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Sample records for n-iminoethyl-l-lysine improves memory

  1. Improving Memory in the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Linda M.; Pratt, Mary Alice

    This paper reports the results of an evaluation of a didactic-experiential program designed to improve memory functioning in healthy older adults with memory complaints, and to allay their concerns (in this case, largely unfounded) about the decline of their memory. The 7-week workshop met weekly for 2 hours, each session consisting of a lecture…

  2. Event boundaries and memory improvement.

    PubMed

    Pettijohn, Kyle A; Thompson, Alexis N; Tamplin, Andrea K; Krawietz, Sabine A; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2016-03-01

    The structure of events can influence later memory for information that is embedded in them, with evidence indicating that event boundaries can both impair and enhance memory. The current study explored whether the presence of event boundaries during encoding can structure information to improve memory. In Experiment 1, memory for a list of words was tested in which event structure was manipulated by having participants walk through a doorway, or not, halfway through the word list. In Experiment 2, memory for lists of words was tested in which event structure was manipulated using computer windows. Finally, in Experiments 3 and 4, event structure was manipulated by having event shifts described in narrative texts. The consistent finding across all of these methods and materials was that memory was better when the information was distributed across two events rather than combined into a single event. Moreover, Experiment 4 demonstrated that increasing the number of event boundaries from one to two increased the memory benefit. These results are interpreted in the context of the Event Horizon Model of event cognition.

  3. Can verbal working memory training improve reading?

    PubMed

    Banales, Erin; Kohnen, Saskia; McArthur, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine whether poor verbal working memory is associated with poor word reading accuracy because the former causes the latter, or the latter causes the former. To this end, we tested whether (a) verbal working memory training improves poor verbal working memory or poor word reading accuracy, and whether (b) reading training improves poor reading accuracy or verbal working memory in a case series of four children with poor word reading accuracy and verbal working memory. Each child completed 8 weeks of verbal working memory training and 8 weeks of reading training. Verbal working memory training improved verbal working memory in two of the four children, but did not improve their reading accuracy. Similarly, reading training improved word reading accuracy in all children, but did not improve their verbal working memory. These results suggest that the causal links between verbal working memory and reading accuracy may not be as direct as has been assumed.

  4. Working memory training improves visual short-term memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Schwarb, Hillary; Nail, Jayde; Schumacher, Eric H

    2016-01-01

    Since antiquity, philosophers, theologians, and scientists have been interested in human memory. However, researchers today are still working to understand the capabilities, boundaries, and architecture. While the storage capabilities of long-term memory are seemingly unlimited (Bahrick, J Exp Psychol 113:1-2, 1984), working memory, or the ability to maintain and manipulate information held in memory, seems to have stringent capacity limits (e.g., Cowan, Behav Brain Sci 24:87-185, 2001). Individual differences, however, do exist and these differences can often predict performance on a wide variety of tasks (cf. Engle What is working-memory capacity? 297-314, 2001). Recently, researchers have promoted the enticing possibility that simple behavioral training can expand the limits of working memory which indeed may also lead to improvements on other cognitive processes as well (cf. Morrison and Chein, Psychol Bull Rev 18:46-60 2011). However, initial investigations across a wide variety of cognitive functions have produced mixed results regarding the transferability of training-related improvements. Across two experiments, the present research focuses on the benefit of working memory training on visual short-term memory capacity-a cognitive process that has received little attention in the training literature. Data reveal training-related improvement of global measures of visual short-term memory as well as of measures of the independent sub-processes that contribute to capacity (Awh et al., Psychol Sci 18(7):622-628, 2007). These results suggest that the ability to inhibit irrelevant information within and between trials is enhanced via n-back training allowing for selective improvement on untrained tasks. Additionally, we highlight a potential limitation of the standard adaptive training procedure and propose a modified design to ensure variability in the training environment.

  5. Improving Memory Error Handling Using Linux

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, Michael Andrew; Blanchard, Sean P.; Debardeleben, Nathan A.

    2014-07-25

    As supercomputers continue to get faster and more powerful in the future, they will also have more nodes. If nothing is done, then the amount of memory in supercomputer clusters will soon grow large enough that memory failures will be unmanageable to deal with by manually replacing memory DIMMs. "Improving Memory Error Handling Using Linux" is a process oriented method to solve this problem by using the Linux kernel to disable (offline) faulty memory pages containing bad addresses, preventing them from being used again by a process. The process of offlining memory pages simplifies error handling and results in reducing both hardware and manpower costs required to run Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) clusters. This process will be necessary for the future of supercomputing to allow the development of exascale computers. It will not be feasible without memory error handling to manually replace the number of DIMMs that will fail daily on a machine consisting of 32-128 petabytes of memory. Testing reveals the process of offlining memory pages works and is relatively simple to use. As more and more testing is conducted, the entire process will be automated within the high-performance computing (HPC) monitoring software, Zenoss, at LANL.

  6. Improved specificity of hippocampal memory trace labeling.

    PubMed

    Cazzulino, Alejandro S; Martinez, Randy; Tomm, Nicole K; Denny, Christine A

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have focused on the identification and manipulation of memory traces in rodent models. The two main mouse models utilized are either a CreER(T2) /loxP tamoxifen (TAM)- or a tetracycline transactivator/tetracycline-response element doxycycline-inducible system. These systems, however, could be improved to label a more specific population of activated neurons corresponding to behavior. Here, we sought to identify an improved selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator (SERM) in which we could label an individual memory trace in ArcCreER(T2) mice. We found that 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) is a selective SERM in the ArcCreER(T2) × Rosa26-CAG-stop(flox) -channelrhodospin (ChR2)-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) mice. The half-life of 4-OHT is shorter than TAM, allowing for more specificity of memory trace labeling. Furthermore, 4-OHT allowed for context-specific labeling in the dentate gyrus and CA3. In summary, we believe that 4-OHT improves the specificity of memory trace labeling and will allow for refined memory trace studies in the future. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26662713

  7. Assigned value improves memory of proper names.

    PubMed

    Festini, Sara B; Hartley, Alan A; Tauber, Sarah K; Rhodes, Matthew G

    2013-01-01

    Names are more difficult to remember than other personal information such as occupations. The current research examined the influence of assigned point value on memory and metamemory judgements for names and occupations to determine whether incentive can improve recall of proper names. In Experiment 1 participants studied face-name and face-occupation pairs assigned 1 or 10 points, made judgements of learning, and were given a cued recall test. High-value names were recalled more often than low-value names. However, recall of occupations was not influenced by value. In Experiment 2 meaningless nonwords were used for both names and occupations. The name difficulty disappeared, and value influenced recall of both names and occupations. Thus value similarly influenced names and occupations when meaningfulness was held constant. In Experiment 3 participants were required to use overt rote rehearsal for all items. Value did not boost recall of high-value names, suggesting that differential processing could not be implemented to improve memory. Thus incentives may improve memory for proper names by motivating people to engage in selective rehearsal and effortful elaborative processing.

  8. Improved Writing-Conductor Designs For Magnetic Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.; Katti, Romney R.

    1994-01-01

    Writing currents reduced to practical levels. Improved conceptual designs for writing conductors in micromagnet/Hall-effect random-access integrated-circuit memory reduces electrical current needed to magnetize micromagnet in each memory cell. Basic concept of micromagnet/Hall-effect random-access memory presented in "Magnetic Analog Random-Access Memory" (NPO-17999).

  9. Can corrective feedback improve recognition memory?

    PubMed

    Kantner, Justin; Lindsay, D Stephen

    2010-06-01

    An understanding of the effects of corrective feedback on recognition memory can inform both recognition theory and memory training programs, but few published studies have investigated the issue. Although the evidence to date suggests that feedback does not improve recognition accuracy, few studies have directly examined its effect on sensitivity, and fewer have created conditions that facilitate a feedback advantage by encouraging controlled processing at test. In Experiment 1, null effects of feedback were observed following both deep and shallow encoding of categorized study lists. In Experiment 2, feedback robustly influenced response bias by allowing participants to discern highly uneven base rates of old and new items, but sensitivity remained unaffected. In Experiment 3, a false-memory procedure, feedback failed to attenuate false recognition of critical lures. In Experiment 4, participants were unable to use feedback to learn a simple category rule separating old items from new items, despite the fact that feedback was of substantial benefit in a nearly identical categorization task. The recognition system, despite a documented ability to utilize controlled strategic or inferential decision-making processes, appears largely impenetrable to a benefit of corrective feedback.

  10. Can Interactive Working Memory Training Improve Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Working memory is linked to learning outcomes and there is emerging evidence that training working memory can yield gains in working memory and fluid intelligence. Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether interactive working memory training would transfer to acquired cognitive skills, such as vocabulary and…

  11. Resistance exercise improves hippocampus-dependent memory.

    PubMed

    Cassilhas, R C; Lee, K S; Venâncio, D P; Oliveira, M G M; Tufik, S; de Mello, M T

    2012-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that resistance exercise improves cognitive functions in humans. Thus, an animal model that mimics this phenomenon can be an important tool for studying the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. Here, we tested if an animal model for resistance exercise was able to improve the performance in a hippocampus-dependent memory task. In addition, we also evaluated the level of insulin-like growth factor 1/insulin growth factor receptor (IGF-1/IGF-1R), which plays pleiotropic roles in the nervous system. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (N = 10 for each group): control, SHAM, and resistance exercise (RES). The RES group was submitted to 8 weeks of progressive resistance exercise in a vertical ladder apparatus, while the SHAM group was left in the same apparatus without exercising. Analysis of a cross-sectional area of the flexor digitorum longus muscle indicated that this training period was sufficient to cause muscle fiber hypertrophy. In a step-through passive avoidance task (PA), the RES group presented a longer latency than the other groups on the test day. We also observed an increase of 43 and 94% for systemic and hippocampal IGF-1 concentration, respectively, in the RES group compared to the others. A positive correlation was established between PA performance and systemic IGF-1 (r = 0.46, P < 0.05). Taken together, our data indicate that resistance exercise improves the hippocampus-dependent memory task with a concomitant increase of IGF-1 level in the rat model. This model can be further explored to better understand the effects of resistance exercise on brain functions. PMID:22930413

  12. A potential spatial working memory training task to improve both episodic memory and fluid intelligence.

    PubMed

    Rudebeck, Sarah R; Bor, Daniel; Ormond, Angharad; O'Reilly, Jill X; Lee, Andy C H

    2012-01-01

    One current challenge in cognitive training is to create a training regime that benefits multiple cognitive domains, including episodic memory, without relying on a large battery of tasks, which can be time-consuming and difficult to learn. By giving careful consideration to the neural correlates underlying episodic and working memory, we devised a computerized working memory training task in which neurologically healthy participants were required to monitor and detect repetitions in two streams of spatial information (spatial location and scene identity) presented simultaneously (i.e. a dual n-back paradigm). Participants' episodic memory abilities were assessed before and after training using two object and scene recognition memory tasks incorporating memory confidence judgments. Furthermore, to determine the generalizability of the effects of training, we also assessed fluid intelligence using a matrix reasoning task. By examining the difference between pre- and post-training performance (i.e. gain scores), we found that the trainers, compared to non-trainers, exhibited a significant improvement in fluid intelligence after 20 days. Interestingly, pre-training fluid intelligence performance, but not training task improvement, was a significant predictor of post-training fluid intelligence improvement, with lower pre-training fluid intelligence associated with greater post-training gain. Crucially, trainers who improved the most on the training task also showed an improvement in recognition memory as captured by d-prime scores and estimates of recollection and familiarity memory. Training task improvement was a significant predictor of gains in recognition and familiarity memory performance, with greater training improvement leading to more marked gains. In contrast, lower pre-training recollection memory scores, and not training task improvement, led to greater recollection memory performance after training. Our findings demonstrate that practice on a single

  13. Working-memory training improves developmental dyslexia in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yan; Wang, Jing; Wu, Hanrong; Zhu, Dongmei; Zhang, Yu

    2013-02-15

    Although plasticity in the neural system underlies working memory, and working memory can be improved by training, there is thus far no evidence that children with developmental dyslexia can benefit from working-memory training. In the present study, thirty dyslexic children aged 8-11 years were recruited from an elementary school in Wuhan, China. They received working-memory training, including training in visuospatial memory, verbal memory, and central executive tasks. The difficulty of the tasks was adjusted based on the performance of each subject, and the training sessions lasted 40 minutes per day, for 5 weeks. The results showed that working-memory training significantly enhanced performance on the nontrained working memory tasks such as the visuospatial, the verbal domains, and central executive tasks in children with developmental dyslexia. More importantly, the visual rhyming task and reading fluency task were also significantly improved by training. Progress on working memory measures was related to changes in reading skills. These experimental findings indicate that working memory is a pivotal factor in reading development among children with developmental dyslexia, and interventions to improve working memory may help dyslexic children to become more proficient in reading. PMID:25206687

  14. Improving Outcome of Psychosocial Treatments by Enhancing Memory and Learning

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Allison G.; Lee, Jason; Williams, Joseph; Hollon, Steven D.; Walker, Matthew P.; Thompson, Monique A.; Smith, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Mental disorders are prevalent and lead to significant impairment. Progress toward establishing treatments has been good. However, effect sizes are small to moderate, gains may not persist, and many patients derive no benefit. Our goal is to highlight the potential for empirically-supported psychosocial treatments to be improved by incorporating insights from cognitive psychology and research on education. Our central question is: If it were possible to improve memory for content of sessions of psychosocial treatments, would outcome substantially improve? This question arises from five lines of evidence: (a) mental illness is often characterized by memory impairment, (b) memory impairment is modifiable, (c) psychosocial treatments often involve the activation of emotion, (d) emotion can bias memory and (e) memory for psychosocial treatment sessions is poor. Insights from scientific knowledge on learning and memory are leveraged to derive strategies for a transdiagnostic and transtreatment cognitive support intervention. These strategies can be applied within and between sessions and to interventions delivered via computer, the internet and text message. Additional novel pathways to improving memory include improving sleep, engaging in exercise and imagery. Given that memory processes change across the lifespan, services to children and older adults may benefit from cognitive support. PMID:25544856

  15. Improved Reading Gate For Vertical-Bloch-Line Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.; Katti, Romney R.

    1994-01-01

    Improved design for reading gate of vertical-Bloch-line magnetic-bubble memory increases reliability of discrimination between binary ones and zeros. Magnetic bubbles that signify binary "1" and "0" produced by applying sufficiently large chopping currents to memory stripes. Bubbles then propagated differentially in bubble sorter. Method of discriminating between ones and zeros more reliable.

  16. Does strategic memory training improve the working memory performance of younger and older adults?

    PubMed

    Carretti, Barbara; Borella, Erika; De Beni, Rossana

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the effect of strategic training on the performance of younger and older adults in an immediate list-recall and a working memory task. The experimental groups of younger and older adults received three sessions of memory training, teaching the use of mental images to improve the memorization of word lists. In contrast, the control groups were not instructed to use any particular strategy, but they were requested to carry out the memory exercises. The results showed that strategic training improved performance of both the younger and older experimental groups in the immediate list recall and in the working memory task. Of particular interest, the improvement in working memory performance of the older experimental group was comparable to that of the younger experimental group.

  17. Improving Outcome of Psychosocial Treatments by Enhancing Memory and Learning.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Allison G; Lee, Jason; Williams, Joseph; Hollon, Steven D; Walker, Matthew P; Thompson, Monique A; Smith, Rita

    2014-03-01

    Mental disorders are prevalent and can lead to significant impairment. Some progress has been made toward establishing treatments; however, effect sizes are small to moderate, gains may not persist, and many patients derive no benefit. Our goal is to highlight the potential for empirically supported psychosocial treatments to be improved by incorporating insights from cognitive psychology and research on education. Our central question is: If it were possible to improve memory for the content of sessions of psychosocial treatments, would outcome substantially improve? We leverage insights from scientific knowledge on learning and memory to derive strategies for transdiagnostic and transtreatment cognitive support interventions. These strategies can be applied within and between sessions and to interventions delivered via computer, the Internet, and text message. Additional novel pathways to improving memory include improving sleep, engaging in exercise, and using imagery. Given that memory processes change across the lifespan, services to children and older adults may benefit from different types and amounts of cognitive support.

  18. Improved Readout For Micromagnet/Hall-Effect Memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.; Katti, Romney R.

    1993-01-01

    Two improved readout circuits for micromagnet/Hall-effect random-access memories designed to eliminate current shunts introducing errors into outputs of older readout circuits. Incorporate additional switching transistors to isolate Hall sensors as needed.

  19. Improvement of mouse memory by Myristica fragrans seeds.

    PubMed

    Parle, Milind; Dhingra, Dinesh; Kulkarni, S K

    2004-01-01

    Memory is one of the most complex functions of the brain and involves multiple neural pathways and neurotransmitter systems. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Myristica fragrans (MF) seeds on learning and memory in mice. The n-hexane extract of MF was administered orally in three doses (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg p.o.) for 3 successive days to different groups of young and aged mice. The learning and memory parameters were assessed using elevated plus-maze and passive-avoidance apparatus. The effect of MF extract on scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p.)- and diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p.)-induced impairment in learning and memory was also studied. MF extract at the lowest dose of 5 mg/kg p.o. administered for 3 successive days significantly improved learning and memory of young and aged mice. This extract also reversed scopolamine- and diazepam-induced impairment in learning and memory of young mice. MF extract enhanced learning and retention capacities of both young and aged mice. The exact mechanism of the memory-improving effect of MF extract was not explored in the present study. But, the observed memory-enhancing effect may be attributed to a variety of properties (individually or in combination) the plant is reported to possess, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, or perhaps procholinergic activity.

  20. Genistein improves spatial learning and memory in male rats with elevated glucose level during memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Kohara, Yumi; Kawaguchi, Shinichiro; Kuwahara, Rika; Uchida, Yutaro; Oku, Yushi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive dysfunction due to higher blood glucose level has been reported previously. Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen that we hypothesized might lead to improved memory, despite elevated blood glucose levels at the time of memory consolidation. To investigate this hypothesis, we compared the effects of orally administered GEN on the central nervous system in normal versus glucose-loaded adult male rats. A battery of behavioral assessments was carried out. In the MAZE test, which measured spatial learning and memory, the time of normal rats was shortened by GEN treatment compared to the vehicle group, but only in the early stages of testing. In the glucose-loaded group, GEN treatment improved performance as mazes were advanced. In the open-field test, GEN treatment delayed habituation to the new environment in normal rats, and increased the exploratory behaviors of glucose-loaded rats. There were no significant differences observed for emotionality or fear-motivated learning and memory. Together, these results indicate that GEN treatment improved spatial learning and memory only in the early stages of testing in the normal state, but improved spatial learning and memory when glucose levels increased during memory consolidation.

  1. Ginsenoside Rh2 improves learning and memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jingang; Xue, Jianjie; Lee, Mira; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Dongliang; Sun, Mengqi; Zheng, Yinan; Sung, Changkeun

    2013-08-01

    A wide range of plant foods and dietary supplements are able to modify the functioning of the central nervous system. In the present study, we observed that oral administration of ginsenoside Rh2 (10 mg/mL) for 3 weeks significantly improved spatial learning and memory. Spatial memory and learning was evaluated in mice by hippocampus-dependent tasks (Morris water maze test) and immunohistochemical marker of cell genesis bromodeoxyuridine. Ginsenoside Rh2 treatment (30 days) promoted cell survival and genesis. Further, ginsenoside Rh2 treatment in enriched condition had no significant effects on cell survival compared with standard condition exposure. These results revealed that ginsenoside Rh2-mediated spatial learning and memory improvement was associated with cell genesis and survival and may be parallel to the mechanism of environmental enrichment. Therefore, ginsenoside Rh2 may have efficacy as a dietary supplement for spatial learning and memory improvement.

  2. Using a memory handbook to improve everyday memory in community-dwelling older adults with memory complaints.

    PubMed

    Andrewes, D G; Kinsella, G; Murphy, M

    1996-01-01

    Community-dwelling, nondemented older people (60-70 years) with reported memory complaints were randomly assigned to either a memory-handbook (MHB) group (n = 20) or a placebo group (n = 20). The MHB group members were given a self-contained memory handbook and were individually trained on two of the handbook's sections that related to (a) remembering a person's name and (b) prospective memory, for approximately 30 minutes each. The placebo group was given an instructional pamphlet with a description of three list-learning mnemonics as a placebo treatment. Subjects were tested before and after the intervention. When compared with the placebo group, the MHB group members significantly improved their performance on a face-naming task and a strategies knowledge questionnaire, but not on the prospective memory measures, when compared with the placebo group. In addition, the MHB group showed a significant advantage on an everyday memory diary that was filled out by all subjects following the intervention. Following the study, the placebo group was also given the memory handbook, and both groups were then assessed on their knowledge and use of strategies by questionnaire at a 4-month follow-up. At this time the MHB group appeared to maintain most of its original gains, while the placebo group made some improvement.

  3. Light exposure before learning improves memory consolidation at night

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Li-Li; Guo, Hao; Song, Ning-Ning; Jia, Zheng-Ping; Hu, Xin-Tian; Huang, Jing-Fei; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Richter-Levine, Gal; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Xu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Light is recently recognized as a modulator able to activate the hippocampus and modulate memory processing, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms. Here, we report that in mice, a short pulse of white light before learning dramatically improves consolidation of contextual fear memory during the night. The light exposure increases hippocampal active p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP). These light effects are abolished in PAK1 knockout and dominant-negative transgenic mice, but preserved by expression of constitutively active PAK1 in the hippocampus. Our results indicate that light can act as a switch of PAK1 activity that modulate CA1 LTP and thereby memory consolidation without affecting learning and short-term memory. PMID:26493375

  4. A study of the viability of exploiting memory content similarity to improve resilience to memory errors

    DOE PAGES

    Levy, Scott; Ferreira, Kurt B.; Bridges, Patrick G.; Thompson, Aidan P.; Trott, Christian

    2014-12-09

    Building the next-generation of extreme-scale distributed systems will require overcoming several challenges related to system resilience. As the number of processors in these systems grow, the failure rate increases proportionally. One of the most common sources of failure in large-scale systems is memory. In this paper, we propose a novel runtime for transparently exploiting memory content similarity to improve system resilience by reducing the rate at which memory errors lead to node failure. We evaluate the viability of this approach by examining memory snapshots collected from eight high-performance computing (HPC) applications and two important HPC operating systems. Based on themore » characteristics of the similarity uncovered, we conclude that our proposed approach shows promise for addressing system resilience in large-scale systems.« less

  5. A study of the viability of exploiting memory content similarity to improve resilience to memory errors

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, Scott; Ferreira, Kurt B.; Bridges, Patrick G.; Thompson, Aidan P.; Trott, Christian

    2014-12-09

    Building the next-generation of extreme-scale distributed systems will require overcoming several challenges related to system resilience. As the number of processors in these systems grow, the failure rate increases proportionally. One of the most common sources of failure in large-scale systems is memory. In this paper, we propose a novel runtime for transparently exploiting memory content similarity to improve system resilience by reducing the rate at which memory errors lead to node failure. We evaluate the viability of this approach by examining memory snapshots collected from eight high-performance computing (HPC) applications and two important HPC operating systems. Based on the characteristics of the similarity uncovered, we conclude that our proposed approach shows promise for addressing system resilience in large-scale systems.

  6. Coccomyxa Gloeobotrydiformis Improves Learning and Memory in Intrinsic Aging Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Luning; Jin, Ying; Dong, Liming; Sui, Hai-juan; Sumi, Ryo; Jahan, Rabita; Hu, Dahai; Li, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Declining in learning and memory is one of the most common and prominent problems during the aging process. Neurotransmitter changes, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal signal transduction were considered to participate in this process. In the present study, we examined the effects of Coccomyxa gloeobotrydiformis (CGD) on learning and memory ability of intrinsic aging rats. As a result, CGD treated (50 mg/kg·d or 100 mg/kg ·d for a duration of 8 weeks) 22-month-old male rats, which have shown significant improvement on learning and spatial memory ability compared with control, which was evidently revealed in both the hidden platform tasks and probe trials. The following immunohistochemistry and Western blot experiments suggested that CGD could increase the content of Ach and thereby improve the function of the cholinergic neurons in the hippocampus, and therefore also improving learning and memory ability of the aged rats by acting as an anti-inflammatory agent. The effects of CGD on learning and memory might also have an association with the ERK/CREB signalling. The results above suggest that the naturally made drug CGD may have several great benefit as a multi-target drug in the process of prevention and/or treatment of age-dependent cognitive decline and aging process. PMID:26078724

  7. Memory improves precision of cell sensing in fluctuating environments

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Gerardo; Tweedy, Luke; Heinrich, Doris; Endres, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Biological cells are often found to sense their chemical environment near the single-molecule detection limit. Surprisingly, this precision is higher than simple estimates of the fundamental physical limit, hinting towards active sensing strategies. In this work, we analyse the effect of cell memory, e.g. from slow biochemical processes, on the precision of sensing by cell-surface receptors. We derive analytical formulas, which show that memory significantly improves sensing in weakly fluctuating environments. However, surprisingly when memory is adjusted dynamically, the precision is always improved, even in strongly fluctuating environments. In support of this prediction we quantify the directional biases in chemotactic Dictyostelium discoideum cells in a flow chamber with alternating chemical gradients. The strong similarities between cell sensing and control engineering suggest universal problem-solving strategies of living matter. PMID:25023459

  8. Brahmi rasayana Improves Learning and Memory in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Hanumanthachar; Parle, Milind

    2006-01-01

    Cure of cognitive disorders such as amnesia, attention deficit and Alzheimer's disease is still a nightmare in the field of medicine. Nootropic agents such as piracetam, aniracetam and choline esterase inhibitors like Donepezil® are being used to improve memory, mood and behavior, but the resulting side effects associated with these agents have made their use limited. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of Brahmi rasayana (BR) as a memory enhancer. BR (100 and 200 mg kg−1 p.o.) was administered for eight successive days to both young and aged mice. Elevated plus maze and passive-avoidance paradigm were employed to evaluate learning and memory parameters. Scopolamine (0.4 mg kg−1 i.p.) was used to induce amnesia in mice. The effect of BR on whole brain AChE activity was also assessed. Piracetam (200 mg kg−1 i.p.) was used as a standard nootropic agent. BR significantly improved learning and memory in young mice and reversed the amnesia induced by both scopolamine (0.4 mg kg−1 i.p.) and natural aging. BR significantly decreased whole brain acetyl cholinesterase activity. BR might prove to be a useful memory restorative agent in the treatment of dementia seen in elderly. PMID:16550227

  9. Working Memory Training: Improving Intelligence--Changing Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2012-01-01

    The main objectives of the study were: to investigate whether training on working memory (WM) could improve fluid intelligence, and to investigate the effects WM training had on neuroelectric (electroencephalography--EEG) and hemodynamic (near-infrared spectroscopy--NIRS) patterns of brain activity. In a parallel group experimental design,…

  10. Endurance Factors Improve Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Spatial Memory in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilo, Tali; Yuan, Chunyan; van Praag, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity improves learning and hippocampal neurogenesis. It is unknown whether compounds that increase endurance in muscle also enhance cognition. We investigated the effects of endurance factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [delta] agonist GW501516 and AICAR, activator of AMP-activated protein kinase on memory and…

  11. Improved Hall-Effect Sensors For Magnetic Memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.; Katti, Romney R.; Chen, Y. C.; Bhattacharya, Pallab K.

    1993-01-01

    High-electron-mobility sensor films deposited on superlattice buffer (strain) layers. Improved Hall-effect sensors offer combination of adequate response and high speed needed for use in micromagnet/Hall-effect random-access memories. Hall-effect material chosen for use in sensors is InAs.

  12. Does working memory training lead to generalized improvements in children with low working memory? A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Dunning, Darren L; Holmes, Joni; Gathercole, Susan E

    2013-01-01

    Children with low working memory typically make poor educational progress, and it has been speculated that difficulties in meeting the heavy working memory demands of the classroom may be a contributory factor. Intensive working memory training has been shown to boost performance on untrained memory tasks in a variety of populations. This first randomized controlled trial with low working memory children investigated whether the benefits of training extend beyond standard working memory tasks to other more complex activities typical of the classroom in which working memory plays a role, as well as to other cognitive skills and developing academic abilities. Children aged 7–9 years received either adaptive working memory training, non-adaptive working memory training with low memory loads, or no training. Adaptive training was associated with selective improvements in multiple untrained tests of working memory, with no evidence of changes in classroom analogues of activities that tax working memory, or any other cognitive assessments. Gains in verbal working memory were sustained one year after training. Thus the benefits of working memory training delivered in this way may not extend beyond structured working memory tasks. PMID:24093880

  13. Controlled architecture for improved macromolecular memory within polymer networks.

    PubMed

    DiPasquale, Stephen A; Byrne, Mark E

    2016-08-01

    This brief review analyzes recent developments in the field of living/controlled polymerization and the potential of this technique for creating imprinted polymers with highly structured architecture with macromolecular memory. As a result, it is possible to engineer polymers at the molecular level with increased homogeneity relating to enhanced template binding and transport. Only recently has living/controlled polymerization been exploited to decrease heterogeneity and substantially improve the efficiency of the imprinting process for both highly and weakly crosslinked imprinted polymers. Living polymerization can be utilized to create imprinted networks that are vastly more efficient than similar polymers produced using conventional free radical polymerization, and these improvements increase the role that macromolecular memory can play in the design and engineering of new drug delivery and sensing platforms. PMID:27322505

  14. Tyrosine improves working memory in a multitasking environment.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J R; Lockwood, P A; Singh, A; Deuster, P A

    1999-11-01

    Previous studies indicate that tyrosine may prove useful in promoting improved performance in situations in which performance is compromised by stress. To extend the generality of previous tyrosine findings, the present study examined the effects of tyrosine ingestion on performance during both a Multiple Task and a Simple Task battery. The multiple task battery was designed to measure working memory, arithmetic skills, and visual and auditory monitoring simultaneously, whereas the simple task battery measured only working memory and visual monitoring. Ten men and 10 women subjects underwent these batteries 1 h after ingesting 150 mg/kg of l-tyrosine or placebo. Administration of tyrosine significantly enhanced accuracy and decreased frequency of list retrieval on the working memory task during the multiple task battery compared with placebo. However, tyrosine induced no significant changes in performance on the arithmetic, visual, or auditory tasks during the Multiple Task, or modified any performance measures during the Simple Task battery. Blood levels of ACTH and cortisol were not, but heart rate and blood pressure were significantly increased during the performance tasks. The present results indicate that tyrosine may sustain working memory when competing requirements to perform other tasks simultaneously degrade performance, and that supplemental tyrosine may be appropriate for maintaining performance when mild to severe decrements are anticipated.

  15. Predictable chronic mild stress improves mood, hippocampal neurogenesis and memory.

    PubMed

    Parihar, V K; Hattiangady, B; Kuruba, R; Shuai, B; Shetty, A K

    2011-02-01

    Maintenance of neurogenesis in adult hippocampus is important for functions such as mood and memory. As exposure to unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) results in decreased hippocampal neurogenesis, enhanced depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, and memory dysfunction, it is believed that declined hippocampal neurogenesis mainly underlies the behavioral and cognitive abnormalities after UCS. However, the effects of predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS) such as the routine stress experienced in day-to-day life on functions such as mood, memory and hippocampal neurogenesis are unknown. Using FST and EPM tests on a prototype of adult rats, we demonstrate that PCMS (comprising 5 min of daily restraint stress for 28 days) decreases depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors for prolonged periods. Moreover, we illustrate that decreased depression and anxiety scores after PCMS are associated with ~1.8-fold increase in the production and growth of new neurons in the hippocampus. Additionally, we found that PCMS leads to enhanced memory function in WMT as well as NORT. Collectively, these findings reveal that PCMS is beneficial to adult brain function, which is exemplified by increased hippocampal neurogenesis and improved mood and cognitive function.

  16. Memory improving and antidepressant effects of topiramate in rats.

    PubMed

    Nowakowska, Elzbieta; Kus, Krzysztof; Czubak, Anna; Jedrzejewska, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    Topiramate (TOP, CAS 97240-79-4) particularly potentiates gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neuroinhibition, and GABA and glutamate receptors, which have also been implicated in memory formation. Patients' giving up treatment due to adverse effects (disorders of attention, memory, and verbal fluency) is the main problem with a therapy based on this drug. The antidepressant effect of TOP administered to rats in the dose of 15 mg/kg is observed only after 14 and 21 days of treatment. The delay in the antidepressant effect of TOP may be due to the modulation of GABA A receptors as well as due to the influence of the drug on receptors for type AMPA/KAIN excitatory amino acids. The research has also shown that long-term treatment with TOP in a dose of 15 mg/kg improved spatial memory, as tested in rats with Morris test. Probably, this results from the influence of the drug on GABA A receptors and the function of glutaminergic receptors (especially in processes like coding, retrieving, and potentiation of information), adaptive processes in the brain, notwithstanding, being an important factor. As TOP is a normothymic drug, its use in the treatment of epilepsy may also positively influence cognitive processes in the so-called interseizure intervals with memory disorders; the same effects can be expected in the treatments of bipolar disorder.

  17. Some Improvements in Utilization of Flash Memory Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gender, Thomas K.; Chow, James; Ott, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Two developments improve the utilization of flash memory devices in the face of the following limitations: (1) a flash write element (page) differs in size from a flash erase element (block), (2) a block must be erased before its is rewritten, (3) lifetime of a flash memory is typically limited to about 1,000,000 erases, (4) as many as 2 percent of the blocks of a given device may fail before the expected end of its life, and (5) to ensure reliability of reading and writing, power must not be interrupted during minimum specified reading and writing times. The first development comprises interrelated software components that regulate reading, writing, and erasure operations to minimize migration of data and unevenness in wear; perform erasures during idle times; quickly make erased blocks available for writing; detect and report failed blocks; maintain the overall state of a flash memory to satisfy real-time performance requirements; and detect and initialize a new flash memory device. The second development is a combination of hardware and software that senses the failure of a main power supply and draws power from a capacitive storage circuit designed to hold enough energy to sustain operation until reading or writing is completed.

  18. Improving digit span assessment of short-term verbal memory.

    PubMed

    Woods, David L; Kishiyamaa, Mark M; Lund, E William; Herron, Timothy J; Edwards, Ben; Poliva, Oren; Hink, Robert F; Reed, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    We measured digit span (DS) in two experiments that used computerized presentation of randomized auditory digits with performance-adapted list length adjustment. A new mean span (MS) metric of DS was developed that showed reduced variance, improved test-retest reliability, and higher correlations with the results of other neuropsychological test results when compared to traditional DS measures. The MS metric also enhanced the sensitivity of forward versus backward span comparisons, enabled the development of normative performance criteria with subdigit precision, and elucidated changes in DS performance with age and education level. Computerized stimulus delivery and improved scoring metrics significantly enhance the precision of DS assessments of short-term verbal memory.

  19. Preliminary evidence that abscisic acid improves spatial memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Qi, Cong-Cong; Ge, Jin-Fang; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2015-02-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a crucial phytohormone that exists in a wide range of animals, including humans, and has multiple bioactivities. As direct derivatives of carotenoids, ABA and retinoic acid (RA) share similar molecular structures, and RA has been reported to improve spatial memory in rodents. To explore the potential effects of ABA on spatial learning and memory in rodents, 20mg/kg ABA was administered to young rats for 6weeks, and its effects on behaviour performance were evaluated through a series of behavioural tests. ABA pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that the exogenous ABA was distributed widely in the rat brain, characterised by rapid absorption and slow elimination. The behavioural tests showed that ABA increased both the duration spent in the target quadrant and the frequency it was entered in the probe test of the Morris water maze (MWM) and decreased the latency to locate the target quadrant. Moreover, ABA decreased the latency to enter the novel arm in the Y-maze test, accompanied by increases in the total entries and distance travelled in the three arms. However, there were no significant differences between the ABA-treated and control rats in the open field test and elevated plus-maze test. These results preliminarily indicate that ABA improves spatial memory in MWM and exploratory activity in Y-maze in young rats.

  20. Working memory training: improving intelligence--changing brain activity.

    PubMed

    Jaušovec, Norbert; Jaušovec, Ksenija

    2012-07-01

    The main objectives of the study were: to investigate whether training on working memory (WM) could improve fluid intelligence, and to investigate the effects WM training had on neuroelectric (electroencephalography - EEG) and hemodynamic (near-infrared spectroscopy - NIRS) patterns of brain activity. In a parallel group experimental design, respondents of the working memory group after 30 h of training significantly increased performance on all tests of fluid intelligence. By contrast, respondents of the active control group (participating in a 30-h communication training course) showed no improvements in performance. The influence of WM training on patterns of neuroelectric brain activity was most pronounced in the theta and alpha bands. Theta and lower-1 alpha band synchronization was accompanied by increased lower-2 and upper alpha desynchronization. The hemodynamic patterns of brain activity after the training changed from higher right hemispheric activation to a balanced activity of both frontal areas. The neuroelectric as well as hemodynamic patterns of brain activity suggest that the training influenced WM maintenance functions as well as processes directed by the central executive. The changes in upper alpha band desynchronization could further indicate that processes related to long term memory were also influenced.

  1. Working Memory Training Does Not Improve Intelligence in Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chooi, Weng-Tink; Thompson, Lee A.

    2012-01-01

    Jaeggi and her colleagues claimed that they were able to improve fluid intelligence by training working memory. Subjects who trained their working memory on a dual n-back task for a period of time showed significant improvements in working memory span tasks and fluid intelligence tests such as the Raven's Progressive Matrices and the Bochumer…

  2. Correcting Memory Improves Accuracy of Predicted Task Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Michael M.; Mitten, Scott T.; Christenfeld, Nicholas J. S.

    2008-01-01

    People are often inaccurate in predicting task duration. The memory bias explanation holds that this error is due to people having incorrect memories of how long previous tasks have taken, and these biased memories cause biased predictions. Therefore, the authors examined the effect on increasing predictive accuracy of correcting memory through…

  3. A Short Executive Function Training Program Improves Preschoolers’ Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Blakey, Emma; Carroll, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive training has been shown to improve executive functions (EFs) in middle childhood and adulthood. However, fewer studies have targeted the preschool years—a time when EFs undergo rapid development. The present study tested the effects of a short four session EF training program in 54 four-year-olds. The training group significantly improved their working memory from pre-training relative to an active control group. Notably, this effect extended to a task sharing few surface features with the trained tasks, and continued to be apparent 3 months later. In addition, the benefits of training extended to a measure of mathematical reasoning 3 months later, indicating that training EFs during the preschool years has the potential to convey benefits that are both long-lasting and wide-ranging. PMID:26635710

  4. Refreshing memory traces: thinking of an item improves retrieval from visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Souza, Alessandra S; Rerko, Laura; Oberauer, Klaus

    2015-03-01

    This article provides evidence that refreshing, a hypothetical attention-based process operating in working memory (WM), improves the accessibility of visual representations for recall. "Thinking of", one of several concurrently active representations, is assumed to refresh its trace in WM, protecting the representation from being forgotten. The link between refreshing and WM performance, however, has only been tenuously supported by empirical evidence. Here, we controlled which and how often individual items were refreshed in a color reconstruction task by presenting cues prompting participants to think of specific WM items during the retention interval. We show that the frequency with which an item is refreshed improves recall of this item from visual WM. Our study establishes a role of refreshing in recall from visual WM and provides a new method for studying the impact of refreshing on the amount of information we can keep accessible for ongoing cognition. PMID:25557544

  5. Physostigmine: Improvement of Long-Term Memory Processes in Normal Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kenneth L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Nineteen normal male subjects received one milligram of physotigmine or one milligram of saline by slow intravenous infusion on two nonconsecutive days. Physostigmine significantly enhanced storage of information into long-term memory. Retrieval of information from long-term memory was improved. Short-term memory processes were not significantly…

  6. Look before you leap: sensory memory improves decision making.

    PubMed

    Vlassova, Alexandra; Pearson, Joel

    2013-09-01

    Simple decisions require the processing and evaluation of perceptual and cognitive information, the formation of a decision, and often the execution of a motor response. This process involves the accumulation of evidence over time until a particular choice reaches a decision threshold. Using a random-dot-motion stimulus, we showed that simply delaying responses after the stimulus offset can almost double accuracy, even in the absence of new incoming visual information. However, under conditions in which the otherwise blank interval was filled with a sensory mask or concurrent working memory load was high, performance gains were lost. Further, memory and perception showed equivalent rates of evidence accumulation, suggesting a high-capacity memory store. We propose an account of continued evidence accumulation by sequential sampling from a simultaneously decaying memory trace. Memories typically decay with time, hence immediate inquiry trumps later recall from memory. However, the results we report here show the inverse: Inspecting a memory trumps viewing the actual object.

  7. Choline reverses scopolamine-induced memory impairment by improving memory reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Blake, M G; Boccia, M M; Krawczyk, M C; Delorenzi, A; Baratti, C M

    2012-09-01

    It is widely known that pre-training systemic administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine (SCP) (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) leads to anterograde memory impairment in retention tests. The administration of the α(7)-nicotinic receptor agonist choline (Ch) in the dorsal hippocampus (0.8μg/hippocampus) immediately after memory reactivation allowed recovery from scopolamine-induced memory impairment. This effect of Ch was time-dependent, and retention performance was not affected in drug-treated mice that were not subjected to memory reactivation, suggesting that the performance effects are not due to non-specific effects of the drug. The effects of Ch also depended on the age of the reactivated memory. Altogether, our results suggest that Ch exerts its effects by modulating memory reconsolidation, and that the memory impairment induced by low doses of SCP is a memory expression failure and not a storage deficit. Therefore, reconsolidation, among other functions, might serve to change memory expression in later tests. Summarizing, our results open new avenues about the behavioral significance and the physiological functions of memory reconsolidation, providing new strategies for recovering memories from some types of amnesia.

  8. Electrical stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex improves memory monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chua, Elizabeth F; Ahmed, Rifat

    2016-05-01

    The ability to accurately monitor one's own memory is an important feature of normal memory function. Converging evidence from neuroimaging and lesion studies have implicated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in memory monitoring. Here we used high definition transcranial direct stimulation (HD-tDCS), a non-invasive form of brain stimulation, to test whether the DLPFC has a causal role in memory monitoring, and the nature of that role. We used a metamemory monitoring task, in which participants first attempted to recall the answer to a general knowledge question, then gave a feeling-of-knowing (FOK) judgment, followed by a forced choice recognition task. When participants received DLPFC stimulation, their feeling-of-knowing judgments were better predictors of memory performance, i.e., they had better memory monitoring accuracy, compared to stimulation of a control site, the anterior temporal lobe (ATL). Effects of DLPFC stimulation were specific to monitoring accuracy, as there was no significant increase in memory performance, and if anything, there was poorer memory performance with DLPFC stimulation. Thus we have demonstrated a causal role for the DLPFC in memory monitoring, and showed that electrically stimulating the left DLPFC led people to more accurately monitor and judge their own memory. PMID:26970142

  9. Mind the gap: delayed manifestation of long-term object memory improvement by phosphodiesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Akkerman, S; Blokland, A; Prickaerts, J

    2014-03-01

    We examined the temporal profile of pharmacologically enhanced episodic memory, using the object recognition task. Male Wistar rats were tested at different retention intervals ranging from 1 h to 24 h. The object discrimination performance of all groups (untreated, placebo, drug treatment) gradually decreased up to an interval (8 h). Interestingly, only after this 8 h interval the memory improving effects of vardenafil and rolipram started to emerge. This time-dependent memory performance shows similarities with the Kamin effect. The delayed manifestation of drug-enhanced memory suggests that two separate memory mechanisms are at play, a quick transient form of memory and a more stable memory form that requires several hours to develop. It is important to take this into account when testing treatments intended for long-term memory enhancement.

  10. Memory

    MedlinePlus

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  11. Acute social stress before the planning phase improves memory performance in a complex real life-related prospective memory task.

    PubMed

    Glienke, Katharina; Piefke, Martina

    2016-09-01

    Successful execution of intentions, but also the failure to recall are common phenomena in everyday life. The planning, retention, and realization of intentions are often framed as the scientific concept of prospective memory. The current study aimed to examine the influence of acute stress on key dimensions of complex "real life" prospective memory. To this end, we applied a prospective memory task that involved the planning, retention, and performance of intentions during a fictional holiday week. Forty healthy males participated in the study. Half of the subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions, and the other half of the participants underwent a control procedure at the same time. Salivary cortisol was used to measure the effectiveness of the SECPT stress induction. Stressed participants did not differ from controls in planning accuracy. However, when we compared stressed participants with controls during prospective memory retrieval, we found statistically significant differences in PM across the performance phase. Participants treated with the SECPT procedure before the planning phase showed improved prospective memory retrieval over time, while performance of controls declined. Particularly, there was a significant difference between the stress and control group for the last two days of the holiday week. Interestingly, control participants showed significantly better performance for early than later learned items, which could be an indicator of a primacy effect. This differential effect of stress on performance was also found in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that acute stress induced before the planning phase may improve prospective memory over the time course of the performance phase in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our data thus indicate that prospective memory can be enhanced by acute stress. PMID:27370532

  12. Acute social stress before the planning phase improves memory performance in a complex real life-related prospective memory task.

    PubMed

    Glienke, Katharina; Piefke, Martina

    2016-09-01

    Successful execution of intentions, but also the failure to recall are common phenomena in everyday life. The planning, retention, and realization of intentions are often framed as the scientific concept of prospective memory. The current study aimed to examine the influence of acute stress on key dimensions of complex "real life" prospective memory. To this end, we applied a prospective memory task that involved the planning, retention, and performance of intentions during a fictional holiday week. Forty healthy males participated in the study. Half of the subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions, and the other half of the participants underwent a control procedure at the same time. Salivary cortisol was used to measure the effectiveness of the SECPT stress induction. Stressed participants did not differ from controls in planning accuracy. However, when we compared stressed participants with controls during prospective memory retrieval, we found statistically significant differences in PM across the performance phase. Participants treated with the SECPT procedure before the planning phase showed improved prospective memory retrieval over time, while performance of controls declined. Particularly, there was a significant difference between the stress and control group for the last two days of the holiday week. Interestingly, control participants showed significantly better performance for early than later learned items, which could be an indicator of a primacy effect. This differential effect of stress on performance was also found in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that acute stress induced before the planning phase may improve prospective memory over the time course of the performance phase in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our data thus indicate that prospective memory can be enhanced by acute stress.

  13. Maternal zinc supplementation improves spatial memory in rat pups.

    PubMed

    Piechal, Agnieszka; Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Pyrzanowska, Justyna; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa

    2012-06-01

    A large body of evidence supports an opinion that adequate dietary zinc is essential for prenatal and postnatal brain development. Behavioural effects of maternal supplementation with ZnSO(4) were analysed in rat pups with the Morris water task performance, a hole board and a T-maze. Wistar females during pregnancy and lactation received a drinking water solution of ZnSO(4) at doses of 16 mg/kg (group Zn16) or 32 mg/kg (group Zn32). Behavioural tests were conducted on the 4-week-old male rat pups. Zinc concentration in the serum, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of offsprings was determined by means of atomic absorption techniques. The Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test revealed an increase of climbing in the Zn16 group in comparison to the control group (Con) and the Zn32 group during the hole board test. ANOVA for repeated measures showed a significant memory improvement in both supplemented groups compared to the control in the probe trial on day 5 of the water maze test. ZnSO(4) treatment significantly elevated zinc levels in the rat serum. Follow-up data on brain content of zinc in the hippocampus revealed significant differences between the groups and in supplemented groups correlated with crossings above the original platform position. These findings suggest that pre- and postnatal zinc supplementation may improve cognitive development in rats.

  14. Analysis of memory use for improved design and compile-time allocation of local memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcniven, Geoffrey D.; Davidson, Edward S.

    1986-01-01

    Trace analysis techniques are used to study memory referencing behavior for the purpose of designing local memories and determining how to allocate them for data and instructions. In an attempt to assess the inherent behavior of the source code, the trace analysis system described here reduced the effects of the compiler and host architecture on the trace by using a technical called flattening. The variables in the trace, their associated single-assignment values, and references are histogrammed on the basis of various parameters describing memory referencing behavior. Bounds are developed specifying the amount of memory space required to store all live values in a particular histogram class. The reduction achieved in main memory traffic by allocating local memory is specified for each class.

  15. Negative affect improves the quality of memories: trading capacity for precision in sensory and working memory.

    PubMed

    Spachtholz, Philipp; Kuhbandner, Christof; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2014-08-01

    Research has shown that negative affect reduces working memory capacity. Commonly, this effect has been attributed to an allocation of resources to task-irrelevant thoughts, suggesting that negative affect has detrimental consequences for working memory performance. However, rather than simply being a detrimental effect, the affect-induced capacity reduction may reflect a trading of capacity for precision of stored representations. To test this hypothesis, we induced neutral or negative affect and concurrently measured the number and precision of representations stored in sensory and working memory. Compared with neutral affect, negative affect reduced the capacity of both sensory and working memory. However, in both memory systems, this decrease in capacity was accompanied by an increase in precision. These findings demonstrate that observers unintentionally trade capacity for precision as a function of affective state and indicate that negative affect can be beneficial for the quality of memories.

  16. High estradiol levels improve false memory rates and meta-memory in highly schizotypal women.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Sophie; Hausmann, Markus; Weis, Susanne

    2015-10-30

    Overconfidence in false memories is often found in patients with schizophrenia and healthy participants with high levels of schizotypy, indicating an impairment of meta-cognition within the memory domain. In general, cognitive control is suggested to be modulated by natural fluctuations in oestrogen. However, whether oestrogen exerts beneficial effects on meta-memory has not yet been investigated. The present study sought to provide evidence that high levels of schizotypy are associated with increased false memory rates and overconfidence in false memories, and that these processes may be modulated by natural differences in estradiol levels. Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, it was found that highly schizotypal participants with high estradiol produced significantly fewer false memories than those with low estradiol. No such difference was found within the low schizotypy participants. Highly schizotypal participants with high estradiol were also less confident in their false memories than those with low estradiol; low schizotypy participants with high estradiol were more confident. However, these differences only approached significance. These findings suggest that the beneficial effect of estradiol on memory and meta-memory observed in healthy participants is specific to highly schizotypal individuals and might be related to individual differences in baseline dopaminergic activity.

  17. High estradiol levels improve false memory rates and meta-memory in highly schizotypal women.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Sophie; Hausmann, Markus; Weis, Susanne

    2015-10-30

    Overconfidence in false memories is often found in patients with schizophrenia and healthy participants with high levels of schizotypy, indicating an impairment of meta-cognition within the memory domain. In general, cognitive control is suggested to be modulated by natural fluctuations in oestrogen. However, whether oestrogen exerts beneficial effects on meta-memory has not yet been investigated. The present study sought to provide evidence that high levels of schizotypy are associated with increased false memory rates and overconfidence in false memories, and that these processes may be modulated by natural differences in estradiol levels. Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, it was found that highly schizotypal participants with high estradiol produced significantly fewer false memories than those with low estradiol. No such difference was found within the low schizotypy participants. Highly schizotypal participants with high estradiol were also less confident in their false memories than those with low estradiol; low schizotypy participants with high estradiol were more confident. However, these differences only approached significance. These findings suggest that the beneficial effect of estradiol on memory and meta-memory observed in healthy participants is specific to highly schizotypal individuals and might be related to individual differences in baseline dopaminergic activity. PMID:26292620

  18. Methionine increases BDNF DNA methylation and improves memory in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, R Ryley; Buckingham, Susan C; Mascia, Katherine L; Johnson, Jarvis J; Matyjasik, Michal M; Lockhart, Roxanne M; Lubin, Farah D

    2015-01-01

    Objective Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients exhibit signs of memory impairments even when seizures are pharmacologically controlled. Surprisingly, the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in TLE-associated memory impairments remain elusive. Memory consolidation requires epigenetic transcriptional regulation of genes in the hippocampus; therefore, we aimed to determine how epigenetic DNA methylation mechanisms affect learning-induced transcription of memory-permissive genes in the epileptic hippocampus. Methods Using the kainate rodent model of TLE and focusing on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) gene as a candidate of DNA methylation-mediated transcription, we analyzed DNA methylation levels in epileptic rats following learning. After detection of aberrant DNA methylation at the Bdnf gene, we investigated functional effects of altered DNA methylation on hippocampus-dependent memory formation in our TLE rodent model. Results We found that behaviorally driven BdnfDNA methylation was associated with hippocampus-dependent memory deficits. Bisulfite sequencing revealed that decreased BdnfDNA methylation levels strongly correlated with abnormally high levels of BdnfmRNA in the epileptic hippocampus during memory consolidation. Methyl supplementation via methionine (Met) increased BdnfDNA methylation and reduced BdnfmRNA levels in the epileptic hippocampus during memory consolidation. Met administration reduced interictal spike activity, increased theta rhythm power, and reversed memory deficits in epileptic animals. The rescue effect of Met treatment on learning-induced BdnfDNA methylation, Bdnf gene expression, and hippocampus-dependent memory, were attenuated by DNA methyltransferase blockade. Interpretation Our findings suggest that manipulation of DNA methylation in the epileptic hippocampus should be considered as a viable treatment option to ameliorate memory impairments associated with TLE. PMID:25909085

  19. Music training improves verbal but not visual memory: cross-sectional and longitudinal explorations in children.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yim-Chi; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Chan, Agnes S

    2003-07-01

    The hypothesis that music training can improve verbal memory was tested in children. The results showed that children with music training demonstrated better verbal but not visual memory than did their counterparts without such training. When these children were followed up after a year, those who had begun or continued music training demonstrated significant verbal memory improvement. Students who discontinued the training did not show any improvement. Contrary to the differences in verbal memory between the groups, their changes in visual memory were not significantly different. Consistent with previous findings for adults (A. S. Chan, Y. Ho, & M. Cheung, 1998), the results suggest that music training systematically affects memory processing in accordance with possible neuroanatomical modifications in the left temporal lobe.

  20. Do Computerised Training Programmes Designed to Improve Working Memory Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apter, Brian J. B.

    2012-01-01

    A critical review of working memory training research during the last 10 years is provided. Particular attention is given to research that has attempted to investigate the efficacy of commercially marketed computerised training programmes such as "Cogmed" and "Jungle Memory". Claimed benefits are questioned on the basis that research methodologies…

  1. Improved memory word line configuration allows high storage density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Plated wire memory word drive line allows high storage density, good plated wire transmission and a simplified memory plane configuration. A half-turn word drive line with a magnetic keeper is used. The ground plane provides the return path for both the word current and the plated wire transmission line.

  2. Do transactive memory and participative teamwork improve nurses' quality of work life?

    PubMed

    Brunault, Paul; Fouquereau, Evelyne; Colombat, Philippe; Gillet, Nicolas; El-Hage, Wissam; Camus, Vincent; Gaillard, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Improvement in nurses' quality of work life (QWL) has become a major issue in health care organizations. We hypothesized that the level of transactive memory (defined as the way groups collectively encode, store, and retrieve knowledge) and participative teamwork (an organizational model of care based on vocational training, a specific service's care project, and regular interdisciplinary staffing) positively affect nurses' QWL. This cross-sectional study enrolled 84 ward-based psychiatric nurses. We assessed transactive memory, participative teamwork, perceived organizational justice, perceived organizational support, and QWL using psychometrically reliable and valid scales. Participative teamwork and transactive memory were positively associated with nurses' QWL. Perceived organizational support and organizational justice fully mediated the relationship between participative teamwork and QWL, but not between transactive memory and QWL. Improved transactive memory could directly improve nurses' QWL. Improved participative teamwork could improve nurses' QWL through better perceived organizational support and perceived organizational justice.

  3. Ascent to moderate altitude impairs overnight memory improvements.

    PubMed

    Tesler, Noemi; Latshang, Tsogyal D; Lo Cascio, Christian M; Stadelmann, Katrin; Stoewhas, Anne-Christin; Kohler, Malcolm; Bloch, Konrad E; Achermann, Peter; Huber, Reto

    2015-02-01

    Several studies showed beneficial effects of sleep on memory performance. Slow waves, the electroencephalographic characteristic of deep sleep, reflected on the neuronal level by synchronous slow oscillations, seem crucial for these benefits. Traveling to moderate altitudes decreases deep sleep. In a randomized cross-over design healthy male subjects performed a visuo-motor learning task in Zurich (490 m) and at Davos Jakobshorn (2590 m) in random order. Memory performance was assessed immediately after learning, before sleep, and in the morning after a night of sleep. Sleep EEG recordings were performed during the nights. Our findings show an altitude induced reduction of sleep dependent memory performance. Moreover, this impaired sleep dependent memory performance was associated with reduced slow wave derived measures of neuronal synchronization. Our results are consistent with a critical role of slow waves for the beneficial effects of sleep on memory that is susceptible to natural environmental influences. PMID:25449393

  4. Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  5. An improved spatial span test of visuospatial memory.

    PubMed

    Woods, David L; Wyma, John M; Herron, Timothy J; Yund, E William

    2016-09-01

    In the widely used Corsi Block Test and Wechsler Spatial Span Tests, participants must reproduce sequences of blocks in the order touched by the examiner until two trials are missed at the same sequence length. The examiner records either the maximum number of blocks correctly reported or the total number of correct lists. Here, we describe a computerized spatial span test (C-SST) that uses psychophysical procedures to quantify visuospatial mean span (MnS) with sub-digit precision. Results from 187 participants ranging in age from 18 to 82 years showed that accuracy declined gradually with list length around the MnS (by ∼30% per item). Simulation studies revealed high variance and biases in CBT and Wechsler measures, and demonstrated that the C-SST provided the most accurate estimate of true span (i.e., the sequence length producing 50% correct). MnS declined more rapidly with age than mean digit span (MnDS) measured in the same participants. Response times correlated with both MnS and MnDS scores. Error analysis showed that omission and transposition errors predominated, with weaker primacy and recency effects in spatial span than digit span testing. The C-SST improves the precision of spatial span testing and reveals significant differences between visuospatial and verbal working memory.

  6. An improved spatial span test of visuospatial memory.

    PubMed

    Woods, David L; Wyma, John M; Herron, Timothy J; Yund, E William

    2016-09-01

    In the widely used Corsi Block Test and Wechsler Spatial Span Tests, participants must reproduce sequences of blocks in the order touched by the examiner until two trials are missed at the same sequence length. The examiner records either the maximum number of blocks correctly reported or the total number of correct lists. Here, we describe a computerized spatial span test (C-SST) that uses psychophysical procedures to quantify visuospatial mean span (MnS) with sub-digit precision. Results from 187 participants ranging in age from 18 to 82 years showed that accuracy declined gradually with list length around the MnS (by ∼30% per item). Simulation studies revealed high variance and biases in CBT and Wechsler measures, and demonstrated that the C-SST provided the most accurate estimate of true span (i.e., the sequence length producing 50% correct). MnS declined more rapidly with age than mean digit span (MnDS) measured in the same participants. Response times correlated with both MnS and MnDS scores. Error analysis showed that omission and transposition errors predominated, with weaker primacy and recency effects in spatial span than digit span testing. The C-SST improves the precision of spatial span testing and reveals significant differences between visuospatial and verbal working memory. PMID:26357906

  7. Holographic implementation of a binary associative memory for improved recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somnath; Ghosh, Ajay; Datta, Asit K.

    1998-03-01

    Neural network associate memory has found wide application sin pattern recognition techniques. We propose an associative memory model for binary character recognition. The interconnection strengths of the memory are binary valued. The concept of sparse coding is sued to enhance the storage efficiency of the model. The question of imposed preconditioning of pattern vectors, which is inherent in a sparsely coded conventional memory, is eliminated by using a multistep correlation technique an the ability of correct association is enhanced in a real-time application. A potential optoelectronic implementation of the proposed associative memory is also described. The learning and recall is possible by using digital optical matrix-vector multiplication, where full use of parallelism and connectivity of optics is made. A hologram is used in the experiment as a longer memory (LTM) for storing all input information. The short-term memory or the interconnection weight matrix required during the recall process is configured by retrieving the necessary information from the holographic LTM.

  8. Working memory training to improve speech perception in noise across languages

    PubMed Central

    Ingvalson, Erin M.; Dhar, Sumitrajit; Wong, Patrick C. M.; Liu, Hanjun

    2015-01-01

    Working memory capacity has been linked to performance on many higher cognitive tasks, including the ability to perceive speech in noise. Current efforts to train working memory have demonstrated that working memory performance can be improved, suggesting that working memory training may lead to improved speech perception in noise. A further advantage of working memory training to improve speech perception in noise is that working memory training materials are often simple, such as letters or digits, making them easily translatable across languages. The current effort tested the hypothesis that working memory training would be associated with improved speech perception in noise and that materials would easily translate across languages. Native Mandarin Chinese and native English speakers completed ten days of reversed digit span training. Reading span and speech perception in noise both significantly improved following training, whereas untrained controls showed no gains. These data suggest that working memory training may be used to improve listeners' speech perception in noise and that the materials may be quickly adapted to a wide variety of listeners. PMID:26093435

  9. Working memory training to improve speech perception in noise across languages.

    PubMed

    Ingvalson, Erin M; Dhar, Sumitrajit; Wong, Patrick C M; Liu, Hanjun

    2015-06-01

    Working memory capacity has been linked to performance on many higher cognitive tasks, including the ability to perceive speech in noise. Current efforts to train working memory have demonstrated that working memory performance can be improved, suggesting that working memory training may lead to improved speech perception in noise. A further advantage of working memory training to improve speech perception in noise is that working memory training materials are often simple, such as letters or digits, making them easily translatable across languages. The current effort tested the hypothesis that working memory training would be associated with improved speech perception in noise and that materials would easily translate across languages. Native Mandarin Chinese and native English speakers completed ten days of reversed digit span training. Reading span and speech perception in noise both significantly improved following training, whereas untrained controls showed no gains. These data suggest that working memory training may be used to improve listeners' speech perception in noise and that the materials may be quickly adapted to a wide variety of listeners.

  10. A Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention improves memory of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Agnes S.; Sze, Sophia L.; Woo, Jean; Yu, Ruby H.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the potential benefits of a Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention on enhancing memory in older people with lower memory function. Forty-four aged 60–83 adults with various level of memory ability participated in the study. Their memories (including verbal and visual components) were assessed before and after 3 months intervention. The intervention consisted of 12 sessions, with one 90 min session per week. The intervention involved components of adopting a special vegetarian diet, practicing a type of mind–body exercises, and learning self-realization. Elderly with lower memory function at the baseline (i.e., their performance on standardized memory tests was within 25th percentile) showed a significant memory improvement after the intervention. Their verbal and visual memory performance has showed 50 and 49% enhancement, respectively. In addition, their improvement can be considered as a reliable and clinically significant change as reflected by their significant pre–post differences and reliable change indices. Such robust treatment effect was found to be specific to memory functions, but less influencing on the other cognitive functions. These preliminary encouraging results have shed some light on the potential applicability of the Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention as a method for enhancing memory in the elderly population. PMID:24723885

  11. A Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention improves memory of older adults.

    PubMed

    Chan, Agnes S; Sze, Sophia L; Woo, Jean; Yu, Ruby H

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the potential benefits of a Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention on enhancing memory in older people with lower memory function. Forty-four aged 60-83 adults with various level of memory ability participated in the study. Their memories (including verbal and visual components) were assessed before and after 3 months intervention. The intervention consisted of 12 sessions, with one 90 min session per week. The intervention involved components of adopting a special vegetarian diet, practicing a type of mind-body exercises, and learning self-realization. Elderly with lower memory function at the baseline (i.e., their performance on standardized memory tests was within 25th percentile) showed a significant memory improvement after the intervention. Their verbal and visual memory performance has showed 50 and 49% enhancement, respectively. In addition, their improvement can be considered as a reliable and clinically significant change as reflected by their significant pre-post differences and reliable change indices. Such robust treatment effect was found to be specific to memory functions, but less influencing on the other cognitive functions. These preliminary encouraging results have shed some light on the potential applicability of the Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention as a method for enhancing memory in the elderly population.

  12. 10 Hz flicker improves recognition memory in older people

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jonathan; Ramaswamy, Deepa; Oulhaj, Abderrahim

    2006-01-01

    Background 10 Hz electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha rhythms correlate with memory performance. Alpha and memory decline in older people. We wished to test if alpha-like EEG activity contributes to memory formation. Flicker can elicit alpha-like EEG activity. We tested if alpha-frequency flicker enhances memory in older people. Pariticpants aged 67–92 identified short words that followed 1 s of flicker at 9.0 Hz, 9.5 Hz, 10.0 Hz, 10.2 Hz, 10.5 Hz, 11.0 Hz, 11.5 Hz or 500 Hz. A few minutes later, we tested participants' recognition of the words (without flicker). Results Flicker frequencies close to 10 Hz (9.5–11.0 Hz) facilitated the identification of the test words in older participants. The same flicker frequencies increased recognition of the words more than other frequencies (9.0 Hz, 11.5 Hz and 500 Hz), irrespective of age. Conclusion The frequency-specificity of flicker's effects in our participants paralleled the power spectrum of EEG alpha in the general population. This indicates that alpha-like EEG activity may subserve memory processes. Flicker may be able to help memory problems in older people. PMID:16515710

  13. Neural Conflict–Control Mechanisms Improve Memory for Target Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Ruth M.; Boehler, Carsten N.; De Belder, Maya; Egner, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    According to conflict-monitoring models, conflict serves as an internal signal for reinforcing top-down attention to task-relevant information. While evidence based on measures of ongoing task performance supports this idea, implications for long-term consequences, that is, memory, have not been tested yet. Here, we evaluated the prediction that conflict-triggered attentional enhancement of target-stimulus processing should be associated with superior subsequent memory for those stimuli. By combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a novel variant of a face-word Stroop task that employed trial-unique face stimuli as targets, we were able to assess subsequent (incidental) memory for target faces as a function of whether a given face had previously been accompanied by congruent, neutral, or incongruent (conflicting) distracters. In line with our predictions, incongruent distracters not only induced behavioral conflict, but also gave rise to enhanced memory for target faces. Moreover, conflict-triggered neural activity in prefrontal and parietal regions was predictive of subsequent retrieval success, and displayed conflict-enhanced functional coupling with medial-temporal lobe regions. These data provide support for the proposal that conflict evokes enhanced top-down attention to task-relevant stimuli, thereby promoting their encoding into long-term memory. Our findings thus delineate the neural mechanisms of a novel link between cognitive control and memory. PMID:24108799

  14. How sodium arsenite improve amyloid β-induced memory deficit?

    PubMed

    Nassireslami, Ehsan; Nikbin, Parmida; Amini, Elham; Payandemehr, Borna; Shaerzadeh, Fatemeh; Khodagholi, Fariba; Yazdi, Behnoosh Bonakdar; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Taghizadeh, Ghorban; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Evidence has shown that arsenic exposure, besides its toxic effects results in impairment of learning and memory, but its molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we examined sodium arsenite (1, 5, 10, 100nM) effects on contextual and tone memory of male rats in Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm alone and in co-administration with β-amyloid. We detected changes in the level of caspase-3, nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), cAMP response element-binding (CREB), heme oxygenase-1 and NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) by Western blot. Sodium arsenite in high doses induced significant memory impairment 9 and 16days after infusion. By contrast, low doses of sodium arsenite attenuate memory deficit in Aβ injected rats after 16days. Our data revealed that treatment with high concentration of sodium arsenite increased caspase-3 cleavage and NF-κB level, 9days after injection. Whereas, low doses of sodium arsenite cause Nrf2 and HO-1 activation and increased CREB phosphorylation in the hippocampus. These findings suggest the concentration dependent effects of sodium arsenite on contextual and tone memory. Moreover, it seems that the neuroprotective effects of ultra-low concentrations of sodium arsenite on Aβ-induced memory impairment is mediated via an increase Nrf2, HO-1 and CREB phosphorylation levels and decrease caspase-3 and NF-κB amount. PMID:27129674

  15. Improving Memory Characteristics of Hydrogenated Nanocrystalline Silicon Germanium Nonvolatile Memory Devices by Controlling Germanium Contents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiwoong; Jang, Kyungsoo; Phu, Nguyen Thi Cam; Trinh, Thanh Thuy; Raja, Jayapal; Kim, Taeyong; Cho, Jaehyun; Kim, Sangho; Park, Jinjoo; Jung, Junhee; Lee, Youn-Jung; Yi, Junsin

    2016-05-01

    Nonvolatile memory (NVM) with silicon dioxide/silicon nitride/silicon oxynitride (ONO(n)) charge trap structure is a promising flash memory technology duo that will fulfill process compatibility for system-on-panel displays, down-scaling cell size and low operation voltage. In this research, charge trap flash devices were fabricated with ONO(n) stack gate insulators and an active layer using hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon germanium (nc-SiGe:H) films at a low temperature. In this study, the effect of the interface trap density on the performance of devices, including memory window and retention, was investigated. The electrical characteristics of NVM devices were studied controlling Ge content from 0% to 28% in the nc-SiGe:H channel layer. The optimal Ge content in the channel layer was found to be around 16%. For nc-SiGe:H NVM with 16% Ge content, the memory window was 3.13 V and the retention data exceeded 77% after 10 years under the programming condition of 15 V for 1 msec. This showed that the memory window increased by 42% and the retention increased by 12% compared to the nc-Si:H NVM that does not contain Ge. However, when the Ge content was more than 16%, the memory window and retention property decreased. Finally, this research showed that the Ge content has an effect on the interface trap density and this enabled us to determine the optimal Ge content. PMID:27483856

  16. When Kids Act Out: A Comparison of Embodied Methods to Improve Children's Memory for a Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenhaus, Molly; Oakhill, Jane; Rusted, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, embodied cognition, the idea that sensorimotor processes facilitate higher cognitive processes, has proven useful for improving children's memory for a story. In order to compare the benefits of two embodiment techniques, active experiencing (AE) and indexing, for children's memory for a story, we compared the immediate…

  17. Utilizing Computerized Cognitive Training to Improve Working Memory and Encoding: Piloting a School-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiest, Dudley J.; Wong, Eugene H.; Minero, Laura P.; Pumaccahua, Tessy T.

    2014-01-01

    Working memory has been well documented as a significant predictor of academic outcomes (e.g., reading and math achievement as well as general life outcomes). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of computerized cognitive training to improve both working memory and encoding abilities in a school setting. Thirty students…

  18. Herbal-caffeinated chewing gum, but not bubble gum, improves aspects of memory.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Matthew G

    2011-08-01

    Research has shown that standard chewing gum can affect aspects of both attention and memory. The present study examined the effects of Think Gum®, a caffeinated-herbal chewing gum, on both concentration and memory using a series of paper-based and online testing. Compared to standard chewing gum and a no-gum control, chewing caffeinated-herbal gum during testing improved aspects of memory, but did not affect concentration. The findings suggest that caffeinated-herbal chewing gum is an effective memory aid.

  19. Herbal-caffeinated chewing gum, but not bubble gum, improves aspects of memory.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Matthew G

    2011-08-01

    Research has shown that standard chewing gum can affect aspects of both attention and memory. The present study examined the effects of Think Gum®, a caffeinated-herbal chewing gum, on both concentration and memory using a series of paper-based and online testing. Compared to standard chewing gum and a no-gum control, chewing caffeinated-herbal gum during testing improved aspects of memory, but did not affect concentration. The findings suggest that caffeinated-herbal chewing gum is an effective memory aid. PMID:21570431

  20. Expertise for upright faces improves the precision but not the capacity of visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Lorenc, Elizabeth S; Pratte, Michael S; Angeloni, Christopher F; Tong, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Considerable research has focused on how basic visual features are maintained in working memory, but little is currently known about the precision or capacity of visual working memory for complex objects. How precisely can an object be remembered, and to what extent might familiarity or perceptual expertise contribute to working memory performance? To address these questions, we developed a set of computer-generated face stimuli that varied continuously along the dimensions of age and gender, and we probed participants' memories using a method-of-adjustment reporting procedure. This paradigm allowed us to separately estimate the precision and capacity of working memory for individual faces, on the basis of the assumptions of a discrete capacity model, and to assess the impact of face inversion on memory performance. We found that observers could maintain up to four to five items on average, with equally good memory capacity for upright and upside-down faces. In contrast, memory precision was significantly impaired by face inversion at every set size tested. Our results demonstrate that the precision of visual working memory for a complex stimulus is not strictly fixed but, instead, can be modified by learning and experience. We find that perceptual expertise for upright faces leads to significant improvements in visual precision, without modifying the capacity of working memory. PMID:24627213

  1. Working memory-driven attention improves spatial resolution: Support for perceptual enhancement.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yi; Luo, Qianying; Cheng, Min

    2016-08-01

    Previous research has indicated that attention can be biased toward those stimuli matching the contents of working memory and thereby facilitates visual processing at the location of the memory-matching stimuli. However, whether this working memory-driven attentional modulation takes place on early perceptual processes remains unclear. Our present results showed that working memory-driven attention improved identification of a brief Landolt target presented alone in the visual field. Because the suprathreshold target appeared without any external noise added (i.e., no distractors or masks), the results suggest that working memory-driven attention enhances the target signal at early perceptual stages of visual processing. Furthermore, given that performance in the Landolt target identification task indexes spatial resolution, this attentional facilitation indicates that working memory-driven attention can boost early perceptual processing via enhancement of spatial resolution at the attended location.

  2. Improved memory loading techniques for the TSRV display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easley, W. C.; Lynn, W. A.; Mcluer, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    A recent upgrade of the TSRV research flight system at NASA Langley Research Center retained the original monochrome display system. However, the display memory loading equipment was replaced requiring design and development of new methods of performing this task. This paper describes the new techniques developed to load memory in the display system. An outdated paper tape method for loading the BOOTSTRAP control program was replaced by EPROM storage of the characters contained on the tape. Rather than move a tape past an optical reader, a counter was implemented which steps sequentially through EPROM addresses and presents the same data to the loader circuitry. A cumbersome cassette tape method for loading the applications software was replaced with a floppy disk method using a microprocessor terminal installed as part of the upgrade. The cassette memory image was transferred to disk and a specific software loader was written for the terminal which duplicates the function of the cassette loader.

  3. Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) and d-methamphetamine improve visuospatial associative memory, but not spatial working memory, in rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Wright, MJ; Vandewater, SA; Angrish, D; Dickerson, TJ; Taffe, MA

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The novel cathinone derivative 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC; mephedrone) is increasingly popular with recreational users. Little scientific information is available but users report both entactogen-like and classic stimulant-like subjective properties. A recent study in humans reported psychomotor speed improvement after intranasal 4-MMC suggesting classic stimulant properties. Limitations of the user group (which was impaired on some tasks) prompt controlled laboratory investigation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Adult male rhesus monkeys were trained to perform tasks from the non-human primate Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, which assess spatial working memory, visuospatial associative memory, learning and motivation for food reward. Test of bimanual motor coordination and manual tracking were also included. The subjects were challenged with 0.178–0.56 mg·kg−1 4-MMC and 0.056–0.56 mg·kg−1 d-methamphetamine (MA), i.m., in randomized order for behavioural evaluation. KEY RESULTS A pronounced improvement in visuospatial memory and learning was observed after the 0.32 mg·kg−1 dose of each compound, this effect was confirmed with subsequent repetition of these conditions. Spatial working memory was not improved by either drug, and the progressive ratio, bimanual motor and rotating turntable tasks were all disrupted in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These studies show that 4-MMC produces behavioural effects, including improvements in complex spatial memory and learning that are in large part similar to those of MA in non-human primates. Thus, the data suggest that the effects of 4-MMC in monkeys can be classified with classical psychomotor stimulants. PMID:22748013

  4. Midlife memory improvement predicts preservation of hippocampal volume in old age.

    PubMed

    Borghesani, Paul R; Weaver, Kurt E; Aylward, Elizabeth H; Richards, Anne L; Madhyastha, Tara M; Kahn, Ali R; Liang, Olivia; Ellenbogen, Rachel L; Beg, M Faisal; Schaie, K Warner; Willis, Sherry L

    2012-07-01

    This study examines whether midlife change in episodic memory predicts hippocampal volume in old age. From the Seattle Longitudinal Study we retrospectively identified 84 healthy, cognitively normal individuals, age 52 to 87, whose episodic memory had reliably declined (n = 33), improved (n = 28) or remained stable (n = 23) over a 14-year period in midlife (age 43-63). Midlife memory improvement was associated with 13% larger hippocampal volume (p < 0.01) in old age (age 66-87), compared with old age individuals whose midlife episodic memory had either declined or remained stable during midlife. Midlife memory change did not predict total hippocampal volume for those currently in late middle age (age 52-65). The pattern of findings was not modified by gender, apolipoprotein ε4 status, education or current memory performance. Change in midlife memory scores over 14 years, but not any single assessment, predicted hippocampal volumes in old age, emphasizing the importance of longitudinal data in examining brain-cognition relationships. These findings suggest that improvement in memory in midlife is associated with sparing of hippocampal volume in later life.

  5. Improving the Patron Experience: Sterling Memorial Library's Single Service Point

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sider, Laura Galas

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the planning process and implementation of a single service point at Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library. While much recent scholarship on single service points (SSPs) has focused on the virtues or hazards of eliminating reference desks in libraries nationwide, this essay explores the ways in which single service…

  6. Tart cherries improve working memory in aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aged rats show impaired performance on cognitive tasks that require the use of spatial learning and memory. In previous studies, we have shown the beneficial effects of various dark-colored berry fruits (blueberries, strawberries, and blackberries) in reversing age-related deficits in behavioral and...

  7. Improving of Mechanical and Shape-Memory Properties in Hyperbranched Epoxy Shape-Memory Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, David; Fabregat-Sanjuan, Albert; Ferrando, Francesc; De la Flor, Silvia

    2016-03-01

    A series of shape-memory epoxy polymers were synthesized using an aliphatic amine and two different commercial hyperbranched poly(ethyleneimine)s with different molecular weights as crosslinking agents. Thermal, mechanical, and shape-memory properties in materials modified with different hyperbranched polymers were analyzed and compared in order to establish the effect of the structure and the molecular weight of the hyperbranched polymers used. The presence of hyperbranched polymers led to more heterogeneous networks, and the crosslinking densities of which increase as the hyperbranched polymer content increases. The transition temperatures can be tailored from 56 to 117 °C depending on the molecular weight and content of the hyperbranched polymer. The mechanical properties showed excellent values in all formulations at room temperature and, specially, at T_{g}^{{E^' with stress at break as high as 15 MPa and strain at break as high as 60 %. The shape-memory performances revealed recovery ratios around 95 %, fixity ratios around 97 %, and shape-recovery velocities as high as 22 %/min. The results obtained in this study reveal that hyperbranched polymers with different molecular weights can be used to enhance the thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy-based SMPs while keeping excellent shape-memory properties.

  8. School based working memory training: Preliminary finding of improvement in children’s mathematical performance

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Working memory is a complex cognitive system responsible for the concurrent storage and processing of information. Ggiven that a complex cognitive task like mental arithmetic clearly places demands on working memory (e.g., in remembering partial results, monitoring progress through a multi-step calculation), there is surprisingly little research exploring the possibility of increasing young children’s working memory capacity through systematic school-based training. Tthis study reports the preliminary results of a working memory training programme, targeting executive processes such as inhibiting unwanted information, monitoring processes, and the concurrent storage and processing of information. Tthe findings suggest that children who received working memory training made significantly greater gains in the trained working memory task, and in a non-trained visual-spatial working memory task, than a matched control group. Moreover, the training group made significant improvements in their mathematical functioning as measured by the number of errors made in an addition task compared to the control group. Tthese findings, although preliminary, suggest that school-based measures to train working memory could have benefits in terms of improved performance in mathematics. PMID:21818243

  9. School based working memory training: Preliminary finding of improvement in children's mathematical performance.

    PubMed

    Witt, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Working memory is a complex cognitive system responsible for the concurrent storage and processing of information. Ggiven that a complex cognitive task like mental arithmetic clearly places demands on working memory (e.g., in remembering partial results, monitoring progress through a multi-step calculation), there is surprisingly little research exploring the possibility of increasing young children's working memory capacity through systematic school-based training. Tthis study reports the preliminary results of a working memory training programme, targeting executive processes such as inhibiting unwanted information, monitoring processes, and the concurrent storage and processing of information. Tthe findings suggest that children who received working memory training made significantly greater gains in the trained working memory task, and in a non-trained visual-spatial working memory task, than a matched control group. Moreover, the training group made significant improvements in their mathematical functioning as measured by the number of errors made in an addition task compared to the control group. Tthese findings, although preliminary, suggest that school-based measures to train working memory could have benefits in terms of improved performance in mathematics. PMID:21818243

  10. From amusic to musical?--Improving pitch memory in congenital amusia with transcranial alternating current stimulation.

    PubMed

    Schaal, Nora K; Pfeifer, Jasmin; Krause, Vanessa; Pollok, Bettina

    2015-11-01

    Brain imaging studies highlighted structural differences in congenital amusia, a life-long perceptual disorder that is associated with pitch perception and pitch memory deficits. A functional anomaly characterized by decreased low gamma oscillations (30-40 Hz range) in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during pitch memory has been revealed recently. Thus, the present study investigates whether applying transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) at 35 Hz to the right DLPFC would improve pitch memory. Nine amusics took part in two tACS sessions (either 35 Hz or 90 Hz) and completed a pitch and visual memory task before and during stimulation. 35 Hz stimulation facilitated pitch memory significantly. No modulation effects were found with 90 Hz stimulation or on the visual task. While amusics showed a selective impairment of pitch memory before stimulation, the performance during 35 Hz stimulation was not significantly different to healthy controls anymore. Taken together, the study shows that modulating the right DLPFC with 35 Hz tACS in congenital amusia selectively improves pitch memory performance supporting the hypothesis that decreased gamma oscillations within the DLPFC are causally involved in disturbed pitch memory and highlight the potential use of tACS to interact with cognitive processes.

  11. How does background information improve memory for text content?

    PubMed

    Rawson, Katherine A; Kintsch, Walter

    2002-07-01

    In two experiments, we investigated whether reading background information benefits memory for text content by influencing the amount of content encoded or the organization of the encoded content. In Experiment 1, half of the participants read background information about the issues to be discussed in the text material, whereas half did not. All the participants were then tested for free recall and cued recall of text content. Free recall was greater for individuals who read issue information than for those who did not. The groups did not differ on cued recall, suggesting that background information did not facilitate the encoding of more text content. Measures of representational organization indicated that increased recall in the issue information group resulted from better organization of content in memory. Experiment 2 extended these findings, using background information about text sources, demonstrated that the efficacy of background information depends on the semantic relationship between that information and text content. PMID:12219893

  12. Learning Linear Spatial-Numeric Associations Improves Accuracy of Memory for Numbers

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Clarissa A.; Opfer, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Memory for numbers improves with age and experience. One potential source of improvement is a logarithmic-to-linear shift in children’s representations of magnitude. To test this, Kindergartners and second graders estimated the location of numbers on number lines and recalled numbers presented in vignettes (Study 1). Accuracy at number-line estimation predicted memory accuracy on a numerical recall task after controlling for the effect of age and ability to approximately order magnitudes (mapper status). To test more directly whether linear numeric magnitude representations caused improvements in memory, half of children were given feedback on their number-line estimates (Study 2). As expected, learning linear representations was again linked to memory for numerical information even after controlling for age and mapper status. These results suggest that linear representations of numerical magnitude may be a causal factor in development of numeric recall accuracy. PMID:26834688

  13. Levetiracetam improves verbal memory in high-grade glioma patients

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Marjolein; Douw, Linda; Sizoo, Eefje M.; Bosma, Ingeborg; Froklage, Femke E.; Heimans, Jan J.; Postma, Tjeerd J.; Klein, Martin; Reijneveld, Jaap C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Treatment of high-grade glioma (HGG) patients with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) has met with various side effects, such as cognitive deterioration. The cognitive effects of both older and newer AEDs in HGG patients are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of older and newer AEDs on cognitive performance in postoperative HGG patients. Methods We selected HGG patients from 3 separate cohorts for use of older, newer, or no AEDs, as they represented distinct treatment eras and provided the opportunity to compare older and newer AEDs. In all 3 cohorts, patients were included within 6 weeks following neurosurgery before the start of postoperative treatment. Cognitive functioning was evaluated by an extensive neuropsychological assessment, executed in 6 cognitive domains (attention, executive functioning, verbal memory, working memory, psychomotor functioning, and information processing speed). Results One hundred seventeen patients met the inclusion criteria; 44 patients used no AED, 35 were on monotherapy with a newer AED (all levetiracetam), and 38 were on monotherapy with an older AED (valproic acid or phenytoin). Patients on older and newer AEDs performed equally well as patients not on an AED, and patients on levetiracetam performed even better on verbal memory tests than patients not on an AED. Post-hoc analyses revealed that within the group using older AEDs, patients on valproic acid performed better than patients on phenytoin. Conclusions Neither levetiracetam nor valproic acid was associated with additional cognitive deficits in HGG patients. Both AEDs even appeared to have a beneficial effect on verbal memory in these patients. PMID:23233537

  14. Virus-induced polyclonal B cell activation improves protective CTL memory via retained CD27 expression on memory CTL.

    PubMed

    Matter, Matthias; Mumprecht, Sabine; Pinschewer, Daniel D; Pavelic, Viktor; Yagita, Hideo; Krautwald, Stefan; Borst, Jannie; Ochsenbein, Adrian F

    2005-11-01

    Different viruses elicit distinct phenotypes of memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). This is reflected in differential expression of homing receptors and costimulatory molecules like CD27. Memory CTL retained CD27 following lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, but not after immunization with recombinant vaccinia virus or tumor cells expressing LCMV glycoprotein. Stable CD27 expression on memory CTL required ligation by CD70 expressed on polyclonally activated B cells during the contraction phase. The functional consequence of CD27 expressed on virus-specific CTL was analyzed in CD27-deficient mice. LCMV infection of CD27(-/-) mice revealed that primary CTL activation and expansion as well as elimination of the virus were independent of CD27 expression. In contrast, ligation of CD27 on memory CTL upon secondary antigen encounter increased clonal expansion and improved protection against re-infection. This points to novel B cell-CTL interactions during viral infection and to a beneficial role of polyclonal B cell activation that represents a characteristic of murine LCMV, human immunodeficiency virus and human hepatitis B and C virus infection. PMID:16231287

  15. SenseCam improves memory for recent events and quality of life in a patient with memory retrieval difficulties.

    PubMed

    Browne, Georgina; Berry, Emma; Kapur, Narinder; Hodges, Steve; Smyth, Gavin; Watson, Peter; Wood, Ken

    2011-10-01

    A wearable camera that takes pictures automatically, SenseCam, was used to generate images for rehearsal, promoting consolidation and retrieval of memories for significant events in a patient with memory retrieval deficits. SenseCam images of recent events were systematically reviewed over a 2-week period. Memory for these events was assessed throughout and longer-term recall was tested up to 6 months later. A written diary control condition followed the same procedure. The SenseCam review procedure resulted in significantly more details of an event being recalled, with twice as many details recalled at 6 months follow up compared to the written diary method. Self-report measures suggested autobiographical recollection was triggered by the SenseCam condition but not by reviewing the written diary. Emotional and social wellbeing questionnaires indicated improved confidence and decreased anxiety as a result of memory rehearsal using SenseCam images. We propose that SenseCam images provide a powerful boost to autobiographical recall, with secondary benefits for quality of life. PMID:21942784

  16. Effects of working memory and reading acceleration training on improving working memory abilities and reading skills among third graders.

    PubMed

    Nevo, Einat; Breznitz, Zvia

    2014-01-01

    Working memory (WM) plays a crucial role in supporting learning, including reading. This study investigated the influence of reading acceleration and WM training programs on improving reading skills and WM abilities. Ninety-seven children in third grade were divided into three study groups and one control group. The three study groups each received a different combination of two training programs: only reading acceleration, WM followed by reading acceleration, and reading acceleration followed by WM. All training programs significantly improved reading skills and WM abilities. Compared with the control group, the group trained with only the reading acceleration program improved word accuracy, whereas the groups trained with a combination of reading and WM programs improved word and pseudo-word fluency. The reading-acceleration-alone group and the WM-program-followed-by-reading-acceleration group improved phonological complex memory. We conclude that a training program that combines a long reading acceleration program and a short WM program is the most effective for improving the abilities most related to scholastic achievement.

  17. Improving Memory Subsystem Performance Using ViVA: Virtual Vector Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Gebis, Joseph; Oliker, Leonid; Shalf, John; Williams, Samuel; Yelick, Katherine

    2009-01-12

    The disparity between microprocessor clock frequencies and memory latency is a primary reason why many demanding applications run well below peak achievable performance. Software controlled scratchpad memories, such as the Cell local store, attempt to ameliorate this discrepancy by enabling precise control over memory movement; however, scratchpad technology confronts the programmer and compiler with an unfamiliar and difficult programming model. In this work, we present the Virtual Vector Architecture (ViVA), which combines the memory semantics of vector computers with a software-controlled scratchpad memory in order to provide a more effective and practical approach to latency hiding. ViVA requires minimal changes to the core design and could thus be easily integrated with conventional processor cores. To validate our approach, we implemented ViVA on the Mambo cycle-accurate full system simulator, which was carefully calibrated to match the performance on our underlying PowerPC Apple G5 architecture. Results show that ViVA is able to deliver significant performance benefits over scalar techniques for a variety of memory access patterns as well as two important memory-bound compact kernels, corner turn and sparse matrix-vector multiplication -- achieving 2x-13x improvement compared the scalar version. Overall, our preliminary ViVA exploration points to a promising approach for improving application performance on leading microprocessors with minimal design and complexity costs, in a power efficient manner.

  18. Directions for High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys' Improvement: Straight Way to High-Entropy Materials?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstov, G. S.; Kosorukova, T. A.; Koval, Yu N.; Verhovlyuk, P. A.

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays, all thermo-mechanical effects, associated with the martensitic structural phase transitions, are still in the focus of scientists and engineers, especially once these phenomena are taking place at elevated temperatures. The list of the materials, undergoing high-temperature martensitic transformation, is constantly widening. Still, industrial application of these materials, called high-temperature shape memory alloys, is far enough due to the lack of understanding of the peculiarities of the high-temperature martensitic transformation and shape memory effect. The present work attempts to show how the development of the proper directions for high-temperature shape memory alloys' improvement might lead to the creation of essentially new functional materials.

  19. Study on immersion lithography defectivity improvement in memory device manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Weiming; Hu, Huayong; Wu, Qiang

    2015-03-01

    As integrated circuit (IC) industry steps into immersion lithography's era, defectivity in photolithography becomes more complex which requires more efforts in the analysis and solution finding when compared to traditional dry lithographic process. In this paper, we focus on one type of immersion defect from memory or flash memory devices with typical mask layouts. Since the use of self-aligned double patterning (SADP) or other double patterning techniques, the original single pattern layer has to be split into 2 mask layers: logic area vs cell area. One characteristic of such split process is that the total mask transmission rate (TR) is above 70%, with extended open area and a pattern area with a transmission rate close to 50%. This indicates that it may have special defect mechanism and type compared to logic devices. We have found one type of residue defect with center ring-like map. We have studied this defect with different development recipes and analyzed their underlying mechanisms. We have also studied the effect of different immersion photoresists including types with top-coating and without top-coating, as well as the effect of bottom anti-reflection coating (BARC) substrate (organic-BARC/Si-BARC). The results of our study will be presented and discussed.

  20. Using Neuroplasticity-Based Auditory Training to Improve Verbal Memory in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Melissa; Holland, Christine; Merzenich, Michael M.; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    Objective Impaired verbal memory in schizophrenia is a key rate-limiting factor for functional outcome, does not respond to currently available medications, and shows only modest improvement after conventional behavioral remediation. The authors investigated an innovative approach to the remediation of verbal memory in schizophrenia, based on principles derived from the basic neuroscience of learning-induced neuroplasticity. The authors report interim findings in this ongoing study. Method Fifty-five clinically stable schizophrenia subjects were randomly assigned to either 50 hours of computerized auditory training or a control condition using computer games. Those receiving auditory training engaged in daily computerized exercises that placed implicit, increasing demands on auditory perception through progressively more difficult auditory-verbal working memory and verbal learning tasks. Results Relative to the control group, subjects who received active training showed significant gains in global cognition, verbal working memory, and verbal learning and memory. They also showed reliable and significant improvement in auditory psychophysical performance; this improvement was significantly correlated with gains in verbal working memory and global cognition. Conclusions Intensive training in early auditory processes and auditory-verbal learning results in substantial gains in verbal cognitive processes relevant to psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia. These gains may be due to a training method that addresses the early perceptual impairments in the illness, that exploits intact mechanisms of repetitive practice in schizophrenia, and that uses an intensive, adaptive training approach. PMID:19448187

  1. Retrieval Effort Improves Memory and Metamemory in the Face of Misinformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulevich, John B.; Thomas, Ayanna K.

    2012-01-01

    Retrieval demand, as implemented through test format and retrieval instructions, was varied across two misinformation experiments. Our goal was to examine whether increasing retrieval demand would improve the relationship between confidence and memory performance, and thereby reduce misinformation susceptibility. We hypothesized that improving the…

  2. Divided attention improves delayed, but not immediate retrieval of a consolidated memory.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Yoav; Vandermorris, Susan; Gopie, Nigel; Daros, Alexander; Winocur, Gordon; Moscovitch, Morris

    2014-01-01

    A well-documented dissociation between memory encoding and retrieval concerns the role of attention in the two processes. The typical finding is that divided attention (DA) during encoding impairs future memory, but retrieval is relatively robust to attentional manipulations. However, memory research in the past 20 years had demonstrated that retrieval is a memory-changing process, in which the strength and availability of information are modified by various characteristics of the retrieval process. Based on this logic, several studies examined the effects of DA during retrieval (Test 1) on a future memory test (Test 2). These studies yielded inconsistent results. The present study examined the role of memory consolidation in accounting for the after-effect of DA during retrieval. Initial learning required a classification of visual stimuli, and hence involved incidental learning. Test 1 was administered 24 hours after initial learning, and therefore required retrieval of consolidated information. Test 2 was administered either immediately following Test 1 or after a 24-hour delay. Our results show that the effect of DA on Test 2 depended on this delay. DA during Test 1 did not affect performance on Test 2 when it was administered immediately, but improved performance when Test 2 was given 24-hours later. The results are consistent with other findings showing long-term benefits of retrieval difficulty. Implications for theories of reconsolidation in human episodic memory are discussed.

  3. Towards therapy to relieve memory impairment after anterior thalamic lesions: improved spatial working memory after immediate and delayed postoperative enrichment.

    PubMed

    Loukavenko, Elena A; Ottley, Mark C; Moran, James P; Wolff, Mathieu; Dalrymple-Alford, John C

    2007-12-01

    Injury to the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) is associated with severe amnesia in humans. To test the principle that these deficits may be amenable to intervention, the behavioural effects of postoperative housing in an enriched environment were examined in rats that received neurotoxic lesions of the ATN. As expected, rats with ATN lesions maintained in standard group-housing showed severe, and in this case long-term, deficits in a preoperatively trained non-matching-to-sample spatial working memory task. Thirty days of enriched housing, introduced either at 5 days (Experiment 1) or delayed until 40 days post-surgery (Experiment 2) markedly reduced this working memory impairment, including evidence of improved utilization of spatial cues. The treatment gains found in Experiment 2 were maintained at 4 months post-surgery despite no further enrichment. ATN lesions also retarded the postoperative acquisition of spatial discrimination problems in Experiment 1, irrespective of the separation between target arms, but this impairment was not ameliorated by the prior enrichment. This study provides the first evidence of substantial recovery of severe, and otherwise long-lasting, spatial working memory deficits after ATN brain injury and suggests that further investigation on the extent of possible recovery of function in animal models of diencephalic amnesia is warranted.

  4. Oligonol improves memory and cognition under an amyloid β(25-35)-induced Alzheimer's mouse model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon Young; Maeda, Takahiro; Fujii, Hajime; Yokozawa, Takako; Kim, Hyun Young; Cho, Eun Ju; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2014-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease is an age-dependent progressive neurodegenerative disorder that results in impairments of memory and cognitive function. It is hypothesized that oligonol has ameliorative effects on memory impairment and reduced cognitive functions in mice with Alzheimer's disease induced by amyloid β(25-35) (Aβ(25-35)) injection. The protective effect of an oligonol against Aβ(25-35)-induced memory impairment was investigated in an in vivo Alzheimer's mouse model. The aggregation of Aβ25-35 was induced by incubation at 37°C for 3 days before injection into mice brains (5 nmol/mouse), and then oligonol was orally administered at 100 and 200 mg/kg of body weight for 2 weeks. Memory and cognition were observed in T-maze, object recognition, and Morris water maze tests. The group injected with Aβ(25-35) showed impairments in both recognition and memory. However, novel object recognition and new route awareness abilities were dose dependently improved by the oral administration of oligonol. In addition, the results of the Morris water maze test indicated that oligonol exerted protective activity against cognitive impairment induced by Aβ(25-35). Furthermore, nitric oxide formation and lipid peroxidation were significantly elevated by Aβ(25-35), whereas oligonol treatment significantly decreased nitric oxide formation and lipid peroxidation in the brain, liver, and kidneys. The present results suggest that oligonol improves Aβ(25-35)-induced memory deficit and cognition impairment.

  5. Crocin Improved Learning and Memory Impairments in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Farshid, Amir Abbas; Asri-Rezaee, Siamak; Javadi, Shahram; Khosravi, Voria; Rahman, Bentolhoda; Mirfakhraee, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Crocin influences many biological functions including memory and learning. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of crocin on learning and memory impairments in streptozotocine-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg). Transfer latency (TL) paradigm in elevated plus-maze (EPM) was used as an index of learning and memory. Plasma levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA), blood levels of glucose, and serum concentrations of insulin were measured. The number of hippocampal neurons was also counted. Results: STZ increased acquisition transfer latency (TL1) and retention transfer latency (TL2), and MDA, decreased transfer latency shortening (TLs) and TCA, produced hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia, and reduced the number of neurons in the hippocampus. Learning and memory impairments and blood TCA, MDA, glucose, and insulin changes induced by streptozotocin were improved with long-term IP injection of crocin at doses of 15 and 30 mg/kg. Crocin prevented hippocampal neurons number loss in diabetic rats. Conclusion: The results indicate that oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, and reduction of hippocampal neurons may be involved in learning and memory impairments in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, antihypoinsulinemic, and neuroprotective activities of crocin might be involved in improving learning and memory impairments. PMID:23638297

  6. Retrospective cues based on object features improve visual working memory performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Amanda L; Duarte, Audrey; Verhaeghen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Research with younger adults has shown that retrospective cues can be used to orient top-down attention toward relevant items in working memory. We examined whether older adults could take advantage of these cues to improve memory performance. Younger and older adults were presented with visual arrays of five colored shapes; during maintenance, participants were presented either with an informative cue based on an object feature (here, object shape or color) that would be probed, or with an uninformative, neutral cue. Although older adults were less accurate overall, both age groups benefited from the presentation of an informative, feature-based cue relative to a neutral cue. Surprisingly, we also observed differences in the effectiveness of shape versus color cues and their effects upon post-cue memory load. These results suggest that older adults can use top-down attention to remove irrelevant items from visual working memory, provided that task-relevant features function as cues. PMID:26208404

  7. Semen Ziziphi Spinosae and Fructus Gardeniae extracts synergistically improve learning and memory of a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Li, Baoli; Fu, Zhaoying; Hu, Rui; Chen, Yahui; Zhang, Zhengxiang

    2013-03-01

    Semen Ziziphi Spinosae (SZS) and Fructus Gardeniae (FG) are two herbs commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. Previous studies have suggested that Fructus Gardeniae as well as Semen Ziziphi Spinosae are able to regulate the function of the central nervous system. However, their effect on learning and memory has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the effect of SZS and FG on the learning and memory of mice using the methods of step-through and -down passive avoidance tasks and Morris water maze tasks. The results showed that SZS and FG extracts have certain effects on improving the performance of the learning and memory-impaired mouse model. Of note, compound extracts of SZS and FG have a synergistic effect on the learning and memory of mice. PMID:24648929

  8. Semen Ziziphi Spinosae and Fructus Gardeniae extracts synergistically improve learning and memory of a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    LI, BAOLI; FU, ZHAOYING; HU, RUI; CHEN, YAHUI; ZHANG, ZHENGXIANG

    2013-01-01

    Semen Ziziphi Spinosae (SZS) and Fructus Gardeniae (FG) are two herbs commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. Previous studies have suggested that Fructus Gardeniae as well as Semen Ziziphi Spinosae are able to regulate the function of the central nervous system. However, their effect on learning and memory has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the effect of SZS and FG on the learning and memory of mice using the methods of step-through and -down passive avoidance tasks and Morris water maze tasks. The results showed that SZS and FG extracts have certain effects on improving the performance of the learning and memory-impaired mouse model. Of note, compound extracts of SZS and FG have a synergistic effect on the learning and memory of mice. PMID:24648929

  9. Inhibition of calpains improves memory and synaptic transmission in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Trinchese, Fabrizio; Fa’, Mauro; Liu, Shumin; Zhang, Hong; Hidalgo, Ariel; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Yamaguchi, Hisako; Yoshii, Narihiko; Mathews, Paul M.; Nixon, Ralph A.; Arancio, Ottavio

    2008-01-01

    Calpains are calcium-dependent enzymes that determine the fate of proteins through regulated proteolytic activity. Calpains have been linked to the modulation of memory and are key to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). When abnormally activated, calpains can also initiate degradation of proteins essential for neuronal survival. Here we show that calpain inhibition through E64, a cysteine protease inhibitor, and the highly specific calpain inhibitor BDA-410 restored normal synaptic function both in hippocampal cultures and in hippocampal slices from the APP/PS1 mouse, an animal model of AD. Calpain inhibition also improved spatial-working memory and associative fear memory in APP/PS1 mice. These beneficial effects of the calpain inhibitors were associated with restoration of normal phosphorylation levels of the transcription factor CREB and involved redistribution of the synaptic protein synapsin I. Thus, calpain inhibition may prove useful in the alleviation of memory loss in AD. PMID:18596919

  10. Caffeine and diphenyl diselenide improve long-term memory impaired in middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Leite, Marlon R; Marcondes Sari, Marcel Henrique; de Freitas, Mayara L; Oliveira, Lia P; Dalmolin, Laíza; Brandão, Ricardo; Zeni, Gilson

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 supplemented diet (10ppm) associated to the administration of caffeine (15mg/kg; i.g.) for 30days on the novel object recognition memory in middle-aged rats. The present findings showed that (PhSe)2-supplemented diet enhanced short-term memory, but not long-term memory, of middle-aged rats in the novel object recognition task. The (PhSe)2 supplemented diet associated with caffeine administration improved long-term memory, but did not alter short-term memory, impaired in middle-aged rats. Daily caffeine administration to middle-aged rats had no effect on the memory tasks. Diet supplemented with (PhSe)2 plus caffeine administration increased the number of crossings and rearings reduced in middle-aged rats. Caffeine administration plus (PhSe)2 diets were effective in increasing the number of rearings and crossings, respectively, in middle-aged rats, [(3)H] glutamate uptake was reduced in hippocampal slices of rats from (PhSe)2 and caffeine plus (PhSe)2 groups. In addition, animals supplemented with (PhSe)2 showed an increase in the pCREB/CREB ratio whereas pAkt/Akt ratio was not modified. These results suggest that the effects of (PhSe)2 on the short-term memory may be related to its ability to decrease the uptake of glutamate, influencing the increase of CREB phosphorylation. (PhSe)2-supplemented diet associated to the administration of caffeine improved long-term memory impaired in middle-aged rats, an effect independent of CREB and Akt phosphorylation.

  11. The use of PDSA methodology to evaluate and optimise an inner city memory clinic: a quality improvement project.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jennifer; Bell, Francesca; Shaw, Therese; Fitzpatrick, Barbara; Sampson, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    The Memory Services National Accreditation Programme states that memory services should provide "timely access to assessment and diagnosis" of dementia. We undertook a quality improvement project using Plan-Do-Study-Act methodology to improve patient access to an inner city memory service. This report focuses on the third Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle where, in 2012, we aimed to shorten the time from memory service referral to assessment and to diagnosis. The time from referral to assessment increased but the time from referral to diagnosis and to treatment decreased. Other memory clinics could use Plan-Do-Study-Act to enable faster diagnosis and better care for patients with dementia.

  12. Bandlimited computerized improvements in characterization of nonlinear systems with memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuttall, Albert H.; Katz, Richard A.; Hughes, Derke R.; Koch, Robert M.

    2016-05-01

    The present article discusses some inroads in nonlinear signal processing made by the prime algorithm developer, Dr. Albert H. Nuttall and co-authors, a consortium of research scientists from the Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division, Newport, RI. The algorithm, called the Nuttall-Wiener-Volterra 'NWV' algorithm is named for its principal contributors [1], [2],[ 3] over many years of developmental research. The NWV algorithm significantly reduces the computational workload for characterizing nonlinear systems with memory. Following this formulation, two measurement waveforms on the system are required in order to characterize a specified nonlinear system under consideration: (1) an excitation input waveform, x(t) (the transmitted signal); and, (2) a response output waveform, z(t) (the received signal). Given these two measurement waveforms for a given propagation channel, a 'kernel' or 'channel response', h= [h0,h1,h2,h3] between the two measurement points, is computed via a least squares approach that optimizes modeled kernel values by performing a best fit between measured response z(t) and a modeled response y(t). New techniques significantly diminish the exponential growth of the number of computed kernel coefficients at second and third order in order to combat and reasonably alleviate the curse of dimensionality.

  13. Improvement of needle type applicator made of shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Y; Kato, K; Yabuhara, T; Uzuka, T; Takahashi, H; Fujii, Y

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses radio frequency (RF) interstitial hyperthermia for brain tumors with a developed needle type applicator made of a shape memory alloy (SMA). The problem with the heating method of interstitial hyperthermia is the small heating area. So, we proposed a new heating method using a needle type electrode made of SMA which consists of nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and titanium (Ti) for expanding the heating area. Here, we proposed the heating method that the leading end of needle type electrode was divided into four parts and the leading end spreads in four directions with a temperature rise. First, the proposed RF interstitial hyperthermia system with the SMA needle was presented. Second, the results obtained by the experimental heating of the agar phantom by using the developed SMA needle type applicator were presented. Third, comparing experimental results, we discussed the heating properties of the developed system. Finally, from these results, it is confirmed that the developed needle type applicator made of SMA is useful for wide heating by invasive hyperthermia.

  14. Does Working Memory Training Lead to Generalized Improvements in Children with Low Working Memory? A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunning, Darren L.; Holmes, Joni; Gathercole, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Children with low working memory typically make poor educational progress, and it has been speculated that difficulties in meeting the heavy working memory demands of the classroom may be a contributory factor. Intensive working memory training has been shown to boost performance on untrained memory tasks in a variety of populations. This first…

  15. The influence of tobacco smoke and nicotine on antidepressant and memory-improving effects of venlafaxine.

    PubMed

    Nowakowska, Elzbieta; Kus, Krzysztof; Florek, Ewa; Czubak, Anna; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga

    2006-04-01

    In experimental and clinical studies, central nicotinic systems have been shown to play an important role in cognitive function. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors also mediate the reinforcing properties of nicotine (NIC) in tobacco products. A variety of studies have shown that acute treatment with NIC or nicotinic agonists can improve working memory function. Moreover, it is known that the monoaminergic system plays an important role in memory function. And there is evidence suggesting that prolonged use of NIC may exert antidepressant action via nicotinic receptors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between a novel antidepressant, venlafaxine (VEN), a blocker of noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine reuptake sites, and pure NIC in the context of antidepressant and memory function in tobacco smoke exposed and nonexposed rats. The animals were subjected to Porsolt's test for testing antidepressant activity and their memory function (spatial memory) was evaluated in the Morris Water Maze Test. In tobacco smoke non-exposed and exposed rats both single and chronic administration of VEN (20 mg/kg po) shortened immobility time. NIC (0.2 mg/kg sc) significantly reduced immobility time on the 1st, 7th and 14th test days in both non-exposed and exposed rats. Combined VEN+NIC treatment in tobacco smoke non-exposed rats reduced immobility too. This effect of the combination of drugs was significantly stronger as compared to the effects obtained after individual administration of VEN or NIC. In the group exposed to tobacco smoke, joint administration of VEN+ NIC induced a significant reduction of immobility as compared to the control and NIC groups. In the Morris Water Maze Test single and chronic administration of VEN, lower values of escape latencies and lower numbers of crossed quadrants were noted in both exposed and non-exposed rats, which indicates improved performance. After administering NIC we could observe improvement of spatial memory in

  16. Improved Damage Resistant Composite Materials Incorporating Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, Jeffrey S. N.; Rogers, Craig A.

    1996-01-01

    Metallic shape memory alloys (SMA) such as nitinol have unique shape recovery behavior and mechanical properties associated with a material phase change that have been used in a variety of sensing and actuation applications. Recent studies have shown that integrating nitinol-SMA actuators into composite materials increases the composite material's functionality. Hybrid composites of conventional graphite/epoxy or glass/epoxy and nitinol-SMA elements can perform functions in applications where monolithic composites perform inadequately. One such application is the use of hybrid composites to function both in load bearing and armor capacities. While monolithic composites with high strength-to-weight ratios function efficiently as loadbearing structures, because of their brittle nature, impact loading can cause significant catastrophic damage. Initial composite failure modes such as delamination and matrix cracking dissipate some impact energy, but when stress exceeds the composite's ultimate strength, fiber fracture and material perforation become dominant. One of the few methods that has been developed to reduce material perforation is hybridizing polymer matrix composites with tough kevlar or high modulus polyethynylene plies. The tough fibers increase the impact resistance and the stiffer and stronger graphite fibers carry the majority of the load. Similarly, by adding nitinol-SMA elements that absorb impact energy through the stress-induced martensitic phase transformation, the composites' impact perforation resistance can be greatly enhanced. The results of drop-weight and high velocity gas-gun impact testing of various composite materials will be presented. The results demonstrate that hybridizing composites with nitinol-SMA elements significantly increases perforation resistance compared to other traditional toughening elements. Inspection of the composite specimens at various stages of perforation by optical microscope illustrates the mechanisms by which

  17. Short-term inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 reversibly improves spatial memory but persistently impairs contextual fear memory in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Wheelan, Nicola; Webster, Scott P; Kenyon, Christopher J; Caughey, Sarah; Walker, Brian R; Holmes, Megan C; Seckl, Jonathan R; Yau, Joyce L W

    2015-04-01

    High glucocorticoid levels induced by stress enhance the memory of fearful events and may contribute to the development of anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder. In contrast, elevated glucocorticoids associated with ageing impair spatial memory. We have previously shown that pharmacological inhibition of the intracellular glucocorticoid-amplifying enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) improves spatial memory in aged mice. However, it is not known whether inhibition of 11β-HSD1 will have any beneficial effects on contextual fear memories in aged mice. Here, we examined the effects of UE2316, a selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor which accesses the brain, on both spatial and contextual fear memories in aged mice using a vehicle-controlled crossover study design. Short-term UE2316 treatment improved spatial memory in aged mice, an effect which was reversed when UE2316 was substituted with vehicle. In contrast, contextual fear memory induced by foot-shock conditioning was significantly reduced by UE2316 in a non-reversible manner. When the order of treatment was reversed following extinction of the original fear memory, and a second foot-shock conditioning was given in a novel context, UE2316 treated aged mice (previously on vehicle) now showed increased fear memory compared to vehicle-treated aged mice (previously on UE2316). Renewal of the original extinguished fear memory triggered by exposure to a new environmental context may explain these effects. Thus 11β-HSD1 inhibition reverses spatial memory impairments with ageing while reducing the strength and persistence of new contextual fear memories. Potentially this could help prevent anxiety-related disorders in vulnerable elderly individuals.

  18. No evidence of intelligence improvement after working memory training: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Redick, Thomas S; Shipstead, Zach; Harrison, Tyler L; Hicks, Kenny L; Fried, David E; Hambrick, David Z; Kane, Michael J; Engle, Randall W

    2013-05-01

    Numerous recent studies seem to provide evidence for the general intellectual benefits of working memory training. In reviews of the training literature, Shipstead, Redick, and Engle (2010, 2012) argued that the field should treat recent results with a critical eye. Many published working memory training studies suffer from design limitations (no-contact control groups, single measures of cognitive constructs), mixed results (transfer of training gains to some tasks but not others, inconsistent transfer to the same tasks across studies), and lack of theoretical grounding (identifying the mechanisms responsible for observed transfer). The current study compared young adults who received 20 sessions of practice on an adaptive dual n-back program (working memory training group) or an adaptive visual search program (active placebo-control group) with a no-contact control group that received no practice. In addition, all subjects completed pretest, midtest, and posttest sessions comprising multiple measures of fluid intelligence, multitasking, working memory capacity, crystallized intelligence, and perceptual speed. Despite improvements on both the dual n-back and visual search tasks with practice, and despite a high level of statistical power, there was no positive transfer to any of the cognitive ability tests. We discuss these results in the context of previous working memory training research and address issues for future working memory training studies.

  19. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study.

    PubMed

    Ferreri, Laura; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Muthalib, Makii; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bugaiska, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non-purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-two healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization) and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer's patients. PMID:24339807

  20. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study.

    PubMed

    Ferreri, Laura; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Muthalib, Makii; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bugaiska, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non-purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-two healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization) and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer's patients.

  1. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study

    PubMed Central

    Ferreri, Laura; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Muthalib, Makii; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bugaiska, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non-purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-two healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization) and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer’s patients. PMID:24339807

  2. Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  3. Extinction Memory Improvement by the Metabolic Enhancer Methylene Blue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Lima, F.; Bruchey, Aleksandra K.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether postextinction administration of methylene blue (MB) could enhance retention of an extinguished conditioned response. MB is a redox compound that at low doses elevates cytochrome oxidase activity, thereby improving brain energy production. Saline or MB (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were administered to rats for 5 d following…

  4. Vinpocetine Improves Scopolamine Induced Learning and Memory Dysfunction in C57 BL/6J Mice.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yu; Wang, Lei; Li, Yue; Gu, Pei-Fei

    2016-09-01

    Vinpocetine is an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 1 (PDE1), which has been used for treating stroke for over 40 years. However, according to current clinical dosage and treatment period, its direct effect on memory is unclear. In this study, we investigated whether vinpocetine could reverse the scopolamine (SCO)-induced cognitive deficits in animals. Behavioral experiments, including open field, Y-maze, and fear conditioning tests were used to determine the possible role of vinpocetine on scopolamine-induced memory dysfunction. In the open field and Y-maze tests, there were significant differences between the control (CON) group and SCO group. Vinpocetine (4 mg/kg) administration for consecutive 28 d significantly improved the scopolamine-induced memory dysfunction. In the fear conditioning test, vinpocetine (2, 4 mg/kg) administration had certain beneficial effect on emotional memory. Our results suggest that vinpocetine could improve cognitive function in memory deficient mice and high clinic dosage might be better.

  5. Unitization improves source memory in older adults: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhiwei; Li, Juan; Xiao, Fengqiu; Ren, Weicong; He, Rongqiao

    2016-08-01

    Aging-related decline in episodic memory, particularly in associative memory, is attributed to an impaired recollection of the specific details of a study episode. Fortunately, familiarity is relatively preserved in older adults. Previous studies have indicated that unitization is a specialized form of learning that increases the contribution of familiarity to associative retrieval. Here we examined whether older adults' associative memory could be improved when employing an encoding strategy that encouraged unitization. Young and older adults encoded items and background colors either in a unitized condition (i.e., by imagining the color as an internal feature of the item) or in a non-unitized condition (i.e., by imagining the color as a contextual feature of the item). The participants then performed a source recognition test. The effects of unitization on the neural correlates of familiarity were measured by event-related potentials (ERPs). The age differences in source memory performance were lower in the unitized condition than in the non-unitized condition. The older adults only demonstrated neural correlates of familiarity-based source recognition in the unitized condition. These findings suggest that a unitized encoding strategy could improve source memory performance in older adults by enhancing the involvement of familiarity in source recognition. PMID:27343684

  6. Improving the Memory Sections of the Standardized Assessment of Concussion Using Item Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElhiney, Danielle; Kang, Minsoo; Starkey, Chad; Ragan, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to improve the immediate and delayed memory sections of the Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) by identifying a list of more psychometrically sound items (words). A total of 200 participants with no history of concussion in the previous six months (aged 19.60 ± 2.20 years; N?=?93 men, N?=?107 women)…

  7. Visual Working Memory in Deaf Children with Diverse Communication Modes: Improvement by Differential Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Crespo, Ginesa; Daza, Maria Teresa; Mendez-Lopez, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Although visual functions have been proposed to be enhanced in deaf individuals, empirical studies have not yet established clear evidence on this issue. The present study aimed to determine whether deaf children with diverse communication modes had superior visual memory and whether their performance was improved by the use of differential…

  8. Improving Reasoning Skills in Secondary History Education by Working Memory Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariës, Roel Jacobus; Groot, Wim; van den Brink, Henriette Maassen

    2015-01-01

    Secondary school pupils underachieve in tests in which reasoning abilities are required. Brain-based training of working memory (WM) may improve reasoning abilities. In this study, we use a brain-based training programme based on historical content to enhance reasoning abilities in history courses. In the first experiment, a combined intervention…

  9. Spermidine-Induced Improvement of Reconsolidation of Memory Involves Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girardi, Bruna Amanda; Ribeiro, Daniela Aymone; Signor, Cristiane; Muller, Michele; Gais, Mayara Ana; Mello, Carlos Fernando; Rubin, Maribel Antonello

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we determined whether the calcium-dependent protein kinase (PKC) signaling pathway is involved in the improvement of fear memory reconsolidation induced by the intrahippocampal administration of spermidine in rats. Male Wistar rats were trained in a fear conditioning apparatus using a 0.4-mA footshock as an unconditioned stimulus.…

  10. Mindfulness training improves working memory capacity and GRE performance while reducing mind wandering.

    PubMed

    Mrazek, Michael D; Franklin, Michael S; Phillips, Dawa Tarchin; Baird, Benjamin; Schooler, Jonathan W

    2013-05-01

    Given that the ability to attend to a task without distraction underlies performance in a wide variety of contexts, training one's ability to stay on task should result in a similarly broad enhancement of performance. In a randomized controlled investigation, we examined whether a 2-week mindfulness-training course would decrease mind wandering and improve cognitive performance. Mindfulness training improved both GRE reading-comprehension scores and working memory capacity while simultaneously reducing the occurrence of distracting thoughts during completion of the GRE and the measure of working memory. Improvements in performance following mindfulness training were mediated by reduced mind wandering among participants who were prone to distraction at pretesting. Our results suggest that cultivating mindfulness is an effective and efficient technique for improving cognitive function, with wide-reaching consequences.

  11. [Improving effect of rhizoma Gastrodiae on learning and memory of senile rats].

    PubMed

    Gao, N; Yu, S; Xu, J

    1995-09-01

    After giving Rhizoma Gastrodiae to aging rats continuously for 3 months, the process of their learning and memory was observed through step-down test and the content of lipid peroxides (LPO) was determined. It has been found out that Rhizoma Gastrodiae can effectively improve the ability of learning and memmory of these rats and reduce the content of LPO. The result may indicate that it is by clearing away the free-radicals that Rhizoma Gastrodiae improves the brain function.

  12. Static ferroelectric memory transistor having improved data retention

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Jr., Joseph T.; Warren, William L.; Tuttle, Bruce A.

    1996-01-01

    An improved ferroelectric FET structure in which the ferroelectric layer is doped to reduce retention loss. A ferroelectric FET according to the present invention includes a semiconductor layer having first and second contacts thereon, the first and second contacts being separated from one another. The ferroelectric FET also includes a bottom electrode and a ferroelectric layer which is sandwiched between the semiconductor layer and the bottom electrode. The ferroelectric layer is constructed from a perovskite structure of the chemical composition ABO.sub.3 wherein the B site comprises first and second elements and a dopant element that has an oxidation state greater than +4 in sufficient concentration to impede shifts in the resistance measured between the first and second contacts with time. The ferroelectric FET structure preferably comprises Pb in the A-site. The first and second elements are preferably Zr and Ti, respectively. The preferred B-site dopants are Niobium, Tantalum, and Tungsten at concentrations between 1% and 8%.

  13. Self-generated retrievals while multitasking improve memory for names.

    PubMed

    Helder, Elizabeth; Shaughnessy, John J

    2011-11-01

    We used a translational research paradigm to investigate whether distributed retrievals could benefit name learning in social situations. Undergraduates (N=64) were trained to generate distributed retrievals while they were multitasking. Students learned to generate distributed retrievals according to either an expanding or a uniform schedule. Their self-generated distributed retrievals while they were multitasking were effective in improving name recall for both retrieval schedules. The increase with self-generated retrievals while multitasking was greater (η² =.76) than the increase that Helder and Shaughnessy ( 2008 ) found with experimenter-controlled retrievals while multitasking (η² =.42). These findings provide evidence that the beneficial effect of distributed retrievals can extend to learning names in a social situation.

  14. Effects of lavender oil inhalation on improving scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Hritcu, Lucian; Cioanca, Oana; Hancianu, Monica

    2012-04-15

    Lavender is reported to be an effective medical plant in treating inflammation, depression, stress and mild anxiety in Europe and the USA. The present study investigated the effects of two different lavender essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia ssp. angustifolia Mill. (Lamiaceae) and Lavandula hybrida Rev. (Lamiaceae) on neurological capacity of male Wistar rats subjected to scopolamine (0.7mg/kg)-induced dementia rat model. Chronic exposures to lavender essential oils (daily, for 7 continuous days) significantly reduced anxiety-like behavior and inhibited depression in elevated plus-maze and forced swimming tests, suggesting anxiolytic and antidepressant activity. Also, spatial memory performance in Y-maze and radial arm-maze tasks was improved, suggesting positive effects on memory formation. Taken together, multiple exposures to lavender essential oils could effectively reverse spatial memory deficits induced by dysfunction of the cholinergic system in the rat brain and might provide an opportunity for management neurological abnormalities in dementia conditions.

  15. Differential outcomes training improves face recognition memory in children and in adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Laura; Plaza, Victoria; López-Crespo, Ginesa; Vivas, Ana B; Estévez, Angeles F

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the differential outcomes procedure (DOP), which involves paring a unique reward with a specific stimulus, enhances discriminative learning and memory performance in several populations. The present study aimed to further investigate whether this procedure would improve face recognition memory in 5- and 7-year-old children (Experiment 1) and adults with Down syndrome (Experiment 2). In a delayed matching-to-sample task, participants had to select the previously shown face (sample stimulus) among six alternatives faces (comparison stimuli) in four different delays (1, 5, 10, or 15s). Participants were tested in two conditions: differential, where each sample stimulus was paired with a specific outcome; and non-differential outcomes, where reinforcers were administered randomly. The results showed a significantly better face recognition in the differential outcomes condition relative to the non-differential in both experiments. Implications for memory training programs and future research are discussed.

  16. Intake of Wild Blueberry Powder Improves Episodic-Like and Working Memory during Normal Aging in Mice.

    PubMed

    Beracochea, Daniel; Krazem, Ali; Henkouss, Nadia; Haccard, Guillaume; Roller, Marc; Fromentin, Emilie

    2016-08-01

    The number of Americans older than 65 years old is projected to more than double in the next 40 years. Cognitive changes associated to aging can affect an adult's day-to-day functioning. Among these cognitive changes, reasoning, episodic memory, working memory, and processing speed decline gradually over time. Early memory changes include a decline in both working and episodic memory. The aim of the present study was to determine whether chronic (up to 75 days) daily administration of wild blueberry extract or a wild blueberry full spectrum powder would help prevent memory failure associated with aging in tasks involving various forms of memory. Both blueberry ingredients were used in a study comparing young mice (6 months old) to aged mice (18 months old). At this age, mice exhibit memory decline due to aging, which is exacerbated first by a loss in working and contextual (episodic-like) memory. Contextual memory (episodic-like memory) was evaluated using the contextual serial discrimination test. Working and spatial memory were evaluated using the Morris-Water maze test and the sequential alternation test. Statistical analysis was performed using an ANOVA with the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Supplementation with wild blueberry full spectrum powder and wild blueberry extract resulted in significant improvement of contextual memory, while untreated aged mice experienced a decline in such memory. Only the wild blueberry full spectrum powder significantly contributed to an improvement of spatial and working memory versus untreated aged mice. These improvements of cognitive performance may be related to brain oxidative status, acetylcholinesterase activity, neuroprotection, or attenuation of immunoreactivity.

  17. Improved memory characteristics of charge trap memory by employing double layered ZrO2 nanocrystals and inserted Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Z. J.; Li, R.; Zhang, X. W.; Hu, D.; Zhao, Y. G.

    2016-07-01

    The charge trap memory capacitors incorporating a stacked charge trapping layer consisting of double layered ZrO2 nanocrystals (NCs) and inserted Al2O3 have been fabricated and investigated. It is observed that the memory capacitor with stacked trapping layer exhibits a hysteresis window as large as 14.3 V for ±10 V sweeping gate voltage range, faster program/erase speed, improved endurance performance, and good data retention characteristics with smaller extrapolated ten years charge loss at room temperature and 125 °C compared to single layered NCs. The special energy band alignment and the introduced additional traps of double layered ZrO2 NCs and inserted Al2O3 change the trapping and loss behavior of charges, and jointly contribute to the remarkable memory characteristics. Therefore, the memory capacitor with a stacked charge trapping layer is a promising candidate in future nonvolatile charge trap memory device design and application.

  18. Six-Year Training Improves Everyday Memory in Healthy Older People. Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Requena, Carmen; Turrero, Agustín; Ortiz, Tomás

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Everyday memory of older persons does not improve with intensive memory training programs. This study proposes a change in these programs based on a time-extended and massive intervention format. Design and Methods: The sample of 1007 healthy older persons (mean age 71.85; SD = 5.12) was randomized into 2 groups. The experimental group followed an extended 6 years of training (192 sessions over 192 weeks) whereas the control group received an intensive training (3 sessions per week for a total of 32 sessions in 11 weeks). The program included cognitive and emotional content whose effects were assessed with the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT) and with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Both groups were evaluated initially, after 32 sessions, and again after 6 years. Results: The relative improvements measured with Blom’s derivative showed that everyday memory and mental status of the experimental group were significantly better both in the short (Δ% 8.31 in RBMT and Δ% 1.51 in MMSE) and in the long term (Δ% 12.54 in RBMT and Δ% 2.56 in MMSE). For everyday memory and mental level, the overall gain estimate representing the mean difference in pre-post change between time-extended and intensive groups was 0.27 (95% CI: 0.13–0.40) and 0.54 (95% CI: 0.40–0.67), respectively. Time-extended programs have significantly improved everyday memory in contrast with the usual intensive programs whose effects decay with time. There are also significant increases in mental level scores while daily life functionality is preserved in all subjects who completed the training. Implications: These results suggest that it is possible to preserve everyday memory in the long term with continuous training and practice. Massive and time-extended formats may contribute in the future to a paradigm shift in memory programs for healthy older people. PMID:27375479

  19. Cronobacter sakazakii infection alters serotonin transporter and improved fear memory retention in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sivamaruthi, Bhagavathi S; Madhumita, Rajkumar; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy; Rajan, Koilmani E

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that Cronobacter sakazakii infection cause septicemia, necrotizing enterocolitis and meningitis. In the present study, we tested whether the C. sakazakii infection alter the learning and memory through serotonin transporter (SERT). To investigate the possible effect on SERT, on postnatal day-15 (PND-15), wistar rat pups were administered with single dose of C. sakazakii culture (infected group; 10(7) CFU) or 100 μL of Luria-Bertani broth (medium control) or without any treatment (naïve control). All the individuals were subjected to passive avoidance test on PND-30 to test their fear memory. We show that single dose of C. sakazakii infection improved fear memory retention. Subsequently, we show that C. sakazakii infection induced the activation of toll-like receptor-3 and heat-shock proteins-90 (Hsp-90). On the other hand, level of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) and SERT protein was down-regulated. Furthermore, we show that C. sakazakii infection up-regulate microRNA-16 (miR-16) expression. The observed results highlight that C. sakazakii infections was responsible for improved fear memory retention and may have reduced the level of SERT protein, which is possibly associated with the interaction of up-regulated Hsp-90 with SERT protein or miR-16 with SERT mRNA. Taken together, observed results suggest that C. sakazakii infection alter the fear memory possibly through SERT. Hence, this model may be effective to test the C. sakazakii infection induced changes in synaptic plasticity through SERT and effect of other pharmacological agents against pathogen induced memory disorder. PMID:26388777

  20. Treadmill running improves spatial memory in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hoveida, Reihaneh; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Parivar, Kazem; Reisi, Parham

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by a decline in cognitive function and severe neuronal loss in the cerebral cortex and certain subcortical regions of the brain including nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) that play an important role in learning and memory. There are few therapeutic regimens that influence the underlying pathogenic phenotypes of AD, however, of the currently available therapies, exercise training is considered to be one of the best strategies for attenuating the pathological phenotypes of AD for people with AD. Here, we sought to investigate the effect of treadmill running on spatial memory in Alzheimer-induced rats. Male Wistar rats were split into two groups namely shams (n=7) and lesions with the lesion group subdivided further into the lesion-rest (n=7) and lesion-exercise (n=7). The lesion-exercise and shams were subjected to treadmill running at 17 meters per minute (m/min) for 60 min per day (min/day), 7 days per week (days/wk), for 60 days. Spatial memory was investigated using the Morris Water Maze test in the rats after 60 days of Alzheimer induction and the exercise. Our data demonstrated that spatial memory was indeed impaired in the lesion group compared with the shams. However, exercise notably improved spatial memory in the lesion-exercised rats compared to lesion-rested group. The present results suggest that spatial memory is affected under Alzheimer conditions and that treadmill running improves these effects. Our data suggested that treadmill running contributes to the alleviation of the cognitive decline in AD.

  1. BDNF Expression in Perirhinal Cortex is Associated with Exercise-Induced Improvement in Object Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Michael E.; Bucci, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Physical exercise induces widespread neurobiological adaptations and improves learning and memory. Most research in this field has focused on hippocampus-based spatial tasks and changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a putative substrate underlying exercise-induced cognitive improvements. Chronic exercise can also be anxiolytic and causes adaptive changes in stress reactivity. The present study employed a perirhinal cortex-dependent object recognition task as well as the elevated plus maze to directly test for interactions between the cognitive and anxiolytic effects of exercise in male Long Evans rats. Hippocampal and perirhinal cortex tissue was collected to determine whether the relationship between BDNF and cognitive performance extends to this non-spatial and non-hippocampal-dependent task. We also examined whether the cognitive improvements persisted once the exercise regimen was terminated. Our data indicate that 4 weeks of voluntary exercise every-other-day improved object recognition memory. Importantly, BDNF expression in the perirhinal cortex of exercising rats was strongly correlated with object recognition memory. Exercise also decreased anxiety-like behavior, however there was no evidence to support a relationship between anxiety-like behavior and performance on the novel object recognition task. There was a trend for a negative relationship between anxiety-like behavior and hippocampal BDNF. Neither the cognitive improvements nor the relationship between cognitive function and perirhinal BDNF levels persisted after 2 weeks of inactivity. These are the first data demonstrating that region-specific changes in BDNF protein levels are correlated with exercise-induced improvements in non-spatial memory, mediated by structures outside the hippocampus and are consistent with the theory that, with regard to object recognition, the anxiolytic and cognitive effects of exercise may be mediated through separable mechanisms. PMID:20601027

  2. BDNF expression in perirhinal cortex is associated with exercise-induced improvement in object recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Michael E; Bucci, David J

    2010-09-01

    Physical exercise induces widespread neurobiological adaptations and improves learning and memory. Most research in this field has focused on hippocampus-based spatial tasks and changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a putative substrate underlying exercise-induced cognitive improvements. Chronic exercise can also be anxiolytic and causes adaptive changes in stress-reactivity. The present study employed a perirhinal cortex-dependent object recognition task as well as the elevated plus maze to directly test for interactions between the cognitive and anxiolytic effects of exercise in male Long Evans rats. Hippocampal and perirhinal cortex tissue was collected to determine whether the relationship between BDNF and cognitive performance extends to this non-spatial and non-hippocampal-dependent task. We also examined whether the cognitive improvements persisted once the exercise regimen was terminated. Our data indicate that 4weeks of voluntary exercise every-other-day improved object recognition memory. Importantly, BDNF expression in the perirhinal cortex of exercising rats was strongly correlated with object recognition memory. Exercise also decreased anxiety-like behavior, however there was no evidence to support a relationship between anxiety-like behavior and performance on the novel object recognition task. There was a trend for a negative relationship between anxiety-like behavior and hippocampal BDNF. Neither the cognitive improvements nor the relationship between cognitive function and perirhinal BDNF levels persisted after 2weeks of inactivity. These are the first data demonstrating that region-specific changes in BDNF protein levels are correlated with exercise-induced improvements in non-spatial memory, mediated by structures outside the hippocampus and are consistent with the theory that, with regard to object recognition, the anxiolytic and cognitive effects of exercise may be mediated through separable mechanisms.

  3. Future thinking improves prospective memory performance and plan enactment in older adults.

    PubMed

    Altgassen, Mareike; Rendell, Peter G; Bernhard, Anka; Henry, Julie D; Bailey, Phoebe E; Phillips, Louise H; Kliegel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Efficient intention formation might improve prospective memory by reducing the need for resource-demanding strategic processes during the delayed performance interval. The present study set out to test this assumption and provides the first empirical assessment of whether imagining a future action improves prospective memory performance equivalently at different stages of the adult lifespan. Thus, younger (n = 40) and older (n = 40) adults were asked to complete the Dresden Breakfast Task, which required them to prepare breakfast in accordance with a set of rules and time restrictions. All participants began by generating a plan for later enactment; however, after making this plan, half of the participants were required to imagine themselves completing the task in the future (future thinking condition), while the other half received standard instructions (control condition). As expected, overall younger adults outperformed older adults. Moreover, both older and younger adults benefited equally from future thinking instructions, as reflected in a higher proportion of prospective memory responses and more accurate plan execution. Thus, for both younger and older adults, imagining the specific visual-spatial context in which an intention will later be executed may serve as an easy-to-implement strategy that enhances prospective memory function in everyday life. PMID:25191929

  4. Extra virgin olive oil improves learning and memory in SAMP8 mice.

    PubMed

    Farr, Susan A; Price, Tulin O; Dominguez, Ligia J; Motisi, Antonio; Saiano, Filippo; Niehoff, Michael L; Morley, John E; Banks, William A; Ercal, Nuran; Barbagallo, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Polyphenols are potent antioxidants found in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO); antioxidants have been shown to reverse age- and disease-related learning and memory deficits. We examined the effects of EVOO on learning and memory in SAMP8 mice, an age-related learning/memory impairment model associated with increased amyloid-β protein and brain oxidative damage. We administered EVOO, coconut oil, or butter to 11 month old SAMP8 mice for 6 weeks. Mice were tested in T-maze foot shock avoidance and one-trial novel object recognition with a 24 h delay. Mice which received EVOO had improved acquisition in the T-maze and spent more time with the novel object in one-trial novel object recognition versus mice which received coconut oil or butter. Mice that received EVOO had improve T-maze retention compared to the mice that received butter. EVOO increased brain glutathione levels suggesting reduced oxidative stress as a possible mechanism. These effects plus increased glutathione reductase activity, superoxide dismutase activity, and decreased tissue levels of 4-hydroxynoneal and 3-nitrotyrosine were enhanced with enriched EVOO (3 × and 5 × polyphenols concentration). Our findings suggest that EVOO has beneficial effects on learning and memory deficits found in aging and diseases, such as those related to the overproduction of amyloid-β protein, by reversing oxidative damage in the brain, effects that are augmented with increasing concentrations of polyphenols in EVOO.

  5. The PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast improves memory in rodents at non-emetic doses.

    PubMed

    Vanmierlo, Tim; Creemers, Pim; Akkerman, Sven; van Duinen, Marlies; Sambeth, Anke; De Vry, Jochen; Uz, Tolga; Blokland, Arjan; Prickaerts, Jos

    2016-04-15

    Enhancement of central availability of the second messenger cAMP is a promising approach to improve cognitive function. Pharmacological inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4), a group of cAMP hydrolyzing enzymes in the brain, has been shown to improve cognitive performances in rodents and monkeys. However, inhibition of PDE4 is generally associated with severe emetic side-effects. Roflumilast, an FDA-approved PDE4 inhibitor for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is yielding only mild emetic side effects. In the present study we investigate the potential of roflumilast as a cognition enhancer and to determine the potential coinciding emetic response in comparison to rolipram, a classic PDE4 inhibitor with pronounced emetic effects. Cognition enhancement was evaluated in mice and it was found that both roflumilast and rolipram enhanced memory in an object location task (0.03mg/kg), whereas only roflumilast was effective in a spatial Y-maze (0.1mg/kg). Emetic potential was measured using competition of PDE4 inhibition for α2-adrenergic receptor antagonism in which recovery from xylazine/ketamine-mediated anesthesia is used as a surrogate marker. While rolipram displayed emetic properties at a dose 10 times the memory-enhancing dose, roflumilast only showed increased emetic-like properties at a dose 100 times the memory-enhancing dose. Moreover, combining sub-efficacious doses of the approved cognition-enhancer donepezil and roflumilast, which did not improve memory when given alone, fully restored object recognition memory deficit in rats induced by the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine. These findings suggest that roflumilast offers a more favorable window for treatment of cognitive deficits compared to rolipram.

  6. Honokiol improves learning and memory impairments induced by scopolamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Xian, Yan-Fang; Ip, Siu-Po; Mao, Qing-Qiu; Su, Zi-Ren; Chen, Jian-Nan; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Lin, Zhi-Xiu

    2015-08-01

    Honokiol, a lignan isolated from the bark of Magnolia officinalis, has been reported to ameliorate the learning and memory impairments in senesed (SAMP8) mice. However, whether honokiol could improve scopolamine (SCOP)-induced learning and memory deficits in mice is still unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether honokiol could reverse the SCOP-induced learning and memory impairments in mice and to elucidate its underlying mechanisms of action. Mice were given daily intraperitoneal injection of honokiol (10 and 20mg/kg) for 21 consecutive days. The results showed that honokiol significantly improved spatial learning and memory function (as assessed by the Morris water maze test) in the SCOP-treated mice. In addition, treatment with honokiol significantly decreased the protein and mRNA levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), while significantly increased the protein and mRNA levels of IL-10, and the level of acetylcholine (Ach) in the brain of the SCOP-treated mice. Moreover, honokiol also significantly suppressed the production of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE2) and mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the brain of the SCOP-treated mice. Mechanistic investigations revealed that honokiol could markedly reverse the amount of phosphorylated Akt and extracellular regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) changes in the brain of the SCOP-treated mice. These results amply demonstrated that honokiol could improve learning and memory impairments induced by SCOP in mice, and the protective action may be mediated, at least in part, by inhibition of AChE activity, and amelioration of the neuroinflammatory processes in the SCOP-treated mice.

  7. Spatial memory is improved by aerobic and resistance exercise through divergent molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cassilhas, R C; Lee, K S; Fernandes, J; Oliveira, M G M; Tufik, S; Meeusen, R; de Mello, M T

    2012-01-27

    A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that exercise has a positive impact on human health, including neurological health. Aerobic exercise, which is supposed to enhance cardiovascular functions and metabolism, also induces neurotrophic factors that affect hippocampal neurons, thereby improving spatial learning and memory. Alternatively, little is known about the effect of resistance exercise on hippocampus-dependent memory, although this type of exercise is increasingly recommended to improve muscle strength and bone density and to prevent age-related disabilities. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of resistance training on spatial memory and the signaling pathways of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), comparing these effects with those of aerobic exercise. Adult male Wistar rats underwent 8 weeks of aerobic training on a treadmill (AERO group) or resistance training on a vertical ladder (RES group). Control and sham groups were also included. After the training period, both AERO and RES groups showed improved learning and spatial memory in a similar manner. However, both groups presented distinct signaling pathways. Although the AERO group showed increased level of IGF-1, BDNF, TrkB, and β-CaMKII (calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II) in the hippocampus, the RES group showed an induction of peripheral and hippocampal IGF-1 with concomitant activation of receptor for IGF-1 (IGF-1R) and AKT in the hippocampus. These distinct pathways culminated in an increase of synapsin 1 and synaptophysin expression in both groups. These findings demonstrated that both aerobic and resistance exercise can employ divergent molecular mechanisms but achieve similar results on learning and spatial memory.

  8. Can improving working memory prevent academic difficulties? a school based randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Low academic achievement is common and is associated with adverse outcomes such as grade repetition, behavioural disorders and unemployment. The ability to accurately identify these children and intervene before they experience academic failure would be a major advance over the current 'wait to fail' model. Recent research suggests that a possible modifiable factor for low academic achievement is working memory, the ability to temporarily store and manipulate information in a 'mental workspace'. Children with working memory difficulties are at high risk of academic failure. It has recently been demonstrated that working memory can be improved with adaptive training tasks that encourage improvements in working memory capacity. Our trial will determine whether the intervention is efficacious as a selective prevention strategy for young children at risk of academic difficulties and is cost-effective. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial aims to recruit 440 children with low working memory after a school-based screening of 2880 children in Grade one. We will approach caregivers of all children from 48 participating primary schools in metropolitan Melbourne for consent. Children with low working memory will be randomised to usual care or the intervention. The intervention will consist of 25 computerised working memory training sessions, which take approximately 35 minutes each to complete. Follow-up of children will be conducted at 6, 12 and 24 months post-randomisation through child face-to-face assessment, parent and teacher surveys and data from government authorities. The primary outcome is academic achievement at 12 and 24 months, and other outcomes include child behaviour, attention, health-related quality of life, working memory, and health and educational service utilisation. Discussion A successful start to formal learning in school sets the stage for future academic, psychological and economic well-being. If this preventive intervention

  9. The enhancement of reconsolidation with a naturalistic mild stressor improves the expression of a declarative memory in humans.

    PubMed

    Coccoz, V; Maldonado, H; Delorenzi, A

    2011-06-30

    The reconsolidation hypothesis proposes that a previously consolidated memory recalled by a reminder enters an unstable state (memory labilization) during which it is transiently sensitive to disruption. Although this process has been shown in very diverse species and types of memories, including human declarative memory, elucidating the role of this process is still an open challenge. The hypothesis that reconsolidation allows the incorporation of new information has recently been demonstrated in humans. However, the findings show that, during the reconsolidation phase, memory retention can be increased by pharmacological modulation or real life events in animals have not been found in humans yet. In order to evaluate this, we used a paradigm of human declarative memory whose reminder structure allows us to differentiate between a retrieved labile memory state and a retrieved but non-labile state. Volunteers learned an association between five cue-syllables and their respective response-syllables. 6 days later, the paired-associate memory was reactivated by exposing the subjects to the reminder, and then they received a mild stressor, cold pressor stress (CPS). Poor memory performance was found at both the time of memory reactivation (day 6 after training) and at testing of all groups that were designed as controls (day 7). Conversely, robust memory performance was shown at testing when the CPS administration was concurrent with the retrieved-labile memory state. Results from the present study reveal that a naturalistic mild stressor can enhance reconsolidation, improving the long-term expression of this declarative memory. This finding might have significant implications for the comprehension of memory persistence and memory expression, and add new evidence in order to understand the adaptive meaning of the reconsolidation process.

  10. Working memory span capacity improved by a D2 but not D1 receptor family agonist.

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Isadore S; Sharp, Richard F; Geyer, Mark A; Meves, Jessica M; Young, Jared W

    2011-06-01

    Patients with schizophrenia exhibit poor working memory (WM). Although several subcomponents of WM can be measured, evidence suggests the primary subcomponent affected in schizophrenia is span capacity (WMC). Indeed, the NIMH-funded MATRICS initiative recommended assaying the WMC when assessing the efficacy of a putative therapeutic for FDA approval. Although dopamine D1 receptor agonists improve delay-dependent memory in animals, evidence for improvements in WMC due to dopamine D1 receptor activation is limited. In contrast, the dopamine D2-family agonist bromocriptine improves WMC in humans. The radial arm maze (RAM) can be used to assess WMC, although complications due to ceiling effects or strategy confounds have limited its use. We describe a 12-arm RAM protocol designed to assess whether the dopamine D1-family agonist SKF 38393 (0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) or bromocriptine (0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) could improve WMC in C57BL/6N mice (n=12) in cross-over designs. WMC increased and strategy usage decreased with training. The dopamine D1 agonist SKF 38393 had no effect on WMC or long-term memory. Bromocriptine decreased WMC errors, without affecting long-term memory, consistent with human studies. These data confirm that WMC can be measured in mice and reveal drug effects that are consistent with reported effects in humans. Future research is warranted to identify the subtype of the D2-family of receptors responsible for the observed improvement in WMC. Finally, this RAM procedure may prove useful in developing animal models of deficient WMC to further assess putative treatments for the cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:21232557

  11. Stroboscopic visual training improves information encoding in short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, L Gregory; Cain, Matthew S; Schroeder, Julia E; Darling, Elise F; Mitroff, Stephen R

    2012-11-01

    The visual system has developed to transform an undifferentiated and continuous flow of information into discrete and manageable representations, and this ability rests primarily on the uninterrupted nature of the input. Here we explore the impact of altering how visual information is accumulated over time by assessing how intermittent vision influences memory retention. Previous work has shown that intermittent, or stroboscopic, visual training (i.e., practicing while only experiencing snapshots of vision) can enhance visual-motor control and visual cognition, yet many questions remain unanswered about the mechanisms that are altered. In the present study, we used a partial-report memory paradigm to assess the possible changes in visual memory following training under stroboscopic conditions. In Experiment 1, the memory task was completed before and immediately after a training phase, wherein participants engaged in physical activities (e.g., playing catch) while wearing either specialized stroboscopic eyewear or transparent control eyewear. In Experiment 2, an additional group of participants underwent the same stroboscopic protocol but were delayed 24 h between training and assessment, so as to measure retention. In comparison to the control group, both stroboscopic groups (immediate and delayed retest) revealed enhanced retention of information in short-term memory, leading to better recall at longer stimulus-to-cue delays (640-2,560 ms). These results demonstrate that training under stroboscopic conditions has the capacity to enhance some aspects of visual memory, that these faculties generalize beyond the specific tasks that were trained, and that trained improvements can be maintained for at least a day.

  12. Working Memory Training Does Not Improve Performance on Measures of Intelligence or Other Measures of “Far Transfer”

    PubMed Central

    Melby-Lervåg, Monica; Redick, Thomas S.; Hulme, Charles

    2016-01-01

    It has been claimed that working memory training programs produce diverse beneficial effects. This article presents a meta-analysis of working memory training studies (with a pretest-posttest design and a control group) that have examined transfer to other measures (nonverbal ability, verbal ability, word decoding, reading comprehension, or arithmetic; 87 publications with 145 experimental comparisons). Immediately following training there were reliable improvements on measures of intermediate transfer (verbal and visuospatial working memory). For measures of far transfer (nonverbal ability, verbal ability, word decoding, reading comprehension, arithmetic) there was no convincing evidence of any reliable improvements when working memory training was compared with a treated control condition. Furthermore, mediation analyses indicated that across studies, the degree of improvement on working memory measures was not related to the magnitude of far-transfer effects found. Finally, analysis of publication bias shows that there is no evidential value from the studies of working memory training using treated controls. The authors conclude that working memory training programs appear to produce short-term, specific training effects that do not generalize to measures of “real-world” cognitive skills. These results seriously question the practical and theoretical importance of current computerized working memory programs as methods of training working memory skills. PMID:27474138

  13. Structured floral arrangement programme for improving visuospatial working memory in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki-Kawai, Hiroko; Yamakawa, Yuriko; Mochizuki, Satoshi; Anzai, Shoko; Arai, Masanobu

    2010-01-01

    Several cognitive therapies have been developed for patients with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the outcomes of these therapies in terms of non-verbal/visuospatial working memory, even though this may affect patients’ social outcomes. In the present pilot study, we investigated the effect of a structured floral arrangement (SFA) programme, where participants were required to create symmetrical floral arrangements. In this programme, the arrangement pattern and the order of placing each of the natural materials was predetermined. Participants have to identify where to place each material, and memorise the position temporarily to complete the floral arrangement. The schizophrenic patients who participated in this programme showed significant improvement in their scores for a block-tapping task backward version; whereas, non-treated control patients did not show such an improvement. The present results suggest that the SFA programme may positively stimulate visuospatial working memory in patients. PMID:20467963

  14. Structured floral arrangement programme for improving visuospatial working memory in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki-Kawai, Hiroko; Yamakawa, Yuriko; Mochizuki, Satoshi; Anzai, Shoko; Arai, Masanobu

    2010-08-01

    Several cognitive therapies have been developed for patients with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the outcomes of these therapies in terms of non-verbal/visuospatial working memory, even though this may affect patients' social outcomes. In the present pilot study, we investigated the effect of a structured floral arrangement (SFA) programme, where participants were required to create symmetrical floral arrangements. In this programme, the arrangement pattern and the order of placing each of the natural materials was predetermined. Participants have to identify where to place each material, and memorise the position temporarily to complete the floral arrangement. The schizophrenic patients who participated in this programme showed significant improvement in their scores for a block-tapping task backward version; whereas, non-treated control patients did not show such an improvement. The present results suggest that the SFA programme may positively stimulate visuospatial working memory in patients. PMID:20467963

  15. Hypoxia inducible factor stabilization leads to lasting improvement of hippocampal memory in healthy mice.

    PubMed

    Adamcio, Bartosz; Sperling, Swetlana; Hagemeyer, Nora; Walkinshaw, Gail; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2010-03-17

    We have previously shown that high-dose erythropoietin (EPO) treatment improves hippocampal plasticity and cognitive performance in rodents and in patients suffering from neuropsychiatric diseases. It was therefore of interest to explore whether upregulation of endogenous EPO in brain by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) stabilization would increase hippocampal memory similar to exogenous EPO. HIFs are transcription factors involved in the cellular response to low oxygen, including upregulation of transcripts like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and EPO. Under normal oxygen, prolylhydroxylases decrease HIF-alpha stability. This is banned by prolylhydroxylase inhibitors, which prevent oxygen dependent degradation and thus prolong HIF-alpha half life. In an experimental set-up identical to the one yielding strong cognitive effects with EPO, healthy male 28-day-old mice received FG-4497, a HIF prolylhydroxylase inhibitor, or placebo intraperitoneally every other day for 3 weeks. Behavioral testing and hematocrit determinations were conducted in independent cohorts at 1, 3, or 4 weeks after treatment completion. Increased EPO and VEGF mRNA expression in hippocampus or primary hippocampal neurons 6h after the application of FG-4497 confirmed its ability to stabilize HIF and upregulate HIF dependent transcription in brain. At 3 and 4 weeks after the last injection, respectively, FG-4497 treated mice compared to placebo mice had improved hippocampal memory in fear conditioning without change in hematocrit. In contrast, no improvement in memory was detected at 1 week, when the hematocrit was increased, indicating that cognitive improvement and hematocrit are not directly related. FG-4497 application for 3 weeks leads to delayed but lasting enhancement of hippocampal memory, making HIF stabilization an attractive target for pharmacological manipulation of cognition.

  16. Adjunctive raloxifene treatment improves attention and memory in men and women with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Weickert, T W; Weinberg, D; Lenroot, R; Catts, S V; Wells, R; Vercammen, A; O'Donnell, M; Galletly, C; Liu, D; Balzan, R; Short, B; Pellen, D; Curtis, J; Carr, V J; Kulkarni, J; Schofield, P R; Weickert, C S

    2015-06-01

    There is increasing clinical and molecular evidence for the role of hormones and specifically estrogen and its receptor in schizophrenia. A selective estrogen receptor modulator, raloxifene, stimulates estrogen-like activity in brain and can improve cognition in older adults. The present study tested the extent to which adjunctive raloxifene treatment improved cognition and reduced symptoms in young to middle-age men and women with schizophrenia. Ninety-eight patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were recruited into a dual-site, thirteen-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of adjunctive raloxifene treatment in addition to their usual antipsychotic medications. Symptom severity and cognition in the domains of working memory, attention/processing speed, language and verbal memory were assessed at baseline, 6 and 13 weeks. Analyses of the initial 6-week phase of the study using a parallel groups design (with 39 patients receiving placebo and 40 receiving raloxifene) revealed that participants receiving adjunctive raloxifene treatment showed significant improvement relative to placebo in memory and attention/processing speed. There was no reduction in symptom severity with treatment compared with placebo. There were significant carryover effects, suggesting some cognitive benefits are sustained even after raloxifene withdrawal. Analysis of the 13-week crossover data revealed significant improvement with raloxifene only in attention/processing speed. This is the first study to show that daily, oral adjunctive raloxifene treatment at 120 mg per day has beneficial effects on attention/processing speed and memory for both men and women with schizophrenia. Thus, raloxifene may be useful as an adjunctive treatment for cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. PMID:25980345

  17. Oral administration of squid lecithin-transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine improves memory impairment in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bombi; Sur, Bong-Jun; Han, Jeong-Jun; Shim, Insop; Her, Song; Lee, Yang-Seok; Lee, Hye-Jung; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, lecithin-derived phosphatidylserine (PS), which originates from marine life, has received much attention as a viable alternative to bovine cerebral cortex PS. In this study, the use of squid phosphatidylcholine-transphosphatidylated PS (SQ-PS) was evaluated through examination of its ameliorating effects on age-associated learning and memory deficits in rats. Aged rats were orally administered SQ-PS (10, 20, or 50 mg/kg per day) once a day for seven days 30 min prior to behavioral assessment in a Morris water maze. SQ-PS administration produced significant dose-dependent improvements in escape latency for finding the platform in the Morris water maze in the aged rats even though Soy-PS administration also exhibited comparable improvements with SQ-PS. Biochemical alterations in the hippocampal cholinergic system, including changes in choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase immunoreactivity, were consistent with the behavioral results. In addition, SQ-PS treatment significantly restored age-associated decreases of choline transporter and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor type 1 mRNA expression in the hippocampus. These results demonstrate that orally administered SQ-PS dose-dependently aids in the improvement of memory deficits that occur during normal aging in rats. This suggests that SQ-PS may be a useful therapeutic agent in the treatment of diminished memory function in elderly people.

  18. Daily supplementation with mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) improves balance and working memory in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Miller, Marshall G; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Decline in brain function during normal aging is partly due to the long-term effects of oxidative stress and inflammation. Several fruits and vegetables have been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the effects of dietary mushroom intervention on mobility and memory in aged Fischer 344 rats. We hypothesized that daily supplementation of mushroom would have beneficial effects on behavioral outcomes in a dose-dependent manner. Rats were randomly assigned to receive a diet containing either 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, or 5% lyophilized white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus); after 8 weeks on the diet, a battery of behavioral tasks was given to assess balance, coordination, and cognition. Rats on the 2% or 5% mushroom-supplemented diet consumed more food, without gaining weight, than rats in the other diet groups. Rats in the 0.5% and 1% group stayed on a narrow beam longer, indicating an improvement in balance. Only rats on the 0.5% mushroom diet showed improved performance in a working memory version of the Morris water maze. When taken together, the most effective mushroom dose that produced improvements in both balance and working memory was 0.5%, equivalent to about 1.5 ounces of fresh mushrooms for humans. Therefore, the results suggest that the inclusion of mushroom in the daily diet may have beneficial effects on age-related deficits in cognitive and motor function.

  19. Exercise improves object recognition memory and induces BDNF expression and cell proliferation in cognitively enriched rats.

    PubMed

    Bechara, R G; Kelly, Á M

    2013-05-15

    Exercise and environmental enrichment are behavioural interventions that have been shown to improve learning and increase neurogenesis in rodents, possibly via neurotrophin-mediated mechanisms. However, many enrichment protocols incorporate exercise, which can itself be viewed as a source of cognitive stimulation in animals housed in standard laboratory conditions. In this experiment we investigate the effect of each intervention separately and in combination on object recognition memory, and analyse associated changes in the dentate gyrus: specifically, in BDNF expression and cell division. We show that both exercise and enrichment improve object recognition memory, but that BDNF mRNA expression and cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus increase only in exercised rats. These results are in general agreement with recent studies suggesting that the exercise component is the major neurogenic and neurotrophic stimulus in environmental enrichment protocols. We add to the expanding literature several novel aspects including the finding that enrichment in the absence of exercise can improve object recognition memory, probably via mechanisms that are independent of BDNF upregulation and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus.

  20. Improving memory in Parkinson's disease: a healthy brain ageing cognitive training program.

    PubMed

    Naismith, Sharon L; Mowszowski, Loren; Diamond, Keri; Lewis, Simon J G

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a multifactorial 'healthy brain ageing cognitive training program' for Parkinson's disease. Using a single-blinded waitlist control design, 50 participants with Parkinson's disease were recruited from the Brain & Mind Research Institute, Sydney, Australia. The intervention encompassed both psychoeducation and cognitive training; each component lasted 1-hour. The 2-hour sessions were delivered in a group format, twice-weekly over a 7-week period. Multifactorial psychoeducation was delivered by a range of health professionals. In addition to delivering cognitive strategies, it targeted depression, anxiety, sleep, vascular risk factors, diet, and exercise. Cognitive training was computer-based and was conducted by clinical neuropsychologists. The primary outcome was memory. Secondary outcomes included other aspects of cognition and knowledge pertaining to the psychoeducation material. Results demonstrated that cognitive training was associated with significant improvements in learning and memory corresponding to medium to large effect sizes. Treatment was also associated with medium effect size improvements in knowledge. Although the study was limited by the lack of randomized allocation to treatment and control groups, these findings suggest that a healthy brain ageing cognitive training program may be a viable tool to improve memory and/or slow cognitive decline in people with Parkinson's disease. It also appeared successful for increasing awareness of adaptive and/or compensatory cognitive strategies, as well as modifiable risk factors to optimize brain functioning.

  1. Daily supplementation with mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) improves balance and working memory in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Miller, Marshall G; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Decline in brain function during normal aging is partly due to the long-term effects of oxidative stress and inflammation. Several fruits and vegetables have been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the effects of dietary mushroom intervention on mobility and memory in aged Fischer 344 rats. We hypothesized that daily supplementation of mushroom would have beneficial effects on behavioral outcomes in a dose-dependent manner. Rats were randomly assigned to receive a diet containing either 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, or 5% lyophilized white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus); after 8 weeks on the diet, a battery of behavioral tasks was given to assess balance, coordination, and cognition. Rats on the 2% or 5% mushroom-supplemented diet consumed more food, without gaining weight, than rats in the other diet groups. Rats in the 0.5% and 1% group stayed on a narrow beam longer, indicating an improvement in balance. Only rats on the 0.5% mushroom diet showed improved performance in a working memory version of the Morris water maze. When taken together, the most effective mushroom dose that produced improvements in both balance and working memory was 0.5%, equivalent to about 1.5 ounces of fresh mushrooms for humans. Therefore, the results suggest that the inclusion of mushroom in the daily diet may have beneficial effects on age-related deficits in cognitive and motor function. PMID:26475179

  2. Increasing stimulus duration improves attention and memory performance in elderly with cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Lavner, Yizhar; Rabinowitz, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In this study, we investigated whether increasing stimulus duration could improve performance on a test of attention and short-term memory in cognitively impaired individuals. Methods: A computer-generated forward digit span test was administered to 65 patients with mild cognitive impairment or dementia (28 intervention and 37 controls). After point of failure, testing in the intervention group was continued at the same rate, but with an average 150% digit lengthening to 800 ms. Testing of controls was continued using the standard digit span test. Results: In the intervention group, 13/28 (46.4%) improved their digit span test performance, compared to 2/37 (5.4%) in the control group (p = 0.00005). Conclusion: Cognitively impaired elderly participants improved performance on a test of attention and short-term memory, when stimulus duration was increased in proportion to elongation of the finger tap touch-phase previously found in a similar cohort. A possible mechanism for the effect of increased stimulus duration on attention and short-term memory is discussed. PMID:27081485

  3. Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae improves learning and memory capabilities in ovariectomized rats☆

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuefen; Xu, Ya; Pan, Yanshu; Li, Weihong; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Jia, Jing; Li, Pengtao

    2013-01-01

    Kidney-tonifying recipe can reduce the accumulation of advanced glycation end products, prevent neuronal degeneration and improve cognitive functions in ovariectomized rats. Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae alcohol extracts may dose-dependently inhibit non-enzymatic saccharification in vitro. This study aimed to examine the effect of Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae on advanced glycation end products and on learning and memory capabilities in ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomized rats were treated with Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae alcohol extracts (containing 1.5 g/kg crude drug) or 0.1% aminoguanidine for 12 weeks and behavioral testing was performed with the Y-electrical maze. This test revealed that Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae and aminoguanidine could improve the learning and memory capabilities of ovariectomized rats. Results of competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that treatment with Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae or aminoguanidine reduced the accumulation of advanced glycation end products in the frontal cortex of ovariectomized rats, while increasing content in the blood and urine. Biochemical tests showed that treatment with Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae or aminoguanidine decreased superoxide dismutase activity in the serum and frontal cortex, and increased serum levels of glutathione peroxidase in ovariectomized rats. In addition, there was no apparent effect on malondialdehyde levels. These experimental findings indicate that Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae inhibits production of advanced glycation end products and its accumulation in brain tissue, and improves learning and memory capabilities in ovariectomized rats. These effects may be associated with an anti-oxidative action of the extract. PMID:25206461

  4. A Single Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Dose Improves B Cell Memory in Previously Infected Subjects.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Erin M; Smith, Robin A; Gallego, Daniel F; Carter, Joseph J; Wipf, Gregory C; Hoyos, Manuela; Stern, Michael; Thurston, Tate; Trinklein, Nathan D; Wald, Anna; Galloway, Denise A

    2016-08-01

    Although licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are most efficacious in persons never infected with HPV, they also reduce infection and disease in previously infected subjects, indicating natural immunity is not entirely protective against HPV re-infection. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the B cell memory elicited by HPV infection and evaluate whether vaccination merely boosts antibody (Ab) levels in previously infected subjects or also improves the quality of B cell memory. Toward this end, the memory B cells (Bmem) of five unvaccinated, HPV-seropositive subjects were isolated and characterized, and subject recall responses to a single HPV vaccine dose were analyzed. Vaccination boosted Ab levels 24- to 930-fold (median 77-fold) and Bmem numbers 3- to 27-fold (median 6-fold). In addition, Abs cloned from naturally elicited Bmem were generally non-neutralizing, whereas all those isolated following vaccination were neutralizing. Moreover, Ab and plasmablast responses indicative of memory recall responses were only observed in two subjects. These results suggest HPV vaccination augments both the magnitude and quality of natural immunity and demonstrate that sexually active persons could also benefit from HPV vaccination. This study may have important public policy implications, especially for the older 'catch-up' group within the vaccine's target population. PMID:27423190

  5. Lacosamide reduces HDAC levels in the brain and improves memory: Potential for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bang, Shraddha R; Ambavade, Shirishkumar D; Jagdale, Priti G; Adkar, Prafulla P; Waghmare, Arun B; Ambavade, Prashant D

    2015-07-01

    Lacosamide, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, has been approved for the treatment of epilepsy. Some HDAC inhibitors have been proven effective for the treatment of memory disorders. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the effect of lacosamide on memory and brain HDAC levels. The effect on memory was evaluated in animals with scopolamine-induced amnesia using the elevated plus maze, object recognition test, and radial arm maze. The levels of acetylcholinesterase and HDAC in the cerebral cortex were evaluated. Lacosamide at doses of 10 and 30mg/kg significantly reduced the transfer latency in the elevated plus maze. Lacosamide at a dose of 30mg/kg significantly increased the time spent with a familiar object in the object recognition test at the 24h interval and decreased the time spent in the baited arm. Moreover, at this dose, the number of errors in the radial arm maze at 3 and 24h intervals was minimized and a reduction in the level of HDAC1, but not acetylcholinesterase, was observed in the cerebral cortex. These effects of lacosamide are equivalent to those of piracetam at a dose of 300mg/kg. These results suggest that lacosamide at a 30mg/kg dose improves disrupted memory, possibly by inhibiting HDAC, and could be used to treat amnesic symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Unexpected improvements of spatial learning and memory abilities in chronic rotenone intoxicated mice.

    PubMed

    Jia, Fengju; Song, Ning; Zhao, Chenyang; Xie, Junxia; Jiang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The liposoluble insecticide rotenone is commonly used as a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor to replicate Parkinson's disease (PD) pathological features. However, there was no assessment of the spatial learning and memory abilities in chronic rotenone-induced PD models. In the present study, by rotarod test and Thioflavine T staining, we first noted the impairment of motor coordination in rotenone-treated group for 3 months, as well as alpha-synuclein inclusions in the nigral dopaminergic neurons in C57BL/6 mice with intragastrical delivery of rotenone (5 mg/Kg) for 3 months rather than 1 month. We then evaluated spatial learning and memory abilities by Morris water maze task in this model. The results showed escape latency reduced in rotenone-intoxicated mice for 3 months, indicating an improvement of learning ability. However, it was delayed slightly but not significantly in rotenone-intoxicated mice for 1 month. Similarly, we demonstrated that spatial memory ability was enhanced in 3-month-treatment group, but impaired in 1-month-treatment group. There were no proliferating cell nuclear antigen and doublecortin positive cells in the hippocampus by double immunofluorescent staining, indicating the absence of hippocampal neurogenesis in rotenone-intoxicated mice. These results suggest that spatial learning and memory abilities are disturbed in chronic rotenone-intoxicated PD model.

  7. Memantine improves memory for taste-avoidance learning in day-old chicks exposed to isolation stress.

    PubMed

    Barber, Teresa A; Meyers, Ryan A; McGettigan, Brian F

    2010-04-01

    Activation of NMDA receptors by glutamate is particularly important in the initial stages of memory consolidation. Memantine, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, ameliorates memory impairment under certain circumstances, despite blocking the activation of NMDA receptors. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that memantine can improve memory deficits induced by isolation stress in day-old chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) trained in a one-trial taste-avoidance task. Three experiments assessed the effects of memantine at different concentrations and in combination with isolation stress. The results of Experiment 1 indicate that, under normal, non-stressed conditions, memory in control animals is strong and 15.0 mM memantine impairs memory, similar to that seen in many studies of the effects of NMDA receptor antagonists on learning. However, the results of Experiments 2 and 3 showed that, when chicks were exposed to isolation stress during the pre-training period, memory formation for saline-injected control animals was impaired and 5.0 mM memantine significantly improved memory in an inverted U-shaped dose response function. The current results extend the findings that memantine can ameliorate memory impairment and supports the hypothesis that memantine, despite its action to reduce NMDA receptor activity, can facilitate normalized memory acquisition.

  8. Consumption of a mid-morning snack improves memory but not attention in school children.

    PubMed

    Muthayya, Sumithra; Thomas, Tinku; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Rao, Kirthi; Kurpad, Anura V; van Klinken, Jan-Willem; Owen, Gail; de Bruin, Eveline A

    2007-01-30

    Muthayya, S., T. Thomas, K. Srinivasan, K. Rao, A. V. Kurpad, J.-W. Van Klinken, G. Owen and E.A. de Bruin: Consumption of a mid-morning snack improves memory but not attention in school children. Physiol Behav 00(0) 000-000, 2006.--This study aimed to determine whether consumption of a mid-morning snack with appropriate energy compensation through a smaller breakfast or lunch, resulted in improved cognitive performance of 7-9 year old children with a low and high socioeconomic status (LSES and HSES, n=35 and 34 respectively). The children were each randomly assigned to three iso-caloric dietary interventions: control (standard breakfast, no snack and standard lunch), intervention A (small breakfast, snack, and standard lunch) and intervention B (standard breakfast, snack, and small lunch), using a cross-over design. The children were tested on three different days, each one week apart. Computerised tests of cognitive performance, consisting of memory, sustained attention and psychomotor speed, were performed during four sessions, i.e., prior to breakfast, after breakfast, after a mid-morning snack and after lunch. Having a mid-morning snack resulted in a smaller decline in immediate and delayed memory in LSES but not in HSES children. Having a snack did not influence sustained attention and psychomotor speed in either LSES or HSES children. This study shows that a more evenly distributed energy intake throughout the morning by consuming a mid-morning snack improves memory performance in school-age LSES children even when the total amount of energy consumed during the morning is not altered. PMID:17081574

  9. Computerized Memory Training Leads to Sustained Improvement in Visuospatial Short-Term Memory Skills in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Stephanie J.; Holmes, Joni; Buckley, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a computerized visuospatial memory training intervention on the memory and behavioral skills of children with Down syndrome. Teaching assistants were trained to support the delivery of a computerized intervention program to individual children over a 10-16 week period in school. Twenty-one children aged 7-12…

  10. Naringenin improves learning and memory in an Alzheimer's disease rat model: Insights into the underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ghofrani, Saeed; Joghataei, Mohammad-Taghi; Mohseni, Simin; Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht; Bagheri, Maryam; Khamse, Safoura; Roghani, Mehrdad

    2015-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the prevalent neurological disorders of the central nervous system hallmarked by increased beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and ensuing learning and memory deficit. In the present study, the beneficial effect of naringenin on improvement of learning and memory was evaluated in an Alzheimer's disease rat model. The Aβ-injected rats showed a lower alternation score in Y-maze task, impairment of retention and recall capability in passive avoidance test, and lower correct choices and higher errors in radial arm maze (RAM) task as compared to sham group in addition to enhanced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Naringenin, but not a combination of naringenin and fulvestrant (an estrogenic receptor antagonist) significantly improved the performance of Aβ-injected rats in passive avoidance and RAM tasks. Naringenin pretreatment of Aβ-injected rats also lowered hippocampal malondialdehyde (MDA) with no significant effect on nitrite and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in addition to lowering apoptosis. These results suggest naringenin pretreatment attenuates Aβ-induced impairment of learning and memory through mitigation of lipid peroxidation and apoptosis and its beneficial effect is somewhat mediated via estrogenic pathway. PMID:26148826

  11. Chronic administration of sulbutiamine improves long term memory formation in mice: possible cholinergic mediation.

    PubMed

    Micheau, J; Durkin, T P; Destrade, C; Rolland, Y; Jaffard, R

    1985-08-01

    Thiamine deficiency in both man and animals is known to produce memory dysfunction and cognitive disorders which have been related to an impairment of cholinergic activity. The present experiment was aimed at testing whether, inversely, chronic administration of large doses of sulbutiamine would have a facilitative effect on memory and would induce changes in central cholinergic activity. Accordingly mice received 300 mg/kg of sulbutiamine daily for 10 days. They were then submitted to an appetitive operant level press conditioning test. When compared to control subjects, sulbutiamine treated mice learned the task at the same rate in a single session but showed greatly improved performance when tested 24 hr after partial acquisition of the same task. Parallel neurochemical investigations showed that the treatment induced a slight (+ 10%) but significant increase in hippocampal sodium-dependent high affinity choline uptake. The present findings and previous results suggest that sulbutiamine improves memory formation and that this behavioral effect could be mediated by an increase in hippocampal cholinergic activity. PMID:4059305

  12. Training improves the capacity of visual working memory when it is adaptive, individualized, and targeted.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eunsam; Lee, Hunjae; Yoo, Sang-Ah; Chong, Sang Chul

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated whether training improves the capacity of visual working memory using individualized adaptive training methods. Two groups of participants were trained for two targeted processes, filtering and consolidation. Before and after the training, the participants, including those with no training, performed a lateralized change detection task in which one side of the visual display had to be selected and the other side ignored. Across ten-day training sessions, the participants performed two modified versions of the lateralized change detection task. The number of distractors and duration of the consolidation period were adjusted individually to increase the task difficulty of the filtering and consolidation training, respectively. Results showed that the degree of improvement shown during the training was positively correlated with the increase in memory capacity, and training-induced benefits were most evident for larger set sizes in the filtering training group. These results suggest that visual working memory training is effective, especially when it is adaptive, individualized, and targeted.

  13. Tualang honey supplement improves memory performance and hippocampal morphology in stressed ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Rahbi, Badriya; Zakaria, Rahimah; Othman, Zahiruddin; Hassan, Asma; Mohd Ismail, Zul Izhar; Muthuraju, Sangu

    2014-01-01

    Recently, our research team has reported that Tualang honey was able to improve immediate memory in postmenopausal women comparable with that of estrogen progestin therapy. Therefore the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of Tualang honey supplement on hippocampal morphology and memory performance in ovariectomized (OVX) rats exposed to social instability stress. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups: (i) sham-operated controls, (ii) stressed sham-operated controls, (iii) OVX rats, (iv) stressed OVX rats, (v) stressed OVX rats treated with 17β-estradiol (E2), and (vi) stressed OVX rats treated with Tualang honey. These rats were subjected to social instability stress procedure followed by novel object recognition (NOR) test. Right brain hemispheres were subjected to Nissl staining. The number and arrangement of pyramidal neurons in regions of CA1, CA2, CA3 and the dentate gyrus (DG) were recorded. Two-way ANOVA analyses showed significant interactions between stress and OVX in both STM and LTM test as well as number of Nissl-positive cells in all hippocampal regions. Both E2 and Tualang honey treatments improved both short-term and long-term memory and enhanced the neuronal proliferation of hippocampal CA2, CA3 and DG regions compared to that of untreated stressed OVX rats.

  14. A Multifaceted Prospective Memory Intervention to Improve Medication Adherence: Design of a Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Insel, Kathie C.; Einstein, Gilles O.; Morrow, Daniel G.; Hepworth, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    Adherence to prescribed antihypertensive agents is critical because control of elevated blood pressure is the single most important way to prevent stroke and other end organ damage. Unfortunately, nonadherence remains a significant problem. Previous interventions designed to improve adherence have demonstrated only small benefits of strategies that target single facets such as understanding medication directions. The intervention described here is informed by prospective memory theory and performance of older adults in laboratory-based paradigms and uses a comprehensive, multifaceted approach to improve adherence. It incorporates multiple strategies designed to support key components of prospective remembering involved in taking medication. The intervention is delivered by nurses in the home with an education control group for comparison. Differences between groups in overall adherence following the intervention and 6 months later will be tested. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels also will be examined between groups and as it relates to adherence. Intra-individual regression is planned to examine change in adherence over time and its predictors. Finally, we will examine the association between executive function/working memory and adherence, predicting that adherence will be related to executive/working memory in the control group but not in the intervention group. PMID:23010608

  15. Glucagon-like peptide-2-induced memory improvement and anxiolytic effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Takashi; Jin, Kazushi; Ohnuki, Tomoko; Sasaki-Hamada, Sachie; Nakamura, Minami; Saitoh, Akiyoshi; Sugiyama, Azusa; Ikeda, Masaatsu; Tanabe, Mitsuo; Oka, Jun-Ichiro

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) on memory impairment in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice, and anxiety-like behavior in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-treated mice. In the Y-maze test, LPS (10 µg/mouse, i.c.v.) significantly decreased spontaneous alternation, which was prevented by pretreatment with GLP-2 (0.01-0.3 µg/mouse, i.c.v.). The GLP-2 treatment just before the Y-maze test also improved LPS-induced memory impairment. Continuous treatment with GLP-2 (3 µg/mouse, i.c.v.) had no effect on the open-field test in saline-treated or ACTH-treated mice. Chronic ACTH treatment did not cause anxiogenic effects in the elevated plus-maze test. GLP-2 showed weak anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus-maze test in ACTH-treated, but not saline-treated mice. Moreover, GLP-2 increased 5-HT, but not 5-HIAA and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 levels in the amygdala of ACTH-treated mice. Pharmacological depletion of 5-HT prevented the anxiolytic effects of GLP-2. These results suggest that GLP-2 protected and improved memory function in LPS-treated mice, and also had anxiolytic effects due to changes in the 5-HT system.

  16. A multifaceted prospective memory intervention to improve medication adherence: design of a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Insel, Kathleen C; Einstein, Gilles O; Morrow, Daniel G; Hepworth, Joseph T

    2013-01-01

    Adherence to prescribed antihypertensive agents is critical because control of elevated blood pressure is the single most important way to prevent stroke and other end organ damage. Unfortunately, nonadherence remains a significant problem. Previous interventions designed to improve adherence have demonstrated only small benefits of strategies that target single facets such as understanding medication directions. The intervention described here is informed by prospective memory theory and performance of older adults in laboratory-based paradigms and uses a comprehensive, multifaceted approach to improve adherence. It incorporates multiple strategies designed to support key components of prospective remembering involved in taking medication. The intervention is delivered by nurses in the home with an education control group for comparison. Differences between groups in overall adherence following the intervention and 6 months later will be tested. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels also will be examined between groups and as they relate to adherence. Intra-individual regression is planned to examine change in adherence over time and its predictors. Finally, we will examine the association between executive function/working memory and adherence, predicting that adherence will be related to executive/working memory in the control group but not in the intervention group. PMID:23010608

  17. Concord grape juice supplementation improves memory function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Krikorian, Robert; Nash, Tiffany A; Shidler, Marcelle D; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A

    2010-03-01

    Concord grape juice contains polyphenol compounds, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and influence neuronal signalling. Concord grape juice supplementation has been shown to reduce inflammation, blood pressure and vascular pathology in individuals with CVD, and consumption of such flavonoid-containing foods is associated with a reduced risk for dementia. In addition, preliminary animal data have indicated improvement in memory and motor function with grape juice supplementation, suggesting potential for cognitive benefit in ageing humans. In this initial investigation of neurocognitive effects, we enrolled twelve older adults with memory decline but not dementia in a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial with Concord grape juice supplementation for 12 weeks. We observed significant improvement in a measure of verbal learning and non-significant enhancement of verbal and spatial recall. There was no appreciable effect of the intervention on depressive symptoms and no effect on weight or waist circumference. A small increase in fasting insulin was observed for those consuming grape juice. These preliminary findings suggest that supplementation with Concord grape juice may enhance cognitive function for older adults with early memory decline and establish a basis for more comprehensive investigations to evaluate potential benefit and assess mechanisms of action. PMID:20028599

  18. Using distributed partial memories to improve self-organizing collective movements.

    PubMed

    Winder, Ransom; Reggia, James A

    2004-08-01

    Past self-organizing models of collectively moving "particles" (simulated bird flocks, fish schools, etc.) have typically been based on purely reflexive agents that have no significant memory of past movements. We hypothesized that giving such individual particles a limited distributed memory of past obstacles they encountered could lead to significantly faster travel between goal destinations. Systematic computational experiments using six terrains that had different arrangements of obstacles demonstrated that, at least in some domains, this conjecture is true. Furthermore, these experiments demonstrated that improved performance over time came not only from the avoidance of previously seen obstacles, but also (surprisingly) immediately after first encountering obstacles due to decreased delays in circumventing those obstacles. Simulations also showed that, of the four strategies we tested for removal of remembered obstacles when memory was full and a new obstacle was to be saved, none was better than random selection. These results may be useful in interpreting future experimental research on group movements in biological populations, and in improving existing methodologies for control of collective movements in computer graphics, robotic teams, particle swarm optimization, and computer games. PMID:15462437

  19. Physical exercise during pregnancy improves object recognition memory in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Robinson, A M; Bucci, D J

    2014-01-01

    Exercising during pregnancy has been shown to improve spatial learning and short-term memory, as well as increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels and hippocampal cell survival in juvenile offspring. However, it remains unknown if these effects endure into adulthood. In addition, few studies have considered how maternal exercise can impact cognitive functions that do not rely on the hippocampus. To address these issues, the present study tested the effects of maternal exercise during pregnancy on object recognition memory, which relies on the perirhinal cortex (PER), in adult offspring. Pregnant rats were given access to a running wheel throughout gestation and the adult male offspring were subsequently tested in an object recognition memory task at three different time points, each spaced 2-weeks apart, beginning at 60 days of age. At each time point, offspring from exercising mothers were able to successfully discriminate between novel and familiar objects in that they spent more time exploring the novel object than the familiar object. The offspring of non-exercising mothers were not able to successfully discriminate between objects and spent an equal amount of time with both objects. A subset of rats was euthanized 1h after the final object recognition test to assess c-FOS expression in the PER. The offspring of exercising mothers had more c-FOS expression in the PER than the offspring of non-exercising mothers. By comparison, c-FOS levels in the adjacent auditory cortex did not differ between groups. These results indicate that maternal exercise during pregnancy can improve object recognition memory in adult male offspring and increase c-FOS expression in the PER; suggesting that exercise during the gestational period may enhance brain function of the offspring. PMID:24157927

  20. Memory-improving activity of Melissa officinalis extract in naïve and scopolamine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Soodi, M; Naghdi, N; Hajimehdipoor, H; Choopani, S; Sahraei, E

    2014-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae) traditionally used in treating neurological disorders has also been identified as a memory-enhancing herb. The extract of M. officinalis has a cholinergic property. The role of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, the neurons that are destroyed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), in learning and memory, is also well known. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of cholinergic system on the memory improving activity of M. officinalis extract. The leaves of M. officinalis were extracted with ethanol 80% using the maceration method. Rats received intra-peritoneal injections of M. officinalis extract in different doses (50-400 mg/kg) alone or in combination with scopolamine (1 mg/kg) before being trained in a Morris water maze (MWM) in a single-day training protocol. After training, the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) activity was measured in the hippocampus. Administration of M. officinalis extract (200 mg/kg) could significantly enhance learning and memory of naïve rats (p<0.001) and significantly ameliorate scopolamine-induced learning deficit, but the effect of the extract was not dose dependent, and doses above 200 mg/kg could neither enhance memory in naïve rats nor reverse scopolamine-induced memory impairment. Also, inhibition of AChE activity was observed in both naïve and scopolamine-induced memory-impaired rats. These results suggest that M. officinalis can improve memory and that the cholinergic property of the extract may contribute to the memory-improving effects observed in this study. Then M. officinalis extract has potential therapeutic value in alleviating certain memory impairment observed in AD.

  1. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition improves amyloid-β-mediated suppression of memory and synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kotilinek, Linda A.; Westerman, Marcus A.; Wang, Qinwen; Panizzon, Kimberly; Lim, Giselle P.; Simonyi, Agnes; Lesne, Sylvain; Falinska, Agnieszka; Younkin, Linda H.; Younkin, Steven G.; Rowan, Michael; Cleary, James; Wallis, Roi Ann; Sun, GraceY.; Cole, Greg; Frautschy, Sally; Anwyl, Roger; Ashe, Karen H.

    2008-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are associated with a marked reduction in the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease, a form of dementia characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques containing the amyloid-β protein (Aβ). Studies of the effects of NSAIDs upon the inflammatory response surrounding amyloid plaques and upon the generation of Aβ from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) have led to two proposed mechanisms by which NSAIDs may protect against Alzheimer’s disease: one, the selective lowering of Aβ42 by a subset of NSAIDs; and two, the reduction of inflammation. Although Alzheimer’s disease is a disorder of brain and synaptic function, the effects of NSAIDs on Aβ-mediated suppression of synaptic plasticity and memory function have never been reported. We therefore investigated how three different NSAIDs, chosen for their distinct effects on Aβ42 production and the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX) isoenzymes, COX-1 and COX-2, affect memory function and synaptic plasticity. By focusing upon brain and synapse function, we made novel observations about the effects of NSAIDs on Aβ-mediated neural processes. Here we report that the selective inhibition of COX-2, but not COX-1, acutely prevented the suppression of hippocampal long-term plasticity (LTP) by Aβ. The non-selective NSAIDs, ibuprofen and naproxen, and a selective COX-2 inhibitor, MF-tricyclic, each restored memory function in Tg2576 mice over-expressing APP, and also blocked Aβ-mediated inhibition of LTP. There was no advantage of ibuprofen, a selective Aβ42-lowering agent (SALA), over the non-SALAs, naproxen and MF-tricyclic. The beneficial effects on memory did not depend upon lowered levels of Aβ42 or the inflammatory cytokines, tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β). Intriguingly, improved memory function was inversely related to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels. Conversely, exogenous PGE2 prevented the restorative effects of COX-2

  2. Hydroalcoholic Extract of Ferulago angulata Improves Memory and Pain in Brain Hypoperfusion Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mirzapour, Sahar; Rafieirad, Maryam; Rouhi, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cerebral ischemia causes some disorders in behavioral patterns, including memory disorders and pain, which is due to the production of free radicals. Ferulago angulata, known in Iran as chavir, contains some bioactive compounds having antioxidant and free radical-scavenging properties. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of two weeks oral administration of hydroalcoholic extract of F. angulate (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) on pain as well as active and passive avoidance memories after permanent, bilateral common carotid artery occlusion or cerebral ischemia/hypoperfusion in male adult rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, 35 male rats were randomly allocated to test and control groups. To make animal model of permanent cerebral hypoperfusion/ischemia, carotid arteries were ligatured as upper and lower and cut bilaterally. Results: It was found that the administration of 400 mg/kg hydroalcoholic extract of F. angulate for two weeks after brain hypoperfusion ischemia increased the passive avoidance memory (P < 0.001) and latency time of painful tail reflex significantly (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Ferulago angulata extract, because of its antioxidant activities, is probably capable of removing free radicals and oxidant substances from brain and thus it can improve behavioral disorders in brain hypoperfusion ischemia model. PMID:25866714

  3. Mitochondrial modulators improve lipid composition and attenuate memory deficits in experimental model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Arpit; Sood, Abhilasha; Sandhir, Rajat

    2015-12-01

    3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is an irreversible inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase and induces neuropathological changes similar to those observed in Huntington's disease (HD). The objective of the present study was to investigate neuroprotective effect of mitochondrial modulators; alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) on 3-NP-induced alterations in mitochondrial lipid composition, mitochondrial structure and memory functions. Experimental model of HD was developed by administering 3-NP at sub-chronic doses, twice daily for 17 days. The levels of conjugated dienes, cholesterol and glycolipids were significantly increased, whereas the levels of phospholipids (phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine) including cardiolipin were significantly decreased in the mitochondria isolated from the striatum of 3-NP-treated animals. In addition, the difference in molecular composition of each phospholipid class was also evaluated using mass spectrometry. Mitochondria lipid from 3-NP-treated animals showed increased cholesterol to phospholipid ratio, suggesting decreased mitochondrial membrane fluidity. 3-NP administration also resulted in ultra-structural changes in mitochondria, accompanied by swelling as assessed by transmission electron microscopy. The 3-NP administered animals had impaired spatial memory evaluated using elevated plus maze test. However, combined supplementation with ALA + ALCAR for 21 days normalized mitochondrial lipid composition, improved mitochondrial structure and ameliorated memory impairments in 3-NP-treated animals, suggesting an imperative role of these two modulators in combination in the management of HD. PMID:26374445

  4. Mitochondrial modulators improve lipid composition and attenuate memory deficits in experimental model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Arpit; Sood, Abhilasha; Sandhir, Rajat

    2015-12-01

    3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is an irreversible inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase and induces neuropathological changes similar to those observed in Huntington's disease (HD). The objective of the present study was to investigate neuroprotective effect of mitochondrial modulators; alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) on 3-NP-induced alterations in mitochondrial lipid composition, mitochondrial structure and memory functions. Experimental model of HD was developed by administering 3-NP at sub-chronic doses, twice daily for 17 days. The levels of conjugated dienes, cholesterol and glycolipids were significantly increased, whereas the levels of phospholipids (phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine) including cardiolipin were significantly decreased in the mitochondria isolated from the striatum of 3-NP-treated animals. In addition, the difference in molecular composition of each phospholipid class was also evaluated using mass spectrometry. Mitochondria lipid from 3-NP-treated animals showed increased cholesterol to phospholipid ratio, suggesting decreased mitochondrial membrane fluidity. 3-NP administration also resulted in ultra-structural changes in mitochondria, accompanied by swelling as assessed by transmission electron microscopy. The 3-NP administered animals had impaired spatial memory evaluated using elevated plus maze test. However, combined supplementation with ALA + ALCAR for 21 days normalized mitochondrial lipid composition, improved mitochondrial structure and ameliorated memory impairments in 3-NP-treated animals, suggesting an imperative role of these two modulators in combination in the management of HD.

  5. Ginsenoside Rd Improves Learning and Memory Ability in APP Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juanfang; Yan, Xiaodong; Li, Ling; Li, Yuan; Zhou, Linfu; Zhang, Xiaohui; Hu, Xinghua; Zhao, Gang

    2015-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complicated neurodegenerative disease which causes memory loss and dementia. Many researchers have revealed the vital roles of β-amyloid proteins (Aβ) in the proceeds of AD. Aβ deposition in AD patients' brains might function as immune stimulus, and inflammation is believed to play an important role in AD pathologically. We experimentally used amyloid β-protein precursor (APP) transgenic (Tg) mice in this study to further clarify the neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rd on AD and its possible mechanisms. It was found that Rd could improve learning and memory ability in APP Tg mice, probably through inhibiting the transcription activity of NFκB. With the activation of the NFκB pathway being suppressed, the reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the generation of protective factors had been increased ultimately. In conclusion, Rd had a neuroprotective effect on APP Tg mice, and it can be used as an alternative drug therapy in AD patients for their memory dysfunction.

  6. Environmental enrichment improves recent but not remote memory in association with a modified brain metabolic activation profile in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Leger, Marianne; Bouet, Valentine; Freret, Thomas; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Dacher, Matthieu; Dauphin, François; Boulouard, Michel; Schumann-Bard, Pascale

    2012-03-01

    Environmental enrichment is known to improve learning and memory in adult rodents. Whereas the morphological changes underlying these beneficial effects are well documented, few studies have addressed the influence of this housing condition on the neuronal networks underlying memory processes. We assessed the effects of environmental enrichment on behavioural performances and brain metabolic activation during a memory task in mice. Adult mice were housed in standard (SC) or enriched (EC) conditions for 3 weeks. Then, recent and remote memory performances were measured in the passive avoidance test. After testing, brain metabolic activation was assessed through cytochrome oxidase (CO) activity. EC improved recent memory, in association with an increased metabolic activation in the frontal and prefrontal cortices and a decreased activation in the baso-lateral amygdala and the hippocampus. EC did not improve remote memory, and globally decreased CO activity. Our findings suggest the involvement of regions of pivotal importance during recent memory, such as the frontal cortex, in the beneficial effects of EC.

  7. Memory-improving actions of glucose: involvement of a central cholinergic muscarinic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kopf, S R; Baratti, C M

    1994-11-01

    Post-training intraperitoneal administration of alpha-D[+]-glucose (10-300 mg/kg) facilitated 24-h retention, in male Swiss mice, of a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task. The dose-response curve was an inverted U. Glucose did not increase the retention latencies of mice that had not received a footshock during training. The effect of glucose (30 mg/kg, ip) on retention was time-dependent, which suggests that the drug facilitated memory storage. The memory facilitation induced by glucose (30 mg/kg, ip) was prevented by atropine (0.5 mg/kg, ip) administered after training, but 10 min prior to glucose treatment. In contrast, neither methylatropine (0.5 mg/kg, ip), a peripherally acting muscarinic receptor blocker, nor mecamylamine (5 mg/kg, ip) or hexamethonium (5 mg/kg, ip), two cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonists, prevented the effects of post-training glucose on retention. Low subeffective doses of the central acting anticholinesterase physostigmine (35 micrograms/kg, ip), administered immediately after training, and glucose (10 mg/kg, ip), given 10 min after training, acted synergistically to improve retention. The effects of glucose (10 mg/kg, ip) were not influenced by the peripherally acting anticholinesterase neostigmine (35 micrograms/kg, ip). Considered together, these findings suggest that the memory facilitation induced by post-training administration of glucose could result from an enhancement of brain acetylcholine synthesis and/or its release that, in turn, might modulate the activity of muscarinic cholinergic mechanisms that are critically involved in memory storage. PMID:7857246

  8. Memory-improving actions of glucose: involvement of a central cholinergic muscarinic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kopf, S R; Baratti, C M

    1994-11-01

    Post-training intraperitoneal administration of alpha-D[+]-glucose (10-300 mg/kg) facilitated 24-h retention, in male Swiss mice, of a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task. The dose-response curve was an inverted U. Glucose did not increase the retention latencies of mice that had not received a footshock during training. The effect of glucose (30 mg/kg, ip) on retention was time-dependent, which suggests that the drug facilitated memory storage. The memory facilitation induced by glucose (30 mg/kg, ip) was prevented by atropine (0.5 mg/kg, ip) administered after training, but 10 min prior to glucose treatment. In contrast, neither methylatropine (0.5 mg/kg, ip), a peripherally acting muscarinic receptor blocker, nor mecamylamine (5 mg/kg, ip) or hexamethonium (5 mg/kg, ip), two cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonists, prevented the effects of post-training glucose on retention. Low subeffective doses of the central acting anticholinesterase physostigmine (35 micrograms/kg, ip), administered immediately after training, and glucose (10 mg/kg, ip), given 10 min after training, acted synergistically to improve retention. The effects of glucose (10 mg/kg, ip) were not influenced by the peripherally acting anticholinesterase neostigmine (35 micrograms/kg, ip). Considered together, these findings suggest that the memory facilitation induced by post-training administration of glucose could result from an enhancement of brain acetylcholine synthesis and/or its release that, in turn, might modulate the activity of muscarinic cholinergic mechanisms that are critically involved in memory storage.

  9. Developmental improvements in the resolution and capacity of visual working memory share a common source.

    PubMed

    Simmering, Vanessa R; Miller, Hilary E

    2016-08-01

    The nature of visual working memory (VWM) representations is currently a source of debate between characterizations as slot-like versus a flexibly-divided pool of resources. Recently, a dynamic neural field model has been proposed as an alternative account that focuses more on the processes by which VWM representations are formed, maintained, and used in service of behavior. This dynamic model has explained developmental increases in VWM capacity and resolution through strengthening excitatory and inhibitory connections. Simulations of developmental improvements in VWM resolution suggest that one important change is the accuracy of comparisons between items held in memory and new inputs. Thus, the ability to detect changes is a critical component of developmental improvements in VWM performance across tasks, leading to the prediction that capacity and resolution should correlate during childhood. Comparing 5- to 8-year-old children's performance across color discrimination and change detection tasks revealed the predicted correlation between estimates of VWM capacity and resolution, supporting the hypothesis that increasing connectivity underlies improvements in VWM during childhood. These results demonstrate the importance of formalizing the processes that support the use of VWM, rather than focusing solely on the nature of representations. We conclude by considering our results in the broader context of VWM development. PMID:27329264

  10. Improvement of Allocentric Spatial Memory Resolution in Children from 2 to 4 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Farfalla Ribordy; Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2015-01-01

    Allocentric spatial memory, the memory for locations coded in relation to objects comprising our environment, is a fundamental component of episodic memory and is dependent on the integrity of the hippocampal formation in adulthood. Previous research from different laboratories reported that basic allocentric spatial memory abilities are reliably…

  11. Improvement in the Shape Memory Response of Ti50.5Ni24.5Pd25 High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloy with Scandium Microalloying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atli, K. C.; Karaman, I; Noebe, R. D.; Garg, A.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.; Kireeva, I. V.

    2010-01-01

    A Ti(50.5)Ni(24.5)Pd25 high-temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA) is microalloyed with 0.5 at. pct scandium (Sc) to enhance its shape-memory characteristics, in particular, dimensional stability under repeated thermomechanical cycles. For both Ti(50.5)Ni(24.5)Pd25 and the Sc-alloyed material, differential scanning calorimetry is conducted for multiple cycles to characterize cyclic stability of the transformation temperatures. The microstructure is evaluated using electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy. Isobaric thermal cycling experiments are used to determine transformation temperatures, dimensional stability, and work output as a function of stress. The Sc-doped alloy displays more stable shape memory response with smaller irrecoverable strain and narrower thermal hysteresis than the baseline ternary alloy. This improvement in performance is attributed to the solid solution hardening effect of Sc.

  12. AC-3933, a benzodiazepine partial inverse agonist, improves memory performance in MK-801-induced amnesia mouse model.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Takashi; Iwamura, Yoshihiro

    2016-05-01

    AC-3933, a novel benzodiazepine receptor partial inverse agonist, is a drug candidate for cognitive disorders including Alzheimer's disease. We have previously reported that AC-3933 enhances acetylcholine release in the rat hippocampus and ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory impairment and age-related cognitive decline in both rats and mice. In this study, we further evaluated the procognitive effect of AC-3933 on memory impairment induced by MK-801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, in mice. Unlike the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil and the benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonist FG-7142, oral administration of AC-3933 significantly ameliorated MK-801-induced memory impairment in the Y-maze test and in the object location test. Interestingly, the procognitive effects of AC-3933 on MK-801-induced memory impairment were not affected by the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil, although this was not the case for the beneficial effects of AC-3933 on scopolamine-induced memory deficit. Moreover, the onset of AC-3933 ameliorating effect on scopolamine- or MK-801-induced memory impairment was different in the Y-maze test. Taken together, these results indicate that AC-3933 improves memory deficits caused by both cholinergic and glutamatergic hypofunction and suggest that the ameliorating effect of AC-3933 on MK-801-induced memory impairment is mediated by a mechanism other than inverse activation of the benzodiazepine receptor.

  13. Escitalopram improves memory deficits induced by maternal separation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Couto, Frederico Simões do; Batalha, Vânia L; Valadas, Jorge S; Data-Franca, João; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Lopes, Luísa V

    2012-11-15

    Maternal separation (MS) induces depressive-like behavior and long-term changes in cognition in rats. Escitalopram is an antidepressant drug shown to reverse the depressive-like features caused by this stress model. However, it is not known if it can ameliorate the affected cognition. We now characterized the effect of escitalopram on hippocampal-dependent memory in rats submitted to the MS protocol. Male Wistar rats were assigned either to control (CTR) or maternal separated (MS) group. MS were separated from their dams between 2-14 postnatal days (PND) for 180min daily. Escitalopram was given in food pellets (0.34g/kg/day first 2 weeks and 0.41g/kg/day the subsequent period, average dose 25mg/kg) from PND 43 onwards, during 1 month. Depressive behavior was assessed in the forced swimming test (FST), and memory performance in the Morris water maze (MWM). Escitalopram significantly improved the FST's latency to despair in the MS group (n=6), but did not change the immobility time. All groups showed a significant learning effect in the MWM over time, but no differences have been found upon treatment (n=6). However, escitalopram treatment significantly increased the time spent on the platform quadrant in the probe trial in the MS group. We report here that chronic treatment with escitalopram is able to improve hippocampal dependent memory in a chronic stress model, while not changing the learning ability. Moreover, this is accompanied by an amelioration of the depressive like behavior. These results support the use of escitalopram to tackle underlying cognitive deficits caused by stress in early-life.

  14. Improving Dorsal Stream Function in Dyslexics by Training Figure/Ground Motion Discrimination Improves Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Teri

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether the cause of dyslexia is based on linguistic, auditory, or visual timing deficits. To investigate this issue three interventions were compared in 58 dyslexics in second grade (7 years on average), two targeting the temporal dynamics (timing) of either the auditory or visual pathways with a third reading intervention (control group) targeting linguistic word building. Visual pathway training in dyslexics to improve direction-discrimination of moving test patterns relative to a stationary background (figure/ground discrimination) significantly improved attention, reading fluency, both speed and comprehension, phonological processing, and both auditory and visual working memory relative to controls, whereas auditory training to improve phonological processing did not improve these academic skills significantly more than found for controls. This study supports the hypothesis that faulty timing in synchronizing the activity of magnocellular with parvocellular visual pathways is a fundamental cause of dyslexia, and argues against the assumption that reading deficiencies in dyslexia are caused by phonological deficits. This study demonstrates that visual movement direction-discrimination can be used to not only detect dyslexia early, but also for its successful treatment, so that reading problems do not prevent children from readily learning. PMID:27551263

  15. Improving Dorsal Stream Function in Dyslexics by Training Figure/Ground Motion Discrimination Improves Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, Teri

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether the cause of dyslexia is based on linguistic, auditory, or visual timing deficits. To investigate this issue three interventions were compared in 58 dyslexics in second grade (7 years on average), two targeting the temporal dynamics (timing) of either the auditory or visual pathways with a third reading intervention (control group) targeting linguistic word building. Visual pathway training in dyslexics to improve direction-discrimination of moving test patterns relative to a stationary background (figure/ground discrimination) significantly improved attention, reading fluency, both speed and comprehension, phonological processing, and both auditory and visual working memory relative to controls, whereas auditory training to improve phonological processing did not improve these academic skills significantly more than found for controls. This study supports the hypothesis that faulty timing in synchronizing the activity of magnocellular with parvocellular visual pathways is a fundamental cause of dyslexia, and argues against the assumption that reading deficiencies in dyslexia are caused by phonological deficits. This study demonstrates that visual movement direction-discrimination can be used to not only detect dyslexia early, but also for its successful treatment, so that reading problems do not prevent children from readily learning. PMID:27551263

  16. Improvement of scopolamine-induced memory impairment by Z-ajoene in the water maze in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamada, N; Hattori, A; Hayashi, T; Nishikawa, T; Fukuda, H; Fujino, T

    2004-08-01

    Z-ajoene, a major compound containing sulfur in oil-macerated garlic products, exhibited inhibitory effects against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice using the Morris water maze test. The effects of Z-ajoene were observed dose-dependently (0.25-25 mg/kg). At the highest dosage, the memory performance of mice was improved compared to normal mice. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain was reduced by administration of Z-ajoene dose-dependently. However, alliin and diallyl disulfide, organosulfur compounds from garlic, did not improve memory performance nor AChE inhibitory effect. These results suggest that Z-ajoene may act on the cholinergic system and on memory impairment caused by excess activity of AChE.

  17. Promising therapeutics with natural bioactive compounds for improving learning and memory--a review of randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Hemant; More, Sandeep Vasant; Han, Sang-Don; Choi, Jin-Yong; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2012-09-03

    Cognitive disorders can be associated with brain trauma, neurodegenerative disease or as a part of physiological aging. Aging in humans is generally associated with deterioration of cognitive performance and, in particular, learning and memory. Different therapeutic approaches are available to treat cognitive impairment during physiological aging and neurodegenerative or psychiatric disorders. Traditional herbal medicine and numerous plants, either directly as supplements or indirectly in the form of food, improve brain functions including memory and attention. More than a hundred herbal medicinal plants have been traditionally used for learning and memory improvement, but only a few have been tested in randomized clinical trials. Here, we will enumerate those medicinal plants that show positive effects on various cognitive functions in learning and memory clinical trials. Moreover, besides natural products that show promising effects in clinical trials, we briefly discuss medicinal plants that have promising experimental data or initial clinical data and might have potential to reach a clinical trial in the near future.

  18. Promising therapeutics with natural bioactive compounds for improving learning and memory--a review of randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Hemant; More, Sandeep Vasant; Han, Sang-Don; Choi, Jin-Yong; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive disorders can be associated with brain trauma, neurodegenerative disease or as a part of physiological aging. Aging in humans is generally associated with deterioration of cognitive performance and, in particular, learning and memory. Different therapeutic approaches are available to treat cognitive impairment during physiological aging and neurodegenerative or psychiatric disorders. Traditional herbal medicine and numerous plants, either directly as supplements or indirectly in the form of food, improve brain functions including memory and attention. More than a hundred herbal medicinal plants have been traditionally used for learning and memory improvement, but only a few have been tested in randomized clinical trials. Here, we will enumerate those medicinal plants that show positive effects on various cognitive functions in learning and memory clinical trials. Moreover, besides natural products that show promising effects in clinical trials, we briefly discuss medicinal plants that have promising experimental data or initial clinical data and might have potential to reach a clinical trial in the near future. PMID:22945029

  19. Helping students succeed by helping them improve their long-term memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettili, Nouredine; Boukahil, A.

    2005-04-01

    In this work, we focus on one of the most useful techniques of efficient study habits: How to improve long-term memory. We show that if a student carries a number of recalling sessions of the material studied and if he/she carries them at specific times, the student will be able to retain this material for a long time and hence be prepared for the exams. We argue that a student who conscientiously uses the proper techniques of efficient study habits will be able to achieve higher results than the student who does not. Moreover, a student equipped with the proper study skills will spend much less time to learn a subject than a student who has no effective study habits. After providing a summary of the most essential personal skills needed to be a successful student--concentration skills, how to take notes in class, how to prepare for and take exams---we give an extensive presentation on the techniques of improving long-term memory.

  20. CART treatment improves memory and synaptic structure in APP/PS1 mice

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jia-li; Liou, Anthony K.F.; Shi, Yejie; Yin, Kai-lin; Chen, Ling; Li, Ling-ling; Zhu, Xiao-lei; Qian, Lai; Yang, Rong; Chen, Jun; Xu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Major characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) include deposits of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide in the brain, loss of synapses, and cognitive dysfunction. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has recently been reported to attenuate Aβ-induced toxicity. In this study, CART localization in APP/PS1 mice was characterized and the protective effects of exogenous CART treatment were examined. Compared to age-matched wild type mice, 8-month-old APP/PS1 mice had significantly greater CART immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and cortex. A strikingly similar pattern of Aβ plaque-associated CART immunoreactivity was observed in the cortex of AD cases. Treatment of APP/PS1 mice with exogenous CART ameliorated memory deficits; this effect was associated with improvements in synaptic ultrastructure and long-term potentiation, but not a reduction of the Aβ plaques. Exogenous CART treatment in APP/PS1 mice prevented depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and stimulated mitochondrial complex I and II activities, resulting in an increase in ATP levels. CART treatment of APP/PS1 mice also reduced reactive oxygen species and 4-hydroxynonenal, and mitigated oxidative DNA damage. In summary, CART treatment reduced multiple neuropathological measures and improved memory in APP/PS1 mice, and may therefore be a promising and novel therapy for AD. PMID:25959573

  1. CART treatment improves memory and synaptic structure in APP/PS1 mice.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jia-li; Liou, Anthony K F; Shi, Yejie; Yin, Kai-lin; Chen, Ling; Li, Ling-ling; Zhu, Xiao-lei; Qian, Lai; Yang, Rong; Chen, Jun; Xu, Yun

    2015-05-11

    Major characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include deposits of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide in the brain, loss of synapses, and cognitive dysfunction. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has recently been reported to attenuate Aβ-induced toxicity. In this study, CART localization in APP/PS1 mice was characterized and the protective effects of exogenous CART treatment were examined. Compared to age-matched wild type mice, 8-month-old APP/PS1 mice had significantly greater CART immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and cortex. A strikingly similar pattern of Aβ plaque-associated CART immunoreactivity was observed in the cortex of AD cases. Treatment of APP/PS1 mice with exogenous CART ameliorated memory deficits; this effect was associated with improvements in synaptic ultrastructure and long-term potentiation, but not a reduction of the Aβ plaques. Exogenous CART treatment in APP/PS1 mice prevented depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and stimulated mitochondrial complex I and II activities, resulting in an increase in ATP levels. CART treatment of APP/PS1 mice also reduced reactive oxygen species and 4-hydroxynonenal, and mitigated oxidative DNA damage. In summary, CART treatment reduced multiple neuropathological measures and improved memory in APP/PS1 mice, and may therefore be a promising and novel therapy for AD.

  2. Cyclophilin D deficiency improves mitochondrial function and learning/memory in aging Alzheimer disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Du, Heng; Guo, Lan; Zhang, Wensheng; Rydzewska, Monika; Yan, Shidu

    2011-03-01

    Mitochondrial stress is one of the early features of Alzheimer disease (AD). Mitochondrial Aβ has been linked to mitochondrial toxicity. Our recent study demonstrated that cyclophilin D (CypD) mediated mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is an important mechanism for neuronal and synaptic stress induced by both Aβ and oxidative stress. In transgenic AD-type mice overexpressing mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Aβ (mAPP), CypD deficiency improves mitochondrial and synaptic function and learning/memory up to 12 months old. Here we provide evidence of the protective effects of CypD deficiency in aged AD mice (22-24 months). Cyp D deficient mAPP mice demonstrate less calcium-induced mitochondrial swelling, increased mitochondrial calcium uptake capacity, preserved mitochondrial respiratory function and improved spatial learning/memory even in old age (known to be the age for late stage AD pathology and synaptic dysfunction). These data demonstrate that abrogation of CypD results in persistent life-long protection against Aβ toxicity in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model, thereby suggesting that blockade of CypD may be of benefit for Alzheimer disease treatment.

  3. Loss of histone deacetylase 2 improves working memory and accelerates extinction learning

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Michael J.; Mahgoub, Melissa; Na, Elisa S.; Pranav, Heena; Monteggia, Lisa. M.

    2013-01-01

    Histone acetylation and deacetylation can be dynamically regulated in response to environmental stimuli and play important roles in learning and memory. Pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) improves performance in learning tasks, however these classical agents are ‘pan-HDAC’ inhibitors and their use makes it difficult to determine the roles of specific HDACs in cognitive function. We took a genetic approach using mice lacking the class I HDACs, HDAC1 or HDAC2, in postmitotic forebrain neurons to investigate the specificity or functional redundancy of these HDACs in learning and synaptic plasticity. We show that selective knockout of HDAC2 led to a robust acceleration of the extinction rate of conditioned fear responses and a conditioned taste aversion as well as enhanced performance in an attentional set-shifting task. HDAC2 knockout had no impact on episodic memory or motor learning suggesting that the effects are task-dependent, with the predominant impact of HDAC2 inhibition being an enhancement in an animal’s ability to rapidly adapt its behavioral strategy as a result of changes in associative contingencies. Our results demonstrate that the loss of HDAC2 improves associative learning, with no effect in non-associative learning tasks, suggesting a specific role for HDAC2 in particular types of learning. HDAC2 may be an intriguing target for cognitive and psychiatric disorders that are characterized by an inability to inhibit behavioral responsiveness to maladaptive or no longer relevant associations. PMID:23575838

  4. Virtual Environmental Enrichment through Video Games Improves Hippocampal-Associated Memory

    PubMed Central

    Clemenson, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    The positive effects of environmental enrichment and their neural bases have been studied extensively in the rodent (van Praag et al., 2000). For example, simply modifying an animal's living environment to promote sensory stimulation can lead to (but is not limited to) enhancements in hippocampal cognition and neuroplasticity and can alleviate hippocampal cognitive deficits associated with neurodegenerative diseases and aging. We are interested in whether these manipulations that successfully enhance cognition (or mitigate cognitive decline) have similar influences on humans. Although there are many “enriching” aspects to daily life, we are constantly adapting to new experiences and situations within our own environment on a daily basis. Here, we hypothesize that the exploration of the vast and visually stimulating virtual environments within video games is a human correlate of environmental enrichment. We show that video gamers who specifically favor complex 3D video games performed better on a demanding recognition memory task that assesses participants' ability to discriminate highly similar lure items from repeated items. In addition, after 2 weeks of training on the 3D video game Super Mario 3D World, naive video gamers showed improved mnemonic discrimination ability and improvements on a virtual water maze task. Two control conditions (passive and training in a 2D game, Angry Birds), showed no such improvements. Furthermore, individual performance in both hippocampal-associated behaviors correlated with performance in Super Mario but not Angry Birds, suggesting that how individuals explored the virtual environment may influence hippocampal behavior. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The hippocampus has long been associated with episodic memory and is commonly thought to rely on neuroplasticity to adapt to the ever-changing environment. In animals, it is well understood that exposing animals to a more stimulating environment, known as environmental enrichment, can

  5. Cognitively impaired elderly exhibit insulin resistance and no memory improvement with infused insulin.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jill K; Vidoni, Eric D; Mahnken, Jonathan D; Montgomery, Robert N; Johnson, David K; Thyfault, John P; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2016-03-01

    Insulin resistance is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), although its role in AD etiology is unclear. We assessed insulin resistance using fasting and insulin-stimulated measures in 51 elderly subjects with no dementia (ND; n = 37) and with cognitive impairment (CI; n = 14). CI subjects exhibited either mild CI or AD. Fasting insulin resistance was measured using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal was assessed using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to calculate glucose disposal rate into lean mass, the primary site of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Because insulin crosses the blood-brain barrier, we also assessed whether insulin infusion would improve verbal episodic memory compared to baseline. Different but equivalent versions of cognitive tests were administered in counterbalanced order in the basal and insulin-stimulated state. Groups did not differ in age or body mass index. Cognitively impaired subjects exhibited greater insulin resistance as measured at fasting (HOMA-IR; ND: 1.09 [1.1] vs. CI: 2.01 [2.3], p = 0.028) and during the hyperinsulinemic clamp (glucose disposal rate into lean mass; ND: 9.9 (4.5) vs. AD 7.2 (3.2), p = 0.040). Cognitively impaired subjects also exhibited higher fasting insulin compared to ND subjects, (CI: 8.7 [7.8] vs. ND: 4.2 [3.8] μU/mL; p = 0.023) and higher fasting amylin (CI: 24.1 [39.1] vs. 8.37 [14.2]; p = 0.050) with no difference in fasting glucose. Insulin infusion elicited a detrimental effect on one test of verbal episodic memory (Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test) in both groups (p < 0.0001) and no change in performance on an additional task (delayed logical memory). In this study, although insulin resistance was observed in cognitively impaired subjects compared to ND controls, insulin infusion did not improve memory. Furthermore, a significant correlation between HOMA-IR and glucose disposal rate was present only in ND

  6. Activation of the dorsal hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors improves tamoxifen-induced memory retrieval impairment in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Tajik, Azam; Rezayof, Ameneh; Ghasemzadeh, Zahra; Sardari, Maryam

    2016-07-01

    Tamoxifen (TAM), a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has frequently been used in the treatment of breast cancer. In view of the fact that cognitive deficits in women who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer is a common health problem, using female animal models for investigating the cognitive effects of TAM administration may improve our knowledge of TAM therapy. Therefore, the present study assessed the role of dorsal hippocampal cholinergic nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) in the effect of TAM administration on memory retrieval in ovariectomized (OVX) and non-OVX female rats using a passive avoidance learning task. Our results showed that pre-test administration of TAM (2-6mg/kg) impaired memory retrieval. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of nicotine (0.3-0.5μg/rat) reversed TAM-induced memory impairment. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of mecamylamine (0.1-0.3μg/rat) plus 2mg/kg (an ineffective dose) of TAM impaired memory retrieval. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of the same doses of nicotine and mecamylamine by themselves had no effect on memory retrieval. In OVX rats, the administration of TAM (6mg/kg) produced memory impairment but pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of nicotine (0.5μg/rat) had no effect on TAM response. Moreover, the administration of an ineffective dose of TAM (2mg/kg) had no effect on memory retrieval in OVX rats, while pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of mecamylamine (0.3μg/rat) impaired memory retrieval. Taken together, it can be concluded that the impairing effect of TAM on memory formation may be modulated by nAChRs of the CA1 regions. It seems that memory impairment may be considered as an important side effect of TAM. PMID:27072849

  7. Methylphenidate Improves Working Memory and Set-Shifting in AD/HD: Relationships to Baseline Memory Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Mitul A.; Goodyer, Ian M.; Sahakian, Barbara J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Catecholamine stimulant drugs are highly efficacious treatments for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (AD/HD). Catecholamine modulation in humans influences performance of numerous cognitive tasks, including tests of attention and working memory (WM). Clear delineation of the effects of methylphenidate upon such cognitive…

  8. Transforming Growth Factor-α Improves Memory Impairment and Neurogenesis Following Ischemia Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Alipanahzadeh, Hassan; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Soleimani Asl, Sara; Pourheydar, Bagher; Nikkhah, Ali; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Stroke is most important cause of death and disability in adults. The hippocampal CA1 and sub-ventricular zone neurons are vulnerable to ischemia that can impair memory and learning functions. Although neurogenesis normally occurs in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) following brain damage, this response is unable to compensate for severely damaged areas. This study aims to assess both neurogenesis and the neuroprotective effects of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α) on the hippocampus and SVZ following ischemia-reperfusion. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, a total of 48 male Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: surgical (n=12), phosphate buffered saline (PBS) treated vehicle shams (n=12), ischemia (n=12) and treatment (n=12) groups. Ischemia was induced by common carotid occlusion for 30 minutes followed by reperfusion, and TGF-α was then injected into the right lateral ventricle. Spatial memory was assessed using Morris water maze (MWM). Nestin and Bcl-2 family protein expressions were studied by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot methods, respectively. Finally, data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA) version 16 and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results TGF-α injection significantly increased nestin expression in both the hippocampal DG and SVZ areas. TGF-α treatment caused a significant decrease in Bax expression and an increase in Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic protein expression in the hippocampus. Our results showed a significant increase in the number of pyramidal neurons. Memory also improved significantly following TGF-α treatment. Conclusion Our findings proved that TGF-α reduced ischemic injury and played a neuroprotective role in the pathogenesis of ischemic injury. PMID:24611146

  9. No age deficits in the ability to use attention to improve visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Souza, Alessandra S

    2016-08-01

    Maintenance of information in mind to the moment-to-moment cognition is accomplished by working memory (WM). WM capacity is reduced in old age, but the nature of this decline is yet not clear. The current study examined the hypothesis that the decline in visual WM performance with age is related to a reduced ability to use attention to control the contents of WM. Young (M = 26 years) and old (M = 71 years) adults performed a color reproduction task in which the precise color of a set of dots had to be maintained in mind over a brief interval and later reproduced using a continuous color wheel. Attention was manipulated by presenting a spatial cue before the onset of the memory array (a precue) or during the maintenance phase (retro-cue). The cue indicated with 100% certainty the item to be tested at the end of the trial. A precue allows the selective encoding of only the relevant item to WM, whereas a retro-cue allows WM contents to be updated by refreshing the relevant (cued) item and removing nonrelevant (noncued) items. Aging was associated with a lower capacity in the baseline (no-cue) condition. Precues and (to a smaller extent) retro-cues improved WM performance (in terms of probability of recall and memory precision). Critically, the benefits of cueing were of similar magnitude in young and older adults showing that the ability to use attention to selectively encode and update the contents of WM is preserved with aging. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27253868

  10. Physical Exercise Performed Four Hours after Learning Improves Memory Retention and Increases Hippocampal Pattern Similarity during Retrieval.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Eelco V; Kersten, Ingrid H P; Wagner, Isabella C; Morris, Richard G M; Fernández, Guillén

    2016-07-11

    Persistent long-term memory depends on successful stabilization and integration of new memories after initial encoding [1, 2]. This consolidation process is thought to require neuromodulatory factors such as dopamine, noradrenaline, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor [3-7]. Without the release of such factors around the time of encoding, memories will decay rapidly [3, 5, 6, 8]. Recent studies have shown that physical exercise acutely stimulates the release of several consolidation-promoting factors in humans [9-14], raising the question of whether physical exercise can be used to improve memory retention [15-17]. Here, we used a single session of physical exercise after learning to exogenously boost memory consolidation and thus long-term memory. Three groups of randomly assigned participants first encoded a set of picture-location associations. Afterward, one group performed exercise immediately, one 4 hr later, and the third did not perform any exercise. Participants otherwise underwent exactly the same procedures to control for potential experimental confounds. Forty-eight hours later, participants returned for a cued-recall test in a magnetic resonance scanner. With this design, we could investigate the impact of acute exercise on memory consolidation and retrieval-related neural processing. We found that performing exercise 4 hr, but not immediately, after encoding improved the retention of picture-location associations compared to the no-exercise control group. Moreover, performing exercise after a delay was associated with increased hippocampal pattern similarity for correct responses during delayed retrieval. Our results suggest that appropriately timed physical exercise can improve long-term memory and highlight the potential of exercise as an intervention in educational and clinical settings. PMID:27321998

  11. Chronic activation of 5-HT4 receptors or blockade of 5-HT6 receptors improve memory performances.

    PubMed

    Quiedeville, Anne; Boulouard, Michel; Hamidouche, Katia; Da Silva Costa-Aze, Virginie; Nee, Gerald; Rochais, Christophe; Dallemagne, Patrick; Fabis, Frédéric; Freret, Thomas; Bouet, Valentine

    2015-10-15

    5-HT4 and 5-HT6 serotonergic receptors are located in brain structures involved in memory processes. Neurochemical and behavioural studies have demonstrated that acute activation of 5-HT4 receptors (5-HT4R) or blockade of 5-HT6 receptors (5-HT6R) improves memory. To evaluate the potential of these two receptors as targets in the treatment of memory disorders encountered in several situations (ageing, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, etc.), it is necessary to assess whether their beneficial effects occur after chronic administration, and if such treatment induces adverse effects. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of chronic 5-HT4R or 5-HT6R modulation on recognition memory, and to observe the possible manifestation of side effects (modification of weight gain, locomotor activity or exploratory behaviour, etc.). Mice were treated for 14 days with a 5-HT4R partial agonist (RS-67333) or a 5-HT6R antagonist (SB-271046) at increasing doses. Memory performances, locomotor activity, and exploration were assessed. Both chronic 5-HT4R activation and 5-HT6R blockade extended memory traces in an object recognition test, and were not associated with any adverse effects in the parameters assessed. Chronic modulation of one or both of these receptors thus seems promising as a potential strategy for the treatment memory deficits.

  12. Improvement of memory recall by quercetin in rodent contextual fear conditioning and human early-stage Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Toshiyuki; Itoh, Masanori; Ohta, Kazunori; Hayashi, Yuichi; Hayakawa, Miki; Yamada, Yasushi; Akanabe, Hiroshi; Chikaishi, Tokio; Nakagawa, Kiyomi; Itoh, Yoshinori; Muro, Takato; Yanagida, Daisuke; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Mori, Tetsuya; Saito, Kazuki; Ohzawa, Kaori; Suzuki, Chihiro; Li, Shimo; Ueda, Masashi; Wang, Miao-Xing; Nishida, Emika; Islam, Saiful; Tana; Kobori, Masuko; Inuzuka, Takashi

    2016-06-15

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience a wide array of cognitive deficits, which typically include the impairment of explicit memory. In previous studies, the authors reported that a flavonoid, quercetin, reduces the expression of ATF4 and delays memory deterioration in an early-stage AD mouse model. In the present study, the effects of long-term quercetin intake on memory recall were assessed using contextual fear conditioning in aged wild-type mice. In addition, the present study examined whether memory recall was affected by the intake of quercetin-rich onion (a new cultivar of hybrid onion 'Quergold') powder in early-stage AD patients. In-vivo analysis indicated that memory recall was enhanced in aged mice fed a quercetin-containing diet. Memory recall in early-stage AD patients, determined using the Revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale, was significantly improved by the intake of quercetin-rich onion (Quergold) powder for 4 weeks compared with the intake of control onion ('Mashiro' white onion) powder. These results indicate that quercetin might influence memory recall. PMID:27145228

  13. Working memory training with tDCS improves behavioral and neurophysiological symptoms in pilot group with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and with poor working memory.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Nerida; Downham, Russell; Turman, Bulent; Kropotov, Juri; Clark, Richard; Yumash, Rustam; Szatmary, Arielle

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the feasibility of treating people suffering from both post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and poor working memory by employing a combination of computerized working memory training and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). After treatment, all four participants showed clinically significant improvements on a range of cognitive and emotional performance measures. Moreover, these improvements were accompanied by theoretically significant neurophysiological changes between pre- and post-treatment electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. Specifically, the P3a component of participants' event related potentials (ERP) in response to novelty stimuli, characteristically abnormal in this clinical population, shifted significantly toward database norms. So, participants' initially slow alpha peak frequency (APF), theorized to underlie impaired cognitive processing abilities, also increased in both frequency and amplitude as a result of treatment. On the basis of these promising results, more extensive controlled studies are warranted.

  14. Preexisting semantic representation improves working memory performance in the visuospatial domain.

    PubMed

    Rudner, Mary; Orfanidou, Eleni; Cardin, Velia; Capek, Cheryl M; Woll, Bencie; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-05-01

    Working memory (WM) for spoken language improves when the to-be-remembered items correspond to preexisting representations in long-term memory. We investigated whether this effect generalizes to the visuospatial domain by administering a visual n-back WM task to deaf signers and hearing signers, as well as to hearing nonsigners. Four different kinds of stimuli were presented: British Sign Language (BSL; familiar to the signers), Swedish Sign Language (SSL; unfamiliar), nonsigns, and nonlinguistic manual actions. The hearing signers performed better with BSL than with SSL, demonstrating a facilitatory effect of preexisting semantic representation. The deaf signers also performed better with BSL than with SSL, but only when WM load was high. No effect of preexisting phonological representation was detected. The deaf signers performed better than the hearing nonsigners with all sign-based materials, but this effect did not generalize to nonlinguistic manual actions. We argue that deaf signers, who are highly reliant on visual information for communication, develop expertise in processing sign-based items, even when those items do not have preexisting semantic or phonological representations. Preexisting semantic representation, however, enhances the quality of the gesture-based representations temporarily maintained in WM by this group, thereby releasing WM resources to deal with increased load. Hearing signers, on the other hand, may make strategic use of their speech-based representations for mnemonic purposes. The overall pattern of results is in line with flexible-resource models of WM. PMID:26800983

  15. Cerebrolysin improves memory and ameliorates neuronal atrophy in spontaneously hypertensive, aged rats.

    PubMed

    Solis-Gaspar, Carlos; Vazquez-Roque, Ruben A; De Jesús Gómez-Villalobos, Ma; Flores, Gonzalo

    2016-09-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rat has been used as an animal model of vascular dementia (VD). Our previous report showed that, SH rats exhibited dendritic atrophy of pyramidal neurons of the CA1 dorsal hippocampus and layers 3 and 5 of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) at 8 months of age. In addition, we showed that cerebrolysin (Cbl), a neurotrophic peptide mixture, reduces the dendritic atrophy in aged animal models. This study aimed to determine whether Cbl was capable of reducing behavioral and neuronal alterations, in old female SH rats. The level of diastolic and systolic pressure was measured every month for the 6 first months and only animals with more than 160 mm Hg of systolic pressure were used. Female SH rats (6 months old) received 6 months of Cbl treatment. Immediately after the Cbl treatment, two behavioral tests were applied, the Morris water maze test for memory and learning and locomotor activity in novel environments. Immediately after the last behavioral test, dendritic morphology was studied with the Golgi-Cox stain procedure followed by a Sholl analysis. Clearly, SH rats with Cbl showed an increase in the dendritic length and dendritic spine density of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 in the dorsal hippocampus and layers 3 and 5 of the PFC. Interestingly, Cbl improved memory of the old SH rats. Our results support the possibility that Cbl may have beneficial effects on the management of brain alterations in an animal model with VD. Synapse 70:378-389, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Angiotensin II and its 3-7 fragment improve recognition but not spatial memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Braszko, J J; Kułakowska, A; Wiśniewski, K

    1995-01-01

    The effects of angiotensin II (AII), its 3-7 fragment [AII(3-7)] and the substituted 3-7 fragment [Leu-5,AII(3-7)] given intracerebroventricularly (ICV) at the dose of 1 nmole each, on spatial memory and recognition were tested. AII(3-7) increased while Leu-5,AII(3-7) slightly decreased session to session foot shock reinforced runtime to the goal in a complex 6 chamber maze. The animals treated with AII performed in the maze similarly to saline injected controls. Overall number of errors was unchanged in all peptide treated groups in comparison with the control group. Object recognition was significantly improved in all the peptide treated groups except for the Leu-5,AII(3-7) group. The results point to the facilitation of recognition and lack of influence on, or even attenuation of, spatial memory by AII and its 3-7 fragment. Leu-5,AII(3-7) caused similar though less pronounced effects.

  17. Administration of TSG-6 improves memory after traumatic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Jun; Shetty, Ashok K; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Kim, Dong-Ki; Foraker, Jessica E; Nishida, Hidetaka; Prockop, Darwin J

    2013-11-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes multiple long-term defects including a loss of working memory that is frequently incapacitating. Administrations of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) previously produced beneficial effects in models of TBI as well as other disease models. In several models, the beneficial effects were explained by the MSCs being activated to express TSG-6, a multifunctional protein that modulates inflammation. In a mouse model of TBI, we found the initial mild phase of the inflammatory response persisted for at least 24h and was followed by secondary severe response that peaked at 3days. Intravenous human MSCs or TSG-6 during initial mild phase decreased neutrophil extravasation, expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 by endothelial cells and neutrophils, and the subsequent blood brain barrier leakage in secondary phase. Administration of TSG-6 also decreased the lesion size at 2weeks. Importantly, the acute administration of TSG-6 within 24h of TBI was followed 6 to 10weeks later by improvements in memory, depressive-like behavior and the number of newly born-neurons. The data suggested that acute administration of TSG-6 may be an effective therapy for decreasing some of the long-term consequences of TBI.

  18. Passiflora incarnata L. Improves Spatial Memory, Reduces Stress, and Affects Neurotransmission in Rats.

    PubMed

    Jawna-Zboińska, Katarzyna; Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Joniec-Maciejak, Ilona; Wawer, Adriana; Pyrzanowska, Justyna; Piechal, Agnieszka; Mirowska-Guzel, Dagmara; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa

    2016-05-01

    Passiflora incarnata L. has been used as a medicinal plant in South America and Europe since the 16th century. Previous pharmacological studies focused mainly on the plant's sedative, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant effects on the central nervous system and its supporting role in the treatment of addiction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the behavioral and neurochemical effects of long-term oral administration of P. incarnata. The passionflower extract (30, 100, or 300 mg/kg body weight/day) was given to 4-week-old male Wistar rats via their drinking water. Tests were conducted after 7 weeks of treatment. Spatial memory was assessed in a water maze, and the levels of amino acids, monoamines, and their metabolites were evaluated in select brain regions by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We observed reduced anxiety and dose-dependent improvement of memory in rats given passionflower compared to the control group. In addition, hippocampal glutamic acid and cortical serotonin content were depleted, with increased levels of metabolites and increased turnover. Thus, our results partially confirmed the proposed mechanism of action of P. incarnata involving GABAA receptors. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26814055

  19. Clinical improvement of memory and other cognitive functions by Ginkgo biloba: review of relevant literature.

    PubMed

    Søholm, B

    1998-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba is a plant extract used to alleviate symptoms associated with cognitive deficits, e.g., decreased memory performance, lack of concentration, decreased alertness, tinnitus, and dizziness. Pharmacologic studies have shown that the therapeutic effect of ginkgo is based on several active constituents with vasoactive and free radical-scavenging properties. The use of ginkgo extract in either dementias of the Alzheimer or multi-infarct type or in the case of cerebral insufficiency, a symptom complex related to age-dependent impairment of cerebral circulation, is based mainly on positive results from good-quality placebo-controlled studies that enrolled approximately 1,200 patients with criteria established by International Classification of Diseases (9th and 10th revisions, ICD-9 and ICD-10) or the 3rd revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-III-R) (uncomplicated dementia). Effect on cognitive symptoms was within the range of a 25% reduction. Memory, concentration, and alertness were the first symptoms to be relieved, with tinnitus and dizziness improving somewhat later. A minimum of 4 to 6 weeks were needed before a pronounced effect could be expected. The pharmacologic advantage of ginkgo seems to be a very tolerable side-effect profile, with a side-effect frequency at the placebo level.

  20. Improving working memory abilities in individuals with Down syndrome: a treatment case study

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Hiwet Mariam; Purser, Harry R. M.; Passolunghi, Maria Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) skills of individuals with Down’s syndrome (DS) tend to be very poor compared to typically developing children of similar mental age. In particular, research has found that in individuals with DS visuo-spatial WM is better preserved than verbal WM. This study investigated whether it is possible to train short-term memory (STM) and WM abilities in individuals with DS. The cases of two teenage children are reported: EH, 17 years and 3 months, and AS, 15 years and 11 months. A school-based treatment targeting visuo-spatial WM was given to EH and AS for six weeks. Both prior to and after the treatment, they completed a set of assessments to measure WM abilities and their performance was compared with younger typically developing non-verbal mental age controls. The results showed that the trained participants improved their performance in some of the trained and non-trained WM tasks proposed, especially with regard to the tasks assessing visuo-spatial WM abilities. These findings are discussed on the basis of their theoretical, educational, and clinical implications. PMID:26441713

  1. Administration of TSG-6 improves memory after traumatic brain injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Jun; Shetty, Ashok K.; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Kim, Dong-Ki; Foraker, Jessica E.; Nishida, Hidetaka; Prockop, Darwin J.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes multiple long-term defects including a loss of working memory that is frequently incapacitating. Administrations of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) previously produced beneficial effects in models of TBI as well as other disease models. In several models, the beneficial effects were explained by the MSCs being activated to express TSG-6, a multifunctional protein that modulates inflammation. In a mouse model of TBI, we found the initial mild phase of the inflammatory response persisted for at least 24 hour and was followed by secondary severe response that peaked at 3 days. Intravenous human MSCs or TSG-6 during initial mild phase decreased neutrophil extravasation, expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 by endothelial cells and neutrophils, and the subsequent blood brain barrier leakage in secondary phase. Administration of TSG-6 also decreased the lesion size at 2 weeks. Importantly, the acute administration of TSG-6 within 24 hour of TBI was followed 6 to 10 weeks later by improvements in memory, depressive-like behavior and the number of newly born-neurons. The data suggested that acute administration of TSG-6 may be an effective therapy for decreasing some of the long-term consequences of TBI. PMID:23851308

  2. Action video game playing is associated with improved visual sensitivity, but not alterations in visual sensory memory.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, L Gregory; Cain, Matthew S; Darling, Elise F; Mitroff, Stephen R

    2013-08-01

    Action video game playing has been experimentally linked to a number of perceptual and cognitive improvements. These benefits are captured through a wide range of psychometric tasks and have led to the proposition that action video game experience may promote the ability to extract statistical evidence from sensory stimuli. Such an advantage could arise from a number of possible mechanisms: improvements in visual sensitivity, enhancements in the capacity or duration for which information is retained in visual memory, or higher-level strategic use of information for decision making. The present study measured the capacity and time course of visual sensory memory using a partial report performance task as a means to distinguish between these three possible mechanisms. Sensitivity measures and parameter estimates that describe sensory memory capacity and the rate of memory decay were compared between individuals who reported high evels and low levels of action video game experience. Our results revealed a uniform increase in partial report accuracy at all stimulus-to-cue delays for action video game players but no difference in the rate or time course of the memory decay. The present findings suggest that action video game playing may be related to enhancements in the initial sensitivity to visual stimuli, but not to a greater retention of information in iconic memory buffers. PMID:23709062

  3. Action video game playing is associated with improved visual sensitivity, but not alterations in visual sensory memory.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, L Gregory; Cain, Matthew S; Darling, Elise F; Mitroff, Stephen R

    2013-08-01

    Action video game playing has been experimentally linked to a number of perceptual and cognitive improvements. These benefits are captured through a wide range of psychometric tasks and have led to the proposition that action video game experience may promote the ability to extract statistical evidence from sensory stimuli. Such an advantage could arise from a number of possible mechanisms: improvements in visual sensitivity, enhancements in the capacity or duration for which information is retained in visual memory, or higher-level strategic use of information for decision making. The present study measured the capacity and time course of visual sensory memory using a partial report performance task as a means to distinguish between these three possible mechanisms. Sensitivity measures and parameter estimates that describe sensory memory capacity and the rate of memory decay were compared between individuals who reported high evels and low levels of action video game experience. Our results revealed a uniform increase in partial report accuracy at all stimulus-to-cue delays for action video game players but no difference in the rate or time course of the memory decay. The present findings suggest that action video game playing may be related to enhancements in the initial sensitivity to visual stimuli, but not to a greater retention of information in iconic memory buffers.

  4. A single bout of resistance exercise improves memory consolidation and increases the expression of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Jansen; Soares, Juliana Carlota Kramer; do Amaral Baliego, Luiz Guilherme Zaccaro; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2016-08-01

    Over the past decade, several studies have indicated that chronic resistance exercise (i.e., strength training, weight lifting, etc.) is beneficial for brain health and cognitive function. However, little is known about the effects of a single bout of resistance exercise on brain function, particularly on memory consolidation. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of a single bout of resistance exercise applied immediately after the training of fear conditioning on memory consolidation and on the expression of IGF-1 and synaptic proteins in the hippocampus. Male Wistar rats were familiarized with climbing a ladder without a load for 3 days and randomly assigned into control (CTL) and resistance exercise (RES) groups. The RES group was subjected to a single bout of resistance exercise applied immediately after fear conditioning training. Subsequently, the animals were tested for contextual (24 h) and tone (48 h) fear memory. Another group of animals were subjected to a single bout of resistance exercise and euthanized 24 h later for hippocampal analysis of IGF-1 and synaptic proteins (synapsin I, synaptophysin, and PSD-95). The exercised rats improved contextual but not tone fear memory. Hippocampal IGF-1 was not altered by resistance exercise. However, the levels of synapsin I, synaptophysin, and PSD-95 increased significantly in the RES group. The results suggested that a single bout of resistance exercise applied immediately after fear conditioning could improve contextual memory, probably through the activation of pre- and postsynaptic machinery required for memory consolidation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Lack of Developmental Improvement on a Face Memory Task during Adolescence in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hearn, Kirsten; Schroer, Elizabeth; Minshew, Nancy; Luna, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are associated with abnormalities in face memory, which evidence suggests has a protracted development through adolescence. The development of face memory in people with and without ASD, from 9 to 29 years old, was examined using the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT). Results indicate that the developmental…

  6. Improving Working Memory Efficiency by Reframing Metacognitive Interpretation of Task Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Autin, Frederique; Croizet, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Working memory capacity, our ability to manage incoming information for processing purposes, predicts achievement on a wide range of intellectual abilities. Three randomized experiments (N = 310) tested the effectiveness of a brief psychological intervention designed to boost working memory efficiency (i.e., state working memory capacity) by…

  7. Methylphenidate Improves Visual-Spatial Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit- hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Anne-Claude; Martinussen, Rhonda; Ickowicz, Abel; Tannock, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) on visual-spatial memory, as measured by subtests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery (CANTAB), in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Visual-spatial memory is a core component of working memory that has been shown to be impaired in…

  8. Using data tagging to improve the performance of Kanerva's sparse distributed memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, David

    1988-01-01

    The standard formulation of Kanerva's sparse distributed memory (SDM) involves the selection of a large number of data storage locations, followed by averaging the data contained in those locations to reconstruct the stored data. A variant of this model is discussed, in which the predominant pattern is the focus of reconstruction. First, one architecture is proposed which returns the predominant pattern rather than the average pattern. However, this model will require too much storage for most uses. Next, a hybrid model is proposed, called tagged SDM, which approximates the results of the predominant pattern machine, but is nearly as efficient as Kanerva's original formulation. Finally, some experimental results are shown which confirm that significant improvements in the recall capability of SDM can be achieved using the tagged architecture.

  9. Interpolated memory tests reduce mind wandering and improve learning of online lectures.

    PubMed

    Szpunar, Karl K; Khan, Novall Y; Schacter, Daniel L

    2013-04-16

    The recent emergence and popularity of online educational resources brings with it challenges for educators to optimize the dissemination of online content. Here we provide evidence that points toward a solution for the difficulty that students frequently report in sustaining attention to online lectures over extended periods. In two experiments, we demonstrate that the simple act of interpolating online lectures with memory tests can help students sustain attention to lecture content in a manner that discourages task-irrelevant mind wandering activities, encourages task-relevant note-taking activities, and improves learning. Importantly, frequent testing was associated with reduced anxiety toward a final cumulative test and also with reductions in subjective estimates of cognitive demand. Our findings suggest a potentially key role for interpolated testing in the development and dissemination of online educational content. PMID:23576743

  10. Interpolated memory tests reduce mind wandering and improve learning of online lectures.

    PubMed

    Szpunar, Karl K; Khan, Novall Y; Schacter, Daniel L

    2013-04-16

    The recent emergence and popularity of online educational resources brings with it challenges for educators to optimize the dissemination of online content. Here we provide evidence that points toward a solution for the difficulty that students frequently report in sustaining attention to online lectures over extended periods. In two experiments, we demonstrate that the simple act of interpolating online lectures with memory tests can help students sustain attention to lecture content in a manner that discourages task-irrelevant mind wandering activities, encourages task-relevant note-taking activities, and improves learning. Importantly, frequent testing was associated with reduced anxiety toward a final cumulative test and also with reductions in subjective estimates of cognitive demand. Our findings suggest a potentially key role for interpolated testing in the development and dissemination of online educational content.

  11. Improving the bioactivity of NiTi shape memory alloy by heat and alkali treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Wei; Zhen-duo, Cui; Xian-jin, Yang; Jie, Shi

    2008-11-01

    TiO 2 films were formed on an NiTi alloy surface by heat treatment in air at 600 °C. Heat treated NiTi shape memory alloys were subsequently alkali treated with 1 M, 3 M and 5 M NaOH solutions respectively, to improve their bioactivity. Then treated NiTi samples were soaked in 1.5SBF to evaluate their in vitro performance. The results showed that the 3 M NaOH treatment is the most appropriate method. A large amount of apatite formed within 1 day's soaking in 1.5SBF, after 7 day's soaking TiO 2/HA composite layer formed on the NiTi surface. SEM, XRD, FT-IR and TEM results showed that the morphology and microstructure are similar to the human bone apatite.

  12. Improving the Spacelab mass memory unit tape layout with a simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noneman, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    A tape drive called the Mass Memory Unit (MMU) stores software used by Spacelab computers. MMU tape motion must be minimized during typical flight operations to avoid a loss of scientific data. A projection of the tape motion is needed for evaluation of candidate tape layouts. A computer simulation of the scheduled and unscheduled MMU tape accesses is developed for this purpose. This simulation permits evaluations of candidate tape layouts by tracking and summarizing tape movements. The factors that affect tape travel are investigated and a heuristic is developed to find a good tape layout. An improved tape layout for Spacelab I is selected after the evaluation of fourteen candidates. The simulation model will provide the ability to determine MMU layouts that substantially decrease the tape travel on future Spacelab flights.

  13. Memory texture as a mechanism of improvement in preference by adding noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yinzhu; Aoki, Naokazu; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki

    2014-02-01

    According to color research, people have memory colors for familiar objects, which correlate with high color preference. As a similar concept to this, we propose memory texture as a mechanism of texture preference by adding image noise (1/f noise or white noise) to photographs of seven familiar objects. Our results showed that (1) memory texture differed from real-life texture; (2) no consistency was found between memory texture and real-life texture; (3) correlation existed between memory texture and preferred texture; and (4) the type of image noise which is more appropriate to texture reproduction differed by object.

  14. Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Au, Jacky; Sheehan, Ellen; Tsai, Nancy; Duncan, Greg J; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jaeggi, Susanne M

    2015-04-01

    Working memory (WM), the ability to store and manipulate information for short periods of time, is an important predictor of scholastic aptitude and a critical bottleneck underlying higher-order cognitive processes, including controlled attention and reasoning. Recent interventions targeting WM have suggested plasticity of the WM system by demonstrating improvements in both trained and untrained WM tasks. However, evidence on transfer of improved WM into more general cognitive domains such as fluid intelligence (Gf) has been more equivocal. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis focusing on one specific training program, n-back. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar for all n-back training studies with Gf outcome measures, a control group, and healthy participants between 18 and 50 years of age. In total, we included 20 studies in our analyses that met our criteria and found a small but significant positive effect of n-back training on improving Gf. Several factors that moderate this transfer are identified and discussed. We conclude that short-term cognitive training on the order of weeks can result in beneficial effects in important cognitive functions as measured by laboratory tests.

  15. Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Au, Jacky; Sheehan, Ellen; Tsai, Nancy; Duncan, Greg J; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jaeggi, Susanne M

    2015-04-01

    Working memory (WM), the ability to store and manipulate information for short periods of time, is an important predictor of scholastic aptitude and a critical bottleneck underlying higher-order cognitive processes, including controlled attention and reasoning. Recent interventions targeting WM have suggested plasticity of the WM system by demonstrating improvements in both trained and untrained WM tasks. However, evidence on transfer of improved WM into more general cognitive domains such as fluid intelligence (Gf) has been more equivocal. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis focusing on one specific training program, n-back. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar for all n-back training studies with Gf outcome measures, a control group, and healthy participants between 18 and 50 years of age. In total, we included 20 studies in our analyses that met our criteria and found a small but significant positive effect of n-back training on improving Gf. Several factors that moderate this transfer are identified and discussed. We conclude that short-term cognitive training on the order of weeks can result in beneficial effects in important cognitive functions as measured by laboratory tests. PMID:25102926

  16. Increase in c-Fos and Arc protein in retrosplenial cortex after memory-improving lateral hypothalamic electrical stimulation treatment.

    PubMed

    Kádár, Elisabeth; Vico-Varela, Eva; Aldavert-Vera, Laura; Huguet, Gemma; Morgado-Bernal, Ignacio; Segura-Torres, Pilar

    2016-02-01

    Post-training Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) of the lateral hypothalamus (LH), a kind of rewarding deep-brain stimulation, potentiates learning and memory and increases c-Fos protein expression in specific memory-related brain regions. In a previous study, Aldavert-Vera et al. (2013) reported that post-acquisition LH-ICSS improved 48 h retention of a delay two-way active avoidance conditioning (TWAA) and induced c-Fos expression increase in CA3 at 90 min after administration. Nevertheless, this c-Fos induction was only observed after the acquisition session and not after the retention test at 48 h, when the ICSS improving effect was observed on memory. This current study aims to examine the hypothesis that post-training ICSS treatment may stimulate c-Fos expression at the time of the TWAA retention test in retrosplenial cortex (RSC), a hippocampus-related brain region more closely related with long-lasting memory storage. Effects of ICSS on Arc protein, a marker of memory-associated synaptic plasticity, were also measured by immunohistochemistry in granular and agranular RSC. The most innovative results are that the ICSS treatment potentiates the c-Fos induction across TWAA conditions (no conditioning, acquisition and retention), specifically in layer V of the granular RSC, along with increases of Arc protein levels in the granular but not in agranular areas of RSC ipsilaterally few hours after ICSS. This leads us to suggest that plasticity-related protein activation in the granular RSC could be involved in the positive modulatory effects of ICSS on TWAA memory consolidation, opening a new approach for future research in ICSS memory facilitation.

  17. Increase in c-Fos and Arc protein in retrosplenial cortex after memory-improving lateral hypothalamic electrical stimulation treatment.

    PubMed

    Kádár, Elisabeth; Vico-Varela, Eva; Aldavert-Vera, Laura; Huguet, Gemma; Morgado-Bernal, Ignacio; Segura-Torres, Pilar

    2016-02-01

    Post-training Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) of the lateral hypothalamus (LH), a kind of rewarding deep-brain stimulation, potentiates learning and memory and increases c-Fos protein expression in specific memory-related brain regions. In a previous study, Aldavert-Vera et al. (2013) reported that post-acquisition LH-ICSS improved 48 h retention of a delay two-way active avoidance conditioning (TWAA) and induced c-Fos expression increase in CA3 at 90 min after administration. Nevertheless, this c-Fos induction was only observed after the acquisition session and not after the retention test at 48 h, when the ICSS improving effect was observed on memory. This current study aims to examine the hypothesis that post-training ICSS treatment may stimulate c-Fos expression at the time of the TWAA retention test in retrosplenial cortex (RSC), a hippocampus-related brain region more closely related with long-lasting memory storage. Effects of ICSS on Arc protein, a marker of memory-associated synaptic plasticity, were also measured by immunohistochemistry in granular and agranular RSC. The most innovative results are that the ICSS treatment potentiates the c-Fos induction across TWAA conditions (no conditioning, acquisition and retention), specifically in layer V of the granular RSC, along with increases of Arc protein levels in the granular but not in agranular areas of RSC ipsilaterally few hours after ICSS. This leads us to suggest that plasticity-related protein activation in the granular RSC could be involved in the positive modulatory effects of ICSS on TWAA memory consolidation, opening a new approach for future research in ICSS memory facilitation. PMID:26774022

  18. The mood-stabilizer lithium prevents hippocampal apoptosis and improves spatial memory in experimental meningitis.

    PubMed

    Liechti, Fabian D; Stüdle, Nicolas; Theurillat, Regula; Grandgirard, Denis; Thormann, Wolfgang; Leib, Stephen L

    2014-01-01

    Pneumococcal meningitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Brain damage caused by this disease is characterized by apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, a morphological correlate of learning deficits in experimental paradigms. The mood stabilizer lithium has previously been found to attenuate brain damage in ischemic and inflammatory diseases of the brain. An infant rat model of pneumococcal meningitis was used to investigate the neuroprotective and neuroregenerative potential of lithium. To assess an effect on the acute disease, LiCl was administered starting five days prior to intracisternal infection with live Streptococcus pneumoniae. Clinical parameters were recorded, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was sampled, and the animals were sacrificed 42 hours after infection to harvest the brain and serum. Cryosections of the brains were stained for Nissl substance to quantify brain injury. Hippocampal gene expression of Bcl-2, Bax, p53, and BDNF was analyzed. Lithium concentrations were measured in serum and CSF. The effect of chronic lithium treatment on spatial memory function and cell survival in the dentate gyrus was evaluated in a Morris water maze and by quantification of BrdU incorporation after LiCl treatment during 3 weeks following infection. In the hippocampus, LiCl significantly reduced apoptosis and gene expression of Bax and p53 while it increased expression of Bcl-2. IL-10, MCP-1, and TNF were significantly increased in animals treated with LiCl compared to NaCl. Chronic LiCl treatment improved spatial memory in infected animals. The mood stabilizer lithium may thus be a therapeutic alternative to attenuate neurofunctional deficits as a result of pneumococcal meningitis.

  19. Improvement in perception of image sharpness through the addition of noise and its relationship with memory texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xiazi; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Naokazu

    2015-03-01

    In a preceding study, we investigated the effects of image noise on the perception of image sharpness using white noise, and one- and two-dimensional single-frequency sinusoidal patterns as stimuli. This study extends our preceding study by evaluating natural color images, rather than black-and-white patterns. The results showed that the effect of noise in improving image sharpness perception is more evident in blurred images than in sharp images. This is consistent with the results of the preceding study. In another preceding study, we proposed "memory texture" to explain the preferred granularity of images, as a concept similar to "memory color" for preferred color reproduction. We observed individual differences in type of memory texture for each object, that is, white or 1/f noise. This study discusses the relationship between improvement of sharpness perception by adding noise, and the memory texture, following its individual differences. We found that memory texture is one of the elements that affect sharpness perception.

  20. Improving Reading Comprehension in Reading and Listening Settings: The Effect of Two Training Programmes Focusing on Metacognition and Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carretti, Barbara; Caldarola, Nadia; Tencati, Chiara; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Background: Metacognition and working memory (WM) have been found associated with success in reading comprehension, but no studies have examined their combined effect on the training of reading comprehension. Another open question concerns the role of listening comprehension: In particular, it is not clear whether training to improve reading…

  1. Improving Problem Solving in Primary School Students: The Effect of a Training Programme Focusing on Metacognition and Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornoldi, Cesare; Carretti, Barbara; Drusi, Silvia; Tencati, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite doubts voiced on their efficacy, a series of studies has been carried out on the capacity of training programmes to improve academic and reasoning skills by focusing on underlying cognitive abilities and working memory in particular. No systematic efforts have been made, however, to test training programmes that involve both…

  2. Can physical exercise in old age improve memory and hippocampal function?

    PubMed

    Duzel, Emrah; van Praag, Henriette; Sendtner, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Physical exercise can convey a protective effect against cognitive decline in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. While the long-term health-promoting and protective effects of exercise are encouraging, it's potential to induce neuronal and vascular plasticity in the ageing brain is still poorly understood. It remains unclear whether exercise slows the trajectory of normal ageing by modifying vascular and metabolic risk factors and/or consistently boosts brain function by inducing structural and neurochemical changes in the hippocampus and related medial temporal lobe circuitry-brain areas that are important for learning and memory. Hence, it remains to be established to what extent exercise interventions in old age can improve brain plasticity above and beyond preservation of function. Existing data suggest that exercise trials aiming for improvement and preservation may require different outcome measures and that the balance between the two may depend on exercise intensity and duration, the presence of preclinical Alzheimer's disease pathology, vascular and metabolic risk factors and genetic variability. PMID:26912638

  3. Can physical exercise in old age improve memory and hippocampal function?

    PubMed

    Duzel, Emrah; van Praag, Henriette; Sendtner, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Physical exercise can convey a protective effect against cognitive decline in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. While the long-term health-promoting and protective effects of exercise are encouraging, it's potential to induce neuronal and vascular plasticity in the ageing brain is still poorly understood. It remains unclear whether exercise slows the trajectory of normal ageing by modifying vascular and metabolic risk factors and/or consistently boosts brain function by inducing structural and neurochemical changes in the hippocampus and related medial temporal lobe circuitry-brain areas that are important for learning and memory. Hence, it remains to be established to what extent exercise interventions in old age can improve brain plasticity above and beyond preservation of function. Existing data suggest that exercise trials aiming for improvement and preservation may require different outcome measures and that the balance between the two may depend on exercise intensity and duration, the presence of preclinical Alzheimer's disease pathology, vascular and metabolic risk factors and genetic variability.

  4. Daily exercise improves memory, stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and modulates immune and neuroimmune cytokines in aging rats

    PubMed Central

    Speisman, Rachel. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Rani, Asha; Foster, Thomas C.; Ormerod, Brandi K.

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether daily exercise modulates immune and neuroimmune cytokines, hippocampus-dependent behavior and hippocampal neurogenesis in aging male F344 rats (18 mo upon arrival). Twelve weeks after conditioned running or control group assignment (n = 6 per group), the rats were trained and tested in a rapid water maze followed by an inhibitory avoidance task. The rats were BrdU-injected beginning 12 days after behavioral testing and killed 3 weeks later to quantify cytokines and neurogenesis. Daily exercise increased neurogenesis and improved immediate and 24 h water maze discrimination index (DI) scores and 24 h inhibitory avoidance retention latencies. Daily exercise decreased cortical VEGF, hippocampal IL-1β and serum MCP-1, GRO-KC and leptin levels but increased hippocampal GRO-KC and IL-18 concentrations. Serum leptin concentration correlated negatively with new neuron number and both DI scores while hippocampal IL-1β concentration correlated negatively with memory scores in both tasks. Cortical VEGF, serum GRO-KC and serum MCP-1 levels correlated negatively with immediate DI score and we found a novel positive correlation between hippocampal IL-18 and GRO-KC levels and new neuron number. Pathway analyses revealed distinct serum, hippocampal and cortical compartment cytokine relationships. Our results suggest that daily exercise potentially improves cognition in aging rats by modulating hippocampal neurogenesis and immune and neuroimmune cytokine signaling. PMID:23078985

  5. Can physical exercise in old age improve memory and hippocampal function?

    PubMed Central

    van Praag, Henriette; Sendtner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise can convey a protective effect against cognitive decline in ageing and Alzheimer’s disease. While the long-term health-promoting and protective effects of exercise are encouraging, it’s potential to induce neuronal and vascular plasticity in the ageing brain is still poorly understood. It remains unclear whether exercise slows the trajectory of normal ageing by modifying vascular and metabolic risk factors and/or consistently boosts brain function by inducing structural and neurochemical changes in the hippocampus and related medial temporal lobe circuitry—brain areas that are important for learning and memory. Hence, it remains to be established to what extent exercise interventions in old age can improve brain plasticity above and beyond preservation of function. Existing data suggest that exercise trials aiming for improvement and preservation may require different outcome measures and that the balance between the two may depend on exercise intensity and duration, the presence of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease pathology, vascular and metabolic risk factors and genetic variability. PMID:26912638

  6. Stimulation of the mineralocorticoid receptor improves memory in young and elderly healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Hinkelmann, Kim; Wingenfeld, Katja; Kuehl, Linn K; Fleischer, Juliane; Heuser, Isabella; Wiedemann, Klaus; Otte, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Glucocorticoids play an important role in cognitive function and act on glucocorticoid receptors and mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) in the brain. Previously, the blockade of the MR has been shown to impair visuospatial and working memory in healthy young men. Here, we investigated the effects of the MR agonist fludrocortisone on memory in young and elderly healthy individuals. Thirty-one young (mean age 25.4 ± 4.6 years) and 22 elderly (mean age 63.2 ± 8.2 years) healthy participants received the MR agonist fludrocortisone (0.4 mg) or placebo at least 3 days apart in a randomized, double-blind within-subject cross-over design. We measured verbal memory (auditory verbal learning test), nonverbal memory (Rey/Taylor complex figure test), and working memory (digit-span task). As expected, young participants performed significantly better than elderly individuals in visuospatial memory (effect of group: F = 42.7, p < 0.01), verbal memory (F = 33.1, p < 0.01), and working memory (digit-span backward: F = 4.5, p = 0.04). For visuospatial memory (F = 5.0, p = 0.03) and short-term and working memory (digit-span forward: F = 4.2, p = 0.05), we found a significant treatment effect indicating better memory performance after fludrocortisone compared with placebo across groups. In concert with the previous studies, our data suggest a role of the MR in memory function. A cognitive enhancing effect by MR stimulation warrants future studies.

  7. Intravenous ascorbate improves spatial memory in middle-aged APP/PSEN1 and wild type mice.

    PubMed

    Kennard, John A; Harrison, Fiona E

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of a single intravenous (i.v.) dose of Vitamin C (ascorbate, ASC) on spatial memory in APP/PSEN1 mice, an Alzheimer's disease model. First, we confirmed the uptake time course in ASC-depleted gulo (-/-) mice, which cannot synthesize ASC. Differential tissue uptake was seen based on ASC transporter distribution. Liver (SVCT1 and SVCT2) ASC was elevated at 30, 60 and 120 min post-treatment (125 mg/kg, i.v.), whereas spleen (SVCT2) ASC increased at 60 and 120 min. There was no detectable change in cortical (SVCT2 at choroid plexus, and neurons) ASC within the 2-h interval, although the cortex preferentially retained ASC. APP/PSEN1 and wild type (WT) mice at three ages (3, 9, or 20 months) were treated with ASC (125 mg/kg, i.v.) or saline 45 min before testing on the Modified Y-maze, a two-trial task of spatial memory. Memory declined with age and ASC treatment improved performance in 9-month-old APP/PSEN1 and WT mice. APP/PSEN1 mice displayed no behavioral impairment relative to WT controls. Although dopamine and metabolite DOPAC decreased in the nucleus accumbens with age, and improved spatial memory was correlated with increased dopamine in saline treated mice, acute ASC treatment did not alter monoamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. These data show that the Modified Y-maze is sensitive to age-related deficits, but not additional memory deficits due to amyloid pathology in APP/PSEN1 mice. They also suggest improvements in short-term spatial memory were not due to changes in the neuropathological features of AD or monoamine signaling.

  8. Testosterone, but not nonaromatizable dihydrotestosterone, improves working memory and alters nerve growth factor levels in aged male rats.

    PubMed

    Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A; Singleton, Rachel S; Nelson, Matthew E; Eckman, Christopher B; Barber, John; Scott, Tonetta Y; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte E

    2003-06-01

    Recent studies have suggested that testosterone levels are lower in men with Alzheimer's disease and that testosterone treatment improves cognition in older men. Since testosterone can be aromatized to estrogen, testosterone's effects could be due to conversion into estrogen. We treated aged male rats with either testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the latter of which is not aromatized to estrogen, in order to determine whether these treatments improve spatial working and reference memory as assessed in the water radial arm maze. We also tested whether such effects are related to beta-amyloid levels in the hippocampus or neurotrophin levels in the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, frontal cortex, or striatum. Aged rats made more errors than young rats on all memory measures. Testosterone, but not DHT, improved working memory and decreased hippocampal NGF protein in aged rats, while having no effect on beta-amyloid. However, higher beta-amyloid levels were correlated with poorer working memory performance in young rats. Neurotrophin levels in entorhinal cortex were positively correlated with errors for all memory measures in androgen-treated rats. Similar to findings in human studies, in our study androgen treatment lowered circulating estradiol levels in aged rats, suggesting that androgen treatment exerts feedback to the hypothalamic pituitary axis and that conversion to estrogen may not be the underlying biological mechanism of testosterone's effects on memory and growth factor levels. The ratio of estradiol to testosterone, or the actions of the aromatase enzyme itself, may be responsible for the observed effects. These data support the hypothesis that testosterone therapy in aging men may provide positive effects on cognition and that neural regions that are linked to cognition, such as the hippocampus and/or entorhinal cortex, may be involved in such effects.

  9. Intravenous ascorbate improves spatial memory in middle-aged APP/PSEN1 and wild type mice

    PubMed Central

    Kennard, John A.; Harrison, Fiona E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of a single intravenous (i.v.) dose of Vitamin C (ascorbate, ASC) on spatial memory in APP/PSEN1 mice, an Alzheimer's disease model. First, we confirmed the uptake time course in ASC-depleted gulo (−/−) mice, which cannot synthesize ASC. Differential tissue uptake was seen based on ASC transporter distribution. Liver (SVCT1 & SVCT2) ASC was elevated at 30, 60 and 120 min post-treatment (125 mg/kg, i.v.), whereas spleen (SVCT2) ASC increased at 60 and 120 min. There was no detectable change in cortical (SVCT2 at choroid plexus, and neurons) ASC within the 2-hour interval, although the cortex preferentially retained ASC. APP/PSEN1 and wild type (WT) mice at three ages (3, 9, or 20 months) were treated with ASC (125 mg/kg, i.v.) or saline 45 min before testing on the Modified Y-maze, a two-trial task of spatial memory. Memory declined with age and ASC treatment improved performance in 9 month-old APP/PSEN1 and WT mice. APP/PSEN1 mice displayed no behavioral impairment relative to WT controls. Although dopamine and metabolite DOPAC decreased in the nucleus accumbens with age, and improved spatial memory was correlated with increased dopamine in saline treated mice, acute ASC treatment did not alter monoamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. These data show that the Modified Y-maze is sensitive to age-related deficits, but not additional memory deficits due to amyloid pathology in APP/PSEN1 mice. They also suggest improvements in short-term spatial memory were not due to changes in the neuropathological features of AD or monoamine signaling. PMID:24508240

  10. Working Memory and Postural Control: Adult Age Differences in Potential for Improvement, Task Priority, and Dual Tasking

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, Michael A.; Krampe, Ralf Th.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate dynamic posture control and working memory (NBack) retest practice in young and older adults, focusing on older adults' potential for improvement in the component tasks but more importantly in dual-task performance. Participants performed the 2 tasks in 11 sessions under single- and dual-task conditions. Posture improvement was observed with retest practice for both groups. Increase in cognitive load after initial practice led to greater dual-task costs in both tasks in older adults and higher costs in memory in young adults. With continued practice, costs were reduced by both groups; however, the 2 groups focused improvement on different tasks: Older adults focused on posture but young adults on cognition. These results emphasize older adults’ potential for improvement in dual-task performance and their flexibility to utilize the practice gains in posture to optimize cognitive performance. PMID:19255088

  11. Perinatal exposure to genistein, a soy phytoestrogen, improves spatial learning and memory but impairs passive avoidance learning and memory in offspring.

    PubMed

    Kohara, Yumi; Kuwahara, Rika; Kawaguchi, Shinichiro; Jojima, Takeshi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2014-05-10

    This study investigated the effects of perinatal genistein (GEN) exposure on the central nervous system of rat offspring. Pregnant dams orally received GEN (1 or 10 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (1 ml/kg/day) from gestation day 10 to postnatal day 14. In order to assess the effects of GEN on rat offspring, we used a battery of behavioral tests, including the open-field, elevated plus-maze, MAZE and step-through passive avoidance tests. MAZE test is an appetite-motivation test, and we used this mainly for assessing spatial learning and memory. In the MAZE test, GEN groups exhibited shorter latency from start to goal than the vehicle-treated group in both sexes. On the other hand, performances in the step-through passive avoidance test were non-monotonically inhibited by GEN in both sexes, and a significant difference was observed in low dose of the GEN-treated group compared to the vehicle-treated group in female rats. Furthermore, we found that perinatal exposure to GEN did not significantly alter locomotor activity or emotionality as assessed by the open-field and elevated-plus maze tests. These results suggest that perinatal exposure to GEN improved spatial learning and memory of rat offspring, but impaired their passive avoidance learning and memory.

  12. An Adaptive Memory Interface Controller for Improving Bandwidth Utilization of Hybrid and Reconfigurable Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Castellana, Vito G.; Tumeo, Antonino; Ferrandi, Fabrizio

    2014-05-30

    Emerging applications such as data mining, bioinformatics, knowledge discovery, social network analysis are irregular. They use data structures based on pointers or linked lists, such as graphs, unbalanced trees or unstructures grids, which generates unpredictable memory accesses. These data structures usually are large, but difficult to partition. These applications mostly are memory bandwidth bounded and have high synchronization intensity. However, they also have large amounts of inherent dynamic parallelism, because they potentially perform a task for each one of the element they are exploring. Several efforts are looking at accelerating these applications on hybrid architectures, which integrate general purpose processors with reconfigurable devices. Some solutions, which demonstrated significant speedups, include custom-hand tuned accelerators or even full processor architectures on the reconfigurable logic. In this paper we present an approach for the automatic synthesis of accelerators from C, targeted at irregular applications. In contrast to typical High Level Synthesis paradigms, which construct a centralized Finite State Machine, our approach generates dynamically scheduled hardware components. While parallelism exploitation in typical HLS-generated accelerators is usually bound within a single execution flow, our solution allows concurrently running multiple execution flow, thus also exploiting the coarser grain task parallelism of irregular applications. Our approach supports multiple, multi-ported and distributed memories, and atomic memory operations. Its main objective is parallelizing as many memory operations as possible, independently from their execution time, to maximize the memory bandwidth utilization. This significantly differs from current HLS flows, which usually consider a single memory port and require precise scheduling of memory operations. A key innovation of our approach is the generation of a memory interface controller, which

  13. Does Sentential Prosody Improve Two-Month Olds' Memory for Speech?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Denise; And Others

    This study investigated two-month-old infants' memory for phonetic information using the high-amplitude-sucking procedure (HAS). Specifically, the study explored whether the availability of prosodic organization enhances infants' memory for the phonetic information they hear. After a baseline measure was obtained, infant sucking resulted in a…

  14. No Evidence of Intelligence Improvement after Working Memory Training: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redick, Thomas S.; Shipstead, Zach; Harrison, Tyler L.; Hicks, Kenny L.; Fried, David E.; Hambrick, David Z.; Kane, Michael J.; Engle, Randall W.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous recent studies seem to provide evidence for the general intellectual benefits of working memory training. In reviews of the training literature, Shipstead, Redick, and Engle (2010, 2012) argued that the field should treat recent results with a critical eye. Many published working memory training studies suffer from design limitations…

  15. Right inferior frontal gyrus activation is associated with memory improvement in patients with left frontal low-grade glioma resection.

    PubMed

    Miotto, Eliane C; Balardin, Joana B; Vieira, Gilson; Sato, Joao R; Martin, Maria da Graça M; Scaff, Milberto; Teixeira, Manoel J; Junior, Edson Amaro

    2014-01-01

    Patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) have been studied as a model of functional brain reorganization due to their slow-growing nature. However, there is no information regarding which brain areas are involved during verbal memory encoding after extensive left frontal LGG resection. In addition, it remains unknown whether these patients can improve their memory performance after instructions to apply efficient strategies. The neural correlates of verbal memory encoding were investigated in patients who had undergone extensive left frontal lobe (LFL) LGG resections and healthy controls using fMRI both before and after directed instructions were given for semantic organizational strategies. Participants were scanned during the encoding of word lists under three different conditions before and after a brief period of practice. The conditions included semantically unrelated (UR), related-non-structured (RNS), and related-structured words (RS), allowing for different levels of semantic organization. All participants improved on memory recall and semantic strategy application after the instructions for the RNS condition. Healthy subjects showed increased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and middle frontal gyrus (MFG) during encoding for the RNS condition after the instructions. Patients with LFL excisions demonstrated increased activation in the right IFG for the RNS condition after instructions were given for the semantic strategies. Despite extensive damage in relevant areas that support verbal memory encoding and semantic strategy applications, patients that had undergone resections for LFL tumor could recruit the right-sided contralateral homologous areas after instructions were given and semantic strategies were practiced. These results provide insights into changes in brain activation areas typically implicated in verbal memory encoding and semantic processing.

  16. Low-speed treadmill running exercise improves memory function after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Haruka; Hamakawa, Michiru; Ishida, Akimasa; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Nakashima, Hiroki; Ishida, Kazuto

    2013-04-15

    Physical exercise may enhance the recovery of impaired memory function in stroke rats. However the appropriate conditions of exercise and the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects are not yet known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect exercise intensity on memory function after cerebral infarction in rats. The animals were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min to induce stroke and were randomly assigned to four groups; Low-Ex, High-Ex, Non-Ex and Sham. On the fourth day after surgery, rats in the Low-Ex and High-Ex groups were forced to exercise using a treadmill for 30 min every day for four weeks. Memory functions were examined during the last 5 days of the experiment (27-32 days after MCAO) by three types of tests: an object recognition test, an object location test and a passive avoidance test. After the final memory test, the infarct volume, number of neurons and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus were analyzed by histochemistry. Memory functions in the Low-Ex group were improved in all tests. In the High-Ex group, only the passive avoidance test improved, but not the object recognition or object location tests. Both the Low-Ex and High-Ex groups had reduced infarct volumes. Although the number of neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of the Low-Ex and High-Ex groups was increased, the number for the Low-Ex group increased more than that for the High-Ex group. Moreover hippocampal MAP2 immunoreactivity in the High-Ex group was reduced compared to that in the Low-Ex group. These data suggest that the effects of exercise on memory impairment after cerebral infarction depend on exercise intensity.

  17. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a) knockout mice exhibit improved spatial memory and deficits in contextual memory.

    PubMed

    Albarran-Zeckler, Rosie G; Brantley, Alicia Faruzzi; Smith, Roy G

    2012-06-15

    Although the hormone ghrelin is best known for its stimulatory effect on appetite and regulation of growth hormone release, it is also reported to have beneficial effects on learning and memory formation in mice. Nevertheless, controversy exists about whether endogenous ghrelin acts on its receptors in extra-hypothalamic areas of the brain. The ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a) is co-expressed in neurons that express dopamine receptor type-1 (DRD1a) and type-2 (DRD2), and we have shown that a subset of GHS-R1a, which are not occupied by the agonist (apo-GHSR1a), heterodimerize with these two receptors to regulate dopamine signaling in vitro and in vivo. To determine the consequences of ghsr ablation on brain function, congenic ghsr -/- mice on the C57BL6/J background were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests. We show that the ghsr -/- mice exhibit normal balance, movement, coordination, and pain sensation, outperform ghsr +/+ mice in the Morris water maze, but show deficits in contextual fear conditioning.

  18. Performance improvement of gadolinium oxide resistive random access memory treated by hydrogen plasma immersion ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jer-Chyi Hsu, Chih-Hsien; Ye, Yu-Ren; Ai, Chi-Fong; Tsai, Wen-Fa

    2014-03-15

    Characteristics improvement of gadolinium oxide (Gd{sub x}O{sub y}) resistive random access memories (RRAMs) treated by hydrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) was investigated. With the hydrogen PIII treatment, the Gd{sub x}O{sub y} RRAMs exhibited low set/reset voltages and a high resistance ratio, which were attributed to the enhanced movement of oxygen ions within the Gd{sub x}O{sub y} films and the increased Schottky barrier height at Pt/Gd{sub x}O{sub y} interface, respectively. The resistive switching mechanism of Gd{sub x}O{sub y} RRAMs was dominated by Schottky emission, as proved by the area dependence of the resistance in the low resistance state. After the hydrogen PIII treatment, a retention time of more than 10{sup 4} s was achieved at an elevated measurement temperature. In addition, a stable cycling endurance with the resistance ratio of more than three orders of magnitude of the Gd{sub x}O{sub y} RRAMs can be obtained.

  19. tDCS selectively improves working memory in older adults with more education.

    PubMed

    Berryhill, Marian E; Jones, Kevin T

    2012-07-19

    Cognitive performance, including performance on working memory (WM) tasks declines with age. Changes in brain activations are one presumed contributor to WM decline in the healthy aging population. In particular, neuroimaging studies show that when older adults perform WM tasks there tends to be greater bilateral frontal activity than in younger adults. We hypothesized that stimulating the prefrontal cortex in healthy older adults would improve WM performance. To test this hypothesis we employed transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a neurostimulation technique in which small amounts of electrical current are applied to the scalp with the intent of modulating the activity in underlying neurons. Across three testing sessions we applied sham stimulation or anodal tDCS to the left (F3) or right (F4) prefrontal cortex to healthy older adults as they performed trials of verbal and visual 2-back WM tasks. Surprisingly, tDCS was uniformly beneficial across site and WM task, but only in older adults with more education. In the less educated group, tDCS provided no benefit to verbal or visual WM performance. We interpret these findings as evidence for differential frontal recruitment as a function of strategy when older adults perform WM tasks.

  20. The best of both worlds: emotional cues improve prospective memory execution and reduce repetition errors.

    PubMed

    May, Cynthia P; Manning, Michelle; Einstein, Gilles O; Becker, Lauren; Owens, Max

    2015-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) errors are commonly investigated as failures to execute an intended task (e.g., taking medication), and some studies suggest that emotional PM cues significantly reduce such failures. In Experiment 1, we extended these findings and additionally explored whether improved PM performance with emotional cues comes at the expense of performance on the ongoing task. Our results indicated that both younger and older adults are more likely to respond to emotional than to neutral PM cues, but the emotional cues did not differentially disrupt the performance on the ongoing task for either age group. Because older adults are also prone to mistakenly repeating a completed PM task, in Experiment 2 we further examined whether emotional PM cues increased repetition errors for older adults. Despite equivalent opportunity for repetition errors across cue type, older adults committed significantly fewer repetition errors with emotional than with neutral cues. Thus, these experiments demonstrated that older adults can effectively use emotional cues to help them initiate actions and to minimize repetition errors.

  1. NGF improves spatial memory in aged rodents as a function of age.

    PubMed

    Fischer, W; Björklund, A; Chen, K; Gage, F H

    1991-07-01

    Aged rats were tested for place navigation in a circular water maze for spatial memory ability at 18 and 30 months of age; 45% of the 18-month-old rats displayed impaired place navigation performance relative to young control rats, while essentially all of the 30-month-old rats were impaired. The aged impaired rats were retested twice during NGF or vehicle infusion in the right lateral ventricle. In the 18-month-old group, NGF-infused rats showed improved retention of previously acquired place navigation performance and improved spatial acuity over the former platform site when the invisible platform was removed. NGF infusion also had a significant effect in the much more severely impaired 30-month-old rats: while the vehicle-infused aged rats showed a progressive decline in the performance between the first and second test weeks, the performance of the NGF-infused rats remained stable throughout the infusion period. The interpretation of these effects in the oldest animals, however, was confounded by a progressive decline in swim speed seen in the vehicle-infused animals. The 30-month-old vehicle-infused control rats showed a significant cell loss and cell shrinkage relative to the young control rats in the septal/diagonal band area, the striatum, and the nucleus basalis as assessed by NGF-receptor (NGFr) and ChAT double-label immunocytochemistry. A significant increase in the size but not in the number of cells was observed on the side of the NGF infusion in the 30-month-old NGF-infused rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Neural Differentiation Tracks Improved Recall of Competing Memories Following Interleaved Study and Retrieval Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hulbert, J. C.; Norman, K. A.

    2015-01-01

    Selective retrieval of overlapping memories can generate competition. How does the brain adaptively resolve this competition? One possibility is that competing memories are inhibited; in support of this view, numerous studies have found that selective retrieval leads to forgetting of memories that are related to the just-retrieved memory. However, this retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) effect can be eliminated or even reversed if participants are given opportunities to restudy the materials between retrieval attempts. Here, we outline an explanation for such a reversal, rooted in a neural network model of RIF that predicts representational differentiation when restudy is interleaved with selective retrieval. To test this hypothesis, we measured changes in pattern similarity of the BOLD fMRI signal elicited by related memories after undergoing interleaved competitive retrieval and restudy. Reduced pattern similarity within the hippocampus positively correlated with retrieval-induced facilitation of competing memories. This result is consistent with an adaptive differentiation process that allows individuals to learn to distinguish between once-confusable memories. PMID:25477369

  3. Lithium activates brain phospholipase A2 and improves memory in rats: implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mury, Fábio B; da Silva, Weber C; Barbosa, Nádia R; Mendes, Camila T; Bonini, Juliana S; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo Souza; Cammarota, Martin; Izquierdo, Ivan; Gattaz, Wagner F; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel

    2016-10-01

    Phospholipase A2 (Pla2) is required for memory retrieval, and its inhibition in the hippocampus has been reported to impair memory acquisition in rats. Moreover, cognitive decline and memory deficits showed to be reduced in animal models after lithium treatment, prompting us to evaluate possible links between Pla2, lithium and memory. Here, we evaluated the possible modulation of Pla2 activity by a long-term treatment of rats with low doses of lithium and its impact in memory. Wistar rats were trained for the inhibitory avoidance task, treated with lithium for 100 days and tested for perdurability of long-term memory. Hippocampal samples were used for quantifying the expression of 19 brain-expressed Pla2 genes and for evaluating the enzymatic activity of Pla2 using group-specific radio-enzymatic assays. Our data pointed to a significant perdurability of long-term memory, which correlated with increased transcriptional and enzymatic activities of certain members of the Pla2 family (iPla2 and sPla2) after the chronic lithium treatment. Our data suggest new possible targets of lithium, add more information on its pharmacological activity and reinforce the possible use of low doses of lithium for the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions such as the Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26661385

  4. Neural Differentiation Tracks Improved Recall of Competing Memories Following Interleaved Study and Retrieval Practice.

    PubMed

    Hulbert, J C; Norman, K A

    2015-10-01

    Selective retrieval of overlapping memories can generate competition. How does the brain adaptively resolve this competition? One possibility is that competing memories are inhibited; in support of this view, numerous studies have found that selective retrieval leads to forgetting of memories that are related to the just-retrieved memory. However, this retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) effect can be eliminated or even reversed if participants are given opportunities to restudy the materials between retrieval attempts. Here, we outline an explanation for such a reversal, rooted in a neural network model of RIF that predicts representational differentiation when restudy is interleaved with selective retrieval. To test this hypothesis, we measured changes in pattern similarity of the BOLD fMRI signal elicited by related memories after undergoing interleaved competitive retrieval and restudy. Reduced pattern similarity within the hippocampus positively correlated with retrieval-induced facilitation of competing memories. This result is consistent with an adaptive differentiation process that allows individuals to learn to distinguish between once-confusable memories.

  5. Lithium activates brain phospholipase A2 and improves memory in rats: implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mury, Fábio B; da Silva, Weber C; Barbosa, Nádia R; Mendes, Camila T; Bonini, Juliana S; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo Souza; Cammarota, Martin; Izquierdo, Ivan; Gattaz, Wagner F; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel

    2016-10-01

    Phospholipase A2 (Pla2) is required for memory retrieval, and its inhibition in the hippocampus has been reported to impair memory acquisition in rats. Moreover, cognitive decline and memory deficits showed to be reduced in animal models after lithium treatment, prompting us to evaluate possible links between Pla2, lithium and memory. Here, we evaluated the possible modulation of Pla2 activity by a long-term treatment of rats with low doses of lithium and its impact in memory. Wistar rats were trained for the inhibitory avoidance task, treated with lithium for 100 days and tested for perdurability of long-term memory. Hippocampal samples were used for quantifying the expression of 19 brain-expressed Pla2 genes and for evaluating the enzymatic activity of Pla2 using group-specific radio-enzymatic assays. Our data pointed to a significant perdurability of long-term memory, which correlated with increased transcriptional and enzymatic activities of certain members of the Pla2 family (iPla2 and sPla2) after the chronic lithium treatment. Our data suggest new possible targets of lithium, add more information on its pharmacological activity and reinforce the possible use of low doses of lithium for the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions such as the Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Effects of Medhya Rasayana and Yogic practices in improvement of short-term memory among school-going children

    PubMed Central

    Sarokte, Atul Shankar; Rao, Mangalagowri V.

    2013-01-01

    treatment is cost effective and devoid of side effects, which can be beneficial for the community. Mean increase after first follow-up in group B was higher as compared to group C. This shows that Medhya Rasayanas are quick in action and bring about improvement in memory faster when compared with Yogic practices. So, on the whole, group B can be considered to be the most efficient among the three groups. PMID:24695779

  7. Effects of Medhya Rasayana and Yogic practices in improvement of short-term memory among school-going children.

    PubMed

    Sarokte, Atul Shankar; Rao, Mangalagowri V

    2013-10-01

    treatment is cost effective and devoid of side effects, which can be beneficial for the community. Mean increase after first follow-up in group B was higher as compared to group C. This shows that Medhya Rasayanas are quick in action and bring about improvement in memory faster when compared with Yogic practices. So, on the whole, group B can be considered to be the most efficient among the three groups. PMID:24695779

  8. Improvement in γ-hydroxybutyrate-induced contextual fear memory deficit by systemic administration of NCS-382

    PubMed Central

    Ishiwari, Keita

    2016-01-01

    Low, nonsedative doses of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) produce short-term anterograde amnesia in humans and memory impairments in experimental animals. We have previously shown that acute systemic treatment of GHB in adolescent female rats impairs the acquisition, but not the expression, of contextual fear memory while sparing both the acquisition and the expression of auditory cued fear memory. In the brain, GHB binds to specific GHB-binding sites as well as to γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptors. Although many of the behavioral effects of GHB at high doses have been attributed to its effects on the GABAB receptor, it is unclear which receptor mediates its relatively low-dose memory-impairing effects. The present study examined the ability of the putative GHB receptor antagonist NCS-382 to block the disrupting effects of GHB on fear memory in adolescent rat. Groups of rats received either a single dose of NCS-382 (3–10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or vehicle, followed by an injection of either GHB (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or saline. All rats were trained in the fear paradigm, and tested for contextual fear memory and auditory cued fear memory. NCS-382 dose-dependently reversed deficits in the acquisition of contextual fear memory induced by GHB in adolescent rats, with 5 mg/kg of NCS-382 maximally increasing freezing to the context compared with the group administered GHB alone. When animals were tested for cued fear memory, treatment groups did not differ in freezing responses to the tone. These results suggest that low-dose amnesic effects of GHB are mediated by GHB receptors. PMID:27105320

  9. Improvement in γ-hydroxybutyrate-induced contextual fear memory deficit by systemic administration of NCS-382.

    PubMed

    Ishiwari, Keita; Sircar, Ratna

    2016-06-15

    Low, nonsedative doses of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) produce short-term anterograde amnesia in humans and memory impairments in experimental animals. We have previously shown that acute systemic treatment of GHB in adolescent female rats impairs the acquisition, but not the expression, of contextual fear memory while sparing both the acquisition and the expression of auditory cued fear memory. In the brain, GHB binds to specific GHB-binding sites as well as to γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptors. Although many of the behavioral effects of GHB at high doses have been attributed to its effects on the GABAB receptor, it is unclear which receptor mediates its relatively low-dose memory-impairing effects. The present study examined the ability of the putative GHB receptor antagonist NCS-382 to block the disrupting effects of GHB on fear memory in adolescent rat. Groups of rats received either a single dose of NCS-382 (3-10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or vehicle, followed by an injection of either GHB (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or saline. All rats were trained in the fear paradigm, and tested for contextual fear memory and auditory cued fear memory. NCS-382 dose-dependently reversed deficits in the acquisition of contextual fear memory induced by GHB in adolescent rats, with 5 mg/kg of NCS-382 maximally increasing freezing to the context compared with the group administered GHB alone. When animals were tested for cued fear memory, treatment groups did not differ in freezing responses to the tone. These results suggest that low-dose amnesic effects of GHB are mediated by GHB receptors. PMID:27105320

  10. Using mental imagery to improve memory in patients with Alzheimer's disease: Trouble generating or remembering the mind's eye?

    PubMed Central

    Hussey, Erin; Smolinsky, John G.; Piryatinsky, Irene; Budson, Andrew E.; Ally, Brandon A.

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation worked to understand whether patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) could use general or self-referential mental imagery to improve their recognition of visually presented words. Experiment 1 showed that, unlike healthy controls, patients generally did not benefit from either type of imagery. To help determine whether the patients' inability to benefit from mental imagery at encoding was due to poor memory or due to an impairment in mental imagery, subjects then performed four imagery tasks, with varying imagery and cognitive demands. Experiment 2 showed that patients successfully performed basic visual imagery, but degraded semantic memory, coupled with visuospatial and executive functioning deficits, impaired their ability to perform more complex types of imagery. Given that patients with AD can perform basic mental imagery, our results suggest that episodic memory deficits likely prevent AD patients from storing or retrieving general mental images generated during encoding. Overall, the results of both experiments suggest that neurocognitive deficits do not allow patients with AD to perform complex mental imagery, which may be most beneficial to improving memory. However, our data also suggest that intact basic mental imagery and rehearsal could possibly be helpful if used in a rehabilitation multi-session intervention approach. PMID:21946012

  11. Mangifera indica Fruit Extract Improves Memory Impairment, Cholinergic Dysfunction, and Oxidative Stress Damage in Animal Model of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Thukham-Mee, Wipawee; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Wittaya-Areekul, Sakchai

    2014-01-01

    To date, the effective preventive paradigm against mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is required. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether Mangifera indica fruit extract, a substance possessing antioxidant and cognitive enhancing effects, could improve memory impairment, cholinergic dysfunction, and oxidative stress damage in animal model of mild cognitive impairment. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180–200 g, were orally given the extract at doses of 12.5, 50, and 200 mg·kg−1 BW for 2 weeks before and 1 week after the bilateral injection of AF64A (icv). At the end of study, spatial memory, cholinergic neurons density, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px enzymes in hippocampus were determined. The results showed that all doses of extract could improve memory together with the decreased MDA level and the increased SOD and GSH-Px enzymes activities. The increased cholinergic neurons density in CA1 and CA3 of hippocampus was also observed in rats treated with the extract at doses of 50 and 200 mg·kg−1 BW. Therefore, our results suggested that M. indica, the potential protective agent against MCI, increased cholinergic function and the decreased oxidative stress which in turn enhanced memory. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredients and detail mechanism. PMID:24672632

  12. Dietary levels of pure flavonoids improve spatial memory performance and increase hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Rendeiro, Catarina; Vauzour, David; Rattray, Marcus; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Mérillon, Jean Michel; Butler, Laurie T; Williams, Claire M; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that flavonoid-rich foods are capable of inducing improvements in memory and cognition in animals and humans. However, there is a lack of clarity concerning whether flavonoids are the causal agents in inducing such behavioral responses. Here we show that supplementation with pure anthocyanins or pure flavanols for 6 weeks, at levels similar to that found in blueberry (2% w/w), results in an enhancement of spatial memory in 18 month old rats. Pure flavanols and pure anthocyanins were observed to induce significant improvements in spatial working memory (p = 0.002 and p = 0.006 respectively), to a similar extent to that following blueberry supplementation (p = 0.002). These behavioral changes were paralleled by increases in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (R = 0.46, p<0.01), suggesting a common mechanism for the enhancement of memory. However, unlike protein levels of BDNF, the regional enhancement of BDNF mRNA expression in the hippocampus appeared to be predominantly enhanced by anthocyanins. Our data support the claim that flavonoids are likely causal agents in mediating the cognitive effects of flavonoid-rich foods.

  13. Mangifera indica fruit extract improves memory impairment, cholinergic dysfunction, and oxidative stress damage in animal model of mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Thukham-Mee, Wipawee; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Wittaya-Areekul, Sakchai

    2014-01-01

    To date, the effective preventive paradigm against mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is required. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether Mangifera indica fruit extract, a substance possessing antioxidant and cognitive enhancing effects, could improve memory impairment, cholinergic dysfunction, and oxidative stress damage in animal model of mild cognitive impairment. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180-200 g, were orally given the extract at doses of 12.5, 50, and 200 mg · kg(-1) BW for 2 weeks before and 1 week after the bilateral injection of AF64A (icv). At the end of study, spatial memory, cholinergic neurons density, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px enzymes in hippocampus were determined. The results showed that all doses of extract could improve memory together with the decreased MDA level and the increased SOD and GSH-Px enzymes activities. The increased cholinergic neurons density in CA1 and CA3 of hippocampus was also observed in rats treated with the extract at doses of 50 and 200 mg · kg(-1) BW. Therefore, our results suggested that M. indica, the potential protective agent against MCI, increased cholinergic function and the decreased oxidative stress which in turn enhanced memory. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredients and detail mechanism.

  14. Ginsenoside Rb1 improves spatial learning and memory by regulation of cell genesis in the hippocampal subregions of rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Hoang-Gia, Trinh; Wu, Hui; Lee, Mi-Ra; Gu, Lijuan; Wang, Chunyan; Yun, Beom-Sik; Wang, Qijun; Ye, Shengquan; Sung, Chang-Keun

    2011-03-25

    Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) is known to improve learning and memory in hippocampus-dependent tasks. However, the cellular mechanism remains unknown. Cell genesis in hippocampus is involved in spatial learning and memory. In the present study, Rb1 was orally administrated to adult rats for 30days. The behavioral training tests indicated that Rb1 improved spatial cognitive performance of rats in Morris water maze (MWM). Furthermore, we investigated the effects of Rb1 on cell genesis in adult rats' hippocampus, using thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) as a marker for dividing cells. It has been shown that hippocampal cell genesis can be influenced by several factors such as learning and exercise. In order to avoid the effects of the interfering factors, only the rats treated with Rb1 without training in MWM were used to investigate cell genesis in hippocampus. When BrdU was given to the rats 30days prior to being killed, it was shown that oral administration of Rb1 significantly increased cell survival in dentate gyrus and hippocampal subregion CA3. However, when BrdU was injected 2h prior to sacrifice, the results indicated that Rb1 had no significant influence on cell proliferation in the hippocampal subregions. Thus, an increase of cell survival in hippocampus stimulated by Rb1 may be one of the mechanisms by which ginseng facilitates spatial learning and memory. Our study also indicates that Rb1 may be developed as a therapeutic agent for patients with memory impairment.

  15. Angiotensin II and the transcription factor Rel/NF-kappaB link environmental water shortage with memory improvement.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, L; Freudenthal, R; Romano, A; Nahmod, V E; Maldonado, H; Delorenzi, A

    2002-01-01

    One of the essential requirements even in the most ancient life forms is to be able to preserve body fluid medium. In line with such requirement, animals need to perform different behaviors to cope with water shortages. As angiotensin II (ANGII) is involved on a widespread range of functions in vertebrates, including memory modulation, an integrative role, in response to an environmental water shortage, has been envisioned. Previous work on the semi-terrestrial and brackish-water crab Chasmagnathus granulatus showed that endogenous ANGII enhanced an associative long-term memory and, in addition, that high salinity environment induces both an increase of brain ANGII levels and memory improvement. Here, we show that in the crab Chasmagnathus air exposure transiently increases blood sodium concentration, significantly increases brain ANGII immunoreactivity, and has a facilitatory effect on memory that is abolished by a non-selective ANGII receptor antagonist, saralasin. Furthermore, Rel/NF-kappaB, a transcription factor activated by ANGII in mammals and during memory consolidation in Chasmagnathus brain, is induced in the crab's brain by air exposure. Moreover, nuclear brain NF-kappaB is activated by ANGII, and this effect is reversed by saralasin. Our results constitute the first demonstration in an invertebrate that cognitive functions are modulated by an environmental stimulus through a neuropeptide and give evolutionary support to the role of angiotensins in memory processes. Moreover, these results suggest that angiotensinergic system is preserved across evolution not only in its structure and molecular mechanisms, but also in its capability of coordinating specific adaptative responses.

  16. Angiotensin II and the transcription factor Rel/NF-kappaB link environmental water shortage with memory improvement.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, L; Freudenthal, R; Romano, A; Nahmod, V E; Maldonado, H; Delorenzi, A

    2002-01-01

    One of the essential requirements even in the most ancient life forms is to be able to preserve body fluid medium. In line with such requirement, animals need to perform different behaviors to cope with water shortages. As angiotensin II (ANGII) is involved on a widespread range of functions in vertebrates, including memory modulation, an integrative role, in response to an environmental water shortage, has been envisioned. Previous work on the semi-terrestrial and brackish-water crab Chasmagnathus granulatus showed that endogenous ANGII enhanced an associative long-term memory and, in addition, that high salinity environment induces both an increase of brain ANGII levels and memory improvement. Here, we show that in the crab Chasmagnathus air exposure transiently increases blood sodium concentration, significantly increases brain ANGII immunoreactivity, and has a facilitatory effect on memory that is abolished by a non-selective ANGII receptor antagonist, saralasin. Furthermore, Rel/NF-kappaB, a transcription factor activated by ANGII in mammals and during memory consolidation in Chasmagnathus brain, is induced in the crab's brain by air exposure. Moreover, nuclear brain NF-kappaB is activated by ANGII, and this effect is reversed by saralasin. Our results constitute the first demonstration in an invertebrate that cognitive functions are modulated by an environmental stimulus through a neuropeptide and give evolutionary support to the role of angiotensins in memory processes. Moreover, these results suggest that angiotensinergic system is preserved across evolution not only in its structure and molecular mechanisms, but also in its capability of coordinating specific adaptative responses. PMID:12453481

  17. Recognition Memory is Improved by a Structured Temporal Framework During Encoding

    PubMed Central

    Thavabalasingam, Sathesan; O’Neil, Edward B.; Zeng, Zheng; Lee, Andy C. H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to function optimally within our environment, we continuously extract temporal patterns from our experiences and formulate expectations that facilitate adaptive behavior. Given that our memories are embedded within spatiotemporal contexts, an intriguing possibility is that mnemonic processes are sensitive to the temporal structure of events. To test this hypothesis, in a series of behavioral experiments we manipulated the regularity of interval durations at encoding to create temporally structured and unstructured frameworks. Our findings revealed enhanced recognition memory (d′) for stimuli that were explicitly encoded within a temporally structured vs. unstructured framework. Encoding information within a temporally structured framework was also associated with a reduction in the negative effects of proactive interference and was linked to greater recollective recognition memory. Furthermore, rhythmic temporal structure was found to enhance recognition memory for incidentally encoded information. Collectively, these results support the possibility that we possess a greater capacity to learn and subsequently remember temporally structured information. PMID:26834673

  18. Recognition Memory is Improved by a Structured Temporal Framework During Encoding.

    PubMed

    Thavabalasingam, Sathesan; O'Neil, Edward B; Zeng, Zheng; Lee, Andy C H

    2015-01-01

    In order to function optimally within our environment, we continuously extract temporal patterns from our experiences and formulate expectations that facilitate adaptive behavior. Given that our memories are embedded within spatiotemporal contexts, an intriguing possibility is that mnemonic processes are sensitive to the temporal structure of events. To test this hypothesis, in a series of behavioral experiments we manipulated the regularity of interval durations at encoding to create temporally structured and unstructured frameworks. Our findings revealed enhanced recognition memory (d') for stimuli that were explicitly encoded within a temporally structured vs. unstructured framework. Encoding information within a temporally structured framework was also associated with a reduction in the negative effects of proactive interference and was linked to greater recollective recognition memory. Furthermore, rhythmic temporal structure was found to enhance recognition memory for incidentally encoded information. Collectively, these results support the possibility that we possess a greater capacity to learn and subsequently remember temporally structured information. PMID:26834673

  19. Chronic Stress During Adolescence Impairs and Improves Learning and Memory in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Chaby, Lauren E; Cavigelli, Sonia A; Hirrlinger, Amy M; Lim, James; Warg, Kendall M; Braithwaite, Victoria A

    2015-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS This study tested the effects of adolescent-stress on adult learning and memory.Adolescent-stressed rats had enhanced reversal learning compared to unstressed rats.Adolescent-stress exposure made working memory more vulnerable to disturbance.Adolescent-stress did not affect adult associative learning or reference memory. Exposure to acute stress can cause a myriad of cognitive impairments, but whether negative experiences continue to hinder individual as they age is not as well understood. We determined how chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence affects multiple learning and memory processes in adulthood. Using male Sprague Dawley rats, we measured learning (both associative and reversal) and memory (both reference and working) starting 110 days after completion of an adolescent-stress treatment. We found that adolescent-stress affected adult cognitive abilities in a context-dependent way. Compared to rats reared without stress, adolescent-stressed rats exhibited enhanced reversal learning, an indicator of behavioral flexibility, but showed no change in associative learning and reference memory abilities. Working memory, which in humans is thought to underpin reasoning, mathematical skills, and reading comprehension, may be enhanced by exposure to adolescent-stress. However, when adolescent-stressed animals were tested after a novel disturbance, they exhibited a 5-fold decrease in working memory performance while unstressed rats continued to exhibit a linear learning curve. These results emphasize the capacity for stress during adolescence to transform the cognitive abilities of adult animals, even after stress exposure has ceased and animals have resided in safe environments for the majority of their lifespans.

  20. Chronic Stress During Adolescence Impairs and Improves Learning and Memory in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Chaby, Lauren E.; Cavigelli, Sonia A.; Hirrlinger, Amy M.; Lim, James; Warg, Kendall M.; Braithwaite, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS This study tested the effects of adolescent-stress on adult learning and memory.Adolescent-stressed rats had enhanced reversal learning compared to unstressed rats.Adolescent-stress exposure made working memory more vulnerable to disturbance.Adolescent-stress did not affect adult associative learning or reference memory. Exposure to acute stress can cause a myriad of cognitive impairments, but whether negative experiences continue to hinder individual as they age is not as well understood. We determined how chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence affects multiple learning and memory processes in adulthood. Using male Sprague Dawley rats, we measured learning (both associative and reversal) and memory (both reference and working) starting 110 days after completion of an adolescent-stress treatment. We found that adolescent-stress affected adult cognitive abilities in a context-dependent way. Compared to rats reared without stress, adolescent-stressed rats exhibited enhanced reversal learning, an indicator of behavioral flexibility, but showed no change in associative learning and reference memory abilities. Working memory, which in humans is thought to underpin reasoning, mathematical skills, and reading comprehension, may be enhanced by exposure to adolescent-stress. However, when adolescent-stressed animals were tested after a novel disturbance, they exhibited a 5-fold decrease in working memory performance while unstressed rats continued to exhibit a linear learning curve. These results emphasize the capacity for stress during adolescence to transform the cognitive abilities of adult animals, even after stress exposure has ceased and animals have resided in safe environments for the majority of their lifespans. PMID:26696849

  1. Cannabinoid inhibition improves memory in food-storing birds, but with a cost.

    PubMed Central

    Shiflett, Michael W.; Rankin, Alexander Z.; Tomaszycki, Michelle L.; DeVoogd, Timothy J.

    2004-01-01

    Food-storing birds demonstrate remarkable memory ability in recalling the locations of thousands of hidden food caches. Although this behaviour requires the hippocampus, its synaptic mechanisms are not understood. Here we show the effects of cannabinoid receptor (CB1-R) blockade on spatial memory in food-storing black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapilla). Intra-hippocampal infusions of the CB1-R antagonist SR141716A enhanced long-term memory for the location of a hidden food reward, measured 72 h after encoding. However, when the reward location changed during the retention interval, birds that had received SR141716A during initial learning showed impairments in recalling the most recent reward location. Thus, blocking CB1-R activity may lead to more robust, long-lasting memories, but these memories may be a source of proactive interference. The relationship between trace strength and interference may be important in understanding neural mechanisms of hippocampal function in general, as well as understanding the enhanced memory of food-storing birds. PMID:15451694

  2. Working Memory Training Does Not Improve Performance on Measures of Intelligence or Other Measures of "Far Transfer": Evidence From a Meta-Analytic Review.

    PubMed

    Melby-Lervåg, Monica; Redick, Thomas S; Hulme, Charles

    2016-07-01

    It has been claimed that working memory training programs produce diverse beneficial effects. This article presents a meta-analysis of working memory training studies (with a pretest-posttest design and a control group) that have examined transfer to other measures (nonverbal ability, verbal ability, word decoding, reading comprehension, or arithmetic; 87 publications with 145 experimental comparisons). Immediately following training there were reliable improvements on measures of intermediate transfer (verbal and visuospatial working memory). For measures of far transfer (nonverbal ability, verbal ability, word decoding, reading comprehension, arithmetic) there was no convincing evidence of any reliable improvements when working memory training was compared with a treated control condition. Furthermore, mediation analyses indicated that across studies, the degree of improvement on working memory measures was not related to the magnitude of far-transfer effects found. Finally, analysis of publication bias shows that there is no evidential value from the studies of working memory training using treated controls. The authors conclude that working memory training programs appear to produce short-term, specific training effects that do not generalize to measures of "real-world" cognitive skills. These results seriously question the practical and theoretical importance of current computerized working memory programs as methods of training working memory skills. PMID:27474138

  3. Diphenyl diselenide diet intake improves spatial learning and memory deficits in hypothyroid female rats.

    PubMed

    Dias, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock; Vieira, Francielli Araújo; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Bridi, Jéssika Cristina; Balk, Rodrigo de Souza; Soares, Félix Antunes; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Barbosa, Nilda Berenice de Vargas

    2012-04-01

    Cognitive deficits have been observed in different animal models of adult-onset hypothyroidism. Thus, this study was delineated to evaluate whether diphenyl diselenide, an organoselenium compound with neuroprotective and antioxidant properties, could afford protection against the detrimental effects of hypothyroidism on behavioral parameters. Hypothyroidism condition was induced in female rats by continuous exposure to methimazole (MTZ) at 20 mg/100 ml in the drinking water, during 3 months. MTZ-induced hypothyroid rats were fed with either standard or a diet containing 5 ppm of diphenyl diselenide for 3 months. Behavioral assessments were performed monthly, in the following order: elevated plus maze, open field and Morris water maze. The levels of thyroid hormones in the animals exposed to MTZ were lower than control until the end of experimental period. The rats exposed to MTZ had a significant weight loss from the first month, which was not modified by diphenyl diselenide supplementation. In elevated plus maze test, MTZ exposure caused a reduction on the number of entries of animals in closed arms, which was avoided by diphenyl diselenide supplementation. In Morris water maze, the parameters latency to reach the platform and distance performed to find the escape platform in the test session were significantly greater in MTZ group when compared to control. These cognitive deficits observed in MTZ-induced hypothyroid rats were restored by dietary diphenyl diselenide. The group fed with diphenyl diselenide alone exhibited a better spatial learning and memory capability in some parameters of Morris water maze when compared to the control group. In summary, our data provide evidence of the effectiveness of dietary diphenyl diselenide in improving the performance of control and hypothyroid rats in the water maze test.

  4. Improving Active and Passive Avoidance Memories Deficits Due to Permanent Cerebral Ischemia by Pomegranate Seed Extract in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarkaki, Alireza; Rezaiei, Moslem; Gharib naseri, MohammadKazem; Rafieirad, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of two weeks oral administration of pomegranate seed extract (PGSE) on active and passive avoidance memories after permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (2CCAO) to induce permanent cerebral ischemia in adult female rats. Methods: Seventy adult female Wistar rats (250 ± 20 g) were used. Animals were divided randomly into seven groups with 10 in each: 1) Sham-operated; 2) Ischemic; 3–6) Ischemic received PGSE (100, 200, 400, and 800 mg/2mL/kg, orally) for 14 days; 7) Ischemic received vehicle. In order to create 2CCAO, carotid arteries were ligatured and then cut bilaterally. Active and passive avoidance task were measured using criterion condition responses (CCRs) in Y-maze and step-through latency (STL) in two-way shuttle box in all female rats. Results: Both active and passive avoidance memories were significantly impaired in rats after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (CHI) (P < 0.001). PGSE treatment significantly improved passive and active memory impairments with 2CCAO (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, and P < 0.001). No toxicity was observed even with high-dose PGSE consumption (800 mg/kg, for 14 days). Conclusion: PGSE exhibits therapeutic potential for avoidance memories, which is most likely related at least in part to its antioxidative and free radical scavenging actions. PMID:23983574

  5. Functional compensation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex improves memory-dependent decisions in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lighthall, Nichole R; Huettel, Scott A; Cabeza, Roberto

    2014-11-19

    Everyday consumer choices frequently involve memory, as when we retrieve information about consumer products when making purchasing decisions. In this context, poor memory may affect decision quality, particularly in individuals with memory decline, such as older adults. However, age differences in choice behavior may be reduced if older adults can recruit additional neural resources that support task performance. Although such functional compensation is well documented in other cognitive domains, it is presently unclear whether it can support memory-guided decision making and, if so, which brain regions play a role in compensation. The current study engaged younger and older humans in a memory-dependent choice task in which pairs of consumer products from a popular online-shopping site were evaluated with different delays between the first and second product. Using functional imaging (fMRI), we found that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) supports compensation as defined by three a priori criteria: (1) increased vmPFC activation was observed in older versus younger adults; (2) age-related increases in vmPFC activity were associated with increased retrieval demands; and (3) increased vmPFC activity was positively associated with performance in older adults-evidence of successful compensation. Extending these results, we observed evidence for compensation in connectivity between vmPFC and the dorsolateral PFC during memory-dependent choice. In contrast, we found no evidence for age differences in value-related processing or age-related compensation for choices without delayed retrieval. Together, these results converge on the conclusion that age-related decline in memory-dependent choice performance can be minimized via functional compensation in vmPFC. PMID:25411493

  6. Allium sativum L. Improves Visual Memory and Attention in Healthy Human Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tasnim, Sara; Haque, Parsa Sanjana; Bari, Md Sazzadul; Hossain, Md Monir; Islam, Sardar Mohd Ashraful; Shahriar, Mohammad; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that Allium sativum L. (AS) protects amyloid-beta peptide-induced apoptosis, prevents oxidative insults to neurons and synapses, and thus prevent Alzheimer's disease progression in experimental animals. However, there is no experimental evidence in human regarding its putative role in memory and cognition. We have studied the effect of AS consumption by healthy human volunteers on visual memory, verbal memory, attention, and executive function in comparison to control subjects taking placebo. The study was conducted over five weeks and twenty volunteers of both genders were recruited and divided randomly into two groups: A (AS) and B (placebo). Both groups participated in the 6 computerized neuropsychological tests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) twice: at the beginning and after five weeks of the study. We found statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in several parameters of visual memory and attention due to AS ingestion. We also found statistically nonsignificant (p > 0.05) beneficial effects on verbal memory and executive function within a short period of time among the volunteers. Study for a longer period of time with patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases might yield more relevant results regarding the potential therapeutic role of AS.

  7. Allium sativum L. Improves Visual Memory and Attention in Healthy Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Tasnim, Sara; Haque, Parsa Sanjana; Bari, Md. Sazzadul; Hossain, Md. Monir; Islam, Sardar Mohd. Ashraful; Shahriar, Mohammad; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that Allium sativum L. (AS) protects amyloid-beta peptide-induced apoptosis, prevents oxidative insults to neurons and synapses, and thus prevent Alzheimer's disease progression in experimental animals. However, there is no experimental evidence in human regarding its putative role in memory and cognition. We have studied the effect of AS consumption by healthy human volunteers on visual memory, verbal memory, attention, and executive function in comparison to control subjects taking placebo. The study was conducted over five weeks and twenty volunteers of both genders were recruited and divided randomly into two groups: A (AS) and B (placebo). Both groups participated in the 6 computerized neuropsychological tests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) twice: at the beginning and after five weeks of the study. We found statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in several parameters of visual memory and attention due to AS ingestion. We also found statistically nonsignificant (p > 0.05) beneficial effects on verbal memory and executive function within a short period of time among the volunteers. Study for a longer period of time with patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases might yield more relevant results regarding the potential therapeutic role of AS. PMID:26351508

  8. Global view of the mechanisms of improved learning and memory capability in mice with music-exposure by microarray.

    PubMed

    Meng, Bo; Zhu, Shujia; Li, Shijia; Zeng, Qingwen; Mei, Bing

    2009-08-28

    Music has been proved beneficial to improve learning and memory in many species including human in previous research work. Although some genes have been identified to contribute to the mechanisms, it is believed that the effect of music is manifold, behind which must concern a complex regulation network. To further understand the mechanisms, we exposed the mice to classical music for one month. The subsequent behavioral experiments showed improvement of spatial learning capability and elevation of fear-motivated memory in the mice with music-exposure as compared to the naïve mice. Meanwhile, we applied the microarray to compare the gene expression profiles of the hippocampus and cortex between the mice with music-exposure and the naïve mice. The results showed approximately 454 genes in cortex (200 genes up-regulated and 254 genes down-regulated) and 437 genes in hippocampus (256 genes up-regulated and 181 genes down-regulated) were significantly affected in music-exposing mice, which mainly involved in ion channel activity and/or synaptic transmission, cytoskeleton, development, transcription, hormone activity. Our work may provide some hints for better understanding the effects of music on learning and memory.

  9. Improvement of the shape memory characteristics of a Cu-Zn-Al alloy with manganese and zirconium addition

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, W.H.; Lam, C.W.H.; Chung, C.Y.; Lai, J.K.L.

    1997-04-15

    Cu-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) possess good shape memory effect (SME) and have the advantage of lower price than Ti-Ni SMA. However, there are still some problems which should be solved before they can be used widely. Addition of suitable alloying elements can improve the mechanical properties, stabilization of martensitic transformations and also the SME of Cu-based SMAs significantly. Cu-Zn-Al is an important Cu-based SMA that suffers from the martensite stabilization and intergranular cracking in the processing procedures and service. As a modification of Cu-Zn-Al SMAs, the effects of Mn and Zr addition on the structure and martensite transformation behavior of different heat treated Cu-21Zn-6Al-1Mn-0.5Zr (wt%) SMA have been studied and compared to that of Cu-21Zn-6Al (wt%) SMA in the present paper.

  10. Reflections of distraction in memory: transfer of previous distraction improves recall in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ruthann C; Hasher, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Three studies explored whether younger and older adults' free recall performance can benefit from prior exposure to distraction that becomes relevant in a memory task. Participants initially read stories that included distracting text. Later, they studied a list of words for free recall, with half of the list consisting of previously distracting words. When the memory task was indirect in its use of distraction (Study 1), only older adults showed transfer, with better recall of previously distracting compared with new words, which increased their recall to match that of younger adults. However, younger adults showed transfer when cued about the relevance of previous distraction both before studying the words (Study 2) and before recalling the words (Study 3) in the memory test. Results suggest that both younger and older adults encode distraction, but younger adults require explicit cueing to use their knowledge of distraction. In contrast, older adults transfer knowledge of distraction in both explicitly cued and indirect memory tasks. Results are discussed in terms of age differences in inhibition and source-constrained retrieval. PMID:21843024

  11. Reflections of Distraction in Memory: Transfer of Previous Distraction Improves Recall in Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Ruthann C.; Hasher, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Three studies explored whether younger and older adults' free recall performance can benefit from prior exposure to distraction that becomes relevant in a memory task. Participants initially read stories that included distracting text. Later, they studied a list of words for free recall, with half of the list consisting of previously distracting…

  12. Organizational/Memory Tools: A Technique for Improving Problem Solving Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Esther R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether students would use a computer-presented organizational/memory tool as an aid in problem solving, and whether and how locus of control would affect tool use and problem-solving performance. Learners did use the tools, which were most effective in the learner control with feedback condition. (MBR)

  13. Making direct mail direct. Indian River Memorial Hospital reaches newcomers with an improved direct mail campaign.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    New residents moving into a community are prime targets for new physicians and new hospitals. It's the hospital's chance to make a great first impression and establish a long-term relationship. Indian River Memorial Hospital in Vero Beach, Fla., has some experience in that area. They share their direct-mail ideas with you.

  14. Reorganization of functional brain networks mediates the improvement of cognitive performance following real-time neurofeedback training of working memory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaoyan; Yao, Li; Shen, Jiahui; Yang, Yihong; Zhao, Xiaojie

    2015-05-01

    Working memory (WM) is essential for individuals' cognitive functions. Neuroimaging studies indicated that WM fundamentally relied on a frontoparietal working memory network (WMN) and a cinguloparietal default mode network (DMN). Behavioral training studies demonstrated that the two networks can be modulated by WM training. Different from the behavioral training, our recent study used a real-time functional MRI (rtfMRI)-based neurofeedback method to conduct WM training, demonstrating that WM performance can be significantly improved after successfully upregulating the activity of the target region of interest (ROI) in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Zhang et al., [2013]: PloS One 8:e73735); however, the neural substrate of rtfMRI-based WM training remains unclear. In this work, we assessed the intranetwork and internetwork connectivity changes of WMN and DMN during the training, and their correlations with the change of brain activity in the target ROI as well as with the improvement of post-training behavior. Our analysis revealed an "ROI-network-behavior" correlation relationship underlying the rtfMRI training. Further mediation analysis indicated that the reorganization of functional brain networks mediated the effect of self-regulation of the target brain activity on the improvement of cognitive performance following the neurofeedback training. The results of this study enhance our understanding of the neural basis of real-time neurofeedback and suggest a new direction to improve WM performance by regulating the functional connectivity in the WM related networks.

  15. Passive movement improves the learning and memory function of rats with cerebral infarction by inhibiting neuron cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Peng, Jun; Wang, Meng-Die; Song, Yan-Ling; Mei, Yuan-Wu; Fang, Yuan

    2014-02-01

    Passive movement has been found to improve evidently ischemic stroke patients' impaired capacity of learning and memory, but the optimal time window of initiating the therapy and the underlying mechanism are not fully understood. In this study, the effect of passive movement at different time windows on learning and memory of rats with cerebral infarction was detected. The results showed that the expression of caspase-3 and escape latency in the passive movement group were all considerably lower than those in the model group (P < 0.05), while the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA was significantly higher than those in the model group (P < 0.05). Moreover, we found that there were most significant changes of escape latency and expressions of Bcl-2 mRNA and caspase-3 when the therapy started at 24 h after focal cerebral infarction. These results suggest that passive movement is able to contribute to the recovery of learning and memory of rats with cerebral infarction, which is partially mediated by inhibiting neuron cell apoptosis, and the optimal therapeutic time is at 24 h after cerebral infarction.

  16. Effectiveness of different memory training programs on improving hyperphagic behaviors of residents with dementia: a longitudinal single-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Chieh-Chun; Lin, Li-Chan; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Lin, Ker-Neng; Liu, Ching-Kuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyperphagia increases eating-associated risks for people with dementia and distress for caregivers. The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term effectiveness of spaced retrieval (SR) training and SR training combined with Montessori activities (SR + M) for improving hyperphagic behaviors of special care unit residents with dementia. Methods The study enrolled patients with dementia suffering from hyperphagia resident in eight institutions and used a cluster-randomized single-blind design, with 46 participants in the SR group, 49 in the SR + M group, and 45 participants in the control group. For these three groups, trained research assistants collected baseline data on hyperphagic behavior, pica, changes in eating habits, short meal frequency, and distress to caregivers. The SR and SR + M groups underwent memory training over a 6-week training period (30 sessions), and a generalized estimating equation was used to compare data of all the three groups of subjects obtained immediately after the training period and at follow-ups 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months later. Results Results showed that the hyperphagic and pica behaviors of both the SR and SR + M groups were significantly improved (P<0.001) and that the effect lasted for 3 months after training. The improvement of fast eating was significantly superior in the SR + M group than in the SR group. The improvement in distress to caregivers in both intervention groups lasted only until the posttest. Improvement in changes in eating habits of the two groups was not significantly different from that of the control group. Conclusion SR and SR + M training programs can improve hyperphagic behavior of patients with dementia. The SR + M training program is particularly beneficial for the improvement of rapid eating. Caregivers can choose a suitable memory training program according to the eating problems of their residents. PMID:27307717

  17. The multi-herbal formula Chong-Myung-Tang improves spatial memory and increases cell genesis in the dentate gyrus of aged mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Mingwei; Zhang, Ruifen; Lee, Mira; Wang, Zhen; Hou, Jingang; Sung, Chang-Keun

    2014-01-01

    Chong-Myung-Tang (CMT) is a multi-herbal formula that has been used to improve memory. However, the potential mechanism remains unknown. The present study investigated the effects of CMT (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) on spatial memory of aged mice. The behavioral training tests indicated that 200 mg/kg CMT treatment can significantly improve spatial memory of aged mice in the Morris water maze. Moreover, cell survival was examined by injecting bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) on the first three days. The result showed that 200 mg/kg CMT treatment significantly increased cell survival in the dentate gyrus. Cell proliferation was determined by injecting BrdU 2 h before the mice were killed. The result suggested that CMT treatments had no influence on cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus. Thus, an increase in cell survival in the dentate gyrus stimulated by CMT may be involved in the effect of CMT on spatial memory improvement.

  18. Improving potato drought tolerance through the induction of long-term water stress memory.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, D A; Rolando, J L; Yactayo, W; Monneveux, P; Mares, V; Quiroz, R

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge of drought tolerance in potato is limited and very little is known about stress memory in this crop. In the present study, long-term stress memory was tested on tuber yield and drought tolerance related traits in three potato varieties (Unica, Désirée and Sarnav) with contrasted yields under water restriction. Seed tubers produced by plants grown under non-restricted (non-primed tubers) and restricted (primed tubers) water conditions were sown and exposed to similar watering treatments. Tuber yield and leaf greenness of plants from primed and non-primed seeds as well as tuber carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C) and antioxidant activity (AA) responses to watering treatments were compared. Higher tuber yield, both under non-restricted and restricted water regimes, was produced by primed Sarnav plants. The decrease of tuber yield and Δ(13)C with water restriction was lower in primed Unica plants. Long-term stress memory consequently appears to be highly genotype-dependent in potato. Its expression in plants originated from primed tubers and facing water restriction seems to be positively associated to the degree of inherent capability of the cultivar to yield under water restriction. However, other effects of priming appear to be genotype-independent as priming enhanced the tuber AA in response to water restriction in the three varieties.

  19. Sulindac improves memory and increases NMDA receptor subunits in aged Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Mesches, Michael H; Gemma, Carmelina; Veng, Lone M; Allgeier, Chrissy; Young, David A; Browning, Michael D; Bickford, Paula C

    2004-03-01

    Inflammatory processes in the central nervous system are thought to contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Chronic administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) decreases the incidence of Alzheimer's disease. There are very few studies, however, on the cognitive impact of chronic NSAID administration. The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is implicated in learning and memory, and age-related decreases in the NMDA NR2B subunit correlate with memory deficits. Sulindac, an NSAID that is a nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor was chronically administered to aged Fischer 344 rats for 2 months. Sulindac, but not its non-COX active metabolite, attenuated age-related deficits in learning and memory as assessed in the radial arm water maze and contextual fear conditioning tasks. Sulindac treatment also attenuated an age-related decrease in the NR1 and NR2B NMDA receptor subunits and prevented an age-related increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), in the hippocampus. These findings support the inflammation hypothesis of aging and have important implications for potential cognitive enhancing effects of NSAIDs in the elderly.

  20. Cognitive strategy interventions improve word problem solving and working memory in children with math disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of strategy instruction and working memory capacity (WMC) on problem solving solution accuracy in children with and without math disabilities (MD). Children in grade 3 (N = 204) with and without MD subdivided into high and low WMC were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: verbal strategies (e.g., underlining question sentence), visual strategies (e.g., correctly placing numbers in diagrams), verbal + visual strategies, and an untreated control. The dependent measures for training were problem solving accuracy and two working memory transfer measures (operation span and visual-spatial span). Three major findings emerged: (1) strategy instruction facilitated solution accuracy but the effects of strategy instruction were moderated by WMC, (2) some strategies yielded higher post-test scores than others, but these findings were qualified as to whether children were at risk for MD, and (3) strategy training on problem solving measures facilitated transfer to working memory measures. The main findings were that children with MD, but high WM spans, were more likely to benefit from strategy conditions on target and transfer measures than children with lower WMC. The results suggest that WMC moderates the influence of cognitive strategies on both the targeted and non-targeted measures. PMID:26300803

  1. Modelling the mobility of living organisms in heterogeneous landscapes: does memory improve foraging success?

    PubMed

    Boyer, Denis; Walsh, Peter D

    2010-12-28

    Thanks to recent technological advances, it is now possible to track with an unprecedented precision and for long periods of time the movement patterns of many living organisms in their habitat. The increasing amount of data available on single trajectories offers the possibility of understanding how animals move and of testing basic movement models. Random walks have long represented the main description for micro-organisms and have also been useful to understand the foraging behaviour of large animals. Nevertheless, most vertebrates, in particular humans and other primates, rely on sophisticated cognitive tools such as spatial maps, episodic memory and travel cost discounting. These properties call for other modelling approaches of mobility patterns. We propose a foraging framework where a learning mobile agent uses a combination of memory-based and random steps. We investigate how advantageous it is to use memory for exploiting resources in heterogeneous and changing environments. An adequate balance of determinism and random exploration is found to maximize the foraging efficiency and to generate trajectories with an intricate spatio-temporal order, where travel routes emerge without multi-step planning. Based on this approach, we propose some tools for analysing the non-random nature of mobility patterns in general.

  2. Effects of 20-hydroxyecdysone on improving memory deficits in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus in rat.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xichao; Zhang, Qingyuan; Liu, Rongzhi; Wang, Zhongxiao; Tang, Nianya; Liu, Fei; Huang, Guosheng; Jiang, Xiao; Gui, Gaixia; Wang, Lijuan; Sun, Xiuli

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the effects of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) on improving memory deficits in the current study by using an animal model of type 1 diabetes mellitus in rats. Animals in control group went on a normal diet. Rats that developed diabetes were divided into 4 groups, including STZ-induced diabetic group which was treated with saline and three 20E groups received different 20E concentrations for 12 weeks. Spatial memory performance was measured in rats by the Morris water maze. The level of nuclear factor-кB (NF-кB) in the brain was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. The mRNA levels and enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GR) were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR and spectrophotometry. The concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain were detected by ELISA. Compared with the control group, rats in the STZ-induced diabetic group that developed type 1 diabetes exhibited significant memory loss. In addition to the hippocampus CA1 area that displayed severe damage, significantly higher expression levels of NF-кB were observed in these rats. Furthermore, the expression levels of SOD, catalase, GSH-Px GR and BDNF were significantly decreased in rats with diabetes. By contrast, the treatment with 20E, especially at higher concentrations, reversed the above-mentioned conditions caused by diabetes. The results suggest that the 20E has a protective role in counteracting memory deficits in rats with diabetes of rat, possibly through enhancing the antioxidative ability in the brain.

  3. Asymmetric dual-gate-structured one-transistor dynamic random access memory cells for retention characteristics improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyungjin; Lee, Jong-Ho; Park, Byung-Gook

    2016-08-01

    One of the major concerns of one-transistor dynamic random access memory (1T-DRAM) is poor retention time. In this letter, a 1T-DRAM cell with two separated asymmetric gates was fabricated and evaluated to improve sensing margin and retention characteristics. It was observed that significantly enhanced sensing margin and retention time over 1 s were obtained using a negatively biased second gate and trapped electrons in the nitride layer because of increased hole capacity in the floating body. These findings indicate that the proposed device could serve as a promising candidate for overcoming retention issues of 1T-DRAM cells.

  4. BDNF-stimulated intracellular signalling mechanisms underlie exercise-induced improvement in spatial memory in the male Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Bechara, Ranya G; Lyne, Ronan; Kelly, Áine M

    2014-12-15

    Exercise-induced improvements in learning are associated with neurotrophic and neurogenic changes in the dentate gyrus, but the intracellular signalling mechanisms that may mediate these improvements remain unknown. In the current study we investigate the effects of one week of forced exercise on spatial memory and analyse in parallel BDNF-stimulated signalling pathways in cells of the dentate gyrus. Additionally, we test whether a single intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of BDNF can mimic the observed cognitive and signalling changes. Male Wistar rats were assigned to exercised and sedentary groups and tested in a spatial task post-exercise. Tissue from the dentate gyrus was assessed for expression and release of BDNF, and for changes in expression and activation of TrkB, ERK and synapsin-1. In a separate set of experiments, male Wistar rats received a single i.c.v. injection of BDNF and were then tested in the same spatial learning task. Exercised and BDNF-treated (but not control) rats could successfully complete an object displacement task that tests spatial learning. Exercised rats and BDNF-treated rats displayed increases BDNF expression and ERK1 activation, while exercised rats showed increases in cell division, stimulated BDNF release, TrkB activation, and synapsin-1 expression in the dentate gyrus. We conclude that exercise-induced increases in BDNF in the dentate gyrus are sufficient to cause improvements in spatial memory by activating signalling cascades that enhance synaptic transmission in the hippocampus.

  5. A vitamin/nutriceutical formulation improves memory and cognitive performance in community-dwelling adults without dementia.

    PubMed

    Chan, A; Remington, R; Kotyla, E; Lepore, A; Zemianek, J; Shea, T B

    2010-03-01

    Adults of both genders without dementia consumed a nutriceutical formulation ("NF," consisting of folic acid, B12, Vitamin E, S-adenosylmethionine, N-acetyl cysteine and Acetyl-L-carnitine), previously shown to improve cognitive performance in Alzheimer's disease, or placebo. Participants receiving NF but not placebo improved statistically and clinically in the California Verbal Learning Test II and the Trail-Making Test. Both groups improved further during a 3-month open-label extension. Additional individuals displayed identical improvement during a separate 6-month open-label trial. Performance declined to baseline following withdrawal of NF, and statistically improved when participants resumed taking NF. Additional participants receiving NF but not placebo demonstrated improvement within 2 weeks in Trail-making and Digit-Memory tests; both groups improved in a 2-week open-label extension. An increased percentage of participants > or = 74 years of age did not show improvement with NF, which may relate to age-related difficulties in adsorption and/or basal nutritional deficiencies, or age-related cognitive decline during the course of this study. These findings support the benefit of nutritional supplements for cognitive performance and suggest that additional supplementation may be required for the elderly. PMID:20191258

  6. A vitamin/nutriceutical formulation improves memory and cognitive performance in community-dwelling adults without dementia.

    PubMed

    Chan, A; Remington, R; Kotyla, E; Lepore, A; Zemianek, J; Shea, T B

    2010-03-01

    Adults of both genders without dementia consumed a nutriceutical formulation ("NF," consisting of folic acid, B12, Vitamin E, S-adenosylmethionine, N-acetyl cysteine and Acetyl-L-carnitine), previously shown to improve cognitive performance in Alzheimer's disease, or placebo. Participants receiving NF but not placebo improved statistically and clinically in the California Verbal Learning Test II and the Trail-Making Test. Both groups improved further during a 3-month open-label extension. Additional individuals displayed identical improvement during a separate 6-month open-label trial. Performance declined to baseline following withdrawal of NF, and statistically improved when participants resumed taking NF. Additional participants receiving NF but not placebo demonstrated improvement within 2 weeks in Trail-making and Digit-Memory tests; both groups improved in a 2-week open-label extension. An increased percentage of participants > or = 74 years of age did not show improvement with NF, which may relate to age-related difficulties in adsorption and/or basal nutritional deficiencies, or age-related cognitive decline during the course of this study. These findings support the benefit of nutritional supplements for cognitive performance and suggest that additional supplementation may be required for the elderly.

  7. Remediation of language processing in aphasia: Improving activation and maintenance of linguistic representations in (verbal) short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Kohen, Francine; Martin, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Background Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairments are invariably present in aphasia. Word processing involves a minimal form of verbal STM, i.e., the time course over which semantic and phonological representations are activated and maintained until they are comprehended, produced, or repeated. Thus it is reasonable that impairments of word processing and verbal STM may co-occur. The co-occurrence of language and STM impairments in aphasia has motivated an active area of research that has revealed much about the relationship of these two systems and the effect of their impairment on language function and verbal learning (Freedman & Martin, 2001; Martin & Saffran, 1999; Trojano & Grossi, 1995). In keeping with this view a number of researchers have developed treatment protocols to improve verbal STM in order to improve language function (e.g., Koenig-Bruhin & Studer-Eichenberger, 2007). This account of aphasia predicts that treatment of a fundamental ability, such as STM, which supports language function, should lead to improvements that generalise to content and tasks beyond those implemented in treatment. Aims We investigated the efficacy of a treatment for language impairment that targets two language support processes: verbal short-term memory (STM) and executive processing, in the context of a language task (repetition). We hypothesised that treatment of these abilities would improve repetition abilities and performance on other language tasks that require STM. Method A single-participant, multiple-baseline, multiple-probe design across behaviours was used with a participant with conduction aphasia. The treatment involved repetition of words and nonwords under three “interval” conditions, which varied the time between hearing and repeating the stimulus. Measures of treatment effects included acquisition, maintenance, and follow-up data, effect sizes, and pre- and post-treatment performance on a test battery that varies the STM and executive function

  8. Nicotine evoked improvement in learning and memory is mediated through NPY Y1 receptors in rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Rangani, Ritesh J; Upadhya, Manoj A; Nakhate, Kartik T; Kokare, Dadasaheb M; Subhedar, Nishikant K

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the role of endogenous neuropeptide Y (NPY) system in nicotine-mediated improvement of learning and memory in rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Intracerebroventricular (icv) colchicine treatment induced AD-like condition in rats and showed increased escape latency (decreased learning), and amnesic condition in probe test in Morris water maze. In these rats, nicotine (0.5mg/kg, intraperitoneal), NPY (100 ng/rat, icv) or NPY Y1 receptor agonist [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY (0.04 ng/rat, icv) decreased escape latency by 54.76%, 55.81% and 44.18%, respectively, on day 4 of the acquisition. On the other hand, selective NPY Y1 receptor antagonist, BIBP3226 (icv) produced opposite effect (44.18%). In the probe test conducted at 24h time point, nicotine, NPY or [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY increased the time spent by 72.72%, 44.11% and 26.47%, respectively; while BIBP3226 caused reduction (8.82%). It seems that while NPY or [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY potentiated, BIBP3226 attenuated the learning and memory enhancing effects of nicotine. Brains of colchicine treated rats showed significant reduction in NPY-immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens shell (cells 62.23% and fibers 50%), bed nucleus of stria terminalis (fibers 71.58%), central nucleus of amygdala (cells 74.33%), arcuate nucleus (cells 70.97% and fibers 69.65%) and dentate gyrus (cells 58.54%). However, in these rats nicotine treatment for 4 days restored NPY-immunoreactivity to the control level. We suggest that NPY, perhaps acting via NPY Y1 receptors, might interact with the endogenous cholinergic system and play a role in improving the learning and memory processes in the rats with AD-like condition.

  9. Alpha-lipoic acid-mediated activation of muscarinic receptors improves hippocampus- and amygdala-dependent memory.

    PubMed

    Mahboob, Aamra; Farhat, Syeda Mehpara; Iqbal, Ghazala; Babar, Mustafeez Mujtaba; Zaidi, Najam-us-Sahar Sadaf; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Ahmed, Touqeer

    2016-04-01

    Aluminum (Al) is a neurotoxic agent which readily crosses the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and accumulates in the brain leading to neurodegenerative disorders, characterised by cognitive impairment. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is an antioxidant and has a potential to improve cognitive functions. This study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of ALA in AlCl3-induced neurotoxicity mouse model. Effect of ALA (25mg/kg/day) was evaluated in the AlCl3-induced neurotoxicity (AlCl3 150 mg/kg/day) mouse model on learning and memory using behaviour tests and on the expression of muscarinic receptor genes (using RT-PCR), in hippocampus and amygdala. Following ALA treatment, the expression of muscarinic receptor genes M1, M2 and choline acetyltransferase (ChaT) were significantly improved (p<0.05) relative to AlCl3-treated group. ALA enhanced fear memory (p<0.01) and social novelty preference (p<0.001) comparative to the AlCl3-treated group. Fear extinction memory was remarkably restored (p<0.001) in ALA-treated group demonstrated by reduced freezing response as compared to the AlCl3-treated group which showed higher freezing. In-silico analysis showed that racemic mixture of ALA has higher binding affinity for M1 and M2 compared to acetylcholine. These novel findings highlight the potential role of ALA in cognitive functions and cholinergic system enhancement thus presenting it an enviable therapeutic candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  10. Milk-based phospholipids increase morning cortisol availability and improve memory in chronically stressed men.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Melanie; Contreras, Carina; Franz, Nadin; Hellhammer, Juliane

    2011-06-01

    Phospholipids (PLs) have been shown to dampen the activity and reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). To further investigate stress protective effects of PL, 75 chronically stressed men aged 30 to 51 years were enrolled in a randomized and placebo-controlled trial. The subjects received a bovine milk drink with either 0.5% PL, 1% PL, or a placebo for 42 days to test the hypothesis that supplementation with specific phospholipids would normalize the cortisol response of the HPAA. For determining HPAA activity, the cortisol awakening response was studied before and after treatment. In addition, participants were exposed to an acute stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test, to assess treatment effects on stress reactivity and stress-related memory impairment. After receiving PL-enriched milk, both PL groups showed a delayed decline from peak levels in morning salivary cortisol, suggesting a prolonged availability of free cortisol. Treatment with 0.5% PL additionally resulted in a stronger increase of cortisol after awakening, whereas no such differences could be observed in the 1% PL group and the placebo group, respectively. The acute stress response did not significantly differ among placebo and PL groups. An exploratory data analysis further revealed that elderly participants receiving the higher PL dosage had a significant better memory performance after the Trier Social Stress Test as compared with elderly participants from the placebo and low-PL dosage group; no such difference was observed at baseline. Our results suggest that PL may increase the availability of cortisol in chronically stressed men and may attenuate stress-induced memory impairments. Results of the present study are discussed within the context of previous research and current state of knowledge.

  11. Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor improves long-term memory in APP/PS1 transgenic mice modeling Alzheimer's disease as well as in wild-type mice.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Susanna; Lindholm, Päivi; Galli, Emilia; Lahtinen, Hanna-Maija; Koivisto, Henna; Hämäläinen, Elina; Saarma, Mart; Tanila, Heikki

    2015-09-15

    Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) protects and repairs dopamine neurons in animal models of Parkinson's disease, which motivated us to investigate its therapeutic effect in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We employed an established APP/PS1 mouse model of AD and gave intrahippocampal injections of CDNF protein or CDNF transgene in an AAV2 viral vector to 1-year-old animals. We performed a behavioral test battery 2 weeks after the injections and collected tissue samples after the 3-week test period. Intrahippocampal CDNF-therapy improved long-term memory in both APP/PS1 mice and wild-type controls, but did not affect spontaneous exploration, object neophobia or early stages of spatial learning. The memory improvement was not associated with decreased brain amyloid load or enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis. Intracranial CDNF treatment has beneficial effects on long-term memory and is well tolerated. The CDNF molecular mechanisms of action on memory await further studies.

  12. Language and Memory Improvements following tDCS of Left Lateral Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Erika K; Ward, Nathan; Christianson, Kiel; Kramer, Arthur F

    2015-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that performance on executive-control measures can be enhanced through brain stimulation of lateral prefrontal regions. Separate psycholinguistic work emphasizes the importance of left lateral prefrontal cortex executive-control resources during sentence processing, especially when readers must override early, incorrect interpretations when faced with temporary ambiguity. Using transcranial direct current stimulation, we tested whether stimulation of left lateral prefrontal cortex had discriminate effects on language and memory conditions that rely on executive-control (versus cases with minimal executive-control demands, even in the face of task difficulty). Participants were randomly assigned to receive Anodal, Cathodal, or Sham stimulation of left lateral prefrontal cortex while they (1) processed ambiguous and unambiguous sentences in a word-by-word self-paced reading task and (2) performed an n-back memory task that, on some trials, contained interference lure items reputed to require executive-control. Across both tasks, we parametrically manipulated executive-control demands and task difficulty. Our results revealed that the Anodal group outperformed the remaining groups on (1) the sentence processing conditions requiring executive-control, and (2) only the most complex n-back conditions, regardless of executive-control demands. Together, these findings add to the mounting evidence for the selective causal role of left lateral prefrontal cortex for executive-control tasks in the language domain. Moreover, we provide the first evidence suggesting that brain stimulation is a promising method to mitigate processing demands encountered during online sentence processing.

  13. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in middle-aged mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Carey, Amanda N; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Consuming a high-fat diet may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals. It has been demonstrated that blueberry supplementation can allay age-related behavioral deficits. To determine if supplementation of a high-fat diet with blueberries offers protection against putative high-fat diet-related declines, 9-month-old C57Bl/6 mice were maintained on low-fat (10% fat calories) or high-fat (60% fat calories) diets with and without 4% freeze-dried blueberry powder. Novel object recognition memory was impaired by the high-fat diet; after 4 months on the high-fat diet, mice spent 50% of their time on the novel object in the testing trial, performing no greater than chance performance. Blueberry supplementation prevented recognition memory deficits after 4 months on the diets, as mice on this diet spent 67% of their time on the novel object. After 5 months on the diets, mice consuming the high-fat diet passed through the platform location less often than mice on low-fat diets during probe trials on days 2 and 3 of Morris water maze testing, whereas mice consuming the high-fat blueberry diet passed through the platform location as often as mice on the low-fat diets. This study is a first step in determining if incorporating more nutrient-dense foods into a high-fat diet can allay cognitive dysfunction.

  14. Graphene quantum dots conjugated neuroprotective peptide improve learning and memory capability.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Songhua; Zhou, Daoyou; Luan, Ping; Gu, Beibei; Feng, Longbao; Fan, Shengnuo; Liao, Wang; Fang, Wenli; Yang, Lianhong; Tao, Enxiang; Guo, Rui; Liu, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia. Histopathologically is characterized by the presence extracellular neuritic plaques and with a large number of neurons lost. In this paper, we design a new nanomaterial, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) conjugated neuroprotective peptide glycine-proline-glutamate (GQDG) and administer it to APP/PS1 transgenic mice. The in vitro assays including ThT and CD proved that GQDs and GQDG could inhibit the aggregation of Aβ1-42 fibrils. Morris water maze was performed to exanimate learning and memory capacity of APP/PS1 transgenic mice. The surface area of Aβ plaque deposits reduced in the GQDG group compared to the Tg Ctrl groups. Furthermore, newly generated neuronal precursor cell and neuron were test by immunohistochemical. Besides, neurons were impregnated by DiI using gene gun to show dendritic spine. Results indicated enhancement of learning and memory capacity and increased amounts of dendritic spine were observed. Inflammation factors and amyloid-β (Aβ) were tested with suspension array and ELISA, respectively. Several pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-33, IL-17α, MIP-1β and TNF-α) had decreased in GQDG group compared with Control group. Reversely, anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10) had increased in GQDG group compared with Control group. Thus, we demonstrate that the GQDG is a promising drug in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. PMID:27552320

  15. Fingolimod induces neurogenesis in adult mouse hippocampus and improves contextual fear memory.

    PubMed

    Efstathopoulos, P; Kourgiantaki, A; Karali, K; Sidiropoulou, K; Margioris, A N; Gravanis, A; Charalampopoulos, I

    2015-11-24

    Fingolimod (FTY720) was the first per os administered disease-modifying agent approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. It is thought that fingolimod modulates the immune response by activating sphingosine-1 phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P1) on lymphocytes following its in vivo phosphorylation. In addition to its immune-related effects, there is evidence that fingolimod exerts several other effects in the central nervous system, including regulation of the proliferation, survival and differentiation of various cell types and their precursors. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of fingolimod on the production of new neurons in the adult mouse hippocampus and the association of this effect with the ability for pattern separation, an established adult neurogenesis-dependent memory function. Immunofluorescence analysis after chronic administration of a physiologic dose of fingolimod (0.3 mg kg(-1)) revealed a significant increase in both the proliferation and the survival of neural progenitors in the area of dentate gyrus of hippocampus, compared with control animals. These effects were replicated in vitro, in cultures of murine hippocampal neural stem/precursor cells that express S1P1 receptor, suggesting cell-autonomous actions. The effects of fingolimod on neurogenesis were correlated to enhanced ability for context discrimination after fear conditioning. Since impairment of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and memory is a common feature of many neuropsychiatric conditions, fingolimod treatment may be beneficial in therapeutic armamentarium of these disorders.

  16. Graphene quantum dots conjugated neuroprotective peptide improve learning and memory capability.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Songhua; Zhou, Daoyou; Luan, Ping; Gu, Beibei; Feng, Longbao; Fan, Shengnuo; Liao, Wang; Fang, Wenli; Yang, Lianhong; Tao, Enxiang; Guo, Rui; Liu, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia. Histopathologically is characterized by the presence extracellular neuritic plaques and with a large number of neurons lost. In this paper, we design a new nanomaterial, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) conjugated neuroprotective peptide glycine-proline-glutamate (GQDG) and administer it to APP/PS1 transgenic mice. The in vitro assays including ThT and CD proved that GQDs and GQDG could inhibit the aggregation of Aβ1-42 fibrils. Morris water maze was performed to exanimate learning and memory capacity of APP/PS1 transgenic mice. The surface area of Aβ plaque deposits reduced in the GQDG group compared to the Tg Ctrl groups. Furthermore, newly generated neuronal precursor cell and neuron were test by immunohistochemical. Besides, neurons were impregnated by DiI using gene gun to show dendritic spine. Results indicated enhancement of learning and memory capacity and increased amounts of dendritic spine were observed. Inflammation factors and amyloid-β (Aβ) were tested with suspension array and ELISA, respectively. Several pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-33, IL-17α, MIP-1β and TNF-α) had decreased in GQDG group compared with Control group. Reversely, anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10) had increased in GQDG group compared with Control group. Thus, we demonstrate that the GQDG is a promising drug in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD.

  17. Language and Memory Improvements following tDCS of Left Lateral Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hussey, Erika K.; Ward, Nathan; Christianson, Kiel; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that performance on executive-control measures can be enhanced through brain stimulation of lateral prefrontal regions. Separate psycholinguistic work emphasizes the importance of left lateral prefrontal cortex executive-control resources during sentence processing, especially when readers must override early, incorrect interpretations when faced with temporary ambiguity. Using transcranial direct current stimulation, we tested whether stimulation of left lateral prefrontal cortex had discriminate effects on language and memory conditions that rely on executive-control (versus cases with minimal executive-control demands, even in the face of task difficulty). Participants were randomly assigned to receive Anodal, Cathodal, or Sham stimulation of left lateral prefrontal cortex while they (1) processed ambiguous and unambiguous sentences in a word-by-word self-paced reading task and (2) performed an n-back memory task that, on some trials, contained interference lure items reputed to require executive-control. Across both tasks, we parametrically manipulated executive-control demands and task difficulty. Our results revealed that the Anodal group outperformed the remaining groups on (1) the sentence processing conditions requiring executive-control, and (2) only the most complex n-back conditions, regardless of executive-control demands. Together, these findings add to the mounting evidence for the selective causal role of left lateral prefrontal cortex for executive-control tasks in the language domain. Moreover, we provide the first evidence suggesting that brain stimulation is a promising method to mitigate processing demands encountered during online sentence processing. PMID:26528814

  18. Improved characteristics of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide-based resistive random access memory using hydrogen post-annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Dae Yun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Kim, Tae Geun

    2016-08-01

    The authors report an improvement in resistive switching (RS) characteristics of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO)-based resistive random access memory devices using hydrogen post-annealing. Because this a-IGZO thin film has oxygen off-stoichiometry in the form of deficient and excessive oxygen sites, the film properties can be improved by introducing hydrogen atoms through the annealing process. After hydrogen post-annealing, the device exhibited a stable bipolar RS, low-voltage set and reset operation, long retention (>105 s), good endurance (>106 cycles), and a narrow distribution in each current state. The effect of hydrogen post-annealing is also investigated by analyzing the sample surface using X-ray photon spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy.

  19. Feeding of Nigella sativa during neonatal and juvenile growth improves learning and memory of rats

    PubMed Central

    Beheshti, Farimah; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The positive roles of antioxidants on brain development and learning and memory have been suggested. Nigella sativa (NS) has been suggested to have antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. This study was done to investigate the effects of feeding by the hydro-alcoholic extract of NS during neonatal and juvenile growth on learning and memory of rats. The pregnant rats were kept in separate cages. After delivery, they were randomly divided into four Groups including: (1) control; (2) NS 100 mg/kg (NS 100); (3) NS 200 mg/kg (NS 200); and (4) NS 400 mg/kg (NS 400). Rats in the control group (Group 1) received normal drinking water, whereas Groups 2, 3, and 4 received the same drinking water supplemented with the hydro-alcoholic extract of NS (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg, respectively) from the 1st day after birth through the first 8 weeks of life. After 8 weeks, 10 male offspring from each group were randomly selected and tested in the Morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance (PA) test. Finally, the brains were removed and total thiol groups and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were determined. In the MWM, treatment by 400 mg/kg extract reduced both the time latency and the distance traveled to reach the platform compared to the control group (p < 0.05–p < 0.01). Both 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of the extract increased the time spent in the target quadrant (p < 0.05–p < 0.01). In the PA test, the treatment of the animals by 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of NS extract significantly increased the time latency for entering the dark compartment (p < 0.05–p < 0.001). Pretreatment of the animals with 400 mg/kg of NS extract decreased the MDA concentration in hippocampal tissues whereas it increased the thiol content compared to the control group (p < 0.001). These results allow us to propose that feeding of the rats by the hydro-alcoholic extract of NS during neonatal and juvenile growth has positive effects on learning and memory. The

  20. Feeding of Nigella sativa during neonatal and juvenile growth improves learning and memory of rats.

    PubMed

    Beheshti, Farimah; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    The positive roles of antioxidants on brain development and learning and memory have been suggested. Nigella sativa (NS) has been suggested to have antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. This study was done to investigate the effects of feeding by the hydro-alcoholic extract of NS during neonatal and juvenile growth on learning and memory of rats. The pregnant rats were kept in separate cages. After delivery, they were randomly divided into four Groups including: (1) control; (2) NS 100 mg/kg (NS 100); (3) NS 200 mg/kg (NS 200); and (4) NS 400 mg/kg (NS 400). Rats in the control group (Group 1) received normal drinking water, whereas Groups 2, 3, and 4 received the same drinking water supplemented with the hydro-alcoholic extract of NS (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg, respectively) from the 1st day after birth through the first 8 weeks of life. After 8 weeks, 10 male offspring from each group were randomly selected and tested in the Morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance (PA) test. Finally, the brains were removed and total thiol groups and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were determined. In the MWM, treatment by 400 mg/kg extract reduced both the time latency and the distance traveled to reach the platform compared to the control group (p < 0.05-p < 0.01). Both 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of the extract increased the time spent in the target quadrant (p < 0.05-p < 0.01). In the PA test, the treatment of the animals by 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of NS extract significantly increased the time latency for entering the dark compartment (p < 0.05-p < 0.001). Pretreatment of the animals with 400 mg/kg of NS extract decreased the MDA concentration in hippocampal tissues whereas it increased the thiol content compared to the control group (p < 0.001). These results allow us to propose that feeding of the rats by the hydro-alcoholic extract of NS during neonatal and juvenile growth has positive effects on learning and memory. The

  1. Evaluation of the antidepressant, anxiolytic and memory-improving efficacy of aripiprazole and fluoxetine in ethanol-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Burda-Malarz, Kinga; Kus, Krzysztof; Ratajczak, Piotr; Czubak, Anna; Hardyk, Szymon; Nowakowska, Elżbieta

    2014-07-01

    Some study results indicate a positive effect of aripiprazole (ARI) on impaired cognitive functions caused by brain damage resulting from chronic EtOH abuse. However, other research shows that to manifest itself, an ARI antidepressant effect requires a combined therapy with another selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant, namely, fluoxetine (FLX). The aim of this article was to assess antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of ARI as well as its effect on spatial memory in ethanol-treated (alcoholized) rats. On the basis of alcohol consumption pattern, groups of (1) ethanol-preferring rats, with mean ethanol intake above 50%, and (2) ethanol-nonpreferring rats (EtNPRs), with mean ethanol intake below 50% of total daily fluid intake, were formed. The group of EtNPRs was used for this study, subdivided further into three groups administered ARI, FLX and a combination of both, respectively. Behavioral tests such as Porsolt's forced swimming test, the Morris water maze test and the two-compartment exploratory test were employed. Behavioral test results demonstrated (1) no antidepressant effect of ARI in EtNPRs in subchronic treatment and (2) no procognitive effect of ARI and FLX in EtNPRs in combined single administration. Combined administration of both drugs led to an anxiogenic effect and spatial memory deterioration in study animals. ARI had no antidepressant effect and failed to improve spatial memory in rats. However, potential antidepressant, anxiolytic and procognitive properties of the drug resulting from its mechanism of action encourage further research aimed at developing a dose of both ARI and FLX that will prove such effects in alcoholized EtNPRs. PMID:24215604

  2. Histone deacetylase 6 inhibition improves memory and reduces total tau levels in a mouse model of tau deposition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tau pathology is associated with a number of age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Few treatments have been demonstrated to diminish the impact of tau pathology in mouse models and none are yet effective in humans. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is an enzyme that removes acetyl groups from cytoplasmic proteins, rather than nuclear histones. Its substrates include tubulin, heat shock protein 90 and cortactin. Tubastatin A is a selective inhibitor of HDAC6. Modification of tau pathology by specific inhibition of HDAC6 presents a potential therapeutic approach in tauopathy. Methods We treated rTg4510 mouse models of tau deposition and non-transgenic mice with tubastatin (25 mg/kg) or saline (0.9%) from 5 to 7 months of age. Cognitive behavior analysis, histology and biochemical analysis were applied to access the effect of tubastatin on memory, tau pathology and neurodegeneration (hippocampal volume). Results We present data showing that tubastatin restored memory function in rTg4510 mice and reversed a hyperactivity phenotype. We further found that tubastatin reduced the levels of total tau, both histologically and by western analysis. Reduction in total tau levels was positively correlated with memory improvement in these mice. However, there was no impact on phosphorylated forms of tau, either by histology or western analysis, nor was there an impact on silver positive inclusions histologically. Conclusion Potential mechanisms by which HDAC6 inhibitors might benefit the rTg4510 mouse include stabilization of microtubules secondary to increased tubulin acetylation, increased degradation of tau secondary to increased acetylation of HSP90 or both. These data support the use of HDAC6 inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents against tau pathology. PMID:24576665

  3. Vaccinium uliginosum L. Improves Amyloid β Protein-Induced Learning and Memory Impairment in Alzheimer's Disease in Mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon-Hee; Kwon, Hyuck-Se; Shin, Se-Gye; Chung, Cha-Kwon

    2014-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of Vaccinium uliginosum L. (bilberry) on the learning and memory impairments induced by amyloid-β protein (AβP) 1-42. ICR Swiss mice were divided into 4 groups: the control (Aβ40-1A), control with 5% bilberry group (Aβ40-1B), amyloid β protein 1-42 treated group (Aβ1-42A), and Aβ1-42 with 5% bilberry group (Aβ1-42B). The control was treated with amyloid β-protein 40-1 for placebo effect, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) group was treated with amyloid β-protein 1-42. Amyloid β-protein 1-42 was intracerebroventricular (ICV) micro injected into the hippocampus in 35% acetonitrile and 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid. Although bilberry added groups tended to decrease the finding time of hidden platform, no statistical significance was found. On the other hand, escape latencies of AβP injected mice were extended compared to that of Aβ40-1. In the Probe test, bilberry added Aβ1-42B group showed a significant (P<0.05) increase of probe crossing frequency compared to Aβ1-42A. Administration of amyloid protein (Aβ1-42) decreased working memory compared to Aβ40-1 control group. In passive avoidance test, bilberry significantly (P<0.05) increased the time of staying in the lighted area compared to AD control. The results suggest that bilberry may help to improve memory and learning capability in chemically induced Alzheimer's disease in experimental animal models.

  4. Can virtual nature improve patient experiences and memories of dental treatment? A study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental anxiety and anxiety-related avoidance of dental care create significant problems for patients and the dental profession. Distraction interventions are used in daily medical practice to help patients cope with unpleasant procedures. There is evidence that exposure to natural scenery is beneficial for patients and that the use of virtual reality (VR) distraction is more effective than other distraction interventions, such as watching television. The main aim of this randomized controlled trial is to determine whether the use of VR during dental treatment can improve the overall dental experience and recollections of treatment for patients, breaking the negative cycle of memories of anxiety leading to further anxiety, and avoidance of future dental appointments. Additionally, the aim is to test whether VR benefits dental patients with all levels of dental anxiety or whether it could be especially beneficial for patients suffering from higher levels of dental anxiety. The third aim is to test whether the content of the VR distraction can make a difference for its effectiveness by comparing two types of virtual environments, a natural environment and an urban environment. Methods/design The effectiveness of VR distraction will be examined in patients 18 years or older who are scheduled to undergo dental treatment for fillings and/or extractions, with a maximum length of 30 minutes. Patients will be randomly allocated into one of three groups. The first group will be exposed to a VR of a natural environment. The second group will be exposed to a VR of an urban environment. A third group consists of patients who receive standard care (control group). Primary outcomes relate to patients’ memories of the dental treatment one week after treatment: (a) remembered pain, (b) intrusive thoughts and (c) vividness of memories. Other measures of interest are the dental experience, the treatment experience and the VR experience. Trial registration Current

  5. Evaluation of the antidepressant, anxiolytic and memory-improving efficacy of aripiprazole and fluoxetine in ethanol-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Burda-Malarz, Kinga; Kus, Krzysztof; Ratajczak, Piotr; Czubak, Anna; Hardyk, Szymon; Nowakowska, Elżbieta

    2014-07-01

    Some study results indicate a positive effect of aripiprazole (ARI) on impaired cognitive functions caused by brain damage resulting from chronic EtOH abuse. However, other research shows that to manifest itself, an ARI antidepressant effect requires a combined therapy with another selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant, namely, fluoxetine (FLX). The aim of this article was to assess antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of ARI as well as its effect on spatial memory in ethanol-treated (alcoholized) rats. On the basis of alcohol consumption pattern, groups of (1) ethanol-preferring rats, with mean ethanol intake above 50%, and (2) ethanol-nonpreferring rats (EtNPRs), with mean ethanol intake below 50% of total daily fluid intake, were formed. The group of EtNPRs was used for this study, subdivided further into three groups administered ARI, FLX and a combination of both, respectively. Behavioral tests such as Porsolt's forced swimming test, the Morris water maze test and the two-compartment exploratory test were employed. Behavioral test results demonstrated (1) no antidepressant effect of ARI in EtNPRs in subchronic treatment and (2) no procognitive effect of ARI and FLX in EtNPRs in combined single administration. Combined administration of both drugs led to an anxiogenic effect and spatial memory deterioration in study animals. ARI had no antidepressant effect and failed to improve spatial memory in rats. However, potential antidepressant, anxiolytic and procognitive properties of the drug resulting from its mechanism of action encourage further research aimed at developing a dose of both ARI and FLX that will prove such effects in alcoholized EtNPRs.

  6. Impaired memory following predatory stress in mice is improved by fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    El Hage, Wissam; Peronny, Sylvie; Griebel, Guy; Belzung, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate possible effects of predatory stress (i.e., 5-min cat exposure) on short-term learning abilities in Swiss mice using the object recognition test (ORT). The second aim was to evaluate the effects of anxiolytics (i.e., diazepam and fluoxetine) on learning/memory abilities in the ORT following predatory stress. Results showed that predatory exposure impaired learning and produced amnesia of acquired information or impairment to retrieve learned information (48 and 96 h poststressor). The learning impairment in the ORT in stressed mice was restored by acute fluoxetine treatment, but not by diazepam that instead affected learning in nonstressed animals. Taken together, these findings indicate that this animal model of exposure of mice to unavoidable predatory stimuli produces early cognitive changes analogous to those seen in patients with acute stress disorder (ASD). PMID:14687866

  7. Improving reliability of non-volatile memory technologies through circuit level techniques and error control coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chengen; Emre, Yunus; Cao, Yu; Chakrabarti, Chaitali

    2012-12-01

    Non-volatile resistive memories, such as phase-change RAM (PRAM) and spin transfer torque RAM (STT-RAM), have emerged as promising candidates because of their fast read access, high storage density, and very low standby power. Unfortunately, in scaled technologies, high storage density comes at a price of lower reliability. In this article, we first study in detail the causes of errors for PRAM and STT-RAM. We see that while for multi-level cell (MLC) PRAM, the errors are due to resistance drift, in STT-RAM they are due to process variations and variations in the device geometry. We develop error models to capture these effects and propose techniques based on tuning of circuit level parameters to mitigate some of these errors. Unfortunately for reliable memory operation, only circuit-level techniques are not sufficient and so we propose error control coding (ECC) techniques that can be used on top of circuit-level techniques. We show that for STT-RAM, a combination of voltage boosting and write pulse width adjustment at the circuit-level followed by a BCH-based ECC scheme can reduce the block failure rate (BFR) to 10-8. For MLC-PRAM, a combination of threshold resistance tuning and BCH-based product code ECC scheme can achieve the same target BFR of 10-8. The product code scheme is flexible; it allows migration to a stronger code to guarantee the same target BFR when the raw bit error rate increases with increase in the number of programming cycles.

  8. Exercise improves learning and memory impairments in sleep deprived female rats.

    PubMed

    Saadati, Hakimeh; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Esmaeilpour, Khadije; Nazeri, Masoud; Mazhari, Shahrzad; Sheibani, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate sleep is a common problem in modern societies. It has been previously shown that female rats are more vulnerable to the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive functions. Physical exercise has been suggested to attenuate the cognitive impairments induced by sleep deprivation in male rats. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of physical exercise on cognitive functions of female rats following paradoxical sleep deprivation. Intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female Wistar rats were used in the present study. The exercise protocol was 4 weeks of treadmill running. The multiple platform method was applied for the induction of 72h paradoxical sleep deprivation and the cognitive function was evaluated using Morris water maze (MWM). Plasma corticosterone level was evaluated in separate groups of study. ANOVA and repeated measures were used to analyze the data and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Throughout the investigation, significant learning impairment was observed in sleep-deprived OVX rats compared to the intact and the other OVX groups. Short term memory impairment was observed in both sleep-deprived OVX and intact groups. Physical exercise alleviated the PSD-induced learning and memory impairments in both intact and OVX groups. Corticosterone levels were not statistically significant among the different groups. The results of our study confirmed the negative effects of PSD on cognitive functions in female rats and regular physical exercise seems to protect rats from these effects. Further studies are suggested to be carried out in order to evaluate the possible underlying mechanisms, and also to evaluate the possible interactions between sex hormones and PSD-induced cognitive impairments.

  9. Will working memory training generalize to improve off-task behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

    PubMed

    Green, Chloe T; Long, Debra L; Green, David; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Dixon, J Faye; Miller, Meghan R; Fassbender, Catherine; Schweitzer, Julie B

    2012-07-01

    Computerized working memory and executive function training programs designed to target specific impairments in executive functioning are becoming increasingly available, yet how well these programs generalize to improve functional deficits in disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), beyond the training context is not well-established. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which working memory (WM) training in children with ADHD would diminish a core dysfunctional behavior associated with the disorder, "off-task" behavior during academic task performance. The effect of computerized WM training (adaptive) was compared to a placebo condition (nonadaptive) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design in 26 children (18 males; age, 7 to 14 years old) diagnosed with ADHD. Participants completed the training in approximately 25 sessions. The Restricted Academic Situations Task (RAST) observational system was used to assess aspects of off-task behavior during the completion of an academic task. Traditional measures of ADHD symptoms (Conners' Parent Rating Scale) and WM ability (standardized WM tests) were also collected. WM training led to significant reductions in off-task ADHD-associated behavior on the RAST system and improvement on WM tests. There were no significant differences between groups in improvement on parent rating scales. Findings lend insight into the generalizability of the effects of WM training and the relation between deficits in WM and off-task behavioral components of ADHD. These preliminary data suggest WM training may provide a mechanism for indirectly altering academic performance in children with ADHD. PMID:22752960

  10. Attention Cueing and Activity Equally Reduce False Alarm Rate in Visual-Auditory Associative Learning through Improving Memory.

    PubMed

    Nikouei Mahani, Mohammad-Ali; Haghgoo, Hojjat Allah; Azizi, Solmaz; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    In our daily life, we continually exploit already learned multisensory associations and form new ones when facing novel situations. Improving our associative learning results in higher cognitive capabilities. We experimentally and computationally studied the learning performance of healthy subjects in a visual-auditory sensory associative learning task across active learning, attention cueing learning, and passive learning modes. According to our results, the learning mode had no significant effect on learning association of congruent pairs. In addition, subjects' performance in learning congruent samples was not correlated with their vigilance score. Nevertheless, vigilance score was significantly correlated with the learning performance of the non-congruent pairs. Moreover, in the last block of the passive learning mode, subjects significantly made more mistakes in taking non-congruent pairs as associated and consciously reported lower confidence. These results indicate that attention and activity equally enhanced visual-auditory associative learning for non-congruent pairs, while false alarm rate in the passive learning mode did not decrease after the second block. We investigated the cause of higher false alarm rate in the passive learning mode by using a computational model, composed of a reinforcement learning module and a memory-decay module. The results suggest that the higher rate of memory decay is the source of making more mistakes and reporting lower confidence in non-congruent pairs in the passive learning mode. PMID:27314235

  11. Attention Cueing and Activity Equally Reduce False Alarm Rate in Visual-Auditory Associative Learning through Improving Memory

    PubMed Central

    Haghgoo, Hojjat Allah; Azizi, Solmaz; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    In our daily life, we continually exploit already learned multisensory associations and form new ones when facing novel situations. Improving our associative learning results in higher cognitive capabilities. We experimentally and computationally studied the learning performance of healthy subjects in a visual-auditory sensory associative learning task across active learning, attention cueing learning, and passive learning modes. According to our results, the learning mode had no significant effect on learning association of congruent pairs. In addition, subjects’ performance in learning congruent samples was not correlated with their vigilance score. Nevertheless, vigilance score was significantly correlated with the learning performance of the non-congruent pairs. Moreover, in the last block of the passive learning mode, subjects significantly made more mistakes in taking non-congruent pairs as associated and consciously reported lower confidence. These results indicate that attention and activity equally enhanced visual-auditory associative learning for non-congruent pairs, while false alarm rate in the passive learning mode did not decrease after the second block. We investigated the cause of higher false alarm rate in the passive learning mode by using a computational model, composed of a reinforcement learning module and a memory-decay module. The results suggest that the higher rate of memory decay is the source of making more mistakes and reporting lower confidence in non-congruent pairs in the passive learning mode. PMID:27314235

  12. Memory Decline in Peri- and Post-menopausal Women: The Potential of Mind-Body Medicine to Improve Cognitive Performance.

    PubMed

    Sliwinski, Jim R; Johnson, Aimee K; Elkins, Gary R

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive decline is a frequent complaint during the menopause transition and among post-menopausal women. Changes in memory correspond with diminished estrogen production. Further, many peri- and post-menopausal women report sleep concerns, depression, and hot flashes, and these factors may contribute to cognitive decline. Hormone therapy can increase estrogen but is contraindicated for many women. Mind-body medicine has been shown to have beneficial effects on sleep, mood, and hot flashes, among post-menopausal women. Further, mind-body medicine holds potential in addressing symptoms of cognitive decline post-menopause. This study proposes an initial framework for how mind-body interventions may improve cognitive performance and inform future research seeking to identify the common and specific factors associated with mind-body medicine for addressing memory decline in peri- and post-menopausal women. It is our hope that this article will eventually lead to a more holistic and integrative approach to the treatment of cognitive deficits in peri- and post-menopausal women.

  13. Histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, improves learning and memory in high-fat diet-induced cognitive deficits in mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sorabh; Taliyan, Rajeev; Ramagiri, Shruti

    2015-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome is increasingly recognized for its effects on cognitive health. Recent studies have highlighted the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in metabolic syndrome and cognitive functions. The present study was designed to investigate the possible therapeutic role of a HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), in cognitive impairment associated with metabolic syndrome. To ascertain the mechanisms involved, we fed mice with high-fat diet (HFD) for 4 weeks and examined changes in behavioral and biochemical/oxidative stress markers. Mice subjected to HFD exhibited characteristic features of metabolic disorder, viz., hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. Moreover, these mice showed severe deficits in learning and memory as assessed by the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tasks along with elevated oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in brain homogenates. The observed changes occurred concurrently with reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In contrast, the mice treated with the HDAC inhibitor, TSA (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.), showed a significant and dose-dependent reduction in serum glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol along with improvement in HDL-cholesterol levels and learning and memory performance. TSA treatment also results in alleviation of oxidative stress and neuroinflammatory markers. Moreover, TSA significantly augmented the BDNF levels in HFD-fed mice. Thus, based upon these observations, it may be suggested that HDAC inhibition could be a novel therapeutic strategy to combat cognitive impairment associated with metabolic syndrome.

  14. Treadmill exercise improves short-term memory by suppressing ischemia-induced apoptosis of neuronal cells in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Sim, Young-Je; Kim, Sung-Soo; Kim, Jee-Youn; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2004-12-01

    In the present study, the effect of treadmill exercise on short-term memory, apoptotic neuronal cell death, and cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus following transient global ischemia in gerbils was investigated. Step-down inhibitory avoidance task, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) were used. Ischemia was induced by the occlusion of both common carotid arteries (CCA) of gerbils for 5 min. Gerbils in exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day for 10 consecutive days. Such treadmill exercise improved short-term memory by suppressing the ischemia-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death in the dentate gyrus. In addition, treadmill running suppressed the ischemia-induced cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus. The present results suggest that treadmill exercise overcomes the ischemia-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death and thus facilitates the recovery following ischemic cerebral injury.

  15. Feedback associated with expectation for larger-reward improves visuospatial working memory performances in children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Rubi; Tennekoon, Michael; Cooke, Gillian E.; Gayda, Jessica; Stein, Mark A.; Booth, James R.

    2015-01-01

    We tested the interactive effect of feedback and reward on visuospatial working memory in children with ADHD. Seventeen boys with ADHD and 17 Normal Control (NC) boys underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing four visuospatial 2-back tasks that required monitoring the spatial location of letters presented on a display. Tasks varied in reward size (large; small) and feedback availability (no-feedback; feedback). While the performance of NC boys was high in all conditions, boys with ADHD exhibited higher performance (similar to those of NC boys) only when they received feedback associated with large-reward. Performance pattern in both groups was mirrored by neural activity in an executive function neural network comprised of few distinct frontal brain regions. Specifically, neural activity in the left and right middle frontal gyri of boys with ADHD became normal-like only when feedback was available, mainly when feedback was associated with large-reward. When feedback was associated with small-reward, or when large-reward was expected but feedback was not available, boys with ADHD exhibited altered neural activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula. This suggests that contextual support normalizes activity in executive brain regions in children with ADHD, which results in improved working memory. PMID:26142072

  16. Choline pivaloyl esters improve in rats cognitive and memory performances impaired by scopolamine treatment or lesions of the nucleus basalis of Meynert.

    PubMed

    Rispoli, Vincenzo; Rotiroti, Domenicantonio; Carelli, Vincenzo; Liberatore, Felice; Scipione, Luigi; Marra, Rosario; Giorgioni, Gianfabio; Di Stefano, Antonio

    2004-02-19

    The effects of two choline pivaloyl esters, [2-(2,2-dimethylpropionyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium iodide (1) and [2-(2,2-dimethylpropionyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium 2,2-dimethylpropionate (2), on learning and memory impairments induced in rats by scopolamine or lesions of nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) have been evaluated by object recognition and Morris water maze tests in comparison with Tacrine (THA). Both 1 and 2 restored discrimination in object recognition test for assessing working-episodic memory and improved spatial memory in scopolamine or NBM-lesioned rats as well. The positive effects produced by 1 and 2 on cognitive and memory deficits were well comparable with those evoked by THA, used as reference compound.

  17. Improving resistance uniformity and endurance of resistive switching memory by accurately controlling the stress time of pulse program operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guoming; Long, Shibing; Yu, Zhaoan; Zhang, Meiyun; Ye, Tianchun; Li, Yang; Xu, Dinglin; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Wang, Ming; Xu, Xiaoxin; Liu, Hongtao; Yang, Baohe; Suñé, Jordi; Liu, Ming

    2015-03-01

    In this letter, the impact of stress time of pulse program operation on the resistance uniformity and endurance of resistive random access memory (RRAM) is investigated. A width-adjusting pulse operation (WAPO) method which can accurately setup and measure switching time is proposed for improving the uniformity and endurance of RRAM. Different from the traditional single pulse operation (TSPO) method in which only one wide pulse is applied in each switching cycle, WAPO method utilizes a series of pulses with the width increased gradually until a set or reset switching process is completely finished and no excessive stress is produced. Our program/erase (P/E) method can exactly control the switching time and the final resistance and can significantly improve the uniformity, stability, and endurance of RRAM device. Improving resistance uniformity by WAPO compared with TSPO method is explained through the interdependence between resistance state and switching time. The endurance improvement by WAPO operation stems from the effective avoidance of the overstress-induced progressive-breakdown and even hard-breakdown to the conductive soft-breakdown path.

  18. Remarkable Improvement of Shape-Memory Effect in a Co-31Ni-3Si Alloy by Ausforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiangwei; Wang, Shanling; Yan, Zhiwei; Peng, Huabei; Wen, Yuhua

    2015-04-01

    In order to improve the shape-memory effect (SME) in Co-Ni alloys, the influence of ausforming temperature on the SME, microstructures, and mechanical behavior in a Co-31Ni-3Si alloy was studied. The results show that the ausforming at 1073 K (800 °C) could remarkably improve the SME in Co-31Ni-3Si alloy. A large recovery strain of 2.3 pct was obtained after bent by 3.7 pct at 77 K (-196 °C). The increase of yield strength and the decrease of the critical stress for the stress-induced gamma to epsilon martensitc transformation are responsible for the remarkable improvement of SME. The results indirectly showed that the SME in Co-Ni alloys results from the stress-induced gamma to epsilon martensitic transformation, and their low yield strength account for their poor SME. It can be expected that the strengthening of matrix by other methods, such as solution, dispersion, and grain refinement hardening, will improve the SME of Co-Ni alloys.

  19. The Use of Melodic and Rhythmic Mnemonics to Improve Memory and Recall in Elementary Students in the Content Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Orla C.

    2009-01-01

    Mnemonic strategies that use imagery and visual cues to facilitate memory recall are commonly used in the classroom. A familiar tune, song or jingle, used as a mnemonic device is another popular memory aid. Studies of the brain and memory reveal that exposure to music not only alters but increases brain function in students. The purpose of this…

  20. Memory improving actions of gabapentin in mice: possible involvement of central muscarinic cholinergic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Boccia, M M; Acosta, G B; Baratti, C M

    2001-10-01

    Male CF-1 mice were tested 48 h after training on a one trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task. Immediately post-training, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the antiepileptic gabapentin (1-(aminomethyl) cyclohexaneacetic acid) (GBP, 10 mg/kg) enhanced retention performance. The effect was prevented by atropine, a central muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) administered after training but 10 min prior to GBP treatment. In contrast, neither methylatropine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), a peripherally acting muscarinic receptor blocker, nor mecamylamine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) or hexamethonium (5 mg/kg, i.p.), two cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonists, prevented the effects of post-training GBP on retention performance. Low subeffective doses of the central acting anticholinesterase physostigmine (35 mg/kg, i.p.) administered immediately after training, and GBP (5 mg/kg, i.p.), given 10 min after training, significantly enhanced retention performance. The effects of GBP (5 mg/kg, i.p.) were not influenced by the peripherally acting anticholinesterase neostigmine (150 mg/kg, i.p.). Considered together, these findings suggest a disinhibitory action of GBP on the activity of central muscarinic cholinergic mechanisms that are involved in memory consolidation. PMID:11578817

  1. Memory improving actions of gabapentin in mice: possible involvement of central muscarinic cholinergic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Boccia, M M; Acosta, G B; Baratti, C M

    2001-10-01

    Male CF-1 mice were tested 48 h after training on a one trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task. Immediately post-training, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the antiepileptic gabapentin (1-(aminomethyl) cyclohexaneacetic acid) (GBP, 10 mg/kg) enhanced retention performance. The effect was prevented by atropine, a central muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) administered after training but 10 min prior to GBP treatment. In contrast, neither methylatropine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), a peripherally acting muscarinic receptor blocker, nor mecamylamine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) or hexamethonium (5 mg/kg, i.p.), two cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonists, prevented the effects of post-training GBP on retention performance. Low subeffective doses of the central acting anticholinesterase physostigmine (35 mg/kg, i.p.) administered immediately after training, and GBP (5 mg/kg, i.p.), given 10 min after training, significantly enhanced retention performance. The effects of GBP (5 mg/kg, i.p.) were not influenced by the peripherally acting anticholinesterase neostigmine (150 mg/kg, i.p.). Considered together, these findings suggest a disinhibitory action of GBP on the activity of central muscarinic cholinergic mechanisms that are involved in memory consolidation.

  2. Resistance controllability and variability improvement in a TaO{sub x}-based resistive memory for multilevel storage application

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, A. E-mail: amit.knp02@gmail.com Song, J.; Hwang, H. E-mail: amit.knp02@gmail.com; Deleruyelle, D.; Bocquet, M.

    2015-06-08

    In order to obtain reliable multilevel cell (MLC) characteristics, resistance controllability between the different resistance levels is required especially in resistive random access memory (RRAM), which is prone to resistance variability mainly due to its intrinsic random nature of defect generation and filament formation. In this study, we have thoroughly investigated the multilevel resistance variability in a TaO{sub x}-based nanoscale (<30 nm) RRAM operated in MLC mode. It is found that the resistance variability not only depends on the conductive filament size but also is a strong function of oxygen vacancy concentration in it. Based on the gained insights through experimental observations and simulation, it is suggested that forming thinner but denser conductive filament may greatly improve the temporal resistance variability even at low operation current despite the inherent stochastic nature of resistance switching process.

  3. Improvement patterns among survivors of brain injury: three case examples documenting the effectiveness of memory compensation strategies.

    PubMed

    Van Hulle, Andrea; Hux, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Three case examples illustrate possible patterns of improved functioning that may emerge as survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI) attempt compensation for persistent memory deficits impeding independent living. The task selected for report was independence in remembering to take regularly-prescribed medications. Strategies applied to promote learning included use of written reminders and use of two assistive technology (AT) devices-a wristwatch alarm (WatchMinder) and a digital voice recorder and alarm system (Voice Craft ). With participation in the intervention programme, two of the three individuals demonstrated increased independence in remembering to take medications; the third did not. The case examples illustrate varying responses of people with TBI to intervention using compensatory strategies and AT devices. Professionals and caretakers working with survivors must recognize the uniqueness of each survivor, must adjust intervention programmes accordingly and must be willing to persist in trying to increase functional independence repeatedly for many years post-injury.

  4. Improved reset breakdown strength in a HfOx-based resistive memory by introducing RuOx oxygen diffusion barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaesung; Woo, Jiyong; Prakash, Amit; Lee, Sangheon; Lim, Seokjae; Hwang, Hyunsang

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the reset breakdown phenomenon of HfOx-based resistive memory for reliable switching operation in a fully CMOS compatible stack. Through the understanding on the effect of electrode materials and device area, our findings show that observed failure is attributed to additional oxygen vacancies close to the electrode interface, where switching is occurred. Therefore, RuOx serving as an oxygen diffusion barrier was introduced to suppress the generation of unwanted oxygen vacancies by preventing out-diffusion of oxygen through the electrode. As a result, significantly enhanced breakdown strength in HfOx/RuOx stack is achieved and resulting in improved cycle endurance with larger on/off ratio.

  5. Learning and Memory Improvement through Chemistry: Dream or Reality in the Offing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansl, Nikolaus R.; Hansl, Adele B.

    1979-01-01

    Reports on PRL-8-53, an experimental drug that will boost the chemical system in the brain called the cholinergic system and thereby improve one's ability to retrieve information from a preexisting information pool. (Author/IRT)

  6. Trans-cinnamaldehyde improves memory impairment by blocking microglial activation through the destabilization of iNOS mRNA in mice challenged with lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liqing; Zhang, Zhangang; Fu, Yan; Yang, Pin; Qin, Zhenxia; Chen, Yongjun; Xu, Ying

    2016-11-01

    Microglia activation and neuroinflammation are critically involved in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Patients with neurodegenerative disorders often suffer memory impairment and currently there is no effective treatment for inflammation-led memory impairment. Trans-cinnamaldehyde (TCA) isolated from medicinal herb Cinnamomum cassia has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory capability. However, the potential of TCA to be used to improve memory impairment under neuroinflammation has not been explored. Primary microglia stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used to evaluate the potential anti-neuroinflammatory effects of TCA by examining the production of nitric oxide (NO), expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), pro-inflammatory cytokines, and activation of MAPKs. A mouse model of LPS-induced memory impairment was established to assess the neuroprotective effects of TCA against memory deficit and synaptic plasticity inhibition by both behavioral tests and electrophysiological recordings. TCA pretreatment decreased LPS-induced morphological changes, NO production and IL-1β release in primary microglia. Decreased NO production was due to the accelerated degradation of iNOS mRNA in LPS-stimulated microglia through TCA's inhibitory effect on MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. TCA was able to reduce the levels of iNOS and phosphorylated ERK1/2 in hippocampus of mice challenged with LPS. Most importantly, TCA significantly lessened memory deficit and improved synaptic plasticity in LPS-challenged mice. This study demonstrates that TCA suppressed microglial activation by destabilizing iNOS mRNA, which leads to improved memory impairment in mice suffering neuroinflammation.

  7. Focused attention improves working memory: implications for flexible-resource and discrete-capacity models.

    PubMed

    Souza, Alessandra S; Rerko, Laura; Lin, Hsuan-Yu; Oberauer, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    Performance in working memory (WM) tasks depends on the capacity for storing objects and on the allocation of attention to these objects. Here, we explored how capacity models need to be augmented to account for the benefit of focusing attention on the target of recall. Participants encoded six colored disks (Experiment 1) or a set of one to eight colored disks (Experiment 2) and were cued to recall the color of a target on a color wheel. In the no-delay condition, the recall-cue was presented after a 1,000-ms retention interval, and participants could report the retrieved color immediately. In the delay condition, the recall-cue was presented at the same time as in the no-delay condition, but the opportunity to report the color was delayed. During this delay, participants could focus attention exclusively on the target. Responses deviated less from the target's color in the delay than in the no-delay condition. Mixture modeling assigned this benefit to a reduction in guessing (Experiments 1 and 2) and transposition errors (Experiment 2). We tested several computational models implementing flexible or discrete capacity allocation, aiming to explain both the effect of set size, reflecting the limited capacity of WM, and the effect of delay, reflecting the role of attention to WM representations. Both models fit the data better when a spatially graded source of transposition error is added to its assumptions. The benefits of focusing attention could be explained by allocating to this object a higher proportion of the capacity to represent color. PMID:24874258

  8. Improvements in concentration, working memory and sustained attention following consumption of a natural citicoline-caffeine beverage.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Steven E; Werner, Kimberly B; Preston, Brittany F; Baker, Laurie M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the neurocognitive and electrophysiological effects of a citicoline-caffeine-based beverage in 60 healthy adult participants enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Measures of electrical brain activity using electroencephalogram (EEG) and neuropsychological measures examining attention, concentration and reaction time were administered. Compared to placebo, participants receiving the citicoline-caffeine beverage exhibited significantly faster maze learning times and reaction times on a continuous performance test, fewer errors in a go/no-go task and better accuracy on a measure of information processing speed. EEG results examining P450 event-related potentials revealed that participants receiving the citicoline-caffeine beverage exhibited higher P450 amplitudes than controls, suggesting an increase in sustained attention. Overall, these findings suggest that the beverage significantly improved sustained attention, cognitive effort and reaction times in healthy adults. Evidence of improved P450 amplitude indicates a general improvement in the ability to accommodate new and relevant information within working memory and overall enhanced brain activation.

  9. Improvements in concentration, working memory and sustained attention following consumption of a natural citicoline-caffeine beverage.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Steven E; Werner, Kimberly B; Preston, Brittany F; Baker, Laurie M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the neurocognitive and electrophysiological effects of a citicoline-caffeine-based beverage in 60 healthy adult participants enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Measures of electrical brain activity using electroencephalogram (EEG) and neuropsychological measures examining attention, concentration and reaction time were administered. Compared to placebo, participants receiving the citicoline-caffeine beverage exhibited significantly faster maze learning times and reaction times on a continuous performance test, fewer errors in a go/no-go task and better accuracy on a measure of information processing speed. EEG results examining P450 event-related potentials revealed that participants receiving the citicoline-caffeine beverage exhibited higher P450 amplitudes than controls, suggesting an increase in sustained attention. Overall, these findings suggest that the beverage significantly improved sustained attention, cognitive effort and reaction times in healthy adults. Evidence of improved P450 amplitude indicates a general improvement in the ability to accommodate new and relevant information within working memory and overall enhanced brain activation. PMID:25046515

  10. Improved working memory but no effect on striatal vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 after omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Narendran, Rajesh; Frankle, William G; Mason, Neale S; Muldoon, Matthew F; Moghaddam, Bita

    2012-01-01

    Studies in rodents indicate that diets deficient in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) lower dopamine neurotransmission as measured by striatal vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2) density and amphetamine-induced dopamine release. This suggests that dietary supplementation with fish oil might increase VMAT2 availability, enhance dopamine storage and release, and improve dopamine-dependent cognitive functions such as working memory. To investigate this mechanism in humans, positron emission tomography (PET) was used to measure VMAT2 availability pre- and post-supplementation of n-3 PUFA in healthy individuals. Healthy young adult subjects were scanned with PET using [(11)C]-(+)-α-dihydrotetrabenzine (DTBZ) before and after six months of n-3 PUFA supplementation (Lovaza, 2 g/day containing docosahexaenonic acid, DHA 750 mg/d and eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA 930 mg/d). In addition, subjects underwent a working memory task (n-back) and red blood cell membrane (RBC) fatty acid composition analysis pre- and post-supplementation. RBC analysis showed a significant increase in both DHA and EPA post-supplementation. In contrast, no significant change in [(11)C]DTBZ binding potential (BP(ND)) in striatum and its subdivisions were observed after supplementation with n-3 PUFA. No correlation was evident between n-3 PUFA induced change in RBC DHA or EPA levels and change in [(11)C]DTBZ BP(ND) in striatal subdivisions. However, pre-supplementation RBC DHA levels was predictive of baseline performance (i.e., adjusted hit rate, AHR on 3-back) on the n-back task (y = 0.19+0.07, r(2) = 0.55, p = 0.009). In addition, subjects AHR performance improved on 3-back post-supplementation (pre 0.65±0.27, post 0.80±0.15, p = 0.04). The correlation between n-back performance, and DHA levels are consistent with reports in which higher DHA levels is related to improved cognitive performance. However, the lack of change in [(11)C]DBTZ BP(ND) indicates that

  11. Methanolic extract of Piper nigrum fruits improves memory impairment by decreasing brain oxidative stress in amyloid beta(1-42) rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hritcu, Lucian; Noumedem, Jaurès A; Cioanca, Oana; Hancianu, Monica; Kuete, Victor; Mihasan, Marius

    2014-04-01

    The present study analyzed the possible memory-enhancing and antioxidant proprieties of the methanolic extract of Piper nigrum L. fruits (50 and 100 mg/kg, orally, for 21 days) in amyloid beta(1-42) rat model of Alzheimer's disease. The memory-enhancing effects of the plant extract were studied by means of in vivo (Y-maze and radial arm-maze tasks) approaches. Also, the antioxidant activity in the hippocampus was assessed using superoxide dismutase-, catalase-, glutathione peroxidase-specific activities and the total content of reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl levels. The amyloid beta(1-42)-treated rats exhibited the following: decrease of spontaneous alternations percentage within Y-maze task and increase of working memory and reference memory errors within radial arm-maze task. Administration of the plant extract significantly improved memory performance and exhibited antioxidant potential. Our results suggest that the plant extract ameliorates amyloid beta(1-42)-induced spatial memory impairment by attenuation of the oxidative stress in the rat hippocampus.

  12. Tart cherry supplementation improves working memory, hippocampal inflammation and autophagy in aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with reduced risk of debilitating diseases and improved cognition in aged populations. These beneficial effects have been attributed to the antioxidant/anti-inflammation properties of phytochemicals found in fruits and vegetables. Tart ch...

  13. Chunking Improves Symbolic Sequence Processing and Relies on Working Memory Gating Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solopchuk, Oleg; Alamia, Andrea; Olivier, Etienne; Zénon, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Chunking, namely the grouping of sequence elements in clusters, is ubiquitous during sequence processing, but its impact on performance remains debated. Here, we found that participants who adopted a consistent chunking strategy during symbolic sequence learning showed a greater improvement of their performance and a larger decrease in cognitive…

  14. Two Procedures To Improve Instructional Text: Effects on Memory and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo; Martinez, Gabriel; Gilabert, Ramiro

    2000-01-01

    Compares two approaches for improving instructional text with a sample of eighth grade students (N=64). The first approach emphasized the reduction of the reader's comprehension; the other was oriented toward triggering causal inferences in the reader. Only the second procedure produced benefits on inferential learning, though both procedures had…

  15. Acute, low-dose methamphetamine administration improves attention/information processing speed and working memory in methamphetamine-dependent individuals displaying poorer cognitive performance at baseline.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, James J; Jackson, Brian J; Kalechstein, Ari D; De La Garza, Richard; Newton, Thomas F

    2011-03-30

    Abstinent methamphetamine (Meth) dependent individuals demonstrate poorer performance on tests sensitive to attention/information processing speed, learning and memory, and working memory when compared to non-Meth dependent individuals. The poorer performance on these tests may contribute to the morbidity associated with Meth-dependence. In light of this, we sought to determine the effects of acute, low-dose Meth administration on attention, working memory, and verbal learning and memory in 19 non-treatment seeking, Meth-dependent individuals. Participants were predominantly male (89%), Caucasian (63%), and cigarette smokers (63%). Following a four day, drug-free washout period, participants were given a single-blind intravenous infusion of saline, followed the next day by 30 mg of Meth. A battery of neurocognitive tasks was administered before and after each infusion, and performance on measures of accuracy and reaction time were compared between conditions. While acute Meth exposure did not affect test performance for the entire sample, participants who demonstrated relatively poor performance on these tests at baseline, identified using a median split on each test, showed significant improvement on measures of attention/information processing speed and working memory when administered Meth. Improved performance was seen on the following measures of working memory: choice reaction time task (p≤0.04), a 1-back task (p≤0.01), and a 2-back task (p≤0.04). In addition, those participants demonstrating high neurocognitive performance at baseline experienced similar or decreased performance following Meth exposure. These findings suggest that acute administration of Meth may temporarily improve Meth-associated neurocognitive performance in those individuals experiencing lower cognitive performance at baseline. As a result, stimulants may serve as a successful treatment for improving cognitive functioning in those Meth-dependent individuals experiencing

  16. [Noopept improves the spatial memory and stimulates prefibrillar beta-amyloid(25-35) antibody production in mice].

    PubMed

    Bobkova, N V; Gruden', M A; Samokhin, A N; Medvinskaia, N I; Morozova-Roch, L; Uudasheva, T A; Ostrovskaia, R U; Seredinin, S B

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the novel proline-containing nootropic and neuroprotective dipeptide noopept (GVS-111, N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) were studied on NMRI mice upon olfactory bulbectomy, which had been previously shown to imitate the main morphological and biochemical signs of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The spatial memory was assessed using the Morris (water maze) test; the immunological status was characterized by ELISA with antibodies to prefibrillar beta-amyloid(25-35), S100b protein, and protofilaments of equine lysozyme, which are the molecular factors involved in the pathogenesis of AD. The control (sham-operated) animals during the Morris test preferred a sector where the safety platform was placed during the learning session. Bulbectomized animals treated with saline failed to recognize this sector, while bulbectomized animals treated with noopept (0.01 mg/kg for 21 days) restored this predominance, thus demonstrating the improvement of the spatial memory. These animals also demonstrated an increase in the level of antibodies to beta-amyloid(25-35)--the effect, which was more pronounced in the sham-operated than in bulbectomized mice. The latter demonstrated a profound decrease of immunological reactivity in a large number of tests. Noopept, stimulating the production of antibodies to beta-amyloid(25-35), can attenuate the well-known neurotoxic effects of beta-amyloid. The obtained data on the mnemotropic and immunostimulant effects noopept are indicative of good prospects for the clinical usage of this drug in the therapy of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:16277202

  17. Role of carbon in improving the shape memory effect of Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni alloys by thermo-mechanical treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Huabei; Song, Fan; Wang, Shanling; Zhang, Chengyan; Wen, Yuhua

    2015-05-01

    To clarify the role of carbon in improving the shape memory effect of Fe-Mn-Si-based shape memory alloys by thermomechanical treatments, we investigated the effect of optimum thermomechanical treatments on shape memory effect and microstructures of Fe-14Mn-5Si-8Cr-4Ni and Fe-14Mn-5Si-8Cr-4Ni-0.12C alloys. The Cr23C6 particles in optimum thermomechanical-treated Fe-14Mn-5S-8Cr-4Ni-0.12C more effectively prevented collisions between stress-induced ɛ martensite bands than the residual α‧ martensite in optimum thermomechanical-treated Fe-14Mn-5Si-8Cr-4Ni. This result is attributed to the thinner width of stress-induced ɛ martensite bands in optimum thermomechanical-treated Fe-14Mn-5S-8Cr-4Ni-0.12C compared to optimum thermomechanical-treated Fe-14Mn-5Si-8Cr-4Ni. In addition, the Cr23C6 particles formed at more sites and provided more obstacles as compared with the residual α‧ martensite. Accordingly, the recovery strain of Fe-14Mn-5Si-8Cr-4Ni-0.12C was higher than that of Fe-14Mn-5Si-8Cr-4Ni. It is concluded that carbon addition is beneficial to further improving the shape memory effect of Fe-Mn-Si-based shape memory alloys by thermomechanical treatments.

  18. The role of the central histaminergic receptors in the exercise-induced improvements of the spatial learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Taati, Majid; Moghaddasi, Mehrnoush; Esmaeili, Masoumeh; Pourkhodadad, Soheila; Nayebzadeh, Hassan

    2014-10-31

    While it is well known that exercise can improve cognitive performance, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. There is now evidence that histamine can modulate learning and memory in different types of behavioral tasks. The present study was designed to examine the possible role of central histamine H1 and H2 receptors in forced treadmill running-induced enhancement of learning and memory in rats. For this purpose the animals received intracerebroventricularly chlorpheniramine (H1 receptor blocker) and cimetidine (H2 receptor blocker) before each day of fifteen consecutive days of exercise. Then their learning and memory were tested on the water maze task using a four-trial-per-day for 4 consecutive days. A probe trial was performed after the last training day. Our data showed that cimetidine reversed the exercise-induced improvement in learning and memory in rats; however, this was not the case regarding chlorpheniramine. Our findings indicate that central histamine H2 receptors play an important role in mediating the beneficial effects of forced exercise on learning and memory.

  19. Improving Working Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: The Separate and Combined Effects of Incentives and Stimulant Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Michael T.; Hawk, Larry W., Jr.; Bubnik, Michelle; Shiels, Keri; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Waxmonsky, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is considered a core deficit in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), with numerous studies demonstrating impaired WM among children with ADHD. We tested the degree to which WM in children with ADHD was improved by performance-based incentives, an analog of behavioral intervention. In two studies, WM performance was…

  20. Epigenetic memory gained by priming with osteogenic induction medium improves osteogenesis and other properties of mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Rui, Yunfeng; Xu, Liangliang; Chen, Rui; Zhang, Ting; Lin, Sien; Hou, Yonghui; Liu, Yang; Meng, Fanbiao; Liu, Zhenqing; Ni, Ming; Sze Tsang, Kam; Yang, Fuyuan; Wang, Chen; Chang Chan, Hsiao; Jiang, Xiaohua; Li, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are highly plastic cells that are able to transdifferentiate or dedifferentiate under appropriate conditions. In the present study, we reported here that after in vitro induction of osteogenic differentiation, MSCs could be reverted to a primitive stem cell population (dedifferentiated osteogenic MSCs, De-Os-MSCs) with improved cell survival, colony formation, osteogenic potential, migratory capacity and increased expression of Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2. Most importantly, our results showed great superiority of the De-Os-MSCs over untreated MSCs in ectopic bone formation in vivo. Furthermore, Nanog-knockdown in MSCs could reverse these enhanced properties in De-Os-MSCs in vitro, indicating a central role of Nanog in the transcriptional network. In addition, epigenetic regulations including DNA methylation and histone modifications may play important roles in regulating the de-osteogenic differentiation process. And we found decreased methylation and promoter accrual of activating histone marks, such as H3K4me3 and H4ac on both Nanog and Oct4 gene promoters. Taken together, our study demonstrated that epigenetic memory in De-Os-MSCs gained by priming with osteogenic induction medium favored their differentiation along osteoblastic lineage with improved cell survival and migratory abilities, which may have application potential in enhancing their regenerative capacity in mammals. PMID:26053250

  1. Down-regulation of hippocampal BDNF and Arc associated with improvement in aversive spatial memory performance in socially isolated rats.

    PubMed

    Pisu, Maria Giuseppina; Dore, Riccardo; Mostallino, Maria Cristina; Loi, Manila; Pibiri, Francesca; Mameli, Roberta; Cadeddu, Roberto; Secci, Pietro Paolo; Serra, Mariangela

    2011-09-12

    Rats deprived of social contact with other rats at a young age experience a form of prolonged stress that leads to long-lasting changes in behavioral profile. Such isolation is thought to be anxiogenic for these normally gregarious animals, and the abnormal reactivity of isolated rats to environmental stimuli is thought to be a product of prolonged stress. We now show that isolation of rats at weaning reduced immobility time in the forced swim test, decreased sucrose intake and preference, and down-regulated both brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and activity-regulated cytoskeletal associated protein (Arc) in the hippocampus. In the Morris water maze, isolated rats showed a reduced latency to reach the hidden platform during training, indicative of an improved learning performance, compared with group-housed rats. The cumulative search error during place training trials indicated a reliable difference between isolated and group-housed rats on days 4 and 5. The probe trial revealed a significant decrease of the average proximity to the target location in the isolated rats suggesting an improvement in spatial memory. Isolated rats also showed an increase in the plasma level of corticosterone on the 5th day of training and increased expression of BDNF and Arc in the hippocampus on both days 1 and 5. These results show that social isolation from weaning in rats results in development of depressive-like behavior but has a positive effect on spatial learning, supporting the existence of a facilitating effect of stress on cognitive function.

  2. Epigenetic memory gained by priming with osteogenic induction medium improves osteogenesis and other properties of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Rui, Yunfeng; Xu, Liangliang; Chen, Rui; Zhang, Ting; Lin, Sien; Hou, Yonghui; Liu, Yang; Meng, Fanbiao; Liu, Zhenqing; Ni, Ming; Tsang, Kam Sze; Yang, Fuyuan; Wang, Chen; Chan, Hsiao Chang; Jiang, Xiaohua; Li, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are highly plastic cells that are able to transdifferentiate or dedifferentiate under appropriate conditions. In the present study, we reported here that after in vitro induction of osteogenic differentiation, MSCs could be reverted to a primitive stem cell population (dedifferentiated osteogenic MSCs, De-Os-MSCs) with improved cell survival, colony formation, osteogenic potential, migratory capacity and increased expression of Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2. Most importantly, our results showed great superiority of the De-Os-MSCs over untreated MSCs in ectopic bone formation in vivo. Furthermore, Nanog-knockdown in MSCs could reverse these enhanced properties in De-Os-MSCs in vitro, indicating a central role of Nanog in the transcriptional network. In addition, epigenetic regulations including DNA methylation and histone modifications may play important roles in regulating the de-osteogenic differentiation process. And we found decreased methylation and promoter accrual of activating histone marks, such as H3K4me3 and H4ac on both Nanog and Oct4 gene promoters. Taken together, our study demonstrated that epigenetic memory in De-Os-MSCs gained by priming with osteogenic induction medium favored their differentiation along osteoblastic lineage with improved cell survival and migratory abilities, which may have application potential in enhancing their regenerative capacity in mammals. PMID:26053250

  3. Verbal memory and menopause.

    PubMed

    Maki, Pauline M

    2015-11-01

    Midlife women frequently report memory problems during the menopausal transition. Recent studies validate those complaints by showing significant correlations between memory complaints and performance on validated memory tasks. Longitudinal studies demonstrate modest declines in verbal memory during the menopausal transition and a likely rebound during the postmenopausal stage. Clinical studies that examine changes in memory following hormonal withdrawal and add-back hormone therapy (HT) demonstrate that estradiol plays a critical role in memory. Although memory changes are frequently attributed to menopausal symptoms, studies show that the memory problems occur during the transition even after controlling for menopausal symptoms. It is well established that self-reported vasomotor symptoms (VMS) are unrelated to objective memory performance. However, emerging evidence suggests that objectively measured VMS significantly correlate with memory performance, brain activity during rest, and white matter hyperintensities. This evidence raises important questions about whether VMS and VMS treatments might affect memory during the menopausal transition. Unfortunately, there are no clinical trials to inform our understanding of how HT affects both memory and objectively measured VMS in women in whom HT is indicated for treatment of moderate to severe VMS. In clinical practice, it is helpful to normalize memory complaints, to note that evidence suggests that memory problems are temporary, and to counsel women with significant VMS that memory might improve with treatment.

  4. p38 MAPK Inhibition Improves Synaptic Plasticity and Memory in Angiotensin II-dependent Hypertensive Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hai-long; Hu, Wei-yuan; Jiang, Li-hong; Li, Le; Gaung, Xue-feng; Xiao, Zhi-cheng

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of hypertension-related cognitive impairment has not been sufficiently clarified, new molecular targets are needed. p38 MAPK pathway plays an important role in hypertensive target organ damage. Activated p38 MAPK was seen in AD brain tissue. In this study, we found that long-term potentiation (LTP) of hippocampal CA1 was decreased, the density of the dendritic spines on the CA1 pyramidal cells was reduced, the p-p38 protein expression in hippocampus was elevated, and cognitive function was impaired in angiotensin II-dependent hypertensive C57BL/6 mice. In vivo, using a p38 heterozygous knockdown mice (p38KI/+) model, we showed that knockdown of p38 MAPK in hippocampus leads to the improvement of cognitive function and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in angiotensin II-dependent p38KI/+ hypertensive mice. In vitro, LTP was improved in hippocampal slices from C57BL/6 hypertensive mice by treatment with p38MAPK inhibitor SKF86002. Our data demonstrated that p38 MAPK may be a potential therapeutic target for hypertension-related cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27283322

  5. Chronic administration of cardanol (ginkgol) extracted from ginkgo biloba leaves and cashew nutshell liquid improves working memory-related learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Tobinaga, Seisho; Hashimoto, Michio; Utsunomiya, Iku; Taguchi, Kyoji; Nakamura, Morihiko; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    2012-01-01

    Cardanol (ginkgol) extracted from Ginkgo biloba leaves and cashew nutshell liquid enhances the growth of NSC-34 immortalized motor neuron-like cells and, when chronically administered to young rats, improves working memory-related learning ability as assessed by eight-arm radial maze tasks. These findings suggest that cardanol is one of the components in Ginkgo biloba leaves that improves cognitive learning ability.

  6. Chronic caloric restriction reduces tissue damage and improves spatial memory in a rat model of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Rich, Nicholas J; Van Landingham, Jacob W; Figueiroa, Silvia; Seth, Rohit; Corniola, Rikki S; Levenson, Cathy W

    2010-10-01

    Although it has been known for some time that chronic caloric or dietary restriction reduces the risk of neurodegenerative disorders and injury following ischemia, the possible role of chronic restriction in improving outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been previously studied. Therefore, 2-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two dietary groups, an ad libitum fed group (AL) and a caloric-restriction group (CR) that was provided with 70% of the food intake of AL rats (n = 10/group). After 4 months, a weight-drop device (300 g) was used to produce a 2-mm bilateral medial frontal cortex contusion following craniotomy. Additional animals in each dietary group (n = 10) were used as sham-operated controls. The CR diet resulted in body weights that were reduced by 30% compared with AL controls. Not only did CR decrease the size of the cortical lesion after injury, there were marked improvements in spatial memory as measured by Morris water maze that included an increase in the number of animals successfully finding the platform as well as significantly reduced time to finding the hidden platform. Western analysis, used to examine the expression of proteins that play a role in neuronal survival, revealed significant increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the cortical region around the site of injury and in the hippocampus in CR rats after injury. These findings suggest that molecular mechanisms involved in cell survival may play a role in reducing tissue damage and improving cognition after TBI and that these mechanisms can be regulated by dietary interventions. PMID:20544832

  7. Evidence of improved immediate verbal memory and diminished category fluency following STN-DBS in Chinese-Cantonese patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Venus; Zhu, Cannon X L; Chan, Danny; Lau, Claire; Chan, Anne; Mok, Vincent; Yeung, Jonas; Poon, Wai Sang

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the neuropsychological effects of bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) on subthalamic nucleus (STN) in Chinese-Cantonese patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Twenty-seven patients were prospectively recruited from the Movement Disorder Clinic at the Hong Kong Prince of Wales Hospital. Neuropsychological evaluations were performed at baseline, 6 and 12 months following the DBS procedure. Assessment battery included standardized tests on global cognitive function, verbal memory, non-verbal memory, confrontation naming, visuospatial organization, attention and executive functions. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were measured by two self-reported questionnaires. Results demonstrated diminished performance on a category fluency task that occurred at 6 months post-operatively and persisted at 12-month re-evaluation; 29.6-33.3 % of patients showed reduction of more than 1 SD (standard deviation) at post-operative measure. Conversely, performance on an immediate recall task in a verbal memory test was found to improve significantly at the same time point and persisted through 12 months after surgery; 22.2-25.9 % showed an improvement (≥1 SD). Psychologically, anxiety symptoms were statistically decreased and the significant reduction occurred at 12 months after surgery. Patients who reported a moderate to severe level of anxiety reduced from 51.9 to 18.5 %. Our findings concurred with most evidences on the effects of STN-DBS on verbal fluency; on the other hand, we demonstrated improvement of immediate verbal memory that warranted further investigation. PMID:25708249

  8. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) extract prevents and improves D-galactose and NaNO2 induced memory impairment in mice

    PubMed Central

    Dashti-r, M.H.; Zeinali, F.; Anvari, M.; Hosseini, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of saffron extract on preventing D-galactose and NaNO2 induced memory impairment and improving learning and memory deficits in amnestic mice. In this study, the learning and memory functions in ovariectomized mice were examined by the one way passive and active avoidance tests. In active avoidance test, training in amnestic treated (AT) and amnestic prophylaxis (AP) groups, was improved so that there was a significant difference between them and the amnestic control (AC) group. In passive avoidance test, animal's step through latency, as an index for learning, in all test groups was significantly greater than control group. Total time spent in dark room (DS), which opposes the memory retention ability, in AC was significantly greater than AT group at 1 and 2 hours after full training, while there was not any significant difference between this index in AP and AT as compared with normal control (NC) group. Our findings indicate that saffron hydro-alcoholic extract prevents and improves amnesia induced by D-galactose and NaNO2 in mice. PMID:27418908

  9. Chronic treatment with sulbutiamine improves memory in an object recognition task and reduces some amnesic effects of dizocilpine in a spatial delayed-non-match-to-sample task.

    PubMed

    Bizot, Jean-Charles; Herpin, Alexandre; Pothion, Stéphanie; Pirot, Sylvain; Trovero, Fabrice; Ollat, Hélène

    2005-07-01

    The effect of a sulbutiamine chronic treatment on memory was studied in rats with a spatial delayed-non-match-to-sample (DNMTS) task in a radial maze and a two trial object recognition task. After completion of training in the DNMTS task, animals were subjected for 9 weeks to daily injections of either saline or sulbutiamine (12.5 or 25 mg/kg). Sulbutiamine did not modify memory in the DNMTS task but improved it in the object recognition task. Dizocilpine, impaired both acquisition and retention of the DNMTS task in the saline-treated group, but not in the two sulbutiamine-treated groups, suggesting that sulbutiamine may counteract the amnesia induced by a blockade of the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors. Taken together, these results are in favor of a beneficial effect of sulbutiamine on working and episodic memory. PMID:15951087

  10. Performance Improvements of Metal-Oxide-Nitride-Oxide-Silicon Nonvolatile Memory with ZrO2 Charge-Trapping Layer by Using Nitrogen Incorporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian-Xiong; Xu, Jing-Ping; Liu, Lu; Lai, Pui-To

    2013-08-01

    The properties of ZrO2 and ZrON as the charge-trapping layer (CTL) of metal-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon memory are investigated. The microstructure and chemical bonding are examined by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is found that nitrogen incorporation in ZrO2 can induce more charge-trapping sites, effectively suppress the formation of zirconium silicate (leading to better interface quality between the CTL and the SiO2 tunneling layer), and increase the dielectric constant of ZrO2, thus improving the memory performances (large memory window, high program/erase speed, good endurance characteristics, and small charge loss).

  11. A novel melatonin agonist Neu-P11 facilitates memory performance and improves cognitive impairment in a rat model of Alzheimer' disease.

    PubMed

    He, Pingping; Ouyang, Xinping; Zhou, Shouhong; Yin, Weidong; Tang, Chaoke; Laudon, Moshe; Tian, Shaowen

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that melatonin is implicated in modulating learning and memory processing. Melatonin also exerts neuroprotective activities against Aβ-induced injury in vitro and in vivo. Neu-P11 (piromelatine, N-(2-(5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl)-4-oxo-4H-pyran-2-carboxamide) is a novel melatonin (MT1/MT2) receptor agonist and a serotonin 5-HT1A/1D receptor agonist recently developed for the treatment of insomnia. In the present study we firstly investigated whether Neu-P11 and melatonin enhance memory performance in the novel object recognition (NOR) task in rats, and then assessed whether Neu-P11 and melatonin improve neuronal and cognitive impairment in a rat model of Alzheimer' disease (AD) induced by intrahippocampal Aβ(1-42) injection. The results showed that a single morning or afternoon administration of Neu-P11 enhanced object recognition memory measured at 4 or 24h after training. Melatonin was effective in the memory facilitating effects only when administered in the afternoon. Further results showed that intrahippocampal Aβ(1-42) injection resulted in hippocampal cellular loss, as well as decreased learning ability and memory in the Y maze and NOR tasks in rats. Neu-P11 but not melatonin attenuated cellular loss and cognitive impairment in the rat AD model. The current data suggest that Neu-P11 may serve as a novel agent for the treatment of AD.

  12. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins improve memory and enhance phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 in senescence-accelerated mouse prone/8.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young A; Cho, Eun Ju; Yokozawa, Takako

    2010-02-01

    Senescence-accelerated mouse prone/8 (SAMP8), a murine model of accelerated senescence, shows age-related deficits in learning and memory. We investigated the effect of oligomeric proanthocyanidins (oligomers) on memory impairment using the SAMP8 model involving the oral administration of oligomers for 5 weeks. To analyse memory improvement in SAMP8, we performed Morris water maze, object location and object recognition tests. The oral administration of oligomers improved spatial and object recognition impairment in SAMP8. Expressions of phosphorylated neurofilament-H (P-NF-H, axon marker), microtubule-associated proteins (MAP) 2a and 2b (MAP2; dendrite marker) and synaptophysin were increased in the brains of SAMP8-administered oligomers. In particular, the expression of P-NF-H was significantly elevated in the hippocampal CA1. This indicates that oligomers result in an increase in the densities of axons, dendrites and synapses. To investigate the protective mechanisms of oligomers against brain dysfunction with ageing, we carried out a receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylation antibody array, and clarified that the administration of oligomers led to an increase in the phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2, suggesting the neuroprotective role of oligomers. The phosphorylation of VEGFR-2 was more greatly increased in the hypothalamus and choroid plexus than in other brain regions of SAMP8. Memory in oligomer-treated mice was impaired by SU1498, a VEGFR-2-specific antagonist. Elucidating the relationship between memory impairment with ageing and VEGFR-2 signalling may provide new suggestions for protection against memory deficit in the ageing brain.

  13. Forced exercise improves passive avoidance memory in morphine-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Saadipour, K; Sarkaki, A; Alaei, H; Badavi, M; Rahim, F

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term forced exercise protocol on passive avoidance retention in morphine-exposed rats. Effects of morphine on acquisition and retrieval of retention have been proven in the avoidance paradigms. Twenty four male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used in this study. Animals were randomly divided into four groups including: (1) non-morphine-exposed without exercise (nA.nE) (2) non-morphine-exposed with exercise (nA.E) (3) morphine-exposed without exercise (A.nE) and (4) morphine-exposed with exercise (A.E). Rats ran as forced exercise on the motorized treadmill 1 h daily for ten days. Morphine-exposed animals received intraperitoneal morphine during first 5 days of the exercise period and their dependence to morphine was confirmed by naloxane admistration (10 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and withdrawal test. After 10 days of forced exercise, step down latency was tested and Inflexion Ratio (IR) was evaluated in each rat. Baseline step down latencies before any morphine exposing or exercise have shown no significant alteration in all groups. Inflexion Ratio (IR) ofnA.E group has increased significantly (p<0.001) at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after receiving shock (learning) compared to nA.nE and A.E groups. Our data showed that short-term forced exercise on treadmill improved retention in both morphine-exposed and non morphine-exposed rats at least up to 7 days and more than 14 days, respectively. Alteration in retention between exercised groups may attribute the release of adrenal stress hormones such as epinephrine and corticosterone because of the emotional arousal.

  14. A cross-disciplinary response to improve test activities: The corporate memory capitalization in Ariane4 test domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vo, Dinh Phuoc; Soler, Christian; Aussenac, N.; Macchion, D.

    1993-01-01

    The Assembly, Integration, Test, and Validation (AIT/AIV) of the Ariane4 Vehicle Equipment Bay was held at Matra Marconi Space (MMS) site of Toulouse for several years. For this activity, incident interpretation necessitates a great deal of different knowledge. When complex faults occur, particularly those appearing during overall control tests, experts of various domains (EGSE, software, on-board equipment) have to join for investigation sessions. Thus, an assistance tool for the identification of faulty equipment will improve the efficiency of diagnosis and the overall productivity of test activities. As a solution, the Aramiihs laboratory proposed considering the opportunity of a knowledge based system intended to assist the tester in diagnosis. This knowledge based system is, in fact, a short-term achievement of a long-term goal which is the capitalization of corporate memory in the Ariane4 test domain. Aramiihs is a research unit where engineers from MMS and researchers from the IRIT-CNRS cooperate on problems concerning new types of man-system interaction.

  15. Repetition-lag training to improve recollection memory in older people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Finn, Maurice; McDonald, Skye

    2015-01-01

    The results of a randomized controlled trial of repetition-lag training in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are reported. A modified repetition-lag training procedure with extended encoding time and strategy choice was used. The training required discriminating studied words from non-studied lures that were repeated at varying intervals during the test phase. Participants were assessed pre/post using untrained measures of cognition and self-report questionnaires. Primary outcome measures were recall of unrelated word pairs both immediately following presentation and following a delay. Secondary outcomes were a measure of attention, cognitive flexibility, and visual working memory. Participants were also asked to report on the frequency of cognitive failures and mood before and after training. Participants (N = 31) were randomized into either the treatment or a no-contact control group and attended the clinic twice per week over a four week period. Twenty-four participants completed the study (twelve in each group). Results indicated that the training group improved at recalling unrelated word pairs after a delay. There were no significant effects of training on other outcomes, self-reported cognitive failures or mood. The results are discussed along with suggestions for future research. PMID:24820545

  16. Auditory training can improve working memory, attention, and communication in adverse conditions for adults with hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Melanie A.; Henshaw, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Auditory training (AT) helps compensate for degradation in the auditory signal. A series of three high-quality training studies are discussed, which include, (i) a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of phoneme discrimination in quiet that trained adults with mild hearing loss (n = 44), (ii) a repeated measures study that trained phoneme discrimination in noise in hearing aid (HA) users (n = 30), and (iii) a double-blind RCT that directly trained working memory (WM) in HA users (n = 57). AT resulted in generalized improvements in measures of self-reported hearing, competing speech, and complex cognitive tasks that all index executive functions. This suggests that for AT related benefits, the development of complex cognitive skills may be more important than the refinement of sensory processing. Furthermore, outcome measures should be sensitive to the functional benefits of AT. For WM training, lack of far-transfer to untrained outcomes suggests no generalized benefits to real-world listening abilities. We propose that combined auditory-cognitive training approaches, where cognitive enhancement is embedded within auditory tasks, are most likely to offer generalized benefits to the real-world listening abilities of adults with hearing loss. PMID:26074826

  17. BRAIN 2.0: Time and Memory Complexity Improvements in the Algorithm for Calculating the Isotope Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittwald, Piotr; Valkenborg, Dirk

    2014-04-01

    Recently, an elegant iterative algorithm called BRAIN ( Baffling Recursive Algorithm for Isotopic distributio N calculations) was presented. The algorithm is based on the classic polynomial method for calculating aggregated isotope distributions, and it introduces algebraic identities using Newton-Girard and Viète's formulae to solve the problem of polynomial expansion. Due to the iterative nature of the BRAIN method, it is a requirement that the calculations start from the lightest isotope variant. As such, the complexity of BRAIN scales quadratically with the mass of the putative molecule, since it depends on the number of aggregated peaks that need to be calculated. In this manuscript, we suggest two improvements of the algorithm to decrease both time and memory complexity in obtaining the aggregated isotope distribution. We also illustrate a concept to represent the element isotope distribution in a generic manner. This representation allows for omitting the root calculation of the element polynomial required in the original BRAIN method. A generic formulation for the roots is of special interest for higher order element polynomials such that root finding algorithms and its inaccuracies can be avoided.

  18. Repetition-lag training to improve recollection memory in older people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Finn, Maurice; McDonald, Skye

    2015-01-01

    The results of a randomized controlled trial of repetition-lag training in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are reported. A modified repetition-lag training procedure with extended encoding time and strategy choice was used. The training required discriminating studied words from non-studied lures that were repeated at varying intervals during the test phase. Participants were assessed pre/post using untrained measures of cognition and self-report questionnaires. Primary outcome measures were recall of unrelated word pairs both immediately following presentation and following a delay. Secondary outcomes were a measure of attention, cognitive flexibility, and visual working memory. Participants were also asked to report on the frequency of cognitive failures and mood before and after training. Participants (N = 31) were randomized into either the treatment or a no-contact control group and attended the clinic twice per week over a four week period. Twenty-four participants completed the study (twelve in each group). Results indicated that the training group improved at recalling unrelated word pairs after a delay. There were no significant effects of training on other outcomes, self-reported cognitive failures or mood. The results are discussed along with suggestions for future research.

  19. Post-trial administration of H1 histamine receptor blocker improves appetitive reversal learning and memory in goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Spieler, R E; Nelson, C A; Huston, J P; Mattioli, R

    1999-12-17

    Based on the hypothesis that neuronal histamine exerts an inhibitory influence on learning and reinforcement, goldfish were tested for post-trial effects of the H1 receptor blocker chlorpheniramine (CPA) on learning the location of a food source in one of two compartments, one black the other white, with a feeder located in each compartment. Testing was carried out over 6 days. On the training day a food pellet was placed into the feeder of one of the compartments. After consumption of the food the fish were injected i.p. with either vehicle or CPA either immediately after training or 3 h later. Twenty-four-hours later, food was placed in the same compartment and the time to begin feeding was recorded. On the next day the location of the food pellet was reversed, and testing was continued for 4 days. On the first test day the time to begin feeding was significantly longer for the vehicle injected fish as compared with those injected with CPA. The vehicle group also took longer to begin feeding than the CPA group on the first reversal test day. The results of the 3-h delay groups indicated no significant differences between vehicle and drug for any experimental session. These results suggest that post-trial blockade of the H1 histamine receptor can affect appetitive learning in goldfish either by improving long-term memory consolidation and/or by the additive reinforcing effects of CPA (known from previous studies) on behavior.

  20. Neural stem cell transplantation at critical period improves learning and memory through restoring synaptic impairment in Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kim, J A; Ha, S; Shin, K Y; Kim, S; Lee, K J; Chong, Y H; Chang, K-A; Suh, Y-H

    2015-06-18

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neuronal loss in several regions of the brain. Recent studies have suggested that stem cell transplantation could serve as a potential therapeutic strategy to halt or ameliorate the inexorable disease progression. However, the optimal stage of the disease for stem cell transplantation to have a therapeutic effect has yet to be determined. Here, we demonstrated that transplantation of neural stem cells into 12-month-old Tg2576 brains markedly improved both cognitive impairments and neuropathological features by reducing β-amyloid processing and upregulating clearance of β-amyloid, secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines, endogenous neurogenesis, as well as synapse formation. In contrast, the stem cell transplantation did not recover cognitive dysfunction and β-amyloid neuropathology in Tg2576 mice aged 15 months when the memory loss is manifest. Overall, this study underscores that stem cell therapy at optimal time frame is crucial to obtain maximal therapeutic effects that can restore functional deficits or stop the progression of AD.

  1. The Synergistic Beneficial Effects of Ginkgo Flavonoid and Coriolus versicolor Polysaccharide for Memory Improvements in a Mouse Model of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xianying; Jiang, Yan; Ji, Hui; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhenzhong; Ding, Gang

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the combination of Ginkgo flavonoid (GF) and Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide (CVP) in the prevention and treatment of a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). GF is a traditional health product, and CVP is the main active ingredient of the medicinal fungus Coriolus versicolor. The Morris water maze test, the Y maze, and the step-through test showed that the combinational use of CVP and GF synergistically improved memory in a mouse model of AD. Based on H&E staining analysis, the combination of CVP and GF decreased the severity of the pathological findings in the brain. Given that the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α was downregulated, the inflammation response in AD mice was considered to be inhibited. The downregulation of GFAP further demonstrated that inflammation was reduced in the brain of AD mice following treatment. Moreover, the expression levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were elevated in the brains of treated mice, indicating that oxidation levels were reduced upon the combination treatment. Our results provide new insights into the efficient utilization of traditional medicine for preventing dementia. PMID:25821476

  2. Improving the Reactivity of Zerovalent Iron by Taking Advantage of Its Magnetic Memory: Implications for Arsenite Removal.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinxiang; Shi, Zhong; Ma, Bin; Zhang, Pingping; Jiang, Xiao; Xiao, Zhongjin; Guan, Xiaohong

    2015-09-01

    Premagnetization was employed to enhance the reactivity of zerovalent iron (ZVI) toward As(III) sequestration for the first time. Compared to the pristine ZVI (Pri-ZVI), the rate of As(III) elimination by the premagnetized ZVI (Mag-ZVI) was greater over the pHini range of 4.0-9.0 and increased progressively with increasing intensity of the magnetic field for premagnetization. Mag-ZVI could keep its reactivity for a long time and showed better performance than Pri-ZVI for As(III) removal from synthetic groundwater in column tests. The Fe K-edge XAFS analysis for As(III)-treated ZVI samples unraveled that premagnetization promoted the transformation of ZVI to iron (hydr)oxides and shifted the corrosion products from maghemite and magnetite to lepidocrocite, which favored the arsenic sequestration. The arsenic species analysis revealed that premagnetization facilitated the oxidation of As(III) to As(V). ZVI pretreated with grinding was very different from Mag-ZVI with regard to As(III) removal, indicating that the improved reactivity of Mag-ZVI should not be associated with the physical squeezing effect of the ZVI grains during magnetization. The positive correlation between the remanence of Mag-ZVI and the rate constants of total arsenic removal indicated that the enhanced reactivity of Mag-ZVI was mainly ascribed to its magnetic memory, i.e., the remanence kept by Mag-ZVI. PMID:26221911

  3. Long-Term Supplementation with Beta Serum Concentrate (BSC), a Complex of Milk Lipids, during Post-Natal Brain Development Improves Memory in Rats.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jian; MacGibbon, Alastair; Fong, Bertram; Zhang, Rong; Liu, Karen; Rowan, Angela; McJarrow, Paul

    2015-06-05

    We have previously reported that the supplementation of ganglioside-enriched complex-milk-lipids improves cognitive function and that a phospholipid-enriched complex-milk-lipid prevents age-related cognitive decline in rats. This current study evaluated the effects of post-natal supplementation of ganglioside- and phospholipid-enriched complex-milk-lipids beta serum concentrate (BSC) on cognitive function in young rats. The diet of male rats was supplemented with either gels formulated BSC (n = 16) or blank gels (n = 16) from post-natal day 10 to day 70. Memory and anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated using the Morris water maze, dark-light boxes, and elevated plus maze tests. Neuroplasticity and white matter were measured using immunohistochemical staining. The overall performance in seven-day acquisition trials was similar between the groups. Compared with the control group, BSC supplementation reduced the latency to the platform during day one of the acquisition tests. Supplementation improved memory by showing reduced latency and improved path efficiency to the platform quadrant, and smaller initial heading error from the platform zone. Supplemented rats showed an increase in striatal dopamine terminals and hippocampal glutamate receptors. Thus BSC supplementation during post-natal brain development improved learning and memory, independent from anxiety. The moderately enhanced neuroplasticity in dopamine and glutamate may be biological changes underlying the improved cognitive function.

  4. Systemic administration of the neurotensin NTS1 receptor agonist PD149163 improves performance on a memory task in naturally deficient male Brown Norway rats

    PubMed Central

    Keiser, Ashley A.; Matazel, Katelin S.; Esser, Melissa K.; Feifel, David; Prus, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Agonists for neurotensin NTS1 receptor consistently exhibit antipsychotic effects in animal models without producing catalepsy, suggesting that NTS1 receptor agonists may be a novel class of drugs to treat schizophrenia. Moreover, studies utilizing NTS1 agonists have reported improvements in some aspects of cognitive functioning, including prepulse inhibition and learning procedures, that suggest an ability of NTS1 receptor agonists to diminish neurocognitive deficits. The present study sought to assess both baseline delay-induced memory performance and the effects of NTS1 receptor activation on learning and memory consolidation in male Long Evans and Brown Norway rats using a delayed non-match to position radial arm maze task. In the absence of drugs, Brown Norway rats displayed a significant increase in spatial memory errors following a 3, 7, and 24 hour delay, whereas Long Evans rats exhibited an increase in spatial memory errors following only a 7 and 24 hour delay. With Brown Norway rats, administration of PD149163 before or after an information trial significantly reduced errors during a retention trial after a 24 hour delay. Administration of the NTS1/2 receptor antagonist SR142948 prior to the information trial did not affect retention trial errors. These data are consistent with previous findings that Brown Norway rats have natural cognitive deficits and that they may be useful for assessing putative antipsychotic drugs for cognitive efficacy. Moreover, this study supports previous findings suggesting that NTS1 receptor agonists may improve some aspects of cognitive functioning. PMID:25222546

  5. Systemic administration of the neurotensin NTS₁-receptor agonist PD149163 improves performance on a memory task in naturally deficient male brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Keiser, Ashley A; Matazel, Katelin S; Esser, Melissa K; Feifel, David; Prus, Adam J

    2014-12-01

    Agonists for the neurotensin NTS₁ receptor consistently exhibit antipsychotic effects in animal models without producing catalepsy, suggesting that NTS₁-receptor agonists may be a novel class of drugs to treat schizophrenia. Moreover, studies utilizing NTS₁ agonists have reported improvements in some aspects of cognitive functioning, including prepulse inhibition and learning procedures, which suggest an ability of NTS₁-receptor agonists to diminish neurocognitive deficits. The present study sought to assess both baseline delay-induced memory performance and the effects of NTS₁-receptor activation on learning and memory consolidation in male Long-Evans and Brown Norway rats using a delayed nonmatch-to-position task radial arm-maze task. In the absence of drugs, Brown Norway rats displayed a significant increase in spatial memory errors following 3-, 7-, and 24-hr delay, whereas Long-Evans rats exhibited an increase in spatial memory errors following only a 7-, and 24-hr delay. With Brown Norway rats, administration of PD149163 before or after an information trial significantly reduced errors during a retention trial after a 24 hr delay. Administration of the NTS(1/2)-receptor antagonist SR142948 prior to the information trial did not affect retention-trial errors. These data are consistent with previous findings that Brown Norway rats have natural cognitive deficits and that they may be useful for assessing putative antipsychotic drugs for cognitive efficacy. Moreover, the results of this study support previous findings suggesting that NTS₁-receptor agonists may improve some aspects of cognitive functioning.

  6. Insulin-like growth factor-I gene therapy increases hippocampal neurogenesis, astrocyte branching and improves spatial memory in female aging rats.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Joaquín; Uriarte, Maia; Cónsole, Gloria M; Reggiani, Paula C; Outeiro, Tiago F; Morel, Gustavo R; Goya, Rodolfo G

    2016-08-01

    In rats, learning and memory performance decline during aging, which makes this rodent species a suitable model to evaluate therapeutic strategies of potential value for correcting age-related cognitive deficits. Some of these strategies involve neurotrophic factors like insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a powerful neuroprotective molecule in the brain. Here, we implemented 18-day long intracerebroventricular (ICV) IGF-I gene therapy in 28 months old Sprague-Dawley female rats, and assessed spatial memory performance in the Barnes maze. We also studied hippocampal morphology using an unbiased stereological approach. Adenovectors expressing the gene for rat IGF-I or the reporter DsRed were used. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were taken and IGF-I levels determined by radioimmunoassay. At the end of the study, IGF-I levels in the CSF were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the DsRed controls. After treatment, the IGF-I group showed a significant improvement in spatial memory accuracy as compared with DsRed counterparts. In the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, the IGF-I group showed a higher number of immature neurons than the DsRed controls. The treatment increased hippocampal astrocyte branching and reduced their number in the hippocampal stratum radiatum. We conclude that the ependymal route is an effective approach to increase CSF levels of IGF-I and that this strategy improves the accuracy of spatial memory in aging rats. The favorable effect of the treatment on DG neurogenesis and astrocyte branching in the stratum radiatum may contribute to improving memory performance in aging rats. PMID:27188415

  7. Quantum memory Quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

    2012-06-01

    quest for higher efficiency, better fidelity, broader bandwidth, multimode capacity and longer storage lifetime is pursued in all those approaches, as shown in this special issue. The improvement of quantum memory operation specifically requires in-depth study and control of numerous physical processes leading to atomic decoherence. The present issue reflects the development of rare earth ion doped matrices offering long lifetime superposition states, either as bulk crystals or as optical waveguides. The need for quantum sources and high efficiency detectors at the single photon level is also illustrated. Several papers address the networking of quantum memories either in long-haul cryptography or in the prospect of quantum processing. In this context, much attention has been paid recently to interfacing quantum light with superconducting qubits and with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. Finally, the quantum interfacing of light with matter raises questions on entanglement. The last two papers are devoted to the generation of entanglement by dissipative processes. It is shown that long lifetime entanglement may be built in this way. We hope this special issue will help readers to become familiar with the exciting field of ensemble-based quantum memories and will stimulate them to bring deeper insights and new ideas to this area.

  8. A combination of green tea extract and l-theanine improves memory and attention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Ki; Jung, In-Chul; Lee, Won Kyung; Lee, Young Sun; Park, Hyoung Kook; Go, Hyo Jin; Kim, Kiseong; Lim, Nam Kyoo; Hong, Jin Tae; Ly, Sun Yung; Rho, Seok Seon

    2011-04-01

    A combination of green tea extract and l-theanine (LGNC-07) has been reported to have beneficial effects on cognition in animal studies. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the effect of LGNC-07 on memory and attention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was investigated. Ninety-one MCI subjects whose Mini Mental State Examination-K (MMSE-K) scores were between 21 and 26 and who were in either stage 2 or 3 on the Global Deterioration Scale were enrolled in this study. The treatment group (13 men, 32 women; 57.58 ± 9.45 years) took 1,680 mg of LGNC-07, and the placebo group (12 men, 34 women; 56.28 ± 9.92 years) received an equivalent amount of maltodextrin and lactose for 16 weeks. Neuropsychological tests (Rey-Kim memory test and Stroop color-word test) and electroencephalography were conducted to evaluate the effect of LGNC-07 on memory and attention. Further analyses were stratified by baseline severity to evaluate treatment response on the degree of impairment (MMSE-K 21-23 and 24-26). LGNC-07 led to improvements in memory by marginally increasing delayed recognition in the Rey-Kim memory test (P = .0572). Stratified analyses showed that LGNC-07 improved memory and selective attention by significantly increasing the Rey-Kim memory quotient and word reading in the subjects with MMSE-K scores of 21-23 (LGNC-07, n = 11; placebo, n = 9). Electroencephalograms were recorded in 24 randomly selected subjects hourly for 3 hours in eye-open, eye-closed, and reading states after a single dose of LGNC-07 (LGNC-07, n = 12; placebo, n = 12). Brain theta waves, an indicator of cognitive alertness, were increased significantly in the temporal, frontal, parietal, and occipital areas after 3 hours in the eye-open and reading states. Therefore, this study suggests that LGNC-07 has potential as an intervention for cognitive improvement. PMID:21303262

  9. A combination of green tea extract and l-theanine improves memory and attention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Ki; Jung, In-Chul; Lee, Won Kyung; Lee, Young Sun; Park, Hyoung Kook; Go, Hyo Jin; Kim, Kiseong; Lim, Nam Kyoo; Hong, Jin Tae; Ly, Sun Yung; Rho, Seok Seon

    2011-04-01

    A combination of green tea extract and l-theanine (LGNC-07) has been reported to have beneficial effects on cognition in animal studies. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the effect of LGNC-07 on memory and attention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was investigated. Ninety-one MCI subjects whose Mini Mental State Examination-K (MMSE-K) scores were between 21 and 26 and who were in either stage 2 or 3 on the Global Deterioration Scale were enrolled in this study. The treatment group (13 men, 32 women; 57.58 ± 9.45 years) took 1,680 mg of LGNC-07, and the placebo group (12 men, 34 women; 56.28 ± 9.92 years) received an equivalent amount of maltodextrin and lactose for 16 weeks. Neuropsychological tests (Rey-Kim memory test and Stroop color-word test) and electroencephalography were conducted to evaluate the effect of LGNC-07 on memory and attention. Further analyses were stratified by baseline severity to evaluate treatment response on the degree of impairment (MMSE-K 21-23 and 24-26). LGNC-07 led to improvements in memory by marginally increasing delayed recognition in the Rey-Kim memory test (P = .0572). Stratified analyses showed that LGNC-07 improved memory and selective attention by significantly increasing the Rey-Kim memory quotient and word reading in the subjects with MMSE-K scores of 21-23 (LGNC-07, n = 11; placebo, n = 9). Electroencephalograms were recorded in 24 randomly selected subjects hourly for 3 hours in eye-open, eye-closed, and reading states after a single dose of LGNC-07 (LGNC-07, n = 12; placebo, n = 12). Brain theta waves, an indicator of cognitive alertness, were increased significantly in the temporal, frontal, parietal, and occipital areas after 3 hours in the eye-open and reading states. Therefore, this study suggests that LGNC-07 has potential as an intervention for cognitive improvement.

  10. The Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test and Wechsler Memory Scale--Revised: Relationship to Everyday Memory Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltai, Deborah C.; Bowler, Rosemarie M.; Shore, Michael D.

    1996-01-01

    A comparison of the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (B. Wilson, 1987) and the Wechsler Memory Scale--Revised conducted with 20 neurotoxin-exposed and 20 unexposed adults finds that the two tests do not differ significantly in their relationships to estimates of everyday memory, and using both tests does not improve prediction of memory function.…

  11. Estimated capacity of object files in visual short-term memory is not improved by retrieval cueing.

    PubMed

    Saiki, Jun; Miyatsuji, Hirofumi

    2009-03-23

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) has been claimed to maintain three to five feature-bound object representations. Some results showing smaller capacity estimates for feature binding memory have been interpreted as the effects of interference in memory retrieval. However, change-detection tasks may not properly evaluate complex feature-bound representations such as triple conjunctions in VSTM. To understand the general type of feature-bound object representation, evaluation of triple conjunctions is critical. To test whether interference occurs in memory retrieval for complete object file representations in a VSTM task, we cued retrieval in novel paradigms that directly evaluate the memory for triple conjunctions, in comparison with a simple change-detection task. In our multiple object permanence tracking displays, observers monitored for a switch in feature combination between objects during an occlusion period, and we found that a retrieval cue provided no benefit with the triple conjunction tasks, but significant facilitation with the change-detection task, suggesting that low capacity estimates of object file memory in VSTM reflect a limit on maintenance, not retrieval.

  12. Odor-enriched environment rescues long-term social memory, but does not improve olfaction in social isolated adult mice.

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Isabela D; Monteiro, Brisa M M; Cornélio, Guilherme O S; Fonseca, Cristina S; Moraes, Márcio F D; Pereira, Grace S

    2012-03-17

    Prolonged permanence of animals under social isolation (SI) arouses a variety of psychological symptoms like aggression, stress, anxiety and depression. However, short-term SI is commonly used to evaluate social memory. Interestingly, the social memory cannot be accessed with delays higher than 30min in SI mice. Our hypothesis is that SI with intermediate duration, like one week (1w), impairs the long-term storage of new social information (S-LTM), without affecting anxiety or other types of memories, because the SI compromises the olfactory function of the animal. Our results demonstrated that SI impaired S-LTM, without affecting other kinds of memory or anxiety. In addition, the SI increased the latency in the buried-food finding task, but did not affect the habituation or the discrimination of odors. Next, we postulated that if continuous input to the olfactory system is fundamental for the maintenance of the olfactory function and social memory persistence, isolated mice under odor-enriched environment (OEE) should behave like group-housed (GH) animals. In fact, the OEE prevented the S-LTM deficit imposed by the SI. However, OEE did not restore the SI mice olfaction to the GH mice level. Our results suggest that SI modulates olfaction and social memory persistence, probably, by independent mechanisms. We also showed for the first time that OEE rescued S-LTM in SI mice through a mechanism not necessarily involved with olfaction.

  13. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-08-15

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  14. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-05-16

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  15. Investigating the Improvement of Decoding Abilities and Working Memory in Children with Incremental or Entity Personal Conceptions of Intelligence: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Alesi, Marianna; Rappo, Gaetano; Pepi, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    One of the most significant current discussions has led to the hypothesis that domain-specific training programs alone are not enough to improve reading achievement or working memory abilities. Incremental or Entity personal conceptions of intelligence may be assumed to be an important prognostic factor to overcome domain-specific deficits. Specifically, incremental students tend to be more oriented toward change and autonomy and are able to adopt more efficacious strategies. This study aims at examining the effect of personal conceptions of intelligence to strengthen the efficacy of a multidimensional intervention program in order to improve decoding abilities and working memory. Participants included two children (M age = 10 years) with developmental dyslexia and different conceptions of intelligence. The children were tested on a whole battery of reading and spelling tests commonly used in the assessment of reading disabilities in Italy. Afterwards, they were given a multimedia test to measure motivational factors such as conceptions of intelligence and achievement goals. The children took part in the T.I.R.D. Multimedia Training for the Rehabilitation of Dyslexia (Rappo and Pepi, 2010) reinforced by specific units to improve verbal working memory for 3 months. This training consisted of specific tasks to rehabilitate both visual and phonological strategies (sound blending, word segmentation, alliteration test and rhyme test, letter recognition, digraph recognition, trigraph recognition, and word recognition as samples of visual tasks) and verbal working memory (rapid words and non-words recognition). Posttest evaluations showed that the child holding the incremental theory of intelligence improved more than the child holding a static representation. On the whole this study highlights the importance of treatment programs in which both specificity of deficits and motivational factors are both taken into account. There is a need to plan multifaceted intervention

  16. Animal models of source memory.

    PubMed

    Crystal, Jonathon D

    2016-01-01

    Source memory is the aspect of episodic memory that encodes the origin (i.e., source) of information acquired in the past. Episodic memory (i.e., our memories for unique personal past events) typically involves source memory because those memories focus on the origin of previous events. Source memory is at work when, for example, someone tells a favorite joke to a person while avoiding retelling the joke to the friend who originally shared the joke. Importantly, source memory permits differentiation of one episodic memory from another because source memory includes features that were present when the different memories were formed. This article reviews recent efforts to develop an animal model of source memory using rats. Experiments are reviewed which suggest that source memory is dissociated from other forms of memory. The review highlights strengths and weaknesses of a number of animal models of episodic memory. Animal models of source memory may be used to probe the biological bases of memory. Moreover, these models can be combined with genetic models of Alzheimer's disease to evaluate pharmacotherapies that ultimately have the potential to improve memory.

  17. Yifei Xuanfei Jiangzhuo formula, a Chinese herbal decoction, improves memory impairment through inhibiting apoptosis and enhancing PKA/CREB signal transduction in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    WU, LIN; ZHAO, QING-SHAN; LI, TIAN-WEI; LI, HAI-YUAN; WANG, QING-BI; BI, XIN-YA; CAI, XIN-KUN; TANG, NONG

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis and the dysfunction of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA)/cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) signaling pathway have a key role in memory impairment in vascular dementia (VaD), a challenging clinical problem. Yifei Xuanfei Jiangzhuo formula (YXJF), a Chinese herbal decoction, has been used to treat VaD in clinical practice and has produced positive outcomes; however, convincing evidence is currently lacking. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of YXJF on memory impairment in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and to explore the underlying mechanism. YXJF ameliorated memory impairment in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, inhibited hippocampal apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner and attenuated increases in the protein expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein as well as c-Jun and a reduction in Bcl-2 protein expression in the hippocampal tissue of the rats. Furthermore, administration of YXJF significantly increased the protein expression of PKA C-α and CREB, and promoted CREB phosphorylation. The results indicated that YXJF improves memory impairment through inhibiting apoptosis and enhancing PKA/CREB signal transduction in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:26094797

  18. Vitex Agnus Castus Extract Improves Learning and Memory and Increases the Transcription of Estrogen Receptor α in Hippocampus of Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Allahtavakoli, Mohammad; Honari, Najmeh; Pourabolli, Iran; Kazemi Arababadi, Mohammad; Ghafarian, Hossein; Roohbakhsh, Ali; Esmaeili Nadimi, Ali; Shamsizadeh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lower level of estrogen hormone is considered as an important factor for loss of learning and memory in postmenopausal women. Although estrogen replacement therapy is used for compensation, but long-term usage of estrogen is associated with a higher risk of hormone-dependent cancers. Phytoestrogens, due to fewer side effects, have been proposed to prevent menopause-related cognitive decline. Methods: 24 female Wistar rats weighing 180–220 g were used in this study. The animals were ovariectomized and randomly divided into four groups including, control and two groups which received 8 and 80 mg/kg Vitex agnus castus (VAC) ethanolic extract orally. The last groups were treated with 40 μg/kg of estradiol valerat. Step-through passive avoidance (STPA) test was used for the evaluation of learning and memory. The hippocampal estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression was measured using Real-Time PCR. Results: The results demonstrated that VAC extract or estradiol had better performance on step-through passive avoidance test than control group (all P<0.05). Moreover, administration of either estradiol or VAC extract increased the hippocampal mRNA level of ERα and prevented the decrease in uterine weight of ovariectomized rats. Discussion: Based on our data, VAC extract improves learning and memory in ovariectomized rats. The positive effect of VAC extract on learning and memory is possibly associated with an increase in ERα gene expression in the hippocampal formation. PMID:26904176

  19. Improvement of the functional properties of nanostructured Ti-Ni shape memory alloys by means of thermomechanical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreitcberg, Alena

    Severe plastic deformation (SPD) is commonly used for nanostructure formation in Ti-Ni shape memory alloys (SMAs), but it increases the risk of damage during processing and, consequently, negatively affects functional fatigue resistance of these materials. The principal objective of this project is, therefore, to study the interrelations between the processing conditions, damageability during processing, microstructure and the functional properties of Ti-Ni SMAs with the aim of improving long-term functional performances of these materials by optimizing their processing conditions. First, microstructure and fatigue properties of Ti-Ni SMAs were studied after thermomechanical treatment (TMT) with different combinations of severe cold and warm rolling (CR and WR), as well as intermediate and post-deformation annealing (IA and PDA) technological steps. It was shown that either when WR and IA were introduced into the TMT schedule, or CR intensity was decreased, the fatigue life was improved as a consequence of less processing-induced damage and higher density of the favorable B2-austenite texture. This improvement was reached, however, at a price of a lower multi-cycle functional stability of these materials, the latter being a direct consequence of the microstructure coarsening after higher-temperature lower-intensity processing. At the end of this study, however, it was not possible to distinguish between contributions to the functional performances of Ti-Ni SMAs from different processing-related features: a) grain/subgrain size; b) texture; and c) level of rolling-induced defects. To be capable of separating contributions to the functional properties of Ti-Ni alloys from grain/subgrain size and from texture, the theoretical crystallographic resource of recovery strain after different TMTs and, therefore, different textures, were calculated and compared with the experiment. The comparative analysis showed that the structural factors (grain/subgrain size) strongly

  20. The Circadian Regulation of Sleep: Impact of a Functional ADA-Polymorphism and Its Association to Working Memory Improvements

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Carolin F.; Maire, Micheline; Gabel, Virginie; Hofstetter, Marcel; Viola, Antoine U.; Kolodyazhniy, Vitaliy; Strobel, Werner; Goetz, Thomas; Bachmann, Valérie; Landolt, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is regulated in a time-of-day dependent manner and profits working memory. However, the impact of the circadian timing system as well as contributions of specific sleep properties to this beneficial effect remains largely unexplored. Moreover, it is unclear to which extent inter-individual differences in sleep-wake regulation depend on circadian phase and modulate the association between sleep and working memory. Here, sleep electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded during a 40-h multiple nap protocol, and working memory performance was assessed by the n-back task 10 times before and after each scheduled nap sleep episode. Twenty-four participants were genotyped regarding a functional polymorphism in adenosine deaminase (rs73598374, 12 G/A-, 12 G/G-allele carriers), previously associated with differences in sleep-wake regulation. Our results indicate that genotype-driven differences in sleep depend on circadian phase: heterozygous participants were awake longer and slept less at the end of the biological day, while they exhibited longer non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and slow wave sleep concomitant with reduced power between 8–16 Hz at the end of the biological night. Slow wave sleep and NREM sleep delta EEG activity covaried positively with overall working memory performance, independent of circadian phase and genotype. Moreover, REM sleep duration benefitted working memory particularly when occurring in the early morning hours and specifically in heterozygous individuals. Even though based on a small sample size and thus requiring replication, our results suggest genotype-dependent differences in circadian sleep regulation. They further indicate that REM sleep, being under strong circadian control, boosts working memory performance according to genotype in a time-of-day dependent manner. Finally, our data provide first evidence that slow wave sleep and NREM sleep delta activity, majorly regulated by sleep homeostatic mechanisms, is linked to working

  1. Improved Long-Term Memory via Enhancing cGMP-PKG Signaling Requires cAMP-PKA Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bollen, Eva; Puzzo, Daniela; Rutten, Kris; Privitera, Lucia; De Vry, Jochen; Vanmierlo, Tim; Kenis, Gunter; Palmeri, Agostino; D'Hooge, Rudi; Balschun, Detlef; Steinbusch, Harry MW; Blokland, Arjan; Prickaerts, Jos

    2014-01-01

    Memory consolidation is defined by the stabilization of a memory trace after acquisition, and consists of numerous molecular cascades that mediate synaptic plasticity. Commonly, a distinction is made between an early and a late consolidation phase, in which early refers to the first hours in which labile synaptic changes occur, whereas late consolidation relates to stable and long-lasting synaptic changes induced by de novo protein synthesis. How these phases are linked at a molecular level is not yet clear. Here we studied the interaction of the cyclic nucleotide-mediated pathways during the different phases of memory consolidation in rodents. In addition, the same pathways were studied in a model of neuronal plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP). We demonstrated that cGMP/protein kinase G (PKG) signaling mediates early memory consolidation as well as early-phase LTP, whereas cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling mediates late consolidation and late-phase-like LTP. In addition, we show for the first time that early-phase cGMP/PKG signaling requires late-phase cAMP/PKA-signaling in both LTP and long-term memory formation. PMID:24813825

  2. Physical exercise exacerbates memory deficits induced by intracerebroventricular STZ but improves insulin regulation of H₂O₂ production in mice synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Muller, Alexandre P; Zimmer, Eduardo Rigon; Kalinine, Eduardo; Haas, Clarissa B; Oses, Jean Pierre; Martimbianco de Assis, Adriano; Galina, Antonio; Souza, Diogo O; Portela, Luis Valmor

    2012-01-01

    Insulin brain resistant state is associated with cognitive deficits and Alzheimer's disease by mechanisms that may involve mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress. Conversely, physical exercise improves cognitive function and brain insulin signaling. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of streptozotocin (STZ) in rodents is an established model of insulin-resistant brain state. This study evaluates the effects of physical exercise on memory performance of i.c.v., STZ-treated mice(1 and 3 mg/kg) and whether insulin (50 and 100 ng/ml) modulates mitochondrial H₂O₂ generation in synaptosomes. S100B levels and SOD and CAT activities were assessed as markers of brain damage caused by STZ. Sedentary and exercise vehicle-treated mice demonstrated similar performance in object recognition memory task. In the water maze test, exercise vehicle-treated mice showed improvement performance in the acquisition and retrieval phases. The administration of STZ (1 mg/kg) before thirty days of voluntary physical exercise protocol impaired recognition and spatial memory only in exercised mice, whereas STZ (3 mg/kg) impaired the performance of sedentary and exercise groups. Moreover, STZ (3 mg/kg) increased hippocampal S100B levels in both groups and SOD/CAT ratio in the sedentary animals. Insulin decreased synaptosomal H₂O₂ production in exercised compared to sedentary mice; however, both STZ doses abolished this effect. Normal brain insulin signaling is mechanistically involved in the improvement of cognitive function induced by exercise through the regulation of mitochondrial H₂O₂ production. However, a prior blockade of brain insulin signaling with STZ abolished the benefits of exercise on memory performance and mitochondrial H₂O₂ regulation.

  3. Genistein improves 3-NPA-induced memory impairment in ovariectomized rats: impact of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and acetylcholinesterase modulatory properties.

    PubMed

    Menze, Esther T; Esmat, Ahmed; Tadros, Mariane G; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Khalifa, Amani E

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The pre-motor symptomatic stages of the disease are commonly characterized by cognitive problems including memory loss. 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) is a mitochondrial toxin that produces selective lesions in the brain similar to that of HD and was proven to cause memory impairment in rodents. Phytoestrogens have well-established neuroprotective and memory enhancing effects with fewer side effects in comparison to estrogens. This study investigated the potential neuroprotective and memory enhancing effect of genistein (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg), a phytoestrogen, in ovariectomized rats challenged with 3-NPA (20 mg/kg). These potential effects were compared to those of 17β-estradiol (2.5 mg/kg). Systemic administration of 3-NPA for 4 consecutive days impaired locomotor activity, decreased retention latencies in the passive avoidance task, decreased striatal, cortical and hippocampal ATP levels, increased oxidative stress, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressions. Pretreatment with genistein and 17β-estradiol attenuated locomotor hypoactivity, increased retention latencies in the passive avoidance task, increased ATP levels, improved the oxidative stress profile, attenuated the increase in AChE activity and decreased the expression of COX-2 and iNOS. Overall, the higher genistein dose (20 mg/kg) was the most effective. In conclusion, this study suggests neuroprotective and memory enhancing effects for genistein in a rat model of HD. These effects might be attributed to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cholinesterase inhibitory activities.

  4. Genistein Improves 3-NPA-Induced Memory Impairment in Ovariectomized Rats: Impact of Its Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Acetylcholinesterase Modulatory Properties

    PubMed Central

    Menze, Esther T.; Esmat, Ahmed; Tadros, Mariane G.; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B.; Khalifa, Amani E.

    2015-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The pre-motor symptomatic stages of the disease are commonly characterized by cognitive problems including memory loss. 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) is a mitochondrial toxin that produces selective lesions in the brain similar to that of HD and was proven to cause memory impairment in rodents. Phytoestrogens have well-established neuroprotective and memory enhancing effects with fewer side effects in comparison to estrogens. This study investigated the potential neuroprotective and memory enhancing effect of genistein (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg), a phytoestrogen, in ovariectomized rats challenged with 3-NPA (20 mg/kg). These potential effects were compared to those of 17β-estradiol (2.5 mg/kg). Systemic administration of 3-NPA for 4 consecutive days impaired locomotor activity, decreased retention latencies in the passive avoidance task, decreased striatal, cortical and hippocampal ATP levels, increased oxidative stress, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressions. Pretreatment with genistein and 17β-estradiol attenuated locomotor hypoactivity, increased retention latencies in the passive avoidance task, increased ATP levels, improved the oxidative stress profile, attenuated the increase in AChE activity and decreased the expression of COX-2 and iNOS. Overall, the higher genistein dose (20 mg/kg) was the most effective. In conclusion, this study suggests neuroprotective and memory enhancing effects for genistein in a rat model of HD. These effects might be attributed to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cholinesterase inhibitory activities. PMID:25675218

  5. Four weeks of combination exercise training improved executive functions, episodic memory, and processing speed in healthy elderly people: evidence from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nouchi, Rui; Taki, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-04-01

    Previous reports have described that long-term combination exercise training improves cognitive functions in healthy elderly people. This study investigates the effects of 4 weeks of short-term combination exercise training on various cognitive functions of elderly people. We conducted a single-blinded randomized controlled trial with two parallel groups. Sixty-four healthy older adults were assigned randomly to a combination exercise training group or a waiting list control group. Participants in the combination exercise training group participated in the combination exercise training (aerobic, strength, and stretching exercise trainings) 3 days per week during 4 weeks (12 workouts total). The waiting list control group did not participate in the combination exercise training. Measures of the cognitive functions (executive functions, episodic memory, working memory, reading ability, attention, and processing speed) were conducted before and after training. Results showed that the combination exercise training improved executive functions, episodic memory, and processing speed compared to those attributes of the waiting list control group. This report was the first of a study demonstrating the beneficial effects of short-term combination exercise training on diverse cognitive functions of elderly people. Our study provides important evidence of the short-term combination exercise's effectiveness.

  6. Neural stem cell transplantation improves spatial learning and memory via neuronal regeneration in amyloid-β precursor protein/presenilin 1/tau triple transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang-Qing; Cai, Qing; Shen, Yu-Ying; Wang, Pei-Yun; Li, Ming-Hua; Teng, Gao-Yun

    2014-03-01

    Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation has recently become a main research target for Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment. In the present study, we transplanted NSCs from C57BL/6 mice into the hippocampus in the 12-month-old triple transgenic model of AD (3 × Tg) and determined whether NSC transplantation can alleviate impairments in spatial learning and memory via neuronal regeneration in AD mice. Two months after transplantation, Morris water maze tests suggested that spatial learning and memory in the 3 × Tg mice receiving NSCs was significantly improved compared to 3 × Tg mice not receiving NSCs. Furthermore, quantification of Nissl staining revealed that the number of neurons in the hippocampus of 3 × Tg mice receiving NSCs was significantly greater than that in 3 × Tg mice not receiving NSCs, indicating that new neurons were generated. These results may demonstrate that NSC transplantation can improve spatial learning and memory via neuronal regeneration in amyloid-β precursor protein/presenilin 1/tau 3 × Tg mice.

  7. Activation of matrix metalloproteinase in dorsal hippocampus drives improvement in spatial working memory after intra-VTA nicotine infusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Shu, Hui; Zheng, Guo-qing; Wang, Xiaona; Sun, Yanyun; Liu, Yushan; Weaver, John Michael; Shen, Xianzhi; Liu, Wenlan; Jin, Xinchun

    2015-10-01

    The hippocampus receives dopaminergic projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra. These inputs appear to provide a modulatory signal that influences hippocampus-dependent behaviors. Enhancements in working memory performance have been previously reported following acute smoking/nicotine exposure. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of nicotine on spatial working memory (SWM) and the mechanisms involved. Delayed alternation T-maze task was used to assess SWM. In situ and gel gelatin zymography were used to detect matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in SWM. Systemic or local (intra-VTA) administration of nicotine significantly improves SWM, which was accompanied by increased MMP-9 activity in dorsal hippocampus (dHPC). Intra-dHPC administration of MMP inhibitor FN-439 abolished the memory enhancement induced by intra-VTA nicotine infusion. FN-439 had no effect on locomotor behavior. Our data suggest that intra-VTA nicotine infusion activates MMP-9 in dHPC to improve SWM in rats.

  8. Caffeoylquinic acid-rich purple sweet potato extract, with or without anthocyanin, imparts neuroprotection and contributes to the improvement of spatial learning and memory of SAMP8 mouse.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kazunori; Han, Junkyu; Shimozono, Hidetoshi; Villareal, Myra O; Isoda, Hiroko

    2013-05-29

    The effects of caffeoylquinic acid (CQA)-rich purple sweet potato (PSP) extract, with (PSPEa) or without (PSPEb) anthocyanin, on the improvement of spatial learning and memory of senescence-accelerated prone mouse strain (SAMP) 8 was determined. SAMP8 was treated with 20 mg/kg/day of PSPEa or PSPEb for 30 days. The effect on spatial learning and memory and the molecular mechanism of this effect were determined in vivo (SAMP8) and in vitro (SH-SY5Y cells). PSPEa or PSPEb reduced the escape latency time of SAMP8 by 17.0 ± 8.0 and 14.2 ± 5.8 s (P < 0.01), respectively. PSPEa administration induced an overexpression of antioxidant-, energy metabolism-, and neuronal plasticity-related proteins in the brain of SAMP8. Additionally, PSPEa and PSPEb increased the cell viability by 141.6 and 133% as compared to Aβ1-42-treated cells. These findings suggest that PSP rich in CQA derivatives with or without anthocyanidine had a neuroprotective effect on mouse brain and can improve the spatial learning and memory of SAMP8.

  9. The extracellular fragment of GPNMB (Glycoprotein nonmelanosoma protein B, osteoactivin) improves memory and increases hippocampal GluA1 levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kenta; Yoshino, Yuta; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Moriguchi, Shigeki; Oyagi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Ishisaka, Mitsue; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Fukunaga, Kohji; Hara, Hideaki

    2015-03-01

    Glycoprotein nonmelanoma protein B (GPNMB, alias osteoactivin), a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, is cleaved by extracellular proteases, resulting in release of an extracellular fragment (ECF). GPNMB is widely expressed by neurons within the CNS, including the hippocampus; however, its function in the brain remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of GPNMB in memory and learning by using transgenic (Tg) mice over-expressing GPNMB (Tg mice on a BDF-1 background) and ECF-treated mice. In the hippocampus of both wild-type and Tg mice, GPNMB was highly expressed in neurons and astrocytes. Tg mice exhibited memory improvements in two types of learning tasks but were impaired in a passive-avoidance test. In Tg mice, the hippocampus displayed increased levels of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor subunit GluA1. Intracerebroventricular administration of ECF (50 ng) to Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice also improved memory in a passive-avoidance test and increased hippocampal GluA1 levels 24 h after treatment. In Tg mice and ECF (0.25 μg/mL)-treated hippocampal slices, long-term potentiation was promoted. These findings suggest that GPNMB may be a novel target for research on higher order brain functions.

  10. Caffeoylquinic acid-rich purple sweet potato extract, with or without anthocyanin, imparts neuroprotection and contributes to the improvement of spatial learning and memory of SAMP8 mouse.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kazunori; Han, Junkyu; Shimozono, Hidetoshi; Villareal, Myra O; Isoda, Hiroko

    2013-05-29

    The effects of caffeoylquinic acid (CQA)-rich purple sweet potato (PSP) extract, with (PSPEa) or without (PSPEb) anthocyanin, on the improvement of spatial learning and memory of senescence-accelerated prone mouse strain (SAMP) 8 was determined. SAMP8 was treated with 20 mg/kg/day of PSPEa or PSPEb for 30 days. The effect on spatial learning and memory and the molecular mechanism of this effect were determined in vivo (SAMP8) and in vitro (SH-SY5Y cells). PSPEa or PSPEb reduced the escape latency time of SAMP8 by 17.0 ± 8.0 and 14.2 ± 5.8 s (P < 0.01), respectively. PSPEa administration induced an overexpression of antioxidant-, energy metabolism-, and neuronal plasticity-related proteins in the brain of SAMP8. Additionally, PSPEa and PSPEb increased the cell viability by 141.6 and 133% as compared to Aβ1-42-treated cells. These findings suggest that PSP rich in CQA derivatives with or without anthocyanidine had a neuroprotective effect on mouse brain and can improve the spatial learning and memory of SAMP8. PMID:23647122

  11. Blockade of IP[subscript 3]-Mediated SK Channel Signaling in the Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex Improves Spatial Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Avis R.; Dolinsky, Beth; Vu, Mai-Anh T.; Stanley, Marion; Yeckel, Mark F.; Arnsten, Amy F. T.

    2008-01-01

    Planning and directing thought and behavior require the working memory (WM) functions of prefrontal cortex. WM is compromised by stress, which activates phosphatidylinositol (PI)-mediated IP[subscript 3]-PKC intracellular signaling. PKC overactivation impairs WM operations and in vitro studies indicate that IP[subscript 3] receptor (IP[subscript…

  12. Resveratrol improved the spatial learning and memory in subclinical hypothyroidism rat induced by hemi-thyroid electrocauterization.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jin-Fang; Xu, Ya-Yun; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yue; Qiu, Guo-Liang; Chu, Cheng-Hao; Wang, Cai-Yun; Qin, Gan; Chen, Fei-Hu

    2015-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resveratrol (RES) on the spatial learning and memory ability in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) rat model and the potential mechanism. A SCH rat model was induced by hemi-thyroid electrocauterization and the activity of hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis was detected. The spatial learning and memory ability was tested using Morris water maze (MWM) and Y-maze. The protein expressions of synaptotagmin-1 (syt-1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus were measured via western blot. The results showed that SCH rat model was successfully duplicated. The SCH rats showed impaired learning and memory in the behavioral tests. However, these changes were reversed by the treatment of RES (15mg/kg) and levothyroxine (LT4). Moreover, RES treated rats exhibited reduced plasma TSH level and hypothalamic thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) mRNA expression, which suggested that the imbalance of HPT axis in the SCH rats could be reversed by RES treatment. Furthermore, RES treatment up-regulated the protein levels of syt-1 and BDNF in hippocampus. These findings indicated an amelioration effect of RES on the spatial learning and memory in the SCH rats, the mechanism of which might be involved with its ability of modifying the hyperactive HPT axis and up-regulating the hippocampal hypo-expression of syt-1 and BDNF. PMID:26228795

  13. Simulation of the Effects of Radiation on a Satellite Memory and Improving Its Fault-Tolerant Ability, Using SIHFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nematollahzadeh, S. M.; Jamshidifar, A. A.

    This chapter describes a software environment based on VirSim tool to simulate the effect of radiation on COTS (commercial off-the-shelf) memories and shows the efficiency of the software EDAC (error detection and correction). As a case study, a sample student LEO (low Earth orbit) satellite with 8-MB (megabytes) RAM (random access memory) is considered and software EDAC for detecting and correcting the faults in the memory is implemented. The software EDAC is responsible for reliability of data in this 8-MB RAM. One separated task in VirSim tool has been developed for injection SEUs (single event upset) to the 8-MB memory of the satellite. The SEUs have been generated based on the ARGOS satellite reports. According to these reports the average of SEUs is about 5.5 SEU/MB per day, where it generates about 5 MBU (multiple bit upset) out of any 100 SEU. About four of these MBUs are double events (2-bit upset in one word) and one of them is triple. The software EDAC detects and corrects all 1-bit SEUs and detects double MBUs but it does not guarantee the detection of triple MBUs. This kind of simulation is very simple, accessible, and very close to the real environment and one can use it for checking effectiveness of the approach. The simulation results demonstrate efficacy of the approach in terms of fault detection and correction capabilities.

  14. Long-term treadmill exercise improves spatial memory of male APPswe/PS1dE9 mice by regulation of BDNF expression and microglia activation.

    PubMed

    Xiong, J Y; Li, S C; Sun, Y X; Zhang, X S; Dong, Z Z; Zhong, P; Sun, X R

    2015-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that physical activity could delay or attenuate the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). But the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. To investigate the effect of long-term treadmill exercise on the spatial memory of AD mice and the possible role of β-amyloid, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and microglia in the effect, male APPswe/PS1dE9 AD mice aged 4 months were subjected to treadmill exercise for 5 months with 6 sessions per week and gradually increased load. A Morris water maze was used to evaluate the spatial memory. Expression levels of β-amyloid, BDNF and Iba-1 (a microglia marker) in brain tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry. Sedentary AD mice and wildtype C57BL/6J mice served as controls. The results showed that 5-month treadmill exercise significantly decreased the escape latencies (P < 0.01 on the 4th day) and improved the spatial memory of the AD mice in the water maze test. Meanwhile, treadmill exercise significantly increased the number of BDNF-positive cells and decreased the ratios of activated microglia in both the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. However, treadmill exercise did not significantly alleviate the accumulation of β-amyloid in either the cerebral cortex or the hippocampus of the AD mice (P > 0.05). The study suggested that long-term treadmill exercise could improve the spatial memory of the male APPswe/PS1dE9 AD mice. The increase in BDNF-positive cells and decrease in activated microglia might underpin the beneficial effect.

  15. A role for hippocampal PSA-NCAM and NMDA-NR2B receptor function in flavonoid-induced spatial memory improvements in young rats.

    PubMed

    Rendeiro, Catarina; Foley, Andrew; Lau, Vera C; Ring, Rebecca; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Vauzour, David; Williams, Claire M; Regan, Ciaran; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2014-04-01

    The increase in incidence and prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases highlights the need for a more comprehensive understanding of how food components may affect neural systems. In particular, flavonoids have been recognized as promising agents capable of influencing different aspects of synaptic plasticity resulting in improvements in memory and learning in both animals and humans. Our previous studies highlight the efficacy of flavonoids in reversing memory impairments in aged rats, yet little is known about the effects of these compounds in healthy animals, particularly with respect to the molecular mechanisms by which flavonoids might alter the underlying synaptic modifications responsible for behavioral changes. We demonstrate that a 3-week intervention with two dietary doses of flavonoids (Dose I: 8.7 mg/day and Dose II: 17.4 mg/day) facilitates spatial memory acquisition and consolidation (24 recall) (p < 0.05) in young healthy rats. We show for the first time that these behavioral improvements are linked to increased levels in the polysialylated form of the neural adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, which is known to be required for the establishment of durable memories. We observed parallel increases in hippocampal NMDA receptors containing the NR2B subunit for both 8.7 mg/day (p < 0.05) and 17.4 mg/day (p < 0.001) doses, suggesting an enhancement of glutamate signaling following flavonoid intervention. This is further strengthened by the simultaneous modulation of hippocampal ERK/CREB/BDNF signaling and the activation of the Akt/mTOR/Arc pathway, which are crucial in inducing changes in the strength of hippocampal synaptic connections that underlie learning. Collectively, the present data supports a new role for PSA-NCAM and NMDA-NR2B receptor on flavonoid-induced improvements in learning and memory, contributing further to the growing body of evidence suggesting beneficial effects of flavonoids in

  16. Development of a Memory Game to Improve Knowledge Retention in Preparation for Broad Scope Exams in an Introductory Earth Science Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, H. M.; Bilsley, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    As the demand for introductory earth science classes rises at educational institutions, large class sizes place strain on the educator's time and ability to offer extensive project-based assignments. As a result, exams covering a broad spectrum of material are more heavily weighted in students' grades. Students often struggle on the first exam, as they attempt to retain a large amount of information from several different topics, while having no exposure to the type of questions that will be asked. This frequently leads to a large dropout rate early in the academic term, or at least a sense of discouragement and stress among struggling students. To better prepare students for a broad scope exam, a review activity modelled after the traditional Milton Bradley "Memory" game was developed to remind students of what would be covered on the exam, prepare them for the style of questions that may be asked, as well as provide a fun, interactive, and educational activity. The Earth Science Memory Game was developed to have interchangeable sets to cover a broad range of topics and thus also be reusable for the duration of the course. Example games sets presented include, but are not limited to, the scientific method, minerals, rocks, topographic maps, tectonics, geologic structures, volcanoes, and weather. The Earth Science Memory Game not only provides an effective review tool to improve success rates on broad scope exams, but is also customizable by the instructor, reusable, and easily constructed by common office supplies.

  17. Tiliacora triandra, an Anti-Intoxication Plant, Improves Memory Impairment, Neurodegeneration, Cholinergic Function, and Oxidative Stress in Hippocampus of Ethanol Dependence Rats

    PubMed Central

    Phunchago, Nattaporn; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Chaisiwamongkol, Kowit

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in brain dysfunctions induced by alcohol. Since less therapeutic agent against cognitive deficit and brain damage induced by chronic alcohol consumption is less available, we aimed to assess the effect of Tiliacora triandra extract, a plant possessing antioxidant activity, on memory impairment, neuron density, cholinergic function, and oxidative stress in hippocampus of alcoholic rats. Male Wistar rats were induced ethanol dependence condition by semivoluntary intake of alcohol for 15 weeks. Alcoholic rats were orally given T. triandra at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg·kg−1BW for 14 days. Memory assessment was performed every 7 days while neuron density, activities of AChE, SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px and, MDA level in hippocampus were assessed at the end of study. Interestingly, the extract mitigated the increased escape latency, AChE and MDA level. The extract also mitigated the decreased retention time, SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities, and neurons density in hippocampus induced by alcohol. These data suggested that the extract improved memory deficit in alcoholic rats partly via the decreased oxidative stress and the suppression of AChE. Therefore, T. triandra is the potential reagent for treating brain dysfunction induced by alcohol. However, further researches are necessary to understand the detail mechanism and possible active ingredient. PMID:26180599

  18. Memory Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... different parts. Some of them are important for memory. The hippocampus (say: hih-puh-KAM-pus) is one of the more important parts of the brain that processes memories. Old information and new information, or memories, are ...

  19. Multi-Vitamin B Supplementation Reverses Hypoxia-Induced Tau Hyperphosphorylation and Improves Memory Function in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lixia; Chen, Yuan; Wang, Weiguang; Xiao, Zhonghai; Hong, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) leads to reduced oxygen delivery to brain. It could trigger cognitive dysfunction and increase the risk of dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study was undertaken in order to examine whether B vitamins (B6, B12, folate, and choline) could exert protective effects on hypoxia-induced memory deficit and AD related molecular events in mice. Adult male Kunming mice were assigned to five groups: normoxic control, hypoxic model (HH), hypoxia+vitamin B6/B12/folate (HB), hypoxia+choline (HC), hypoxia+vitamin B6/B12/folate+choline (HBC). Mice in the hypoxia, HB, HC, and HBC groups were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia for 8 h/day for 28 days in a decompression chamber mimicking 5500 meters of high altitude. Spatial and passive memories were assessed by radial arm and step-through passive test, respectively. Levels of tau and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β phosphorylation were detected by western blot. Homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations were determined using enzymatic cycling assay. Mice in the HH group exhibited significant spatial working and passive memory impairment, increased tau phosphorylation at Thr181, Ser262, Ser202/Thr205, and Ser396 in the cortex and hippocampus, and elevated Hcy levels compared with controls. Concomitantly, the levels of Ser9-phosphorylated GSK-3β were significantly decreased in brain after hypoxic treatment. Supplementations of vitamin B6/B12/folate+choline could significantly ameliorate the hypoxia-induced memory deficits, observably decreased Hcy concentrations in serum, and markedly attenuated tau hyperphosphorylation at multiple AD-related sites through upregulating inhibitory Ser9-phosphorylated GSK-3β. Our finding give further insight into combined neuroprotective effects of vitamin B6, B12, folate, and choline on brain against hypoxia. PMID:27497480

  20. 4-Hydroxybenzyl methyl ether improves learning and memory in mice via the activation of dopamine D1 receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Eun; Lee, Young Woo; Park, Se Jin; Jeon, Se Jin; Kim, Eunji; Lee, Sunhee; Han, Ah-Reum; Seo, Eun-Kyoung; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2015-05-01

    The phenolic compound 4-hydroxybenzyl methyl ether (HBME) is isolated from Gastrodia elata Blume (Orchidaceae). In the present study, we investigated the effect of HBME on three stages of memory (acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval) using the step-through passive avoidance task. HBME was administered at 3 time points; 1 h before the acquisition trial, immediately after the acquisition trial, and 1h before the retention trial, respectively. HBME (10 mg/kg, p.o.) markedly increased the step-through latency compared with the vehicle-treated control at all stages of memory. To clarify the mechanism of the memory-enhancing effect of HBME, an antagonism study and Western blot analysis were performed. The enhancing effects of HBME on each phase were reversed by the sub-effective dose of the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 (0.0125 mg/kg, s.c.), or the protein kinase A (PKA) antagonist H-89 (0.25 mg/kg, i.p.). In addition, the administration of HBME (10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the phosphorylation of the cortical and hippocampal PKA/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and was reversed by the co-administration of SCH23390. HBME (10 mg/kg, p.o.) also ameliorated the memory impairment induced by SCH23390 or scopolamine. Taken together, these results suggest that the effect of HBME on cognitive functions may be partly involved in dopaminergic neurotransmitter signaling and that HBME could be a potential therapeutic agent for treating the cognitive dysfunction induced by dopaminergic or cholinergic neurotransmitter system deficits.

  1. Liver X receptor agonist T0901317 reduces neuropathological changes and improves memory in mouse models of experimental dementia.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, Rupinder K; Singh, Nirmal

    2014-06-01

    The present study has been undertaken to explore the potential of liver X receptor (LXR) modulator, T0901317, in dementia induced by streptozotocin (STZ) and cholesterol enriched diet. Streptozotocin [STZ, 3mg/kg, injected intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.)] and high fat diet (HFD, administered for 90 days) were used to induce dementia in separate groups of Swiss albino mice. The Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to evaluate the effect on cognitive functions. Brain homogenate was used to perform a series of biochemical studies such as, estimation of brain reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), acetylcholinestrase (AChE) activity and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels. Serum cholesterol was also determined. STZ and HFD produced a significant decline in MWM performance of the animals, reflecting impairment of learning and memory. STZ/HFD treated mice exhibited a noticeable accentuation of AChE activity, TBARS and MPO levels along with reduction in GSH level. Further the stained micrographs of STZ/HFD treated mice indicated pathological changes, severe neutrophilic infiltration and amyloid deposition. T0901317 treatment significantly attenuated STZ and HFD-induced memory deficits, biochemical and histopathological alterations as well as HFD induced rise in cholesterol content. Hence the study indicates the potential role of liver X receptors in the pathophysiology of dementia. Therefore, the results demonstrate the defensive role of T0901317 in memory dysfunctions which may probably be attributed to its anti-cholinesterase, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and cholesterol lowering effects.

  2. Improved characteristics for MOHOS memory with oxygen-rich GdO as charge storage layer annealed by NH3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lu; Xu, J. P.; Chen, J. X.; Lai, P. T.

    2014-06-01

    Characteristics of metal-oxide-high- k-oxide-silicon (MOHOS) memories with oxygen-rich or oxygen-deficient GdO as charge storage layer annealed by NH3 or N2 are investigated. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction are used to analyze the cross-sectional quality, composition and crystallinity, respectively, of the stacked gate dielectric with a structure of Al/Al2O3/GdO/SiO2/Si. The MOHOS capacitor with oxygen-rich GdO annealed in NH3 exhibits a good trade-off among its memory properties: large memory window (4.8 V at ±12 V, 1 s), high programming speed (2.6 V at ±12 V/100 μs), good endurance and retention properties (window degradation of 5 % after 105 program/erase cycles and charge loss of 18.6 % at 85 °C after 10 years, respectively) due to passivation of oxygen vacancies, generation of deep-level traps in the grain boundaries of the GdO layer and suppression of the interlayer between GdO and SiO2 by the NH3 annealing.

  3. β-Adducin is required for stable assembly of new synapses and improved memory upon environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Bednarek, Ewa; Caroni, Pico

    2011-03-24

    Learning is correlated with the assembly of new synapses, but the roles of synaptogenesis processes in memory are poorly understood. Here, we show that mice lacking β-Adducin fail to assemble new synapses upon enhanced plasticity and exhibit diminished long-term hippocampal memory upon environmental enrichment. Enrichment-enhanced the disassembly and assembly of dynamic subpopulations of synapses. Upon enrichment, stable assembly of new synapses depended on the presence of β-Adducin, disassembly involved β-Adducin phosphorylation through PKC, and both were required for augmented learning. In the absence of β-Adducin, enrichment still led to an increase in spine structures, but the assembly of synapses at those spines was compromised. Virus-mediated re-expression of β-Adducin in hippocampal granule cells of β-Adducin(-/-) mice rescued new synapse assembly and learning upon enrichment. Our results provide evidence that synapse disassembly and the establishment of new synapses are both critically important for augmented long-term learning and memory upon environmental enrichment.

  4. Improvement of spatial memory function in APPswe/PS1dE9 mice after chronic inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 4D.

    PubMed

    Sierksma, A S R; van den Hove, D L A; Pfau, F; Philippens, M; Bruno, O; Fedele, E; Ricciarelli, R; Steinbusch, H W M; Vanmierlo, T; Prickaerts, J

    2014-02-01

    Phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitors (PDE4-Is) have received increasing attention as cognition-enhancers and putative treatment strategies for Alzheimer's disease (AD). By preventing cAMP breakdown, PDE4-Is can enhance intracellular signal transduction and increase the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and transcription of proteins related to synaptic plasticity and associated memory formation. Unfortunately, clinical development of PDE4-Is has been seriously hampered by emetic side effects. The new isoform-specific PDE4D-I, GEBR-7b, has shown to have beneficial effects on memory at non-emetic doses. The aim of the current study was to investigate chronic cognition-enhancing effects of GEBR-7b in a mouse model of AD. To this extent, 5-month-old (5M) APPswe/PS1dE9 mice received daily subcutaneous injections with GEBR-7b (0.001 mg/kg) or vehicle for a period of 3 weeks, and were tested on affective and cognitive behavior at 7M. We demonstrated a cognition-enhancing potential in APPswe/PS1dE9 mice as their spatial memory function at 7M in the object location test was improved by prior GEBR-7b treatment. APPswe/PS1dE9 mice displayed lower levels of CREB phosphorylation, which remained unaltered after chronic GEBR-7b treatment, and higher levels of tau in the hippocampus. Hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and synaptic densities were not different between experimental groups and no effects were observed on hippocampal GSK3β and tau phosphorylation or Aβ levels. In conclusion, GEBR-7b can enhance spatial memory function in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of AD. Although the underlying mechanisms of its cognition-enhancing potential remain to be elucidated, PDE4D inhibition appears an interesting novel therapeutic option for cognitive deficits in AD.

  5. The cognitive effects of listening to background music on older adults: processing speed improves with upbeat music, while memory seems to benefit from both upbeat and downbeat music

    PubMed Central

    Bottiroli, Sara; Rosi, Alessia; Russo, Riccardo; Vecchi, Tomaso; Cavallini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Background music refers to any music played while the listener is performing another activity. Most studies on this effect have been conducted on young adults, while little attention has been paid to the presence of this effect in older adults. Hence, this study aimed to address this imbalance by assessing the impact of different types of background music on cognitive tasks tapping declarative memory and processing speed in older adults. Overall, background music tended to improve performance over no music and white noise, but not always in the same manner. The theoretical and practical implications of the empirical findings are discussed. PMID:25360112

  6. Improved spatial learning and memory by perilla diet is correlated with immunoreactivities to neurofilament and α-synuclein in hilus of dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Perilla (Perilla frutescens) oil is very rich in α-linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid. As it is widely reported that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves cognitive function in children and adults, feeding rats with perilla diets followed by analysis of proteomic changes in the hippocampus can provide valuable information on the mechanism of learning and memory at the molecular level. To identify proteins playing roles in learning and memory, differentially expressed proteins in the hippocampus of the 5 week old rats fed perilla diets for 3 weeks or 3 months were identified by proteomic analysis and validated by immunological assays. Results The perilla diet groups showed improved spatial learning and memory performances in a T-maze test. They also displayed elevated level of 22:6n-3 fatty acid, an omega-3 fatty acid (p<0.05), in the brain compared to the control diet group. Quantitative proteomic analysis using 2-D gels as well as functional annotation grouping with the differentially expressed proteins in the hippocampus showed that those proteins involved in cytoskeleton and transport were the major differentially expressed proteins in the 3-week group, whereas those involved in energy metabolism, neuron projection and apoptosis in addition to cytoskeleton and transport were the major ones in the 3 month group. Differential protein expression in the hippocampus was validated by Western blotting using four selected proteins, known to be involved in synaptic plasticity; AMPA receptor, neurofilament, α-synuclein, and β-soluble NSF attachment protein. Brain sections from the perilla-diet groups showed enhanced immunoreactivities to α-synuclein and neurofilament. Especially, neurofilament immunoreactive cells manifested longer neurite projections in the hilus of dentate gyrus of the perilla-diet groups. Conclusion Improved cognitive function upon administration of n-3 fatty acid-rich perilla diet is associated with the differential expression

  7. The cognitive effects of listening to background music on older adults: processing speed improves with upbeat music, while memory seems to benefit from both upbeat and downbeat music.

    PubMed

    Bottiroli, Sara; Rosi, Alessia; Russo, Riccardo; Vecchi, Tomaso; Cavallini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Background music refers to any music played while the listener is performing another activity. Most studies on this effect have been conducted on young adults, while little attention has been paid to the presence of this effect in older adults. Hence, this study aimed to address this imbalance by assessing the impact of different types of background music on cognitive tasks tapping declarative memory and processing speed in older adults. Overall, background music tended to improve performance over no music and white noise, but not always in the same manner. The theoretical and practical implications of the empirical findings are discussed. PMID:25360112

  8. The cognitive effects of listening to background music on older adults: processing speed improves with upbeat music, while memory seems to benefit from both upbeat and downbeat music.

    PubMed

    Bottiroli, Sara; Rosi, Alessia; Russo, Riccardo; Vecchi, Tomaso; Cavallini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Background music refers to any music played while the listener is performing another activity. Most studies on this effect have been conducted on young adults, while little attention has been paid to the presence of this effect in older adults. Hence, this study aimed to address this imbalance by assessing the impact of different types of background music on cognitive tasks tapping declarative memory and processing speed in older adults. Overall, background music tended to improve performance over no music and white noise, but not always in the same manner. The theoretical and practical implications of the empirical findings are discussed.

  9. Hypnosis, memory and amnesia.

    PubMed Central

    Kihlstrom, J F

    1997-01-01

    Hypnotized subjects respond to suggestions from the hypnotist for imaginative experiences involving alterations in perception and memory. Individual differences in hypnotizability are only weakly related to other forms of suggestibility. Neuropsychological speculations about hypnosis focus on the right hemisphere and/or the frontal lobes. Posthypnotic amnesia refers to subjects' difficulty in remembering, after hypnosis, the events and experiences that transpired while they were hypnotized. Posthypnotic amnesia is not an instance of state-dependent memory, but it does seem to involve a disruption of retrieval processes similar to the functional amnesias observed in clinical dissociative disorders. Implicit memory, however, is largely spared, and may underlie subjects' ability to recognize events that they cannot recall. Hypnotic hypermnesia refers to improved memory for past events. However, such improvements are illusory: hypermnesia suggestions increase false recollection, as well as subjects' confidence in both true and false memories. Hypnotic age regression can be subjectively compelling, but does not involve the ablation of adult memory, or the reinstatement of childlike modes of mental functioning, or the revivification of memory. The clinical and forensic use of hypermnesia and age regression to enhance memory in patients, victims and witnesses (e.g. recovered memory therapy for child sexual abuse) should be discouraged. PMID:9415925

  10. Voluntary wheel running, but not a diet containing (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and β-alanine, improves learning, memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Trisha E; Pence, Brandt D; Petr, Geraldine; Ossyra, Jessica M; Mach, Houston C; Bhattacharya, Tushar K; Perez, Samuel; Martin, Stephen A; McCusker, Robert H; Kelley, Keith W; Rhodes, Justin S; Johnson, Rodney W; Woods, Jeffrey A

    2014-10-01

    Aging is associated with impaired learning and memory accompanied by reductions in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and brain expression of neurotrophic factors among other processes. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, a green tea catechin), β-alanine (β-ala, the precursor of carnosine), and exercise have independently been shown to be neuroprotective and to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress in the central nervous system. We hypothesized that EGCG, β-ala supplementation or exercise alone would improve learning and memory and increase neurogenesis in aged mice, and the combined intervention would be better than either treatment alone. Male Balb/cByJ mice (19 months) were given AIN-93M diet with or without EGCG (182mg/kg/d) and β-ala (417mg/kg/d). Half of the mice were given access to a running wheel (VWR). The first 10 days, animals received 50mg/kg bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) daily. After 28 days, learning and memory was assessed by Morris water maze (MWM) and contextual fear conditioning (CFC). Brains were collected for immunohistochemical detection of BrdU and quantitative mRNA expression in the hippocampus. VWR increased the number of BrdU cells in the dentate gyrus, increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, decreased expression of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β, and improved performance in the MWM and CFC tests. The dietary intervention reduced brain oxidative stress as measured by 4-hydroxynonenal in the cerebellum, but had no effect on BrdU labeling or behavioral performance. These results suggest that exercise, but not a diet containing EGCG and β-ala, exhibit pro-cognitive effects in aged mice when given at these doses in this relatively short time frame.

  11. Environmental enrichment has antidepressant-like action without improving learning and memory deficits in olfactory bulbectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Hendriksen, Hendrikus; Meulendijks, Didier; Douma, Tessa N; Bink, Diewertje I; Breuer, Megan E; Westphal, Koen G C; Olivier, Berend; Oosting, Ronald S

    2012-01-01

    Depression, especially in the elderly, is associated with poor cognitive functioning. Exercise has received much attention in the treatment for depression and also dementia. Here we studied the effect of an enriched environment combined with voluntary exercise (EE/VE) on the olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) rat. The OBX rat is hyperactive in an open field, which is normalized by chronic antidepressant treatment, and suffers from learning and memory impairments. Neurotrophic factors are thought to be involved in the antidepressant action of EE/VE. Hyperactivity and cognitive functioning (both hippocampal dependent and independent tasks) were investigated before and after EE/VE. We quantified hippocampal mRNA levels of the neurotrophic factors BDNF, VGF and VEGF. VEGF receptor (FLK-1) inhibition was achieved by i.c.v administration of the antagonist SU5416 during the period of EE/VE. OBX almost completely blocked fear memory acquired either 48 h or 28 days before surgery. EE/EV normalized OBX-induced hyperactivity in open field, while having no effect on the decrease in hippocampal dependent learning and memory. VEGF mRNA levels in hippocampus were significantly increased both in OBX and control rats following EE/VE. OBX reduced BDNF mRNA levels, but EE did not reverse this. Inhibition of the FLK-1 receptor did not suppress EE/VE induced normalization of the hyperactivity of the OBX rat. The lack of effect of EE/VE on cognitive parameters, while normalizing hyperactivity, suggests different neuronal mechanisms underlying OBX-induced behavioral changes. Since EE/VE still normalizes the OBX-induced hyperactivity while the FLK-1 receptor was blocked, we assume that VEGF is not obligatory for the antidepressant effect of EE/VE. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'.

  12. CaMKII-dependent dendrite ramification and spine generation promote spatial training-induced memory improvement in a rat model of sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xia; Chai, Gao-Shang; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Hu, Yu; Li, Xiao-Guang; Ma, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Qun; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Gong-Ping

    2015-02-01

    Participation in cognitively stimulating activities can preserve memory capacities in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we used a rat model with hyperhomocysteinemia, an independent risk factor of AD, to study whether spatial training could remodel the synaptic and/or dendritic plasticity and the key molecular target(s) involved. We found that spatial training in water maze remarkably improved the subsequent short-term and long-term memory performance in contextual fear conditioning and Barnes maze. The trained rats showed an enhanced dendrite ramification, spine generation and plasticity in dentate gyrus (DG) neurons, and stimulation of long-term potentiation between perforant path and DG circuit. Spatial training also increased the levels of postsynaptic GluA1, GluN2A, GluN2B, and PSD93 with selective activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), although inhibition of CaMKII by stereotaxic injection of KN93 into hippocampal DG, abolished the training-induced cognitive improvement, dendrite ramification, and spine generation. We conclude that spatial training can preserve the cognitive function by CaMKII-dependent remodeling of dendritic plasticity in hyperhomocysteinemia-induced sporadic AD-like rats.

  13. Improvement in Long-Term Memory following Chronic Administration of Eryngium planum Root Extract in Scopolamine Model: Behavioral and Molecular Study

    PubMed Central

    Ozarowski, Marcin; Thiem, Barbara; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L.; Piasecka, Anna; Kachlicki, Piotr; Szulc, Michal; Kaminska, Ewa; Bogacz, Anna; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Kujawska, Malgorzata; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Budzianowski, Jaromir; Kędziora, Izabela; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Czerny, Boguslaw; Bobkiewicz-Kozłowska, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Eryngium planum L. (EP) is as a rare medicinal plant with a lot of potentials as pharmaceutical crops. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a 70% ethanol extract of EP roots (200 mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses in Wistar rats linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and beta-secretase (BACE-1) mRNA levels and AChE and BuChE activities in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. On the last day of experiment, 30 min after the last dose of EP or Huperzine A (HU), scopolamine (SC) was given at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally. The results of a passive avoidance test showed an improvement in long-term memory produced by the EP extract in both scopolamine-induced rats and control group. EP caused an insignificant inhibition of AChE and BuChE activities in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus. EP decreased mRNA AChE, BuChE, and BACE-1 levels, especially in the cortex. Our results suggest that the EP extract led to the improvement of the long-term memory in rats coupled with total saponin content. The mechanism of EP action is probably complicated, since HPLC-MS analysis showed 64 chemical compounds (phenolics, saponins) in the extract of EP roots. PMID:26483842

  14. Mixture of Peanut Skin Extract and Fish Oil Improves Memory in Mice via Modulation of Anti-Oxidative Stress and Regulation of BDNF/ERK/CREB Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Lan; Cao, Xue-Li; Xing, Tian-Yan; Mori, Daisuke; Tang, Rui-Qi; Li, Jing; Gao, Li-Juan; Qi, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Long-term use of fish oil (FO) is known to induce oxidative stress and increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease in humans. In the present study, peanut skin extract (PSE), which has strong antioxidant capacity, was mixed with FO to reduce its side effects while maintaining its beneficial properties. Twelve-week Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were used to conduct animal behavior tests in order to evaluate the memory-enhancing ability of the mixture of peanut skin extract and fish oil (MPF). MPF significantly increased alternations in the Y-maze and cognitive index in the novel object recognition test. MPF also improved performance in the water maze test. We further sought to understand the mechanisms underlying these effects. A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and an increase in malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in plasma were observed in the FO group. The MPF group showed reduced MDA level and increased SOD activity in the plasma, cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, the gene expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus were increased in the MPF group, while phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and CREB in the hippocampus were enhanced. MPF improves memory in mice via modulation of anti-oxidative stress and activation of BDNF/ERK/CREB signaling pathways. PMID:27136583

  15. AAV2/1 CD74 Gene Transfer Reduces β-amyloidosis and Improves Learning and Memory in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kiyota, Tomomi; Zhang, Gang; Morrison, Christine M; Bosch, Megan E; Weir, Robert A; Lu, Yaman; Dong, Weiguo; Gendelman, Howard E

    2015-01-01

    Modulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) trafficking pathway heralds a new therapeutic frontier for Alzheimer's disease (AD). As CD74 binds to the amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) and can suppresses Aβ processing, we investigated whether recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) delivery of CD74 could reduce Aβ production and affect disease outcomes. This idea was tested in a mouse AD model. Cotransduction of AAV-tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTA) and AAV-tet-response element (TRE)-CD74 resulted in CD74 expression, reduced Aβ production in mouse neurons containing the human APP with familial AD-linked mutations. Stereotaxic injection of AAV-TRE-GFP or CD74 into the hippocampi of an AD mouse, defined as a TgCRND8 × calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II derived promoter-tTA double-transgenic, reduced Aβ loads and pyramidal neuronal Aβ accumulation in the hippocampus. Immunofluorescent studies showed that APP colocalization with Lamp1 was increased in CD74-expressing neurons. Moreover, Morris water maze tasks demonstrated that mice treated with AAV-TRE-CD74 showed improved learning and memory compared to AAV-TRE-GFP control animals. These results support the idea that CD74-induced alteration of Aβ processing could improve AD-associated memory deficits as shown in mouse models of human disease. PMID:26227349

  16. Neuromodulation for restoring memory.

    PubMed

    Bick, Sarah K B; Eskandar, Emad N

    2016-05-01

    Disorders of learning and memory have a large social and economic impact in today's society. Unfortunately, existing medical treatments have shown limited clinical efficacy or potential for modification of the disease course. Deep brain stimulation is a successful treatment for movement disorders and has shown promise in a variety of other diseases including psychiatric disorders. The authors review the potential of neuromodulation for the treatment of disorders of learning and memory. They briefly discuss learning circuitry and its involvement in Alzheimer disease and traumatic brain injury. They then review the literature supporting various targets for neuromodulation to improve memory in animals and humans. Multiple targets including entorhinal cortex, fornix, nucleus basalis of Meynert, basal ganglia, and pedunculopontine nucleus have shown a promising potential for improving dysfunctional memory by mechanisms such as altering firing patterns in neuronal networks underlying memory and increasing synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Significant work remains to be done to translate these findings into durable clinical therapies. PMID:27132526

  17. Memory Palaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a lesson called Memory Palaces. A memory palace is a memory tool used to remember information, usually as visual images, in a sequence that is logical to the person remembering it. In his book, "In the Palaces of Memory", George Johnson calls them "...structure(s) for arranging knowledge. Lots of connections to language arts,…

  18. Modified write-and-verify scheme for improving the endurance of multi-level cell phase-change memory using Ge-doped SbTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gang; Wu, Zhe; Jeong, Jeung-hyun; Jeong, Doo Seok; Yoo, Won Jong; Cheong, Byung-ki

    2012-10-01

    In this study, a modified write-and-verify (WAV) scheme is proposed for improving the programming/erasing (P/E) endurance of multi-level cell (MLC) phase-change memory (PCM) using Ge-doped SbTe (GeST). A dual reference data read method is developed to detect the level margin decay during P/E cycling, and a trigger condition is designed to trigger self-repair for the degraded cells before any P/E error for the modified WAV scheme. Experimental results suggest that the modified WAV scheme effectively extends the P/E endurance of PCM using GeST during 4-level P/E by at least 10 times. The modified WAV scheme is expected to improve the endurance of MLC-PCM of system applications.

  19. Creatine monohydrate supplementation for 10 weeks mediates neuroprotection and improves learning/memory following neonatal hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy in female albino mice.

    PubMed

    Allah Yar, Razia; Akbar, Atif; Iqbal, Furhan

    2015-01-21

    Currently there are no uniform standard treatments for newborn suffering from cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and to find new and effective strategies for treating the HI injury remains a key direction for future research. Present study was designed to demonstrate that optimal dose (1 or 3%) of creatine monohydrate (Cr) for the treatment of neonatal HI in female albino mice. On postnatal day 10, animals were subjected to left carotid artery ligation followed by 8% hypoxia for 25 minutes. Following weaning on postnatal day 20, mice were divided into three treatments on the basis of diet supplementation (Normal rodent diet, 1% and 3% creatine supplemented diet) for 10 week. A battery of neurological tests (Rota rod, open field and Morris water maze) was used to demonstrate effect of Cr supplementation on neurofunction and infarct size following HI. Open field test results indicated that Cr supplementation had significantly improved locomotory and exploratory behavior in subjects. It was observed that Cr treated mice showed better neuromuscular coordination (rota rod) and improved spatial memory (Morris Water Maze test). A significant affect of creatine supplementation in reducing infarct size was also observed. Post hoc analysis of post hoc multiple comparisons revealed that mice supplemented with 3% Cr for 10 weeks performed better during Morris water maze test while 1% Cr supplementation improved the exploratory behavior and gain in body weight than control group indicating that Cr supplementation has the potential to improve the neurofunction following neonatal brain damage. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Brain and Memory.

  20. The future of memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinella, M.

    In the not too distant future, the traditional memory and storage hierarchy of may be replaced by a single Storage Class Memory (SCM) device integrated on or near the logic processor. Traditional magnetic hard drives, NAND flash, DRAM, and higher level caches (L2 and up) will be replaced with a single high performance memory device. The Storage Class Memory paradigm will require high speed (< 100 ns read/write), excellent endurance (> 1012), nonvolatility (retention > 10 years), and low switching energies (< 10 pJ per switch). The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) has recently evaluated several potential candidates SCM technologies, including Resistive (or Redox) RAM, Spin Torque Transfer RAM (STT-MRAM), and phase change memory (PCM). All of these devices show potential well beyond that of current flash technologies and research efforts are underway to improve the endurance, write speeds, and scalabilities to be on-par with DRAM. This progress has interesting implications for space electronics: each of these emerging device technologies show excellent resistance to the types of radiation typically found in space applications. Commercially developed, high density storage class memory-based systems may include a memory that is physically radiation hard, and suitable for space applications without major shielding efforts. This paper reviews the Storage Class Memory concept, emerging memory devices, and possible applicability to radiation hardened electronics for space.

  1. PWZ-029, an inverse agonist selective for α₅ GABAA receptors, improves object recognition, but not water-maze memory in normal and scopolamine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Milić, Marija; Timić, Tamara; Joksimović, Srđan; Biawat, Poonam; Rallapalli, Sundari; Divljaković, Jovana; Radulović, Tamara; Cook, James M; Savić, Miroslav M

    2013-03-15

    Inverse agonism at the benzodiazepine site of α(5) subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors is an attractive approach for the development of putative cognition-enhancing compounds, which are still far from clinical application. Several ligands with binding and/or functional selectivity for α(5) GABA(A) receptors have been synthesized and tested in a few animal models. PWZ-029 is an α(5) GABA(A) selective inverse agonist whose memory enhancing effects were demonstrated in the passive avoidance task in rats and in Pavlovian fear conditioning in mice. In the present study we investigated the effects of PWZ-029 administration in novel object recognition test and Morris water maze, in normal and scopolamine-treated rats. All the three doses of PWZ-029 (2, 5 and 10 mg/kg) improved object recognition after the 24-h delay period, as shown by significant differences between the exploration times of the novel and old object, and the respective discrimination indices. PWZ-029 (2 mg/kg) also successfully reversed the 0.3 mg/kg scopolamine-induced deficit in recognition memory after the 1-h delay. In the Morris water maze test, PWZ-029 (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg) did not significantly influence swim patterns, either during five acquisition days or during the treatment-free probe trial. PWZ-029 (2, 5 and 10 mg/kg) also proved to be ineffective in the reversal of the 1mg/kg scopolamine-induced memory impairment in the water maze. The present mixed results encourage use of a variety of tests and experimental conditions in order to increase the predictability of preclinical testing of selective α(5) GABA(A) inverse agonists.

  2. Vitamin D2-enriched button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) improves memory in both wild type and APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Louise; Kersaitis, Cindy; Macaulay, Stuart Lance; Münch, Gerald; Niedermayer, Garry; Nigro, Julie; Payne, Matthew; Sheean, Paul; Vallotton, Pascal; Zabaras, Dimitrios; Bird, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is widespread, affecting over 30% of adult Australians, and increasing up to 80% for at-risk groups including the elderly (age>65). The role for Vitamin D in development of the central nervous system is supported by the association between Vitamin D deficiency and incidence of neurological and psychiatric disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). A reported positive relationship between Vitamin D status and cognitive performance suggests that restoring Vitamin D status might provide a cognitive benefit to those with Vitamin D deficiency. Mushrooms are a rich source of ergosterol, which can be converted to Vitamin D2 by treatment with UV light, presenting a new and convenient dietary source of Vitamin D2. We hypothesised that Vitamin D2-enriched mushrooms (VDM) could prevent the cognitive and pathological abnormalities associated with dementia. Two month old wild type (B6C3) and AD transgenic (APPSwe/PS1dE9) mice were fed a diet either deficient in Vitamin D2 or a diet which was supplemented with VDM, containing 1±0.2 µg/kg (∼54 IU/kg) vitamin D2, for 7 months. Effects of the dietary intervention on memory were assessed pre- and post-feeding. Brain sections were evaluated for amyloid β (Aβ) plaque loads and inflammation biomarkers using immuno-histochemical methods. Plasma vitamin D metabolites, Aβ40, Aβ42, calcium, protein and cholesterol were measured using biochemical assays. Compared with mice on the control diet, VDM-fed wild type and AD transgenic mice displayed improved learning and memory, had significantly reduced amyloid plaque load and glial fibrillary acidic protein, and elevated interleukin-10 in the brain. The results suggest that VDM might provide a dietary source of Vitamin D2 and other bioactives for preventing memory-impairment in dementia. This study supports the need for a randomised clinical trial to determine whether or not VDM consumption can benefit cognitive performance in the wider population. PMID:24204618

  3. Performance improvement of Ge-Sb-Te material by GaSb doping for phase change memory

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yegang; Zhang, Zhonghua; Song, Sannian; Cheng, Limin; Song, Zhitang; Shen, Xiang; Wang, Guoxiang; Dai, Shixun

    2013-06-17

    Effects of GaSb doping on phase change characteristics of Ge-Sb-Te material are investigated by in situ resistance and x-ray diffraction measurement, optical spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The crystallization temperature and data retention of Ge-Sb-Te material increase significantly by the addition of GaSb, which results from the high thermal stability of amorphous GaSb. In addition, GaSb-doped Ge-Sb-Te material exhibits faster crystallization speed due to the change in electronic states as a result of the formation of chemical bonds with Ga element. Incorporation of GaSb is highly effective way to enhance the comprehensive performance of Ge-Sb-Te material for phase change memory.

  4. Improved thermal stability of N-doped Sb materials for high-speed phase change memory application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yifeng; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zou, Hua; Zhang, Jianhao; Yuan, Li; Xue, Jianzhong; Sui, Yongxing; Wu, Weihua; Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang

    2016-05-01

    Compared with pure Sb, N-doped Sb material was proved to be a promising candidate for the phase change memory (PCM) use because of its higher crystallization temperature (˜250 °C), larger crystallization activation energy (3.53 eV), and better data retention ability (166 °C for 10 years). N-doping also broadened the band gap and refined grain size. The reversible resistance transition could be achieved by an electric pulse as short as 8 ns for the PCM cell based on N-doped Sb material. A lower operation power consumption (the energy for RESET operation 2.2 × 10-12 J) was obtained. In addition, N-doped Sb material showed a good endurance of 1.8 × 105 cycles.

  5. [Effects of tianeptine on learning and memory in mice. Improvement of impairments induced by chronic alcoholism and brain aging].

    PubMed

    Jaffard, R; Mocaër, E; Lebrun, C; Béracochéa, D

    1991-11-14

    Tianeptine, a molecule with antidepressant properties, was found to affect certain learning and memory impairments induced by chronic alcoholism and aging in the mouse. Impairment in spontaneous alternation induced by chronic (12 months) alcohol intake and accelerated loss of spatial learning skills related to aging disappeared totally after administration of tianeptine (10 mg.kg-1). In certain situations (discrimination acquisitions), tianeptine was uneffective in older animals at this dosage, but had a facilitating effect in young animals. The effects of tianeptine on serotonin mediated transmission and the probable implication of hypofunctioning central cholinergic systems in the observed impairments are discussed. Tianeptine might reduce the inhibiting action of serotonin terminaisons on acetylcholine release and might thus permit normal cholinergic transmission.

  6. Tualang honey improves memory performance and decreases depressive-like behavior in rats exposed to loud noise stress

    PubMed Central

    Azman, Khairunnuur Fairuz; Zakaria, Rahimah; AbdAziz, CheBadariah; Othman, Zahiruddin; Al-Rahbi, Badriya

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has exhibited dietary influence on the manifestation of different types of behavior induced by stressor tasks. The present study examined the effects of Tualang honey supplement administered with the goal of preventing or attenuating the occurrence of stress-related behaviors in male rats subjected to noise stress. Forty-eight adult male rats were randomly divided into the following four groups: i) nonstressed with vehicle, ii) nonstressed with Tualang honey, iii) stressed with vehicle, and iv) stressed with honey. The supplement was given once daily via oral gavage at 0.2 g/kg body weight. Two types of behavioral tests were performed, namely, the novel object recognition test to evaluate working memory and the forced swimming test to evaluate depressive-like behavior. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using IBM SPSS 18.0. It was observed that the rats subjected to noise stress expressed higher levels of depressive-like behavior and lower memory functions compared to the unexposed control rats. In addition, our results indicated that the supplementation regimen successfully counteracted the effects of noise stress. The forced swimming test indicated that climbing and swimming times were significantly increased and immobility times significantly decreased in honey-supplemented rats, thereby demonstrating an antidepressant-like effect. Furthermore, cognitive function was shown to be intensely affected by noise stress, but the effects were counteracted by the honey supplement. These findings suggest that subchronic exposure to noise stress induces depressive-like behavior and reduces cognitive functions, and that these effects can be attenuated by Tualang honey supplementation. This warrants further studies to examine the role of Tulang honey in mediating such effects. PMID:25774610

  7. Tualang honey improves memory performance and decreases depressive-like behavior in rats exposed to loud noise stress.

    PubMed

    Azman, Khairunnuur Fairuz; Zakaria, Rahimah; AbdAziz, CheBadariah; Othman, Zahiruddin; Al-Rahbi, Badriya

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has exhibited dietary influence on the manifestation of different types of behavior induced by stressor tasks. The present study examined the effects of Tualang honey supplement administered with the goal of preventing or attenuating the occurrence of stress-related behaviors in male rats subjected to noise stress. Forty-eight adult male rats were randomly divided into the following four groups: i) nonstressed with vehicle, ii) nonstressed with Tualang honey, iii) stressed with vehicle, and iv) stressed with honey. The supplement was given once daily via oral gavage at 0.2 g/kg body weight. Two types of behavioral tests were performed, namely, the novel object recognition test to evaluate working memory and the forced swimming test to evaluate depressive-like behavior. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using IBM SPSS 18.0. It was observed that the rats subjected to noise stress expressed higher levels of depressive-like behavior and lower memory functions compared to the unexposed control rats. In addition, our results indicated that the supplementation regimen successfully counteracted the effects of noise stress. The forced swimming test indicated that climbing and swimming times were significantly increased and immobility times significantly decreased in honey-supplemented rats, thereby demonstrating an antidepressant-like effect. Furthermore, cognitive function was shown to be intensely affected by noise stress, but the effects were counteracted by the honey supplement. These findings suggest that subchronic exposure to noise stress induces depressive-like behavior and reduces cognitive functions, and that these effects can be attenuated by Tualang honey supplementation. This warrants further studies to examine the role of Tulang honey in mediating such effects.

  8. Improving Working Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: The Separate and Combined Effects of Incentives and Stimulant Medication

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Michael T.; Hawk, Larry W.; Bubnik, Michelle; Shiels, Keri; Pelham, William E.; Waxmonsky, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is considered a core deficit in Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), with numerous studies demonstrating impaired WM among children with ADHD. We tested the degree to which WM in children with ADHD was improved by performance-based incentives, an analog of behavioral intervention. In two studies, WM performance was assessed using a visuo-spatial n-back task. Study 1 compared children (ages 9-12 years) with ADHD–Combined type (n=24) to a group of typically developing (TD) children (n=32). Study 1 replicated WM deficits among children with ADHD. Incentives improved WM, particularly among children with ADHD. The provision of incentives reduced the ADHD-control group difference by approximately half but did not normalize WM. Study 2 examined the separate and combined effects of incentives and stimulant medication among 17 children with ADHD-Combined type. Both incentives and a moderate dose of long-acting methylphenidate (MPH; ~0.3 mg/kg t.i.d. equivalent) robustly improved WM relative to the no-incentive, placebo condition. The combination of incentives and medication improved WM significantly more than either incentives or MPH alone. These studies indicate that contingencies markedly improve WM among children with ADHD–Combined type, with effect sizes comparable to a moderate dose of stimulant medication. More broadly, this work calls attention to the role of motivation in studying cognitive deficits in ADHD and in testing multifactorial models of ADHD. PMID:22477205

  9. The mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator, SAR218645, improves memory and attention deficits in translational models of cognitive symptoms associated with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Griebel, Guy; Pichat, Philippe; Boulay, Denis; Naimoli, Vanessa; Potestio, Lisa; Featherstone, Robert; Sahni, Sukhveen; Defex, Henry; Desvignes, Christophe; Slowinski, Franck; Vigé, Xavier; Bergis, Olivier E.; Sher, Rosy; Kosley, Raymond; Kongsamut, Sathapana; Black, Mark D.; Varty, Geoffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Normalization of altered glutamate neurotransmission through activation of the mGluR2 has emerged as a new approach to treat schizophrenia. These studies describe a potent brain penetrant mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM), SAR218645. The compound behaves as a selective PAM of mGluR2 in recombinant and native receptor expression systems, increasing the affinity of glutamate at mGluR2 as inferred by competition and GTPγ35S binding assays. SAR218645 augmented the mGluR2-mediated response to glutamate in a rat recombinant mGluR2 forced-coupled Ca2+ mobilization assay. SAR218645 potentiated mGluR2 agonist-induced contralateral turning. When SAR218645 was tested in models of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, it reduced head twitch behavior induced by DOI, but it failed to inhibit conditioned avoidance and hyperactivity using pharmacological and transgenic models. Results from experiments in models of the cognitive symptoms associated with schizophrenia showed that SAR218645 improved MK-801-induced episodic memory deficits in rats and attenuated working memory impairment in NMDA Nr1neo−/− mice. The drug reversed disrupted latent inhibition and auditory-evoked potential in mice and rats, respectively, two endophenotypes of schizophrenia. This profile positions SAR218645 as a promising candidate for the treatment of cognitive symptoms of patients with schizophrenia, in particular those with abnormal attention and sensory gating abilities. PMID:27734956

  10. Bangle (Zingiber purpureum) Improves Spatial Learning, Reduces Deficits in Memory, and Promotes Neurogenesis in the Dentate Gyrus of Senescence-Accelerated Mouse P8.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Megumi; Iizuka, Michiro; Matsui, Nobuaki; Hosogi, Kazuko; Imai, Akiko; Abe, Noriaki; Shiraishi, Hisashi; Hirata, Ayumu; Yagi, Yusuke; Jobu, Kohei; Yokota, Junko; Kato, Eishin; Hosoda, Shinya; Yoshioka, Saburo; Harada, Kenichi; Kubo, Miwa; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2016-05-01

    Bangle (Zingiber purpureum) is a tropical ginger that is used as a spice in Southeast Asia. Phenylbutenoid dimers isolated from Bangle have exhibited neurotrophic effects in primary cultured rat cortical neurons and PC12 cells. Furthermore, chronic treatment with phenylbutenoid dimers enhances hippocampal neurogenesis in olfactory bulbectomized mice. In this study, we investigated the effects of Bangle extract on behavior and hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo. SAMP8 mice, which are an established model for accelerated aging, with age-related learning and memory impairments, were given a Bangle-containing diet for 1 month, and subsequent behavioral tests and immunohistochemistry for Ki67, a proliferating cell marker, were performed. We found that the Bangle-containing diet improved spatial learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze and significantly increased the numbers of Ki67-positive cells in the dentate gyrus of the SAMP8 mice. In addition, the Bangle extract exhibited a neurotrophin-like activity as indicated by the induction of neurite sprouting in PC12 cells. Our results suggest that Bangle is beneficial for the prevention of age-related progression of cognitive impairment.

  11. A Novel 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivative Improves Spatial Learning and Memory and Modifies Brain Protein Expression in Wild Type and Transgenic APPSweDI Mice.

    PubMed

    Jansone, Baiba; Kadish, Inga; van Groen, Thomas; Beitnere, Ulrika; Moore, Doyle Ray; Plotniece, Aiva; Pajuste, Karlis; Klusa, Vija

    2015-01-01

    Ca2+ blockers, particularly those capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB), have been suggested as a possible treatment or disease modifying agents for neurodegenerative disorders, e.g., Alzheimer's disease. The present study investigated the effects of a novel 4-(N-dodecyl) pyridinium group-containing 1,4-dihydropyridine derivative (AP-12) on cognition and synaptic protein expression in the brain. Treatment of AP-12 was investigated in wild type C57BL/6J mice and transgenic Alzheimer's disease model mice (Tg APPSweDI) using behavioral tests and immunohistochemistry, as well as mass spectrometry to assess the blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration. The data demonstrated the ability of AP-12 to cross the BBB, improve spatial learning and memory in both mice strains, induce anxiolytic action in transgenic mice, and increase expression of hippocampal and cortical proteins (GAD67, Homer-1) related to synaptic plasticity. The compound AP-12 can be seen as a prototype molecule for use in the design of novel drugs useful to halt progression of clinical symptoms (more specifically, anxiety and decline in memory) of neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Electroacupuncture Treatment Improves Learning-Memory Ability and Brain Glucose Metabolism in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease: Using Morris Water Maze and Micro-PET

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jing; Gao, Kai; Zhou, Yuan; Xu, Anping; Shi, Suhua; Liu, Gang; Li, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes progressive hippocampus dysfunctions leading to the impairment of learning and memory ability and low level of uptake rate of glucose in hippocampus. What is more, there is no effective treatment for AD. In this study, we evaluated the beneficial and protective effects of electroacupuncture in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8). Method. In the electroacupuncture paradigm, electroacupuncture treatment was performed once a day for 15 days on 7.5-month-old SAMP8 male mice. In the normal control paradigm and AD control group, 7.5-month-old SAMR1 male mice and SAMP8 male mice were grabbed and bandaged while electroacupuncture group therapy, in order to ensure the same treatment conditions, once a day, 15 days. Results. From the Morris water maze (MWM) test, we found that the treatment of electroacupuncture can improve the spatial learning and memory ability of SAMP8 mouse, and from the micro-PET test, we proved that after the electroacupuncture treatment the level of uptake rate of glucose in hippocampus was higher than normal control group. Conclusion. These results suggest that the treatment of electroacupuncture may provide a viable treatment option for AD. PMID:25821477

  13. Gene Knockout of 5-Lipoxygenase Rescues Synaptic Dysfunction and Improves Memory in the Triple-Transgenic Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Giannopoulos, Phillip F.; Chu, Jin; Joshi, Yash B.; Sperow, Margaret; Li, Jin-Luo; Kirby, Lynn G.; Praticò, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    The 5-Lipoxygenase (5LO) is upregulated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and in vivo modulates the amyloidotic phenotype of APP transgenic mice. However, no data are available on the effects that 5LO has on synaptic function, integrity and cognition. To address this issue we used a genetic and a pharmacologic approach by generating 3xTg mice deficient for 5LO, and administering 3xTg mice which a 5LO inhibitor. Compared with controls, we found that even before the development of overt neuropathology, both animals manifested significant memory improvement, rescue of their synaptic dysfunction and amelioration of synaptic integrity. In addition, later in life these mice had a significant reduction of Aβ and tau pathology. Our findings support a novel functional role for 5LO in regulating synaptic plasticity and memory. They establish this proetin as a pleiotropic contributor to the development of the full spectrum of the AD phenotype, making it a valid therapeutic target for the treatment of AD. PMID:23478745

  14. Diet rich in date palm fruits improves memory, learning and reduces beta amyloid in transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Subash, Selvaraju; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Braidy, Nady; Awlad-Thani, Kathyia; Vaishnav, Ragini; Al-Adawi, Samir; Al-Asmi, Abdullah; Guillemin, Gilles J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: At present, the treatment options available to delay the onset or slow down the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are not effective. Recent studies have suggested that diet and lifestyle factors may represent protective strategies to minimize the risk of developing AD. Date palm fruits are a good source of dietary fiber and are rich in total phenolics and natural antioxidants, such as anthocyanins, ferulic acid, protocatechuic acid and caffeic acid. These polyphenolic compounds have been shown to be neuroprotective in different model systems. Objective: We investigated whether dietary supplementation with 2% and 4% date palm fruits (grown in Oman) could reduce cognitive and behavioral deficits in a transgenic mouse model for AD (amyloid precursor protein [APPsw]/Tg2576). Materials and Methods: The experimental groups of APP-transgenic mice from the age of 4 months were fed custom-mix diets (pellets) containing 2% and 4% date fruits. We assessed spatial memory and learning ability, psychomotor coordination, and anxiety-related behavior in all the animals at the age of 4 months and after 14 months of treatment using the Morris water maze test, rota-rod test, elevated plus maze test, and open-field test. We have also analyzed the levels of amyloid beta (Aβ) protein (1–40 and 1–42) in plasma of control and experimental animals. Results: Standard diet-fed Tg mice showed significant memory deficits, increased anxiety-related behavior, and severe impairment in spatial learning ability, position discrimination learning ability and motor coordination when compared to wild-type on the same diet and Tg mice fed 2% and 4% date supplementation at the age of 18 months. The levels of both Aβ proteins were significantly lowered in date fruits supplemented groups than the Tg mice without the diet supplement. The neuroprotective effect offered by 4% date fruits diet to AD mice is higher than 2% date fruits diet. Conclusions: Our results suggest that date

  15. The improvement of spatial memory deficits in APP/V717I transgenic mice by chronic anti-stroke herb treatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kaiyu; Tan, Yan; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Qi; Sun, Ping; Zhang, Ying; Yao, Na; Zhao, Yanan; Wang, Xu; Fan, Angran; Hua, Qian

    2014-05-28

    In China, herbal medicine has an extensive history for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. Clinical studies have shown that stroke patients are more likely to experience significant memory decline in comparison to their healthy counterparts. Cognition is improved in stroke patients treated with herbal medicine active components, Geniposide (GP) and Geniposide Rg1 (GRg1) (together, called TLJN). However, the effect of TLJN in Alzheimer disease remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated the behavioral effect of TLJN in male and female APP/V717I transgenic (Tg) mice. We conducted two different treatment strategies: (1) pretreatment strategy: medically treated at the age of 3 months which lasted for 3 months; (2) early treatment strategy: medically treated at the age of 6 months which lasted for 4 months. In open field test, locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior were not affected after TLJN administration in Tg mice. In Morris Water Maze test, spatial learning processes in both genders were improved by TLJN treatments. Furthermore, retrieval processes were significantly improved in the pretreatment strategy for only male mice, which also showed a trend for improved retrieval processes with early treatment. In the inhibitory avoidance test, TLJN enhanced learning processes. In addition, gender differences were found in Tg mice exposed to TLJN treatments. In Tg male mice, significant efficacy was seen at high and middle doses, and in Tg female mice, a low dose was more effective.

  16. The Illusion of Perfect Memory.

    PubMed

    Wick, Jeannette Y

    2016-09-01

    Memory is not infallible, and certain memory problems or glitches are normal. Most people notice that they experience more memory shortcomings as they age. Omission deficits and commission deficits are common and include transience, absentmindedness, tip-of-the-tongue experience, misattribution, suggestibility, bias, and persistence. Each of these has a different cause, and researchers have looked for interventions that can decrease the frequency and severity of these common problems. Though some people worry that memory glitches foreshadow dementia, that is not usually the case. Understanding how memory falters can assist pharmacists in helping patients provide better medical histories and improve adherence. It is useful when collecting reliable information if incident reports rely on eyewitness accounts. It can also help them improve pharmacists' own memories, and understand why memory may change over time. PMID:27636872

  17. Improvements in Memory after Medial Septum Stimulation Are Associated with Changes in Hippocampal Cholinergic Activity and Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Da Un; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Sung Eun; Chang, Won Seok; Kim, Sung June; Chang, Jin Woo

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been found to have therapeutic effects in patients with dementia, but DBS mechanisms remain elusive. To provide evidence for the effectiveness of DBS as a treatment for dementia, we performed DBS in a rat model of dementia with intracerebroventricular administration of 192 IgG-saporins. We utilized four groups of rats, group 1, unlesioned control; group 2, cholinergic lesion; group 3, cholinergic lesion plus medial septum (MS) electrode implantation (sham stimulation); group 4, cholinergic lesions plus MS electrode implantation and stimulation. During the probe test in the water maze, performance of the lesion group decreased for measures of time spent and the number of swim crossings over the previous platform location. Interestingly, the stimulation group showed an equivalent performance to the normal group on all measures. And these are partially reversed by the electrode implantation. Acetylcholinesterase activity in the hippocampus was decreased in lesion and implantation groups, whereas activity in the stimulation group was not different from the normal group. Hippocampal neurogenesis was increased in the stimulation group. Our results revealed that DBS of MS restores spatial memory after damage to cholinergic neurons. This effect is associated with an increase in hippocampal cholinergic activity and neurogenesis. PMID:25101288

  18. Continuous Re-Exposure to Environmental Sound Cues During Sleep Does Not Improve Memory for Semantically Unrelated Word Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Donohue, Kelly C.; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Two recent studies illustrated that cues present during encoding can enhance recall if re-presented during sleep. This suggests an academic strategy. Such effects have only been demonstrated with spatial learning and cue presentation was isolated to slow wave sleep (SWS). The goal of this study was to examine whether sounds enhance sleep-dependent consolidation of a semantic task if the sounds are re-presented continuously during sleep. Participants encoded a list of word pairs in the evening and recall was probed following an interval with overnight sleep. Participants encoded the pairs with the sound of “the ocean” from a sound machine. The first group slept with this sound; the second group slept with a different sound (“rain”); and the third group slept with no sound. Sleeping with sound had no impact on subsequent recall. Although a null result, this work provides an important test of the implications of context effects on sleep-dependent memory consolidation. PMID:26435767

  19. Improving conditional discrimination learning and memory in five-year-old children: differential outcomes effect using different types of reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Lourdes; Estévez, Angeles F; Fuentes, Luis J; Overmier, J Bruce

    2009-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that discriminative learning is facilitated when a particular outcome is associated with each relation to be learned. When this training procedure is applied (the differential outcomes procedure; DOP), learning is faster and better than when the typical common outcomes procedure or nondifferential outcomes (NDO) is used. Our primary purpose in the two experiments reported here was to assess the potential advantage of DOP in 5-year-old children using three different strategies of reinforcement in which (a) children received a reinforcer following a correct choice (" + "), (b) children lost a reinforcer following an incorrect choice (" - "), or (c) children received a reinforcer following a correct choice and lost one following an incorrect choice (" + / - "). In Experiment 1, we evaluated the effects of the presence of DOP and different types of reinforcement on learning and memory of a symbolic delayed matching-to-sample task using secondary and primary reinforcers. Experiment 2 was similar to the previous one except that only primary reinforcers were used. The results from these experiments indicated that, in general, children learned the task faster and showed higher performance and persistence of learning whenever differential outcomes were arranged independent of whether it was differential gain, loss, or combinations. A novel finding was that they performed the task better when they lost a reinforcer following an incorrect choice (type of training " - ") in both experiments. A further novel finding was that the advantage of the DOP over the nondifferential outcomes training increased in a retention test.

  20. Synergistic effect of self-assembled carboxylic acid-functionalized carbon nanotubes and carbon fiber for improved electro-activated polymeric shape-memory nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haibao; Min Huang, Wei

    2013-06-01

    The present work studies the synergistic effect of self-assembled carboxylic acid-functionalized carbon nanotube (CNT) and carbon fiber on the electrical property and electro-activated recovery behavior of shape memory polymer (SMP) nanocomposites. The combination of CNT and carbon fiber results in improved electrical conductivity in the SMP nanocomposites. Carboxylic acid-functionalized CNTs are grafted onto the carbon fibers and then self-assembled by deposition to significantly enhance the reliability of the bonding between carbon fiber and SMP via van der Waals and covalent crosslink. Furthermore, the self-assembled carboxylic acid-functionalized CNTs and carbon fibers enable the SMP nanocomposites for Joule heating triggered shape recovery.

  1. Vicarious memories.

    PubMed

    Pillemer, David B; Steiner, Kristina L; Kuwabara, Kie J; Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Svob, Connie

    2015-11-01

    People not only have vivid memories of their own personal experiences, but also vicarious memories of events that happened to other people. To compare the phenomenological and functional qualities of personal and vicarious memories, college students described a specific past event that they had recounted to a parent or friend, and also an event that a friend or parent had recounted to them. Although ratings of memory vividness, emotional intensity, visualization, and physical reactions were higher for personal than for vicarious memories, the overall pattern of ratings was similar. Participants' ratings also indicated that vicarious memories serve many of the same life functions as personal memories, although at lower levels of intensity. The findings suggest that current conceptions of autobiographical memory, which focus on past events that happened directly to the self, should be expanded to include detailed mental representations of specific past events that happened to other people.

  2. Central acylated ghrelin improves memory function and hippocampal AMPK activation and partly reverses the impairment of energy and glucose metabolism in rats infused with β-amyloid.

    PubMed

    Kang, Suna; Moon, Na Rang; Kim, Da Sol; Kim, Sung Hoon; Park, Sunmin

    2015-09-01

    , whereas during the second part it was suppressed in AD-G as much as Non-AD. In conclusion, central acylated ghrelin in rats prevented the deterioration of memory function, and energy and glucose metabolisms were partially improved, possibly due to less β-amyloid accumulation. This research suggests that interventions such as intermittent fasting to facilitate sustained elevations of acyl-ghrelin should be investigated for cognitive and metabolic benefits, especially in person with early symptoms of memory impairment.

  3. Central acylated ghrelin improves memory function and hippocampal AMPK activation and partly reverses the impairment of energy and glucose metabolism in rats infused with β-amyloid.

    PubMed

    Kang, Suna; Moon, Na Rang; Kim, Da Sol; Kim, Sung Hoon; Park, Sunmin

    2015-09-01

    , whereas during the second part it was suppressed in AD-G as much as Non-AD. In conclusion, central acylated ghrelin in rats prevented the deterioration of memory function, and energy and glucose metabolisms were partially improved, possibly due to less β-amyloid accumulation. This research suggests that interventions such as intermittent fasting to facilitate sustained elevations of acyl-ghrelin should be investigated for cognitive and metabolic benefits, especially in person with early symptoms of memory impairment. PMID:26188171

  4. Memory Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Brandy R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This article highlights the dissociable human memory systems of episodic, semantic, and procedural memory in the context of neurologic illnesses known to adversely affect specific neuroanatomic structures relevant to each memory system. Recent Findings: Advances in functional neuroimaging and refinement of neuropsychological and bedside assessment tools continue to support a model of multiple memory systems that are distinct yet complementary and to support the potential for one system to be engaged as a compensatory strategy when a counterpart system fails. Summary: Episodic memory, the ability to recall personal episodes, is the subtype of memory most often perceived as dysfunctional by patients and informants. Medial temporal lobe structures, especially the hippocampal formation and associated cortical and subcortical structures, are most often associated with episodic memory loss. Episodic memory dysfunction may present acutely, as in concussion; transiently, as in transient global amnesia (TGA); subacutely, as in thiamine deficiency; or chronically, as in Alzheimer disease. Semantic memory refers to acquired knowledge about the world. Anterior and inferior temporal lobe structures are most often associated with semantic memory loss. The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) is the paradigmatic disorder resulting in predominant semantic memory dysfunction. Working memory, associated with frontal lobe function, is the active maintenance of information in the mind that can be potentially manipulated to complete goal-directed tasks. Procedural memory, the ability to learn skills that become automatic, involves the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and supplementary motor cortex. Parkinson disease and related disorders result in procedural memory deficits. Most memory concerns warrant bedside cognitive or neuropsychological evaluation and neuroimaging to assess for specific neuropathologies and guide treatment. PMID:26039844

  5. An Improved Genetic Fuzzy Logic Control Method to Reduce the Enlargement of Coal Floor Deformation in Shearer Memory Cutting Process

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chao; Xu, Rongxin; Wang, Zhongbin; Si, Lei; Liu, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce the enlargement of coal floor deformation and the manual adjustment frequency of rocker arms, an improved approach through integration of improved genetic algorithm and fuzzy logic control (GFLC) method is proposed. The enlargement of coal floor deformation is analyzed and a model is built. Then, the framework of proposed approach is built. Moreover, the constituents of GA such as tangent function roulette wheel selection (Tan-RWS) selection, uniform crossover, and nonuniform mutation are employed to enhance the performance of GFLC. Finally, two simulation examples and an industrial application example are carried out and the results indicate that the proposed method is feasible and efficient. PMID:27217824

  6. An Improved Genetic Fuzzy Logic Control Method to Reduce the Enlargement of Coal Floor Deformation in Shearer Memory Cutting Process.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chao; Xu, Rongxin; Wang, Zhongbin; Si, Lei; Liu, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce the enlargement of coal floor deformation and the manual adjustment frequency of rocker arms, an improved approach through integration of improved genetic algorithm and fuzzy logic control (GFLC) method is proposed. The enlargement of coal floor deformation is analyzed and a model is built. Then, the framework of proposed approach is built. Moreover, the constituents of GA such as tangent function roulette wheel selection (Tan-RWS) selection, uniform crossover, and nonuniform mutation are employed to enhance the performance of GFLC. Finally, two simulation examples and an industrial application example are carried out and the results indicate that the proposed method is feasible and efficient.

  7. An Improved Genetic Fuzzy Logic Control Method to Reduce the Enlargement of Coal Floor Deformation in Shearer Memory Cutting Process.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chao; Xu, Rongxin; Wang, Zhongbin; Si, Lei; Liu, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce the enlargement of coal floor deformation and the manual adjustment frequency of rocker arms, an improved approach through integration of improved genetic algorithm and fuzzy logic control (GFLC) method is proposed. The enlargement of coal floor deformation is analyzed and a model is built. Then, the framework of proposed approach is built. Moreover, the constituents of GA such as tangent function roulette wheel selection (Tan-RWS) selection, uniform crossover, and nonuniform mutation are employed to enhance the performance of GFLC. Finally, two simulation examples and an industrial application example are carried out and the results indicate that the proposed method is feasible and efficient. PMID:27217824

  8. Vitamin D2-Enriched Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) Improves Memory in Both Wild Type and APPswe/PS1dE9 Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Louise; Kersaitis, Cindy; Macaulay, Stuart Lance; Münch, Gerald; Niedermayer, Garry; Nigro, Julie; Payne, Matthew; Sheean, Paul; Vallotton, Pascal; Zabaras, Dimitrios; Bird, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is widespread, affecting over 30% of adult Australians, and increasing up to 80% for at-risk groups including the elderly (age>65). The role for Vitamin D in development of the central nervous system is supported by the association between Vitamin D deficiency and incidence of neurological and psychiatric disorders including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A reported positive relationship between Vitamin D status and cognitive performance suggests that restoring Vitamin D status might provide a cognitive benefit to those with Vitamin D deficiency. Mushrooms are a rich source of ergosterol, which can be converted to Vitamin D2 by treatment with UV light, presenting a new and convenient dietary source of Vitamin D2. We hypothesised that Vitamin D2-enriched mushrooms (VDM) could prevent the cognitive and pathological abnormalities associated with dementia. Two month old wild type (B6C3) and AD transgenic (APPSwe/PS1dE9) mice were fed a diet either deficient in Vitamin D2 or a diet which was supplemented with VDM, containing 1±0.2 µg/kg (∼54 IU/kg) vitamin D2, for 7 months. Effects of the dietary intervention on memory were assessed pre- and post-feeding. Brain sections were evaluated for amyloid β (Aβ) plaque loads and inflammation biomarkers using immuno-histochemical methods. Plasma vitamin D metabolites, Aβ40, Aβ42, calcium, protein and cholesterol were measured using biochemical assays. Compared with mice on the control diet, VDM-fed wild type and AD transgenic mice displayed improved learning and memory, had significantly reduced amyloid plaque load and glial fibrillary acidic protein, and elevated interleukin-10 in the brain. The results suggest that VDM might provide a dietary source of Vitamin D2 and other bioactives for preventing memory-impairment in dementia. This study supports the need for a randomised clinical trial to determine whether or not VDM consumption can benefit cognitive performance in the wider population. PMID

  9. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  10. Declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Wim J; Blokland, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Declarative Memory consists of memory for events (episodic memory) and facts (semantic memory). Methods to test declarative memory are key in investigating effects of potential cognition-enhancing substances--medicinal drugs or nutrients. A number of cognitive performance tests assessing declarative episodic memory tapping verbal learning, logical memory, pattern recognition memory, and paired associates learning are described. These tests have been used as outcome variables in 34 studies in humans that have been described in the literature in the past 10 years. Also, the use of episodic tests in animal research is discussed also in relation to the drug effects in these tasks. The results show that nutritional supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been investigated most abundantly and, in a number of cases, but not all, show indications of positive effects on declarative memory, more so in elderly than in young subjects. Studies investigating effects of registered anti-Alzheimer drugs, cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment, show positive and negative effects on declarative memory. Studies mainly carried out in healthy volunteers investigating the effects of acute dopamine stimulation indicate enhanced memory consolidation as manifested specifically by better delayed recall, especially at time points long after learning and more so when drug is administered after learning and if word lists are longer. The animal studies reveal a different picture with respect to the effects of different drugs on memory performance. This suggests that at least for episodic memory tasks, the translational value is rather poor. For the human studies, detailed parameters of the compositions of word lists for declarative memory tests are discussed and it is concluded that tailored adaptations of tests to fit the hypothesis under study, rather than "off-the-shelf" use of existing tests, are recommended. PMID:25977084

  11. How Does Knowledge Promote Memory? The Distinctiveness Theory of Skilled Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Katherine A.; Van Overschelde, James P.

    2008-01-01

    The robust effects of knowledge on memory for domain-relevant information reported in previous research have largely been attributed to improved organizational processing. The present research proposes the distinctiveness theory of skilled memory, which states that knowledge improves memory not only through improved organizational processing but…

  12. Antroquinonol Lowers Brain Amyloid-β Levels and Improves Spatial Learning and Memory in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Miles C; Cheng, Irene H

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. The deposition of brain amyloid-β peptides (Aβ), which are cleaved from amyloid precursor protein (APP), is one of the pathological hallmarks of AD. Aβ-induced oxidative stress and neuroinflammation play important roles in the pathogenesis of AD. Antroquinonol, a ubiquinone derivative isolated from Antrodia camphorata, has been shown to reduce oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines via activating the nuclear transcription factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway, which is downregulated in AD. Therefore, we examined whether antroquinonol could improve AD-like pathological and behavioral deficits in the APP transgenic mouse model. We found that antroquinonol was able to cross the blood-brain barrier and had no adverse effects via oral intake. Two months of antroquinonol consumption improved learning and memory in the Morris water maze test, reduced hippocampal Aβ levels, and reduced the degree of astrogliosis. These effects may be mediated through the increase of Nrf2 and the decrease of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) levels. These findings suggest that antroquinonol could have beneficial effects on AD-like deficits in APP transgenic mouse. PMID:26469245

  13. Antroquinonol Lowers Brain Amyloid-β Levels and Improves Spatial Learning and Memory in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Miles C; Cheng, Irene H

    2015-10-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. The deposition of brain amyloid-β peptides (Aβ), which are cleaved from amyloid precursor protein (APP), is one of the pathological hallmarks of AD. Aβ-induced oxidative stress and neuroinflammation play important roles in the pathogenesis of AD. Antroquinonol, a ubiquinone derivative isolated from Antrodia camphorata, has been shown to reduce oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines via activating the nuclear transcription factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway, which is downregulated in AD. Therefore, we examined whether antroquinonol could improve AD-like pathological and behavioral deficits in the APP transgenic mouse model. We found that antroquinonol was able to cross the blood-brain barrier and had no adverse effects via oral intake. Two months of antroquinonol consumption improved learning and memory in the Morris water maze test, reduced hippocampal Aβ levels, and reduced the degree of astrogliosis. These effects may be mediated through the increase of Nrf2 and the decrease of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) levels. These findings suggest that antroquinonol could have beneficial effects on AD-like deficits in APP transgenic mouse.

  14. Antroquinonol Lowers Brain Amyloid-β Levels and Improves Spatial Learning and Memory in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Miles C.; Cheng, Irene H.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. The deposition of brain amyloid-β peptides (Aβ), which are cleaved from amyloid precursor protein (APP), is one of the pathological hallmarks of AD. Aβ-induced oxidative stress and neuroinflammation play important roles in the pathogenesis of AD. Antroquinonol, a ubiquinone derivative isolated from Antrodia camphorata, has been shown to reduce oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines via activating the nuclear transcription factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway, which is downregulated in AD. Therefore, we examined whether antroquinonol could improve AD-like pathological and behavioral deficits in the APP transgenic mouse model. We found that antroquinonol was able to cross the blood-brain barrier and had no adverse effects via oral intake. Two months of antroquinonol consumption improved learning and memory in the Morris water maze test, reduced hippocampal Aβ levels, and reduced the degree of astrogliosis. These effects may be mediated through the increase of Nrf2 and the decrease of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) levels. These findings suggest that antroquinonol could have beneficial effects on AD-like deficits in APP transgenic mouse. PMID:26469245

  15. 17β-estradiol replacement in young, adult and middle-aged female ovariectomized rats promotes improvement of spatial reference memory and an antidepressant effect and alters monoamines and BDNF levels in memory- and depression-related brain areas.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Agata; Delattre, Ana Márcia; Pereira, Sofia I R; Carolino, Ruither G; Szawka, Raphael E; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Zanata, Sílvio M; Ferraz, Anete C

    2012-02-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence suggest that estrogens have a major impact on cognition, presenting neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions in regions involved in such function. In opposite, some studies indicate that certain hormone therapy regimens may provoke detrimental effects over female cognitive and neurological function. Therefore, we decided to investigate how estrogen treatment would influence cognition and depression in different ages. For that matter, this study assessed the effects of chronic 17β-estradiol treatment over cognition and depressive-like behaviors of young (3 months old), adult (7 months old) and middle-aged (12 months old) reproductive female Wistar rats. These functions were also correlated with alterations in the serotonergic system, as well as hippocampal BDNF. 17β-Estradiol treatment did not influence animals' locomotor activity and exploratory behavior, but it was able to improve the performance of adult and middle-aged rats in the Morris water maze, the latter being more responsive to the treatment. Young and adult rats displayed decreased immobility time in the forced swimming test, suggesting an effect of 17β-estradiol also over such depressive-like behavior. This same test revealed increased swimming behavior, triggered by serotonergic pathway, in adult rats. Neurochemical evaluations indicated that 17β-estradiol treatment was able to increase serotonin turnover rate in the hippocampus of adult rats. Interestingly, estrogen treatment increased BDNF levels from animals of all ages. These findings support the notion that the beneficial effects of 17β-estradiol over spatial reference memory and depressive-like behavior are evident only when hormone therapy occurs at early ages and early stages of hormonal decline.

  16. The M1 Muscarinic Positive Allosteric Modulator PQCA Improves Performance on Translatable Tests of Memory and Attention in Rhesus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lange, Henry S; Cannon, Christopher E; Drott, Jason T; Kuduk, Scott D; Uslaner, Jason M

    2015-12-01

    Improved treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD) is a significant unmet medical need that is becoming even more critical given the rise in the number of patients and the substantial economic burden. The current standards of care, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), are hindered by gastrointestinal side effects owing to their nonselective activation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. Recently, the highly selective M1 positive allosteric modulator PQCA (1-((4-cyano-4-(pyridine-2-yl)piperidin-1-yl)methyl-4-oxo-4 H-quinolizine-3-carboxylic acid) has been demonstrated to improve cognition in a variety of rodent and nonhuman primate cognition models without producing significant gastrointestinal side effects. Here we describe the effect of PQCA and the AChEI donepezil on two clinically relevant and highly translatable touchscreen cognition tasks in nonhuman primates: paired-associates learning (PAL) and the continuous-performance task (CPT). Blockade of muscarinic signaling by scopolamine produced significant impairments in both PAL and CPT. PQCA and donepezil attenuated the scopolamine deficits in both tasks, and the action of these two compounds was similar in magnitude. In addition, the combination of subeffective doses of PQCA and donepezil enhanced PAL performance. These results further suggest that M1-positive allosteric modulators, either as monotherapy or as an add-on to current standards of care, have potential to reduce the cognitive deficits associated with AD. PMID:26446308

  17. Donepezil improves learning and memory deficits in APP/PS1 mice by inhibition of microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Guo, H B; Cheng, Y F; Wu, J G; Wang, C M; Wang, H T; Zhang, C; Qiu, Z K; Xu, J P

    2015-04-01

    Donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, is a representative symptomatic therapy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies have reported the anti-inflammatory effects of donepezil. However, limited studies that investigate its anti-inflammatory effect in AD have been reported. Considering the role of proinflammatory molecules and microglial activation in the pathogenesis of AD, the current study aimed to elucidate the effects of donepezil on microglial activation induced by amyloid deposition in transgenic mice. Our results showed that chronic treatment with donepezil significantly improved the cognitive function in the novel object recognition test and Morris water maze test in amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin-1 (PS1) transgenic mice. We further demonstrated that these cognitive enhancements were related to the anti-inflammatory effect of donepezil. We found that donepezil could inhibit the expression of CD68, a specific marker of microglial activation, and reduce the release of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. Immunohistochemistry and Congo red co-staining revealed that congophilic amyloid and activated microglia around plaques were also reduced by donepezil treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis showed that donepezil decreased insoluble Aβ40/Aβ42 and soluble Aβ40 levels. Moreover, donepezil reversed the impaired expression of insulin-degrading enzyme in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice. Our findings indicated that donepezil improves cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 mice by a mechanism that may be associated with its inhibition of microglial activation and release of proinflammatory cytokines.

  18. Reducing Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase 1 Expression Improves Spatial Memory and Synaptic Plasticity in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Caccamo, Antonella; Branca, Caterina; Talboom, Joshua S.; Shaw, Darren M.; Turner, Dharshaun; Ma, Luyao; Messina, Angela; Huang, Zebing; Wu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Aging is the most important risk factor associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the molecular mechanisms linking aging to AD remain unclear. Suppression of the ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) increases healthspan and lifespan in several organisms, from nematodes to mammals. Here we show that S6K1 expression is upregulated in the brains of AD patients. Using a mouse model of AD, we found that genetic reduction of S6K1 improved synaptic plasticity and spatial memory deficits, and reduced the accumulation of amyloid-β and tau, the two neuropathological hallmarks of AD. Mechanistically, these changes were linked to reduced translation of tau and the β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1, a key enzyme in the generation of amyloid-β. Our results implicate S6K1 dysregulation as a previously unidentified molecular mechanism underlying synaptic and memory deficits in AD. These findings further suggest that therapeutic manipulation of S6K1 could be a valid approach to mitigate AD pathology. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Aging is the most important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about how it contributes to AD pathogenesis. S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) is a protein kinase involved in regulation of protein translation. Reducing S6K1 activity increases lifespan and healthspan. We report the novel finding that reducing S6K1 activity in 3xTg-AD mice ameliorates synaptic and cognitive deficits. These improvement were associated with a reduction in amyloid-β and tau pathology. Mechanistically, lowering S6K1 levels reduced translation of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 and tau, two key proteins involved in AD pathogenesis. These data suggest that S6K1 may represent a molecular link between aging and AD. Given that aging is the most important risk factor for most neurodegenerative diseases, our results may have far-reaching implications into other diseases. PMID:26468204

  19. Virtual memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Virtual memory was conceived as a way to automate overlaying of program segments. Modern computers have very large main memories, but need automatic solutions to the relocation and protection problems. Virtual memory serves this need as well and is thus useful in computers of all sizes. The history of the idea is traced, showing how it has become a widespread, little noticed feature of computers today.

  20. Development and Characterization of Improved NiTiPd High-Temperature Shape-Memory Alloys by Solid-Solution Strengthening and Thermomechanical Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, Glen; Noebe, Ronald; Padula, Santo, II; Garg, Anita; Olson, David

    2006-01-01

    The need for compact, solid-state actuation systems for use in the aerospace, automotive, and other transportation industries is currently motivating research in high-temperature shape-memory alloys (HTSMA) with transformation temperatures greater than 100 C. One of the basic high-temperature alloys investigated to fill this need is Ni(19.5)Ti(50.5)Pd30. Initial testing has indicated that this alloy, while having acceptable work characteristics, suffers from significant permanent deformation (or ratcheting) during thermal cycling under load. In an effort to overcome this deficiency, various solid-solution alloying and thermomechanical processing schemes were investigated. Solid-solution strengthening was achieved by substituting 5at% gold or platinum for palladium in Ni(19.5)Ti(50.5)Pd30, the so-called baseline alloy, to strengthen the martensite and austenite phases against slip processes and improve thermomechanical behavior. Tensile properties, work behavior, and dimensional stability during repeated thermal cycling under load for the ternary and quaternary alloys were compared. The relative difference in yield strength between the martensite and austenite phases and the dimensional stability of the alloy were improved by the quaternary additions, while work output was only minimally impacted. The three alloys were also thermomechanically processed by cycling repeatedly through the transformation range under a constant stress. This so-called training process dramatically improved the dimensional stability in these samples and also recovered the slight decrease in work output caused by quaternary alloying. An added benefit of the solid-solution strengthening was maintenance of enhanced dimensional stability of the trained material to higher temperatures compared to the baseline alloy, providing a greater measure of over-temperature capability.

  1. CCD Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janesick, James R.; Elliot, Tom; Norris, Dave; Vescelus, Fred

    1987-01-01

    CCD memory device yields over 6.4 x 10 to the eighth power levels of information on single chip. Charge-coupled device (CCD) demonstrated to operate as either read-only-memory (ROM) or photon-programmable memory with capacity of 640,000 bits, with each bit capable of being weighted to more than 1,000 discrete analog levels. Larger memory capacities now possible using proposed approach in conjunction with CCD's now being fabricated, which yield over 4 x 10 to the ninth power discrete levels of information on single chip.

  2. Comparison of Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) and Third Edition (WMS-III) dimensional structures: improved ability to evaluate auditory and visual constructs.

    PubMed

    Hoelzle, James B; Nelson, Nathaniel W; Smith, Clifford A

    2011-03-01

    Dimensional structures underlying the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition (WMS-III) were compared to determine whether the revised measure has a more coherent and clinically relevant factor structure. Principal component analyses were conducted in normative samples reported in the respective technical manuals. Empirically supported procedures guided retention of dimensions. An invariant two-dimensional WMS-IV structure reflecting constructs of auditory learning/memory and visual attention/memory (C1 = .97; C2 = .96) is more theoretically coherent than the replicable, heterogeneous WMS-III dimension (C1 = .97). This research suggests that the WMS-IV may have greater utility in identifying lateralized memory dysfunction.

  3. Improvement of spatial memory disorder and hippocampal damage by exposure to electromagnetic fields in an Alzheimer's disease rat model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Zuo, Hongyan; Wang, Dewen; Peng, Ruiyun; Song, Tao; Wang, Shuiming; Xu, Xinping; Gao, Yabing; Li, Yang; Wang, Shaoxia; Wang, Lifeng; Zhao, Li

    2015-01-01

    Although some epidemiological investigations showed a potential association between long-term exposure of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), no reasonable mechanism can explain this association, and the related animal experiments are rare. In this study, ELF-EMF exposure (50 Hz 400 µT 60 d) combined with D-galactose intraperitoneal (50 mg/kg, q.d., 42 d) and Aβ25-35 hippocampal (5 μl/unilateral, bilateral, single-dose) injection was implemented to establish a complex rat model. Then the effects of ELF-EMF exposure on AD development was studied by using the Morris water maze, pathological analysis, and comparative proteomics. The results showed that ELF-EMF exposure delayed the weight gain of rats, and partially improved cognitive and clinicopathologic symptoms of AD rats. The differential proteomic analysis results suggest that synaptic transmission, oxidative stress, protein degradation, energy metabolism, Tau aggregation, and inflammation involved in the effects mentioned above. Therefore, our findings indicate that certain conditions of ELF-EMF exposure could delay the development of AD in rats.

  4. Mechanisms and effects of curcumin on spatial learning and memory improvement in APPswe/PS1dE9 mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengwen; Su, Caixin; Li, Ruisheng; Wang, Hong; Ren, Ying; Sun, Haiyun; Yang, Jinduo; Sun, Jianning; Shi, Jing; Tian, Jinzhou; Jiang, Shucui

    2014-02-01

    Evidence suggests that curcumin, the phytochemical agent in the spice turmeric, might be a potential therapy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory properties have been investigated extensively. Studies have also shown that curcumin can reduce amyloid pathology in AD. The underlying mechanism, however, is complex and is still being explored. In this study, we used the APPswe/PS1dE9 double transgenic mice, an AD model, to investigate the effects and mechanisms of curcumin in the prevention and treatment of AD. The water maze test indicated that curcumin can improve spatial learning and memory ability in mice. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis were used to test major proteins in β-amyloid aggregation, β-amyloid production, and β-amyloid clearance. Data showed that, 3 months after administration, curcumin treatment reduced Aβ40 , Aβ42 , and aggregation of Aβ-derived diffusible ligands in the mouse hippocampal CA1 area; reduced the expression of the γ-secretase component presenilin-2; and increased the expression of β-amyloid-degrading enzymes, including insulin-degrading enzymes and neprilysin. This evidence suggests that curcumin, as a potential AD therapeutic method, can reduce β-amyloid pathological aggregation, possibly through mechanisms that prevent its production by inhibiting presenilin-2 and/or by accelerating its clearance by increasing degrading enzymes such as insulin-degrading enzyme and neprilysin.

  5. Placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells improve memory dysfunction in an Aβ1-42-infused mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yun, H-M; Kim, H S; Park, K-R; Shin, J M; Kang, A R; il Lee, K; Song, S; Kim, Y-B; Han, S B; Chung, H-M; Hong, J T

    2013-12-12

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) promote functional recoveries in pathological experimental models of central nervous system (CNS) and are currently being tested in clinical trials for neurological disorders, but preventive mechanisms of placenta-derived MSCs (PD-MSCs) for Alzheimer's disease are poorly understood. Herein, we investigated the inhibitory effect of PD-MSCs on neuronal cell death and memory impairment in Aβ1-42-infused mice. After intracerebroventrical (ICV) infusion of Aβ1-42 for 14 days, the cognitive function was assessed by the Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test. Our results showed that the transplantation of PD-MSCs into Aβ1-42-infused mice significantly improved cognitive impairment, and behavioral changes attenuated the expression of APP, BACE1, and Aβ, as well as the activity of β-secretase and γ-secretase. In addition, the activation of glia cells and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were inhibited by the transplantation of PD-MSCs. Furthermore, we also found that PD-MSCs downregulated the release of inflammatory cytokines as well as prevented neuronal cell death and promoted neuronal cell differentiation from neuronal progenitor cells in Aβ1-42-infused mice. These data indicate that PD-MSC mediates neuroprotection by regulating neuronal death, neurogenesis, glia cell activation in hippocampus, and altering cytokine expression, suggesting a close link between the therapeutic effects of MSCs and the damaged CNS in Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Desipramine improves depression-like behavior and working memory by up-regulating p-CREB in Alzheimer's disease associated mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan-Dan; Li, Jia; Yu, Li-Peng; Wu, Mei-Na; Sun, Li-Na; Qi, Jin-Shun

    2016-06-01

    Aggregation of amyloid [Formula: see text] protein (A[Formula: see text] and progressive loss of memory are the main characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is noteworthy that approximately 40% of AD patients have depressive symptom. The close correlation between cognitive deficits and mental depression suggests a possibility that antidepression treatment might be beneficial to cognitive improvement in AD. The present study, by using tail-suspension test (TST), forced swimming, alternative electro-stimulus Y maze test and immunohistochemistry, examined the neuroprotective effects of desipramine, a newer generation tricyclic antidepressants (TCA), and investigated its possible molecular mechanism. The results showed that: (1) intra-hippocampal injection of A[Formula: see text] induced depression-like behavior and associative learning deficits in mice, with an increased mean immobility time in tail-suspension and forced swimming test and an increased mean error times in Y maze test; (2) after treatment with desipramine (10[Formula: see text]mg/kg, i.p.), the average immobility time significantly decreased, from [Formula: see text][Formula: see text]s in A[Formula: see text] group to [Formula: see text][Formula: see text]s in A[Formula: see text] plus desipramine group ([Formula: see text]) in TST and from [Formula: see text][Formula: see text]s to [Formula: see text][Formula: see text]s ([Formula: see text] or 9, [Formula: see text]) in forced swimming test, respectively;the mean error times of mice in Y maze test also significantly decreased, from [Formula: see text] in A[Formula: see text] group to [Formula: see text] in A[Formula: see text] plus desipramine group ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]); (3) desipramine administration significantly prevented against A[Formula: see text]-induced down-regulation of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (p-CREB) in the hippocampus. These results indicate that A[Formula: see text] could

  7. Memory systems.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Howard

    2010-07-01

    The idea that there are multiple memory systems can be traced to early philosophical considerations and introspection. However, the early experimental work considered memory a unitary phenomenon and focused on finding the mechanism upon which memory is based. A full reconciliation of debates about that mechanism, and a coincidental rediscovery of the idea of multiple memory systems, emerged from studies in the cognitive neuroscience of memory. This research has identified three major forms of memory that have distinct operating principles and are supported by different brain systems. These include: (1) a cortical-hippocampal circuit that mediates declarative memory, our capacity to recollect facts and events; (2) procedural memory subsystems involving a cortical-striatal circuit that mediates habit formation and a brainstem-cerebellar circuit that mediates sensorimotor adaptations; and (3) a circuit involving subcortical and cortical pathways through the amygdala that mediates the attachment of affective status and emotional responses to previously neutral stimuli. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  8. Collaging Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallach, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

  9. Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  10. Perilla frutescens var. japonica and rosmarinic acid improve amyloid-β25-35 induced impairment of cognition and memory function

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ah Young; Hwang, Bo Ra; Lee, Myoung Hee; Lee, Sanghyun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and plays a key role in cognitive dysfunction. Perilla frutescens var. japonica extract (PFE) and its major compound, rosmarinic acid (RA), have shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated whether administration of PFE and RA contributes to cognitive improvement in an Aβ25-35-injected mouse model. MATERIALS/METHODS Male ICR mice were intracerebroventricularly injected with aggregated Aβ25-35 to induce AD. Aβ25-35-injected mice were fed PFE (50 mg/kg/day) or RA (0.25 mg/kg/day) for 14 days and examined for learning and memory ability through the T-maze, object recognition, and Morris water maze test. RESULTS Our present study demonstrated that PFE and RA administration significantly enhanced cognition function and object discrimination, which were impaired by Aβ25-35, in the T-maze and object recognition tests, respectively. In addition, oral administration of PFE and RA decreased the time to reach the platform and increased the number of crossings over the removed platform when compared with the Aβ25-35-induced control group in the Morris water maze test. Furthermore, PFE and RA significantly decreased the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the brain, kidney, and liver. In particular, PFE markedly attenuated oxidative stress by inhibiting production of NO and MDA in the Aβ25-35-injected mouse brain. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that PFE and its active compound RA have beneficial effects on cognitive improvement and may help prevent AD induced by Aβ. PMID:27247723

  11. Memory conformity affects inaccurate memories more than accurate memories.

    PubMed

    Wright, Daniel B; Villalba, Daniella K

    2012-01-01

    After controlling for initial confidence, inaccurate memories were shown to be more easily distorted than accurate memories. In two experiments groups of participants viewed 50 stimuli and were then presented with these stimuli plus 50 fillers. During this test phase participants reported their confidence that each stimulus was originally shown. This was followed by computer-generated responses from a bogus participant. After being exposed to this response participants again rated the confidence of their memory. The computer-generated responses systematically distorted participants' responses. Memory distortion depended on initial memory confidence, with uncertain memories being more malleable than confident memories. This effect was moderated by whether the participant's memory was initially accurate or inaccurate. Inaccurate memories were more malleable than accurate memories. The data were consistent with a model describing two types of memory (i.e., recollective and non-recollective