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Sample records for n-ge ii change

  1. Microstructural and surface characterization of thin gold films on n-Ge (1 1 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nel, J. M.; Chawanda, A.; Auret, F. D.; Jordaan, W.; Odendaal, R. Q.; Hayes, M.; Coelho, S.

    2009-12-01

    Thin gold films were fabricated by vacuum resistive deposition on the n-Ge (1 1 1) wafers. The films were annealed between 300 and 600 °C. These resulting thin films were then characterised using scanning electron microscopy (field emission and back-scattering modes), Rutherford back scattering spectroscopy and time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS). For temperatures below the eutectic temperature the distribution of both the gold and the germanium on the surface are uniform. Above the eutectic temperature, the formation of gold rich islands on the surface of the Germanium were observed. These changes in the microstructure were found to correspond to changes in the electrical characteristics of the diodes.

  2. Donor-vacancy pairs in irradiated n-Ge: A searching look at the problem

    SciTech Connect

    Emtsev, Vadim; Oganesyan, Gagik

    2014-02-21

    The present situation concerning the identification of vacancy-donor pairs in irradiated n-Ge is discussed. The challenging points are the energy states of these defects deduced from DLTS spectra. Hall effect data seem to be at variance with some important conclusions drawn from DLTS measurements. Critical points of the radiation-produced defect modeling in n-Ge are highlighted.

  3. Photoinduced changes in photosystem II pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Atanaska S.; Busheva, Mira C.; Stoitchkova, Katerina V.; Tzonova, Iren K.

    2010-11-01

    The photosynthetic apparatus in higher plants performs two seemingly opposing tasks: efficient harvest of sunlight, but also rapid and harmless dissipation of excess light energy as heat to avoid deleterious photodamage. In order to study this process in pigment-protein supercomplexes of photosystem II (PSII), 77 K fluorescence and room temperature resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy were applied to investigate the changes in structure and spectral properties of the pigments in spinach PSII membranes. The high-light treatment results in a strong quenching of the fluorescence (being largest when the excitation is absorbed by carotenoids) and a red-shift of the main maximum. Decomposition of the fluorescence spectra into four bands revealed intensive quenching of F685 and F695 bands, possible bleaching of chlorophyll a, enhanced extent of light harvesting complexes (LHCII) aggregation and increased energy transfer to aggregated LHCII. The analysis of RR spectra revealed the predominant contribution of ß-carotene (ß-Car) upon 457.8 and 488 nm excitations and lutein (Lut) at 514.5 nm. During prolonged exposure to strong light no significant bleaching of ß-Car and weak photobleaching of Lut is observed. The results will contribute to the efforts to produce more efficient and robust solar cells when exposed to fluctuations in light intensity.

  4. Metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of narrow-band distributed Bragg reflectors realized by GaN:Ge modulation doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Christoph; Lesnik, Andreas; Zettler, Thomas; Schmidt, Gordon; Veit, Peter; Dadgar, Armin; Bläsing, Jürgen; Christen, Jürgen; Strittmatter, André

    2016-04-01

    We report on metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) of distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) applying a periodic modulation of the GaN doping concentration only. The doping modulation changes the refractive index of GaN via the Burstein-Moss-effect. MOVPE growth of highly doped GaN:Ge and modulation of the dopant concentration by at least two orders of magnitude within few nanometers is required to achieve a refractive index contrast of 2-3%. Such modulation characteristic is achieved despite the presence of Ge memory effects and incorporation delay. We realized DBRs with up to 100 layer pairs by combining GaN:Ge with a nominal doping concentration of 1.6×1020 cm-3 as low-refractive index material with unintentionally doped GaN as high-refractive index layer. Scanning transmission electron microscope images reveal DBR structures with abrupt interfaces and homogenous layer thicknesses in lateral and vertical direction. Reflectance measurements of DBRs designed for the blue and near UV-spectral region show a narrow stopband with a maximum reflectivity of 85% at 418 nm and even 95% at 370 nm. InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well structures grown on top of such DBRs exhibit narrow emission spectra with linewidths below 3 nm and significantly increased emission intensity.

  5. Properties of n-Ge epilayer on Si substrate with in-situ doping technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi-Hao, Huang; Cheng, Li; Cheng-Zhao, Chen; Chen, Wang; Wen-Ming, Xie; Shu-Yi, Lin; Ming, Shao; Ming-Xing, Nie; Cai-Yun, Chen

    2016-06-01

    The properties of n-Ge epilayer deposited on Si substrate with in-situ doping technology in a cold-wall ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHVCVD) system are investigated. The growth temperature of ˜500 °C is optimal for the n-Ge growth in our equipment with a phosphorus concentration of ˜1018 cm-3. In the n-Ge epilayer, the depth profile of phosphorus concentration is box-shaped and the tensile strain of 0.12% confirmed by x-ray diffraction measurement is introduced which results in the red shift of the photoluminescence. The enhancements of photoluminescence intensity with the increase of the doping concentration are observed, which is consistent with the modeling of the spontaneous emission spectrum for direct transition of Ge. The results are of significance for guiding the growth of n-Ge epilayer with in-situ doping technology. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB632103), the National Key Technology Support Program of China (Grant No. 2015BAF24B01), the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province of China (Grant No. 2016J05147), the Key Sci-Tech Research and Development Platform of Fujian Province, China (Grant No. 2014H2002), the Provincial University Foundation of Fujian Province, China (Grant No. JK2013030), the Educational Youth Key Foundation of Fujian Province, China (Grant No. JA13210), and the Scientific Research Fund of Fujian University of Technology, China (Grant No. GY-Z14073).

  6. Listening to PS II: enthalpy, entropy, and volume changes.

    PubMed

    Hou, Harvey J M; Mauzerall, David

    2011-01-01

    Photosystem II, located in the thylakoid membranes of green plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, uses sunlight to split water into protons, electrons, and a dioxygen molecule. The mechanism of its electron transfers and oxygen evolution including the structure of the protein and rates of the S-state cycle has been extensively investigated. Substantial progress has been made; however, the thermodynamics of PS II electron transfer and of the oxygen cycle are poorly understood. Recent progress in thermodynamic measurements in photosynthesis provides novel insights on the enthalpic and entropic contribution to electron transfer in proteins. In this review the thermodynamic parameters including quantum yield, enthalpy, entropy, and volume changes of PS II photochemistry determined by photoacoustics and other laser techniques are summarized and evaluated. Light-driven volume changes via electrostriction are directly related to the photoreaction in PS II and thus can be a useful measurement of PS II activity and function. The enthalpy changes of the reactions observed can be directly measured by photoacoustics. The apparent reaction entropy can also be estimated when the free energy is known. Dissecting the free energy of a photoreaction into enthalpic and entropic components provides critical information about mechanisms of PS II function. Potential limitations and future direction of the study of the thermodynamics of PS II electron transfer and oxygen evolution are presented.

  7. [Changes necessary for continuing health reform: II. The "internal" change].

    PubMed

    Martín Martín, J; de Manuel Keenoy, E; Carmona López, G; Martínez Olmos, J

    1990-01-01

    The article desired organizational and managerial changes in Primary Health Care, so as to develop a sound and feasible social marketing strategy. Key elements that should be changed are: 1. Rigid and centralized administrative structures and procedures. 2. Incentives system centralized and dissociated from the managerial structure. 3. Primary Health Care management units immersed in political conflict. 4. Absence of alternative in the margin. Users cannot choose. 5. Lack of an internal marketing strategy. Several ways of internal markets simulation are assessed as potential means for internal change. The need for an administration reform leading to a less inflexible system in the Spanish national and regional health services in reviewed too. Three changes are considered essential: a) Payment systems in Primary Health Care. b) Modifications in the personnel contracts. c) Reform of the budgeting processes. Specific strategies in each of these issues are suggested, making emphasizing the need of their interrelationship and coherence.

  8. France: demographic change and family policy since World War II.

    PubMed

    Roussel, L; Thery, I

    1988-09-01

    Major demographic trends and changes in family policy in France since World War II are analyzed, with a focus on fertility and marriage patterns (including divorce). The effects of political and economic factors on family policy and legislation since 1945 are also discussed. Data are from official and other published sources.

  9. Platinum-assisted post deposition annealing of the n-Ge/Y2O3 interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, C.; Bethge, O.; Lutzer, B.; Bertagnolli, E.

    2016-07-01

    The impact of annealing temperature and annealing duration on the interface properties of n-Ge/Y2O3/Pt MOS-capacitors is investigated employing an ultrathin catalytically acting Pt-layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis has been used to verify an enhanced growth of GeO2 and thermally stabilizing yttrium germanate at the n-Ge/Y2O3 interface induced by an oxygen post deposition annealing (PDA). Especially at 500 °C and 550 °C high quality Ge/Y2O3 interfaces have been achieved resulting in very low interface trap density of 7.41*1010 eV-1 cm-2. It is shown that either a short oxygen annealing at higher temperatures (550 °C) or a long time annealing at lower temperatures (450 °C) are appropriate to realize low interface trap density (D it). It turns out that a Pt-assisted PDA in combination with a final PMA are needed to reduce hysteresis width significantly and to bring flat band voltages toward ideal values.

  10. Ohmic contact formation of metal/amorphous-Ge/n-Ge junctions with an anomalous modulation of Schottky barrier height

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hanhui; Wang, Peng; Qi, Dongfeng; Li, Xin; Han, Xiang; Wang, Chen; Chen, Songyan Li, Cheng; Huang, Wei

    2014-11-10

    The modulation of Schottky barrier height of metal/Ge inserting an amorphous Ge layer has been demonstrated. It is interested that the Schottky barrier height of Al/amorphous-Ge/n-Ge junctions is oscillated with increase of the a-Ge thickness from 0 to 10 nm, and when the thickness reaches above 10 nm, the Al/amorphous-Ge/n-Ge shows ohmic characteristics. Electron hopping through localized states of a-Ge layer, the alleviation of metal induced gap states, as well as the termination of dangling bonds at the amorphous-Ge/n-Ge interface are proposed to explain the anomalous modulation of Schottky barrier height.

  11. Infrared photoresponse of GeSn/n-Ge heterojunctions grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangcheol; Bhargava, Nupur; Gupta, Jay; Coppinger, Matthew; Kolodzey, James

    2014-05-05

    Heterojunction devices of Ge(1-x)Sn(x) / n-Ge were grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and the mid-infrared (IR) photocurrent response was measured. With increasing Sn composition from 4% to 12%, the photocurrent spectra became red-shifted, suggesting that the bandgap of Ge(1-x)Sn(x) alloys was lowered compared to pure Ge. At a temperature of 100 K, the wavelengths of peak photocurrent were shifted from 1.42 µm for pure Ge (0% Sn) to 2.0 µm for 12% Sn. The bias dependence of the device response showed that the optimum reverse bias was > 0.5 volts for saturated photocurrent. The responsivity of the Ge(1-x)Sn(x) devices was estimated to be 0.17 A/W for 4% Sn. These results suggest that Ge(1-x)Sn(x) photodetectors may have practical applications in the near/mid IR wavelength regime.

  12. Reactivity Studies on a Binuclear Ruthenium(0) Complex Equipped with a Bridging κ(2)N,Ge-Amidinatogermylene Ligand.

    PubMed

    Cabeza, Javier A; Fernández-Colinas, José M; García-Álvarez, Pablo; Pérez-Carreño, Enrique; Polo, Diego

    2015-05-18

    The amidinatogermylene-bridged diruthenium(0) complex [Ru2{μ-κ(2)Ge,N-Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(HMDS)}(CO)7] (2; (i)Pr2bzam = N,N'-bis(iso-propyl)benzamidinate; HMDS = N(SiMe3)2) reacted at room temperature with (t)BuNC and PMe3 to give [Ru2{μ-κ(2)Ge,N-Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(HMDS)}(L)(CO)6] (L = (t)BuNC, 3; PMe3, 4), which contain the new ligand in an axial position on the Ru atom that is not attached to the amidinato fragment. At 70 °C, 2 reacted with PPh3, PMe3, dppm, and dppe to give the equatorially substituted derivatives [Ru2{μ-κ(2)Ge,N-Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(HMDS)}(L)(CO)6] (L = PPh3, 5; PMe3, 6) and [Ru2{μ-κ(2)Ge,N-Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(HMDS)}(μ-κ(2)P,P'-L2)(CO)5] (L2 = dppm, 7; dppe, 8). HSiEt3 and HSnPh3 were oxidatively added to complex 2 at 70 °C, leading to the coordinatively unsaturated products [Ru2(ER3)(μ-H){μ-κ(2)Ge,N-Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(HMDS)}(CO)5] (ER3 = SiEt3, 9; SnPh3, 10), which easily reacted with (t)BuNC and CO to give the saturated derivatives [Ru2(ER3)(μ-H){μ-κ(2)Ge,N-Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(HMDS)}((t)BuNC)(CO)5] (ER3 = SiEt3, 11; SnPh3, 12) and [Ru2(ER3)(μ-H){μ-κ(2)Ge,N-Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(HMDS)}(CO)6] (ER3 = SiEt3, 13; SnPh3, 14), respectively. Compounds 9-14 have their ER3 group on the Ru atom that is not attached to the amidinato fragment. In contrast, the reaction of 2 with H2 at 70 °C led to the unsaturated tetranuclear complex [Ru4(μ-H)2{μ-κ(2)Ge,N-Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(HMDS)}2(CO)10] (15), which also reacted with (t)BuNC and CO to give the saturated derivatives [Ru4(μ-H)2{μ-κ(2)Ge,N-Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(HMDS)}2(L)2(CO)10] (L = (t)BuNC, 16; CO, 17). All tetraruthenium complexes contain an unbridged metal-metal connecting two germylene-bridged diruthenium units. Under CO atmosphere, complex 17 reverted to compound 2. All of the coordinatively unsaturated products (9, 10, and 15) have their unsaturation(s) located on the Ru atom(s) that is(are) attached to the amidinato fragment(s). In the absence of added reagents, the thermolysis of 2 in refluxing toluene led to [Ru4{

  13. Myometrial angiotensin II receptor subtypes change during ovine pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, B E; Ipson, M A; Shaul, P W; Kamm, K E; Rosenfeld, C R

    1993-01-01

    Although regulation of angiotensin II receptor (AT) binding in vascular and uterine smooth muscle is similar in nonpregnant animals, studies suggest it may differ during pregnancy. We, therefore, examined binding characteristics of myometrial AT receptors in nulliparous (n = 7), pregnant (n = 24, 110-139 d of gestation), and postpartum (n = 21, 5 to > or = 130 d) sheep and compared this to vascular receptor binding. We also determined if changes in myometrial binding reflect alterations in receptor subtype. By using plasma membrane preparations from myometrium and medial layer of abdominal aorta, we determined receptor density and affinity employing radioligand binding; myometrial AT receptor subtypes were assessed by inhibiting [125I]-ANG II binding with subtype-specific antagonists. Compared to nulliparous ewes, myometrial AT receptor density fell approximately 90% during pregnancy (1,486 +/- 167 vs. 130 +/- 16 fmol/mg protein) and returned to nulliparous values > or = 4 wk postpartum; vascular binding was unchanged. Nulliparous myometrium expressed predominantly AT2 receptors (AT1/AT2 congruent to 15%/85%), whereas AT1 receptors predominated during pregnancy (AT1/AT2 congruent to 80%/20%). By 5 d postpartum AT1/AT2 congruent to 40%/60%, and > 4 wk postpartum AT2 receptors again predominated (AT1/AT2 congruent to 15%/85%). In studies of ANG II-induced force generation, myometrium from pregnant ewes (n = 10) demonstrated dose-dependent increases in force (P < 0.001), which were inhibited with an AT1 receptor antagonist. Postpartum myometrial responses were less at doses > or = 10(-9) M (P < 0.05) and unaffected by AT2 receptor antagonists. Vascular and myometrial AT receptor binding are differentially regulated during ovine pregnancy, the latter primarily reflecting decreases in AT2 receptor expression. This is the first description of reversible changes in AT receptor subtype in adult mammals. PMID:8227339

  14. Thermal bleaching induced changes in photosystem II function not reflected by changes in photosystem II protein content of Stylophora pistillata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeans, J.; Szabó, M.; Campbell, D. A.; Larkum, A. W. D.; Ralph, P. J.; Hill, R.

    2014-03-01

    Scleractinian corals exist in a symbiosis with marine dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium that is easily disrupted by changes in the external environment. Increasing seawater temperatures cause loss of pigments and expulsion of the symbionts from the host in a process known as coral bleaching; though, the exact mechanism and trigger of this process has yet to be elucidated. We exposed nubbins of the coral Stylophora pistillata to bleaching temperatures over a period of 14 daylight hours. Fifty-nine percent of the symbiont population was expelled over the course of this short-term treatment. Maximum quantum yield ( F V/ F M) of photosystem (PS) II for the in hospite symbiont population did not change significantly over the treatment period, but there was a significant decline in the quantity of PSII core proteins (PsbA and PsbD) at the onset of the experimental increase in temperature. F V/ F M from populations of expelled symbionts dropped sharply over the first 6 h of temperature treatment, and then toward the end of the experiment, it increased to an F V/ F M value similar to that of the in hospite population. This suggests that the symbionts were likely damaged prior to expulsion from the host, and the most damaged symbionts were expelled earlier in the bleaching. The quantity of PSII core proteins, PsbA and PsbD, per cell was significantly higher in the expelled symbionts than in the remaining in hospite population over 6-10 h of temperature treatment. We attribute this to a buildup of inactive PSII reaction centers, likely caused by a breakdown in the PSII repair cycle. Thus, thermal bleaching of the coral S. pistillata induces changes in PSII content that do not follow the pattern that would be expected based on the results of PSII function.

  15. Slaying Dragons II: Survival Strategies for Changing Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Mary R.

    1995-01-01

    Offers reflections on the roles of youth librarians. Topics include the impact of societal changes on library services; librarians as change agents for new technology; community needs; marketing and programming strategies; and cooperation and visibility. (LRW)

  16. Do changes on MCMI-II personality disorder scales in short-term psychotherapy reflect trait or state changes?

    PubMed

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) has become an important and commonly used instrument to assess personality functioning. Several studies report significant changes on MCMI personality disorder scales after psychological treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate whether pre-post-treatment changes in 39-session psychodynamic group psychotherapy as measured with the MCMI reflect real personality change or primarily reflect symptomatic state changes. Pre-post-treatment design included 236 psychotherapy outpatients. Personality changes were measured on the MCMI-II and symptomatic state changes on the Symptom Check List 90-R (SCL-90-R). The MCMI Schizoid, Avoidant, Self-defeating, and severe personality disorder scales revealed substantial changes, which could be predicted from changes on SCL-90-R global symptomatology (GSI) and on the SCL-90-R Depression scale. The MCMI Dependent personality score was the only MCMI personality scale showing significant change when the SCL-90-R Depression change score was included as a covariate. Splitting patients into those with and without personality disorders did not change the results. Observed changes on MCMI-II personality disorder scales in short-term psychotherapy reflect change in symptomatic state. The MCMI-II Base Rate cut-off points probably include too many patients, justifying the introduction of new scoring procedures in the MCMI-III.

  17. Hydrogen bonding changes of internal water molecules in rhodopsin during metarhodopsin I and metarhodopsin II formation.

    PubMed Central

    Rath, P; Delange, F; Degrip, W J; Rothschild, K J

    1998-01-01

    Rhodopsin is a 7-helix, integral membrane protein found in the rod outer segments, which serves as the light receptor in vision. Light absorption by the retinylidene chromophore of rhodopsin triggers an 11-cis-->all-trans isomerization, followed by a series of protein conformational changes, which culminate in the binding and activation of the G-protein transducin by the metarhodopsin II (Meta II) intermediate. Fourier transform IR difference spectroscopy has been used to investigate the structural changes that water, as well as other OH- and NH-containing groups, undergo during the formation of the metarhodopsin I (Meta I) and Meta II intermediates. Bands associated with the OH stretch modes of water are identified by characteristic downshifts upon substitution of H2(18)O for H2O. Compared with earlier work, several negative bands associated with water molecules in unphotolysed rhodopsin were detected, which shift to lower frequencies upon formation of the Meta I and Meta II intermediates. These data indicate that at least one water molecule undergoes an increase in hydrogen bonding upon formation of the Meta I intermediate, while at least one other increases its hydrogen bonding during Meta II formation. Amino acid residue Asp-83, which undergoes a change in its hydrogen bonding during Meta II formation, does not appear to interact with any of the structurally active water molecules. Several NH and/or OH groups, which are inaccessible to hydrogen/deuterium exchange, also undergo alterations during Meta I and Meta II formation. PMID:9445403

  18. Variations inf Ninbus-7 cloud estimates. Part II: Regional changes

    SciTech Connect

    Weare, B.C. )

    1992-12-01

    Regional estimates of low, middle, high and total cloud amounts derived from bispectral measurements from Nimbus-7 have been analyzed for the six-year period April 1979 through March 1985. Fractional cloud cover for the three height categories was used to calculate a proxy mean cloud-top height. Intra- and interannual standard deviations of total cloud amount and mean cloud height show realistic patterns throughout most of the globe except at very high latitudes. Over much of the earth, intra-annual and interannual variations in total cloud amount are strongly positively correlated with variations in cloud height. Furthermore, both total cloud amount and cloud height variations are moderately correlated with sea surface temperature variations. The strongest correlations are positive in the tropics for both intra-annual and interannual variations. In middle latitudes, moderate negative correlations are associated with intra-annual variations, whereas moderate positive correlations occur on interannual time frames. In the tropics 1[degrees]C changes in temperature are statistically related to a change of total cloudiness of a least 2% and a change in cloud height of more than 0.5 km. 15 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Rice caryopsis development II: Dynamic changes in the endosperm.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoba; Liu, Jinxin; Li, Dongqi; Liu, Chun-Ming

    2016-09-01

    The rice endosperm plays crucial roles in nourishing the embryo during embryogenesis and seed germination. Although previous studies have provided the general information about rice endosperm, a systematic investigation throughout the entire endosperm developmental process is still lacking. In this study, we examined in detail rice endosperm development on a daily basis throughout the 30-day period of post-fertilization development. We observed that coenocytic nuclear division occurred in the first 2 days after pollination (DAP), cellularization occurred between 3 and 5 DAP, differentiation of the aleurone and starchy endosperm occurred between 6 and 9 DAP, and accumulation of storage products occurred concurrently with the aleurone/starchy endosperm differentiation from 6 DAP onwards and was accomplished by 21 DAP. Changes in cytoplasmic membrane permeability, possibly caused by programmed cell death, were observed in the central region of the starchy endosperm at 8 DAP, and expanded to the whole starchy endosperm at 21 DAP when the aleurone is the only living component in the endosperm. Further, we observed that a distinct multi-layered dorsal aleurone formed near the dorsal vascular bundle, while the single- or occasionally two-cell layered aleurone was located in the lateral and ventral positions of endosperm. Our results provide in detail the dynamic changes in mitotic divisions, cellularization, cell differentiation, storage product accumulation, and programmed cell death that occur during rice endosperm development.

  20. On the tensoresistance of n-Ge and n-Si crystals with radiation-induced defects

    SciTech Connect

    Gaidar, G. P.

    2015-09-15

    A variation in the tensoresistance of n-Ge:Sb and n-Si:As crystals as a result of irradiation with γ-ray photons ({sup 60}Co source) at fixed temperatures under conditions of the application of uniaxial elastic stress (0 ≤ X ≤ 1.2 GPa) along the main crystallographic direction is studied. It is found that, in the case of the deformation axis being in an asymmetric position relative to the isoenergetic ellipsoids, there is a maximum for the dependences of the tensoresistance ρ{sub X}/ρ{sub 0} = f(X); an explanation as to the nature of the observed effect is suggested. Tensoresistance is revealed in unirradiated n-Si:As crystals in the case of the deformation axis being in a symmetric position relative to all isoenergetic ellipsoids; the value of the tensoresistance as a result of irradiation with γ-ray photons decreases. It is shown that this effect can be attributed to a variation in the mobility of electrons in the conduction band as a result of an increase in the transverse effective mass and the appearance of new deep-level centers under the effect of irradiation, respectively.

  1. Long-term pharyngeal airway changes after bionator treatment in adolescents with skeletal Class II malocclusions

    PubMed Central

    Han, Seimin; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Chung, Chooryung J.; Kim, Ji Young

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term changes in the pharyngeal airway dimensions after functional appliance treatment in adolescents with skeletal Class II malocclusions. Methods Pharyngeal airway dimensions were compared between subjects with skeletal Class II malocclusions (n = 24; mean age: 11.6 ± 1.29 years) treated with a Class II bionator and age-matched control subjects with skeletal Class I occlusions (n = 24; mean age: 11.0 ± 1.21 years) using a series of lateral cephalograms obtained at the initial visit (T0), after treatment (T1), and at the completion of growth (T2). Results The length of the nasopharyngeal region was similar between adolescents with skeletal Class I and Class II malocclusions at all time points, while the lengths of the upper and lower oropharyngeal regions and the pharyngeal airway areas were significantly smaller in the skeletal Class II adolescents before treatment when compared to the control adolescents (p < 0.05). However, following treatment with a functional appliance, the skeletal Class II adolescents had increased pharyngeal airway dimensions, which became similar to those of the control subjects. Conclusions Functional appliance therapy can increase the pharyngeal airway dimensions in growing adolescents with skeletal Class II malocclusions, and this effect is maintained until the completion of growth. PMID:24511511

  2. External conditions inversely change the RNA polymerase II elongation rate and density in yeast.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Ana; Montón, Fernando; Li, Tianlu; Gómez-Herreros, Fernando; Chávez, Sebastián; Alepuz, Paula; Pérez-Ortín, José E

    2013-11-01

    Elongation speed is a key parameter in RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II) activity. It affects the transcription rate, while it is conditioned by the physicochemical environment it works in at the same time. For instance, it is well-known that temperature affects the biochemical reactions rates. Therefore in free-living organisms that are able to grow at various environmental temperatures, such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, evolution should have not only shaped the structural and functional properties of this key enzyme, but should have also provided mechanisms and pathways to adapt its activity to the optimal performance required. We studied the changes in RNA pol II elongation speed caused by alternations in growth temperature in yeast to find that they strictly follow the Arrhenius equation, and that they also provoke an almost inverse proportional change in RNA pol II density within the optimal growth temperature range (26-37 °C). Moreover, we discovered that yeast cells control the transcription initiation rate by changing the total amount of available RNA pol II.

  3. Subtle conformational changes induced in major histocompatibility complex class II molecules by binding peptides.

    PubMed

    Chervonsky, A V; Medzhitov, R M; Denzin, L K; Barlow, A K; Rudensky, A Y; Janeway, C A

    1998-08-18

    Intracellular trafficking of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules is characterized by passage through specialized endocytic compartment(s) where antigenic peptides replace invariant chain fragments in the presence of the DM protein. These changes are accompanied by structural transitions of the MHC molecules that can be visualized by formation of compact SDS-resistant dimers, by changes in binding of mAbs, and by changes in T cell responses. We have observed that a mAb (25-9-17) that is capable of staining I-Ab on the surface of normal B cells failed to interact with I-Ab complexes with a peptide derived from the Ealpha chain of the I-E molecule but bound a similar covalent complex of I-Ab with the class II binding fragment (class II-associated invariant chain peptides) of the invariant chain. Moreover, 25-9-17 blocked activation of several I-Ab-reactive T cell hybridomas but failed to block others, suggesting that numerous I-Ab-peptide complexes acquire the 25-9-17(+) or 25-9-17(-) conformation. Alloreactive T cells were also able to discriminate peptide-dependent variants of MHC class II molecules. Thus, peptides impose subtle structural transitions upon MHC class II molecules that affect T cell recognition and may thus be critical for T cell selection and autiommunity.

  4. Developmental changes in the Sciara II/9A initiation zone for DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Lunyak, Victoria V; Ezrokhi, Michael; Smith, Heidi S; Gerbi, Susan A

    2002-12-01

    Developmentally regulated initiation of DNA synthesis was studied in the fly Sciara at locus II/9A. PCR analysis of nascent strands revealed an initiation zone that spans approximately 8 kb in mitotic embryonic cells and endoreplicating salivary glands but contracts to 1.2 to 2.0 kb during DNA amplification of DNA puff II/9A. Thus, the amplification origin occurs within the initiation zone used for normal replication. The initiation zone left-hand border is constant, but the right-hand border changes during development. Also, there is a shift in the preferred site for initiation of DNA synthesis during DNA amplification compared to that in preamplification stages. This is the first demonstration that once an initiation zone is defined in embryos, its borders and preferred replication start sites can change during development. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that the RNA polymerase II 140-kDa subunit occupies the promoter of gene II/9-1 during DNA amplification, even though intense transcription will not start until the next developmental stage. RNA polymerase II is adjacent to the right-hand border of the initiation zone at DNA amplification but not at preamplification, suggesting that it may influence the position of this border. These findings support a relationship between the transcriptional machinery and establishment of the replication initiation zone.

  5. Mechanism of adrenal angiotensin II receptor changes after nephrectomy in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, J G

    1981-01-01

    At 48 h after bilateral nephrectomy in rats there is a two- to threefold increase in the number of adrenal angiotensin II receptors and a decrease in Kd of smooth muscle angiotensin II receptors. These changes have been attributed to the absence of circulating angiotensin II. Serum K+, which increases after nephrectomy may be an important and overlooked modulator. Therefore, the present experiments were designed to assess the role of K+ as a regulator of angiotensin II receptors after nephrectomy. Serum K+ was controlled with Na polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate), a resin designed to exchange Na+ for K+ in the gastrointestinal tract. Acutely nephrectomized rats were divided into two groups: experimental animals received Kayexalate resin every 12 h for four doses, and controls received Kayexalate exchanged with KCl in vitro before gavage. There was a significant positive correlation serum K+ and aldosterone (r = 0.78, P less than 0.001). Kayexalate maintained a normal serum K+ of 5.9 +/- 0.2 meq/liter (n = 27), aldosterone 25 +/- 3 ng/dl (n = 27) and adrenal receptor concentration of 934 +/- 156 fmol/mg protein (n = 4). Control animals had significantly higher serum K+ of 10.5 +/- 0.4 meq/liter (n = 23), aldosterone 435 +/- 32 (n = 23), and adrenal receptors of 2726 +/- 235 fmol/mg protein (n = 4). There was a linear relationship between serum K+ and number of adrenal receptors (r = 0.87). No such relationship was present in uterine smooth muscle. Therefore, these studies demonstrate that K+ modulates the number of adrenal but not smooth muscle angiotensin II receptors after nephrectomy. This is the first evidence that potassium modulates angiotensin II receptors independently of changes in angiotensin II blood levels. PMID:6259213

  6. Early treatment outcomes of class II malocclusion with twin-block facial profile and cephalometric changes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mousumi Goswami; Vashisth, Pallavi; Chaudhary, Seema; Sinha, Ashish

    2012-01-01

    Esthetic improvement is highly valued by patients seeking orthodontic treatment. Subjects with a class II malocclusion are a good example of patients who seek treatment primarily for esthetic improvement. A young growing child with convex profile due to a small, retropositioned mandible, normal midface and lower tip trap is more suitable for functional appliance treatment. Functional appliances encourage adaptive skeletal growth by maintaining the mandible in a corrected forward position for a sufficient period of time to allow adaptive skeletal changes to occur in response to a functional stimulus. The aim of this article is to describe two cases of class II malocclusion in late mixed dentition period treated with twin-block. The cephalometric and facial profile changes have been discussed PMID:25756036

  7. PERIOD CHANGE SIMILARITIES AMONG THE RR LYRAE VARIABLES IN OOSTERHOFF I AND OOSTERHOFF II GLOBULAR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Kunder, Andrea; Walker, Alistair; De Propris, Roberto; Stetson, Peter B.; Bono, Giuseppe; Di Cecco, Alessandra; Nemec, James M.; Monelli, Matteo; Cassisi, Santi; Andreuzzi, Gloria; Dall'Ora, Massimo; Zoccali, Manuela

    2011-01-15

    We present period change rates (dP/dt) for 42 RR Lyrae variables in the globular cluster IC 4499. Despite clear evidence of these period increases or decreases, the observed period change rates are an order of magnitude larger than predicted from theoretical models of this cluster. We find that there is a preference for increasing periods, a phenomenon observed in most RR Lyrae stars in Milky Way globular clusters. The period change rates as a function of position in the period-amplitude plane are used to examine possible evolutionary effects in OoI clusters, OoII clusters, field RR Lyrae stars, and the mixed-population cluster {omega} Centauri. It is found that there is no correlation between the period change rate and the typical definition of Oosterhoff groups. If the RR Lyrae period changes correspond with evolutionary effects, this would be in contrast to the hypothesis that RR Lyrae variables in OoII systems are evolved horizontal-branch stars that spent their zero-age horizontal-branch phase on the blue side of the instability strip. This may suggest that age may not be the primary explanation for the Oosterhoff types.

  8. Period Changes of Type II Cepheids in the Globular Cluster M5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Jill M.; Rabidoux, K.; Smith, H. A.; De Lee, N.; Pritzl, B.; Osborn, W.

    2007-05-01

    The observed period changes of a pulsating variable star can, in principle, provide a sensitive test of the movement of the variable through the instability strip of the HR diagram. We revisit the long term period behavior of variables V42 and V84 in M5, making use of new BVI light curves of these type II Cepheids. V42 has shown a small decrease in period since 1889. The period changes of V84 are more difficult to ascertain, with possible short term changes in the observed phase of maximum light. The observed period changes, in both cases based upon observations spanning more than a century, are consistent with the earlier determinations of Coutts Clement & Sawyer Hogg (1977, JRASC, 71, 281). (This research is supported by the College of Science of the Florida Institute of Technology.)

  9. Skeletal and dental changes with nonextraction Begg mechanotherapy in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P; Kharbanda, O P; Duggal, R; Parkash, H

    2000-12-01

    This prospective cephalometric study was undertaken to assess the mode and magnitude of Class II correction with nonextraction Begg mechanotherapy in growing children. The sample comprised subjects with similar malocclusion and age range (9-12 years) who were specifically selected for nonextraction Begg mechanotherapy. Cephalograms were analyzed to assess the skeletal, dental, and soft tissue changes that occurred after correction of the molar relationship, the overjet, and the overbite during the 9-month treatment period. The results revealed a significant improvement in the anteroposterior jaw relationship, suggested by the significant reduction in the ANB angle (1.62 degrees ) and in Wits AO-BO (1.42 mm). The mandibular length increase of 0.56 mm suggests that the Class II elastics used in nonextraction Begg mechanotherapy had a minimal stimulatory effect on mandibular growth. There was a significant increase in the anterior and posterior facial heights and the ramal height. Almost all of the dental changes were significant. The most striking feature were a significant retraction and extrusion of the maxillary incisors and proclination and intrusion of the lower incisors accompanied by extrusion of the mandibular molars. The maxillary incisors extruded by 1.64 mm under the influence of the undesirable downward component of the Class II elastic forces. The major contribution to overjet and molar correction was predominantly dentoalveolar.

  10. Effective Schottky Barrier Height Lowering of Metal/n-Ge with a TiO2/GeO2 Interlayer Stack.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gwang-Sik; Kim, Sun-Woo; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Park, June; Seo, Yujin; Cho, Byung Jin; Shin, Changhwan; Shim, Joon Hyung; Yu, Hyun-Yong

    2016-12-28

    A perfect ohmic contact formation technique for low-resistance source/drain (S/D) contact of germanium (Ge) n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is developed. A metal-interlayer-semiconductor (M-I-S) structure with an ultrathin TiO2/GeO2 interlayer stack is introduced into the contact scheme to alleviate Fermi-level pinning (FLP), and reduce the electron Schottky barrier height (SBH). The TiO2 interlayer can alleviate FLP by preventing formation of metal-induced gap states (MIGS) with its very low tunneling resistance and series resistance and can provide very small electron energy barrier at the metal/TiO2 interface. The GeO2 layer can induce further alleviation of FLP by reducing interface state density (Dit) on Ge which is one of main causes of FLP. Moreover, the proposed TiO2/GeO2 stack can minimize interface dipole formation which induces the SBH increase. The M-I-S structure incorporating the TiO2/GeO2 interlayer stack achieves a perfect ohmic characteristic, which has proved unattainable with a single interlayer. FLP can be perfectly alleviated, and the SBH of the metal/n-Ge can be tremendously reduced. The proposed structure (Ti/TiO2/GeO2/n-Ge) exhibits 0.193 eV of effective electron SBH which achieves 0.36 eV of SBH reduction from that of the Ti/n-Ge structure. The proposed M-I-S structure can be suggested as a promising S/D contact technique for nanoscale Ge n-channel transistors to overcome the large electron SBH problem caused by severe FLP.

  11. A Primary Investigation on Serum CTX-II Changes in Patients Infected with Brucellosis in Qinghai Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi Jun; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Xin; Ma, Li; Xu, Li Qing; Yang, Pei Zhen; Meng, Xian Ya; Yu, Hui Zhen; Xu, Xiao Qing; Cao, Jian Ying

    2016-03-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases, with the most frequent complication being osteoarticular changes. The aim of this study was to assess the changes of C-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) in patients infected with brucellosis. A total of 84 brucellosis patients and 43 volunteers were selected and divided into brucellosis vs. control groups. Serum samples were subjected to serological tests for brucellosis, and CTX-II levels in all samples were measured simultaneously with ELISA. The results showed that serum CTX-II levels in human brucellosis were higher than those of healthy controls, without a statistically significant difference, but serum CTX-II levels in male patients were significantly higher than those of female patients (P<0.05). This finding could indicate the biological changes in the cartilage and bone in human brucellosis.

  12. The Changing Face of War in Textbooks: Depictions of World War II and Vietnam, 1970-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachmann, Richard; Mitchell, Lacy

    2014-01-01

    How have U.S. high school textbook depictions of World War II and Vietnam changed since the 1970s? We examined 102 textbooks published from 1970 to 2009 to see how they treated U.S. involvement in World War II and Vietnam. Our content analysis of high school history textbooks finds that U.S. textbooks increasingly focus on the personal experiences…

  13. Changes in the adsorbate dipole layer with changing d-filling of the metal (II) (Co, Ni, Cu) phthalocyanines on Au(111).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jie; Dowben, Peter A

    2009-02-04

    In combined photoemission and inverse photoemission spectroscopy studies, we observe changes in the metal phthalocyanine molecular orbital offsets with respect to the conducting gold substrate Fermi level, with the changing d-electron filling of the metal (II) (Co, Ni, Cu) phthalocyanines. The implication is that the interfacial dipole layer depends upon the choice of metal (Co, Ni, Cu) centers within the metal (II) phthalocyanines adsorbed on Au(111).

  14. Intracrine action of angiotensin II in the intact ventricle of the failing heart: angiotensin II changes cardiac excitability from within

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The influence of intracellular injection of angiotensin II (Ang II) on electrical properties of single right ventricular fibers from the failing heart of cardiomyopathic hamsters (TO2) was investigated in the intact ventricle of 8-month-old animals. Intracellular injection was performed using pressure pulses (40–70 psi) for short periods of time (20 ms) while recoding the action potential simultaneously from the same fiber. The results indicated that intracellular Ang II caused a hyperpolarization of 7.7 mV ± 4.3 mV (n = 39) (4 animals) (P < 0.05) followed by a small fall in membrane potential. The action potential duration was significantly increased at 50% and at 90% repolarization, and the refractoriness was significantly enhanced. The effect of intracellular Ang II on action potential duration was related to the inhibition of potassium conductance through PKC activation because Bis-1 (360 nM), a selective PKC inhibitor, abolished the effect of the peptide. Injections performed in different fibers of the same ventricle showed a variable effect of Ang II on action potential duration and generated spontaneous rhythmicity. The effect of intracellular Ang II on action potential duration and cardiac refractoriness remains for more than 1 h after interruption of the intracellular injection of the peptide. PMID:21744071

  15. Broadway High School: Moving Ahead in Math. Onward to Excellence II: Committing to CHANGE with OTE II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR. School Improvement Program.

    This document describes the school reform movement at Broadway High School in rural Virginia which has led to great success in mathematics achievement as proven by the Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL) tests. The Onward to Excellence II model provided a way for the faculty to focus on math, especially Algebra I, and to involve the entire school…

  16. A Unique Cause of Proteinuria in Pregnancy: Class II Lupus Nephritis with Concomitant Minimal Change Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kunjal, Ryan; Adam-Eldien, Rabie; Makary, Raafat; Jo-Hoy, Francois; Heilig, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 22-year-old African American female who presented to another facility for routine follow-up in the 34th week of pregnancy with lower extremity swelling and nephrotic-range proteinuria. Although she was normotensive, it was initially thought that she had preeclampsia. She was monitored carefully and delivery was induced at 37 weeks of gestation. She was transferred to our hospital, where she was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) based on clinical and laboratory criteria. Renal biopsy revealed a surprising finding of minimal change disease (MCD) concomitant with class II lupus nephritis (LN). She was managed with pulses and then tapering doses of steroid therapy with dramatic resolution of the nephrotic syndrome. This case demonstrates not only the rare de novo occurrence of SLE in pregnancy, but the unique finding of MCD coexisting with class II LN. We propose that altered T cell activity may be the link between these seemingly distinct entities. PMID:27781205

  17. A Crisis Framework Applied to Macrosociological Family Changes: Marriage, Divorce, and Occupational Trends Associated with World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman-Blumen, Jean

    1975-01-01

    A typology of crises is developed to be used with critical aspects of the social system to predict both crisis and postcrisis period role changes. The crisis framework is then applied to macro-changes in family structure in response to an archetypal crisis, World War II. Census data generally support the hypotheses. (Author)

  18. Abrupt change of Antarctic moisture origin at the end of Termination II.

    PubMed

    Masson-Delmotte, V; Stenni, B; Blunier, T; Cattani, O; Chappellaz, J; Cheng, H; Dreyfus, G; Edwards, R L; Falourd, S; Govin, A; Kawamura, K; Johnsen, S J; Jouzel, J; Landais, A; Lemieux-Dudon, B; Lourantou, A; Marshall, G; Minster, B; Mudelsee, M; Pol, K; Röthlisberger, R; Selmo, E; Waelbroeck, C

    2010-07-06

    The deuterium excess of polar ice cores documents past changes in evaporation conditions and moisture origin. New data obtained from the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica Dome C East Antarctic ice core provide new insights on the sequence of events involved in Termination II, the transition between the penultimate glacial and interglacial periods. This termination is marked by a north-south seesaw behavior, with first a slow methane concentration rise associated with a strong Antarctic temperature warming and a slow deuterium excess rise. This first step is followed by an abrupt north Atlantic warming, an abrupt resumption of the East Asian summer monsoon, a sharp methane rise, and a CO(2) overshoot, which coincide within dating uncertainties with the end of Antarctic optimum. Here, we show that this second phase is marked by a very sharp Dome C centennial deuterium excess rise, revealing abrupt reorganization of atmospheric circulation in the southern Indian Ocean sector.

  19. H-, He-like recombination spectra - II. l-changing collisions for He Rydberg states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, F.; Badnell, N. R.; Williams, R. J. R.; van Hoof, P. A. M.; Chatzikos, M.; Ferland, G. J.

    2017-01-01

    Cosmological models can be constrained by determining primordial abundances. Accurate predictions of the He I spectrum are needed to determine the primordial helium abundance to a precision of <1 per cent in order to constrain big bang nucleosynthesis models. Theoretical line emissivities at least this accurate are needed if this precision is to be achieved. In the first paper of this series, which focused on H I, we showed that differences in l-changing collisional rate coefficients predicted by three different theories can translate into 10 per cent changes in predictions for H I spectra. Here, we consider the more complicated case of He atoms, where low-l subshells are not energy degenerate. A criterion for deciding when the energy separation between l subshells is small enough to apply energy-degenerate collisional theories is given. Moreover, for certain conditions, the Bethe approximation originally proposed by Pengelly & Seaton is not sufficiently accurate. We introduce a simple modification of this theory which leads to rate coefficients which agree well with those obtained from pure quantal calculations using the approach of Vrinceanu et al. We show that the l-changing rate coefficients from the different theoretical approaches lead to differences of ˜10 per cent in He I emissivities in simulations of H II regions using spectral code CLOUDY.

  20. Carboxylate metabolism changes induced by Fe deficiency in barley, a Strategy II plant species.

    PubMed

    López-Millán, Ana-Flor; Grusak, Michael A; Abadía, Javier

    2012-07-15

    The effects of iron (Fe) deficiency on carboxylate metabolism were investigated in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using two cultivars, Steptoe and Morex, which differ in their Fe efficiency response. In both cultivars, root extracts of plants grown in Fe-deficient conditions showed higher activities of enzymes related to organic acid metabolism, including citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, compared to activities measured in root extracts of Fe-sufficient plants. Accordingly, the concentration of total carboxylates was higher in Fe-deficient roots of both cultivars, with citrate concentration showing the greatest increase. In xylem sap, the concentration of total carboxylates was also higher with Fe deficiency in both cultivars, with citrate and malate being the major organic acids. Leaf extracts of Fe-deficient plants also showed increases in citric acid concentration and in the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and fumarase activities, and decreases in aconitase activity. Our results indicate that changes in root carboxylate metabolism previously reported in Strategy I species also occur in barley, a Strategy II plant species, supporting the existence of anaplerotic carbon fixation via increases in the root activities of these enzymes, with citrate playing a major role. However, these changes occur less intensively than in Strategy I plants. Activities of the anaerobic metabolism enzymes pyruvate decarboxylase and lactate dehydrogenase did not change in barley roots with Fe deficiency, in contrast to what occurs in Strategy I plants, suggesting that these changes may be Strategy I-specific. No significant differences were observed in overall carboxylate metabolism between cultivars, for plants challenged with high or low Fe treatments, suggesting that carboxylate metabolism changes are not behind the Fe-efficiency differences between these cultivars. Citrate synthase was the only measured enzyme with

  1. Fermi-level depinning and contact resistance reduction in metal/n-Ge junctions by insertion of W-encapsulating Si cluster films

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Naoya; Uchida, Noriyuki; Kanayama, Toshihiko

    2014-02-10

    We demonstrate Fermi-level depinning in metal/Ge junctions and a significant reduction of specific contact resistivity of n-Ge by inserting an ultra-thin semiconducting Si-rich W silicide film (WSi{sub n}, n = 12–14) composed of W-encapsulating Si clusters. Dependence of the specific contact resistivity on the electron Schottky barrier height followed the ideal exponential relation for various contact metal species. This result indicates that the insertion of the WSi{sub n} film provides a negligible contribution to contact resistivity because its tunneling resistance is very low owing to the low offset of the conduction band edge of Ge.

  2. A new way of phase identification, of AgGaGeS{sub 4}∙nGeS{sub 2} crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, R.E. Vasilyeva, I.G.

    2013-07-15

    The phase identification of AgGaGeS{sub 4}·nGeS{sub 2} (n=0–4) crystals grown by vertical Bridgman–Stockbarger technique was carried out to find the boundary value n between a homogeneous solid solution and its mixture with GeS{sub 2}. To obtain reliable results, the conventional methods of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were completed by less common vapor pressure measurement in a closed volume and precise density measurements, which are very sensitive to the detection of small amounts of crystalline and glassy GeS{sub 2} and heterogeneous state of the crystals. The boundary value n=1.5 at 1045 K and the coexistence of the solid solution AgGaGeS{sub 4}·1.5GeS{sub 2} with the β-GeS{sub 2} phase for n>1.5 was found. Glassy GeS{sub 2} (∼2 mol%) was revealed by vapor pressure measurement and XRD studies in all the crystals. This is discussed in terms of the supersaturated solid solution decomposition upon temperature decreasing and the microphase separation of overcooled melt near the melting point under non-equilibrium crystallization. For the first time, the p–T dependence for glassy GeS{sub 2} was measured by the vapor pressure measurements. - Graphical abstract: lg p–1/T dependences of as-grown AgGaGeS{sub 4}·nGeS{sub 2} crystals. - Highlights: • Vapor pressure measurement as a powerful tool of phase identification. • Thermal characteristics of glassy GeS{sub 2}. • The homogeneity range of AgGaGeS{sub 4} from the GeS{sub 2} side.

  3. Structural changes of the oxygen-evolving complex in photosystem II during the catalytic cycle.

    PubMed

    Glöckner, Carina; Kern, Jan; Broser, Matthias; Zouni, Athina; Yachandra, Vittal; Yano, Junko

    2013-08-02

    The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) in the membrane-bound protein complex photosystem II (PSII) catalyzes the water oxidation reaction that takes place in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. We investigated the structural changes of the Mn4CaO5 cluster in the OEC during the S state transitions using x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Overall structural changes of the Mn4CaO5 cluster, based on the manganese ligand and Mn-Mn distances obtained from this study, were incorporated into the geometry of the Mn4CaO5 cluster in the OEC obtained from a polarized XAS model and the 1.9-Å high resolution crystal structure. Additionally, we compared the S1 state XAS of the dimeric and monomeric form of PSII from Thermosynechococcus elongatus and spinach PSII. Although the basic structures of the OEC are the same for T. elongatus PSII and spinach PSII, minor electronic structural differences that affect the manganese K-edge XAS between T. elongatus PSII and spinach PSII are found and may originate from differences in the second sphere ligand atom geometry.

  4. A kinetic model for type I and II IP3R accounting for mode changes.

    PubMed

    Siekmann, Ivo; Wagner, Larry E; Yule, David; Crampin, Edmund J; Sneyd, James

    2012-08-22

    Based upon an extensive single-channel data set, a Markov model for types I and II inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)R) is developed. The model aims to represent accurately the kinetics of both receptor types of IP(3)R depending on the concentrations of inositol trisphosphate (IP(3)), adenosine trisphosphate (ATP), and intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)). In particular, the model takes into account that for some combinations of ligands the IP(3)R switches between extended periods of inactivity alternating with intervals of bursting activity (mode changes). In a first step, the inactive and active modes are modeled separately. It is found that, within modes, both receptor types are ligand-independent. In a second step, the submodels are connected by transition rates. Ligand-dependent regulation of the channel activity is achieved by modulating these transitions between active and inactive modes. As a result, a compact representation of the IP(3)R is obtained that accurately captures stochastic single-channel dynamics including mode changes in a model with six states and 10 rate constants, only two of which are ligand-dependent.

  5. Properly timed exposure to central ANG II prevents behavioral sensitization and changes in angiotensin receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Santollo, Jessica; Whalen, Philip E.; Speth, Robert C.; Clark, Stewart D.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies show that the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) is susceptible to rapid desensitization, but that more chronic treatments that stimulate ANG II lead to sensitization of several responses. It is unclear, however, if the processes of desensitization and sensitization interact. To test for differences in AT1R expression associated with single or repeated injections of ANG II, we measured AT1R mRNA in nuclei that control fluid intake of rats given ANG II either in a single injection or divided into three injections spaced 20 min apart. Rats given a single injection of ANG II had more AT1R mRNA in the subfornical organ (SFO) and the periventricular tissue surrounding the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) than did controls. The effect was not observed, however, when the same cumulative dose of ANG II was divided into multiple injections. Behavioral tests found that single daily injections of ANG II sensitized the dipsogenic response to ANG II, but a daily regimen of four injections did not cause sensitization. Analysis of 125I-Sar1-ANG II binding revealed a paradoxical decrease in binding in the caudal AV3V and dorsal median preoptic nucleus after 5 days of single daily injections of ANG II; however, this effect was absent in rats treated for 5 days with four daily ANG II injections. Taken together, these data suggest that a desensitizing treatment regimen prevents behavior- and receptor-level effects of repeated daily ANG II. PMID:25354729

  6. The FT-IR spectrometric analysis of the changes of polyphenol oxidase II secondary structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chunhua; Dai, Ya; Liu, Qingliang; Xie, Yongshu; Xu, Xiaolong

    2003-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidase II is a novel protein purified from tobacco, which acts as a key role in plant defense system. From the analysis of FT-IR spectrums, Fourier self-deconvolution (FSD) spectrums and second-derivative spectrums of PPO II at different pH and peroxide PPO II adduct, the secondary structure fractions are analyzed. PPO II at low pH (pH=3.0) and peroxide PPO II adduct almost keep the same secondary structure of native PPO II. The percentages of β-turn and random coil increase rapidly and the percentages of α-helix and anti-parallel β-sheet decrease rapidly at high pH (pH=10.0) comparing with that of native PPO II. All these conclusions are proved by the secondary structure calculations of circular dichroism spectrums in different states.

  7. Changes in glomerular hemodynamic response to angiotensin II after subacute renal denervation in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, B J; Mundy, C A; Maciejewski, A R; Printz, M P; Ziegler, M G; Pelayo, J C; Blantz, R C

    1986-01-01

    We examined the changes in glomerular hemodynamics produced by angiotensin II (AII) in both normal Munich-Wistar rats and rats which were unilaterally renal denervated (measured kidney) 4-6 d prior to the measurement periods. Measurements of glomerular dynamics were performed in a control period after plasma volume expansion and during infusion of 11 ng X 100 g body wt-1 X min-1 of AII. The glomerular hydrostatic pressure gradient increased from 38 +/- 1 to 49 +/- 1 mmHg in denervated rats compared with a lesser response in controls (from 39 +/- 1 to 45 +/- 1 mmHg, P less than 0.05). Single nephron plasma flow decreased from 213 +/- 17 to 87 +/- 4 nl X min-1 X g kidney wt (KW)-1 in denervated kidneys versus a more modest decrease in control kidneys (from 161 +/- 9 to 102 +/- 5 nl X min X gKW-1). These changes were due to a greater increase in both afferent and efferent arteriolar resistance after AII infusion in denervated compared with control kidneys. Glomerular AII receptor maximum binding was 1,196 +/- 267 fmol/mg protein in denervated kidneys compared with 612 +/- 89 fmol/mg protein (P less than 0.01) in controls with no change in receptor affinity. We conclude the subacute unilateral renal denervation results in renal vasodilation, denervation magnifies the vasoconstrictive effect of AII infusion on glomerular hemodynamics, and the observed increased response to AII after denervation is associated with increases in glomerular AII receptors. PMID:3745432

  8. Relationship between angiotensin-(1-7) and angiotensin II correlates with hemodynamic changes in human liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Vilas-Boas, Walkíria Wingester; Ribeiro-Oliveira Jr, Antônio; Pereira, Regina Maria; da Cunha Ribeiro, Renata; Almeida, Jerusa; Nadu, Ana Paula; Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina; dos Santos, Robson Augusto Souza

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To measure circulating angiotensins at different stages of human cirrhosis and to further evaluate a possible relationship between renin angiotensin system (RAS) components and hemodynamic changes. METHODS: Patients were allocated into 4 groups: mild-to-moderate liver disease (MLD), advanced liver disease (ALD), patients undergoing liver transplantation, and healthy controls. Blood was collected to determine plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin (Ang) I, Ang II, and Ang-(1-7) levels using radioimmunoassays. During liver transplantation, hemodynamic parameters were determined and blood was simultaneously obtained from the portal vein and radial artery in order to measure RAS components. RESULTS: PRA and angiotensins were elevated in ALD when compared to MLD and controls (P < 0.05). In contrast, Ang II was significantly reduced in MLD. Ang-(1-7)/Ang II ratios were increased in MLD when compared to controls and ALD. During transplantation, Ang II levels were lower and Ang-(1-7)/Ang II ratios were higher in the splanchnic circulation than in the peripheral circulation (0.52 ± 0.08 vs 0.38 ± 0.04, P < 0.02), whereas the peripheral circulating Ang II/Ang I ratio was elevated in comparison to splanchnic levels (0.18 ± 0.02 vs 0.13 ± 0.02, P < 0.04). Ang-(1-7)/Ang II ratios positively correlated with cardiac output (r = 0.66) and negatively correlated with systemic vascular resistance (r = -0.70). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the relationship between Ang-(1-7) and Ang II may play a role in the hemodynamic changes of human cirrhosis. PMID:19469002

  9. Electronic Structure and Oxidation State Changes in the Mn (4) Ca Cluster of Photosystem II

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, J.; Pushkar, Y.; Messinger, J.; Bergmann, U.; Glatzel, P.; Yachandra, V.K.; /SLAC

    2012-08-17

    Oxygen-evolving complex (Mn{sub 4}Ca cluster) of Photosystem II cycles through five intermediate states (S{sub i}-states, i = 0-4) before a molecule of dioxygen is released. During the S-state transitions, electrons are extracted from the OEC, either from Mn or alternatively from a Mn ligand. The oxidation state of Mn is widely accepted as Mn{sub 4}(III{sub 2},IV{sub 2}) and Mn{sub 4}(III,IV{sub 3}) for S{sub 1} and S{sub 2} states, while it is still controversial for the S{sub 0} and S{sub 3} states. We used resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) to study the electronic structure of Mn{sub 4}Ca complex in the OEC. The RIXS data yield two-dimensional plots that provide a significant advantage by obtaining both K-edge pre-edge and L-edge-like spectra (metal spin state) simultaneously. We have collected data from PSII samples in the each of the S-states and compared them with data from various inorganic Mn complexes. The spectral changes in the Mn 1s2p{sub 3/2} RIXS spectra between the S-states were compared to those of the oxides of Mn and coordination complexes. The results indicate strong covalency for the electronic configuration in the OEC, and we conclude that the electron is transferred from a strongly delocalized orbital, compared to those in Mn oxides or coordination complexes. The magnitude for the S{sub 0} to S{sub 1}, and S{sub 1} to S{sub 2} transitions is twice as large as that during the S{sub 2} to S{sub 3} transition, indicating that the electron for this transition is extracted from a highly delocalized orbital with little change in charge density at the Mn atoms.

  10. Electronic Structure and Oxidation State Changes in the Mn4Ca Cluster of Photosystem II

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, Junko; Pushkar, Yulia; Messinger, Johannes; Bergmann, Uwe; Glatzel, Pieter; Yachandra, Vittal K

    2007-08-03

    Oxygen-evolving complex (Mn4Ca cluster) of Photosystem II cycles through five intermediate states (Si-states, i =0-4) before a molecule of dioxygen is released. During the S-state transitions, electrons are extracted from the OEC, either from Mn or alternatively from a Mn ligand. The oxidation state of Mn is widely accepted as Mn4(III2,IV2) and Mn4(III,IV3) for S1 and S2 states, while it is still controversial for the S0 and S3 states. We used resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) to study the electronic structure of Mn4Ca complex in the OEC. The RIXS data yield two-dimensional plots that provide a significant advantage by obtaining both K-edge pre-edge and L-edge-like spectra (metal spin state) simultaneously. We have collected data from PSII samples in the each of the S-states and compared them with data from various inorganic Mncomplexes. The spectral changes in the Mn 1s2p3/2 RIXS spectra between the S-states were compared to those of the oxides of Mn and coordination complexes. The results indicate strong covalency for the electronic configuration in the OEC, and we conclude that the electron is transferred from a strongly delocalized orbital, compared to those in Mn oxides or coordination complexes. The magnitude for the S0 to S1, and S1 to S2 transitions is twice as large as that during the S2 to S3 transition, indicating that the electron for this transition is extracted from a highly delocalized orbital with little change in charge density at the Mn atoms.

  11. Detecting Changes Following the Provision of Assistive Devices: Utility of the WHO-DAS II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raggi, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) is a non-disease-specific International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health-based disability assessment instrument developed to measure activity limitations and restrictions to participation. The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate WHO-DAS II…

  12. Changes in spectrochemical and catalytic properties of biopolymer anchored Cu(II) and Ni(II) catalysts by electron beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Antony, R; Suja Pon Mini, P S; Theodore David Manickam, S; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Mitu, Liviu; Balakumar, S

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan (a biopolymer) anchored Cu(II) and Ni(II) Schiff base complexes, [M(OIAC)Cl2] (M: Cu/Ni and OIAC: ([2-oxo-1H-indol-3-ylidene]amino)chitosan) were electron beam irradiated by different doses (100 Gy, 1 kGy and 10 kGy). The electron beam has shown potential impact on biopolymer's support, in detail chain linking and chain scissoring, as evidenced by viscosity studies, FT-IR and X-ray diffraction spectroscopic techniques. Due to these structural changes, thermal properties of the complexes were found to be changed. The surface of these heterogeneous complexes was also effectually altered by electron beam. As a consequence, pores and holes were created as probed by SEM technique. The catalytic activity of both non-irradiated and irradiated complexes was investigated in the aerobic oxidation of cyclohexane using hydrogen peroxide oxidant. The catalytic ability of the complexes was enhanced significantly after irradiation as the result of surface changes. The reusability of the complexes was also greatly affected because of the structural variations in polymeric support. In terms of both better catalytic activity along with the reusability, 1 kGy is suggested as the best dose to attain adequate increase in catalytic activity and good reusability.

  13. Rosuvastatin prevents angiotensin II-induced vascular changes by inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase and COX-1

    PubMed Central

    Colucci, Rocchina; Fornai, Matteo; Duranti, Emiliano; Antonioli, Luca; Rugani, Ilaria; Aydinoglu, Fatma; Ippolito, Chiara; Segnani, Cristina; Bernardini, Nunzia; Taddei, Stefano; Blandizzi, Corrado; Virdis, Agostino

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose NAD(P)H oxidase and COX-1 participate in vascular damage induced by angiotensin II. We investigated the effect of rosuvastatin on endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodelling, changes in extracellular matrix components and mechanical properties of small mesenteric arteries from angiotensin II-infused rats. Experimental Approach Male rats received angiotensin II (120 ng·kg−1·min−1, subcutaneously) for 14 days with or without rosuvastatin (10 mg·kg−1·day−1, oral gavage) or vehicle. Vascular functions and morphological parameters were assessed by pressurized myography. Key Results In angiotensin II-infused rats, ACh-induced relaxation was attenuated compared with controls, less sensitive to L-NAME, enhanced by SC-560 (COX-1 inhibitor) or SQ-29548 (prostanoid TP receptor antagonist), and normalized by the antioxidant ascorbic acid or NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors. After rosuvastatin, relaxations to ACh were normalized, fully sensitive to L-NAME, and no longer affected by SC-560, SQ-29548 or NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors. Angiotensin II enhanced intravascular superoxide generation, eutrophic remodelling, collagen and fibronectin depositions, and decreased elastin content, resulting in increased vessel stiffness. All these changes were prevented by rosuvastatin. Angiotensin II increased phosphorylation of NAD(P)H oxidase subunit p47phox and its binding to subunit p67phox, effects inhibited by rosuvastatin. Rosuvastatin down-regulated vascular Nox4/NAD(P)H isoform and COX-1 expression, attenuated the vascular release of 6-keto-PGF1α, and enhanced copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase expression. Conclusion and Implications Rosuvastatin prevents angiotensin II-induced alterations in resistance arteries in terms of function, structure, mechanics and composition. These effects depend on restoration of NO availability, prevention of NAD(P)H oxidase-derived oxidant excess, reversal of COX-1 induction and its prostanoid production, and stimulation of

  14. Photosystem II Functionality in Barley Responds Dynamically to Changes in Leaf Manganese Status

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Sidsel B.; Powikrowska, Marta; Krogholm, Ken S.; Naumann-Busch, Bianca; Schjoerring, Jan K.; Husted, Søren; Jensen, Poul E.; Pedas, Pai R.

    2016-01-01

    A catalytic manganese (Mn) cluster is required for the oxidation of water in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) in plants. Despite this essential role of Mn in generating the electrons driving photosynthesis, limited information is available on how Mn deficiency affects PSII functionality. We have here used parameters derived from measurements of fluorescence induction kinetics (OJIP transients), non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and PSII subunit composition to investigate how latent Mn deficiency changes the photochemistry in two barley genotypes differing in Mn efficiency. Mn deficiency caused dramatic reductions in the quantum yield of PSII and led to the appearance of two new inflection points, the K step and the D dip, in the OJIP fluorescence transients, indicating severe damage to the OEC. In addition, Mn deficiency decreased the ability to induce NPQ in the light, rendering the plants incapable of dissipating excess energy in a controlled way. Thus, the Mn deficient plants became severely affected in their ability to recover from high light-induced photoinhibition, especially under strong Mn deficiency. Interestingly, the Mn-efficient genotype was able to maintain a higher NPQ than the Mn-inefficient genotype when exposed to mild Mn deficiency. However, during severe Mn deficiency, there were no differences between the two genotypes, suggesting a general loss of the ability to disassemble and repair PSII. The pronounced defects of PSII activity were supported by a dramatic decrease in the abundance of the OEC protein subunits, PsbP and PsbQ in response to Mn deficiency for both genotypes. We conclude that regulation of photosynthetic performance by means of maintaining and inducing NPQ mechanisms contribute to genotypic differences in the Mn efficiency of barley genotypes growing under conditions with mild Mn deficiency. PMID:27933084

  15. Fabricating a n+-Ge contact with ultralow specific contact resistivity by introducing a PtGe alloy as a contact metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, C. C.; Chou, C. H.; Wang, S. Y.; Chi, W. C.; Chien, C. H.; Luo, G. L.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we developed an Ohmic contact structure to an in situ n+-Ge film that has an ultralow specific contact resistivity of [(6.8 ±2.1 ) ×10-8 Ωṡcm2] . This structure was developed by introducing a PtGe alloy as the contact metal. We observed that Ohmic contact behavior can be achieved with several other metals, and the contact resistance is related to the work function of the metal. A physical model of the band diagram was created for the Schottky tunneling width, which can provide insight into the validation and explanation of work function-dependent specific contact resistivity. Dopant segregation at the interface and increased interface roughness induced by the formation of the alloy are crucial in further reducing the specific contact resistivity. As a result, a stable PtGe alloy and high doping concentration in Ge are critical in pursuing a lower contact resistance for a Ge n-channel device.

  16. Myosin II-mediated cell shape changes and cell intercalation contribute to primitive streak formation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Feifei; Sang, Helen M.; Martin, René; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; MacDonald, Michael P; Weijer, Cornelis J

    2016-01-01

    Primitive streak formation in the chick embryo involves large scale highly coordinated flows of over 100.000 cells in the epiblast. These large scale tissue flows and deformations can be correlated with specific anisotropic cell behaviours in the forming mesendoderm through a combined light-sheet microscopy and computational analysis. Relevant behaviours include apical contraction, elongation along the apical-basal axis followed by ingression as well as asynchronous directional cell intercalation of small groups of mesendoderm cells. Cell intercalation is associated with sequential, directional contraction of apical junctions, the onset, localisation and direction of which correlate strongly with the appearance of active Myosin II cables in aligned apical junctions in neighbouring cells. Use of a class specific Myosin inhibitors and gene specific knockdowns show that apical contraction and intercalation are Myosin II dependent and also reveal critical roles for Myosin I and Myosin V family members in the assembly of junctional Myosin II cables. PMID:25812521

  17. Change of mandibular position during two-phase orthodontic treatment of skeletal class II in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Rhonda Nga Yi; Hägg, Urban; Wong, Ricky Wing Kit; Liao, Chongshan; Yang, Yanqi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in mandibular position during a two-phase orthodontic treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion. Thirty consecutively treated Chinese male adolescents who had undergone two-phase treatment with Herbst appliance and fixed appliance and fulfilled the specific selection criteria were sampled. Cephalograms taken at T0 (before treatment), T1 (at the end of functional appliance treatment), and T2 (at the end of fixed appliance treatment) were analyzed. The change in sagittal positioning of the mandible was 6.8 ± 3.44 mm in phase I (T0-T1), 0.4 ± 2.79 mm in phase II (T1-T2), and 7.2 ± 4.61 mm in total. The mandible came forward in 100% of the patients at T1. In phase II, it came forward in one-third (positive group) remained unchanged in one-third (stable group) and went backward in one-third (negative group) of the patients. At T2, it came forward twice as much in the positive group compared to the negative group. Mandibular length was significantly increased in 100% of the patients in both phases. In conclusion, during the treatment with functional appliance, the mandibular prognathism increases in all patients, whereas during the treatment with fixed appliance there is no significant change in mandibular prognathism.

  18. Anisotropic Change in the Magnetic Susceptibility of a Dynamic Single Crystal of a Cobalt(II) Complex.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zi-Shuo; Wu, Shu-Qi; Kitagawa, Yasutaka; Su, Sheng-Qun; Huang, You-Gui; Li, Guo-Ling; Ni, Zhong-Hai; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Shiota, Yoshihito; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Kang, Soonchul; Kanegawa, Shinji; Sato, Osamu

    2017-01-16

    Atypically anisotropic and large changes in magnetic susceptibility, along with a change in crystalline shape, were observed in a Co(II) complex at near room temperature. This was achieved by combining oxalate molecules, acting as rotor, and a Co(II) ion with unquenched orbital angular momentum. A thermally controlled 90° rotation of the oxalate counter anion triggered a symmetry-breaking ferroelastic phase transition, accompanied by contraction-expansion behavior (ca. 4.5 %) along the long axis of a rod-like single crystal. The molecular rotation induced a minute variation in the coordination geometry around the Co(II) ion, resulting in an abrupt decrease and a remarkable increase in magnetic susceptibility along the direction perpendicular and parallel to the long axis of the crystal, respectively. Theoretical calculations suggested that such an unusual anisotropic change in magnetic susceptibility was due to a substantial reorientation of magnetic anisotropy induced by slight disruption in the ideal D3 coordination environment of the complex cation.

  19. Change of Mandibular Position during Two-Phase Orthodontic Treatment of Skeletal Class II in the Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Hägg, Urban; Wong, Ricky Wing Kit; Liao, Chongshan; Yang, Yanqi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in mandibular position during a two-phase orthodontic treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion. Thirty consecutively treated Chinese male adolescents who had undergone two-phase treatment with Herbst appliance and fixed appliance and fulfilled the specific selection criteria were sampled. Cephalograms taken at T0 (before treatment), T1 (at the end of functional appliance treatment), and T2 (at the end of fixed appliance treatment) were analyzed. The change in sagittal positioning of the mandible was 6.8±3.44 mm in phase I (T0-T1), 0.4±2.79 mm in phase II (T1-T2), and 7.2±4.61 mm in total. The mandible came forward in 100% of the patients at T1. In phase II, it came forward in one-third (positive group) remained unchanged in one-third (stable group) and went backward in one-third (negative group) of the patients. At T2, it came forward twice as much in the positive group compared to the negative group. Mandibular length was significantly increased in 100% of the patients in both phases. In conclusion, during the treatment with functional appliance, the mandibular prognathism increases in all patients, whereas during the treatment with fixed appliance there is no significant change in mandibular prognathism. PMID:25695103

  20. Partnerships for Reform: Changing Teacher Preparation through the Title II HEA Partnership Program. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In 1998, Congress reauthorized and amended the "Higher Education Act of 1965 (HEA)", creating, under Title II, the Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program for States and Partnerships. One initiative under this amendment, the partnership grants program, funded partnerships among colleges of education, schools of arts and sciences, and…

  1. Meal-specific dietary changes from Squires Quest! II: A serious video game intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Squire's Quest! II: Saving the Kingdom of Fivealot", an online video-game, promotes fruit-vegetable (FV) consumption. An evaluation study varied type of implementation intentions used during the goal setting process (none; Action, Coping, or both Action + Coping plans). Participants who created Ac...

  2. Electronic structural changes of Mn in the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II during the catalytic cycle.

    PubMed

    Glatzel, Pieter; Schroeder, Henning; Pushkar, Yulia; Boron, Thaddeus; Mukherjee, Shreya; Christou, George; Pecoraro, Vincent L; Messinger, Johannes; Yachandra, Vittal K; Bergmann, Uwe; Yano, Junko

    2013-05-20

    The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) in photosystem II (PS II) was studied in the S0 through S3 states using 1s2p resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy. The spectral changes of the OEC during the S-state transitions are subtle, indicating that the electrons are strongly delocalized throughout the cluster. The result suggests that, in addition to the Mn ions, ligands are also playing an important role in the redox reactions. A series of Mn(IV) coordination complexes were compared, particularly with the PS II S3 state spectrum to understand its oxidation state. We find strong variations of the electronic structure within the series of Mn(IV) model systems. The spectrum of the S3 state best resembles those of the Mn(IV) complexes Mn3(IV)Ca2 and saplnMn2(IV)(OH)2. The current result emphasizes that the assignment of formal oxidation states alone is not sufficient for understanding the detailed electronic structural changes that govern the catalytic reaction in the OEC.

  3. On the polymorphic and morphological changes of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC-I) upon mercerization and conversion to CNC-II.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ersuo; Guo, Jiaqi; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Yangyang; Song, Junlong; Jin, Yongcan; Rojas, Orlando J

    2016-06-05

    Polymorphic and morphological transformations of cellulosic materials are strongly associated to their properties and applications, especially in the case of emerging nanocelluloses. Related changes that take place upon treatment of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) in alkaline conditions are studied here by XRD, TEM, AFM, and other techniques. The results indicate polymorphic transformation of CNC proceeds gradually in a certain range of alkali concentrations, i.e. from about 8% to 12.5% NaOH. In such transition alkali concentration, cellulose I and II allomorphs coexists. Such value and range of the transition concentration is strongly interdependent with the crystallite size of CNCs. In addition, it is distinctively lower than that for macroscopic fibers (12-15% NaOH). Transmission electron microscopy and particle sizing reveals that after mercerization CNCs tend to associate. Furthermore, TEMPO-oxidized mercerized CNC reveals the morphology of individual nanocrystal of the cellulose II type, which is composed of some interconnected granular structures. Overall, this work reveals how the polymorphism and morphology of individual CNC change in alkali conditions and sheds light onto the polymorphic transition from cellulose I to II.

  4. Antimicrobial Exposure Assessment Task Force II (AEATF II) Volume 5: Governing Document for a Multi-Year Antimicrobial Chemical Exposure Monitoring Program (interim draft document with changes)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes the overall scope of the AEATF II program, demonstrates the need for additional human exposure monitoring data and explains the proposed methodology for the exposure monitoring studies proposed for conduct by the AEATF II.

  5. Changes in the vertical profile of the Indonesian Throughflow during Termination II: Evidence from the Timor Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Kuhnt, Wolfgang; Holbourn, Ann; Andersen, Nils; Bartoli, Gretta

    2006-12-01

    We use a multiproxy approach to monitor changes in the vertical profile of the Indonesian Throughflow as well as monsoonal wind and precipitation patterns in the Timor Sea on glacial-interglacial, precessional, and suborbital timescales. We focus on an interval of extreme climate change and sea level variation: marine isotope (MIS) 6 to MIS 5e. Paleoproductivity fluctuations in the Timor Sea follow a precessional beat related to the intensity of the Australian (NW) monsoon. Paired Mg/Ca and δ18O measurements of surface- and thermocline-dwelling planktonic foraminifers (G. ruber and P. obliquiloculata) indicate an increase of >4°C in both surface and thermocline water temperatures during Termination II. Tropical sea surface temperature changed synchronously with ice volume (benthic δ18O) during deglaciation, implying a direct coupling of high- and low-latitude climate via atmospheric and/or upper ocean circulation. Substantial cooling and freshening of thermocline waters occurred toward the end of Termination II and during MIS 5e, indicating a change in the vertical profile of the Indonesian Throughflow from surface- to thermocline-dominated flow.

  6. Proton-mediated electron configuration change in high-spin iron(II) porphyrinates.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chuanjiang; Noll, Bruce C; Schulz, Charles E; Scheidt, W Robert

    2005-11-02

    The synthesis, molecular structure, and electronic structure characterization of two five-coordinate high-spin imidazolate-ligated iron(II) porphyrinates are reported. Their electronic structure, as deduced from Mössbauer spectra obtained in strong magnetic fields, is distinctly different from that of the analogous imidazole-ligated species. The resulting electronic structure models are consistent with all observed differing features in the two classes.

  7. Volume change of segments II and III of the liver after gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ozutemiz, Can; Obuz, Funda; Taylan, Abdullah; Atila, Koray; Bora, Seymen; Ellidokuz, Hulya

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the relationship between gastrectomy and the volume of liver segments II and III in patients with gastric cancer. METHODS Computed tomography images of 54 patients who underwent curative gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma were retrospectively evaluated by two blinded observers. Volumes of the total liver and segments II and III were measured. The difference between preoperative and postoperative volume measurements was compared. RESULTS Total liver volumes measured by both observers in the preoperative and postoperative scans were similar (P > 0.05). High correlation was found between both observers (preoperative r=0.99; postoperative r=0.98). Total liver volumes showed a mean reduction of 13.4% after gastrectomy (P = 0.977). The mean volume of segments II and III showed similar decrease in measurements of both observers (38.4% vs. 36.4%, P = 0.363); the correlation between the observers were high (preoperative r=0.97, P < 0.001; postoperative r=0.99, P < 0.001). Volume decrease in the rest of the liver was not different between the observers (8.2% vs. 9.1%, P = 0.388). Time had poor correlation with volume change of segments II and III and the total liver for each observer (observer 1, rseg2/3=0.32, rtotal=0.13; observer 2, rseg2/3=0.37, rtotal=0.16). CONCLUSION Segments II and III of the liver showed significant atrophy compared with the rest of the liver and the total liver after gastrectomy. Volume reduction had poor correlation with time. PMID:26899148

  8. Changing concepts about the distribution of Photosystems I and II between grana-appressed and stroma-exposed thylakoid membranes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jan M

    2002-01-01

    Thylakoid membranes of higher plants and some green algae, which house the light-harvesting and energy transducing functions of the chloroplast, are structurally unique. The concept of the photosynthetic unit of the 1930s (Robert Emerson, William Arnold and Hans Gaffron), needing one reaction center per hundreds of antenna molecules, was modified by the discovery of the Enhancement effect in oxygen evolution in two different wavelengths of light (Robert Emerson and his coworkers) in the late 1950s, followed by the 1960 Z scheme of Robin Hill and Fay Bendall. It was realized that two light reactions and two pigment systems were needed for oxygenic photosynthesis. Changing ideas about the distribution of Photosystem II (PS II) and PS I between the green-appressed and stroma-exposed thylakoid membrane domains, which led to the concept of lateral heterogeneity, are discussed.

  9. Review of Salient Points of Volume II: Implications for Education of Prospective Changes in Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratta, Anthony N.

    This paper looks at the state of education and the society in 1980 and compares major changes occurring in the last 15 years with predictions made in a 1967 publication called "Designing Education for the Future No. 2: Implications for Education of Prospective Changes in Society." The author identifies on-target predictions and major changes that…

  10. Changing Populations, Changing Schools. Ninety-fourth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaxman, Erwin, Ed.; Passow, A. Harry, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The contributors to this yearbook attempt to explain the reasons for the poor fit between schools and poor, immigrant, linguistically different, and racial minority students. The problems that confront schools because of changing populations and increased diversity are discussed in the following chapters: (1) "The Old Problem of 'New…

  11. [Correction of tetralogy of Fallot and its influence to oxygen transport and lung changes. Part II: Lung changes (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Reichart, B; Brunner, L; Hügel, W; Klinner, W; Weinhold, C; Westerburg, K W; Heinze, G

    1977-02-01

    22 children got lung scans 3 weeks respectively 12 months after the correction of a tetralogy of Fallot. In 18 cases previous operations were done: 12 times a Blalock-Taussig shunt and 6 times a Brock procedure. For the scan 20-70 mu diameter albumin macrospheres were used, which were labeled with Technetium 99m. The following pathologicla lung changes were seen: 1. Loss of perfusion, typical after Blalock-Taussig shunt procedure; these findings were always on the left side, the site of the anastomosis. 2. Anomalous flow distrubution (=more spheres in the upper than in the lower lobe) in the left lung; these changes were also caused by the Blalock-Taussing shunts, but disappeared within the one year follow-up after the correction. 3. Intrapulmonary rigt-left shunts (according to the dilatation of the alveolar capillaries). These decreased within one year from 9.9+/-1.3 to 4.6+/-0.9%.

  12. Assessment of the risks of climate change in the Working Group II contribution to the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mach, K. J.; Field, C. B.; Mastrandrea, M.; Barros, V.

    2013-12-01

    For the past two decades, IPCC Working Group II has developed comprehensive periodic assessments of climate change impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. In multiple rounds of drafting and review, author teams for each report evaluate the state of knowledge based on extensive scientific and technical information across disciplines. The Working Group II contribution to the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report (WGII AR5), to be completed in 2014, explores the ways climate change is shifting patterns of risks and the implications for response. The risks of climate change often emerge from complex interactions typified by inherent uncertainties. Most fundamentally, climate-related risks result from physical hazards interacting with vulnerable and exposed people, assets, and ecosystems. The WGII AR5 assesses observed impacts of climate change, which may in some cases demonstrate risks already influenced by climate change, and it also assesses future risks affected by climate change and societal development. In communicating risks over the coming century, the assessment uses timeframe as a key distinction. Risks over the next few decades will evolve as socioeconomic trends interact with global temperature increase that is similar across emissions scenarios. During this near-term era of committed climate change, societal responses, particularly adaptations, will influence near-term outcomes. Other risks evolve in the longer term, varying across alternative climate change and development futures. Near-term and ongoing mitigation efforts, as well as development, will determine the risks of climate change in the second half of the 21st century, which can be considered an era of climate options. The WGII AR5 evaluates the ways impacts are experienced through extremes, not just through mean changes, and it considers the different types of vulnerability across regions and contexts. Ultimately, managing the risks of climate change can be considered a challenge of decisionmaking under

  13. PERCEPTION OF CONTOUR: II. EFFECT OF RATE OF CHANGE OF RETINAL INTENSITY GRADIENT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    upon the appearance of an edge, and the rate of change of energy with respect to retinal distance was an unimportant factor in the production of edges... rate of change of the rate of change of intensity on the retina is maximal. The separation of this doublet edge will be smaller the greater the value of the fourth derivative of energy with respect to retinal distance.

  14. Nine-year change in statistical design, profile, and success rates of Phase II oncology trials.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Anastasia; Paul, Barry; Marchenko, Olga; Song, Guochen; Patel, Neerali; Moschos, Stergios J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated nine-year trends in statistical design and other features of Phase II oncology clinical trials published in 2005, 2010, and 2014 in five leading oncology journals: Cancer, Clinical Cancer Research, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology, and Lancet Oncology. The features analyzed included cancer type, multicenter vs. single-institution, statistical design, primary endpoint, number of treatment arms, number of patients per treatment arm, whether or not statistical methods were well described, whether the drug was found effective based on rigorous statistical testing of the null hypothesis, and whether the drug was recommended for future studies.

  15. Structural changes in the S3 state of the oxygen evolving complex in photosystem II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatakeyama, Makoto; Ogata, Koji; Fujii, Katsushi; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Yano, Junko; Nakamura, Shinichiro

    2016-05-01

    The S3 state of the Mn4CaO5-cluster in photosystem II was investigated by DFT calculations and compared with EXAFS data. Considering previously proposed mechanism; a water molecule is inserted into an open coordination site of Mn upon S2 to S3 transition that becomes a substrate water, we examined if the water insertion is essential for the S3 formation, or if one cannot eliminate other possible routes that do not require a water insertion at the S3 stage. The novel S3 state structure consisting of only short 2.7-2.8 Å Mnsbnd Mn distances was discussed.

  16. Changes of 25-OH-Vitamin D during Overwintering at the German Antarctic Stations Neumayer II and III

    PubMed Central

    Steinach, Mathias; Kohlberg, Eberhard; Maggioni, Martina Anna; Mendt, Stefan; Opatz, Oliver; Stahn, Alexander; Tiedemann, Josefine; Gunga, Hanns-Christian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Humans in Antarctica face different environmental challenges, such as low ultra-violet radiation, which is crucial for vitamin D production in humans. Therefore we assessed changes in 25-OH-vitamin D serum concentration during 13 months of overwintering at the German Stations Neumayer II and III (2007–2012). We hypothesized that (i) 25-OH-vitamin D serum concentration would significantly decrease, (ii) changes would be affected by age, gender, baseline (i.e. pre-overwintering) fat mass, baseline 25-OH-vitamin D serum concentration, and station residence, and (iii) our results would not differ from similar previous studies in comparable high latitudes. Materials & Methods 25-OH-vitamin D serum concentrations were determined before, after, and monthly during the campaigns from venous blood samples of n = 43 participants (28 men, 15 women). Baseline fat mass was determined via bio impedance analysis and body plethysmography. Data were analyzed for change over time, dependency on independent parameters, and after categorization for sufficiency (>50nmol/l), insufficiency (25-50nmol/l), and deficiency (<25nmol/l). Results were compared with data from similar previous studies. Results We found a significant decrease of 25-OH-vitamin D with dependency on month. Age, gender, fat mass, and station residence had no influence. Only baseline 25-OH-vitamin D serum concentrations significantly affected subsequent 25-OH-vitamin D values. Conclusions Overwinterings at the Antarctic German research stations Neumayer II and III are associated with a decrease in 25-OH-vitamin D serum concentrations, unaffected by age, gender, baseline fat mass, and station residence. Higher baseline vitamin D serum concentrations might protect from subsequent deficiencies. Residence at the Neumayer Stations may lead to lower vitamin D serum concentrations than found in other comparable high latitudes. PMID:26641669

  17. An organ culture system to model early degenerative changes of the intervertebral disc II: profiling global gene expression changes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Despite many advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of disc degeneration, there remains a paucity of preclinical models which can be used to study the biochemical and molecular events that drive disc degeneration, and the effects of potential therapeutic interventions. The goal of this study is to characterize global gene expression changes in a disc organ culture system that mimics early nontraumatic disc degeneration. Methods To mimic a degenerative insult, rat intervertebral discs were cultured in the presence of TNF-α, IL-1β and serum-limiting conditions. Gene expression analysis was performed using a microarray to identify differential gene expression between experimental and control groups. Differential pattern of gene expression was confirmed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) or Western blot. Results Treatment resulted in significant changes in expression of more than 1,000 genes affecting many aspects of cell function including cellular movement, the cell cycle, cellular development, and cell death and proliferation. Many of the most highly upregulated and downregulated genes have known functions in disc degeneration and extracellular matrix hemostasis. Construction of gene networks based on known cellular pathways and expression data from our analysis demonstrated that the network associated with cell death, cell cycle regulation and DNA replication and repair was most heavily affected in this model of disc degeneration. Conclusions This rat organ culture model uses cytokine exposure to induce wide gene expression changes with the most affected genes having known reported functions in disc degeneration. We propose that this model is a valuable tool to study the etiology of disc degeneration and evaluate potential therapeutic treatments. PMID:24171898

  18. CONTINUUM HALOS IN NEARBY GALAXIES: AN EVLA SURVEY (CHANG-ES). II. FIRST RESULTS ON NGC 4631

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, Judith; Henriksen, Richard N.; Beck, Rainer; Krause, Marita; Mora, Silvia Carolina; Schmidt, Philip; Benjamin, R. A.; Dettmar, Ralf-Juergen; Miskolczi, Arpad; English, Jayanne; Heald, George; Oosterloo, Tom; Johnson, Megan; Li, Jiang-Tao; Murphy, E. J.; Porter, Troy A.; Rand, Richard J.; Saikia, D. J.; Strong, A. W.; Walterbos, Rene E-mail: henriksn@astro.queensu.ca E-mail: rbeck@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de E-mail: cmora@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de; and others

    2012-08-15

    We present the first results from the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies-an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES), a new survey of 35 edge-on galaxies to search for both in-disk and extraplanar radio continuum emission. CHANG-ES is exploiting the new wide-band, multi-channel capabilities of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (i.e., the Expanded Very Large Array or EVLA) with observations in two bands centered at 1.5 and 6 GHz in a variety of array configurations with full polarization. The motivation and science case for the survey are presented in a companion paper (Paper I). These first results are based on C-array test observations in both observing bands of the well-known radio halo galaxy, NGC 4631. In this paper, we outline the observations and the data reduction steps that are required for wide-band calibration and mapping of EVLA data, including polarization. With modest on-source observing times (30 minutes at 1.5 GHz and 75 minutes at 6 GHz for the test data), we have achieved best rms noise levels of 22 and 3.5 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} at 1.5 GHz and 6 GHz, respectively. New disk-halo features have been detected, among them two at 1.5 GHz that appear as loops in projection. We present the first 1.5 GHz spectral index map of NGC 4631 to be formed from a single wide-band observation in a single array configuration. This map represents tangent slopes to the intensities within the band centered at 1.5 GHz, rather than fits across widely separated frequencies as has been done in the past and is also the highest spatial resolution spectral index map yet presented for this galaxy. The average spectral index in the disk is {alpha}-bar{sub 1.5GHz} = -0.84 {+-} 0.05 indicating that the emission is largely non-thermal, but a small global thermal contribution is sufficient to explain a positive curvature term in the spectral index over the band. Two specific star-forming regions have spectral indices that are consistent with thermal emission. Polarization results (uncorrected for

  19. Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies: An EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES). II. First Results on NGC 4631

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Judith; Beck, Rainer; Benjamin, R. A.; Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen; English, Jayanne; Heald, George; Henriksen, Richard N.; Johnson, Megan; Krause, Marita; Li, Jiang-Tao; Miskolczi, Arpad; Mora, Silvia Carolina; Murphy, E. J.; Oosterloo, Tom; Porter, Troy A.; Rand, Richard J.; Saikia, D. J.; Schmidt, Philip; Strong, A. W.; Walterbos, Rene; Wang, Q. Daniel; Wiegert, Theresa

    2012-08-01

    We present the first results from the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies—an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES), a new survey of 35 edge-on galaxies to search for both in-disk and extraplanar radio continuum emission. CHANG-ES is exploiting the new wide-band, multi-channel capabilities of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (i.e., the Expanded Very Large Array or EVLA) with observations in two bands centered at 1.5 and 6 GHz in a variety of array configurations with full polarization. The motivation and science case for the survey are presented in a companion paper (Paper I). These first results are based on C-array test observations in both observing bands of the well-known radio halo galaxy, NGC 4631. In this paper, we outline the observations and the data reduction steps that are required for wide-band calibration and mapping of EVLA data, including polarization. With modest on-source observing times (30 minutes at 1.5 GHz and 75 minutes at 6 GHz for the test data), we have achieved best rms noise levels of 22 and 3.5 μJy beam-1 at 1.5 GHz and 6 GHz, respectively. New disk-halo features have been detected, among them two at 1.5 GHz that appear as loops in projection. We present the first 1.5 GHz spectral index map of NGC 4631 to be formed from a single wide-band observation in a single array configuration. This map represents tangent slopes to the intensities within the band centered at 1.5 GHz, rather than fits across widely separated frequencies as has been done in the past and is also the highest spatial resolution spectral index map yet presented for this galaxy. The average spectral index in the disk is \\bar{\\alpha }_{1.5 \\,GHz} =-0.84+/- 0.05 indicating that the emission is largely non-thermal, but a small global thermal contribution is sufficient to explain a positive curvature term in the spectral index over the band. Two specific star-forming regions have spectral indices that are consistent with thermal emission. Polarization results (uncorrected for internal

  20. Relevance Revisited: Curriculum Development in the Humanities. No. II: Administrative Strategies for Curriculum Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondale, Clarence C., Ed.

    Papers presented in advance of a workshop on "administrative strategies" for curricular change in the humanities and brief summaries of discussions taking place at the workshop are provided. Background papers include: "Curricular Change and the Humanities," by Edward A. Lindell; "Developing Administrative Strategies for…

  1. The tryptophan switch: changing ligand-binding specificity from type I to type II in SH3 domains.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Ballester, Gregorio; Blanes-Mira, Clara; Serrano, Luis

    2004-01-09

    The ability of certain Src homology 3 (SH3) domains to bind specifically both type I and type II polyproline ligands is perhaps the best characterized, but also the worst understood, example in the family of protein-interaction modules. A detailed analysis of the structural variations in SH3 domains, with respect to ligand-binding specificity, together with mutagenesis of SH3 Fyn tyrosine kinase, reveal the structural basis for types I and II binding specificity by SH3 domains. The conserved Trp in the SH3 binding pocket can adopt two different orientations that, in turn, determine the type of ligand (I or II) able to bind to the domain. The only exceptions are ligands with Leu at positions P(-1) and P(2), that deviate from standard poly-Pro angles. The motion of the conserved Trp depends on the presence of certain residues located in a key position (132 for Fyn), near the binding pocket. SH3 domains placing aromatic residues in this key position are promiscuous. By contrast, those presenting beta-branched or long aliphatic residues block the conserved Trp in one of the two possible orientations, preventing binding in a type I orientation. This is experimentally demonstrated by a single mutation in Fyn SH3 (Y132I) that abolishes type I ligand binding, while preserving binding to type II ligands. Thus, simple conformational changes, governed by simple rules, can have profound effects on protein-protein interactions, highlighting the importance of structural details to predict protein-protein interactions.

  2. Black and white population change in small American suburbs since World War II: regional differences.

    PubMed

    Stahura, J M

    1988-10-01

    "This study examines the relationship between black population concentration (% black), black population change and white population change for small American suburbs for the 1950-1980 period. Linear, tipping point (curvilinear) and interaction models of racial transition are evaluated for each decade by region (South and non-South), controlling for several other suburban characteristics (age, annexation and distance to the Central Business District) which may affect both black and white population change. The analyses show that racial transition in suburbs involves the parallel development of white and black populations with mainly weak and complex causal linkages which are sensitive to broader suburbanization patterns."

  3. Induction of Nonphotochemical Energy Dissipation and Absorbance Changes in Leaves (Evidence for Changes in the State of the Light-Harvesting System of Photosystem II in Vivo).

    PubMed Central

    Ruban, A. V.; Young, A. J.; Horton, P.

    1993-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence and absorbance changes in the 400- to 560-nm region have been made following illumination of dark-adapted leaves of the epiphytic bromeliad Guzmania monostachia. During the first illumination, an absorbance change at 505 nm occurred with a half-time of 45 s as the leaf zeaxanthin content rose to 14% of total leaf carotenoid. Selective light scattering at 535 nm occurred with a half-time of 30 s. During a second illumination, following a 5-min dark period, quenching and the 535-nm absorbance change occurred more rapidly, reaching a maximum extent within 30 s. Nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence was found to be linearly correlated to the 535-nm absorbance change throughout. Examination of the spectra of chlorophyll fluorescence emission at 77 K for leaves sampled at intervals during this regime showed selective quenching in the light-harvesting complexes of photosystem II (LHCII). The quenching spectrum of the reversible component of quenching had a maximum at 700 nm, indicating quenching in aggregated LHCII, whereas the irreversible component represented a quenching of 680-nm fluorescence from unaggregated LHCII. It is suggested that this latter process, which is associated with the 505-nm absorbance change and zeaxanthin formation, is indicating a change in state of the LHCII complexes that is necessary to amplify or activate reversible pH-dependent energy dissipation, which is monitored by the 535-nm absorbance change. Both of the major forms of nonphotochemical energy dissipation in vivo are therefore part of the same physiological photoprotective process and both result from alterations in the LHCII system. PMID:12231862

  4. Changes and significance of IL-25 in chicken collagen II-induced experimental arthritis (CIA).

    PubMed

    Kaiwen, Wang; Zhaoliang, Su; Yinxia, Zhao; Siamak, Sandoghchian Shotorbani; Zhijun, Jiao; Yuan, Xue; Heng, Yang; Dong, Zheng; Yanfang, Liu; Pei, Shen; Shengjun, Wang; Qixiang, Shao; Xinxiang, Huang; Liwei, Lu; Huaxi, Xu

    2012-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease. It is a systemic inflammatory disease, characterized by chronic, symmetrical, multi-articular synovial arthritis. IL-25 (IL-17E) is a member of the recently emerged cytokine family (IL-17s), which is expressed in Th2 cells and bone marrow-derived mast cells. Unlike the other members of this family, IL-25 is capable of inducing Th2-associated cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) and also promotes the release of some pro-immune factors (IL-6 and IL-8). IL-25 is also a pleiotropic factor, which constitutes a tissue-specific pathological injury and chronic inflammation. In this study, we used chicken collagen II-induced experimental arthritis (CIA) model in DBA/1 mice to investigate the relationship between IL-25 and other inflammatory factors, revealing the possible mechanism in CIA. Our results showed that the expression level of IL-25 was enhanced in the late stage of CIA, and IL-17 was increased in the early stage of the disease. It is well known that IL-17 has a crucial role in the development of RA pathogenesis, and IL-25 plays a significant role in humoral immune. For reasons given above, we suggested that the IL-25 inhibited IL-17 expression to some extent, while enhancing the production of IL-4. It was confirmed that IL-25 not only regulated the cellular immune, but also involved the humoral immune in rheumatoid arthritis.

  5. Direct determination of the timing of sea level change during termination II.

    PubMed

    Gallup, Christina D; Cheng, H; Taylor, F W; Edwards, R L

    2002-01-11

    An outcrop within the last interglacial terrace on Barbados contains corals that grew during the penultimate deglaciation, or Termination II. We used combined 230Th and 231Pa dating to determine that they grew 135.8 +/- 0.8 thousand years ago, indicating that sea level was 18 +/- 3 meters below present sea level at the time. This suggests that sea level had risen to within 20% of its peak last-interglacial value by 136 thousand years ago, in conflict with Milankovitch theory predictions. Orbital forcing may have played a role in the deglaciation, as may have isostatic adjustments due to large ice sheets. Other corals in the same outcrop grew during oxygen isotope (delta18O) substage 6e, indicating that sea level was 38 +/- 5 meters below present sea level, about 168.0 thousand years ago. When compared to the delta18O signal in the benthic V19-30/V19-28 record at that time, the coral data extend to the previous glacial cycle the conclusion that deep-water temperatures were colder during glacial periods.

  6. The redox environment triggers conformational changes and aggregation of hIAPP in Type II Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez Camargo, Diana C.; Tripsianes, Konstantinos; Buday, Katalin; Franko, Andras; Göbl, Christoph; Hartlmüller, Christoph; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Aichler, Michaela; Mettenleiter, Gabriele; Schulz, Michael; Böddrich, Annett; Erck, Christian; Martens, Henrik; Walch, Axel Karl; Madl, Tobias; Wanker, Erich E.; Conrad, Marcus; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Reif, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Type II diabetes (T2D) is characterized by diminished insulin production and resistance of cells to insulin. Among others, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a principal factor contributing to T2D and induces a shift towards a more reducing cellular environment. At the same time, peripheral insulin resistance triggers the over-production of regulatory hormones such as insulin and human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP). We show that the differential aggregation of reduced and oxidized hIAPP assists to maintain the redox equilibrium by restoring redox equivalents. Aggregation thus induces redox balancing which can assist initially to counteract ER stress. Failure of the protein degradation machinery might finally result in β-cell disruption and cell death. We further present a structural characterization of hIAPP in solution, demonstrating that the N-terminus of the oxidized peptide has a high propensity to form an α-helical structure which is lacking in the reduced state of hIAPP. In healthy cells, this residual structure prevents the conversion into amyloidogenic aggregates. PMID:28287098

  7. The Employment Impact of Technological Change. Technology and the American Economy, Appendix Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Technology, Automation and Economic Progress, Washington, DC.

    Eleven descriptive studies prepared by independent experts and dealing with the employment impact of technological change are presented. Part I contains (1) an analysis, at the establishment level, of employment-increasing growth of output and employment-decreasing growth of output per man-hour, (2) case studies of the elapsed time involved in the…

  8. Selected Translated Abstracts of Russian-Language Climate-Change Publications, II. Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Ravina, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning clouds as they relate to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included, to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  9. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications: II, Clouds. Issue 159

    SciTech Connect

    Burtis, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning clouds as they relate to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  10. Reference hydrologic networks II. Using reference hydrologic networks to assess climate-driven changes in streamflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burn, Donald H.; Hannaford, Jamie; Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Whitfield, Paul H.; Thorne, Robin; Marsh, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Reference hydrologic networks (RHNs) can play an important role in monitoring for changes in the hydrological regime related to climate variation and change. Currently, the literature concerning hydrological response to climate variations is complex and confounded by the combinations of many methods of analysis, wide variations in hydrology, and the inclusion of data series that include changes in land use, storage regulation and water use in addition to those of climate. Three case studies that illustrate a variety of approaches to the analysis of data from RHNs are presented and used, together with a summary of studies from the literature, to develop approaches for the investigation of changes in the hydrological regime at a continental or global scale, particularly for international comparison. We present recommendations for an analysis framework and the next steps to advance such an initiative. There is a particular focus on the desirability of establishing standardized procedures and methodologies for both the creation of new national RHNs and the systematic analysis of data derived from a collection of RHNs.

  11. Managing Information Technology as a Catalyst of Change. Track II: Leveraging People with Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    This track of the 1993 CAUSE Conference presents eight papers on how information technology can help people in institutions of higher education do their jobs more effectively. Papers include: (1) "Implementing a Culture of Change: The Five-Year Transformation of The George Washington University" (Walter M. Bortz); (2) "Empowering…

  12. Analytic Corrections to CFD Heating Predictions Accounting for Changes in Surface Catalysis. Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Inger, George R.

    1996-01-01

    A new approach for combining the insight afforded by integral boundary-layer analysis with comprehensive (but time intensive) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) flowfield solutions of the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations is described. The approach extracts CFD derived quantities at the wall and at the boundary layer edge for inclusion in a post-processing boundary-layer analysis. It allows a designer at a work-station to address two questions, given a single CFD solution. (1) How much does the heating change for a thermal protection system (TPS) with different catalytic properties than was used in the original CFD solution? (2) How does the heating change at the interface of two different TPS materials with an abrupt change in catalytic efficiency? The answer to the second question is particularly important, because abrupt changes from low to high catalytic efficiency can lead to localized increase in heating which exceeds the usually conservative estimate provided by a fully catalytic wall assumption. Capabilities of this approach for application to Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) design are demonstrated. If the definition of surface catalysis is uncertain early in the design process, results show that fully catalytic wall boundary conditions provide the best baseline for CFD design points.

  13. Experimental frost-bite in Hanford Miniature Swine. II. Vascular changes.

    PubMed Central

    Schoning, P.; Hamlet, M. P.

    1989-01-01

    Frost-bite lesions were produced in five Hanford Miniature Swine exposed to - 75 degrees C air for 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 min. Biopsies were taken at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h, and 1 and 2 weeks. Two hundred slides were evaluated microscopically: superficial and deep hyperaemia, vascular inflammation, medial degeneration, and thrombosis were graded from 0 to 5; 0, no change; 5, severe change. Haemorrhage was recorded as present or absent. Hyperaemia was the earliest change seen, both grossly and microscopically. Leucocyte emigration and vasculitis were intermediate stages seen most commonly in the 6, 12, and 24 h biopsies. Medial degeneration and thrombosis, the most severe vascular changes, were not seen until 1-2 weeks following frost-bite injury. These findings show that the outcome of frost-bite can not be accurately predicted from early frost-bite lesions, because thrombosis and medial degeneration are not evident in early lesions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:2923789

  14. Meiji Japan: The Dynamics of National Change. A Humanities Approach to Japanese History, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn; Thompson, Sara; Stevens, Anne

    This curriculum unit focuses on the Meiji period (1868-1912), a pivotal period in Japanese and world history. Each lesson in this unit uses art, literature, primary sources, or a combination to help students understand Japan's emerging sense of nationhood within the context of the rapid change taking place during this important period. Lessons…

  15. Changes in insulin‐like growth factor‐I and ‐II associated with fat but not lean mass in early old age

    PubMed Central

    Holly, Jeff M.P.; Lashen, Hany; Hardy, Rebecca; Adams, Judith; Kuh, Diana; Ben‐Shlomo, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that insulin‐like growth factors‐I and II (IGF‐I and II) decline during late midlife and that greater declines are related to higher fat mass and lower lean mass. Methods A total of 1,542 men and women in a British birth cohort study had IGF‐I and II measured by immunoassay of blood samples at age 53 and/or 60‐64 years. Fat mass, android:gynoid fat ratio, and appendicular lean mass were measured at 60‐64 years using dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry (DXA). Associations between changes in IGF‐I or II and body composition outcomes were examined using conditional change linear regression models. Results Mean IGF‐I and IGF‐II concentrations were lower at 60‐64 than at 53 years, by 12.8% for IGF‐I and by 12.5% for IGF‐II. Larger declines in either IGF‐I or II were associated with higher fat mass at 60‐64 years. Although higher IGF‐I at 53 years was associated with higher lean mass, there was little evidence linking changes in IGF‐I or II to lean mass. Conclusions The findings suggest that IGF‐I and II concentrations decline with age, and greater declines are associated with higher fat mass levels. These results provide some evidence for the suggested roles of IGF‐I and II in regulating fat mass but not lean mass in older age. PMID:25645314

  16. DOE SBIR Phase II Final Technical Report - Assessing Climate Change Effects on Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, Cameron; Capps, Scott

    2014-11-05

    Specialized Vertum Partners software tools were prototyped, tested and commercialized to allow wind energy stakeholders to assess the uncertainties of climate change on wind power production and distribution. This project resulted in three commercially proven products and a marketing tool. The first was a Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) based resource evaluation system. The second was a web-based service providing global 10m wind data from multiple sources to wind industry subscription customers. The third product addressed the needs of our utility clients looking at climate change effects on electricity distribution. For this we collaborated on the Santa Ana Wildfire Threat Index (SAWTi), which was released publicly last quarter. Finally to promote these products and educate potential users we released “Gust or Bust”, a graphic-novel styled marketing publication.

  17. Morphologic changes in rat urothelial cells during carcinogenesis. II. Image cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Young, I.T.; Vanderlaan, M.; Kromhout, L.; Jensen, R.; Grover, A.; King, E.

    1984-01-01

    Improved early detection of neoplasia by screening of urothelial cells requires an understanding of the features distinguishing normal and neoplastic cell populations. The authors have begun a program of study based upon a rate model system for the controlled observation of early-stage lesions produced by the carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)- nitrosamine. Cells dissociated directly from normal and malignant urothelium were characterized by conventional cytopathology techniques and by quantitative microscopy (for nuclear texture and nuclear and cytoplasmic size, shape, and stain content) to derive a comprehensive picture of bladder tumor development. By following the changes that occur in the dissociated urothelial cells the authors have found that the nuclear area, total nuclear stain, nuclear shape, and the nuclear chromatin change significantly over a 48-wk interval as the lesions progress toward malignancy. 24 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  18. Change in health inequalities among British civil servants: the Whitehall II study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrie, J; Shipley, M; Davey, S; Stansfeld, S; Marmot, M

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: Despite an overall decline in mortality rates, the social gradient in mortality has increased over the past two decades. However, evidence on trends in morbidity and cardiovascular risk factors indicates that socioeconomic differences are static or narrowing. The objective of this study was to investigate morbidity and cardiovascular risk factor trends in white collar British civil servants. Design: Self rated health, longstanding illness, minor psychiatric morbidity (General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 30 score, GHQ caseness and GHQ depression subscale), cholesterol, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, body mass index, alcohol over the recommended limits, and smoking were collected at baseline screening (1985–88) and twice during follow up (mean length of follow up 5.3 and 11.1 years). Employment grade gradients in these measures at each phase were compared. Setting: Whitehall II, prospective cohort study. Participants: White collar women and men aged 35–55, employed in 20 departments at baseline screening. Analyses included 6770 participants who responded to all three phases. Results: Steep employment grade gradients were observed for most measures at second follow up. In general, there was little evidence that employment grade gradients have increased over the 11.1 years of follow up, but marked increases in the gradient were observed for GHQ score (p<0.001) and depression (p=0.05) in both sexes and for cholesterol in men (p=0.01). Conclusions: There is little evidence of an increase in inequality for most measures of morbidity and cardiovascular risk factors in white collar civil servants over the 11.1 years to 1998. Inequalities have increased significantly for minor psychiatric morbidity in both sexes and for cholesterol in men. PMID:12461113

  19. Changes in the thermocline structure of the Indonesian outflow during Terminations I and II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Holbourn, Ann; Kuhnt, Wolfgang; Jian, Zhimin; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2008-08-01

    We present centennial records of sea surface and upper thermocline temperatures in Core MD01-2378 from the Timor Sea, which provide new insights into the variability of the Indonesian outflow across the last two glacial terminations. Mg/Ca in Globigerinoides ruber (white s. s.) indicates an overall increase of 3.2 °C in sea surface temperature (SST) over Termination I. Following an early Holocene plateau at 11.3-6.4 ka, SSTs cooled by 0.6 °C during the middle to late Holocene (6.4-0.7 ka). The early Holocene warming occurred in phase with increasing northern hemisphere summer insolation, coinciding with northward displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, enhanced boreal summer monsoon and expansion of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool. Thermocline temperatures (Pulleniatina obliquiloculata Mg/Ca) gradually decreased from 24.5 to 21.5 °C since 10.3 ka, reflecting intensification of a cool thermocline throughflow. The vertical structure of the upper ocean in the Timor Sea evolved in similar fashion during the Holocene and MIS5e, although the duration of SST plateaux differed (11.3 to 6.4 ka in Termination I and from 129 to 119 ka in Termination II), which was probably due to the more intense northern hemisphere summer insolation during MIS 5e. During both terminations, SST increased simultaneously in the southern high latitudes and the tropical eastern Indian Ocean, suggesting virtually instantaneous atmospheric climate feedbacks between the high and low latitudes.

  20. Thermal Imaging of Skin Changes on the Feet of Type II Diabetics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Austria Abstract – Skin changes such as callosities and mycosis may be regarded as a risk factor for severe structural impairments including...normal individuals in a survey conducted in Canada [10]. Most onychomycoses are secondary to a mycosis of the adjacent skin [11], which may lead to...Measure Intraclass Correlation (95 % confidence interval) callus mycosis Toe deformity Arch deformity Hot spot 1st right toe 0.23 (0.00

  1. Engineering the Pseudomonas aeruginosa II lectin: designing mutants with changed affinity and specificity.

    PubMed

    Kříž, Zdeněk; Adam, Jan; Mrázková, Jana; Zotos, Petros; Chatzipavlou, Thomais; Wimmerová, Michaela; Koča, Jaroslav

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on designing mutations of the PA-IIL lectin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa that lead to change in specificity. Following the previous results revealing the importance of the amino acid triad 22-23-24 (so-called specificity-binding loop), saturation in silico mutagenesis was performed, with the intent of finding mutations that increase the lectin's affinity and modify its specificity. For that purpose, a combination of docking, molecular dynamics and binding free energy calculation was used. The combination of methods revealed mutations that changed the performance of the wild-type lectin and its mutants to their preferred partners. The mutation at position 22 resulted in 85% in inactivation of the binding site, and the mutation at 23 did not have strong effects thanks to the side chain being pointed away from the binding site. Molecular dynamics simulations followed by binding free energy calculation were performed on mutants with promising results from docking, and also at those where the amino acid at position 24 was replaced for bulkier or longer polar chain. The key mutants were also prepared in vitro and their binding properties determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. Combination of the used methods proved to be able to predict changes in the lectin performance and helped in explaining the data observed experimentally.

  2. [Pain sensitivity changes in schizophrenic patients and animal models--Part II].

    PubMed

    Tuboly, Gábor; Horváth, Gyöngyi

    2009-05-30

    Diminished pain sensitivity in schizophrenic patients has been reported for more than 50 years, however little is known about the substrate and the basic mechanisms underlying altered pain sensitivity in this disease, therefore, relevant animal models are of decisive importance in the study of psychiatric diseases. The authors report a review consisting of two parts focusing on pain sensitivity changes in patients and in different animal models which proved the eligibility as schizophrenia models and pain sensitivities have also been determined. The second part of this article analyzed the results regarding knock out mice as schizophrenia models. These data proved that several genes have significant role in the pathomechanism of schizophrenia; therefore deficiency in one gene does not produce animals showing all signs of this disease. As regards the pain sensitivity changes, only a few data are available with controversial results. Data originated from complex chronic animal models indicate that they might be more adequate methods for studying the mechanisms of schizophrenia including the pain-sensitivity changes.

  3. Evaluation of Pump Pulsation in Respirable Size-Selective Sampling: Part II. Changes in Sampling Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Lee, Taekhee; Kim, Seung Won; Lee, Larry; Flemmer, Michael M.; Harper, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This second, and concluding, part of this study evaluated changes in sampling efficiency of respirable size-selective samplers due to air pulsations generated by the selected personal sampling pumps characterized in Part I (Lee E, Lee L, Möhlmann C et al. Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: Part I. Pulsation measurements. Ann Occup Hyg 2013). Nine particle sizes of monodisperse ammonium fluorescein (from 1 to 9 μm mass median aerodynamic diameter) were generated individually by a vibrating orifice aerosol generator from dilute solutions of fluorescein in aqueous ammonia and then injected into an environmental chamber. To collect these particles, 10-mm nylon cyclones, also known as Dorr-Oliver (DO) cyclones, were used with five medium volumetric flow rate pumps. Those were the Apex IS, HFS513, GilAir5, Elite5, and Basic5 pumps, which were found in Part I to generate pulsations of 5% (the lowest), 25%, 30%, 56%, and 70% (the highest), respectively. GK2.69 cyclones were used with the Legacy [pump pulsation (PP) = 15%] and Elite12 (PP = 41%) pumps for collection at high flows. The DO cyclone was also used to evaluate changes in sampling efficiency due to pulse shape. The HFS513 pump, which generates a more complex pulse shape, was compared to a single sine wave fluctuation generated by a piston. The luminescent intensity of the fluorescein extracted from each sample was measured with a luminescence spectrometer. Sampling efficiencies were obtained by dividing the intensity of the fluorescein extracted from the filter placed in a cyclone with the intensity obtained from the filter used with a sharp-edged reference sampler. Then, sampling efficiency curves were generated using a sigmoid function with three parameters and each sampling efficiency curve was compared to that of the reference cyclone by constructing bias maps. In general, no change in sampling efficiency (bias under ±10%) was observed until pulsations exceeded 25% for the

  4. Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: part II. Changes in sampling efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Lee, Taekhee; Kim, Seung Won; Lee, Larry; Flemmer, Michael M; Harper, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This second, and concluding, part of this study evaluated changes in sampling efficiency of respirable size-selective samplers due to air pulsations generated by the selected personal sampling pumps characterized in Part I (Lee E, Lee L, Möhlmann C et al. Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: Part I. Pulsation measurements. Ann Occup Hyg 2013). Nine particle sizes of monodisperse ammonium fluorescein (from 1 to 9 μm mass median aerodynamic diameter) were generated individually by a vibrating orifice aerosol generator from dilute solutions of fluorescein in aqueous ammonia and then injected into an environmental chamber. To collect these particles, 10-mm nylon cyclones, also known as Dorr-Oliver (DO) cyclones, were used with five medium volumetric flow rate pumps. Those were the Apex IS, HFS513, GilAir5, Elite5, and Basic5 pumps, which were found in Part I to generate pulsations of 5% (the lowest), 25%, 30%, 56%, and 70% (the highest), respectively. GK2.69 cyclones were used with the Legacy [pump pulsation (PP) = 15%] and Elite12 (PP = 41%) pumps for collection at high flows. The DO cyclone was also used to evaluate changes in sampling efficiency due to pulse shape. The HFS513 pump, which generates a more complex pulse shape, was compared to a single sine wave fluctuation generated by a piston. The luminescent intensity of the fluorescein extracted from each sample was measured with a luminescence spectrometer. Sampling efficiencies were obtained by dividing the intensity of the fluorescein extracted from the filter placed in a cyclone with the intensity obtained from the filter used with a sharp-edged reference sampler. Then, sampling efficiency curves were generated using a sigmoid function with three parameters and each sampling efficiency curve was compared to that of the reference cyclone by constructing bias maps. In general, no change in sampling efficiency (bias under ±10%) was observed until pulsations exceeded 25% for the

  5. Part II: Biochemical changes after pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 infusion in migraine patients.

    PubMed

    Guo, Song; Vollesen, Anne Luise Haulund; Hansen, Young Bae Lee; Frandsen, Erik; Andersen, Malene Rohr; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Olesen, Jes; Ashina, Messoud

    2017-02-01

    Background Intravenous infusion of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP38) provokes migraine attacks in 65-70% of migraine without aura (MO) patients. We investigated whether PACAP38 infusion causes changes in the endogenous production of PACAP38, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B), neuron-specific enolase and pituitary hormones in migraine patients. Methods We allocated 32 previously genotyped MO patients to receive intravenous infusion PACAP38 (10 pmol/kg/minute) for 20 minutes and recorded migraine-like attacks. Sixteen of the patients were carriers of the risk allele rs2274316 ( MEF2D), which confers increased risk of MO and may regulate PACAP38 expression, and 16 were non-carriers. We collected blood samples at baseline and 20, 30, 40, 60 and 90 minutes after the start of the infusion. A control group of six healthy volunteers received intravenous saline. Results PACAP38 infusion caused significant changes in plasma concentrations of VIP ( p = 0.026), prolactin ( p = 0.011), S100B ( p < 0.001) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; p = 0.015), but not CGRP ( p = 0.642) and TNFα ( p = 0.535). We found no difference in measured biochemical variables after PACAP38 infusion in patients who later developed migraine-like attacks compared to those who did not ( p > 0.05). There was no difference in the changes of biochemical variables between patients with and without the MEF2D-associated gene variant ( p > 0.05). Conclusion PACAP38 infusion elevated the plasma levels of VIP, prolactin, S100B and TSH, but not CGRP and TNFα. Development of delayed migraine-like attacks or the presence of the MEF2D gene variant was not associated with pre-ictal changes in plasma levels of neuropeptides, TNFα and pituitary hormones.

  6. Conformational Change in Molecular Assembly of Nickel(II) Tetra(n-propyl)porphycene Triggered by Potential Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Soichiro; Kawamoto, Teppei; Okawara, Toru; Hisaeda, Yoshio; Abe, Masaaki

    2016-12-27

    Metal-coordinated porphyrin and related compounds are important for developing molecular architectures that mimic enzymes. Porphycene, a structural isomer of porphyrin, has shown unique properties in semiartificial myoglobin. To explore its potential as a molecular building block, we studied the molecular assembly of nickel(II) tetra(n-propyl)porphycene (NiTPrPc), a metalloporphycene with introduced tetra n-propyl moieties, on the Au(111) electrode surface using in situ scanning tunneling microscopy. Because of the low molecular symmetry of NiTPrPc, the molecular assembly undergoes unique phase transitions due to conformational change of the n-propyl moieties. The phase transitions can be precisely controlled by the electrode potential, demonstrating that the latter can play an important role in the porphycene molecular assembly on Au surface. This new discovery indicates possible uses of this porphycene framework in molecular engineering.

  7. Photosystem II functionality and antioxidant system changes during leaf rolling in post-stress emerging Ctenanthe setosa exposed to drought.

    PubMed

    Terzi, Rabiye; Saruhan, Neslihan; Sağlam, A; Nar, Hatice; Kadioğlu, A

    2009-12-01

    We studied the changes in antioxidant system and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in post-stress emerging Ctenanthe setosa (Rosc.) Eichler (Marantaceae) plants (PSE plants) having reduced leaf area under drought stress causing leaf rolling and re-watering. PSE plants were compared to primary stressed plants (PS) in previous studies. The parameters were measured at different visual leaf rolling scores from 1 to 4 (1 is unrolled, 4 is tightly rolled and the others is intermediate form). Water potentials and stomatal conductance of leaves were gradually decreased during leaf rolling. Similarly, maximum quantum efficiency of open PS II center and quantum yield of PS II decreased during the rolling period. Non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence decreased at score 2 then increased while photochemical quenching did not change during leaf rolling. Electron transport rate decreased only at score 4 but approximately reached to score 1 level after re-watering. Superoxide dismutase activity was not constant at all leaf rolling scores. Ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase activities generally tended to increase during leaf rolling. Lipid peroxidation and H 2 O 2 content increased at score 2 but decreased at the later scores. On the other hand, O 2 .- production increased during the rolling period. After re-watering of the plants having score 4 of leaf rolling, antioxidant enzyme activities were lower than those of score 1. Other physiological parameters also tended to reach the value of score 1. The results indicated that PSE plants gained drought tolerance by reducing leaf area effectively induced their antioxidant systems and protected the photosynthesis under drought stress similar to PS plants.

  8. Cockle infection by Himasthla quissetensis - II. The theoretical effects of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Montaudouin, Xavier; Blanchet, Hugues; Desclaux-Marchand, Céline; Bazairi, Hocein; Alfeddy, Nazik; Bachelet, Guy

    2016-07-01

    Numerous marine populations experience parasite pressure. This is the case of the cockles Cerastoderma edule which are often highly infected by trematode macroparasites. These parasites display a complex life cycle, with a succession of free-living and parasitic stages. Climate, and in particular temperature, is an important modulator of the transmission dynamics of parasites. Consequently, global change is thought to have implications for the epidemiology of infectious diseases. Using Himasthla quissetensis, a dominant parasite of cockles as 2nd intermediate host in Arcachon Bay (France), we used mathematical models of parasite emergence (cercariae) and parasite infection (metacercariae) in cockles as a function of water temperature, in order to study different scenarios of temperature increases. Globally, with a + 0.5 °C to + 6.0 °C simulation, cumulated emergence of cercariae and accumulation of metacercariae tended to decrease or stagnate, respectively. This is the consequence of a trade-off between sooner (spring) and later (autumn) cercariae emergence/infestation on one hand, and a longer inhibition period of cercariae emergence/infestation during the hottest days in summer. Using sea water temperature in Oualidia (Morocco) where mean annual sea temperature is 3 °C higher than in Arcachon Bay, our model predicted infestation all year long (no seasonality). The model gave a correct estimation of the total number of parasites that was expected in cockles. Conversely, observed infestation in Oualidia followed a seasonal pattern like in Arcachon Bay. These results suggest that, if temperature is a strong driver of parasite transmission, extrapolation in the framework of climate change should be performed with caution.

  9. Adrenocortical toxicity of 3-methylsulfonyl-DDE in mice. II. Mitochondrial changes following ecologically relevant doses

    SciTech Connect

    Joensson, C.J.R.; Rodriguez-Martinez, H.; Lund, B.O.; Bergman, A.; Brandt, I. )

    1991-02-01

    Transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize early ultrastructural lesions in the adrenal zona fasciculata of female C57BL mice given a single ip injection of the adrenocorticolytic DDT-metabolite 3-methylsulfonyl-DDE (MeSO2-DDE). Following 3 mg/kg, mitochondrial changes were observed 6 hr after dosing. At 12 and 24 hr the mitochondrial changes were conspicuous, with disorganization and disappearance of central cristae. At doses of 6, 12, and 25 mg/kg body wt initial (6 hr) mitochondrial vacuolization was observed, followed by disappearance of mitochondria (6-12 mg/kg) or cellular necrosis (25 mg/kg). The metabolic activation and binding of MeSO2-(14C)DDE in adrenal homogenates were determined in vitro. The irreversible binding of MeSO2-(14C)DDE to the mitochondria-containing adrenal S-9 pellet fraction was 50 times higher than that to the postmitochondrial S-12 supernatant fraction. The apparent Km was 2.1 microM and the apparent Vmax was 104 pmol/mg protein/30 min for the binding of MeSO2-(14C)DDE to S-0.3 supernatants. The irreversible protein binding was inhibited by metyrapone (Ki = 1 microM) and 11-deoxycorticosterone (Ki = 3 microM). In conclusion, the adrenal metabolic activation of MeSO2-DDE is suggested to be mediated by a mitochondrial cytochrome P450 form, presumably P450 (11 beta). A primary mitochondrial lesion develops and subsequently leads to degeneration and necrosis of the zona fasciculata.

  10. Sleep Quality Changes during Overwintering at the German Antarctic Stations Neumayer II and III: The Gender Factor

    PubMed Central

    Steinach, Mathias; Kohlberg, Eberhard; Maggioni, Martina Anna; Mendt, Stefan; Opatz, Oliver; Stahn, Alexander; Gunga, Hanns-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Antarctic residence holds many challenges to human physiology, like increased psycho-social tension and altered circadian rhythm, known to influence sleep. We assessed changes in sleep patterns during 13 months of overwintering at the German Stations Neumayer II and III from 2008 to 2014, with focus on gender, as many previous investigations were inconclusive regarding gender-based differences or had only included men. Materials & Methods Time in bed, sleep time, sleep efficiency, number of arousals, sleep latency, sleep onset, sleep offset, and physical activity level were determined twice per month during seven overwintering campaigns of n = 54 participants (37 male, 17 female) using actimetry. Data were analyzed using polynomial regression and analysis of covariance for change over time with the covariates gender, inhabited station, overwintering season and influence of physical activity and local sunshine radiation. Results We found overall longer times in bed (p = 0.004) and sleep time (p = 0.014) for women. The covariate gender had a significant influence on time in bed (p<0.001), sleep time (p<0.001), number of arousals (p = 0.04), sleep latency (p = 0.04), and sleep onset (p<0.001). Women separately (p = 0.02), but not men (p = 0.165), showed a linear increase in number of arousals. Physical activity decreased over overwintering time for men (p = 0.003), but not for women (p = 0.174). The decline in local sunshine radiation led to a 48 minutes longer time in bed (p<0.001), 3.8% lower sleep efficiency (p<0.001), a delay of 32 minutes in sleep onset (p<0.001), a delay of 54 minutes in sleep offset (p<0.001), and 11% less daily energy expenditure (p<0.001), for all participants in reaction to the Antarctic winter’s darkness-phase. Conclusions Overwinterings at the Stations Neumayer II and III are associated with significant changes in sleep patterns, with dependences from overwintering time and local sunshine radiation. Gender appears to be an

  11. Fasting in king penguin. II. Hormonal and metabolic changes during molt.

    PubMed

    Cherel, Y; Leloup, J; Le Maho, Y

    1988-02-01

    The coincidence of fast and molt in penguins is an interesting condition for investigating the factors controlling protein metabolism; avian molt involves the utilization of amino acids for synthesis of new feathers, whereas a major factor for adaptation to fasting in birds, as for mammals, is reduction in net protein breakdown. Hormonal and biochemical changes were studied in seven molting king penguins. Their initial body mass was 18 kg. It decreased by 58% over 41 days of fasting. Feather synthesis lasted for the first 3 wk of the fast. It was marked by plasma concentrations of alanine and uric acid 1.5 to 2 times those for nonmolting fast, and plasma thyroxine was increased five times. At the completion of molt all these values returned to levels comparable to those in nonmolting fast. As indicated by high plasma levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate, lipid stores were mobilized readily during molting. The fast ended by a phase of enhancement in protein utilization that was characterized by a fivefold increase in uricacidemia and coincided with an 80% drop in plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate and a fourfold increase in plasma corticosterone. These data suggest that two different hormones control the two successive periods marked by an increased protein mobilization during the molting fast, i.e., thyroxine during feather growth and corticosterone toward the end of the fast, when the molt is completed.

  12. Reasons Why People Change Their Alcohol Consumption in Later Life: Findings from the Whitehall II Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Annie; Bell, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Harmful alcohol consumption among the ageing population is an important public health issue. Very few studies ask drinkers why they change their consumption in later life. The aim of this paper was to determine whether a group of people aged over 60 years increased or decreased their alcohol consumption over the past decade and to determine the reasons for their change. We also examined whether the responses varied by age, sex and socio-economic position (SEP). Subjects and Methods Data were taken from 6,011 participants (4,310 men, 1,701 women, age range 61 to 85 years) who completed questionnaires at phase 11 (2012-2013) of the Whitehall II Cohort Study. Results Over half the study members reported a change in alcohol consumption over the past decade (40% decreased, 11% increased). The most common reasons given for decreases were as a health precaution and fewer social occasions. Common reasons for increases were more social occasions and fewer responsibilities. The lowest SEP group was less likely to increase consumption compared to high SEP (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.81). Women were more likely to increase consumption in response to stress/depression than men (RR1.53, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.25). Compared to high SEP, the lowest SEP group was less likely to reduce as a health precaution (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.76). Conclusions Alcohol consumption in late life is not fixed. Reasons for change vary by age, sex and SEP. Such information could be used to tailor intervention strategies to reduce harmful consumption. PMID:25756213

  13. I. Climate change on ancient Mars. II. Exoplanet geodynamics and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kite, Edwin Stephen

    . Seasonal snowmelt on Early Mars is possible under unusual orbital conditions provided that the snow is dust-contaminated. The predicted distribution of snowmelt can explain the distribution of sedimentary rocks on Mars, but only if Mars had a thin atmosphere when the sedimentary rocks formed. This framework is the first to link upcoming observations by the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover at the lower Gale Crater mound to past global climate on Mars. The model makes predictions about the lower Gale Crater mound that can be tested using Curiosity rover data. Earth is the only example of long term climate stability that is available for study, so long term climate stability is difficult to understand. Extrasolar planets may ameliorate this problem of uniqueness. It is clear that rates of volcanic activity and of surface weathering are important in regulating long term climate. In the second part of this thesis, I model the rate of volcanism on massive Earth-like planets, and the surface weathering rate on planets in 1:1 spin:orbit resonance. "Super-Earths" in the range 1-10 Earth masses have been detected by radial velocity and transit methods. Using an idealized mantle thermal evolution model to drive mantle-melting models, I show that the rate of volcanism on massive Earth like planets is a weak function of planet mass. Planet mass can, however, affect tectonics by changing the mode of mantle convection. Earth's climate stability depends on a negative feedback involving the temperature-dependent rate of weathering and mean surface temperature. I use an idealized model to show that for intermediate surface pressures and for low-opacity atmospheres, nonlinearities in the surface energy balance can reverse the sign of this dependence on tidally-locked planets. This leads to climate instability. I conclude by discussing future observations and research aimed at understanding long-term climate stability.

  14. Death of pastures syndrome: tissue changes in Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Júnior, N G; Ariano, A P R; Silva, I V

    2016-07-11

    The quality of forage production is a prerequisite to raising livestock. Therefore, income losses in this activity, primarily cattle raising, can result in the impossibility of economic activity. Through the qualitative and quantitative anatomical study of Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and U. brizantha cv. Marandu, we searched for descriptions and compared changes in the individual vegetative body from populations with death syndrome pastures (DPS). Specimens were collected at different physiological stages from farms in northern Mato Grosso. After collection, the individuals were fixed in FAA50 and stored in 70% alcohol. Histological slides were prepared from the middle third of the sections of roots, rhizomes, and leaves, and the proportions and characteristics of tissues were evaluated in healthy, intermediate, and advanced stages of DPS. Changes were compared between cultivars. With the advancement of the syndrome, the following changes were observed: a more marked decrease in the length of roots in U. hybrida; disorganization of the cortical region of the roots and rhizome cultivars; fungal hyphae in roots and aerenchyma formation in U. hybrida; a decrease in sclerenchyma fiber proportions in roots and leaves; sclerification of the epidermis of U. brizantha rhizomes; and an increase in pericyclic fibers in U. hybrida. Furthermore, there was a decrease in the volume of epidermal cells of the abaxial face of the leaves of both cultivars, with a greater reduction in U. hybrida; a gradual decrease in thickness in the midrib of leaves similar to leaf mesophyll; conduction system obstructions; partial or total cell lysis in roots and rhizomes affected by the syndrome. Obstructions in sieve tube element and companion cells, and sometimes obstruction in xylem vessel elements. The evolution of DPS in cultivars was similar, but there were variations, arising probably from the physiological response to stress, such as aerenchyma formation in the root and increased

  15. Long-term intracerebroventricular infusion of angiotensin II after kainate-induced status epilepticus: Effects on epileptogenesis, brain damage, and diurnal behavioral changes.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Natasha M; Atanasova, Dimitrina; Pechlivanova, Daniela M; Mitreva, Rumyana; Lazarov, Nikolai; Stoynev, Alexander G; Tchekalarova, Jana D

    2015-10-01

    Our previous studies revealed that Angiotensin (Ang) II has anticonvulsant effects in acute seizure models. However, data on its role in experimental models of epilepsy are missing. In the present study, we tested whether posttreatment with Ang II after kainate (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) can affect epileptogenesis, concomitant behavioral changes, and brain damage. The Wistar rats were intracerebroventricularly infused via osmotic mini-pumps with Ang II (1.52μg/μl/day for 28days) after SE. Spontaneous motor seizures (SMS) were video-recorded for up to three months. Locomotor activity, anxiety, and depression-like behavior were evaluated during the last week of drug infusion, while spatial memory was assessed during the 3rd month after SE. Angiotensin II decreased the latency for onset of the first SMS and increased the frequency of SMS two months after SE. The continuous peptide infusion exacerbated the KA-induced hyperactivity and caused depression-like behavior. The reduced anxiety of KA-treated rats was alleviated by Ang II exposure. The KA-induced deficit in the hippocampal-dependent spatial memory was not influenced by Ang II. However, Ang II partially prevented the neuronal damage in the hippocampus, specifically in the CA1 area. The role of AT1 and AT2 receptor activation in the effects of the octapeptide is discussed.

  16. The absence of type II collagen and changes in proteoglycan structure of hyaline cartilage in a case of Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Feshchenko, S P; Rebrin, I A; Sokolnik, V P; Sher, B M; Sokolov, B P; Kalinin, V N; Lazjuk, G I

    1989-04-01

    Structural analysis of hyaline cartilage extracellular matrix components from the ribs and knee joint of a stillborn female with type II achondrogenesis was carried out. The absence of type II collagen, a decrease in the amount of proteoglycans (PG), and structural changes in PG, namely, increased electrophoretic mobility of PG, lower relative content of chondroitin 4-sulfate (Ch4-S), lower molecular weight and decreased total chondroitin sulfate (ChS) sulfation, were detected. Increased amounts of type I and type III collagens, atypical for hyaline cartilage, were revealed. Among the link proteins (LPs), a large protein with a mol. wt. of 48 kDa was predominant. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of the pathogenesis of achondrogenesis ("chondrogenesis imperfecta") are discussed. The data obtained suggest that the primary defect in type II achondrogenesis involves ChS or type II collagen synthesis.

  17. Diverse mechanisms for photoprotection in photosynthesis. Dynamic regulation of photosystem II excitation in response to rapid environmental change.

    PubMed

    Derks, Allen; Schaven, Kristin; Bruce, Doug

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) of photosynthesis catalyzes one of the most challenging reactions in nature, the light driven oxidation of water and release of molecular oxygen. PSII couples the sequential four step oxidation of water and two step reduction of plastoquinone to single photon photochemistry with charge accumulation centers on both its electron donor and acceptor sides. Photon capture, excitation energy transfer, and trapping occur on a much faster time scale than the subsequent electron transfer and charge accumulation steps. A balance between excitation of PSII and the use of the absorbed energy to drive electron transport is essential. If the absorption of light energy increases and/or the sink capacity for photosynthetically derived electrons decreases, potentially deleterious side reactions may occur, including the production of reactive oxygen species. In response, a myriad of fast (second to minutes timescale) and reversible photoprotective mechanisms are observed to regulate PSII excitation when the environment changes more quickly than can be acclimated to by gene expression. This review compares the diverse photoprotective mechanisms that are used to dissipate (quench) PSII excitation within the antenna systems of higher land plants, green algae, diatoms, and cyanobacteria. The molecular bases of how PSII excitation pressure is sensed by the antenna system and how the antenna then reconfigures itself from a light harvesting to an energy dissipative mode are discussed.

  18. Defective histone supply causes changes in RNA polymerase II elongation rate and cotranscriptional pre-mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Jimeno-González, Silvia; Payán-Bravo, Laura; Muñoz-Cabello, Ana M; Guijo, Macarena; Gutierrez, Gabriel; Prado, Félix; Reyes, José C

    2015-12-01

    RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription elongation is a highly regulated process that greatly influences mRNA levels as well as pre-mRNA splicing. Despite many studies in vitro, how chromatin modulates RNAPII elongation in vivo is still unclear. Here, we show that a decrease in the level of available canonical histones leads to more accessible chromatin with decreased levels of canonical histones and variants H2A.X and H2A.Z and increased levels of H3.3. With this altered chromatin structure, the RNAPII elongation rate increases, and the kinetics of pre-mRNA splicing is delayed with respect to RNAPII elongation. Consistent with the kinetic model of cotranscriptional splicing, the rapid RNAPII elongation induced by histone depletion promotes the skipping of variable exons in the CD44 gene. Indeed, a slowly elongating mutant of RNAPII was able to rescue this defect, indicating that the defective splicing induced by histone depletion is a direct consequence of the increased elongation rate. In addition, genome-wide analysis evidenced that histone reduction promotes widespread alterations in pre-mRNA processing, including intron retention and changes in alternative splicing. Our data demonstrate that pre-mRNA splicing may be regulated by chromatin structure through the modulation of the RNAPII elongation rate.

  19. Correlating chemical changes in subchondral bone mineral due to aging or defective type II collagen by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehring, Karen A.; Roessler, Blake J.; Morris, Michael D.

    2007-02-01

    We show that early indicators of osteoarthritis are observed in Raman spectroscopy by probing femur surfaces excised from mouse models of early-onset osteoarthritis. Current clinical methods to examine arthritic joints include radiological examination of the joint, but may not be capable of detecting subtle chemical changes in the bone tissue, which may provide the earliest indications of osteoarthritis. Recent research has indicated that the subchondral bone may have a more significant role in the onset of osteoarthritis than previously realized. We will report the effect of age and defective type II collagen on Raman band area ratios used to describe bone structure and function. The carbonate-to-phosphate ratio is used to assess carbonate substitution into the bone mineral and the mineral-to-matrix ratio is used to measure bone mineralization. Mineral-to-matrix ratios indicate that subchondral bone becomes less mineralized as both the wild-type and Del1 (+/-) transgenic mice age. Moreover, the mineral-to-matrix ratios show that the subchondral bone of Del1 (+/-) transgenic mice is less mineralized than that of the wild-type mice. Carbonate-to-phosphate ratios from Del1 (+/-) transgenic mice follow the same longitudinal trend as wild-type mice. The ratio is slightly higher in the transgenic mice, indicating more carbonate content in the bone mineral. Raman characterization of bone mineralization provides an invaluable insight into the process of cartilage degeneration and the relationship with subchondral bone at the ultrastructural level.

  20. Defective histone supply causes changes in RNA polymerase II elongation rate and cotranscriptional pre-mRNA splicing

    PubMed Central

    Jimeno-González, Silvia; Payán-Bravo, Laura; Muñoz-Cabello, Ana M.; Guijo, Macarena; Gutierrez, Gabriel; Prado, Félix; Reyes, José C.

    2015-01-01

    RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription elongation is a highly regulated process that greatly influences mRNA levels as well as pre-mRNA splicing. Despite many studies in vitro, how chromatin modulates RNAPII elongation in vivo is still unclear. Here, we show that a decrease in the level of available canonical histones leads to more accessible chromatin with decreased levels of canonical histones and variants H2A.X and H2A.Z and increased levels of H3.3. With this altered chromatin structure, the RNAPII elongation rate increases, and the kinetics of pre-mRNA splicing is delayed with respect to RNAPII elongation. Consistent with the kinetic model of cotranscriptional splicing, the rapid RNAPII elongation induced by histone depletion promotes the skipping of variable exons in the CD44 gene. Indeed, a slowly elongating mutant of RNAPII was able to rescue this defect, indicating that the defective splicing induced by histone depletion is a direct consequence of the increased elongation rate. In addition, genome-wide analysis evidenced that histone reduction promotes widespread alterations in pre-mRNA processing, including intron retention and changes in alternative splicing. Our data demonstrate that pre-mRNA splicing may be regulated by chromatin structure through the modulation of the RNAPII elongation rate. PMID:26578803

  1. Alterations in photosynthetic pigments and amino acid composition of D1 protein change energy distribution in photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Yokono, Makio; Tomo, Tatsuya; Nagao, Ryo; Ito, Hisashi; Tanaka, Ayumi; Akimoto, Seiji

    2012-05-01

    The marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus accumulates divinyl chlorophylls instead of monovinyl chlorophylls to harvest light energy. As well as this difference in its chromophore composition, some amino acid residues in its photosystem II D1 protein were different from the conserved amino acid residues in other photosynthetic organisms. We examined PSII complexes isolated from mutants of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, in which chromophore and D1 protein were altered (Hisashi Ito and Ayumi Tanaka, 2011) to clarify the effects of chromophores/D1 protein composition on the excitation energy distribution. We prepared the mutants accumulating divinyl chlorophyll (DV mutant). The amino acid residues of V205 and G282 in the D1 protein were substituted with M205 and C282 in the DV mutant to mimic Prochlorococcus D1 protein (DV-V205M/G282C mutant). Isolated PSII complexes were analyzed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Energy transfer in CP47 was interrupted in PSII containing divinyl chlorophylls. The V205M/G282C mutation did not recover the energy transfer pathway in CP47, instead, the mutation allowed the excitation energy transfer from CP43 to CP47, which neighbors in the PSII dimer. Mutual orientation of the subcomplexes of PSII might be affected by the substitution. The changes of the energy transfer pathways would reduce energy transfer from antennae to the PSII reaction center, and allow Prochlorococcus to acquire light tolerance.

  2. Termination-II interstadial/stadial climate change recorded in two stalagmites from the north European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, Gina E.; Spötl, Christoph; Cheng, Hai; Boch, Ronny; Min, Angela; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the sequence of events that take place during glacial-interglacial climate transitions is important for improving our knowledge of abrupt climate change. Here, we present a new stacked, high-resolution, precisely-dated speleothem stable isotope record from the northern Alps, which provides an important record of temperature and moisture-source changes between 134 and 111 ka for Europe and the wider North Atlantic realm. The record encompasses the penultimate deglaciation (Termination II (TII)), which lies beyond the limit of radiocarbon dating, thus providing an important new archive for a crucial period of rapid paleoclimate change. Warmer and wetter ice-free conditions were achieved by 134.1 ± 0.7 ka (modelled ages) as indicated by the presence of liquid water at the site. Temperatures warmed further at 133.7 ± 0.5 ka and led into an interstadial, synchronous with slightly elevated monsoon strength during the week monsoon interval. The interstadial experienced an unstable climate with a trough in temperature associated with a slowdown in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and a reduction in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation. The interstadial ended with a more extreme cold reversal lasting 500 years in which NADW formation remained active but the subpolar gyre weakened allowing cool polar waters to penetrate southwards. The main warming associated with TII was very rapid, taking place between 130.9 ± 0.9 and 130.7 ± 0.9 ka coeval with initial monsoon strengthening. Temperatures then plateaued before being interrupted by a 600-year cold event at 129.1 ± 0.6 ka, associated once again with penetration of polar waters southwards into the North Atlantic and a slowdown in monsoon strengthening. Sub-orbital climate oscillations were thus a feature of TII in the north Atlantic realm, which broadly resemble the Bølling/Allerød-Younger Dryas-8.2 ka event pattern of change observed in Termination I despite monsoon records

  3. Changes in blood pressure and dipsogenic responsiveness to angiotensin II during chronic exposure of rats to cold

    SciTech Connect

    Fregly, M.J.; Shechtman, O.; van Bergen, P.; Reeber, C.; Papanek, P.E. )

    1991-03-11

    To assess the role of the renin-angiotensin (RA) system in the development of cold-induced hypertension in rats, systolic blood pressure (SBP), plasma renin activity (PRA), and the dipsogenic responsiveness to s.c. administration of angiotensin II (AII) were measured weekly for 4 weeks. SBP increased significantly during the third week of exposure to cold (5C), compared to warm-adapted controls. A significant increase in SBP occurred during the third week of cold. In contrast, (PRA) increased within the first week of cold, and declined thereafter to reach the level of the control by the third week. By the fourth week, PRA decreased to a level significantly below that of control. The dipsogenic responsiveness to acute administration of AII increased significantly by the third week of cold and remained significantly elevated during the fourth week. There was a significant direct relationship between dipsogenic responsiveness to AII and SBP in the cold-treated but not the control group. There was also a significant indirect linear relationship between PRA and dipsogenic responsiveness to AII. Cold-treated rats had significant increases in urinary norepinephrine output and weights of heart, kidneys, adrenals, and brown adipose tissue. Thus, the results suggest, but do not prove, either that the elevation of blood pressure under these conditions may be induced by changes in the RA system. The results suggest further that the reduction in the drinking response to AII accompanying increases in PRA may be related to changes in the regulation of central receptors for AII.

  4. Zn(II)-curcumin protects against oxidative stress, deleterious changes in sperm parameters and histological alterations in a male mouse model of cyclophosphamide-induced reproductive damage.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wen-Ping; Mei, Xue-Ting; Wang, Yu; Zheng, Yan-Ping; Xue, Yun-Fei; Xu, Dong-Hui

    2015-03-01

    The poor bioavailability and stability of curcumin limit its clinical application. A novel Zn(II)-curcumin complex was synthesized and its effects against cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced reproductive damage were compared with curcumin. Oral administration of Zn(II)-curcumin significantly prevented CP-induced elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) level and reductions in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) content in mouse testis. Zn(II)-curcumin significantly ameliorated CP-induced reductions in body and reproductive organs weights. Zn(II)-curcumin dose-dependently ameliorated CP-induced reproductive system impairments, by improving sperm parameters (sperm count, viability, motility) and reducing serum testosterone and histological alterations. Compared to curcumin at the same dose, Zn(II)-curcumin more effectively alleviated CP-induced reproductive injury, leading to a reduced severity of testicular pathologic changes, lower MDA level, elevated SOD activity and GSH content, and increased sperm parameters and serum testosterone. These results suggest Zn(II)-curcumin more effectively protects against CP-induced reproductive damage than curcumin alone due to a synergistic reduction in oxidative stress.

  5. Assessment of the changes in quality of life of patients with class II and III deformities during and after orthodontic-surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Baherimoghaddam, T; Tabrizi, R; Naseri, N; Pouzesh, A; Oshagh, M; Torkan, S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to assess and compare the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of patients with class II and III deformities during and after orthodontic-surgical treatment. Thirty class III and 28 class II patients were evaluated at baseline (T0), just prior to surgery (T1), at 6 months after surgery (T2), and at 12 months after debonding (T3). OHRQoL was assessed using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Friedman two-way analysis of variance and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were performed to compare the relative changes in OHRQoL during treatment. Significant changes in the overall OHIP-14 scores were observed during and after orthodontic-surgical treatment in both groups. During the pre-surgical stage, psychological discomfort and psychological disability decreased in class III patients, and class II patients experienced a significant deterioration in psychological discomfort during the same period. Six months after surgery, patients in both groups showed improvements in psychological discomfort, social disability, and handicap. Physical disability and functional limitation showed further improvement at 12 months after debonding in class II patients. This study reaffirms that orthodontic-surgical treatment has a significant effect on the OHRQoL of class III and class II patients.

  6. Final Report for Dynamic Models for Causal Analysis of Panel Data. Models for Change in Quantitative Variables, Part II Scholastic Models. Part II, Chapter 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannan, Michael T.

    This document is part of a series of chapters described in SO 011 759. Stochastic models for the sociological analysis of change and the change process in quantitative variables are presented. The author lays groundwork for the statistical treatment of simple stochastic differential equations (SDEs) and discusses some of the continuities of…

  7. Conformational change of a chiral Schiff base Ni(II) complex with a binaphthyl moiety: application of vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hisako; Mori, Yukie; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2013-05-21

    Vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy was applied to study the structural change of a Ni(II) complex (denoted by [Ni(II)L]) with a chiral Schiff base ligand, (R)- or (S)-2,2'-bis(salicylideneamino)-1,1'-binaphthyl (denoted by H2L), in solution. The major signals in the mid-IR region were assigned on the basis of comparison with the DFT-calculated spectra. The complex transformed reversibly between the square-planar, tetrahedral and octahedral configurations, depending on solvents and temperature. The observed changes in the VCD peaks accompanying the transformation were analyzed in terms of the conformational change of the chiral ligand with a focus on the twisting angle in the Schiff base backbone and the dihedral angle of the binaphthyl group.

  8. Dose-dependent change in biomarkers during neoadjuvant endocrine therapy with fulvestrant: results from NEWEST, a randomized Phase II study.

    PubMed

    Kuter, Irene; Gee, Julia M W; Hegg, Roberto; Singer, Christian F; Badwe, Rajendra A; Lowe, Elizabeth S; Emeribe, Ugochi A; Anderson, Elizabeth; Sapunar, Francisco; Finlay, Pauline; Nicholson, Robert I; Bines, José; Harbeck, Nadia

    2012-05-01

    NEWEST (Neoadjuvant Endocrine Therapy for Women with Estrogen-Sensitive Tumors) is the first study to compare biological and clinical activity of fulvestrant 500 versus 250 mg in the neoadjuvant breast cancer setting. We hypothesized that fulvestrant 500 mg may be superior to 250 mg in blocking estrogen receptor (ER) signaling and growth. A multicenter, randomized, open-label, Phase II study was performed to compare fulvestrant 500 mg (500 mg/month plus 500 mg on day 14 of month 1) versus fulvestrant 250 mg/month for 16 weeks prior to surgery in postmenopausal women with ER+ locally advanced breast cancer. Core biopsies at baseline, week 4, and surgery were assessed for biomarker changes. Primary endpoint: change in Ki67 labeling index (LI) from baseline to week 4 determined by automated computer imaging system (ACIS). Secondary endpoints: ER protein expression and function; progesterone receptor (PgR) expression; tumor response; tolerability. ER and PgR were examined retrospectively using the H score method. A total of 211 patients were randomized (fulvestrant 500 mg: n = 109; 250 mg: n = 102). At week 4, fulvestrant 500 mg resulted in greater reduction of Ki67 LI and ER expression versus 250 mg (-78.8 vs. -47.4% [p < 0.0001] and -25.0 vs. -13.5% [p = 0.0002], respectively [ACIS]); PgR suppression was not significantly different (-22.7 vs. -17.6; p = 0.5677). However, H score detected even greater suppression of ER (-50.3 vs. -13.7%; p < 0.0001) and greater PgR suppression (-80.5 vs. -46.3%; p = 0.0018) for fulvestrant 500 versus 250 mg. At week 16, tumor response rates were 22.9 and 20.6% for fulvestrant 500 and 250 mg, respectively, with considerable decline in all markers by both ACIS and H score. No detrimental effects on endometrial thickness or bone markers and no new safety concerns were identified. This provides the first evidence of greater biological activity for fulvestrant 500 versus 250 mg in depleting ER expression, function, and growth.

  9. Structural changes in the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II induced by the S1 to S2 transition: A combined XRD and QM/MM study.

    PubMed

    Askerka, Mikhail; Wang, Jimin; Brudvig, Gary W; Batista, Victor S

    2014-11-11

    The S1 → S2 transition of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II does not involve the transfer of a proton to the lumen and occurs at cryogenic temperatures. Therefore, it is commonly thought to involve only Mn oxidation without any significant change in the structure of the OEC. Here, we analyze structural changes upon the S1 → S2 transition, as revealed by quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics methods and the isomorphous difference Fourier method applied to serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction data. We find that the main structural change in the OEC is in the position of the dangling Mn and its coordination environment.

  10. Thermodynamics of electron transfer in oxygenic photosynthetic reaction centers: volume change, enthalpy, and entropy of electron-transfer reactions in manganese-depleted photosystem II core complexes.

    PubMed

    Hou, J M; Boichenko, V A; Diner, B A; Mauzerall, D

    2001-06-19

    We have previously reported the thermodynamic data of electron transfer in photosystem I using pulsed time-resolved photoacoustics [Hou et al. (2001) Biochemistry 40, 7109-7116]. In the present work, using preparations of purified manganese-depleted photosystem II (PS II) core complexes from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, we have measured the DeltaV, DeltaH, and estimated TDeltaS of electron transfer on the time scale of 1 micros. At pH 6.0, the volume contraction of PS II was determined to be -9 +/- 1 A3. The thermal efficiency was found to be 52 +/- 5%, which corresponds to an enthalpy change of -0.9 +/- 0.1 eV for the formation of the state P680+Q(A-) from P680*. An unexpected volume expansion on pulse saturation of PS II was observed, which is reversible in the dark. At pH 9.0, the volume contraction, the thermal efficiency, and the enthalpy change were -3.4 +/- 0.5 A3, 37 +/- 7%, and -1.15 +/- 0.13 eV, respectively. The DeltaV of PS II, smaller than that of PS I and bacterial centers, is assigned to electrostriction and analyzed using the Drude-Nernst equation. To explain the small DeltaV for the formation of P680+Q(A-) or Y(Z*)Q(A-), we propose that fast proton transfer into a polar region is involved in this reaction. Taking the free energy of charge separation of PS II as the difference between the energy of the excited-state P680* and the difference in the redox potentials of the donor and acceptor, the apparent entropy change (TDeltaS) for charge separation of PS II is calculated to be negative, -0.1 +/- 0.1 eV at pH 6.0 (P680+Q(A-)) and -0.2 +/- 0.15 eV at pH 9.0 (Y(Z*)Q(A-)). The thermodynamic properties of electron transfer in PS II core reaction centers thus differ considerably from those of bacterial and PS I reaction centers, which have DeltaV of approximately -27 A3, DeltaH of approximately -0.4 eV, and TDeltaS of approximately +0.4 eV.

  11. Stress Induces Changes in the Phosphorylation of Trypanosoma cruzi RNA Polymerase II, Affecting Its Association with Chromatin and RNA Processing

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Antônio Augusto; Moretti, Nilmar Silvio

    2014-01-01

    The phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal heptapeptide repeats of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) controls several transcription-related events in eukaryotes. Trypanosomatids lack these typical repeats and display an unusual transcription control. RNA Pol II associates with the transcription site of the spliced leader (SL) RNA, which is used in the trans-splicing of all mRNAs transcribed on long polycistronic units. We found that Trypanosoma cruzi RNA Pol II associated with chromatin is highly phosphorylated. When transcription is inhibited by actinomycin D, the enzyme runs off from SL genes, remaining hyperphosphorylated and associated with polycistronic transcription units. Upon heat shock, the enzyme is dephosphorylated and remains associated with the chromatin. Transcription is partially inhibited with the accumulation of housekeeping precursor mRNAs, except for heat shock genes. DNA damage caused dephosphorylation and transcription arrest, with RNA Pol II dissociating from chromatin although staying at the SL. In the presence of calyculin A, the hyperphosphorylated form detached from chromatin, including the SL loci. These results indicate that in trypanosomes, the unusual RNA Pol II is phosphorylated during the transcription of SL and polycistronic operons. Different types of stresses modify its phosphorylation state, affecting pre-RNA processing. PMID:24813189

  12. Effect of Angiotensin II and Small GTPase Ras Signaling Pathway Inhibition on Early Renal Changes in a Murine Model of Obstructive Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Peña, Ana B.; Fuentes-Calvo, Isabel; Docherty, Neil G.; Arévalo, Miguel; Grande, María T.; Eleno, Nélida; Pérez-Barriocanal, Fernando; López-Novoa, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a major feature of chronic kidney disease. Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in rodents leads to the development of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis consistent with histopathological changes observed in advanced chronic kidney disease in humans. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of inhibiting angiotensin II receptors or Ras activation on early renal fibrotic changes induced by UUO. Animals either received angiotensin II or underwent UUO. UUO animals received either losartan, atorvastatin, and farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI) L-744,832, or chaetomellic acid A (ChA). Levels of activated Ras, phospho-ERK1/2, phospho-Akt, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin were subsequently quantified in renal tissue by ELISA, Western blot, and/or immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that administration of angiotensin II induces activation of the small GTPase Ras/Erk/Akt signaling system, suggesting an involvement of angiotensin II in the early obstruction-induced activation of renal Ras. Furthermore, upstream inhibition of Ras signalling by blocking either angiotensin AT1 type receptor or by inhibiting Ras prenylation (atorvastatin, FTI o ChA) reduced the activation of the Ras/Erk/Akt signaling system and decreased the early fibrotic response in the obstructed kidney. This study points out that pharmacological inhibition of Ras activation may hold promise as a future strategy in the prevention of renal fibrosis. PMID:25101263

  13. Microstructural characterization and density change of 304 stainless steel reflector blocks after long-term irradiation in EBR-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Wiezorek, J. M. K.; Garner, F. A.; Freyer, P. D.; Okita, T.; Sagisaka, M.; Isobe, Y.; Allen, T. R.

    2015-10-01

    While thin reactor structural components such as cladding and ducts do not experience significant gradients in dpa rate, gamma heating rate, temperature or stress, thick components can develop strong local variations in void swelling and irradiation creep in response to gradients in these variables. In this study we conducted microstructural investigations by transmission electron microscopy of two 52 mm thick 304-type stainless steel hex-blocks irradiated for 12 years in the EBR-II reactor with accumulated doses ranging from ∼0.4 to 33 dpa. Spatial variations in the populations of voids, precipitates, Frank loops and dislocation lines have been determined for 304 stainless steel sections exposed to different temperatures, different dpa levels and at different dpa rates, demonstrating the existence of spatial gradients in the resulting void swelling. The microstructural measurements compare very well with complementary density change measurements regarding void swelling gradients in the 304 stainless steel hex-block components. The TEM studies revealed that the original cold-worked-state microstructure of the unirradiated blocks was completely erased by irradiation, replaced by high densities of interstitial Frank loops, voids and carbide precipitates at both the lowest and highest doses. At large dose levels the amount of volumetric void swelling correlated directly with the gamma heating gradient-related temperature increase (e.g. for 28 dpa, ∼2% swelling at 418 °C and ∼2.9% swelling at 448 °C). Under approximately iso-thermal local conditions, volumetric void swelling was found to increase with dose level (e.g. ∼0.2% swelling at 0.4 dpa, ∼0.5% swelling at 4 dpa and ∼2% swelling at 28 dpa). Carbide precipitate formation levels were found to be relatively independent of both dpa level and temperature and induced a measurable densification. Void swelling was dominant at the higher dose levels and caused measurable decreases in density. Void swelling

  14. Salinity changes in the Agulhas leakage area recorded by stable hydrogen isotopes of C37 alkenones during Termination I and II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, S.; van der Meer, M. T. J.; Mets, A.; Zahn, R.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Schouten, S.

    2014-02-01

    At the southern tip of Africa, the Agulhas Current reflects back into the Indian Ocean causing so-called "Agulhas rings" to spin off and release relatively warm and saline water into the South Atlantic Ocean. Previous reconstructions of the dynamics of the Agulhas Current, based on paleo-sea surface temperature and sea surface salinity proxies, inferred that Agulhas leakage from the Indian Ocean to the South Atlantic was reduced during glacial stages as a consequence of shifted wind fields and a northwards migration of the subtropical front. Subsequently, this might have led to a buildup of warm saline water in the southern Indian Ocean. To investigate this latter hypothesis, we reconstructed sea surface salinity changes using alkenone δD, and paleo-sea surface temperature using TEXH86 and UK'37, from two sediment cores (MD02-2594, MD96-2080) located in the Agulhas leakage area during Termination I and II. Both UK'37 and TEXH86 temperature reconstructions indicate an abrupt warming during the glacial terminations, while a shift to more negative δDalkenone values of approximately 14‰ during glacial Termination I and II is also observed. Approximately half of the isotopic shift can be attributed to the change in global ice volume, while the residual isotopic shift is attributed to changes in salinity, suggesting relatively high salinities at the core sites during glacials, with subsequent freshening during glacial terminations. Approximate estimations suggest that δDalkenone represents a salinity change of ca. 1.7-1.9 during Termination I and Termination II. These estimations are in good agreement with the proposed changes in salinity derived from previously reported combined planktonic Foraminifera δ18O values and Mg/Ca-based temperature reconstructions. Our results confirm that the δD of alkenones is a potentially suitable tool to reconstruct salinity changes independent of planktonic Foraminifera δ18O.

  15. Sharpening the Focus on Acculturative Change: ARSMA-II, Stress, Pregnancy Anxiety, and Infant Birthweight in Recently Immigrated Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos, Belinda; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Walsh, Julia A.; Schenker, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Acculturation is conceptualized as a multidimensional process but is typically measured as a concurrent movement away from culture of origin as a new cultural orientation is obtained. In this study, the authors examined the overall and subscale scoring systems of the ARSMA-II, the most popular acculturation measure, for its associations with…

  16. Partnerships for Reform: Changing Teacher Preparation through the Title II HEA Partnership Program: Interim Report. PPSS 2003-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Title II Higher Education Amendment (HEA) Partnership Grants Program provides grants to fund partnerships among colleges of education, schools of arts and sciences and local school districts in high-need areas. The goal of the program is to improve student achievement by increasing the quality of teachers. This evaluation examined the extent…

  17. Involvement of Type 1 Angiontensin II Receptor (AT1) in Cardiovascular Changes Induced by Chronic Emotional Stress: Comparison between Homotypic and Heterotypic Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Costa-Ferreira, Willian; Vieira, Jonas O.; Almeida, Jeferson; Gomes-de-Souza, Lucas; Crestani, Carlos C.

    2016-01-01

    Consistent evidence has shown an important role of emotional stress in pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, studies in animal models have demonstrated that daily exposure to different stressor (heterotypic stressor) evokes more severe changes than those resulting from repeated exposure to the same aversive stimulus (homotypic stressor), possibly due to the habituation process upon repeated exposure to the same stressor. Despite these pieces of evidence, the mechanisms involved in the stress-evoked cardiovascular dysfunction are poorly understood. Therefore, the present study investigated the involvement of angiotensin II (Ang II) acting on the type 1 Ang II receptor (AT1) in the cardiovascular dysfunctions evoked by both homotypic and heterotypic chronic emotional stresses in rats. For this purpose, we compared the effect of the chronic treatment with the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan (30 mg/kg/day, p.o.) on the cardiovascular and autonomic changes evoked by the heterotypic stressor chronic variable stress (CVS) and the homotypic stressor repeated restraint stress (RRS). RRS increased the sympathetic tone to the heart and decreased the cardiac parasympathetic activity, whereas CVS decreased the cardiac parasympathetic activity. Additionally, both stressors impaired the baroreflex function. Alterations in the autonomic activity and the baroreflex impairment were inhibited by losartan treatment. Additionally, CVS reduced the body weight and increased the circulating corticosterone; however, these effects were not affected by losartan. In conclusion, these findings indicate the involvement of angiotensin II/AT1 receptors in the autonomic changes evoked by both homotypic and heterotypic chronic stressors. Moreover, the present results provide evidence that the increase in the circulating corticosterone and body weight reduction evoked by heterotypic stressors are independent of AT1 receptors. PMID:27588004

  18. Cytological aspects of antimicrobial antibiosis. II. Cytological changes associated with the exposure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus megaterium to colistin sulfate.

    PubMed

    CHAPMAN, G B

    1962-07-01

    Chapman, George B. (Cornell University Medical College, New York, N.Y.). Cytological aspects of antimicrobial antibiosis. II. Cytological changes associated with the exposure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus megaterium to colistin sulfate. J. Bacteriol. 84:180-185. 1962-Broth cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus megaterium were exposed to the antibiotic colistin sulfate. Control (unexposed) and exposed cells were fixed, dehydrated, and embedded in methacrylate. Ultrathin sections were examined in an RCA EMU2-D electron microscope. Two conspicuous cytological changes were noted in P. aeruginosa. The nuclear material was no longer demonstrable in its normal sites, leaving an empty space, and the cytoplasm lost its granularity, becoming homogeneous. In B. megaterium, the latter change was also noted. The nuclear material, however, although no longer demonstrable, did not leave an empty space. Rather, it seemed that cytoplasmic material had engulfed and masked nuclear areas. Cells which showed these changes were nonviable.

  19. Effect of graphene tunnel barrier on Schottky barrier height of Heusler alloy Co2MnSi/graphene/n-Ge junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui-fang, Li; Jing, Hu; Hui, Lv; Zhijun, Cui; Xiaowei, Hou; Shibin, Liu; Yongqian, Du

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate that the insertion of a graphene tunnel barrier between Heusler alloy Co2MnSi and the germanium (Ge) channel modulates the Schottky barrier height and the resistance-area product of the spin diode. We confirm that the Fermi level is depinned and a reduction in the electron Schottky barrier height (SBH) occurs following the insertion of the graphene layer between Co2MnSi and Ge. The electron SBH is modulated in the 0.34 eV-0.61 eV range. Furthermore, the transport mechanism changes from rectifying to symmetric tunneling following the insertion. This behavior provides a pathway for highly efficient spin injection from a Heusler alloy into a Ge channel with high electron and hole mobility. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61504107) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 3102014JCQ01059 and 3102015ZY043).

  20. Neurobehavioral changes and alteration of gene expression in the brains of metallothionein-I/II null mice exposed to low levels of mercury vapor during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Minoru; Honda, Masako; Watanabe, Chiho; Satoh, Masahiko; Yasutake, Akira

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the neurobehavioral changes and alteration in gene expression in the brains of metallothionein (MT)-I/II null mice exposed to low-levels of mercury vapor (Hg(0)) during postnatal development. MT-I/II null and wild-type mice were repeatedly exposed to Hg(0) at 0.030 mg/m(3) (range: 0.023-0.043 mg/m(3)), which was similar to the current threshold value (TLV), for 6 hr per day until the 20th day postpartum. The behavioral effects were evaluated with locomotor activity in the open field (OPF), learning ability in the passive avoidance response (PA) and spatial learning ability in the Morris water maze (MM) at 12 weeks of age. Hg(0)-exposed MT-I/II null mice showed a significant decrease in total locomotor activity in females, though learning ability and spatial learning ability were not affected. Immediately after Hg(0) exposure, mercury concentrations in the brain did not exceed 0.5 µg/g in any animals. Hg(0) exposure resulted in significant alterations in gene expression in the brains of both strains using DNA microarray analysis. The number of altered genes in MT-I/II null mice was higher than that in wild-type mice and calcium-calmodulin kinase II (Camk2a) involved in learning and memory in down-regulated genes was detected. These results provide useful information to elucidate the development of behavioral toxicity following low-level exposure to Hg(0).

  1. Renal hemodynamic and morphological changes after 7 and 28 days of leptin treatment: the participation of angiotensin II via the AT1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Karina; Oliveira-Souza, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The role of hyperleptinemia in cardiovascular diseases is well known; however, in the renal tissue, the exact site of leptin's action has not been established. This study was conducted to assess the effect of leptin treatment for 7 and 28 days on renal function and morphology and the participation of angiotensin II (Ang II), through its AT1 receptor. Rats were divided into four groups: sham, losartan (10 mg/kg/day, s.c.), leptin (0.5 mg/kg/day for the 7 days group and 0.25 mg/kg/day for the 28 days group) and leptin plus losartan. Plasma leptin, Ang II and endothelin 1 (ET-1) levels were measured using an enzymatic immuno assay. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) was evaluated using the tail-cuff method. The renal plasma flow (RPF) and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were determined by p-aminohippuric acid and inulin clearance, respectively. Urinary Na+ and K+ levels were also analyzed. Renal morphological analyses, desmin and ED-1 immunostaining were performed. Proteinuria was analyzed by silver staining. mRNA expression of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components, TNF-α and collagen type III was analyzed by quantitative PCR. Our results showed that leptin treatment increased Ang II plasma levels and progressively increased the SBP, achieving a pre-hypertension state. Rats treated with leptin 7 days showed a normal RPF and GFR, but increased filtration fraction (FF) and natriuresis. However, rats treated with leptin for 28 showed a decrease in the RPF, an increase in the FF and no changes in the GFR or tubular function. Leptin treatment-induced renal injury was demonstrated by: glomerular hypertrophy, increased desmin staining, macrophage infiltration in the renal tissue, TNF-α and collagen type III mRNA expression and proteinuria. In conclusion, our study demonstrated the progressive renal morphological changes in experimental hyperleptinemia and the interaction between leptin and the RAS on these effects.

  2. Skelate changes induced by orthodontic in class II division 1 by CBCT: a long-term follow-up prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuofei; Chen, Weiting; Ding, Sheng; Han, Hongwei; Yu, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify and evaluate changes in the sagittal position of point B due to orthodontic treatment using CBCT. Materials and methods: The subjects comprised 80 patients received fixed appliance. In this population, group 1 consisting of 40 patients with Class II division 2 malocclusion and group 2 consisting of 40 patients with minor crowding in the beginning of the treatment and required no or minimal maxillary anterior tooth movement. Treatment changes in incisor inclination, sagittal position of point B, SNB and movement of incisor root apex and incisal edge were calculated on pretreatment and post treatment on CBCT. Results: Assessment of local changes in point B revealed that the point had moved backward. No significant change was observed in the value of the sella-nasion-point B angle (SNB) in both the study and control groups. However, the changes of horizontal displacement after treatment in SNB between the two groups were found to be significant. There were no significant changes in the vertical and Z position of points B in both group. Conclusions: The position of point B was affected by local bone remodeling during orthodontic treatment. These changes significantly affect the SNB angle. PMID:26379941

  3. Induction of unique structural changes in guanine-rich DNA regions by the triazoloacridone C-1305, a topoisomerase II inhibitor with antitumor activities

    PubMed Central

    Lemke, Krzysztof; Wojciechowski, Marcin; Laine, William; Bailly, Christian; Colson, Pierre; Baginski, Maciej; Larsen, Annette K.; Skladanowski, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    We recently reported that the antitumor triazoloacridone, compound C-1305, is a topoisomerase II poison with unusual properties. In this study we characterize the DNA interactions of C-1305 in vitro, in comparison with other topoisomerase II inhibitors. Our results show that C-1305 binds to DNA by intercalation and possesses higher affinity for GC- than AT-DNA as revealed by surface plasmon resonance studies. Chemical probing with DEPC indicated that C-1305 induces structural perturbations in DNA regions with three adjacent guanine residues. Importantly, this effect was highly specific for C-1305 since none of the other 22 DNA interacting drugs tested was able to induce similar structural changes in DNA. Compound C-1305 induced stronger structural changes in guanine triplets at higher pH which suggested that protonation/deprotonation of the drug is important for this drug-specific effect. Molecular modeling analysis predicts that the zwitterionic form of C-1305 intercalates within the guanine triplet, resulting in widening of both DNA grooves and aligning of the triazole ring with the N7 atoms of guanines. Our results show that C-1305 binds to DNA and induces very specific and unusual structural changes in guanine triplets which likely plays an important role in the cytotoxic and antitumor activity of this unique compound. PMID:16254080

  4. Volumetric changes in pharyngeal airway in Class II division 1 patients treated with Forsus-fixed functional appliance: A three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography study

    PubMed Central

    Temani, Parul; Jain, Pradeep; Rathee, Pooja; Temani, Ruchira

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Recent years have witnessed a renewed interest to determine a quantifiable relationship between mandibular advancement performed with an orthodontic appliance and the resulting airway volume. The study was conducted to evaluate the volumetric changes in pharyngeal airway space using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in Class II division 1 patients with retrognathic mandible treated by Forsus-fixed functional appliance and to compare them with their pretreatment findings. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion of age group 10–17 years were selected randomly and evaluated for changes in pharyngeal airway volume with and without Forsus-fixed functional appliance. Patients in each group underwent CBCT scan of head and neck region at pretreatment stage and 6 months after the initial scan. Institutional approval for the project was obtained from the Ethical Committee. Volumetric changes of upper (oropharynx) and lower (hypopharynx) pharyngeal airways were measured on scanogram using computer software and intragroup comparisons were done. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in the volume of both hypopharynx and oropharynx and also total airway volume in patients treated with Forsus-fixed functional appliance. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the airway also demonstrates a considerable increase in pharyngeal airway space. Conclusion: Forsus-fixed functional appliance can be a promising appliance for improving pharyngeal airway volume in Class II division 1 patients with retrognathic mandible thus preventing obstructive sleep apnea and other respiratory problems in future. However, the long-term implications of this treatment modality need further consideration and a longer period of follow-up. PMID:27041897

  5. Nonradial and radial period changes of the δ Scuti star 4 CVn. II. Systematic behavior over 40 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breger, M.; Montgomery, M. H.; Lenz, P.; Pamyatnykh, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: Radial and nonradial pulsators on and near the main sequence show period and amplitude changes that are too large to be the product of stellar evolution. The multiperiodic δ Sct stars are well suited to study this, as the period changes of different modes excited in the same star can be compared. This requires a very large amount of photometric data covering years and decades as well as mode identifications. Methods: We have examined over 800 nights of high-precision photometry of the multiperiodic pulsator 4 CVn obtained from 1966 through 2012. Because most of the data were obtained in adjacent observing seasons, it is possible to derive very accurate period values for a number of the excited pulsation modes and to study their systematic changes from 1974 to 2012. Results: Most pulsation modes show systematic significant period and amplitude changes on a timescale of decades. For the well-studied modes, around 1986 a general reversal of the directions of both the positive and negative period changes occurred. Furthermore, the period changes between the different modes are strongly correlated, although they differ in size and sign. For the modes with known values of the spherical degree and azimuthal order, we find a correlation between the direction of the period changes and the identified azimuthal order, m. The associated amplitude changes generally have similar timescales of years or decades, but show little systematic or correlated behavior from mode to mode. Conclusions: A natural explanation for the opposite behavior of the prograde and retrograde modes is that their period changes are driven by a changing rotation profile. The changes in the rotation profile could in turn be driven by processes, perhaps the pulsations themselves, that redistribute angular momentum within the star. In general, different modes have different rotation kernels, so this will produce period shifts of varying magnitude for different modes.

  6. XANES spectral changes for discotic liquid crystals of bis[1,2-bis(3,4-dioctyloxyphenyl) ethanedione dioximato]Ni(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokomizo, Mitsutoshi; Kurisaki, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Toshio; Wakita, Hisanobu; Oka-Inagaki, Yoshio; Ohta, Kazuchika

    The one-dimensional stacking structures of a liquid crystal Ni complex- [1,2-bis(3,4-dialkoxyphenyl)ethanedione dioximato]Ni(II), [Ni{(C8O)4dpg}2],which shows thermochromism, (see Fig. 1) have been investigated over a temperature range from room temperature to 220°C by analyzing X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra together with a DV-X[alpha] molecular orbital calculation. The thermochromic character of the complex is discussed through the structural change with temperature in Ni--Ni and Ni to ligand atom interactions.

  7. Arch width changes in patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion treated with maxillary first premolar extraction and non-extraction method

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Sajjad; Kachoei, Mojgan; Shahvaghar-Asl, Naiemeh; Shirazi, Samaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine arch width changes during maxillary first premolars extraction and non-extraction treatment in patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion. Material and Methods Dental casts of 91 Class II division 1 patients (36 males and 55 females) were evaluated. The minimum age of the subjects at the beginning of treatment was above 16 years. 48 patients were treated with extraction of the maxillary first premolars and 43 patients were treated without extraction. Pre- and post-treatment maxillary and mandibular inter-canine and inter-molar arch widths were measured. Results At the end of treatment, maxillary and mandibular inter-canine widths of both groups increased significantly. The maxillary inter-molar width decreased in the extraction group and increased in the non-extraction group. The mandibular inter-molar width increased significantly in both groups. No significant differences were observed between males and females. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that there was a tendency for an increase in arch width during both the extraction and non-extraction treatment except maxillary inter-molar width in the extraction cases. Key words:Dental arch, malocclusion, angle Class II, tooth movement, extraction. PMID:27703608

  8. Changes in the BDNF-immunopositive cell population of neocortical layers I and II/III after focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yongwon; Kang, Sung Goo; Kam, Kyung-Yoon

    2015-04-24

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family and is widely distributed in the central nervous system, including the cerebral cortex. BDNF plays an important role in normal neural development, survival of existing neurons, and activity-dependent neuroplasticity. BDNF can also be neuroprotective and evoke neurogenesis in certain pathological conditions, such as cerebral ischemia. Neocortical layer I is an important region that can integrate feedforward and feedback information from other cortical areas and subcortical regions. In addition, it has recently been proposed as a possible source of neuronal progenitor cells after ischemia. Therefore, we investigated changes in the BDNF-immunoreactive cell population of neocortical layers I and II/III after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced cerebral ischemia in rats. In unaffected condition, the number of BDNF(+) cells in layer I was significantly less than in layer II/III in the cingulate cortex and in the motor and sensory areas. The increase in the number of BDNF(+) cells in layer I 8 days after MCAO was more remarkable than layer II/III, in all regions except the area of cingulate cortex farthest from the infarct core. Only BDNF(+)-Ox-42(+) cells showed a tendency to increase consistently toward the infarct core in both layers I and II/III, implying a major source of BDNF for response to ischemic injury. The present study suggests that some beneficial effects during recovery from ischemic injury, such as increased supportive microglia/macrophages, occur owing to a sensitive response of BDNF in layer I.

  9. Energetic changes in the surface of activated carbons and relationship with Ni(II) adsorption from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Estupiñan, Paola; Giraldo, Liliana; Moreno-Piraján, Juan Carlos

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated Ni(II) ion adsorption from aqueous solution on activated carbons obtained by chemically modifying the surface with the oxidizing agents nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide (CAGoxP and CAGoxN, respectively). The activated carbons were characterized by total acidity and basicity, pH at the point of charge zero determination and IR spectroscopy. Textural parameters such as the BET area and pore volumes were evaluated by gas adsorption. The BET area of the materials was between 816 and 876 m2 g-1. Additionally, the immersion enthalpies of the activated carbons in water and benzene were determined. The experimental results on adsorption in solution were adjusted to the Langmuir and Freundlich models, obtaining values for the monolayer capacity between 29.68 and 50.97 mg g-1, which indicates that the adsorption capacity depends largely on solid surface chemistry.

  10. Copper(II) complexes of bis(amino amide) ligands: effect of changes in the amino acid residue.

    PubMed

    Martí, Inés; Ferrer, Armando; Escorihuela, Jorge; Burguete, M Isabel; Luis, Santiago V

    2012-06-14

    A family of ligands derived from bis(amino amides) containing aliphatic spacers has been prepared, and their protonation and stability constants for the formation of Cu(2+) complexes have been determined potentiometrically. Important differences are associated to both the length of the aliphatic spacer and the nature of the side chains derived from the amino acid. In general, ligands containing aliphatic side chains display higher basicities as well as stability constants with Cu(2+). In the same way, basicities and stability constants tend to increase when decreasing the steric hindrance caused by the corresponding side-chain. FT-IR, UV-vis and ESI-MS were used for analyzing the complex species detected in the speciation diagram. UV-vis studies showed the presence of different coordination environments for the copper(II) complexes. Complexes with different stoichiometries can be formed in some instances. This was clearly highlighted with the help of ESI-MS experiments.

  11. Changes in blood pressure and dipsogenic responsiveness to angiotensin II during chronic exposure of rats to cold.

    PubMed

    Fregly, M J; Shechtman, O; van Bergen, P; Reeber, C; Papanek, P E

    1991-04-01

    Hypertension accompanies chronic exposure of rats to cold (5-6 degrees C). Systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures become elevated, and hypertrophy of the heart occurs. A previous study from this laboratory suggested that the renin-angiotensin system may play a role. The present study was carried out to assess this further. Thus, in addition to measurement of systolic blood pressure at intervals during exposure to cold, plasma renin activity and the dipsogenic responsiveness to acute administration of angiotensin II were also measured to assess the functional status of the renin-angiotensin system. The results showed a significant (p less than 0.05) increase in systolic blood pressure during the third week of exposure to cold. In contrast, plasma renin activity (PRA) increased within the first week of exposure to cold, and declined thereafter to reach the level of the control by the third week of exposure to cold. By the fourth week, PRA decreased to a level significantly (p less than 0.05) below that of the control group. The responsiveness to acute administration of angiotensin II (AII), as assessed by the drinking response, increased significantly (p less than 0.05) by the third week of exposure to cold and remained significantly elevated during the fourth week. There was a significant (p less than 0.01) direct relationship between dipsogenic responsiveness to AII and blood pressure in the cold-treated (r = .57), but not the control group (r = .12). There was also a significant (r = -.91) indirect linear relationship between PRA and dipsogenic responsiveness to AII. Cold-treated rats had significant increases in urinary norepinephrine output and weights of heart, kidneys, adrenals, and brown adipose tissue characteristic of rats acclimated to cold.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. The choroid plexus transcriptome reveals changes in type I and II interferon responses in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Sandro Dá; Ferreira, Ana C; Gao, Fuying; Coppola, Giovanni; Geschwind, Daniel H; Sousa, João C; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Sousa, Nuno; Palha, Joana A; Marques, Fernanda

    2015-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a marked decline in cognition and memory function. Increasing evidence highlights the essential role of neuroinflammatory and immune-related molecules, including those produced at the brain barriers, on brain immune surveillance, cellular dysfunction and amyloid beta (Aβ) pathology in AD. Therefore, understanding the response at the brain barriers may unravel novel pathways of relevance for the pathophysiology of AD. Herein, we focused on the study of the choroid plexus (CP), which constitutes the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, in aging and in AD. Specifically, we used the PDGFB-APPSwInd (J20) transgenic mouse model of AD, which presents early memory decline and progressive Aβ accumulation, and littermate age-matched wild-type (WT) mice, to characterize the CP transcriptome at 3, 5-6 and 11-12months of age. The most striking observation was that the CP of J20 mice displayed an overall overexpression of type I interferon (IFN) response genes at all ages. Moreover, J20 mice presented a high expression of type II IFN genes in the CP at 3months, which became lower than WT at 5-6 and 11-12months. Importantly, along with a marked memory impairment and increased glial activation, J20 mice also presented a similar overexpression of type I IFN genes in the dorsal hippocampus at 3months. Altogether, these findings provide new insights on a possible interplay between type I and II IFN responses in AD and point to IFNs as targets for modulation in cognitive decline.

  13. Plants Actively Avoid State Transitions upon Changes in Light Intensity: Role of Light-Harvesting Complex II Protein Dephosphorylation in High Light1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Suorsa, Marjaana; Rantala, Marjaana; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) core and light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) proteins in plant chloroplasts undergo reversible phosphorylation upon changes in light intensity (being under control of redox-regulated STN7 and STN8 kinases and TAP38/PPH1 and PSII core phosphatases). Shift of plants from growth light to high light results in an increase of PSII core phosphorylation, whereas LHCII phosphorylation concomitantly decreases. Exactly the opposite takes place when plants are shifted to lower light intensity. Despite distinct changes occurring in thylakoid protein phosphorylation upon light intensity changes, the excitation balance between PSII and photosystem I remains unchanged. This differs drastically from the canonical-state transition model induced by artificial states 1 and 2 lights that concomitantly either dephosphorylate or phosphorylate, respectively, both the PSII core and LHCII phosphoproteins. Analysis of the kinase and phosphatase mutants revealed that TAP38/PPH1 phosphatase is crucial in preventing state transition upon increase in light intensity. Indeed, tap38/pph1 mutant revealed strong concomitant phosphorylation of both the PSII core and LHCII proteins upon transfer to high light, thus resembling the wild type under state 2 light. Coordinated function of thylakoid protein kinases and phosphatases is shown to secure balanced excitation energy for both photosystems by preventing state transitions upon changes in light intensity. Moreover, PROTON GRADIENT REGULATION5 (PGR5) is required for proper regulation of thylakoid protein kinases and phosphatases, and the pgr5 mutant mimics phenotypes of tap38/pph1. This shows that there is a close cooperation between the redox- and proton gradient-dependent regulatory mechanisms for proper function of the photosynthetic machinery. PMID:25902812

  14. Plants Actively Avoid State Transitions upon Changes in Light Intensity: Role of Light-Harvesting Complex II Protein Dephosphorylation in High Light.

    PubMed

    Mekala, Nageswara Rao; Suorsa, Marjaana; Rantala, Marjaana; Aro, Eva-Mari; Tikkanen, Mikko

    2015-06-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) core and light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) proteins in plant chloroplasts undergo reversible phosphorylation upon changes in light intensity (being under control of redox-regulated STN7 and STN8 kinases and TAP38/PPH1 and PSII core phosphatases). Shift of plants from growth light to high light results in an increase of PSII core phosphorylation, whereas LHCII phosphorylation concomitantly decreases. Exactly the opposite takes place when plants are shifted to lower light intensity. Despite distinct changes occurring in thylakoid protein phosphorylation upon light intensity changes, the excitation balance between PSII and photosystem I remains unchanged. This differs drastically from the canonical-state transition model induced by artificial states 1 and 2 lights that concomitantly either dephosphorylate or phosphorylate, respectively, both the PSII core and LHCII phosphoproteins. Analysis of the kinase and phosphatase mutants revealed that TAP38/PPH1 phosphatase is crucial in preventing state transition upon increase in light intensity. Indeed, tap38/pph1 mutant revealed strong concomitant phosphorylation of both the PSII core and LHCII proteins upon transfer to high light, thus resembling the wild type under state 2 light. Coordinated function of thylakoid protein kinases and phosphatases is shown to secure balanced excitation energy for both photosystems by preventing state transitions upon changes in light intensity. Moreover, proton gradient regulation5 (PGR5) is required for proper regulation of thylakoid protein kinases and phosphatases, and the pgr5 mutant mimics phenotypes of tap38/pph1. This shows that there is a close cooperation between the redox- and proton gradient-dependent regulatory mechanisms for proper function of the photosynthetic machinery.

  15. Changes in monsoon-driven upwelling in the South China Sea over glacial Terminations I and II: a multi-proxy record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadatzki, Henrik; Sarnthein, Michael; Andersen, Nils

    2016-06-01

    Upwelling intensity in the South China Sea has changed over glacial-interglacial cycles in response to orbital-scale changes in the East Asian Monsoon. Here, we evaluate new multi-proxy records of two sediment cores from the north-eastern South China Sea to uncover millennial-scale changes in winter monsoon-driven upwelling over glacial Terminations I and II. On the basis of U/Th-based speleothem chronology, we compare these changes with sediment records of summer monsoon-driven upwelling east of South Vietnam. Ocean upwelling is traced by reduced (UK'37-based) temperature and increased nutrient and productivity estimates of sea surface waters (δ13C on planktic foraminifera, accumulation rates of alkenones, chlorins, and total organic carbon). Accordingly, strong winter upwelling occurred north-west of Luzon (Philippines) during late Marine Isotope Stage 6.2, Heinrich (HS) and Greenland stadials (GS) HS-11, GS-26, GS-25, HS-1, and the Younger Dryas. During these stadials, summer upwelling decreased off South Vietnam and sea surface salinity reached a maximum suggesting a drop in monsoon rains, concurrent with speleothem records of aridity in China. In harmony with a stadial-to-interstadial see-saw pattern, winter upwelling off Luzon in turn was weak during interstadials, in particular those of glacial Terminations I and II, when summer upwelling culminated east of South Vietnam. Most likely, this upwelling terminated widespread deep-water stratification, coeval with the deglacial rise in atmospheric CO2. Yet, a synchronous maximum in precipitation fostered estuarine overturning circulation in the South China Sea, in particular as long as the Borneo Strait was closed when sea level dropped below -40 m.

  16. Two tyrosines that changed the world: Interfacing the oxidizing power of photochemistry to water splitting in photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Styring, Stenbjörn; Sjöholm, Johannes; Mamedov, Fikret

    2012-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII), the thylakoid membrane enzyme which uses sunlight to oxidize water to molecular oxygen, holds many organic and inorganic redox cofactors participating in the electron transfer reactions. Among them, two tyrosine residues, Tyr-Z and Tyr-D are found on the oxidizing side of PSII. Both tyrosines demonstrate similar spectroscopic features while their kinetic characteristics are quite different. Tyr-Z, which is bound to the D1 core protein, acts as an intermediate in electron transfer between the primary donor, P(680) and the CaMn₄ cluster. In contrast, Tyr-D, which is bound to the D2 core protein, does not participate in linear electron transfer in PSII and stays fully oxidized during PSII function. The phenolic oxygens on both tyrosines form well-defined hydrogen bonds to nearby histidine residues, His(Z) and His(D) respectively. These hydrogen bonds allow swift and almost activation less movement of the proton between respective tyrosine and histidine. This proton movement is critical and the phenolic proton from the tyrosine is thought to toggle between the tyrosine and the histidine in the hydrogen bond. It is found towards the tyrosine when this is reduced and towards the histidine when the tyrosine is oxidized. The proton movement occurs at both room temperature and ultra low temperature and is sensitive to the pH. Essentially it has been found that when the pH is below the pK(a) for respective histidine the function of the tyrosine is slowed down or, at ultra low temperature, halted. This has important consequences for the function also of the CaMn₄ complex and the protonation reactions as the critical Tyr-His hydrogen bond also steer a multitude of reactions at the CaMn₄ cluster. This review deals with the discovery and functional assignments of the two tyrosines. The pH dependent phenomena involved in oxidation and reduction of respective tyrosine is covered in detail. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosystem

  17. Effects of climate change on agricultural-plant pests. Volume II, Part 10 of environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Plant pests and their community of biotic cohorts respond to climatic changes, whether temporal aberrations or long term shifts. How they respond depends on the magnitude of the change and the ability of the species to tolerate or adapt to the new environment. Scientists see several climatological scenarios concerning the increase of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ and ambient temperature. Those who foresee a slow incremental raising of temperatures base their predictions mainly on the available empirical evidence and the notion that long term weather is basically a cyclical phenomena that continually adjusts and readjusts through time. The other scenario interprets the available empirical data as a gradual buildup that pushes the climatic picture towards a threshold or a trigger point that, once arrived at, is irreversible and dramatic. This paper explores the possible climatic scenarios as they relate to the ecological principles that affect pest abundance and the distribution and impact on domestic and international agriculture.

  18. Conformational changes in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase mutants: effect of mutations either at Ca(2+)-binding site II or at tryptophan 552 in the cytosolic domain.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, Guillaume; Jaxel, Christine; Picard, Martin; le Maire, Marc; Champeil, Philippe; Falson, Pierre

    2006-04-25

    By analyzing, after expression in yeast and purification, the intrinsic fluorescence properties of point mutants of rabbit Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA1a) with alterations to amino acid residues in Ca(2+)-binding site I (E(771)), site II (E(309)), in both sites (D(800)), or in the nucleotide-binding domain (W(552)), we were able to follow the conformational changes associated with various steps in the ATPase catalytic cycle. Whereas Ca(2+) binding to purified wild-type (WT) ATPase in the absence of ATP leads to the rise in Trp fluorescence expected for the so-called E2 --> E1Ca(2) transition, the Ca(2+)-induced fluorescence rise is dramatically reduced for the E(309)Q mutant. As this purified E(309)Q mutant retains the ability to bind Ca(2+) at site I (but not at site II), we tentatively conclude that the protein reorganization induced by Ca(2+) binding at site II makes the major contribution to the overall Trp fluorescence changes observed upon Ca(2+) binding to both sites. Judging from the fluorescence response of W(552)F, similar to that of WT, these changes appear to be primarily due to membranous tryptophans, not to W(552). The same holds for the fluorescence rise observed upon phosphorylation from P(i) (the so-called E2 --> E2P transition). As for WT ATPase, Mg(2+) binding in the absence of Ca(2+) affects the fluorescence of the E(309)Q mutant, suggesting that this Mg(2+)-dependent fluorescence rise does not reflect binding of Mg(2+) to Ca(2+) sites; instead, Mg(2+) probably binds close to the catalytic site, or perhaps near transmembrane span M3, at a location recently revealed by Fe(2+)-catalyzed oxidative cleavage. Mutation of W(552) hardly affects ATP-induced fluorescence changes in the absence of Ca(2+), which are therefore mostly due to membranous Trp residues, demonstrating long-range communication between the nucleotide-binding domain and the membranous domain.

  19. Specific localization of the annexin II heterotetramer in brain lipid raft fractions and its changes in spatial learning.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei-Qin; Waisman, David M; Grimaldi, Maurizio

    2004-08-01

    Annexin-II (AII) is a Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipid-binding protein that is present in both intracellular and extracellular compartments. In the present study AII immunoreactivity was found in a subpopulation of neurons in specific brain regions, including the cerebral cortex and the surface of hippocampal pyramidal neurons from adult rats. AII from synaptic membranes was detected by immunoblotting as multiple species containing the monomer (AII36) and heterotetramer (AIIt). AIIt was resistant to beta-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, but was completely reduced to monomers (36 kDa) by two-dimensional electrophoresis. AIIt resided exclusively in the detergent-resistant lipid rafts concentrated in neuronal dendrites, and its recruitment to those structures was enhanced by antibody cross-link. AII abundantly distributed on the outer leaflet of neuronal membranes and between spaces of neurons appeared to be neuronal adhesive. The formation of AIIt required synthesis of sphingolipids and cholesterol, and its stability depended on Ca2+. Increases in neuronal activities such as depolarization and learning were shown to promote formation of AIIt. Our results suggest that, via a dynamic association with dendritic lipid rafts, AII may play a role in synaptic signal transduction and remodeling. This probably involves focal adhesion and interactions with actin that are associated with brain development and memory consolidation.

  20. A Study of Ontogenetic and Generational Change in Adolescent Personality by Means of Multivariate Longitudinal Sequences: Phase II. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesselroade, John R.; Baltes, Paul B.

    Assessment of the relationship between ontogenetic (individual) and generational (historical) change in adolescent personality development was the focus of this study. The total sample included 1000 male and female adolescents (ages 13-18) randomly drawn from 32 public school systems in West Virginia following a design using longitudinal sequences…

  1. Belowground Response to Drought in a Tropical Forest Soil. II. Change in Microbial Function Impacts Carbon Composition

    PubMed Central

    Bouskill, Nicholas J.; Wood, Tana E.; Baran, Richard; Hao, Zhao; Ye, Zaw; Bowen, Ben P.; Lim, Hsiao Chien; Nico, Peter S.; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Gilbert, Benjamin; Silver, Whendee L.; Northen, Trent R.; Brodie, Eoin L.

    2016-01-01

    Climate model projections for tropical regions show clear perturbation of precipitation patterns leading to increased frequency and severity of drought in some regions. Previous work has shown declining soil moisture to be a strong driver of changes in microbial trait distribution, however, the feedback of any shift in functional potential on ecosystem properties related to carbon cycling are poorly understood. Here we show that drought-induced changes in microbial functional diversity and activity shape, and are in turn shaped by, the composition of dissolved and soil-associated carbon. We also demonstrate that a shift in microbial functional traits that favor the production of hygroscopic compounds alter the efflux of carbon dioxide following soil rewetting. Under drought the composition of the dissolved organic carbon pool changed in a manner consistent with a microbial metabolic response. We hypothesize that this microbial ecophysiological response to changing soil moisture elevates the intracellular carbon demand stimulating extracellular enzyme production, that prompts the observed decline in more complex carbon compounds (e.g., cellulose and lignin). Furthermore, a metabolic response to drought appeared to condition (biologically and physically) the soil, notably through the production of polysaccharides, particularly in experimental plots that had been pre-exposed to a short-term drought. This hysteretic response, in addition to an observed drought-related decline in phosphorus concentration, may have been responsible for a comparatively modest CO2 efflux following wet-up in drought plots relative to control plots. PMID:27014243

  2. Belowground Response to Drought in a Tropical Forest Soil. II. Change in Microbial Function Impacts Carbon Composition.

    PubMed

    Bouskill, Nicholas J; Wood, Tana E; Baran, Richard; Hao, Zhao; Ye, Zaw; Bowen, Ben P; Lim, Hsiao Chien; Nico, Peter S; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Gilbert, Benjamin; Silver, Whendee L; Northen, Trent R; Brodie, Eoin L

    2016-01-01

    Climate model projections for tropical regions show clear perturbation of precipitation patterns leading to increased frequency and severity of drought in some regions. Previous work has shown declining soil moisture to be a strong driver of changes in microbial trait distribution, however, the feedback of any shift in functional potential on ecosystem properties related to carbon cycling are poorly understood. Here we show that drought-induced changes in microbial functional diversity and activity shape, and are in turn shaped by, the composition of dissolved and soil-associated carbon. We also demonstrate that a shift in microbial functional traits that favor the production of hygroscopic compounds alter the efflux of carbon dioxide following soil rewetting. Under drought the composition of the dissolved organic carbon pool changed in a manner consistent with a microbial metabolic response. We hypothesize that this microbial ecophysiological response to changing soil moisture elevates the intracellular carbon demand stimulating extracellular enzyme production, that prompts the observed decline in more complex carbon compounds (e.g., cellulose and lignin). Furthermore, a metabolic response to drought appeared to condition (biologically and physically) the soil, notably through the production of polysaccharides, particularly in experimental plots that had been pre-exposed to a short-term drought. This hysteretic response, in addition to an observed drought-related decline in phosphorus concentration, may have been responsible for a comparatively modest CO2 efflux following wet-up in drought plots relative to control plots.

  3. COMPARISON OF EEG CHANGES PRODUCED BY CARBARYL (CARBAMATE), PERMETHRIN (TYPE I PYRETHROID), AND DELTAMETHRIN (TYPE II PYRETHROID)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have reported that treatment with carbaryl may alter Theta activity in the EEG (Lyke et al., Toxicologist, 108(S-1):441, 2009). In this study, we examined the ability to detect changes in EEG activity produced by pesticides with different modes of action. Long Evans rats were ...

  4. Climate change impact assessment in Veneto and Friuli Plain groundwater. Part II: a spatially resolved regional risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pasini, S; Torresan, S; Rizzi, J; Zabeo, A; Critto, A; Marcomini, A

    2012-12-01

    Climate change impact assessment on water resources has received high international attention over the last two decades, due to the observed global warming and its consequences at the global to local scale. In particular, climate-related risks for groundwater and related ecosystems pose a great concern to scientists and water authorities involved in the protection of these valuable resources. The close link of global warming with water cycle alterations encourages research to deepen current knowledge on relationships between climate trends and status of water systems, and to develop predictive tools for their sustainable management, copying with key principles of EU water policy. Within the European project Life+ TRUST (Tool for Regional-scale assessment of groundwater Storage improvement in adaptation to climaTe change), a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed in order to identify impacts from climate change on groundwater and associated ecosystems (e.g. surface waters, agricultural areas, natural environments) and to rank areas and receptors at risk in the high and middle Veneto and Friuli Plain (Italy). Based on an integrated analysis of impacts, vulnerability and risks linked to climate change at the regional scale, a RRA framework complying with the Sources-Pathway-Receptor-Consequence (SPRC) approach was defined. Relevant impacts on groundwater and surface waters (i.e. groundwater level variations, changes in nitrate infiltration processes, changes in water availability for irrigation) were selected and analyzed through hazard scenario, exposure, susceptibility and risk assessment. The RRA methodology used hazard scenarios constructed through global and high resolution model simulations for the 2071-2100 period, according to IPCC A1B emission scenario in order to produce useful indications for future risk prioritization and to support the addressing of adaptation measures, primarily Managed Artificial Recharge (MAR) techniques. Relevant

  5. Ultrastructural findings in horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). II: Pathomorphological changes of the terminal airways and the alveolar region.

    PubMed

    Kaup, F J; Drommer, W; Damsch, S; Deegen, E

    1990-09-01

    Extensive light and electron microscope studies (transmission and scanning electron microscopy) of the bronchioles and alveolar region, in 28 horses suffering chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and eight control horses, revealed good correlation between clinical severity and morphological changes. In the bronchiolar epithelium the non-ciliated bronchiolar epithelial (Clara) cells, in particular, showed ultrastructural alterations and, even in the mild stages of disease, these presented degenerative changes and lack of differentiation. Together with loss of granulation in the Clara cells and metaplasia of the goblet cells, cells were seen with unusual intracytoplasmic lamellar inclusion, the number of which increased sharply with clinical severity. The focal changes in the alveolar region were necrosis of type I epithelial cells, alveolar fibrosis of varying degrees with type II epithelial transformation and emphysema or hyperinflation, with an increase in Kohn's pores. Some horse also showed morphological signs of interference with the surfactant system, in the form of marked cysts with lamellar structure. The alveolar changes were mostly in the peribronchiolar region and were, therefore, interpreted as reactive processes. No conclusions as to the aetiology of equine COPD can be derived from these morphological investigations.

  6. A longitudinal study of back pain and radiological changes in the lumbar spines of middle aged women. II. Radiographic findings.

    PubMed Central

    Symmons, D P; van Hemert, A M; Vandenbroucke, J P; Valkenburg, H A

    1991-01-01

    The natural history of radiological changes in the lumbar spine was evaluated in two groups of middle aged Dutch women selected from the general population. One group (n = 236) had recurrent back pain and the other (n = 241) had never experienced back pain. At the beginning of the study disc degeneration was more common in the group with back pain. Osteoporotic vertebral fractures were equally common in both groups. Nine years later both groups showed an increase in prevalence of disc degeneration and osteoporotic fractures. The strongest predictor for change in disc degeneration was the presence of degeneration at the beginning of the study. The development of disc degeneration for the first time was related to body mass index. PMID:1826598

  7. Determinants and Changes Associated with Aldosterone Breakthrough after Angiotensin II Receptor Blockade in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Overt Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Moranne, Olivier; Bakris, George; Fafin, Coraline; Favre, Guillaume; Pradier, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system decreases proteinuria and slows estimated GFR decline in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with overt nephropathy. Serum aldosterone levels may increase during renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade. The determinants and consequences of this aldosterone breakthrough remain unknown. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study examined the incidence, determinants, and changes associated with aldosterone breakthrough in a posthoc analysis of a randomized study that compared the effect of two angiotensin II receptor blockers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with overt nephropathy. Results Of 567 of 860 participants included in this posthoc analysis, 28% of participants developed aldosterone breakthrough, which was defined by an increase greater than 10% over baseline values of serum aldosterone levels after 1 year of angiotensin II receptor blocker treatment. Factors independently associated with aldosterone breakthrough at 1 year were lower serum aldosterone and potassium levels at baseline, higher decreases in sodium intake, systolic BP, and estimated GFR from baseline to 1 year, and use of losartan versus telmisartan. Aldosterone breakthrough at 6 months was not sustained at 1 year in 69% of cases, and it did not predict estimated GFR decrease and proteinuria increase between 6 months and 1 year. Conclusions Aldosterone breakthrough is a frequent event 1 year after initiating renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade, particularly in participants exposed to intensive lowering of BP with sodium depletion and short-acting angiotensin II receptor blockers. Short-term serum aldosterone level increases at 6 months are not associated with negative kidney outcomes between 6 months and 1 year. PMID:23929924

  8. A Change in the Solar He II EUV Global Network Structure as an Indicator of the Geo-Effectiveness of Solar Minima

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didkovsky, L.; Gurman, J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Solar activity during 2007 - 2009 was very low, causing anomalously low thermospheric density. A comparison of solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance in the He II spectral band (26 to 34 nm) from the Solar Extreme ultraviolet Monitor (SEM), one of instruments on the Charge Element and Isotope Analysis System (CELIAS) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) for the two latest solar minima showed a decrease of the absolute irradiance of about 15 +/- 6 % during the solar minimum between Cycles 23 and 24 compared with the Cycle 22/23 minimum when a yearly running-mean filter was used. We found that some local, shorter-term minima including those with the same absolute EUV flux in the SEM spectral band show a higher concentration of spatial power in the global network structure from the 30.4 nm SOHO/Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) images for the local minimum of 1996 compared with the minima of 2008 - 2011.We interpret this higher concentration of spatial power in the transition region's global network structure as a larger number of larger-area features on the solar disk. These changes in the global network structure during solar minima may characterize, in part, the geo-effectiveness of the solar He II EUV irradiance in addition to the estimations based on its absolute levels.

  9. Metabolic Response of “Candidatus Accumulibacter Phosphatis” Clade II C to Changes in Influent P/C Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Welles, Laurens; Abbas, Ben; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Lopez-Vazquez, Carlos M.; Hooijmans, Christine M.; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of a culture highly enriched with the polyphosphate-accumulating organism, “Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis” clade IIC, to adjust their metabolism to different phosphate availabilities. For this purpose the biomass was cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor with acetate and exposed to different phosphate/carbon influent ratios during six experimental phases. Activity tests were conducted to determine the anaerobic kinetic and stoichiometric parameters as well as the composition of the microbial community. Increasing influent phosphate concentrations led to increased poly-phosphate content and decreased glycogen content of the biomass. In response to higher biomass poly-phosphate content, the biomass showed higher specific phosphate release rates. Together with the phosphate release rates, acetate uptake rates also increased up to an optimal poly-phosphate/glycogen ratio of 0.3 P-mol/C-mol. At higher poly-phosphate/glycogen ratios (obtained at influent P/C ratios above 0.051 P-mol/C-mol), the acetate uptake rates started to decrease. The stoichiometry of the anaerobic conversions clearly demonstrated a metabolic shift from a glycogen dominated to a poly-phosphate dominated metabolism as the biomass poly-phosphate content increased. FISH and DGGE analyses confirmed that no significant changes occurred in the microbial community, suggesting that the changes in the biomass activity were due to different metabolic behavior, allowing the organisms to proliferate under conditions with fluctuating phosphate levels. PMID:28111570

  10. Neuroanatomical distribution of angiotensin-II-like neuropeptide within the central nervous system of the crab Chasmagnathus; physiological changes triggered by water deprivation.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Lia; Dimant, Beatriz; Portiansky, Enrique L; Imboden, Hans; Maldonado, Héctor; Delorenzi, Alejandro

    2010-07-01

    The angiotensins constitute a neuropeptidergic system that emerged early in evolution. Their classical osmoregulatory and dipsogenic functions and their mnemonic actions have been demonstrated both in vertebrates and in some invertebrates. Previously, we have shown that, in the euryhaline and semiterrestrial crab Chasmagnathus granulatus, water deprivation correlates with an increased level of brain angiotensin-II-like neuropeptide/s (ANGII-like) and improves memory processes through ANGII receptors. We have proposed that the release of brain angiotensins in response to water shortages is an ancient mechanism for coordinating various functions that, together, enable organisms to tolerate this environmental change. Here, we have evaluated the physiological changes in ANGII-like levels in diverse structures of the central nervous system of these animals during water deprivation. The neuroanatomical distribution of ANGII-like is described in the optic lobes and brain of Chasmagnathus granulatus and the physiological changes in ANGII-like distribution in various brain neuropils is evaluated after water deprivation. Our results indicate that ANGII-like is widely distributed, especially in the medial protocerebrum. After 2 h of water deprivation, ANGII-like immunoreactivity increases in the central body and decreases in the olfactory neuropil and, after 6 h of water deprivation, is markedly reduced in several brain areas. Although further experiments are needed to establish that the angiotensinergic system is involved in the balance of body fluids in this crab, our results suggest that ANGII regulates several functions during water shortages.

  11. Short-term pharyngeal airway changes after mandibular advancement surgery in adult Class II-Patients--a three-dimensional retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Kochel, Janka; Meyer-Marcotty, Philipp; Sickel, Franka; Lindorf, Helmut; Stellzig-Eisenhauer, Angelika

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate volume changes in posterior airway space (PAS) after bilateral mandibular advancement surgery. Measurements were taken based on three-dimensional (3D) records available for a large and homogeneous cohort of patients. Pre- and postoperative CBCT scans of 102 adult patients with Class II dysgnathia were visualized and analyzed using 3D software (Mimics® Innovation Suite 14.1; Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). The PAS was divided into three segments by three planes parallel and one plane perpendicular to the Frankfort horizontal plane. Total volume, partial volumes, and cross-sectional areas were calculated from the pre- and postoperative scans. Dahlberg coefficients were obtained to verify each parameter for the measurements' reliability. The statistical significance of the changes observed was analyzed by Wilcoxon's rank-sum test. Highly significant (p=0.000) increases in total posterior airway volume (+32.0%) were noted as an effect of mandibular advancement surgery, amounting to 45.6% in the lower PAS third compared to 38.8% in the middle and 12.5% in the upper PAS third. We also obtained highly significant (p=0.000) increases in all the cross-sectional areas investigated, amounting to 48.5% on the soft-palate level compared to 21.6% on the level of the epiglottis tip, and 14.6% on the hard-palate level. These results demonstrate that bilateral mandibular advancement surgery in Class II-Patients leads to significant increases in PAS volume and significant widening of the narrower sites inside the pharynx.

  12. Pharyngeal airway space and frontal and sphenoid sinus changes after maxillomandibular advancement with counterclockwise rotation for class II anterior open bite malocclusions

    PubMed Central

    Prado, FB; Rossi, AC; Freire, AR; Groppo, FC; De Moraes, M; Caria, PHF

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to cephalometrically evaluate the pharyngeal airway space and frontal and sphenoid sinus changes after maxillomandibular advancement counterclockwise rotation for class II anterior open bite malocclusion. Methods The study included 49 patients (98 lateral teleradiographs; 36 females and 13 males) who were analysed in the pre-operative (1 week before surgery) and post-operative (6 months after surgery) periods. In each lateral teleradiography, the dimensions of the inferior and superior pharyngeal airway space, TB-PhW1 [the point between the posterior aspect of the tongue to the dorsal pharyngeal wall (oropharynx) (TB) and the point on the dorsal pharyngeal wall closest to TB (PhW1)] and UP-PhW2 [and the point between the posterior aspect of the soft palate to the dorsal pharyngeal wall (nasopharynx) (UP) (PhW2)] measurements were evaluated, as well as the dimensions of the frontal and sphenoid sinuses. The differences between the two operative times were evaluated by Student's t-test. Results All measurements showed excellent reproducibility for the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC > 0.9; p < 0.0001). There was an increase in the measurements TB-PhW1 and UP-PhW2 and a decrease in the dimensions of the frontal and sphenoid sinuses after orthognathic surgery. Conclusions The morphology of the superior and inferior pharyngeal airway space and frontal and sphenoid sinuses changes after 6 months of maxillomandibular advancement counterclockwise rotation for class II anterior open bite malocclusion. PMID:22116128

  13. Changes in nucleosome repeat lengths precede replication in the early replicating metallothionein II gene region of cells synchronized in early S phase

    SciTech Connect

    D'Anna, J.A.; Tobey, R.A. )

    1989-04-04

    Previous investigations showed that inhibition of DNA synthesis by hydroxyurea, aphidicolin, or 5-fluorodeoxyuridine produced large changes in the composition and nucleosome repeat lengths of bulk chromatin. There the authors report results of investigations to determine whether the changes in nucleosome repeat lengths might be localized in the initiated replicons, as postulated. In most experiments, Chinese hamster (line CHO) cells were synchronized in G1, or they were synchronized in early S phase by allowing G1 cells to enter S phase in medium containing 1 mM hydroxyurea or 5 {mu}g mL{sup {minus}1} aphidicolin, a procedure believed to produce an accumulation of initiated replicons that arise from normally early replicating DNA. Measurements of nucleosome repeat lengths of bulk chromatin, the early replicating unexpressed metallothionein II (MTII) gene region, and a later replicating repeated sequence indicate that the changes in repeat lengths occur preferentially in the early replicating MTII gene region as G1 cells enter and become synchronized in early S phase. During that time, the MTII gene region is not replicated nor is there any evidence for induction of MTII messenger RNA. Thus, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in chromatin structure occur preferentially in the early replicating (presumably initiated) replicons at initiation or that changes in chromatin structure can precede replication during inhibition of DNA synthesis. The shortened repeat lengths that precede MTII replication are, potentially, reversible, because they become elongated when the synchronized early S-phase cells are released to resume cell cycle progression.

  14. Analysis of rabbit intervertebral disc physiology based on water metabolism. II. Changes in normal intervertebral discs under axial vibratory load

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, N.; Tsuji, H.; Ohshima, H.; Kitano, S.; Itoh, T.; Sano, A.

    1988-11-01

    Metabolic changes induced by axial vibratory load to the spine were investigated based on water metabolism in normal intervertebral discs of rabbits with or without pentobarbital anesthesia. Tritiated water concentration in the intervertebral discs of unanesthetized rabbits was reduced remarkably by axial vibration for 30 minutes using the vibration machine developed for this study. Repeated vibratory load for 18 and 42 hours duration showed the recovery of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O concentration of the intervertebral disc without anesthesia. Computer simulation suggested a reduction of blood flow surrounding the intervertebral disc following the vibration stress. However, no reduction of the /sup 3/H/sub 2/O concentration in the intervertebral disc was noted under anesthesia. Emotional stress cannot be excluded as a factor in water metabolism in the intervertebral disc.

  15. In vivo digestion of bovine milk fat globules: effect of processing and interfacial structural changes. II. Upper digestive tract digestion.

    PubMed

    Gallier, Sophie; Zhu, Xiang Q; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Ye, Aiqian; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of milk processing on the in vivo upper digestive tract digestion of milk fat globules. Fasted rats were serially gavaged over a 5h period with cream from raw, pasteurised, or pasteurised and homogenised milk. Only a few intact dietary proteins and peptides were present in the small intestinal digesta. Significantly (P<0.05) more longer chain (C≥10) fatty acids were present in the digesta of rats gavaged with raw (448 mg g(-1) digesta dry matter (DDM)) and homogenised creams (528 mg g(-1) DDM), as compared to pasteurised and homogenised cream (249 mg g(-1) DDM). Microscopy techniques were used to investigate the structural changes during digestion. Liquid-crystalline lamellar phases surrounding the fat globules, fatty acid soap crystals and lipid-mucin interactions were evident in all small intestinal digesta. Overall, the pasteurised and homogenised cream appeared to be digested to a greater extent.

  16. The influence of ocean surface temperature gradient and continentality on the Walker circulation. II - Prescribed global changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, P. H.; Chervin, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    The series of experiments presently used to investigate the mechanisms responsible for forcing the global Walker circulation features worldwide changes in ocean surface temperatures (OSTs), topography, and/or continents. The primary factor affecting circulation is noted to be the global distribution of continents and oceans; while OST gradients are also important, topography emerges as comparatively unimportant. Continentality and OST gradients force the model atmosphere through the introduction of zonal variations in surface heating. The vertical motions to which they give rise yield moisture convergence and condensation variations which reinforce vertical motions. The forcing by OST gradients is partly nonlocal, and the atmospheric response is effected by continentality. In all cases, vertical motion zonal variations correlate with precipitation.

  17. The greening of the McGill Paleoclimate Model. Part II: Simulation of Holocene millennial-scale natural climate changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Mysak, Lawrence A.; Wang, Zhaomin; Brovkin, Victor

    2005-04-01

    Various proxy data reveal that in many regions of the Northern Hemisphere (NH), the middle Holocene (6 kyr BP) was warmer than the early Holocene (8 kyr BP) as well as the later Holocene, up to the end of the pre-industrial period (1800 AD). This pattern of warming and then cooling in the NH represents the response of the climate system to changes in orbital forcing, vegetation cover and the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) during the Holocene. In an attempt to better understand these changes in the climate system, the McGill Paleoclimate Model (MPM) has been coupled to the dynamic global vegetation model known as VECODE (see Part I of this two-part paper), and a number of sensitivity experiments have been performed with the "green" MPM. The model results illustrate the following: (1) the orbital forcing together with the vegetation—albedo feedback result in the gradual cooling of global SAT from about 6 kyr BP to the end of the pre-industrial period; (2) the disappearance of the LIS over the period 8-6 kyr BP, associated with vegetation—albedo feedback, allows the global SAT to increase and reach its maximum at around 6 kyr BP; (3) the northern limit of the boreal forest moves northward during the period 8-6.4 kyr BP due to the LIS retreat; (4) during the period 6.4-0 kyr BP, the northern limit of the boreal forest moves southward about 120 km in response to the decreasing summer insolation in the NH; and (5) the desertification of northern Africa during the period 8-2.6 kyr BP is mainly explained by the decreasing summer monsoon precipitation.

  18. Beyond Potential Vegetation II: Using Repeat Lidar Data on Changes in Vegetation Height to Test Model Predictions of Ecosystem Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtt, G.; Thomas, R. Q.; Dubayah, R.

    2007-12-01

    Carbon estimates from terrestrial ecosystem models are limited by large uncertainties in the current state of the land surface, as previous disturbances have important and lasting influences on ecosystem structure and fluxes and can be difficult to detect or assess. Previous studies have illustrated how data on the vertical structure of vegetation from lidar can help to provide needed information on successional status for model initialization and constrain estimates of both carbon stock and fluxes. Here, we illustrate how repeat lidar data on vegetation structure can be used to test model predictions of ecosystem dynamics at a tropical forest site at La Selva, Costa Rica (108259 N, 848009 W). Airborne lidar remote sensing was used to measure spatial heterogeneity in the vertical structure of vegetation in 1998 and 2005. The ecosystem demography model (ED) was used to estimate corresponding patterns of carbon stocks, fluxes, and ecosystem dynamics during the interval. Lidar-initialized ED estimates of changes in maximum canopy height) were comparable to but significantly lower than observed (0.85 +/- 0.9 m observed vs. 0.53 +/- 0.4 m modeled) over the whole domain. Most of the model-data difference was due to growth of primary forest trees that exceeded model estimates (0.44 +/-0.9 m observed vs. 0.04 +/-0.1 m modeled), while the model-data comparison was significantly better over secondary forest areas (1.84 +/- 0.18 m observed vs. 1.71 +/-0.9 m modeled). The results of this study provide a promising illustration of the power of using repeat lidar data on changes in vegetation height to test estimates of ecosystem dynamics from height-structured ecosystem models. Extending these capabilities to regional and global scales will require repeat lidar data sets from space, and the continued development of height-structured ecosystem models.

  19. Effect of postoperative radiotherapy on changes in pulmonary function in patients with stage II and IIIA lung carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, N.C.; Kanarek, D.J.; Grillo, H.C. )

    1990-01-01

    To assess the pulmonary tolerance to postoperative radiotherapy (RT) in patients with resected lung carcinoma, a prospective study was begun in January 1977, which consisted of (a) initial pulmonary function test (PFT) and arterial blood gases (ABG) at 1 month after surgery, and before beginning of postoperative RT, and (b) follow-up PFT and ABG 1 year after postoperative RT and then every year thereafter. As of December 1987, 137 patients have been enrolled into this study, and 71 patients who were free of recurrence were subjected to the follow-up PFT and ABG. The remaining 66 patients were unable to complete the follow-up studies because of recurrent carcinoma in 60, refusal to participate in the study in 5 patients even in the absence of significant respiratory symptoms, and progressive asbestos-related pleural thickening in 1 patient. The patient characteristics were as follows: Age ranged from 27 to 79 years with the median of 59 years; sex ratio was 1.4 to 1 for male to female; surgical procedures included lobectomy in 49 and pneumonectomy in 22 patients; tumor extent consisted of Stages T1-T2N1M0 in 44, T1-T2N2M0 in 9, and T3N0-N2M0 in 18 patients, respectively. Histologic types included squamous cell carcinoma in 26, adenocarcinoma in 42, small cell carcinoma in 1, and large cell carcinoma in 2 patients. Target volume for RT included the ipsilateral hilum, the mediastinum, and the thoracic inlet including both supraclavicular fossae. A total dose of 54 Gy was delivered in 1.8 Gy of daily fractions, 5 days per week over a period of 6 weeks. Contrary to expectation, there were minor changes in PFT indices in both lobectomy and pneumonectomy patients. The follow-up PFT in the lobectomy group showed small -3% to +2% changes in mean values of ventilatory indices, lung volume, and ABG.

  20. Controlled production of Camembert-type cheeses. Part II. Changes in the concentration of the more volatile compounds.

    PubMed

    Leclercq-Perlat, Marie-Noëlle; Latrille, Eric; Corrieu, Georges; Spinnler, Henry-Eric

    2004-08-01

    Flavour generation in cheese is a major aspect of ripening. In order to enhance aromatic qualities it is necessary to better understand the chemical and microbiological changes. Experimental Camembert-type cheeses were prepared in duplicate from pasteurized milk inoculated with Kluyveromyces lactis, Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium camemberti and Brevibacterium linens under aseptic conditions. Two replicates performed under controlled conditions of temperature (12 degrees C), relative humidity (95 +/- 2%), and atmosphere showed similar ripening characteristics. The evolutions of metabolite concentrations were studied during ripening. The volatile components were extracted by dynamic headspace extraction, separated and quantified by gas chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry. For each cheese the volatile concentrations varied with the part considered (rind or core). Except for ethyl acetate and 2-pentanone, the volatile quantities observed were higher than their perception thresholds. The flavour component production was best correlated with the starter strains. During the first 10 days the ester formations (ethyl, butyl and isoamyl acetates) were associated with the concentrations of K. lactis and G. candidum. The rind quantity of esters was lower than that observed in core probably due to (1) a diffusion from the core to the surface and (2) evaporation from the surface to the chamber atmosphere. G. candidum and Brev. linens association produced 3 methyl butanol and methyl 3-butanal from leucine, respectively. DMDS came from the methionine catabolism due to Brev. linens. Styrene production was attributed to Pen. camemberti. 2-Pentanone evolution was associated with Pen. camemberti spores and G. candidum. 2-Heptanone changes were not directly related to flora activities while 2-octanone production was essentially due to G. candidum. This study also demonstrates the determining role of volatile component diffusion.

  1. Plant Defense Response to Fungal Pathogens (II. G-Protein-Mediated Changes in Host Plasma Membrane Redox Reactions).

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Estrella, R.; Higgins, V. J.; Blumwald, E.

    1994-01-01

    Elicitor preparations containing the avr5 gene products from races 4 and 2.3 of Cladosporium fulvum, and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cells containing the resistance gene Cf5 were used to investigate the involvement of redox processes in the production of active oxygen species associated with the plant response to the fungal elicitors. Here we demonstrate that certain race-specific elicitors of C. fulvum induced an increase in ferricyanide reduction in enriched plasma membrane fractions of tomato cells. The addition of elicitors to plasma membranes also induced increases in NADH oxidase and NADH-dependent cytochrome c reductase activities, whereas ascorbate peroxidase activity was decreased. These results suggest that changes in the host plasma membrane redox processes, transferring electrons from reducing agents to oxygen, could be involved in the increased production of active oxygen species by the race-specific elicitors. Our results also show that the dephosphorylation of enzymes involved in redox reactions is responsible for the race-specific induced redox activity. The effects of guanidine nucleotide analogs and mastoparan on the activation of plasma membrane redox reactions support the role of GTP-binding proteins in the transduction of signals leading to the activation of the defense response mechanisms of tomato against fungal pathogens. PMID:12232307

  2. Changes in variation at the MHC class II DQA locus during the final demise of the woolly mammoth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pečnerová, Patrícia; Díez-Del-Molino, David; Vartanyan, Sergey; Dalén, Love

    2016-05-01

    According to the nearly-neutral theory of evolution, the relative strengths of selection and drift shift in favour of drift at small population sizes. Numerous studies have analysed the effect of bottlenecks and small population sizes on genetic diversity in the MHC, which plays a central role in pathogen recognition and immune defense and is thus considered a model example for the study of adaptive evolution. However, to understand changes in genetic diversity at loci under selection, it is necessary to compare the genetic diversity of a population before and after the bottleneck. In this study, we analyse three fragments of the MHC DQA gene in woolly mammoth samples radiocarbon dated to before and after a well-documented bottleneck that took place about ten thousand years ago. Our results indicate a decrease in observed heterozygosity and number of alleles, suggesting that genetic drift had an impact on the variation on MHC. Based on coalescent simulations, we found no evidence of balancing selection maintaining MHC diversity during the Holocene. However, strong trans-species polymorphism among mammoths and elephants points to historical effects of balancing selection on the woolly mammoth lineage.

  3. Changes in variation at the MHC class II DQA locus during the final demise of the woolly mammoth.

    PubMed

    Pečnerová, Patrícia; Díez-Del-Molino, David; Vartanyan, Sergey; Dalén, Love

    2016-05-04

    According to the nearly-neutral theory of evolution, the relative strengths of selection and drift shift in favour of drift at small population sizes. Numerous studies have analysed the effect of bottlenecks and small population sizes on genetic diversity in the MHC, which plays a central role in pathogen recognition and immune defense and is thus considered a model example for the study of adaptive evolution. However, to understand changes in genetic diversity at loci under selection, it is necessary to compare the genetic diversity of a population before and after the bottleneck. In this study, we analyse three fragments of the MHC DQA gene in woolly mammoth samples radiocarbon dated to before and after a well-documented bottleneck that took place about ten thousand years ago. Our results indicate a decrease in observed heterozygosity and number of alleles, suggesting that genetic drift had an impact on the variation on MHC. Based on coalescent simulations, we found no evidence of balancing selection maintaining MHC diversity during the Holocene. However, strong trans-species polymorphism among mammoths and elephants points to historical effects of balancing selection on the woolly mammoth lineage.

  4. Experimental Study of Porosity Changes in Shale Caprocks Exposed to Carbon Dioxide-Saturated Brine II: Insights from Aqueous Geochemistry

    DOE PAGES

    Miller, Quin R. S.; Wang, Xiuyu; Kaszuba, John P.; ...

    2016-07-18

    Laboratory experiments evaluated two shale caprock formations, the Gothic Shale and Marine Tuscaloosa Formation, at conditions relevant to carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration. Both rocks were exposed to CO2-saturated brines at 160°C and 15 MPa for ~45 days. Baseline experiments for both rocks were pressurized with argon to 15 MPa for ~35 days. Varying concentrations of iron, aqueous silica, sulfate, and initial pH decreases coincide with enhanced carbonate and silicate dissolution due to reaction between CO2-saturated brine and shale. Saturation indices were calculated and activity diagrams were constructed to gain insights into sulfate, silicate, and carbonate mineral stabilities. We found thatmore » upon exposure to CO2-saturated brines, the Marine Tuscaloosa Formation appeared to be more reactive than the Gothic Shale. Evolution of aqueous geochemistry in the experiments is consistent with mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions that affect porosity. Finally, this study highlights the importance of tracking fluid chemistry to clarify downhole physicochemical responses to CO2 injection and subsequent changes in sealing capacity in CO2 storage and utilization projects.« less

  5. Growth and decay of a large-scale vortex in a turbulent boundary layer. II - Streamwise change in vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makita, Hideharu; Sassa, Koji

    1992-04-01

    The present experiment investigates streamwise change of the vorticity field around a large-scale coherent vortex artificially induced in a fully developed turbulent boundary layer. The vortical structure of the large-scale vortex evolved downstream through the growth, the self-preserving, and the decay stages. In the growth stage, its spanwise and normal circulations increased downstream, and the large-scale vortex grew to have vortical structure similar to the natural horseshoe vortex. The vortex still grew upward but the spanwise circulation was kept nearly constant in the self-preserving stage. The convection velocity of its head and leg was 0.56 U-infinity in the growth and self-preserving stages. In the decay stage, each part of the vortex drifted at the local mean velocity, and the vortex became more inclined downstream. There, its vorticity gradually decreased as it flowed downstream. The decay rate of the normal vorticity was smaller than that of the spanwise one throughout the stages.

  6. DYNAMICS OF ACRIDINE ORANGE-CELL INTERACTION. II. DYE-INDUCED ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES IN MULTIVESICULAR BODIES (ACRIDINE ORANGE PARTICLES).

    PubMed

    ROBBINS, E; MARCUS, P I; GONATAS, N K

    1964-04-01

    The brilliantly fluorescent cytoplasmic particles that accumulate in HeLa cells treated with acridine orange, previously referred to as acridine orange particles, are shown to represent acid phosphatase positive multivesicular bodies (MVB). Dynamic changes in the ultrastructure of these organelles may be induced by varying the concentration of extracellular dye and the length of exposure to the dye. Low concentrations of dye for long intervals of time lead to marked hypertrophy of the MVB and accumulation of myelin figures within them, the acid phosphatase activity being retained. High concentrations of dye for short time intervals lead initially to a diffuse distribution of dye through out the cytoplasm (cytoplasmic reddening) as viewed in the fluorescence microscope. When cells are stained in this way and incubated in a dye-free medium, the diffusely distributed dye is segregated into MVB within 1 hour. Ultrastructurally, these MVB show dilatation but no myelin figures. The process of dye segregation is energy dependent and will not occur in starved cells. This energy dependence and the occurrence of segregation via dilatation of the MVB rather than ultrastructural transformation, i.e. formation of new binding sites, suggests that the process involves an active transport mechanism. Of the various energy sources supplied to starved cells, only glucose, mannose, and pyruvate are fully effective in supporting dye segregation. Blockage of the tricarboxylic acid cycle with malonate inhibits the effects of pyruvate but not of glucose, demonstrating the efficacy of both the tricarboxylic acid and glycolytic cycles in supplying energy for the process.

  7. Sharing our successes II: Changing the face of science and mathematics education through teacher-focused partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Industry Initiatives for Science and Math Education (IISME) in the San Francisco Bay Area planned and convened the second national conference for representatives of scientific work experience programs for K-12 teachers (SWEPs) at Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California at Berkeley October 13-14, 1994. The goal of this conference was to further strengthen the growing community of SWEP managers and teacher participants by providing an opportunity for sharing expertise and strategies about the following: (1) How SWEPs can complement and stimulate systemic education reform efforts; (2) Assessment strategies piloted by the ambitious multi-site evaluation project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as well as smaller evaluation projects piloted by other SWEPs; (3) Expanding and strengthening the base of teachers served by SWEPs; (4) Ensuring that SWEPs adequately support teachers in affecting classroom transfer and offer {open_quotes}more than just a summerjob{close_quotes}; (5) Sustaining and expanding new programs. A special teacher strand focused on leadership development supporting teachers to become effective change agents in their classrooms and schools, and developing strong teacher communities.

  8. Experimental Study of Porosity Changes in Shale Caprocks Exposed to Carbon Dioxide-Saturated Brine II: Insights from Aqueous Geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Quin R. S.; Wang, Xiuyu; Kaszuba, John P.; Mouzakis, Katherine M.; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K.; Alvarado, Vladimir; McCray, John E.; Rother, Gernot; Bañuelos, José Leobardo; Heath, Jason E.

    2016-07-18

    Laboratory experiments evaluated two shale caprock formations, the Gothic Shale and Marine Tuscaloosa Formation, at conditions relevant to carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration. Both rocks were exposed to CO2-saturated brines at 160°C and 15 MPa for ~45 days. Baseline experiments for both rocks were pressurized with argon to 15 MPa for ~35 days. Varying concentrations of iron, aqueous silica, sulfate, and initial pH decreases coincide with enhanced carbonate and silicate dissolution due to reaction between CO2-saturated brine and shale. Saturation indices were calculated and activity diagrams were constructed to gain insights into sulfate, silicate, and carbonate mineral stabilities. We found that upon exposure to CO2-saturated brines, the Marine Tuscaloosa Formation appeared to be more reactive than the Gothic Shale. Evolution of aqueous geochemistry in the experiments is consistent with mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions that affect porosity. Finally, this study highlights the importance of tracking fluid chemistry to clarify downhole physicochemical responses to CO2 injection and subsequent changes in sealing capacity in CO2 storage and utilization projects.

  9. Changes in variation at the MHC class II DQA locus during the final demise of the woolly mammoth

    PubMed Central

    Pečnerová, Patrícia; Díez-del-Molino, David; Vartanyan, Sergey; Dalén, Love

    2016-01-01

    According to the nearly-neutral theory of evolution, the relative strengths of selection and drift shift in favour of drift at small population sizes. Numerous studies have analysed the effect of bottlenecks and small population sizes on genetic diversity in the MHC, which plays a central role in pathogen recognition and immune defense and is thus considered a model example for the study of adaptive evolution. However, to understand changes in genetic diversity at loci under selection, it is necessary to compare the genetic diversity of a population before and after the bottleneck. In this study, we analyse three fragments of the MHC DQA gene in woolly mammoth samples radiocarbon dated to before and after a well-documented bottleneck that took place about ten thousand years ago. Our results indicate a decrease in observed heterozygosity and number of alleles, suggesting that genetic drift had an impact on the variation on MHC. Based on coalescent simulations, we found no evidence of balancing selection maintaining MHC diversity during the Holocene. However, strong trans-species polymorphism among mammoths and elephants points to historical effects of balancing selection on the woolly mammoth lineage. PMID:27143688

  10. Linear discrete population models with two time scales in fast changing environments II: non-autonomous case.

    PubMed

    Blasco, Angel; Sanz, Luis; Auger, Pierre; Bravo de la Parra, Rafael

    2002-01-01

    As the result of the complexity inherent in nature, mathematical models employed in ecology are often governed by a large number of variables. For instance, in the study of population dynamics we often deal with models for structured populations in which individuals are classified regarding their age, size, activity or location, and this structuring of the population leads to high dimensional systems. In many instances, the dynamics of the system is controlled by processes whose time scales are very different from each other. Aggregation techniques take advantage of this situation to build a low dimensional reduced system from which behavior we can approximate the dynamics of the complex original system. In this work we extend aggregation techniques to the case of time dependent discrete population models with two time scales where both the fast and the slow processes are allowed to change at their own characteristic time scale, generalizing the results of previous studies. We propose a non-autonomous model with two time scales, construct an aggregated model and give relationships between the variables governing the original and the reduced systems. We also explore how the properties of strong and weak ergodicity, regarding the capacity of the system to forget initial conditions, of the original system can be studied in terms of the reduced system.

  11. Evaluating Problems with Long-Established Methods for Calculating Evapotranspiration Under Climate Change in the Great Lakes Basin: Take II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofgren, B. M.; Rouhana, J.

    2014-12-01

    A 2011 paper by a group from the NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory established that a long- and widely-used method for projecting evapotranspiration (ET) and runoff from the land portions of the Great Lakes basin exhibited severe deficiencies in terms of conservation of energy at the land surface, and consequent errors in projected runoff and lake levels. The key component of this older method is known as the Large Basin Runoff Model (LBRM). A simple alternative method was developed to better account for energy conservation, and this was run for two different general circulation model (GCM) datasets, in order to demonstrate the corresponding discrepancies in terms of ET, runoff, and lake water level. In the Third National Climate Assessment, the regional chapter on the Midwest acknowledged these results, while Appendix 3 (Climate Science Supplement) expressed less credence, with the lead authors of that appendix maintaining that the models needed to be run with more GCMs as input. We will report on the results of runs using more than 40 GCM realizations from the Climate Model Intercomparison Project 5 class. In addition to the previously-used method of adjusting future potential evapotranspiration (PET) according to changes in net radiative energy available at the surface, we introduce one that additionally estimates the air temperature dependence term of the Penman-Monteith formulation, and one in which PET varies in proportion to the Clausius-Clapeyron relation (i.e. PET increases by about 7% per degree C, in contrast to LBRM, in which PET typically increases by 30-50% per degree C).

  12. Mechanism of Substrate Recognition And PLP-Induced Conformational Changes in II-Diaminopimelate Aminotransferase From Arabidopsis Thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, N.; Clay, M.D.; Belkum, M.J.van; Cherney, M.M.; Vederas, J.C.; James, M.N.G.

    2009-05-26

    -AtDAP-AT structure missing PLP revealed details of conformational changes induced by PLP binding and substrate entry into the active site.

  13. Photoprotection in plants involves a change in lutein 1 binding domain in the major light-harvesting complex of photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Ilioaia, Cristian; Johnson, Matthew P; Liao, Pen-Nan; Pascal, Andrew A; van Grondelle, Rienk; Walla, Peter J; Ruban, Alexander V; Robert, Bruno

    2011-08-05

    Nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) is the fundamental process by which plants exposed to high light intensities dissipate the potentially harmful excess energy as heat. Recently, it has been shown that efficient energy dissipation can be induced in the major light-harvesting complexes of photosystem II (LHCII) in the absence of protein-protein interactions. Spectroscopic measurements on these samples (LHCII gels) in the quenched state revealed specific alterations in the absorption and circular dichroism bands assigned to neoxanthin and lutein 1 molecules. In this work, we investigate the changes in conformation of the pigments involved in NPQ using resonance Raman spectroscopy. By selective excitation we show that, as well as the twisting of neoxanthin that has been reported previously, the lutein 1 pigment also undergoes a significant change in conformation when LHCII switches to the energy dissipative state. Selective two-photon excitation of carotenoid (Car) dark states (Car S(1)) performed on LHCII gels shows that the extent of electronic interactions between Car S(1) and chlorophyll states correlates linearly with chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, as observed previously for isolated LHCII (aggregated versus trimeric) and whole plants (with versus without NPQ).

  14. Photodriven spin change of Fe(II) benzimidazole compounds anchored to nanocrystalline TiO(2) thin films.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hai-Long; Ardo, Shane; Narducci Sarjeant, Amy A; Huang, Sunxiang; Meyer, Gerald J

    2009-12-01

    Ferrous tris-chelate compounds based on 2-(2'-pyridyl)benzimidazole (pybzim) have been prepared and characterized for studies of spin equilibria in fluid solution and when anchored to the surface of mesoporous nanocrystalline (anatase) TiO(2) and colloidal ZrO(2) thin films. The solid state structure of Fe(pybzim)(3)(ClO(4))(2).CH(3)CN.H(2)O was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction at 110 K to be triclinic, P-1, a = 11.6873(18), b = 12.2318(12), c = 14.723(4) A, alpha = 89.864(13) degrees , beta = 71.430(17) degrees , gamma = 73.788(11) degrees , V = 1907.1(6) A(3), Z = 2, and R = 0.0491. The iron compound has a meridional FeN(6) distorted octahedral geometry with bond lengths expected for a low-spin iron center at 110 K. The visible absorption spectra of Fe(pybzim)(3)(2+) and Fe(pymbA)(3)(2+), where pymbA is 4-(2-pyridin-2-yl-benzimidazol-1-ylmethyl)-benzoic acid, in methanol solution were dominated by metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) bands. Variable-temperature UV-visible absorption spectroscopy revealed dramatic changes in the extinction coefficient consistent with a high-spin ((1)A) left harpoon over right harpoon low-spin ((5)T) equilibrium. Thermodynamic parameters for the temperature-dependent spin equilibrium of Fe(pymbA)(3)(2+) in methanol were determined to be DeltaH(HL) = 3270 +/- 210 cm(-1) and DeltaS(HL) = 13.3 +/- 0.8 cm(-1) K(-1). The corresponding values for Fe(pybzimEE)(3)(2+), where pybzimEE is (2-pyridin-2-yl-benzimidazol-1-yl)-acetic acid ethyl ester, in acetonitrile solution were determined to be 3072 +/- 34 cm(-1)and 10.5 +/- 0.1 cm(-1) K(-1). The temperature-dependent effective magnetic moments of Fe(pybzimEE)(3)(2+) in acetonitrile solution were also quantified by the Evans method. Pulsed 532 nm light excitation of Fe(pybzim)(3)(2+) or Fe(pymbA)(3)(2+) in solution resulted in an immediate bleach of the MLCT absorption bands. Relaxation back to the equilibrium state followed a first-order reaction mechanism. Arrhenius analysis

  15. HEAD INJURY ASSESSMENT IN JUVENILE CHINOOK USING THE ALPHA II-SPECTRIN BIOMARKER: EFFECTS OF PRESSURE CHANGES AND PASSAGE THROUGH A REMOVABLE SPILLWAY WEIR

    SciTech Connect

    Jonason, C.; Miracle, A.

    2009-01-01

    The cytoskeletal protein alpha II-spectrin has specifi c neurodegenerative mechanisms that allow the necrotic (injury-induced) and apoptotic (non-injury-induced) pathways of proteolysis to be differentiated in an immunoblot. Consequently, αII-spectrin breakdown products (SBDPs) are potential biomarkers for diagnosing traumatic brain injury (TBI). The purpose of the following investigation, consisting of two studies, was to evaluate the utility of the spectrin biomarker in diagnosing TBI in fi sh that travel through hydroelectric dams in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. The fi rst study used hyperbaric pressure chambers to simulate the pressure changes that affect fi sh during passage through a Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Kaplan turbine. The second study tested the effect of a removable spillway weir (RSW) on the passage of juvenile chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). This study was conducted in tandem with a balloon-tag study by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Brain samples from fi sh were collected and analyzed using an immunoblot for SBDPs, and imaging software was used to quantify the protein band density and determine the ratio of cleaved protein to total protein. The biomarker analyses found higher SBDP expression levels in fi sh that were exposed to lower pressure nadirs and fi sh that passed through the RSW at a deep orientation. In general, the incidence of injuries observed after treatment positively correlated with expression levels, suggesting that the biomarker method of analysis is comparable to traditional methods of injury assessment. It was also found that, for some treatments, the 110 kDa spectrin fragment (SBDP 110) correlated more strongly with necrotic head injury incidence and mortality rates than did the total cleaved protein or the 120 kDa fragment. These studies will be informative in future decisions regarding the design of turbines and fi sh passage structures in hydroelectric dams and will hopefully contribute to the

  16. Changes in [14C]Atrazine Binding Associated with the Oxidation-Reduction State of the Secondary Quinone Acceptor of Photosystem II 1

    PubMed Central

    Jursinic, Paul; Stemler, Alan

    1983-01-01

    One hypothesis of triazine-type herbicide action in photosynthetic material is that the herbicide molecule competes with a secondary quinone acceptor, B, for a binding site at the reaction center of photosystem II. The binding affinity of B has been suggested to change with its level of reduction, being most strongly bound in its semiquinone form. To test this hypothesis, [14C]atrazine binding studies have been carried out under different photochemically induced levels of B reduction in Pisum sativum. It is found that herbicide binding is reduced in continuously illuminated samples compared to dark-adapted samples. Decreased binding of atrazine corresponds to an increase in the semiquinone form of B. With flash excitation, the herbicide binding oscillates with a cycle of two, being low on odd-numbered flashes when the amount of semiquinone form of B is greatest. Treatment with NH2OH was found to significantly decrease the strength of herbicide binding in the dark as well as stop the ability of p-benzoquinone to oxidize the semiquinone form of B. It is suggested that the mode of action of NH2OH is disruption of quinones or their environment on both the oxidizing and reducing sides of photosystem II. Herbicide binding was found to be unaltered under conditions when p-benzosemiquinone oxidation of the reduced primary acceptor, Q−, is herbicide insensitive; weak herbicide binding cannot explain this herbicide insensitivity. It is concluded that the quinone-herbicide competition theory of herbicide action is correct. Also, since quinones are lipophilic the importance of the lipid composition of the thylakoid membrane in herbicide interactions is stressed. PMID:16663286

  17. Changes in electronic properties of polymeric one-dimensional {[M(CN)2]-}n (M = Au, Ag) chains due to neighboring closed-shell Zn(II) or open-shell Cu(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Baril-Robert, François; Li, Xiaobo; Katz, Michael J; Geisheimer, Andrew R; Leznoff, Daniel B; Patterson, Howard

    2011-01-03

    A series of d(10) dicyanometallate polymeric compounds were studied by electronic spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In these materials, the negatively charged one-dimensional (1D) polymeric chains are linked together by [M(en)(2)](2+) (M = Cu(II) and Zn(II); en = ethylenediamine). More than innocent building blocks, the [M(en)(2)](2+) units offer a possible synthetic way to modify electronic properties of the materials. Through its low energy d-d excited state, the d(9) copper(II) ions offer deactivation pathways for the normally emissive dicyanometallate polymer. Deactivation was shown to be specific to the excited state energy.

  18. Associations between change in sleep duration and inflammation: findings on C-reactive protein and interleukin 6 in the Whitehall II Study.

    PubMed

    Ferrie, Jane E; Kivimäki, Mika; Akbaraly, Tasnime N; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Miller, Michelle A; Gimeno, David; Kumari, Meena; Davey Smith, George; Shipley, Martin J

    2013-09-15

    Cross-sectional evidence suggests associations between sleep duration and levels of the inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6. This longitudinal study uses data from the London-based Whitehall II study to examine whether changes in sleep duration are associated with average levels of inflammation from 2 measures 5 years apart. Sleep duration (≤5, 6, 7, 8, ≥9 hours on an average week night) was assessed in 5,003 middle-aged women and men in 1991/1994 and 1997/1999. Fasting levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were measured in 1997/1999 and 2002/2004. Cross-sectional analyses indicated that shorter sleep is associated with higher levels of inflammatory markers. Longitudinal analyses showed that each hour per night decrease in sleep duration between 1991/1994 and 1997/1999 was associated with higher levels of C-reactive protein (8.1%) and interleukin-6 (4.5%) averaged across measures in 1997/1999 and 2002/2004. Adjustment for longstanding illness and major cardiometabolic risk factors indicated that disease processes may partially underlie these associations. An increase in sleep duration was not associated with average levels of inflammatory markers. These results suggest that both short sleep and reductions in sleep are associated with average levels of inflammation over a 5-year period.

  19. Ca2+/calmodulin protein kinase II and memory: learning-related changes in a localized region of the domestic chick brain.

    PubMed

    Solomonia, Revaz O; Kotorashvili, Adam; Kiguradze, Tamar; McCabe, Brian J; Horn, Gabriel

    2005-12-01

    The role of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in the recognition memory of visual imprinting was investigated. Domestic chicks were exposed to a training stimulus and learning strength measured. Trained chicks, together with untrained chicks, were killed either 1 h or 24 h after training. The intermediate and medial hyperstriatum ventrale/mesopallium (IMHV/IMM), a forebrain memory storage site, was removed together with a control brain region, the posterior pole of the neostriatum/nidopallium (PPN). Amounts of membrane total alphaCaMKII (tCaMKII) and Thr286-autophosphorylated alphaCaMKII (apCAMKII) were measured. For the IMHV/IMM 1 h group, apCaMKII amount and apCAMKII/tCaMKII increased as chicks learned. The magnitude of the molecular changes were positively correlated with learning strength. No learning-related effects were observed in PPN, or in either region at 24 h. These results suggest that CaMKII is involved in the formation of memory but not in its maintenance.

  20. Selective detection of the structural changes upon photoreactions of several redox cofactors in photosystem II by means of light-induced ATR-FTIR difference spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, Tatsunori; Noguchi, Takumi

    2007-04-01

    Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was applied for the first time to detect the structural changes upon photoreactions of redox cofactors in photosystem II (PSII). The PSII-enriched membranes from spinach were adsorbed on the surface of a silicon prism, and FTIR measurements of various redox cofactors were performed for the same sample but under different conditions by exchanging buffers in a flow cell. Light-induced FTIR difference spectra upon redox reactions of the oxygen-evolving Mn cluster, the primary quinone electron acceptor Q A, the redox-active tyrosine Y D, the primary electron acceptor pheophytin, and the primary electron donor chlorophyll P680 were successively recorded in buffers including different redox reagents and inhibitors. All of these cofactors remained active in the PSII membranes on the silicon surface, and the resultant spectra were basically identical to those previously recorded by the conventional transmission method. These ATR-FTIR measurements enable accurate comparison between reactions of different active sites in a single PSII sample. The present results demonstrated that the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy is a useful technique for investigation of the reaction mechanism of PSII.

  1. Origin of dc voltage in type II superconducting flux pumps: field, field rate of change, and current density dependence of resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, J.; Matsuda, K.; Fu, L.; Fagnard, J.-F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Shen, B.; Dong, Q.; Baghdadi, M.; Coombs, T. A.

    2016-03-01

    Superconducting flux pumps are the kind of devices which can generate direct current into superconducting circuit using external magnetic field. The key point is how to induce a dc voltage across the superconducting load by ac fields. Giaever (1966 IEEE Spectr. 3 117) pointed out flux motion in superconductors will induce a dc voltage, and demonstrated a rectifier model which depended on breaking superconductivity. van de Klundert et al (1981 Cryogenics 21 195, 267) in their review(s) described various configurations for flux pumps all of which relied on inducing the normal state in at least part of the superconductor. In this letter, following their work, we reveal that a variation in the resistivity of type II superconductors is sufficient to induce a dc voltage in flux pumps and it is not necessary to break superconductivity. This variation in resistivity is due to the fact that flux flow is influenced by current density, field intensity, and field rate of change. We propose a general circuit analogy for travelling wave flux pumps, and provide a mathematical analysis to explain the dc voltage. Several existing superconducting flux pumps which rely on the use of a travelling magnetic wave can be explained using the analysis enclosed. This work can also throw light on the design and optimization of flux pumps.

  2. Temperature Dependence of Light-Induced Absorbance Changes Associated with Chlorophyll Photooxidation in Manganese-Depleted Core Complexes of Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Zabelin, A A; Shkuropatova, V A; Shkuropatov, A Ya; Shuvalov, V A

    2015-10-01

    Mid-infrared (4500-1150 cm(-1)) absorbance changes induced by continuous illumination of Mn-depleted core complexes of photosystem II (PSII) from spinach in the presence of exogenous electron acceptors (potassium ferricyanide and silicomolybdate) were studied by FTIR difference spectroscopy in the temperature range 100-265 K. The FTIR difference spectrum for photooxidation of the chlorophyll dimer P680 was determined from the set of signals associated with oxidation of secondary electron donors (β-carotene, chlorophyll) and reduction of the primary quinone QA. On the basis of analysis of the temperature dependence of the P680(+)/P680 FTIR spectrum, it was concluded that frequencies of 13(1)-keto-C=O stretching modes of neutral chlorophyll molecules PD1 and PD2, which constitute P680, are similar to each other, being located at ~1700 cm(-1). This together with considerable difference between the stretching mode frequencies of keto groups of PD1(+) and PD2(+) cations (1724 and 1709 cm(-1), respectively) is in agreement with a literature model (Okubo et al. (2007) Biochemistry, 46, 4390-4397) suggesting that the positive charge in the P680(+) dimer is mainly localized on one of the two chlorophyll molecules. A partial delocalization of the charge between the PD1 and PD2 molecules in P680(+) is supported by the presence of a characteristic electronic intervalence band at ~3000 cm(-1). It is shown that a bleaching band at 1680 cm(-1) in the P680(+)/P680 FTIR spectrum does not belong to P680. A possible origin of this band is discussed, taking into account the temperature dependence (100-265 K) of light-induced absorbance changes of PSII core complexes in the visible spectral region from 620 to 720 nm.

  3. Management strategies to effect change in intensive care units: lessons from the world of business. Part II. Quality-improvement strategies.

    PubMed

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Kocher, Robert; Factor, Phillip

    2014-03-01

    The success of quality-improvement projects relies heavily on both project design and the metrics chosen to assess change. In Part II of this three-part American Thoracic Society Seminars series, we begin by describing methods for determining which data to collect, tools for data presentation, and strategies for data dissemination. As Avedis Donabedian detailed a half century ago, defining metrics in healthcare can be challenging; algorithmic determination of the best type of metric (outcome, process, or structure) can help intensive care unit (ICU) managers begin this process. Choosing appropriate graphical data displays (e.g., run charts) can prompt discussions about and promote quality improvement. Similarly, dashboards/scorecards are useful in presenting performance improvement data either publicly or privately in a visually appealing manner. To have compelling data to show, ICU managers must plan quality-improvement projects well. The second portion of this review details four quality-improvement tools-checklists, Six Sigma methodology, lean thinking, and Kaizen. Checklists have become commonplace in many ICUs to improve care quality; thinking about how to maximize their effectiveness is now of prime importance. Six Sigma methodology, lean thinking, and Kaizen are techniques that use multidisciplinary teams to organize thinking about process improvement, formalize change strategies, actualize initiatives, and measure progress. None originated within healthcare, but each has been used in the hospital environment with success. To conclude this part of the series, we demonstrate how to use these tools through an example of improving the timely administration of antibiotics to patients with sepsis.

  4. Drastic changes of electronic structure and crystal chemistry upon oxidation of SnII2TiO4E2 into SnIV2TiO6: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matar, Samir F.; Maglione, Mario; Nakhl, Michel; Kfoury, Charbel N.; Etourneau, Jean

    2016-09-01

    From DFT based calculations establishing energy-volume equations of state and electron localization mapping, the electronic structure and crystal chemistry changes from Sn2TiO4 to Sn2TiO6 by oxidation are rationalized; the key effect being the destabilization of divalent tin SnII towards tetravalent state SnIV leading to rutile Sn2TiO6 as experimentally observed. The subsequent electronic structure change is highlighted in the relative change of the electronic band gap which increases from ∼1 eV up to 2.2 eV and the 1.5 times increase of the bulk modulus assigned to the change from covalently SnII based compound to the more ionic SnIV one. Such trends are also confronted with the relevant properties of black SnIIO.

  5. Photobilirubin II.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, R; Buckley, D G; Hamzetash, D; Hawkes, G E; Ioannou, S; Stoll, M S

    1984-01-01

    An improved preparation of photobilirubin II in ammoniacal methanol is described. Evidence is presented which distinguishes between the two structures proposed earlier for photobilirubin II in favour of the cycloheptadienyl structure. Nuclear-Overhauser-enhancement measurements with bilirubin IX alpha and photobilirubin II in dimethyl sulphoxide are complicated by the occurrence of negative and zero effects. The partition coefficient of photobilirubin II between chloroform and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) is 0.67. PMID:6743241

  6. Role of psychosocial work factors in the relation between becoming a caregiver and changes in health behaviour: results from the Whitehall II cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Dich, Nadya; Head, Jenny; Hulvej Rod, Naja

    2016-01-01

    Background The present study tested the effects of becoming a caregiver combined with adverse working conditions on changes in health behaviours. Methods Participants were 5419 British civil servants from the Whitehall II cohort study who were not caregivers at baseline (phase 3, 1991–1994). Psychosocial work factors were assessed at baseline. Phase 4 questionnaire (1995–1996) was used to identify participants who became caregivers to an aged or disabled relative. Smoking, alcohol consumption and exercise were assessed at baseline and follow-up (phase 5, 1997–1999). Results Those who became caregivers were more likely to increase frequency of alcohol consumption, but only if they also reported low decision latitude at work (OR= 1.65, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.37 compared with non-caregivers with average decision latitude), or belonged to low occupational social class (OR=2.38, 95% CI 1.17 to 4.78 compared with non-caregivers of high occupational social class). Caregivers were more likely to quit smoking if job demands were low (OR=2.92; 95% CI 1.07 to 7.92 compared with non-caregivers with low job demands), or if social support at work was high (OR=2.99, 95% CI 1.01 to 8.86 compared with caregivers with average social support). There was no effect of caregiving on reducing exercise below recommended number of hours per week, or on drinking above recommended number of units per week, regardless of working conditions. Conclusions The findings underscore the importance of a well-balanced work environment as a resource for people exposed to increased family demands. PMID:27217534

  7. Specific Conformational Change in Giant DNA Caused by Anticancer Tetrazolato-Bridged Dinuclear Platinum(II) Complexes: Middle-Length Alkyl Substituents Exhibit Minimum Effect.

    PubMed

    Komeda, Seiji; Yoneyama, Hiroki; Uemura, Masako; Muramatsu, Akira; Okamoto, Naoto; Konishi, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Takagi, Akimitsu; Fukuda, Wakao; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Kanbe, Toshio; Harusawa, Shinya; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2017-01-17

    Derivatives of the highly antitumor-active compound [{cis-Pt(NH3)2}2(μ-OH)(μ-tetrazolato-N2,N3)](2+) (5-H-Y), which is a tetrazolato-bridged dinuclear platinum(II) complex, were prepared by substituting a linear alkyl chain moiety at C5 of the tetrazolate ring. The general formula for the derivatives is [{cis-Pt(NH3)2}2(μ-OH)(μ-5-R-tetrazolato-N2,N3)](2+), where R is (CH2)nCH3 and n = 0 to 8 (complexes 1-9). The cytotoxicity of complexes 1-4 in NCI-H460 human non-small-cell lung cancer cells decreased with increasing alkyl chain length, and those of complexes 5-9 increased with increasing alkyl chain length. That is, the in vitro cytotoxicity of complexes 1-9 was found to have a U-shaped association with alkyl chain length. This U-shaped association is attributable to the degree of intracellular accumulation. Although circular dichroism spectroscopic measurement indicated that complexes 1-9 induced comparable conformational changes in the secondary structure of DNA, the tetrazolato-bridged complexes induced different degrees of DNA compaction as revealed by a single DNA measurement with fluorescence microsopy, which also had a U-shaped association with alkyl chain length that matched the association observed for cytotoxicity. Complexes 7-9, which had alkyl chains long enough to confer surfactant-like properties to the complex, induced DNA compaction 20 or 1000 times more efficiently than 5-H-Y or spermidine. A single DNA measurement with transmission electron microscopy revealed that complex 8 formed large spherical self-assembled structures that induced DNA compaction with extremely high efficiency. This result suggests that these structures may play a role in the DNA compaction that was induced by the complexes with the longer alkyl chains. The derivatization with a linear alkyl chain produced a series of complexes with unique cellular accumulation and DNA conformational change profiles and a potentially useful means of developing next-generation platinum

  8. Changes in DNA methylation and transgenerational mobilization of a transposable element (mPing) by the Topoisomerase II inhibitor, Etoposide, in rice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Etoposide (epipodophyllotoxin) is a chemical commonly used as an anti-cancer drug which inhibits DNA synthesis by blocking topoisomerase II activity. Previous studies in animal cells have demonstrated that etoposide constitutes a genotoxic stress which may induce genomic instability including mobilization of normally quiescent transposable elements (TEs). However, it remained unknown whether similar genetically mutagenic effects could be imposed by etoposide in plant cells. Also, no information is available with regard to whether the drug may cause a perturbation of epigenetic stability in any organism. Results To investigate whether etoposide could generate genetic and/or epigenetic instability in plant cells, we applied etoposide to germinating seeds of six cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes including both subspecies, japonica and indica. Based on the methylation-sensitive gel-blotting results, epigenetic changes in DNA methylation of three TEs (Tos17, Osr23 and Osr36) and two protein-encoding genes (Homeobox and CDPK-related genes) were detected in the etoposide-treated plants (S0 generation) in four of the six studied japonica cultivars, Nipponbare, RZ1, RZ2, and RZ35, but not in the rest japonica cultivar (Matsumae) and the indica cultivar (93-11). DNA methylation changes in the etoposide-treated S0 rice plants were validated by bisulfite sequencing at both of two analyzed loci (Tos17 and Osr36). Transpositional activity was tested for eight TEs endogenous to the rice genome in both the S0 plants and their selfed progenies (S1 and S2) of one of the cultivars, RZ1, which manifested heritable phenotypic variations. Results indicated that no transposition occurred in the etoposide-treated S0 plants for any of the TEs. Nonetheless, a MITE transposon, mPing, showed rampant mobilization in the S1 and S2 progenies descended from the drug-treated S0 plants. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that etoposide imposes a similar genotoxic stress on

  9. Single amino acid changes in domain II of Bacillus thuringiensis CryIAb delta-endotoxin affect irreversible binding to Manduca sexta midgut membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Rajamohan, F; Alcantara, E; Lee, M K; Chen, X J; Curtiss, A; Dean, D H

    1995-01-01

    Deletion of amino acid residues 370 to 375 (D2) and single alanine substitutions between residues 371 and 375 (FNIGI) of lepidopteran-active Bacillus thuringiensis CryIAb delta-endotoxin were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis techniques. All mutants, except that with the I-to-A change at position 373 (I373A), produced delta-endotoxin as CryIAb and were stable upon activation either by Manduca sexta gut enzymes or by trypsin. Mutants D2, F371A, and G374A lost most of the toxicity (400 times less) for M. sexta larvae, whereas N372A and I375A were only 2 times less toxic than CryIAb. The results of homologous and heterologous competition binding assays to M. sexta midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) revealed that the binding curves for all mutant toxins were similar to those for the wild-type toxin. However, a significant difference in irreversible binding was observed between the toxic (CryIAb, N372A, and I375A) and less-toxic (D2, F371A, and G374A) proteins. Only 20 to 25% of bound, radiolabeled CryIAb, N372A, and I375A toxins was dissociated from BBMV, whereas about 50 to 55% of the less-toxic mutants, D2, F371A, and G374A, was dissociated from their binding sites by the addition of excess nonlabeled ligand. Voltage clamping experiments provided further evidence that the insecticidal property (inhibition of short-circuit current across the M. sexta midgut) was directly correlated to irreversible interaction of the toxin with the BBMV. We have also shown that CryIAb and mutant toxins recognize 210- and 120-kDa peptides in ligand blotting. Our results imply that mutations in residues 370 to 375 of domain II of CrylAb do not affect overall binding but do affect the irreversible association of the toxin to the midgut columnar epithelial cells of M. sexta. PMID:7730254

  10. Temporal changes in community composition of heterotrophic bacteria during in situ iron enrichment in the western subarctic Pacific (SEEDS-II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Takafumi; Suzuki, Koji; Hayakawa, Maki; Kudo, Isao; Higashi, Seigo; Tsuda, Atsushi

    2009-12-01

    Little is known about the effects of iron enrichment in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters on the community composition of heterotrophic bacteria, which are crucial to nutrient recycling and microbial food webs. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA fragments, we investigated the heterotrophic eubacterial community composition in surface waters during an in situ iron-enrichment experiment (SEEDS-II) in the western subarctic Pacific in the summer of 2004. DGGE fingerprints representing the community composition of eubacteria differed inside and outside the iron-enriched patch. Sequencing of DGGE bands revealed that at least five phylotypes of α-proteobacteria including Roseobacter, Cytophaga-Flavobacteria- Bacteroides (CFB), γ-proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria occurred in almost all samples from the iron-enriched patch. Diatoms did not bloom during SEEDS-II, but the eubacterial composition in the iron-enriched patch was similar to that in diatom blooms observed previously. Although dissolved organic carbon (DOC) accumulation was not detected in surface waters during SEEDS-II, growth of the Roseobacter clade might have been particularly stimulated after iron additions. Two identified phylotypes of CFB were closely related to the genus Saprospira, whose algicidal activity might degrade the phytoplankton assemblages increased by iron enrichment. These results suggest that the responses of heterotrophic bacteria to iron enrichment could differ among phylotypes during SEEDS-II.

  11. Antifungal Volatile Organic Compounds from the Endophyte Nodulisporium sp. Strain GS4d2II1a: a Qualitative Change in the Intraspecific and Interspecific Interactions with Pythium aphanidermatum.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Fernández, Rosa Elvira; Diaz, Daniel; Duarte, Georgina; Lappe-Oliveras, Patricia; Sánchez, Sergio; Macías-Rubalcava, Martha Lydia

    2016-02-01

    This study demonstrates volatile organic compounds (VOCs) production as one of the defense mechanisms of the antagonistic endophyte Nodulisporium sp. GS4d2II1a, and the volatile changes in two times of the fungal growth; and, as result of its intra and interspecific interactions with the plant pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum. The antifungal activity of the volatile and diffusible metabolites was evaluated by means of three types of antagonism bioassays and by organic extract agar dilution. VOCs were obtained by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry from 3- and 5-day Nodulisporium sp. cultures, as well as from its interspecific in vitro antagonistic interaction with the oomycete P. aphanidermatum, and its intraspecific Nodulisporium sp.-Nodulisporium sp. interaction. The GS4d2II1a strain completely inhibited the growth of two fungi and seven oomycetes by replacing their mycelia in simple antagonism bioassays and by producing in vitro volatile and diffusible metabolites that acted synergistically in multiple antagonism bioassays. Additionally, VOCs inhibited the growth of three oomycetes and one fungus in antagonism bioassays using divided plates. A total of 70 VOCs were detected, mainly including mono and sesquiterpenes, especially eucalyptol and limonene. Multiple correspondence analysis revealed four different volatile profiles, showing that volatiles changed with the fungus age and its intra and interspecific interactions. The metabolites produced by Nodulisporium sp. GS4d2II1a could be useful for biological control of fungal and oomycetes plant pathogens of economically important crops.

  12. Photosystem II

    ScienceCinema

    James Barber

    2016-07-12

    James Barber, Ernst Chain Professor of Biochemistry at Imperial College, London, gives a BSA Distinguished Lecture titled, "The Structure and Function of Photosystem II: The Water-Splitting Enzyme of Photosynthesis."

  13. Dynamic Changes in the Intracellular Association of Selected Rab Small GTPases with MHC Class II and DM during Dendritic Cell Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Montesinos, Gibrán; López-Ortega, Orestes; Piedra-Reyes, Jessica; Bonifaz, Laura C.; Moreno, José

    2017-01-01

    Antigen processing for presentation by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) molecules requires the latter to travel through the endocytic pathway together with its chaperons: the invariant chain (Ii) and DM. Nevertheless, the nature of the compartments where MHCII molecules travel to acquire peptides lacks definition regarding molecules involved in intracellular vesicular trafficking, such as Rab small GTPases. We aimed to define which Rab proteins are present during the intracellular transport of MHCII, DM, and Ii through the endocytic pathway on their route to the cell surface during dendritic cell (DC) maturation. We examined, by means of three-color confocal microscopy, the association of MHCII, DM, and Ii with Rab5, Rab7, Rab9, and Rab11 during the maturation of bone marrow-derived or spleen DC in response to LPS as an inflammatory stimulus. Prior to the stage of immature DC, MHCII migrated from diffuse small cytoplasmic vesicles, predominantly Rab5+Rab7− and Rab5+Rab7+ into a pericentriolar Rab5+Rab7+Rab9+ cluster, with Rab11+ areas. As DC reached the mature phenotype, MHCII left the pericentriolar endocytic compartments toward the cell surface in Rab11+ and Rab9+Rab11+ vesicles. The invariant chain and MHCII transport pathways were not identical. DM and MHCII appeared to arrive to pericentriolar endocytic compartments of immature DC through partially different routes. The association of MHCII molecules with distinct Rab GTPases during DC maturation suggests that after leaving the biosynthetic pathway, MHCII sequentially traffic from typical early endosomes to multivesicular late endosomes to finally arrive at the cell surface in Rab11+ recycling-type endosomes. In immature DCs, DM encounters transiently MHCII in the Rab5+Rab7+Rab9+ compartments, to remain there in mature DC.

  14. Disparate Changes in the Mechanical Properties of Murine Carotid Arteries and Aorta in Response to Chronic Infusion of Angiotensin-II

    PubMed Central

    Bersi, M.R.; Collins, M.J.; Wilson, E.; Humphrey, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic infusion of angiotensin-II has proved useful for generating dissecting aortic aneurysms in atheroprone mice. These lesions preferentially form in the suprarenal abdominal aorta and sometimes in the ascending aorta, but reasons for such localization remain unknown. This study focused on why these lesions do not form in other large (central) arteries. Toward this end, we quantified and compared the geometry, composition, and biaxial material behavior (using a nonlinear constitutive relation) of common carotid arteries from three groups of mice: non-treated controls as well as mice receiving a subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin-II for 28 days that either did or did not lead to the development of a dissecting aortic aneurysm. Consistent with the mild hypertension induced by the angiotensin-II, the carotid wall thickened as expected and remodeled modestly. There was no evidence, however, of a marked loss of elastic fibers or smooth muscle cells, each of which appear to be initiating events for the development of aneurysms, and there was no evidence of intramural discontinuities that might give rise to dissections. PMID:24944461

  15. Changes in protein and gene expression of angiotensin II receptors (AT1 and AT2) in aorta of diabetic and hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Romero-Nava, R; Rodriguez, J E; Reséndiz-Albor, A A; Sánchez-Muñoz, F; Ruiz-Hernandéz, A; Huang, F; Hong, E; Villafaña, S

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes and hypertension have been associated with cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Some reports have related the coexistence of hypertension and diabetes with increase in the risk of developing vascular complications. Recently some studies have shown results suggesting that in the early stages of diabetes and hypertension exist a reduced functional response to vasopressor agents like angiotensin II (Ang II), which plays an important role in blood pressure regulation mechanism through the activation of its AT1 and AT2 receptors. For that reason, the aim of this work was to study the gene and protein expression of AT1 and AT2 receptors in aorta of diabetic SHR and WKY rats. Diabetes was induced by the administration of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg i.p.). After 4 weeks of the onset of diabetes, the protein expression was obtained by western blot and the mRNA expression by RT-PCR. Our results showed that the hypertensive rats have a higher mRNA and protein expression of AT1 receptors than normotensive rats while the AT2 expression remained unchanged. On the other hand, the combination of diabetes and hypertension increased the mRNA and protein expression of AT1 and AT2 receptors significantly. In conclusion, our results suggest that diabetes with hypertension modifies the mRNA and protein expression of AT1 and AT2 receptors. However, the overexpression of AT2 could be associated with the reduction in the response to Ang II in the early stage of diabetes.

  16. [Quantitative changes of the blood serum immunoglobulins in patients with diabetes mellitus types I and II and microangiopathy detected by morphologic study].

    PubMed

    Saltykov, B B; Velikov, V K; Tarasov, V K; Pershin, B B; Kuz'min, S N; Shubina, O I; Frolova, A I; Zelenchuk, N M; Shepkova, T P

    1990-01-01

    A study was made of the immunological mechanisms implicated in the evolution of diabetic microangiopathy. For this purpose in 270 patients with type I and II diabetes mellitus, the concentration of IgA, IgM and IgG was measured and compared with morphological alterations in skin biopsy specimens. The control group was made up of 30 normal persons (donors). The sections were stained with conventional methods, which made it possible to reveal by light microscopy the correlation between the intensity of diabetic microangiopathy and the rise of the IgG level.

  17. Electronic spectra of 2- and 3-tolunitrile in the gas phase. II. Geometry changes from Franck-Condon fits of fluorescence emission spectra.

    PubMed

    Gmerek, Felix; Stuhlmann, Benjamin; Álvarez-Valtierra, Leonardo; Pratt, David W; Schmitt, Michael

    2016-02-28

    We determined the changes of the geometries of 2- and 3-tolunitrile upon excitation to the lowest excited singlet states from Franck-Condon fits of the vibronic intensities in several fluorescence emission spectra and of the rotational constant changes upon excitation. These structural changes can be connected to the altered electron distribution in the molecules and are compared to the results of ab initio calculations. We show how the torsional barriers of the methyl groups in both components are used as probe of the molecular changes upon electronic excitation.

  18. Electronic spectra of 2- and 3-tolunitrile in the gas phase. II. Geometry changes from Franck-Condon fits of fluorescence emission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gmerek, Felix; Stuhlmann, Benjamin; Álvarez-Valtierra, Leonardo; Pratt, David W.; Schmitt, Michael

    2016-02-01

    We determined the changes of the geometries of 2- and 3-tolunitrile upon excitation to the lowest excited singlet states from Franck-Condon fits of the vibronic intensities in several fluorescence emission spectra and of the rotational constant changes upon excitation. These structural changes can be connected to the altered electron distribution in the molecules and are compared to the results of ab initio calculations. We show how the torsional barriers of the methyl groups in both components are used as probe of the molecular changes upon electronic excitation.

  19. Seasonal changes in the excess energy dissipation from Photosystem II antennae in overwintering evergreen broad-leaved trees Quercus myrsinaefolia and Machilus thunbergii.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Jun-ya; Kamata, Kyoko; Maruta, Emiko

    2011-01-01

    We monitored chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence, pigment concentration and the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle (DPS(1)) in two warm temperate broad-leaved evergreen species (Quercus myrsinaefolia and Machilus thunbergii). Reduction of the maximal quantum yield of Photosystem II (PSII) (calculated from Fv/Fm, variable to maximal Chl a fluorescence) and retention of a high DPS were observed in both species in the winter, and can be interpreted as acclimation to winter. In particular, the acclimation of PSII in these species can be chiefly attributed to thermal dissipation, which is correlated with the retention of high zeaxanthin. Furthermore, we attempted to divide the fate of the absorbed light energy by the PSII antennae into three components: (i) PSII photochemistry (represented by its quantum yield, ΦPSII), (ii) dissipation by down-regulation via non-photochemical quenching (ΦNPQ) and (iii) other non-photochemical processes (ΦONP). The estimated energy allocation of the absorbed light indicated that the proportion of ΦPSII decreased, whereas that of ΦNPQ+ΦONP increased during winter. This result suggests that the excess energy absorbed in the PSII complexes is safely dissipated from the PSII antennae. Based on these results, we conclude that thermal dissipation from the PSII antennae plays an important role in two overwintering broad-leaved evergreen trees growing in Japan.

  20. EDUCATION FOR A CHANGING WORLD OF WORK, REPORT OF THE PANEL OF CONSULTANTS ON VOCATIONAL EDUCATION. APPENDIX II, MANPOWER IN FARMING AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BISHOP, C.E.; TOLLEY, G.S.

    THE EFFECTS OF ECONOMIC PROGRESS ON THE STRUCTURE OF AGRICULTURE, THE AMOUNT AND QUALITY OF HUMAN RESOURCES EMPLOYED IN FARMING AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS, AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL CHANGES ARE REPORTED. MECHANICAL, BIOLOGICAL, AND CHEMICAL CHANGES IN AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY, WHICH PROVIDED INCENTIVES TO INCREASE THE SIZE OF THE…

  1. FAQs II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Frank, Vikki; Lester, Jaime; Yang, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    In their paper entitled "Why should postsecondary institutions consider partnering to offer (Individual Development Accounts (IDAs)?" the authors reviewed frequently asked questions they encountered from higher education professionals about IDAs, but as their research continued so did the questions. FAQ II has more in-depth questions and…

  2. SAGE II

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-16

    ... of stratospheric aerosols, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor and cloud occurrence by mapping vertical profiles and calculating ... (i.e. MLS and SAGE III versus HALOE) Fixed various bugs Details are in the  SAGE II V7.00 Release Notes .   ...

  3. Change in equilibrium position of misfit dislocations at the GaN/sapphire interface by Si-ion implantation into sapphire. II. Electron energy loss spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sung Bo Han, Heung Nam; Kim, Young-Min

    2015-07-15

    In Part I, we have shown that the addition of Si into sapphire by ion implantationmakes the sapphire substrate elastically softer than for the undoped sapphire. The more compliant layer of the Si-implanted sapphire substrate can absorb the misfit stress at the GaN/sapphire interface, which produces a lower threading-dislocation density in the GaN overlayer. Here in Part II, based on experimental results by electron energy loss spectroscopy and a first-principle molecular orbital calculation in the literature, we suggest that the softening effect of Si results from a reduction of ionic bonding strength in sapphire (α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) with the substitution of Si for Al.

  4. Variation in DNA binding constants with a change in geometry of ternary copper(II) complexes with N2O donor Schiff base and cyanate or dicyanamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Subrata; Santra, Ramesh Chandra; Das, Saurabh; Chattopadhyay, Shouvik

    2014-09-01

    Two new copper(II) complexes, [Cu(L)(OCN)] (1) and [CuL(dca)]n (2), where HL = 2-(-(2-(diethylamino)ethylimino)methyl)naphthalen-1-ol, dca = N(CN)2-, have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-VIS spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Complex 1 has square planar and complex 2 square pyramidal geometries in solid state around metal centre. Interactions of the complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) were studied by UV-VIS spectroscopy. Binding constant and site size of interaction were determined. Binding site size and intrinsic binding constant K revealed complex 1 interacted with calf thymus DNA better than complex 2.

  5. A vertically integrated snow/ice model over land/sea for climate models. I - Development. II - Impact on orbital change experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neeman, Binyamin U.; Ohring, George; Joseph, Joachim H.

    1988-01-01

    A vertically integrated formulation (VIF) model for sea ice/snow and land snow is discussed which can simulate the nonlinear effects of heat storage and transfer through the layers of snow and ice. The VIF demonstates the accuracy of the multilayer formulation, while benefitting from the computational flexibility of linear formulations. In the second part, the model is implemented in a seasonal dynamic zonally averaged climate model. It is found that, in response to a change between extreme high and low summer insolation orbits, the winter orbital change dominates over the opposite summer change for sea ice. For snow over land the shorter but more pronounced summer orbital change is shown to dominate.

  6. Effect of increasing CO/sub 2/ on ocean biota. Volume II, Part 5. Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Holm-Hansen, O.

    1982-07-01

    Attempts to predict the most important biological effects on the marine biota caused by increased atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations and concomitant climactic changes are discussed. Particular attention is placed on phytoplankton, benthic plants, microbial cells, zooplankton, and fish stocks, and how changes in one or more of these trophic levels can result in significant changes in the nature and dynamics of the overall food web. Surface waters of the entire marine environment are considered, including the intertidal zone and estuaries; deeper waters are not considered. The major environmental factors considered are: (1) an increase in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations; (2) an increase in atmospheric temperature; (3) a decrease in pH of ocean water; and (4) an increase in atmospheric ozone concentration. The magnitude and temporal aspects of these atmospheric changes are based on previously developed models. (ERB)

  7. Binaural interaction in low-frequency neurons in inferior colliculus of the cat. II. Effects of changing rate and direction of interaural phase.

    PubMed

    Yin, T C; Kuwada, S

    1983-10-01

    We used the binaural beat stimulus to study the interaural phase sensitivity of inferior colliculus (IC) neurons in the cat. The binaural beat, produced by delivering tones of slightly different frequencies to the two ears, generates continuous and graded changes in interaural phase. Over 90% of the cells that exhibit a sensitivity to changes in the interaural delay also show a sensitivity to interaural phase disparities with the binaural beat. Cells respond with a burst of impulses with each complete cycle of the beat frequency. The period histogram obtained by binning the poststimulus time histogram on the beat frequency gives a measure of the interaural phase sensitivity of the cell. In general, there is good correspondence in the shapes of the period histograms generated from binaural beats and the interaural phase curves derived from interaural delays and in the mean interaural phase angle calculated from them. The magnitude of the beat frequency determines the rate of change of interaural phase and the sign determines the direction of phase change. While most cells respond in a phase-locked manner up to beat frequencies of 10 Hz, there are some cells tht will phase lock up to 80 Hz. Beat frequency and mean interaural phase angle are linearly related for most cells. Most cells respond equally in the two directions of phase change and with different rates of change, at least up to 10 Hz. However, some IC cells exhibit marked sensitivity to the speed of phase change, either responding more vigorously at low beat frequencies or at high beat frequencies. In addition, other cells demonstrate a clear directional sensitivity. The cells that show sensitivity to the direction and speed of phase changes would be expected to demonstrate a sensitivity to moving sound sources in the free field. Changes in the mean interaural phase of the binaural beat period histograms are used to determine the effects of changes in average and interaural intensity on the phase sensitivity

  8. RESEARCH PAPERS : Surface potential and gravity changes due to internal dislocations in a spherical earth-II. Application to a finite fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenke; Okubo, Shuhei

    1998-01-01

    We present a numerical formulation for computing elastic deformations caused by a dislocation on a finite plane in a spherically symmetric earth. It is based on our previous work for a point dislocation (Sun & Okubo 1993). The formulation enables us to compute the displacement, potential and gravity changes due to an earthquake modelled as spatially distributed dislocations. As an application of the finite-fault dislocation theory, we make a case study of the theoretical and observed gravity changes The computed results are in excellent agreement with the observed gravity changes during the earthquake. The gravity changes in the near field can reach some 100 μgal, which can be easily detected by any modern gravimeter. In the far field they are still significantly large: |δg|>10 μgal within the epicentral distance θ<6° ; |δg|>1 μgal within θ<16° ; |δg|>0.1 μgal within θ<40° ; and |δg|>0.01 μgal globally. We also calculate the geoid height changes caused by the 1964 Alaska earthquake and by the same earthquake with revised parameters and an assumed barrier. We find that the earthquake should have caused geoid height changes as large as 1.5 cm.

  9. Gamma II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, M.; Cline, J.; Owen, L.; Boehme, J.; Rottler, L.; Whitworth, C.; Clavier, D.

    2011-05-01

    GAMMA II is the Guide Star Automatic Measuring MAchine relocated from STScI to the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI). GAMMA II is a multi-channel laser-scanning microdensitometer that was used to measure POSS and SERC plates to create the Guide Star Catalog and the Digital Sky Survey. The microdensitometer is designed with submicron accuracy in x and y measurements using a HP 5507 laser interferometer, 15 micron sampling, and the capability to measure plates as large as 0.5-m across. GAMMA II is a vital instrument for the success of digitizing the direct, objective prism, and spectra photographic plate collections in APDA for research. We plan several targeted projects. One is a collaboration with Drs. P.D. Hemenway and R. L. Duncombe who plan to scan 1000 plates of 34 minor planets to identify systematic errors in the Fundamental System of celestial coordinates. Another is a collaboration with Dr. R. Hudec (Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic) who is working within the Gaia Variability Unit CU7 to digitize objective prism spectra on the Henize plates and Burrell-Schmidt plates located in APDA. These low dispersion spectral plates provide optical counterparts of celestial high-energy sources and cataclysmic variables enabling the simulation of Gaia BP/RP outputs. The astronomical community is invited to explore the more than 140,000 plates from 20 observatories now archived in APDA, and use GAMMA II. The process of relocating GAMMA to APDA, re-commissioning, and starting up the production scan programs will be described. Also, we will present planned research and future upgrades to GAMMA II.

  10. Ten-Year Changes in the Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Physical Activity among Polish Adults Aged 20 to 74 Years. Results of the National Multicenter Health Surveys WOBASZ (2003-2005) and WOBASZ II (2013-2014)

    PubMed Central

    Kwaśniewska, Magdalena; Pikala, Małgorzata; Bielecki, Wojciech; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elżbieta; Rębowska, Ewa; Kozakiewicz, Krystyna; Pająk, Andrzej; Piwoński, Jerzy; Tykarski, Andrzej; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Drygas, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to estimate ten-year changes in physical activity (PA) patterns and sociodemographic determinants among adult residents of Poland. Methods The study comprised two independent samples of randomly selected adults aged 20–74 years participating in the National Multicentre Health Survey WOBASZ (2003–2005; n = 14572) and WOBASZ II (2013–2014; n = 5694). In both surveys the measurements were performed by six academic centers in all 16 voivodships of Poland (108 measurement points in each survey). Sociodemographic data were collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire in both surveys. Physical activity was assessed in three domains: leisure-time, occupational and commuting physical activity. Results Leisure-time PA changed substantially between the surveys (p<0.001). The prevalence of subjects being active on most days of week fell in both genders in the years 2003–2014 (37.4% vs 27.3% in men); 32.7% vs 28.3% in women. None or occasional activity increased from 49.6% to 56.8% in men, while remained stable in women (55.2% vs 54.9%). In both WOBASZ surveys the likelihood of physical inactivity was higher in less educated individuals, smokers and those living in large agglomerations (p<0.01). No significant changes were observed in occupational activity in men between the surveys, while in women percentage of sedentary work increased from 43.4% to % 49.4% (p<0.01). Commuting PA decreased significantly in both genders (p<0.001). About 79.3% of men and 71.3% of women reported no active commuting in the WOBASZ II survey. Conclusions The observed unfavourable changes in PA emphasize the need for novel intervention concepts in order to reverse this direction. Further detailed monitoring of PA patterns in Poland is of particular importance. PMID:27272130

  11. A comparison of three hard chairside denture reline materials. Part II. Changes in colour and hardness following immersion in three commonly used denture cleansers.

    PubMed

    Haywood, Janet; Wood, David J; Gilchrist, Alison; Basker, Robin M; Watson, Christopher J

    2003-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of daily use of three denture cleansers on three hard chairside reline materials over a 6-month period. Two controls were used; one dry and one involving storage in water. Colour and hardness were measured at 0 (baseline) and 6-months. There was no significant colour change with Tokuso Rebase Fast Set. Coe Kooliner and Total Hard changed colour more with the short acting peroxide cleanser (Steradent 3 Minutes) than with the overnight peroxide cleanser (Steradent Fresh) and the hypochlorite cleanser (Dentural). The hardness of all materials remained unchanged over the whole test period.

  12. Atomic structure of the sweet-tasting protein thaumatin I at pH 8.0 reveals the large disulfide-rich region in domain II to be sensitive to a pH change

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Ohta, Keisuke; Mikami, Bunzo; Kitabatake, Naofumi; Tani, Fumito

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure of a recombinant thaumatin at pH 8.0 determined at a resolution of 1.0 A. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substantial fluctuations of a loop in domain II was found in the structure at pH 8.0. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer B-factors for Lys137, Lys163, and Lys187 were significantly affected by pH change. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An increase in mobility might play an important role in the heat-induced aggregation. -- Abstract: Thaumatin, an intensely sweet-tasting plant protein, elicits a sweet taste at 50 nM. Although the sweetness remains when thaumatin is heated at 80 Degree-Sign C for 4 h under acid conditions, it rapidly declines when heating at a pH above 6.5. To clarify the structural difference at high pH, the atomic structure of a recombinant thaumatin I at pH 8.0 was determined at a resolution of 1.0 A. Comparison to the crystal structure of thaumatin at pH 7.3 and 7.0 revealed the root-mean square deviation value of a C{alpha} atom to be substantially greater in the large disulfide-rich region of domain II, especially residues 154-164, suggesting that a loop region in domain II to be affected by solvent conditions. Furthermore, B-factors of Lys137, Lys163, and Lys187 were significantly affected by pH change, suggesting that a striking increase in the mobility of these lysine residues, which could facilitate a reaction with a free sulfhydryl residue produced via the {beta}-elimination of disulfide bonds by heating at a pH above 7.0. The increase in mobility of lysine residues as well as a loop region in domain II might play an important role in the heat-induced aggregation of thaumatin above pH 7.0.

  13. PORT II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, Beau

    2009-01-01

    One unique project that the Prototype lab worked on was PORT I (Post-landing Orion Recovery Test). PORT is designed to test and develop the system and components needed to recover the Orion capsule once it splashes down in the ocean. PORT II is designated as a follow up to PORT I that will utilize a mock up pressure vessel that is spatially compar able to the final Orion capsule.

  14. Changes in Brain Function in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Who Are Receiving Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Malignant Ovarian Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  15. Ways to Experience Literature: A Reading-Communicating Program for High School Students. Guidebook II: Literature to Understand Others, Literature to Change Society, Literature to Discover Beauty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Norma B.

    This guide focuses on literature to understand others, literature to change society, and literature to discover beauty. Designed primarily for independent use by students, several of the literary selections in each section of the guide are followed by the same sequence of questions so that students can develop a pattern for questioning themselves.…

  16. Planning, Development, and Change in Bristol Bay: A High School Curriculum. Teacher Guide and Student Text. Unit I: Introduction. Unit II: Village Corporations. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Jerry; Willer, Cristy

    This combined teacher guide and student text is written with the broad goal of involving high school students in Bristol Bay, Alaska, in the planning and design of their region's future. Unit I introduces changes occurring on village and regional levels, discusses planning strategies for community development, and presents village profiles for…

  17. Strengthening Schools and Communities through Collaboration: Final Evaluation Report on School/Community Collaboration in the Center for School Change's Phase II Grant Sites, 1997-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheie, David M.

    This report presents the evaluations of 20 rural school/community collaborative projects supported by the Center for School Change between 1997 and 2000. The report is divided into four sections: an overview, a description of the shape of school/community collaborations, a discussion of the outcomes of school/community collaboration, and a…

  18. Test strips for lead(II) based on a unique color change of PVC-film containing O-donor macrocycles and an anionic dye.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yukiko; Hayashita, Takashi; Suzuki, Toshishige M

    2007-02-01

    Glassy test strips partially coated with PVC-film including O-donor macrocyclic receptors (L), tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester (TBPE(-)), and a plasticizer sensed Pb(2+) in aqueous solutions by a unique color change. Yellow films successively changed color to green, dark-blue and purple with increases of the Pb(2+) concentration. In contrast with the ordinary "optode", a characteristic absorption band at 525 nm was newly appeared independently of the protonation and deprotonation of HTBPE (yellow to blue). The unique color change occurred only when asymmetric receptors with respect to the basal plane were coupled with Pb(2+). This optical-structural correlation is likely to be induced by the H aggregate of two sets of TBPE(-) in the 1:2 ion-pair, [Pb-L](2+).(TBPE(-))(2). The color change, based on metachromasy, was exclusive for Pb(2+) among common metal cations (Ca(2+), Al(3+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Fe(3+), Co(2+), Hg(2+)) and anions (Cl(-), SO(4)(2-), PO(4)(3-), S(2)O(3)(2-)).

  19. What Clients of Couple Therapy Model Developers and Their Former Students Say about Change, Part II: Model-Independent Common Factors and an Integrative Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sean D.; Piercy, Fred P.

    2007-01-01

    Proponents of the common factors movement in marriage and family therapy (MFT) suggest that, rather than specific models of therapy, elements common across models of therapy and common to the process of therapy itself are responsible for therapeutic change. This article--the second of two companion articles--reports on a study designed to further…

  20. Job-Linked Literacy: Innovative Strategies at Work. Part II. Meeting the Challenge of Change: Basic Skills for a Competitive Workforce. A Work in America Policy Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosow, Jerome M.; Zager, Robert

    This volume, Interim Report No. 2 in a 3-year study, establishes the need for job-linked literacy programs that respond to technological and organizational change, outlines the character of successful programs, and demonstrates these programs' potential value. The volume is divided into two parts: report and case studies. The introduction to the…

  1. Forty Years of Civics in the J. E. R.: Changes in Civics Teaching since World War II as Seen in the Journal of Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Linda

    1980-01-01

    The "Journal of Educational Research" has reflected educational and social changes for 80 years. A survey of articles since 1945 reveals the effect of sociocultural developments, new inventions (television), world affairs, and educational innovations such as team teaching on education in general and social studies teaching in particular.…

  2. Late Pleistocene variations in Antarctica sea ice. I - Effect of orbital isolation changes. II - Effect of interhemispheric deep-ocean heat exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Thomas J.; Parkinson, Claire L.

    1988-01-01

    A dynamic-thermodynamic sea-ice model is presently used to ascertain the effects of orbitally-induced insolation changes on Antarctic sea-ice cover; the results thus obtained are compared with modified CLIMAP reconstructions of sea-ice 18,000 years ago. The minor influence exerted by insolation on Pleistocene sea-ice distributions is attributable to a number of factors. In the second part of this investigation, variations in the production of warm North Atlantic Deep Water are proposed as a mechanism constituting the linkage between climate fluctuations in the Northern and Southern hemispheres during the Pleistocene; this hypothesis is tested by examining the sensitivity of the dynamic-thermodynamic model for Antarctic sea-ice changes in vertical ocean heat flux, and comparing the simulations with modified CLIMAP sea-ice maps for 18,000 years ago.

  3. Aestivation induces changes in transcription and translation of coagulation factor II and fibrinogen gamma chain in the liver of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens.

    PubMed

    Hiong, Kum C; Tan, Xiang R; Boo, Mel V; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F; Ip, Yuen K

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to sequence and characterize two pro-coagulant genes, coagulation factor II (f2) and fibrinogen gamma chain (fgg), from the liver of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens, and to determine their hepatic mRNA expression levels during three phases of aestivation. The protein abundance of F2 and Fgg in the liver and plasma was determined by immunoblotting. The results indicated that F2 and Fgg of P. annectens were phylogenetically closer to those of amphibians than those of teleosts. Three days of aestivation resulted in an up-regulation in the hepatic fgg mRNA expression level, while 6 days of aestivation led to a significant increase (3-fold) in the protein abundance of Fgg in the plasma. Hence, there could be an increase in the blood-clotting ability in P. annectens during the induction phase of aestivation. By contrast, the blood-clotting ability in P. annectens might be reduced in response to decreased blood flow and increased possibility of thrombosis during the maintenance phase of aestivation, as 6 months of aestivation led to significant decreases in mRNA expression levels of f2 and fgg in the liver. There could also be a decrease in the export of F2 and Fgg from the liver to the plasma so as to avert thrombosis. Three to 6 days after arousal from 6 months of aestivation, the protein abundance of F2 and Fgg recovered partially in the plasma of P. annectens; a complete recovery of the transcription and translation of f2/F2 in the liver might occur only after refeeding.

  4. Wind tunnel pressure distribution tests on a series of biplane wing models Part II : effects of changes in decalage, dihedral, sweepback and overhang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Montgomery; Noyes, Richard W

    1929-01-01

    This preliminary report furnishes information on the changes in the forces on each wing of a biplane cellule when the decalage, dihedral, sweepback and overhang are separately varied. The data were obtained from pressure distribution tests made in the Atmospheric Wind Tunnel of the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. Since each test was carried up to 90 degree angle of attack, the results may be used in the study of stalled flight and of spinning and in the structural design of biplane wings.

  5. Historical shoreline mapping (II): application of the Digital Shoreline Mapping and Analysis Systems (DSMS/DSAS) to shoreline change mapping in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thieler, E. Robert; Danforth, William W.

    1994-01-01

    A new, state-of-the-art method for mapping historical shorelines from maps and aerial photographs, the Digital Shoreline Mapping System (DSMS), has been developed. The DSMS is a freely available, public domain software package that meets the cartographic and photogrammetric requirements of precise coastal mapping, and provides a means to quantify and analyze different sources of error in the mapping process. The DSMS is also capable of resolving imperfections in aerial photography that commonly are assumed to be nonexistent. The DSMS utilizes commonly available computer hardware and software, and permits the entire shoreline mapping process to be executed rapidly by a single person in a small lab. The DSMS generates output shoreline position data that are compatible with a variety of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). A second suite of programs, the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) has been developed to calculate shoreline rates-of-change from a series of shoreline data residing in a GIS. Four rate-of-change statistics are calculated simultaneously (end-point rate, average of rates, linear regression and jackknife) at a user-specified interval along the shoreline using a measurement baseline approach. An example of DSMS and DSAS application using historical maps and air photos of Punta Uvero, Puerto Rico provides a basis for assessing the errors associated with the source materials as well as the accuracy of computed shoreline positions and erosion rates. The maps and photos used here represent a common situation in shoreline mapping: marginal-quality source materials. The maps and photos are near the usable upper limit of scale and accuracy, yet the shoreline positions are still accurate ±9.25 m when all sources of error are considered. This level of accuracy yields a resolution of ±0.51 m/yr for shoreline rates-of-change in this example, and is sufficient to identify the short-term trend (36 years) of shoreline change in the study area.

  6. Hamiltonian truncation study of the ϕ4 theory in two dimensions. II. The Z2 -broken phase and the Chang duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rychkov, Slava; Vitale, Lorenzo G.

    2016-03-01

    The Fock-space Hamiltonian truncation method is developed further, paying particular attention to the treatment of the scalar field zero mode. This is applied to the two-dimensional ϕ4 theory in the phase where the Z2 -symmetry is spontaneously broken, complementing our earlier study of the Z2 -invariant phase and of the critical point. We also check numerically the weak/strong duality of this theory discussed long ago by Chang.

  7. Time-related changes of motor unit properties in the rat medial gastrocnemius muscle after the spinal cord injury. II. Effects of a spinal cord hemisection.

    PubMed

    Celichowski, Jan; Kryściak, Katarzyna; Krutki, Piotr; Majczyński, Henryk; Górska, Teresa; Sławińska, Urszula

    2010-06-01

    The contractile properties of motor units (MUs) were investigated in the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle in rats after the spinal cord hemisection at a low thoracic level. Hemisected animals were divided into 4 groups: 14, 30, 90 and 180 days after injury. Intact rats formed a control group. The mass of the MG muscle did not change significantly after spinal cord hemisection, hind limb locomotor pattern was almost unchanged starting from two weeks after injury, but contractile properties of MUs were however altered. Contraction time (CT) and half-relaxation time (HRT) of MUs were prolonged in all investigated groups of hemisected rats. The twitch-to-tetanus ratio (Tw/Tet) of fast MUs after the spinal cord hemisection increased. For slow MUs Tw/Tet values did not change in the early stage after the injury, but significantly decreased in rats 90 and 180 days after hemisection. As a result of hemisection the fatigue resistance especially of slow and fast resistant MU types was reduced, as well as fatigue index (Fat I) calculated for the whole examined population of MUs decreased progressively with the time. After spinal cord hemisection a reduced number of fast MUs presented the sag at frequencies 30 and 40 Hz, however more of them revealed sag in 20 Hz tetanus in comparison to control group. Due to considerable changes in twitch contraction time and disappearance of sag effect in unfused tetani of some MUs in hemisected animals, the classification of MUs in all groups of rats was based on the 20 Hz tetanus index (20 Hz Tet I) but not on the standard criteria usually applied for MUs classification. MU type differentiations demonstrated some clear changes in MG muscle composition in hemisected animals consisting of an increase in the proportion of slow MUs (likely due to an increased participation of the studied muscle in tonic antigravity activity) together with an increase in the percentage of fast fatigable MUs.

  8. PESTICINS II. I and II

    PubMed Central

    Brubaker, Robert R.; Surgalla, Michael J.

    1962-01-01

    Brubaker, Robert R. (Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.) and Michael J. Surgalla. Pesticins. II. Production of pesticin I and II. J. Bacteriol. 84:539–545. 1962.—Pesticin I was separated from pesticin I inhibitor by ion-exchange chromatography of cell-free culture supernatant fluids and by acid precipitation of soluble preparations obtained from mechanically disrupted cells. The latter procedure resulted in formation of an insoluble pesticin I complex which, upon removal by centrifugation and subsequent dissolution in neutral buffer, exhibited a 100- to 1,000-fold increase in antibacterial activity over that originally observed. However, activity returned to the former level upon addition of the acid-soluble fraction, which contained pesticin I inhibitor. Since the presence of pesticin I inhibitor leads to serious errors in the determination of pesticin I, an assay medium containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in excess Ca++ was developed; this medium eliminated the effect of the inhibitor. By use of the above medium, sufficient pesticin I was found to be contained within 500 nonirradiated cells to inhibit growth of a suitable indicator strain; at least 107 cells were required to effect a corresponding inhibition by pesticin II. Although both pesticins are located primarily within the cell during growth, pesticin I may arise extracellularly during storage of static cells. Slightly higher activity of pesticin I inhibitor was found in culture supernatant fluids than occurred in corresponding cell extracts of equal volume. The differences and similarities between pesticin I and some known bacteriocins are discussed. PMID:14016110

  9. The Bender-Gestalt II.

    PubMed

    Brannigan, Gary G; Decker, Scott L

    2006-01-01

    In 2003, the Bender-Gestalt II was published. In the present article, the revision process is described, and major changes to the test are discussed. These changes include additional designs, a memory (recall) phase, Motor and Perception supplementary tests, a detailed observation form, a global scoring system, and a large, nationally representative normative base. Directions for future research are also provided.

  10. Changes in polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence induction curve upon inhibition of donor or acceptor side of photosystem II in isolated thylakoids.

    PubMed

    Bukhov, Nikolai G; Egorova, Elena A; Govindachary, Sridharan; Carpentier, Robert

    2004-07-09

    The action of various inhibitors affecting the donor and acceptor sides of photosystem II (PSII) on the polyphasic rise of chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence was studied in thylakoids isolated from pea leaves. Low concentrations of diuron and stigmatellin increased the magnitude of J-level of the Chl fluorescence rise. These concentrations barely affected electron transfer from PSII to PSI as revealed by the unchanged magnitude of the fast component (t(1/2) = 24 ms) of P700+ dark reduction. Higher concentrations of diuron and stigmatellin suppressed electron transport from PSII to PSI, which corresponded to the loss of thermal phase, the Chl fluorescence rise from J-level to the maximal, P-level. The effect of various concentrations of carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), which abolishes S-state cycle and binds at the plastoquinone site on QB, the secondary quinone acceptor PSII, on the Chl fluorescence rise was very similar to that of diuron and stigmatellin. Low concentrations of diuron, stigmatellin, or CCCP given on the background of N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD), which is shown to initiate the appearance of a distinct I-peak in the kinetics of Chl fluorescence rise measured in isolated thylakoids [BBA 1607 (2003) 91], increased J-step yield to I-step level and retarded Chl fluorescence rise from I-step to P-step. The increased J-step fluorescence rise caused by these three types of inhibitors is attributed to the suppression of the non-photochemical quenching of Chl fluorescence by [S2+ S3] states of the oxygen-evolving complex and oxidized P680, the primary donor of PSII reaction centers. In the contrary, the decreased fluorescence yield at P step (J-P, passing through I) is related to the persistence of a "plastoquinone"-type quenching owing to the limited availability of photochemically generated electron equivalents to reduce PQ pool in PSII centers where the S-state cycle of the donor side is modified by the inhibitor treatments.

  11. Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change. Volume II, Part 14. Research needed to determine the present carbon balance of northern ecosystems and the potential effect of carbon-dioxide-induced climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P.C.

    1982-10-01

    Given the potential significance of northern ecosystems to the global carbon budget it is critical to estimate the current carbon balance of these ecosystems as precisely as possible, to improve estimates of the future carbon balance if world climates change, and to assess the range of certainty associated with these estimates. As a first step toward quantifying some of the potential changes, a workshop with tundra and taiga ecologists and soil scientists was held in San Diego in March 1980. The first part of this report summarizes the conclusions of this workshop with regard to the estimate of the current areal extent and carbon content of the circumpolar arctic and the taiga, current rates of carbon accumulation in the peat in the arctic and the taiga, and predicted future carbon accumulation rates based on the present understanding of controlling processes and on the understanding of past climates and vegetation. This report presents a finer resolution of areal extents, standing crops, and production rates than was possible previously because of recent syntheses of data from the International Biological Program and current studies in the northern ecosystems, some of which have not yet been published. This recent information changes most of the earlier estimates of carbon content and affects predictions of the effect of climate change. The second part of this report outlines research needed to fill major gaps in the understanding of the role of northern ecosystems in global climate change.

  12. Changes in nucleus, nucleolus and cell size accompanying somatic embryogenesis of Theobroma cacao L. II. Relation between basic protein content and size of nucleus, nucleolus and cell.

    PubMed

    Kononowicz, H; Janick, J

    1988-01-01

    Embryo formation from callus of Theobroma cacao L. was associated with the changes in relationship between nuclear, nucleolar and cell sizes and the content of basic proteins (FG-FCF-stained). Together with the increase in nuclear size of callus and proembryo cells the increase in the amount of nuclear basic proteins was found. In the callus cells the increase in nucleolar protein content exceeded that in nucleolus size, which led to the rise in basic protein concentration in the nucleolus. However, in the early stage of embryogenesis the increase in protein content was not so marked as that in callus, which indicated that embryogenesis involved a decrease in concentration of nucleolar basic proteins. Differences between callus and proembryo cells were also observed in the concentration of cytoplasmic proteins. The increase in size of callus cells was the same as the increasing amount of cytoplasmic proteins. In proembryos a significant increase in cell size was accompanied by only slight changes in cytoplasmic proteins. The stimulation of embryogenesis by 2,4-D resulted in an increase of nuclear concentration of basic proteins in proembryos. The intensification of embryogenesis involved the decrease of the concentration of nucleolar proteins together with the increase in concentration of basic cytoplasmic proteins.

  13. What clients of couple therapy model developers and their former students say about change, part II: model-independent common factors and an integrative framework.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sean D; Piercy, Fred P

    2007-07-01

    Proponents of the common factors movement in marriage and family therapy (MFT) suggest that, rather than specific models of therapy, elements common across models of therapy and common to the process of therapy itself are responsible for therapeutic change. This article-the second of two companion articles-reports on a study designed to further investigate common factors in couple therapy. We used grounded theory techniques to analyze data from interviews with MFT model developers Dr. Susan M. Johnson, Dr. Frank M. Dattilio, Dr. Richard C. Schwartz, former students of Dr. Johnson and Dr. Schwartz, and each of their clients who had been successful in couple therapy. This article reports model-independent variables, that is, general aspects of therapy that are not directly related to the therapist's model. Model-independent categories include client variables, therapist variables, the therapeutic alliance, therapeutic process, and expectancy and motivational factors, each with several subcategories. We also present a conceptual framework that outlines how model-dependent and model-independent common factors may interact to produce change. We discuss our findings and proposed framework in relation to the current common factors literature in psychology and MFT. We also discuss clinical, training, and research implications.

  14. Infection of A549 human type II epithelial cells with Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces changes in mitochondrial morphology, distribution and mass that are dependent on the early secreted antigen, ESAT-6.

    PubMed

    Fine-Coulson, Kari; Giguère, Steeve; Quinn, Frederick D; Reaves, Barbara J

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) involves the invasion of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). We used Mitotracker Red(®) to assess changes in mitochondrial morphology/distribution and mass from 6 to 48 h post infection (hpi) by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry in Mtb-infected A549 type II AECs. During early infection there was no effect on mitochondrial morphology, however, by 48 hpi mitochondria appeared fragmented and concentrated around the nucleus. In flow cytometry experiments, the median fluorescence intensity (MFI) decreased by 44% at 48 hpi; double-labelling using antibodies to the integral membrane protein COXIV revealed that these changes were due to a decrease in mitochondrial mass. These changes did not occur with the apathogenic strain, Mycobacterium bovis BCG. ESAT-6 is a virulence factor present in Mtb Erdman but lacking in M. bovis BCG. We performed similar experiments using Mtb Erdman, an ESAT-6 deletion mutant and its complement. MFI decreased at 48 hpi in the parent and complemented strains versus uninfected controls by 52% and 36% respectively; no decrease was detected in the deletion mutant. These results indicate an involvement of ESAT-6 in the perturbation of mitochondria induced by virulent Mtb in AECs and suggest mitophagy may play a role in the infection process.

  15. Effects of chronic job insecurity and change in job security on self reported health, minor psychiatric morbidity, physiological measures, and health related behaviours in British civil servants: the Whitehall II study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrie, J; Shipley, M; Stansfeld, S; Marmot, M

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: To determine the effect of chronic job insecurity and changes in job security on self reported health, minor psychiatric morbidity, physiological measures, and health related behaviours. Design: Self reported health, minor psychiatric morbidity, physiological measures, and health related behaviours were determined in 931 women and 2429 men who responded to a question on job insecurity in 1995/96 and again in 1997/99. Self reported health status, clinical screening measures, and health related behaviours for participants whose job security had changed or who remained insecure were compared with those whose jobs had remained secure. Setting: Prospective cohort study, Whitehall II, all participants were white collar office workers in the British Civil Service on entry to the study. Main results: Self reported morbidity was higher among participants who lost job security. Among those who gained job security residual negative effects, particularly in the psychological sphere were observed. Those exposed to chronic job insecurity had the highest self reported morbidity. Changes in the physiological measures were limited to an increase in blood pressure among women who lost job security and a decrease in body mass index among women reporting chronic job insecurity. There were no significant differences between any of the groups for alcohol over the recommended limits or smoking. Conclusion: Loss of job security has adverse effects on self reported health and minor psychiatric morbidity, which are not completely reversed by removal of the threat and which tend to increase with chronic exposure to the stressor. PMID:12011203

  16. Structural changes upon excitation of D1-D2-Cyt b559 photosystem II reaction centers depend on the beta-carotene content.

    PubMed

    Losi, Aba; Yruela, Inmaculada; Reus, Michael; Holzwarth, Alfred R; Braslavsky, Silvia E

    2003-07-01

    Different preparations of D1-D2-Cyt b559 complexes from spinach with different beta-carotene (Car) content [on average from <0.5 to 2 per reaction center (RC)] were studied by means of laser-induced optoacoustic spectroscopy. phiP680(+)Pheo(-) does not depend on the preparation (or on the Car content) inasmuch as the magnitude of the prompt heat (produced within 20 ns) does not vary for the different samples upon excitation at 675 and 620 nm. The energy level of the primary charge-separated state, P680(+)Pheo(-), was determined as EP680(+)Pheo(-) = 1.55 eV. Thus, an enthalpy change accompanying charge separation from excited P680 of deltaH*P680Pheo-->P680(+)Pheo(-) = -0.27 eV is obtained. Calculations using the heat evolved during the time-resolved decay of P680(+)Pheo(-) (< or = 100 ns) affords a triplet (3[P680Pheo]) quantum yield phi3[P680Pheo] = 0.5 +/- 0.14. The structural volume change, deltaV1, corresponding to the formation of P680(+)Pheo(-), strongly depends on the Car content; it is ca. -2.5 A3 molecule(-1) for samples with <0.5 Car on average, decreases (in absolute value) to -0.5 +/- 0.2 A3 for samples with an average of 1 Car, and remains the same for samples with two Cars per RC. This suggests that the Car molecules induce changes in the ground-state RC conformation, an idea which was confirmed by preferential excitation of Car with blue light, which produced different carotene triplet lifetimes in samples with 2 Car compared to those containing less carotene. We conclude that the two beta-carotenes are not structurally equivalent. Upon blue-light excitation (480 nm, preferential carotene absorption) the fraction of energy stored is ca. 60% for the 9Chl-2Car sample, whereas it is 40% for the preparations with one or less Cars on average, indicating different paths of energy distribution after Car excitation in these RCs with remaining chlorophyll antennae.

  17. Changes in Antarctic stratospheric aerosol characteristics due to volcanic eruptions as monitored by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, V. K.; Anderson, John; Lin, N.-H.

    1995-08-01

    An estimated 20-30 megatons of SO2 and crustal material was injected into the stratosphere during June 12-16, 1991, by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo (15.1°N, 120.4°E). The impact on Antarctic aerosol characteristics is of utmost concern owing to the seasonality in the observed ozone depletion and climate implications. This study focuses on Antarctic stratospheric aerosol characteristics during three temporal periods: September 23-30, September 30 to October 13, and November 13-27, 1991, at latitudes poleward of 60°S for vertically averaged characteristics, and at latitudes poleward of 50°S for temporal and spatial characteristics. Stratospheric aerosol characteristics are inferred from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II measurements using a modified randomized minimization search technique (RMST). Aerosol characteristics such as size distribution, number concentration, mass loading, surface area concentration, and radial characteristics are derived between 15 and 30 km for particles having radii between 0.1 and 0.8 μm. Results indicate that aerosol size distributions between 15 and 30 km are bimodal in several instances for all three time periods and can be fitted with the sum of two lognormal distributions. Larger concentrations are observed for particles of all sizes between 18 and 30 km during November 1991, signaling the arrival of the Mount Pinatubo plume. An order of magnitude increase in concentration is observed for particles with radii between 0.1 and 0.2 μm and between 0.7 and 0.8 μm. Vertical aerosol profiles show that the peak in aerosol concentration shifted to a higher altitude between 21 and 26 km as compared to the preplume peak between 15 and 18 km. Using the displacement as a function of time for a mass loading of 1.7 μg m-3 isopleth, we estimated meridional velocity ≈0.9 m s-1, zonal velocity ≈16 m s-1, and downward vertical velocity of 0.5 cm s-1 during September to mid-October, 1991, and 0.3 cm s-1 during mid to

  18. Drivers of soil organic matter vulnerability to climate change, Part II: RothC modelling of carbon dynamics including radiocarbon data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studer, Mirjam S.; Abiven, Samuel; González Domínguez, Beatriz R.; Hagedorn, Frank; Reisser, Moritz; Walthert, Lorenz; Zimmermann, Stephan; Niklaus, Pascal A.

    2016-04-01

    It is still largely unknown what drives the vulnerability of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks to climate change, i.e. the likelihood of a soil to loose its SOC along with the change in environmental conditions. Our objective is to assess the SOC vulnerability of Swiss forest soils and identify its potential drivers: climate (temperature, soil moisture), soil (clay content, pH) and landscape (slope, aspect) properties. Fifty-four sites were selected for balanced spatial and driver magnitudes distribution. We measured the SOC characteristics (content and radiocarbon) and studied the C decomposition by laboratory soil incubations (details in Part I, abstract by B. González Domínguez). In order to assess the current SOC pool distribution and its radiocarbon signatures, we extended the Rothamsted Carbon (RothC) model with radiocarbon (14C) isotope modelling (RothCiso). The RothC model distinguishes four active SOC pools, decomposable and resistant plant material, microbial biomass and humified organic matter, and an inert SOC pool (Jenkinson 1990). The active pools are decomposed and mineralized to CO2 by first order kinetics. The RothCiso assigns all pools a 14C signature, based on the atmospheric 14C concentrations of the past century (plant C inputs) and their turnover. Currently we constrain the model with 14C signatures measured on the 54 fresh and their corresponding archived bulk soil samples, taken 12-24 years before. We were able to reproduce the measured radiocarbon concentrations of the SOC with the RothCiso and first results indicate, that the assumption of an inert SOC pool, that is radiocarbon dead, is not appropriate. In a second step we will compare the SOC mean residence time assessed by the two methodological approaches - incubation (C efflux based) and modelling (C stock based) - and relate it to the environmental drivers mentioned above. With the combination of the two methodological approaches and 14C analysis we hope to gain more insights into

  19. Fe Mg diffusion in olivine II: point defect chemistry, change of diffusion mechanisms and a model for calculation of diffusion coefficients in natural olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohmen, Ralf; Chakraborty, Sumit

    2007-08-01

    Analysis of existing data and models on point defects in pure (Fe,Mg)-olivine (Phys Chem Miner 10:27 37,1983; Phys Chem Miner 29:680 694, 2002) shows that it is necessary to consider thermodynamic non-ideality of mixing to adequately describe the concentration of point defects over the range of measurement. In spite of different sources of uncertainties, the concentrations of vacancies in octahedral sites in (Fe,Mg)-olivine are on the order of 10-4 per atomic formula unit at 1,000 1,200 °C according to both the studies. We provide the first explicit plots of vacancy concentrations in olivine as a function of temperature and oxygen fugacity according to the two models. It is found that in contrast to absolute concentrations at ˜1,100 °C and dependence on fO2, there is considerable uncertainty in our knowledge of temperature dependence of vacancy concentrations. This needs to be considered in discussing the transport properties such as diffusion coefficients. Moreover, these defect models in pure (Fe,Mg)-olivine need to be extended by considering aliovalent impurities such as Al, Cr to describe the behavior of natural olivine. We have developed such a formulation, and used it to analyze the considerable database of diffusion coefficients in olivine from Dohmen et al. (Phys Chem Miner this volume, 2007) (Part - I) and older data in the literature. The analysis documents unequivocally for the first time a change of diffusion mechanism in a silicate mineral—from the transition metal extrinsic (TaMED) to the purely extrinsic (PED) domain, at fO2 below 10-10 Pa, and consequently, temperatures below 900 °C. The change of diffusion mechanism manifests itself in a change in fO2 dependence of diffusivity and a slight change in activation energy of diffusion—the activation energy increases at lower temperatures. These are consistent with the predictions of Chakraborty (J Geophys Res 102(B6):12317 12331, 1997). Defect formation enthalpies in the TaMED regime (distinct

  20. A mathematical model of Bloch NMR equations for quantitative analysis of blood flow in blood vessels of changing cross-section-PART II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awojoyogbe, O. B.

    2003-05-01

    Unlike most medical imaging modalities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is based on effects that cross multiple biological levels: contrast depends on interactions between the local chemistry, water mobility, microscopic magnetic environment at the subcellular, cellular or vascular level, cellular integrity, etc. These interactions potentially allow for imaging functional changes in the same reference frame as the anatomic information. However, to tap this potential, we need methodologies that robustly incorporate the best models of the underlying physics interactions in order to extract the best possible interaction obtainable on flow velocity and rates. Due to the fundamental role the Bloch NMR equations play in the analysis of the properties of magnetic resonance imaging, this presentation will focus on mathematical modeling of the Bloch NMR flow equations into the harmonic differential equation. This simplification allows us to explain qualitatively, the effects of coriolis force on the motion of flowing fluid. The Transverse magnetization My, is introduced as a stream function. Our choice of conditions has led to a linear equation for My. We derived the stream function as a form of solution which contains the linearity property demanded by conditions at x=0. The resulting flow reveals some interesting wave-like properties which were examined directly. The existence of the waves is associated with the non-uniformity of the Coriolis parameter, and it is not difficult to see the general mechanism. The quantum mechanical models of Bloch NMR equations describe dynamical states of particles in flowing fluid. We introduce the basic background for understanding some of the applications of quantum mechanics to NMR and explain their significance and potentials. It also describes the behavior of the rF B1 field when the fluid particles flow under physiological and some modeled pathological conditions. The wave function is explored to determine the minimum energy, a

  1. Using MERRA, AMIP II, CMIP5 Outputs to Assess Actual and Potential Building Climate Zone Change and Variability From the Last 30 Years Through 2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Westberg, D. J.; Hoell, J. M., Jr.; Chandler, W.; Zhang, T.

    2014-12-01

    In the US, residential and commercial building infrastructure combined consumes about 40% of total energy usage and emits about 39% of total CO2emission (DOE/EIA "Annual Energy Outlook 2013"). Thus, increasing the energy efficiency of buildings is paramount to reducing energy costs and emissions. Building codes, as used by local and state enforcement entities are typically tied to the dominant climate within an enforcement jurisdiction classified according to various climate zones. These climates zones are based upon a 30-year average of local surface observations and are developed by DOE and ASHRAE (formerly known as the American Society of Hearting, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers). A significant shortcoming of the methodology used in constructing such maps is the use of surface observations (located mainly near airports) that are unequally distributed and frequently have periods of missing data that need to be filled by various approximation schemes. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of using NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) atmospheric data assimilation to derive the ASHRAE climate zone maps and then using MERRA to define the last 30 years of variability in climate zones. These results show that there is a statistically significant increase in the area covered by warmer climate zones and some tendency for a reduction of area in colder climate zones that require longer time series to confirm. Using the uncertainties of the basic surface temperature and precipitation parameters from MERRA as determined by comparison to surface measurements, we first compare patterns and variability of ASHRAE climate zones from MERRA relative to present day climate model runs from AMIP simulations to establish baseline sensitivity. Based upon these results, we assess the variability of the ASHRAE climate zones according to CMIP runs through 2100 using an ensemble analysis that classifies model output changes by

  2. Reduction of the fertilizing capacity of sea urchin sperm by cannabinoids derived from marihuana. II. Ultrastructural changes associated with inhibition of the acrosome reaction.

    PubMed

    Chang, M C; Schuel, H

    1991-05-01

    Pretreatment of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus sperm with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) prevents the triggering of the acrosome reaction by egg jelly. Examination of THC-treated sperm by transmission electron microscopy reveals that the membrane fusion reaction between the sperm plasma membrane and the acrosomal membrane is completely blocked. Electron-dense deposits are present in the subacrosomal fossa and in the centriolar fossa. The nuclear envelope is fragmented in close proximity to the electron-dense deposits. The electron-dense deposits are not bound by a limiting membrane, stain positively for lipid with thymol and farnesol, and disappear from THC-treated sperm that are extracted with chloroform:methanol (2:1) after glutaraldehyde fixation. The electron-dense deposits are lipid in nature and may be a hydrolytic product of the nuclear envelope. Electron-dense deposits are seen in sperm after 1-10 min treatment with 5-100 microM THC. The electron-dense deposits disappear after removal of THC from the sperm by washing, but the fragmented nuclear envelope in the subacrosomal fossa persists. Cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) also inhibit the triggering of the acrosome reaction by egg jelly and produce ultrastructural changes in the sperm identical to those elicited by THC. Enhanced phospholipase activity stimulated by THC, CBD, and CBN may be the cause of the accumulation of lipid deposits in the sperm. Metabolites derived from this modification of membrane phospholipids may prevent triggering of the acrosome reaction by egg jelly and thereby inhibit fertilization.

  3. Urban and suburban malaria in Rondônia (Brazilian Western Amazon) II. Perennial transmissions with high anopheline densities are associated with human environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Gil, Luiz Herman Soares; Tada, Mauro Shugiro; Katsuragawa, Tony Hiroshi; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; da Silva, Luiz Hildebrando Pereira

    2007-06-01

    Longitudinal entomological surveys were performed in Vila Candelária and adjacent rural locality of Bate Estaca concomitantly with a clinical epidemiologic malaria survey. Vila Candelária is a riverside periurban neighborhood of Porto Velho, capital of the state of Rondônia in the Brazilian Amazon. High anopheline densities were found accompanying the peak of rainfall, as reported in rural areas of the region. Moreover, several minor peaks of anophelines were recorded between the end of the dry season and the beginning of the next rainy season. These secondary peaks were related to permanent anopheline breeding sites resulting from human activities. Malaria transmission is, therefore, observed all over the year. In Vila Candelária, the risk of malaria infection both indoors and outdoors was calculated as being 2 and 10/infecting bites per year per inhabitant respectively. Urban malaria in riverside areas was associated with two factors: (1) high prevalence of asymptomatic carriers in a stable human population and (2) high anopheline densities related to human environmental changes. This association is probably found in other Amazonian urban and suburban communities. The implementation of control measures should include environmental sanitation and better characterization of the role of asymptomatic carriers in malaria transmission.

  4. Impaction bone grafting with freeze-dried irradiated bone. Part II. Changes in stiffness and compactness of morselized grafts: experiments in cadavers.

    PubMed

    Cornu, Olivier; Bavadekar, Ashit; Godts, Bernard; Van Tomme, John; Delloye, Christian; Banse, Xavier

    2003-10-01

    In the technique of impaction bone grafting, implant stability depends on the mechanical properties of the impacted morselized grafts. Although the procedure is usually performed with fresh-frozen femoral heads, there is still some concern about their supply and safety. Bone processing is a potential solution, but the mechanical properties of this material during and after impaction need to be determined. We used 6 osteoarthrotic femoral heads to prepare two paired batches of morselized bone. One batch was morselized and frozen. The other batch was chemically treated, morselized, freeze-dried and then gamma-irradiated. We impacted 18 samples from each batch in a contained cylinder. Freeze-dried bone grafts were tested after 30 minutes of rehydration. The changes in the compactness and stiffness of the material were monitored during the impaction. The compaction of the freeze-dried bone was faster than that of their fresh-frozen control. The maximal stiffness reached by both materials was the same (55 MPa), but the freeze-dried grafts required three to four times fewer impactions to achieve that stiffness. After 3, 10 and 50 impactions the freeze-dried bone was stiffer than the fresh-frozen bone. As it is easier to impact, the freeze-dried bone may be mechanically more efficient than the fresh-frozen bone in surgical conditions. Moreover, the processed bone meets the highest safety standards, as regards the risk of disease transmission.

  5. Spatial and temporal variability in South San Francisco Bay (USA). II. Temporal changes in salinity, suspended sediments, and phytoplankton biomass and productivity over tidal time scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, J.E.; Powell, T.M.; Huzzey, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Short-term variability of a conservative quantity (salinity) and two nonconservative quantities (chlorophyll a, suspended particulate matter) was measured across a sampling grid in the South San Francisco Bay estuary. Surface measurements were made every 2 h at each of 29 (or 38) sites, on four different dates representing a range of tidal current regimes over the neap-spring cycle. From the distribution of phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a) and turbidity (SPM), we also estimated daily productivity and its variability at each site over the four tide cycles. As a general rule, both chlorophyll a and SPM concentrations varied about 50% from their tidal-means. However derived daily productivity varied less (about 15% from the mean) over a tidal cycle. Both chlorophyll a and SPM varied periodically with tidal stage (increasing on ebbing currents), suggesting that the short-term variability results simply from the tidal advection of spatial gradients. Calculation of the advective flux (current speed times spatial gradient) was used to test this hypothesis. For surface salinity, most (70-80%) of the observed intratidal variability was correlated with the tidal flux, both in the deep channel and over the lateral shoals. However the short-term variability of SPM concentration was only weakly correlated with the advective flux, indicating that local sources of SPM (resuspension) are important. Hourly changes in chlorophyll a were highly correlated with the advective flux in the deep channel (implying that phytoplankton biomass is conservative over short time scales there); however, chlorophyll a variability was only weakly correlated with the advective flux over the shoals, implying that local sources/sinks are important there. Hence, the magnitude and mechanisms of intratidal variability differ among constituents and among bathymetric regimes in this estuary. ?? 1989.

  6. Spatio-temporal changes of marine macrobenthic community in sub-tropical waters upon recovery from eutrophication. II. Life-history traits and feeding guilds of polychaete community.

    PubMed

    Cheung, S G; Lam, N W Y; Wu, R S S; Shin, P K S

    2008-02-01

    A two-year study was conducted in the vicinity of a harbour in sub-tropical Hong Kong, to examine the progress of recovery of macrobenthic community, based on analyses of both life-history traits and trophic guilds of polychaetes, upon cessation of organic pollution caused by sewage discharge. Seventy seven out of 83 species collected were classified under four ecological groups based on the life-history traits and sensitivity to organic gradients. The mean ATZI marine biotic index (AMBI) derived from these ecological groups showed spatial difference among the five sampling locations. In particular, the presence of different percentages of polychaete species from Groups III (unbalanced community) and IV (polluted community) suggested the presence of pollution stress in certain degree at all sampling locations. However, no significant temporal changes were noted over the study period. From all polychaete species identified, they were classified into 13 feeding guilds. The mean diversity of these feeding guilds at most of the sampling locations was significantly higher than that at one of the inside-harbour locations. The composition of feeding guilds was also significantly different spatially. At one of the inside-harbour locations, the dominant feeding guilds were motile/discretely motile surface deposit feeders with tentaculates or unarmed pharynx, and motile omnivores with jawed pharynx in the first year of study, but were replaced by motile, jawed carnivores in the second year of study. The increased proportion of carnivores over the study period can be seen as a sign of recovery in the community structure since abundance of predators is commonly higher in habitats with better environmental quality. The implications of using life-history traits and feeding guild analyses for benthic community are discussed.

  7. The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: II. Spatial and Temporal Homogeneity of Satellite Data Retrieval Due to Systematic Effects in Atmospheric Correction Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Dagmar; Krasemann, Hajo; Brewin, Robert J. W.; Brockmann, Carsten; Deschamps, Pierre-Yves; Fomferra, Norman; Franz, Bryan A.; Grant, Mike G.; Groom, Steve B.; Melin, Frederic; Platt, Trevor; Regner, Peter; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Steinmetz, Francois; Swinton, John

    2015-01-01

    The established procedure to access the quality of atmospheric correction processors and their underlying algorithms is the comparison of satellite data products with related in-situ measurements. Although this approach addresses the accuracy of derived geophysical properties in a straight forward fashion, it is also limited in its ability to catch systematic sensor and processor dependent behaviour of satellite products along the scan-line, which might impair the usefulness of the data in spatial analyses. The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI) aims to create an ocean colour dataset on a global scale to meet the demands of the ecosystem modelling community. The need for products with increasing spatial and temporal resolution that also show as little systematic and random errors as possible, increases. Due to cloud cover, even temporal means can be influenced by along-scanline artefacts if the observations are not balanced and effects cannot be cancelled out mutually. These effects can arise from a multitude of results which are not easily separated, if at all. Among the sources of artefacts, there are some sensor-specific calibration issues which should lead to similar responses in all processors, as well as processor-specific features which correspond with the individual choices in the algorithms. A set of methods is proposed and applied to MERIS data over two regions of interest in the North Atlantic and the South Pacific Gyre. The normalised water leaving reflectance products of four atmospheric correction processors, which have also been evaluated in match-up analysis, is analysed in order to find and interpret systematic effects across track. These results are summed up with a semi-objective ranking and are used as a complement to the match-up analysis in the decision for the best Atmospheric Correction (AC) processor. Although the need for discussion remains concerning the absolutes by which to judge an AC processor, this example demonstrates

  8. A 1500-year record of climatic and environmental change in Elk Lake, Clearwater County, Minnesota II: Geochemistry, mineralogy, and stable isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, W.

    2002-01-01

    ), with a periodicity of about 400 years. The 400-yr cycle in eolian clastic material does not correspond to the 400-yr cycles in redox-sensitive authigenic components, suggesting that the clastic component is responding to external forcing (wind) whereas the authigenic components are responding to internal forcing (productivity), although both may ultimately be forced by climate change. Variations in the oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of CaCO3 are small but appear to reflect small variations in ground water influx that are also driven by external forcing.

  9. Association of PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms on estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene to changes into serum lipid profile of post-menopausal women: Effects of aging, body mass index and breast cancer incidence

    PubMed Central

    Gomes-Rochette, Neuza Felix; Souza, Letícia Soncini; Tommasi, Bruno Otoni; Pedrosa, Diego França; Fin, Irani do Carmo Francischetto; Vieira, Fernando Luiz Herkenhoff; Graceli, Jones Bernardes; Rangel, Letícia Batista Azevedo; Silva, Ian Victor

    2017-01-01

    Estrogen is a steroidal hormone involved in several physiological functions in the female body including regulation of serum lipid metabolism and breast cancer (BC). Estrogen actions on serum lipids mostly occur through its binding to intracellular Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERalpha) isoform, expressed in most of tissues. This gene (ESR1) exhibit many polymorphic sites (SNPs) located either on translated and non-translated regions that regulate ERalpha protein expression and function. This paper aimed to investigate the association of two intronic SNPs of ESR1 gene, namely c454-397T>C (PvuII) and c454-351A>G (XbaI) to alterations in serum levels of total cholesterol (T-chol), total lipid (TL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides (TG) in a cohort of post-menopausal women. In addition, we aimed to associate presence of these SNPs to development of BC along 5 years period. To do so, a group of healthy 499, highly miscigenated, post-menopausal Brazilian women, were carried using PCR-FRLP technique and further confirmed by automatic sequence analysis as well followed through 5 years for BC incidence. Measurements of serum lipid profile by standard commercial methods were carried individually whereas Dual Energy X-ray Absorciometry (DXA) measured Body Mass Indexes (BMI), Fat Mass (FM), Lean Body Mass (LBM), and Body Water Content (BWC). No effects of PvuII SNP on ESR1 gene were observed on patient´s serum T-chol, TL, LDL, HDL, and TG. However, c454-397T>C PvuII SNP is associated to lower body fat and higher levels of lean mass and body water and lower incidence of BC. On the other hand, statistically significant effect of XbaI c454-351A>G SNP on serum TG and TL levels. Patients homozygous for X allele were followed up from 2010–2015. They showed higher incidence of breast cancer (BC) when compared to either heterozygous and any P allele combination. Moreover, the increasing of TG and TL serum concentrations

  10. Association of PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms on estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene to changes into serum lipid profile of post-menopausal women: Effects of aging, body mass index and breast cancer incidence.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Rochette, Neuza Felix; Souza, Letícia Soncini; Tommasi, Bruno Otoni; Pedrosa, Diego França; Eis, Sérgio Ragi; Fin, Irani do Carmo Francischetto; Vieira, Fernando Luiz Herkenhoff; Graceli, Jones Bernardes; Rangel, Letícia Batista Azevedo; Silva, Ian Victor

    2017-01-01

    Estrogen is a steroidal hormone involved in several physiological functions in the female body including regulation of serum lipid metabolism and breast cancer (BC). Estrogen actions on serum lipids mostly occur through its binding to intracellular Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERalpha) isoform, expressed in most of tissues. This gene (ESR1) exhibit many polymorphic sites (SNPs) located either on translated and non-translated regions that regulate ERalpha protein expression and function. This paper aimed to investigate the association of two intronic SNPs of ESR1 gene, namely c454-397T>C (PvuII) and c454-351A>G (XbaI) to alterations in serum levels of total cholesterol (T-chol), total lipid (TL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides (TG) in a cohort of post-menopausal women. In addition, we aimed to associate presence of these SNPs to development of BC along 5 years period. To do so, a group of healthy 499, highly miscigenated, post-menopausal Brazilian women, were carried using PCR-FRLP technique and further confirmed by automatic sequence analysis as well followed through 5 years for BC incidence. Measurements of serum lipid profile by standard commercial methods were carried individually whereas Dual Energy X-ray Absorciometry (DXA) measured Body Mass Indexes (BMI), Fat Mass (FM), Lean Body Mass (LBM), and Body Water Content (BWC). No effects of PvuII SNP on ESR1 gene were observed on patient´s serum T-chol, TL, LDL, HDL, and TG. However, c454-397T>C PvuII SNP is associated to lower body fat and higher levels of lean mass and body water and lower incidence of BC. On the other hand, statistically significant effect of XbaI c454-351A>G SNP on serum TG and TL levels. Patients homozygous for X allele were followed up from 2010-2015. They showed higher incidence of breast cancer (BC) when compared to either heterozygous and any P allele combination. Moreover, the increasing of TG and TL serum concentrations

  11. Adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions by cross-linking chitosan/rectorite nano-hybrid composite microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lixuan; Chen, Yufei; Zhang, Qiuyun; Guo, Xingmei; Peng, Yanni; Xiao, Huijuan; Chen, Xiaocheng; Luo, Jiwen

    2015-10-05

    Chitosan/rectorie (CTS/REC) nano-hybrid composite microsphere was prepared by changing the proportion of CTS/REC with 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1. Compared with the pure cross-linking chitosan microsphere, the nano-hybrid composite microsphere was proved to have better sorption capacity of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II), especially 2:1(CTS/REC-1). The adsorption behavior of the microsphere of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) was investigated in single and binary metal systems. In single system, the equilibrium studies showed that the adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) followed the Langmuir model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The negative values of (ΔG) suggested that the adsorption process was spontaneous. In binary system, the combined action of the metals was found to be antagonistic and the metal sorption followed the order of Cu(II)>Cd(II)>Ni(II). The regeneration studies indicated that EDTA desorbed Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) from cross-linking microspheres better than HCl. The FT-IR and XPS spectra showed that coordination bonds were formed between Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) and the nitrogen atoms of cross-linking CTS/REC nano-hybrid composite microspheres.

  12. Characterisation of senescence-induced changes in light harvesting complex II and photosystem I complex of thylakoids of Cucumis sativus cotyledons: age induced association of LHCII with photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jogadhenu Syama Sundara; Baig, Masroor A; Bhagwat, Anil S; Mohanty, Prasanna

    2003-02-01

    Structure and function of chloroplasts are known to after during senescence. The senescence-induced specific changes in light harvesting antenna of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) were investigated in Cucumis cotyledons. Purified light harvesting complex II (LHCII) and photosystem I complex were isolated from 6-day non-senescing and 27-day senescing Cucumis cotyledons. The chlorophyll a/b ratio of LHCII obtained from 6-day-old control cotyledons and their absorption, chlorophyll a fluorescence emission and the circular dichroism (CD) spectral properties were comparable to the LHCII preparations from other plants such as pea and spinach. The purified LHCII obtained from 27-day senescing cotyledons had a Chl a/b ratio of 1.25 instead of 1.2 as with 6-day LHCII and also exhibited significant changes in the visible CD spectrum compared to that of 6-day LHCII, indicating some specific alterations in the organisation of chlorophylls of LHCII. The light harvesting antenna of photosystems are likely to be altered due to aging. The room temperature absorption spectrum of LHCII obtained from 27-day senescing cotyledons showed changes in the peak positions. Similarly, comparison of 77K chlorophyll a fluorescence emission characteristics of LHCII preparation from senescing cotyledons with that of control showed a small shift in the peak position and the alteration in the emission profile, which is suggestive of possible changes in energy transfer within LHCII chlorophylls. Further, the salt induced aggregation of LHCII samples was lower, resulting in lower yields of LHCII from 27-day cotyledons than from normal cotyledons. Moreover, the PSI preparations of 6-day cotyledons showed Chl a/b ratios of 5 to 5.5, where as the PSI sample of 27-day cotyledons had a Chl a/b ratio of 2.9 suggesting LHCII association with PSI. The absorption, fluorescence emission and visible CD spectral measurements as well as the polypeptide profiles of 27-day cotyledon-PSI complexes

  13. Mobilization and acquisition of sparingly soluble P-Sources by Brassica cultivars under P-starved environment II. Rhizospheric pH changes, redesigned root architecture and pi-uptake kinetics.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Muhammad Shahbaz; Oki, Yoko; Adachi, Tadashi

    2009-11-01

    Non-mycorrhizal Brassica does not produce specialized root structures such as cluster or dauciform roots but is an effective user of P compared with other crops. In addition to P-uptake, utilization and remobilization activity, acquisition of orthophosphate (Pi) from extracellular sparingly P-sources or unavailable bound P-forms can be enhanced by biochemical rescue mechanisms such copious H(+)-efflux and/or carboxylates exudation into rhizosphere by roots via plasmalemma H(+) ATPase and anion channels triggered by P-starvation. To visualize the dissolution of sparingly soluble Ca-phosphate (Ca-P), newly formed Ca-P was suspended in agar containing other essential nutrients. With NH(4)(+) applied as the N source, the precipitate dissolved in the root vicinity can be ascribed to rhizosphere acidification, whereas no dissolution occurred with nitrate nutrition. To observe in situ rhizospheric pH changes, images were recorded after embedding the roots in agar containing bromocresol purple as a pH indicator. P-tolerant cultivar showed a greater decrease in pH than the sensitive cultivar in the culture media (the appearance of typical patterns of various colors of pH indicator in the root vicinity), and at stress P-level this acidification was more prominent. In experiment 2, low P-tolerant class-I cultivars (Oscar and Con-II) showed a greater decrease in solution media pH than low P-sensitive class-II (Gold Rush and RL-18) cultivars, and P-contents of the cultivars was inversely related to decrease in culture media pH. To elucidate P-stress-induced remodeling and redesigning in a root architectural system, cultivars were grown in rhizoboxes in experiment 3. The elongation rates of primary roots increased as P-supply increased, but the elongation rates of the branched zones of primary roots decreased. The length of the lateral roots and topological index values increased when cultivars were exposed to a P-stress environment. To elucidate Pi-uptake kinetics, parameters

  14. Operation Everest II

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Wagner, Peter D. Operation Everest II. High Alt. Med. Biol. 11:111–119, 2010.—In October 1985, 25 years ago, 8 subjects and 27 investigators met at the United States Army Research Institute for Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) altitude chambers in Natick, Massachusetts, to study human responses to a simulated 40-day ascent of Mt. Everest, termed Operation Everest II (OE II). Led by Charlie Houston, John Sutton, and Allen Cymerman, these investigators conducted a large number of investigations across several organ systems as the subjects were gradually decompressed over 40 days to the Everest summit equivalent. There the subjects reached a \\documentclass{aastex}\\usepackage{amsbsy}\\usepackage{amsfonts}\\usepackage{amssymb}\\usepackage{bm}\\usepackage{mathrsfs}\\usepackage{pifont}\\usepackage{stmaryrd}\\usepackage{textcomp}\\usepackage{portland,xspace}\\usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra}\\pagestyle{empty}\\DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \\begin{document} \\begin{align*} \\dot{\\rm V}{\\sc O}_2{\\rm max} \\end{align*} \\end{document} of 15.3 mL/kg/min (28% of initial sea-level values) at 100 W and arterial Po2 and Pco2 of ∼28 and ∼10 mm Hg, respectively. Cardiac function resisted hypoxia, but the lungs could not: ventilation–perfusion inequality and O2 diffusion limitation reduced arterial oxygenation considerably. Pulmonary vascular resistance was increased, was not reversible after short-term hyperoxia, but was reduced during exercise. Skeletal muscle atrophy occurred, but muscle structure and function were otherwise remarkably unaffected. Neurological deficits (cognition and memory) persisted after return to sea level, more so in those with high hypoxic ventilatory responsiveness, with motor function essentially spared. Nine percent body weight loss (despite an unrestricted diet) was mainly (67%) from muscle and exceeded the 2% predicted from energy intake–expenditure balance. Some immunological and lipid metabolic changes occurred, of uncertain

  15. BEATRIX-II, phase II: Data summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Slagle, O.D.; Hollenberg, G.W.

    1996-05-01

    The BEATRIX-II experimental program was an International Energy Agency sponsored collaborative effort between Japan, Canada, and the United States to evaluate the performance of ceramic solid breeder materials in a fast-neutron environment at high burnup levels. This report addresses the Phase II activities, which included two in situ tritium-recovery canisters: temperature-change and temperature-gradient. The temperature-change canister contained a Li{sub 2}O ring specimen that had a nearly uniform temperature profile and was capable of temperature changes between 530 and 640{degrees}C. The temperature-gradient canister contained a Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} pebble bed operating under a thermal gradient of 440 to 1100{degrees}C. Postirradiation examination was carried out to characterize the Phase II in situ specimens and a series of nonvented capsules designed to address the compatibility of beryllium with lithium-ceramic solid-breeder materials. The results of the BEATRIX-II, Phase II, irradiation experiment provided an extensive data base on the in situ tritium-release characteristics of Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} for lithium burnups near 5%. The composition of the sweep gas was found to be a critical parameter in the recovery of tritium from both Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}. Tritium inventories measured confirmed that Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} exhibited very low tritium retention during the Phase II irradiation. Tritium inventories in Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} after Phase II tended to be larger than those found for Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} in other in situ experiments, but the larger values may reflect the larger generation rates in BEATRIX-II. A series of 20 capsules was irradiated to determine the compatibility of lithium ceramics and beryllium under conditions similar to a fusion blanket. It is concluded that Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} should remain leading candidates for use in a solid-breeder fusion-blanket application.

  16. Structural Changes Correlated with Magnetic Spin State Isomorphism in the S2 State of the Mn4CaO5 Cluster in the Oxygen-Evolving Complex of Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Ruchira; Han, Guangye; Kern, Jan; Gul, Sheraz; Fuller, Franklin D; Garachtchenko, Anna; Young, Iris; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Nordlund, Dennis; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Hatakeyama, Makoto; Yachandra, Vittal K; Yano, Junko

    2016-08-01

    The Mn4CaO5 cluster in Photosystem II catalyzes the four-electron redox reaction of water oxidation in natural photosynthesis. This catalytic reaction cycles through four intermediate states (Si, i = 0 to 4), involving changes in the redox state of the four Mn atoms in the cluster. Recent studies suggest the presence and importance of isomorphous structures within the same redox/intermediate S-state. It is highly likely that geometric and electronic structural flexibility play a role in the catalytic mechanism. Among the catalytic intermediates that have been identified experimentally thus far, there is clear evidence of such isomorphism in the S2 state, with a high-spin (5/2) (HS) and a low spin (1/2) (LS) form, identified and characterized by their distinct electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy) signals. We studied these two S2 isomers with Mn extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and absorption and emission spectroscopy (XANES/XES) to characterize the structural and electronic structural properties. The geometric and electronic structure of the HS and LS S2 states are different as determined using Mn EXAFS and XANES/XES, respectively. The Mn K-edge XANES and XES for the HS form are different from the LS and indicate a slightly lower positive charge on the Mn atoms compared to the LS form. Based on the EXAFS results which are clearly different, we propose possible structural differences between the two spin states. Such structural and magnetic redox-isomers if present at room temperature, will likely play a role in the mechanism for water-exchange/oxidation in photosynthesis.

  17. Structural changes correlated with magnetic spin state isomorphism in the S2 state of the Mn4CaO5 cluster in the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Ruchira; Han, Guangye; Kern, Jan; Gul, Sheraz; Fuller, Franklin D.; Garachtchenko, Anna; Young, Iris D.; Weng, Tsu -Chien; Nordlund, Dennis; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Hatakeyama, Makoto; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Yano, Junko

    2016-05-09

    The Mn4CaO5 cluster in photosystem II catalyzes the four-electron redox reaction of water oxidation in natural photosynthesis. This catalytic reaction cycles through four intermediate states (Si, i = 0 to 4), involving changes in the redox state of the four Mn atoms in the cluster. Recent studies suggest the presence and importance of isomorphous structures within the same redox/intermediate S-state. It is highly likely that geometric and electronic structural flexibility play a role in the catalytic mechanism. Among the catalytic intermediates that have been identified experimentally thus far, there is clear evidence of such isomorphism in the S2 state, with a high-spin (5/2) (HS) and a low spin (1/2) (LS) form, identified and characterized by their distinct electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy) signals. We studied these two S2 isomers with Mn extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and absorption and emission spectroscopy (XANES/XES) to characterize the structural and electronic structural properties. The geometric and electronic structure of the HS and LS S2 states are different as determined using Mn EXAFS and XANES/XES, respectively. The Mn K-edge XANES and XES for the HS form are different from the LS and indicate a slightly lower positive charge on the Mn atoms compared to the LS form. Based on the EXAFS results which are clearly different, we propose possible structural differences between the two spin states. As a result, such structural and magnetic redox-isomers if present at room temperature, will likely play a role in the mechanism for water-exchange/oxidation in photosynthesis.

  18. Structural changes correlated with magnetic spin state isomorphism in the S2 state of the Mn4CaO5 cluster in the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II

    DOE PAGES

    Chatterjee, Ruchira; Han, Guangye; Kern, Jan; ...

    2016-05-09

    The Mn4CaO5 cluster in photosystem II catalyzes the four-electron redox reaction of water oxidation in natural photosynthesis. This catalytic reaction cycles through four intermediate states (Si, i = 0 to 4), involving changes in the redox state of the four Mn atoms in the cluster. Recent studies suggest the presence and importance of isomorphous structures within the same redox/intermediate S-state. It is highly likely that geometric and electronic structural flexibility play a role in the catalytic mechanism. Among the catalytic intermediates that have been identified experimentally thus far, there is clear evidence of such isomorphism in the S2 state, withmore » a high-spin (5/2) (HS) and a low spin (1/2) (LS) form, identified and characterized by their distinct electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy) signals. We studied these two S2 isomers with Mn extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and absorption and emission spectroscopy (XANES/XES) to characterize the structural and electronic structural properties. The geometric and electronic structure of the HS and LS S2 states are different as determined using Mn EXAFS and XANES/XES, respectively. The Mn K-edge XANES and XES for the HS form are different from the LS and indicate a slightly lower positive charge on the Mn atoms compared to the LS form. Based on the EXAFS results which are clearly different, we propose possible structural differences between the two spin states. As a result, such structural and magnetic redox-isomers if present at room temperature, will likely play a role in the mechanism for water-exchange/oxidation in photosynthesis.« less

  19. Titan II secondary payload capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butts, Aubrey J.; Nance, Milo; Odle, Roger C.

    Small satellite programs are often faced with the prospect of flying as a secondary payload because of size or funding considerations. This paper discusses a concept for flying such payloads on flights already scheduled on the Titan II SLV program over the next decade. The Titan II has the capability of inserting over 4200 lbs into LEO and larger payloads on ballistic trajectories from which higher orbits can be achieved when kick motors are used. Orbit changes are possible depending on the specific altitudes and payloads involved. Of the existing 13 remaining missions currently scheduled to fly on the Titan II SLV, excess performance is available on several missions that could be used to insert secondary payloads of up to 3000 lbs into their final orbit. This paper outlines an approach that would implement a secondary payload mission and allow small satellites to schedule a launch at a predetermined date through the year 2000.

  20. Preliminary three-dimensional analysis of tooth movement and arch dimension change of the maxillary dentition in Class II division 1 malocclusion treated with first premolar extraction: conventional anchorage vs. mini-implant anchorage

    PubMed Central

    Park, Heon-Mook; Kim, Byoung-Ho; Yang, Il-Hyung

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to compare the effects of conventional and orthodontic mini-implant (OMI) anchorage on tooth movement and arch-dimension changes in the maxillary dentition in Class II division 1 (CII div.1) patients. Methods CII div.1 patients treated with extraction of the maxillary first and mandibular second premolars and sliding mechanics were allotted to conventional anchorage group (CA, n = 12) or OMI anchorage group (OA, n = 12). Pre- and post-treatment three-dimensional virtual maxillary models were superimposed using the best-fit method. Linear, angular, and arch-dimension variables were measured with software program. Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were performed for statistical analysis. Results Compared to the CA group, the OMI group showed more backward movement of the maxillary central and lateral incisors and canine (MXCI, MXLI, MXC, respectively; 1.6 mm, p < 0.001; 0.9 mm, p < 0.05; 1.2 mm, p < 0.001); more intrusion of the MXCI and MXC (1.3 mm, 0.5 mm, all p < 0.01); less forward movement of the maxillary second premolar, first, and second molars (MXP2, MXM1, MXM2, respectively; all 1.0 mm, all p < 0.05); less contraction of the MXP2 and MXM1 (0.7 mm, p < 0.05; 0.9 mm, p < 0.001); less mesial-in rotation of the MXM1 and MXM2 (2.6°, 2.5°, all p < 0.05); and less decrease of the inter-MXP2, MXM1, and MXM2 widths (1.8 mm, 1.5 mm, 2.0 mm, all p < 0.05). Conclusions In treatment of CII div.1 malocclusion, OA provided better anchorage and less arch-dimension change in the maxillary posterior teeth than CA during en-masse retraction of the maxillary anterior teeth. PMID:23323242

  1. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    MedlinePlus

    ... Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage IIA, IIB, and stage II primary peritoneal cancer; the first panel (stage IIA) shows cancer inside both ovaries that ...

  2. Factor II deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor II is one such coagulation factor. Factor II deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  3. TRUPACT-II Operating and Maintenance Instructions

    SciTech Connect

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division

    1999-12-31

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II) Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9218. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the TRUPACT-II SARP, the TRUPACT-II SARP shall govern. TRUPACT-II C of C number 9218 states, ''... each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' It further states, ''... each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the application.'' Chapter 9 of the TRUPACT-II SARP charges the Westinghouse Electric Corporation Waste Isolation Division (WID) with assuring that the TRUPACT-II is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. To meet this requirement and verify consistency of operations when loading and unloading the TRUPACT-II on the trailer, placing a payload in the packaging, unloading the payload from the packaging, or performing maintenance, the U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad Area Office (U.S. DOE/CAO) finds it necessary to implement the changes that follow. This TRUPACT-II maintenance document represents a change to previous philosophy regarding site specific procedures for the use of the TRUPACT-II. This document details the instructions to be followed to consistently operate and maintain the TRUPACT-II. The intent of these instructions is to ensure that all users of the TRUPACT-II follow the same or equivalent instructions. Users may achieve this intent by any of the following methods: (1) Utilizing these instructions as is, or (2

  4. Monitoring and analysis of the change process in curriculum mapping compared to the National Competency-based Learning Objective Catalogue for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM) at four medical faculties. Part II: Key factors for motivating the faculty during the process

    PubMed Central

    Lammerding-Koeppel, Maria; Giesler, Marianne; Gornostayeva, Maryna; Narciss, Elisabeth; Wosnik, Annette; Zipfel, Stephan; Griewatz, Jan; Fritze, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    Objective: After adoption of the National Competency-based Learning Objectives Catalogue in Medicine [Nationaler Kompetenzbasierter Lernzielkatalog Medizin, NKLM], the German medical faculties are asked to test the learning obejctives recorded in it and evaluate them critically. The faculties require curricular transparency for competence-oriented transition of present curricula, which is best achieved by systematic curriculum mapping in comparison to the NKLM. Based on this inventory, curricula can be further developed target-oriented. Considerable resistance has to be expected when a complex existing curriculum is to be mapped for the first time and a faculty must be convinced of its usefulness. Headed by Tübingen, the faculties of Freiburg, Heidelberg, Mannheim and Tübingen rose to this task. This two-part article analyses and summarises how NKLM curriculum mapping was successful at the locations despite resistance. Part I presented the resources and structures that supported implementation. Part II focuses on factors that motivate individuals and groups of persons to cooperate in the faculties. Method: Both parts used the same method. In short, the joint project was systematically planned following the steps of project and change management and adjusted in the course of the process. From the beginning of the project, a Grounded-Theory approach was used to systematically collect detailed information on measures and developments at the faculties, to continually analyse them and to draw final conclusions. Results: At all sites, faculties, teachers, students and administrative staff were not per se willing to deal with the NKLM and its contents, and even less to map their present curricula. Analysis of the development reflected a number of factors that had either a negative effect on the willingness to cooperate when missing, or a positive one when present. These were: clear top-down and bottom-up management; continuous information of the faculty; user

  5. Changes in ventricular remodelling and clinical status during the year following a single administration of stromal cell-derived factor-1 non-viral gene therapy in chronic ischaemic heart failure patients: the STOP-HF randomized Phase II trial

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eugene S.; Miller, Leslie; Patel, Amit N.; Anderson, Russell David; Mendelsohn, Farrell O.; Traverse, Jay; Silver, Kevin H.; Shin, Julia; Ewald, Gregory; Farr, Mary Jane; Anwaruddin, Saif; Plat, Francis; Fisher, Scott J.; AuWerter, Alexander T.; Pastore, Joseph M.; Aras, Rahul; Penn, Marc S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) promotes tissue repair through mechanisms of cell survival, endogenous stem cell recruitment, and vasculogenesis. Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 Plasmid Treatment for Patients with Heart Failure (STOP-HF) is a Phase II, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate safety and efficacy of a single treatment of plasmid stromal cell-derived factor-1 (pSDF-1) delivered via endomyocardial injection to patients with ischaemic heart failure (IHF). Methods Ninety-three subjects with IHF on stable guideline-based medical therapy and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤40%, completed Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLWHFQ) and 6-min walk distance (6 MWD), were randomized 1 : 1 : 1 to receive a single treatment of either a 15 or 30 mg dose of pSDF-1 or placebo via endomyocardial injections. Safety and efficacy parameters were assessed at 4 and 12 months after injection. Left ventricular functional and structural measures were assessed by contrast echocardiography and quantified by a blinded independent core laboratory. Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 Plasmid Treatment for Patients with Heart Failure was powered based on change in 6 MWD and MLWHFQ at 4 months. Results Subject profiles at baseline were (mean ± SD): age 65 ± 9 years, LVEF 28 ± 7%, left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) 167 ± 66 mL, N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) (NTproBNP) 1120 ± 1084 pg/mL, MLWHFQ 50 ± 20 points, and 6 MWD 289 ± 99 m. Patients were 11 ± 9 years post most recent myocardial infarction. Study injections were delivered without serious adverse events in all subjects. Sixty-two patients received drug with no unanticipated serious product-related adverse events. The primary endpoint was a composite of change in 6 MWD and MLWHFQ from baseline to 4 months follow-up. The primary endpoint was not met (P = 0.89). For the patients treated with pSDF-1, there was a trend toward an

  6. Mechanisms of angiotensin II natriuresis and antinatriuresis.

    PubMed

    Olsen, M E; Hall, J E; Montani, J P; Guyton, A C; Langford, H G; Cornell, J E

    1985-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of changes in renal arterial pressure (RAP), renal hemodynamics, and tubular reabsorption in mediating the natriuretic and antinatriuretic actions of angiotensin II (ANG II). In seven anesthetized dogs, endogenous ANG II formation was blocked with captopril, and ANG II was infused intravenously at rates of 5-1,215 ng X kg-1 X min-1 while RAP was either servo-controlled at the preinfusion level or permitted to increase. When RAP was servo-controlled, ANG II infusion at all rates from 5-1,215 ng X kg-1 X min-1 decreased urinary sodium excretion (UNaV) and fractional sodium excretion (FENa) while increasing fractional reabsorption of lithium (FRLi) (an index of proximal tubular fractional sodium reabsorption) and causing no change in calculated distal tubule fractional sodium reabsorption (FRDNa). When RAP was permitted to increase, ANG II infusion rates up to 45 ng X kg-1. min-1 also decreased UNaV and FENa while increasing FRLi and causing no change in FRDNa. However, at 135 ng X kg-1 X min-1 and above, UNaV and FENa increased while FRLi and FRDNa decreased when RAP was allowed to rise, even though renal blood flow and filtration fraction were not substantially different from the values observed when RAP was servo-controlled. Filtered sodium load was slightly higher when RAP was permitted to increase during ANG II infusion compared with when RAP was servo-controlled, although the differences were not statistically significant. Thus, even very large doses of ANG II cause antinatriuresis when RAP is prevented from increasing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Cu(II) and Zn(II) adsorption capacity of three different clay liner materials.

    PubMed

    Musso, T B; Parolo, M E; Pettinari, G; Francisca, F M

    2014-12-15

    Sorption of Cu(II) and Zn(II) on three natural clays meeting the international requirements for use as liners was evaluated by means of batch tests. The purpose of this research was to determine the retention capacities of the clays for metal cations commonly present in urban solid waste leachates. The pH and ionic strength conditions were set at values frequently found in real leachates. The changes observed in the XRD patterns and FTIR spectra upon adsorption can be considered an evidence of clay-metal electrostatic interaction. The Langmuir model was found to best describe the sorption processes, offering maximum sorption capacities from 8.16 to 56.89 mg/g for Cu(II) and from 49.59 to 103.83 mg/g for Zn(II). All samples remove more Zn(II) than Cu(II), which may be related to the different geometry of the hydrated Cu(II) cation. The total amount of metal sorption was strongly influenced by the total specific surface area, the presence of carbonates and the smectite content of the clays. In addition to their known quality as physical barriers, the adsorbed amounts obtained indicate the suitability of the tested clays to contribute to the retardation of Cu(II) and Zn(II) transport through clay liners.

  8. Ubiquitination by March-I prevents MHC class II recycling and promotes MHC class II turnover in antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung-Jin; Walseng, Even; Ishido, Satoshi; Roche, Paul A

    2015-08-18

    MHC class II (MHC-II)-dependent antigen presentation by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is carefully controlled to achieve specificity of immune responses; the regulated assembly and degradation of antigenic peptide-MHC-II complexes (pMHC-II) is one aspect of such control. In this study, we have examined the role of ubiquitination in regulating pMHC-II biosynthesis, endocytosis, recycling, and turnover in APCs. By using APCs obtained from MHC-II ubiquitination mutant mice, we find that whereas ubiquitination does not affect pMHC-II formation in dendritic cells (DCs), it does promote the subsequent degradation of newly synthesized pMHC-II. Acute activation of DCs or B cells terminates expression of the MHC-II E3 ubiquitin ligase March-I and prevents pMHC-II ubiquitination. Most importantly, this change results in very efficient pMHC-II recycling from the surface of DCs and B cells, thereby preventing targeting of internalized pMHC-II to lysosomes for degradation. Biochemical and functional assays confirmed that pMHC-II turnover is suppressed in MHC-II ubiquitin mutant DCs or by acute activation of wild-type DCs. These studies demonstrate that acute APC activation blocks the ubiquitin-dependent turnover of pMHC-II by promoting efficient pMHC-II recycling and preventing lysosomal targeting of internalized pMHC-II, thereby enhancing pMHC-II stability for efficient antigen presentation to CD4 T cells.

  9. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  10. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Standley, Vaughn; Voss, Susan S.; Haskin, Eric

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  11. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. ); Standley, V. ); Voss, S.S. ); Haskin, E. )

    1993-01-10

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  12. Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change. Volume II, Part 8. Impacts of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels on agricultural growing seasons and crop water use efficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J. E.

    1982-09-01

    The researchable areas addressed relate to the possible impacts of climate change on agricultural growing seasons and crop adaptation responses on a global basis. The research activities proposed are divided into the following two main areas of investigation: anticipated climate change impacts on the physical environmental characteristics of the agricultural growing seasons and, the most probable food crop responses to the possible changes in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels in plant environments. The main physical environmental impacts considered are the changes in temperature, or more directly, thermal energy levels and the growing season evapotranspiration-precipitation balances. The resulting food crop, commercial forest and rangeland species response impacts addressed relate to potential geographical shifts in agricultural growing seasons as determined by the length in days of the frost free period, thermal energy changes and water balance changes. In addition, the interaction of possible changes in plant water use efficiencies during the growing season in relationship to changing atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations, is also considered under the scenario of global warming due to increases in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration. These proposed research investigations are followed by adaptive response evaluations.

  13. Changing Times: Changing Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonn, George S., Ed.; Faibisoff, Sylvia, Ed.

    This collection of essays and responses by 18 specialists and librarians focuses on three research perspectives: (1) governmental, economic, and technological changes; (2) possible results of change in the humanities, education, and social institutions; and (3) the process of change and ways to create conditions for change. Each specialist's essay…

  14. 10 CFR 70.72 - Facility changes and change process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... management system to evaluate, implement, and track each change to the site, structures, processes, systems... in the integrated safety analysis summary; or (ii) Use new processes, technologies, or control... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Facility changes and change process. 70.72 Section...

  15. On Cu(II) Cu(II) distance measurements using pulsed electron electron double resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhongyu; Becker, James; Saxena, Sunil

    2007-10-01

    The effects of orientational selectivity on the 4-pulse electron electron double resonance (PELDOR) ESR spectra of coupled Cu(II)-Cu(II) spins are presented. The data were collected at four magnetic fields on a poly-proline peptide containing two Cu(II) centers. The Cu(II)-PELDOR spectra of this peptide do not change appreciably with magnetic field at X-band. The data were analyzed by adapting the theory of Maryasov, Tsvetkov, and Raap [A.G. Maryasov, Y.D. Tsvetkov, J. Raap, Weakly coupled radical pairs in solids:ELDOR in ESE structure studies, Appl. Magn. Reson. 14 (1998) 101-113]. Simulations indicate that orientational effects are important for Cu(II)-PELDOR. Based on simulations, the field-independence of the PELDOR data for this peptide is likely due to two effects. First, for this peptide, the Cu(II) g-tensor(s) are in a very specific orientation with respect to the interspin vector. Second, the flexibility of the peptide washes out the orientation effects. These effects reduce the suitability of the poly-proline based peptide as a good model system to experimentally probe orientational effects in such experiments. An average Cu(II)-Cu(II) distance of 2.1-2.2 nm was determined, which is consistent with earlier double quantum coherence ESR results.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and cyclic voltammetric study of copper(II) and nickel(II) polymer chelates.

    PubMed

    Azmeera, Venkanna; Rastogi, Pankaj Kumar; Adhikary, Pubali; Ganesan, Vellaichamy; Krishnamoorthi, S

    2014-09-22

    Graft copolymers based on dextran (Dx) and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulphonic acid (AMPS) were synthesized by free radical initiated solution polymerization technique using ceric ammonium nitrate as initiator. These graft copolymers were used to prepare Cu(II) and Ni(II) chelates by reactions with Cu(II) and Ni(II) metal ions respectively. Graft copolymer and metal chelates were characterized by elemental analysis, intrinsic viscosity, FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). Elemental analysis, intrinsic viscosity and FT-IR studies revealed the incorporation of metal ions to form metal chelates. SEM studies showed the change in morphology due to metal incorporation. From AFM studies it was observed that there was increase in Root mean square (RMS) roughness values in case of metal complexes. Metal chelates were observed to be thermally more stable than graft copolymer from TGA. UV-vis spectroscopy study revealed increase in absorbance values and cyclic voltammetric (CV) studies showed more than tenfold increase in redox current due to formation of Cu(II) and Ni(II) metal chelates. The binding constants of each complex determined by using UV-visible spectroscopy revealed that Cu(II) has more binding ability than Ni(II).

  17. FIRE II Cirrus Info

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-03-18

    ... Page:  FIRE II Main Grouping:  Cirrus Description:  First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) ... stratocumulus systems, the radiative properties of these clouds and their interactions. Data Products:  Cirrus ...

  18. START II and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, J.

    1996-10-01

    The second Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START II), signed by President George Bush and Russian President Boris yeltsin in January 1993, was ratified by the US Senate in January 1996 by and overwhelming vote of 87-4. The treaty, which will slash the strategic arsenals of the United States and Russia to 3,000-3,500 warheads each, is now before the two houses of the Russian Parliament (the Duma and the Federation Council) awaiting ratification amidst confusion and criticism. The Yeltsin administration supports START II and spoke in favor of Russian ratification after the Senate acted on the treaty. The Russian foreign minister and the Russian military believed that START II should be ratified as soon as possible. During the recent presidential campaign and his subsequent illness, President Yeltsin has been virtually silent on the subject of START II and nuclear force reductions. Without a push from the Yeltsin administration, the tone among Duma members, has been sharply critical of START II. Voices across the Russian political spectrum have questioned the treaty and linked it to constraints on highly capable theater missile defense (TMD) systems and the continued viability of the ABM Treaty. And urged that START II ratification be held hostage until NATO abandons its plans to expand eastward. Although the START I and START II accords have generated the momentum, opportunity and expectation-both domestic and international-for additional nuclear arms reductions, the current impasse over ratification in the Duma has cast a shadow over the future of START II and raised questions about the chances for any follow-on (START III) agreement.

  19. Mod II engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karl, David W.

    1987-01-01

    The Mod II engine, a four-cylinder, automotive Stirling engine utilizing the Siemens-Rinia double-acting concept, was assembled and became operational in January 1986. This paper describes the Mod II engine, its first assembly, and the subsequent development work done on engine components up to the point that engine performance characterization testing took place. Performance data for the engine are included.

  20. Carbon dioxide effects research and assessment program. Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change: volume II, part I. Response of the West Antarctic ice sheet to CO/sub 2/-induced climatic warming

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, C.

    1982-04-01

    The paper proposes a research plan to deal with the question of what the response of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet would be to a rise in global temperatures caused by an anthropogenic CO/sub 2/ buildup in the atmosphere. The plan is designed to answer the following questions: (1) how fast is the ice mass changing now, and why; (2) how will the boundary conditions that affect the ice sheet respond to an atmospheric temperature change and how are those boundary conditions changing now; (3) what will be the response of the ice sheet to changes in boundary conditions; and (4) what can be learned by analogy with what has happened in the past. (ACR)

  1. Thermal decomposition of solid solutions in systems of Fe(II), Co(II), and Ni(II) hydrogen maleates with the formation of bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudanova, L. I.; Logvinenko, V. A.; Sheludyakova, L. A.; Ishchenko, A. V.; Rudina, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    XRD phase analysis and thermal analysis are used to confirm the formation of a continuous series of solid solutions in which one cation is substituted for another in the systems Co(II) hydrogen maleate-Ni(II) hydrogen maleate; Fe(II) hydrogen maleate-Co(II) hydrogen maleate; and Fe(II) hydrogen maleate-Ni(II) hydrogen maleate. The unit cell volume of these solid solutions is shown to depend linearly on their composition. The linear character of changes in the initial temperatures of dehydration and thermal decomposition is established. Using the example of the first of these systems, it is shown that when heated, bimetallic nanoparticles embedded in the polymeric matrix of composites obtained via the thermal decomposition of solid solutions of hydrogen maleates undergo a second-order phase transition, resulting in decomposition of the solid solutions of metals at the Curie temperature.

  2. Kangaroo IGF-II is structurally and functionally similar to the human [Ser29]-IGF-II variant.

    PubMed

    Yandell, C A; Francis, G L; Wheldrake, J F; Upton, Z

    1999-06-01

    Kangaroo IGF-II has been purified from western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus) serum and characterised in a number of in vitro assays. In addition, the complete cDNA sequence of mature IGF-II has been obtained by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Comparison of the kangaroo IGF-II cDNA sequence with known IGF-II sequences from other species revealed that it is very similar to the human variant, [Ser29]-hIGF-II. Both the variant and kangaroo IGF-II contain an insert of nine nucleotides that encode the amino acids Leu-Pro-Gly at the junction of the B and C domains of the mature protein. The deduced kangaroo IGF-II protein sequence also contains three other amino acid changes that are not observed in human IGF-II. These amino acid differences share similarities with the changes described in many of the IGF-IIs reported for non-mammalian species. Characterisation of human IGF-II, kangaroo IGF-II, chicken IGF-II and [Ser29]-hIGF-II in a number of in vitro assays revealed that all four proteins are functionally very similar. No significant differences were observed in the ability of the IGF-IIs to bind to the bovine IGF-II/cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor or to stimulate protein synthesis in rat L6 myoblasts. However, differences were observed in their abilities to bind to IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) present in human serum. Kangaroo, chicken and [Ser29]-hIGF-II had lower apparent affinities for human IGFBPs than did human IGF-II. Thus, it appears that the major circulating form of IGF-II in the kangaroo and a minor form of IGF-II found in human serum are structurally and functionally very similar. This suggests that the splice site that generates both the variant and major form of human IGF-II must have evolved after the divergence of marsupials from placental mammals.

  3. A mechanism for regulation of chloroplast LHC II kinase by plastoquinol and thioredoxin.

    PubMed

    Puthiyaveetil, Sujith

    2011-06-23

    State transitions are acclimatory responses to changes in light quality in photosynthesis. They involve the redistribution of absorbed excitation energy between photosystems I and II. In plants and green algae, this redistribution is produced by reversible phosphorylation of the chloroplast light harvesting complex II (LHC II). The LHC II kinase is activated by reduced plastoquinone (PQ) in photosystem II-specific low light. In high light, when PQ is also reduced, LHC II kinase becomes inactivated by thioredoxin. Based on newly identified amino acid sequence features of LHC II kinase and other considerations, a mechanism is suggested for its redox regulation.

  4. Solvent Refined Coal-II (SRC-II) detailed environmental plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This document describes environmental research which will: aid in the development of an environmentally acceptable SRC-II process; and provide data for environmental assessment of the process. The SRC-II process is described, criteria for selection of samples to undergo environmental analyses are given, and approximate timelines are presented for obtaining pertinent samples. At this time, the SRC-II process is at the pilot-plant stage of development and a demonstration facility is scheduled to begin operation in 1984. Since design criteria may change, the environmental research described in this document is organized in four phases which correlate with and will provide information early in process development. Phase I research (screening) evaluates samples from existing SRC-II facilities (pilot, process demonstration unit (PDU), bench) which may bracket potential demonstration/commercial practice in terms of physical and chemical criteria. The samples are being subjected to a battery of short-term biomedical and ecological assays. Chemical fractionation and analysis are being performed to determine compounds and compound classes of potential concern. Phase II (baseline) research will evaluate SRC-II materials which are considered most representative of potential demonstration/commercial practice. These materials will be subjected to longer-term, more-extensive biological and ecological analyses relative to effects and environmental fate. Phase III research will examine effects of process modification, control technologies and changing operational conditions on potential environmental properties of SRC-II materials. Phase IV research (onsite monitoring) will develop methods and initiate environmental monitoring for effects at the SRC-II demonstration facility and potential commercial sites. This document also describes industrial hygiene programs which must occur throughout SRC-II process development.

  5. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Roe, C R.; Yang, B-Z; Brunengraber, H; Roe, D S.; Wallace, M; Garritson, B K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is an important cause of recurrent rhabdomyolysis in children and adults. Current treatment includes dietary fat restriction, with increased carbohydrate intake and exercise restriction to avoid muscle pain and rhabdomyolysis. Methods: CPT II enzyme assay, DNA mutation analysis, quantitative analysis of acylcarnitines in blood and cultured fibroblasts, urinary organic acids, the standardized 36-item Short-Form Health Status survey (SF-36) version 2, and bioelectric impedance for body fat composition. Diet treatment with triheptanoin at 30% to 35% of total daily caloric intake was used for all patients. Results: Seven patients with CPT II deficiency were studied from 7 to 61 months on the triheptanoin (anaplerotic) diet. Five had previous episodes of rhabdomyolysis requiring hospitalizations and muscle pain on exertion prior to the diet (two younger patients had not had rhabdomyolysis). While on the diet, only two patients experienced mild muscle pain with exercise. During short periods of noncompliance, two patients experienced rhabdomyolysis with exercise. None experienced rhabdomyolysis or hospitalizations while on the diet. All patients returned to normal physical activities including strenuous sports. Exercise restriction was eliminated. Previously abnormal SF-36 physical composite scores returned to normal levels that persisted for the duration of the therapy in all five symptomatic patients. Conclusions: The triheptanoin diet seems to be an effective therapy for adult-onset carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. GLOSSARY ALT = alanine aminotransferase; AST = aspartate aminotransferase; ATP = adenosine triphosphate; BHP = β-hydroxypentanoate; BKP = β-ketopentanoate; BKP-CoA = β-ketopentanoyl–coenzyme A; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; CAC = citric acid cycle; CoA = coenzyme A; CPK = creatine phosphokinase; CPT II = carnitine palmitoyltransferase II; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; MCT

  6. Nickel(II) biosorption by Rhodotorula glutinis.

    PubMed

    Suazo-Madrid, Alicia; Morales-Barrera, Liliana; Aranda-García, Erick; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo

    2011-01-01

    The present study reports the feasibility of using Rhodotorula glutinis biomass as an alternative low-cost biosorbent to remove Ni(II) ions from aqueous solutions. Acetone-pretreated R. glutinis cells showed higher Ni(II) biosorption capacity than untreated cells at pH values ranging from 3 to 7.5, with an optimum pH of 7.5. The effects of other relevant environmental parameters, such as initial Ni(II) concentration, shaking contact time and temperature, on Ni(II) biosorption onto acetone-pretreated R. glutinis were evaluated. Significant enhancement of Ni(II) biosorption capacity was observed by increasing initial metal concentration and temperature. Kinetic studies showed that the kinetic data were best described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Among the two-, three-, and four-parameter isotherm models tested, the Fritz-Schluender model exhibited the best fit to experimental data. Thermodynamic parameters (activation energy, and changes in activation enthalpy, activation entropy, and free energy of activation) revealed that the biosorption of Ni(II) ions onto acetone-pretreated R. glutinis biomass is an endothermic and non-spontaneous process, involving chemical sorption with weak interactions between the biosorbent and Ni(II) ions. The high sorption capacity (44.45 mg g(-1) at 25°C, and 63.53 mg g(-1) at 70°C) exhibited by acetone-pretreated R. glutinis biomass places this biosorbent among the best adsorbents currently available for removal of Ni(II) ions from aqueous effluents.

  7. Distance dependence of intrahelix Ru(II)* to Os(II) polypyridyl excited-state energy transfer in oligoproline assemblies.

    PubMed

    Brennaman, M Kyle; Fleming, Cavan N; Slate, Cheryl A; Serron, Scafford A; Bettis, Stephanie E; Erickson, Bruce W; Papanikolas, John M; Meyer, Thomas J

    2013-05-30

    competitive -Ru(II)*-Ru(II)- → -Ru(II)-Ru(II)*- energy transfer migration/exchange and downhill -Ru(II)*-Os(II) → -Ru(II)-Os(II)* energy transfer. These processes were modeled simultaneously to extract rate constants for Ru(II)* → Ru(II) energy-transfer migration, k(Ru*-Ru), and Ru(II)* → Os(II) energy transfer, k(Ru*-Os). For ORR-2, k(Ru*-Ru) = 2.9 × 10(7) s(-1) and k(Ru*-Os) = 3.4 × 10(8) s(-1). For ORR-3, k(Ru*-Ru) = 1.2 × 10(7) s(-1) and k(Ru*-Os) = 1.3 × 10(8) s(-1). For ORR-5, k(Ru*-Ru) = 3.6 × 10(6) s(-1) and k(Ru*-Os) = 5.8 × 10(7) s(-1), all in acetonitrile at 22 °C. The data were analyzed by assuming Dexter energy transfer with the Franck-Condon factors arising from intramolecular structural and medium changes evaluated by use of an emission spectral fitting procedure. Fits of the data to the Dexter mechanism were consistent with the predicted distance dependence of energy transfer.

  8. Changes in protein composition and Mn abundance in photosystem II particles on photoactivation of the latent O/sub 2/-evolving system in flash-grown wheat leaves. [Triticum aestivum L

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, T.A.; Kajikawa, H.; Inoue, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Protein composition and Mn abundance were compared between the two photosystem II (PSII) particle preparations obtained before and after photoactivation of the latent O/sub 2/-evolving system in intermittently flashed wheat leaves. The following results have been obtained: (a) nonphotoactivated PSII particles were devoid of two extrinsic proteins which corresponded to the 24 and 16 kilodalton proteins in spinach particles, although the particles contained all the intrinsic proteins and the 33 kilodalton extrinsic protein. (b) The two extrinsic proteins absent in nonphotoactivated PSII particles were present in nonphotoactivated thylakoids, but were easily removed by a hypotonic shock followed by brief sonication. Such removal of the proteins did not occur in photoactivated thylakoids. (c) Nonphotoactivated PSII particles contained 1.5 Mn/400 chlorophyll, while photoactivated particles contained 8 Mn/400 chlorophyll. (d) Nonphotoactivated thylakoids contained 6 Mn/400 chlorophyll, but most of them were removed from thylakoids by a hypotonic shock in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetate. Such removal of Mn did not occur in photoactivated thylakoids.

  9. 7 CFR 25.623 - Programmatic changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Programmatic changes. 25.623 Section 25.623 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Round II and Round IIS Grants § 25.623 Programmatic changes. Prior approval from USDA is required for...

  10. About APPLE II Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-19

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  11. Mod II engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, Albert E.; Huang, Shyan-Cherng

    1987-01-01

    The testing of a prototype of an automotive Stirling engine, the Mod II, is discussed. The Mod II is a one-piece cast block with a V-4 single-crankshaft configuration and an annular regenerator/cooler design. The initial testing of Mod II concentrated on the basic engine, with auxiliaries driven by power sources external to the engine. The performance of the engine was tested at 720 C set temperature and 820 C tube temperature. At 720 C, it is observed that the power deficiency is speed dependent and linear, with a weak pressure dependency, and at 820 C, the power deficiency is speed and pressure dependent. The effects of buoyancy and nozzle spray pattern on the heater temperature spread are investigated. The characterization of the oil pump and the operating cycle and temperature spread tests are proposed for further evaluation of the engine.

  12. SAGE II Ozone Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, Derek; Wang, Ray

    2002-01-01

    Publications from 1999-2002 describing research funded by the SAGE II contract to Dr. Cunnold and Dr. Wang are listed below. Our most recent accomplishments include a detailed analysis of the quality of SAGE II, v6.1, ozone measurements below 20 km altitude (Wang et al., 2002 and Kar et al., 2002) and an analysis of the consistency between SAGE upper stratospheric ozone trends and model predictions with emphasis on hemispheric asymmetry (Li et al., 2001). Abstracts of the 11 papers are attached.

  13. Integrated Assessment of Hadley Centre (HadCM2) Climate-Change Impacts on Agricultural Productivity and Irrigation Water Supply in the Conterminous United States. Part II. Regional Agricultural Production in 2030 and 2095.

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Rosenberg, Norman J.; Brown, Robert A.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2003-06-30

    This study used scenarios of the HadCM2 GCM and the EPIC agroecosystem model to evaluate climate change impacts on crop yields and ecosystem processes. Baseline climate data were obtained from records for 1961-1990. The scenario runs for 2025-2034 and 2090-2099 were extracted from a HadCM2 run. EPIC was run on 204 representative farms under current climate and two 10-y periods centered on 2030 and 2095, each at CO2 concentrations of 365 and 560 ppm. Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and California are projected to experience significant temperature increases by 2030. Slight cooling is expected by 2030 in Alabama, Florida, Maine, Montana, Idaho, and Utah. Larger areas are projected to experience increased warming by 2095. Uniform precipitation increases are expected by 2030 in the NE. These increases are predicted to expand to the eastern half of the country by 2095. EPIC simulated yield increases for the Great Lakes, Corn Belt and Northeast regions. Simulated yields of irrigated corn yields were predicted to increase in almost all regions. Soybean yields could decrease in the Northern and Southern Plains, the Corn Belt, Delta, Appalachian, and Southeast regions and increase in the Lakes and Northeast regions. Simulated wheat yields exhibited upward yield trends under scenarios of climate change. National corn production in 2030 and 2095 could be affected by changes in three major producing regions. In 2030, corn production could increase in the Corn Belt and Lakes regions but decrease in the Northern Plains leading to an overall decrease in national production. National wheat production is expected to increase during both future periods. A proxy indicator was developed to provide a sense of where in the country, and when water would be available to satisfy change in irrigation demand for corn and alfalfa production as these are influenced by the HadCM2 scenarios and CO2-fertilization.

  14. High-Frequency (1)H NMR Chemical Shifts of Sn(II) and Pb(II) Hydrides Induced by Relativistic Effects: Quest for Pb(II) Hydrides.

    PubMed

    Vícha, Jan; Marek, Radek; Straka, Michal

    2016-10-17

    The role of relativistic effects on (1)H NMR chemical shifts of Sn(II) and Pb(II) hydrides is investigated by using fully relativistic DFT calculations. The stability of possible Pb(II) hydride isomers is studied together with their (1)H NMR chemical shifts, which are predicted in the high-frequency region, up to 90 ppm. These (1)H signals are dictated by sizable relativistic contributions due to spin-orbit coupling at the heavy atom and can be as large as 80 ppm for a hydrogen atom bound to Pb(II). Such high-frequency (1)H NMR chemical shifts of Pb(II) hydride resonances cannot be detected in the (1)H NMR spectra with standard experimental setup. Extended (1)H NMR spectral ranges are thus suggested for studies of Pb(II) compounds. Modulation of spin-orbit relativistic contribution to (1)H NMR chemical shift is found to be important also in the experimentally known Sn(II) hydrides. Because the (1)H NMR chemical shifts were found to be rather sensitive to the changes in the coordination sphere of the central metal in both Sn(II) and Pb(II) hydrides, their application for structural investigation is suggested.

  15. [S-II symptom questionnaire].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrowicz, J W

    2000-01-01

    "S-II" Symptom Check-list which allows for a fast diagnosis of neurotic disorders. A result of 165 points suggests the incidence of such disorders with the probability of 90%. The methodology of the construction of the check-list intends for the application of questions most common in those ill due to neurotic disorders (owing to the change in frequency) and the most possibly equal amount of questions on the symptoms common to women and men. Thanks to this the norm for women and men is identical. SCL S-II Symptom Check-list is a shortened and actualised version of the "O" Symptom Check-list, developed in 1975. It is similar to the SCL-90 and highly correlated with it, but it does not contain the variables concerning the psychotic symptoms. Thanks to this, its' accuracy (specificity) in the diagnosis of neurotic disorders is high. 4 pairs of questions allow for the judgement of answer reliability. 10 scales were singled out in the questionnaire. They are only of a helpful value and do not allow for a one-sided diagnosis of the type of the disorder, listed in the ICD-10. The scale results can, however make the correct diagnosis easier.

  16. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. ); Standley, V. ); Voss, S.S. ); Haskin, E. . Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 11 space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safely assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  17. Validation of SAGE II NO2 measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, D. M.; Zawodny, J. M.; Chu, W. P.; Mccormick, M. P.; Pommereau, J. P.; Goutail, F.

    1991-01-01

    The validity of NO2 measurements from the stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment (SAGE) II is examined by comparing the data with climatological distributions of NO2 and by examining the consistency of the observations themselves. The precision at high altitudes is found to be 5 percent, which is also the case at specific low altitudes for certain latitudes where the mixing ratio is 4 ppbv, and the precision is 0.2 ppbv at low altitudes. The autocorrelation distance of the smoothed profile measurement noise is 3-5 km and 10 km for 1-km and 5-km smoothing, respectively. The SAGE II measurements agree with spectroscopic measurements to within 10 percent, and the SAGE measurements are about 20 percent smaller than average limb monitor measurements at the mixing ratio peak. SAGE I and SAGE II measurements are slightly different, but the difference is not attributed to changes in atmospheric NO2.

  18. Changing Families, Changing Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    American families and workplaces have both changed dramatically over the past half-century. Paid work by women has increased sharply, as has family instability. Education-related inequality in work hours and income has grown. These changes, says Suzanne Bianchi, pose differing work-life issues for parents at different points along the income…

  19. Instant Insanity II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Tom; Young, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    "Instant Insanity II" is a sliding mechanical puzzle whose solution requires the special alignment of 16 colored tiles. We count the number of solutions of the puzzle's classic challenge and show that the more difficult ultimate challenge has, up to row permutation, exactly two solutions, and further show that no…

  20. Dissecting Diversity Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This article presents "Dissecting Diversity, Part II," the conclusion of a wide-ranging two-part roundtable discussion on diversity in higher education. The participants were as follows: Lezli Baskerville, J.D., President and CEO of the National Association for Equal Opportunity (NAFEO); Dr. Gerald E. Gipp, Executive Director of the…

  1. Listen & Learn II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Building Resources, Spruce Grove (Alberta).

    Six community builders in Edmonton, Alberta, planned, developed, and implemented Listen and Learn II, a reflective research project in asset-based community building, over a 6-month period in 1998. They met regularly over 2 months to plan the research and design a method that was open to participation at any stage, encouraged exchange of…

  2. A la Mode II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowe, Richard A.

    This paper describes two modes of educational decision-making: Mode I, in which the instructor makes such decisions as what to teach, to whom, when, in what order, at what pace, and at what complexity level; and Mode II, in which the learner makes the decisions. While Mode I comprises most of what is regarded as formal education, the learner in…

  3. Periodontics II: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dordick, Bruce

    A proposal is presented for Periodontics II, a course offered at the Community College of Philadelphia to give the dental hygiene/assisting student an understanding of the disease states of the periodontium and their treatment. A standardized course proposal cover form is given, followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major…

  4. Class II Microcins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassiliadis, Gaëlle; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Peduzzi, Jean

    Class II microcins are 4.9- to 8.9-kDa polypeptides produced by and active against enterobacteria. They are classified into two subfamilies according to their structure and their gene cluster arrangement. While class IIa microcins undergo no posttranslational modification, class IIb microcins show a conserved C-terminal sequence that carries a salmochelin-like siderophore motif as a posttranslational modification. Aside from this C-terminal end, which is the signature of class IIb microcins, some sequence similarities can be observed within and between class II subclasses, suggesting the existence of common ancestors. Their mechanisms of action are still under investigation, but several class II microcins use inner membrane proteins as cellular targets, and some of them are membrane-active. Like group B colicins, many, if not all, class II microcins are TonB- and energy-dependent and use catecholate siderophore receptors for recognition/­translocation across the outer membrane. In that context, class IIb microcins are considered to have developed molecular mimicry to increase their affinity for their outer membrane receptors through their salmochelin-like posttranslational modification.

  5. Inhibitory role of peroxiredoxin II (Prx II) on cellular senescence.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying-Hao; Kim, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Sang-Keun; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Moon, Eun-Yi

    2005-08-29

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated in all oxygen-utilizing organisms. Peroxiredoxin II (Prx II) as one of antioxidant enzymes may play a protective role against the oxidative damage caused by ROS. In order to define the role of Prx II in organismal aging, we evaluated cellular senescence in Prx II(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF). As compared to wild type MEF, cellular senescence was accelerated in Prx II(-/-) MEF. Senescence-associated (SA)-beta-galactosidase (Gal)-positive cell formation was about 30% higher in Prx II(-/-) MEF. N-Acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) treatment attenuated SA-beta-Gal-positive cell formation. Prx II(-/-) MEF exhibited the higher G2/M (41%) and lower S (1.6%) phase cells as compared to 24% and 7.3% [corrected] in wild type MEF, respectively. A high increase in the p16 and a slight increase in the p21 and p53 levels were detected in PrxII(-/-) MEF cells. The cellular senescence of Prx II(-/-) MEF was correlated with the organismal aging of Prx II(-/-) mouse skin. While extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 activation was detected in Prx II(-/-) MEF, ERK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation was detected in Prx II(-/-) skin. These results suggest that Prx II may function as an enzymatic antioxidant to prevent cellular senescence and skin aging.

  6. Hydrothermal synthesis of zinc(II)-phosphonate coordination polymers with different dimensionality (0D, 2D, 3D) and dimensionality change in the solid phase (0D→3D) induced by temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández-Zapico, Eva; Montejo-Bernardo, Jose; Fernández-González, Alfonso; García, José R. García-Granda, Santiago

    2015-05-15

    Three new zinc(II) coordination polymers, [Zn(HO{sub 3}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COO)(C{sub 12}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})(H{sub 2}O)] (1), [Zn{sub 3}(O{sub 3}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COO){sub 2}(C{sub 12}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})](H{sub 2}O){sub 3.40} (2) and [Zn{sub 5}(HO{sub 3}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COO){sub 2}(O{sub 3}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COO){sub 2}(C{sub 12}H{sub 8}N{sub 2}){sub 4}](H{sub 2}O){sub 0.32} (3), with different structural dimensionality (0D, 2D and 3D, respectively) have been prepared by hydrothermal synthesis, and their structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic system (P2{sub 1}/c) forming discrete dimeric units bonded through H-bonds, while compounds 2 and 3 crystallize in the triclinic (P−1) and the monoclinic (C2/c) systems, respectively. Compound 3, showing three different coordination numbers (4, 5 and 6) for the zinc atoms, has also been obtained by thermal treatment of 1 (probed by high-temperature XRPD experiments). The crystalline features of these compounds, related to the coordination environments for the zinc atoms in each structure, provoke the increase of the relative fluorescence for 2 and 3, compared to the free phenanthroline. Thermal analysis (TG and DSC) and XPS studies have been also carried out for all compounds. - Graphical abstract: Three new coordination compounds of zinc with 2-carboxyethylphosphonic acid (H{sub 2}PPA) and phenanthroline have been obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. The crystalline structure depends on the different coordination environments of the zinc atoms (see two comparative Zn{sub 6}-moieties). The influence of the different coordination modes of H{sub 2}PPA with the central atom in all structures have been studied, being found new coordination modes for this ligand. Several compounds show a significant increase in relative fluorescence with respect to the free phenanthroline. - Highlights: • Compounds have been obtained modifying the reaction time and the rate of

  7. Changes in parameters of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women following a 12-month intervention period using dairy products enriched with calcium, vitamin D, and phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) or menaquinone-7 (vitamin K (2)): the Postmenopausal Health Study II.

    PubMed

    Kanellakis, Spyridon; Moschonis, George; Tenta, Roxane; Schaafsma, Anne; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Lyritis, George; Manios, Yannis

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of dairy products enriched with calcium, vitamin D(3), and phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) or menaquinone-7 (vitamin K(2)) on parameters of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women following a 12-month intervention. Postmenopausal women were divided into three intervention groups and a control group (CG). All three intervention groups attended biweekly sessions and received fortified dairy products providing daily 800 mg of calcium and 10 μg of vitamin D(3) (CaD). Furthermore, in two of the three intervention groups the dairy products were also enriched with vitamin K, providing daily 100 μg of either phylloquinone (CaDK1) or menaquinone-7 (CaDK2). The increase observed for serum 25(OH)D levels in all intervention groups and the increase observed for serum IGF-I levels in the CaDK2 group differed significantly compared to the changes observed in CG (P = 0.010 and P = 0.028, respectively). Furthermore, both the CaDK1 and CaDK2 groups had a significantly lower mean serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin to osteocalcin ratio and urine deoxypyridinoline levels at follow-up compared to the CaD and CG groups (P = 0.001 and P = 0.047, respectively). Significant increases in total-body BMD were observed in all intervention groups compared to CG (P < 0.05), while significant increases in lumbar spine BMD were observed only for CaDK1 and CaDK2 compared to CG (P < 0.05) after controlling for changes in serum 25(OH)D levels and dietary calcium intake. In conclusion, the present study revealed more favorable changes in bone metabolism and bone mass indices for the two vitamin K-supplemented groups, mainly reflected in the suppression of serum levels of bone remodeling indices and in the more positive changes in lumbar spine BMD for these two study groups.

  8. Power and power-to-flow reactivity transfer functions in EBR-II (Experimental Breeder Reactor II) fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D. )

    1989-11-01

    Reactivity transfer functions are important in determining the reactivity history during a power transient. Overall nodal transfer functions have been calculated for different subassembly types in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). Steady-state calculations for temperature changes and, hence, reactivities for power changes have been separated into power and power-to-flow-dependent terms. Axial nodal transfer functions separated into power and power-to-flow-dependent components are reported in this paper for a typical EBR-II fuel pin. This provides an improved understanding of the time dependence of these components in transient situations.

  9. The Changing Family in a Changing World: America First?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1984-01-01

    The American family has experienced rapid and radical changes since World War II. The effects and possible causes of the increase in the number of single-parent families, entry of mothers into the labor force, and rise in number of families at the poverty level are explored. Implications for changes in policy and practice are discussed. (DF)

  10. Concurrent and reversible changes of color and of phase in an aqueous solution of the (2,6-pyridinedicarboxylato)chloroplatinate(II) complex. Spectroscopic and crystallographic studies of the discrete monomer and evidence of a stacked polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X.; Kostic, N.M.

    1988-11-30

    The title complex, (Pt(dipic)Cl)/sup /minus//, was prepared in a reaction between dipicolinate salts and (PtCl/sub 4/)/sup 2/minus//. The variation in temperature or in concentration of its aqueous solution causes two changes - of color and of phase - which are sudden concurrent, and reversible. At higher temperatures or lower concentrations the complex is yellow and monomeric, whereas at lower temperatures or attempted higher concentrations it is red and probably polymeric. The red form is microcrystalline and probably composed of stacked (Pt(dipic)Cl)/sup /minus// units. Unlike other square-planar complexes that form stacks, the yellow from of (Pt(dipic)Cl)/sup /minus// remains monomeric over a wide range of concentration and temperature until the sudden onset of the supposed polymerization. The nucleation and growth of the red from are easily monitored owing to the concomitant color change. The crystal structure for the monomeric salt is reported. The uv-vis spectrum of the red K(Pt(dipic)Cl) in the solid state contains a low-energy absorption band diagnostic of the stacking. This band disappears when the red polymer dissolves in water to give a yellow monomeric solution. The (Pt(dipic)Cl)/sup /minus// salts, like thermochromic materials, hold promise as temperature indicators. 62 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes of a hexadentate pyridine amide ligand. Effect of donor atom (ether vs. thioether) on coordination geometry, spin-state of cobalt and M(III)-M(II) redox potential.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sharmila; Das, Partha Pratim; Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Mukherjee, Rabindranath

    2011-10-28

    Using an acyclic hexadentate pyridine amide ligand, containing a -OCH(2)CH(2)O- spacer between two pyridine-2-carboxamide units (1,4-bis[o-(pyrydine-2-carboxamidophenyl)]-1,4-dioxabutane (H(2)L(9)), in its deprotonated form), four new complexes, [Co(II)(L(9))] (1) and its one-electron oxidized counterpart [Co(III)(L(9))][NO(3)]·2H(2)O (2), [Ni(II)(L(9))] (3) and [Cu(II)(L(9))] (4), have been synthesized. Structural analyses revealed that the Co(II) centre in 1 and the Ni(II) centre in 3 are six-coordinate, utilizing all the available donor sites and the Cu(II) centre in 4 is effectively five-coordinated (one of the ether O atoms does not participate in coordination). The structural parameters associated with the change in the metal coordination environment have been compared with corresponding complexes of thioether-containing hexadentate ligands. The μ(eff) values at 298 K of 1-4 correspond to S = 3/2, S = 0, S = 1 and S = 1/2, respectively. Absorption spectra for all the complexes have been investigated. EPR spectral properties of the copper(II) complex 4 have been investigated, simulated and analyzed. Cyclic voltammetric experiments in CH(2)Cl(2) reveal quasireversible Co(III)-Co(II), Ni(III)-Ni(II) and Cu(II)-Cu(I) redox processes. In going from ether O to thioether S coordination, the effect of the metal coordination environment on the redox potential values of Co(III)-Co(II) (here the effect of spin-state as well), Ni(III)-Ni(II) and Cu(II)-Cu(I) processes have been systematically analyzed.

  12. Molecular indicators for palaeoenvironmental change in a Messinian evaporitic sequence (Vena del Gesso, Italy). II: High-resolution variations in abundances and 13C contents of free and sulphur-bound carbon skeletons in a single marl bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenig, F.; Damste, J. S.; Frewin, N. L.; Hayes, J. M.; De Leeuw, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    The extractable organic matter of 10 immature samples from a marl bed of one evaporitic cycle of the Vena del Gesso sediments (Gessoso-solfifera Fm., Messinian, Italy) was analyzed quantitatively for free hydrocarbons and organic sulphur compounds. Nickel boride was used as a desulphurizing agent to recover sulphur-bound lipids from the polar and asphaltene fractions. Carbon isotopic compositions (delta vs PDB) of free hydrocarbons and of S-bound hydrocarbons were also measured. Relationships between these carbon skeletons, precursor biolipids, and the organisms producing them could then be examined. Concentrations of S-bound lipids and free hydrocarbons and their delta values were plotted vs depth in the marl bed and the profiles were interpreted in terms of variations in source organisms, 13 C contents of the carbon source, and environmentally induced changes in isotopic fractionation. The overall range of delta values measured was 24.7%, from -11.6% for a component derived from green sulphur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae) to -36.3% for a lipid derived from purple sulphur bacteria (Chromatiaceae). Deconvolution of mixtures of components deriving from multiple sources (green and purple sulphur bacteria, coccolithophorids, microalgae and higher plants) was sometimes possible because both quantitative and isotopic data were available and because either the free or S-bound pool sometimes appeared to contain material from a single source. Several free n-alkanes and S-bound lipids appeared to be specific products of upper-water-column primary producers (i.e. algae and cyanobacteria). Others derived from anaerobic photoautotrophs and from heterotrophic protozoa (ciliates), which apparently fed partly on Chlorobiaceae. Four groups of n-alkanes produced by algae or cyanobacteria were also recognized based on systematic variations of abundance and isotopic composition with depth. For hydrocarbons probably derived from microalgae, isotopic variations are well correlated with

  13. Role of Bound Zn(II) in the CadC Cd(II)/Pb(II)/Zn(II)-Responsive Repressor

    SciTech Connect

    Kandegedara, A.; Thiyagarajan, S; Kondapalli, K; Stemmler, T; Rosen, B

    2009-01-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258 cadCA operon encodes a P-type ATPase, CadA, that confers resistance to Cd(II)/Pb(II)/Zn(II). Expression is regulated by CadC, a homodimeric repressor that dissociates from the cad operator/promoter upon binding of Cd(II), Pb(II), or Zn(II). CadC is a member of the ArsR/SmtB family of metalloregulatory proteins. The crystal structure of CadC shows two types of metal binding sites, termed Site 1 and Site 2, and the homodimer has two of each. Site 1 is the physiological inducer binding site. The two Site 2 metal binding sites are formed at the dimerization interface. Site 2 is not regulatory in CadC but is regulatory in the homologue SmtB. Here the role of each site was investigated by mutagenesis. Both sites bind either Cd(II) or Zn(II). However, Site 1 has higher affinity for Cd(II) over Zn(II), and Site 2 prefers Zn(II) over Cd(II). Site 2 is not required for either derepression or dimerization. The crystal structure of the wild type with bound Zn(II) and of a mutant lacking Site 2 was compared with the SmtB structure with and without bound Zn(II). We propose that an arginine residue allows for Zn(II) regulation in SmtB and, conversely, a glycine results in a lack of regulation by Zn(II) in CadC. We propose that a glycine residue was ancestral whether the repressor binds Zn(II) at a Site 2 like CadC or has no Site 2 like the paralogous ArsR and implies that acquisition of regulatory ability in SmtB was a more recent evolutionary event.

  14. Removal of Co(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions by polymer based 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate: thermodynamics and desorption studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Removal thermodynamics and desorption studies of some heavy metal ions such as Co(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) by polymeric surfaces such as poly 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (PHEMA) and copolymer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate with monomer methyl methacrylate P(MMA-HEMA) as adsorbent surfaces from aqueous single solution were investigated with respect to the changes in pH of solution, adsorbent composition, contact time and temperature in the individual aqueous solution. The linear correlation coefficients of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were obtained and the results revealed that the Langmuir isotherm fitted the experiment results better than Freundlich isotherm. Using the Langmuir model equation, the monolayer removal capacity of PHEMA surface was found to be 0.7388, 0.8396 and 3.0367 mg/g for Co(II), Cu(ΙΙ) and Pb(II) ions and removal capacity of P(MMA-HEMA) was found to be 28.8442, 31.1526 and 31.4465 mg/g for Co(II), Cu(ΙΙ) and Pb(II) ions, respectively. Changes in the standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG0), standard enthalpy (ΔH0) and standard entropy (ΔS0) showed that the removals of mentioned ions onto PHEMA and P(MMA-HEMA) are spontaneous and exothermic at 293–323 K. The maximum desorption efficiency was 75.26% for Pb(II) using 0.100 M HNO3, 70.10% for Cu(II) using 0.100 M HCl, 59.20% for 0.100 M HCl 63.67% Co(II). PMID:23369255

  15. Removal of Co(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions by polymer based 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate: thermodynamics and desorption studies.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Omid; Mirza, Behrooz; Norouzi, Mehdi; Fakhri, Ali

    2012-12-22

    Removal thermodynamics and desorption studies of some heavy metal ions such as Co(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) by polymeric surfaces such as poly 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (PHEMA) and copolymer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate with monomer methyl methacrylate P(MMA-HEMA) as adsorbent surfaces from aqueous single solution were investigated with respect to the changes in pH of solution, adsorbent composition, contact time and temperature in the individual aqueous solution. The linear correlation coefficients of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were obtained and the results revealed that the Langmuir isotherm fitted the experiment results better than Freundlich isotherm. Using the Langmuir model equation, the monolayer removal capacity of PHEMA surface was found to be 0.7388, 0.8396 and 3.0367 mg/g for Co(II), Cu(ΙΙ) and Pb(II) ions and removal capacity of P(MMA-HEMA) was found to be 28.8442, 31.1526 and 31.4465 mg/g for Co(II), Cu(ΙΙ) and Pb(II) ions, respectively. Changes in the standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG0), standard enthalpy (ΔH0) and standard entropy (ΔS0) showed that the removals of mentioned ions onto PHEMA and P(MMA-HEMA) are spontaneous and exothermic at 293-323 K. The maximum desorption efficiency was 75.26% for Pb(II) using 0.100 M HNO3, 70.10% for Cu(II) using 0.100 M HCl, 59.20% for 0.100 M HCl 63.67% Co(II).

  16. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II

    MedlinePlus

    Sipple syndrome; MEN II; Pheochromocytoma - MEN II; Thyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma; Parathyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma ... often not cancerous (benign). Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is ... fatal cancer, but early diagnosis and surgery can often lead ...

  17. FIRE II - Cirrus Data Sets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-26

    FIRE II - Cirrus Data Sets First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) II Cirrus was conducted in southeastern Kansas. It was designed to improve the ... stratocumulus systems, the radiative properties of these clouds and their interactions. Relevant Documents:  FIRE ...

  18. Potential future applications for the tracking and data relay satellite II (TDRS II) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, Richard C.

    1995-04-01

    During the conceptual design phases of the tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) II system provision was made for a future service growth (FSG) payload with an undefined mission. The intent of the FSG was to provide a resource for TDRS II applications which would be available to meet a change in requirements for the operational TDRS II system. This paper summarizes the effect of the consideration of potential FSG applications imposed on the tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) II system. The following applications were considered as FSG candidates: An optical 650 Mbps space-to-space link (SSL) coupled to an optical or RF downlink, an RF or optical crosslink to extend the baseline TDRS II system coverage, -zone of exclusion (ZOE) closure, relay for lunar communications either RF or optically, and relay for Martian communications either RF or optically. This paper summarizes work done in the 1990 time frame on the above stated applications. Since then, NASA has sponsored several studies (during phase B of the TDRS II development cycle) of the ZOE closure application of the FSG. The purpose of this paper is to report on the efforts previously considered for the FSG. A previous paper was presented at the 1991 Congress related to the second application above. This paper extends this effort to the four stated applications.

  19. Potential future applications for the tracking and data relay satellite II (TDRS II) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, Richard C.

    1995-01-01

    During the conceptual design phases of the tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) II system provision was made for a future service growth (FSG) payload with an undefined mission. The intent of the FSG was to provide a resource for TDRS II applications which would be available to meet a change in requirements for the operational TDRS II system. This paper summarizes the effect of the consideration of potential FSG applications imposed on the tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) II system. The following applications were considered as FSG candidates: An optical 650 Mbps space-to-space link (SSL) coupled to an optical or RF downlink, an RF or optical crosslink to extend the baseline TDRS II system coverage, -zone of exclusion (ZOE) closure, relay for lunar communications either RF or optically, and relay for Martian communications either RF or optically. This paper summarizes work done in the 1990 time frame on the above stated applications. Since then, NASA has sponsored several studies (during phase B of the TDRS II development cycle) of the ZOE closure application of the FSG. The purpose of this paper is to report on the efforts previously considered for the FSG. A previous paper was presented at the 1991 Congress related to the second application above. This paper extends this effort to the four stated applications.

  20. RADTRAN II user guide

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, M M; Wilmot, E L; Taylor, J M

    1983-02-01

    RADTRAN II is a flexible analytical tool for calculating both the incident-free and accident impacts of transporting radioactive materials. The consequences from incident-free shipments are apportioned among eight population subgroups and can be calculated for several transport modes. The radiological accident risk (probability times consequence summed over all postulated accidents) is calculated in terms of early fatalities, early morbidities, latent cancer fatalities, genetic effects, and economic impacts. Groundshine, inhalation, direct exposure, resuspension, and cloudshine dose pathways are modeled to calculate the radiological health risks from accidents. Economic impacts are evaluated based on costs for emergency response, cleanup, evacuation, income loss, and land use. RADTRAN II can be applied to specific scenario evaluations (individual transport modes or specified combinations), to compare alternative modes or to evaluate generic radioactive material shipments. Unit-risk factors can easily be evaluated to aid in performing generic analyses when several options must be compared with the amount of travel as the only variable.

  1. Results from SAGE II

    SciTech Connect

    Nico, J.S.

    1994-10-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first nine runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 66{sub -13}{sup +18} (stat) {sub -7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. Combined with the SAGE I result of 73{sub -16}{sup +18} (stat) {sub -7}{sup 5} (sys) SNU, the capture rate is 69{sub -11}{sup +11} (stat) {sub -7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. This represents only 52%--56% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models.

  2. Ribosomal Database Project II

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) provides ribosome related data and services to the scientific community, including online data analysis and aligned and annotated Bacterial small-subunit 16S rRNA sequences. As of March 2008, RDP Release 10 is available and currently (August 2009) contains 1,074,075 aligned 16S rRNA sequences. Data that can be downloaded include zipped GenBank and FASTA alignment files, a histogram (in Excel) of the number of RDP sequences spanning each base position, data in the Functional Gene Pipeline Repository, and various user submitted data. The RDP-II website also provides numerous analysis tools.[From the RDP-II home page at http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/index.jsp

  3. SAGE II V7

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-01

    ... In 1998, atmospheric scientists discovered a significant change in cloud vertical structure triggered by the strongest El Niño on ... planting practices in the Andes. Volcanoes and Climate Change Volcanic aerosols play a significant role in driving Earth's ...

  4. Modelling the Danube-influenced North-western Continental Shelf of the Black Sea. II: Ecosystem Response to Changes in Nutrient Delivery by the Danube River after its Damming in 1972

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancelot, C.; Staneva, J.; van Eeckhout, D.; Beckers, J.-M.; Stanev, E.

    2002-03-01

    The ecological model BIOGEN, describing the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon cycling throughout aggregated chemical and biological compartments of the planktonic and benthic marine systems, has been implemented in the north-western Black Sea to assess the response of this coastal ecosystem to eutrophication by the Danube River. The trophic resolution of BIOGEN was chosen to simulate the major ecological changes reported in this coastal area since the 1960s. Particular attention was paid to establishing the link between quantitative and qualitative changes in nutrients, phytoplankton composition and food-web structures. The BIOGEN numerical code structure includes 34 state variables assembled in five interactive modules describing the dynamics of (1) phytoplankton composed of three distinct groups, each with a different trophic fate (diatoms, nanophytoflagellates, non-silicified opportunistic species); (2) meso- and microzooplankton; (3) trophic dead-end gelatinous organisms composed of three distinct groups (the omnivorous Noctiluca and the carnivores Aurelia and the alien Mnemiopsis ), and organic matter degradation and associated nutrient regeneration processes by (4) planktonic and (5) benthic bacteria. The capability of the BIOGEN model to simulate the recent ecosystem changes reported for the Black Sea was demonstrated by running the model for the period 1985-1995. The BIOGEN code was implemented in an aggregated and simplified representation of the north-western Black Sea hydrodynamics. The numerical frame consisted of coupling a 0-D BIOGEN box model subjected to the Danube with a 1-D BIOGEN representing the open-sea boundary conditions. Model results clearly showed that the eutrophication-related problems of the north-western Black Sea were not only driven by the quantity of nutrients discharged by the Danube, but that the balance between them was also important. BIOGEN simulations clearly demonstrated that phosphate, rather than silicate, was the

  5. Ripening-dependent metabolic changes in the volatiles of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) fruit: II. Multivariate statistical profiling of pineapple aroma compounds based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Steingass, Christof Björn; Jutzi, Manfred; Müller, Jenny; Carle, Reinhold; Schmarr, Hans-Georg

    2015-03-01

    Ripening-dependent changes of pineapple volatiles were studied in a nontargeted profiling analysis. Volatiles were isolated via headspace solid phase microextraction and analyzed by comprehensive 2D gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC×GC-qMS). Profile patterns presented in the contour plots were evaluated applying image processing techniques and subsequent multivariate statistical data analysis. Statistical methods comprised unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to classify the samples. Supervised partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression were applied to discriminate different ripening stages and describe the development of volatiles during postharvest storage, respectively. Hereby, substantial chemical markers allowing for class separation were revealed. The workflow permitted the rapid distinction between premature green-ripe pineapples and postharvest-ripened sea-freighted fruits. Volatile profiles of fully ripe air-freighted pineapples were similar to those of green-ripe fruits postharvest ripened for 6 days after simulated sea freight export, after PCA with only two principal components. However, PCA considering also the third principal component allowed differentiation between air-freighted fruits and the four progressing postharvest maturity stages of sea-freighted pineapples.

  6. Tolerability and toxicity of prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with non-small cell lung cancer – Results of a phase II study (with estimation of hematological toxicity, pituitary function and magnetic resonance spectra changes)

    PubMed Central

    Marzena, Gawkowska-Suwińska; Sławomir, Blamek; Alicja, Heyda; Łukasz, Boguszewicz; Anna, Cichoń; Łukasz, Zarudzki; Elżbieta, Nowicka; Katarzyna, Behrendt; Beata, Smolska-Ciszewska; Grzegorz, Plewicki; Aleksander, Zajusz; Rafał, Tarnawski

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the tolerability and toxicity of PCI in patients with NSCLC. Background Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is a standard treatment for patients with small cell lung cancer. There are data showing a decreasing ratio of brain metastases after PCI for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC-non small cell lung cancer) patients but, so far, there is no evidence for increasing overall survival. The main concern in this setting is the tolerance and toxicity of the treatment. Materials and methods From 1999 to 2007, 50 patients with NSCLC treated with radical intent underwent PCI (30 Gy in 15 fractions). Mean follow-up was 2.8 years. The tolerability and hematological toxicity were evaluated in all patients, a part of participants had done neuropsychological tests, magnetic resonance imaging with 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and estimation of pituitary function. Results During follow-up, 20 patients developed distant metastases, 4-brain metastases. Fourteen (30%) patients had acute side effects: (headache, nausea, erythema of the skin). The symptoms did not require treatment breaks. Six patients complained of late side effects (vertigo, nausea, anxiety, lower extremity weakness, deterioration of hearing and olfactory hyperesthesia). Hematological complications were not observed. Testosterone levels tended to decrease (p = 0.062). Visual-motor function deteriorated after treatment (p < 0.059). Performance IQ decreased (p < 0.025) and the difference between performance IQ and verbal IQ increased (p < 0.011). Degenerative periventricular vascular changes were observed in two patients. Analysis of the spectroscopic data showed metabolic but reversible alterations after PCI. Conclusion PCI in the current series was well tolerated and associated with a relatively low toxicity. PMID:25337408

  7. The metabolic syndrome of fructose-fed rats: effects of long-chain polyunsaturated ω3 and ω6 fatty acids. II. Time course of changes in food intake, body weight, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Mellouk, Zoheir; Hachimi Idrissi, Tarek; Louchami, Karim; Hupkens, Emeline; Sener, Abdullah; Yahia, Dalila Ait; Malaisse, Willy J

    2012-01-01

    The time course for changes in food intake, body weight, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and HOMA index was monitored over a period of 8 weeks in rats exposed from the 8th week after birth to diets containing either starch or fructose and sunflower oil. In two further groups of rats exposed to the fructose-rich diet part of the sunflower oil was substituted by either salmon oil rich in long-chain polyunsaturated ω3 fatty acids or safflower oil rich in long-chain polyunsaturated ω6 fatty acids. Despite lower food intake, the gain in body weight was higher in fructose-fed rats than in starch-fed rats. The supplementation of the fructose-rich diet by either ω3 or ω6 fatty acids lowered both food intake and body weight gain. The measurements of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, HOMA index and insulinogenic index performed after overnight starvation were in fair agreement with those recorded at the occasion of an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, with higher values for plasma glucose concentration and HOMA index in the fructose-fed rats exposed to the sunflower oil (with or without enrichment with ω6 fatty acids) than in the starch-fed rats exposed to the sunflower oil or fructose-fed rats exposed to a diet enriched with ω3 fatty acids. Such was also the case for the measurements of glycated albumin at sacrifice. Moreover, the insulinogenic index was lower in the fructose-fed rats with or without dietary enrichment in ω6 fatty acids than in the fructose-fed rats with dietary enrichment in ω3 fatty acids. The elucidation of the biochemical determinants of the later difference requires further investigations in isolated pancreatic islets.

  8. Tumor Volume Changes on 1.5 Tesla Endorectal MRI During Neoadjuvant Androgen Suppression Therapy for Higher-Risk Prostate Cancer and Recurrence in Men Treated Using Radiation Therapy Results of the Phase II CALGB 9682 Study

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amico, Anthony V. Halabi, Susan; Tempany, Clare; Titelbaum, David; Philips, George K.; Loffredo, Marian; McMahon, Elizabeth; Sanford, Ben; Vogelzang, Nicholas J.; Small, Eric J.

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: We prospectively determined whether the change in tumor volume (TV) during 2 months of neoadjuvant androgen suppression therapy (nAST) measured using conventional 1.5 Tesla endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (eMRI) was associated with the risk of recurrence after radiation (RT) and 6 months of AST. Patients and Methods: Between 1997 and 2001, 180 men with clinical stage T1c-T3cN0M0 adenocarcinoma of the prostate were registered. Fifteen were found to be ineligible and the institutional MR radiologist could not assess the TV in 32, leaving 133 for analysis. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to assess whether a significant association existed between eMRI-defined TV progression during nAST and time to recurrence adjusting for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, Gleason score (8 to 10 or 7 vs. 6 or less) and stage (T3 vs. T1-2). Results: After a median follow up of 6.7 years and adjusting for known prognostic factors, there was a significant increase in the risk of PSA failure (HR, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.1-4.5; p = 0.025) in men with eMRI-defined TV progression during nAST. Specifically, adjusted estimates of PSA failure were significantly higher (p = 0.032) in men with, compared with men without, eMRI-defined TV progression reaching 38% vs. 19%, respectively, by 5 years. Conclusion: Eradicating intraprostatic hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) by maximizing local control and randomized trials assessing whether survival is improved when agents active against HRPC are combined with maximal local therapy are needed in men who progress based on eMRI during nAST.

  9. Oxidation of Structural Fe(II) in Biotite by Lithotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelobolina, E.; Blöthe, M.; Xu, H.; Konishi, H.; Roden, E.

    2008-12-01

    The potential for microbial involvement in the oxidation of Fe(II)-bearing phyllosilicates is an understudied aspect of soil/sediment Fe biogeochemistry. An important property of structural Fe in Fe-bearing smectites is their ability to undergo multiple redox cycles without being mobilized. An obvious choice of mineral substrate for enumeration/isolation of Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms would be reduced smectite. But reduced smectite is readily oxidized by air. That is why biotite was chosen as a substrate for this study. In contrast to smectite, biotite is more stable in the presence of air, but incapable of redox cycling. Once Fe(II) is oxidized, biotite is weathered to expendable 2:1 phyllosilicates or kaolinite. First, we evaluated the ability of a neutral-pH lithoautotrophic nitrate-reducing enrichment culture (MPI culture), recovered by Straub et al (Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 1996, 62:1458-1460) from a freshwater ditch, to oxidize two different specimens of biotite. The culture was capable of multiple transfers in anaerobic nitrate-containing biotite suspensions. The growth of MPI culture resulted in decrease of 0.5 N HCl-extractable Fe(II) content and simultaneous nitrate reduction. Cell yields were comparable to those observed for other neutral-pH lithoautotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria. High resolution TEM examination revealed structural and chemical changes at the edges of oxidized biotite and formation of reddish amorphous precipitates dominated by Si and Fe. To further evaluate efficiency of biotite for recovery of oxygen- and nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidizing cultures microbial enumeration study was performed using subsoil from a site near Madison, WI. The soil is rich in Fe-bearing smectite and shows evidence of redoximorphic features. The enumeration of Fe(II) oxidizing organisms from this sediment showed 10-fold higher efficiency of biotite over soluble Fe(II) for recovery of Fe(II)-oxidizers. Isolation and identification of both aerobic and

  10. Changing Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    diSessa, Andrea A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews Giyoo Hatano's ground-breaking theoretical, empirical, and methodological contributions to conceptual change research. In particular, his discovery of "vitalism" as part of children's legitimate and distinctive biology at early ages stands as a landmark. In addition, his work reinterpreted childhood "personification," changing…

  11. Changing Times, Changing Mission?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Bernard H.; And Others

    To determine the effects of changes in state funding on patterns of spending among institutions within the Virginia Community College System (VCCS), an analysis was performed of audited operating expenditures, enrollment, and staffing for the decade between 1980 and 1990 for each of the 23 VCCS colleges. The analysis found that from 1981-82 to…

  12. Spin Crossover in Fe(II)-M(II) Cyanoheterobimetallic Frameworks (M = Ni, Pd, Pt) with 2-Substituted Pyrazines.

    PubMed

    Kucheriv, Olesia I; Shylin, Sergii I; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Dechert, Sebastian; Haukka, Matti; Fritsky, Igor O; Gural'skiy, Il'ya A

    2016-05-16

    Discovery of spin-crossover (SCO) behavior in the family of Fe(II)-based Hofmann clathrates has led to a "new rush" in the field of bistable molecular materials. To date this class of SCO complexes is represented by several dozens of individual compounds, and areas of their potential application steadily increase. Starting from Fe(2+), square planar tetracyanometalates M(II)(CN)4(2-) (M(II) = Ni, Pd, Pt) and 2-substituted pyrazines Xpz (X = Cl, Me, I) as coligands we obtained a series of nine new Hofmann clathrate-like coordination frameworks. X-ray diffraction reveals that in these complexes Fe(II) ion has a pseudo-octahedral coordination environment supported by four μ4-tetracyanometallates forming its equatorial coordination environment. Depending on the nature of X and M, axial positions are occupied by two 2X-pyrazines (X = Cl and M(II) = Ni (1), Pd (2), Pt (3); X = Me and M(II) = Ni (4), Pd (5)) or one 2X-pyrazine and one water molecule (X = I and M(II) = Ni (7), Pd (8), Pt (9)), or, alternatively, two distinct Fe(II) positions with either two pyrazines or two water molecules (X = Me and M(II) = Pt (6)) are observed. Temperature behavior of magnetic susceptibility indicates that all compounds bearing FeN6 units (1-6) display cooperative spin transition, while Fe(II) ions in N5O or N4O2 surrounding are high spin (HS). Structural changes in the nearest Fe(II) environment upon low-spin (LS) to HS transition, which include ca. 10% Fe-N distance increase, lead to the cell expansion. Mössbauer spectroscopy is used to characterize the spin state of all HS, LS, and intermediate phases of 1-9 (see abstract figure). Effects of a pyrazine substituent and M(II) nature on the hyperfine parameters in both spin states are established.

  13. AWIPS II Extended - Data Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, R.; Schotz, S.; Calkins, J.; Gockel, B.; Ortiz, C.; Peter, R.

    2012-12-01

    AWIPS II Technology Infusion is a multiphase program. The first phase is the migration of the Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and River Forecast Centers (RFCs) AWIPS I capabilities into a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), referred to as AWIPS II. AWIPS II is currently being deployed to Operational Test and Evaluation (OTE) and other select deployment sites. The subsequent phases of AWIPS Technology Infusion, known as AWIPS II Extended, include several projects that will improve technological capabilities of AWIPS II in order to enhance the NWS enterprise and improve services to partners. This paper summarizes AWIPS II Extended - Data Delivery project and reports on its status. Data Delivery enables AWIPS II users to discover, subscribe and access web-enabled data provider systems including the capability to subset datasets by space, time and parameter.

  14. Multivariate Bioclimatic Ecosystem Change Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-06

    Headquarters, US Army Corps of Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 ERDC/CERL TR-15-2 ii Abstract Changes in climatic parameters are important in that they... climatic changes on specific installations. To support this need, the research tested and evaluated the application of six multivariate approach...techniques to predict climatic changes on a specific Army installation, Fort Benning, GA. The six approaches were tested for their ability to identify

  15. Delta II Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Final preparations for lift off of the DELTA II Mars Pathfinder Rocket are shown. Activities include loading the liquid oxygen, completing the construction of the Rover, and placing the Rover into the Lander. After the countdown, important visual events include the launch of the Delta Rocket, burnout and separation of the three Solid Rocket Boosters, and the main engine cutoff. The cutoff of the main engine marks the beginning of the second stage engine. After the completion of the second stage, the third stage engine ignites and then cuts off. Once the third stage engine cuts off spacecraft separation occurs.

  16. Run II luminosity progress

    SciTech Connect

    Gollwitzer, K.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron Collider Run II program continues at the energy and luminosity frontier of high energy particle physics. To the collider experiments CDF and D0, over 3 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity has been delivered to each. Upgrades and improvements in the Antiproton Source of the production and collection of antiprotons have led to increased number of particles stored in the Recycler. Electron cooling and associated improvements have help make a brighter antiproton beam at collisions. Tevatron improvements to handle the increased number of particles and the beam lifetimes have resulted in an increase in luminosity.

  17. SAGE II aerosol data validation - Comparative studies of SAGE II and SAM II data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, G. K.; Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.; Wang, P. H.; Osborn, M. T.

    1989-01-01

    Data from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II) satellite are compared with data from the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM II) satellite. Both experiments produce aerosol extinction profiles by measuring the attenuation of solar radiation during each sunrise and sunset observed by the satelltie. The SAGE II obtains profiles at 1.02 microns and three smaller wavelengths, whereas the SAM II measures at only one radiometric channel at 1.0 microns. It is found that the differences between the two sets of data are generally within the error bars associated with each measurement. In addition, the sunrise and sunset data from SAGE II are analyzed.

  18. Class II barodontalgia: review and report of a case.

    PubMed

    Woodmansey, Karl

    2008-01-01

    Barodontalgia is a rarely reported condition involving changes in ambient pressure resulting in tooth pain. According to Ferjentsik and Aker, Class II barodontalgia is observed in teeth that have pre-existing pulpal disease and an ultimate diagnosis of irreversible pulpitis.1 This article describes a case of Class II barodontalgia that was experienced on a commercial airline flight and reviews current knowledge regarding this phenomenon, including proposed etiologic mechanisms.

  19. The Belle II Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piilonen, Leo; Belle Collaboration, II

    2017-01-01

    The Belle II detector is now under construction at the KEK laboratory in Japan. This project represents a substantial upgrade of the Belle detector (and the KEKB accelerator). The Belle II experiment will record 50 ab-1 of data, a factor of 50 more than that recorded by Belle. This large data set, combined with the low backgrounds and high trigger efficiencies characteristic of an e+e- experiment, should provide unprecedented sensitivity to new physics signatures in B and D meson decays, and in τ lepton decays. The detector comprises many forefront subsystems. The vertex detector consists of two inner layers of silicon DEPFET pixels and four outer layers of double-sided silicon strips. These layers surround a beryllium beam pipe having a radius of only 10 mm. Outside of the vertex detector is a large-radius, small-cell drift chamber, an ``imaging time-of-propagation'' detector based on Cerenkov radiation for particle identification, and scintillating fibers and resistive plate chambers used to identify muons. The detector will begin commissioning in 2017.

  20. Tinkering Change vs. System Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Russ

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author makes a distinction between two kinds of change: tinkering change and systemic change. Tinkering change includes reforms intended to address a specific deficiency or practice. Such tinkering change can be contrasted to what Shakespeare termed "sea change" in "The Tempest" ("a sea change into something rich and strange")…

  1. Unravelling the quenching mechanisms of a luminescent Ru(II) probe for Cu(II).

    PubMed

    Santos, André Ribeiro; Escudero, Daniel; González, Leticia; Orellana, Guillermo

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated the photophysical and photochemical features of a luminescent heteroleptic Ru(II)-polypyridyl probe and of its corresponding Ru(II)-Cu(II) dinuclear complex formed upon the analyte binding through extensive density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations. The molecular probe contains the tailored imidazo[4,5-f]-1,10-phenanthroline (IIP) ligand for simultaneously binding the Ru(II) core and the target metal ion in aqueous solution. We have rationalized the static photoluminescence quenching observed upon the Cu(II) coordination, on the grounds of distinct excited state deactivation mechanisms which are absent in the free Ru(II) complex probe. Additionally, the emission quenching found upon increasing the solution pH has also been investigated. When coordinated IIP deprotonates, the nature of the lowest excited state of its complex changes from (3)MLCT to (3)LLCT/(3)IL. The strong base-induced emission quenching can be understood in terms of both the energy-gap law, since the (3)LLCT/(3)IL states lie at a significantly lower energy than the (3)MLCT state increasing the contribution of non-radiative mechanisms, and the expected slower radiative rates from such (3)LLCT/(3)IL states. After Cu(II) binding, the lowest triplet excited state is similar to the analyte-free probe in both energy and electronic nature. However, Cu-centered non-radiative excited states, populated after photoinduced electron transfer and intersystem crossing processes, are responsible for the population drainage of the emissive state.

  2. Dynamics of interaction of RNA polymerase II with nucleosomes. II. During read-through and elongation.

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, P.

    1993-01-01

    The sulfhydryl-specific fluorescence probe 1,5-IAEDANS (5-(2-((iodoacetyl)amino)ethyl)amino-naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid) was attached to the single cysteine of H3, and reconstituted fluorescent mononucleosomes were used as the template for in vitro transcription by the yeast RNA polymerase II (pol II). DNase I digestion analysis revealed that transcription of nucleosomes by pol II resulted in an overall loosening of the structure. Monitoring the transcription event by steady-state fluorescence analysis showed that nucleosomes only partially open during transcription. This opening is transient in nature, and nucleosomes close back as soon as the pol II falls off the template. Thus, using the technique of fluorescence spectroscopy, partial opening of nucleosome structure could be differentiated from complete dissociation into free DNA and histone octamer, a distinction that may not be possible by techniques like gel electrophoresis. Time-resolved fluorescence emission spectroscopy suggested that during read-through of the template by the pol II, histone octamers do not fall off the DNA. Only minor conformational changes within the histone octamer take place to accommodate the transcribing polymerase. PMID:8298468

  3. Alteration of sequence specificity of the type II restriction endonuclease HincII through an indirect readout mechanism.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Hemant K; Etzkorn, Christopher; Chatwell, Lorentz; Bitinaite, Jurate; Horton, Nancy C

    2006-08-18

    The functional and structural consequences of a mutation of the DNA intercalating residue of HincII, Q138F, are presented. Modeling has suggested that the DNA intercalation by Gln-138 results in DNA distortions potentially used by HincII in indirect readout of its cognate DNA, GTYRAC (Y = C or T, R = A or G) (Horton, N. C., Dorner, L. F., and Perona, J. J. (2002) Nat. Struct. Biol. 9, 42-47). Kinetic data presented here indicate that the mutation of glutamine 138 to phenylalanine (Q138F) results in a change in sequence specificity at the center two base pairs of the cognate recognition site. We show that the preference of HincII for cutting, but not binding, the three cognate sites differing in the center two base pairs has been altered by the mutation Q138F. Five new crystal structures are presented including Q138F HincII bound to GTTAAC and GTCGAC both with and without Ca2+ as well as the structure of wild type HincII bound to GTTAAC. The Q138F HincII/DNA structures show conformational changes in the protein, bound DNA, and at the protein-DNA interface, consistent with the formation of adaptive complexes. Analysis of these structures and the effect of Ca2+ binding on the protein-DNA interface illuminates the origin of the altered specificity by the mutation Q138F in the HincII enzyme.

  4. [Ti II] and [Ni II] Emission from the Strontium Filament of eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautista, M. A.; Hartman, H.; Gull, T. R.; Smith, N.; Lodders, K.

    2005-01-01

    We study the nature of the [Ti II] and [Ni II] emission from the so-called strontium filament found in the ejecta of eta Carinae. To this purpose we employ multilevel models of the Ti II and Ni II systems which are used to investigate the physical condition of the filament and the excitation mechanisms of the observed lines. For the Ti II ion, for which no atomic data was previously available, we carry out ab initio calculations of radiative transition rates and electron impact excitation rate coefficients. It is found that the observed spectrum is consistent with the lines being excited in a mostly neutral region with electron density of the order of 10(exp 7) cm(exp -3) and a temperature around 6000 K. In analyzing three observations with different slit orientations recorded between March 2000 and November 2001 we find line ratios that change among various observations, in a way consistent with changes of up to an order of magnitude in the strength of the continuum radiation field. These changes result from different samplings of the extended filament, due to the different slit orientations used for each observation, and yield clues on the spatial extent and optical depth of the filament. The observed emission indicates a large Ti/Ni abundance ratio relative to solar abundances. It is suggested that the observed high Ti/Ni ratio in gas is caused dust-gas fractionation processes and does not reflect the absolute Ti/Ni ratio in the ejecta of eta Carinae. The condensation chemistry shows that if dust condensed in a sequence of layers according to decreasing temperature and increasing distance from the central star, the most refractory dust could be selectively affected by photoevaporation. Thus, Ti would be released back to the gas and the Ti/Ni ratio in the gas would increase to the observed super-solar ratio.

  5. [Ti II] and [Ni II] Emission from the Strontium Filament of eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautista, M. A.; Hartman, H.; GUll, T. R.; Smith, N.; Lodders, K.

    2007-01-01

    We study the nature of the [Ti II] and [Ni II] emission from the so-called strontium filament found in the ejecta of eta Carinae. To this purpose we employ multilevel models of the Ti II and Ni II systems which are used to investigate the physical condition of the filament and the excitation mechanisms of the observed lines. For the Ti II ion, for which no atomic data was previously available, we carry out ab initio calculations of radiative transition rates and electron impact excitation rate coefficients. It is found that the observed spectrum is consistent with the lines being excited in a mostly neutral region with an electron density of the order of 10(exp 7) per cubic centimeter and a temperature around 6000 K. In analyzing three observations with different slit orientations recorded between March 2000 and November 2001 we find line ratios that change among various observations, in a way consistent with changes of up to an order of magnitude in the strength of the continuum radiation field. These changes result from different samplings of the extended filament, due to the different slit orientations used for each observation, and yield clues on the spatial extent and optical depth of the filament. The observed emission indicates a large Ti/Ni abundance ratio relative to solar abundances. It is suggested that the observed high Ti/Ni ratio in gas is caused by dust-gas fractionation processes and does not reflect the absolute Ti/Ni ratio in the ejecta of eta Carinae. We study the condensation chemistry of Ti, Ni and Fe within the filament and suggest that the observed gas phase overabundance of Ti is likely the result of selective photo-evaporation of Ti-bearing grains. Some mechanisms for such a scenario are proposed.

  6. Inhibitory effect of peroxiredoxin II (Prx II) on Ras-ERK-NFkappaB pathway in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) senescence.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying-Hao; Kwon, Jeong-Hoon; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Moon, Eun-Yi

    2006-11-01

    Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were attenuated by the expression of peroxiredoxin II (Prx II). Cellular senescence as judged by senescence-associated (SA)-beta-galactosidase (Gal) positive cell formation was increased in Prx II-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF). Ras expression was increased following passages. The level of Ras expression was higher in Prx II-/- MEF than wild type MEF. ERK activity was also augmented by the deletion of Prx II. SA-beta-Gal-positive cell formation was reduced by PD98059, ERK inhibitor. Activated nuclear transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkappaB) by the deletion of Prx II was inhibited by the treatment with PD98059. In contrast, no changes in SA-beta-Gal-positive cell formation were detected by NFkappaB inhibitor, N-alpha-tosyl-L-phenylalanyl chloromethyl ketone (TPCK). Collectively, results suggest that Prx II deletion activate Ras-ERK-NFkappaB pathways and cellular senescence in Prx II-/- MEF cells was mediated by ERK activation but not by NFkappaB activation.

  7. Effect of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) on Pb(II) biosorption by algae Gelidium-derived materials.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-06-15

    Biosorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) from binary metal solutions onto the algae Gelidium sesquipedale, an algal industrial waste and a waste-based composite material was investigated at pH 5.3, in a batch system. Binary Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II) solutions have been tested. For the same equilibrium concentrations of both metal ions (1 mmol l(-1)), approximately 66, 85 and 86% of the total uptake capacity of the biosorbents is taken by lead ions in the systems Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II), respectively. Two-metal results were fitted to a discrete and a continuous model, showing the inhibition of the primary metal biosorption by the co-cation. The model parameters suggest that Cd(II) and Zn(II) have the same decreasing effect on the Pb(II) uptake capacity. The uptake of Pb(II) was highly sensitive to the presence of Cu(II). From the discrete model it was possible to obtain the Langmuir affinity constant for Pb(II) biosorption. The presence of the co-cations decreases the apparent affinity of Pb(II). The experimental results were successfully fitted by the continuous model, at different pH values, for each biosorbent. The following sequence for the equilibrium affinity constants was found: Pb>Cu>Cd approximately Zn.

  8. II Zwicky 23 and Family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, E. H.; Gallagher, J. S.; Rudie, G. C.; Cigan, P. J.

    II Zwicky 23 (UGC 3179) is a luminous (MB ~ -21) nearby compact narrow emission line st arburst galaxy with blue optical colors and strong emission lines. We present a photometric and morphological study of II Zw 23 and its interacting companions using data obtained with the WIYN 3.5-m telescope in Kitt Peak, Arizona. II Zwicky 23 has a highly disturbed outer structure with long trails of debris that may be feeding tidal dwarfs.

  9. Observationally determined Fe II oscillator strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shull, J. M.; van Steenberg, M.; Seab, C. G.

    1983-08-01

    Absorption oscillator strengths for 21 Fe II resonance lines, have been determined using a curve-of-growth analysis of interstellar data from the Copernicus and International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellites. In addition to slight changes in strengths of the far-UV lines, new f-values are reported for wavelength 1608.45, a prominent line in interstellar and quasar absorption spectra, and for wavelength 2260.08, a weak, newly identified linen in IUE interstellar spectra. An upper limit on the strength of the undetected line at 2366.867 A (UV multiplet 2) is set. Using revised oscillator strengths, Fe II column densities toward 13 OB stars are derived. The interstellar depletions, (Fe/H), relative to solar values range between factors of 10 and 120.

  10. Belle II Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhr, T.; Ritter, M.; Belle Software Group, II

    2016-10-01

    Belle II is a next generation B factory experiment that will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor, Belle. The higher luminosity at the SuperKEKB accelerator leads to higher background levels and requires a major upgrade of the detector. As a consequence, the simulation, reconstruction, and analysis software must also be upgraded substantially. Most of the software has been redesigned from scratch, taking into account the experience from Belle and other experiments and utilizing new technologies. The large amount of experimental and simulated data requires a high level of reliability and reproducibility, even in parallel environments. Several technologies, tools, and organizational measures are employed to evaluate and monitor the performance of the software during development.

  11. He II-Emitting Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, Sara R.

    2014-01-01

    A small fraction of star-forming galaxies at redshift, 3, show He II at 1640 A as a narrow emission line (Cassata et al. 2012), but the source of this emission is not understood. Does the He II emission arise in the stars or in the surrounding nebula? To answer this question, we use I Zw 18, a well studied blue compact dwarf galaxy showing narrow He II line emission as a test case. We consider if/how He II narrow emission lines could originate in the nearby nebulosity, or in the winds of hot, massive stars, both those on the main sequence and post-MS evolutionary phases.

  12. Mode II fatigue crack propagation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, R.; Kibler, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    Fatigue crack propagation rates were obtained for 2024-T3 bare aluminum plates subjected to in-plane, mode I, extensional loads and transverse, mode II, bending loads. These results were compared to the results of Iida and Kobayashi for in-plane mode I-mode II extensional loads. The engineering significance of mode I-mode II fatigue crack growth is considered in view of the present results. A fatigue crack growth equation for handling mode I-mode II fatigue crack growth rates from existing mode I data is also discussed.

  13. Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schuknecht, Nate; White, David; Hoste, Graeme

    2014-09-11

    The SkyTrough DSP will advance the state-of-the-art in parabolic troughs for utility applications, with a larger aperture, higher operating temperature, and lower cost. The goal of this project was to develop a parabolic trough collector that enables solar electricity generation in the 2020 marketplace for a 216MWe nameplate baseload power plant. This plant requires an LCOE of 9¢/kWhe, given a capacity factor of 75%, a fossil fuel limit of 15%, a fossil fuel cost of $6.75/MMBtu, $25.00/kWht thermal storage cost, and a domestic installation corresponding to Daggett, CA. The result of our optimization was a trough design of larger aperture and operating temperature than has been fielded in large, utility scale parabolic trough applications: 7.6m width x 150m SCA length (1,118m2 aperture), with four 90mm diameter × 4.7m receivers per mirror module and an operating temperature of 500°C. The results from physical modeling in the System Advisory Model indicate that, for a capacity factor of 75%: The LCOE will be 8.87¢/kWhe. SkyFuel examined the design of almost every parabolic trough component from a perspective of load and performance at aperture areas from 500 to 2,900m2. Aperture-dependent design was combined with fixed quotations for similar parts from the commercialized SkyTrough product, and established an installed cost of $130/m2 in 2020. This project was conducted in two phases. Phase I was a preliminary design, culminating in an optimum trough size and further improvement of an advanced polymeric reflective material. This phase was completed in October of 2011. Phase II has been the detailed engineering design and component testing, which culminated in the fabrication and testing of a single mirror module. Phase II is complete, and this document presents a summary of the comprehensive work.

  14. Planning Educational Change: Volume II. Human Resources in School Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesler, Mark A.; And Others

    This manual is designed to assist school superintendents in planning and implementing complete school desegregation as prescribed by law. Chapters I through VI discuss specific techniques applicable to the following stages of the desegregation planning process: Identification of goals; diagnosing the school situation; development, testing, and…

  15. Infrared Extraction Change for the NSLS-II Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Blednykh,A.; Carr, L.; Coburn, D.; Krinsky, S.

    2009-05-04

    The short- and long-range wakepotentials have been studied for the design of the infrared (IR) extraction chamber with large full aperture: 67mm vertical and 134mm horizontal. The IR-chamber will be installed within a 2.6m long wide-gap bending magnet with 25m bend radius. Due to the large bend radius it is difficult to separate the light from the electron trajectory. The required parameters of the collected IR radiation at the extraction mirror are {approx}50mrad horizontal and {approx}25mrad vertical (full radiation opening angles). If the extraction mirror is seen by the beam, resonant modes are generated in the chamber. In this paper, we present the detailed calculated impedance for the design of the far-IR chamber, and show that placing the extraction mirror in the proper position eliminates the resonances. In this case, the impedance reduces to that of a simple tapered structure, which is acceptable in regard to its impact on the electron beam.

  16. THE CHANGING ECONOMY OF NORTHERN GREECE SINCE WORLD WAR II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    used. The book is divided into 11 chapters: physical and human aspects, agriculture, livestock, fishing, forestry, mining , industry and handicrafts, electricity, transportation, ports and trade tourism and conclusion.

  17. Eye movements of flatfish for the changes of gravity (II).

    PubMed

    Iwata, Kaori; Takabayashi, Akira; Miyachi, Ei-ichi

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we analysed the eye movements of flatfish for body tilting and compared with that of goldfish. The fish was fixed on the tilting table controlled by computer. The eye movements for body tilting along the different body axis were video-recorded. The vertical and torsional eye rotations were analysed frame by frame. In normal flatfish, vertical eye movement of left eye to leftward tilting was larger than that to rightward tilting. For head up or head down tilting, clear vertical eye movements were observed. On the other hand, torsional eye movements showed similar characteristics as goldfish. These results suggested that sacculus and lagena were important for otolith-ocular eye movements in flatfish.

  18. Age-Associated Lipidome Changes in Metaphase II Mouse Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Mok, Hyuck Jun; Shin, Hyejin; Lee, Jae Won; Lee, Geun-Kyung; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Lim, Hyunjung Jade

    2016-01-01

    The quality of mammalian oocytes declines with age, which negatively affects fertilization and developmental potential. The aging process often accompanies damages to macromolecules such as proteins, DNA, and lipids. To investigate if aged oocytes display an altered lipidome compared to young oocytes, we performed a global lipidomic analysis between oocytes from 4-week-old and 42 to 50-week-old mice. Increased oxidative stress is often considered as one of the main causes of cellular aging. Thus, we set up a group of 4-week-old oocytes treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a commonly used oxidative stressor, to compare if similar lipid species are altered between aged and oxidative-stressed oocytes. Between young and aged oocytes, we identified 26 decreased and 6 increased lipids in aged oocytes; and between young and H2O2-treated oocytes, we identified 35 decreased and 26 increased lipids in H2O2-treated oocytes. The decreased lipid species in these two comparisons were overlapped, whereas the increased lipid species were distinct. Multiple phospholipid classes, phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylserine (PS), and lysophosphatidylserine (LPS) significantly decreased both in H2O2-treated and aged oocytes, suggesting that the integrity of plasma membrane is similarly affected under these conditions. In contrast, a dramatic increase in diacylglycerol (DG) was only noted in H2O2-treated oocytes, indicating that the acute effect of H2O2-caused oxidative stress is distinct from aging-associated lipidome alteration. In H2O2-treated oocytes, the expression of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 increased along with increases in phosphatidylcholine. Overall, our data reveal that several classes of phospholipids are affected in aged oocytes, suggesting that the integrity of plasma membrane is associated with maintaining fertilization and developmental potential of mouse oocytes.

  19. Age-Associated Lipidome Changes in Metaphase II Mouse Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Won; Lee, Geun-Kyung; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Lim, Hyunjung Jade

    2016-01-01

    The quality of mammalian oocytes declines with age, which negatively affects fertilization and developmental potential. The aging process often accompanies damages to macromolecules such as proteins, DNA, and lipids. To investigate if aged oocytes display an altered lipidome compared to young oocytes, we performed a global lipidomic analysis between oocytes from 4-week-old and 42 to 50-week-old mice. Increased oxidative stress is often considered as one of the main causes of cellular aging. Thus, we set up a group of 4-week-old oocytes treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a commonly used oxidative stressor, to compare if similar lipid species are altered between aged and oxidative-stressed oocytes. Between young and aged oocytes, we identified 26 decreased and 6 increased lipids in aged oocytes; and between young and H2O2-treated oocytes, we identified 35 decreased and 26 increased lipids in H2O2-treated oocytes. The decreased lipid species in these two comparisons were overlapped, whereas the increased lipid species were distinct. Multiple phospholipid classes, phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylserine (PS), and lysophosphatidylserine (LPS) significantly decreased both in H2O2-treated and aged oocytes, suggesting that the integrity of plasma membrane is similarly affected under these conditions. In contrast, a dramatic increase in diacylglycerol (DG) was only noted in H2O2-treated oocytes, indicating that the acute effect of H2O2-caused oxidative stress is distinct from aging-associated lipidome alteration. In H2O2-treated oocytes, the expression of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 increased along with increases in phosphatidylcholine. Overall, our data reveal that several classes of phospholipids are affected in aged oocytes, suggesting that the integrity of plasma membrane is associated with maintaining fertilization and developmental potential of mouse oocytes. PMID:26881843

  20. Promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II: emerging roles in metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Adelman, Karen; Lis, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a sea change in our understanding of transcription regulation: whereas traditional models focused solely on the events that brought RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to a gene promoter to initiate RNA synthesis, emerging evidence points to the pausing of Pol II during early elongation as a widespread regulatory mechanism in higher eukaryotes. Current data indicate that pausing is particularly enriched at genes in signal-responsive pathways. Here the evidence for pausing of Pol II from recent high-throughput studies will be discussed, as well as the potential interconnected functions of promoter-proximally paused Pol II. PMID:22986266

  1. Solar Type II Radio Bursts and IP Type II Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Erickson, W. C.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined radio data from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft in conjunction with ground-based data in order to investigate the relationship between the shocks responsible for metric type II radio bursts and the shocks in front of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The bow shocks of fast, large CMEs are strong interplanetary (IP) shocks, and the associated radio emissions often consist of single broad bands starting below approx. 4 MHz; such emissions were previously called IP type II events. In contrast, metric type II bursts are usually narrowbanded and display two harmonically related bands. In addition to displaying complete dynamic spectra for a number of events, we also analyze the 135 WAVES 1 - 14 MHz slow-drift time periods in 2001-2003. We find that most of the periods contain multiple phenomena, which we divide into three groups: metric type II extensions, IP type II events, and blobs and bands. About half of the WAVES listings include probable extensions of metric type II radio bursts, but in more than half of these events, there were also other slow-drift features. In the 3 yr study period, there were 31 IP type II events; these were associated with the very fastest CMEs. The most common form of activity in the WAVES events, blobs and bands in the frequency range between 1 and 8 MHz, fall below an envelope consistent with the early signatures of an IP type II event. However, most of this activity lasts only a few tens of minutes, whereas IP type II events last for many hours. In this study we find many examples in the radio data of two shock-like phenomena with different characteristics that occur simultaneously in the metric and decametric/hectometric bands, and no clear example of a metric type II burst that extends continuously down in frequency to become an IP type II event. The simplest interpretation is that metric type II bursts, unlike IP type II events, are not caused by shocks driven in front of CMEs.

  2. Technology II: Implementation Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    The California Community Colleges (CCC) are facing a number of challenges, including the explosive use of the Internet, the digital divide, the need for integrating technology into teaching and learning, the impact of Tidal Wave II, and the need to ensure that technology is accessible to persons with disabilities. The CCCs' Technology II Strategic…

  3. PARIS II: DESIGNING GREENER SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PARIS II (the program for assisting the replacement of industrial solvents, version II), developed at the USEPA, is a unique software tool that can be used for customizing the design of replacement solvents and for the formulation of new solvents. This program helps users avoid ...

  4. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    ScienceCinema

    Steve Dierker

    2016-07-12

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

  5. Annex II technical documentation assessed.

    PubMed

    van Drongelen, A W; Roszek, B; van Tienhoven, E A E; Geertsma, R E; Boumans, R T; Kraus, J J A M

    2005-12-01

    Annex II of the Medical Device Directive (MDD) is used frequently by manufacturers to obtain CE-marking. This procedure relies on a full quality assurance system and does not require an assessment of the individual medical device by a Notified Body. An investigation into the availability and the quality of technical documentation for Annex II devices revealed severe shortcomings, which are reported here.

  6. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Dierker

    2008-03-12

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

  7. Climate Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a place over a period of time. Climate change is major change in temperature, rainfall, snow, or ... by natural factors or by human activities. Today climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. Climate ...

  8. Electrical characterization of defects introduced in n-Ge during electron beam deposition or exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Coelho, S. M. M.; Auret, F. D.; Janse van Rensburg, P. J.; Nel, J. M.

    2013-11-07

    Schottky barrier diodes prepared by electron beam deposition (EBD) on Sb-doped n-type Ge were characterized using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Pt EBD diodes manufactured with forming gas in the chamber had two defects, E{sub 0.28} and E{sub 0.31}, which were not previously observed after EBD. By shielding the samples mechanically during EBD, superior diodes were produced with no measureable deep levels, establishing that energetic ions created in the electron beam path were responsible for the majority of defects observed in the unshielded sample. Ge samples that were first exposed to the conditions of EBD, without metal deposition (called electron beam exposure herein), introduced a number of new defects not seen after EBD with only the E-center being common to both processes. Substantial differences were noted when these DLTS spectra were compared to those obtained using diodes irradiated by MeV electrons or alpha particles indicating that very different defect creation mechanisms are at play when too little energy is available to form Frenkel pairs. These observations suggest that when EBD ions and energetic particles collide with the sample surface, inducing intrinsic non-localised lattice excitations, they modify defects deeper in the semiconductor thus rendering them observable.

  9. Thermodynamic Analysis of Coherently Grown GaAsN/Ge: Effects of Different Gaseous Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, Jun; Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Yayama, Tomoe; Kakimoto, Koichi; Koukitu, Akinori

    2013-04-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of coherently grown GaAs1-xNx on Ge with low N content was performed to determine the relationship between solid composition and growth conditions. In this study, a new algorithm for the simulation code, which is applicable to wider combinations of gaseous sources than the traditional algorithm, was developed to determine the influence of different gaseous sources on N incorporation. Using this code, here we successfully compared two cases: one is a system using trimethylgallium (TMG), AsH3, and NH3, and the other uses dimethylhydrazine (DMHy) instead of NH3. It was found that the optimal N/As ratio of input gas in the system using DMHy was much lower than that using NH3. This shows that the newly developed algorithm could be a useful tool for analyzing the N incorporation during the vapor growth of GaAs1-xNx.

  10. Adsorptive removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II) from single-metal, binary-metal, and industrial wastewater systems by surfactant-modified alumina.

    PubMed

    Khobragade, Moni U; Pal, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    Batch adsorption was carried out to investigate the possibility of utilizing surfactant-modified alumina (SMA) as an adsorbent for the removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II) from single-metal and binary-metal solutions. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images of SMA before and after metal removal from single-metal matrix, showed no significant changes, whereas energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) studies confirmed the incorporation of Cu(II) (∼ 0.74 atomic%) and Ni(II) (∼ 0.64 atomic%) on the adsorbent surface. The removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II), using SMA depends on contact time, adsorbent dose and medium pH. The sorption kinetics followed pseudo-second-order model for Cu(II). However, for Ni(II), either pseudo-first-order or pseudo-second-order model is applicable. The batch experimental data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm, and based on the correlation coefficient value (R(2)), the adsorption could be described more precisely by the Freundlich isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity from Langmuir isotherm of Cu(II) was 9.34 mg g(-1) and for Ni(II) 6.87 mg g(-1). In a synthetic binary mixture of Cu(II) and Ni(II), having a concentration of 10 mg L(-1) each, removal of Cu(II) was better. The treatment method was further applied to real wastewater from an electroplating industry. The batch experiment results showed that SMA was effective in the simultaneous removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II) to a significant extent, with additional improvement of water quality of the industrial effluent considered.

  11. Adsorptive removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions by using Turkish illitic clay.

    PubMed

    Ozdes, Duygu; Duran, Celal; Senturk, Hasan Basri

    2011-12-01

    The ability of Turkish illitic clay (TIC) in removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions has been examined in a batch adsorption process with respect to several experimental conditions including initial solution pH, contact time, initial metal ions concentration, temperature, ionic strength, and TIC concentration, etc. The characterization of TIC was performed by using FTIR, XRD and XRF techniques. The maximum uptake of Cd(II) (11.25 mg g(-1)) and Pb(II) (238.98 mg g(-1)) was observed when used 1.0 g L(-1) of TIC suspension, 50 mg L(-1) of initial Cd(II) and 250 mg L(-1) of initial Pb(II) concentration at initial pH 4.0 and contact time of 240 min at room temperature. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. The monolayer adsorption capacity of TIC was found to be 13.09 mg g(-1) and 53.76 mg g(-1) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions, respectively. The kinetics of the adsorption was tested using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion models. The results showed that the adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions onto TIC proceeds according to the pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS) changes indicated that the present adsorption process was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 5-40 °C.

  12. Crystal Structure of Rat Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II)

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao,Y.; Jogl, G.; Esser, V.; Tong, L.

    2006-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II) has a crucial role in the {beta}-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in mitochondria. We report here the crystal structure of rat CPT-II at 1.9 Angstroms resolution. The overall structure shares strong similarity to those of short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, although detailed structural differences in the active site region have a significant impact on the substrate selectivity of CPT-II. Three aliphatic chains, possibly from a detergent that is used for the crystallization, were found in the structure. Two of them are located in the carnitine and CoA binding sites, respectively. The third aliphatic chain may mimic the long-chain acyl group in the substrate of CPT-II. The binding site for this aliphatic chain does not exist in the short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, due to conformational differences among the enzymes. A unique insert in CPT-II is positioned on the surface of the enzyme, with a highly hydrophobic surface. It is likely that this surface patch mediates the association of CPT-II with the inner membrane of the mitochondria.

  13. Changing Ourselves, Changing Our Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    2011-01-01

    The author is fascinated about the notion of "the changer and the changed." Having change imposed upon everyone can be difficult and one can become resistant. On the other hand, having an inspirational encounter can excite one about making change. When people initiate some new actions, what drives that change? How do they become changed in the…

  14. Rhizobium etli asparaginase II

    PubMed Central

    Huerta-Saquero, Alejandro; Evangelista-Martínez, Zahaed; Moreno-Enriquez, Angélica; Perez-Rueda, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial l-asparaginase has been a universal component of therapies for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia since the 1970s. Two principal enzymes derived from Escherichia coli and Erwinia chrysanthemi are the only options clinically approved to date. We recently reported a study of recombinant l-asparaginase (AnsA) from Rhizobium etli and described an increasing type of AnsA family members. Sequence analysis revealed four conserved motifs with notable differences with respect to the conserved regions of amino acid sequences of type I and type II l-asparaginases, particularly in comparison with therapeutic enzymes from E. coli and E. chrysanthemi. These differences suggested a distinct immunological specificity. Here, we report an in silico analysis that revealed immunogenic determinants of AnsA. Also, we used an extensive approach to compare the crystal structures of E. coli and E. chrysantemi asparaginases with a computational model of AnsA and identified immunogenic epitopes. A three-dimensional model of AsnA revealed, as expected based on sequence dissimilarities, completely different folding and different immunogenic epitopes. This approach could be very useful in transcending the problem of immunogenicity in two major ways: by chemical modifications of epitopes to reduce drug immunogenicity, and by site-directed mutagenesis of amino acid residues to diminish immunogenicity without reduction of enzymatic activity. PMID:22895060

  15. Angiotensin II receptor heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Herblin, W.F.; Chiu, A.T.; McCall, D.E.; Ardecky, R.J.; Carini, D.J.; Duncia, J.V.; Pease, L.J.; Wong, P.C.; Wexler, R.R.; Johnson, A.L. )

    1991-04-01

    The possibility of receptor heterogeneity in the angiotensin II (AII) system has been suggested previously, based on differences in Kd values or sensitivity to thiol reagents. One of the authors earliest indications was the frequent observation of incomplete inhibition of the binding of AII to adrenal cortical membranes. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated that all of the labeling of the rat adrenal was blocked by unlabeled AII or saralasin, but not by DuP 753. The predominant receptor in the rat adrenal cortex (80%) is sensitive to dithiothreitol (DTT) and DuP 753, and is designated AII-1. The residual sites in the adrenal cortex and almost all of the sites in the rat adrenal medulla are insensitive to both DTT and DuP 753, but were blocked by EXP655. These sites have been confirmed by ligand binding studies and are designated AII-2. The rabbit adrenal cortex is unique in yielding a nonuniform distribution of AII-2 sites around the outer layer of glomerulosa cells. In the rabbit kidney, the sites on the glomeruli are AII-1, but the sites on the kidney capsule are AII-2. Angiotensin III appears to have a higher affinity for AII-2 sites since it inhibits the binding to the rabbit kidney capsule but not the glomeruli. Elucidation of the distribution and function of these diverse sites should permit the development of more selective and specific therapeutic strategies.

  16. Mycotoxins revisited: Part II.

    PubMed

    Berger, Kyan J; Guss, David A

    2005-02-01

    Mushrooms are ubiquitous in nature. They are an important source of nutrition, however, certain varieties contain chemicals that can be highly toxic to humans. Industrially cultivated mushrooms are historically very safe, whereas foraging for mushrooms or accidental ingestion of mushrooms in the environment can result in serious illness and death. The emergency department is the most common site of presentation for patients suffering from acute mushroom poisoning. Although recognition can be facilitated by identification of a characteristic toxidrome, the presenting manifestations can be variable and have considerable overlap with more common and generally benign clinical syndromes. The goal of this two-part article is to review the knowledge base on this subject and provide information that will assist the clinician in the early consideration, diagnosis and treatment of mushroom poisoning. Part I reviewed the epidemiology and demographics of mushroom poisoning, the physical characteristics of the most toxic varieties, the classification of the toxic species, and presented an overview of the cyclopeptide-containing mushroom class. Part II is focused on the presentation of the other classes of toxic mushrooms along with an up-to-date review of the most recently identified poisonous varieties.

  17. Adsorption of Pb(II), EDTA, and Pb(II)-EDTA onto TiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Vohra, M.S.; Davis, A.P.

    1998-02-01

    The adsorption of aqueous Pb(II), EDTA, and Pb(II)-EDTA complexes onto TiO{sub 2} were studied at both stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric Pb(II)/EDTA concentrations. For Pb(II)-TiO{sub 2} and ECTA-TiO{sub 2}, a typical cationic and anionic-type of adsorption was noted, respectively. For 10{sup {minus}3} and 10{sup {minus}4} M Pb(II)-EDTA systems, near-equal adsorption of Pb(II) and EDTA indicated that the complex adsorbs as a single species. Also, a ligand-type Pb(II)-EDTA adsorption, i.e., decreasing adsorption with an increase in the pH, was noted. Systems with EDTA greater than Pb(II) showed near-zero lead removal; competitive adsorption of EDTA and Pb(II)-EDTA onto TiO{sub 2} was suggested to cause this effect. For Pb(II) concentrations (5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} and 10{sup {minus}3} M) higher than EDTA (10{sup {minus}4} M), significantly higher EDTA adsorption at high pH as compared to individual 10{sup {minus}4} EDTA and 10{sup {minus}4} M Pb(II)-EDTA systems was noted. Adsorption modeling was completed employing the geochemical speciation model MINTEQA2 employing the diffuse layer model. Inner-sphere complexation was considered to occur between Pb(II), EDTA, Pb(II)-EDTA, and the TiO{sub 2} surface sites. Surface complexes used in the modeling included Ti-O-Pb{sup +}, Ti-EDTAH{sup 2{minus}}, Ti-EDTA-Pb{sup {minus}}, and Ti-O-Pb-EDTA{sup 3{minus}}. The cationic-type complexation, Ti-O-Pb-EDTA{sup 3{minus}}, was postulated to explain and model the anomalous EDTA adsorption as noted for Pb(II) > EDTA studies. Results from the present study show that the adsorption behavior in aqueous metal/EDTA systems will change with any variation in the contaminant concentration ratios.

  18. Teaching Shakespeare, II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Because of the wide and continuing interest in a previous issue on techniques for teaching works by Shakespeare, this journal issue presents 19 additional articles on a broad range of Shakespeare related topics. Following an introduction, the titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Making Changes/Making Sense"…

  19. Profiling Canada's Families II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanier Inst. of the Family, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Noting that Canadians have witnessed profound demographic, economic, social, cultural, and technological changes over the last century and the need for sound demographic information for future planning, this report is the second to identify significant trends affecting Canada's families. Following an introductory section providing relevant…

  20. Abnormal changes in voltage-gated sodium channels Na(V)1.1, Na(V)1.2, Na(V)1.3, Na(V)1.6 and in calmodulin/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, within the brains of spontaneously epileptic rats and tremor rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoxue; Guo, Feng; Lv, Xintong; Feng, Rui; Min, Dongyu; Ma, Lihua; Liu, Yajing; Zhao, Jinsheng; Wang, Lei; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris; Hao, Liying; Cai, Jiqun

    2013-07-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) play a crucial role in epilepsy. The expressions of different VGSCs subtypes are varied in diverse animal models of epilepsy that may reflect their multiple phenotypes or the complexity of the mechanisms of epilepsy. In a previous study, we reported that NaV1.1 and NaV1.3 were up-regulated in the hippocampus of the spontaneously epileptic rat (SER). In this study, we further analyzed both the expression and distribution of the typical VGSC subtypes NaV1.1, NaV1.2, NaV1.3 and NaV1.6 in the hippocampus and in the cortex of the temporal lobe of two genetic epileptic animal models: the SER and the tremor rat (TRM). The expressions of calmodulin (CaM) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) were also analyzed with the purpose of assessing the effect of the CaM/CaMKII pathway in these two models of epilepsy. Increased expression of the four VGSC subtypes and CaM, accompanied by a decrease in CaMKII was observed in the hippocampus of both the SERs and the TRM rats. However, the changes observed in the expression of VGSC subtypes and CaM were decreased with an elevated CaMKII in the cortex of their temporal lobes. Double-labeled immunofluorescence data suggested that in SERs and TRM rats, the four subtypes of the VGSC proteins were present throughout the CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus and temporal lobe cortex and these were co-localized in neurons with CaM. These data represent the first evidence of abnormal changes in expression of four VGSC subtypes (NaV1.1, NaV1.2, NaV1.3 and NaV1.6) and CaM/CaMKII in the hippocampus and temporal lobe cortex of SERs and TRM rats. These changes may be involved in the generation of epileptiform activity and underlie the observed seizure phenotype in these rat models of genetic epilepsy.

  1. Global Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1993-01-01

    Global change is a relatively new area of scientific study using research from many disciplines to determine how Earth systems change, and to assess the influence of human activity on these changes. This teaching packet consists of a poster and three activity sheets. In teaching these activities four themes are important: time, change, cycles, and Earth as home.

  2. Oligomeric State Regulated Trafficking of Human Platelet-Activating Factor Acetylhydrolase Type-II

    PubMed Central

    Monillas, Elizabeth S.; Caplan, Jeffrey L.; Thévenin, Anastasia F.; Bahnson, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    The intracellular enzyme platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase type-II (PAFAH-II) hydrolyzes platelet-activating factor and oxidatively fragmented phospholipids. PAFAH-II in its resting state is mainly cytoplasmic, and it responds to oxidative stress by becoming increasingly bound to endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membranes. Numerous studies have indicated that this enzyme is essential for protecting cells from oxidative stress induced apoptosis. However, the regulatory mechanism of the oxidative stress response by PAFAH-II has not been fully resolved. Here, changes to the oligomeric state of human PAFAH-II were investigated as a potential regulatory mechanism toward enzyme trafficking. Native PAGE analysis in vitro and photon counting histogram within live cells showed that PAFAH-II is both monomeric and dimeric. A Gly-2-Ala site-directed mutation of PAFAH-II demonstrated that the N-terminal myristoyl group is required for homodimerization. Additionally, the distribution of oligomeric PAFAH-II is distinct within the cell; homodimers of PAFAH-II were localized to the cytoplasm while monomers were associated to the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. We propose that the oligomeric state of PAFAH-II drives functional protein trafficking. PAFAH-II localization to the membrane is critical for substrate acquisition and effective oxidative stress protection. It is hypothesized that the balance between monomer and dimer serves as a regulatory mechanism of a PAFAH-II oxidative stress response. PMID:25707358

  3. Oligomeric state regulated trafficking of human platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase type-II.

    PubMed

    Monillas, Elizabeth S; Caplan, Jeffrey L; Thévenin, Anastasia F; Bahnson, Brian J

    2015-05-01

    The intracellular enzyme platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase type-II (PAFAH-II) hydrolyzes platelet-activating factor and oxidatively fragmented phospholipids. PAFAH-II in its resting state is mainly cytoplasmic, and it responds to oxidative stress by becoming increasingly bound to endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membranes. Numerous studies have indicated that this enzyme is essential for protecting cells from oxidative stress induced apoptosis. However, the regulatory mechanism of the oxidative stress response by PAFAH-II has not been fully resolved. Here, changes to the oligomeric state of human PAFAH-II were investigated as a potential regulatory mechanism toward enzyme trafficking. Native PAGE analysis in vitro and photon counting histogram within live cells showed that PAFAH-II is both monomeric and dimeric. A Gly-2-Ala site-directed mutation of PAFAH-II demonstrated that the N-terminal myristoyl group is required for homodimerization. Additionally, the distribution of oligomeric PAFAH-II is distinct within the cell; homodimers of PAFAH-II were localized to the cytoplasm while monomers were associated to the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. We propose that the oligomeric state of PAFAH-II drives functional protein trafficking. PAFAH-II localization to the membrane is critical for substrate acquisition and effective oxidative stress protection. It is hypothesized that the balance between monomer and dimer serves as a regulatory mechanism of a PAFAH-II oxidative stress response.

  4. Options Study - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  5. Biosatellite II mission.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, O E

    1969-01-01

    Biosatellite B was launched from Cape Kennedy, Florida, on a two-stage DELTA launch vehicle at 6:04 p.m. on 7 September, 1967. Approximately nine minutes later the 435 kg spacecraft biological laboratory was placed into a satisfactory 315 km near-circular earth orbit, successfully separated from the launch vehicle's second stage and was designated Biosatellite II. The scientific payload consisting of thirteen selected general biology and radiation experiments were subjected to planned, carefully controlled environmental conditions during 45 hours of earth-orbital flight. The decision was made to abbreviate the scheduled 3-day mission by approximately one day because of a threatening tropical storm in the recovery area, and a problem of communication with the spacecraft from the tracking stations. Highest priority was placed on recovery which was essential to obtain the scientific results on all the experiments. The operational phase of the mission came to a successful conclusion with the deorbit of the recovery capsule, deployment of the parachute system and air recovery by the United States Air Force. The 127 kg recovery capsule was returned to biology laboratories at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii, for disassembly and immediate inspection and analysis of the biological materials by the experimenters. It was evident immediately that the quality of the biology was excellent and this fact gave promise of a high return of scientific data. The environmental conditions provided to the experimental material in the spacecraft, provisions for experimental controls, and operational considerations are presented as they relate to interpretation of the experimental results.

  6. Wireless Computing Architecture II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    responsible for running computation tasks as well as storing HDFS data blocks. This arrangement is consistent with that of Amazon Elastic MapReduce clusters ...unpredictable application demands and large data sets. For example, application demands may change in response to sudden weather shifts or ―surprise...comparing TCP throughput distributions for model-generated traces against those for actual traces randomly sampled from field data . Our modeling

  7. Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-14

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Blood Donors; Blood Transfusion; HIV Infections; HIV-1; HIV-2; HTLV-I; HTLV-II; Retroviridae Infections; Hepatitis, Viral, Human; Hepatitis B; Hepacivirus; West Nile Virus

  8. Angiotensin II receptors in testes

    SciTech Connect

    Millan, M.A.; Aguilera, G.

    1988-05-01

    Receptors for angiotensin II (AII) were identified and characterized in testes of rats and several primate species. Autoradiographic analysis of the binding of 125I-labeled (Sar1,Ile8)AII to rat, rhesus monkey, cebus monkey, and human testicular slide-mounted frozen sections indicated specific binding to Leydig cells in the interstitium. In rat collagenase-dispersed interstitial cells fractionated by Percoll gradient, AII receptor content was parallel to that of hCG receptors, confirming that the AII receptors are in the Leydig cells. In rat dispersed Leydig cells, binding was specific for AII and its analogs and of high affinity (Kd, 4.8 nM), with a receptor concentration of 15 fmol/10(6) cells. Studies of AII receptors in rat testes during development reveals the presence of high receptor density in newborn rats which decreases toward the adult age (4934 +/- 309, 1460 +/- 228, 772 +/- 169, and 82 +/- 12 fmol/mg protein at 5, 15, 20, and 30 days of age, respectively) with no change in affinity. At all ages receptors were located in the interstitium, and the decrease in binding was parallel to the decrease in the interstitial to tubular ratio observed with age. AII receptor properties in membrane-rich fractions from prepuberal testes were similar in the rat and rhesus monkey. Binding was time and temperature dependent, reaching a plateau at 60 min at 37 C, and was increased by divalent cations, EGTA, and dithiothreitol up to 0.5 mM. In membranes from prepuberal monkey testes, AII receptors were specific for AII analogs and of high affinity (Kd, 4.2 nM) with a receptor concentration of 7599 +/- 1342 fmol/mg protein. The presence of AII receptors in Leydig cells in rat and primate testes in conjunction with reports of the presence of other components of the renin-angiotensin system in the testes suggests that the peptide has a physiological role in testicular function.

  9. Quininium tetra-chloridozinc(II).

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Zhuang

    2009-09-05

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound {systematic name: 2-[hydr-oxy(6-meth-oxy-quinolin-1-ium-4-yl)meth-yl]-8-vinyl-quinuclidin-1-ium tetra-chlorido-zinc(II)}, (C(20)H(26)N(2)O(2))[ZnCl(4)], consists of a double proton-ated quininium cation and a tetra-chloridozinc(II) anion. The Zn(II) ion is in a slightly distorted tetra-hedral coordination environment. The crystal structure is stabilized by inter-molecular N-H⋯Cl and O-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds.

  10. Introducing Triquetrum, A Possible Future for Kepler and Ptolemy II

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Christopher; Billings, Jay Jay

    2016-01-01

    Triquetrum is an open platform for managing and executing scientific workflows that is under development as an Eclipse project. Both Triquetrum and Kepler use Ptolemy II as their execution engine. Triquetrum presents opportunities and risks for the Kepler community. The opportunities include a possibly larger community for interaction and a path for Kepler to move from Kepler's one-off ant-based build environment towards a more common OSGi-based environment and a way to maintain a stable Ptolemy II core. The risks include the fact that Triquetrum is a fork of Ptolemy II that would result in package name changes and other possible changes. In addition, Triquetrum is licensed under the Eclipse Public License v1.0, which includes a patent clause that could conflict with the University of California patent clause. This paper describes these opportunities and risks.

  11. Angiotensin-II mediates ACE2 Internalization and Degradation through an Angiotensin-II type I receptor-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lazartigues, Eric; Filipeanu, Catalin M.

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin Converting Enzyme type 2 (ACE2) is a pivotal component of the renin-angiotensin system, promoting the conversion of Angiotensin (Ang)-II to Ang-(1-7). We previously reported that decreased ACE2 expression and activity contribute to the development of Ang-II-mediated hypertension in mice. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved in ACE2 down-regulation during neurogenic hypertension. In ACE2-transfected Neuro-2A cells, Ang-II treatment resulted in a significant attenuation of ACE2 enzymatic activity. Examination of the subcellular localization of ACE2 revealed that Ang-II treatment leads to ACE2 internalization and degradation into lysosomes. These effects were prevented by both the Ang-II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker losartan and the lysosomal inhibitor leupeptin. In contrast, in HEK293T cells, which lack endogenous AT1R, Ang-II failed to promote ACE2 internalization. Moreover, this effect could be induced after AT1R transfection. Further, co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that AT1R and ACE2 form complexes and these interactions were decreased by Ang-II treatment, which also enhanced ACE2 ubiquitination. In contrast, ACE2 activity was not changed by transfection of AT2 or Mas receptors. In vivo, Ang-II-mediated hypertension was blunted by chronic infusion of leupeptin in wildtype C57Bl/6, but not in ACE2 knockout mice. Overall, this is the first demonstration that elevated Ang-II levels reduce ACE2 expression and activity by stimulation of lysosomal degradation through an AT1R-dependent mechanism. PMID:25225202

  12. LHC II protein phosphorylation in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants deficient in non-photochemical quenching.

    PubMed

    Breitholtz, Hanna-Leena; Srivastava, Renu; Tyystjärvi, Esa; Rintamäki, Eevi

    2005-06-01

    Phosphorylation of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b complex II (LHC II) proteins is induced in light via activation of the LHC II kinase by reduction of cytochrome b(6)f complex in thylakoid membranes. We have recently shown that, besides this activation, the LHC II kinase can be regulated in vitro by a thioredoxin-like component, and H2O2 that inserts an inhibitory loop in the regulation of LHC II protein phosphorylation in the chloroplast. In order to disclose the complex network for LHC II protein phosphorylation in vivo, we studied phosphorylation of LHC II proteins in the leaves of npq1-2 and npq4-1 mutants of Arabidopis thaliana. In comparison to wild-type, these mutants showed reduced non-photochemical quenching and increased excitation pressure of Photosystem II (PS II) under physiological light intensities. Peculiar regulation of LHC II protein phosphorylation was observed in mutant leaves under illumination. The npq4-1 mutant was able to maintain a high amount of phosphorylated LHC II proteins in thylakoid membranes at light intensities that induced inhibition of phosphorylation in wild-type leaves. Light intensity-dependent changes in the level of LHC II protein phosphorylation were smaller in the npq1-2 mutant compared to the wild-type. No significant differences in leaf thickness, dry weight, chlorophyll content, or the amount of LHC II proteins were observed between the two mutant and wild-type lines. We propose that the reduced capacity of the mutant lines to dissipate excess excitation energy induces changes in the production of reactive oxygen species in chloroplasts, which consequently affects the regulation of LHC II protein phosphorylation.

  13. Probing the donor side of photosystem II in spinach chloroplasts and algae using electron paramagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Boska, M.D.

    1985-11-01

    this work concerns electron transfer reactions in photosystem II (PS II). Investigations carried out in this work examine the redox reaction rates in PS II using EPR. In Tris-washed PS II preparations from spinach, it is observed that the oxidation kinetics of S II/sub f/, the EPR signal formed by Z/sup +/ after deactivation of oxygen evolution, mirror the reduction kinetics of P680/sup +/ seen by EPR in samples poised at a variety of pH's. These data agree with previous data on the optically measured reduction kinetics of P680/sup +/. The oxidation kinetics of S II/sub vf/, the EPR transient seen from Z/sup +/ in samples active in O/sub 2/ evolving samples, were instrument limited (t/sub 1/2/ less than 4 ..mu..s) and thus could not be directly measured. These results taken together support a model where Z donates electrons directly to P680/sup +/. The examination of the oxidation and reduction kinetics of S II in monovalent and divalent salt-washed PS II preparations from spinach correlated most of the change of Z oxidation and re-reduction kinetics seen upon Tris-treatment with the loss of a 33 kDa polypeptide associated with the donor side of PS II. These data coupled with observations of stead-state light-induced amplitude changes in S II give evidence for the existance of an electron carrier between the water-splitting enzyme and Z. Observation of S II amplitude and kinetics in highly resolved PS II protein complexes from Synechoccus sp., consisting of either a 5 polypeptide PS II core complex (E-1) or a 4 polypeptide PS II core complex (CP2b), localize Z and P680 within the 4 polypeptide complex. 187 refs., 17 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. The Monomeric Pentacyanocobaltate (II) Anion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosha, Donnati M. S.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory procedures, background information, and discussion of experimental results are provided for the preparation of Thallium (I) Pentacyanocobaltate (II). The preparation of this pale green salt is carried out in an aqueous medium. (Author/JN)

  15. Antibacterial Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) Complexes of Thiadiazoles Schiff Bases

    PubMed Central

    Jaffery, Maimoon F.; Supuran, Claudiu T.

    2001-01-01

    Schiff bases were obtained by condensation of 2-amino-l,3,4-thiadiazole with 5-substituted-salicylaldehydes which were further used to obtain complexes of the type [M(L)2]Cl2, where M=Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) or Zn(II). The new compounds described here have been characterized by physical, spectral and analytical data, and have been screened for antibacterial activity against several bacterial strains such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antibacterial potency of these Schiff bases increased upon chelation/complexation, against the tested bacterial species, opening new aproaches in the fight against antibiotic resistant strains. PMID:18475981

  16. [Coordination compounds of Pd(II) with potential antitumor activity].

    PubMed

    González Vílchez, F; García Basallote, M; Benítez Ordóñez, J; Vilaplana Serrano, R

    1982-01-01

    The first results about the anti-neoplastic activity of Pd(II) ion coordinative compounds with complexones of the ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid type are described. The assays employing Ehrlich ascites cancer of the mouse show that the presence of substitutes in the ethylenediamine skeleton originates important changes of the activity of such compounds.

  17. Immigration after World War II, 1945-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinnerstein, Leonard; Reimers, David M.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the changing immigration policies after World War II (1945-98) that increased the levels of immigration within the United States. Focuses on policies such as the Displaced Persons Act of 1948 and McCarran-Walter Immigration Act of 1952. Includes questions for discussion. (CMK)

  18. Analysis of grid-assembly shielding of EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Meneghetti, D.; Franklin, F.C.; Kucera, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Differing neutron exposure rates to the EBR-II lower grid plenum assembly resulting from the historical changes in reactor configuration and shielding are analyzed to obtain the fluences and the steel displacements-per-atom values in this irreplaceable component.

  19. Preparation, characterization and biological activity of Fe(III), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and UO 2(II) complexes of new cyclodiphosph(V)azane of sulfaguanidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharaby, Carmen M.

    2005-11-01

    Novel hexachlorocyclodiphosph(V)azane of sulfaguanidine, H 4L, l,3-[ N'-amidino-sulfanilamide]-2,2,2,4,4,4-hexachlorocyclodiphosph(V)azane was prepared and its coordination behaviour towards the transition metal ions Fe(III), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and UO 2(II) was studied. The structures of the isolated products are proposed based on elemental analyses, IR, UV-vis, 1H NMR, mass spectra, reflectance, magnetic susceptibility measurements and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The hyperfine interactions in the isolated complex compounds were studied using 14.4 keV γ-ray from radioactive 57Co (Mössbauer spectroscopy). The data show that the ligand are coordinated to the metal ions via the sulfonamide O and deprotonated NH atoms in an octahedral manner. The H 4L ligand forms complexes of the general formulae [(MX z) 2(H 2L)H 2O) n] and [(FeSO 4) 2 (H 4L) (H 2O) 4], where X = NO 3 in case of UO 2(II) and Cl in case of Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II). The molar conductance data show that the complexes are non-electrolytes. The thermal behaviour of the complexes was studied and different thermodynamic parameters were calculated using Coats-Redfern method. Most of the prepared complexes showed high bactericidal activity and some of the complexes show more activity compared with the ligand and standards.

  20. Regulation of RNA polymerase II activity by CTD phosphorylation and cell cycle control.

    PubMed

    Oelgeschläger, Thomas

    2002-02-01

    The carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of mammalian RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) consists of 52 repeats of a consensus heptapeptide and is subject to phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events during each round of transcription. RNAP II activity is regulated during the cell cycle and cell cycle-dependend changes in RNAP II activity correlate well with CTD phosphorylation. In addition, global changes in the CTD phosphorylation status are observed in response to mitogenic or cytostatic signals such as growth factors, mitogens and DNA-damaging agents. Several CTD kinases are members of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) superfamily and associate with transcription initiation complexes. Other CTD kinases implicated in cell cycle regulation include the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK-1/2 and the c-Abl tyrosine kinase. These observations suggest that reversible RNAP II CTD phosphorylation may play a key role in linking cell cycle regulatory events to coordinated changes in transcription.

  1. Optical Waveguide Scattering Reduction. II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    FAD-AOAR 815 BATTELLEWCOLUMBUS LABS ON F/S 20/6 OPTICAL WAVEGUIDE SCATTER ING REDUC TION. II.(U) 7 DEC 80 0 W VAHEY, N F HARTMAN, R C SHERMAN F3361... OPTICAL WAVEGUIDE SCATTERING REDUCTION II M BATTELLE COLUMBUS LABORATORIES 505 KING AVENUE COLUMBUS, OHIO 43201 DTIC ELECTEf MAY 12 198111 December...reviewed and is approved for publication. DOUGLAS AWIWILLE, Project Engineer KENNETH R. HUTCHINSON, Chief Electro- Optics Techniques and Electro- Optics

  2. Quality control of Photosystem II: reversible and irreversible protein aggregation decides the fate of Photosystem II under excessive illumination

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yasusi; Hori, Haruka; Kai, Suguru; Ishikawa, Tomomi; Ohnishi, Atsuki; Tsumura, Nodoka; Morita, Noriko

    2013-01-01

    In response to excessive light, the thylakoid membranes of higher plant chloroplasts show dynamic changes including the degradation and reassembly of proteins, a change in the distribution of proteins, and large-scale structural changes such as unstacking of the grana. Here, we examined the aggregation of light-harvesting chlorophyll-protein complexes and Photosystem II core subunits of spinach thylakoid membranes under light stress with 77K chlorophyll fluorescence; aggregation of these proteins was found to proceed with increasing light intensity. Measurement of changes in the fluidity of thylakoid membranes with fluorescence polarization of diphenylhexatriene showed that membrane fluidity increased at a light intensity of 500–1,000 μmol photons m-2 s-1, and decreased at very high light intensity (1,500 μmol photons m-2 s-1). The aggregation of light-harvesting complexes at moderately high light intensity is known to be reversible, while that of Photosystem II core subunits at extremely high light intensity is irreversible. It is likely that the reversibility of protein aggregation is closely related to membrane fluidity: increases in fluidity should stimulate reversible protein aggregation, whereas irreversible protein aggregation might decrease membrane fluidity. When spinach leaves were pre-illuminated with moderately high light intensity, the qE component of non-photochemical quenching and the optimum quantum yield of Photosystem II increased, indicating that Photosystem II/light-harvesting complexes rearranged in the thylakoid membranes to optimize Photosystem II activity. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the thylakoids underwent partial unstacking under these light stress conditions. Thus, protein aggregation is involved in thylakoid dynamics and regulates photochemical reactions, thereby deciding the fate of Photosystem II. PMID:24194743

  3. Changing Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In some ways, there is a season of change at the national level in early childhood. Some things are wrapping up while some developments aim to prepare the "field" for improvements in the next year and beyond, just as a garden plot is readied for the next planting season. Change is in the air, and there's hope of renewal, but what changes and how…

  4. Conceptual Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ram, Ashwin, Ed.; Nersessian, Nancy J., Ed.; Keil, Frank C., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This special issue includes four articles that address issues concerning conceptual change. Topics include analogical reasoning and a case study of Johannes Kepler; conceptual change and wine expertise; the role of extreme case reasoning in instruction for conceptual change; and dynamic science assessment: a new approach for investigating…

  5. Angiotensin II Induced Cardiac Dysfunction on a Chip

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Renita E.; Yadid, Moran; McCain, Megan L.; Sheehy, Sean P.; Pasqualini, Francesco S.; Park, Sung-Jin; Cho, Alexander; Campbell, Patrick; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2016-01-01

    In vitro disease models offer the ability to study specific systemic features in isolation to better understand underlying mechanisms that lead to dysfunction. Here, we present a cardiac dysfunction model using angiotensin II (ANG II) to elicit pathological responses in a heart-on-a-chip platform that recapitulates native laminar cardiac tissue structure. Our platform, composed of arrays of muscular thin films (MTF), allows for functional comparisons of healthy and diseased tissues by tracking film deflections resulting from contracting tissues. To test our model, we measured gene expression profiles, morphological remodeling, calcium transients, and contractile stress generation in response to ANG II exposure and compared against previous experimental and clinical results. We found that ANG II induced pathological gene expression profiles including over-expression of natriuretic peptide B, Rho GTPase 1, and T-type calcium channels. ANG II exposure also increased proarrhythmic early after depolarization events and significantly reduced peak systolic stresses. Although ANG II has been shown to induce structural remodeling, we control tissue architecture via microcontact printing, and show pathological genetic profiles and functional impairment precede significant morphological changes. We assert that our in vitro model is a useful tool for evaluating tissue health and can serve as a platform for studying disease mechanisms and identifying novel therapeutics. PMID:26808388

  6. Does Praxis Make Perfect? A Personal Journey through the Praxis II: World Language Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    For initial certification in French, German, and Spanish, teacher candidates in most states are required to pass one of the Praxis II subject matter tests. As of October 2010, a new test was added to the "Praxis Series." This Praxis II: World Language Test represents a significant change from previous versions and relies heavily upon the…

  7. The Mathematics Education I and II Courses' Effect on Teacher Candidates' Development of Number Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaman, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the number sense performance of the classroom teacher candidates taking the Mathematics Education I and II courses. Moreover, it investigates whether there is a change in the number sense performance of the teacher candidates following the Mathematics Education I and II courses. Embedded experimental…

  8. Changing teams/changing families.

    PubMed

    de Shazer, S; Molnar, A

    1984-12-01

    A therapist's view of the nature of change and the processes of changing directly influences what the therapist does clinically. This essay describes how we have moved our clinical practice closer to our epistemological premises about the processes of change. For us, one key element in initiating the processes of therapeutic change is the introduction of randomness into the system. In our view, the system under consideration is the family-system plus the therapist (team)-system, and the random can be introduced anywhere in that suprasystem. Therefore, changing the therapy team can promote changing the family's problematic pattern.

  9. Determination of Fe(II)Fe(II) ratio in glass

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, E.W.

    1989-07-26

    The procedure was designed for the simple, rapid determination of the Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio in glass samples. The procedure consists of the following steps: dissolution of the pulverized glass sample in a sulfuric-hydrofluoric acid mixture, containing ammonium vanadate, which preserves the Fe(II) content; addition of boric acid to destroy iron-fluoride complexes, making the iron available for color formation with Ferrozine; addition of pH 5 buffer and Ferrozine reagent to form the magenta-colored ferrous-Ferrozine complex, with measurement of the absorbance for the determination of Fe(II) content; and, addition of ascorbic acid to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II), with a second absorbance measurement that determines total Fe. Directions for the preparation of glass from non-radioactive sludge samples are provided. The analysis of this prepared glass for the Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio is an indication of the ratio that would be in a plant batch of glass if made from this sludge.

  10. RNA polymerase II senses obstruction in the DNA minor groove via a conserved sensor motif

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Wei; Gotte, Deanna; Yang, Fei; Hare, Alissa A.; Welch, Timothy R.; Li, Benjamin C.; Shin, Ji Hyun; Chong, Jenny; Strathern, Jeffrey N.; Dervan, Peter B.; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    RNA polymerase II (pol II) encounters numerous barriers during transcription elongation, including DNA strand breaks, DNA lesions, and nucleosomes. Pyrrole-imidazole (Py-Im) polyamides bind to the minor groove of DNA with programmable sequence specificity and high affinity. Previous studies suggest that Py-Im polyamides can prevent transcription factor binding, as well as interfere with pol II transcription elongation. However, the mechanism of pol II inhibition by Py-Im polyamides is unclear. Here we investigate the mechanism of how these minor-groove binders affect pol II transcription elongation. In the presence of site-specifically bound Py-Im polyamides, we find that the pol II elongation complex becomes arrested immediately upstream of the targeted DNA sequence, and is not rescued by transcription factor IIS, which is in contrast to pol II blockage by a nucleosome barrier. Further analysis reveals that two conserved pol II residues in the Switch 1 region contribute to pol II stalling. Our study suggests this motif in pol II can sense the structural changes of the DNA minor groove and can be considered a “minor groove sensor.” Prolonged interference of transcription elongation by sequence-specific minor groove binders may present opportunities to target transcription addiction for cancer therapy. PMID:27791148

  11. Metabolomics in angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Mervaala, Eero; Biala, Agnieszka; Merasto, Saara; Lempiäinen, Juha; Mattila, Ismo; Martonen, Essi; Eriksson, Ove; Louhelainen, Marjut; Finckenberg, Piet; Kaheinen, Petri; Muller, Dominik N; Luft, Friedrich C; Lapatto, Risto; Oresic, Matej

    2010-02-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) induces mitochondrial dysfunction. We tested whether Ang II alters the "metabolomic" profile. We harvested hearts from 8-week-old double transgenic rats harboring human renin and angiotensinogen genes (dTGRs) and controls (Sprague-Dawley), all with or without Ang II type 1 receptor (valsartan) blockade. We used gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry to detect 247 intermediary metabolites. We used a partial least-squares discriminate analysis and identified 112 metabolites that differed significantly after corrections (false discovery rate q <0.05). We found great differences in the use of fatty acids as an energy source, namely, decreased levels of octanoic, oleic, and linoleic acids in dTGR (all P<0.01). The increase in cardiac hypoxanthine levels in dTGRs suggested an increase in purine degradation, whereas other changes supported an increased ketogenic amino acid tyrosine level, causing energy production failure. The metabolomic profile of valsartan-treated dTGRs more closely resembled Sprague-Dawley rats than untreated dTGRs. Mitochondrial respiratory chain activity of cytochrome C oxidase was decreased in dTGRs, whereas complex I and complex II were unaltered. Mitochondria from dTGR hearts showed morphological alterations suggesting increased mitochondrial fusion. Cardiac expression of the redox-sensitive and the cardioprotective metabolic sensor sirtuin 1 was increased in dTGRs. Interestingly, valsartan changed the level of 33 metabolites and induced mitochondrial biogenesis in Sprague-Dawley rats. Thus, distinct patterns of cardiac substrate use in Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The finding underscores the importance of Ang II in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and cardiac metabolomics, even in healthy hearts.

  12. Adsorption of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) on modified jute fibres.

    PubMed

    Shukla, S R; Pai, Roshan S

    2005-09-01

    The potential of a lignocellulosic fibre, jute, was assessed for adsorption of heavy metal ions like Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) from their aqueous solutions. The fibre was also used as adsorbent after chemically modifying it by two different techniques viz, loading of a dye with specific structure, C.I. Reactive Orange 13, and oxidising with hydrogen peroxide. Both the modified jute fibres gave higher metal ion adsorption. Thus, the dye loaded jute fibres showed metal ion uptake values of 8.4, 5.26 and 5.95 mg/g for Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II), respectively, while the corresponding values for oxidised jute fibres were 7.73, 5.57 and 8.02 mg/g, as against 4.23, 3.37 and 3.55 mg/g for unmodified jute fibres. Adsorption isotherm models indicated best fit for Langmuir model for the modified jute fibres. The adsorption values decreased with lowering of pH. The desorption efficiency, regenerative and reuse capacity of these adsorbents were also assessed for three successive adsorption-desorption cycles. The adsorptive capacity was retained only when the caustic soda regeneration is carried out as an intermediate step after desorption. Possible mechanism has been given.

  13. Effect of biofilm coatings at metal-oxide/water interfaces II: Competitive sorption between Pb(II) and Zn(II) at Shewanella oneidensis/metal-oxide/water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yingge; Gélabert, Alexandre; Michel, F. Marc; Choi, Yongseong; Eng, Peter J.; Spormann, Alfred M.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2016-09-01

    Competitive sorption of Pb(II) and Zn(II) on Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 biofilm-coated single-crystal α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) and α-Fe2O3 (0 0 0 1) surfaces was investigated using long-period X-ray standing wave-florescence yield (LP-XSW-FY) spectroscopy. In situ partitioning of aqueous Pb(II) and Zn(II) between the biofilms and underlying metal-oxide substrates was probed following exposure of these complex interfaces to equi-molar Pb and Zn solutions (0.01 M NaNO3 as background electrolyte, pH = 6.0, and 3-h equilibration time). At higher Pb and Zn concentrations (⩾10-5 M), more than 99% of these ions partitioned into the biofilms at S. oneidensis/α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2)/water interfaces, which is consistent with the partitioning behavior of both Pb(II) or Zn(II) in single-metal-ion experiments. Thus, no apparent competitive effects were found in this system at these relatively high metal-ion concentrations. However, at lower equi-molar concentrations (⩽10-6 M), Pb(II) and Zn(II) partitioning in the same system changed significantly compared to the single-metal-ion systems. The presence of Zn(II) decreased Pb(II) partitioning onto α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) substantially (∼52% to ∼13% at 10-7 M, and ∼23% to ∼5% at 10-6 M), whereas the presence of Pb(II) caused more Zn(II) to partition onto α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) surfaces (∼15% to ∼28% at 10-7 M, and ∼1% to ∼7% at 10-6 M). The higher observed partitioning of Zn(II) (∼28%) at the α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) surfaces compared to Pb(II) (∼13%) in the mixed-metal-ion systems at the lowest concentration (10-7 M) suggests that Zn(II) is slightly favored over Pb(II) for sorption sites on α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) surfaces under our experimental conditions. Competitive sorption of Pb(II) and Zn(II) at S. oneidensis/α-Fe2O3 (0 0 0 1)/water interfaces at equi-molar metal-ion concentrations of ⩽10-6 M showed that the presence of Pb(II) ions decreased Zn(II) partitioning onto α-Fe2O3 (0 0 0 1) significantly (∼45% to <1% at 10

  14. Validation of the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II (CEI-II) Among Chinese University Students in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shengquan; Ng, Ting Kin; Yim, Kin Hang; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at validating the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II (CEI-II; Kashdan et al., 2009 ) in a Chinese context. A total of 294 Chinese first-year undergraduate students in Hong Kong completed the CEI-II and measures of satisfaction with university life, the Big Five personality traits, and human values. The results of exploratory structural equation modeling, parallel analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis supported a 1-factor solution and did not replicate the original 2-factor structure. Time invariance of the 1-factor structure was obtained among 242 participants who completed the questionnaires again after 4 months. The latent means and correlation indicated that curiosity as measured by the CEI-II was quite stable over the period of investigation. The CEI-II was found to be positively correlated with satisfaction with university life, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience, and openness to change values, but negatively with neuroticism and conservation values. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the CEI-II score had incremental validity above and beyond the Big Five personality traits in predicting human values and satisfaction with university life.

  15. Cluster II quartet take the stage together

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    particles subject the magnetosphere - the region dominated by the Earth's magnetic field - to a buffeting. Each spacecraft carries an identical set of 11 instruments provided by scientific institutions in different countries. Formation Flying Cluster II will be the first space science mission ever to fly four identical spacecraft simultaneously. Once the quartet have been inserted into highly elliptical polar orbits, ranging from 19 000 to 119 000 km above the Earth, they will spend the next two years travelling from the magnetosphere into interplanetary space and back again. Sometimes they will be within a few hundred kilometres of each other, sometimes 20 000 kilometres apart, depending on the physical phenomena to be studied. By orbiting in a tetrahedral (triangular pyramid) formation, they will be able to make the first detailed three-dimensional study of the changes and processes taking place in near-Earth space. As the satellites orbit the Earth, they will investigate the rapid changes which occur in the Earth's magnetosphere when large numbers of electrically charged particles (electrons and protons) in the solar wind reach the Earth. Huge amounts of data will be returned which will help scientists unravel the physical processes and small-scale variations taking place in the near-Earth environment. "Cluster II will give us the best information yet on how the Sun affects the near-Earth environment," said Cluster II project scientist, Philippe Escoubet. "For the first time we will be able to study the Earth's magnetic field from four viewpoints with identical instruments." "It will be like having four cameras at a football match - one behind the goal and three others at different angles," he explained. "This is very exciting because it will help us to understand the space environment which surrounds our planet." How The Sun Affects Our Planet. Such studies are not just of academic interest. The Sun affects our world in many ways. Apart from its familiar output of light

  16. The CDF SVX II upgrade for the Tevatron Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Bortoletto, Daniela

    1997-04-01

    A microstrip silicon detector SVX II has been proposed for the upgrade of CDF to be installed in 1999 for Run II of the Tevatron. Three barrels of five layers of double-sided silicon microstrip detectors will cover the interaction region. A description of the project status will be presented. Emphasis will be given to the R&D program for silicon sensors which includes capacitance minimization, the study of coupling capacitor integrity, the operation of the detectors in conjunction with the SVXH and SVX2 readout chips in two beam tests and the determination of the detectors performance deterioration due to radiation damage.

  17. SAGE III capabilities and global change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. Patrick

    1991-01-01

    The science objectives of the satellite-borne SAGE III are presented as they pertain to detecting global change. SAGE III is the proposed follow on and improved version of SAM II, SAGE I and SAGE II which have measured stratospheric and, in some cases, tropospheric species since late 1978. Specifically, SAGE III will measure profiles of aerosols, ozone, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide and trioxide, neutral density, temperature, clouds, and chlorine dioxide using the solar and lunar occultation techniques. These techniques are inherently self-calibrating, provide high vertical resolution, and use well-behaved data retrievals making them ideal for trend detection and global change studies. The potential capabilities of SAGE III are illustrated by using data and results from SAM II, SAGE I and SAGE II.

  18. Novel communities from climate change

    PubMed Central

    Lurgi, Miguel; López, Bernat C.; Montoya, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is generating novel communities composed of new combinations of species. These result from different degrees of species adaptations to changing biotic and abiotic conditions, and from differential range shifts of species. To determine whether the responses of organisms are determined by particular species traits and how species interactions and community dynamics are likely to be disrupted is a challenge. Here, we focus on two key traits: body size and ecological specialization. We present theoretical expectations and empirical evidence on how climate change affects these traits within communities. We then explore how these traits predispose species to shift or expand their distribution ranges, and associated changes on community size structure, food web organization and dynamics. We identify three major broad changes: (i) Shift in the distribution of body sizes towards smaller sizes, (ii) dominance of generalized interactions and the loss of specialized interactions, and (iii) changes in the balance of strong and weak interaction strengths in the short term. We finally identify two major uncertainties: (i) whether large-bodied species tend to preferentially shift their ranges more than small-bodied ones, and (ii) how interaction strengths will change in the long term and in the case of newly interacting species. PMID:23007079

  19. Novel communities from climate change.

    PubMed

    Lurgi, Miguel; López, Bernat C; Montoya, José M

    2012-11-05

    Climate change is generating novel communities composed of new combinations of species. These result from different degrees of species adaptations to changing biotic and abiotic conditions, and from differential range shifts of species. To determine whether the responses of organisms are determined by particular species traits and how species interactions and community dynamics are likely to be disrupted is a challenge. Here, we focus on two key traits: body size and ecological specialization. We present theoretical expectations and empirical evidence on how climate change affects these traits within communities. We then explore how these traits predispose species to shift or expand their distribution ranges, and associated changes on community size structure, food web organization and dynamics. We identify three major broad changes: (i) Shift in the distribution of body sizes towards smaller sizes, (ii) dominance of generalized interactions and the loss of specialized interactions, and (iii) changes in the balance of strong and weak interaction strengths in the short term. We finally identify two major uncertainties: (i) whether large-bodied species tend to preferentially shift their ranges more than small-bodied ones, and (ii) how interaction strengths will change in the long term and in the case of newly interacting species.

  20. EBR-II Data Digitization

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Su-Jong; Rabiti, Cristian; Sackett, John

    2014-08-01

    1. Objectives To produce a validation database out of those recorded signals it will be necessary also to identify the documents need to reconstruct the status of reactor at the time of the beginning of the recordings. This should comprehends the core loading specification (assemblies type and location and burn-up) along with this data the assemblies drawings and the core drawings will be identified. The first task of the project will be identify the location of the sensors, with respect the reactor plant layout, and the physical quantities recorded by the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) data acquisition system. This first task will allow guiding and prioritizing the selection of drawings needed to numerically reproduce those signals. 1.1 Scopes and Deliverables The deliverables of this project are the list of sensors in EBR-II system, the identification of storing location of those sensors, identification of a core isotopic composition at the moment of the start of system recording. Information of the sensors in EBR-II reactor system was summarized from the EBR-II system design descriptions listed in Section 1.2.

  1. X-ray absorption edge spectroscopy of Co(II)-binding sites of copper- and zinc-containing proteins.

    PubMed

    Desideri, A; Comin, F; Morpurgo, L; Cocco, D; Calabrese, L; Mondovi, B; Maret, W; Rotilio, G

    1981-10-28

    X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) of Co(II) in three derivatives of superoxide dismutase, namely [Cu(II)-Co(II)], [Cu(I)-Co(II)] and [...-Co(II)], suggests a tetrahedral coordination of the metal for all compounds. Significant differences, detected in the spectrum of the [Cu(II)-Co(II)] derivative as compared to the other species, indicate that a conformational change and/or a different charge of the imidazole bridging the two metal sites in superoxide dismutase occur in coincidence with the change of copper valence. The XANES spectra of the cobalt derivatives of alcohol dehydrogenase, carbonic anhydrase and stellacyanin show features that can be accounted for by an increasing degree of covalency in the metal first sphere of coordination, in the following order: alcohol dehydrogenase greater than stellacyanin greater than superoxide dismutase greater than or equal to carbonic anhydrase.

  2. Grain size-sensitive creep in ice II.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Tomoaki; Durham, William B; Stern, Laura A; Kirby, Stephen H

    2006-03-03

    Rheological experiments on fine-grained water ice II at low strain rates reveal a creep mechanism that dominates at conditions of low stress. Using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy, we observed that a change in stress exponent from 5 to 2.5 correlates strongly with a decrease in grain size from about 40 to 6 micrometers. The grain size-sensitive creep of ice II demonstrated here plausibly dominates plastic strain at the low-stress conditions in the interior of medium- to large-sized icy moons of the outer solar system.

  3. Grain size-sensitive creep in ice II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kubo, T.; Durham, W.B.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.

    2006-01-01

    Rheological experiments on fine-grained water ice II at low strain rates reveal a creep mechanism that dominates at conditions of low stress. Using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy, we observed that a change in stress exponent from 5 to 2.5 correlates strongly with a decrease in grain size from about 40 to 6 micrometers. The grain size-sensitive creep of ice II demonstrated here plausibly dominates plastic strain at the low-stress conditions in the interior of medium- to large-sized icy moons of the outer solar system.

  4. SAGE Version 7.0 Algorithm: Application to SAGE II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damadeo, R. P; Zawodny, J. M.; Thomason, L. W.; Iyer, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper details the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiments (SAGE) version 7.0 algorithm and how it is applied to SAGE II. Changes made between the previous (v6.2) and current (v7.0) versions are described and their impacts on the data products explained for both coincident event comparisons and time-series analysis. Users of the data will notice a general improvement in all of the SAGE II data products, which are now in better agreement with more modern data sets (e.g. SAGE III) and more robust for use with trend studies.

  5. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Part II. Advantages of FT-IR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    This is Part II in a series on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Described are various advantages of FT-IR spectroscopy including energy advantages, wavenumber accuracy, constant resolution, polarization effects, and stepping at grating changes. (RH)

  6. A dual-emissive ionic liquid based on an anionic platinum(ii) complex.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Tomohiro; Yoshida, Masaki; Ohara, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Kato, Masako

    2015-09-07

    An ionic liquid fabricated from an anionic cyclometalated platinum(ii) complex and an imidazolium cation exhibits dual emission from the monomeric and aggregated forms of the platinum complex anions, leading to temperature-dependent color changes of luminescence.

  7. Analysis of Antarctic Denitrification in 2003 Winter Observed by ILAS-II Onboard the ADEOS-II Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, H.; Saeki, K.; Sugita, T.

    2005-12-01

    Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSC) play an important role in ozone destruction in both Arctic and Antarctic stratosphere in winter. They take up gas-phase nitric acid (HNO3) and grow up when temperature is below nitric acid saturation temperature (TNAT). When PSC becomes large, it starts to descend and nitric acid is removed from the air mass, resulting in denitrification. The Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer-II (ILAS-II) onboard the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (ADEOS-II) successfully made measurements for the whole Antarctic winter in 2003. ILAS-II measured vertical profiles of O3, HNO3, NO2, H2O, N2O, CH4, ClONO2, N2O5, etc. in addition to the aerosol extinction coefficients at 780 nm. In this study, we analyzed denitrification from ILAS-II HNO3 and N2O data in regard to temperature history on the trajectory. The quantity of denitrification was estimated from the difference between measured HNO3 and HNO3* assumed from HNO3-- N2O correlation. In this analysis, it was found that denitrification was observed only for those airmass that experienced temperature below TICE (ice saturation temperature) in late June, 2003. In late July, it was found that most airmass inside the polar vortex was denitrified regardless of temperature history. This suggests that permanent denitrification has occurred in June-July period. The transition of relationship between denitrification and airmass temperature history was discovered from the ILAS-II data. Also, major types of PSC have found to be changed from nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in June to ice in July, from the ILAS-II data. This is considered to be due to the lack of nitric acid in the airmass due to the denitrification in July.

  8. The Belle II Physics Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piilonen, Leo; Belle Collaboration, II

    2017-01-01

    The Belle II experiment at the asymmetric e+e- SuperKEKB collider is a major upgrade of the Belle experiment, which ran at the KEKB collider at the KEK laboratory in Japan. The design luminosity of SuperKEKB is 8 ×1035 cm-2 s-1, which is about 40 times higher than that of KEKB. The expected integrated luminosity of Belle II is 50 ab-1 in five years of running. The experiment will focus on searches for new physics beyond the Standard Model via high precision measurements of heavy flavor decays, and searches for rare signals. To reach these goals, the accelerator, detector, electronics, software, and computing systems are all being substantially upgraded. In this talk we discuss the physics program and the expected sensitivity to new physics of the Belle II data set.

  9. Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, D.; Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Bulla, L.; Caria, G.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; De Pietro, G.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C.; Kandra, J.; Kambara, N.; Kang, K. H.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kumar, R.; Kun, W.; Kvasnička, P.; La Licata, C.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Libby, J.; Lueck, T.; Maki, M.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rao, K. K.; Rizzo, G.; Resmi, P. K.; Rozanska, M.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, S.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Watanuki, S.; Watanabe, M.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.; Zani, L.

    2017-02-01

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB asymmetric energy e+e‑ collider in KEK, Japan will operate at an instantaneous luminosity 40 times larger than that of its predecessor, Belle. It is built with an aim of collecting a huge amount of data (50 ab‑1 by 2025) for precise CP violation measurements and new physics search. Thus, we need an accurate vertex determination and reconstruction of low momentum tracks which will be achieved with the help of vertex detector (VXD). The Belle II VXD consists of two layers of DEPFET pixels (`Pixel Detector') and four layers of double-sided silicon microstrip sensors (`Silicon Vertex Detector'), assembled over carbon fibre ribs. In this paper, we discuss about the Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector, especially its design and key features; we also present its module (`ladder') assembly and testing procedures.

  10. NSLS-II INJECTION CONCEPT.

    SciTech Connect

    SHAFTAN, T.; PINAYEV, I.; ROSE, J.; WANG, X.J.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    Currently the facility upgrade project is in progress at the NSLS (at Brookhaven National Laboratory). The goal of the NSLS-II is a 3 GeV ultra-low-emittance storage ring that will increase radiation brightness by three orders of magnitude over that of the present NSLS X-ray ring. The low emittance of the high brightness ring's lattice results in a short lifetime, so that a top-off injection mode becomes an operational necessity. Therefore, the NSLS-II injection system must provide, and efficiently inject, an electron beam at a high repetition rate. In this paper, we present our concept of the NSLS-II injection system and discuss the conditions for, and constraints on, its design.

  11. Spacelab Mission Simulation-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, C. F.; Shumate, W. H.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center conducted the second in a series of Spacelab mission simulations during the week of January 26-February 1, 1976. The facilities that supported the Spacelab Mission Simulation-II (SMS-II) included mock-ups of Spacelab, the Orbiter mid-deck and aft flight deck areas, and support areas simulating a mission control area and a payload operation control area. The SMS-II encompassed presently identified Spacelab mission requirements including experiment solicitation, evaluation, selection, and prioritization; crew selection and training; experiment hardware development, integration, and evaluation. The payload chosen included a cosmic ray physics experiment which was located on a pallet aft of the Spacelab and 20 biomedical experiments which were performed in the Spacelab. This paper will summarize simulation experience to date and list areas requiring substantial evaluation in the future.

  12. Myosin II Dynamics during Embryo Morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasza, Karen

    2013-03-01

    During embryonic morphogenesis, the myosin II motor protein generates forces that help to shape tissues, organs, and the overall body form. In one dramatic example in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo, the epithelial tissue that will give rise to the body of the adult animal elongates more than two-fold along the head-to-tail axis in less than an hour. This elongation is accomplished primarily through directional rearrangements of cells within the plane of the tissue. Just prior to elongation, polarized assemblies of myosin II accumulate perpendicular to the elongation axis. The contractile forces generated by myosin activity orient cell movements along a common axis, promoting local cell rearrangements that contribute to global tissue elongation. The molecular and mechanical mechanisms by which myosin drives this massive change in embryo shape are poorly understood. To investigate these mechanisms, we generated a collection of transgenic flies expressing variants of myosin II with altered motor function and regulation. We found that variants that are predicted to have increased myosin activity cause defects in tissue elongation. Using biophysical approaches, we found that these myosin variants also have decreased turnover dynamics within cells. To explore the mechanisms by which molecular-level myosin dynamics are translated into tissue-level elongation, we are using time-lapse confocal imaging to observe cell movements in embryos with altered myosin activity. We are utilizing computational approaches to quantify the dynamics and directionality of myosin localization and cell rearrangements. These studies will help elucidate how myosin-generated forces control cell movements within tissues. This work is in collaboration with J. Zallen at the Sloan-Kettering Institute.

  13. Spectral modeling of Type II SNe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessart, Luc

    2015-08-01

    The red supergiant phase represents the final stage of evolution in the life of moderate mass (8-25Msun) massive stars. Hidden from view, the core changes considerably its structure, progressing through the advanced stages of nuclear burning, and eventually becomes degenerate. Upon reaching the Chandrasekhar mass, this Fe or ONeMg core collapses, leading to the formation of a proto neutron star. A type II supernova results if the shock that forms at core bounce, eventually wins over the envelope accretion and reaches the progenitor surface.The electromagnetic display of such core-collapse SNe starts with this shock breakout, and persists for months as the ejecta releases the energy deposited initially by the shock or continuously through radioactive decay. Over a timescale of weeks to months, the originally optically-thick ejecta thins out and turns nebular. SN radiation contains a wealth of information about the explosion physics (energy, explosive nucleosynthesis), the progenitor properties (structure and composition). Polarised radiation also offers signatures that can help constrain the morphology of the ejecta.In this talk, I will review the current status of type II SN spectral modelling, and emphasise that a proper solution requires a time dependent treatment of the radiative transfer problem. I will discuss the wealth of information that can be gleaned from spectra as well as light curves, from both the early times (photospheric phase) and late times (nebular phase). I will discuss the diversity of Type SNe properties and how they are related to the diversity of red supergiant stars from which they originate.SN radiation offers an alternate means of constraining the properties of red-supergiant stars. To wrap up, I will illustrate how SNe II-P can also be used as probes, for example to constrain the metallicity of their environment.

  14. Renal denervation attenuates aldosterone expression and associated cardiovascular pathophysiology in angiotensin II-induced hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong-Rui; Ruan, Cheng-Chao; Xu, Jian-Zhong; Chen, Jing; Wu, Yong-Jie; Ma, Yu; Zhu, Ding-Liang; Gao, Ping-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system interacts with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) contributing to cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we sought to determine if renal denervation (RDN) inhibits aldosterone expression and associated cardiovascular pathophysiological changes in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension. Bilateral RDN or SHAM operation was performed before chronic 14-day Ang II subcutaneous infusion (200ng/kg/min) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Bilateral RDN blunted Ang II-induced hypertension and ameliorated the mesenteric vascular dysfunction. Cardiovascular hypertrophy in response to Ang II was significantly attenuated by RDN as shown by histopathology and transthoracic echocardiography. Moreover, Ang II-induced vascular and myocardial inflammation and fibrosis were suppressed by RDN with concurrent decrease in fibronectin and collagen deposition, macrophage infiltration, and MCP-1 expression. Interestingly, RDN also inhibited Ang II-induced aldosterone expression in the plasma, kidney and heart. This was associated with the reduction of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the adrenal gland. Ang II promoted aldosterone secretion which was partly attenuated by CGRP in the adrenocortical cell line, suggesting a protective role of CGRP in this model. Activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathway was both inhibited by RDN especially in the heart. These results suggest that the regulation of the renal sympathetic nerve in Ang II-induced hypertension and associated cardiovascular pathophysiological changes is likely mediated by aldosterone, with CGRP involvement. PMID:27661131

  15. A new chelating resin for preconcentration and determination of Mn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Maheswari, Mohan A; Subramanian, Mandakolathur S

    2003-01-01

    A new polychelatogen, AXAD-16-1,2-diphenylethanolamine, was developed by chemically modifying Amberlite XAD-16 with 1,2-diphenylethanolamine to produce an effective metal-chelating functionality for the preconcentration of Mn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) and their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Various physiochemical parameters that influence the quantitative preconcentration and recovery of metal were optimized by both static and dynamic techniques. The resin showed superior extraction efficiency with high-metal loading capacity values of 0.73, 0.80, 0.77, 0.87, 0.74, and 0.81 mmol/g for Mn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II), respectively. The system also showed rapid metal-ion extraction and stripping, with complete saturation in the sorbent phase within 15 min for all the metal ions. The optimum condition for effective metal-ion extraction was found to be a neutral pH, which is a great advantage in the preconcentration of trace metal ions from natural water samples without any chemical pretreatment of the sample. The resin also demonstrated exclusive ion selectivity toward targeted metal ions by showing greater resistivity to various complexing species and more common metal ions during analyte concentration, which ultimately led to high preconcentration factors of 700 for Cu(II); 600 for Mn(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II); and 500 for Cd(II) and Pb(II), arising from a larger sample breakthrough volume. The lower limits of metal-ion detection were 7 ng/mL for Mn(II) and Ni(II); 5 ng/mL for Cu(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II), and 10 ng/mL for Pb(II). The developed resin was successful in preconcentrating metal ions from synthetic and real water samples, multivitamin-multimineral tablets, and curry leaves (Murraya koenigii) with relative standard deviations of < or = 3.0% for all analytical measurements, which demonstrated its practical utility.

  16. Administrative Plans. STIP II (Skill Training Improvement Programs Round II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Community Coll. District, CA.

    Personnel policies, job responsibilities, and accounting procedures are summarized for the Los Angeles Community College District's Skill Training Improvement Programs (STIP II). This report first cites references to the established personnel and affirmative action procedures governing the program and then presents an organizational chart for the…

  17. Propulsion Systems for Aircraft. Aerospace Education II. Instructional Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmer, James D.

    This curriculum guide accompanies another publication in the Aerospace Education II series entitled "Propulsion Systems for Aircraft." The guide includes specific guidelines for teachers on each chapter in the textbook. Suggestions are included for objectives (traditional and behavioral), suggested outline, orientation, suggested key…

  18. Helium II level measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, D.; Hilton, D. K.; Zhang, T.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a survey of cryogenic liquid level measurement techniques applicable to superfluid helium (He II) is given. The survey includes both continuous and discrete measurement techniques. A number of different probes and controlling circuits for this purpose have been described in the literature. They fall into one of the following categories: capacitive liquid level gauges, superconducting wire liquid level gauges, thermodynamic (heat transfer-based) liquid level gauges, resistive gauges, ultrasound and transmission line-based level detectors. The present paper reviews these techniques and their suitability for He II service. In addition to these methods, techniques for measuring the total liquid volume and mass gauging are also discussed.

  19. Belle II Early Physics Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stottler, Zachary; Belle Collaboration, II

    2017-01-01

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider is a major upgrade of the KEK `` B factory'' facility in Tsukuba, Japan. First beams are planned for early 2017 and first physics data will be recorded in the middle of 2018 during Phase 2 commissioning, while the Belle II detector is still missing its vertex detector system. In this talk we describe the physics program for this early data. The program will focus on bottomonium spectroscopy at different center-of-mass energies, in particular at the ϒ(3 S) and ϒ(6 S) resonances, amongst other energy points.

  20. Distributed Computing at Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Vikas; Belle Collaboration, II

    2016-03-01

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Tsukuba, Japan, will start physics data taking in 2018 and will accumulate 50 ab-1 of e+e- collision data, about 50 times larger than the data set of the earlier Belle experiment. The computing requirements of Belle II are comparable to those of a RUN I high-pT LHC experiment. Computing will make full use of high speed networking and of the Computing Grids in North America, Asia and Europe. Results of an initial MC simulation campaign with 5 ab-1 equivalent luminosity will be described.

  1. The PEP-II design

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.K.

    1995-05-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Positron Electron Project-II (PEP-II) is a design for a high-luminosity, asymmetric energy, electron-positron colliding beam accelerator that will operate at the center-of-mass energy of the {Upsilon}4S (10.58 GeV). The goal of the design is to achieve a large enough integrated luminosity with a moving center-of-mass reference frame to he able to observe the predicted rare decay modes of the {Upsilon}4S that do not conserve charge parity (CP).

  2. First results from SAGE II

    SciTech Connect

    Abdurashitov, J.N.; Faizov, E.L.; Gavrin, V.N.

    1994-07-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first five runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 76{sub {minus}18}{sup +21} (stat) {sub {minus}7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. combined with the SAGE I result, the capture rate is 74{sub {minus}12}{sup +13} (stat) {sub {minus}7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. This represents only 56%--60% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models.

  3. Si II mapping of the neutral gas ring in the Galactic center - Evidence for dust destruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herter, T.; Gull, G. E.; Megeath, S. T.; Rowlands, N.; Houck, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of Si II emission in the Galactic center has been measured and found to extend beyond 4 pc from the center. The observed forbidden Si II 34.8 micron line, which is thermally excited by H I and H2 collisions, originates from the photodissociation region formed in the neutral gas ring surrounding the ionized core. Two peaks in the Si II emission are found, one lying 20 arcsec northeast of Sgr A-asterisk along the Galactic plane and the other located about 80 arcsec north of Sgr A-asterisk. The latter peak is located beyond the northern arm seen in the ionized gas. The ratio of Si II to dust mass density varies in the ring, indicating changes in the gas-to-dust ratio. The mass density of Si II and dust are anticorrelated, indicating that Si II tracks the destruction of dust.

  4. Adsorption of Ni(II) and Cd(II) from water by novel chelating sponge and the effect of alkali-earth metal ions on the adsorption.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Jinnan; Yang, Xin; Li, Aimin; Philippe, Corvini

    2014-01-15

    Novel chelating sponge (PVA-M-H) was prepared with polyvinyl alcohol by graft polymerization and nucleophilic substitution. E.A, SEM, FT-IR, (13)CNMR, and XPS analyses were used to characterize PVA-M-H. The equilibrium adsorption capacities of PVA-M-H for Ni(II) and Cd(II) were 65.39 and 125.11mgg(-1), respectively. Within the range of 278-308K, the adsorption enthalpy changes of Ni(II) and Cd(II) on PVA-M-H were about 36.39-37.72kJmol(-1), and the free energy were about -13.27 to -1.7kJmol(-1). Both pseudo-first- and -second-order equations fit the adsorption kinetic curves well, and the initial adsorption rates of Ni(II) and Cd(II) onto PVA-M-H were 17.83 and 34.81mg (gmin)(-1), respectively. Although the presence of alkali-earth metal ions in solution decreased Ni(II) and Cd(II) removal, PVA-M-H still retained more than 60 and 80% of its adsorption capacity even as the concentration of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) was up to 10mmolL(-1), respectively. Both 0.1M HCl and 0.1M EDTA solution could desorb Ni(II) and Cd(II) from PVA-M-H effectively, and the adsorption capacity of PVA-M-H for Ni(II) and Cd(II) could still maintain more than 90% level without any obvious decrease at the fifth cycle.

  5. Myosin II Activity Softens Cells in Suspension

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chii J.; Ekpenyong, Andrew E.; Golfier, Stefan; Li, Wenhong; Chalut, Kevin J.; Otto, Oliver; Elgeti, Jens; Guck, Jochen; Lautenschläger, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    The cellular cytoskeleton is crucial for many cellular functions such as cell motility and wound healing, as well as other processes that require shape change or force generation. Actin is one cytoskeleton component that regulates cell mechanics. Important properties driving this regulation include the amount of actin, its level of cross-linking, and its coordination with the activity of specific molecular motors like myosin. While studies investigating the contribution of myosin activity to cell mechanics have been performed on cells attached to a substrate, we investigated mechanical properties of cells in suspension. To do this, we used multiple probes for cell mechanics including a microfluidic optical stretcher, a microfluidic microcirculation mimetic, and real-time deformability cytometry. We found that nonadherent blood cells, cells arrested in mitosis, and naturally adherent cells brought into suspension, stiffen and become more solidlike upon myosin inhibition across multiple timescales (milliseconds to minutes). Our results hold across several pharmacological and genetic perturbations targeting myosin. Our findings suggest that myosin II activity contributes to increased whole-cell compliance and fluidity. This finding is contrary to what has been reported for cells attached to a substrate, which stiffen via active myosin driven prestress. Our results establish the importance of myosin II as an active component in modulating suspended cell mechanics, with a functional role distinctly different from that for substrate-adhered cells. PMID:25902426

  6. Pressure drop and He II flow through fine mesh screens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddocks, J. R.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    1989-01-01

    Fluid acquisition systems for He II transfer devices will utilize gallery arms to ensure that the fluid encounters the pump inlet. In near term experiments such as Superfluid Helium on Orbit Transfer (SHOOT), the preferred configuration consists of several rectangular channels which have one side made from a Dutch weave stainless steel screen having 325 x 2300 wires per inch. The effective pore diameter for this screen is about 5 microns. The present paper reports on measurements of pressure drop across a screen when it is subjected to a flow of liquid helium. The experiment measures the time rate of change of the level in two different helium reservoirs connected by a screen-blocked channel. Results with normal helium are compared with predictions based on the Armour-Cannon (1968) equations. The He II data show considerable deviation from the classical result. A discussion of the He II pressure drop results in terms of two fluid hydrodynamics is included.

  7. Spectroscopic, Elemental and Thermal Analysis, and Positron Annihilation Studies on Ca(II), Sr(II), Ba(II), Pb(II), and Fe(III) Penicillin G Potassium Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, M. S.; Sharshara, T.

    2015-11-01

    The [Pb(Pin)2] · 3H2O, [M(Pin)(H2O)2(Cl)] · nH2O (M = SrII, CaII or BaII; n = 0-1), and [Fe(Pin)2(Cl)(H2O)] · H2O penicillin G potassium (Pin) complexes were synthesized and characterized using elemental analyses, molar conductivity, thermal analysis and electronic spectroscopy techniques. The positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) and Doppler broadening (DB) techniques have been employed to probe the defects and structural changes of Pin ligand and its complexes. The PAL and DB line-shape parameters were discussed in terms of the structure, molecular weight, ligand-metal molar ratio, and other properties of the Pin complexes.

  8. Central cardiovascular actions of angiotensin II in trout.

    PubMed

    Le Mével, Jean-Claude; Lancien, Frédéric; Mimassi, Nagi

    2008-05-15

    In mammals, a large body of evidence supports the existence of a brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) acting independently or synergistically with the endocrine RAS to maintain diverse physiological functions, notably cardiovascular homeostasis. The RAS is of ancient origin and although most components of the RAS are present within the brain of teleost fishes, little is known regarding the central physiological actions of the RAS in these vertebrates. The present review encompasses the most relevant functional data for a role of the brain RAS in cardiovascular regulations in our experimental animal model, the unanesthetized trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. This paper mainly focuses on the central effect of angiotensin II (ANG II) on heart rate, blood pressure, heart rate variability and cardiac baroreflex, after intracerebroventricular injection or local microinjection of the peptide within the dorsal vagal motor nucleus. The probable implications of the parasympathetic nervous system in ANG II-evoked changes in the cardiac responses are also discussed.

  9. Effectiveness of Simple Individual Psychoeducation for Bipolar II Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimoto, Emi; Taketani, Reiko; Yamamoto, Ami

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have proven the effectiveness of psychoeducation in bipolar II disorder patients; however, simpler psychoeducation is needed in daily medical practice. Therefore, we devised a simple individual psychoeducation program, which involved 20-minute sessions spent reading a textbook aloud in the waiting time before examination. Here, we report a successful case of simple individual psychoeducation with a patient with bipolar II disorder, a 64-year-old woman who had misconceptions surrounding her mood due to 24 years of treatment for depression. Her perception of mood state, particularly mixed state, was dramatically changed, and her quality of life was improved after the simple individual psychoeducation. This case suggests that the simple individual psychoeducation could be effective for bipolar II disorder by improving understanding of the disease and by meeting different individual needs. PMID:27559486

  10. Preparation and characterization of multi-carboxyl-functionalized silica gel for removal of Cu (II), Cd (II), Ni (II) and Zn (II) from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Li, Ming-yu; Feng, Chang-gen; Zeng, Qing-xuan

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the multi-carboxyl-functionalized silica gel was prepared by surface grafting method and applied for the removal of Cu (II), Cd (II), Ni (II) and Zn (II) from aqueous solution. The adsorbent was characterized by FT-IR, thermogravimetry, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurement and elemental analysis, and it proved that the organic functional group, carboxyl group, was grafted successfully onto the silica gel surface. The effect of solution pH on removal efficiencies of Cu (II), Cd (II), Ni (II) and Zn (II) was investigated and it was found that with the exception of Zn (II), the removal efficiencies of the rest of metal ions increased with the increasing of pH in the solution, the maximum removal efficiency occurred at pH 6.0, whereas the maximum removal efficiency for Zn (II) was found to be at pH 7.0. Adsorption equilibrium data were well fitted to Langmuir than Freundlich isotherm model and the maximum adsorption capacity for Cu (II), Cd (II), Ni (II) and Zn (II) was 47.07, 41.48, 30.80 and 39.96 mg/g, respectively. Competitive adsorption experiments demonstrated that the adsorbent material had excellent adsorption amount and high affinity for the Cu (II) in the binary systems. In addition, the column experiments were used to investigate stability and reusability of the adsorbent, the dynamic adsorption performance, and desorption of metal ions absorbed from the adsorbent. The results confirmed that the adsorbent presents good dynamic adsorption performance for Cu (II), Cd (II), Ni (II) and Zn (II) and these metal ions adsorbed were easy to be desorbed from the adsorbent. The adsorption capacities of metal ions did not present an obvious decrease after five cycles of adsorption-desorption.

  11. Effect of biofilm coatings at metal-oxide/water interfaces II: Competitive sorption between Pb(II) and Zn(II) at Shewanella oneidensis/metal-oxide/water interfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Yingge; Gelabert, Alexandre; Michel, F. Marc; ...

    2016-05-07

    Competitive sorption of Pb(II) and Zn(II) on Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 biofilm-coated single-crystal α-Al2O3 (1 –1 0 2) and α-Fe2O3 (0 0 0 1) surfaces was investigated using long-period X-ray standing wave-florescence yield (LP-XSW-FY) spectroscopy. In situ partitioning of aqueous Pb(II) and Zn(II) between the biofilms and underlying metal-oxide substrates was probed following exposure of these complex interfaces to equi-molar Pb and Zn solutions (0.01 M NaNO3 as background electrolyte, pH = 6.0, and 3-h equilibration time). At higher Pb and Zn concentrations (≥10–5 M), more than 99% of these ions partitioned into the biofilms at S. oneidensis/α-Al2O3 (1 –1 0more » 2)/water interfaces, which is consistent with the partitioning behavior of both Pb(II) or Zn(II) in single-metal-ion experiments. Furthermore, no apparent competitive effects were found in this system at these relatively high metal-ion concentrations. However, at lower equi-molar concentrations (≤10–6 M), Pb(II) and Zn(II) partitioning in the same system changed significantly compared to the single-metal-ion systems. The presence of Zn(II) decreased Pb(II) partitioning onto α-Al2O3 (1 –1 0 2) substantially (~52% to ~13% at 10–7 M, and ~23% to ~5% at 10–6 M), whereas the presence of Pb(II) caused more Zn(II) to partition onto α-Al2O3 (1 –1 0 2) surfaces (~15% to ~28% at 10–7 M, and ~1% to ~7% at 10–6 M) .The higher observed partitioning of Zn(II) (~28%) at the α-Al2O3 (1 –1 0 2) surfaces compared to Pb(II) (~13%) in the mixed-metal-ion systems at the lowest concentration (10–7 M) suggests that Zn(II) is slightly favored over Pb(II) for sorption sites on α-Al2O3 (1 –1 0 2) surfaces under our experimental conditions.« less

  12. One-dimensional Co(II)/Ni(II) complexes of 2-hydroxyisophthalate: Structures and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Kai; Zou, Hua-Hong; Chen, Zi-Lu; Zhang, Zhong; Sun, Wei-Yin; Liang, Fu-Pei

    2015-03-15

    The solvothermal reactions of 2-hydroxyisophthalic acid (H{sub 3}ipO) with M(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}∙6H{sub 2}O (M=Co, Ni) afforded two complexes [Co{sub 2}(HipO){sub 2}(Py){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] (1) and [Ni(HipO)(Py)H{sub 2}O] (2) (Py=pyridine). They exhibit similar zig-zag chain structures with the adjacent two metal centers connected by a anti-syn bridging carboxylate group from the HipO{sup 2−} ligand. The magnetic measurements reveal the dominant antiferromagnetic interactions and spin-canting in 1 while ferromagnetic interactions in 2. Both of them exhibit magnetocaloric effect (MCE) with the resulting entropy changes (−ΔS{sub m}) of 12.51 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} when ΔH=50 kOe at 3 K for 1 and 11.01 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} when ΔH=50 kOe at 3 K for 2, representing the rare examples of one-dimensional complexes with MCE. - Graphical abstract: Synopsis: Two Co(II)/Ni(II) complexes with zig-zag chain structures have been reported. 1-Co shows cant-antiferromagnetism while 2-Ni shows ferromagnetism. Magnetocaloric effect is also found in both of them. - Highlights: • Two one-dimensional Co(II)/Ni(II) complexes were solvothermally synthesized. • The Co-complex exhibits canted antiferromagnetism. • The Ni-complex exhibits ferromagnetism. • Both of the complexes display magnetocaloric effect.

  13. Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II): expanding the vascular phenotype.

    PubMed

    Bober, Michael B; Khan, Nadia; Kaplan, Jennifer; Lewis, Kristi; Feinstein, Jeffrey A; Scott, Charles I; Steinberg, Gary K

    2010-04-01

    Majewski Osteodysplastic Primordial Dwarfism, Type II (MOPD II) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder. Features include severe intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), poor postnatal growth (adult stature approximately 100 cm), severe microcephaly, skeletal dysplasia, characteristic facial features, and normal or near normal intelligence. An Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved registry was created and currently follows 25 patients with a diagnosis of MOPD II. Based on previous studies, a neurovascular screening program was implemented and 13 (52%) of these patients have been found to have cerebral neurovascular abnormalities including moyamoya angiopathy and/or intracranial aneurysms. The typical moyamoya pathogenesis begins with vessel narrowing in the supraclinoid internal carotid artery, anterior cerebral (A1) or middle cerebral (M1) artery segments. The narrowing may predominate initially on one side, progresses to bilateral stenosis, with subsequent occlusion of the vessels and collateral formation. We present four patients who, on neurovascular screening, were found to have cerebrovascular changes. Two were asymptomatic, one presented with a severe headache and projectile vomiting related to a ruptured aneurysm, and one presented after an apparent decline in cognitive functioning. Analysis of the registry suggests screening for moyamoya disease be performed at the time of MOPD II diagnosis and at least every 12-18 months using MRA or computerized tomographic angiography (CTA). We believe this is imperative. If diagnosed early enough, re-vascularization and aneurysm treatment in skilled hands can be performed safely and prevent or minimize long-term sequelae in this population. Emergent evaluation is also needed when other neurologic or cardiac symptoms are present.

  14. Electromagnetic calorimeter for Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belle-ECL; Aulchenko, V.; Bobrov, A.; Bondar, A.; Cheon, B. G.; Eidelman, S.; Epifanov, D.; Garmash, Yu; Goh, Y. M.; Kim, S. H.; Krokovny, P.; Kuzmin, A.; Lee, I. S.; Matvienko, D.; Miyabayashi, K.; Nakamura, I.; Shebalin, V.; Shwartz, B.; Unno, Y.; Usov, Yu; Vinokurova, A.; Vorobjev, V.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.

    2015-02-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeter of the BELLE II detector for experiments at Super B-factory SuperKEKB is briefly described. The project of the calorimeter upgrade to meet severe background conditions expected at the upgraded KEK B factory is presented.

  15. Solar Ca II K Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertello, Luca; Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Tlatov, Andrey; Singh, Jagdev

    2016-07-01

    Some of the most important archives of past and current long-term solar synoptic observations in the resonance line of Ca II K are described here. These observations are very important for understanding the state of the solar magnetism on time scales up to several decades. The first observations of this kind began in 1904 at the Kodaikanal Observatory (India), followed by similar programs at different other locations. Regular full-disk Ca II K monitoring programs started in 1915 at the Mount Wilson Observatory (USA) and in 1917 at the National Solar Observatory of Japan. Beginning in 1919 and in 1926 regular observations were taken also at the Paris-Meudon Observatory (France) and at the "Donati solar tower telescope of the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory in Italy, respectively. In 1926 the the Astronomical Observatory of the Coimbra University in Portugal started its own program of Ca II K observations. Although some of these programs have been terminated over the years, their data archives constitute a unique resource for studies of solar variability. In the early 1970s, the National Solar Observatory (NSO) at Sacramento Peak (USA) started a new program of daily Sun-as-a-star observations in the Ca II K line. Today the NSO is continuing these observations through its Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) facility.

  16. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, John; Dooryhee, Eric; Wilkins, Stuart; Miller, Lisa; Chu, Yong

    2016-04-25

    NSLS-II is a synchrotron light source helping researchers explore solutions to the grand energy challenges faced by the nation, and open up new regimes of scientific discovery that will pave the way to discoveries in physics, chemistry, and biology — advances that will ultimately enhance national security and help drive the development of abundant, safe, and clean energy technologies.

  17. Tech Area II: A history

    SciTech Connect

    Ullrich, R.

    1998-07-01

    This report documents the history of the major buildings in Sandia National Laboratories` Technical Area II. It was prepared in support of the Department of Energy`s compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Technical Area II was designed and constructed in 1948 specifically for the final assembly of the non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons, and was the primary site conducting such assembly until 1952. Both the architecture and location of the oldest buildings in the area reflect their original purpose. Assembly activities continued in Area II from 1952 to 1957, but the major responsibility for this work shifted to other sites in the Atomic Energy Commission`s integrated contractor complex. Gradually, additional buildings were constructed and the original buildings were modified. After 1960, the Area`s primary purpose was the research and testing of high-explosive components for nuclear weapons. In 1994, Sandia constructed new facilities for work on high-explosive components outside of the original Area II diamond-shaped parcel. Most of the buildings in the area are vacant and Sandia has no plans to use them. They are proposed for decontamination and demolition as funding becomes available.

  18. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    ScienceCinema

    Hill, John; Dooryhee, Eric; Wilkins, Stuart; Miller, Lisa; Chu, Yong

    2016-07-12

    NSLS-II is a synchrotron light source helping researchers explore solutions to the grand energy challenges faced by the nation, and open up new regimes of scientific discovery that will pave the way to discoveries in physics, chemistry, and biology — advances that will ultimately enhance national security and help drive the development of abundant, safe, and clean energy technologies.

  19. NSLS-II RF SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.; Gash, W.; Holub, B.; Kawashima, Y.; Ma, H.; Towne, N.; Yeddulla, M.

    2011-03-28

    The NSLS-II is a new third generation light source being constructed at Brookhaven Lab. The storage ring is optimized for low emittance by use of damping wigglers to reduce the emittance to below 1 nm-rad. The RF systems are designed to provide stable beam through tight RF phase and amplitude stability requirements.

  20. 40 K Fastrac II Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A 40 K Fastrac II duration test performed at Marshall Test Stand 116. The purpose of this test was to gauge the length of time between contact of TEA (Triethylenealuminum) and LOX (liquid oxygen) as an ignitor for the Fastrac engine.

  1. Achondrogenesis type II with polydactyly.

    PubMed

    Rittler, M; Orioli, I M

    1995-11-06

    We report on a newborn male infant who presented the typical findings of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino), and who also showed postaxial polydactyly on both feet and bilateral microtia. Polydactyly is frequently part of the short-rib syndromes, but has not been reported in achondrogenesis. The hypothesis of polydactyly as part of a contiguous gene syndrome is discussed.

  2. Military Aerospace. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. C.

    This book is a revised publication in the series on Aerospace Education II. It describes the employment of aerospace forces, their methods of operation, and some of the weapons and equipment used in combat and combat support activities. The first chapter describes some of the national objectives and policies served by the Air Force in peace and…

  3. Application Programming in AWIPS II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smit, Matt; McGrath, Kevin; Burks, Jason; Carcione, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Since its inception almost 8 years ago, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has integrated NASA data into the National Weather Service's decision support system (DSS) the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). SPoRT has, in some instances, had to shape and transform data sets into various formats and manipulate configurations to visualize them in AWIPS. With the advent of the next generation of DSS, AWIPS II, developers will be able to develop their own plugins to handle any type of data. Raytheon is developing AWIPS II to be a more extensible package written mainly in Java, and built around a Service Oriented Architecture. A plugin architecture will allow users to install their own code modules, and (if all the rules have been properly followed) they will work hand-in-hand with AWIPS II as if it were originally built in. Users can bring in new datasets with existing plugins, tweak plugins to handle a nuance or desired new functionality, or create an entirely new visualization layout for a new dataset. SPoRT is developing plugins to ensure its existing NASA data will be ready for AWIPS II when it is delivered, and to prepare for the future of new instruments on upcoming satellites.

  4. 77 FR 3531 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Depository Trust Company; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... proposed rule change in Section II below. II. Description The rule change will enhance the risk management... the proposed change would allow DTC to enhance the risk management controls associated with the RAD...-08] Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Depository Trust Company; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

  5. Angiotensin II directly impairs adipogenic differentiation of human preadipose cells.

    PubMed

    Palominos, Marisol M; Dünner, Natalia H; Wabitsch, Martin; Rojas, Cecilia V

    2015-10-01

    Angiotensin II reduces adipogenic differentiation of preadipose cells present in the stroma-vascular fraction of human adipose tissue, which also includes several cell types. Because of the ability of non-adipose lineage cells in the stroma-vascular fraction to respond to angiotensin II, it is not possible to unequivocally ascribe the anti-adipogenic response to a direct effect of this hormone on preadipose cells. Therefore, we used the human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) preadipocyte cell strain to investigate the consequences of angiotensin II treatment on adipogenic differentiation under serum-free conditions, by assessing expression of typical adipocyte markers perilipin and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), at the transcript and protein level. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that perilipin and FABP4 transcripts were, respectively, reduced to 0.33 ± 0.07 (P < 0.05) and 0.41 ± 0.19-fold (P < 0.05) in SGBS cells induced to adipogenic differentiation in the presence of angiotensin II. Western Blot analysis corroborated reduction of the corresponding proteins to 0.23 ± 0.21 (P < 0.01) and 0.46 ± 0.30-fold (P < 0.01) the respective controls without angiotensin II. Angiotensin II also impaired morphological changes associated with early adipogenesis. Hence, we demonstrated that angiotensin II is able to directly reduce adipogenic differentiation of SGBS preadipose cells.

  6. Comparative studies of aerosol extinction measurements made by the SAM II and SAGE II satellite experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, Glenn K.; Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.; Wang, P.; Osborn, M. T.

    1989-01-01

    Results from the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II are compared for measurement locations which are coincident in time and space. At 1.0 micron, the SAM II and SAGE II aerosol extinction profiles are similar within their measurement errors. In addition, sunrise and sunset aerosol extinction data at four different wavelengths are compared for occasions when the SAGE II and SAM II measurements are nearly coincident in space and about 12 hours apart.

  7. Synthesis, spectroscopic, antimicrobial and DNA cleavage studies of new Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II) complexes with naphthofuran-2-carbohydrazide Schiff base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halli, Madappa B.; Sumathi, R. B.

    2012-08-01

    A series of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II) complexes have been synthesized with newly synthesized Schiff base derived from naphthofuran-2-carbohydrazide and cinnamaldehyde. The elemental analyses of the complexes are confined to the stoichiometry of the type MLCl2 [M = Co(II) and Cu(II)], ML2Cl2 [M = Ni(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II)] respectively, where L is Schiff base ligand. Structures have been proposed from elemental analyses, IR, electronic, mass, 1H NMR, ESR spectral data, magnetic, and thermal studies. The measured low molar conductance values in DMF indicate that the complexes are non-electrolytes. Spectroscopic studies suggest coordination occurs through azomethine nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen of the ligand with the metal ions. The Schiff base and its complexes have been screened for their antibacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi) and antifungal (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Cladosporium and Candida albicans) activities by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. The DNA cleavage studies by agarose gel electrophoresis method was studied for all the complexes.

  8. Angiotensin II Contributes to Renal Fibrosis Independently of Notch Pathway Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lavoz, Carolina; Rodrigues-Diez, Raquel; Benito-Martin, Alberto; Rayego-Mateos, Sandra; Rodrigues-Diez, Raúl R.; Alique, Matilde; Ortiz, Alberto; Mezzano, Sergio; Egido, Jesús; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have described that the Notch signaling pathway is activated in a wide range of renal diseases. Angiotensin II (AngII) plays a key role in the progression of kidney diseases. AngII contributes to renal fibrosis by upregulation of profibrotic factors, induction of epithelial mesenchymal transition and accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins. In cultured human tubular epithelial cells the Notch activation by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) has been involved in epithelial mesenchymal transition. AngII mimics many profibrotic actions of TGF-β1. For these reasons, our aim was to investigate whether AngII could regulate the Notch/Jagged system in the kidney, and its potential role in AngII-induced responses. In cultured human tubular epithelial cells, TGF-β1, but not AngII, increased the Notch pathway-related gene expression, Jagged-1 synthesis, and caused nuclear translocation of the activated Notch. In podocytes and renal fibroblasts, AngII did not modulate the Notch pathway. In tubular epithelial cells, pharmacological Notch inhibition did not modify AngII-induced changes in epithelial mesenchymal markers, profibrotic factors and extracellular matrix proteins. Systemic infusion of AngII into rats for 2 weeks caused tubulointerstitial fibrosis, but did not upregulate renal expression of activated Notch-1 or Jagged-1, as observed in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Moreover, the Notch/Jagged system was not modulated by AngII type I receptor blockade in the model of unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice. These data clearly indicate that AngII does not regulate the Notch/Jagged signaling system in the kidney, in vivo and in vitro. Our findings showing that the Notch pathway is not involved in AngII-induced fibrosis could provide important information to understand the complex role of Notch system in the regulation of renal regeneration vs damage progression. PMID:22792351

  9. Cognitive Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are the Alternative Treatments for Cognitive Problems? Anxiety Hallucinations/Delusions Speech and Swallowing Problems Vision Changes You ... and the Hope for a Better Drug for Hallucinations and Psychosis in Parkinson’s Disease What's Hot in ...

  10. Pursuing Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascheim, Skip

    1973-01-01

    Most U.S. replications of the British infant-school plan have been mere transplants of the obvious and superficial. To duplicate Britain's success, there must be structural and philosophical changes in the American system. (Editors)

  11. Behavior change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This brief entry presents the mediating-moderating variable model as a conceptual framework for understanding behavior change in regard to physical activity/exercise and adiposity. The ideas are applied to real world situations....

  12. Lifestyle Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Lifestyle Changes for Heart Attack Prevention Updated:Sep 16,2016 Sounds simple doesn' ... loved ones look to maintain health and wellness. Heart Attack Tools & Resources What Is a Heart Attack? How ...

  13. Embracing change.

    PubMed

    Chu, Benjamin K

    2013-11-01

    Whether small or large, rural or urban, public or private, health care organizations have no choice but to face change and embrace it. Hospital leaders must be proactive and make the most of the opportunities ahead of them.

  14. pH-dependence of the specific binding of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions to the amyloid-{beta} peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Ghalebani, Leila; Wahlstroem, Anna; Danielsson, Jens; Waermlaender, Sebastian K.T.S.; Graeslund, Astrid

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu(II) and Zn(II) display pH-dependent binding to the A{beta}(1-40) peptide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At pH 7.4 both metal ions display residue-specific binding to the A{beta} peptide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At pH 5.5 the binding specificity is lost for Zn(II). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential Cu(II) and Zn(II) binding may help explain metal-induced AD toxicity. -- Abstract: Metal ions like Cu(II) and Zn(II) are accumulated in Alzheimer's disease amyloid plaques. The amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) peptide involved in the disease interacts with these metal ions at neutral pH via ligands provided by the N-terminal histidines and the N-terminus. The present study uses high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to monitor the residue-specific interactions of Cu(II) and Zn(II) with {sup 15}N- and {sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-labeled A{beta}(1-40) peptides at varying pH levels. At pH 7.4 both ions bind to the specific ligands, competing with one another. At pH 5.5 Cu(II) retains its specific histidine ligands, while Zn(II) seems to lack residue-specific interactions. The low pH mimics acidosis which is linked to inflammatory processes in vivo. The results suggest that the cell toxic effects of redox active Cu(II) binding to A{beta} may be reversed by the protective activity of non-redox active Zn(II) binding to the same major binding site under non-acidic conditions. Under acidic conditions, the protective effect of Zn(II) may be decreased or changed, since Zn(II) is less able to compete with Cu(II) for the specific binding site on the A{beta} peptide under these conditions.

  15. Cardiac angiotensin II type I and type II receptors are increased in rats submitted to experimental hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro-Ramos, M S; Diniz, G P; Almeida, J; Vieira, R L P; Pinheiro, S V B; Santos, R A; Barreto-Chaves, M L M

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the behaviour of angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors in an experimental hypothyroidism model in male Wistar rats. Animals were subjected to thyroidectomy and resting for 14 days. The alteration of cardiac mass was evaluated by total heart weight (HW), right ventricle weight (RVW), left ventricle weight (LVW), ratio of HW, RVW and LVW to body weight (BW) and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) expression. Cardiac and plasma Ang II levels and serum T3 and T4 were determined. The mRNA and protein levels of Ang II receptors were investigated by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Functional analyses were performed using binding assays. T3 and T4 levels and the haemodynamic parameters confirmed the hypothyroid state. HW/BW, RVW/BW and LVW/BW ratios and the ANF expression were lower than those of control animals. No change was observed in cardiac or plasma Ang II levels. Both AT1/AT2 mRNA and protein levels were increased in the heart of hypothyroid animals due to a significant increase of these receptors in the RV. Experiments performed in cardiomyocytes showed a direct effect promoted by low thyroid hormone levels upon AT1 and AT2 receptors, discarding possible influence of haemodynamic parameters. Functional assays showed that both receptors are able to bind Ang II. Herein, we have identified, for the first time, a close and direct relation of elevated Ang II receptor levels in hypothyroidism. Whether the increase in these receptors in hypothyroidism is an alternative mechanism to compensate the atrophic state of heart or whether it may represent a potential means to the progression of heart failure remains unknown. PMID:17540701

  16. Type II alveolar epithelial cell in vitro culture in aerobiosis.

    PubMed

    Aerts, C; Voisin, C; Wallaert, B

    1988-08-01

    A method of Type II alveolar epithelial cell culture in aerobiosis has been developed. Isolation of Type II cells was performed by digesting guinea-pig lung tissue with crude trypsin and elastase and using discontinuous Percoll density gradients. The Type II cells, as identified by light and electron microscopy, were cultured in aerobiosis for up to six days, in direct contact with the atmosphere in conditions mimicking those present in the lower respiratory tract. Significant activities of cellular superoxide dismutase (SOD), manganese dependent superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were found at the time of isolation. In contrast, cell glutathione content varied widely from one experiment to another. Changes of antioxidant enzymes were evaluated during cell culture in aerobiosis. SOD, Mn-SOD and catalase were significantly decreased after three days but were not significantly different between a three day and six day culture. Antioxidant changes did not influence the cell culture. In marked contrast, decrease in cell glutathione was associated with rapid cell death, whereas good cell survival was obtained at high levels of cell glutathione. Cell culture in aerobiosis will permit a precise evaluation of the effects of gases, particularly oxidant gases, on a primary culture of Type II alveolar epithelial cells.

  17. Epilepsy Care in Developing Countries: Part II of II

    PubMed Central

    Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2010-01-01

    Although 80% of people with epilepsy reside in resource poor, developing countries, epilepsy care in these regions remains limited and the majority of epilepsy patients go untreated. Cost-effective, sustainable epilepsy care services, delivering first-line antiepileptic drugs through established primary health care facilities, are needed to decrease these treatment gaps. Neurologists with local experience and knowledge of the culture, who are willing to serve as educators, policy advisors, and advocates, can make a difference. This is Part II of a two-part article. Part I reviewed the burden of epilepsy and the current state of resources for treatment in developing countries, while Part II will now discuss various aspects of care in these countries. PMID:20944819

  18. Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is a series of three interlocking imaging and spectroscopic surveys, carried out over an eight-year period with a dedicated 2.5m telescope located at Apache Point Observatory in Southern New Mexico. The SDSS Supernova Survey was one of those three components of SDSS and SDSS-II, a 3-year extension of the original SDSS that operated from July 2005 to July 2008. The Supernova Survey was a time-domain survey, involving repeat imaging of the same region of sky every other night, weather permitting. The primary scientific motivation was to detect and measure light curves for several hundred supernovae through repeat scans of the SDSS Southern equatorial stripe 82 (about 2.5? wide by ~120? long). Over the course of three 3-month campaigns SDSS-II SN discovered and measured multi-band lightcurves for ~500 spectroscopically confirmed Type Ia supernovae in the redshift range z=0.05-0.4. In addition, the project harvested a few hundred light curves for SNe Ia and discovered about 80 spectroscopically confirmed core-collapse supernovae (supernova types Ib/c and II).

  19. Cytotoxic copper(II), cobalt(II), zinc(II), and nickel(II) coordination compounds of clotrimazole.

    PubMed

    Betanzos-Lara, Soledad; Gómez-Ruiz, Celedonio; Barrón-Sosa, Lidia R; Gracia-Mora, Isabel; Flores-Álamo, Marcos; Barba-Behrens, Noráh

    2012-09-01

    Sixteen novel mononuclear Cu(II), Co(II), Zn(II), and Ni(II) complexes of the biologically active ligand clotrimazole (clotri) of the forms [M(clotri)(2)Cl(2)]·nH(2)O (1-4), [M(clotri)(2)Br(2)]·nH(2)O (5-7), [M(clotri)(3)Br(2)] (8), [M(clotri)(3)NO(3)]NO(3)·nH(2)O (9, 11), [M(clotri)(3)(NO(3))(2)]·nH(2)O (10), and [M(clotri)(3)(OH(2))(2)NO(3)]NO(3)·nH(2)O (12) were synthesized and fully characterized. Dinuclear [Cu(2)(clotri)(4)μ(2)-Cl(4)]·2H(2)O (1a) and [Cu(2)(clotri)(4)μ(2)-Br(2)]·2H(2)O (5b) as well as tetranuclear [Cu(4)(clotri)(4)μ(4)-Br(6)μ(4)-O] (5a) complexes were also isolated. Complexes 1-7, 9, and 11 present a tetrahedral geometry; complex 8 exhibits a pentacoordinated structure; complexes 1a, 10 and 12 an octahedral geometry. X-ray crystal structures of [Cu(clotri)(2)Cl(2)](1), [Cu(clotri)(2)(EtOH)Cl(2)](1·EtOH), [Zn(clotri)(2)Cl(2)] (3), [Zn(clotri)(2)Br(2)] (7), and [Cu(4)(clotri)(4)μ(4)-Br(6)μ(4)-O] (5a) were obtained. Complexes 1-12 were tested for cytotoxic activity against the human carcinoma cell lines HeLa (cervix-uterine), PC3 (prostate), and HCT-15 (colon) displaying IC(50) values <30 μM. Confocal microscopy and nuclear dying (DAPI) for complex 1 showed condensation of cromatin and nuclear membrane fragmentation. Immunocytochemical detection/expression of biomarkers suggests that complexes 1 and 9 induce cell death via apoptosis. TUNEL assay detected DNA fragmentation in HeLa cells, resulting from apoptotic signaling cascades induced by Cu(II) complexes 1 and 9. (1)H NMR studies of the Zn(II) complexes showed that they can bind to nucleotides.

  20. Characterization of the physiology and cell-mineral interactions of the marine anoxygenic phototrophic Fe(II) oxidizer Rhodovulum iodosum--implications for Precambrian Fe(II) oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenfang; Swanner, Elizabeth D; Hao, Likai; Zeitvogel, Fabian; Obst, Martin; Pan, Yongxin; Kappler, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    Anoxygenic phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (photoferrotrophs) are suggested to have contributed to the deposition of banded iron formations (BIFs) from oxygen-poor seawater. However, most studies evaluating the contribution of photoferrotrophs to Precambrian Fe(II) oxidation have used freshwater and not marine strains. Therefore, we investigated the physiology and mineral products of Fe(II) oxidation by the marine photoferrotroph Rhodovulum iodosum. Poorly crystalline Fe(III) minerals formed initially and transformed to more crystalline goethite over time. During Fe(II) oxidation, cell surfaces were largely free of minerals. Instead, the minerals were co-localized with EPS suggesting that EPS plays a critical role in preventing cell encrustation, likely by binding Fe(III) and directing precipitation away from cell surfaces. Fe(II) oxidation rates increased with increasing initial Fe(II) concentration (0.43-4.07 mM) under a light intensity of 12 μmol quanta m(-2) s(-1). Rates also increased as light intensity increased (from 3 to 20 μmol quanta m(-2) s(-1)), while the addition of Si did not significantly change Fe(II) oxidation rates. These results elaborate on how the physical and chemical conditions present in the Precambrian ocean controlled the activity of marine photoferrotrophs and confirm the possibility that such microorganisms could have oxidized Fe(II), generating the primary Fe(III) minerals that were then deposited to some Precambrian BIFs.