degeneration. We propose that this model is a valuable tool to study the etiology of disc degeneration and evaluate potential therapeutic treatments.

  3. An organ culture system to model early degenerative changes of the intervertebral disc II: profiling global gene expression changes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Despite many advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of disc degeneration, there remains a paucity of preclinical models which can be used to study the biochemical and molecular events that drive disc degeneration, and the effects of potential therapeutic interventions. The goal of this study is to characterize global gene expression changes in a disc organ culture system that mimics early nontraumatic disc degeneration. Methods To mimic a degenerative insult, rat intervertebral discs were cultured in the presence of TNF-α, IL-1β and serum-limiting conditions. Gene expression analysis was performed using a microarray to identify differential gene expression between experimental and control groups. Differential pattern of gene expression was confirmed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) or Western blot. Results Treatment resulted in significant changes in expression of more than 1,000 genes affecting many aspects of cell function including cellular movement, the cell cycle, cellular development, and cell death and proliferation. Many of the most highly upregulated and downregulated genes have known functions in disc degeneration and extracellular matrix hemostasis. Construction of gene networks based on known cellular pathways and expression data from our analysis demonstrated that the network associated with cell death, cell cycle regulation and DNA replication and repair was most heavily affected in this model of disc degeneration. Conclusions This rat organ culture model uses cytokine exposure to induce wide gene expression changes with the most affected genes having known reported functions in disc degeneration. We propose that this model is a valuable tool to study the etiology of disc degeneration and evaluate potential therapeutic treatments. PMID:24171898

  4. CONTINUUM HALOS IN NEARBY GALAXIES: AN EVLA SURVEY (CHANG-ES). II. FIRST RESULTS ON NGC 4631

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, Judith; Henriksen, Richard N.; Beck, Rainer; Krause, Marita; Mora, Silvia Carolina; Schmidt, Philip; Benjamin, R. A.; Dettmar, Ralf-Juergen; Miskolczi, Arpad; English, Jayanne; Heald, George; Oosterloo, Tom; Johnson, Megan; Li, Jiang-Tao; Murphy, E. J.; Porter, Troy A.; Rand, Richard J.; Saikia, D. J.; Strong, A. W.; Walterbos, Rene E-mail: henriksn@astro.queensu.ca E-mail: rbeck@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de E-mail: cmora@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de; and others

    2012-08-15

    We present the first results from the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies-an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES), a new survey of 35 edge-on galaxies to search for both in-disk and extraplanar radio continuum emission. CHANG-ES is exploiting the new wide-band, multi-channel capabilities of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (i.e., the Expanded Very Large Array or EVLA) with observations in two bands centered at 1.5 and 6 GHz in a variety of array configurations with full polarization. The motivation and science case for the survey are presented in a companion paper (Paper I). These first results are based on C-array test observations in both observing bands of the well-known radio halo galaxy, NGC 4631. In this paper, we outline the observations and the data reduction steps that are required for wide-band calibration and mapping of EVLA data, including polarization. With modest on-source observing times (30 minutes at 1.5 GHz and 75 minutes at 6 GHz for the test data), we have achieved best rms noise levels of 22 and 3.5 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} at 1.5 GHz and 6 GHz, respectively. New disk-halo features have been detected, among them two at 1.5 GHz that appear as loops in projection. We present the first 1.5 GHz spectral index map of NGC 4631 to be formed from a single wide-band observation in a single array configuration. This map represents tangent slopes to the intensities within the band centered at 1.5 GHz, rather than fits across widely separated frequencies as has been done in the past and is also the highest spatial resolution spectral index map yet presented for this galaxy. The average spectral index in the disk is {alpha}-bar{sub 1.5GHz} = -0.84 {+-} 0.05 indicating that the emission is largely non-thermal, but a small global thermal contribution is sufficient to explain a positive curvature term in the spectral index over the band. Two specific star-forming regions have spectral indices that are consistent with thermal emission. Polarization results (uncorrected for

  5. Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies: An EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES). II. First Results on NGC 4631

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Judith; Beck, Rainer; Benjamin, R. A.; Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen; English, Jayanne; Heald, George; Henriksen, Richard N.; Johnson, Megan; Krause, Marita; Li, Jiang-Tao; Miskolczi, Arpad; Mora, Silvia Carolina; Murphy, E. J.; Oosterloo, Tom; Porter, Troy A.; Rand, Richard J.; Saikia, D. J.; Schmidt, Philip; Strong, A. W.; Walterbos, Rene; Wang, Q. Daniel; Wiegert, Theresa

    2012-08-01

    We present the first results from the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies—an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES), a new survey of 35 edge-on galaxies to search for both in-disk and extraplanar radio continuum emission. CHANG-ES is exploiting the new wide-band, multi-channel capabilities of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (i.e., the Expanded Very Large Array or EVLA) with observations in two bands centered at 1.5 and 6 GHz in a variety of array configurations with full polarization. The motivation and science case for the survey are presented in a companion paper (Paper I). These first results are based on C-array test observations in both observing bands of the well-known radio halo galaxy, NGC 4631. In this paper, we outline the observations and the data reduction steps that are required for wide-band calibration and mapping of EVLA data, including polarization. With modest on-source observing times (30 minutes at 1.5 GHz and 75 minutes at 6 GHz for the test data), we have achieved best rms noise levels of 22 and 3.5 μJy beam-1 at 1.5 GHz and 6 GHz, respectively. New disk-halo features have been detected, among them two at 1.5 GHz that appear as loops in projection. We present the first 1.5 GHz spectral index map of NGC 4631 to be formed from a single wide-band observation in a single array configuration. This map represents tangent slopes to the intensities within the band centered at 1.5 GHz, rather than fits across widely separated frequencies as has been done in the past and is also the highest spatial resolution spectral index map yet presented for this galaxy. The average spectral index in the disk is \\bar{\\alpha }_{1.5 \\,GHz} =-0.84+/- 0.05 indicating that the emission is largely non-thermal, but a small global thermal contribution is sufficient to explain a positive curvature term in the spectral index over the band. Two specific star-forming regions have spectral indices that are consistent with thermal emission. Polarization results (uncorrected for internal

  6. Relevance Revisited: Curriculum Development in the Humanities. No. II: Administrative Strategies for Curriculum Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondale, Clarence C., Ed.

    Papers presented in advance of a workshop on "administrative strategies" for curricular change in the humanities and brief summaries of discussions taking place at the workshop are provided. Background papers include: "Curricular Change and the Humanities," by Edward A. Lindell; "Developing Administrative Strategies for…

  7. Apolipoprotein A-II-mediated Conformational Changes of Apolipoprotein A-I in Discoidal High Density Lipoproteins*

    PubMed Central

    Gauthamadasa, Kekulawalage; Vaitinadin, Nataraja Sarma; Dressman, James L.; Macha, Stephen; Homan, Reyn; Greis, Kenneth D.; Silva, R. A. Gangani D.

    2012-01-01

    It is well accepted that HDL has the ability to reduce risks for several chronic diseases. To gain insights into the functional properties of HDL, it is critical to understand the HDL structure in detail. To understand interactions between the two major apolipoproteins (apos), apoA-I and apoA-II in HDL, we generated highly defined benchmark discoidal HDL particles. These particles were reconstituted using a physiologically relevant phospholipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) incorporating two molecules of apoA-I and one homodimer of apoA-II per particle. We utilized two independent mass spectrometry techniques to study these particles. The techniques are both sensitive to protein conformation and interactions and are namely: 1) hydrogen deuterium exchange combined with mass spectrometry and 2) partial acetylation of lysine residues combined with MS. Comparison of mixed particles with apoA-I only particles of similar diameter revealed that the changes in apoA-I conformation in the presence of apoA-II are confined to apoA-I helices 3–4 and 7–9. We discuss these findings with respect to the relative reactivity of these two particle types toward a major plasma enzyme, lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase responsible for the HDL maturation process. PMID:22235130

  8. Changes in skeletal and dental relationship in Class II Division I malocclusion after rapid maxillary expansion: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Baratieri, Carolina; Alves Jr, Matheus; Bolognese, Ana Maria; Nojima, Matilde C. G.; Nojima, Lincoln I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess skeletal and dental changes immediately after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in Class II Division 1 malocclusion patients and after a retention period, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. Methods Seventeen children with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion and maxillary skeletal transverse deficiency underwent RME following the Haas protocol. CBCT were taken before treatment (T1), at the end of the active expansion phase (T2) and after a retention period of 6 months (T3). The scanned images were measured anteroposteriorly (SNA, SNB, ANB, overjet and MR) and vertically (N-ANS, ANS-Me, N-Me and overbite). Results Significant differences were identified immediately after RME as the maxilla moved forward, the mandible moved downward, overjet increased and overbite decreased. During the retention period, the maxilla relapsed backwards and the mandible was displaced forward, leaving patients with an overall increase in anterior facial height. Conclusion RME treatment allowed more anterior than inferior positioning of the mandible during the retention period, thus significantly improving Class II dental relationship in 75% of the patients evaluated. PMID:25162569

  9. Changes in skeletal and dental relationship in Class II Division I malocclusion after rapid maxillary expansion: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Baratieri, Carolina; Alves, Matheus; Bolognese, Ana Maria; Nojima, Matilde C G; Nojima, Lincoln I

    2014-01-01

    To assess skeletal and dental changes immediately after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in Class II Division 1 malocclusion patients and after a retention period, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. Seventeen children with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion and maxillary skeletal transverse deficiency underwent RME following the Haas protocol. CBCT were taken before treatment (T1), at the end of the active expansion phase (T2) and after a retention period of 6 months (T3). The scanned images were measured anteroposteriorly (SNA, SNB, ANB, overjet and MR) and vertically (N-ANS, ANS-Me, N-Me and overbite). Significant differences were identified immediately after RME as the maxilla moved forward, the mandible moved downward, overjet increased and overbite decreased. During the retention period, the maxilla relapsed backwards and the mandible was displaced forward, leaving patients with an overall increase in anterior facial height. RME treatment allowed more anterior than inferior positioning of the mandible during the retention period, thus significantly improving Class II dental relationship in 75% of the patients evaluated.

  10. [Changes of angiotensin II and oxidation stress during the development of chronic intermittent-induced pulmonary injury in rats].

    PubMed

    Kou, Yule; Zhang, Panpan; Wang, Hongyang; Zhang, Jiabin; Han, Xiaoqing; Yu, Jiangtao; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Min

    2015-08-01

    To observe the changes of angiotensin II and the levels of oxidation stress during the development of chronic intermittent hypoxia(CIH)-induced pulmonary injury in rats, and the effect in the mechanism of CIH-induced pulmonary injury. Seventy-two male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group (UC), sham control group (SC) and chronic intermittent hypoxia group (CIH). The three groups were also divided into 1 w, 2 w, 3 w, 4 w time subgroups, and each time subgroup has 6 rats. UC rats were not treated, The CIH rats were subjected to alternating cycles of nitrogen and compressed air, while SC rats were similarly treated but received compressed air instead of nitrogen. After the experiment, sections of pulmonary were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and the level of SOD, MDA, Ang II and AngIImRNA in rat homogenate pulmonary were measured. Pulmonary histology revealed that the CIH group showed high levels of interstitial edema, alveolar atelectasis, inflammatory cell infiltration of alveolar epithelial cell, pulmonary injury were serious in 1 w, 2 w, 3 w, 4 w. But the pulmonary histology of the NC group and the SC group was normal. Compared with the UC group and SC group, the expression of angiotensin II (AngII) protein, the levels of AngIImRNA in each time point in CIH group were increased gradually (P<0.05), the content of MDA were increased in 1 w, 2 w, 3 w, 4 w (P<0.05), they had reached the peak all at 4 w; while the SOD in each time point in CIH group were decreased gradually (P<0.05) compared with that in UC group and SC group; the AngII and AngIImRNA levels of CIH in pulmonary showed positive correlation with MDA (r= 0.751, 0.782, P<0.01); while the AngIIand AngⅡmRNA levels of CIH in pulmonary showed negative correlation with SOD [r=-0.743, -0.904, P<0.01]. CIH can activate oxidation stress and AngII, which were mutually causal and maybe an important mechanism of CIH-induced pulmonary injury.

  11. The tryptophan switch: changing ligand-binding specificity from type I to type II in SH3 domains.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Ballester, Gregorio; Blanes-Mira, Clara; Serrano, Luis

    2004-01-09

    The ability of certain Src homology 3 (SH3) domains to bind specifically both type I and type II polyproline ligands is perhaps the best characterized, but also the worst understood, example in the family of protein-interaction modules. A detailed analysis of the structural variations in SH3 domains, with respect to ligand-binding specificity, together with mutagenesis of SH3 Fyn tyrosine kinase, reveal the structural basis for types I and II binding specificity by SH3 domains. The conserved Trp in the SH3 binding pocket can adopt two different orientations that, in turn, determine the type of ligand (I or II) able to bind to the domain. The only exceptions are ligands with Leu at positions P(-1) and P(2), that deviate from standard poly-Pro angles. The motion of the conserved Trp depends on the presence of certain residues located in a key position (132 for Fyn), near the binding pocket. SH3 domains placing aromatic residues in this key position are promiscuous. By contrast, those presenting beta-branched or long aliphatic residues block the conserved Trp in one of the two possible orientations, preventing binding in a type I orientation. This is experimentally demonstrated by a single mutation in Fyn SH3 (Y132I) that abolishes type I ligand binding, while preserving binding to type II ligands. Thus, simple conformational changes, governed by simple rules, can have profound effects on protein-protein interactions, highlighting the importance of structural details to predict protein-protein interactions.

  12. Comparative assessment of soft-tissue changes in Class II Division 1 patients following extraction and non-extraction treatment.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sneh Lata; Sharma, Vijay Prakash; Singh, Gyan Prakash; Sachan, Kiran

    2013-11-01

    The extraction of teeth for orthodontic purpose has always been a controversial subject in the speciality. The aesthetics impact of the soft-tissue profile might play a key role in deciding on premolar extraction or non-extraction (NE) treatment, particularly in borderline patients. The purpose of this cephalometric study was to examine the soft-tissue treatment effects of Class II Division 1 malocclusion undergoing extraction of all first premolars in comparison with patients undergoing treatment with a NE approach. Hundred post-pubertal female patients of Class II Division 1 malocclusion were selected. Group 1, treated with four first premolar extractions, consisted of 50 female patients with a mean age of 14 years 1 month. Group 2, treated without extractions, consisted of 50 patients with a mean age of 13 years 5 months. Pre-treatment and post-treatment lateral cephalograms of the patients were obtained. The pre-treatment and post-treatment stage comparison and the intergroup comparison of the treatment changes were conducted between extraction and NE groups of Class II malocclusion samples with t tests. The levels of significance tested were P < 0.05 and P < 0.01. The main soft-tissue differences between the groups at the end of treatment were a more retruded lower lip and a more pronounced lower labial sulcus in those patients subjected to extraction. In Class II Division 1 patients, the extraction or NE decision, if based on sound diagnostic criteria, seems to have no systematic detrimental effects on the facial profile.

  13. Black and white population change in small American suburbs since World War II: regional differences.

    PubMed

    Stahura, J M

    1988-10-01

    "This study examines the relationship between black population concentration (% black), black population change and white population change for small American suburbs for the 1950-1980 period. Linear, tipping point (curvilinear) and interaction models of racial transition are evaluated for each decade by region (South and non-South), controlling for several other suburban characteristics (age, annexation and distance to the Central Business District) which may affect both black and white population change. The analyses show that racial transition in suburbs involves the parallel development of white and black populations with mainly weak and complex causal linkages which are sensitive to broader suburbanization patterns."

  14. Changes in reproductive indices in Chuvashian women whose maturation was during World War II.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Leonid; Malkin, Ida; Kobyliansky, Eugene

    2007-02-20

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether Chuvashian women whose maturation was during World War II and the subsequent rehabilitation period were different from women born at other times in terms of age at menarche and age at menopause. The cohort included 745 Chuvashian females aged 18-90 years; age at menarche (N=653), ranged from 10 to 24 years (mean 15.42+/-2.11). Data regarding menopausal age was obtained from 322 females born between 1915 and 1950 (mean 48.5+/-4.6). We computed descriptive statistics of the age of menopause and the age of menarche for different birth cohorts; we compared the mean values by Student's t-test and the variances by F-test. The "expected" maturation period of women whose age at menarche >20 and most women whose age at menopause < or =38 was between 1939 and 1950. Women whose age at menarche >20 showed normal parameters regarding age at menopause, and women whose age at menopause was < or =38 showed normal parameters of age at menarche. The variances of age at menopause in women born from 1925 to 1936 was almost two-fold higher than in women born earlier and afterwards (p=0.0003). The difference in the mean ages was significant for both menarche (p=0.005) and menopause (p=0.001). Periods of socioeconomic disasters such as war and famine can influence women's age at menarche and age at menopause. Women, whose maturation occurred during or immediately after World War II, showed a higher mean age at menarche and a wider dispersion of age at menopause than other women.

  15. Experimental frost-bite in Hanford Miniature Swine. II. Vascular changes.

    PubMed

    Schoning, P; Hamlet, M P

    1989-02-01

    Frost-bite lesions were produced in five Hanford Miniature Swine exposed to - 75 degrees C air for 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 min. Biopsies were taken at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h, and 1 and 2 weeks. Two hundred slides were evaluated microscopically: superficial and deep hyperaemia, vascular inflammation, medial degeneration, and thrombosis were graded from 0 to 5; 0, no change; 5, severe change. Haemorrhage was recorded as present or absent. Hyperaemia was the earliest change seen, both grossly and microscopically. Leucocyte emigration and vasculitis were intermediate stages seen most commonly in the 6, 12, and 24 h biopsies. Medial degeneration and thrombosis, the most severe vascular changes, were not seen until 1-2 weeks following frost-bite injury. These findings show that the outcome of frost-bite can not be accurately predicted from early frost-bite lesions, because thrombosis and medial degeneration are not evident in early lesions.

  16. Real-time monitoring of the effects of telmisartan on angiotensin II-induced mechanical changes in live mesangial cells using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Tae-Won; Ihm, Chun-Gyoo; Moon, Joo-Young; Lee, Gi-Ja; Park, Hun-Kuk; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor blockers (ARB) may provide renal protection independent of their blood pressure-lowering effect. However, evidence for this comes from indirect methods, such as genetic or protein expression studies. In this study, we hypothesized that telmisartan, a specific ARB, applied to Ang II-stimulated mesangial cell (MC) would exert a renoprotective effect via modulation of MCs' mechanical properties. We investigated the effect of telmisartan on Ang II-induced changes in MCs utilizing real-time atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging and force-distance curve measurements. Real-time AFM images of live MCs demonstrated that cells contracted towards the center after Ang II exposure, and telmisartan treatment abolished this change. Cellular spring constants showed that telmisartan prevented Ang II-induced MC stiffening (Ang II: 0.109 ± 0.019 N/m, Ang II + telmisartan: 0.051 ± 0.016 N/m, p < 0.005). Telmisartan-treated MCs had a significantly lower adhesion force than those of the control group (control: 0.49 ± 0.22 nN, telmisartan: 0.22 ± 0.06 nN, Ang II: 0.40 ± 0.25 nN, Ang II + telmisartan: 0.27 ± 0.14 nN, p < 0.005). These results demonstrate that the dynamic contraction and mechanical properties of Ang II-stimulated MCs are restored by telmisartan. We report for the first time the use of AFM force-distance curves on live MCs to directly monitor changes in surface adhesion and stiffness of cells after treatment with telmisartan in real time. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Metals affect the structure and activity of human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. II. Binding affinity and conformational changes

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Lawrence C; Goswami, Sumit; Peterson, Cynthia B

    2011-01-01

    Human plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is a serine protease inhibitor with a metastable active conformation. The lifespan of the active form of PAI-1 is modulated via interaction with the plasma protein, vitronectin, and various metal ions. These metal ions fall into two categories: Type I metals, including calcium, magnesium, and manganese, stabilize PAI-1 in the absence of vitronectin, whereas Type II metals, including cobalt, copper, and nickel, destabilize PAI-1 in the absence of vitronectin, but stabilize PAI-1 in its presence. To provide a mechanistic basis for understanding the unusual modulation of PAI-1 structure and activity, the binding characteristics and conformational effects of these two types of metals were further evaluated. Steady-state binding measurements using surface plasmon resonance indicated that both active and latent PAI-1 exhibit a dissociation constant in the low micromolar range for binding to immobilized nickel. Stopped-flow measurements of approach-to-equilibrium changes in intrinsic protein fluorescence indicated that the Type I and Type II metals bind in different modes that induce distinct conformational effects on PAI-1. Changes in the observed rate constants with varying concentrations of metal allowed accurate determination of binding affinities for cobalt, nickel, and copper, yielding dissociation constants of ∼40, 30, and 0.09 μM, respectively. Competition experiments that tested effects on PAI-1 stability were consistent with these measurements of affinity and indicate that copper binds tightly to PAI-1. PMID:21280128

  18. Induction of Nonphotochemical Energy Dissipation and Absorbance Changes in Leaves (Evidence for Changes in the State of the Light-Harvesting System of Photosystem II in Vivo).

    PubMed Central

    Ruban, A. V.; Young, A. J.; Horton, P.

    1993-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence and absorbance changes in the 400- to 560-nm region have been made following illumination of dark-adapted leaves of the epiphytic bromeliad Guzmania monostachia. During the first illumination, an absorbance change at 505 nm occurred with a half-time of 45 s as the leaf zeaxanthin content rose to 14% of total leaf carotenoid. Selective light scattering at 535 nm occurred with a half-time of 30 s. During a second illumination, following a 5-min dark period, quenching and the 535-nm absorbance change occurred more rapidly, reaching a maximum extent within 30 s. Nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence was found to be linearly correlated to the 535-nm absorbance change throughout. Examination of the spectra of chlorophyll fluorescence emission at 77 K for leaves sampled at intervals during this regime showed selective quenching in the light-harvesting complexes of photosystem II (LHCII). The quenching spectrum of the reversible component of quenching had a maximum at 700 nm, indicating quenching in aggregated LHCII, whereas the irreversible component represented a quenching of 680-nm fluorescence from unaggregated LHCII. It is suggested that this latter process, which is associated with the 505-nm absorbance change and zeaxanthin formation, is indicating a change in state of the LHCII complexes that is necessary to amplify or activate reversible pH-dependent energy dissipation, which is monitored by the 535-nm absorbance change. Both of the major forms of nonphotochemical energy dissipation in vivo are therefore part of the same physiological photoprotective process and both result from alterations in the LHCII system. PMID:12231862

  19. Change in Photosystem II Photochemistry During Algal Growth Phases of Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Oukarroum, Abdallah

    2016-06-01

    Sensitivity of photosynthetic processes towards environmental stress is used as a bioanalytical tool to evaluate the responses of aquatic plants to a changing environment. In this paper, change of biomass density, chlorophyll a fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters during growth phases of two microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus were studied. The photosynthetic growth behaviour changed significantly with cell age and algae species. During the exponential phase of growth, the photosynthesis capacity reached its maximum and decreased in ageing algal culture during stationary phase. In conclusion, the chlorophyll a fluorescence OJIP method and the derived fluorescence parameters would be an accurate method for obtaining information on maximum photosynthetic capacities and monitoring algal cell growth. This will contribute to more understanding, for example, of toxic actions of pollutants in microalgae test.

  20. Direct determination of the timing of sea level change during termination II.

    PubMed

    Gallup, Christina D; Cheng, H; Taylor, F W; Edwards, R L

    2002-01-11

    An outcrop within the last interglacial terrace on Barbados contains corals that grew during the penultimate deglaciation, or Termination II. We used combined 230Th and 231Pa dating to determine that they grew 135.8 +/- 0.8 thousand years ago, indicating that sea level was 18 +/- 3 meters below present sea level at the time. This suggests that sea level had risen to within 20% of its peak last-interglacial value by 136 thousand years ago, in conflict with Milankovitch theory predictions. Orbital forcing may have played a role in the deglaciation, as may have isostatic adjustments due to large ice sheets. Other corals in the same outcrop grew during oxygen isotope (delta18O) substage 6e, indicating that sea level was 38 +/- 5 meters below present sea level, about 168.0 thousand years ago. When compared to the delta18O signal in the benthic V19-30/V19-28 record at that time, the coral data extend to the previous glacial cycle the conclusion that deep-water temperatures were colder during glacial periods.

  1. Changes and significance of IL-25 in chicken collagen II-induced experimental arthritis (CIA).

    PubMed

    Kaiwen, Wang; Zhaoliang, Su; Yinxia, Zhao; Siamak, Sandoghchian Shotorbani; Zhijun, Jiao; Yuan, Xue; Heng, Yang; Dong, Zheng; Yanfang, Liu; Pei, Shen; Shengjun, Wang; Qixiang, Shao; Xinxiang, Huang; Liwei, Lu; Huaxi, Xu

    2012-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease. It is a systemic inflammatory disease, characterized by chronic, symmetrical, multi-articular synovial arthritis. IL-25 (IL-17E) is a member of the recently emerged cytokine family (IL-17s), which is expressed in Th2 cells and bone marrow-derived mast cells. Unlike the other members of this family, IL-25 is capable of inducing Th2-associated cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) and also promotes the release of some pro-immune factors (IL-6 and IL-8). IL-25 is also a pleiotropic factor, which constitutes a tissue-specific pathological injury and chronic inflammation. In this study, we used chicken collagen II-induced experimental arthritis (CIA) model in DBA/1 mice to investigate the relationship between IL-25 and other inflammatory factors, revealing the possible mechanism in CIA. Our results showed that the expression level of IL-25 was enhanced in the late stage of CIA, and IL-17 was increased in the early stage of the disease. It is well known that IL-17 has a crucial role in the development of RA pathogenesis, and IL-25 plays a significant role in humoral immune. For reasons given above, we suggested that the IL-25 inhibited IL-17 expression to some extent, while enhancing the production of IL-4. It was confirmed that IL-25 not only regulated the cellular immune, but also involved the humoral immune in rheumatoid arthritis.

  2. The redox environment triggers conformational changes and aggregation of hIAPP in Type II Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez Camargo, Diana C.; Tripsianes, Konstantinos; Buday, Katalin; Franko, Andras; Göbl, Christoph; Hartlmüller, Christoph; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Aichler, Michaela; Mettenleiter, Gabriele; Schulz, Michael; Böddrich, Annett; Erck, Christian; Martens, Henrik; Walch, Axel Karl; Madl, Tobias; Wanker, Erich E.; Conrad, Marcus; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Reif, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Type II diabetes (T2D) is characterized by diminished insulin production and resistance of cells to insulin. Among others, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a principal factor contributing to T2D and induces a shift towards a more reducing cellular environment. At the same time, peripheral insulin resistance triggers the over-production of regulatory hormones such as insulin and human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP). We show that the differential aggregation of reduced and oxidized hIAPP assists to maintain the redox equilibrium by restoring redox equivalents. Aggregation thus induces redox balancing which can assist initially to counteract ER stress. Failure of the protein degradation machinery might finally result in β-cell disruption and cell death. We further present a structural characterization of hIAPP in solution, demonstrating that the N-terminus of the oxidized peptide has a high propensity to form an α-helical structure which is lacking in the reduced state of hIAPP. In healthy cells, this residual structure prevents the conversion into amyloidogenic aggregates. PMID:28287098

  3. 75 FR 21979 - NRC Region II Address and Main Telephone Number Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... are effective 30 days after publication in the Federal Register. These amendments do not require... incorporated into the following sections of the NRC's regulations: Sec. 1.5(b)(2), Appendix D to 10 CFR Part 20... has been changed. The new telephone number is incorporated into Appendix D to 10 CFR Part 20 and...

  4. Analytic Corrections to CFD Heating Predictions Accounting for Changes in Surface Catalysis. Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Inger, George R.

    1996-01-01

    A new approach for combining the insight afforded by integral boundary-layer analysis with comprehensive (but time intensive) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) flowfield solutions of the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations is described. The approach extracts CFD derived quantities at the wall and at the boundary layer edge for inclusion in a post-processing boundary-layer analysis. It allows a designer at a work-station to address two questions, given a single CFD solution. (1) How much does the heating change for a thermal protection system (TPS) with different catalytic properties than was used in the original CFD solution? (2) How does the heating change at the interface of two different TPS materials with an abrupt change in catalytic efficiency? The answer to the second question is particularly important, because abrupt changes from low to high catalytic efficiency can lead to localized increase in heating which exceeds the usually conservative estimate provided by a fully catalytic wall assumption. Capabilities of this approach for application to Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) design are demonstrated. If the definition of surface catalysis is uncertain early in the design process, results show that fully catalytic wall boundary conditions provide the best baseline for CFD design points.

  5. Reference hydrologic networks II. Using reference hydrologic networks to assess climate-driven changes in streamflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burn, Donald H.; Hannaford, Jamie; Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Whitfield, Paul H.; Thorne, Robin; Marsh, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Reference hydrologic networks (RHNs) can play an important role in monitoring for changes in the hydrological regime related to climate variation and change. Currently, the literature concerning hydrological response to climate variations is complex and confounded by the combinations of many methods of analysis, wide variations in hydrology, and the inclusion of data series that include changes in land use, storage regulation and water use in addition to those of climate. Three case studies that illustrate a variety of approaches to the analysis of data from RHNs are presented and used, together with a summary of studies from the literature, to develop approaches for the investigation of changes in the hydrological regime at a continental or global scale, particularly for international comparison. We present recommendations for an analysis framework and the next steps to advance such an initiative. There is a particular focus on the desirability of establishing standardized procedures and methodologies for both the creation of new national RHNs and the systematic analysis of data derived from a collection of RHNs.

  6. Organisational justice and change in justice as predictors of employee health: the Whitehall II study.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, Mika; Ferrie, Jane E; Head, Jenny; Shipley, Martin J; Vahtera, Jussi; Marmot, Michael G

    2004-11-01

    Organisational justice has been proposed as a new way to examine the impact of psychosocial work environment on employee health. This article studied the justice of interpersonal treatment by supervisors (the relational component of organisational justice) as a predictor of health. Prospective cohort study. Phase 1 (1985-88) measured relational justice, job demands, job control, social support at work, effort-reward imbalance, and self rated health. Relational justice was assessed again at phase 2 (1989-90) and self rated health at phase 2 and phase 3 (1991-93). 20 civil service departments originally located in London. 10 308 civil servants (6895 men, 3413 women) aged 35-55. Self rated health. Men exposed to low justice at phase 1 or adverse change in justice between phase 1 and phase 2 were at higher risk of poor health at phase 2 and phase 3. A favourable change in justice was associated with reduced risk. Adjustment for other stress indicators had little effect on results. In women, low justice at phase 1 predicted poor health at phase 2 and phase 3 before but not after adjustment for other stress indicators. Adverse change in justice was associated with worse health prospects irrespective of adjustments. The extent to which people are treated with justice in workplaces seems to predict their health independently of established stressors at work. Evidence on reduced health risk after favourable change in organisational justice implies a promising area for health interventions at workplace.

  7. The Employment Impact of Technological Change. Technology and the American Economy, Appendix Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Technology, Automation and Economic Progress, Washington, DC.

    Eleven descriptive studies prepared by independent experts and dealing with the employment impact of technological change are presented. Part I contains (1) an analysis, at the establishment level, of employment-increasing growth of output and employment-decreasing growth of output per man-hour, (2) case studies of the elapsed time involved in the…

  8. Questioning the "big assumptions". Part II: recognizing organizational contradictions that impede institutional change.

    PubMed

    Bowe, Constance M; Lahey, Lisa; Kegan, Robert; Armstrong, Elizabeth

    2003-08-01

    Well-designed medical curriculum reforms can fall short of their primary objectives during implementation when unanticipated or unaddressed organizational resistance surfaces. This typically occurs if the agents for change ignore faculty concerns during the planning stage or when the provision of essential institutional safeguards to support new behaviors are neglected. Disappointing outcomes in curriculum reforms then result in the perpetuation of or reversion to the status quo despite the loftiest of goals. Institutional resistance to change, much like that observed during personal development, does not necessarily indicate a communal lack of commitment to the organization's newly stated goals. It may reflect the existence of competing organizational objectives that must be addressed before substantive advances in a new direction can be accomplished. The authors describe how the Big Assumptions process (see previous article) was adapted and applied at the institutional level during a school of medicine's curriculum reform. Reform leaders encouraged faculty participants to articulate their reservations about considered changes to provided insights into the organization's competing commitments. The line of discussion provided an opportunity for faculty to appreciate the gridlock that existed until appropriate test of the school's long held Big Assumptions could be conducted. The Big Assumptions process proved useful in moving faculty groups to recognize and questions the validity of unchallenged institutional beliefs that were likely to undermine efforts toward change. The process also allowed the organization to put essential institutional safeguards in place that ultimately insured that substantive reforms could be sustained.

  9. Meiji Japan: The Dynamics of National Change. A Humanities Approach to Japanese History, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn; Thompson, Sara; Stevens, Anne

    This curriculum unit focuses on the Meiji period (1868-1912), a pivotal period in Japanese and world history. Each lesson in this unit uses art, literature, primary sources, or a combination to help students understand Japan's emerging sense of nationhood within the context of the rapid change taking place during this important period. Lessons…

  10. Meiji Japan: The Dynamics of National Change. A Humanities Approach to Japanese History, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn; Thompson, Sara; Stevens, Anne

    This curriculum unit focuses on the Meiji period (1868-1912), a pivotal period in Japanese and world history. Each lesson in this unit uses art, literature, primary sources, or a combination to help students understand Japan's emerging sense of nationhood within the context of the rapid change taking place during this important period. Lessons…

  11. Selected Translated Abstracts of Russian-Language Climate-Change Publications, II. Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Ravina, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning clouds as they relate to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included, to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  12. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications: II, Clouds. Issue 159

    SciTech Connect

    Burtis, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning clouds as they relate to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  13. Experimental frost-bite in Hanford Miniature Swine. II. Vascular changes.

    PubMed Central

    Schoning, P.; Hamlet, M. P.

    1989-01-01

    Frost-bite lesions were produced in five Hanford Miniature Swine exposed to - 75 degrees C air for 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 min. Biopsies were taken at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h, and 1 and 2 weeks. Two hundred slides were evaluated microscopically: superficial and deep hyperaemia, vascular inflammation, medial degeneration, and thrombosis were graded from 0 to 5; 0, no change; 5, severe change. Haemorrhage was recorded as present or absent. Hyperaemia was the earliest change seen, both grossly and microscopically. Leucocyte emigration and vasculitis were intermediate stages seen most commonly in the 6, 12, and 24 h biopsies. Medial degeneration and thrombosis, the most severe vascular changes, were not seen until 1-2 weeks following frost-bite injury. These findings show that the outcome of frost-bite can not be accurately predicted from early frost-bite lesions, because thrombosis and medial degeneration are not evident in early lesions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:2923789

  14. Managing Information Technology as a Catalyst of Change. Track II: Leveraging People with Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    This track of the 1993 CAUSE Conference presents eight papers on how information technology can help people in institutions of higher education do their jobs more effectively. Papers include: (1) "Implementing a Culture of Change: The Five-Year Transformation of The George Washington University" (Walter M. Bortz); (2) "Empowering…

  15. Changes in insulin‐like growth factor‐I and ‐II associated with fat but not lean mass in early old age

    PubMed Central

    Holly, Jeff M.P.; Lashen, Hany; Hardy, Rebecca; Adams, Judith; Kuh, Diana; Ben‐Shlomo, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that insulin‐like growth factors‐I and II (IGF‐I and II) decline during late midlife and that greater declines are related to higher fat mass and lower lean mass. Methods A total of 1,542 men and women in a British birth cohort study had IGF‐I and II measured by immunoassay of blood samples at age 53 and/or 60‐64 years. Fat mass, android:gynoid fat ratio, and appendicular lean mass were measured at 60‐64 years using dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry (DXA). Associations between changes in IGF‐I or II and body composition outcomes were examined using conditional change linear regression models. Results Mean IGF‐I and IGF‐II concentrations were lower at 60‐64 than at 53 years, by 12.8% for IGF‐I and by 12.5% for IGF‐II. Larger declines in either IGF‐I or II were associated with higher fat mass at 60‐64 years. Although higher IGF‐I at 53 years was associated with higher lean mass, there was little evidence linking changes in IGF‐I or II to lean mass. Conclusions The findings suggest that IGF‐I and II concentrations decline with age, and greater declines are associated with higher fat mass levels. These results provide some evidence for the suggested roles of IGF‐I and II in regulating fat mass but not lean mass in older age. PMID:25645314

  16. Changes in insulin-like growth factor-I and -II associated with fat but not lean mass in early old age.

    PubMed

    Bann, David; Holly, Jeff M P; Lashen, Hany; Hardy, Rebecca; Adams, Judith; Kuh, Diana; Ong, Ken K; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2015-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that insulin-like growth factors-I and II (IGF-I and II) decline during late midlife and that greater declines are related to higher fat mass and lower lean mass. A total of 1,542 men and women in a British birth cohort study had IGF-I and II measured by immunoassay of blood samples at age 53 and/or 60-64 years. Fat mass, android:gynoid fat ratio, and appendicular lean mass were measured at 60-64 years using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Associations between changes in IGF-I or II and body composition outcomes were examined using conditional change linear regression models. Mean IGF-I and IGF-II concentrations were lower at 60-64 than at 53 years, by 12.8% for IGF-I and by 12.5% for IGF-II. Larger declines in either IGF-I or II were associated with higher fat mass at 60-64 years. Although higher IGF-I at 53 years was associated with higher lean mass, there was little evidence linking changes in IGF-I or II to lean mass. The findings suggest that IGF-I and II concentrations decline with age, and greater declines are associated with higher fat mass levels. These results provide some evidence for the suggested roles of IGF-I and II in regulating fat mass but not lean mass in older age. © 2015 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  17. Change in health inequalities among British civil servants: the Whitehall II study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrie, J; Shipley, M; Davey, S; Stansfeld, S; Marmot, M

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: Despite an overall decline in mortality rates, the social gradient in mortality has increased over the past two decades. However, evidence on trends in morbidity and cardiovascular risk factors indicates that socioeconomic differences are static or narrowing. The objective of this study was to investigate morbidity and cardiovascular risk factor trends in white collar British civil servants. Design: Self rated health, longstanding illness, minor psychiatric morbidity (General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 30 score, GHQ caseness and GHQ depression subscale), cholesterol, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, body mass index, alcohol over the recommended limits, and smoking were collected at baseline screening (1985–88) and twice during follow up (mean length of follow up 5.3 and 11.1 years). Employment grade gradients in these measures at each phase were compared. Setting: Whitehall II, prospective cohort study. Participants: White collar women and men aged 35–55, employed in 20 departments at baseline screening. Analyses included 6770 participants who responded to all three phases. Results: Steep employment grade gradients were observed for most measures at second follow up. In general, there was little evidence that employment grade gradients have increased over the 11.1 years of follow up, but marked increases in the gradient were observed for GHQ score (p<0.001) and depression (p=0.05) in both sexes and for cholesterol in men (p=0.01). Conclusions: There is little evidence of an increase in inequality for most measures of morbidity and cardiovascular risk factors in white collar civil servants over the 11.1 years to 1998. Inequalities have increased significantly for minor psychiatric morbidity in both sexes and for cholesterol in men. PMID:12461113

  18. Changes in the thermocline structure of the Indonesian outflow during Terminations I and II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Holbourn, Ann; Kuhnt, Wolfgang; Jian, Zhimin; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2008-08-01

    We present centennial records of sea surface and upper thermocline temperatures in Core MD01-2378 from the Timor Sea, which provide new insights into the variability of the Indonesian outflow across the last two glacial terminations. Mg/Ca in Globigerinoides ruber (white s. s.) indicates an overall increase of 3.2 °C in sea surface temperature (SST) over Termination I. Following an early Holocene plateau at 11.3-6.4 ka, SSTs cooled by 0.6 °C during the middle to late Holocene (6.4-0.7 ka). The early Holocene warming occurred in phase with increasing northern hemisphere summer insolation, coinciding with northward displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, enhanced boreal summer monsoon and expansion of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool. Thermocline temperatures (Pulleniatina obliquiloculata Mg/Ca) gradually decreased from 24.5 to 21.5 °C since 10.3 ka, reflecting intensification of a cool thermocline throughflow. The vertical structure of the upper ocean in the Timor Sea evolved in similar fashion during the Holocene and MIS5e, although the duration of SST plateaux differed (11.3 to 6.4 ka in Termination I and from 129 to 119 ka in Termination II), which was probably due to the more intense northern hemisphere summer insolation during MIS 5e. During both terminations, SST increased simultaneously in the southern high latitudes and the tropical eastern Indian Ocean, suggesting virtually instantaneous atmospheric climate feedbacks between the high and low latitudes.

  19. Morphologic changes in rat urothelial cells during carcinogenesis. II. Image cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Young, I.T.; Vanderlaan, M.; Kromhout, L.; Jensen, R.; Grover, A.; King, E.

    1984-01-01

    Improved early detection of neoplasia by screening of urothelial cells requires an understanding of the features distinguishing normal and neoplastic cell populations. The authors have begun a program of study based upon a rate model system for the controlled observation of early-stage lesions produced by the carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)- nitrosamine. Cells dissociated directly from normal and malignant urothelium were characterized by conventional cytopathology techniques and by quantitative microscopy (for nuclear texture and nuclear and cytoplasmic size, shape, and stain content) to derive a comprehensive picture of bladder tumor development. By following the changes that occur in the dissociated urothelial cells the authors have found that the nuclear area, total nuclear stain, nuclear shape, and the nuclear chromatin change significantly over a 48-wk interval as the lesions progress toward malignancy. 24 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  20. DOE SBIR Phase II Final Technical Report - Assessing Climate Change Effects on Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, Cameron; Capps, Scott

    2014-11-05

    Specialized Vertum Partners software tools were prototyped, tested and commercialized to allow wind energy stakeholders to assess the uncertainties of climate change on wind power production and distribution. This project resulted in three commercially proven products and a marketing tool. The first was a Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) based resource evaluation system. The second was a web-based service providing global 10m wind data from multiple sources to wind industry subscription customers. The third product addressed the needs of our utility clients looking at climate change effects on electricity distribution. For this we collaborated on the Santa Ana Wildfire Threat Index (SAWTi), which was released publicly last quarter. Finally to promote these products and educate potential users we released “Gust or Bust”, a graphic-novel styled marketing publication.

  1. Thermal Imaging of Skin Changes on the Feet of Type II Diabetics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Austria Abstract – Skin changes such as callosities and mycosis may be regarded as a risk factor for severe structural impairments including...normal individuals in a survey conducted in Canada [10]. Most onychomycoses are secondary to a mycosis of the adjacent skin [11], which may lead to...Measure Intraclass Correlation (95 % confidence interval) callus mycosis Toe deformity Arch deformity Hot spot 1st right toe 0.23 (0.00

  2. Climate change and the middle atmosphere. Part II. The impact of volcanic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Rind, D. ); Balachandran, N.K.; Suozzo, R. )

    1992-03-01

    The effects of volcanic aerosols on the middle atmosphere are investigated with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Global Climate/Middle Atmosphere model. Volcanic aerosols with a visible optical depth of 0.15 are put into the lower stratosphere, and their influence is explored for different time scales; instantaneous effect (sea surface temperatures not allowed to adjust); influence for the first few years, with small tropospheric cooling; and long-term effect (50 years) with significant tropospheric cooling. The aerosols induce a direct stratospheric response, with warming in the tropical lower stratosphere, and cooling at higher latitudes. On the shorter time scales, this radiative effect increases tropospheric static stability at low- to midlatitudes, which reduces the intensity of the Hadley cell and Ferrel cell. There is an associated increase in tropospheric standing wave energy and a decrease in midlatitude west winds. The dynamical changes are on the order of 10%, and are generally similar to occurrences following major volcanic eruptions in the last 30 years. On the longer time scale, a strong hemispheric asymmetry arises. The different experiments emphasize that the middle-atmosphere response to climate change depends on both the direct and indirect (i.e., tropospheric) effects. Similarly, the tropospheric changes are not simply the products of the direct climate perturbation; they depend as well on what happens to the stratosphere. Such examples of the coupled systems underline the need to include both the trophosphere and middle atmosphere in studying the effects of climate change. 38 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Engineering the Pseudomonas aeruginosa II lectin: designing mutants with changed affinity and specificity.

    PubMed

    Kříž, Zdeněk; Adam, Jan; Mrázková, Jana; Zotos, Petros; Chatzipavlou, Thomais; Wimmerová, Michaela; Koča, Jaroslav

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on designing mutations of the PA-IIL lectin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa that lead to change in specificity. Following the previous results revealing the importance of the amino acid triad 22-23-24 (so-called specificity-binding loop), saturation in silico mutagenesis was performed, with the intent of finding mutations that increase the lectin's affinity and modify its specificity. For that purpose, a combination of docking, molecular dynamics and binding free energy calculation was used. The combination of methods revealed mutations that changed the performance of the wild-type lectin and its mutants to their preferred partners. The mutation at position 22 resulted in 85% in inactivation of the binding site, and the mutation at 23 did not have strong effects thanks to the side chain being pointed away from the binding site. Molecular dynamics simulations followed by binding free energy calculation were performed on mutants with promising results from docking, and also at those where the amino acid at position 24 was replaced for bulkier or longer polar chain. The key mutants were also prepared in vitro and their binding properties determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. Combination of the used methods proved to be able to predict changes in the lectin performance and helped in explaining the data observed experimentally.

  4. Engineering the Pseudomonas aeruginosa II lectin: designing mutants with changed affinity and specificity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kříž, Zdeněk; Adam, Jan; Mrázková, Jana; Zotos, Petros; Chatzipavlou, Thomais; Wimmerová, Michaela; Koča, Jaroslav

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on designing mutations of the PA-IIL lectin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa that lead to change in specificity. Following the previous results revealing the importance of the amino acid triad 22-23-24 (so-called specificity-binding loop), saturation in silico mutagenesis was performed, with the intent of finding mutations that increase the lectin's affinity and modify its specificity. For that purpose, a combination of docking, molecular dynamics and binding free energy calculation was used. The combination of methods revealed mutations that changed the performance of the wild-type lectin and its mutants to their preferred partners. The mutation at position 22 resulted in 85 % in inactivation of the binding site, and the mutation at 23 did not have strong effects thanks to the side chain being pointed away from the binding site. Molecular dynamics simulations followed by binding free energy calculation were performed on mutants with promising results from docking, and also at those where the amino acid at position 24 was replaced for bulkier or longer polar chain. The key mutants were also prepared in vitro and their binding properties determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. Combination of the used methods proved to be able to predict changes in the lectin performance and helped in explaining the data observed experimentally.

  5. [Pain sensitivity changes in schizophrenic patients and animal models--Part II].

    PubMed

    Tuboly, Gábor; Horváth, Gyöngyi

    2009-05-30

    Diminished pain sensitivity in schizophrenic patients has been reported for more than 50 years, however little is known about the substrate and the basic mechanisms underlying altered pain sensitivity in this disease, therefore, relevant animal models are of decisive importance in the study of psychiatric diseases. The authors report a review consisting of two parts focusing on pain sensitivity changes in patients and in different animal models which proved the eligibility as schizophrenia models and pain sensitivities have also been determined. The second part of this article analyzed the results regarding knock out mice as schizophrenia models. These data proved that several genes have significant role in the pathomechanism of schizophrenia; therefore deficiency in one gene does not produce animals showing all signs of this disease. As regards the pain sensitivity changes, only a few data are available with controversial results. Data originated from complex chronic animal models indicate that they might be more adequate methods for studying the mechanisms of schizophrenia including the pain-sensitivity changes.

  6. Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: part II. Changes in sampling efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Lee, Taekhee; Kim, Seung Won; Lee, Larry; Flemmer, Michael M; Harper, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This second, and concluding, part of this study evaluated changes in sampling efficiency of respirable size-selective samplers due to air pulsations generated by the selected personal sampling pumps characterized in Part I (Lee E, Lee L, Möhlmann C et al. Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: Part I. Pulsation measurements. Ann Occup Hyg 2013). Nine particle sizes of monodisperse ammonium fluorescein (from 1 to 9 μm mass median aerodynamic diameter) were generated individually by a vibrating orifice aerosol generator from dilute solutions of fluorescein in aqueous ammonia and then injected into an environmental chamber. To collect these particles, 10-mm nylon cyclones, also known as Dorr-Oliver (DO) cyclones, were used with five medium volumetric flow rate pumps. Those were the Apex IS, HFS513, GilAir5, Elite5, and Basic5 pumps, which were found in Part I to generate pulsations of 5% (the lowest), 25%, 30%, 56%, and 70% (the highest), respectively. GK2.69 cyclones were used with the Legacy [pump pulsation (PP) = 15%] and Elite12 (PP = 41%) pumps for collection at high flows. The DO cyclone was also used to evaluate changes in sampling efficiency due to pulse shape. The HFS513 pump, which generates a more complex pulse shape, was compared to a single sine wave fluctuation generated by a piston. The luminescent intensity of the fluorescein extracted from each sample was measured with a luminescence spectrometer. Sampling efficiencies were obtained by dividing the intensity of the fluorescein extracted from the filter placed in a cyclone with the intensity obtained from the filter used with a sharp-edged reference sampler. Then, sampling efficiency curves were generated using a sigmoid function with three parameters and each sampling efficiency curve was compared to that of the reference cyclone by constructing bias maps. In general, no change in sampling efficiency (bias under ±10%) was observed until pulsations exceeded 25% for the

  7. Evaluation of Pump Pulsation in Respirable Size-Selective Sampling: Part II. Changes in Sampling Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Lee, Taekhee; Kim, Seung Won; Lee, Larry; Flemmer, Michael M.; Harper, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This second, and concluding, part of this study evaluated changes in sampling efficiency of respirable size-selective samplers due to air pulsations generated by the selected personal sampling pumps characterized in Part I (Lee E, Lee L, Möhlmann C et al. Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: Part I. Pulsation measurements. Ann Occup Hyg 2013). Nine particle sizes of monodisperse ammonium fluorescein (from 1 to 9 μm mass median aerodynamic diameter) were generated individually by a vibrating orifice aerosol generator from dilute solutions of fluorescein in aqueous ammonia and then injected into an environmental chamber. To collect these particles, 10-mm nylon cyclones, also known as Dorr-Oliver (DO) cyclones, were used with five medium volumetric flow rate pumps. Those were the Apex IS, HFS513, GilAir5, Elite5, and Basic5 pumps, which were found in Part I to generate pulsations of 5% (the lowest), 25%, 30%, 56%, and 70% (the highest), respectively. GK2.69 cyclones were used with the Legacy [pump pulsation (PP) = 15%] and Elite12 (PP = 41%) pumps for collection at high flows. The DO cyclone was also used to evaluate changes in sampling efficiency due to pulse shape. The HFS513 pump, which generates a more complex pulse shape, was compared to a single sine wave fluctuation generated by a piston. The luminescent intensity of the fluorescein extracted from each sample was measured with a luminescence spectrometer. Sampling efficiencies were obtained by dividing the intensity of the fluorescein extracted from the filter placed in a cyclone with the intensity obtained from the filter used with a sharp-edged reference sampler. Then, sampling efficiency curves were generated using a sigmoid function with three parameters and each sampling efficiency curve was compared to that of the reference cyclone by constructing bias maps. In general, no change in sampling efficiency (bias under ±10%) was observed until pulsations exceeded 25% for the

  8. Part II: Biochemical changes after pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 infusion in migraine patients.

    PubMed

    Guo, Song; Vollesen, Anne Luise Haulund; Hansen, Young Bae Lee; Frandsen, Erik; Andersen, Malene Rohr; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Olesen, Jes; Ashina, Messoud

    2017-02-01

    Background Intravenous infusion of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP38) provokes migraine attacks in 65-70% of migraine without aura (MO) patients. We investigated whether PACAP38 infusion causes changes in the endogenous production of PACAP38, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B), neuron-specific enolase and pituitary hormones in migraine patients. Methods We allocated 32 previously genotyped MO patients to receive intravenous infusion PACAP38 (10 pmol/kg/minute) for 20 minutes and recorded migraine-like attacks. Sixteen of the patients were carriers of the risk allele rs2274316 ( MEF2D), which confers increased risk of MO and may regulate PACAP38 expression, and 16 were non-carriers. We collected blood samples at baseline and 20, 30, 40, 60 and 90 minutes after the start of the infusion. A control group of six healthy volunteers received intravenous saline. Results PACAP38 infusion caused significant changes in plasma concentrations of VIP ( p = 0.026), prolactin ( p = 0.011), S100B ( p < 0.001) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; p = 0.015), but not CGRP ( p = 0.642) and TNFα ( p = 0.535). We found no difference in measured biochemical variables after PACAP38 infusion in patients who later developed migraine-like attacks compared to those who did not ( p > 0.05). There was no difference in the changes of biochemical variables between patients with and without the MEF2D-associated gene variant ( p > 0.05). Conclusion PACAP38 infusion elevated the plasma levels of VIP, prolactin, S100B and TSH, but not CGRP and TNFα. Development of delayed migraine-like attacks or the presence of the MEF2D gene variant was not associated with pre-ictal changes in plasma levels of neuropeptides, TNFα and pituitary hormones.

  9. Ionic strength-dependent changes in tentacular ion exchangers with variable ligand density. II. Functional properties.

    PubMed

    Bhambure, Rahul; Angelo, James M; Gillespie, Christopher M; Phillips, Michael; Graalfs, Heiner; Lenhoff, Abraham M

    2017-07-14

    The effect of ligand density was studied on protein adsorption and transport behavior in tentacular cation-exchange sorbents at different ionic strengths. Results were obtained for lysozyme, lactoferrin and a monoclonal antibody (mAb) in order to examine the effects of protein size and charge. The combination of ligand density and ionic strength results in extensive variability of the static and dynamic binding capacities, transport rate and binding affinity of the proteins. Uptake and elution experiments were performed to quantify the transport behavior of selected proteins, specifically to estimate intraparticle protein diffusivities. The observed trend of decreasing uptake diffusivities with an increase in ligand density was correlated to structural properties of the ligand-density variants, particularly the accessible porosity. Increasing the ionic strength of the equilibration buffer led to enhanced mass transfer during uptake, independent of the transport model used, and specifically for larger proteins like lactoferrin and mAb, the most significant effects were evident in the sorbent of the highest ligand density. For lysozyme, higher ligand density leads to higher static and dynamic binding capacities whereas for lactoferrin and the mAb, the binding capacity is a complex function of accessible porosity due to ionic strength-dependent changes. Ligand density has a less pronounced effect on the elution rate, presumably due to ionic strength-dependent changes in the pore architecture of the sorbents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Examining the structure, reliability, and validity of the Chinese personal growth initiative scale-II: evidence for the importance of intentional self-change among Chinese.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongfei; Chang, Edward C

    2014-01-01

    We examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Chinese version of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II (CPGIS-II) using data from a sample of 927 Chinese university students. Consistent with previous findings, confirmatory factor analyses supported a 4-factor model of the CPGIS-II. Reliability analyses indicated that the 4 CPGIS-II subscales, namely Readiness for Change, Planfulness, Using Resources, and Intentional Behavior, demonstrated good internal consistency reliability and adequate test-retest reliability across a 4-week period. In addition, evidence for convergent and incremental validity was found in relation to measures of positive and negative psychological adjustment. Finally, results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the 4 personal growth initiative dimensions, especially planfulness, accounted for additional unique variance in psychological adjustment beyond resilience. Some implications for using the CPGIS-II in Chinese are discussed.

  11. Conformational Change in Molecular Assembly of Nickel(II) Tetra(n-propyl)porphycene Triggered by Potential Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Soichiro; Kawamoto, Teppei; Okawara, Toru; Hisaeda, Yoshio; Abe, Masaaki

    2016-12-27

    Metal-coordinated porphyrin and related compounds are important for developing molecular architectures that mimic enzymes. Porphycene, a structural isomer of porphyrin, has shown unique properties in semiartificial myoglobin. To explore its potential as a molecular building block, we studied the molecular assembly of nickel(II) tetra(n-propyl)porphycene (NiTPrPc), a metalloporphycene with introduced tetra n-propyl moieties, on the Au(111) electrode surface using in situ scanning tunneling microscopy. Because of the low molecular symmetry of NiTPrPc, the molecular assembly undergoes unique phase transitions due to conformational change of the n-propyl moieties. The phase transitions can be precisely controlled by the electrode potential, demonstrating that the latter can play an important role in the porphycene molecular assembly on Au surface. This new discovery indicates possible uses of this porphycene framework in molecular engineering.

  12. Warm up II: performance changes following active warm up and how to structure the warm up.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David

    2003-01-01

    While warm up is considered to be essential for optimum performance, there is little scientific evidence supporting its effectiveness in many situations. As a result, warm-up procedures are usually based on the trial and error experience of the athlete or coach, rather than on scientific study. Summarising the findings of the many warm-up studies conducted over the years is difficult. Many of the earlier studies were poorly controlled, contained few study participants and often omitted statistical analyses. Furthermore, over the years, warm up protocols consisting of different types (e.g. active, passive, specific) and structures (e.g. varied intensity, duration and recovery) have been used. Finally, while many studies have investigated the physiological responses to warm up, relatively few studies have reported changes in performance following warm up. The first part of this review critically analyses reported changes in performance following various active warm-up protocols. While there is a scarcity of well-controlled studies with large subject numbers and appropriate statistical analyses, a number of conclusions can be drawn regarding the effects of active warm up on performance. Active warm up tends to result in slightly larger improvements in short-term performance (<10 seconds) than those achieved by passive heating alone. However, short-term performance may be impaired if the warm-up protocol is too intense or does not allow sufficient recovery, and results in a decreased availability of high-energy phosphates before commencing the task. Active warm up appears to improve both long-term (>/=5 minutes) and intermediate performance (>10 seconds, but <5 minutes) if it allows the athlete to begin the subsequent task in a relatively non-fatigued state, but with an elevated baseline oxygen consumption (VO(2)). While active warm up has been reported to improve endurance performance, it may have a detrimental effect on endurance performance if it causes a

  13. Photosystem II functionality and antioxidant system changes during leaf rolling in post-stress emerging Ctenanthe setosa exposed to drought.

    PubMed

    Terzi, Rabiye; Saruhan, Neslihan; Sağlam, A; Nar, Hatice; Kadioğlu, A

    2009-12-01

    We studied the changes in antioxidant system and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in post-stress emerging Ctenanthe setosa (Rosc.) Eichler (Marantaceae) plants (PSE plants) having reduced leaf area under drought stress causing leaf rolling and re-watering. PSE plants were compared to primary stressed plants (PS) in previous studies. The parameters were measured at different visual leaf rolling scores from 1 to 4 (1 is unrolled, 4 is tightly rolled and the others is intermediate form). Water potentials and stomatal conductance of leaves were gradually decreased during leaf rolling. Similarly, maximum quantum efficiency of open PS II center and quantum yield of PS II decreased during the rolling period. Non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence decreased at score 2 then increased while photochemical quenching did not change during leaf rolling. Electron transport rate decreased only at score 4 but approximately reached to score 1 level after re-watering. Superoxide dismutase activity was not constant at all leaf rolling scores. Ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase activities generally tended to increase during leaf rolling. Lipid peroxidation and H 2 O 2 content increased at score 2 but decreased at the later scores. On the other hand, O 2 .- production increased during the rolling period. After re-watering of the plants having score 4 of leaf rolling, antioxidant enzyme activities were lower than those of score 1. Other physiological parameters also tended to reach the value of score 1. The results indicated that PSE plants gained drought tolerance by reducing leaf area effectively induced their antioxidant systems and protected the photosynthesis under drought stress similar to PS plants.

  14. Operation Everest. II: Spirometric and radiographic changes in acclimatized humans at simulated high altitudes.

    PubMed

    Welsh, C H; Wagner, P D; Reeves, J T; Lynch, D; Cink, T M; Armstrong, J; Malconian, M K; Rock, P B; Houston, C S

    1993-05-01

    We report spirometry and radiographic data on eight normal male human subjects during prolonged graded altitude exposure to as high as 8,848 m above sea level in a hypobaric chamber. We found a significant and progressive drop in FVC by 14 +/- 3% over 40 days, which resolved slowly during the first 48 h after descent. With altitude, midrange forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75) increased by 82 +/- 3%, probably because of reduced air density. FEV1, however, did not change. Chest radiographs on subjects taken 2 h after descent to sea level showed a pattern of pulmonary artery enlargement and interstitial edema. These data suggest that increased pulmonary blood volume and edema may be causes of the restricted pulmonary function pattern.

  15. Adrenocortical toxicity of 3-methylsulfonyl-DDE in mice. II. Mitochondrial changes following ecologically relevant doses

    SciTech Connect

    Joensson, C.J.R.; Rodriguez-Martinez, H.; Lund, B.O.; Bergman, A.; Brandt, I. )

    1991-02-01

    Transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize early ultrastructural lesions in the adrenal zona fasciculata of female C57BL mice given a single ip injection of the adrenocorticolytic DDT-metabolite 3-methylsulfonyl-DDE (MeSO2-DDE). Following 3 mg/kg, mitochondrial changes were observed 6 hr after dosing. At 12 and 24 hr the mitochondrial changes were conspicuous, with disorganization and disappearance of central cristae. At doses of 6, 12, and 25 mg/kg body wt initial (6 hr) mitochondrial vacuolization was observed, followed by disappearance of mitochondria (6-12 mg/kg) or cellular necrosis (25 mg/kg). The metabolic activation and binding of MeSO2-(14C)DDE in adrenal homogenates were determined in vitro. The irreversible binding of MeSO2-(14C)DDE to the mitochondria-containing adrenal S-9 pellet fraction was 50 times higher than that to the postmitochondrial S-12 supernatant fraction. The apparent Km was 2.1 microM and the apparent Vmax was 104 pmol/mg protein/30 min for the binding of MeSO2-(14C)DDE to S-0.3 supernatants. The irreversible protein binding was inhibited by metyrapone (Ki = 1 microM) and 11-deoxycorticosterone (Ki = 3 microM). In conclusion, the adrenal metabolic activation of MeSO2-DDE is suggested to be mediated by a mitochondrial cytochrome P450 form, presumably P450 (11 beta). A primary mitochondrial lesion develops and subsequently leads to degeneration and necrosis of the zona fasciculata.

  16. Cockle infection by Himasthla quissetensis - II. The theoretical effects of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Montaudouin, Xavier; Blanchet, Hugues; Desclaux-Marchand, Céline; Bazairi, Hocein; Alfeddy, Nazik; Bachelet, Guy

    2016-07-01

    Numerous marine populations experience parasite pressure. This is the case of the cockles Cerastoderma edule which are often highly infected by trematode macroparasites. These parasites display a complex life cycle, with a succession of free-living and parasitic stages. Climate, and in particular temperature, is an important modulator of the transmission dynamics of parasites. Consequently, global change is thought to have implications for the epidemiology of infectious diseases. Using Himasthla quissetensis, a dominant parasite of cockles as 2nd intermediate host in Arcachon Bay (France), we used mathematical models of parasite emergence (cercariae) and parasite infection (metacercariae) in cockles as a function of water temperature, in order to study different scenarios of temperature increases. Globally, with a + 0.5 °C to + 6.0 °C simulation, cumulated emergence of cercariae and accumulation of metacercariae tended to decrease or stagnate, respectively. This is the consequence of a trade-off between sooner (spring) and later (autumn) cercariae emergence/infestation on one hand, and a longer inhibition period of cercariae emergence/infestation during the hottest days in summer. Using sea water temperature in Oualidia (Morocco) where mean annual sea temperature is 3 °C higher than in Arcachon Bay, our model predicted infestation all year long (no seasonality). The model gave a correct estimation of the total number of parasites that was expected in cockles. Conversely, observed infestation in Oualidia followed a seasonal pattern like in Arcachon Bay. These results suggest that, if temperature is a strong driver of parasite transmission, extrapolation in the framework of climate change should be performed with caution.

  17. Sleep Quality Changes during Overwintering at the German Antarctic Stations Neumayer II and III: The Gender Factor

    PubMed Central

    Steinach, Mathias; Kohlberg, Eberhard; Maggioni, Martina Anna; Mendt, Stefan; Opatz, Oliver; Stahn, Alexander; Gunga, Hanns-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Antarctic residence holds many challenges to human physiology, like increased psycho-social tension and altered circadian rhythm, known to influence sleep. We assessed changes in sleep patterns during 13 months of overwintering at the German Stations Neumayer II and III from 2008 to 2014, with focus on gender, as many previous investigations were inconclusive regarding gender-based differences or had only included men. Materials & Methods Time in bed, sleep time, sleep efficiency, number of arousals, sleep latency, sleep onset, sleep offset, and physical activity level were determined twice per month during seven overwintering campaigns of n = 54 participants (37 male, 17 female) using actimetry. Data were analyzed using polynomial regression and analysis of covariance for change over time with the covariates gender, inhabited station, overwintering season and influence of physical activity and local sunshine radiation. Results We found overall longer times in bed (p = 0.004) and sleep time (p = 0.014) for women. The covariate gender had a significant influence on time in bed (p<0.001), sleep time (p<0.001), number of arousals (p = 0.04), sleep latency (p = 0.04), and sleep onset (p<0.001). Women separately (p = 0.02), but not men (p = 0.165), showed a linear increase in number of arousals. Physical activity decreased over overwintering time for men (p = 0.003), but not for women (p = 0.174). The decline in local sunshine radiation led to a 48 minutes longer time in bed (p<0.001), 3.8% lower sleep efficiency (p<0.001), a delay of 32 minutes in sleep onset (p<0.001), a delay of 54 minutes in sleep offset (p<0.001), and 11% less daily energy expenditure (p<0.001), for all participants in reaction to the Antarctic winter’s darkness-phase. Conclusions Overwinterings at the Stations Neumayer II and III are associated with significant changes in sleep patterns, with dependences from overwintering time and local sunshine radiation. Gender appears to be an

  18. Light-induced changes in the fluorescence yield of chlorophyll a in vivo. II. Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, G; Govindjee

    1968-11-01

    The long-term fluorescence induction in Chlorella pyrenoidosa consists of a fast rise of the fluorescence yield from the level S (of the first wave transient) to a maximum M, followed by slower decay to a terminal stationary level T. The maximum M is attained within 40 seconds from the onset of illumination while the decay to the terminal level T lasts for several minutes. The fluorescence rise (S --> M) coincides with an increase in the rate of oxygen evolution, which, however, remains constant during the fluorescence decay (M --> T). Poisons of photosynthesis 3, (3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1 dimethylurea (DCMU, o-phenathroline) inhibit the fluorescence induction, while uncouplers of photophosphorylation affect the fluorescence time course only when they function at an early stage of the coupling sequence e.g., carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoremethoxy phenylhydrazone, (FCCP, atabrin). Phosphorylation inhibitors affecting only the terminal esterification step (phlorizin) have little effect on the fluorescence kinetics. These results suggest that the fluorescence induction requires the operation of a phosphorylating electron transport and that it is possibly related to the light-induced structural changes which accompany photophosphorylation.

  19. Fasting in king penguin. II. Hormonal and metabolic changes during molt.

    PubMed

    Cherel, Y; Leloup, J; Le Maho, Y

    1988-02-01

    The coincidence of fast and molt in penguins is an interesting condition for investigating the factors controlling protein metabolism; avian molt involves the utilization of amino acids for synthesis of new feathers, whereas a major factor for adaptation to fasting in birds, as for mammals, is reduction in net protein breakdown. Hormonal and biochemical changes were studied in seven molting king penguins. Their initial body mass was 18 kg. It decreased by 58% over 41 days of fasting. Feather synthesis lasted for the first 3 wk of the fast. It was marked by plasma concentrations of alanine and uric acid 1.5 to 2 times those for nonmolting fast, and plasma thyroxine was increased five times. At the completion of molt all these values returned to levels comparable to those in nonmolting fast. As indicated by high plasma levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate, lipid stores were mobilized readily during molting. The fast ended by a phase of enhancement in protein utilization that was characterized by a fivefold increase in uricacidemia and coincided with an 80% drop in plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate and a fourfold increase in plasma corticosterone. These data suggest that two different hormones control the two successive periods marked by an increased protein mobilization during the molting fast, i.e., thyroxine during feather growth and corticosterone toward the end of the fast, when the molt is completed.

  20. Maternity blues and major endocrine changes: Cardiff puerperal mood and hormone study II.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, B.; Lovett, L.; Newcombe, R. G.; Read, G. F.; Walker, R.; Riad-Fahmy, D.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To define relation between mood and concentrations of progesterone and cortisol during perinatal period to test hypothesis that rapid physiological withdrawal of steroid hormones after delivery is associated with depression. DESIGN--Prospective study of primiparous women from two weeks before expected date of delivery to 35 days postpartum. SETTING--Antenatal clinic in university hospital, obstetric inpatient unit, patients' homes. SUBJECTS--120 of 156 primiparous women interviewed. Remainder excluded because of major marital, socioeconomic, or medical problems or because caesarean section required. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Concentrations of progesterone and cortisol in saliva samples; women's moods assessed by various scores for depression. RESULTS--Changes in salivary progesterone and cortisol concentrations were similar to those already characterised for plasma. Peak mean score for maternity blues (5.3 on Stein scale) was on day five postpartum (P < 0.02 compared with mean scores on other postpartum days). High postpartum scores for maternity blues were associated with high antenatal progesterone concentrations on day before delivery (P < 0.05), with high rate of rise of antenatal progesterone concentrations (P < 0.05), with decreasing progesterone concentrations from day of delivery to day of peak blues score (P > or = 0.01), and with low progesterone concentrations on day of peak blues score (P < 0.01). Seventy eight women were designated as having maternity blues (peak score > or = 8 on Stein scale) while 39 had no blues. Women with blues had significantly higher antenatal progesterone concentrations and lower postnatal concentrations than women without blues (geometric mean progesterone concentrations: one day before delivery 3860 pmol/l v 3210 pmol/l respectively, P = 0.03; ten days postpartum 88 pmol/l v 114 pmol/l, P = 0.048). Cortisol concentrations were not significantly associated with mood. CONCLUSION--Maternal mood in the days immediately

  1. Modeling phosphorus in the Lake Allatoona watershed using SWAT: II. Effect of land use change.

    PubMed

    Lin, Z; Radcliffe, D E; Risse, L M; Romeis, J J; Jackson, C R

    2009-01-01

    Lake Allatoona is a large reservoir northeast of metropolitan Atlanta, GA, threatened by excessive algal growth. We used the calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) models developed in our companion paper to estimate the annual P load to Lake Allatoona in 1992 and in 2001 after significant changes occurred in land use. Land use data in 1992 and 2001 from the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium showed that forest land use decreased during this period by about 20%, urban land use increased by about 225%, and pasture land uses increased by about 50%. Simulation results showed that the P load to Lake Allatoona increased from 176.5 to 207.3 Mg, which were 87.8% and 103.1%, respectively, of the total P (TP) annual cap (201 Mg) set by the Georgia Environmental Protection Division (GAEPD) for discharge into Lake Allatoona. In the early 1990s, the greatest sources of the TP load to Lake Allatoona (and their percentages of the total load) were pasture (33.6%), forest (27.5%), and point sources (25.0%). Urban land uses contributed about 6.0% and row-crop agriculture contributed about 6.8%. A decade later, the greatest two TP sources were pasture (52.7%) and urban (20.9%) land uses. Point-source P loads decreased significantly to 11.6%. Permit limits on poultry processing plants reduced the point-source P loads, but increasing urban and pasture land uses increased nonpoint sources of P. To achieve further reductions in the P load to Lake Allatoona, contributions from pasture and urban nonpoint sources will need to be addressed.

  2. Reasons Why People Change Their Alcohol Consumption in Later Life: Findings from the Whitehall II Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Annie; Bell, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Harmful alcohol consumption among the ageing population is an important public health issue. Very few studies ask drinkers why they change their consumption in later life. The aim of this paper was to determine whether a group of people aged over 60 years increased or decreased their alcohol consumption over the past decade and to determine the reasons for their change. We also examined whether the responses varied by age, sex and socio-economic position (SEP). Subjects and Methods Data were taken from 6,011 participants (4,310 men, 1,701 women, age range 61 to 85 years) who completed questionnaires at phase 11 (2012-2013) of the Whitehall II Cohort Study. Results Over half the study members reported a change in alcohol consumption over the past decade (40% decreased, 11% increased). The most common reasons given for decreases were as a health precaution and fewer social occasions. Common reasons for increases were more social occasions and fewer responsibilities. The lowest SEP group was less likely to increase consumption compared to high SEP (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.81). Women were more likely to increase consumption in response to stress/depression than men (RR1.53, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.25). Compared to high SEP, the lowest SEP group was less likely to reduce as a health precaution (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.76). Conclusions Alcohol consumption in late life is not fixed. Reasons for change vary by age, sex and SEP. Such information could be used to tailor intervention strategies to reduce harmful consumption. PMID:25756213

  3. I. Climate change on ancient Mars. II. Exoplanet geodynamics and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kite, Edwin Stephen

    . Seasonal snowmelt on Early Mars is possible under unusual orbital conditions provided that the snow is dust-contaminated. The predicted distribution of snowmelt can explain the distribution of sedimentary rocks on Mars, but only if Mars had a thin atmosphere when the sedimentary rocks formed. This framework is the first to link upcoming observations by the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover at the lower Gale Crater mound to past global climate on Mars. The model makes predictions about the lower Gale Crater mound that can be tested using Curiosity rover data. Earth is the only example of long term climate stability that is available for study, so long term climate stability is difficult to understand. Extrasolar planets may ameliorate this problem of uniqueness. It is clear that rates of volcanic activity and of surface weathering are important in regulating long term climate. In the second part of this thesis, I model the rate of volcanism on massive Earth-like planets, and the surface weathering rate on planets in 1:1 spin:orbit resonance. "Super-Earths" in the range 1-10 Earth masses have been detected by radial velocity and transit methods. Using an idealized mantle thermal evolution model to drive mantle-melting models, I show that the rate of volcanism on massive Earth like planets is a weak function of planet mass. Planet mass can, however, affect tectonics by changing the mode of mantle convection. Earth's climate stability depends on a negative feedback involving the temperature-dependent rate of weathering and mean surface temperature. I use an idealized model to show that for intermediate surface pressures and for low-opacity atmospheres, nonlinearities in the surface energy balance can reverse the sign of this dependence on tidally-locked planets. This leads to climate instability. I conclude by discussing future observations and research aimed at understanding long-term climate stability.

  4. Synthesis and Cu(II) coordination chemistry of a patellamide derivative: consequences of the change from the natural thiazole/oxazoline to the artificial imidazole heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Comba, Peter; Dovalil, Nina; Hanson, Graeme R; Linti, Gerald

    2011-06-06

    The synthesis and Cu(II) coordination chemistry of the cyclic pseudo-octapeptide H(4)pat(1), a dimethyl-imidazole analogue of naturally occurring cyclic peptides (patellamide A-F, ascidiacyclamide) is reported. Substitution of the oxazoline and thiazole heterocycles by dimethyl-imidazoles leads to a slightly different structure of the macrocycle in the solid state. The Cu(II) coordination chemistry of H(4)pat(1), monitored with high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry, spectrophotometric titrations, and EPR spectroscopy, revealed the presence of both mono- and dinuclear Cu(II) complexes. The dimethyl-imidazole analogue shows a high cooperativity in Cu(II) coordination, that is, the preferred formation of dinuclear complexes. The dinuclear unbridged Cu(II) complexes of H(4)pat(1) have unusual EPR features, reminiscent of those of patellamide D: the dipole-dipole interaction of the Cu(II) centers is negligible due to the "magic angle" orientation of the two Cu(II) ions. Density functional theory calculations (DFT) are used to model the structures of the Cu(II) complexes, and the structural assignments from the spectroscopic investigations are supported by the optimized and by X-ray structures of the metal-free macrocycle and dinuclear Cu(II) complexes of H(4)pat(1). The rigidity of the dimethyl-imidazole rings has a significant effect on the structures of the metal-free ligands and Cu(II) complexes and therefore changes the properties of these compounds. This may explain why Nature has chosen the thiazole-oxazoline combination for the patellamides and ascidiacyclamide. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. Death of pastures syndrome: tissue changes in Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Júnior, N G; Ariano, A P R; Silva, I V

    2016-07-11

    The quality of forage production is a prerequisite to raising livestock. Therefore, income losses in this activity, primarily cattle raising, can result in the impossibility of economic activity. Through the qualitative and quantitative anatomical study of Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and U. brizantha cv. Marandu, we searched for descriptions and compared changes in the individual vegetative body from populations with death syndrome pastures (DPS). Specimens were collected at different physiological stages from farms in northern Mato Grosso. After collection, the individuals were fixed in FAA50 and stored in 70% alcohol. Histological slides were prepared from the middle third of the sections of roots, rhizomes, and leaves, and the proportions and characteristics of tissues were evaluated in healthy, intermediate, and advanced stages of DPS. Changes were compared between cultivars. With the advancement of the syndrome, the following changes were observed: a more marked decrease in the length of roots in U. hybrida; disorganization of the cortical region of the roots and rhizome cultivars; fungal hyphae in roots and aerenchyma formation in U. hybrida; a decrease in sclerenchyma fiber proportions in roots and leaves; sclerification of the epidermis of U. brizantha rhizomes; and an increase in pericyclic fibers in U. hybrida. Furthermore, there was a decrease in the volume of epidermal cells of the abaxial face of the leaves of both cultivars, with a greater reduction in U. hybrida; a gradual decrease in thickness in the midrib of leaves similar to leaf mesophyll; conduction system obstructions; partial or total cell lysis in roots and rhizomes affected by the syndrome. Obstructions in sieve tube element and companion cells, and sometimes obstruction in xylem vessel elements. The evolution of DPS in cultivars was similar, but there were variations, arising probably from the physiological response to stress, such as aerenchyma formation in the root and increased

  6. Long-term intracerebroventricular infusion of angiotensin II after kainate-induced status epilepticus: Effects on epileptogenesis, brain damage, and diurnal behavioral changes.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Natasha M; Atanasova, Dimitrina; Pechlivanova, Daniela M; Mitreva, Rumyana; Lazarov, Nikolai; Stoynev, Alexander G; Tchekalarova, Jana D

    2015-10-01

    Our previous studies revealed that Angiotensin (Ang) II has anticonvulsant effects in acute seizure models. However, data on its role in experimental models of epilepsy are missing. In the present study, we tested whether posttreatment with Ang II after kainate (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) can affect epileptogenesis, concomitant behavioral changes, and brain damage. The Wistar rats were intracerebroventricularly infused via osmotic mini-pumps with Ang II (1.52μg/μl/day for 28days) after SE. Spontaneous motor seizures (SMS) were video-recorded for up to three months. Locomotor activity, anxiety, and depression-like behavior were evaluated during the last week of drug infusion, while spatial memory was assessed during the 3rd month after SE. Angiotensin II decreased the latency for onset of the first SMS and increased the frequency of SMS two months after SE. The continuous peptide infusion exacerbated the KA-induced hyperactivity and caused depression-like behavior. The reduced anxiety of KA-treated rats was alleviated by Ang II exposure. The KA-induced deficit in the hippocampal-dependent spatial memory was not influenced by Ang II. However, Ang II partially prevented the neuronal damage in the hippocampus, specifically in the CA1 area. The role of AT1 and AT2 receptor activation in the effects of the octapeptide is discussed.

  7. The absence of type II collagen and changes in proteoglycan structure of hyaline cartilage in a case of Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Feshchenko, S P; Rebrin, I A; Sokolnik, V P; Sher, B M; Sokolov, B P; Kalinin, V N; Lazjuk, G I

    1989-04-01

    Structural analysis of hyaline cartilage extracellular matrix components from the ribs and knee joint of a stillborn female with type II achondrogenesis was carried out. The absence of type II collagen, a decrease in the amount of proteoglycans (PG), and structural changes in PG, namely, increased electrophoretic mobility of PG, lower relative content of chondroitin 4-sulfate (Ch4-S), lower molecular weight and decreased total chondroitin sulfate (ChS) sulfation, were detected. Increased amounts of type I and type III collagens, atypical for hyaline cartilage, were revealed. Among the link proteins (LPs), a large protein with a mol. wt. of 48 kDa was predominant. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of the pathogenesis of achondrogenesis ("chondrogenesis imperfecta") are discussed. The data obtained suggest that the primary defect in type II achondrogenesis involves ChS or type II collagen synthesis.

  8. Alterations in photosynthetic pigments and amino acid composition of D1 protein change energy distribution in photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Yokono, Makio; Tomo, Tatsuya; Nagao, Ryo; Ito, Hisashi; Tanaka, Ayumi; Akimoto, Seiji

    2012-05-01

    The marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus accumulates divinyl chlorophylls instead of monovinyl chlorophylls to harvest light energy. As well as this difference in its chromophore composition, some amino acid residues in its photosystem II D1 protein were different from the conserved amino acid residues in other photosynthetic organisms. We examined PSII complexes isolated from mutants of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, in which chromophore and D1 protein were altered (Hisashi Ito and Ayumi Tanaka, 2011) to clarify the effects of chromophores/D1 protein composition on the excitation energy distribution. We prepared the mutants accumulating divinyl chlorophyll (DV mutant). The amino acid residues of V205 and G282 in the D1 protein were substituted with M205 and C282 in the DV mutant to mimic Prochlorococcus D1 protein (DV-V205M/G282C mutant). Isolated PSII complexes were analyzed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Energy transfer in CP47 was interrupted in PSII containing divinyl chlorophylls. The V205M/G282C mutation did not recover the energy transfer pathway in CP47, instead, the mutation allowed the excitation energy transfer from CP43 to CP47, which neighbors in the PSII dimer. Mutual orientation of the subcomplexes of PSII might be affected by the substitution. The changes of the energy transfer pathways would reduce energy transfer from antennae to the PSII reaction center, and allow Prochlorococcus to acquire light tolerance.

  9. Defective histone supply causes changes in RNA polymerase II elongation rate and cotranscriptional pre-mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Jimeno-González, Silvia; Payán-Bravo, Laura; Muñoz-Cabello, Ana M; Guijo, Macarena; Gutierrez, Gabriel; Prado, Félix; Reyes, José C

    2015-12-01

    RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription elongation is a highly regulated process that greatly influences mRNA levels as well as pre-mRNA splicing. Despite many studies in vitro, how chromatin modulates RNAPII elongation in vivo is still unclear. Here, we show that a decrease in the level of available canonical histones leads to more accessible chromatin with decreased levels of canonical histones and variants H2A.X and H2A.Z and increased levels of H3.3. With this altered chromatin structure, the RNAPII elongation rate increases, and the kinetics of pre-mRNA splicing is delayed with respect to RNAPII elongation. Consistent with the kinetic model of cotranscriptional splicing, the rapid RNAPII elongation induced by histone depletion promotes the skipping of variable exons in the CD44 gene. Indeed, a slowly elongating mutant of RNAPII was able to rescue this defect, indicating that the defective splicing induced by histone depletion is a direct consequence of the increased elongation rate. In addition, genome-wide analysis evidenced that histone reduction promotes widespread alterations in pre-mRNA processing, including intron retention and changes in alternative splicing. Our data demonstrate that pre-mRNA splicing may be regulated by chromatin structure through the modulation of the RNAPII elongation rate.

  10. Diverse mechanisms for photoprotection in photosynthesis. Dynamic regulation of photosystem II excitation in response to rapid environmental change.

    PubMed

    Derks, Allen; Schaven, Kristin; Bruce, Doug

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) of photosynthesis catalyzes one of the most challenging reactions in nature, the light driven oxidation of water and release of molecular oxygen. PSII couples the sequential four step oxidation of water and two step reduction of plastoquinone to single photon photochemistry with charge accumulation centers on both its electron donor and acceptor sides. Photon capture, excitation energy transfer, and trapping occur on a much faster time scale than the subsequent electron transfer and charge accumulation steps. A balance between excitation of PSII and the use of the absorbed energy to drive electron transport is essential. If the absorption of light energy increases and/or the sink capacity for photosynthetically derived electrons decreases, potentially deleterious side reactions may occur, including the production of reactive oxygen species. In response, a myriad of fast (second to minutes timescale) and reversible photoprotective mechanisms are observed to regulate PSII excitation when the environment changes more quickly than can be acclimated to by gene expression. This review compares the diverse photoprotective mechanisms that are used to dissipate (quench) PSII excitation within the antenna systems of higher land plants, green algae, diatoms, and cyanobacteria. The molecular bases of how PSII excitation pressure is sensed by the antenna system and how the antenna then reconfigures itself from a light harvesting to an energy dissipative mode are discussed.

  11. Defective histone supply causes changes in RNA polymerase II elongation rate and cotranscriptional pre-mRNA splicing

    PubMed Central

    Jimeno-González, Silvia; Payán-Bravo, Laura; Muñoz-Cabello, Ana M.; Guijo, Macarena; Gutierrez, Gabriel; Prado, Félix; Reyes, José C.

    2015-01-01

    RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription elongation is a highly regulated process that greatly influences mRNA levels as well as pre-mRNA splicing. Despite many studies in vitro, how chromatin modulates RNAPII elongation in vivo is still unclear. Here, we show that a decrease in the level of available canonical histones leads to more accessible chromatin with decreased levels of canonical histones and variants H2A.X and H2A.Z and increased levels of H3.3. With this altered chromatin structure, the RNAPII elongation rate increases, and the kinetics of pre-mRNA splicing is delayed with respect to RNAPII elongation. Consistent with the kinetic model of cotranscriptional splicing, the rapid RNAPII elongation induced by histone depletion promotes the skipping of variable exons in the CD44 gene. Indeed, a slowly elongating mutant of RNAPII was able to rescue this defect, indicating that the defective splicing induced by histone depletion is a direct consequence of the increased elongation rate. In addition, genome-wide analysis evidenced that histone reduction promotes widespread alterations in pre-mRNA processing, including intron retention and changes in alternative splicing. Our data demonstrate that pre-mRNA splicing may be regulated by chromatin structure through the modulation of the RNAPII elongation rate. PMID:26578803

  12. Extraction treatment of a class II division 2 malocclusion with mandibular posterior discrepancy and changes in stomatognathic function.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Kunihiro; Tomonari, Hiroshi; Kitashima, Fumiaki; Miyawaki, Shouichi

    2015-03-01

    This case report describes the successful extraction treatment of a Class II division 2 malocclusion with mandibular posterior discrepancy and a congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisor on the left side. The posterior space in the mandibular arch was small, and the mandibular second molars were impacted, with distal tipping. The discrepancies in the maxillary and mandibular arches were resolved by extraction of the maxillary lateral incisor on the right side and the mandibular second premolars on both sides. The mesial movement of the mandibular first molars occurred appropriately, with the second molars moving into an upright position. A lip bumper was used with a preadjusted edgewise appliance in the maxillary dentition to reinforce molar anchorage and labial movement of the retroclined incisors. Despite the extraction treatment, a deep bite could be corrected without aggravation as a result of the lip bumper and utility arch in the mandibular dentition. Thus, an Angle Class I molar relationship and an ideal overbite were achieved. The occlusal contact area and masticatory muscle activities during maximum clenching increased after treatment. The maximum closing velocity and the maximum gape during chewing increased, and the chewing pattern changed from the chopping to grinding type. The findings in the present case suggest that the correction of a deep bite might be effective for improving stomatognathic function.

  13. Correlating chemical changes in subchondral bone mineral due to aging or defective type II collagen by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehring, Karen A.; Roessler, Blake J.; Morris, Michael D.

    2007-02-01

    We show that early indicators of osteoarthritis are observed in Raman spectroscopy by probing femur surfaces excised from mouse models of early-onset osteoarthritis. Current clinical methods to examine arthritic joints include radiological examination of the joint, but may not be capable of detecting subtle chemical changes in the bone tissue, which may provide the earliest indications of osteoarthritis. Recent research has indicated that the subchondral bone may have a more significant role in the onset of osteoarthritis than previously realized. We will report the effect of age and defective type II collagen on Raman band area ratios used to describe bone structure and function. The carbonate-to-phosphate ratio is used to assess carbonate substitution into the bone mineral and the mineral-to-matrix ratio is used to measure bone mineralization. Mineral-to-matrix ratios indicate that subchondral bone becomes less mineralized as both the wild-type and Del1 (+/-) transgenic mice age. Moreover, the mineral-to-matrix ratios show that the subchondral bone of Del1 (+/-) transgenic mice is less mineralized than that of the wild-type mice. Carbonate-to-phosphate ratios from Del1 (+/-) transgenic mice follow the same longitudinal trend as wild-type mice. The ratio is slightly higher in the transgenic mice, indicating more carbonate content in the bone mineral. Raman characterization of bone mineralization provides an invaluable insight into the process of cartilage degeneration and the relationship with subchondral bone at the ultrastructural level.

  14. Termination-II interstadial/stadial climate change recorded in two stalagmites from the north European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, Gina E.; Spötl, Christoph; Cheng, Hai; Boch, Ronny; Min, Angela; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the sequence of events that take place during glacial-interglacial climate transitions is important for improving our knowledge of abrupt climate change. Here, we present a new stacked, high-resolution, precisely-dated speleothem stable isotope record from the northern Alps, which provides an important record of temperature and moisture-source changes between 134 and 111 ka for Europe and the wider North Atlantic realm. The record encompasses the penultimate deglaciation (Termination II (TII)), which lies beyond the limit of radiocarbon dating, thus providing an important new archive for a crucial period of rapid paleoclimate change. Warmer and wetter ice-free conditions were achieved by 134.1 ± 0.7 ka (modelled ages) as indicated by the presence of liquid water at the site. Temperatures warmed further at 133.7 ± 0.5 ka and led into an interstadial, synchronous with slightly elevated monsoon strength during the week monsoon interval. The interstadial experienced an unstable climate with a trough in temperature associated with a slowdown in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and a reduction in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation. The interstadial ended with a more extreme cold reversal lasting 500 years in which NADW formation remained active but the subpolar gyre weakened allowing cool polar waters to penetrate southwards. The main warming associated with TII was very rapid, taking place between 130.9 ± 0.9 and 130.7 ± 0.9 ka coeval with initial monsoon strengthening. Temperatures then plateaued before being interrupted by a 600-year cold event at 129.1 ± 0.6 ka, associated once again with penetration of polar waters southwards into the North Atlantic and a slowdown in monsoon strengthening. Sub-orbital climate oscillations were thus a feature of TII in the north Atlantic realm, which broadly resemble the Bølling/Allerød-Younger Dryas-8.2 ka event pattern of change observed in Termination I despite monsoon records

  15. Changes in blood pressure and dipsogenic responsiveness to angiotensin II during chronic exposure of rats to cold

    SciTech Connect

    Fregly, M.J.; Shechtman, O.; van Bergen, P.; Reeber, C.; Papanek, P.E. )

    1991-03-11

    To assess the role of the renin-angiotensin (RA) system in the development of cold-induced hypertension in rats, systolic blood pressure (SBP), plasma renin activity (PRA), and the dipsogenic responsiveness to s.c. administration of angiotensin II (AII) were measured weekly for 4 weeks. SBP increased significantly during the third week of exposure to cold (5C), compared to warm-adapted controls. A significant increase in SBP occurred during the third week of cold. In contrast, (PRA) increased within the first week of cold, and declined thereafter to reach the level of the control by the third week. By the fourth week, PRA decreased to a level significantly below that of control. The dipsogenic responsiveness to acute administration of AII increased significantly by the third week of cold and remained significantly elevated during the fourth week. There was a significant direct relationship between dipsogenic responsiveness to AII and SBP in the cold-treated but not the control group. There was also a significant indirect linear relationship between PRA and dipsogenic responsiveness to AII. Cold-treated rats had significant increases in urinary norepinephrine output and weights of heart, kidneys, adrenals, and brown adipose tissue. Thus, the results suggest, but do not prove, either that the elevation of blood pressure under these conditions may be induced by changes in the RA system. The results suggest further that the reduction in the drinking response to AII accompanying increases in PRA may be related to changes in the regulation of central receptors for AII.

  16. A Multistage Longitudinal Comparative (MLC) Design Stage II: Evaluation of the Changing Lives Program (CLP)--The Possible Selves Questionnaire-Qualitative Extensions (PSQ-QE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kortsch, Gabrielle; Kurtines, William M.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.

    2008-01-01

    The study reported in this paper, a Multistage Longitudinal Comparative (MLC) Design Stage II evaluation conducted as a planned preliminary efficacy evaluation (psychometric evaluation of measures, short-term controlled outcome studies, etc.) of the Changing Lives Program (CLP), provided evidence for the reliability and validity of qualitative…

  17. Modelling forest carbon stock changes as affected by harvest and natural disturbances. II. EU-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Pilli, Roberto; Grassi, Giacomo; Kurz, Werner A; Moris, Jose V; Viñas, Raúl Abad

    2016-12-01

    Forests and the forest sector may play an important role in mitigating climate change. The Paris Agreement and the recent legislative proposal to include the land use sector in the EU 2030 climate targets reflect this expectation. However, greater confidence on estimates from national greenhouse gas inventories (GHGI) and more comprehensive analyses of mitigation options are needed to seize this mitigation potential. The aim of this paper is to provide a tool at EU level for verifying the EU GHGI and for simulating specific policy and forest management scenarios. Therefore, the Carbon Budget Model (CBM) was applied for an integrated assessment of the EU forest carbon (C) balance from 2000 to 2012, including: (i) estimates of the C stock and net CO2 emissions for forest management (FM), afforestation/reforestation (AR) and deforestation (D), covering carbon in both the forest and the harvest wood product (HWP) pools; (ii) an overall analysis of the C dynamics associated with harvest and natural disturbances (mainly storms and fires); (iii) a comparison of our estimates with the data reported in the EU GHGI. Overall, the average annual FM sink (-365 Mt CO2 year(-1)) estimated by the CBM in the period 2000-2012 corresponds to about 7 % of total GHG emissions at the EU level for the same period (excluding land use, land-use change and forestry). The HWP pool sink (-44 Mt CO2 year(-1)) contributes an additional 1 %. Emissions from D (about 33 Mt CO2 year(-1)) are more than compensated by the sink in AR (about 43 Mt CO2 year(-1) over the period). For FM, the estimates from the CBM were about 8 % lower than the EU GHGI, a value well within the typical uncertainty range of the EU forest sink estimates. For AR and D the match with the EU GHGI was nearly perfect (difference <±2 % in the period 2008-2012). Our analysis on harvest and natural disturbances shows that: (i) the impact of harvest is much greater than natural disturbances but, because of salvage logging

  18. Zn(II)-curcumin protects against oxidative stress, deleterious changes in sperm parameters and histological alterations in a male mouse model of cyclophosphamide-induced reproductive damage.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wen-Ping; Mei, Xue-Ting; Wang, Yu; Zheng, Yan-Ping; Xue, Yun-Fei; Xu, Dong-Hui

    2015-03-01

    The poor bioavailability and stability of curcumin limit its clinical application. A novel Zn(II)-curcumin complex was synthesized and its effects against cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced reproductive damage were compared with curcumin. Oral administration of Zn(II)-curcumin significantly prevented CP-induced elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) level and reductions in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) content in mouse testis. Zn(II)-curcumin significantly ameliorated CP-induced reductions in body and reproductive organs weights. Zn(II)-curcumin dose-dependently ameliorated CP-induced reproductive system impairments, by improving sperm parameters (sperm count, viability, motility) and reducing serum testosterone and histological alterations. Compared to curcumin at the same dose, Zn(II)-curcumin more effectively alleviated CP-induced reproductive injury, leading to a reduced severity of testicular pathologic changes, lower MDA level, elevated SOD activity and GSH content, and increased sperm parameters and serum testosterone. These results suggest Zn(II)-curcumin more effectively protects against CP-induced reproductive damage than curcumin alone due to a synergistic reduction in oxidative stress.

  19. Assessment of the changes in quality of life of patients with class II and III deformities during and after orthodontic-surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Baherimoghaddam, T; Tabrizi, R; Naseri, N; Pouzesh, A; Oshagh, M; Torkan, S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to assess and compare the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of patients with class II and III deformities during and after orthodontic-surgical treatment. Thirty class III and 28 class II patients were evaluated at baseline (T0), just prior to surgery (T1), at 6 months after surgery (T2), and at 12 months after debonding (T3). OHRQoL was assessed using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Friedman two-way analysis of variance and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were performed to compare the relative changes in OHRQoL during treatment. Significant changes in the overall OHIP-14 scores were observed during and after orthodontic-surgical treatment in both groups. During the pre-surgical stage, psychological discomfort and psychological disability decreased in class III patients, and class II patients experienced a significant deterioration in psychological discomfort during the same period. Six months after surgery, patients in both groups showed improvements in psychological discomfort, social disability, and handicap. Physical disability and functional limitation showed further improvement at 12 months after debonding in class II patients. This study reaffirms that orthodontic-surgical treatment has a significant effect on the OHRQoL of class III and class II patients.

  20. Seasonal changes of brain GnRH-I, -II, and -III during the final reproductive period in adult male and female sea lamprey.

    PubMed

    Sower, Stacia A; Balz, Eileen; Aquilina-Beck, Allisan; Kavanaugh, Scott I

    2011-01-15

    Sea lampreys are anadromous and semelparous, i.e., they spawn only once in their lifetime, after which they die. Sexual maturation is thus a synchronized process coordinated with the life stages of the lamprey. Recently, a novel gonadotropin-releasing hormone, lamprey GnRH-II (lGnRH-II), was identified in lampreys and suggested to have a hypothalamic role in reproduction (Kavanaugh et al., 2008). To further understand the role of lGnRH-II, changes in ovarian morphology, brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (lGnRH-I, -II, and -III), and plasma estradiol were examined during the final two months of the reproductive season of adult male and female sea lamprey. The results showed significant correlations between water temperature, fluctuation of brain GnRHs, plasma estradiol and reproductive stages during this time. In males, lGnRH-I concentration increased early in the season, peaked, then declined with a subsequent increase with the final maturational stages. In comparison, lGnRH-II and -III concentrations were also elevated early in the season in males, dropped and then peaked in mid-season with a subsequent decline of lGnRH-II or increase of lGnRH-III at spermiation. In females, lGnRH-III concentration peaked in mid-season with a drop at ovulation while lGnRH-I remained unchanged during the season. In contrast, lGnRH-II concentrations in females were elevated at the beginning of the season and then dropped and remained low during the rest of the season. In summary, these data provide evidence that there are seasonal and differential changes of the three GnRHs during this final reproductive period suggesting specific roles for each of the GnRHs in male and female reproduction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Final Report for Dynamic Models for Causal Analysis of Panel Data. Models for Change in Quantitative Variables, Part II Scholastic Models. Part II, Chapter 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannan, Michael T.

    This document is part of a series of chapters described in SO 011 759. Stochastic models for the sociological analysis of change and the change process in quantitative variables are presented. The author lays groundwork for the statistical treatment of simple stochastic differential equations (SDEs) and discusses some of the continuities of…

  2. Effect of graphene tunnel barrier on Schottky barrier height of Heusler alloy Co2MnSi/graphene/n-Ge junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui-fang, Li; Jing, Hu; Hui, Lv; Zhijun, Cui; Xiaowei, Hou; Shibin, Liu; Yongqian, Du

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate that the insertion of a graphene tunnel barrier between Heusler alloy Co2MnSi and the germanium (Ge) channel modulates the Schottky barrier height and the resistance-area product of the spin diode. We confirm that the Fermi level is depinned and a reduction in the electron Schottky barrier height (SBH) occurs following the insertion of the graphene layer between Co2MnSi and Ge. The electron SBH is modulated in the 0.34 eV-0.61 eV range. Furthermore, the transport mechanism changes from rectifying to symmetric tunneling following the insertion. This behavior provides a pathway for highly efficient spin injection from a Heusler alloy into a Ge channel with high electron and hole mobility. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61504107) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 3102014JCQ01059 and 3102015ZY043).

  3. Unpredictability of soft tissue changes after camouflage treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusion with maximum anterior retraction using miniscrews.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kayoung; Choi, Sung-Hwan; Choi, Eun-Hee; Choi, Yoon-Jeong; Hwang, Chung-Ju; Cha, Jung-Yul

    2017-03-01

    To compare soft and hard tissue responses based on the degree of maxillary incisor retraction using maximum anchorage in patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion. This retrospective study sample was divided into moderate retraction (<8.0 mm; n = 28) and maximum retraction (≥8.0 mm; n = 29) groups based on the amount of maxillary incisor retraction after extraction of the maxillary and mandibular first premolars for camouflage treatment. Pre- and posttreatment lateral cephalograms were analyzed. There were 2.3 mm and 3.0 mm of upper and lower lip retraction, respectively, in the moderate group; and 4.0 mm and 5.3 mm, respectively, in the maximum group. In the moderate group, the upper lip was most influenced by posterior movement of the cervical point of the maxillary incisor (β = 0.94). The lower lip was most influenced by posterior movement of B-point (β = 0.84) and the cervical point of the mandibular incisor (β = 0.83). Prediction was difficult in the maximum group; no variable showed a significant influence on upper lip changes. The lower lip was highly influenced by posterior movement of the cervical point of the maxillary incisor (β = 0.50), but this correlation was weak in the maximum group. Posterior movement of the cervical point of the anterior teeth is necessary for increased lip retraction. However, periodic evaluation of the lip profile is needed during maximum retraction of the anterior teeth because of limitations in predicting soft tissue responses.

  4. Conformational change of a chiral Schiff base Ni(II) complex with a binaphthyl moiety: application of vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hisako; Mori, Yukie; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2013-05-21

    Vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy was applied to study the structural change of a Ni(II) complex (denoted by [Ni(II)L]) with a chiral Schiff base ligand, (R)- or (S)-2,2'-bis(salicylideneamino)-1,1'-binaphthyl (denoted by H2L), in solution. The major signals in the mid-IR region were assigned on the basis of comparison with the DFT-calculated spectra. The complex transformed reversibly between the square-planar, tetrahedral and octahedral configurations, depending on solvents and temperature. The observed changes in the VCD peaks accompanying the transformation were analyzed in terms of the conformational change of the chiral ligand with a focus on the twisting angle in the Schiff base backbone and the dihedral angle of the binaphthyl group.

  5. Volumetric changes following barrier regeneration procedures for the surgical management of grade II molar furcation defects in baboons: II. Bone, cementum, epithelium, and connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Butler, J R; Rajnay, Z W; Vernino, A R; Parker, D

    1998-02-01

    In Part I, a computer imaging technique was used to measure the volumetric fill that occurred in surgically created grade II molar furcation defects after they had been treated using the principles of guided tissue regeneration. In Part II, the volumetric fill for each of the specific tissues comprising the defect fill (epithelium, connective tissue, bone, and cementum) was compared. The histologic material consisted of defects treated using one of three types of surgical treatment as well as untreated control sites. All volumetric measurements were expressed as a percentage of the original surgically created defect size, with 100% indicating complete healing of the defect. The results indicate that none of the defects achieved complete healing. Teeth receiving flap debridement had the most overall defect fill (79.50% comprised of 17.13% bone, 35.81% connective tissue, 37.35% epithelium, and 9.71% cementum). Teeth that received a biodegradable barrier showed a mean overall defect fill of 74.98% (7.41% bone, 47.13% connective tissue, 36.20% epithelium, and 9.26% cementum. Sites treated with an exclusion barrier showed 70.75% overall fill (9.63% bone, 40.89% connective tissue, 39.00% epithelium, and 10.48% cementum). The untreated control teeth showed a mean overall fill of 78.70% (5.56% bone, 59.11% connective tissue, 31.06% epithelium, and 4.27% cementum). No significant differences were found among teeth within the same animal and between treatment and controls. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) connective tissue comprised nearly one half of the total fill of the surgically created defects; (2) the percentage of new bone growth was significantly lower than anticipated; and (3) no significant differences were found among the treatment modalities and the untreated control sites for each of the specific tissue types.

  6. Dose-dependent change in biomarkers during neoadjuvant endocrine therapy with fulvestrant: results from NEWEST, a randomized Phase II study.

    PubMed

    Kuter, Irene; Gee, Julia M W; Hegg, Roberto; Singer, Christian F; Badwe, Rajendra A; Lowe, Elizabeth S; Emeribe, Ugochi A; Anderson, Elizabeth; Sapunar, Francisco; Finlay, Pauline; Nicholson, Robert I; Bines, José; Harbeck, Nadia

    2012-05-01

    NEWEST (Neoadjuvant Endocrine Therapy for Women with Estrogen-Sensitive Tumors) is the first study to compare biological and clinical activity of fulvestrant 500 versus 250 mg in the neoadjuvant breast cancer setting. We hypothesized that fulvestrant 500 mg may be superior to 250 mg in blocking estrogen receptor (ER) signaling and growth. A multicenter, randomized, open-label, Phase II study was performed to compare fulvestrant 500 mg (500 mg/month plus 500 mg on day 14 of month 1) versus fulvestrant 250 mg/month for 16 weeks prior to surgery in postmenopausal women with ER+ locally advanced breast cancer. Core biopsies at baseline, week 4, and surgery were assessed for biomarker changes. Primary endpoint: change in Ki67 labeling index (LI) from baseline to week 4 determined by automated computer imaging system (ACIS). Secondary endpoints: ER protein expression and function; progesterone receptor (PgR) expression; tumor response; tolerability. ER and PgR were examined retrospectively using the H score method. A total of 211 patients were randomized (fulvestrant 500 mg: n = 109; 250 mg: n = 102). At week 4, fulvestrant 500 mg resulted in greater reduction of Ki67 LI and ER expression versus 250 mg (-78.8 vs. -47.4% [p < 0.0001] and -25.0 vs. -13.5% [p = 0.0002], respectively [ACIS]); PgR suppression was not significantly different (-22.7 vs. -17.6; p = 0.5677). However, H score detected even greater suppression of ER (-50.3 vs. -13.7%; p < 0.0001) and greater PgR suppression (-80.5 vs. -46.3%; p = 0.0018) for fulvestrant 500 versus 250 mg. At week 16, tumor response rates were 22.9 and 20.6% for fulvestrant 500 and 250 mg, respectively, with considerable decline in all markers by both ACIS and H score. No detrimental effects on endometrial thickness or bone markers and no new safety concerns were identified. This provides the first evidence of greater biological activity for fulvestrant 500 versus 250 mg in depleting ER expression, function, and growth.

  7. Structural changes in the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II induced by the S1 to S2 transition: A combined XRD and QM/MM study.

    PubMed

    Askerka, Mikhail; Wang, Jimin; Brudvig, Gary W; Batista, Victor S

    2014-11-11

    The S1 → S2 transition of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II does not involve the transfer of a proton to the lumen and occurs at cryogenic temperatures. Therefore, it is commonly thought to involve only Mn oxidation without any significant change in the structure of the OEC. Here, we analyze structural changes upon the S1 → S2 transition, as revealed by quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics methods and the isomorphous difference Fourier method applied to serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction data. We find that the main structural change in the OEC is in the position of the dangling Mn and its coordination environment.

  8. Thermodynamics of electron transfer in oxygenic photosynthetic reaction centers: volume change, enthalpy, and entropy of electron-transfer reactions in manganese-depleted photosystem II core complexes.

    PubMed

    Hou, J M; Boichenko, V A; Diner, B A; Mauzerall, D

    2001-06-19

    We have previously reported the thermodynamic data of electron transfer in photosystem I using pulsed time-resolved photoacoustics [Hou et al. (2001) Biochemistry 40, 7109-7116]. In the present work, using preparations of purified manganese-depleted photosystem II (PS II) core complexes from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, we have measured the DeltaV, DeltaH, and estimated TDeltaS of electron transfer on the time scale of 1 micros. At pH 6.0, the volume contraction of PS II was determined to be -9 +/- 1 A3. The thermal efficiency was found to be 52 +/- 5%, which corresponds to an enthalpy change of -0.9 +/- 0.1 eV for the formation of the state P680+Q(A-) from P680*. An unexpected volume expansion on pulse saturation of PS II was observed, which is reversible in the dark. At pH 9.0, the volume contraction, the thermal efficiency, and the enthalpy change were -3.4 +/- 0.5 A3, 37 +/- 7%, and -1.15 +/- 0.13 eV, respectively. The DeltaV of PS II, smaller than that of PS I and bacterial centers, is assigned to electrostriction and analyzed using the Drude-Nernst equation. To explain the small DeltaV for the formation of P680+Q(A-) or Y(Z*)Q(A-), we propose that fast proton transfer into a polar region is involved in this reaction. Taking the free energy of charge separation of PS II as the difference between the energy of the excited-state P680* and the difference in the redox potentials of the donor and acceptor, the apparent entropy change (TDeltaS) for charge separation of PS II is calculated to be negative, -0.1 +/- 0.1 eV at pH 6.0 (P680+Q(A-)) and -0.2 +/- 0.15 eV at pH 9.0 (Y(Z*)Q(A-)). The thermodynamic properties of electron transfer in PS II core reaction centers thus differ considerably from those of bacterial and PS I reaction centers, which have DeltaV of approximately -27 A3, DeltaH of approximately -0.4 eV, and TDeltaS of approximately +0.4 eV.

  9. [Changes of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in cardiac tissues, Ang II and cardiac hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats].

    PubMed

    He, K L; Zheng, Q F; Mu, S C; Li, T C; Pang, Y Z; Tang, C S

    1998-10-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are thought to be critical components in signal transduction pathways in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. The purpose of the present investigation is to study possible involvement of MAPKs in the progress of cardiac hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and effects of age on Angiotensin II (Ang II), MAPK activity and cardiac hypertrophy. The animals were divided into three groups: 4 months old WKY rats (n = 8), 4 month old SHRs (n = 8) and 15 month old SHRs (n = 6). Ratio of heart to body weight was measured. Ang II was determined by RIA. MAPK activity in cardiac tissue was assayed by the "in-gel" myelin basic protein phosphorylation. The results show that in comparison with 4 month old WKY rats, Ang II in plasma and cardiac tissues were elevated (216.4%, P < 0.01; 101.2%, P < 0.01) in 4 months old SHRs, while the MAPK activity was increased 107.0% (P < 0.01) with a parallel cardiac hypertrophy (P < 0.01). In comparison with 4 month old SHRs, Ang II and MAPK activity in cardiac tissue of the 15 months old SHRs were decreased (31.3%, P < 0.01; 29.7%, P < 0.05) but the cardiac hypertrophy increased by 38.5% (P < 0.01). MAPK may be involved in the progress of cardiac hypetrophy in SHR and the increased MAPK activity may be partly induced by Ang II.

  10. Stress Induces Changes in the Phosphorylation of Trypanosoma cruzi RNA Polymerase II, Affecting Its Association with Chromatin and RNA Processing

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Antônio Augusto; Moretti, Nilmar Silvio

    2014-01-01

    The phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal heptapeptide repeats of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) controls several transcription-related events in eukaryotes. Trypanosomatids lack these typical repeats and display an unusual transcription control. RNA Pol II associates with the transcription site of the spliced leader (SL) RNA, which is used in the trans-splicing of all mRNAs transcribed on long polycistronic units. We found that Trypanosoma cruzi RNA Pol II associated with chromatin is highly phosphorylated. When transcription is inhibited by actinomycin D, the enzyme runs off from SL genes, remaining hyperphosphorylated and associated with polycistronic transcription units. Upon heat shock, the enzyme is dephosphorylated and remains associated with the chromatin. Transcription is partially inhibited with the accumulation of housekeeping precursor mRNAs, except for heat shock genes. DNA damage caused dephosphorylation and transcription arrest, with RNA Pol II dissociating from chromatin although staying at the SL. In the presence of calyculin A, the hyperphosphorylated form detached from chromatin, including the SL loci. These results indicate that in trypanosomes, the unusual RNA Pol II is phosphorylated during the transcription of SL and polycistronic operons. Different types of stresses modify its phosphorylation state, affecting pre-RNA processing. PMID:24813189

  11. Impact of change in job status on mortality for newly onset type II diabetes patients: 7 years follow-up using cohort data of National Health Insurance, Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Donggyo; Kim, Ji Man; Tandi, Tinyami Erick; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between change in job status and mortality of newly diagnosed type II diabetes patients by gender. Newly onset of individuals diagnosed with type II diabetes in the years 2003 and 2004, had 7 years follow-up using National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC) sample cohort data. The individuals diagnosed with type II diabetes within this period were 14,861. After adjusting for age, initial income group, insulin treatment and medical service utilization, hazard ratio was analyzed using Cox's proportional hazard model. Mortality hazard ratio of continuously unemployed individuals is 3.78 times higher in males and 9.78 times higher in females than in those who keep their jobs. Also, individuals with a change in job status (e.g. from industrial worker to unemployed or self-employed), the mortality hazard ratio is 2.24 times higher in males and 5.23 times higher in females than in those who keep their jobs. The impact of change in job status change is largest for the middle class males. The middle class males has the higher mortality hazard ratio, 6.14 times in maintain unemployed and 4.12 times in change his job (industrial worker to unemployed or self-employer) than maintain one's job. The continuous unemployment and the loss of job are related to risk of death in diabetic patients. The impact of unemployed is stronger than job change (loss or change). The impact of job status change is largest for the middle class man. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Change in lip closing force in Classes II and III malocclusion before and after sagittal split ramus osteotomy with Le Fort I osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Takamitsu; Yoshizawa, Kunio; Moroi, Akinori; Hotta, Asami; Fukaya, Kenichi; Hiraide, Ryota; Takayama, Akihiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuya; Saito, Yuki; Iguchi, Ran; Kosaka, Akihiko; Ikawa, Hiroumi; Ueki, Koichiro

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine lip closing force in Class II and III patients before and after orthognathic surgery. The subjects were 45 patients (15 Class II women, 15 Class III men and 15 Class III women) diagnosed with jaw deformity who underwent sagittal split ramus osteotomy with Le Fort I osteotomy and 30 controls with normal skeleton and occlusion (15 men, 15 women). Maximum and minimum lip closing forces were measured using Lip De Cum(®) before and after surgery, and compared statistically. In the Class II women, maximum and minimum lip closing forces did not change after surgery. However, maximum and minimum lip pressure increased significantly in the Class III men (P = 0.0116, P = 0.0295) and maximum lip closing force increased significantly in the Class III women (P = 0.0082). After 6 months, maximum lip closing force was significantly lower in both Classes II and III women than in the control women (P = 0.0002, P = 0.0045). This study suggested that maximum postoperative lip pressure did not improve in the Class II women, although maximum lip closing force increased in the Class III men and women after sagittal split ramus osteotomy with Le Fort I osteotomy. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploratory analysis of textual data from the Mother and Child Handbook using a text mining method (II): Monthly changes in the words recorded by mothers.

    PubMed

    Tagawa, Miki; Matsuda, Yoshio; Manaka, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Makiko; Ohwada, Michitaka; Matsubara, Shigeki

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the possibility of converting subjective textual data written in the free column space of the Mother and Child Handbook (MCH) into objective information using text mining and to compare any monthly changes in the words written by the mothers. Pregnant women without complications (n = 60) were divided into two groups according to State-Trait Anxiety Inventory grade: low trait anxiety (group I, n = 39) and high trait anxiety (group II, n = 21). Exploratory analysis of the textual data from the MCH was conducted by text mining using the Word Miner software program. Using 1203 structural elements extracted after processing, a comparison of monthly changes in the words used in the mothers' comments was made between the two groups. The data was mainly analyzed by a correspondence analysis. The structural elements in groups I and II were divided into seven and six clusters, respectively, by cluster analysis. Correspondence analysis revealed clear monthly changes in the words used in the mothers' comments as the pregnancy progressed in group I, whereas the association was not clear in group II. The text mining method was useful for exploratory analysis of the textual data obtained from pregnant women, and the monthly change in the words used in the mothers' comments as pregnancy progressed differed according to their degree of unease. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Effect of angiotensin II and small GTPase Ras signaling pathway inhibition on early renal changes in a murine model of obstructive nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Peña, Ana B; Fuentes-Calvo, Isabel; Docherty, Neil G; Arévalo, Miguel; Grande, María T; Eleno, Nélida; Pérez-Barriocanal, Fernando; López-Novoa, José M

    2014-01-01

    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a major feature of chronic kidney disease. Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in rodents leads to the development of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis consistent with histopathological changes observed in advanced chronic kidney disease in humans. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of inhibiting angiotensin II receptors or Ras activation on early renal fibrotic changes induced by UUO. Animals either received angiotensin II or underwent UUO. UUO animals received either losartan, atorvastatin, and farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI) L-744,832, or chaetomellic acid A (ChA). Levels of activated Ras, phospho-ERK1/2, phospho-Akt, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin were subsequently quantified in renal tissue by ELISA, Western blot, and/or immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that administration of angiotensin II induces activation of the small GTPase Ras/Erk/Akt signaling system, suggesting an involvement of angiotensin II in the early obstruction-induced activation of renal Ras. Furthermore, upstream inhibition of Ras signalling by blocking either angiotensin AT1 type receptor or by inhibiting Ras prenylation (atorvastatin, FTI o ChA) reduced the activation of the Ras/Erk/Akt signaling system and decreased the early fibrotic response in the obstructed kidney. This study points out that pharmacological inhibition of Ras activation may hold promise as a future strategy in the prevention of renal fibrosis.

  15. Effect of Angiotensin II and Small GTPase Ras Signaling Pathway Inhibition on Early Renal Changes in a Murine Model of Obstructive Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Peña, Ana B.; Fuentes-Calvo, Isabel; Docherty, Neil G.; Arévalo, Miguel; Grande, María T.; Eleno, Nélida; Pérez-Barriocanal, Fernando; López-Novoa, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a major feature of chronic kidney disease. Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in rodents leads to the development of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis consistent with histopathological changes observed in advanced chronic kidney disease in humans. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of inhibiting angiotensin II receptors or Ras activation on early renal fibrotic changes induced by UUO. Animals either received angiotensin II or underwent UUO. UUO animals received either losartan, atorvastatin, and farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI) L-744,832, or chaetomellic acid A (ChA). Levels of activated Ras, phospho-ERK1/2, phospho-Akt, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin were subsequently quantified in renal tissue by ELISA, Western blot, and/or immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that administration of angiotensin II induces activation of the small GTPase Ras/Erk/Akt signaling system, suggesting an involvement of angiotensin II in the early obstruction-induced activation of renal Ras. Furthermore, upstream inhibition of Ras signalling by blocking either angiotensin AT1 type receptor or by inhibiting Ras prenylation (atorvastatin, FTI o ChA) reduced the activation of the Ras/Erk/Akt signaling system and decreased the early fibrotic response in the obstructed kidney. This study points out that pharmacological inhibition of Ras activation may hold promise as a future strategy in the prevention of renal fibrosis. PMID:25101263

  16. Microstructural characterization and density change of 304 stainless steel reflector blocks after long-term irradiation in EBR-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Wiezorek, J. M. K.; Garner, F. A.; Freyer, P. D.; Okita, T.; Sagisaka, M.; Isobe, Y.; Allen, T. R.

    2015-10-01

    While thin reactor structural components such as cladding and ducts do not experience significant gradients in dpa rate, gamma heating rate, temperature or stress, thick components can develop strong local variations in void swelling and irradiation creep in response to gradients in these variables. In this study we conducted microstructural investigations by transmission electron microscopy of two 52 mm thick 304-type stainless steel hex-blocks irradiated for 12 years in the EBR-II reactor with accumulated doses ranging from ∼0.4 to 33 dpa. Spatial variations in the populations of voids, precipitates, Frank loops and dislocation lines have been determined for 304 stainless steel sections exposed to different temperatures, different dpa levels and at different dpa rates, demonstrating the existence of spatial gradients in the resulting void swelling. The microstructural measurements compare very well with complementary density change measurements regarding void swelling gradients in the 304 stainless steel hex-block components. The TEM studies revealed that the original cold-worked-state microstructure of the unirradiated blocks was completely erased by irradiation, replaced by high densities of interstitial Frank loops, voids and carbide precipitates at both the lowest and highest doses. At large dose levels the amount of volumetric void swelling correlated directly with the gamma heating gradient-related temperature increase (e.g. for 28 dpa, ∼2% swelling at 418 °C and ∼2.9% swelling at 448 °C). Under approximately iso-thermal local conditions, volumetric void swelling was found to increase with dose level (e.g. ∼0.2% swelling at 0.4 dpa, ∼0.5% swelling at 4 dpa and ∼2% swelling at 28 dpa). Carbide precipitate formation levels were found to be relatively independent of both dpa level and temperature and induced a measurable densification. Void swelling was dominant at the higher dose levels and caused measurable decreases in density. Void swelling

  17. Evaluation of changes in oral drug absorption in preterm and term neonates for Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class I and II compounds.

    PubMed

    Somani, Amit A; Thelen, Kirstin; Zheng, Songmao; Trame, Mirjam N; Coboeken, Katrin; Meyer, Michaela; Schnizler, Katrin; Ince, Ibrahim; Willmann, Stefan; Schmidt, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the rate of oral drug absorption changes during early childhood. Yet, respective clinical implications are currently unclear, particularly for preterm neonates. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in oral drug absorption after birth for different Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class I and II compounds to better understand respective implications for paediatric pharmacotherapy. Two paradigm compounds were selected for BCS class I (paracetamol (acetaminophen) and theophylline) and II (indomethacin and ibuprofen), respectively, based on the availability of clinical literature data following intravenous and oral dosing. A comparative population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed in a step-wise manner in NONMEM® 7.2 to characterize and predict changes in oral drug absorption after birth for paracetamol, theophylline and indomethacin. A one compartment model with an age-dependent maturation function for oral drug absorption was found appropriate to characterize the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol. Our findings indicate that the rate at which a drug is absorbed from the GI tract reaches adult levels within about 1 week after birth. The maturation function for paracetamol was found applicable to theophylline and indomethacin once solubility limitations were overcome via drug formulation. The influence of excipients on solubility and, hence, oral bioavailability was confirmed for ibuprofen, a second BCS class II compound. The findings of our study suggest that the processes underlying changes in oral drug absorption after birth are drug-independent and that the maturation function identified for paracetamol may be generally applicable to other BCS class I and II compounds for characterizing drug absorption in preterm as well as term neonates. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Salinity changes in the Agulhas leakage area recorded by stable hydrogen isotopes of C37 alkenones during Termination I and II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, S.; van der Meer, M. T. J.; Mets, A.; Zahn, R.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Schouten, S.

    2014-02-01

    At the southern tip of Africa, the Agulhas Current reflects back into the Indian Ocean causing so-called "Agulhas rings" to spin off and release relatively warm and saline water into the South Atlantic Ocean. Previous reconstructions of the dynamics of the Agulhas Current, based on paleo-sea surface temperature and sea surface salinity proxies, inferred that Agulhas leakage from the Indian Ocean to the South Atlantic was reduced during glacial stages as a consequence of shifted wind fields and a northwards migration of the subtropical front. Subsequently, this might have led to a buildup of warm saline water in the southern Indian Ocean. To investigate this latter hypothesis, we reconstructed sea surface salinity changes using alkenone δD, and paleo-sea surface temperature using TEXH86 and UK'37, from two sediment cores (MD02-2594, MD96-2080) located in the Agulhas leakage area during Termination I and II. Both UK'37 and TEXH86 temperature reconstructions indicate an abrupt warming during the glacial terminations, while a shift to more negative δDalkenone values of approximately 14‰ during glacial Termination I and II is also observed. Approximately half of the isotopic shift can be attributed to the change in global ice volume, while the residual isotopic shift is attributed to changes in salinity, suggesting relatively high salinities at the core sites during glacials, with subsequent freshening during glacial terminations. Approximate estimations suggest that δDalkenone represents a salinity change of ca. 1.7-1.9 during Termination I and Termination II. These estimations are in good agreement with the proposed changes in salinity derived from previously reported combined planktonic Foraminifera δ18O values and Mg/Ca-based temperature reconstructions. Our results confirm that the δD of alkenones is a potentially suitable tool to reconstruct salinity changes independent of planktonic Foraminifera δ18O.

  19. Sharpening the Focus on Acculturative Change: ARSMA-II, Stress, Pregnancy Anxiety, and Infant Birthweight in Recently Immigrated Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos, Belinda; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Walsh, Julia A.; Schenker, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Acculturation is conceptualized as a multidimensional process but is typically measured as a concurrent movement away from culture of origin as a new cultural orientation is obtained. In this study, the authors examined the overall and subscale scoring systems of the ARSMA-II, the most popular acculturation measure, for its associations with…

  20. Sharpening the Focus on Acculturative Change: ARSMA-II, Stress, Pregnancy Anxiety, and Infant Birthweight in Recently Immigrated Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos, Belinda; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Walsh, Julia A.; Schenker, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Acculturation is conceptualized as a multidimensional process but is typically measured as a concurrent movement away from culture of origin as a new cultural orientation is obtained. In this study, the authors examined the overall and subscale scoring systems of the ARSMA-II, the most popular acculturation measure, for its associations with…

  1. Partnerships for Reform: Changing Teacher Preparation through the Title II HEA Partnership Program: Interim Report. PPSS 2003-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Title II Higher Education Amendment (HEA) Partnership Grants Program provides grants to fund partnerships among colleges of education, schools of arts and sciences and local school districts in high-need areas. The goal of the program is to improve student achievement by increasing the quality of teachers. This evaluation examined the extent…

  2. Changes of Multiple Metal Accumulation (MMA) in New Orleans Soil: Preliminary Evaluation of Differences between Survey I (1992) and Survey II (2000)

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, Howard W.; Gonzales, Christopher; Powell, Eric; MielkeJr, Paul W.

    2005-01-01

    Soil metal surveys were conducted in Baltimore, MD (1976–1979), Minnesota (1981–1988) and most recently, New Orleans, LA (1989-present). The unique characteristic of New Orleans is that it has two surveys; Survey I was completed in 1992 and Survey II was completed in 2000. This paper seeks to determine if there is a perceptible change in the amount of metals during less than a decade that separated these surveys. The Survey I collection was 4,026 samples stratified by 283 census tracts. All samples were collected in residential neighborhoods at least one block from a busy street. The Survey II collection was 5,467 samples stratified by 286 census tracts (plus City Park). The Survey II collection included busy streets as a category of samples. For comparison, the busy street category of 1,078 samples was excluded from Survey II for a total of 4,388 samples. The extraction methods of the two surveys used the same protocol for strength of acid (1 M HNO3), shaker-time (2 hours), and room temperature (~22ºC). However, Survey II differed in amount of sample used in extraction. For Surveys I and II, 4.0g and 0.4g were used respectively. The same ICP-AES was used to measure 8 metals in both surveys. To evaluate the analytical results of the two methods, reference soil samples (n=36) from the Wageningen Evaluating Programs for Analytical Laboratories, International Soil-analytical Exchange (WEPAL; ISE) were used. The relationship between the 4.0 and 0.4 g results were linear and the Survey I results were adjusted for sample:acid ratio. Further evaluation was done by creating interpolated Multiple Metal Accumulation (MMA) maps based on the median MMA for each census tract. A new map was created by dividing Survey II MMA by Survey I MMA. The ratio indicates increases of soil metals in the inner city and decreases of soil metals in the outlying areas of Metropolitan New Orleans. Comparing fresh parent alluvium from the Mississippi River with urban soil metal quantities

  3. Involvement of Type 1 Angiontensin II Receptor (AT1) in Cardiovascular Changes Induced by Chronic Emotional Stress: Comparison between Homotypic and Heterotypic Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Costa-Ferreira, Willian; Vieira, Jonas O.; Almeida, Jeferson; Gomes-de-Souza, Lucas; Crestani, Carlos C.

    2016-01-01

    Consistent evidence has shown an important role of emotional stress in pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, studies in animal models have demonstrated that daily exposure to different stressor (heterotypic stressor) evokes more severe changes than those resulting from repeated exposure to the same aversive stimulus (homotypic stressor), possibly due to the habituation process upon repeated exposure to the same stressor. Despite these pieces of evidence, the mechanisms involved in the stress-evoked cardiovascular dysfunction are poorly understood. Therefore, the present study investigated the involvement of angiotensin II (Ang II) acting on the type 1 Ang II receptor (AT1) in the cardiovascular dysfunctions evoked by both homotypic and heterotypic chronic emotional stresses in rats. For this purpose, we compared the effect of the chronic treatment with the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan (30 mg/kg/day, p.o.) on the cardiovascular and autonomic changes evoked by the heterotypic stressor chronic variable stress (CVS) and the homotypic stressor repeated restraint stress (RRS). RRS increased the sympathetic tone to the heart and decreased the cardiac parasympathetic activity, whereas CVS decreased the cardiac parasympathetic activity. Additionally, both stressors impaired the baroreflex function. Alterations in the autonomic activity and the baroreflex impairment were inhibited by losartan treatment. Additionally, CVS reduced the body weight and increased the circulating corticosterone; however, these effects were not affected by losartan. In conclusion, these findings indicate the involvement of angiotensin II/AT1 receptors in the autonomic changes evoked by both homotypic and heterotypic chronic stressors. Moreover, the present results provide evidence that the increase in the circulating corticosterone and body weight reduction evoked by heterotypic stressors are independent of AT1 receptors. PMID:27588004

  4. CBCT evaluation of the upper airway morphological changes in growing patients of class II division 1 malocclusion with mandibular retrusion using twin block appliance: a comparative research.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Liu, Hong; Cheng, Huijuan; Han, Yanzhao; Wang, Chunling; Chen, Yu; Song, Jinlin; Liu, Dongxu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after Twin Block (TB) treatment in growing patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion and mandibular retrusion compared with untreated Class II patients by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Thirty growing patients who have completed TB treatment were recruited into TB group. The control group (n = 30) was selected from the patients with the same diagnosis and without TB treatment. CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1) and post-treatment (T2) data of TB group and control data were collected. After three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and registration of T1 and T2 data, the morphological changes of upper airway during TB treatment were measured. The statistical differences between T1 and T2 data of TB group as well as T2 and control data were accessed by t-test. During the TB treatment, the mandible moved advanced by 3.52 ± 2.14 mm in the horizontal direction and 3.77 ± 2.10 mm in the vertical direction. The hyoid bone was in a more forward and inferior place. The upper airway showed a significant enlargement in nasopharynx, oropharynx and hypopharynx. In addition, the nasopharynx turned more circular, and the oropharynx became more elliptic in transverse shape. However, the transverse shape of the hypopharynx showed no significant difference. After comparison between T2 and control data, only the horizontal movement of the hyoid bone, the volumetric expansion of the oropharynx and hypopharynx, and changes of the oropharyngeal transverse shape showed significant difference. Compared to the untreated Class II patients, the upper airway of growing patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion and mandibular retrusion showed a significant enlargement in the oropharynx and hypopharynx as well as a more elliptic transverse shape in the oropharynx, and the hyoid bone moved to an anterior position after TB treatment.

  5. Perceived facial changes of Class II Division 1 patients with convex profiles after functional orthopedic treatment followed by fixed orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Tsiouli, Kleopatra; Topouzelis, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Moschos A; Gkantidis, Nikolaos

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the perceived facial changes in Class II Division 1 patients with convex profiles after functional orthopedic treatment followed by fixed orthodontic appliances. Pretreatment and posttreatment profile photographs of 12 Class II Division 1 patients treated with activators, 12 Class II Division 1 patients treated with Twin-block appliances, and 12 controls with normal profiles treated without functional appliances were presented in pairs to 10 orthodontists, 10 patients, 10 parents, and 10 laypersons. The raters assessed changes in facial appearance on a visual analog scale. Two-way multivariate analysis of variance was used to evaluate differences among group ratings. Intrarater reliability was strong in most cases (intraclass correlation coefficients, >0.7). The internal consistency of the assessments was high (alpha, >0.87), both within and between groups. The raters consistently perceived more positive changes in the Class II Division 1 groups compared with the control group. However, this difference hardly exceeded 1/10th of the total visual analog scale length in its highest value and was mostly evident in the lower face and chin. No significant differences were found between the activator and the Twin-block groups. Although the raters perceived improvements of the facial profiles after functional orthopedic treatment followed by fixed orthodontic appliances, these were quite limited. Thus, orthodontists should be tentative when predicting significant improvement of a patient's profile with this treatment option. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cytological aspects of antimicrobial antibiosis. II. Cytological changes associated with the exposure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus megaterium to colistin sulfate.

    PubMed

    CHAPMAN, G B

    1962-07-01

    Chapman, George B. (Cornell University Medical College, New York, N.Y.). Cytological aspects of antimicrobial antibiosis. II. Cytological changes associated with the exposure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus megaterium to colistin sulfate. J. Bacteriol. 84:180-185. 1962-Broth cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus megaterium were exposed to the antibiotic colistin sulfate. Control (unexposed) and exposed cells were fixed, dehydrated, and embedded in methacrylate. Ultrathin sections were examined in an RCA EMU2-D electron microscope. Two conspicuous cytological changes were noted in P. aeruginosa. The nuclear material was no longer demonstrable in its normal sites, leaving an empty space, and the cytoplasm lost its granularity, becoming homogeneous. In B. megaterium, the latter change was also noted. The nuclear material, however, although no longer demonstrable, did not leave an empty space. Rather, it seemed that cytoplasmic material had engulfed and masked nuclear areas. Cells which showed these changes were nonviable.

  7. Skeletal and dentoalveolar changes concurrent to use of Twin Block appliance in class II division I cases with a deficient mandible: a cephalometric study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A K; Sachdev, V; Singla, A; Kirtaniya, B C

    2012-01-01

    Most of Class II malocclusions are due to underdeveloped mandible with increased overjet and overbite. Lack of incisal contact results in the extrusion of the upper and lower anterior dentoalveolar complex, which helps to lock the mandible and prevent its normal growth and development, and this abnormality, is exaggerated by soft tissue imbalance. The purpose of present study was to cephalometrically evaluate skeletal and dentoalveolar changes following the use of Twin-Block appliance in 10 growing children of age group 9-13 years (mean 11.1 year ± SD 1.37) of Class II division 1 malocclusion with a deficient mandible. Cephalometric pre- and post-functional treatment measurements (angular and linear) were done and statistically analyzed using student's paired t-test. The results of the present study showed that maxilla (SNA) was restricted sagittally (head gear effect) with marked maxillary dental retraction. Significant mandible sagittal advancement (SNB) with minimum dental protraction was observed with significant increase in the mandibular length. The maxillomandibular skeletal relation (ANB and WITS appraisal) reduced considerably which improved the profile and facial esthetics. Pronounced correction of overjet and overbite was seen. The present study concluded that Class II correction occurs by both skeletal and dentoalveolar changes.

  8. Neurobehavioral changes and alteration of gene expression in the brains of metallothionein-I/II null mice exposed to low levels of mercury vapor during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Minoru; Honda, Masako; Watanabe, Chiho; Satoh, Masahiko; Yasutake, Akira

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the neurobehavioral changes and alteration in gene expression in the brains of metallothionein (MT)-I/II null mice exposed to low-levels of mercury vapor (Hg(0)) during postnatal development. MT-I/II null and wild-type mice were repeatedly exposed to Hg(0) at 0.030 mg/m(3) (range: 0.023-0.043 mg/m(3)), which was similar to the current threshold value (TLV), for 6 hr per day until the 20th day postpartum. The behavioral effects were evaluated with locomotor activity in the open field (OPF), learning ability in the passive avoidance response (PA) and spatial learning ability in the Morris water maze (MM) at 12 weeks of age. Hg(0)-exposed MT-I/II null mice showed a significant decrease in total locomotor activity in females, though learning ability and spatial learning ability were not affected. Immediately after Hg(0) exposure, mercury concentrations in the brain did not exceed 0.5 µg/g in any animals. Hg(0) exposure resulted in significant alterations in gene expression in the brains of both strains using DNA microarray analysis. The number of altered genes in MT-I/II null mice was higher than that in wild-type mice and calcium-calmodulin kinase II (Camk2a) involved in learning and memory in down-regulated genes was detected. These results provide useful information to elucidate the development of behavioral toxicity following low-level exposure to Hg(0).

  9. Renal hemodynamic and morphological changes after 7 and 28 days of leptin treatment: the participation of angiotensin II via the AT1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Karina; Oliveira-Souza, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The role of hyperleptinemia in cardiovascular diseases is well known; however, in the renal tissue, the exact site of leptin's action has not been established. This study was conducted to assess the effect of leptin treatment for 7 and 28 days on renal function and morphology and the participation of angiotensin II (Ang II), through its AT1 receptor. Rats were divided into four groups: sham, losartan (10 mg/kg/day, s.c.), leptin (0.5 mg/kg/day for the 7 days group and 0.25 mg/kg/day for the 28 days group) and leptin plus losartan. Plasma leptin, Ang II and endothelin 1 (ET-1) levels were measured using an enzymatic immuno assay. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) was evaluated using the tail-cuff method. The renal plasma flow (RPF) and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were determined by p-aminohippuric acid and inulin clearance, respectively. Urinary Na+ and K+ levels were also analyzed. Renal morphological analyses, desmin and ED-1 immunostaining were performed. Proteinuria was analyzed by silver staining. mRNA expression of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components, TNF-α and collagen type III was analyzed by quantitative PCR. Our results showed that leptin treatment increased Ang II plasma levels and progressively increased the SBP, achieving a pre-hypertension state. Rats treated with leptin 7 days showed a normal RPF and GFR, but increased filtration fraction (FF) and natriuresis. However, rats treated with leptin for 28 showed a decrease in the RPF, an increase in the FF and no changes in the GFR or tubular function. Leptin treatment-induced renal injury was demonstrated by: glomerular hypertrophy, increased desmin staining, macrophage infiltration in the renal tissue, TNF-α and collagen type III mRNA expression and proteinuria. In conclusion, our study demonstrated the progressive renal morphological changes in experimental hyperleptinemia and the interaction between leptin and the RAS on these effects.

  10. Renal Hemodynamic and Morphological Changes after 7 and 28 Days of Leptin Treatment: The Participation of Angiotensin II via the AT1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Thieme, Karina; Oliveira-Souza, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The role of hyperleptinemia in cardiovascular diseases is well known; however, in the renal tissue, the exact site of leptin’s action has not been established. This study was conducted to assess the effect of leptin treatment for 7 and 28 days on renal function and morphology and the participation of angiotensin II (Ang II), through its AT1 receptor. Rats were divided into four groups: sham, losartan (10 mg/kg/day, s.c.), leptin (0.5 mg/kg/day for the 7 days group and 0.25 mg/kg/day for the 28 days group) and leptin plus losartan. Plasma leptin, Ang II and endothelin 1 (ET-1) levels were measured using an enzymatic immuno assay. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) was evaluated using the tail-cuff method. The renal plasma flow (RPF) and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were determined by p-aminohippuric acid and inulin clearance, respectively. Urinary Na+ and K+ levels were also analyzed. Renal morphological analyses, desmin and ED-1 immunostaining were performed. Proteinuria was analyzed by silver staining. mRNA expression of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components, TNF-α and collagen type III was analyzed by quantitative PCR. Our results showed that leptin treatment increased Ang II plasma levels and progressively increased the SBP, achieving a pre-hypertension state. Rats treated with leptin 7 days showed a normal RPF and GFR, but increased filtration fraction (FF) and natriuresis. However, rats treated with leptin for 28 showed a decrease in the RPF, an increase in the FF and no changes in the GFR or tubular function. Leptin treatment-induced renal injury was demonstrated by: glomerular hypertrophy, increased desmin staining, macrophage infiltration in the renal tissue, TNF-α and collagen type III mRNA expression and proteinuria. In conclusion, our study demonstrated the progressive renal morphological changes in experimental hyperleptinemia and the interaction between leptin and the RAS on these effects. PMID:25793389

  11. Skelate changes induced by orthodontic in class II division 1 by CBCT: a long-term follow-up prospective study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuofei; Chen, Weiting; Ding, Sheng; Han, Hongwei; Yu, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    To identify and evaluate changes in the sagittal position of point B due to orthodontic treatment using CBCT. The subjects comprised 80 patients received fixed appliance. In this population, group 1 consisting of 40 patients with Class II division 2 malocclusion and group 2 consisting of 40 patients with minor crowding in the beginning of the treatment and required no or minimal maxillary anterior tooth movement. Treatment changes in incisor inclination, sagittal position of point B, SNB and movement of incisor root apex and incisal edge were calculated on pretreatment and post treatment on CBCT. Assessment of local changes in point B revealed that the point had moved backward. No significant change was observed in the value of the sella-nasion-point B angle (SNB) in both the study and control groups. However, the changes of horizontal displacement after treatment in SNB between the two groups were found to be significant. There were no significant changes in the vertical and Z position of points B in both group. The position of point B was affected by local bone remodeling during orthodontic treatment. These changes significantly affect the SNB angle.

  12. Induction of unique structural changes in guanine-rich DNA regions by the triazoloacridone C-1305, a topoisomerase II inhibitor with antitumor activities

    PubMed Central

    Lemke, Krzysztof; Wojciechowski, Marcin; Laine, William; Bailly, Christian; Colson, Pierre; Baginski, Maciej; Larsen, Annette K.; Skladanowski, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    We recently reported that the antitumor triazoloacridone, compound C-1305, is a topoisomerase II poison with unusual properties. In this study we characterize the DNA interactions of C-1305 in vitro, in comparison with other topoisomerase II inhibitors. Our results show that C-1305 binds to DNA by intercalation and possesses higher affinity for GC- than AT-DNA as revealed by surface plasmon resonance studies. Chemical probing with DEPC indicated that C-1305 induces structural perturbations in DNA regions with three adjacent guanine residues. Importantly, this effect was highly specific for C-1305 since none of the other 22 DNA interacting drugs tested was able to induce similar structural changes in DNA. Compound C-1305 induced stronger structural changes in guanine triplets at higher pH which suggested that protonation/deprotonation of the drug is important for this drug-specific effect. Molecular modeling analysis predicts that the zwitterionic form of C-1305 intercalates within the guanine triplet, resulting in widening of both DNA grooves and aligning of the triazole ring with the N7 atoms of guanines. Our results show that C-1305 binds to DNA and induces very specific and unusual structural changes in guanine triplets which likely plays an important role in the cytotoxic and antitumor activity of this unique compound. PMID:16254080

  13. Volumetric changes in pharyngeal airway in Class II division 1 patients treated with Forsus-fixed functional appliance: A three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography study

    PubMed Central

    Temani, Parul; Jain, Pradeep; Rathee, Pooja; Temani, Ruchira

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Recent years have witnessed a renewed interest to determine a quantifiable relationship between mandibular advancement performed with an orthodontic appliance and the resulting airway volume. The study was conducted to evaluate the volumetric changes in pharyngeal airway space using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in Class II division 1 patients with retrognathic mandible treated by Forsus-fixed functional appliance and to compare them with their pretreatment findings. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion of age group 10–17 years were selected randomly and evaluated for changes in pharyngeal airway volume with and without Forsus-fixed functional appliance. Patients in each group underwent CBCT scan of head and neck region at pretreatment stage and 6 months after the initial scan. Institutional approval for the project was obtained from the Ethical Committee. Volumetric changes of upper (oropharynx) and lower (hypopharynx) pharyngeal airways were measured on scanogram using computer software and intragroup comparisons were done. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in the volume of both hypopharynx and oropharynx and also total airway volume in patients treated with Forsus-fixed functional appliance. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the airway also demonstrates a considerable increase in pharyngeal airway space. Conclusion: Forsus-fixed functional appliance can be a promising appliance for improving pharyngeal airway volume in Class II division 1 patients with retrognathic mandible thus preventing obstructive sleep apnea and other respiratory problems in future. However, the long-term implications of this treatment modality need further consideration and a longer period of follow-up. PMID:27041897

  14. Volumetric changes in pharyngeal airway in Class II division 1 patients treated with Forsus-fixed functional appliance: A three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Temani, Parul; Jain, Pradeep; Rathee, Pooja; Temani, Ruchira

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a renewed interest to determine a quantifiable relationship between mandibular advancement performed with an orthodontic appliance and the resulting airway volume. The study was conducted to evaluate the volumetric changes in pharyngeal airway space using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in Class II division 1 patients with retrognathic mandible treated by Forsus-fixed functional appliance and to compare them with their pretreatment findings. Thirty patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion of age group 10-17 years were selected randomly and evaluated for changes in pharyngeal airway volume with and without Forsus-fixed functional appliance. Patients in each group underwent CBCT scan of head and neck region at pretreatment stage and 6 months after the initial scan. Institutional approval for the project was obtained from the Ethical Committee. Volumetric changes of upper (oropharynx) and lower (hypopharynx) pharyngeal airways were measured on scanogram using computer software and intragroup comparisons were done. There was a statistically significant increase in the volume of both hypopharynx and oropharynx and also total airway volume in patients treated with Forsus-fixed functional appliance. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the airway also demonstrates a considerable increase in pharyngeal airway space. Forsus-fixed functional appliance can be a promising appliance for improving pharyngeal airway volume in Class II division 1 patients with retrognathic mandible thus preventing obstructive sleep apnea and other respiratory problems in future. However, the long-term implications of this treatment modality need further consideration and a longer period of follow-up.

  15. Growth of BaSi2 continuous films on Ge(111) by molecular beam epitaxy and fabrication of p-BaSi2/n-Ge heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takabe, Ryota; Yachi, Suguru; Tsukahara, Daichi; Toko, Kaoru; Suemasu, Takashi

    2017-05-01

    We grew BaSi2 films on Ge(111) substrates by various growth methods based on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). First, we attempted to form BaSi2 films directly on Ge(111) by MBE without templates. We next formed BaSi2 films using BaGe2 templates as commonly used for MBE growth of BaSi2 on Si substrates. Contrary to our prediction, the lateral growth of BaSi2 was not promoted by these two methods; BaSi2 formed not into a continuous film but into islands. Although streaky patterns of reflection high-energy electron diffraction were observed inside the growth chamber, no X-ray diffraction lines of BaSi2 were observed in samples taken out from the growth chamber. Such BaSi2 islands were easily to get oxidized. We finally attempted to form a continuous BaSi2 template layer on Ge(111) by solid phase epitaxy, that is, the deposition of amorphous Ba-Si layers onto MBE-grown BaSi2 epitaxial islands, followed by post annealing. We achieved the formation of an approximately 5-nm-thick BaSi2 continuous layer by this method. Using this BaSi2 layer as a template, we succeeded in forming a-axis-oriented 520-nm-thick BaSi2 epitaxial films on Ge substrates, although (111)-oriented Si grains were included in the grown layer. We next formed a B-doped p-BaSi2(20 nm)/n-Ge(111) heterojunction solar cell. A wide-spectrum response from 400 to 2000 nm was achieved. At an external bias voltage of 1 V, the external quantum efficiency reached as high as 60%, demonstrating the great potential of BaSi2/Ge combination. However, the efficiency of a solar cell under AM1.5 illumination was quite low (0.1%). The origin of such a low efficiency was examined.

  16. Electronic structures of Ga2O3(Gd2O3) gate dielectric on n-Ge(001) as grown and after CF4 plasma treatment: A synchrotron-radiation photoemission study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, T.-W.; Lee, W. C.; Huang, M. L.; Chu, L. K.; Lin, T. D.; Chiang, T. H.; Wang, Y. C.; Wu, Y. D.; Hong, M.; Kwo, J.

    2011-03-01

    The interfacial electronic structure of Ga2O3(Gd2O3) (GGO) on n-Ge(001) is determined using high-resolution synchrotron radiation photoemission. The excitation photon energy was specifically chosen to observe the interaction at the GGO/Ge interface (hv = 463 eV) as well as the possible diffusion of Ge up to the GGO surface (hν = 120 eV). The Ge 3d core-level spectra were fit to extract the contributing components. Photoemission measurements were done for four samples, as deposited, N2 annealed, CF4 plasma treated, and the combined CF4 plasma treated and N2 annealed. No surface passivation was employed prior to the dielectric deposition. SRPES data clearly showed that the elemental Ge in the as-deposited sample was effectively kept in the wafer. Prevention of Ge diffusion was attributed to formation of a thin germanatelike oxide layer. Other than contributions from bulk Ge, an analytical fit to the Ge 3d cores gives two components that are associated with bonding to Gd2O3 (GdGe*) and to Ga2O3 (GaGe*), which had chemical shifts of 3.46 and 1.80 eV, respectively. We hereby label them as MGe*, where M stands for either Gd2O3 or Ga2O3. Area occupations of the GdGe* and GaGe* oxides are ˜87% and ˜10%, respectively. A CF4 plasma treatment disturbs the film itself as well as the interfacial oxide so that the GGO surface begins to show both elemental Ge and Ga. Nevertheless, the follow-up N2 annealing produces the GdGe*+GaGe* layer with characteristics similar to those at the GGO/Ge interface. Both GdGe* and GaGe* states in the CN-treated sample show simultaneously a smaller chemical shift by 0.31 ± 0.02 eV than those in the as-deposited sample. The treatments also induce upward band bending on both the high κ and the Ge sides, which causes the valence band offset at the GGO/Ge interface to be 2.95 eV.

  17. Nonradial and radial period changes of the δ Scuti star 4 CVn. II. Systematic behavior over 40 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breger, M.; Montgomery, M. H.; Lenz, P.; Pamyatnykh, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: Radial and nonradial pulsators on and near the main sequence show period and amplitude changes that are too large to be the product of stellar evolution. The multiperiodic δ Sct stars are well suited to study this, as the period changes of different modes excited in the same star can be compared. This requires a very large amount of photometric data covering years and decades as well as mode identifications. Methods: We have examined over 800 nights of high-precision photometry of the multiperiodic pulsator 4 CVn obtained from 1966 through 2012. Because most of the data were obtained in adjacent observing seasons, it is possible to derive very accurate period values for a number of the excited pulsation modes and to study their systematic changes from 1974 to 2012. Results: Most pulsation modes show systematic significant period and amplitude changes on a timescale of decades. For the well-studied modes, around 1986 a general reversal of the directions of both the positive and negative period changes occurred. Furthermore, the period changes between the different modes are strongly correlated, although they differ in size and sign. For the modes with known values of the spherical degree and azimuthal order, we find a correlation between the direction of the period changes and the identified azimuthal order, m. The associated amplitude changes generally have similar timescales of years or decades, but show little systematic or correlated behavior from mode to mode. Conclusions: A natural explanation for the opposite behavior of the prograde and retrograde modes is that their period changes are driven by a changing rotation profile. The changes in the rotation profile could in turn be driven by processes, perhaps the pulsations themselves, that redistribute angular momentum within the star. In general, different modes have different rotation kernels, so this will produce period shifts of varying magnitude for different modes.

  18. XANES spectral changes for discotic liquid crystals of bis[1,2-bis(3,4-dioctyloxyphenyl) ethanedione dioximato]Ni(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokomizo, Mitsutoshi; Kurisaki, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Toshio; Wakita, Hisanobu; Oka-Inagaki, Yoshio; Ohta, Kazuchika

    The one-dimensional stacking structures of a liquid crystal Ni complex- [1,2-bis(3,4-dialkoxyphenyl)ethanedione dioximato]Ni(II), [Ni{(C8O)4dpg}2],which shows thermochromism, (see Fig. 1) have been investigated over a temperature range from room temperature to 220°C by analyzing X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra together with a DV-X[alpha] molecular orbital calculation. The thermochromic character of the complex is discussed through the structural change with temperature in Ni--Ni and Ni to ligand atom interactions.

  19. CHANGES IN ORO-PHARYNGEAL AIRWAY DIMENSIONS AFTER TREATMENT WITH FUNCTIONAL APPLIANCE IN CLASS II SKELETAL PATTERN.

    PubMed

    Ali, Batool; Shaikh, Attiya; Fida, Mubassar

    2015-01-01

    Functional appliances have been used since many decades for the correction of mandibular retrognathism. Similar oral appliances are a treatment modality for patients with Obstructive sleep apnoea. Hence, interception at the right age with these growth modification appliances might benefit a child from developing long-term respiratory insufficiency. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to assess the short-term effects of Twin block appliance (CTB) on pharyngeal airway size in subjects with skeletal Class-II pattern in a sample of Pakistani population. A retrospective study was conducted from orthodontic records of 62 children (31 males, 31 females) with retrognathic mandibles using lateral cephalograms obtained at initial visit and after CTB treatment. Paired t-test was used to compare the pre-functional and post-functional treatment airway size. Independent sample t-test was used for comparison between the genders and statistical significance was kept at ≤ 00.5. The upper airway width (p < 0.001), nasopharyngeal depth (p = 0.03) and upper airway thickness (p = 0.008) was substantially improved after CTB treatment. Males showed a greater increase in upper airway width (p = 0.03) and nasopharyngeal depth (p = 0.01) in comparison to the females. Functional appliance therapy can improve the narrow pharyngeal airway of growing children presenting with deficient mandibles having Class-II skeletal pattern.

  20. Changes in hepatic phase I and phase II biotransformation enzyme expression and glutathione levels following atrazine exposure in female rats.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Arthur D; Breckenridge, Charles B; Yi, Kun D; Sawhney Coder, Pragati; Wanders, Desiree; Judd, Robert L; Foradori, Chad D

    2017-10-05

    1. To determine the effects of repeated atrazine (ATR) treatment on hepatic phase I and II enzymes, adult female rats were treated with vehicle or 100 mg/kg of ATR for 1, 2, 3 or 4 days. Glutathione-s-transferases (GST) mRNA expression, protein levels (mu, pi, alpha, omega), and activity (cytosolic and microsomal), along with bioavailable glutathione (GSH) were assayed. 2. GST expression, concentrations and activity were increased, along with GSH levels, in animals treated with ATR for 3 and 4 days. 3. A subsequent study was performed with animals treated with vehicle, 6.5, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day for 4, 8 or 14 days. Expression of hepatic phase I CYP 450 enzymes was evaluated in conjugation with GST expression, protein and activity. Nineteen of the 45 CYP enzymes assayed displayed increased mRNA levels after eight days of treatment in animals treated with 50 or 100 mg/kg/day. After 14 days of treatment, all CYP expression levels returned to control levels except for CYP2B2, CYP2B3, CYP2C7, CYP2C23, CYP2E1, CYP3A9, CYP4A3 and CYP27A1, which remained elevated. 4. Results indicate that there may be a habituation or adaptation of liver phase I and phase II expression following repeated ATR treatment.

  1. The G.I. Bill and the Changing Place of U.S. Higher Education after World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jennifer Ann

    The geography of U.S. higher education changed dramatically with the enactment of the Serviceman's Readjustment Act of 1944, popularly known as the G.I. Bill of Rights (Public Law 346). This discussion shows how the G.I. Bill paved the way for marked changes in terms of where colleges and universities were located and who benefited from higher…

  2. Arch width changes in patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion treated with maxillary first premolar extraction and non-extraction method.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Sajjad; Kachoei, Mojgan; Shahvaghar-Asl, Naiemeh; Shirazi, Samaneh; Sharghi, Reza

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine arch width changes during maxillary first premolars extraction and non-extraction treatment in patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion. Dental casts of 91 Class II division 1 patients (36 males and 55 females) were evaluated. The minimum age of the subjects at the beginning of treatment was above 16 years. 48 patients were treated with extraction of the maxillary first premolars and 43 patients were treated without extraction. Pre- and post-treatment maxillary and mandibular inter-canine and inter-molar arch widths were measured. At the end of treatment, maxillary and mandibular inter-canine widths of both groups increased significantly. The maxillary inter-molar width decreased in the extraction group and increased in the non-extraction group. The mandibular inter-molar width increased significantly in both groups. No significant differences were observed between males and females. The results of this study indicated that there was a tendency for an increase in arch width during both the extraction and non-extraction treatment except maxillary inter-molar width in the extraction cases. Key words:Dental arch, malocclusion, angle Class II, tooth movement, extraction.

  3. Arch width changes in patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion treated with maxillary first premolar extraction and non-extraction method

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Sajjad; Kachoei, Mojgan; Shahvaghar-Asl, Naiemeh; Shirazi, Samaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine arch width changes during maxillary first premolars extraction and non-extraction treatment in patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion. Material and Methods Dental casts of 91 Class II division 1 patients (36 males and 55 females) were evaluated. The minimum age of the subjects at the beginning of treatment was above 16 years. 48 patients were treated with extraction of the maxillary first premolars and 43 patients were treated without extraction. Pre- and post-treatment maxillary and mandibular inter-canine and inter-molar arch widths were measured. Results At the end of treatment, maxillary and mandibular inter-canine widths of both groups increased significantly. The maxillary inter-molar width decreased in the extraction group and increased in the non-extraction group. The mandibular inter-molar width increased significantly in both groups. No significant differences were observed between males and females. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that there was a tendency for an increase in arch width during both the extraction and non-extraction treatment except maxillary inter-molar width in the extraction cases. Key words:Dental arch, malocclusion, angle Class II, tooth movement, extraction. PMID:27703608

  4. Changes in the BDNF-immunopositive cell population of neocortical layers I and II/III after focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yongwon; Kang, Sung Goo; Kam, Kyung-Yoon

    2015-04-24

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family and is widely distributed in the central nervous system, including the cerebral cortex. BDNF plays an important role in normal neural development, survival of existing neurons, and activity-dependent neuroplasticity. BDNF can also be neuroprotective and evoke neurogenesis in certain pathological conditions, such as cerebral ischemia. Neocortical layer I is an important region that can integrate feedforward and feedback information from other cortical areas and subcortical regions. In addition, it has recently been proposed as a possible source of neuronal progenitor cells after ischemia. Therefore, we investigated changes in the BDNF-immunoreactive cell population of neocortical layers I and II/III after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced cerebral ischemia in rats. In unaffected condition, the number of BDNF(+) cells in layer I was significantly less than in layer II/III in the cingulate cortex and in the motor and sensory areas. The increase in the number of BDNF(+) cells in layer I 8 days after MCAO was more remarkable than layer II/III, in all regions except the area of cingulate cortex farthest from the infarct core. Only BDNF(+)-Ox-42(+) cells showed a tendency to increase consistently toward the infarct core in both layers I and II/III, implying a major source of BDNF for response to ischemic injury. The present study suggests that some beneficial effects during recovery from ischemic injury, such as increased supportive microglia/macrophages, occur owing to a sensitive response of BDNF in layer I.

  5. Short- and long-term effects of major organisational change on minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health: results from the Whitehall II study.

    PubMed

    Falkenberg, Helena; Fransson, Eleonor I; Westerlund, Hugo; Head, Jenny A

    2013-10-01

    To investigate short- and long-term effects of major organisational change on minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health for women and men in different employment grades. Minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health among 6710 British civil servants (1993 women and 4717 men) in three employment grades from the Whitehall II study were examined from 1985 to 1988 under stable employment conditions. The short-term effects of organisational change were investigated in 1991-1993 after a time of major restructuring aiming at increasing the influence of market forces in the civil service and the long-term effects were investigated in 1997-1999. Those who had experienced organisational change and those who anticipated organisational change reported more negative short-term health effects (minor psychiatric disorder and poor self-rated health) compared with those who reported no change. No major differences were found depending on employment grade or gender. The negative health effects had diminished during 1997-1999 for those who reported that a major change had happened before 1991-1993. Those who anticipated an organisational change in 1991-1993 still reported more ill-health in 1997-1999 (both minor psychiatric disorder and self-reported health) than those in the comparison group. The results indicate that organisational change affects employees' health negatively in the short term but also that it is possible to recover from such negative effects. As it was not possible to discern any definite difference between the gender and grades, the results point at the importance of working proactively to implement organisational change for women and men at all levels.

  6. Copper(II) complexes of bis(amino amide) ligands: effect of changes in the amino acid residue.

    PubMed

    Martí, Inés; Ferrer, Armando; Escorihuela, Jorge; Burguete, M Isabel; Luis, Santiago V

    2012-06-14

    A family of ligands derived from bis(amino amides) containing aliphatic spacers has been prepared, and their protonation and stability constants for the formation of Cu(2+) complexes have been determined potentiometrically. Important differences are associated to both the length of the aliphatic spacer and the nature of the side chains derived from the amino acid. In general, ligands containing aliphatic side chains display higher basicities as well as stability constants with Cu(2+). In the same way, basicities and stability constants tend to increase when decreasing the steric hindrance caused by the corresponding side-chain. FT-IR, UV-vis and ESI-MS were used for analyzing the complex species detected in the speciation diagram. UV-vis studies showed the presence of different coordination environments for the copper(II) complexes. Complexes with different stoichiometries can be formed in some instances. This was clearly highlighted with the help of ESI-MS experiments.

  7. Energetic changes in the surface of activated carbons and relationship with Ni(II) adsorption from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Estupiñan, Paola; Giraldo, Liliana; Moreno-Piraján, Juan Carlos

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated Ni(II) ion adsorption from aqueous solution on activated carbons obtained by chemically modifying the surface with the oxidizing agents nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide (CAGoxP and CAGoxN, respectively). The activated carbons were characterized by total acidity and basicity, pH at the point of charge zero determination and IR spectroscopy. Textural parameters such as the BET area and pore volumes were evaluated by gas adsorption. The BET area of the materials was between 816 and 876 m2 g-1. Additionally, the immersion enthalpies of the activated carbons in water and benzene were determined. The experimental results on adsorption in solution were adjusted to the Langmuir and Freundlich models, obtaining values for the monolayer capacity between 29.68 and 50.97 mg g-1, which indicates that the adsorption capacity depends largely on solid surface chemistry.

  8. Changes in blood pressure and dipsogenic responsiveness to angiotensin II during chronic exposure of rats to cold.

    PubMed

    Fregly, M J; Shechtman, O; van Bergen, P; Reeber, C; Papanek, P E

    1991-04-01

    Hypertension accompanies chronic exposure of rats to cold (5-6 degrees C). Systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures become elevated, and hypertrophy of the heart occurs. A previous study from this laboratory suggested that the renin-angiotensin system may play a role. The present study was carried out to assess this further. Thus, in addition to measurement of systolic blood pressure at intervals during exposure to cold, plasma renin activity and the dipsogenic responsiveness to acute administration of angiotensin II were also measured to assess the functional status of the renin-angiotensin system. The results showed a significant (p less than 0.05) increase in systolic blood pressure during the third week of exposure to cold. In contrast, plasma renin activity (PRA) increased within the first week of exposure to cold, and declined thereafter to reach the level of the control by the third week of exposure to cold. By the fourth week, PRA decreased to a level significantly (p less than 0.05) below that of the control group. The responsiveness to acute administration of angiotensin II (AII), as assessed by the drinking response, increased significantly (p less than 0.05) by the third week of exposure to cold and remained significantly elevated during the fourth week. There was a significant (p less than 0.01) direct relationship between dipsogenic responsiveness to AII and blood pressure in the cold-treated (r = .57), but not the control group (r = .12). There was also a significant (r = -.91) indirect linear relationship between PRA and dipsogenic responsiveness to AII. Cold-treated rats had significant increases in urinary norepinephrine output and weights of heart, kidneys, adrenals, and brown adipose tissue characteristic of rats acclimated to cold.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. The choroid plexus transcriptome reveals changes in type I and II interferon responses in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Sandro Dá; Ferreira, Ana C; Gao, Fuying; Coppola, Giovanni; Geschwind, Daniel H; Sousa, João C; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Sousa, Nuno; Palha, Joana A; Marques, Fernanda

    2015-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a marked decline in cognition and memory function. Increasing evidence highlights the essential role of neuroinflammatory and immune-related molecules, including those produced at the brain barriers, on brain immune surveillance, cellular dysfunction and amyloid beta (Aβ) pathology in AD. Therefore, understanding the response at the brain barriers may unravel novel pathways of relevance for the pathophysiology of AD. Herein, we focused on the study of the choroid plexus (CP), which constitutes the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, in aging and in AD. Specifically, we used the PDGFB-APPSwInd (J20) transgenic mouse model of AD, which presents early memory decline and progressive Aβ accumulation, and littermate age-matched wild-type (WT) mice, to characterize the CP transcriptome at 3, 5-6 and 11-12months of age. The most striking observation was that the CP of J20 mice displayed an overall overexpression of type I interferon (IFN) response genes at all ages. Moreover, J20 mice presented a high expression of type II IFN genes in the CP at 3months, which became lower than WT at 5-6 and 11-12months. Importantly, along with a marked memory impairment and increased glial activation, J20 mice also presented a similar overexpression of type I IFN genes in the dorsal hippocampus at 3months. Altogether, these findings provide new insights on a possible interplay between type I and II IFN responses in AD and point to IFNs as targets for modulation in cognitive decline.

  10. Biochemical and functional changes of rat liver spheroids during spheroid formation and maintenance in culture: II. nitric oxide synthesis and related changes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinsheng; Ma, Mingwen; Purcell, Wendy M

    2003-12-15

    Liver cells isolated from intact tissue can reaggregate to form three-dimensional, multicellular spheroids in vitro. During this process, cells undergo a histological and environmental change. How cells respond biochemically to this change has not been studied in detail previously. We have investigated some biochemical changes in rat liver cells during the formation and maintenance of spheroids. Liver cells were isolated from male Sprague rats and spheroids cultured by a gyrotatory-mediated method. Liver cells were shown to respond to the isolation procedure and the formation of spheroids triggered histological environmental changes that increased arginine uptake, nitric oxide (NO) and urea syntheses, as well as raised levels of GSH, GSSG, glutamic acid and aspartic acid secretion within the first couple of days after cell isolation. Levels were maintained at a relatively stable level in the mature spheroids (>5 days) over the 3 week period of observation. P450 1A1 activity was lost in the first 2 days and gradually recovered thereafter. This study, for the first time, shows that liver cells after isolation and during spheroid formation actively uptake arginine and increase NO and urea syntheses. A high level of NO is likely to play an important role in modulating a series of biochemical changes in liver cells. It is considered that liver cells actively respond to the 'challenge' induced by the isolation procedure and subsequent histological environmental changes, and biochemical modulation and instability result. The stable cell-cell contacts and histological environment in mature spheroids permit and support functional recovery and maintenance in vitro. This period of stability permits the use of spheroids in toxicity studies to establish acute and chronic paradigms. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Early changes in serum type II collagen biomarkers predict radiographic progression at one year in inflammatory arthritis patients after biologic therapy.

    PubMed

    Mullan, Ronan H; Matthews, Clare; Bresnihan, Barry; FitzGerald, Oliver; King, Lindsay; Poole, A Robin; Fearon, Ursula; Veale, Douglas J

    2007-09-01

    To investigate whether short-term changes in serum biomarkers of type II collagen degradation (C2C) and types I and II collagen degradation (C1,2C), as well as the biomarker for the synthesis of type II procollagen (CPII) can predict radiographic progression at 1 year following initiation of biologic therapy in patients with inflammatory arthritis. Serum levels of biomarkers were measured at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after initiation of biologic therapy. A composite score reflecting changes from baseline in all 3 biomarkers (DeltaCOL) was calculated. Associations with clinical responses according to the 28-joint count Disease Activity Score and with radiographic progression according to the modified Sharp/van der Heijde score (SHS) were assessed. The 1-year increase in the SHS correlated with the 1-month change in C2C results (r = 0.311, P = 0.028) and the DeltaCOL score (r = 0.342, P = 0.015). Radiographic progression was predicted by increases in serum C2C at 1 month (P = 0.031). The DeltaCOL score was significantly associated with 1-year radiographic progression after 1 (P = 0.022), 3 (P = 0.015), 6 (P = 0.048), and 9 (P = 0.019) months of therapy. Clinical remission was predicted by 1-month decreases in serum levels of C2C (P = 0.008) and C1,2C (P = 0.036). By regression analysis, 1-month changes in C2C, C1,2C, and CPII levels were independently associated with, and correctly predicted radiographic outcome in, 88% of the patients. Short-term changes in serum levels of collagen biomarkers following initiation of biologic therapy may better predict long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes. These collagen biomarkers may therefore be valuable new early indicators of short-term biologic treatment efficacy in clinical trials and in individual patients with inflammatory erosive arthritis.

  12. Effects of acrylamide graded doses on metallothioneins I and II induction and DNA fragmentation: Bochemical and histomorphological changes in the liver of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ghorbel, Imen; Elwej, Awatef; Chaabene, Mariem; Boudawara, Ons; Marrakchi, Rim; Jamoussi, Kamel; Boudawara, Tahya Sellami; Zeghal, Najiba

    2017-08-01

    The present study investigates the toxic effects of acrylamide (ACR) administered to rats at two doses on (i) oxidative stress and disruption of pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance in hepatic cells and (ii) its correlation with metallothioneins (MTs) genes expression, DNA damage and histomorphological changes. Treated rats with 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight of ACR led to an increase in malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, advanced oxidation protein products, protein carbonyl levels as well as an alteration in the antioxidant status. Total MT content in the liver and MT I and MT II genes induction were increased. Plasma transaminases activities, albumin, total protein and glucose levels were also increased, while alkaline phosphatase activity was decreased. Moreover, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios were increased, while HDL-C decreased in a dose-dependent manner. A random DNA degradation was observed only in the liver of ACR-treated rats with the highest dose. These changes were confirmed by histopathological observations.

  13. Plants Actively Avoid State Transitions upon Changes in Light Intensity: Role of Light-Harvesting Complex II Protein Dephosphorylation in High Light.

    PubMed

    Mekala, Nageswara Rao; Suorsa, Marjaana; Rantala, Marjaana; Aro, Eva-Mari; Tikkanen, Mikko

    2015-06-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) core and light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) proteins in plant chloroplasts undergo reversible phosphorylation upon changes in light intensity (being under control of redox-regulated STN7 and STN8 kinases and TAP38/PPH1 and PSII core phosphatases). Shift of plants from growth light to high light results in an increase of PSII core phosphorylation, whereas LHCII phosphorylation concomitantly decreases. Exactly the opposite takes place when plants are shifted to lower light intensity. Despite distinct changes occurring in thylakoid protein phosphorylation upon light intensity changes, the excitation balance between PSII and photosystem I remains unchanged. This differs drastically from the canonical-state transition model induced by artificial states 1 and 2 lights that concomitantly either dephosphorylate or phosphorylate, respectively, both the PSII core and LHCII phosphoproteins. Analysis of the kinase and phosphatase mutants revealed that TAP38/PPH1 phosphatase is crucial in preventing state transition upon increase in light intensity. Indeed, tap38/pph1 mutant revealed strong concomitant phosphorylation of both the PSII core and LHCII proteins upon transfer to high light, thus resembling the wild type under state 2 light. Coordinated function of thylakoid protein kinases and phosphatases is shown to secure balanced excitation energy for both photosystems by preventing state transitions upon changes in light intensity. Moreover, proton gradient regulation5 (PGR5) is required for proper regulation of thylakoid protein kinases and phosphatases, and the pgr5 mutant mimics phenotypes of tap38/pph1. This shows that there is a close cooperation between the redox- and proton gradient-dependent regulatory mechanisms for proper function of the photosynthetic machinery. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Plants Actively Avoid State Transitions upon Changes in Light Intensity: Role of Light-Harvesting Complex II Protein Dephosphorylation in High Light1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Suorsa, Marjaana; Rantala, Marjaana; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) core and light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) proteins in plant chloroplasts undergo reversible phosphorylation upon changes in light intensity (being under control of redox-regulated STN7 and STN8 kinases and TAP38/PPH1 and PSII core phosphatases). Shift of plants from growth light to high light results in an increase of PSII core phosphorylation, whereas LHCII phosphorylation concomitantly decreases. Exactly the opposite takes place when plants are shifted to lower light intensity. Despite distinct changes occurring in thylakoid protein phosphorylation upon light intensity changes, the excitation balance between PSII and photosystem I remains unchanged. This differs drastically from the canonical-state transition model induced by artificial states 1 and 2 lights that concomitantly either dephosphorylate or phosphorylate, respectively, both the PSII core and LHCII phosphoproteins. Analysis of the kinase and phosphatase mutants revealed that TAP38/PPH1 phosphatase is crucial in preventing state transition upon increase in light intensity. Indeed, tap38/pph1 mutant revealed strong concomitant phosphorylation of both the PSII core and LHCII proteins upon transfer to high light, thus resembling the wild type under state 2 light. Coordinated function of thylakoid protein kinases and phosphatases is shown to secure balanced excitation energy for both photosystems by preventing state transitions upon changes in light intensity. Moreover, PROTON GRADIENT REGULATION5 (PGR5) is required for proper regulation of thylakoid protein kinases and phosphatases, and the pgr5 mutant mimics phenotypes of tap38/pph1. This shows that there is a close cooperation between the redox- and proton gradient-dependent regulatory mechanisms for proper function of the photosynthetic machinery. PMID:25902812

  15. Changes in monsoon-driven upwelling in the South China Sea over glacial Terminations I and II: a multi-proxy record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadatzki, Henrik; Sarnthein, Michael; Andersen, Nils

    2016-06-01

    Upwelling intensity in the South China Sea has changed over glacial-interglacial cycles in response to orbital-scale changes in the East Asian Monsoon. Here, we evaluate new multi-proxy records of two sediment cores from the north-eastern South China Sea to uncover millennial-scale changes in winter monsoon-driven upwelling over glacial Terminations I and II. On the basis of U/Th-based speleothem chronology, we compare these changes with sediment records of summer monsoon-driven upwelling east of South Vietnam. Ocean upwelling is traced by reduced (UK'37-based) temperature and increased nutrient and productivity estimates of sea surface waters (δ13C on planktic foraminifera, accumulation rates of alkenones, chlorins, and total organic carbon). Accordingly, strong winter upwelling occurred north-west of Luzon (Philippines) during late Marine Isotope Stage 6.2, Heinrich (HS) and Greenland stadials (GS) HS-11, GS-26, GS-25, HS-1, and the Younger Dryas. During these stadials, summer upwelling decreased off South Vietnam and sea surface salinity reached a maximum suggesting a drop in monsoon rains, concurrent with speleothem records of aridity in China. In harmony with a stadial-to-interstadial see-saw pattern, winter upwelling off Luzon in turn was weak during interstadials, in particular those of glacial Terminations I and II, when summer upwelling culminated east of South Vietnam. Most likely, this upwelling terminated widespread deep-water stratification, coeval with the deglacial rise in atmospheric CO2. Yet, a synchronous maximum in precipitation fostered estuarine overturning circulation in the South China Sea, in particular as long as the Borneo Strait was closed when sea level dropped below -40 m.

  16. The kinetics of colour change in textiles and fibres treated with detergent solutions Part II - Spectrophotometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Was-Gubala, Jolanta; Grzesiak, Edyta

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess colour variations that occur in several types of textiles and their constituent fibres, resulting from the long-term influence of various laundry detergents. A 14-day experiment was conducted using blue, red and grey/black cotton, wool, acrylic and polyester textiles. The spectrophotometric measurement of colour changes in fabric samples and test solutions, as well as the microspectrophotometric analysis of colour changes in single fibres were described. An evaluation of the observed colour changes from a forensic fibre analysis expert's point of view, as well as that of an average user/consumer of the textiles and laundry detergents is also provided. Copyright 2009 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Two tyrosines that changed the world: Interfacing the oxidizing power of photochemistry to water splitting in photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Styring, Stenbjörn; Sjöholm, Johannes; Mamedov, Fikret

    2012-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII), the thylakoid membrane enzyme which uses sunlight to oxidize water to molecular oxygen, holds many organic and inorganic redox cofactors participating in the electron transfer reactions. Among them, two tyrosine residues, Tyr-Z and Tyr-D are found on the oxidizing side of PSII. Both tyrosines demonstrate similar spectroscopic features while their kinetic characteristics are quite different. Tyr-Z, which is bound to the D1 core protein, acts as an intermediate in electron transfer between the primary donor, P(680) and the CaMn₄ cluster. In contrast, Tyr-D, which is bound to the D2 core protein, does not participate in linear electron transfer in PSII and stays fully oxidized during PSII function. The phenolic oxygens on both tyrosines form well-defined hydrogen bonds to nearby histidine residues, His(Z) and His(D) respectively. These hydrogen bonds allow swift and almost activation less movement of the proton between respective tyrosine and histidine. This proton movement is critical and the phenolic proton from the tyrosine is thought to toggle between the tyrosine and the histidine in the hydrogen bond. It is found towards the tyrosine when this is reduced and towards the histidine when the tyrosine is oxidized. The proton movement occurs at both room temperature and ultra low temperature and is sensitive to the pH. Essentially it has been found that when the pH is below the pK(a) for respective histidine the function of the tyrosine is slowed down or, at ultra low temperature, halted. This has important consequences for the function also of the CaMn₄ complex and the protonation reactions as the critical Tyr-His hydrogen bond also steer a multitude of reactions at the CaMn₄ cluster. This review deals with the discovery and functional assignments of the two tyrosines. The pH dependent phenomena involved in oxidation and reduction of respective tyrosine is covered in detail. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosystem

  18. Effects of climate change on agricultural-plant pests. Volume II, Part 10 of environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Plant pests and their community of biotic cohorts respond to climatic changes, whether temporal aberrations or long term shifts. How they respond depends on the magnitude of the change and the ability of the species to tolerate or adapt to the new environment. Scientists see several climatological scenarios concerning the increase of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ and ambient temperature. Those who foresee a slow incremental raising of temperatures base their predictions mainly on the available empirical evidence and the notion that long term weather is basically a cyclical phenomena that continually adjusts and readjusts through time. The other scenario interprets the available empirical data as a gradual buildup that pushes the climatic picture towards a threshold or a trigger point that, once arrived at, is irreversible and dramatic. This paper explores the possible climatic scenarios as they relate to the ecological principles that affect pest abundance and the distribution and impact on domestic and international agriculture.

  19. Conformational changes in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase mutants: effect of mutations either at Ca(2+)-binding site II or at tryptophan 552 in the cytosolic domain.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, Guillaume; Jaxel, Christine; Picard, Martin; le Maire, Marc; Champeil, Philippe; Falson, Pierre

    2006-04-25

    By analyzing, after expression in yeast and purification, the intrinsic fluorescence properties of point mutants of rabbit Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA1a) with alterations to amino acid residues in Ca(2+)-binding site I (E(771)), site II (E(309)), in both sites (D(800)), or in the nucleotide-binding domain (W(552)), we were able to follow the conformational changes associated with various steps in the ATPase catalytic cycle. Whereas Ca(2+) binding to purified wild-type (WT) ATPase in the absence of ATP leads to the rise in Trp fluorescence expected for the so-called E2 --> E1Ca(2) transition, the Ca(2+)-induced fluorescence rise is dramatically reduced for the E(309)Q mutant. As this purified E(309)Q mutant retains the ability to bind Ca(2+) at site I (but not at site II), we tentatively conclude that the protein reorganization induced by Ca(2+) binding at site II makes the major contribution to the overall Trp fluorescence changes observed upon Ca(2+) binding to both sites. Judging from the fluorescence response of W(552)F, similar to that of WT, these changes appear to be primarily due to membranous tryptophans, not to W(552). The same holds for the fluorescence rise observed upon phosphorylation from P(i) (the so-called E2 --> E2P transition). As for WT ATPase, Mg(2+) binding in the absence of Ca(2+) affects the fluorescence of the E(309)Q mutant, suggesting that this Mg(2+)-dependent fluorescence rise does not reflect binding of Mg(2+) to Ca(2+) sites; instead, Mg(2+) probably binds close to the catalytic site, or perhaps near transmembrane span M3, at a location recently revealed by Fe(2+)-catalyzed oxidative cleavage. Mutation of W(552) hardly affects ATP-induced fluorescence changes in the absence of Ca(2+), which are therefore mostly due to membranous Trp residues, demonstrating long-range communication between the nucleotide-binding domain and the membranous domain.

  20. Changes in nitrate concentrations in Scottish catchments - investigating the influence of climate and land use drivers by simulation with NIRAMS II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohle, Ina; Glendell, Miriam; Gair, Jonathan; Sample, James E.

    2017-04-01

    Diffuse nitrogen pollution from agriculture is a major threat to both surface and groundwater quality in Scotland. Evaluation of the implementation of the EU Nitrates Directive and the Water Framework Directive requires designation and periodic review of Nitrate Vulnerable Zones. To this end, Dunn et al. (2004) developed the grid-based Nitrogen Risk Assessment Model for Scotland (NIRAMS, current version NIRAMS II) to predict the annual nitrate concentrations in Scottish aquifers and streams. This physically-based distributed model consists of both a water balance and a nitrate leaching module. The water balance module simulates overland flow, interflow and groundwater flow based on gridded weather, soil and land use data. Nitrate leaching is then predicted taking into account simulated runoff and information on agricultural inputs derived from available national datasets. Evaluation and future development of mitigation measures to reduce diffuse nitrate pollution require an understanding of potential climate and land use change impacts on nitrate concentrations. In a simulation study using NIRAMS II Sample et al. (2013) detected a decline in nitrate concentrations between 2007 and 2010 in three of four Nitrate Vulnerable Zones in Scotland. By re-running the model for fixed climate or land use conditions, they have been able to attribute the decline mainly to weather conditions (comparably wet years between 2007 and 2010 due to either high precipitation or low evapotranspiration) and to a lesser extent to reduced organic nitrogen inputs. In this study, we analyse changes in observed and simulated nitrate concentrations up to 2015 and undertake a sensitivity analysis regarding both model parameterisation and model input using a Gaussian process emulator. Thus, the study contributes to our understanding of the inter-annual variability of nitrate concentrations, the effectiveness of the implementation of the Nitrates Directive and the likely impact of potential future

  1. Specific localization of the annexin II heterotetramer in brain lipid raft fractions and its changes in spatial learning.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei-Qin; Waisman, David M; Grimaldi, Maurizio

    2004-08-01

    Annexin-II (AII) is a Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipid-binding protein that is present in both intracellular and extracellular compartments. In the present study AII immunoreactivity was found in a subpopulation of neurons in specific brain regions, including the cerebral cortex and the surface of hippocampal pyramidal neurons from adult rats. AII from synaptic membranes was detected by immunoblotting as multiple species containing the monomer (AII36) and heterotetramer (AIIt). AIIt was resistant to beta-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, but was completely reduced to monomers (36 kDa) by two-dimensional electrophoresis. AIIt resided exclusively in the detergent-resistant lipid rafts concentrated in neuronal dendrites, and its recruitment to those structures was enhanced by antibody cross-link. AII abundantly distributed on the outer leaflet of neuronal membranes and between spaces of neurons appeared to be neuronal adhesive. The formation of AIIt required synthesis of sphingolipids and cholesterol, and its stability depended on Ca2+. Increases in neuronal activities such as depolarization and learning were shown to promote formation of AIIt. Our results suggest that, via a dynamic association with dendritic lipid rafts, AII may play a role in synaptic signal transduction and remodeling. This probably involves focal adhesion and interactions with actin that are associated with brain development and memory consolidation.

  2. Belowground Response to Drought in a Tropical Forest Soil. II. Change in Microbial Function Impacts Carbon Composition

    PubMed Central

    Bouskill, Nicholas J.; Wood, Tana E.; Baran, Richard; Hao, Zhao; Ye, Zaw; Bowen, Ben P.; Lim, Hsiao Chien; Nico, Peter S.; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Gilbert, Benjamin; Silver, Whendee L.; Northen, Trent R.; Brodie, Eoin L.

    2016-01-01

    Climate model projections for tropical regions show clear perturbation of precipitation patterns leading to increased frequency and severity of drought in some regions. Previous work has shown declining soil moisture to be a strong driver of changes in microbial trait distribution, however, the feedback of any shift in functional potential on ecosystem properties related to carbon cycling are poorly understood. Here we show that drought-induced changes in microbial functional diversity and activity shape, and are in turn shaped by, the composition of dissolved and soil-associated carbon. We also demonstrate that a shift in microbial functional traits that favor the production of hygroscopic compounds alter the efflux of carbon dioxide following soil rewetting. Under drought the composition of the dissolved organic carbon pool changed in a manner consistent with a microbial metabolic response. We hypothesize that this microbial ecophysiological response to changing soil moisture elevates the intracellular carbon demand stimulating extracellular enzyme production, that prompts the observed decline in more complex carbon compounds (e.g., cellulose and lignin). Furthermore, a metabolic response to drought appeared to condition (biologically and physically) the soil, notably through the production of polysaccharides, particularly in experimental plots that had been pre-exposed to a short-term drought. This hysteretic response, in addition to an observed drought-related decline in phosphorus concentration, may have been responsible for a comparatively modest CO2 efflux following wet-up in drought plots relative to control plots. PMID:27014243

  3. Belowground Response to Drought in a Tropical Forest Soil. II. Change in Microbial Function Impacts Carbon Composition

    DOE PAGES

    Bouskill, Nicholas J.; Wood, Tana E.; Baran, Richard; ...

    2016-03-15

    Climate model projections for tropical regions show clear perturbation of precipitation patterns leading to increased frequency and severity of drought in some regions. Previous work has shown declining soil moisture to be a strong driver of changes in microbial trait distribution, however, the feedback of any shift in functional potential on ecosystem properties related to carbon cycling are poorly understood. Here we show that drought-induced changes in microbial functional diversity and activity shape, and are in turn shaped by, the composition of dissolved and soil-associated carbon. We also demonstrate that a shift in microbial functional traits that favor the productionmore » of hygroscopic compounds alter the efflux of carbon dioxide following soil rewetting. Under drought the composition of the dissolved organic carbon pool changed in a manner consistent with a microbial metabolic response. We hypothesize that this microbial ecophysiological response to changing soil moisture elevates the intracellular carbon demand stimulating extracellular enzyme production, that prompts the observed decline in more complex carbon compounds (e.g., cellulose and lignin). Furthermore, a metabolic response to drought appeared to condition (biologically and physically) the soil, notably through the production of polysaccharides, particularly in experimental plots that had been pre-exposed to a short-term drought. This hysteretic response, in addition to an observed drought-related decline in phosphorus concentration, may have been responsible for a comparatively modest CO 2 efflux following wet-up in drought plots relative to control plots.« less

  4. COMPARISON OF EEG CHANGES PRODUCED BY CARBARYL (CARBAMATE), PERMETHRIN (TYPE I PYRETHROID), AND DELTAMETHRIN (TYPE II PYRETHROID)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have reported that treatment with carbaryl may alter Theta activity in the EEG (Lyke et al., Toxicologist, 108(S-1):441, 2009). In this study, we examined the ability to detect changes in EEG activity produced by pesticides with different modes of action. Long Evans rats were ...

  5. Belowground Response to Drought in a Tropical Forest Soil. II. Change in Microbial Function Impacts Carbon Composition

    Treesearch

    Nicholas J. Bouskill; Tana E. Wood; Richard Baran; Zhao Hao; Zaw Ye; Ben P. Bowen; Hsiao Chien Lim; Peter S. Nico; Hoi-Ying Holman; Benjamin Gilbert; Whendee L. Silver; Trent R. Northen; Eoin L. Brodie

    2016-01-01

    Climate model projections for tropical regions show clear perturbation of precipitation patterns leading to increased frequency and severity of drought in some regions. Previous work has shown declining soil moisture to be a strong driver of changes in microbial trait distribution, however...

  6. A Study of Ontogenetic and Generational Change in Adolescent Personality by Means of Multivariate Longitudinal Sequences: Phase II. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesselroade, John R.; Baltes, Paul B.

    Assessment of the relationship between ontogenetic (individual) and generational (historical) change in adolescent personality development was the focus of this study. The total sample included 1000 male and female adolescents (ages 13-18) randomly drawn from 32 public school systems in West Virginia following a design using longitudinal sequences…

  7. COMPARISON OF EEG CHANGES PRODUCED BY CARBARYL (CARBAMATE), PERMETHRIN (TYPE I PYRETHROID), AND DELTAMETHRIN (TYPE II PYRETHROID)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have reported that treatment with carbaryl may alter Theta activity in the EEG (Lyke et al., Toxicologist, 108(S-1):441, 2009). In this study, we examined the ability to detect changes in EEG activity produced by pesticides with different modes of action. Long Evans rats were ...

  8. Belowground Response to Drought in a Tropical Forest Soil. II. Change in Microbial Function Impacts Carbon Composition.

    PubMed

    Bouskill, Nicholas J; Wood, Tana E; Baran, Richard; Hao, Zhao; Ye, Zaw; Bowen, Ben P; Lim, Hsiao Chien; Nico, Peter S; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Gilbert, Benjamin; Silver, Whendee L; Northen, Trent R; Brodie, Eoin L

    2016-01-01

    Climate model projections for tropical regions show clear perturbation of precipitation patterns leading to increased frequency and severity of drought in some regions. Previous work has shown declining soil moisture to be a strong driver of changes in microbial trait distribution, however, the feedback of any shift in functional potential on ecosystem properties related to carbon cycling are poorly understood. Here we show that drought-induced changes in microbial functional diversity and activity shape, and are in turn shaped by, the composition of dissolved and soil-associated carbon. We also demonstrate that a shift in microbial functional traits that favor the production of hygroscopic compounds alter the efflux of carbon dioxide following soil rewetting. Under drought the composition of the dissolved organic carbon pool changed in a manner consistent with a microbial metabolic response. We hypothesize that this microbial ecophysiological response to changing soil moisture elevates the intracellular carbon demand stimulating extracellular enzyme production, that prompts the observed decline in more complex carbon compounds (e.g., cellulose and lignin). Furthermore, a metabolic response to drought appeared to condition (biologically and physically) the soil, notably through the production of polysaccharides, particularly in experimental plots that had been pre-exposed to a short-term drought. This hysteretic response, in addition to an observed drought-related decline in phosphorus concentration, may have been responsible for a comparatively modest CO2 efflux following wet-up in drought plots relative to control plots.

  9. Belowground Response to Drought in a Tropical Forest Soil. II. Change in Microbial Function Impacts Carbon Composition

    SciTech Connect

    Bouskill, Nicholas J.; Wood, Tana E.; Baran, Richard; Hao, Zhao; Ye, Zaw; Bowen, Ben P.; Lim, Hsiao Chien; Nico, Peter S.; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Gilbert, Benjamin; Silver, Whendee L.; Northen, Trent R.; Brodie, Eoin L.

    2016-03-15

    Climate model projections for tropical regions show clear perturbation of precipitation patterns leading to increased frequency and severity of drought in some regions. Previous work has shown declining soil moisture to be a strong driver of changes in microbial trait distribution, however, the feedback of any shift in functional potential on ecosystem properties related to carbon cycling are poorly understood. Here we show that drought-induced changes in microbial functional diversity and activity shape, and are in turn shaped by, the composition of dissolved and soil-associated carbon. We also demonstrate that a shift in microbial functional traits that favor the production of hygroscopic compounds alter the efflux of carbon dioxide following soil rewetting. Under drought the composition of the dissolved organic carbon pool changed in a manner consistent with a microbial metabolic response. We hypothesize that this microbial ecophysiological response to changing soil moisture elevates the intracellular carbon demand stimulating extracellular enzyme production, that prompts the observed decline in more complex carbon compounds (e.g., cellulose and lignin). Furthermore, a metabolic response to drought appeared to condition (biologically and physically) the soil, notably through the production of polysaccharides, particularly in experimental plots that had been pre-exposed to a short-term drought. This hysteretic response, in addition to an observed drought-related decline in phosphorus concentration, may have been responsible for a comparatively modest CO 2 efflux following wet-up in drought plots relative to control plots.

  10. Climate change impact assessment in Veneto and Friuli Plain groundwater. Part II: a spatially resolved regional risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pasini, S; Torresan, S; Rizzi, J; Zabeo, A; Critto, A; Marcomini, A

    2012-12-01

    Climate change impact assessment on water resources has received high international attention over the last two decades, due to the observed global warming and its consequences at the global to local scale. In particular, climate-related risks for groundwater and related ecosystems pose a great concern to scientists and water authorities involved in the protection of these valuable resources. The close link of global warming with water cycle alterations encourages research to deepen current knowledge on relationships between climate trends and status of water systems, and to develop predictive tools for their sustainable management, copying with key principles of EU water policy. Within the European project Life+ TRUST (Tool for Regional-scale assessment of groundwater Storage improvement in adaptation to climaTe change), a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed in order to identify impacts from climate change on groundwater and associated ecosystems (e.g. surface waters, agricultural areas, natural environments) and to rank areas and receptors at risk in the high and middle Veneto and Friuli Plain (Italy). Based on an integrated analysis of impacts, vulnerability and risks linked to climate change at the regional scale, a RRA framework complying with the Sources-Pathway-Receptor-Consequence (SPRC) approach was defined. Relevant impacts on groundwater and surface waters (i.e. groundwater level variations, changes in nitrate infiltration processes, changes in water availability for irrigation) were selected and analyzed through hazard scenario, exposure, susceptibility and risk assessment. The RRA methodology used hazard scenarios constructed through global and high resolution model simulations for the 2071-2100 period, according to IPCC A1B emission scenario in order to produce useful indications for future risk prioritization and to support the addressing of adaptation measures, primarily Managed Artificial Recharge (MAR) techniques. Relevant

  11. Ultrastructural findings in horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). II: Pathomorphological changes of the terminal airways and the alveolar region.

    PubMed

    Kaup, F J; Drommer, W; Damsch, S; Deegen, E

    1990-09-01

    Extensive light and electron microscope studies (transmission and scanning electron microscopy) of the bronchioles and alveolar region, in 28 horses suffering chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and eight control horses, revealed good correlation between clinical severity and morphological changes. In the bronchiolar epithelium the non-ciliated bronchiolar epithelial (Clara) cells, in particular, showed ultrastructural alterations and, even in the mild stages of disease, these presented degenerative changes and lack of differentiation. Together with loss of granulation in the Clara cells and metaplasia of the goblet cells, cells were seen with unusual intracytoplasmic lamellar inclusion, the number of which increased sharply with clinical severity. The focal changes in the alveolar region were necrosis of type I epithelial cells, alveolar fibrosis of varying degrees with type II epithelial transformation and emphysema or hyperinflation, with an increase in Kohn's pores. Some horse also showed morphological signs of interference with the surfactant system, in the form of marked cysts with lamellar structure. The alveolar changes were mostly in the peribronchiolar region and were, therefore, interpreted as reactive processes. No conclusions as to the aetiology of equine COPD can be derived from these morphological investigations.

  12. Peptide-bridged dinuclear Ru(II) complex for mitochondrial targeted monitoring of dynamic changes to oxygen concentration and ROS generation in live mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Martin, Aaron; Byrne, Aisling; Burke, Christopher S; Forster, Robert J; Keyes, Tia E

    2014-10-29

    A novel mitochondrial localizing ruthenium(II) peptide conjugate capable of monitoring dynamic changes in local O2 concentrations within living cells is presented. The complex is comprised of luminescent dinuclear ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex bridged across a single mitochondrial penetrating peptide, FrFKFrFK-CONH2 (r = D-arginine). The membrane permeability and selective uptake of the peptide conjugate at the mitochondria of mammalian cells was demonstrated using confocal microscopy. Dye co-localization studies confirmed very precise localization and preconcentration of the probe at the mitochondria. This precision permitted collection of luminescent lifetime images of the probe, without the need for co-localizing dye and permitted semiquantitative determination of oxygen concentration at the mitochondria using calibration curves collected at 37 °C for the peptide conjugate in PBS buffer. Using Antimycin A the ability of the probe to respond dynamically to changing O2 concentrations within live HeLa cells was demonstrated. Furthermore, based on lifetime data it was evident that the probe also responds to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels within the mitochondria, where the greater quenching capacity of these species led to luminescent lifetimes of the probe at longer Antimycin A incubation times which lay outside of the O2 concentration range. Although both the dinuclear complex and a mononuclear analogue conjugated to an octaarginine peptide sequence exhibited some cytotoxicity over 24 h, cells were tolerant of the probes over periods of 4 to 6 h which facilitated imaging. These metal-peptide conjugated probes offer a valuable opportunity for following dynamic changes to mitochondrial function which should be of use across domains in which the metabolic activity of live cells are of interest from molecular biology and drug discovery.

  13. Laser surgery of port wine stains using local vacuum [corrected] pressure: changes in calculated energy deposition (Part II).

    PubMed

    Franco, Walfre; Childers, Michael; Nelson, J Stuart; Aguilar, Guillermo

    2007-02-01

    Application of local vacuum pressure to human skin during laser irradiation results in less absorption in the epidermis and more light delivered to targeted vessels with an increased blood volume. The objective of the present numerical study is to assess the effect of applying local vacuum pressure on the temperatures of the epidermis and small vessels during port wine stain (PWS) laser treatment. STUDY DESIGN/ MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mathematical models of light deposition and heat diffusion are used to compute absorbed energy and temperature distributions of skin and blood vessels with different diameters (10-60 microm) at various depths (200-800 microm) exposed to laser irradiation under atmospheric and vacuum pressures. Under 50 kPa (15 in Hg) vacuum pressure, peak temperatures at the inner walls of small diameter vessels (10-30 microm) located 200-300 microm below the skin surface are approximately 10 degrees C higher than those under atmospheric pressure, and peak temperatures in the epidermis of patients with skin phototype II are approximately 5 degrees C lower. In patients with darker skin phototype (IV), the peak temperature at the inner wall of a 10 microm diameter vessel located 200 microm below the skin surface is approximately 5 degrees C higher than that under atmospheric pressure, and the peak temperature in the epidermis is approximately 10 degrees C lower. Additional energy deposition in a larger blood volume permits higher temperatures to be achieved at vessel walls in response to laser irradiation. While more energy is deposited in every vessel, temperature gains in small diameter vessels (10-30 microm) are greater, increasing the likelihood of irreversible thermal damage to such vessels. In addition, temperatures in the epidermis decrease because less energy is absorbed therein due to reduced epidermal thickness and concentration of melanin per unit area. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Changes in Root Canal Length Determined during Mechanical Preparation Stages and Their Relationship with the Accuracy of Root ZX II.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Bruno Carvalho; Bastos, Luzia Mesquista; Oliveira, Ariany Souza; Bernardes, Ricardo Affonso; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Vivacqua-Gomes, Nilton; Vivan, Rodrigo Ricci

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the variations in root canal length (RCL) occurring during endodontic treatment stages (initial, preflared, and concluded) and correlate them with the accuracy of Root ZX II (RZX). After coronal access, 26 mandibular molars had the apical foramen of the 52 mesial canals standardized (250 μm) and their respective initial RCL was recorded (RCL1 = initial) by using a clinical microscope (×16) and manual K-file instruments. By using the alginate model, sequential electronic measurements were taken with the RZX. After the initial measurement (EM1), WaveOne Primary instruments were used to prepare the cervical and middle thirds of the root canals, and then the second RCL and EM measurements (RCL2/EM2 = preflared) were obtained. Finally, mechanical preparation was concluded, and the measurement procedures were repeated to obtain the final RCL and EM measurements (RCL3/EM3 = concluded). Statistically significant differences were observed in all comparisons in the RCL (P < .05). The RCL1 - RCL3 showed the highest variation (0.6 mm), with the extent of specimens reduced by up to 1.75 mm. No statistically significant differences were found in the accuracy of the RZX (P > .05); 100% precision (± 0.5 mm) was found in all stages. Under the conditions of this study, the authors concluded that during endodontic treatment, the extent of the RCL was reduced, thereby jeopardizing control of the apical limit during instrumentation and/or obturation. The RZX was extremely accurate in all evaluated stages. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A longitudinal study of back pain and radiological changes in the lumbar spines of middle aged women. II. Radiographic findings.

    PubMed Central

    Symmons, D P; van Hemert, A M; Vandenbroucke, J P; Valkenburg, H A

    1991-01-01

    The natural history of radiological changes in the lumbar spine was evaluated in two groups of middle aged Dutch women selected from the general population. One group (n = 236) had recurrent back pain and the other (n = 241) had never experienced back pain. At the beginning of the study disc degeneration was more common in the group with back pain. Osteoporotic vertebral fractures were equally common in both groups. Nine years later both groups showed an increase in prevalence of disc degeneration and osteoporotic fractures. The strongest predictor for change in disc degeneration was the presence of degeneration at the beginning of the study. The development of disc degeneration for the first time was related to body mass index. PMID:1826598

  16. Determinants and Changes Associated with Aldosterone Breakthrough after Angiotensin II Receptor Blockade in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Overt Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Moranne, Olivier; Bakris, George; Fafin, Coraline; Favre, Guillaume; Pradier, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system decreases proteinuria and slows estimated GFR decline in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with overt nephropathy. Serum aldosterone levels may increase during renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade. The determinants and consequences of this aldosterone breakthrough remain unknown. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study examined the incidence, determinants, and changes associated with aldosterone breakthrough in a posthoc analysis of a randomized study that compared the effect of two angiotensin II receptor blockers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with overt nephropathy. Results Of 567 of 860 participants included in this posthoc analysis, 28% of participants developed aldosterone breakthrough, which was defined by an increase greater than 10% over baseline values of serum aldosterone levels after 1 year of angiotensin II receptor blocker treatment. Factors independently associated with aldosterone breakthrough at 1 year were lower serum aldosterone and potassium levels at baseline, higher decreases in sodium intake, systolic BP, and estimated GFR from baseline to 1 year, and use of losartan versus telmisartan. Aldosterone breakthrough at 6 months was not sustained at 1 year in 69% of cases, and it did not predict estimated GFR decrease and proteinuria increase between 6 months and 1 year. Conclusions Aldosterone breakthrough is a frequent event 1 year after initiating renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade, particularly in participants exposed to intensive lowering of BP with sodium depletion and short-acting angiotensin II receptor blockers. Short-term serum aldosterone level increases at 6 months are not associated with negative kidney outcomes between 6 months and 1 year. PMID:23929924

  17. A Change in the Solar He II EUV Global Network Structure as an Indicator of the Geo-Effectiveness of Solar Minima

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didkovsky, L.; Gurman, J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Solar activity during 2007 - 2009 was very low, causing anomalously low thermospheric density. A comparison of solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance in the He II spectral band (26 to 34 nm) from the Solar Extreme ultraviolet Monitor (SEM), one of instruments on the Charge Element and Isotope Analysis System (CELIAS) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) for the two latest solar minima showed a decrease of the absolute irradiance of about 15 +/- 6 % during the solar minimum between Cycles 23 and 24 compared with the Cycle 22/23 minimum when a yearly running-mean filter was used. We found that some local, shorter-term minima including those with the same absolute EUV flux in the SEM spectral band show a higher concentration of spatial power in the global network structure from the 30.4 nm SOHO/Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) images for the local minimum of 1996 compared with the minima of 2008 - 2011.We interpret this higher concentration of spatial power in the transition region's global network structure as a larger number of larger-area features on the solar disk. These changes in the global network structure during solar minima may characterize, in part, the geo-effectiveness of the solar He II EUV irradiance in addition to the estimations based on its absolute levels.

  18. Ethylene reverses photosynthetic inhibition by nickel and zinc in mustard through changes in PS II activity, photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, and antioxidant metabolism.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Iqbal R; Khan, Nafees A

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the influence of exogenously sourced ethylene (200 μL L(-1) ethephon) in the protection of photosynthesis against 200 mg kg(-1) soil each of nickel (Ni)- and zinc (Zn)-accrued stress in mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Plants grown with Ni or Zn but without ethephon exhibited increased activity of 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid synthase, and ethylene with increased oxidative stress measured as H2O2 content and lipid peroxidation compared with control plants. The oxidative stress in Ni-grown plants was higher than Zn-grown plants. Under metal stress, ethylene protected photosynthetic potential by efficient PS II activity and through increased activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (P-NUE). Application of 200 μL L(-1) ethephon to Ni- or Zn-grown plants significantly alleviated toxicity and reduced the oxidative stress to a greater extent together with the improved net photosynthesis due to induced activity of ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione (GSH) reductase, resulting in increased production of reduced GSH. Ethylene formation resulting from ethephon application alleviated Ni and Zn stress by reducing oxidative stress caused by stress ethylene production and maintained increased GSH pool. The involvement of ethylene in reversal of photosynthetic inhibition by Ni and Zn stress was related to the changes in PS II activity, P-NUE, and antioxidant capacity was confirmed using ethylene action inhibitor, norbornadiene.

  19. Changes in Mental Well-Being in the Transition to Late Life: Findings From MIDUS I and II

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Satvinder S.; Keyes, Corey L. M.; Anderson, Lynda A.

    2010-01-01

    The number of adults aged 65 years and older is increasing rapidly, creating public health challenges. We used data from the 1995 and 2005 national surveys of Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) to compare changes in mental well-being of participants (n = 1007) of 3 age cohorts (ages 45–54 years, 55–64 years, and 65–74 years in 1995). Older adults experienced a slight decline in mental well-being not seen among younger participants and not explained by demographic variables, physical ailments, mental illnesses, or chronic conditions. PMID:20966363

  20. Metabolic Response of “Candidatus Accumulibacter Phosphatis” Clade II C to Changes in Influent P/C Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Welles, Laurens; Abbas, Ben; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Lopez-Vazquez, Carlos M.; Hooijmans, Christine M.; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of a culture highly enriched with the polyphosphate-accumulating organism, “Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis” clade IIC, to adjust their metabolism to different phosphate availabilities. For this purpose the biomass was cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor with acetate and exposed to different phosphate/carbon influent ratios during six experimental phases. Activity tests were conducted to determine the anaerobic kinetic and stoichiometric parameters as well as the composition of the microbial community. Increasing influent phosphate concentrations led to increased poly-phosphate content and decreased glycogen content of the biomass. In response to higher biomass poly-phosphate content, the biomass showed higher specific phosphate release rates. Together with the phosphate release rates, acetate uptake rates also increased up to an optimal poly-phosphate/glycogen ratio of 0.3 P-mol/C-mol. At higher poly-phosphate/glycogen ratios (obtained at influent P/C ratios above 0.051 P-mol/C-mol), the acetate uptake rates started to decrease. The stoichiometry of the anaerobic conversions clearly demonstrated a metabolic shift from a glycogen dominated to a poly-phosphate dominated metabolism as the biomass poly-phosphate content increased. FISH and DGGE analyses confirmed that no significant changes occurred in the microbial community, suggesting that the changes in the biomass activity were due to different metabolic behavior, allowing the organisms to proliferate under conditions with fluctuating phosphate levels. PMID:28111570

  1. Temperature-Induced Protein Conformational Changes in Barley Root Plasma Membrane-Enriched Microsomes: II. Intrinsic Protein Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, C R

    1987-07-01

    The membrane-bound proteins of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Conquest) root plasma membrane-enriched microsomes displayed fluorescence typical of protein-associated trytophan residues. The protein fluorescence intensity was sensitive to variations in sample temperature. The temperature-induced decline in protein fluorescence intensity was nonlinear with slope discontinuities at about 12 and 32 degrees C. Detergents at levels above their critical micelle concentration enhanced protein fluorescence. Glutaraldehyde reduced protein fluorescence. Protein fluorescence polarization increased at temperatures above 30 degrees C. Both the rate of tryptophan photoionization and the fluorescence intensity of the photoionization products suggested alterations in membrane protein conformation between 12 and 32 degrees C. The quenching of the intrinsic protein fluorescence by acrylamide and potassium iodide indicated changes in accessibility of the extrinsic agents to the protein tryptophan residues beginning at about 14 degrees C. The results indicate thermally induced changes in the dynamics of the membrane proteins over the temperature range of 12 to 32 degrees C which could account for the complex temperature dependence of the barley root plasma membrane ATPase.

  2. Neuroanatomical distribution of angiotensin-II-like neuropeptide within the central nervous system of the crab Chasmagnathus; physiological changes triggered by water deprivation.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Lia; Dimant, Beatriz; Portiansky, Enrique L; Imboden, Hans; Maldonado, Héctor; Delorenzi, Alejandro

    2010-07-01

    The angiotensins constitute a neuropeptidergic system that emerged early in evolution. Their classical osmoregulatory and dipsogenic functions and their mnemonic actions have been demonstrated both in vertebrates and in some invertebrates. Previously, we have shown that, in the euryhaline and semiterrestrial crab Chasmagnathus granulatus, water deprivation correlates with an increased level of brain angiotensin-II-like neuropeptide/s (ANGII-like) and improves memory processes through ANGII receptors. We have proposed that the release of brain angiotensins in response to water shortages is an ancient mechanism for coordinating various functions that, together, enable organisms to tolerate this environmental change. Here, we have evaluated the physiological changes in ANGII-like levels in diverse structures of the central nervous system of these animals during water deprivation. The neuroanatomical distribution of ANGII-like is described in the optic lobes and brain of Chasmagnathus granulatus and the physiological changes in ANGII-like distribution in various brain neuropils is evaluated after water deprivation. Our results indicate that ANGII-like is widely distributed, especially in the medial protocerebrum. After 2 h of water deprivation, ANGII-like immunoreactivity increases in the central body and decreases in the olfactory neuropil and, after 6 h of water deprivation, is markedly reduced in several brain areas. Although further experiments are needed to establish that the angiotensinergic system is involved in the balance of body fluids in this crab, our results suggest that ANGII regulates several functions during water shortages.

  3. Short-term pharyngeal airway changes after mandibular advancement surgery in adult Class II-Patients--a three-dimensional retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Kochel, Janka; Meyer-Marcotty, Philipp; Sickel, Franka; Lindorf, Helmut; Stellzig-Eisenhauer, Angelika

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate volume changes in posterior airway space (PAS) after bilateral mandibular advancement surgery. Measurements were taken based on three-dimensional (3D) records available for a large and homogeneous cohort of patients. Pre- and postoperative CBCT scans of 102 adult patients with Class II dysgnathia were visualized and analyzed using 3D software (Mimics® Innovation Suite 14.1; Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). The PAS was divided into three segments by three planes parallel and one plane perpendicular to the Frankfort horizontal plane. Total volume, partial volumes, and cross-sectional areas were calculated from the pre- and postoperative scans. Dahlberg coefficients were obtained to verify each parameter for the measurements' reliability. The statistical significance of the changes observed was analyzed by Wilcoxon's rank-sum test. Highly significant (p=0.000) increases in total posterior airway volume (+32.0%) were noted as an effect of mandibular advancement surgery, amounting to 45.6% in the lower PAS third compared to 38.8% in the middle and 12.5% in the upper PAS third. We also obtained highly significant (p=0.000) increases in all the cross-sectional areas investigated, amounting to 48.5% on the soft-palate level compared to 21.6% on the level of the epiglottis tip, and 14.6% on the hard-palate level. These results demonstrate that bilateral mandibular advancement surgery in Class II-Patients leads to significant increases in PAS volume and significant widening of the narrower sites inside the pharynx.

  4. Pharyngeal airway space and frontal and sphenoid sinus changes after maxillomandibular advancement with counterclockwise rotation for class II anterior open bite malocclusions

    PubMed Central

    Prado, FB; Rossi, AC; Freire, AR; Groppo, FC; De Moraes, M; Caria, PHF

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to cephalometrically evaluate the pharyngeal airway space and frontal and sphenoid sinus changes after maxillomandibular advancement counterclockwise rotation for class II anterior open bite malocclusion. Methods The study included 49 patients (98 lateral teleradiographs; 36 females and 13 males) who were analysed in the pre-operative (1 week before surgery) and post-operative (6 months after surgery) periods. In each lateral teleradiography, the dimensions of the inferior and superior pharyngeal airway space, TB-PhW1 [the point between the posterior aspect of the tongue to the dorsal pharyngeal wall (oropharynx) (TB) and the point on the dorsal pharyngeal wall closest to TB (PhW1)] and UP-PhW2 [and the point between the posterior aspect of the soft palate to the dorsal pharyngeal wall (nasopharynx) (UP) (PhW2)] measurements were evaluated, as well as the dimensions of the frontal and sphenoid sinuses. The differences between the two operative times were evaluated by Student's t-test. Results All measurements showed excellent reproducibility for the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC > 0.9; p < 0.0001). There was an increase in the measurements TB-PhW1 and UP-PhW2 and a decrease in the dimensions of the frontal and sphenoid sinuses after orthognathic surgery. Conclusions The morphology of the superior and inferior pharyngeal airway space and frontal and sphenoid sinuses changes after 6 months of maxillomandibular advancement counterclockwise rotation for class II anterior open bite malocclusion. PMID:22116128

  5. An NMR comparison of the light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) in active and photoprotective states reveals subtle changes in the chlorophyll a ground-state electronic structures.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Anjali; Reus, Michael; Morosinotto, Tomas; Bassi, Roberto; Holzwarth, Alfred R; de Groot, Huub J M

    2013-06-01

    To protect the photosynthetic apparatus against photo-damage in high sunlight, the photosynthetic antenna of oxygenic organisms can switch from a light-harvesting to a photoprotective mode through the process of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). There is growing evidence that light-harvesting proteins of photosystem II participate in photoprotection by a built-in capacity to switch their conformation between light-harvesting and energy-dissipating states. Here we applied high-resolution Magic-Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance on uniformly (13)C-enriched major light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in active or quenched states. Our results reveal that the switch into a dissipative state is accompanied by subtle changes in the chlorophyll (Chl) a ground-state electronic structures that affect their NMR responses, particularly for the macrocycle (13)C4, (13)C5 and (13)C6 carbon atoms. Inspection of the LHCII X-ray structures shows that of the Chl molecules in the terminal emitter domain, where excited-state energy accumulates prior to further transfer or dissipation, the C4, 5 and 6 atoms are in closest proximity to lutein; supporting quenching mechanisms that involve altered Chl-lutein interactions in the dissipative state. In addition the observed changes could represent altered interactions between Chla and neoxanthin, which alters its configuration under NPQ conditions. The Chls appear to have increased dynamics in unquenched, detergent-solubilized LHCII. Our work demonstrates that solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance is applicable to investigate high-resolution structural details of light-harvesting proteins in varied functional conditions, and represents a valuable tool to address their molecular plasticity associated with photoprotection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The influence of ocean surface temperature gradient and continentality on the Walker circulation. II - Prescribed global changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, P. H.; Chervin, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    The series of experiments presently used to investigate the mechanisms responsible for forcing the global Walker circulation features worldwide changes in ocean surface temperatures (OSTs), topography, and/or continents. The primary factor affecting circulation is noted to be the global distribution of continents and oceans; while OST gradients are also important, topography emerges as comparatively unimportant. Continentality and OST gradients force the model atmosphere through the introduction of zonal variations in surface heating. The vertical motions to which they give rise yield moisture convergence and condensation variations which reinforce vertical motions. The forcing by OST gradients is partly nonlocal, and the atmospheric response is effected by continentality. In all cases, vertical motion zonal variations correlate with precipitation.

  7. The influence of ocean surface temperature gradient and continentality on the Walker circulation. II - Prescribed global changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, P. H.; Chervin, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    The series of experiments presently used to investigate the mechanisms responsible for forcing the global Walker circulation features worldwide changes in ocean surface temperatures (OSTs), topography, and/or continents. The primary factor affecting circulation is noted to be the global distribution of continents and oceans; while OST gradients are also important, topography emerges as comparatively unimportant. Continentality and OST gradients force the model atmosphere through the introduction of zonal variations in surface heating. The vertical motions to which they give rise yield moisture convergence and condensation variations which reinforce vertical motions. The forcing by OST gradients is partly nonlocal, and the atmospheric response is effected by continentality. In all cases, vertical motion zonal variations correlate with precipitation.

  8. Analysis of rabbit intervertebral disc physiology based on water metabolism. II. Changes in normal intervertebral discs under axial vibratory load

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, N.; Tsuji, H.; Ohshima, H.; Kitano, S.; Itoh, T.; Sano, A.

    1988-11-01

    Metabolic changes induced by axial vibratory load to the spine were investigated based on water metabolism in normal intervertebral discs of rabbits with or without pentobarbital anesthesia. Tritiated water concentration in the intervertebral discs of unanesthetized rabbits was reduced remarkably by axial vibration for 30 minutes using the vibration machine developed for this study. Repeated vibratory load for 18 and 42 hours duration showed the recovery of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O concentration of the intervertebral disc without anesthesia. Computer simulation suggested a reduction of blood flow surrounding the intervertebral disc following the vibration stress. However, no reduction of the /sup 3/H/sub 2/O concentration in the intervertebral disc was noted under anesthesia. Emotional stress cannot be excluded as a factor in water metabolism in the intervertebral disc.

  9. Changes in nucleosome repeat lengths precede replication in the early replicating metallothionein II gene region of cells synchronized in early S phase

    SciTech Connect

    D'Anna, J.A.; Tobey, R.A. )

    1989-04-04

    Previous investigations showed that inhibition of DNA synthesis by hydroxyurea, aphidicolin, or 5-fluorodeoxyuridine produced large changes in the composition and nucleosome repeat lengths of bulk chromatin. There the authors report results of investigations to determine whether the changes in nucleosome repeat lengths might be localized in the initiated replicons, as postulated. In most experiments, Chinese hamster (line CHO) cells were synchronized in G1, or they were synchronized in early S phase by allowing G1 cells to enter S phase in medium containing 1 mM hydroxyurea or 5 {mu}g mL{sup {minus}1} aphidicolin, a procedure believed to produce an accumulation of initiated replicons that arise from normally early replicating DNA. Measurements of nucleosome repeat lengths of bulk chromatin, the early replicating unexpressed metallothionein II (MTII) gene region, and a later replicating repeated sequence indicate that the changes in repeat lengths occur preferentially in the early replicating MTII gene region as G1 cells enter and become synchronized in early S phase. During that time, the MTII gene region is not replicated nor is there any evidence for induction of MTII messenger RNA. Thus, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in chromatin structure occur preferentially in the early replicating (presumably initiated) replicons at initiation or that changes in chromatin structure can precede replication during inhibition of DNA synthesis. The shortened repeat lengths that precede MTII replication are, potentially, reversible, because they become elongated when the synchronized early S-phase cells are released to resume cell cycle progression.

  10. Controlled production of Camembert-type cheeses. Part II. Changes in the concentration of the more volatile compounds.

    PubMed

    Leclercq-Perlat, Marie-Noëlle; Latrille, Eric; Corrieu, Georges; Spinnler, Henry-Eric

    2004-08-01

    Flavour generation in cheese is a major aspect of ripening. In order to enhance aromatic qualities it is necessary to better understand the chemical and microbiological changes. Experimental Camembert-type cheeses were prepared in duplicate from pasteurized milk inoculated with Kluyveromyces lactis, Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium camemberti and Brevibacterium linens under aseptic conditions. Two replicates performed under controlled conditions of temperature (12 degrees C), relative humidity (95 +/- 2%), and atmosphere showed similar ripening characteristics. The evolutions of metabolite concentrations were studied during ripening. The volatile components were extracted by dynamic headspace extraction, separated and quantified by gas chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry. For each cheese the volatile concentrations varied with the part considered (rind or core). Except for ethyl acetate and 2-pentanone, the volatile quantities observed were higher than their perception thresholds. The flavour component production was best correlated with the starter strains. During the first 10 days the ester formations (ethyl, butyl and isoamyl acetates) were associated with the concentrations of K. lactis and G. candidum. The rind quantity of esters was lower than that observed in core probably due to (1) a diffusion from the core to the surface and (2) evaporation from the surface to the chamber atmosphere. G. candidum and Brev. linens association produced 3 methyl butanol and methyl 3-butanal from leucine, respectively. DMDS came from the methionine catabolism due to Brev. linens. Styrene production was attributed to Pen. camemberti. 2-Pentanone evolution was associated with Pen. camemberti spores and G. candidum. 2-Heptanone changes were not directly related to flora activities while 2-octanone production was essentially due to G. candidum. This study also demonstrates the determining role of volatile component diffusion.

  11. The greening of the McGill Paleoclimate Model. Part II: Simulation of Holocene millennial-scale natural climate changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Mysak, Lawrence A.; Wang, Zhaomin; Brovkin, Victor

    2005-04-01

    Various proxy data reveal that in many regions of the Northern Hemisphere (NH), the middle Holocene (6 kyr BP) was warmer than the early Holocene (8 kyr BP) as well as the later Holocene, up to the end of the pre-industrial period (1800 AD). This pattern of warming and then cooling in the NH represents the response of the climate system to changes in orbital forcing, vegetation cover and the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) during the Holocene. In an attempt to better understand these changes in the climate system, the McGill Paleoclimate Model (MPM) has been coupled to the dynamic global vegetation model known as VECODE (see Part I of this two-part paper), and a number of sensitivity experiments have been performed with the "green" MPM. The model results illustrate the following: (1) the orbital forcing together with the vegetation—albedo feedback result in the gradual cooling of global SAT from about 6 kyr BP to the end of the pre-industrial period; (2) the disappearance of the LIS over the period 8-6 kyr BP, associated with vegetation—albedo feedback, allows the global SAT to increase and reach its maximum at around 6 kyr BP; (3) the northern limit of the boreal forest moves northward during the period 8-6.4 kyr BP due to the LIS retreat; (4) during the period 6.4-0 kyr BP, the northern limit of the boreal forest moves southward about 120 km in response to the decreasing summer insolation in the NH; and (5) the desertification of northern Africa during the period 8-2.6 kyr BP is mainly explained by the decreasing summer monsoon precipitation.

  12. Effect of postoperative radiotherapy on changes in pulmonary function in patients with stage II and IIIA lung carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, N.C.; Kanarek, D.J.; Grillo, H.C. )

    1990-01-01

    To assess the pulmonary tolerance to postoperative radiotherapy (RT) in patients with resected lung carcinoma, a prospective study was begun in January 1977, which consisted of (a) initial pulmonary function test (PFT) and arterial blood gases (ABG) at 1 month after surgery, and before beginning of postoperative RT, and (b) follow-up PFT and ABG 1 year after postoperative RT and then every year thereafter. As of December 1987, 137 patients have been enrolled into this study, and 71 patients who were free of recurrence were subjected to the follow-up PFT and ABG. The remaining 66 patients were unable to complete the follow-up studies because of recurrent carcinoma in 60, refusal to participate in the study in 5 patients even in the absence of significant respiratory symptoms, and progressive asbestos-related pleural thickening in 1 patient. The patient characteristics were as follows: Age ranged from 27 to 79 years with the median of 59 years; sex ratio was 1.4 to 1 for male to female; surgical procedures included lobectomy in 49 and pneumonectomy in 22 patients; tumor extent consisted of Stages T1-T2N1M0 in 44, T1-T2N2M0 in 9, and T3N0-N2M0 in 18 patients, respectively. Histologic types included squamous cell carcinoma in 26, adenocarcinoma in 42, small cell carcinoma in 1, and large cell carcinoma in 2 patients. Target volume for RT included the ipsilateral hilum, the mediastinum, and the thoracic inlet including both supraclavicular fossae. A total dose of 54 Gy was delivered in 1.8 Gy of daily fractions, 5 days per week over a period of 6 weeks. Contrary to expectation, there were minor changes in PFT indices in both lobectomy and pneumonectomy patients. The follow-up PFT in the lobectomy group showed small -3% to +2% changes in mean values of ventilatory indices, lung volume, and ABG.

  13. Beyond Potential Vegetation II: Using Repeat Lidar Data on Changes in Vegetation Height to Test Model Predictions of Ecosystem Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtt, G.; Thomas, R. Q.; Dubayah, R.

    2007-12-01

    Carbon estimates from terrestrial ecosystem models are limited by large uncertainties in the current state of the land surface, as previous disturbances have important and lasting influences on ecosystem structure and fluxes and can be difficult to detect or assess. Previous studies have illustrated how data on the vertical structure of vegetation from lidar can help to provide needed information on successional status for model initialization and constrain estimates of both carbon stock and fluxes. Here, we illustrate how repeat lidar data on vegetation structure can be used to test model predictions of ecosystem dynamics at a tropical forest site at La Selva, Costa Rica (108259 N, 848009 W). Airborne lidar remote sensing was used to measure spatial heterogeneity in the vertical structure of vegetation in 1998 and 2005. The ecosystem demography model (ED) was used to estimate corresponding patterns of carbon stocks, fluxes, and ecosystem dynamics during the interval. Lidar-initialized ED estimates of changes in maximum canopy height) were comparable to but significantly lower than observed (0.85 +/- 0.9 m observed vs. 0.53 +/- 0.4 m modeled) over the whole domain. Most of the model-data difference was due to growth of primary forest trees that exceeded model estimates (0.44 +/-0.9 m observed vs. 0.04 +/-0.1 m modeled), while the model-data comparison was significantly better over secondary forest areas (1.84 +/- 0.18 m observed vs. 1.71 +/-0.9 m modeled). The results of this study provide a promising illustration of the power of using repeat lidar data on changes in vegetation height to test estimates of ecosystem dynamics from height-structured ecosystem models. Extending these capabilities to regional and global scales will require repeat lidar data sets from space, and the continued development of height-structured ecosystem models.

  14. Health behavior change counseling in surgery for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. Part II: patient activation mediates the effects of health behavior change counseling on rehabilitation engagement.

    PubMed

    Skolasky, Richard L; Maggard, Anica M; Li, David; Riley, Lee H; Wegener, Stephen T

    2015-07-01

    To determine the effect of health behavior change counseling (HBCC) on patient activation and the influence of patient activation on rehabilitation engagement, and to identify common barriers to engagement among individuals undergoing surgery for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. Prospective clinical trial. Academic medical center. Consecutive lumbar spine surgery patients (N=122) defined in our companion article (Part I) were assigned to a control group (did not receive HBCC, n=59) or HBCC group (received HBCC, n=63). Brief motivational interviewing-based HBCC versus control (significance, P<.05). We assessed patient activation before and after intervention. Rehabilitation engagement was assessed using the physical therapist-reported Hopkins Rehabilitation Engagement Rating Scale and by a ratio of self-reported physical therapy and home exercise completion. Common barriers to rehabilitation engagement were identified through thematic analysis. Patient activation predicted engagement (standardized regression weight, .682; P<.001). Postintervention patient activation was predicted by baseline patient activation (standardized regression weight, .808; P<.001) and receipt of HBCC (standardized regression weight, .444; P<.001). The effect of HBCC on rehabilitation engagement was mediated by patient activation (standardized regression weight, .079; P=.395). One-third of the HBCC group did not show improvement compared with the control group. Thematic analysis identified 3 common barriers to engagement: (1) low self-efficacy because of lack of knowledge and support (62%); (2) anxiety related to fear of movement (57%); and (3) concern about pain management (48%). The influence of HBCC on rehabilitation engagement was mediated by patient activation. Despite improvements in patient activation, one-third of patients reported low rehabilitation engagement. Addressing these barriers should lead to greater improvements in rehabilitation engagement. Copyright © 2015 American

  15. Sharing our successes II: Changing the face of science and mathematics education through teacher-focused partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Industry Initiatives for Science and Math Education (IISME) in the San Francisco Bay Area planned and convened the second national conference for representatives of scientific work experience programs for K-12 teachers (SWEPs) at Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California at Berkeley October 13-14, 1994. The goal of this conference was to further strengthen the growing community of SWEP managers and teacher participants by providing an opportunity for sharing expertise and strategies about the following: (1) How SWEPs can complement and stimulate systemic education reform efforts; (2) Assessment strategies piloted by the ambitious multi-site evaluation project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as well as smaller evaluation projects piloted by other SWEPs; (3) Expanding and strengthening the base of teachers served by SWEPs; (4) Ensuring that SWEPs adequately support teachers in affecting classroom transfer and offer {open_quotes}more than just a summerjob{close_quotes}; (5) Sustaining and expanding new programs. A special teacher strand focused on leadership development supporting teachers to become effective change agents in their classrooms and schools, and developing strong teacher communities.

  16. In vivo digestion of bovine milk fat globules: effect of processing and interfacial structural changes. II. Upper digestive tract digestion.

    PubMed

    Gallier, Sophie; Zhu, Xiang Q; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Ye, Aiqian; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of milk processing on the in vivo upper digestive tract digestion of milk fat globules. Fasted rats were serially gavaged over a 5h period with cream from raw, pasteurised, or pasteurised and homogenised milk. Only a few intact dietary proteins and peptides were present in the small intestinal digesta. Significantly (P<0.05) more longer chain (C≥10) fatty acids were present in the digesta of rats gavaged with raw (448 mg g(-1) digesta dry matter (DDM)) and homogenised creams (528 mg g(-1) DDM), as compared to pasteurised and homogenised cream (249 mg g(-1) DDM). Microscopy techniques were used to investigate the structural changes during digestion. Liquid-crystalline lamellar phases surrounding the fat globules, fatty acid soap crystals and lipid-mucin interactions were evident in all small intestinal digesta. Overall, the pasteurised and homogenised cream appeared to be digested to a greater extent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental Study of Porosity Changes in Shale Caprocks Exposed to Carbon Dioxide-Saturated Brine II: Insights from Aqueous Geochemistry

    DOE PAGES

    Miller, Quin R. S.; Wang, Xiuyu; Kaszuba, John P.; ...

    2016-07-18

    Laboratory experiments evaluated two shale caprock formations, the Gothic Shale and Marine Tuscaloosa Formation, at conditions relevant to carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration. Both rocks were exposed to CO2-saturated brines at 160°C and 15 MPa for ~45 days. Baseline experiments for both rocks were pressurized with argon to 15 MPa for ~35 days. Varying concentrations of iron, aqueous silica, sulfate, and initial pH decreases coincide with enhanced carbonate and silicate dissolution due to reaction between CO2-saturated brine and shale. Saturation indices were calculated and activity diagrams were constructed to gain insights into sulfate, silicate, and carbonate mineral stabilities. We found thatmore » upon exposure to CO2-saturated brines, the Marine Tuscaloosa Formation appeared to be more reactive than the Gothic Shale. Evolution of aqueous geochemistry in the experiments is consistent with mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions that affect porosity. Finally, this study highlights the importance of tracking fluid chemistry to clarify downhole physicochemical responses to CO2 injection and subsequent changes in sealing capacity in CO2 storage and utilization projects.« less

  18. Growth and decay of a large-scale vortex in a turbulent boundary layer. II - Streamwise change in vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makita, Hideharu; Sassa, Koji

    1992-04-01

    The present experiment investigates streamwise change of the vorticity field around a large-scale coherent vortex artificially induced in a fully developed turbulent boundary layer. The vortical structure of the large-scale vortex evolved downstream through the growth, the self-preserving, and the decay stages. In the growth stage, its spanwise and normal circulations increased downstream, and the large-scale vortex grew to have vortical structure similar to the natural horseshoe vortex. The vortex still grew upward but the spanwise circulation was kept nearly constant in the self-preserving stage. The convection velocity of its head and leg was 0.56 U-infinity in the growth and self-preserving stages. In the decay stage, each part of the vortex drifted at the local mean velocity, and the vortex became more inclined downstream. There, its vorticity gradually decreased as it flowed downstream. The decay rate of the normal vorticity was smaller than that of the spanwise one throughout the stages.

  19. DYNAMICS OF ACRIDINE ORANGE-CELL INTERACTION. II. DYE-INDUCED ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES IN MULTIVESICULAR BODIES (ACRIDINE ORANGE PARTICLES).

    PubMed

    ROBBINS, E; MARCUS, P I; GONATAS, N K

    1964-04-01

    The brilliantly fluorescent cytoplasmic particles that accumulate in HeLa cells treated with acridine orange, previously referred to as acridine orange particles, are shown to represent acid phosphatase positive multivesicular bodies (MVB). Dynamic changes in the ultrastructure of these organelles may be induced by varying the concentration of extracellular dye and the length of exposure to the dye. Low concentrations of dye for long intervals of time lead to marked hypertrophy of the MVB and accumulation of myelin figures within them, the acid phosphatase activity being retained. High concentrations of dye for short time intervals lead initially to a diffuse distribution of dye through out the cytoplasm (cytoplasmic reddening) as viewed in the fluorescence microscope. When cells are stained in this way and incubated in a dye-free medium, the diffusely distributed dye is segregated into MVB within 1 hour. Ultrastructurally, these MVB show dilatation but no myelin figures. The process of dye segregation is energy dependent and will not occur in starved cells. This energy dependence and the occurrence of segregation via dilatation of the MVB rather than ultrastructural transformation, i.e. formation of new binding sites, suggests that the process involves an active transport mechanism. Of the various energy sources supplied to starved cells, only glucose, mannose, and pyruvate are fully effective in supporting dye segregation. Blockage of the tricarboxylic acid cycle with malonate inhibits the effects of pyruvate but not of glucose, demonstrating the efficacy of both the tricarboxylic acid and glycolytic cycles in supplying energy for the process.

  20. Changes in variation at the MHC class II DQA locus during the final demise of the woolly mammoth.

    PubMed

    Pečnerová, Patrícia; Díez-Del-Molino, David; Vartanyan, Sergey; Dalén, Love

    2016-05-04

    According to the nearly-neutral theory of evolution, the relative strengths of selection and drift shift in favour of drift at small population sizes. Numerous studies have analysed the effect of bottlenecks and small population sizes on genetic diversity in the MHC, which plays a central role in pathogen recognition and immune defense and is thus considered a model example for the study of adaptive evolution. However, to understand changes in genetic diversity at loci under selection, it is necessary to compare the genetic diversity of a population before and after the bottleneck. In this study, we analyse three fragments of the MHC DQA gene in woolly mammoth samples radiocarbon dated to before and after a well-documented bottleneck that took place about ten thousand years ago. Our results indicate a decrease in observed heterozygosity and number of alleles, suggesting that genetic drift had an impact on the variation on MHC. Based on coalescent simulations, we found no evidence of balancing selection maintaining MHC diversity during the Holocene. However, strong trans-species polymorphism among mammoths and elephants points to historical effects of balancing selection on the woolly mammoth lineage.

  1. Changes in variation at the MHC class II DQA locus during the final demise of the woolly mammoth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pečnerová, Patrícia; Díez-Del-Molino, David; Vartanyan, Sergey; Dalén, Love

    2016-05-01

    According to the nearly-neutral theory of evolution, the relative strengths of selection and drift shift in favour of drift at small population sizes. Numerous studies have analysed the effect of bottlenecks and small population sizes on genetic diversity in the MHC, which plays a central role in pathogen recognition and immune defense and is thus considered a model example for the study of adaptive evolution. However, to understand changes in genetic diversity at loci under selection, it is necessary to compare the genetic diversity of a population before and after the bottleneck. In this study, we analyse three fragments of the MHC DQA gene in woolly mammoth samples radiocarbon dated to before and after a well-documented bottleneck that took place about ten thousand years ago. Our results indicate a decrease in observed heterozygosity and number of alleles, suggesting that genetic drift had an impact on the variation on MHC. Based on coalescent simulations, we found no evidence of balancing selection maintaining MHC diversity during the Holocene. However, strong trans-species polymorphism among mammoths and elephants points to historical effects of balancing selection on the woolly mammoth lineage.

  2. Plant Defense Response to Fungal Pathogens (II. G-Protein-Mediated Changes in Host Plasma Membrane Redox Reactions).

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Estrella, R.; Higgins, V. J.; Blumwald, E.

    1994-01-01

    Elicitor preparations containing the avr5 gene products from races 4 and 2.3 of Cladosporium fulvum, and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cells containing the resistance gene Cf5 were used to investigate the involvement of redox processes in the production of active oxygen species associated with the plant response to the fungal elicitors. Here we demonstrate that certain race-specific elicitors of C. fulvum induced an increase in ferricyanide reduction in enriched plasma membrane fractions of tomato cells. The addition of elicitors to plasma membranes also induced increases in NADH oxidase and NADH-dependent cytochrome c reductase activities, whereas ascorbate peroxidase activity was decreased. These results suggest that changes in the host plasma membrane redox processes, transferring electrons from reducing agents to oxygen, could be involved in the increased production of active oxygen species by the race-specific elicitors. Our results also show that the dephosphorylation of enzymes involved in redox reactions is responsible for the race-specific induced redox activity. The effects of guanidine nucleotide analogs and mastoparan on the activation of plasma membrane redox reactions support the role of GTP-binding proteins in the transduction of signals leading to the activation of the defense response mechanisms of tomato against fungal pathogens. PMID:12232307

  3. Experimental Study of Porosity Changes in Shale Caprocks Exposed to Carbon Dioxide-Saturated Brine II: Insights from Aqueous Geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Quin R. S.; Wang, Xiuyu; Kaszuba, John P.; Mouzakis, Katherine M.; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K.; Alvarado, Vladimir; McCray, John E.; Rother, Gernot; Bañuelos, José Leobardo; Heath, Jason E.

    2016-07-18

    Laboratory experiments evaluated two shale caprock formations, the Gothic Shale and Marine Tuscaloosa Formation, at conditions relevant to carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration. Both rocks were exposed to CO2-saturated brines at 160°C and 15 MPa for ~45 days. Baseline experiments for both rocks were pressurized with argon to 15 MPa for ~35 days. Varying concentrations of iron, aqueous silica, sulfate, and initial pH decreases coincide with enhanced carbonate and silicate dissolution due to reaction between CO2-saturated brine and shale. Saturation indices were calculated and activity diagrams were constructed to gain insights into sulfate, silicate, and carbonate mineral stabilities. We found that upon exposure to CO2-saturated brines, the Marine Tuscaloosa Formation appeared to be more reactive than the Gothic Shale. Evolution of aqueous geochemistry in the experiments is consistent with mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions that affect porosity. Finally, this study highlights the importance of tracking fluid chemistry to clarify downhole physicochemical responses to CO2 injection and subsequent changes in sealing capacity in CO2 storage and utilization projects.

  4. Changes in variation at the MHC class II DQA locus during the final demise of the woolly mammoth

    PubMed Central

    Pečnerová, Patrícia; Díez-del-Molino, David; Vartanyan, Sergey; Dalén, Love

    2016-01-01

    According to the nearly-neutral theory of evolution, the relative strengths of selection and drift shift in favour of drift at small population sizes. Numerous studies have analysed the effect of bottlenecks and small population sizes on genetic diversity in the MHC, which plays a central role in pathogen recognition and immune defense and is thus considered a model example for the study of adaptive evolution. However, to understand changes in genetic diversity at loci under selection, it is necessary to compare the genetic diversity of a population before and after the bottleneck. In this study, we analyse three fragments of the MHC DQA gene in woolly mammoth samples radiocarbon dated to before and after a well-documented bottleneck that took place about ten thousand years ago. Our results indicate a decrease in observed heterozygosity and number of alleles, suggesting that genetic drift had an impact on the variation on MHC. Based on coalescent simulations, we found no evidence of balancing selection maintaining MHC diversity during the Holocene. However, strong trans-species polymorphism among mammoths and elephants points to historical effects of balancing selection on the woolly mammoth lineage. PMID:27143688

  5. Experimental Study of Porosity Changes in Shale Caprocks Exposed to Carbon Dioxide-Saturated Brine II: Insights from Aqueous Geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Quin R. S.; Wang, Xiuyu; Kaszuba, John P.; Mouzakis, Katherine M.; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K.; Alvarado, Vladimir; McCray, John E.; Rother, Gernot; Bañuelos, José Leobardo; Heath, Jason E.

    2016-07-18

    Laboratory experiments evaluated two shale caprock formations, the Gothic Shale and Marine Tuscaloosa Formation, at conditions relevant to carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration. Both rocks were exposed to CO2-saturated brines at 160°C and 15 MPa for ~45 days. Baseline experiments for both rocks were pressurized with argon to 15 MPa for ~35 days. Varying concentrations of iron, aqueous silica, sulfate, and initial pH decreases coincide with enhanced carbonate and silicate dissolution due to reaction between CO2-saturated brine and shale. Saturation indices were calculated and activity diagrams were constructed to gain insights into sulfate, silicate, and carbonate mineral stabilities. We found that upon exposure to CO2-saturated brines, the Marine Tuscaloosa Formation appeared to be more reactive than the Gothic Shale. Evolution of aqueous geochemistry in the experiments is consistent with mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions that affect porosity. Finally, this study highlights the importance of tracking fluid chemistry to clarify downhole physicochemical responses to CO2 injection and subsequent changes in sealing capacity in CO2 storage and utilization projects.

  6. Linear discrete population models with two time scales in fast changing environments II: non-autonomous case.

    PubMed

    Blasco, Angel; Sanz, Luis; Auger, Pierre; Bravo de la Parra, Rafael

    2002-01-01

    As the result of the complexity inherent in nature, mathematical models employed in ecology are often governed by a large number of variables. For instance, in the study of population dynamics we often deal with models for structured populations in which individuals are classified regarding their age, size, activity or location, and this structuring of the population leads to high dimensional systems. In many instances, the dynamics of the system is controlled by processes whose time scales are very different from each other. Aggregation techniques take advantage of this situation to build a low dimensional reduced system from which behavior we can approximate the dynamics of the complex original system. In this work we extend aggregation techniques to the case of time dependent discrete population models with two time scales where both the fast and the slow processes are allowed to change at their own characteristic time scale, generalizing the results of previous studies. We propose a non-autonomous model with two time scales, construct an aggregated model and give relationships between the variables governing the original and the reduced systems. We also explore how the properties of strong and weak ergodicity, regarding the capacity of the system to forget initial conditions, of the original system can be studied in terms of the reduced system.

  7. Evaluating Problems with Long-Established Methods for Calculating Evapotranspiration Under Climate Change in the Great Lakes Basin: Take II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofgren, B. M.; Rouhana, J.

    2014-12-01

    A 2011 paper by a group from the NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory established that a long- and widely-used method for projecting evapotranspiration (ET) and runoff from the land portions of the Great Lakes basin exhibited severe deficiencies in terms of conservation of energy at the land surface, and consequent errors in projected runoff and lake levels. The key component of this older method is known as the Large Basin Runoff Model (LBRM). A simple alternative method was developed to better account for energy conservation, and this was run for two different general circulation model (GCM) datasets, in order to demonstrate the corresponding discrepancies in terms of ET, runoff, and lake water level. In the Third National Climate Assessment, the regional chapter on the Midwest acknowledged these results, while Appendix 3 (Climate Science Supplement) expressed less credence, with the lead authors of that appendix maintaining that the models needed to be run with more GCMs as input. We will report on the results of runs using more than 40 GCM realizations from the Climate Model Intercomparison Project 5 class. In addition to the previously-used method of adjusting future potential evapotranspiration (PET) according to changes in net radiative energy available at the surface, we introduce one that additionally estimates the air temperature dependence term of the Penman-Monteith formulation, and one in which PET varies in proportion to the Clausius-Clapeyron relation (i.e. PET increases by about 7% per degree C, in contrast to LBRM, in which PET typically increases by 30-50% per degree C).

  8. Mechanism of Substrate Recognition And PLP-Induced Conformational Changes in II-Diaminopimelate Aminotransferase From Arabidopsis Thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, N.; Clay, M.D.; Belkum, M.J.van; Cherney, M.M.; Vederas, J.C.; James, M.N.G.

    2009-05-26

    -AtDAP-AT structure missing PLP revealed details of conformational changes induced by PLP binding and substrate entry into the active site.

  9. Histopathologic changes in anti-angiotensin II type 1 receptor antibody-positive kidney transplant recipients with acute rejection and no donor specific HLA antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lim, Mary Ann; Palmer, Matthew; Trofe-Clark, Jennifer; Bloom, Roy D; Jackson, Annette; Philogene, Mary Carmelle; Kamoun, Malek

    2017-04-01

    To determine the association of antibodies against angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R Ab) and histopathologic changes seen in patients with kidney allograft rejection and negative donor specific HLA antibodies (DSA). Stored sera from 27 patients who had biopsy-proven rejection in the absence of DSA were tested for AT1R Ab. Biopsy slides of all patients were re-examined and classified according to Banff 2013 criteria. Histopathologic changes were compared between AT1R positive and negative patients. 75% of patients with positive pre-transplant AT1R Ab had antibody mediated rejection (AMR) compared to 37% of AT1R Ab-negative patients. A trend towards increased interstitial inflammation was observed in the AT1R Ab positive group (p=0.08). More patients in the AT1R Ab positive group had microcirculation inflammation (88% vs 58% with glomerulitis scores ≥1; 75% vs 58% with peritubular capillaritis scores ≥1). In kidney transplant recipients with rejection and no DSA, a higher incidence of AMR and worse inflammation scores are observed in the presence of positive pre-transplant AT1R antibodies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Photoprotection in plants involves a change in lutein 1 binding domain in the major light-harvesting complex of photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Ilioaia, Cristian; Johnson, Matthew P; Liao, Pen-Nan; Pascal, Andrew A; van Grondelle, Rienk; Walla, Peter J; Ruban, Alexander V; Robert, Bruno

    2011-08-05

    Nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) is the fundamental process by which plants exposed to high light intensities dissipate the potentially harmful excess energy as heat. Recently, it has been shown that efficient energy dissipation can be induced in the major light-harvesting complexes of photosystem II (LHCII) in the absence of protein-protein interactions. Spectroscopic measurements on these samples (LHCII gels) in the quenched state revealed specific alterations in the absorption and circular dichroism bands assigned to neoxanthin and lutein 1 molecules. In this work, we investigate the changes in conformation of the pigments involved in NPQ using resonance Raman spectroscopy. By selective excitation we show that, as well as the twisting of neoxanthin that has been reported previously, the lutein 1 pigment also undergoes a significant change in conformation when LHCII switches to the energy dissipative state. Selective two-photon excitation of carotenoid (Car) dark states (Car S(1)) performed on LHCII gels shows that the extent of electronic interactions between Car S(1) and chlorophyll states correlates linearly with chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, as observed previously for isolated LHCII (aggregated versus trimeric) and whole plants (with versus without NPQ).

  11. Photoprotection in Plants Involves a Change in Lutein 1 Binding Domain in the Major Light-harvesting Complex of Photosystem II*

    PubMed Central

    Ilioaia, Cristian; Johnson, Matthew P.; Liao, Pen-Nan; Pascal, Andrew A.; van Grondelle, Rienk; Walla, Peter J.; Ruban, Alexander V.; Robert, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) is the fundamental process by which plants exposed to high light intensities dissipate the potentially harmful excess energy as heat. Recently, it has been shown that efficient energy dissipation can be induced in the major light-harvesting complexes of photosystem II (LHCII) in the absence of protein-protein interactions. Spectroscopic measurements on these samples (LHCII gels) in the quenched state revealed specific alterations in the absorption and circular dichroism bands assigned to neoxanthin and lutein 1 molecules. In this work, we investigate the changes in conformation of the pigments involved in NPQ using resonance Raman spectroscopy. By selective excitation we show that, as well as the twisting of neoxanthin that has been reported previously, the lutein 1 pigment also undergoes a significant change in conformation when LHCII switches to the energy dissipative state. Selective two-photon excitation of carotenoid (Car) dark states (Car S1) performed on LHCII gels shows that the extent of electronic interactions between Car S1 and chlorophyll states correlates linearly with chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, as observed previously for isolated LHCII (aggregated versus trimeric) and whole plants (with versus without NPQ). PMID:21646360

  12. Photodriven spin change of Fe(II) benzimidazole compounds anchored to nanocrystalline TiO(2) thin films.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hai-Long; Ardo, Shane; Narducci Sarjeant, Amy A; Huang, Sunxiang; Meyer, Gerald J

    2009-12-01

    Ferrous tris-chelate compounds based on 2-(2'-pyridyl)benzimidazole (pybzim) have been prepared and characterized for studies of spin equilibria in fluid solution and when anchored to the surface of mesoporous nanocrystalline (anatase) TiO(2) and colloidal ZrO(2) thin films. The solid state structure of Fe(pybzim)(3)(ClO(4))(2).CH(3)CN.H(2)O was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction at 110 K to be triclinic, P-1, a = 11.6873(18), b = 12.2318(12), c = 14.723(4) A, alpha = 89.864(13) degrees , beta = 71.430(17) degrees , gamma = 73.788(11) degrees , V = 1907.1(6) A(3), Z = 2, and R = 0.0491. The iron compound has a meridional FeN(6) distorted octahedral geometry with bond lengths expected for a low-spin iron center at 110 K. The visible absorption spectra of Fe(pybzim)(3)(2+) and Fe(pymbA)(3)(2+), where pymbA is 4-(2-pyridin-2-yl-benzimidazol-1-ylmethyl)-benzoic acid, in methanol solution were dominated by metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) bands. Variable-temperature UV-visible absorption spectroscopy revealed dramatic changes in the extinction coefficient consistent with a high-spin ((1)A) left harpoon over right harpoon low-spin ((5)T) equilibrium. Thermodynamic parameters for the temperature-dependent spin equilibrium of Fe(pymbA)(3)(2+) in methanol were determined to be DeltaH(HL) = 3270 +/- 210 cm(-1) and DeltaS(HL) = 13.3 +/- 0.8 cm(-1) K(-1). The corresponding values for Fe(pybzimEE)(3)(2+), where pybzimEE is (2-pyridin-2-yl-benzimidazol-1-yl)-acetic acid ethyl ester, in acetonitrile solution were determined to be 3072 +/- 34 cm(-1)and 10.5 +/- 0.1 cm(-1) K(-1). The temperature-dependent effective magnetic moments of Fe(pybzimEE)(3)(2+) in acetonitrile solution were also quantified by the Evans method. Pulsed 532 nm light excitation of Fe(pybzim)(3)(2+) or Fe(pymbA)(3)(2+) in solution resulted in an immediate bleach of the MLCT absorption bands. Relaxation back to the equilibrium state followed a first-order reaction mechanism. Arrhenius analysis

  13. HEAD INJURY ASSESSMENT IN JUVENILE CHINOOK USING THE ALPHA II-SPECTRIN BIOMARKER: EFFECTS OF PRESSURE CHANGES AND PASSAGE THROUGH A REMOVABLE SPILLWAY WEIR

    SciTech Connect

    Jonason, C.; Miracle, A.

    2009-01-01

    The cytoskeletal protein alpha II-spectrin has specifi c neurodegenerative mechanisms that allow the necrotic (injury-induced) and apoptotic (non-injury-induced) pathways of proteolysis to be differentiated in an immunoblot. Consequently, αII-spectrin breakdown products (SBDPs) are potential biomarkers for diagnosing traumatic brain injury (TBI). The purpose of the following investigation, consisting of two studies, was to evaluate the utility of the spectrin biomarker in diagnosing TBI in fi sh that travel through hydroelectric dams in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. The fi rst study used hyperbaric pressure chambers to simulate the pressure changes that affect fi sh during passage through a Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Kaplan turbine. The second study tested the effect of a removable spillway weir (RSW) on the passage of juvenile chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). This study was conducted in tandem with a balloon-tag study by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Brain samples from fi sh were collected and analyzed using an immunoblot for SBDPs, and imaging software was used to quantify the protein band density and determine the ratio of cleaved protein to total protein. The biomarker analyses found higher SBDP expression levels in fi sh that were exposed to lower pressure nadirs and fi sh that passed through the RSW at a deep orientation. In general, the incidence of injuries observed after treatment positively correlated with expression levels, suggesting that the biomarker method of analysis is comparable to traditional methods of injury assessment. It was also found that, for some treatments, the 110 kDa spectrin fragment (SBDP 110) correlated more strongly with necrotic head injury incidence and mortality rates than did the total cleaved protein or the 120 kDa fragment. These studies will be informative in future decisions regarding the design of turbines and fi sh passage structures in hydroelectric dams and will hopefully contribute to the

  14. Changes in [14C]Atrazine Binding Associated with the Oxidation-Reduction State of the Secondary Quinone Acceptor of Photosystem II 1

    PubMed Central

    Jursinic, Paul; Stemler, Alan

    1983-01-01

    One hypothesis of triazine-type herbicide action in photosynthetic material is that the herbicide molecule competes with a secondary quinone acceptor, B, for a binding site at the reaction center of photosystem II. The binding affinity of B has been suggested to change with its level of reduction, being most strongly bound in its semiquinone form. To test this hypothesis, [14C]atrazine binding studies have been carried out under different photochemically induced levels of B reduction in Pisum sativum. It is found that herbicide binding is reduced in continuously illuminated samples compared to dark-adapted samples. Decreased binding of atrazine corresponds to an increase in the semiquinone form of B. With flash excitation, the herbicide binding oscillates with a cycle of two, being low on odd-numbered flashes when the amount of semiquinone form of B is greatest. Treatment with NH2OH was found to significantly decrease the strength of herbicide binding in the dark as well as stop the ability of p-benzoquinone to oxidize the semiquinone form of B. It is suggested that the mode of action of NH2OH is disruption of quinones or their environment on both the oxidizing and reducing sides of photosystem II. Herbicide binding was found to be unaltered under conditions when p-benzosemiquinone oxidation of the reduced primary acceptor, Q−, is herbicide insensitive; weak herbicide binding cannot explain this herbicide insensitivity. It is concluded that the quinone-herbicide competition theory of herbicide action is correct. Also, since quinones are lipophilic the importance of the lipid composition of the thylakoid membrane in herbicide interactions is stressed. PMID:16663286

  15. Relation of trophic changes in the central nervous system, measured by the width of cordical sulci, to the clinical course of anorexia nervosa (II).

    PubMed

    Nogal, Pawel; Pniewska-Siark, Barbara; Lewinski, Andrzej

    2008-12-01

    In patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), computer tomography (CT) scanning and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MR) are usually applied to visualise trophic changes of the brain, resulting from considerable malnutrition or general cachexia of the organism. The goal of the study was an evaluation attempt of the degree of trophic changes in the central nervous system (CNS) of girls with AN, following CT scanning of the brain, together with an analysis of selected clinical and diagnostic parameters, related to the trophic changes in question. The study involved fifty-five (55) female patients with AN. Following CT of the brain - scanning of the cortical sulci - four (4) groups of the patients were identified. The following classification of lesions was applied: Group I - width of cortical sulci < 1.5 mm - standard; Group II - the presence of cortical sulci of width < 1.5 mm and 1.5-3 mm; Group III - width of cortical sulci 1.5-3 mm; Group IV - the presence of cortical sulci of width at 1.5-3 mm and > 3 mm. We did not observe any patient with AN in whom the width of all the cortical sulci was bigger than 3 mm (Group V). In all the groups, clinical parameters, as well as routine laboratory tests and selected hormonal tests, were analysed. In the performed CT scanning of the head in patients with AN, trophic changes in the CNS (as evaluated by the width of cortical sulci) were revealed in 67.3% of the patients. Among the studied groups, statistically significant differences were found for: body weight loss (BWL), the percent of BWL (BWL%), the BWL to disease duration ratio (BWL/time) and BWL%/time, serum concentrations of potassium, calcium, glucose, total protein and urea, as well as serum concentrations of LH, E2, cortisol, FT3 and FT4. The most pronounced disturbances were observed in Group IV, while the least ones - in Group I. In CT scanning of the head, trophic changes in the CNS were observed in girls with AN, measured by the width of cortical sulci. The higher

  16. Factors associated with stage of change in smoker in relation to smoking cessation based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II-V.

    PubMed

    Leem, Ah Young; Han, Chang Hoon; Ahn, Chul Min; Lee, Sang Haak; Kim, Jae Yeol; Chun, Eun Mi; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Jung, Ji Ye

    2017-01-01

    Despite a decrease in incidence, smoking remains the most serious public health problem worldwide. Identification of the factors contributing to changes in willingness to quit smoking may aid the development of strategies that encourage smoking cessation. Pooled cross-sectional data from 11,924 smokers from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II-V were analyzed. The stages of change in smoking cessation were categorized as pre-contemplation, contemplation, and preparation. Baseline characteristics, socioeconomic factors, quality of life, psychological status, and smoking-related factors were compared between groups. The smokers were grouped as follows: 32.4% pre-contemplation, 54.4% contemplation, and 13.1% preparation. The proportion of smokers in the pre-contemplation group decreased (from 37.4% to 28.4%) from 2001 to 2012, while the proportion in the preparation group increased (from 6.4% to 18.1%). Compared with the preparation group, after adjusting for confounding factors, the pre-contemplation group was older [≥65 years-old; odds ratio (OR) = 1.40], more often single (OR = 1.38), less educated (elementary school or lower; OR = 1.93), less physically active in terms of walking (OR = 1.38) or performing strengthening exercises (OR = 1.61), smoked more heavily (≥20 cigarettes per day; OR = 4.75), and had a lower prevalence of chronic disease (OR = 0.76). Moreover, smokers who had never received education on smoking cessation were less willing to quit than those who had (OR = 0.44). In Korean smokers, the stages of change for smoking cessation were associated with age, education, marital status, chronic diseases, physical activity, and participation in smoking cessation programs.

  17. Changes in electronic properties of polymeric one-dimensional {[M(CN)2]-}n (M = Au, Ag) chains due to neighboring closed-shell Zn(II) or open-shell Cu(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Baril-Robert, François; Li, Xiaobo; Katz, Michael J; Geisheimer, Andrew R; Leznoff, Daniel B; Patterson, Howard

    2011-01-03

    A series of d(10) dicyanometallate polymeric compounds were studied by electronic spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In these materials, the negatively charged one-dimensional (1D) polymeric chains are linked together by [M(en)(2)](2+) (M = Cu(II) and Zn(II); en = ethylenediamine). More than innocent building blocks, the [M(en)(2)](2+) units offer a possible synthetic way to modify electronic properties of the materials. Through its low energy d-d excited state, the d(9) copper(II) ions offer deactivation pathways for the normally emissive dicyanometallate polymer. Deactivation was shown to be specific to the excited state energy.

  18. Restoration of photosystem II photochemistry and carbon assimilation and related changes in chlorophyll and protein contents during the rehydration of desiccated Xerophyta scabrida leaves

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, P.; Rabnecz, G.; Laufer, Z.; Gutiérrez, D.; Tuba, Z.; Martínez-Carrasco, R.

    2011-01-01

    Recovery of photosynthesis in rehydrating desiccated leaves of the poikilochlorophyllous desiccation-tolerant plant Xerophyta scabrida was investigated. Detached leaves were remoistened under 12 h light/dark cycles for 96 h. Water, chlorophyll (Chl), and protein contents, Chl fluorescence, photosynthesis–CO2 concentration response, and the amount and activity of Rubisco were measured at intervals during the rehydration period. Leaf relative water contents reached 87% in 12 h and full turgor in 96 h. Chl synthesis was slower before than after 24 h, and Chla:Chlb ratios changed from 0.13 to 2.6 in 48 h. The maximum quantum efficiency recovered faster during rehydration than the photosystem II operating efficiency and the efficiency factor, which is known to depend mainly on the use of the electron transport chain products. From 24 h to 96 h of rehydration, net carbon fixation was Rubisco limited, rather than electron transport limited. Total Rubisco activity increased during rehydration more than the Rubisco protein content. Desiccated leaves contained, in a close to functional state, more than half the amount of the Rubisco protein present in rehydrated leaves. The results suggest that in X. scabrida leaves Rubisco adopts a special, protective conformation and recovers its activity during rehydration through modifications in redox status. PMID:20956360

  19. Ca2+/calmodulin protein kinase II and memory: learning-related changes in a localized region of the domestic chick brain.

    PubMed

    Solomonia, Revaz O; Kotorashvili, Adam; Kiguradze, Tamar; McCabe, Brian J; Horn, Gabriel

    2005-12-01

    The role of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in the recognition memory of visual imprinting was investigated. Domestic chicks were exposed to a training stimulus and learning strength measured. Trained chicks, together with untrained chicks, were killed either 1 h or 24 h after training. The intermediate and medial hyperstriatum ventrale/mesopallium (IMHV/IMM), a forebrain memory storage site, was removed together with a control brain region, the posterior pole of the neostriatum/nidopallium (PPN). Amounts of membrane total alphaCaMKII (tCaMKII) and Thr286-autophosphorylated alphaCaMKII (apCAMKII) were measured. For the IMHV/IMM 1 h group, apCaMKII amount and apCAMKII/tCaMKII increased as chicks learned. The magnitude of the molecular changes were positively correlated with learning strength. No learning-related effects were observed in PPN, or in either region at 24 h. These results suggest that CaMKII is involved in the formation of memory but not in its maintenance.

  20. Dual role for tomato heat shock protein 21: protecting photosystem II from oxidative stress and promoting color changes during fruit maturation.

    PubMed

    Neta-Sharir, Inbal; Isaacson, Tal; Lurie, Susan; Weiss, David

    2005-06-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) chloroplast small heat shock protein (sHSP), HSP21, is induced by heat treatment in leaves, but also under normal growth conditions in developing fruits during the transition of chloroplasts to chromoplasts. We used transgenic tomato plants constitutively expressing HSP21 to study the role of the protein under stress conditions and during fruit maturation. Although we did not find any effect for the transgene on photosystem II (PSII) thermotolerance, our results show that the protein protects PSII from temperature-dependent oxidative stress. In addition, we found direct evidence of the protein's role in fruit reddening and the conversion of chloroplasts to chromoplasts. When plants were grown under normal growth temperature, transgenic fruits accumulated carotenoids earlier than controls. Furthermore, when detached mature green fruits were stored for 2 weeks at 2 degrees C and then transferred to room temperature, the natural accumulation of carotenoids was blocked. In a previous study, we showed that preheat treatment, which induces HSP21, allowed fruit color change at room temperature, after a cold treatment. Here, we show that mature green transgenic fruits constitutively expressing HSP21 do not require the heat treatment to maintain the ability to accumulate carotenoids after cold storage. This study demonstrates that a sHSP plays a role in plant development under normal growth conditions, in addition to its protective effect under stress conditions.

  1. Changes in Pulmonary Function After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy and After Surgery for Stage I and II Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, a Description of Two Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Leonie; El Sharouni, Sherif Y; Hofman, Frederik N; Van Putte, Bart P; Tromp, Ellen; Van Vulpen, Marco; Kastelijn, Elisabeth A; Schramel, Franz M N H

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate changes in pulmonary function tests (PFTs) at different follow-up durations after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and surgery in stage I and II non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Differences between pre-treatment- and follow-up PFTs were analyzed in 93 patients treated with surgery and 30 patients treated with SBRT for NSCLC. Follow-up durations were categorized into: early (0-9 months), middle (10-21 months) and late (≥22 months). Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyze differences between pre-treatment and follow-up PFTs. Forced expiratory volume in one second, forced vital capacity and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide corrected for the actual hemoglobin level significantly diminished after surgery for all follow-up durations: 11-17% of predicted values. After SBRT, PFTs remained stable, but a declining trend of 6% (p=0.1) was observed after 22 months. SBRT might lead to less treatment-related toxicity measured by PFTs than surgery in both the short and long term. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. Associations between change in sleep duration and inflammation: findings on C-reactive protein and interleukin 6 in the Whitehall II Study.

    PubMed

    Ferrie, Jane E; Kivimäki, Mika; Akbaraly, Tasnime N; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Miller, Michelle A; Gimeno, David; Kumari, Meena; Davey Smith, George; Shipley, Martin J

    2013-09-15

    Cross-sectional evidence suggests associations between sleep duration and levels of the inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6. This longitudinal study uses data from the London-based Whitehall II study to examine whether changes in sleep duration are associated with average levels of inflammation from 2 measures 5 years apart. Sleep duration (≤5, 6, 7, 8, ≥9 hours on an average week night) was assessed in 5,003 middle-aged women and men in 1991/1994 and 1997/1999. Fasting levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were measured in 1997/1999 and 2002/2004. Cross-sectional analyses indicated that shorter sleep is associated with higher levels of inflammatory markers. Longitudinal analyses showed that each hour per night decrease in sleep duration between 1991/1994 and 1997/1999 was associated with higher levels of C-reactive protein (8.1%) and interleukin-6 (4.5%) averaged across measures in 1997/1999 and 2002/2004. Adjustment for longstanding illness and major cardiometabolic risk factors indicated that disease processes may partially underlie these associations. An increase in sleep duration was not associated with average levels of inflammatory markers. These results suggest that both short sleep and reductions in sleep are associated with average levels of inflammation over a 5-year period.

  3. The total influenza vaccine failure of 1947 revisited: major intrasubtypic antigenic change can explain failure of vaccine in a post-World War II epidemic.

    PubMed

    Kilbourne, Edwin D; Smith, Catherine; Brett, Ian; Pokorny, Barbara A; Johansson, Bert; Cox, Nancy

    2002-08-06

    Although vaccine-induced immunity to influenza A virus is continually challenged by progressively selected mutations in the virus's major antigens (antigenic drift), virus strains within a subtype (e.g., H1N1) are antigenically cross-reactive. Although cross-immunity diminishes as further mutations accumulate, necessitating frequent changes in vaccine strains, older vaccines are usually partially protective. The post-World War II epidemic of 1947 is notable for the total failure of a vaccine previously effective in the 1943-44 and 1944-45 seasons. We have combined extensive antigenic characterization of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase antigens of the 1943 and 1947 viruses with analysis of their nucleotide and amino acid sequences and have found marked antigenic and amino acid differences in viruses of the two years. Furthermore, in a mouse model, vaccination with the 1943 vaccine had no effect on infection with the 1947 strain. These findings are important, because complete lack of cross-immunogenicity has been found previously only with antigenic shift, in which antigenically novel antigens have been captured by reassortment of human and animal strains, sometimes leading to pandemics. Although the 1947 epidemic lacked the usual hallmarks of pandemic disease, including an extensive increase in mortality, it warns of the possibility that extreme intrasubtypic antigenic variation (if coupled with an increase in disease severity) could produce pandemic disease without the introduction of animal virus antigens.

  4. Lifestyle changes during adolescence and risk of breast cancer: an ecologic study of the effect of World War II in Norway.

    PubMed

    Tretli, S; Gaard, M

    1996-09-01

    There are biologic reasons to believe that the period between the larche and the first full-term pregnancy is a particularly sensitive period in a woman's life regarding the development of breast cancer. In this ecologic study, data provided by the Norwegian Cancer Registry were analyzed to compare risk of breast cancer among women who experienced this sensitive period before, during, or after World War II. An ordinary age-cohort model and a model where the cohort was described by exposure by calendar period and sensitivity to this exposure at different ages, were fitted to the data. The incidence of breast cancer was lower than expected among women who experienced puberty during the war. The estimated configuration of the exposure variable showed an increase in exposure up to the start of WWII to twice the level in 1916, dropped by 13 percent during the war, and increased again after the war. The level in 1975 was approximately 2.7 times higher than the level in 1916. The results indicate that one or more lifestyle factors that changed among adolescent women during the war, influenced their risk of breast cancer. Dietary intake of energy, fat, meat, milk, fish, fresh vegetables, and potatoes, in addition to physical activity level and height, are important factors to consider in relation to breast cancer risk.

  5. Selective detection of the structural changes upon photoreactions of several redox cofactors in photosystem II by means of light-induced ATR-FTIR difference spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, Tatsunori; Noguchi, Takumi

    2007-04-01

    Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was applied for the first time to detect the structural changes upon photoreactions of redox cofactors in photosystem II (PSII). The PSII-enriched membranes from spinach were adsorbed on the surface of a silicon prism, and FTIR measurements of various redox cofactors were performed for the same sample but under different conditions by exchanging buffers in a flow cell. Light-induced FTIR difference spectra upon redox reactions of the oxygen-evolving Mn cluster, the primary quinone electron acceptor Q A, the redox-active tyrosine Y D, the primary electron acceptor pheophytin, and the primary electron donor chlorophyll P680 were successively recorded in buffers including different redox reagents and inhibitors. All of these cofactors remained active in the PSII membranes on the silicon surface, and the resultant spectra were basically identical to those previously recorded by the conventional transmission method. These ATR-FTIR measurements enable accurate comparison between reactions of different active sites in a single PSII sample. The present results demonstrated that the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy is a useful technique for investigation of the reaction mechanism of PSII.

  6. Origin of dc voltage in type II superconducting flux pumps: field, field rate of change, and current density dependence of resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, J.; Matsuda, K.; Fu, L.; Fagnard, J.-F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Shen, B.; Dong, Q.; Baghdadi, M.; Coombs, T. A.

    2016-03-01

    Superconducting flux pumps are the kind of devices which can generate direct current into superconducting circuit using external magnetic field. The key point is how to induce a dc voltage across the superconducting load by ac fields. Giaever (1966 IEEE Spectr. 3 117) pointed out flux motion in superconductors will induce a dc voltage, and demonstrated a rectifier model which depended on breaking superconductivity. van de Klundert et al (1981 Cryogenics 21 195, 267) in their review(s) described various configurations for flux pumps all of which relied on inducing the normal state in at least part of the superconductor. In this letter, following their work, we reveal that a variation in the resistivity of type II superconductors is sufficient to induce a dc voltage in flux pumps and it is not necessary to break superconductivity. This variation in resistivity is due to the fact that flux flow is influenced by current density, field intensity, and field rate of change. We propose a general circuit analogy for travelling wave flux pumps, and provide a mathematical analysis to explain the dc voltage. Several existing superconducting flux pumps which rely on the use of a travelling magnetic wave can be explained using the analysis enclosed. This work can also throw light on the design and optimization of flux pumps.

  7. Management strategies to effect change in intensive care units: lessons from the world of business. Part II. Quality-improvement strategies.

    PubMed

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Kocher, Robert; Factor, Phillip

    2014-03-01

    The success of quality-improvement projects relies heavily on both project design and the metrics chosen to assess change. In Part II of this three-part American Thoracic Society Seminars series, we begin by describing methods for determining which data to collect, tools for data presentation, and strategies for data dissemination. As Avedis Donabedian detailed a half century ago, defining metrics in healthcare can be challenging; algorithmic determination of the best type of metric (outcome, process, or structure) can help intensive care unit (ICU) managers begin this process. Choosing appropriate graphical data displays (e.g., run charts) can prompt discussions about and promote quality improvement. Similarly, dashboards/scorecards are useful in presenting performance improvement data either publicly or privately in a visually appealing manner. To have compelling data to show, ICU managers must plan quality-improvement projects well. The second portion of this review details four quality-improvement tools-checklists, Six Sigma methodology, lean thinking, and Kaizen. Checklists have become commonplace in many ICUs to improve care quality; thinking about how to maximize their effectiveness is now of prime importance. Six Sigma methodology, lean thinking, and Kaizen are techniques that use multidisciplinary teams to organize thinking about process improvement, formalize change strategies, actualize initiatives, and measure progress. None originated within healthcare, but each has been used in the hospital environment with success. To conclude this part of the series, we demonstrate how to use these tools through an example of improving the timely administration of antibiotics to patients with sepsis.

  8. A fuzzy set approach to economic crisis, austerity and public health. Part II: How are configurations of crisis and austerity related to changes in population health across Europe?

    PubMed

    Saltkjel, Therese; Holm Ingelsrud, Mari; Dahl, Espen; Halvorsen, Knut

    2017-08-01

    Based on the ideal type classification of European countries done in Part I of this paper, Part II explores whether the real 'danger' to public health is the interplay between austerity and crisis, rather than recession itself. We constructed two fuzzy sets of changes in population health based on a pooled file of European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data (2008 and 2013) including 29 European countries. The linear probability analyses of 'limiting long-standing illness' and 'less than good' health were restricted to the age group 20-64 years. We performed fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) and studied whether configurations of 'severe crisis' and 'austerity' were linked to changes in population health. Overall, the results of this fsQCA do not support the 'crisis-austerity' thesis. Results on 'less than good' health were highly inconsistent, while results on 'limiting long-standing illness', contrary to the thesis, showed a two-path model. Countries with either no severe crisis or no austerity were subsets of the set of countries that experienced deteriorated health. Results also show that several countries combined both paths. This fuzzy set analysis does not support Stuckler and Basu's 'crisis-austerity' thesis, as those European countries that experienced recession and austerity were not consistently the countries with deteriorating health. There may be multiple reasons for this result, including analytical approach and operationalization of key concepts, but also resilient forces such as family support. We suggest more research on the topic based on more recent data and possibly other, or more, dimensions of austerity.

  9. Tobacco streak virus (strain dahlia) suppresses post-transcriptional gene silencing of flavone synthase II in black dahlia cultivars and causes a drastic flower color change.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Ayumi; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Doi, Motoaki; Ohno, Sho

    2015-09-01

    Tobacco streak virus suppressed post-transcriptional gene silencing and caused a flower color change in black dahlias, which supported the role of cyanidin-based anthocyanins for black flower appearance. Black flower color of dahlia (Dahlia variabilis) has been attributed, in part, to the high accumulation of cyanidin-based anthocyanins that occurs when flavone synthesis is reduced because of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of flavone synthase II (DvFNS). There are also purple-flowering plants that have emerged from a black cultivar 'Kokucho'. We report that the purple color is not caused by a mutation, as previously thought, but by infection with tobacco streak virus (TSVdahlia), which suppresses the PTGS of DvFNS. When TSVdahlia was eliminated from the purple-flowering 'Kokucho' by leaf primordia-free shoot apical meristem culture, the resulting flowers were black. TSVdahlia-infected purple flowers had lower numbers of siRNAs to DvFNS than black flowers, suggesting that TSVdahlia has a silencing suppressor. The graft inoculation of other black cultivars with TSVdahlia altered their flower color drastically except for 'Fidalgo Blacky', a very deep black cultivar with the highest amount of cyanidin-based anthocyanins. The flowers of all six TSVdahlia-infected cultivars accumulated increased amounts of flavones and reduced amounts of cyanidin-based anthocyanins. 'Fidalgo Blacky' remained black despite the change in pigment accumulation, and the amounts of cyanidin-based anthocyanins in its TSVdahlia-infected plants were still higher than those of other cultivars. We propose that black flower color in dahlia is controlled by two different mechanisms that increase the amount of cyanidin-based anthocyanins: DvFNS PTGS-dependent and -independent mechanisms. If both mechanisms occur simultaneously, the flower color will be blacker than if only a single mechanism is active.

  10. Temperature Dependence of Light-Induced Absorbance Changes Associated with Chlorophyll Photooxidation in Manganese-Depleted Core Complexes of Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Zabelin, A A; Shkuropatova, V A; Shkuropatov, A Ya; Shuvalov, V A

    2015-10-01

    Mid-infrared (4500-1150 cm(-1)) absorbance changes induced by continuous illumination of Mn-depleted core complexes of photosystem II (PSII) from spinach in the presence of exogenous electron acceptors (potassium ferricyanide and silicomolybdate) were studied by FTIR difference spectroscopy in the temperature range 100-265 K. The FTIR difference spectrum for photooxidation of the chlorophyll dimer P680 was determined from the set of signals associated with oxidation of secondary electron donors (β-carotene, chlorophyll) and reduction of the primary quinone QA. On the basis of analysis of the temperature dependence of the P680(+)/P680 FTIR spectrum, it was concluded that frequencies of 13(1)-keto-C=O stretching modes of neutral chlorophyll molecules PD1 and PD2, which constitute P680, are similar to each other, being located at ~1700 cm(-1). This together with considerable difference between the stretching mode frequencies of keto groups of PD1(+) and PD2(+) cations (1724 and 1709 cm(-1), respectively) is in agreement with a literature model (Okubo et al. (2007) Biochemistry, 46, 4390-4397) suggesting that the positive charge in the P680(+) dimer is mainly localized on one of the two chlorophyll molecules. A partial delocalization of the charge between the PD1 and PD2 molecules in P680(+) is supported by the presence of a characteristic electronic intervalence band at ~3000 cm(-1). It is shown that a bleaching band at 1680 cm(-1) in the P680(+)/P680 FTIR spectrum does not belong to P680. A possible origin of this band is discussed, taking into account the temperature dependence (100-265 K) of light-induced absorbance changes of PSII core complexes in the visible spectral region from 620 to 720 nm.

  11. Drastic changes of electronic structure and crystal chemistry upon oxidation of SnII2TiO4E2 into SnIV2TiO6: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matar, Samir F.; Maglione, Mario; Nakhl, Michel; Kfoury, Charbel N.; Etourneau, Jean

    2016-09-01

    From DFT based calculations establishing energy-volume equations of state and electron localization mapping, the electronic structure and crystal chemistry changes from Sn2TiO4 to Sn2TiO6 by oxidation are rationalized; the key effect being the destabilization of divalent tin SnII towards tetravalent state SnIV leading to rutile Sn2TiO6 as experimentally observed. The subsequent electronic structure change is highlighted in the relative change of the electronic band gap which increases from ∼1 eV up to 2.2 eV and the 1.5 times increase of the bulk modulus assigned to the change from covalently SnII based compound to the more ionic SnIV one. Such trends are also confronted with the relevant properties of black SnIIO.

  12. Oligomerization and conformation change in solutions of calf lens gamma II-crystallin. Results from 1/T1 nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion profiles.

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, S H; Beaulieu, C F; Brown, R D; Spiller, M

    1990-01-01

    From analyses of the magnetic field dependence of 1/T1 (nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion [NMRD] profiles) of water protons in solutions of highly purified calf lens gamma II-crystallin, we find that monomers form oligomers at relatively low concentrations, which increase in size with increasing concentration and decreasing temperature. At approximately 16% by volume and -4 degrees C, the mean oligomeric molecular weight is approximately 120-fold greater than the monomeric value of 20 kD. Below this concentration, there is no indication of any substantive change in conformation of the monomeric subunits. At higher concentrations, the tertiary structure of the monomer appears to reconfigure rather abruptly, but reversibly, as evidenced by the appearance of spectra-like 14N peaks in the NMRD profiles. The magnitudes of these peaks, known to arise from cross-relaxation of water protons through access to amide (NH) moieties of the protein backbone, indicate that the high concentration conformation is not compact, but open and extended in a manner that allows enhanced interaction with solvent. The data are analogous to those found for homogenates of calf and chicken lens (Beaulieu, C. F., J. I. Clark, R. D. Brown III, M. Spiller, and S. H. Koenig. 1988. Magn. Reson. Med. 8:47-57; Beaulieu, C. F., R. D. Brown III, J. I. Clark, M. Spiller, and S. H. Koenig. 1989. Magn. Reson. Med. 10:62-72). This unusually large dependence of oligomeric size and conformation on concentration in the physiological range is suggested as the mechanism by which osmotic equilibrium is maintained, at minimal metabolic expense, in the presence of large gradients of protein concentration in the lens in vivo (cf Vérétout and Tardieu, 1989. Eur. Biophys. J. 17:61-68). Finally, the results of the NMRD data provide a ready explanation of the low temperature phase transition, and "cold-cataract" separation of phases, observed in gamma II-crystallin solutions; we suggest that the phases that

  13. Photobilirubin II.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, R; Buckley, D G; Hamzetash, D; Hawkes, G E; Ioannou, S; Stoll, M S

    1984-01-01

    An improved preparation of photobilirubin II in ammoniacal methanol is described. Evidence is presented which distinguishes between the two structures proposed earlier for photobilirubin II in favour of the cycloheptadienyl structure. Nuclear-Overhauser-enhancement measurements with bilirubin IX alpha and photobilirubin II in dimethyl sulphoxide are complicated by the occurrence of negative and zero effects. The partition coefficient of photobilirubin II between chloroform and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) is 0.67. PMID:6743241

  14. SAGE II

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-16

    SAGE II Data and Information The goals of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment ( SAGE ) II are to determine the spatial distributions of stratospheric ... profiles and calculating monthly averages of each. The SAGE II sensor (a Sun Photometer) was launched into a 57-degree inclination ...

  15. A comprehensive structural evaluation of humic substances using several fluorescence techniques before and after ozonation. Part II: evaluation of structural changes following ozonation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Francisco J; Schlenger, Patrick; García-Valverde, María

    2014-04-01

    The main objective of this work (Part II) is to evaluate the usefulness of fluorescence techniques to monitor structural changes in humic substances produced by the ozonation treatment, using all the current fluorescence techniques: Emission scan fluorescence (ESF), synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS), total luminescence spectroscopy (TLS or EEM) through the use of both 2-D contour maps and 3-D plots, fluorescence index and the λ0.5 parameter. Four humic substances were studied in this work: three of them were provided by the International Humic Substances Society (Suwannee River Fulvic Acid Standard: SUFA, Suwannee River Humic Acid Standard: SUHA and Nordic Reservoir Fulvic Acid Reference: NOFA) and the other one was a commercial humic acid widely used as a surrogate for aquatic humic substances in various studies (Aldrich Humic Acid: ALHA). The lowest ozone dosage tested (0.25mg O3/mg TOC) caused no appreciable change in the different types of fluorescence spectra under study, therefore the structural change produced in the humic macromolecules may be considered of little significance. Concerning EEM and synchronous spectra, the two natural fulvic acids (SUFA and NOFA) showed a decrease in fluorescence intensity as ozone dosage increased, but the natural humic acid (SUHA) showed a different behaviour: an initial increase in fluorescence intensity at medium ozone dosages (1.5 mg O3/mg TOC) followed by an intensity decrease for the higher ozone dose (7.5 mg O3/mg TOC). Regarding synchronous spectra, the moderate dosage of 1.5 mg O3/mg TOC led to an increase in the fluorescence of the protein-like peak at λsyn=285 nm for the natural humic substances. The results obtained for the fluorescence index and λ0.5 may suggest that the greatest degradation of aromatic structures within the humic macromolecule occurs at high ozone dosages, whereas the predominant effect at moderate dosages would be the break-up of the humic macromolecule into lower molecular weight

  16. Ammonia-induced structural changes of the oxygen-evolving complex in photosystem II as revealed by light-induced FTIR difference spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hsiu-An; Feng, Ya-Wen; Wang, Chiu-Ming; Chiang, Kuo-An; Ke, Shyue-Chu

    2004-08-31

    Light-induced Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy has been applied to studies of ammonia effects on the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). We found that NH(3) induced characteristic spectral changes in the region of the symmetric carboxylate stretching modes (1450-1300 cm(-1)) of the S(2)Q(A)(-)/S(1)Q(A) FTIR difference spectra of PSII. The S(2) state carboxylate mode at 1365 cm(-1) in the S(2)Q(A)(-)/S(1)Q(A) spectrum of the controlled samples was very likely upshifted to 1379 cm(-1) in that of NH(3)-treated samples; however, the frequency of the corresponding S(1) carboxylate mode at 1402 cm(-1) in the same spectrum was not significantly affected. These two carboxylate modes have been assigned to a Mn-ligating carboxylate whose coordination mode changes from bridging or chelating to unidentate ligation during the S(1) to S(2) transition [Noguchi, T., Ono, T., and Inoue, Y. (1995) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1228, 189-200; Kimura, Y., and Ono, T.-A. (2001) Biochemistry 40, 14061-14068]. Therefore, our results show that NH(3) induced significant structural changes of the OEC in the S(2) state. In addition, our results also indicated that the NH(3)-induced spectral changes of the S(2)Q(A)(-)/S(1)Q(A) spectrum of PSII are dependent on the temperature of the FTIR measurement. Among the temperatures we measured, the strongest effect was seen at 250 K, a lesser effect was seen at 225 K, and little or no effect was seen at 200 K. Furthermore, our results also showed that the NH(3) effects on the S(2)Q(A)(-)/S(1)Q(A) spectrum of PSII are dependent on the concentrations of NH(4)Cl. The NH(3)-induced upshift of the 1365 cm(-1) mode is apparent at 5 mM NH(4)Cl and is completely saturated at 100 mM NH(4)Cl concentration. Finally, we found that CH(3)NH(2) has a small but clear effect on the spectral change of the S(2)Q(A)(-)/S(1)Q(A) FTIR difference spectrum of PSII. The effects of amines on the S(2)Q(A)(-)/S(1)Q(A) FTIR difference spectra (NH(3

  17. Iron(II)-Catalyzed Iron Atom Exchange and Mineralogical Changes in Iron-rich Organic Freshwater Flocs: An Iron Isotope Tracer Study.

    PubMed

    ThomasArrigo, Laurel K; Mikutta, Christian; Byrne, James; Kappler, Andreas; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2017-06-20

    In freshwater wetlands, organic flocs are often found enriched in trace metal(loid)s associated with poorly crystalline Fe(III)-(oxyhydr)oxides. Under reducing conditions, flocs may become exposed to aqueous Fe(II), triggering Fe(II)-catalyzed mineral transformations and trace metal(loid) release. In this study, pure ferrihydrite, a synthetic ferrihydrite-polygalacturonic acid coprecipitate (16.7 wt % C), and As- (1280 and 1230 mg/kg) and organic matter (OM)-rich (18.1 and 21.8 wt % C) freshwater flocs dominated by ferrihydrite and nanocrystalline lepidocrocite were reacted with an isotopically enriched (57)Fe(II) solution (0.1 or 1.0 mM Fe(II)) at pH 5.5 and 7. Using a combination of wet chemistry, Fe isotope analysis, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, we followed the Fe atom exchange kinetics and secondary mineral formation over 1 week. When reacted with Fe(II) at pH 7, pure ferrihydrite exhibited rapid Fe atom exchange at both Fe(II) concentrations, reaching 76 and 89% atom exchange in experiments with 0.1 and 1 mM Fe(II), respectively. XAS data revealed that it transformed into goethite (21%) at the lower Fe(II) concentration and into lepidocrocite (73%) and goethite (27%) at the higher Fe(II) concentration. Despite smaller Fe mineral particles in the coprecipitate and flocs as compared to pure ferrihydrite (inferred from Mössbauer-derived blocking temperatures), these samples showed reduced Fe atom exchange (9-30% at pH 7) and inhibited secondary mineral formation. No release of As was recorded for Fe(II)-reacted flocs. Our findings indicate that carbohydrate-rich OM in flocs stabilizes poorly crystalline Fe minerals against Fe(II)-catalyzed transformation by surface-site blockage and/or organic Fe(II) complexation. This hinders the extent of Fe atom exchange at mineral surfaces and secondary mineral formation, which may consequently impair Fe(II)-activated trace metal(loid) release. Thus, under short

  18. Role of psychosocial work factors in the relation between becoming a caregiver and changes in health behaviour: results from the Whitehall II cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Dich, Nadya; Head, Jenny; Hulvej Rod, Naja

    2016-01-01

    Background The present study tested the effects of becoming a caregiver combined with adverse working conditions on changes in health behaviours. Methods Participants were 5419 British civil servants from the Whitehall II cohort study who were not caregivers at baseline (phase 3, 1991–1994). Psychosocial work factors were assessed at baseline. Phase 4 questionnaire (1995–1996) was used to identify participants who became caregivers to an aged or disabled relative. Smoking, alcohol consumption and exercise were assessed at baseline and follow-up (phase 5, 1997–1999). Results Those who became caregivers were more likely to increase frequency of alcohol consumption, but only if they also reported low decision latitude at work (OR= 1.65, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.37 compared with non-caregivers with average decision latitude), or belonged to low occupational social class (OR=2.38, 95% CI 1.17 to 4.78 compared with non-caregivers of high occupational social class). Caregivers were more likely to quit smoking if job demands were low (OR=2.92; 95% CI 1.07 to 7.92 compared with non-caregivers with low job demands), or if social support at work was high (OR=2.99, 95% CI 1.01 to 8.86 compared with caregivers with average social support). There was no effect of caregiving on reducing exercise below recommended number of hours per week, or on drinking above recommended number of units per week, regardless of working conditions. Conclusions The findings underscore the importance of a well-balanced work environment as a resource for people exposed to increased family demands. PMID:27217534

  19. Role of psychosocial work factors in the relation between becoming a caregiver and changes in health behaviour: results from the Whitehall II cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dich, Nadya; Head, Jenny; Hulvej Rod, Naja

    2016-05-23

    The present study tested the effects of becoming a caregiver combined with adverse working conditions on changes in health behaviours. Participants were 5419 British civil servants from the Whitehall II cohort study who were not caregivers at baseline (phase 3, 1991-1994). Psychosocial work factors were assessed at baseline. Phase 4 questionnaire (1995-1996) was used to identify participants who became caregivers to an aged or disabled relative. Smoking, alcohol consumption and exercise were assessed at baseline and follow-up (phase 5, 1997-1999). Those who became caregivers were more likely to increase frequency of alcohol consumption, but only if they also reported low decision latitude at work (OR= 1.65, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.37 compared with non-caregivers with average decision latitude), or belonged to low occupational social class (OR=2.38, 95% CI 1.17 to 4.78 compared with non-caregivers of high occupational social class). Caregivers were more likely to quit smoking if job demands were low (OR=2.92; 95% CI 1.07 to 7.92 compared with non-caregivers with low job demands), or if social support at work was high (OR=2.99, 95% CI 1.01 to 8.86 compared with caregivers with average social support). There was no effect of caregiving on reducing exercise below recommended number of hours per week, or on drinking above recommended number of units per week, regardless of working conditions. The findings underscore the importance of a well-balanced work environment as a resource for people exposed to increased family demands. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Age-dependent changes in autophosphorylation of alpha calcium/calmodulin dependent kinase II in hippocampus and amygdala after contextual fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ton; Kasbi, Kamillia; Rothe, Stephanie; Aziz, Wajeeha; Giese, K Peter

    2017-09-01

    The hippocampus and amygdala are essential brain regions responsible for contextual fear conditioning (CFC). The autophosphorylation of alpha calcium-calmodulin kinase II (αCaMKII) at threonine-286 (T286) is a critical step implicated in long-term potentiation (LTP), learning and memory. However, the changes in αCaMKII levels with aging and training in associated brain regions are not fully understood. Here, we studied how aging and training affect the levels of phosphorylated (T286) and proportion of phosphorylated:total αCaMKII in the hippocampus and amygdala. Young and aged mice, naïve (untrained) and trained in CFC, were analysed by immunohistochemistry for the levels of total and phosphorylated αCaMKII in the hippocampus and amygdala. We found that two hours after CFC training, young mice exhibited a higher level of phosphorylated and increased ratio of phosphorylated:total αCaMKII in hippocampal CA3 stratum radiatum. Furthermore, aged untrained mice showed a higher ratio of phosphorylated:total αCaMKII in the CA3 region of the hippocampus when compared to the young untrained group. No effect of training or aging were seen in the central, lateral and basolateral amygdala regions, for both phosphorylated and ratio of phosphorylated:total αCaMKII. These results show that aging impairs the training-induced upregulation of autophosphorylated (T286) αCaMKII in the CA3 stratum radiatum of the hippocampus. This indicates that distinct age-related mechanisms underlie CFC that may rely more heavily on NMDA receptor-dependent plasticity in young age. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in DNA methylation and transgenerational mobilization of a transposable element (mPing) by the Topoisomerase II inhibitor, Etoposide, in rice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Etoposide (epipodophyllotoxin) is a chemical commonly used as an anti-cancer drug which inhibits DNA synthesis by blocking topoisomerase II activity. Previous studies in animal cells have demonstrated that etoposide constitutes a genotoxic stress which may induce genomic instability including mobilization of normally quiescent transposable elements (TEs). However, it remained unknown whether similar genetically mutagenic effects could be imposed by etoposide in plant cells. Also, no information is available with regard to whether the drug may cause a perturbation of epigenetic stability in any organism. Results To investigate whether etoposide could generate genetic and/or epigenetic instability in plant cells, we applied etoposide to germinating seeds of six cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes including both subspecies, japonica and indica. Based on the methylation-sensitive gel-blotting results, epigenetic changes in DNA methylation of three TEs (Tos17, Osr23 and Osr36) and two protein-encoding genes (Homeobox and CDPK-related genes) were detected in the etoposide-treated plants (S0 generation) in four of the six studied japonica cultivars, Nipponbare, RZ1, RZ2, and RZ35, but not in the rest japonica cultivar (Matsumae) and the indica cultivar (93-11). DNA methylation changes in the etoposide-treated S0 rice plants were validated by bisulfite sequencing at both of two analyzed loci (Tos17 and Osr36). Transpositional activity was tested for eight TEs endogenous to the rice genome in both the S0 plants and their selfed progenies (S1 and S2) of one of the cultivars, RZ1, which manifested heritable phenotypic variations. Results indicated that no transposition occurred in the etoposide-treated S0 plants for any of the TEs. Nonetheless, a MITE transposon, mPing, showed rampant mobilization in the S1 and S2 progenies descended from the drug-treated S0 plants. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that etoposide imposes a similar genotoxic stress on

  2. Specific Conformational Change in Giant DNA Caused by Anticancer Tetrazolato-Bridged Dinuclear Platinum(II) Complexes: Middle-Length Alkyl Substituents Exhibit Minimum Effect.

    PubMed

    Komeda, Seiji; Yoneyama, Hiroki; Uemura, Masako; Muramatsu, Akira; Okamoto, Naoto; Konishi, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Takagi, Akimitsu; Fukuda, Wakao; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Kanbe, Toshio; Harusawa, Shinya; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2017-01-17

    Derivatives of the highly antitumor-active compound [{cis-Pt(NH3)2}2(μ-OH)(μ-tetrazolato-N2,N3)](2+) (5-H-Y), which is a tetrazolato-bridged dinuclear platinum(II) complex, were prepared by substituting a linear alkyl chain moiety at C5 of the tetrazolate ring. The general formula for the derivatives is [{cis-Pt(NH3)2}2(μ-OH)(μ-5-R-tetrazolato-N2,N3)](2+), where R is (CH2)nCH3 and n = 0 to 8 (complexes 1-9). The cytotoxicity of complexes 1-4 in NCI-H460 human non-small-cell lung cancer cells decreased with increasing alkyl chain length, and those of complexes 5-9 increased with increasing alkyl chain length. That is, the in vitro cytotoxicity of complexes 1-9 was found to have a U-shaped association with alkyl chain length. This U-shaped association is attributable to the degree of intracellular accumulation. Although circular dichroism spectroscopic measurement indicated that complexes 1-9 induced comparable conformational changes in the secondary structure of DNA, the tetrazolato-bridged complexes induced different degrees of DNA compaction as revealed by a single DNA measurement with fluorescence microsopy, which also had a U-shaped association with alkyl chain length that matched the association observed for cytotoxicity. Complexes 7-9, which had alkyl chains long enough to confer surfactant-like properties to the complex, induced DNA compaction 20 or 1000 times more efficiently than 5-H-Y or spermidine. A single DNA measurement with transmission electron microscopy revealed that complex 8 formed large spherical self-assembled structures that induced DNA compaction with extremely high efficiency. This result suggests that these structures may play a role in the DNA compaction that was induced by the complexes with the longer alkyl chains. The derivatization with a linear alkyl chain produced a series of complexes with unique cellular accumulation and DNA conformational change profiles and a potentially useful means of developing next-generation platinum

  3. Time-resolved absorption changes of the pheophytin Q{sub x} band in isolated photosystem II reaction centers at 7K : energy transfer and charge separation.

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, S. R.; Seibert, M.; Wasielewski, M. R.; Chemistry; LANL; NREL; Northwestern Univ.

    1999-09-30

    The pheophytin {alpha} Q{sub x} spectral region of the isolated photosystem II reaction center was investigated at 7 K using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. At this temperature, uphill energy transfer, which greatly complicates the interpretation of the kinetics at or near room temperature, should be essentially shut off. Low-energy ({approx}100 nJ) pulses at 661 and 683 nm were used to excite the short-wavelength and long-wavelength sides of the composite Q{sub y} band, providing preferential excitation of the accessory pigment pool and P680, respectively. The data analysis uses a background subtraction technique developed earlier (Greenfield et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 1997, 101, 2251-2255) to remove the kinetic components of the data that are due to the large time-dependent changes in the background that are present in this spectral region. The instantaneous amplitude of the bleach of the pheophytin {alpha} Q{sub x} band with 683 nm excitation is roughly two-thirds of its final amplitude, providing strong evidence of a multimer description of the reaction center core. The subsequent growth of the bleach shows biphasic kinetics, similar to our earlier results at 278 K. The rate constant of the faster component is (5 ps){sup -1} for 683 nm excitation (a factor of almost two faster than at 278 K), and represents the intrinsic rate constant for charge separation. The bleach growth with 661 nm excitation is also biphasic; however, the faster component appears to be a composite of a (5 ps){sup -1} component corresponding to charge separation following subpicosecond energy transfer to the long-wavelength pigments and a roughly (22 ps){sup -1} component corresponding to charge separation limited by slow energy transfer. The combined quantum yield for these two energy transfer processes is near unity. For both excitation wavelengths, there is also a roughly (100 ps){sup -1} component to the bleach growth. Exposure to high excitation energies ({>=}1 {mu}J) at

  4. Time-resolved absorption changes of the pheophytin Q{sub x} band in isolated photosystem II reaction centers at 7 K: Energy transfer and charge separation

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, S.R.; Seibert, M.; Wasielewski, M.R.

    1999-09-30

    The pheophytin a Q{sub x} spectral region of the isolated photosystem II reaction center was investigated at 7 K using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. At this temperature, uphill energy transfer, which greatly complicates the interpretation of the kinetics at or near room temperature, should be essentially shut off. Low-energy ({approximately}100 nJ) pulses at 661 and 683 nm were used to excite the short-wavelength and long-wavelength sides of the composite Q{sub y} band, providing preferential excitation of the accessory pigment pool and P680, respectively. The data analysis uses a background subtraction technique developed earlier (Greenfield et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 1997, 101, 2251--2255) to remove the kinetic components of the data that are due to the large time-dependent changes in the background that are present in this spectral region. The instantaneous amplitude of the bleach of the pheophytin a Q{sub x} band with 683 nm excitation is roughly two-thirds of its final amplitude, providing strong evidence of a multimer description of the reaction center core. The subsequent growth of the bleach shows biphasic kinetics, similar to the earlier results at 278 K. The rate constant of the faster component is (5 ps){sup {minus}1} for 683 nm excitation (a factor of almost two faster than at 278 K), and represents the intrinsic rate constant for charge separation. The bleach growth with 661 nm excitation is also biphasic; however, the faster component appears to be a composite of a (5 ps){sup {minus}1} component corresponding to charge separation following subpicosecond energy transfer to the long-wavelength pigments and a roughly (22 ps){sup {minus}1} component corresponding to charge separation limited by slow energy transfer. The combined quantum yield for these two energy transfer processes is near unity. For both excitation wavelengths, there is also a roughly (100 ps){sup {minus}1} component to the bleach growth. Exposure to high excitation

  5. Single amino acid changes in domain II of Bacillus thuringiensis CryIAb delta-endotoxin affect irreversible binding to Manduca sexta midgut membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Rajamohan, F; Alcantara, E; Lee, M K; Chen, X J; Curtiss, A; Dean, D H

    1995-01-01

    Deletion of amino acid residues 370 to 375 (D2) and single alanine substitutions between residues 371 and 375 (FNIGI) of lepidopteran-active Bacillus thuringiensis CryIAb delta-endotoxin were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis techniques. All mutants, except that with the I-to-A change at position 373 (I373A), produced delta-endotoxin as CryIAb and were stable upon activation either by Manduca sexta gut enzymes or by trypsin. Mutants D2, F371A, and G374A lost most of the toxicity (400 times less) for M. sexta larvae, whereas N372A and I375A were only 2 times less toxic than CryIAb. The results of homologous and heterologous competition binding assays to M. sexta midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) revealed that the binding curves for all mutant toxins were similar to those for the wild-type toxin. However, a significant difference in irreversible binding was observed between the toxic (CryIAb, N372A, and I375A) and less-toxic (D2, F371A, and G374A) proteins. Only 20 to 25% of bound, radiolabeled CryIAb, N372A, and I375A toxins was dissociated from BBMV, whereas about 50 to 55% of the less-toxic mutants, D2, F371A, and G374A, was dissociated from their binding sites by the addition of excess nonlabeled ligand. Voltage clamping experiments provided further evidence that the insecticidal property (inhibition of short-circuit current across the M. sexta midgut) was directly correlated to irreversible interaction of the toxin with the BBMV. We have also shown that CryIAb and mutant toxins recognize 210- and 120-kDa peptides in ligand blotting. Our results imply that mutations in residues 370 to 375 of domain II of CrylAb do not affect overall binding but do affect the irreversible association of the toxin to the midgut columnar epithelial cells of M. sexta. PMID:7730254

  6. BASS II

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-14

    ISS038-E-047576 (14 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, works with the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  7. BASS II

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-14

    ISS038-E-047582 (14 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, works with the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  8. Specificity changes in the evolution of type II restriction endonucleases: a biochemical and bioinformatic analysis of restriction enzymes that recognize unrelated sequences.

    PubMed

    Pingoud, Vera; Sudina, Anna; Geyer, Hildegard; Bujnicki, Janusz M; Lurz, Rudi; Lüder, Gerhild; Morgan, Richard; Kubareva, Elena; Pingoud, Alfred

    2005-02-11

    How restriction enzymes with their different specificities and mode of cleavage evolved has been a long standing question in evolutionary biology. We have recently shown that several Type II restriction endonucleases, namely SsoII (downward arrow CCNGG), PspGI (downward arrow CCWGG), Eco-RII (downward arrow CCWGG), NgoMIV (G downward arrow CCGGC), and Cfr10I (R downward arrow CCGGY), which recognize similar DNA sequences (as indicated, where the downward arrows denote cleavage position), share limited sequence similarity over an interrupted stretch of approximately 70 amino acid residues with MboI, a Type II restriction endonuclease from Moraxella bovis (Pingoud, V., Conzelmann, C., Kinzebach, S., Sudina, A., Metelev, V., Kubareva, E., Bujnicki, J. M., Lurz, R., Luder, G., Xu, S. Y., and Pingoud, A. (2003) J. Mol. Biol. 329, 913-929). Nevertheless, MboI has a dissimilar DNA specificity (downward arrow GATC) compared with these enzymes. In this study, we characterize MboI in detail to determine whether it utilizes a mechanism of DNA recognition similar to SsoII, PspGI, EcoRII, NgoMIV, and Cfr10I. Mutational analyses and photocross-linking experiments demonstrate that MboI exploits the stretch of approximately 70 amino acids for DNA recognition and cleavage. It is therefore likely that MboI shares a common evolutionary origin with SsoII, PspGI, EcoRII, NgoMIV, and Cfr10I. This is the first example of a relatively close evolutionary link between Type II restriction enzymes of widely different specificities.

  9. Phylogenetic changes in sensitivity to Anemonia sulcata toxin (ATX II), and impact of first interaction with the toxin (imprinting) on later response to it.

    PubMed

    Csaba, G; Dobozy, O; Darvas, Z; László, V; Beress, L

    1984-01-01

    The Anemonia sulcata toxin ATX II is cardiotoxic and neurotoxic, and--at a high dose level--even lethal for the mouse, neurotoxic, but non-lethal for the frog, and has no adverse influence whatever on the Planaria and Tetrahymena; it even stimulates the growth of the Tetrahymena at a low dose level. It also induces imprinting in the Tetrahymena, as judged from the altered response of the latter to ATX II on re-exposure. No similar imprinting effect was demonstrable in mice.

  10. Temporal changes in community composition of heterotrophic bacteria during in situ iron enrichment in the western subarctic Pacific (SEEDS-II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Takafumi; Suzuki, Koji; Hayakawa, Maki; Kudo, Isao; Higashi, Seigo; Tsuda, Atsushi

    2009-12-01

    Little is known about the effects of iron enrichment in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters on the community composition of heterotrophic bacteria, which are crucial to nutrient recycling and microbial food webs. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA fragments, we investigated the heterotrophic eubacterial community composition in surface waters during an in situ iron-enrichment experiment (SEEDS-II) in the western subarctic Pacific in the summer of 2004. DGGE fingerprints representing the community composition of eubacteria differed inside and outside the iron-enriched patch. Sequencing of DGGE bands revealed that at least five phylotypes of α-proteobacteria including Roseobacter, Cytophaga-Flavobacteria- Bacteroides (CFB), γ-proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria occurred in almost all samples from the iron-enriched patch. Diatoms did not bloom during SEEDS-II, but the eubacterial composition in the iron-enriched patch was similar to that in diatom blooms observed previously. Although dissolved organic carbon (DOC) accumulation was not detected in surface waters during SEEDS-II, growth of the Roseobacter clade might have been particularly stimulated after iron additions. Two identified phylotypes of CFB were closely related to the genus Saprospira, whose algicidal activity might degrade the phytoplankton assemblages increased by iron enrichment. These results suggest that the responses of heterotrophic bacteria to iron enrichment could differ among phylotypes during SEEDS-II.

  11. Photosystem II

    ScienceCinema

    James Barber

    2016-07-12

    James Barber, Ernst Chain Professor of Biochemistry at Imperial College, London, gives a BSA Distinguished Lecture titled, "The Structure and Function of Photosystem II: The Water-Splitting Enzyme of Photosynthesis."

  12. Delta II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Delta II expendable launch vehicle with the ROSAT (Roentgen Satellite), cooperative space X-ray astronomy mission between NASA, Germany and United Kingdom, was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on June 1, 1990.

  13. Antifungal Volatile Organic Compounds from the Endophyte Nodulisporium sp. Strain GS4d2II1a: a Qualitative Change in the Intraspecific and Interspecific Interactions with Pythium aphanidermatum.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Fernández, Rosa Elvira; Diaz, Daniel; Duarte, Georgina; Lappe-Oliveras, Patricia; Sánchez, Sergio; Macías-Rubalcava, Martha Lydia

    2016-02-01

    This study demonstrates volatile organic compounds (VOCs) production as one of the defense mechanisms of the antagonistic endophyte Nodulisporium sp. GS4d2II1a, and the volatile changes in two times of the fungal growth; and, as result of its intra and interspecific interactions with the plant pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum. The antifungal activity of the volatile and diffusible metabolites was evaluated by means of three types of antagonism bioassays and by organic extract agar dilution. VOCs were obtained by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry from 3- and 5-day Nodulisporium sp. cultures, as well as from its interspecific in vitro antagonistic interaction with the oomycete P. aphanidermatum, and its intraspecific Nodulisporium sp.-Nodulisporium sp. interaction. The GS4d2II1a strain completely inhibited the growth of two fungi and seven oomycetes by replacing their mycelia in simple antagonism bioassays and by producing in vitro volatile and diffusible metabolites that acted synergistically in multiple antagonism bioassays. Additionally, VOCs inhibited the growth of three oomycetes and one fungus in antagonism bioassays using divided plates. A total of 70 VOCs were detected, mainly including mono and sesquiterpenes, especially eucalyptol and limonene. Multiple correspondence analysis revealed four different volatile profiles, showing that volatiles changed with the fungus age and its intra and interspecific interactions. The metabolites produced by Nodulisporium sp. GS4d2II1a could be useful for biological control of fungal and oomycetes plant pathogens of economically important crops.

  14. [Evaluation of changes in periodontal status of patients with diabetes mellitus type II in surgical in-patient department after using Parоdontax Extra Fresh toothpaste].

    PubMed

    Elovikova, T M; Belokonova, N A; Shurygina, E A; Eshchenko, Ia A; Raspopova, N N

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease in patients with type II diabetes mellitus are characterized by a more severe course. Properly organized oral hygiene can effectively prevent and treat inflammation of periodontal tissues. The choice of therapeutic-prophylactic toothpaste, as one of the main means of personal hygiene, is especially important in patients with diabetes in surgical in-patient department. The study revealed high need in dental care (90%) in 20 patients with diabetes mellitus type II admitted to purulent surgery unit. After a week of using toothpaste Parоdontax Extra Fresh oral hygiene index improved 1.8 times and BOP index reduced twice-folds. Decrease of tissue swelling and tartar formation was also seen.

  15. Dynamic Changes in the Intracellular Association of Selected Rab Small GTPases with MHC Class II and DM during Dendritic Cell Maturation.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Montesinos, Gibrán; López-Ortega, Orestes; Piedra-Reyes, Jessica; Bonifaz, Laura C; Moreno, José

    2017-01-01

    Antigen processing for presentation by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) molecules requires the latter to travel through the endocytic pathway together with its chaperons: the invariant chain (Ii) and DM. Nevertheless, the nature of the compartments where MHCII molecules travel to acquire peptides lacks definition regarding molecules involved in intracellular vesicular trafficking, such as Rab small GTPases. We aimed to define which Rab proteins are present during the intracellular transport of MHCII, DM, and Ii through the endocytic pathway on their route to the cell surface during dendritic cell (DC) maturation. We examined, by means of three-color confocal microscopy, the association of MHCII, DM, and Ii with Rab5, Rab7, Rab9, and Rab11 during the maturation of bone marrow-derived or spleen DC in response to LPS as an inflammatory stimulus. Prior to the stage of immature DC, MHCII migrated from diffuse small cytoplasmic vesicles, predominantly Rab5+Rab7- and Rab5+Rab7+ into a pericentriolar Rab5+Rab7+Rab9+ cluster, with Rab11+ areas. As DC reached the mature phenotype, MHCII left the pericentriolar endocytic compartments toward the cell surface in Rab11+ and Rab9+Rab11+ vesicles. The invariant chain and MHCII transport pathways were not identical. DM and MHCII appeared to arrive to pericentriolar endocytic compartments of immature DC through partially different routes. The association of MHCII molecules with distinct Rab GTPases during DC maturation suggests that after leaving the biosynthetic pathway, MHCII sequentially traffic from typical early endosomes to multivesicular late endosomes to finally arrive at the cell surface in Rab11+ recycling-type endosomes. In immature DCs, DM encounters transiently MHCII in the Rab5+Rab7+Rab9+ compartments, to remain there in mature DC.

  16. Dynamic Changes in the Intracellular Association of Selected Rab Small GTPases with MHC Class II and DM during Dendritic Cell Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Montesinos, Gibrán; López-Ortega, Orestes; Piedra-Reyes, Jessica; Bonifaz, Laura C.; Moreno, José

    2017-01-01

    Antigen processing for presentation by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) molecules requires the latter to travel through the endocytic pathway together with its chaperons: the invariant chain (Ii) and DM. Nevertheless, the nature of the compartments where MHCII molecules travel to acquire peptides lacks definition regarding molecules involved in intracellular vesicular trafficking, such as Rab small GTPases. We aimed to define which Rab proteins are present during the intracellular transport of MHCII, DM, and Ii through the endocytic pathway on their route to the cell surface during dendritic cell (DC) maturation. We examined, by means of three-color confocal microscopy, the association of MHCII, DM, and Ii with Rab5, Rab7, Rab9, and Rab11 during the maturation of bone marrow-derived or spleen DC in response to LPS as an inflammatory stimulus. Prior to the stage of immature DC, MHCII migrated from diffuse small cytoplasmic vesicles, predominantly Rab5+Rab7− and Rab5+Rab7+ into a pericentriolar Rab5+Rab7+Rab9+ cluster, with Rab11+ areas. As DC reached the mature phenotype, MHCII left the pericentriolar endocytic compartments toward the cell surface in Rab11+ and Rab9+Rab11+ vesicles. The invariant chain and MHCII transport pathways were not identical. DM and MHCII appeared to arrive to pericentriolar endocytic compartments of immature DC through partially different routes. The association of MHCII molecules with distinct Rab GTPases during DC maturation suggests that after leaving the biosynthetic pathway, MHCII sequentially traffic from typical early endosomes to multivesicular late endosomes to finally arrive at the cell surface in Rab11+ recycling-type endosomes. In immature DCs, DM encounters transiently MHCII in the Rab5+Rab7+Rab9+ compartments, to remain there in mature DC. PMID:28396666

  17. Disparate Changes in the Mechanical Properties of Murine Carotid Arteries and Aorta in Response to Chronic Infusion of Angiotensin-II

    PubMed Central

    Bersi, M.R.; Collins, M.J.; Wilson, E.; Humphrey, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic infusion of angiotensin-II has proved useful for generating dissecting aortic aneurysms in atheroprone mice. These lesions preferentially form in the suprarenal abdominal aorta and sometimes in the ascending aorta, but reasons for such localization remain unknown. This study focused on why these lesions do not form in other large (central) arteries. Toward this end, we quantified and compared the geometry, composition, and biaxial material behavior (using a nonlinear constitutive relation) of common carotid arteries from three groups of mice: non-treated controls as well as mice receiving a subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin-II for 28 days that either did or did not lead to the development of a dissecting aortic aneurysm. Consistent with the mild hypertension induced by the angiotensin-II, the carotid wall thickened as expected and remodeled modestly. There was no evidence, however, of a marked loss of elastic fibers or smooth muscle cells, each of which appear to be initiating events for the development of aneurysms, and there was no evidence of intramural discontinuities that might give rise to dissections. PMID:24944461

  18. Patterns of hormone replacement therapy in a population-based cohort of postmenopausal German women. Changes after HERS II and WHI.

    PubMed

    Clanget, C; Hinke, V; Lange, S; Fricke, R; Botko, R; Pfeilschifter, J

    2005-10-01

    In July 2002, data from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) trial provided strong evidence for an increased risk of cardiovascular disease with use of combined estrogen plus progestogen in postmenopausal women. These unexpected results triggered a large and ongoing discussion about the role of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We investigated the frequency of HRT before and after the publications of the WHI trial and the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study II (HERS II) in a population-based random sample of German women aged 45 - 65 years. A total of 8380 women completed a questionnaire on menopausal status, hysterectomy and HRT. 75 % were postmenopausal. Mean age was 56.1 years; mean age of natural menopause 49.9 years; mean duration of postmenopause was 11 years; 27 % of the women had undergone hysterectomy. The percentage of current HRT users dropped by 16 % (35.4 % to 29.8 %, p = 0.004), past users increased from 19.8 % to 23.5 % (p = 0.03). Among current HRT users, the share of combined conjugated estrogen/progestogen decreased by 41 % (p = 0.008). We observed a decreased prevalence of HRT among German women 7 months after publication of the HERS II and WHI results. The decline was, however less pronounced than reported from other countries. The use of conjugated estrogen/gestagen combinations declined disproportionately compared to other formulations.

  19. Structural changes in the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II induced by the S1 to S2 transition: A combined XRD and QM/MM study

    DOE PAGES

    Askerka, Mikhail; Wang, Jimin; Brudvig, Gary W.; ...

    2014-10-27

    The S1 → S2 transition of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II does not involve the transfer of a proton to the lumen and occurs at cryogenic temperatures. Therefore, it is commonly thought to involve only Mn oxidation without any significant change in the structure of the OEC. Here, we analyze structural changes upon the S1 → S2 transition, as revealed by quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics methods and the isomorphous difference Fourier method applied to serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction data. Lastly, we find that the main structural change in the OEC is in the position of the dangling Mn andmore » its coordination environment.« less

  20. Changes in protein and gene expression of angiotensin II receptors (AT1 and AT2) in aorta of diabetic and hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Romero-Nava, R; Rodriguez, J E; Reséndiz-Albor, A A; Sánchez-Muñoz, F; Ruiz-Hernandéz, A; Huang, F; Hong, E; Villafaña, S

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes and hypertension have been associated with cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Some reports have related the coexistence of hypertension and diabetes with increase in the risk of developing vascular complications. Recently some studies have shown results suggesting that in the early stages of diabetes and hypertension exist a reduced functional response to vasopressor agents like angiotensin II (Ang II), which plays an important role in blood pressure regulation mechanism through the activation of its AT1 and AT2 receptors. For that reason, the aim of this work was to study the gene and protein expression of AT1 and AT2 receptors in aorta of diabetic SHR and WKY rats. Diabetes was induced by the administration of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg i.p.). After 4 weeks of the onset of diabetes, the protein expression was obtained by western blot and the mRNA expression by RT-PCR. Our results showed that the hypertensive rats have a higher mRNA and protein expression of AT1 receptors than normotensive rats while the AT2 expression remained unchanged. On the other hand, the combination of diabetes and hypertension increased the mRNA and protein expression of AT1 and AT2 receptors significantly. In conclusion, our results suggest that diabetes with hypertension modifies the mRNA and protein expression of AT1 and AT2 receptors. However, the overexpression of AT2 could be associated with the reduction in the response to Ang II in the early stage of diabetes.

  1. Did one ear infection in France change the history of Britain? The illness and death of Francis II (1544-60).

    PubMed

    Srouji, Ibrahim Albert

    2009-11-01

    The middle ear has long been considered a continuum of the upper respiratory tract and modern physicians recognize the impact of upper respiratory tract pathology on the middle ear and are familiar with the possible neurosurgical complications of any resultant chronic or acute middle ear infection. In the 16th century, lack of this knowledge may have led to a sequence of events and one of the most important turning points for the British monarchy. This paper on the illness and death of King Francis II of France uncovers interesting aspects of ENT practice from the French Renaissance period and the intrigue surrounding this royal patient's well-documented but little discussed illness.

  2. [Quantitative changes of the blood serum immunoglobulins in patients with diabetes mellitus types I and II and microangiopathy detected by morphologic study].

    PubMed

    Saltykov, B B; Velikov, V K; Tarasov, V K; Pershin, B B; Kuz'min, S N; Shubina, O I; Frolova, A I; Zelenchuk, N M; Shepkova, T P

    1990-01-01

    A study was made of the immunological mechanisms implicated in the evolution of diabetic microangiopathy. For this purpose in 270 patients with type I and II diabetes mellitus, the concentration of IgA, IgM and IgG was measured and compared with morphological alterations in skin biopsy specimens. The control group was made up of 30 normal persons (donors). The sections were stained with conventional methods, which made it possible to reveal by light microscopy the correlation between the intensity of diabetic microangiopathy and the rise of the IgG level.

  3. Electronic spectra of 2- and 3-tolunitrile in the gas phase. II. Geometry changes from Franck-Condon fits of fluorescence emission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gmerek, Felix; Stuhlmann, Benjamin; Álvarez-Valtierra, Leonardo; Pratt, David W.; Schmitt, Michael

    2016-02-01

    We determined the changes of the geometries of 2- and 3-tolunitrile upon excitation to the lowest excited singlet states from Franck-Condon fits of the vibronic intensities in several fluorescence emission spectra and of the rotational constant changes upon excitation. These structural changes can be connected to the altered electron distribution in the molecules and are compared to the results of ab initio calculations. We show how the torsional barriers of the methyl groups in both components are used as probe of the molecular changes upon electronic excitation.

  4. Electronic spectra of 2- and 3-tolunitrile in the gas phase. II. Geometry changes from Franck-Condon fits of fluorescence emission spectra.

    PubMed

    Gmerek, Felix; Stuhlmann, Benjamin; Álvarez-Valtierra, Leonardo; Pratt, David W; Schmitt, Michael

    2016-02-28

    We determined the changes of the geometries of 2- and 3-tolunitrile upon excitation to the lowest excited singlet states from Franck-Condon fits of the vibronic intensities in several fluorescence emission spectra and of the rotational constant changes upon excitation. These structural changes can be connected to the altered electron distribution in the molecules and are compared to the results of ab initio calculations. We show how the torsional barriers of the methyl groups in both components are used as probe of the molecular changes upon electronic excitation.

  5. Seasonal changes in the excess energy dissipation from Photosystem II antennae in overwintering evergreen broad-leaved trees Quercus myrsinaefolia and Machilus thunbergii.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Jun-ya; Kamata, Kyoko; Maruta, Emiko

    2011-01-01

    We monitored chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence, pigment concentration and the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle (DPS(1)) in two warm temperate broad-leaved evergreen species (Quercus myrsinaefolia and Machilus thunbergii). Reduction of the maximal quantum yield of Photosystem II (PSII) (calculated from Fv/Fm, variable to maximal Chl a fluorescence) and retention of a high DPS were observed in both species in the winter, and can be interpreted as acclimation to winter. In particular, the acclimation of PSII in these species can be chiefly attributed to thermal dissipation, which is correlated with the retention of high zeaxanthin. Furthermore, we attempted to divide the fate of the absorbed light energy by the PSII antennae into three components: (i) PSII photochemistry (represented by its quantum yield, ΦPSII), (ii) dissipation by down-regulation via non-photochemical quenching (ΦNPQ) and (iii) other non-photochemical processes (ΦONP). The estimated energy allocation of the absorbed light indicated that the proportion of ΦPSII decreased, whereas that of ΦNPQ+ΦONP increased during winter. This result suggests that the excess energy absorbed in the PSII complexes is safely dissipated from the PSII antennae. Based on these results, we conclude that thermal dissipation from the PSII antennae plays an important role in two overwintering broad-leaved evergreen trees growing in Japan.

  6. EDUCATION FOR A CHANGING WORLD OF WORK, REPORT OF THE PANEL OF CONSULTANTS ON VOCATIONAL EDUCATION. APPENDIX II, MANPOWER IN FARMING AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BISHOP, C.E.; TOLLEY, G.S.

    THE EFFECTS OF ECONOMIC PROGRESS ON THE STRUCTURE OF AGRICULTURE, THE AMOUNT AND QUALITY OF HUMAN RESOURCES EMPLOYED IN FARMING AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS, AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL CHANGES ARE REPORTED. MECHANICAL, BIOLOGICAL, AND CHEMICAL CHANGES IN AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY, WHICH PROVIDED INCENTIVES TO INCREASE THE SIZE OF THE…

  7. Atomic structure of the sweet-tasting protein thaumatin I at pH 8.0 reveals the large disulfide-rich region in domain II to be sensitive to a pH change.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Ohta, Keisuke; Mikami, Bunzo; Kitabatake, Naofumi; Tani, Fumito

    2012-03-02

    Thaumatin, an intensely sweet-tasting plant protein, elicits a sweet taste at 50 nM. Although the sweetness remains when thaumatin is heated at 80 °C for 4h under acid conditions, it rapidly declines when heating at a pH above 6.5. To clarify the structural difference at high pH, the atomic structure of a recombinant thaumatin I at pH 8.0 was determined at a resolution of 1.0Å. Comparison to the crystal structure of thaumatin at pH 7.3 and 7.0 revealed the root-mean square deviation value of a Cα atom to be substantially greater in the large disulfide-rich region of domain II, especially residues 154-164, suggesting that a loop region in domain II to be affected by solvent conditions. Furthermore, B-factors of Lys137, Lys163, and Lys187 were significantly affected by pH change, suggesting that a striking increase in the mobility of these lysine residues, which could facilitate a reaction with a free sulfhydryl residue produced via the β-elimination of disulfide bonds by heating at a pH above 7.0. The increase in mobility of lysine residues as well as a loop region in domain II might play an important role in the heat-induced aggregation of thaumatin above pH 7.0. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. FAQs II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Frank, Vikki; Lester, Jaime; Yang, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    In their paper entitled "Why should postsecondary institutions consider partnering to offer (Individual Development Accounts (IDAs)?" the authors reviewed frequently asked questions they encountered from higher education professionals about IDAs, but as their research continued so did the questions. FAQ II has more in-depth questions and…

  9. Gamma II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, M.; Cline, J.; Owen, L.; Boehme, J.; Rottler, L.; Whitworth, C.; Clavier, D.

    2011-05-01

    GAMMA II is the Guide Star Automatic Measuring MAchine relocated from STScI to the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI). GAMMA II is a multi-channel laser-scanning microdensitometer that was used to measure POSS and SERC plates to create the Guide Star Catalog and the Digital Sky Survey. The microdensitometer is designed with submicron accuracy in x and y measurements using a HP 5507 laser interferometer, 15 micron sampling, and the capability to measure plates as large as 0.5-m across. GAMMA II is a vital instrument for the success of digitizing the direct, objective prism, and spectra photographic plate collections in APDA for research. We plan several targeted projects. One is a collaboration with Drs. P.D. Hemenway and R. L. Duncombe who plan to scan 1000 plates of 34 minor planets to identify systematic errors in the Fundamental System of celestial coordinates. Another is a collaboration with Dr. R. Hudec (Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic) who is working within the Gaia Variability Unit CU7 to digitize objective prism spectra on the Henize plates and Burrell-Schmidt plates located in APDA. These low dispersion spectral plates provide optical counterparts of celestial high-energy sources and cataclysmic variables enabling the simulation of Gaia BP/RP outputs. The astronomical community is invited to explore the more than 140,000 plates from 20 observatories now archived in APDA, and use GAMMA II. The process of relocating GAMMA to APDA, re-commissioning, and starting up the production scan programs will be described. Also, we will present planned research and future upgrades to GAMMA II.

  10. [Studies on microbiological factor in colour change of mogao graffito's mural. II. Effect of microorganism on the pigment of imitative mural].

    PubMed

    Feng, Q; Zhang, X; Ma, Q; Ma, X

    1998-04-01

    Throung the assay and analysis of the imitative mural after cultivated with microorganisms, it has been shown that microorganisms had a pronounced effect on the pigments of the mural: the pigments secreted by microorganisms changed the colour of the mural, and produced much oxalic acid salt, which damaged the formation of crystals of the pigment, moreover, the chemical combination valence of Pb3O4 had been changed due to the metabolic products of microorganisms, that may play an important role in the chemical change of Pb3O4.

  11. Keck II status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gerald M.

    1997-03-01

    The second of two 10-meter telescopes comprising the W. M. Keck Observatory is nearing completion. Functionally, the Keck II telescope is a twin of Keck I, but in detail, many improvements have been made. Observatory and scientific instrument budgets are presented for the two telescopes. A new software system was developed for Keck II using EPICS-based architecture. Computer architecture for Keck II was also completely changed from the Keck I design using VMS and VAX computers to UNIX and SUN computers. The new telescope is completely assembled on the site on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Design, construction, and testing of the Keck II telescope has taken significantly less time due to the experience and tools developed for the first telescope. An adaptive optics system is currently being developed for Keck II. Preliminary design of this system is complete and the system is expected to be commissioned in 1998. Configuration of the twin 10-meter telescopes was designed to allow combining of the optical beams from the two telescopes and to add smaller satellite telescopes for interferometry. Plans for this phase are being developed in detail.

  12. Assessment of analytical methods used to measure changes in body composition in the elderly and recommendations for their use in phase II clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Lustgarten, M S; Fielding, R A

    2011-05-01

    It is estimated that in the next 20 years, the amount of people greater than 65 years of age will rise from 40 to 70 million, and will account for 19% of the total population. Age-related decreases in muscle mass and function, known as sarcopenia, have been shown to be related to functional limitation, frailty and an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, with an increasing elderly population, interventions that can improve muscle mass content and/or function are essential. However, analytical techniques used for measurement of muscle mass in young subjects may not be valid for use in the elderly. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to examine the applied specificity and accuracy of methods that are commonly used for measurement of muscle mass in aged subjects, and, to propose specific recommendations for the use of body composition measures in phase II clinical trials of function-promoting anabolic therapies.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF ANALYTICAL METHODS USED TO MEASURE CHANGES IN BODY COMPOSITION IN THE ELDERLY AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THEIR USE IN PHASE II CLINICAL TRIALS

    PubMed Central

    Lustgarten, M.S.; Fielding, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that in the next 20 years, the amount of people greater than 65 years of age will rise from 40 to 70 million, and will account for 19% of the total population. Age-related decreases in muscle mass and function, known as sarcopenia, have been shown to be related to functional limitation, frailty and an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, with an increasing elderly population, interventions that can improve muscle mass content and/or function are essential. However, analytical techniques used for measurement of muscle mass in young subjects may not be valid for use in the elderly. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to examine the applied specificity and accuracy of methods that are commonly used for measurement of muscle mass in aged subjects, and, to propose specific recommendations for the use of body composition measures in phase II clinical trials of function-promoting anabolic therapies. PMID:21528163

  14. Variation in DNA binding constants with a change in geometry of ternary copper(II) complexes with N2O donor Schiff base and cyanate or dicyanamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Subrata; Santra, Ramesh Chandra; Das, Saurabh; Chattopadhyay, Shouvik

    2014-09-01

    Two new copper(II) complexes, [Cu(L)(OCN)] (1) and [CuL(dca)]n (2), where HL = 2-(-(2-(diethylamino)ethylimino)methyl)naphthalen-1-ol, dca = N(CN)2-, have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-VIS spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Complex 1 has square planar and complex 2 square pyramidal geometries in solid state around metal centre. Interactions of the complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) were studied by UV-VIS spectroscopy. Binding constant and site size of interaction were determined. Binding site size and intrinsic binding constant K revealed complex 1 interacted with calf thymus DNA better than complex 2.

  15. Change in equilibrium position of misfit dislocations at the GaN/sapphire interface by Si-ion implantation into sapphire. II. Electron energy loss spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sung Bo Han, Heung Nam; Kim, Young-Min

    2015-07-15

    In Part I, we have shown that the addition of Si into sapphire by ion implantationmakes the sapphire substrate elastically softer than for the undoped sapphire. The more compliant layer of the Si-implanted sapphire substrate can absorb the misfit stress at the GaN/sapphire interface, which produces a lower threading-dislocation density in the GaN overlayer. Here in Part II, based on experimental results by electron energy loss spectroscopy and a first-principle molecular orbital calculation in the literature, we suggest that the softening effect of Si results from a reduction of ionic bonding strength in sapphire (α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) with the substitution of Si for Al.

  16. Changes in airway dimensions following functional appliances in growing patients with skeletal class II malocclusion: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xiang, MingLi; Hu, Bo; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jicheng; Song, Jinlin

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the treatment effects of functional appliances (FAs) on upper airway dimensions in growing Class II patients with mandibular retrognathism. Five databases and the references of identified articles were electronically searched for relevant studies that met our eligibility criteria. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The effects of FAs on airway dimensions were combined by meta-analysis using the RevMan and STATA software. Seven studies (177 treated patients with mean age: 11.48 years and 153 untreated controls with mean age: 11.20 years) were included in this review. Compared to the control group, the oropharyngeal dimensions in the treatment group subjects were significantly increased at the superior pharyngeal space (MD = 1.73 mm/year, 95% CI, 1.13-2.32 mm, P < 0.00001), middle pharyngeal space (MD = 1.68 mm/year, 95% CI, 1.13-2.23 mm, P < 0.00001) and inferior pharyngeal space (MD = 1.21 mm/year, 95% CI, 0.48-1.95 mm, P = 0.001). No significant differences were found in nasopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal dimensions and the position of hyoid bone (P > 0.05). Soft palate length and soft palate inclination were improved significantly in the treatment group (P < 0.05). The results showed that FAs can enlarge the upper airway dimensions, specifically in the oropharyngeal region, in growing subjects with skeletal Class II malocclusion. The early intervention for mandibular retrognathism with FAs may help enlarge the airway dimensions and decrease potential risk of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome for growing patients in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute simvastatin treatment restores cerebral functional capillary density and attenuates angiotensin II-induced microcirculatory changes in a model of primary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Felipe; Estato, Vanessa; Reis, Patricia; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C; Carvalho, Vinícius; Torres, Rafael; Lessa, Marcos A; Tibiriçá, Eduardo

    2017-09-02

    We investigated the acute effects of simvastatin on cerebral microvascular rarefaction and dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Male Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) and SHRs were divided into 4 groups of 8 animals each: WKY-CTL and SHR-CTL, treated with 0.9% saline; and WKY+SIM and SHR+SIM, treated with simvastatin (30 mg/kg/day) for 3 days by gavage. Cerebral functional capillary density (FCD) was assessed by intravital fluorescence videomicroscopy. Microvascular cerebral blood flow (mCBF) before and after administration within the cranial window of angiotensin II (1 μM) was investigated using laser speckle contrast imaging. Cerebral FCD was reduced in SHR-CTL compared to WKY-CTL (p<0.05). Simvastatin increased cerebral FCD in SHRs compared to SHR-CTL (p<0.05). The mCBF was reduced in SHR-CTL compared to WKY-CTL (p<0.05), and simvastatin increased mCBF compared with SHR-CTL (p<0.05). Angiotensin II elicited a reduction of mCBF in SHR-CTL and increased mCBF in WKY-CTL (SHR-CTL -13.53±2% vs. WKY-CTL +13.74±4%; p<0.001), which was attenuated in SHRs treated with simvastatin (SHR+SIM -6.7±1% vs. SHR-CTL -13.53±2%; p<0.01). The antihypertensive effect of simvastatin is associated with an improvement in cerebral microvascular perfusion and capillary density that may help to prevent hypertension-induced cerebrovascular damage independent of cholesterol lowering. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of increasing CO/sub 2/ on ocean biota. Volume II, Part 5. Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Holm-Hansen, O.

    1982-07-01

    Attempts to predict the most important biological effects on the marine biota caused by increased atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations and concomitant climactic changes are discussed. Particular attention is placed on phytoplankton, benthic plants, microbial cells, zooplankton, and fish stocks, and how changes in one or more of these trophic levels can result in significant changes in the nature and dynamics of the overall food web. Surface waters of the entire marine environment are considered, including the intertidal zone and estuaries; deeper waters are not considered. The major environmental factors considered are: (1) an increase in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations; (2) an increase in atmospheric temperature; (3) a decrease in pH of ocean water; and (4) an increase in atmospheric ozone concentration. The magnitude and temporal aspects of these atmospheric changes are based on previously developed models. (ERB)

  19. A vertically integrated snow/ice model over land/sea for climate models. I - Development. II - Impact on orbital change experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neeman, Binyamin U.; Ohring, George; Joseph, Joachim H.

    1988-01-01

    A vertically integrated formulation (VIF) model for sea ice/snow and land snow is discussed which can simulate the nonlinear effects of heat storage and transfer through the layers of snow and ice. The VIF demonstates the accuracy of the multilayer formulation, while benefitting from the computational flexibility of linear formulations. In the second part, the model is implemented in a seasonal dynamic zonally averaged climate model. It is found that, in response to a change between extreme high and low summer insolation orbits, the winter orbital change dominates over the opposite summer change for sea ice. For snow over land the shorter but more pronounced summer orbital change is shown to dominate.

  20. Binaural interaction in low-frequency neurons in inferior colliculus of the cat. II. Effects of changing rate and direction of interaural phase.

    PubMed

    Yin, T C; Kuwada, S

    1983-10-01

    We used the binaural beat stimulus to study the interaural phase sensitivity of inferior colliculus (IC) neurons in the cat. The binaural beat, produced by delivering tones of slightly different frequencies to the two ears, generates continuous and graded changes in interaural phase. Over 90% of the cells that exhibit a sensitivity to changes in the interaural delay also show a sensitivity to interaural phase disparities with the binaural beat. Cells respond with a burst of impulses with each complete cycle of the beat frequency. The period histogram obtained by binning the poststimulus time histogram on the beat frequency gives a measure of the interaural phase sensitivity of the cell. In general, there is good correspondence in the shapes of the period histograms generated from binaural beats and the interaural phase curves derived from interaural delays and in the mean interaural phase angle calculated from them. The magnitude of the beat frequency determines the rate of change of interaural phase and the sign determines the direction of phase change. While most cells respond in a phase-locked manner up to beat frequencies of 10 Hz, there are some cells tht will phase lock up to 80 Hz. Beat frequency and mean interaural phase angle are linearly related for most cells. Most cells respond equally in the two directions of phase change and with different rates of change, at least up to 10 Hz. However, some IC cells exhibit marked sensitivity to the speed of phase change, either responding more vigorously at low beat frequencies or at high beat frequencies. In addition, other cells demonstrate a clear directional sensitivity. The cells that show sensitivity to the direction and speed of phase changes would be expected to demonstrate a sensitivity to moving sound sources in the free field. Changes in the mean interaural phase of the binaural beat period histograms are used to determine the effects of changes in average and interaural intensity on the phase sensitivity

  1. RESEARCH PAPERS : Surface potential and gravity changes due to internal dislocations in a spherical earth-II. Application to a finite fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenke; Okubo, Shuhei

    1998-01-01

    We present a numerical formulation for computing elastic deformations caused by a dislocation on a finite plane in a spherically symmetric earth. It is based on our previous work for a point dislocation (Sun & Okubo 1993). The formulation enables us to compute the displacement, potential and gravity changes due to an earthquake modelled as spatially distributed dislocations. As an application of the finite-fault dislocation theory, we make a case study of the theoretical and observed gravity changes The computed results are in excellent agreement with the observed gravity changes during the earthquake. The gravity changes in the near field can reach some 100 μgal, which can be easily detected by any modern gravimeter. In the far field they are still significantly large: |δg|>10 μgal within the epicentral distance θ<6° ; |δg|>1 μgal within θ<16° ; |δg|>0.1 μgal within θ<40° ; and |δg|>0.01 μgal globally. We also calculate the geoid height changes caused by the 1964 Alaska earthquake and by the same earthquake with revised parameters and an assumed barrier. We find that the earthquake should have caused geoid height changes as large as 1.5 cm.

  2. Ten-Year Changes in the Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Physical Activity among Polish Adults Aged 20 to 74 Years. Results of the National Multicenter Health Surveys WOBASZ (2003-2005) and WOBASZ II (2013-2014)

    PubMed Central

    Kwaśniewska, Magdalena; Pikala, Małgorzata; Bielecki, Wojciech; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elżbieta; Rębowska, Ewa; Kozakiewicz, Krystyna; Pająk, Andrzej; Piwoński, Jerzy; Tykarski, Andrzej; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Drygas, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to estimate ten-year changes in physical activity (PA) patterns and sociodemographic determinants among adult residents of Poland. Methods The study comprised two independent samples of randomly selected adults aged 20–74 years participating in the National Multicentre Health Survey WOBASZ (2003–2005; n = 14572) and WOBASZ II (2013–2014; n = 5694). In both surveys the measurements were performed by six academic centers in all 16 voivodships of Poland (108 measurement points in each survey). Sociodemographic data were collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire in both surveys. Physical activity was assessed in three domains: leisure-time, occupational and commuting physical activity. Results Leisure-time PA changed substantially between the surveys (p<0.001). The prevalence of subjects being active on most days of week fell in both genders in the years 2003–2014 (37.4% vs 27.3% in men); 32.7% vs 28.3% in women. None or occasional activity increased from 49.6% to 56.8% in men, while remained stable in women (55.2% vs 54.9%). In both WOBASZ surveys the likelihood of physical inactivity was higher in less educated individuals, smokers and those living in large agglomerations (p<0.01). No significant changes were observed in occupational activity in men between the surveys, while in women percentage of sedentary work increased from 43.4% to % 49.4% (p<0.01). Commuting PA decreased significantly in both genders (p<0.001). About 79.3% of men and 71.3% of women reported no active commuting in the WOBASZ II survey. Conclusions The observed unfavourable changes in PA emphasize the need for novel intervention concepts in order to reverse this direction. Further detailed monitoring of PA patterns in Poland is of particular importance. PMID:27272130

  3. PORT II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, Beau

    2009-01-01

    One unique project that the Prototype lab worked on was PORT I (Post-landing Orion Recovery Test). PORT is designed to test and develop the system and components needed to recover the Orion capsule once it splashes down in the ocean. PORT II is designated as a follow up to PORT I that will utilize a mock up pressure vessel that is spatially compar able to the final Orion capsule.

  4. BORE II

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migrate upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.

  5. Probing subtle coordination changes in the iron-quinone complex of photosystem II during charge separation, by the use of NO.

    PubMed

    Goussias, Charilaos; Deligiannakis, Yiannis; Sanakis, Yiannis; Ioannidis, Nikolaos; Petrouleas, Vasili

    2002-12-24

    The terminal electron acceptor of Photosystem II, PSII, is a linear complex consisting of a primary quinone, a non-heme iron(II), and a secondary quinone, Q(A)Fe(2+)Q(B). The complex is a sensitive site of PSII, where electron transfer is modulated by environmental factors and notably by bicarbonate. Earlier studies showed that NO and other small molecules (CN(-), F(-), carboxylate anions) bind reversibly on the non-heme iron in competition with bicarbonate. In the present study, we report on an unusual new mode of transient binding of NO, which is favored in the light-reduced state (Q(A)(-)Fe(2+)Q(B)) of the complex. The related observations are summarized as follows: (i) Incubation with NO at -30 degrees C, following light-induced charge separation, results in the evolution of a new EPR signal at g = 2.016. The signal correlates with the reduced state Q(A)(-)Fe(2+) of the iron-quinone complex. (ii) Cyanide, at low concentrations, converts the signal to a more rhombic form with g values at 2.027 (peak) and 1.976 (valley), while at high concentrations it inhibits formation of the signals. (iii) Electron spin-echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) experiments show the existence of two protein (14)N nuclei coupled to electron spin. These two nitrogens have been detected consistently in the environment of the semiquinone Q(A)(-) in a number of PSII preparations. (iv) NO does not directly contribute to the signals, as indicated by the absence of a detectable isotopic effect ((15)NO vs (14)NO) in cw EPR. (v) A third signal with g values (2.05, 2.03, 2.01) identical to those of an Fe(NO)(2)(imidazole) synthetic complex develops slowly in the dark, or faster following illumination. (vi) In comparison with the untreated Q(A)(-)Fe(2+) complex, the present signals not only are confined to a narrow spectral region but also saturate at low microwave power. At 11 K the g = 2.016 signal saturates with a P(1/2) of 110 microW and the g = 2.027/1.976 signal with a P(1/2) of 10 micro

  6. A comparison of three hard chairside denture reline materials. Part II. Changes in colour and hardness following immersion in three commonly used denture cleansers.

    PubMed

    Haywood, Janet; Wood, David J; Gilchrist, Alison; Basker, Robin M; Watson, Christopher J

    2003-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of daily use of three denture cleansers on three hard chairside reline materials over a 6-month period. Two controls were used; one dry and one involving storage in water. Colour and hardness were measured at 0 (baseline) and 6-months. There was no significant colour change with Tokuso Rebase Fast Set. Coe Kooliner and Total Hard changed colour more with the short acting peroxide cleanser (Steradent 3 Minutes) than with the overnight peroxide cleanser (Steradent Fresh) and the hypochlorite cleanser (Dentural). The hardness of all materials remained unchanged over the whole test period.

  7. Explaining trends in alcohol-related harms in Scotland 1991-2011 (II): policy, social norms, the alcohol market, clinical changes and a synthesis.

    PubMed

    McCartney, G; Bouttell, J; Craig, N; Craig, P; Graham, L; Lakha, F; Lewsey, J; McAdams, R; MacPherson, M; Minton, J; Parkinson, J; Robinson, M; Shipton, D; Taulbut, M; Walsh, D; Beeston, C

    2016-03-01

    To provide a basis for evaluating post-2007 alcohol policy in Scotland, this paper tests the extent to which pre-2007 policy, the alcohol market, culture or clinical changes might explain differences in the magnitude and trends in alcohol-related mortality outcomes in Scotland compared to England & Wales (E&W). Rapid literature reviews, descriptive analysis of routine data and narrative synthesis. We assessed the impact of pre-2007 Scottish policy and policy in the comparison areas in relation to the literature on effective alcohol policy. Rapid literature reviews were conducted to assess cultural changes and the potential role of substitution effects between alcohol and illicit drugs. The availability of alcohol was assessed by examining the trends in the number of alcohol outlets over time. The impact of clinical changes was assessed in consultation with key informants. The impact of all the identified factors were then summarised and synthesised narratively. The companion paper showed that part of the rise and fall in alcohol-related mortality in Scotland, and part of the differing trend to E&W, were predicted by a model linking income trends and alcohol-related mortality. Lagged effects from historical deindustrialisation and socio-economic changes exposures also remain plausible from the available data. This paper shows that policy differences or changes prior to 2007 are unlikely to have been important in explaining the trends. There is some evidence that aspects of alcohol culture in Scotland may be different (more concentrated and home drinking) but it seems unlikely that this has been an important driver of the trends or the differences with E&W other than through interaction with changing incomes and lagged socio-economic effects. Substitution effects with illicit drugs and clinical changes are unlikely to have substantially changed alcohol-related harms: however, the increase in alcohol availability across the UK is likely to partly explain the rise in

  8. The SafeBoosC II randomized trial: treatment guided by near-infrared spectroscopy reduces cerebral hypoxia without changing early biomarkers of brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Plomgaard, Anne M.; van Oeveren, Wim; Petersen, Tue H.; Alderliesten, Thomas; Austin, Topun; van Bel, Frank; Benders, Manon; Claris, Olivier; Dempsey, Eugene; Franz, Axel; Fumagalli, Monica; Gluud, Christian; Hagmann, Cornelia; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Lemmers, Petra; Pellicer, Adelina; Pichler, Gerhard; Winkel, Per; Greisen, Gorm

    2016-01-01

    Background: The SafeBoosC phase II multicentre randomized clinical trial investigated the benefits and harms of monitoring cerebral oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with an evidence-based treatment guideline vs. no NIRS data and treatment as usual in the control group during the first 72 h of life. The trial demonstrated a significant reduction in the burden of cerebral hypoxia in the experimental group. We now report the blindly assessed and analyzed treatment effects on electroencephalographic (EEG) outcomes (burst rate and spectral edge frequency 95% (SEF95)) and blood biomarkers of brain injury (S100β, brain fatty acid-binding protein, and neuroketal). Methods: One hundred and sixty-six extremely preterm infants were randomized to either experimental or control group. EEG was recorded at 64 h of age and blood samples were collected at 6 and 64 h of age. Results: One hundred and thirty-three EEGs were evaluated. The two groups did not differ regarding burst rates (experimental 7.2 vs. control 7.7 burst/min) or SEF95 (experimental 18.1 vs. control 18.0 Hz). The two groups did not differ regarding blood S100β, brain fatty acid-binding protein, and neuroketal concentrations at 6 and 64 h (n = 123 participants). Conclusion: Treatment guided by NIRS reduced the cerebral burden of hypoxia without affecting EEG or the selected blood biomarkers. PMID:26679155

  9. Changes in Brain Function in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Who Are Receiving Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Malignant Ovarian Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  10. Changes in the structure of dung insect communities after ivermectin usage in a grassland ecosystem. II. Impact of ivermectin under high-rainfall conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Kerstin; Scholtz, Clarke H.

    1998-10-01

    A large-scale field study was carried out to assess the ecotoxicological effect of ivermectin, a broad-spectrum veterinary agent, on dung insect communities under normal extensive farming conditions in South Africa. Dung insect communities were monitored: i) one year after a first treatment of entire herds with a single standard injection of ivermectin (200 μ·kg -1) in the 1992/93 season; and ii) for three months after a second single standard injection in the 1993/94 season. Two herds were treated with a single standard injection of ivermectin while two herds remained untreated as controls. Each herd was held in a paddock of about 80 ha. Field work was carried out in the rainy season of 1993/94, when the study area received above-average rainfall. The impact of ivermectin was examined using a variety of community measures, including univariate, graphical and multivariate methods. No effect of ivermectin on dung insect communities was observable one year after the 1992/93 treatment. Seven days after treatment in the 1993/94 season, fewer hydrophilid larvae, and scarabaeid and dipteran pupae were present in pats from treated animals in comparison with untreated controls. One and three months after treatment, there were no effects that could be attributed directly to the treatment with ivermectin. The results of the study indicate that the seriousness of the impact of ivermectin depends on several factors, including climatic conditions, spatial scale of treatment and number of animals treated in a herd.

  11. Volumetric changes following barrier regeneration procedures for the surgical management of grade II molar furcation defects in baboons: I. Overall defect fill.

    PubMed

    Rajnay, Z W; Butler, J R; Vernino, A R; Parker, D E

    1997-08-01

    A computer imaging technique has been advocated for measuring the volumetric fill in furcation defects. Histologic material for this investigation was obtained from an animal study using five adult baboons (Papio anubis). The photographed histology was converted into digitized electronic information, and a computer calculated the overall volume of defect fill for the treated and the untreated control sites. All volumetric measurements were expressed as a percentage of the original surgically created defect size, with 100% indicating complete healing of the defect. The results indicate that none of the defects achieved complete healing. Teeth that had received flap debridement had the most overall defect fill (79.50%). Teeth that received a biodegradable barrier (Epi-Guide) showed a mean overall defect fill of 74.98%, while sites treated with an exclusion barrier (Gore-Tex) showed 70.75% overall fill. The untreated control teeth showed a mean overall fill of 78.70%. A variety of statistical tests revealed no significant differences among teeth within the same animal and between treatments and controls. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) digital imaging technology is a useful research tool for determining the volume of defect fill in surgically created grade II molar periodontal furcation defects in the baboon model; and (2) no significant differences were found among the treatment modalities and the untreated control sites.

  12. Elastic energy storage in human articular cartilage: estimation of the elastic modulus for type II collagen and changes associated with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Silver, Frederick H; Bradica, Gino; Tria, Alfred

    2002-03-01

    The viscoelastic mechanical properties of normal and osteoarthritic articular were analyzed based on data reported by Kempson [in: Adult Articular Cartilage (1973)] and Silver et al. (Connect. Tissue Res., 2001b). Results of the analysis of tensile elastic stress-strain curves suggest that the elastic modulus of cartilage from the superficial zone is approximately 7.0 GPa parallel and 2.21 GPa perpendicular to the cleavage line pattern. Collagen fibril lengths in the superficial zone were found to be approximately 1265 microm parallel and 668 microm perpendicular to the cleavage line direction. The values for the elastic modulus and fibril lengths decreased with increased extent of osteoarthritis. The elastic modulus of type II collagen parallel to the cleavage line pattern in the superficial zone approaches that of type I collagen in tendon, suggesting that elastic energy storage occurs in the superficial zone due to the tensile pre-tension that exists in this region. Decreases in the elastic modulus associated with osteoarthritis reflect decreased ability of cartilage to store elastic energy, which leads to cartilage fibrillation and fissure formation. We hypothesize that under normal physiological conditions, collagen fibrils in cartilage function to store elastic energy associated with weight bearing and locomotion. Enzymatic cleavage of cartilage proteoglycans and collagen observed in osteoarthritis may lead to fibrillation and fissure formation as a result of impaired energy storage capability of cartilage.

  13. Leading the Change Effort: II. Developing a Systematic Framework for the Inclusion of Speech-Language Pathology Assistants in Service Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Lynette R.; Williams, Peg S.; Paul-Brown, Diane

    2002-01-01

    This article proposes a systems approach for dealing with change in the delivery of speech-language pathology services, particularly as it relates to implementing service delivery with speech-language pathology assistants. Sequential steps in a systematic framework for promoting inclusion of assistants in service delivery are described. (Contains…

  14. Ways to Experience Literature: A Reading-Communicating Program for High School Students. Guidebook II: Literature to Understand Others, Literature to Change Society, Literature to Discover Beauty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Norma B.

    This guide focuses on literature to understand others, literature to change society, and literature to discover beauty. Designed primarily for independent use by students, several of the literary selections in each section of the guide are followed by the same sequence of questions so that students can develop a pattern for questioning themselves.…

  15. Job-Linked Literacy: Innovative Strategies at Work. Part II. Meeting the Challenge of Change: Basic Skills for a Competitive Workforce. A Work in America Policy Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosow, Jerome M.; Zager, Robert

    This volume, Interim Report No. 2 in a 3-year study, establishes the need for job-linked literacy programs that respond to technological and organizational change, outlines the character of successful programs, and demonstrates these programs' potential value. The volume is divided into two parts: report and case studies. The introduction to the…

  16. Job-Linked Literacy: Innovative Strategies at Work. Part II. Meeting the Challenge of Change: Basic Skills for a Competitive Workforce. A Work in America Policy Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosow, Jerome M.; Zager, Robert

    This volume, Interim Report No. 2 in a 3-year study, establishes the need for job-linked literacy programs that respond to technological and organizational change, outlines the character of successful programs, and demonstrates these programs' potential value. The volume is divided into two parts: report and case studies. The introduction to the…

  17. Test strips for lead(II) based on a unique color change of PVC-film containing O-donor macrocycles and an anionic dye.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yukiko; Hayashita, Takashi; Suzuki, Toshishige M

    2007-02-01

    Glassy test strips partially coated with PVC-film including O-donor macrocyclic receptors (L), tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester (TBPE(-)), and a plasticizer sensed Pb(2+) in aqueous solutions by a unique color change. Yellow films successively changed color to green, dark-blue and purple with increases of the Pb(2+) concentration. In contrast with the ordinary "optode", a characteristic absorption band at 525 nm was newly appeared independently of the protonation and deprotonation of HTBPE (yellow to blue). The unique color change occurred only when asymmetric receptors with respect to the basal plane were coupled with Pb(2+). This optical-structural correlation is likely to be induced by the H aggregate of two sets of TBPE(-) in the 1:2 ion-pair, [Pb-L](2+).(TBPE(-))(2). The color change, based on metachromasy, was exclusive for Pb(2+) among common metal cations (Ca(2+), Al(3+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Fe(3+), Co(2+), Hg(2+)) and anions (Cl(-), SO(4)(2-), PO(4)(3-), S(2)O(3)(2-)).

  18. What Clients of Couple Therapy Model Developers and Their Former Students Say about Change, Part II: Model-Independent Common Factors and an Integrative Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sean D.; Piercy, Fred P.

    2007-01-01

    Proponents of the common factors movement in marriage and family therapy (MFT) suggest that, rather than specific models of therapy, elements common across models of therapy and common to the process of therapy itself are responsible for therapeutic change. This article--the second of two companion articles--reports on a study designed to further…

  19. Strengthening Schools and Communities through Collaboration: Final Evaluation Report on School/Community Collaboration in the Center for School Change's Phase II Grant Sites, 1997-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheie, David M.

    This report presents the evaluations of 20 rural school/community collaborative projects supported by the Center for School Change between 1997 and 2000. The report is divided into four sections: an overview, a description of the shape of school/community collaborations, a discussion of the outcomes of school/community collaboration, and a…

  20. What Clients of Couple Therapy Model Developers and Their Former Students Say about Change, Part II: Model-Independent Common Factors and an Integrative Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sean D.; Piercy, Fred P.

    2007-01-01

    Proponents of the common factors movement in marriage and family therapy (MFT) suggest that, rather than specific models of therapy, elements common across models of therapy and common to the process of therapy itself are responsible for therapeutic change. This article--the second of two companion articles--reports on a study designed to further…

  1. Planning, Development, and Change in Bristol Bay: A High School Curriculum. Teacher Guide and Student Text. Unit I: Introduction. Unit II: Village Corporations. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Jerry; Willer, Cristy

    This combined teacher guide and student text is written with the broad goal of involving high school students in Bristol Bay, Alaska, in the planning and design of their region's future. Unit I introduces changes occurring on village and regional levels, discusses planning strategies for community development, and presents village profiles for…

  2. Forty Years of Civics in the J. E. R.: Changes in Civics Teaching since World War II as Seen in the Journal of Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Linda

    1980-01-01

    The "Journal of Educational Research" has reflected educational and social changes for 80 years. A survey of articles since 1945 reveals the effect of sociocultural developments, new inventions (television), world affairs, and educational innovations such as team teaching on education in general and social studies teaching in particular.…

  3. Atomic structure of the sweet-tasting protein thaumatin I at pH 8.0 reveals the large disulfide-rich region in domain II to be sensitive to a pH change

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Ohta, Keisuke; Mikami, Bunzo; Kitabatake, Naofumi; Tani, Fumito

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure of a recombinant thaumatin at pH 8.0 determined at a resolution of 1.0 A. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substantial fluctuations of a loop in domain II was found in the structure at pH 8.0. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer B-factors for Lys137, Lys163, and Lys187 were significantly affected by pH change. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An increase in mobility might play an important role in the heat-induced aggregation. -- Abstract: Thaumatin, an intensely sweet-tasting plant protein, elicits a sweet taste at 50 nM. Although the sweetness remains when thaumatin is heated at 80 Degree-Sign C for 4 h under acid conditions, it rapidly declines when heating at a pH above 6.5. To clarify the structural difference at high pH, the atomic structure of a recombinant thaumatin I at pH 8.0 was determined at a resolution of 1.0 A. Comparison to the crystal structure of thaumatin at pH 7.3 and 7.0 revealed the root-mean square deviation value of a C{alpha} atom to be substantially greater in the large disulfide-rich region of domain II, especially residues 154-164, suggesting that a loop region in domain II to be affected by solvent conditions. Furthermore, B-factors of Lys137, Lys163, and Lys187 were significantly affected by pH change, suggesting that a striking increase in the mobility of these lysine residues, which could facilitate a reaction with a free sulfhydryl residue produced via the {beta}-elimination of disulfide bonds by heating at a pH above 7.0. The increase in mobility of lysine residues as well as a loop region in domain II might play an important role in the heat-induced aggregation of thaumatin above pH 7.0.

  4. PESTICINS II. I and II

    PubMed Central

    Brubaker, Robert R.; Surgalla, Michael J.

    1962-01-01

    Brubaker, Robert R. (Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.) and Michael J. Surgalla. Pesticins. II. Production of pesticin I and II. J. Bacteriol. 84:539–545. 1962.—Pesticin I was separated from pesticin I inhibitor by ion-exchange chromatography of cell-free culture supernatant fluids and by acid precipitation of soluble preparations obtained from mechanically disrupted cells. The latter procedure resulted in formation of an insoluble pesticin I complex which, upon removal by centrifugation and subsequent dissolution in neutral buffer, exhibited a 100- to 1,000-fold increase in antibacterial activity over that originally observed. However, activity returned to the former level upon addition of the acid-soluble fraction, which contained pesticin I inhibitor. Since the presence of pesticin I inhibitor leads to serious errors in the determination of pesticin I, an assay medium containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in excess Ca++ was developed; this medium eliminated the effect of the inhibitor. By use of the above medium, sufficient pesticin I was found to be contained within 500 nonirradiated cells to inhibit growth of a suitable indicator strain; at least 107 cells were required to effect a corresponding inhibition by pesticin II. Although both pesticins are located primarily within the cell during growth, pesticin I may arise extracellularly during storage of static cells. Slightly higher activity of pesticin I inhibitor was found in culture supernatant fluids than occurred in corresponding cell extracts of equal volume. The differences and similarities between pesticin I and some known bacteriocins are discussed. PMID:14016110

  5. Aestivation induces changes in transcription and translation of coagulation factor II and fibrinogen gamma chain in the liver of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens.

    PubMed

    Hiong, Kum C; Tan, Xiang R; Boo, Mel V; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F; Ip, Yuen K

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to sequence and characterize two pro-coagulant genes, coagulation factor II (f2) and fibrinogen gamma chain (fgg), from the liver of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens, and to determine their hepatic mRNA expression levels during three phases of aestivation. The protein abundance of F2 and Fgg in the liver and plasma was determined by immunoblotting. The results indicated that F2 and Fgg of P. annectens were phylogenetically closer to those of amphibians than those of teleosts. Three days of aestivation resulted in an up-regulation in the hepatic fgg mRNA expression level, while 6 days of aestivation led to a significant increase (3-fold) in the protein abundance of Fgg in the plasma. Hence, there could be an increase in the blood-clotting ability in P. annectens during the induction phase of aestivation. By contrast, the blood-clotting ability in P. annectens might be reduced in response to decreased blood flow and increased possibility of thrombosis during the maintenance phase of aestivation, as 6 months of aestivation led to significant decreases in mRNA expression levels of f2 and fgg in the liver. There could also be a decrease in the export of F2 and Fgg from the liver to the plasma so as to avert thrombosis. Three to 6 days after arousal from 6 months of aestivation, the protein abundance of F2 and Fgg recovered partially in the plasma of P. annectens; a complete recovery of the transcription and translation of f2/F2 in the liver might occur only after refeeding. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Late Pleistocene variations in Antarctica sea ice. I - Effect of orbital isolation changes. II - Effect of interhemispheric deep-ocean heat exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Thomas J.; Parkinson, Claire L.

    1988-01-01

    A dynamic-thermodynamic sea-ice model is presently used to ascertain the effects of orbitally-induced insolation changes on Antarctic sea-ice cover; the results thus obtained are compared with modified CLIMAP reconstructions of sea-ice 18,000 years ago. The minor influence exerted by insolation on Pleistocene sea-ice distributions is attributable to a number of factors. In the second part of this investigation, variations in the production of warm North Atlantic Deep Water are proposed as a mechanism constituting the linkage between climate fluctuations in the Northern and Southern hemispheres during the Pleistocene; this hypothesis is tested by examining the sensitivity of the dynamic-thermodynamic model for Antarctic sea-ice changes in vertical ocean heat flux, and comparing the simulations with modified CLIMAP sea-ice maps for 18,000 years ago.

  7. Late Pleistocene variations in Antarctica sea ice. I - Effect of orbital isolation changes. II - Effect of interhemispheric deep-ocean heat exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Thomas J.; Parkinson, Claire L.

    1988-01-01

    A dynamic-thermodynamic sea-ice model is presently used to ascertain the effects of orbitally-induced insolation changes on Antarctic sea-ice cover; the results thus obtained are compared with modified CLIMAP reconstructions of sea-ice 18,000 years ago. The minor influence exerted by insolation on Pleistocene sea-ice distributions is attributable to a number of factors. In the second part of this investigation, variations in the production of warm North Atlantic Deep Water are proposed as a mechanism constituting the linkage between climate fluctuations in the Northern and Southern hemispheres during the Pleistocene; this hypothesis is tested by examining the sensitivity of the dynamic-thermodynamic model for Antarctic sea-ice changes in vertical ocean heat flux, and comparing the simulations with modified CLIMAP sea-ice maps for 18,000 years ago.

  8. Historical shoreline mapping (II): Application of the Digital Shoreline Mapping and Analysis Systems (DSMS/DSAS) to shoreline change mapping in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thieler, E. Robert; Danforth, William W.

    1994-01-01

    A new, state-of-the-art method for mapping historical shorelines from maps and aerial photographs, the Digital Shoreline Mapping System (DSMS), has been developed. The DSMS is a freely available, public domain software package that meets the cartographic and photogrammetric requirements of precise coastal mapping, and provides a means to quantify and analyze different sources of error in the mapping process. The DSMS is also capable of resolving imperfections in aerial photography that commonly are assumed to be nonexistent. The DSMS utilizes commonly available computer hardware and software, and permits the entire shoreline mapping process to be executed rapidly by a single person in a small lab. The DSMS generates output shoreline position data that are compatible with a variety of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). A second suite of programs, the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) has been developed to calculate shoreline rates-of-change from a series of shoreline data residing in a GIS. Four rate-of-change statistics are calculated simultaneously (end-point rate, average of rates, linear regression and jackknife) at a user-specified interval along the shoreline using a measurement baseline approach. An example of DSMS and DSAS application using historical maps and air photos of Punta Uvero, Puerto Rico provides a basis for assessing the errors associated with the source materials as well as the accuracy of computed shoreline positions and erosion rates. The maps and photos used here represent a common situation in shoreline mapping: marginal-quality source materials. The maps and photos are near the usable upper limit of scale and accuracy, yet the shoreline positions are still accurate ±9.25 m when all sources of error are considered. This level of accuracy yields a resolution of ±0.51 m/yr for shoreline rates-of-change in this example, and is sufficient to identify the short-term trend (36 years) of shoreline change in the study area.

  9. Age-related total gray matter and white matter changes in normal adult brain. Part II: quantitative magnetization transfer ratio histogram analysis.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yulin; Grossman, Robert I; Babb, James S; Rabin, Marcie L; Mannon, Lois J; Kolson, Dennis L

    2002-09-01

    The magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) is a sensitive and quantitative identifier of underlying structural changes in the brain. We quantitatively evaluated age- and sex-related MTR changes in global gray matter (GM) and global white matter (WM) in healthy adults. Fifty-two healthy volunteers (21 men, 31 women) aged 20-86 years underwent dual-echo fast spin-echo and magnetization transfer imaging performed with and then without a saturation pulse. GM and WM were distinguished by using a computer-assisted semiautomated segmentation technique. MTR histograms were generated for each segmented tissue in each subject and compared among age and sex groups. The mean, median, first quartile, and peak height of the MTR histogram were significantly lower in the older group (> or =50 years) than those in the younger group (<50 years) for both GM and WM. The age dependency of these values can be expressed in a quadratic fashion over the entire span of adulthood. The MTRs started to decline only after the age of approximately 40 years in both tissues. No statistically significant differences in MTR histogram measurements between the sexes were observed. The different MTR values for both GM and WM in the two age groups suggest that notable microscopic changes occur in GM and WM with advancing age, yet no significant sex-related variations in MTR measurements were found in these neurologically healthy adults. Such normative data based on the inherent contrast in MTRs are essential in studies of specific disorders of aging, and they may have implications for our understanding of the gross structural changes in both GM and WM in the aging brain.

  10. Studies of quaternary saline lakes-II. Isotopic and compositional changes during desiccation of the brines in Owens Lake, California, 1969-1971

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Smith, G.I.; Hardcastle, Kenneth G.

    1976-01-01

    Owens Lake is an alkaline salt lake in a closed basin in southeast California. It is normally nearly dry, but in early 1969, an abnormal runoff from the Sierra Nevada flooded it to a maximum depth of 2??4 m. By late summer of 1971, the lake was again nearly dry and the dissolved salts recrystallized. Changes in the chemistry, pH, and deuterium content were monitored during desiccation. During flooding, salts (mostly trona, halite, and burkeite) dissolved slowly from the lake floor. Their concentration in the lake waters increased as evaporation removed water and salts again crystallized, but winter temperatures caused precipitation of some salts and the following summer warming caused their solution, resulting in seasonal variations in the concentration patterns of some ions. The pH values (9??4-10??4) changed with time but showed no detectable diurnal pattern. The deuterium concentration increased during evaporation and appeared to be in equilibrium with vapor leaving the lake according to the Rayleigh equation. The effective ??(D/H in liquid/D/H in vapor) decreased as salinity increased; the earliest measured value was 1??069 [as total dissolved solids (TDS) of lake waters changed from 136,200 to 250,400 mg/1]and the last value (calc.) was 1??025 (as TDS changed from 450,000 to 470,300 mg/1). Deuterium exchange with the atmosphere was apparently small except during late desiccation stages when the isotopic contrast became great. Eventually, atmospheric exchange, combined with decreasing ?? and lake size and increasing salinity, stopped further deuterium concentration in the lake. The maximum contrast between atmospheric vapor and lake deuterium contents was about 110%. ?? 1976.

  11. Historical shoreline mapping (II): application of the Digital Shoreline Mapping and Analysis Systems (DSMS/DSAS) to shoreline change mapping in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thieler, E. Robert; Danforth, William W.

    1994-01-01

    A new, state-of-the-art method for mapping historical shorelines from maps and aerial photographs, the Digital Shoreline Mapping System (DSMS), has been developed. The DSMS is a freely available, public domain software package that meets the cartographic and photogrammetric requirements of precise coastal mapping, and provides a means to quantify and analyze different sources of error in the mapping process. The DSMS is also capable of resolving imperfections in aerial photography that commonly are assumed to be nonexistent. The DSMS utilizes commonly available computer hardware and software, and permits the entire shoreline mapping process to be executed rapidly by a single person in a small lab. The DSMS generates output shoreline position data that are compatible with a variety of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). A second suite of programs, the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) has been developed to calculate shoreline rates-of-change from a series of shoreline data residing in a GIS. Four rate-of-change statistics are calculated simultaneously (end-point rate, average of rates, linear regression and jackknife) at a user-specified interval along the shoreline using a measurement baseline approach. An example of DSMS and DSAS application using historical maps and air photos of Punta Uvero, Puerto Rico provides a basis for assessing the errors associated with the source materials as well as the accuracy of computed shoreline positions and erosion rates. The maps and photos used here represent a common situation in shoreline mapping: marginal-quality source materials. The maps and photos are near the usable upper limit of scale and accuracy, yet the shoreline positions are still accurate ±9.25 m when all sources of error are considered. This level of accuracy yields a resolution of ±0.51 m/yr for shoreline rates-of-change in this example, and is sufficient to identify the short-term trend (36 years) of shoreline change in the study area.

  12. Time-related changes of motor unit properties in the rat medial gastrocnemius muscle after the spinal cord injury. II. Effects of a spinal cord hemisection.

    PubMed

    Celichowski, Jan; Kryściak, Katarzyna; Krutki, Piotr; Majczyński, Henryk; Górska, Teresa; Sławińska, Urszula

    2010-06-01

    The contractile properties of motor units (MUs) were investigated in the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle in rats after the spinal cord hemisection at a low thoracic level. Hemisected animals were divided into 4 groups: 14, 30, 90 and 180 days after injury. Intact rats formed a control group. The mass of the MG muscle did not change significantly after spinal cord hemisection, hind limb locomotor pattern was almost unchanged starting from two weeks after injury, but contractile properties of MUs were however altered. Contraction time (CT) and half-relaxation time (HRT) of MUs were prolonged in all investigated groups of hemisected rats. The twitch-to-tetanus ratio (Tw/Tet) of fast MUs after the spinal cord hemisection increased. For slow MUs Tw/Tet values did not change in the early stage after the injury, but significantly decreased in rats 90 and 180 days after hemisection. As a result of hemisection the fatigue resistance especially of slow and fast resistant MU types was reduced, as well as fatigue index (Fat I) calculated for the whole examined population of MUs decreased progressively with the time. After spinal cord hemisection a reduced number of fast MUs presented the sag at frequencies 30 and 40 Hz, however more of them revealed sag in 20 Hz tetanus in comparison to control group. Due to considerable changes in twitch contraction time and disappearance of sag effect in unfused tetani of some MUs in hemisected animals, the classification of MUs in all groups of rats was based on the 20 Hz tetanus index (20 Hz Tet I) but not on the standard criteria usually applied for MUs classification. MU type differentiations demonstrated some clear changes in MG muscle composition in hemisected animals consisting of an increase in the proportion of slow MUs (likely due to an increased participation of the studied muscle in tonic antigravity activity) together with an increase in the percentage of fast fatigable MUs.

  13. Wind tunnel pressure distribution tests on a series of biplane wing models Part II : effects of changes in decalage, dihedral, sweepback and overhang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Montgomery; Noyes, Richard W

    1929-01-01

    This preliminary report furnishes information on the changes in the forces on each wing of a biplane cellule when the decalage, dihedral, sweepback and overhang are separately varied. The data were obtained from pressure distribution tests made in the Atmospheric Wind Tunnel of the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. Since each test was carried up to 90 degree angle of attack, the results may be used in the study of stalled flight and of spinning and in the structural design of biplane wings.

  14. Range of motion and isometric strength of shoulder joints of team handball athletes during the playing season, Part II: changes after midseason.

    PubMed

    Fieseler, Georg; Jungermann, Philipp; Koke, Alexander; Irlenbusch, Lars; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Schwesig, Rene

    2015-03-01

    Our objective was to investigate the influence of workload and consecutive changes on active range of motion and isometric strength of team handball athletes' throwing shoulders (TSs) because the available data are insufficient. In a longitudinal investigation, 31 professional male handball athletes underwent a clinical shoulder examination. Athletes were examined at the beginning (week 0), at the end (week 6) of the preseasonal training, and at the end of the half-season (week 22) on both shoulders to determine isometric rotational strength (hand held dynamometer) and active range of motion (goniometer). This analysis demonstrates the results subsequently from week 6 to week 22 and from week 0 to week 22. The glenohumeral internal rotation (IR) deficit (GIRD), external rotation (ER) gain, and ER at the TS increased significantly (P < .05, η(2) > 0.10, d > 0.30) in the first sequence (week 6 to week 22) but not significantly from week 0 to week 22. The total range of motion remained stable, and IR changed but not significantly. There was no influence on IR, ER, and total range of motion at the non-TS. The isometric strength of the TS and non-TS IR did not change. The isometric strength in ER significantly increased bilaterally during the investigation period. Our data verify changes and influences, such as an increasing GIRD, at the overhead TS joint in accordance with the workload during team handball season. ER gain did improve after the half-season period but did not fully compensate the GIRD at the TS. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Bender-Gestalt II.

    PubMed

    Brannigan, Gary G; Decker, Scott L

    2006-01-01

    In 2003, the Bender-Gestalt II was published. In the present article, the revision process is described, and major changes to the test are discussed. These changes include additional designs, a memory (recall) phase, Motor and Perception supplementary tests, a detailed observation form, a global scoring system, and a large, nationally representative normative base. Directions for future research are also provided.

  16. Comparative assessment of "plaque/media" change on three modalities of IVUS immediately after implantation of either everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold or everolimus-eluting metallic stent in Absorb II study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yaping; Cavalcante, Rafael; Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Suwannasom, Pannipa; Sotomi, Yohei; Collet, Carlos; Abdelghani, Mahammad; Jonker, Hans; Digne, Franck; Horstkotte, Dieter; Zehender, Manfred; Indolfi, Ciro; Saia, Francesco; Fiorilli, Rosario; Chevalier, Bernard; Bolognese, Leonardo; Goicolea, Javier; Nie, Shaoping; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Serruys, Patrick W

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the study to assess the comparability of immediate changes in plaque/media volume (PV) on three modalities of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) after implantation of either bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) or everolimus-eluting metallic stent (EES) in Absorb II Study. The two devices have different device volume and ultrasound backscattering that may interfere with the "plaque/media" assessed by three modalities on IVUS: grayscale, backscattering of radiofrequency and brightness function. In a multicenter randomized controlled trial, 501 patients with stable or unstable angina underwent documentary IVUS pre- and post- implantation. The change in plaque/media volume (PV) was categorized into three groups according to the relative PV change in device segment: PV "increased" >+5% (PVI), PV unchanged ±5% (PVU), and PV decreased <-5% (PVD). The change in PV was re-evaluated three times: after subtraction of theoretical device volume, after analysis of echogenicity based on brightness function. In 449 patients, 483 lesions were analyzed pre- and post-implantation. "PVI" was more frequently observed in BVS (53.8%) than EES group (39.4%), p = 0.006. After subtraction of the theoretical device volume, the frequency of "PVI" decreased in both BVS (36.2%) and EES (32.1%) groups and became comparable (p = 0.581). In addition, the percentage of "PVI" was further reduced in both device groups after correction for either radiofrequency backscattering (BVS 34.4% vs. EES 22.6%) or echogenicity (BVS 25.2% vs. EES 9.7%). PV change in device segment was differently affected by BVS and EES devices implantation due to their differences in device volume and ultrasound backscattering. It implies that the lumen volume was also artifactually affected by the type of device implanted. Comparative IVUS assessment of lumen and plaque/media volume changes following implantation of BVS and EES requires specific methodological adjustment.

  17. Changes in polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence induction curve upon inhibition of donor or acceptor side of photosystem II in isolated thylakoids.

    PubMed

    Bukhov, Nikolai G; Egorova, Elena A; Govindachary, Sridharan; Carpentier, Robert

    2004-07-09

    The action of various inhibitors affecting the donor and acceptor sides of photosystem II (PSII) on the polyphasic rise of chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence was studied in thylakoids isolated from pea leaves. Low concentrations of diuron and stigmatellin increased the magnitude of J-level of the Chl fluorescence rise. These concentrations barely affected electron transfer from PSII to PSI as revealed by the unchanged magnitude of the fast component (t(1/2) = 24 ms) of P700+ dark reduction. Higher concentrations of diuron and stigmatellin suppressed electron transport from PSII to PSI, which corresponded to the loss of thermal phase, the Chl fluorescence rise from J-level to the maximal, P-level. The effect of various concentrations of carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), which abolishes S-state cycle and binds at the plastoquinone site on QB, the secondary quinone acceptor PSII, on the Chl fluorescence rise was very similar to that of diuron and stigmatellin. Low concentrations of diuron, stigmatellin, or CCCP given on the background of N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD), which is shown to initiate the appearance of a distinct I-peak in the kinetics of Chl fluorescence rise measured in isolated thylakoids [BBA 1607 (2003) 91], increased J-step yield to I-step level and retarded Chl fluorescence rise from I-step to P-step. The increased J-step fluorescence rise caused by these three types of inhibitors is attributed to the suppression of the non-photochemical quenching of Chl fluorescence by [S2+ S3] states of the oxygen-evolving complex and oxidized P680, the primary donor of PSII reaction centers. In the contrary, the decreased fluorescence yield at P step (J-P, passing through I) is related to the persistence of a "plastoquinone"-type quenching owing to the limited availability of photochemically generated electron equivalents to reduce PQ pool in PSII centers where the S-state cycle of the donor side is modified by the inhibitor treatments.

  18. Soft tissue, skeletal and dentoalveolar changes following conventional anchorage molar distalization therapy in class II non-growing subjects: a multicentric retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Mattia; Cozzani, Mauro; Caprioglio, Alberto

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this retrospective prolective study is to evaluate soft tissue, dentoalveolar and skeletal vertical changes following conventional anchorage molar distalization therapy in adult patients. Forty-six patients (34 females, mean age 25 years 6 months; and 12 males, mean age 28 years 4 months) were recruited from 4 specialists Board Certified. All subjects underwent molar distalization therapy according different distalization mechanics. Cephalometric headfilms were available for all subjects before (T0) and at the end of comprehensive treatment (T1). The initial and final measurements and treatment changes were compared by means of a paired t-test or a paired Wilcoxon test. Mean total treatment time was 3 years 3 months ± 8 months. Maxillary first and second molars distalized 2.16±0.84 mm and 2.01±0.69 mm respectively, but also maintained a slight distal tipping of 1.45° (min 2.22°, max -6.45°) and 3.35° (min 0.47°, max -15.48°) at the end of treatment. Distal movement of maxillary first molar contributed 57.6% to molar correction, and 42.4% was due to a mesial movement of mandibular first molar (1.59±0.46 mm). Dentoalveolar changes contributed to overjet correction; maxillary incisors retroclined 5.78°±3.17°, lower incisors proclined 7.49°±4.52° and occlusal plane rotated down and backward 2.32°±2.10°. A significant clockwise rotation of the mandible (1.97°±1.32°) and a significant increase in lower facial height (3.35±1.48) mm were observed. Upper lip slightly retruded (-1.76±1.70 mm) and lower lip protruded (0.96±0.99 mm) but these changes had a negligible impact on clinical appearance. Although maxillary molar distalization therapy can be performed in adult patients, significant proclination of the lower incisors, clockwise rotation of the occlusal plane and increase in vertical facial dimension should be expected. Nevertheless, in absence of maxillary third molars and in presence of mandibular third molars this procedure

  19. Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change. Volume II, Part 14. Research needed to determine the present carbon balance of northern ecosystems and the potential effect of carbon-dioxide-induced climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P.C.

    1982-10-01

    Given the potential significance of northern ecosystems to the global carbon budget it is critical to estimate the current carbon balance of these ecosystems as precisely as possible, to improve estimates of the future carbon balance if world climates change, and to assess the range of certainty associated with these estimates. As a first step toward quantifying some of the potential changes, a workshop with tundra and taiga ecologists and soil scientists was held in San Diego in March 1980. The first part of this report summarizes the conclusions of this workshop with regard to the estimate of the current areal extent and carbon content of the circumpolar arctic and the taiga, current rates of carbon accumulation in the peat in the arctic and the taiga, and predicted future carbon accumulation rates based on the present understanding of controlling processes and on the understanding of past climates and vegetation. This report presents a finer resolution of areal extents, standing crops, and production rates than was possible previously because of recent syntheses of data from the International Biological Program and current studies in the northern ecosystems, some of which have not yet been published. This recent information changes most of the earlier estimates of carbon content and affects predictions of the effect of climate change. The second part of this report outlines research needed to fill major gaps in the understanding of the role of northern ecosystems in global climate change.

  20. What clients of couple therapy model developers and their former students say about change, part II: model-independent common factors and an integrative framework.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sean D; Piercy, Fred P

    2007-07-01

    Proponents of the common factors movement in marriage and family therapy (MFT) suggest that, rather than specific models of therapy, elements common across models of therapy and common to the process of therapy itself are responsible for therapeutic change. This article-the second of two companion articles-reports on a study designed to further investigate common factors in couple therapy. We used grounded theory techniques to analyze data from interviews with MFT model developers Dr. Susan M. Johnson, Dr. Frank M. Dattilio, Dr. Richard C. Schwartz, former students of Dr. Johnson and Dr. Schwartz, and each of their clients who had been successful in couple therapy. This article reports model-independent variables, that is, general aspects of therapy that are not directly related to the therapist's model. Model-independent categories include client variables, therapist variables, the therapeutic alliance, therapeutic process, and expectancy and motivational factors, each with several subcategories. We also present a conceptual framework that outlines how model-dependent and model-independent common factors may interact to produce change. We discuss our findings and proposed framework in relation to the current common factors literature in psychology and MFT. We also discuss clinical, training, and research implications.

  1. Changes in nucleus, nucleolus and cell size accompanying somatic embryogenesis of Theobroma cacao L. II. Relation between basic protein content and size of nucleus, nucleolus and cell.

    PubMed

    Kononowicz, H; Janick, J

    1988-01-01

    Embryo formation from callus of Theobroma cacao L. was associated with the changes in relationship between nuclear, nucleolar and cell sizes and the content of basic proteins (FG-FCF-stained). Together with the increase in nuclear size of callus and proembryo cells the increase in the amount of nuclear basic proteins was found. In the callus cells the increase in nucleolar protein content exceeded that in nucleolus size, which led to the rise in basic protein concentration in the nucleolus. However, in the early stage of embryogenesis the increase in protein content was not so marked as that in callus, which indicated that embryogenesis involved a decrease in concentration of nucleolar basic proteins. Differences between callus and proembryo cells were also observed in the concentration of cytoplasmic proteins. The increase in size of callus cells was the same as the increasing amount of cytoplasmic proteins. In proembryos a significant increase in cell size was accompanied by only slight changes in cytoplasmic proteins. The stimulation of embryogenesis by 2,4-D resulted in an increase of nuclear concentration of basic proteins in proembryos. The intensification of embryogenesis involved the decrease of the concentration of nucleolar proteins together with the increase in concentration of basic cytoplasmic proteins.

  2. Changes in waste stabilisation pond performance resulting from the retrofit of activated sludge treatment upstream: part II--Management and operating issues.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, D G; O'Brien, M J; Cromar, N J; Fallowfield, H J

    2005-01-01

    Bolivar Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) was originally commissioned with trickling filter secondary treatment, followed by waste stabilisation pond (WSP) treatment and marine discharge. In 1999, a dissolved air flotation/filtration (DAFF) plant was commissioned to treat a portion of the WSP effluent for horticultural reuse. In 2001, the trickling filters were replaced with activated sludge treatment. A shift in WSP ecology became evident soon after this time, characterised by a statistically significant reduction in algal counts in the pond effluent, and increased variability in algal counts and occasional population crashes in the ponds. While the photosynthetic capacity of the WSPs has been reduced, the concomitant reduction in organic loading has meant that the WSPs have not become overloaded. As a result of the improvement in water quality leaving the ponds, significant cost savings and improved product water quality have been realised in the subsequent DAFF treatment stage. A number of operating issues have arisen from the change, however, including the re-emergence of a midge fly nuisance at the site. Control of midge flies using chemical spraying has negated the cost savings realised in the DAFF treatment stage. While biomanipulation of the WSP may provide a less aggressive method of midge control, this case demonstrates the difficulty of predicting in advance all ramifications of a retrospective process change.

  3. [Time-phase changed character of cardiac muscle cell apoptosis and proliferation induced by angiotensin II and influences of TCM herbs for supplementing qi and activating blood circulation on it].

    PubMed

    Guo, Shu-wen; Cui, Wei; Wang, Shuo-ren

    2005-11-01

    To observe the dynamic change of apoptosis and proliferation of cardiac muscle cells (CMC) after being induced by Angiotensin II (Ang I), and the effect of TCM herbs for supplementing qi and/ or activating blood circulation on it. The cultured CMC of SD suckling rat were treated by Ang II, and the amplitude, rhythm and frequency of cell pulsation, the protein content, area size and apoptosis of cells at various phases as well as the influence of TCM herbs afterwards were determined by image pattern analysis system, flow cytometry and biochemical assay. In the model group, cell pulsation showed quickened frequency from the 24th to 48th hr after Ang II treatment with the highest amplitude at the 24th hr; the cell area enlarged at the 24th hr, the enlargement became evident at the 48hr. Cell content of protein increased at the 24th hr, which reached to its peak at the 48th hr; an increasing trend of cell number was shown from the 12th to 48th hr; cell apoptosis started to appear at the 24th hr, it increased gradually from the 48th to 72th hr, and reached to the peak at the 72th hr (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). All the Chinese herbs, both for supplementing qi and/or activating blood circulation, especially when they were used in combination, showed favourable preventive and therapeutic effect on CMC (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), either at the early phase (24-48th hrs) mainly manifesting hypertrophy and proliferation or the late phase (48-96th hrs) mainly manifesting apoptosis. There exist characterized phasic windows of CMC after being treated by Ang II, the window of hypertrophy-proliferation phase and the window of cell apoptosis phase. When CMC were mainly in hypertrophic manner, myocardial hypertrophy may appear. Cell apoptosis may be one of the mechanisms for turning myocardial hypertrophy to heart failure, and it could be improved by Chinese herbs for supplementing qi and/or activating blood circulation.

  4. Effects of chronic job insecurity and change in job security on self reported health, minor psychiatric morbidity, physiological measures, and health related behaviours in British civil servants: the Whitehall II study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrie, J; Shipley, M; Stansfeld, S; Marmot, M

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: To determine the effect of chronic job insecurity and changes in job security on self reported health, minor psychiatric morbidity, physiological measures, and health related behaviours. Design: Self reported health, minor psychiatric morbidity, physiological measures, and health related behaviours were determined in 931 women and 2429 men who responded to a question on job insecurity in 1995/96 and again in 1997/99. Self reported health status, clinical screening measures, and health related behaviours for participants whose job security had changed or who remained insecure were compared with those whose jobs had remained secure. Setting: Prospective cohort study, Whitehall II, all participants were white collar office workers in the British Civil Service on entry to the study. Main results: Self reported morbidity was higher among participants who lost job security. Among those who gained job security residual negative effects, particularly in the psychological sphere were observed. Those exposed to chronic job insecurity had the highest self reported morbidity. Changes in the physiological measures were limited to an increase in blood pressure among women who lost job security and a decrease in body mass index among women reporting chronic job insecurity. There were no significant differences between any of the groups for alcohol over the recommended limits or smoking. Conclusion: Loss of job security has adverse effects on self reported health and minor psychiatric morbidity, which are not completely reversed by removal of the threat and which tend to increase with chronic exposure to the stressor. PMID:12011203

  5. Infection of A549 human type II epithelial cells with Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces changes in mitochondrial morphology, distribution and mass that are dependent on the early secreted antigen, ESAT-6.

    PubMed

    Fine-Coulson, Kari; Giguère, Steeve; Quinn, Frederick D; Reaves, Barbara J

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) involves the invasion of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). We used Mitotracker Red(®) to assess changes in mitochondrial morphology/distribution and mass from 6 to 48 h post infection (hpi) by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry in Mtb-infected A549 type II AECs. During early infection there was no effect on mitochondrial morphology, however, by 48 hpi mitochondria appeared fragmented and concentrated around the nucleus. In flow cytometry experiments, the median fluorescence intensity (MFI) decreased by 44% at 48 hpi; double-labelling using antibodies to the integral membrane protein COXIV revealed that these changes were due to a decrease in mitochondrial mass. These changes did not occur with the apathogenic strain, Mycobacterium bovis BCG. ESAT-6 is a virulence factor present in Mtb Erdman but lacking in M. bovis BCG. We performed similar experiments using Mtb Erdman, an ESAT-6 deletion mutant and its complement. MFI decreased at 48 hpi in the parent and complemented strains versus uninfected controls by 52% and 36% respectively; no decrease was detected in the deletion mutant. These results indicate an involvement of ESAT-6 in the perturbation of mitochondria induced by virulent Mtb in AECs and suggest mitophagy may play a role in the infection process.

  6. Structural changes upon excitation of D1-D2-Cyt b559 photosystem II reaction centers depend on the beta-carotene content.

    PubMed

    Losi, Aba; Yruela, Inmaculada; Reus, Michael; Holzwarth, Alfred R; Braslavsky, Silvia E

    2003-07-01

    Different preparations of D1-D2-Cyt b559 complexes from spinach with different beta-carotene (Car) content [on average from <0.5 to 2 per reaction center (RC)] were studied by means of laser-induced optoacoustic spectroscopy. phiP680(+)Pheo(-) does not depend on the preparation (or on the Car content) inasmuch as the magnitude of the prompt heat (produced within 20 ns) does not vary for the different samples upon excitation at 675 and 620 nm. The energy level of the primary charge-separated state, P680(+)Pheo(-), was determined as EP680(+)Pheo(-) = 1.55 eV. Thus, an enthalpy change accompanying charge separation from excited P680 of deltaH*P680Pheo-->P680(+)Pheo(-) = -0.27 eV is obtained. Calculations using the heat evolved during the time-resolved decay of P680(+)Pheo(-) (< or = 100 ns) affords a triplet (3[P680Pheo]) quantum yield phi3[P680Pheo] = 0.5 +/- 0.14. The structural volume change, deltaV1, corresponding to the formation of P680(+)Pheo(-), strongly depends on the Car content; it is ca. -2.5 A3 molecule(-1) for samples with <0.5 Car on average, decreases (in absolute value) to -0.5 +/- 0.2 A3 for samples with an average of 1 Car, and remains the same for samples with two Cars per RC. This suggests that the Car molecules induce changes in the ground-state RC conformation, an idea which was confirmed by preferential excitation of Car with blue light, which produced different carotene triplet lifetimes in samples with 2 Car compared to those containing less carotene. We conclude that the two beta-carotenes are not structurally equivalent. Upon blue-light excitation (480 nm, preferential carotene absorption) the fraction of energy stored is ca. 60% for the 9Chl-2Car sample, whereas it is 40% for the preparations with one or less Cars on average, indicating different paths of energy distribution after Car excitation in these RCs with remaining chlorophyll antennae.

  7. Changes in Antarctic stratospheric aerosol characteristics due to volcanic eruptions as monitored by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, V. K.; Anderson, John; Lin, N.-H.

    1995-08-01

    An estimated 20-30 megatons of SO2 and crustal material was injected into the stratosphere during June 12-16, 1991, by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo (15.1°N, 120.4°E). The impact on Antarctic aerosol characteristics is of utmost concern owing to the seasonality in the observed ozone depletion and climate implications. This study focuses on Antarctic stratospheric aerosol characteristics during three temporal periods: September 23-30, September 30 to October 13, and November 13-27, 1991, at latitudes poleward of 60°S for vertically averaged characteristics, and at latitudes poleward of 50°S for temporal and spatial characteristics. Stratospheric aerosol characteristics are inferred from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II measurements using a modified randomized minimization search technique (RMST). Aerosol characteristics such as size distribution, number concentration, mass loading, surface area concentration, and radial characteristics are derived between 15 and 30 km for particles having radii between 0.1 and 0.8 μm. Results indicate that aerosol size distributions between 15 and 30 km are bimodal in several instances for all three time periods and can be fitted with the sum of two lognormal distributions. Larger concentrations are observed for particles of all sizes between 18 and 30 km during November 1991, signaling the arrival of the Mount Pinatubo plume. An order of magnitude increase in concentration is observed for particles with radii between 0.1 and 0.2 μm and between 0.7 and 0.8 μm. Vertical aerosol profiles show that the peak in aerosol concentration shifted to a higher altitude between 21 and 26 km as compared to the preplume peak between 15 and 18 km. Using the displacement as a function of time for a mass loading of 1.7 μg m-3 isopleth, we estimated meridional velocity ≈0.9 m s-1, zonal velocity ≈16 m s-1, and downward vertical velocity of 0.5 cm s-1 during September to mid-October, 1991, and 0.3 cm s-1 during mid to

  8. Drivers of soil organic matter vulnerability to climate change, Part II: RothC modelling of carbon dynamics including radiocarbon data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studer, Mirjam S.; Abiven, Samuel; González Domínguez, Beatriz R.; Hagedorn, Frank; Reisser, Moritz; Walthert, Lorenz; Zimmermann, Stephan; Niklaus, Pascal A.

    2016-04-01

    It is still largely unknown what drives the vulnerability of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks to climate change, i.e. the likelihood of a soil to loose its SOC along with the change in environmental conditions. Our objective is to assess the SOC vulnerability of Swiss forest soils and identify its potential drivers: climate (temperature, soil moisture), soil (clay content, pH) and landscape (slope, aspect) properties. Fifty-four sites were selected for balanced spatial and driver magnitudes distribution. We measured the SOC characteristics (content and radiocarbon) and studied the C decomposition by laboratory soil incubations (details in Part I, abstract by B. González Domínguez). In order to assess the current SOC pool distribution and its radiocarbon signatures, we extended the Rothamsted Carbon (RothC) model with radiocarbon (14C) isotope modelling (RothCiso). The RothC model distinguishes four active SOC pools, decomposable and resistant plant material, microbial biomass and humified organic matter, and an inert SOC pool (Jenkinson 1990). The active pools are decomposed and mineralized to CO2 by first order kinetics. The RothCiso assigns all pools a 14C signature, based on the atmospheric 14C concentrations of the past century (plant C inputs) and their turnover. Currently we constrain the model with 14C signatures measured on the 54 fresh and their corresponding archived bulk soil samples, taken 12-24 years before. We were able to reproduce the measured radiocarbon concentrations of the SOC with the RothCiso and first results indicate, that the assumption of an inert SOC pool, that is radiocarbon dead, is not appropriate. In a second step we will compare the SOC mean residence time assessed by the two methodological approaches - incubation (C efflux based) and modelling (C stock based) - and relate it to the environmental drivers mentioned above. With the combination of the two methodological approaches and 14C analysis we hope to gain more insights into

  9. Use of a Text Message Program to Raise Type 2 Diabetes Risk Awareness and Promote Health Behavior Change (Part II): Assessment of Participants' Perceptions on Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Hirzel, Lindsey; Turske, Scott A; Des Jardins, Terrisca R; Yarandi, Hossein; Bondurant, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Background Although there is great enthusiasm in both the public and private sector for the further development and use of large-scale consumer-facing public health applications for mobile platforms, little is known about user experience and satisfaction with this type of approach. As a part of the Beacon Community Cooperative Agreement Program, txt4health, a public-facing, mobile phone-based health information service targeting type 2 diabetes, was launched in 3 Beacon Communities: the Southeast Michigan Beacon Community in Detroit, MI, the Greater Cincinnati Beacon Community in Cincinnati, OH, and the Crescent City Beacon Community in New Orleans, LA. This program was marketed via large public health campaigns and drew many users within the respective communities. Objective The purpose of this investigation was to use the RE-AIM framework to document txt4health efficacy by focusing on perceptions of satisfaction, usage, and behavior change among individuals who used txt4health in pilot studies in Southeast Michigan and Greater Cincinnati. Methods We conducted a multimodal user survey with txt4health users recruited via text message through the program to understand participant perceptions of program use and satisfaction, as well as self-reported perceptions of behavior change as a result of using txt4health. Results Txt4health users reported very high levels of program satisfaction, with 67.1% (108/161) reporting satisfaction scores of ≥8 on a 10-point scale, with 10 equivalent to most satisfied (mean 8.2, SD 1.6). All survey participants agreed/strongly agreed that the messages included in txt4health were clear and easy to understand (100.0%, 160/160), and most found txt4health made them knowledgeable about their risk for type 2 diabetes (88.1%, 140/159) and made them conscious of their diet and physical activity (88.8%, 142/160). Most participants reported that txt4health helped them to make behavior changes related to diet; after having completed txt4health

  10. Experiences of social harm and changes in sexual practices among volunteers who had completed a phase I/II HIV vaccine trial employing HIV-1 DNA priming and HIV-1 MVA boosting in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Tarimo, Edith A M; Munseri, Patricia; Aboud, Said; Bakari, Muhammad; Mhalu, Fred; Sandstrom, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Volunteers in phase I/II HIV vaccine trials are assumed to be at low risk of acquiring HIV infection and are expected to have normal lives in the community. However, during participation in the trials, volunteers may encounter social harm and changes in their sexual behaviours. The current study aimed to study persistence of social harm and changes in sexual practices over time among phase I/II HIV vaccine immunogenicity (HIVIS03) trial volunteers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A descriptive prospective cohort study was conducted among 33 out of 60 volunteers of HIVIS03 trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, who had received three HIV-1 DNA injections boosted with two HIV-1 MVA doses. A structured interview was administered to collect data. Analysis was carried out using SPSS and McNemars' chi-square (χ2) was used to test the association within-subjects. Participants reported experiencing negative comments from their colleagues about the trial; but such comments were less severe during the second follow up visits (χ2 = 8.72; P<0.001). Most of the comments were associated with discrimination (χ2 = 26.72; P<0.001), stigma (χ2 = 6.06; P<0.05), and mistrust towards the HIV vaccine trial (χ2 = 4.9; P<0.05). Having a regular sexual partner other than spouse or cohabitant declined over the two follow-up periods (χ2 = 4.45; P<0.05). Participants in the phase I/II HIV vaccine trial were likely to face negative comments from relatives and colleagues after the end of the trial, but those comments decreased over time. In this study, the inherent sexual practice of having extra sexual partners other than spouse declined over time. Therefore, prolonged counselling and support appears important to minimize risky sexual behaviour among volunteers after participation in HIV Vaccine trials.

  11. Fe Mg diffusion in olivine II: point defect chemistry, change of diffusion mechanisms and a model for calculation of diffusion coefficients in natural olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohmen, Ralf; Chakraborty, Sumit

    2007-08-01

    Analysis of existing data and models on point defects in pure (Fe,Mg)-olivine (Phys Chem Miner 10:27 37,1983; Phys Chem Miner 29:680 694, 2002) shows that it is necessary to consider thermodynamic non-ideality of mixing to adequately describe the concentration of point defects over the range of measurement. In spite of different sources of uncertainties, the concentrations of vacancies in octahedral sites in (Fe,Mg)-olivine are on the order of 10-4 per atomic formula unit at 1,000 1,200 °C according to both the studies. We provide the first explicit plots of vacancy concentrations in olivine as a function of temperature and oxygen fugacity according to the two models. It is found that in contrast to absolute concentrations at ˜1,100 °C and dependence on fO2, there is considerable uncertainty in our knowledge of temperature dependence of vacancy concentrations. This needs to be considered in discussing the transport properties such as diffusion coefficients. Moreover, these defect models in pure (Fe,Mg)-olivine need to be extended by considering aliovalent impurities such as Al, Cr to describe the behavior of natural olivine. We have developed such a formulation, and used it to analyze the considerable database of diffusion coefficients in olivine from Dohmen et al. (Phys Chem Miner this volume, 2007) (Part - I) and older data in the literature. The analysis documents unequivocally for the first time a change of diffusion mechanism in a silicate mineral—from the transition metal extrinsic (TaMED) to the purely extrinsic (PED) domain, at fO2 below 10-10 Pa, and consequently, temperatures below 900 °C. The change of diffusion mechanism manifests itself in a change in fO2 dependence of diffusivity and a slight change in activation energy of diffusion—the activation energy increases at lower temperatures. These are consistent with the predictions of Chakraborty (J Geophys Res 102(B6):12317 12331, 1997). Defect formation enthalpies in the TaMED regime (distinct

  12. Using MERRA, AMIP II, CMIP5 Outputs to Assess Actual and Potential Building Climate Zone Change and Variability From the Last 30 Years Through 2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Westberg, D. J.; Hoell, J. M., Jr.; Chandler, W.; Zhang, T.

    2014-12-01

    In the US, residential and commercial building infrastructure combined consumes about 40% of total energy usage and emits about 39% of total CO2emission (DOE/EIA "Annual Energy Outlook 2013"). Thus, increasing the energy efficiency of buildings is paramount to reducing energy costs and emissions. Building codes, as used by local and state enforcement entities are typically tied to the dominant climate within an enforcement jurisdiction classified according to various climate zones. These climates zones are based upon a 30-year average of local surface observations and are developed by DOE and ASHRAE (formerly known as the American Society of Hearting, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers). A significant shortcoming of the methodology used in constructing such maps is the use of surface observations (located mainly near airports) that are unequally distributed and frequently have periods of missing data that need to be filled by various approximation schemes. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of using NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) atmospheric data assimilation to derive the ASHRAE climate zone maps and then using MERRA to define the last 30 years of variability in climate zones. These results show that there is a statistically significant increase in the area covered by warmer climate zones and some tendency for a reduction of area in colder climate zones that require longer time series to confirm. Using the uncertainties of the basic surface temperature and precipitation parameters from MERRA as determined by comparison to surface measurements, we first compare patterns and variability of ASHRAE climate zones from MERRA relative to present day climate model runs from AMIP simulations to establish baseline sensitivity. Based upon these results, we assess the variability of the ASHRAE climate zones according to CMIP runs through 2100 using an ensemble analysis that classifies model output changes by

  13. The paraveinal mesophyll of soybean leaves in relation to assimilate transfer and compartmentation : II. Structural, metabolic and compartmental changes during reproductive growth.

    PubMed

    Franceschi, V R; Giaquinta, R T

    1983-04-01

    Nitrogen and carbohydrate assimilates were temporally and spatially compartmented among various cell types in soybean (Glycine max L., Merr.) leaves during seed filling. The paraveinal mesophyll (PVM), a unique cell layer found in soybean, was demonstrated to function in the synthesis, compartmentation and remobilization of nitrogen reserves prior to and during the seed-filling stages. At anthesis, the PVM vacuoles contain substantial protein which completely disappears by two weeks into the seed filling. Distinct changes in the PVM cytoplasm, tonoplast and organelles were correlated with the presence or absence of the vacuolar material. Microautoradiography following the accumulation of several radiolabeled sugars and amino acids demonstrated the glycoprotein nature of the vacuolar material. Incorporation of methionine, leucine, glucose, and glucosamine resulted in heavy labelling of the PVM vacuole, in contrast to galactose, proline, and mannose which resulted in a much reduced labelling pattern. In addition, starch is unequally compartmented and degraded among the various leaf cells during seed filling. At the end of the photoperiod at the flowering stage, the highest starch accumulation was in the second palisade layer followed by the spongy mesophyll and the first (uppermost) palisade layer. Starch in the first palisade layer was completely degraded during the dark whereas the starch in the second palisade and spongy mesophyll was not remobilized to any appreciable extent. By mid-podfilling (approximately five weeks postanthesis) starch was absent in the first palisade layer at the end of the photoperiod while the second palisade and spongy mesophyll layers contained substantial starch. Starch was remobilized from these latter cells during the remainder of seed filling when current photosynthetic production is low. Structural changes associated with cell senescence first appear in the upper palisade layer and then progress (excluding the PVM) to the second

  14. A mathematical model of Bloch NMR equations for quantitative analysis of blood flow in blood vessels of changing cross-section-PART II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awojoyogbe, O. B.

    2003-05-01

    Unlike most medical imaging modalities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is based on effects that cross multiple biological levels: contrast depends on interactions between the local chemistry, water mobility, microscopic magnetic environment at the subcellular, cellular or vascular level, cellular integrity, etc. These interactions potentially allow for imaging functional changes in the same reference frame as the anatomic information. However, to tap this potential, we need methodologies that robustly incorporate the best models of the underlying physics interactions in order to extract the best possible interaction obtainable on flow velocity and rates. Due to the fundamental role the Bloch NMR equations play in the analysis of the properties of magnetic resonance imaging, this presentation will focus on mathematical modeling of the Bloch NMR flow equations into the harmonic differential equation. This simplification allows us to explain qualitatively, the effects of coriolis force on the motion of flowing fluid. The Transverse magnetization My, is introduced as a stream function. Our choice of conditions has led to a linear equation for My. We derived the stream function as a form of solution which contains the linearity property demanded by conditions at x=0. The resulting flow reveals some interesting wave-like properties which were examined directly. The existence of the waves is associated with the non-uniformity of the Coriolis parameter, and it is not difficult to see the general mechanism. The quantum mechanical models of Bloch NMR equations describe dynamical states of particles in flowing fluid. We introduce the basic background for understanding some of the applications of quantum mechanics to NMR and explain their significance and potentials. It also describes the behavior of the rF B1 field when the fluid particles flow under physiological and some modeled pathological conditions. The wave function is explored to determine the minimum energy, a

  15. Science ethics education part II: changes in attitude toward scientific fraud among medical researchers after a short course in science ethics.

    PubMed

    Vuckovic-Dekic, L; Gavrilovic, D; Kezic, I; Bogdanovic, G; Brkic, S

    2012-01-01

    To determine the impact of the short science ethics courses on the knowledge of basic principles of responsible conduct of research (RCR), and on the attitude toward scientific fraud among young biomedical researchers. A total of 361 attendees of the course on science ethics answered a specially designed anonymous multiple- choice questionnaire before and after a one-day course in science ethics. The educational course consisted of 10 lectures: 1) Good scientific practice - basic principles; 2) Publication ethics; 3) Scientific fraud - fabrication, falsification, plagiarism; 4) Conflict of interests; 5) Underpublishing; 6) Mentorship; 7) Authorship; 8) Coauthorship; 9) False authorship; 10) Good scientific practice - ethical codex of science. In comparison to their answers before the course, a significantly higher (p<0.001) number of students qualified their knowledge of science ethics as sufficient after the course was completed. That the wrongdoers deserve severe punishment for all types of scientific fraud, including false authorship, thought significantly (p<0.001) more attendees than before the course, while notably fewer attendees (p<0.001) would give or accept undeserved authorship Even a short course in science ethics had a great impact on the attendees, enlarging their knowledge of responsible conduct of research and changing their previous, somewhat opportunistic, behavior regarding the reluctance to react publicly and punish the wrongdoers.

  16. Anatomy of a decision II: Potential effects of changes to Tier I chemical approaches in Canadian Disposal at Sea program sediment assessment protocols.

    PubMed

    Apitz, Sabine E; Agius, Suzanne

    2017-06-10

    The effects of possible changes to the Canadian 2-tiered assessment framework for dredged material based on outcomes of the 2006 Contaminated Dredged Material Management Decisions Workshop (CDMMD) are evaluated. Expanding on the "data mining" approach described in a previous paper, which focused solely on chemical lines of evidence, the efficacy of Tier 1 approaches (increases to the number of chemical analytes, use of mean hazard quotients, and the use of a screening bioassay) in predicting toxicity are evaluated. Results suggest value in additional work to evaluate the following areas: 1) further expanding minimum chemical requirements, 2) using more advanced approaches for chemical interpretation, and 3) using a screening-level bioassay (e.g., Canadian solid-phase photoluminescent bacteria test) to determine whether it would complement Tier 1 chemistry as well as or better than the solvent-based Microtox™ test method evaluated in the present study. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;00:000-000. © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2017 The Authors.

  17. Historical changes in trace metals and hydrocarbons in nearshore sediments, Alaskan Beaufort Sea, prior and subsequent to petroleum-related industrial development: part II. Hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, M Indira; Naidu, A Sathy; Blanchard, Arny L; Misra, Debasmita; Kelley, John J

    2013-12-15

    Composition and concentration of hydrocarbons (normal and isoprenoid alkanes, triterpenoids, steranes, and PAHs) in nearshore surface sediments from Elson Lagoon (EL), Colville Delta-Prudhoe Bay (CDPB) and Beaufort Lagoon (BL), Alaskan Beaufort Sea, were assessed for spatio-temporal variability. Principal component analysis of the molecules/biomarkers concentrations delineated CDPB and BL samples into two groups, and cluster analysis identified three station groups in CDPB. Overall there was no geographic distribution pattern in the groups. The diversities between groups and individual samples are attributed to differences in n-alkanes and PAHs contents, which are influenced predominantly by sediment granulometry and sitespecific fluvial input. The predominant hydrocarbon source is biogenic, mainly terrigenous, with hardly any contribution from natural oil seeps, oil drill effluents and/or refined crude. The terrigenous source is corroborated by δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and OC/N of sediment organic matter. Time interval (1976-1977, 1984 and 1997) changes in hydrocarbon compositions and concentrations in CDPB are not significant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Natural attenuation of contaminated marine sediments from an old floating dock Part II: changes of sediment microbial community structure and its relationship with environmental variables.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Fen; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee

    2012-04-15

    Changes of microbial community structure and its relationship with various environmental variables in surface marine sediments were examined for a one-year period after the removal of an old floating dock in Hong Kong SAR, South China. Temporal variations in the microbial community structure were clearly revealed by principal component analysis (PCA) of the microbial ester-linked fatty acid methyl ester (EL-FAME) profiles. The most obvious shift in microbial community structure was detected 6 months after the removal of the dock, although no significant decline in the levels of pollutants could be detected. As determined by EL-FAME profiles, the microbial diversity recovered and the predominance of gram-negative bacteria was gradually replaced by gram-positive bacteria and fungi in the impacted stations. With redundancy analysis (RDA), the concentration of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was found to be the second important determinant of microbial community structure, next to Time. The relative abundance of 18:1ω9c and hydroxyl fatty acids enriched in the PAH hot spots, whereas 16:1ω9 and 18:1ω9t were negatively correlated to total PAH concentration. The significant relationships observed between microbial EL-FAME profiles and pollutants, exampled by PAHs in the present study, suggested the potential of microbial community analysis in the assessment of the natural attenuation process in contaminated environments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Urban and suburban malaria in Rondônia (Brazilian Western Amazon) II. Perennial transmissions with high anopheline densities are associated with human environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Gil, Luiz Herman Soares; Tada, Mauro Shugiro; Katsuragawa, Tony Hiroshi; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; da Silva, Luiz Hildebrando Pereira

    2007-06-01

    Longitudinal entomological surveys were performed in Vila Candelária and adjacent rural locality of Bate Estaca concomitantly with a clinical epidemiologic malaria survey. Vila Candelária is a riverside periurban neighborhood of Porto Velho, capital of the state of Rondônia in the Brazilian Amazon. High anopheline densities were found accompanying the peak of rainfall, as reported in rural areas of the region. Moreover, several minor peaks of anophelines were recorded between the end of the dry season and the beginning of the next rainy season. These secondary peaks were related to permanent anopheline breeding sites resulting from human activities. Malaria transmission is, therefore, observed all over the year. In Vila Candelária, the risk of malaria infection both indoors and outdoors was calculated as being 2 and 10/infecting bites per year per inhabitant respectively. Urban malaria in riverside areas was associated with two factors: (1) high prevalence of asymptomatic carriers in a stable human population and (2) high anopheline densities related to human environmental changes. This association is probably found in other Amazonian urban and suburban communities. The implementation of control measures should include environmental sanitation and better characterization of the role of asymptomatic carriers in malaria transmission.

  20. Changes in material flows, treatment efficiencies and shifting of environmental loads in the wastewater treatment sector. Part II: case study of Norway.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, G; Brattebo, Helge

    2009-10-01

    In Part I, the wastewater treatment sector in the Netherlands was analyzed to determine how the degree of separation of COD (BOD), nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals from the wastewater increased over time, and how the proportions of these substances, separated out from the wastewater into the lithosphere and atmosphere, changed over time. This paper applies the same methodology, adopted in the first part, to Norway. Needless to say, the hydrosphere has benefited from a decline in eutrophication and marine/fresh water toxicity, owing to the favourable combination of higher degrees of separation over time and source control, especially in the industrial sector. However, this has been at the expense of damage to the atmosphere (global warming). Technologies have, of course, enabled some mitigation of the problems that have shifted to the atmosphere and lithosphere, though these are beyond the scope of this paper, which assumes a hypothetical worst-case scenario in this regard. Whereas, in Part I, the time period 1993-2005 was considered, this paper is handicapped by the lack of availability of data and is restricted to a much narrower time period: 2002-2006.

  1. Reduction of the fertilizing capacity of sea urchin sperm by cannabinoids derived from marihuana. II. Ultrastructural changes associated with inhibition of the acrosome reaction.

    PubMed

    Chang, M C; Schuel, H

    1991-05-01

    Pretreatment of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus sperm with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) prevents the triggering of the acrosome reaction by egg jelly. Examination of THC-treated sperm by transmission electron microscopy reveals that the membrane fusion reaction between the sperm plasma membrane and the acrosomal membrane is completely blocked. Electron-dense deposits are present in the subacrosomal fossa and in the centriolar fossa. The nuclear envelope is fragmented in close proximity to the electron-dense deposits. The electron-dense deposits are not bound by a limiting membrane, stain positively for lipid with thymol and farnesol, and disappear from THC-treated sperm that are extracted with chloroform:methanol (2:1) after glutaraldehyde fixation. The electron-dense deposits are lipid in nature and may be a hydrolytic product of the nuclear envelope. Electron-dense deposits are seen in sperm after 1-10 min treatment with 5-100 microM THC. The electron-dense deposits disappear after removal of THC from the sperm by washing, but the fragmented nuclear envelope in the subacrosomal fossa persists. Cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) also inhibit the triggering of the acrosome reaction by egg jelly and produce ultrastructural changes in the sperm identical to those elicited by THC. Enhanced phospholipase activity stimulated by THC, CBD, and CBN may be the cause of the accumulation of lipid deposits in the sperm. Metabolites derived from this modification of membrane phospholipids may prevent triggering of the acrosome reaction by egg jelly and thereby inhibit fertilization.

  2. Spatio-temporal changes of marine macrobenthic community in sub-tropical waters upon recovery from eutrophication. II. Life-history traits and feeding guilds of polychaete community.

    PubMed

    Cheung, S G; Lam, N W Y; Wu, R S S; Shin, P K S

    2008-02-01

    A two-year study was conducted in the vicinity of a harbour in sub-tropical Hong Kong, to examine the progress of recovery of macrobenthic community, based on analyses of both life-history traits and trophic guilds of polychaetes, upon cessation of organic pollution caused by sewage discharge. Seventy seven out of 83 species collected were classified under four ecological groups based on the life-history traits and sensitivity to organic gradients. The mean ATZI marine biotic index (AMBI) derived from these ecological groups showed spatial difference among the five sampling locations. In particular, the presence of different percentages of polychaete species from Groups III (unbalanced community) and IV (polluted community) suggested the presence of pollution stress in certain degree at all sampling locations. However, no significant temporal changes were noted over the study period. From all polychaete species identified, they were classified into 13 feeding guilds. The mean diversity of these feeding guilds at most of the sampling locations was significantly higher than that at one of the inside-harbour locations. The composition of feeding guilds was also significantly different spatially. At one of the inside-harbour locations, the dominant feeding guilds were motile/discretely motile surface deposit feeders with tentaculates or unarmed pharynx, and motile omnivores with jawed pharynx in the first year of study, but were replaced by motile, jawed carnivores in the second year of study. The increased proportion of carnivores over the study period can be seen as a sign of recovery in the community structure since abundance of predators is commonly higher in habitats with better environmental quality. The implications of using life-history traits and feeding guild analyses for benthic community are discussed.

  3. Spatial and temporal variability in South San Francisco Bay (USA). II. Temporal changes in salinity, suspended sediments, and phytoplankton biomass and productivity over tidal time scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, J.E.; Powell, T.M.; Huzzey, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Short-term variability of a conservative quantity (salinity) and two nonconservative quantities (chlorophyll a, suspended particulate matter) was measured across a sampling grid in the South San Francisco Bay estuary. Surface measurements were made every 2 h at each of 29 (or 38) sites, on four different dates representing a range of tidal current regimes over the neap-spring cycle. From the distribution of phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a) and turbidity (SPM), we also estimated daily productivity and its variability at each site over the four tide cycles. As a general rule, both chlorophyll a and SPM concentrations varied about 50% from their tidal-means. However derived daily productivity varied less (about 15% from the mean) over a tidal cycle. Both chlorophyll a and SPM varied periodically with tidal stage (increasing on ebbing currents), suggesting that the short-term variability results simply from the tidal advection of spatial gradients. Calculation of the advective flux (current speed times spatial gradient) was used to test this hypothesis. For surface salinity, most (70-80%) of the observed intratidal variability was correlated with the tidal flux, both in the deep channel and over the lateral shoals. However the short-term variability of SPM concentration was only weakly correlated with the advective flux, indicating that local sources of SPM (resuspension) are important. Hourly changes in chlorophyll a were highly correlated with the advective flux in the deep channel (implying that phytoplankton biomass is conservative over short time scales there); however, chlorophyll a variability was only weakly correlated with the advective flux over the shoals, implying that local sources/sinks are important there. Hence, the magnitude and mechanisms of intratidal variability differ among constituents and among bathymetric regimes in this estuary. ?? 1989.

  4. Changes in iron concentrations and bio-availability during an open-ocean mesoscale iron enrichment in the western subarctic Pacific, SEEDS II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Jun; Takeda, Shigenobu; Kondo, Yoshiko; Obata, Hajime; Doi, Takashi; Tsumune, Daisuke; Wong, C. S.; Keith Johnson, W.; Sutherland, N.; Tsuda, Atsushi

    2009-12-01

    A patch of water in the western subarctic gyre (low iron concentration, <0.02 nM) was fertilized twice with 322 and 159 kg of iron to induce a phytoplankton bloom. In order to understand the changes in iron distribution and bio-availability throughout the evolution and termination phase of the iron-induced bloom, iron concentrations were measured at stations inside and outside of the iron-fertilized patch, and shipboard culture experiments using iron and desferrioxamine B (DFB) inoculation to regulate iron availability were conducted 5 times with water collected from the center of the iron-fertilized patch on D2, D7, D11, D17 and D23. After the iron fertilization, we observed a significant increase in dissolved iron (1.38 nM at 5 m depth) at the center of the patch (D1). Dissolved iron concentrations subsequently decreased to an ambient level (~0.08 nM) on D16-D17, despite the second iron fertilization made on D6. During the 4-day incubations of the shipboard culture experiments, excess DFB-inoculated treatment inhibited the phytoplankton growth compared to the controls for D2, D7 and D11 patch water. This indicated that available iron existed in the iron-fertilized patch at least until D11. Moreover, iron-inoculated treatments induced growth of large-sized phytoplankton with an accompanying silicate decrease for D7, D11 and D17 patch water, but not for D23 patch water. These results indicated that large diatoms, which can respond to additional iron inoculation, existed in the iron-fertilized patch in evolution and early termination phase of the iron-induced bloom (at least until D17); however, there was no significant amount of large diatoms, which could rapidly respond to iron, in late termination phase (D23) of the iron-induced phytoplankton bloom.

  5. A 1500-year record of climatic and environmental change in Elk Lake, Clearwater County, Minnesota II: Geochemistry, mineralogy, and stable isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, W.

    2002-01-01

    ), with a periodicity of about 400 years. The 400-yr cycle in eolian clastic material does not correspond to the 400-yr cycles in redox-sensitive authigenic components, suggesting that the clastic component is responding to external forcing (wind) whereas the authigenic components are responding to internal forcing (productivity), although both may ultimately be forced by climate change. Variations in the oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of CaCO3 are small but appear to reflect small variations in ground water influx that are also driven by external forcing.

  6. The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: II. Spatial and Temporal Homogeneity of Satellite Data Retrieval Due to Systematic Effects in Atmospheric Correction Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Dagmar; Krasemann, Hajo; Brewin, Robert J. W.; Brockmann, Carsten; Deschamps, Pierre-Yves; Fomferra, Norman; Franz, Bryan A.; Grant, Mike G.; Groom, Steve B.; Melin, Frederic; hide

    2015-01-01

    The established procedure to access the quality of atmospheric correction processors and their underlying algorithms is the comparison of satellite data products with related in-situ measurements. Although this approach addresses the accuracy of derived geophysical properties in a straight forward fashion, it is also limited in its ability to catch systematic sensor and processor dependent behaviour of satellite products along the scan-line, which might impair the usefulness of the data in spatial analyses. The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI) aims to create an ocean colour dataset on a global scale to meet the demands of the ecosystem modelling community. The need for products with increasing spatial and temporal resolution that also show as little systematic and random errors as possible, increases. Due to cloud cover, even temporal means can be influenced by along-scanline artefacts if the observations are not balanced and effects cannot be cancelled out mutually. These effects can arise from a multitude of results which are not easily separated, if at all. Among the sources of artefacts, there are some sensor-specific calibration issues which should lead to similar responses in all processors, as well as processor-specific features which correspond with the individual choices in the algorithms. A set of methods is proposed and applied to MERIS data over two regions of interest in the North Atlantic and the South Pacific Gyre. The normalised water leaving reflectance products of four atmospheric correction processors, which have also been evaluated in match-up analysis, is analysed in order to find and interpret systematic effects across track. These results are summed up with a semi-objective ranking and are used as a complement to the match-up analysis in the decision for the best Atmospheric Correction (AC) processor. Although the need for discussion remains concerning the absolutes by which to judge an AC processor, this example demonstrates

  7. The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: II. Spatial and Temporal Homogeneity of Satellite Data Retrieval Due to Systematic Effects in Atmospheric Correction Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Dagmar; Krasemann, Hajo; Brewin, Robert J. W.; Brockmann, Carsten; Deschamps, Pierre-Yves; Fomferra, Norman; Franz, Bryan A.; Grant, Mike G.; Groom, Steve B.; Melin, Frederic; Platt, Trevor; Regner, Peter; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Steinmetz, Francois; Swinton, John

    2015-01-01

    The established procedure to access the quality of atmospheric correction processors and their underlying algorithms is the comparison of satellite data products with related in-situ measurements. Although this approach addresses the accuracy of derived geophysical properties in a straight forward fashion, it is also limited in its ability to catch systematic sensor and processor dependent behaviour of satellite products along the scan-line, which might impair the usefulness of the data in spatial analyses. The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI) aims to create an ocean colour dataset on a global scale to meet the demands of the ecosystem modelling community. The need for products with increasing spatial and temporal resolution that also show as little systematic and random errors as possible, increases. Due to cloud cover, even temporal means can be influenced by along-scanline artefacts if the observations are not balanced and effects cannot be cancelled out mutually. These effects can arise from a multitude of results which are not easily separated, if at all. Among the sources of artefacts, there are some sensor-specific calibration issues which should lead to similar responses in all processors, as well as processor-specific features which correspond with the individual choices in the algorithms. A set of methods is proposed and applied to MERIS data over two regions of interest in the North Atlantic and the South Pacific Gyre. The normalised water leaving reflectance products of four atmospheric correction processors, which have also been evaluated in match-up analysis, is analysed in order to find and interpret systematic effects across track. These results are summed up with a semi-objective ranking and are used as a complement to the match-up analysis in the decision for the best Atmospheric Correction (AC) processor. Although the need for discussion remains concerning the absolutes by which to judge an AC processor, this example demonstrates

  8. Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change. Volume II, Part 11. Effects of climate change on animal agriculture. [Proposals for research programs

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, H.A.

    1982-10-01

    The impact of CO/sub 2/-induced increases in ambient temperature is predicted to result in an overall reduction in animal productivity, although animal productivity may increase in some parts of the world. New technologies will be needed to maintain or overcome the adverse effects of climate that are predicted. The effects of temperature (and other associated changes in climate) impact directly on the physiology of the animals as well as indirectly through changes in parasites, diseases, forages, crops and soils. The purpose of this paper is to identify the researchable issues which will permit animals to maintain and perhaps increase their food production capacity and efficiency in spite of potential increases in ambient temperature. In order for animal agricultural systems to maintain or increase efficiency and productivity in the face of altered climate, additional knowledge must be gained in understanding the multiplicity of pathways whereby weather exerts its effects on the biological components involved in animal agriculture. Research needed to permit animals to cope with increasing ambient temperatures are described for the following topics: animal productivity; nutrition; endocrinology; reproduction; acclimation and behavior; genetics; animal health; environmental modification and housing; adaptation, yield and quality of primary feed producing plants; soil resources for animal feed production; international aspects; systems management; and economics. The research approaches suggested range from highly detailed physiological and biochemical studies in environmentally controlled animal chambers to studies of animals managed in extensive grazing conditions.

  9. Adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions by cross-linking chitosan/rectorite nano-hybrid composite microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lixuan; Chen, Yufei; Zhang, Qiuyun; Guo, Xingmei; Peng, Yanni; Xiao, Huijuan; Chen, Xiaocheng; Luo, Jiwen

    2015-10-05

    Chitosan/rectorie (CTS/REC) nano-hybrid composite microsphere was prepared by changing the proportion of CTS/REC with 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1. Compared with the pure cross-linking chitosan microsphere, the nano-hybrid composite microsphere was proved to have better sorption capacity of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II), especially 2:1(CTS/REC-1). The adsorption behavior of the microsphere of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) was investigated in single and binary metal systems. In single system, the equilibrium studies showed that the adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) followed the Langmuir model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The negative values of (ΔG) suggested that the adsorption process was spontaneous. In binary system, the combined action of the metals was found to be antagonistic and the metal sorption followed the order of Cu(II)>Cd(II)>Ni(II). The regeneration studies indicated that EDTA desorbed Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) from cross-linking microspheres better than HCl. The FT-IR and XPS spectra showed that coordination bonds were formed between Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) and the nitrogen atoms of cross-linking CTS/REC nano-hybrid composite microspheres.

  10. Association of PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms on estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene to changes into serum lipid profile of post-menopausal women: Effects of aging, body mass index and breast cancer incidence.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Rochette, Neuza Felix; Souza, Letícia Soncini; Tommasi, Bruno Otoni; Pedrosa, Diego França; Eis, Sérgio Ragi; Fin, Irani do Carmo Francischetto; Vieira, Fernando Luiz Herkenhoff; Graceli, Jones Bernardes; Rangel, Letícia Batista Azevedo; Silva, Ian Victor

    2017-01-01

    Estrogen is a steroidal hormone involved in several physiological functions in the female body including regulation of serum lipid metabolism and breast cancer (BC). Estrogen actions on serum lipids mostly occur through its binding to intracellular Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERalpha) isoform, expressed in most of tissues. This gene (ESR1) exhibit many polymorphic sites (SNPs) located either on translated and non-translated regions that regulate ERalpha protein expression and function. This paper aimed to investigate the association of two intronic SNPs of ESR1 gene, namely c454-397T>C (PvuII) and c454-351A>G (XbaI) to alterations in serum levels of total cholesterol (T-chol), total lipid (TL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides (TG) in a cohort of post-menopausal women. In addition, we aimed to associate presence of these SNPs to development of BC along 5 years period. To do so, a group of healthy 499, highly miscigenated, post-menopausal Brazilian women, were carried using PCR-FRLP technique and further confirmed by automatic sequence analysis as well followed through 5 years for BC incidence. Measurements of serum lipid profile by standard commercial methods were carried individually whereas Dual Energy X-ray Absorciometry (DXA) measured Body Mass Indexes (BMI), Fat Mass (FM), Lean Body Mass (LBM), and Body Water Content (BWC). No effects of PvuII SNP on ESR1 gene were observed on patient´s serum T-chol, TL, LDL, HDL, and TG. However, c454-397T>C PvuII SNP is associated to lower body fat and higher levels of lean mass and body water and lower incidence of BC. On the other hand, statistically significant effect of XbaI c454-351A>G SNP on serum TG and TL levels. Patients homozygous for X allele were followed up from 2010-2015. They showed higher incidence of breast cancer (BC) when compared to either heterozygous and any P allele combination. Moreover, the increasing of TG and TL serum concentrations

  11. Association of PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms on estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene to changes into serum lipid profile of post-menopausal women: Effects of aging, body mass index and breast cancer incidence

    PubMed Central

    Gomes-Rochette, Neuza Felix; Souza, Letícia Soncini; Tommasi, Bruno Otoni; Pedrosa, Diego França; Fin, Irani do Carmo Francischetto; Vieira, Fernando Luiz Herkenhoff; Graceli, Jones Bernardes; Rangel, Letícia Batista Azevedo; Silva, Ian Victor

    2017-01-01

    Estrogen is a steroidal hormone involved in several physiological functions in the female body including regulation of serum lipid metabolism and breast cancer (BC). Estrogen actions on serum lipids mostly occur through its binding to intracellular Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERalpha) isoform, expressed in most of tissues. This gene (ESR1) exhibit many polymorphic sites (SNPs) located either on translated and non-translated regions that regulate ERalpha protein expression and function. This paper aimed to investigate the association of two intronic SNPs of ESR1 gene, namely c454-397T>C (PvuII) and c454-351A>G (XbaI) to alterations in serum levels of total cholesterol (T-chol), total lipid (TL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides (TG) in a cohort of post-menopausal women. In addition, we aimed to associate presence of these SNPs to development of BC along 5 years period. To do so, a group of healthy 499, highly miscigenated, post-menopausal Brazilian women, were carried using PCR-FRLP technique and further confirmed by automatic sequence analysis as well followed through 5 years for BC incidence. Measurements of serum lipid profile by standard commercial methods were carried individually whereas Dual Energy X-ray Absorciometry (DXA) measured Body Mass Indexes (BMI), Fat Mass (FM), Lean Body Mass (LBM), and Body Water Content (BWC). No effects of PvuII SNP on ESR1 gene were observed on patient´s serum T-chol, TL, LDL, HDL, and TG. However, c454-397T>C PvuII SNP is associated to lower body fat and higher levels of lean mass and body water and lower incidence of BC. On the other hand, statistically significant effect of XbaI c454-351A>G SNP on serum TG and TL levels. Patients homozygous for X allele were followed up from 2010–2015. They showed higher incidence of breast cancer (BC) when compared to either heterozygous and any P allele combination. Moreover, the increasing of TG and TL serum concentrations

  12. Operation Everest II.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    In October 1985, 25 years ago, 8 subjects and 27 investigators met at the United States Army Research Institute for Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) altitude chambers in Natick, Massachusetts, to study human responses to a simulated 40-day ascent of Mt. Everest, termed Operation Everest II (OE II). Led by Charlie Houston, John Sutton, and Allen Cymerman, these investigators conducted a large number of investigations across several organ systems as the subjects were gradually decompressed over 40 days to the Everest summit equivalent. There the subjects reached a V(O)(2)max of 15.3 mL/kg/min (28% of initial sea-level values) at 100 W and arterial P(O(2)) and P(CO(2)) of approximately 28 and approximately 10 mm Hg, respectively. Cardiac function resisted hypoxia, but the lungs could not: ventilation-perfusion inequality and O(2) diffusion limitation reduced arterial oxygenation considerably. Pulmonary vascular resistance was increased, was not reversible after short-term hyperoxia, but was reduced during exercise. Skeletal muscle atrophy occurred, but muscle structure and function were otherwise remarkably unaffected. Neurological deficits (cognition and memory) persisted after return to sea level, more so in those with high hypoxic ventilatory responsiveness, with motor function essentially spared. Nine percent body weight loss (despite an unrestricted diet) was mainly (67%) from muscle and exceeded the 2% predicted from energy intake-expenditure balance. Some immunological and lipid metabolic changes occurred, of uncertain mechanism or significance. OE II was unique in the diversity and complexity of studies carried out on a single, courageous cohort of subjects. These studies could never have been carried out in the field, and thus complement studies such as the American Medical Research Expedition to Everest (AMREE) that, although more limited in scope, serve as benchmarks and reality checks for chamber studies like OE II.

  13. Characterisation of senescence-induced changes in light harvesting complex II and photosystem I complex of thylakoids of Cucumis sativus cotyledons: age induced association of LHCII with photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jogadhenu Syama Sundara; Baig, Masroor A; Bhagwat, Anil S; Mohanty, Prasanna

    2003-02-01

    Structure and function of chloroplasts are known to after during senescence. The senescence-induced specific changes in light harvesting antenna of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) were investigated in Cucumis cotyledons. Purified light harvesting complex II (LHCII) and photosystem I complex were isolated from 6-day non-senescing and 27-day senescing Cucumis cotyledons. The chlorophyll a/b ratio of LHCII obtained from 6-day-old control cotyledons and their absorption, chlorophyll a fluorescence emission and the circular dichroism (CD) spectral properties were comparable to the LHCII preparations from other plants such as pea and spinach. The purified LHCII obtained from 27-day senescing cotyledons had a Chl a/b ratio of 1.25 instead of 1.2 as with 6-day LHCII and also exhibited significant changes in the visible CD spectrum compared to that of 6-day LHCII, indicating some specific alterations in the organisation of chlorophylls of LHCII. The light harvesting antenna of photosystems are likely to be altered due to aging. The room temperature absorption spectrum of LHCII obtained from 27-day senescing cotyledons showed changes in the peak positions. Similarly, comparison of 77K chlorophyll a fluorescence emission characteristics of LHCII preparation from senescing cotyledons with that of control showed a small shift in the peak position and the alteration in the emission profile, which is suggestive of possible changes in energy transfer within LHCII chlorophylls. Further, the salt induced aggregation of LHCII samples was lower, resulting in lower yields of LHCII from 27-day cotyledons than from normal cotyledons. Moreover, the PSI preparations of 6-day cotyledons showed Chl a/b ratios of 5 to 5.5, where as the PSI sample of 27-day cotyledons had a Chl a/b ratio of 2.9 suggesting LHCII association with PSI. The absorption, fluorescence emission and visible CD spectral measurements as well as the polypeptide profiles of 27-day cotyledon-PSI complexes

  14. Mobilization and acquisition of sparingly soluble P-Sources by Brassica cultivars under P-starved environment II. Rhizospheric pH changes, redesigned root architecture and pi-uptake kinetics.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Muhammad Shahbaz; Oki, Yoko; Adachi, Tadashi

    2009-11-01

    Non-mycorrhizal Brassica does not produce specialized root structures such as cluster or dauciform roots but is an effective user of P compared with other crops. In addition to P-uptake, utilization and remobilization activity, acquisition of orthophosphate (Pi) from extracellular sparingly P-sources or unavailable bound P-forms can be enhanced by biochemical rescue mechanisms such copious H(+)-efflux and/or carboxylates exudation into rhizosphere by roots via plasmalemma H(+) ATPase and anion channels triggered by P-starvation. To visualize the dissolution of sparingly soluble Ca-phosphate (Ca-P), newly formed Ca-P was suspended in agar containing other essential nutrients. With NH(4)(+) applied as the N source, the precipitate dissolved in the root vicinity can be ascribed to rhizosphere acidification, whereas no dissolution occurred with nitrate nutrition. To observe in situ rhizospheric pH changes, images were recorded after embedding the roots in agar containing bromocresol purple as a pH indicator. P-tolerant cultivar showed a greater decrease in pH than the sensitive cultivar in the culture media (the appearance of typical patterns of various colors of pH indicator in the root vicinity), and at stress P-level this acidification was more prominent. In experiment 2, low P-tolerant class-I cultivars (Oscar and Con-II) showed a greater decrease in solution media pH than low P-sensitive class-II (Gold Rush and RL-18) cultivars, and P-contents of the cultivars was inversely related to decrease in culture media pH. To elucidate P-stress-induced remodeling and redesigning in a root architectural system, cultivars were grown in rhizoboxes in experiment 3. The elongation rates of primary roots increased as P-supply increased, but the elongation rates of the branched zones of primary roots decreased. The length of the lateral roots and topological index values increased when cultivars were exposed to a P-stress environment. To elucidate Pi-uptake kinetics, parameters

  15. Impacts of aqueous Mn(II) on the sorption of Zn(II) by hexagonal birnessite.

    PubMed

    Lefkowitz, Joshua P; Elzinga, Evert J

    2015-04-21

    We used a combination of batch studies and spectroscopic analyses to assess the impacts of aqueous Mn(II) on the solubility and speciation of Zn(II) in anoxic suspensions of hexagonal birnessite at pH 6.5 and 7.5. Introduction of aqueous Mn(II) into pre-equilibrated Zn(II)-birnessite suspensions leads to desorption of Zn(II) at pH 6.5, but enhances Zn(II) sorption at pH 7.5. XAS results show that Zn(II) adsorbs as tetrahedral and octahedral triple-corner-sharing complexes at layer vacancy sites when reacted with birnessite in the absence of Mn(II). Addition of aqueous Mn(II) causes no discernible change in Zn(II) surface speciation at pH 6.5, but triggers conversion of adsorbed Zn(II) into spinel Zn(II)1-xMn(II)xMn(III)2O4 precipitates at pH 7.5. This conversion is driven by electron transfer from adsorbed Mn(II) to structural Mn(IV) generating Mn(III) surface species that coprecipitate with Zn(II) and Mn(II). Our results demonstrate substantial production of these reactive Mn(III) surface species within 30 min of contact of the birnessite substrate with aqueous Mn(II). Their importance as a control on the sorption and redox reactivity of Mn-oxides toward Zn(II) and other trace metal(loid)s in environments undergoing biogeochemical manganese redox cycling requires further study.

  16. Operation Everest II

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Wagner, Peter D. Operation Everest II. High Alt. Med. Biol. 11:111–119, 2010.—In October 1985, 25 years ago, 8 subjects and 27 investigators met at the United States Army Research Institute for Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) altitude chambers in Natick, Massachusetts, to study human responses to a simulated 40-day ascent of Mt. Everest, termed Operation Everest II (OE II). Led by Charlie Houston, John Sutton, and Allen Cymerman, these investigators conducted a large number of investigations across several organ systems as the subjects were gradually decompressed over 40 days to the Everest summit equivalent. There the subjects reached a \\documentclass{aastex}\\usepackage{amsbsy}\\usepackage{amsfonts}\\usepackage{amssymb}\\usepackage{bm}\\usepackage{mathrsfs}\\usepackage{pifont}\\usepackage{stmaryrd}\\usepackage{textcomp}\\usepackage{portland,xspace}\\usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra}\\pagestyle{empty}\\DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \\begin{document} \\begin{align*} \\dot{\\rm V}{\\sc O}_2{\\rm max} \\end{align*} \\end{document} of 15.3 mL/kg/min (28% of initial sea-level values) at 100 W and arterial Po2 and Pco2 of ∼28 and ∼10 mm Hg, respectively. Cardiac function resisted hypoxia, but the lungs could not: ventilation–perfusion inequality and O2 diffusion limitation reduced arterial oxygenation considerably. Pulmonary vascular resistance was increased, was not reversible after short-term hyperoxia, but was reduced during exercise. Skeletal muscle atrophy occurred, but muscle structure and function were otherwise remarkably unaffected. Neurological deficits (cognition and memory) persisted after return to sea level, more so in those with high hypoxic ventilatory responsiveness, with motor function essentially spared. Nine percent body weight loss (despite an unrestricted diet) was mainly (67%) from muscle and exceeded the 2% predicted from energy intake–expenditure balance. Some immunological and lipid metabolic changes occurred, of uncertain

  17. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated augmentation of renal interstitial fluid angiotensin II in angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Akira; Seth, Dale M; Navar, L Gabriel

    2003-10-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II)-dependent hypertension is associated with augmented intrarenal concentrations of Ang II; however, the distribution of the increased intrarenal Ang II has not been fully established. To determine the changes in renal interstitial fluid Ang II concentrations in Ang II-induced hypertension and the consequences of treatment with an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker. Rats were selected to receive vehicle (5% acetic acid subcutaneously; n = 6), Ang II (80 ng/min subcutaneously, via osmotic minipump; n = 7) or Ang II plus an AT1 receptor antagonist, candesartan cilexetil (10 mg/kg per day, in drinking water; n = 6) for 13-14 days, at which time, experiments were performed on anesthetized rats. Microdialysis probes were implanted in the renal cortex and were perfused at 2 microl/min. The effluent dialysate concentrations of Ang I and Ang II were measured by radioimmunoassay and reported values were corrected for the equilibrium rates at this perfusion rate. Ang II-infused rats developed greater mean arterial pressures (155 +/- 7 mmHg) than vehicle-infused rats (108 +/- 3 mmHg). Ang II-infused rats showed greater plasma (181 +/- 30 fmol/ml) and kidney (330 +/- 38 fmol/g) Ang II concentrations than vehicle-infused rats (98 +/- 14 fmol/ml and 157 +/- 22 fmol/g, respectively). Renal interstitial fluid Ang II concentrations were much greater than plasma concentrations, averaging 5.74 +/- 0.26 pmol/ml in Ang II-infused rats - significantly greater than those in vehicle-infused rats (2.86 +/- 0.23 pmol/ml). Candesartan treatment prevented the hypertension (87 +/- 3 mmHg) and led to increased plasma Ang II concentrations (441 +/- 27 fmol/ml), but prevented increases in kidney (120 +/- 15 fmol/g) and renal interstitial fluid (2.15 +/- 0.12 pmol/ml) Ang II concentrations. These data indicate that Ang II-infused rats develop increased renal interstitial fluid concentrations of Ang II, which may contribute to the increased vascular resistance and

  18. BEATRIX-II, phase II: Data summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Slagle, O.D.; Hollenberg, G.W.

    1996-05-01

    The BEATRIX-II experimental program was an International Energy Agency sponsored collaborative effort between Japan, Canada, and the United States to evaluate the performance of ceramic solid breeder materials in a fast-neutron environment at high burnup levels. This report addresses the Phase II activities, which included two in situ tritium-recovery canisters: temperature-change and temperature-gradient. The temperature-change canister contained a Li{sub 2}O ring specimen that had a nearly uniform temperature profile and was capable of temperature changes between 530 and 640{degrees}C. The temperature-gradient canister contained a Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} pebble bed operating under a thermal gradient of 440 to 1100{degrees}C. Postirradiation examination was carried out to characterize the Phase II in situ specimens and a series of nonvented capsules designed to address the compatibility of beryllium with lithium-ceramic solid-breeder materials. The results of the BEATRIX-II, Phase II, irradiation experiment provided an extensive data base on the in situ tritium-release characteristics of Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} for lithium burnups near 5%. The composition of the sweep gas was found to be a critical parameter in the recovery of tritium from both Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}. Tritium inventories measured confirmed that Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} exhibited very low tritium retention during the Phase II irradiation. Tritium inventories in Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} after Phase II tended to be larger than those found for Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} in other in situ experiments, but the larger values may reflect the larger generation rates in BEATRIX-II. A series of 20 capsules was irradiated to determine the compatibility of lithium ceramics and beryllium under conditions similar to a fusion blanket. It is concluded that Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} should remain leading candidates for use in a solid-breeder fusion-blanket application.

  19. Comparison of Solution and Crystal Properties of Co(II)-Substituted Human Carbonic Anhydrase II

    PubMed Central

    Avvaru, Balendu Sankara; Arenas, Daniel J.; Tu, Chingkuang; Tanner, D. B.; McKenna, Robert; Silverman, David N.

    2010-01-01

    The visible absorption of crystals of Co(II)-substituted human carbonic anhydrase II (Co(II)-HCA II) were measured over a pH range of 6.0 to 11.0 giving an estimate of pKa 8.4 for the ionization of the metal-bound water in the crystal. This is higher by about 1.2 pKa units than the pKa near 7.2 for Co(II)-CA II in solution. This effect is attributed to a nonspecific ionic strength effect of 1.4 M citrate in the precipitant solution used in the crystal growth. A pKa of 8.3 for the aqueous ligand of the cobalt was measured for Co(II)-HCA II in solution containing 0.8 M citrate. Citrate is not an inhibitor of the catalytic activity of Co(II)-HCA II and was not observed in crystal structures. The X-ray structures at 1.5–1.6Å resolution of Co(II)-HCA II were determined for crystals prepared at pH 6.0, 8.5 and 11.0 and revealed no conformational changes of amino-acid side chains as a result of the use of citrate. However, the studies of Co(II)-HCA II did reveal a change in metal coordination from tetrahedral at pH 11 to a coordination consistent with a mixed population of both tetrahedral and penta-coordinate at pH 8.5 to an octahedral geometry characteristic of the oxidized enzyme Co(III)-HCA II at pH 6.0. PMID:20637176

  20. Titan II secondary payload capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butts, Aubrey J.; Nance, Milo; Odle, Roger C.

    Small satellite programs are often faced with the prospect of flying as a secondary payload because of size or funding considerations. This paper discusses a concept for flying such payloads on flights already scheduled on the Titan II SLV program over the next decade. The Titan II has the capability of inserting over 4200 lbs into LEO and larger payloads on ballistic trajectories from which higher orbits can be achieved when kick motors are used. Orbit changes are possible depending on the specific altitudes and payloads involved. Of the existing 13 remaining missions currently scheduled to fly on the Titan II SLV, excess performance is available on several missions that could be used to insert secondary payloads of up to 3000 lbs into their final orbit. This paper outlines an approach that would implement a secondary payload mission and allow small satellites to schedule a launch at a predetermined date through the year 2000.

  1. Structural changes correlated with magnetic spin state isomorphism in the S2 state of the Mn4CaO5 cluster in the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II

    DOE PAGES

    Chatterjee, Ruchira; Han, Guangye; Kern, Jan; ...

    2016-05-09

    The Mn4CaO5 cluster in photosystem II catalyzes the four-electron redox reaction of water oxidation in natural photosynthesis. This catalytic reaction cycles through four intermediate states (Si, i = 0 to 4), involving changes in the redox state of the four Mn atoms in the cluster. Recent studies suggest the presence and importance of isomorphous structures within the same redox/intermediate S-state. It is highly likely that geometric and electronic structural flexibility play a role in the catalytic mechanism. Among the catalytic intermediates that have been identified experimentally thus far, there is clear evidence of such isomorphism in the S2 state, withmore » a high-spin (5/2) (HS) and a low spin (1/2) (LS) form, identified and characterized by their distinct electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy) signals. We studied these two S2 isomers with Mn extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and absorption and emission spectroscopy (XANES/XES) to characterize the structural and electronic structural properties. The geometric and electronic structure of the HS and LS S2 states are different as determined using Mn EXAFS and XANES/XES, respectively. The Mn K-edge XANES and XES for the HS form are different from the LS and indicate a slightly lower positive charge on the Mn atoms compared to the LS form. Based on the EXAFS results which are clearly different, we propose possible structural differences between the two spin states. As a result, such structural and magnetic redox-isomers if present at room temperature, will likely play a role in the mechanism for water-exchange/oxidation in photosynthesis.« less

  2. Structural Changes Correlated with Magnetic Spin State Isomorphism in the S2 State of the Mn4CaO5 Cluster in the Oxygen-Evolving Complex of Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Ruchira; Han, Guangye; Kern, Jan; Gul, Sheraz; Fuller, Franklin D; Garachtchenko, Anna; Young, Iris; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Nordlund, Dennis; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Hatakeyama, Makoto; Yachandra, Vittal K; Yano, Junko

    2016-08-01

    The Mn4CaO5 cluster in Photosystem II catalyzes the four-electron redox reaction of water oxidation in natural photosynthesis. This catalytic reaction cycles through four intermediate states (Si, i = 0 to 4), involving changes in the redox state of the four Mn atoms in the cluster. Recent studies suggest the presence and importance of isomorphous structures within the same redox/intermediate S-state. It is highly likely that geometric and electronic structural flexibility play a role in the catalytic mechanism. Among the catalytic intermediates that have been identified experimentally thus far, there is clear evidence of such isomorphism in the S2 state, with a high-spin (5/2) (HS) and a low spin (1/2) (LS) form, identified and characterized by their distinct electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy) signals. We studied these two S2 isomers with Mn extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and absorption and emission spectroscopy (XANES/XES) to characterize the structural and electronic structural properties. The geometric and electronic structure of the HS and LS S2 states are different as determined using Mn EXAFS and XANES/XES, respectively. The Mn K-edge XANES and XES for the HS form are different from the LS and indicate a slightly lower positive charge on the Mn atoms compared to the LS form. Based on the EXAFS results which are clearly different, we propose possible structural differences between the two spin states. Such structural and magnetic redox-isomers if present at room temperature, will likely play a role in the mechanism for water-exchange/oxidation in photosynthesis.

  3. Structural changes correlated with magnetic spin state isomorphism in the S 2 state of the Mn 4 CaO 5 cluster in the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Ruchira; Han, Guangye; Kern, Jan; Gul, Sheraz; Fuller, Franklin D.; Garachtchenko, Anna; Young, Iris D.; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Nordlund, Dennis; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Hatakeyama, Makoto; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Yano, Junko

    2016-01-01

    The Mn 4 CaO 5 cluster in photosystem II catalyzes the four-electron redox reaction of water oxidation in natural photosynthesis. This catalytic reaction cycles through four intermediate states (S i , i = 0 to 4), involving changes in the redox state of the four Mn atoms in the cluster. Recent studies suggest the presence and importance of isomorphous structures within the same redox/intermediate S-state. It is highly likely that geometric and electronic structural flexibility play a role in the catalytic mechanism. Among the catalytic intermediates that have been identified experimentally thus far, there is clear evidence of such isomorphism in the S 2 state, with a high-spin (5/2) (HS) and a low spin (1/2) (LS) form, identified and characterized by their distinct electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy) signals. We studied these two S 2 isomers with Mn extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and absorption and emission spectroscopy (XANES/XES) to characterize the structural and electronic structural properties. The geometric and electronic structure of the HS and LS S 2 states are different as determined using Mn EXAFS and XANES/XES, respectively. The Mn K-edge XANES and XES for the HS form are different from the LS and indicate a slightly lower positive charge on the Mn atoms compared to the LS form. Based on the EXAFS results which are clearly different, we propose possible structural differences between the two spin states. Such structural and magnetic redox-isomers if present at room temperature, will likely play a role in the mechanism for water-exchange/oxidation in photosynthesis.

  4. Structural changes correlated with magnetic spin state isomorphism in the S 2 state of the Mn 4 CaO 5 cluster in the