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Sample records for n-iminoethyl-l-lysine improves memory

  1. Memory reactivation improves visual perception.

    PubMed

    Amar-Halpert, Rotem; Laor-Maayany, Rony; Nemni, Shlomi; Rosenblatt, Jonathan D; Censor, Nitzan

    2017-10-01

    Human perception thresholds can improve through learning. Here we report findings challenging the fundamental 'practice makes perfect' basis of procedural learning theory, showing that brief reactivations of encoded visual memories are sufficient to improve perceptual discrimination thresholds. Learning was comparable to standard practice-induced learning and was not due to short training per se, nor to an epiphenomenon of primed retrieval enhancement. The results demonstrate that basic perceptual functions can be substantially improved by memory reactivation, supporting a new account of perceptual learning dynamics.

  2. Event boundaries and memory improvement.

    PubMed

    Pettijohn, Kyle A; Thompson, Alexis N; Tamplin, Andrea K; Krawietz, Sabine A; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2016-03-01

    The structure of events can influence later memory for information that is embedded in them, with evidence indicating that event boundaries can both impair and enhance memory. The current study explored whether the presence of event boundaries during encoding can structure information to improve memory. In Experiment 1, memory for a list of words was tested in which event structure was manipulated by having participants walk through a doorway, or not, halfway through the word list. In Experiment 2, memory for lists of words was tested in which event structure was manipulated using computer windows. Finally, in Experiments 3 and 4, event structure was manipulated by having event shifts described in narrative texts. The consistent finding across all of these methods and materials was that memory was better when the information was distributed across two events rather than combined into a single event. Moreover, Experiment 4 demonstrated that increasing the number of event boundaries from one to two increased the memory benefit. These results are interpreted in the context of the Event Horizon Model of event cognition.

  3. Can verbal working memory training improve reading?

    PubMed

    Banales, Erin; Kohnen, Saskia; McArthur, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine whether poor verbal working memory is associated with poor word reading accuracy because the former causes the latter, or the latter causes the former. To this end, we tested whether (a) verbal working memory training improves poor verbal working memory or poor word reading accuracy, and whether (b) reading training improves poor reading accuracy or verbal working memory in a case series of four children with poor word reading accuracy and verbal working memory. Each child completed 8 weeks of verbal working memory training and 8 weeks of reading training. Verbal working memory training improved verbal working memory in two of the four children, but did not improve their reading accuracy. Similarly, reading training improved word reading accuracy in all children, but did not improve their verbal working memory. These results suggest that the causal links between verbal working memory and reading accuracy may not be as direct as has been assumed.

  4. Improving Children's Working Memory and Classroom Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St Clair-Thompson, Helen; Stevens, Ruth; Hunt, Alexandra; Bolder, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated close relationships between working memory and children's scholastic attainment. The aim of the present study was to explore a method of improving working memory, using memory strategy training. Two hundred and fifty-four children aged five to eight years were tested on measures of the phonological loop,…

  5. Improving Children's Working Memory and Classroom Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St Clair-Thompson, Helen; Stevens, Ruth; Hunt, Alexandra; Bolder, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated close relationships between working memory and children's scholastic attainment. The aim of the present study was to explore a method of improving working memory, using memory strategy training. Two hundred and fifty-four children aged five to eight years were tested on measures of the phonological loop,…

  6. Working memory training improves visual short-term memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Schwarb, Hillary; Nail, Jayde; Schumacher, Eric H

    2016-01-01

    Since antiquity, philosophers, theologians, and scientists have been interested in human memory. However, researchers today are still working to understand the capabilities, boundaries, and architecture. While the storage capabilities of long-term memory are seemingly unlimited (Bahrick, J Exp Psychol 113:1-2, 1984), working memory, or the ability to maintain and manipulate information held in memory, seems to have stringent capacity limits (e.g., Cowan, Behav Brain Sci 24:87-185, 2001). Individual differences, however, do exist and these differences can often predict performance on a wide variety of tasks (cf. Engle What is working-memory capacity? 297-314, 2001). Recently, researchers have promoted the enticing possibility that simple behavioral training can expand the limits of working memory which indeed may also lead to improvements on other cognitive processes as well (cf. Morrison and Chein, Psychol Bull Rev 18:46-60 2011). However, initial investigations across a wide variety of cognitive functions have produced mixed results regarding the transferability of training-related improvements. Across two experiments, the present research focuses on the benefit of working memory training on visual short-term memory capacity-a cognitive process that has received little attention in the training literature. Data reveal training-related improvement of global measures of visual short-term memory as well as of measures of the independent sub-processes that contribute to capacity (Awh et al., Psychol Sci 18(7):622-628, 2007). These results suggest that the ability to inhibit irrelevant information within and between trials is enhanced via n-back training allowing for selective improvement on untrained tasks. Additionally, we highlight a potential limitation of the standard adaptive training procedure and propose a modified design to ensure variability in the training environment.

  7. Memory Improvement in Assisted Living Elders

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Graham J.

    2008-01-01

    The Cognitive Behavioral Model of Everyday Memory (CBMEM), an eight-session cognitive enhancement program, entitled “MEMORIES, MEMORIES, Can We Improve Ours?” was tested with older adults living in an assisted living facility in the Middle West. The aims of this quasi-experimental study were: to improve everyday memory, memory self-efficacy, and metamemory. A total of 19 older adults (14 female, 5 male) with an average age of 83 years and an average MMSE score of 26 participated. At pretest there were 16 individuals in the experimental and 3 individuals in the comparison group. There were no differences between experimental and comparison groups on the study variables. The experimental group was post tested at one week after completing the intervention. At posttest memory self-efficacy scores significantly increased in the experimental group (M1 = 52.13, M2 = 68.50). Total memory performance scores were not significantly different at posttest; however the prospective memory items of asking for an appointment (M1=.56, M2=1.25), asking for a belonging M1=.62, M2=.88), and delivering a message (M1=1.00, M2=1.19) significantly improved. PMID:10839062

  8. Improving Memory Error Handling Using Linux

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, Michael Andrew; Blanchard, Sean P.; Debardeleben, Nathan A.

    2014-07-25

    As supercomputers continue to get faster and more powerful in the future, they will also have more nodes. If nothing is done, then the amount of memory in supercomputer clusters will soon grow large enough that memory failures will be unmanageable to deal with by manually replacing memory DIMMs. "Improving Memory Error Handling Using Linux" is a process oriented method to solve this problem by using the Linux kernel to disable (offline) faulty memory pages containing bad addresses, preventing them from being used again by a process. The process of offlining memory pages simplifies error handling and results in reducing both hardware and manpower costs required to run Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) clusters. This process will be necessary for the future of supercomputing to allow the development of exascale computers. It will not be feasible without memory error handling to manually replace the number of DIMMs that will fail daily on a machine consisting of 32-128 petabytes of memory. Testing reveals the process of offlining memory pages works and is relatively simple to use. As more and more testing is conducted, the entire process will be automated within the high-performance computing (HPC) monitoring software, Zenoss, at LANL.

  9. Piracetam improves children's memory after general anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, Ułbołgan A

    2009-01-01

    Surgery and anaesthesia may account for postoperative complications including cognitive impairment. The purpose of the study was to assess the influence of general anaesthetics on children's memory and effectiveness of piracetam for prevention of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. The study included patients receiving different kinds of anaesthesia for various surgical procedures, randomly allocated to two groups. According to immediate postoperative treatment, the study group received intravenous piracetam 30 mg kg(-1) and the control group--placebo. The cognitive functions were examined preoperatively and within 10 consecutive postoperative days using the ten-word memory test. The study group consisted of 123 children, the control one--of 127. Declines in memory indexes were observed in all anaesthetized patients. The most injured function was long-term memory. The intravenous administration of piracetam improved this cognitive function. The study results confirm that general anaesthesia affects the memory function in children. Piracetam is effective for prevention of postoperative cognitive dysfunction after anaesthesia.

  10. Exponential lifetime improvement in topological quantum memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardyn, Charles-Edouard; Karzig, Torsten

    2016-09-01

    We propose a simple yet efficient mechanism for passive error correction in topological quantum memories. Our scheme relies on driven-dissipative ancilla systems which couple to local excitations (anyons) and make them "sink" in energy, with no required interaction among ancillae or anyons. Through this process, anyons created by some thermal environment end up trapped in potential "trenches" that they themselves generate, which can be interpreted as a "memory foam" for anyons. This self-trapping mechanism provides an energy barrier for anyon propagation and removes entropy from the memory by favoring anyon recombination over anyon separation (responsible for memory errors). We demonstrate that our scheme leads to an exponential increase of the memory-coherence time with system size L , up to an upper bound Lmax, which can increase exponentially with Δ /T , where T is the temperature and Δ is some energy scale defined by potential trenches. This results in a double exponential increase of the memory time with Δ /T , which greatly improves over the Arrhenius (single-exponential) scaling found in typical quantum memories.

  11. Memory Loss: 7 Tips to Improve Your Memory

    MedlinePlus

    ... re not alone. Everyone forgets things occasionally. Still, memory loss is nothing to take lightly. Although there are no guarantees when it comes to preventing memory loss or dementia, certain activities might help. Consider ...

  12. Improved Writing-Conductor Designs For Magnetic Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.; Katti, Romney R.

    1994-01-01

    Writing currents reduced to practical levels. Improved conceptual designs for writing conductors in micromagnet/Hall-effect random-access integrated-circuit memory reduces electrical current needed to magnetize micromagnet in each memory cell. Basic concept of micromagnet/Hall-effect random-access memory presented in "Magnetic Analog Random-Access Memory" (NPO-17999).

  13. Blueberry Supplementation Improves Memory in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    KRIKORIAN, ROBERT; SHIDLER, MARCELLE D; NASH, TIFFANY A; KALT, WILHELMINA; VINQVIST-TYMCHUK, MELINDA R; SHUKITT-HALE, BARBARA; JOSEPH, JAMES A

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of dementia is increasing with expansion of the older adult population. In the absence of effective therapy, preventive approaches are essential to address this public health problem. Blueberries contain polyphenolic compounds, most prominently anthocyanins, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, anthocyanins have been associated with increased neuronal signaling in brain centers mediating memory function as well as improved glucose disposal, benefits that would be expected to mitigate neurodegeneration. We investigated the effects of daily consumption of wild blueberry juice in a sample of nine older adults with early memory changes. At 12 weeks, we observed improved paired associate learning (p = 0.009) and word list recall (p = 0.04). In addition, there were trends suggesting reduced depressive symptoms (p = 0.08) and lower glucose levels (p = 0.10). We also compared the memory performances of the blueberry subjects with a demographically-matched sample who consumed a berry placebo beverage in a companion trial of identical design and observed comparable results for paired associate learning. The findings of this preliminary study suggest that moderate-term blueberry supplementation can confer neurocognitive benefit and establish a basis for more comprehensive human trials to study preventive potential and neuronal mechanisms. PMID:20047325

  14. When Delays Improve Memory: Stabilizing Memory in Children May Require Time.

    PubMed

    Darby, Kevin P; Sloutsky, Vladimir M

    2015-12-01

    Memory is critical for learning, cognition, and cognitive development. Recent work has suggested that preschool-age children are vulnerable to catastrophic levels of memory interference, in which new learning dramatically attenuates memory for previously acquired knowledge. In the work reported here, we investigated the effects of consolidation on children's memory by introducing a 48-hr delay between learning and testing. In Experiment 1, the delay improved children's memory and eliminated interference. Results of Experiment 2 suggest that the benefit of this delay is limited to situations in which children are given enough information to form complex memory structures. These findings have important implications for understanding consolidation processes and memory development.

  15. Can Interactive Working Memory Training Improve Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Working memory is linked to learning outcomes and there is emerging evidence that training working memory can yield gains in working memory and fluid intelligence. Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether interactive working memory training would transfer to acquired cognitive skills, such as vocabulary and…

  16. Can Interactive Working Memory Training Improve Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Working memory is linked to learning outcomes and there is emerging evidence that training working memory can yield gains in working memory and fluid intelligence. Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether interactive working memory training would transfer to acquired cognitive skills, such as vocabulary and…

  17. Resistance exercise improves hippocampus-dependent memory

    PubMed Central

    Cassilhas, R.C.; Lee, K.S.; Venâncio, D.P.; Oliveira, M.G.M.; Tufik, S.; de Mello, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that resistance exercise improves cognitive functions in humans. Thus, an animal model that mimics this phenomenon can be an important tool for studying the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. Here, we tested if an animal model for resistance exercise was able to improve the performance in a hippocampus-dependent memory task. In addition, we also evaluated the level of insulin-like growth factor 1/insulin growth factor receptor (IGF-1/IGF-1R), which plays pleiotropic roles in the nervous system. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (N = 10 for each group): control, SHAM, and resistance exercise (RES). The RES group was submitted to 8 weeks of progressive resistance exercise in a vertical ladder apparatus, while the SHAM group was left in the same apparatus without exercising. Analysis of a cross-sectional area of the flexor digitorum longus muscle indicated that this training period was sufficient to cause muscle fiber hypertrophy. In a step-through passive avoidance task (PA), the RES group presented a longer latency than the other groups on the test day. We also observed an increase of 43 and 94% for systemic and hippocampal IGF-1 concentration, respectively, in the RES group compared to the others. A positive correlation was established between PA performance and systemic IGF-1 (r = 0.46, P < 0.05). Taken together, our data indicate that resistance exercise improves the hippocampus-dependent memory task with a concomitant increase of IGF-1 level in the rat model. This model can be further explored to better understand the effects of resistance exercise on brain functions. PMID:22930413

  18. Event Segmentation Improves Event Memory up to One Month Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Shaney; Bailey, Heather R.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2017-01-01

    When people observe everyday activity, they spontaneously parse it into discrete meaningful events. Individuals who segment activity in a more normative fashion show better subsequent memory for the events. If segmenting events effectively leads to better memory, does asking people to attend to segmentation improve subsequent memory? To answer…

  19. Improved MCNP Memory Locality by Neutron Grouping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bly, Aaron

    This research presents new code for Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) to achieve an improved time during criticality calculations. Modifications implementing the grouping and sorting of neutrons takes advantage of memory locality by processing all neutrons in a group to achieve the temporal reuse of cross section data. This prevents unnecessary data lookups. Various groupings and their results are compared. The modified code utilizing neutron energy groups provided the best result of a 16.7% +/- 0.5% speedup for a criticality determination of a two slab tank experiment. This is a savings of 2 ½ hours for a system that normally takes approximately 15 ½ hours to execute. The code implemented was chosen to require minimal modifications to the MCNP program thus avoiding the need to rewrite a new version. Verification and validation is still needed in order to show that a speedup using neutron groups can be achieved in all cases.

  20. Solcoseryl improves learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Winnicka, M M; Braszko, J J; Wisniewski, K

    1996-01-01

    Our previous experiments have shown that Solcoseryl (S), a protein-free extract of calves' blood stimulates locomotor activity and decreases haloperidol catalepsy in rats. In this study the influence of S on acquisition, consolidation, and recall of both, conditioned avoidance responses (CARs) and passive avoidance behaviour was tested. S at the intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of 1.25 ml/kg significantly improved acquisition and at the dose of 1.0 ml/kg recall of CARs. In the passive avoidance situation the significant effect on acquisition and recall of information was observed after i.p. injection of 1.0 ml/kg of S, and on consolidation after 0.75 ml/kg. These data indicate that S may positively affect the CNS processes responsible for learning and memory.

  1. Improving Outcome for Mental Disorders by Enhancing Memory for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Allison G.; Lee, Jason; Smith, Rita L.; Gumport, Nicole B.; Hollon, Steven D.; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Hein, Kerrie; Dolsen, Michael R.; Hamen, Kristen; Kanady, Jennifer C.; Thompson, Monique A.; Abrons, Deidre

    2017-01-01

    Summary Patients exhibit poor memory for treatment. A novel Memory Support Intervention, derived from basic science in cognitive psychology and education, is tested with the goal of improving patient memory for treatment and treatment outcome. Adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) were randomized to 14 sessions of cognitive therapy (CT)+Memory Support (n = 25) or CT-as-usual (CTMS; n = 23). Outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-treatment and 6 months later. Memory support was greater in CT+Memory Support compared to the CT-as-usual. Compared to CT-as-usual, small to medium effect sizes were observed for recall of treatment points at post-treatment. There was no difference between the treatment arms on depression severity (primary outcome). However, the odds of meeting criteria for ‘response’ and ‘remission’ were higher in CT+Memory Support compared with CT-as-usual. CT+Memory Support also showed an advantage on functional impairment. While some decline was observed, the advantage of CT+Memory Support was evident through 6-month follow-up. Patients with less than 16 years of education experience greater benefits from memory support than those with 16 or more years of education. Memory support can be manipulated, may improve patient memory for treatment and may be associated with an improved outcome. PMID:27089159

  2. Working-memory training improves developmental dyslexia in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yan; Wang, Jing; Wu, Hanrong; Zhu, Dongmei; Zhang, Yu

    2013-02-15

    Although plasticity in the neural system underlies working memory, and working memory can be improved by training, there is thus far no evidence that children with developmental dyslexia can benefit from working-memory training. In the present study, thirty dyslexic children aged 8-11 years were recruited from an elementary school in Wuhan, China. They received working-memory training, including training in visuospatial memory, verbal memory, and central executive tasks. The difficulty of the tasks was adjusted based on the performance of each subject, and the training sessions lasted 40 minutes per day, for 5 weeks. The results showed that working-memory training significantly enhanced performance on the nontrained working memory tasks such as the visuospatial, the verbal domains, and central executive tasks in children with developmental dyslexia. More importantly, the visual rhyming task and reading fluency task were also significantly improved by training. Progress on working memory measures was related to changes in reading skills. These experimental findings indicate that working memory is a pivotal factor in reading development among children with developmental dyslexia, and interventions to improve working memory may help dyslexic children to become more proficient in reading.

  3. Learned reward association improves visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Gong, Mengyuan; Li, Sheng

    2014-04-01

    Statistical regularities in the natural environment play a central role in adaptive behavior. Among other regularities, reward association is potentially the most prominent factor that influences our daily life. Recent studies have suggested that pre-established reward association yields strong influence on the spatial allocation of attention. Here we show that reward association can also improve visual working memory (VWM) performance when the reward-associated feature is task-irrelevant. We established the reward association during a visual search training session, and investigated the representation of reward-associated features in VWM by the application of a change detection task before and after the training. The results showed that the improvement in VWM was significantly greater for items in the color associated with high reward than for those in low reward-associated or nonrewarded colors. In particular, the results from control experiments demonstrate that the observed reward effect in VWM could not be sufficiently accounted for by attentional capture toward the high reward-associated item. This was further confirmed when the effect of attentional capture was minimized by presenting the items in the sample and test displays of the change detection task with the same color. The results showed significantly larger improvement in VWM performance when the items in a display were in the high reward-associated color than those in the low reward-associated or nonrewarded colors. Our findings suggest that, apart from inducing space-based attentional capture, the learned reward association could also facilitate the perceptual representation of high reward-associated items through feature-based attentional modulation.

  4. Working memory training improves emotion regulation ability: Evidence from HRV.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Lichao; Zhou, Renlai; Jiang, Yihan

    2016-03-01

    Emotion regulation during social situations plays a pivotal role in health and interpersonal functioning. In this study, we propose a working memory training approach to improve emotion regulation ability. This training promotes an updating function that is a crucial modulated process for emotion regulation. In the present study, the participants in the training group completed a running memory task over 20 days of training. Their working memory capability and high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) data on pretest and posttest were assessed and analyzed. Compared with the control group, the training group's reaction time in the 2-back working memory task was reduced significantly. In addition, the HF-HRV in the emotion regulation condition was increased after the 20-day training, which indicates that the working memory training effect could transfer to emotion regulation. In other words, working memory training improved emotion regulation ability.

  5. A Memory Pacer for Improving Stimulus Generalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Ellen R.

    1983-01-01

    The Memory Tracer, which provides prompts by playing prerecorded appropriate messages, was effective in maintaining a low rate of negative verbalizations by six adolescents with autism, schizophrenia, and severe behavior problems. (CL) 4B

  6. Improving Outcome of Psychosocial Treatments by Enhancing Memory and Learning

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Allison G.; Lee, Jason; Williams, Joseph; Hollon, Steven D.; Walker, Matthew P.; Thompson, Monique A.; Smith, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Mental disorders are prevalent and lead to significant impairment. Progress toward establishing treatments has been good. However, effect sizes are small to moderate, gains may not persist, and many patients derive no benefit. Our goal is to highlight the potential for empirically-supported psychosocial treatments to be improved by incorporating insights from cognitive psychology and research on education. Our central question is: If it were possible to improve memory for content of sessions of psychosocial treatments, would outcome substantially improve? This question arises from five lines of evidence: (a) mental illness is often characterized by memory impairment, (b) memory impairment is modifiable, (c) psychosocial treatments often involve the activation of emotion, (d) emotion can bias memory and (e) memory for psychosocial treatment sessions is poor. Insights from scientific knowledge on learning and memory are leveraged to derive strategies for a transdiagnostic and transtreatment cognitive support intervention. These strategies can be applied within and between sessions and to interventions delivered via computer, the internet and text message. Additional novel pathways to improving memory include improving sleep, engaging in exercise and imagery. Given that memory processes change across the lifespan, services to children and older adults may benefit from cognitive support. PMID:25544856

  7. Improved Reading Gate For Vertical-Bloch-Line Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.; Katti, Romney R.

    1994-01-01

    Improved design for reading gate of vertical-Bloch-line magnetic-bubble memory increases reliability of discrimination between binary ones and zeros. Magnetic bubbles that signify binary "1" and "0" produced by applying sufficiently large chopping currents to memory stripes. Bubbles then propagated differentially in bubble sorter. Method of discriminating between ones and zeros more reliable.

  8. Improved reliability of Mo nanocrystal memory with ammonia plasma treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.-C.; Tu, C.-H.; Chen, W.-R.; Hu, C.-W.; Sze, Simon M.; Tseng, T.-Y.; Chang, T.-C.; Chen, S.-C.; Lin, J.-Y.

    2009-02-09

    We investigated ammonia plasma treatment influence on the nonvolatile memory characteristics of the charge storage layer composed of Mo nanocrystals embedded in nonstoichiometry oxide (SiO{sub x}). X-ray photoelectron spectra analyses revealed that nitrogen was incorporated into the charge storage layer. Electric analyses indicated that the memory window was reduced and the retention and the endurance improved after the treatment. The reduction in the memory window and the improvement in retention were interpreted in terms of the nitrogen passivation of traps in the oxide around Mo nanocrystals. The robust endurance characteristic was attributed the improvement of the quality of the surrounding oxide by nitrogen passivation.

  9. Event Segmentation Improves Event Memory up to One Month Later.

    PubMed

    Flores, Shaney; Bailey, Heather R; Eisenberg, Michelle L; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2017-04-06

    When people observe everyday activity, they spontaneously parse it into discrete meaningful events. Individuals who segment activity in a more normative fashion show better subsequent memory for the events. If segmenting events effectively leads to better memory, does asking people to attend to segmentation improve subsequent memory? To answer this question, participants viewed movies of naturalistic activity with instructions to remember the activity for a later test, and in some conditions additionally pressed a button to segment the movies into meaningful events or performed a control condition that required button-pressing but not attending to segmentation. In 5 experiments, memory for the movies was assessed at intervals ranging from immediately following viewing to 1 month later. Performing the event segmentation task led to superior memory at delays ranging from 10 min to 1 month. Further, individual differences in segmentation ability predicted individual differences in memory performance for up to a month following encoding. This study provides the first evidence that manipulating event segmentation affects memory over long delays and that individual differences in event segmentation are related to differences in memory over long delays. These effects suggest that attending to how an activity breaks down into meaningful events contributes to memory formation. Instructing people to more effectively segment events may serve as a potential intervention to alleviate everyday memory complaints in aging and clinical populations. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Is the link from working memory to analogy causal? No analogy improvements following working memory training gains.

    PubMed

    Richey, J Elizabeth; Phillips, Jeffrey S; Schunn, Christian D; Schneider, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning has been hypothesized to critically depend upon working memory through correlational data, but less work has tested this relationship through experimental manipulation. An opportunity for examining the connection between working memory and analogical reasoning has emerged from the growing, although somewhat controversial, body of literature suggests complex working memory training can sometimes lead to working memory improvements that transfer to novel working memory tasks. This study investigated whether working memory improvements, if replicated, would increase analogical reasoning ability. We assessed participants' performance on verbal and visual analogy tasks after a complex working memory training program incorporating verbal and spatial tasks. Participants' improvements on the working memory training tasks transferred to other short-term and working memory tasks, supporting the possibility of broad effects of working memory training. However, we found no effects on analogical reasoning. We propose several possible explanations for the lack of an impact of working memory improvements on analogical reasoning.

  11. Is the Link from Working Memory to Analogy Causal? No Analogy Improvements following Working Memory Training Gains

    PubMed Central

    Richey, J. Elizabeth; Phillips, Jeffrey S.; Schunn, Christian D.; Schneider, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning has been hypothesized to critically depend upon working memory through correlational data [1], but less work has tested this relationship through experimental manipulation [2]. An opportunity for examining the connection between working memory and analogical reasoning has emerged from the growing, although somewhat controversial, body of literature suggests complex working memory training can sometimes lead to working memory improvements that transfer to novel working memory tasks. This study investigated whether working memory improvements, if replicated, would increase analogical reasoning ability. We assessed participants’ performance on verbal and visual analogy tasks after a complex working memory training program incorporating verbal and spatial tasks [3], [4]. Participants’ improvements on the working memory training tasks transferred to other short-term and working memory tasks, supporting the possibility of broad effects of working memory training. However, we found no effects on analogical reasoning. We propose several possible explanations for the lack of an impact of working memory improvements on analogical reasoning. PMID:25188356

  12. Improving older adults’ memory performance using prior task success

    PubMed Central

    Geraci, Lisa; Miller, Tyler M.

    2012-01-01

    Holding negative aging stereotypes can lead older adults to perform poorly on memory tests. We attempted to improve older adults’ memory performance by giving them task experience that would counter their negative performance expectations. Before participating in a memory experiment, younger and older adults were given a cognitive task that they could either successfully complete, not successfully complete, or they were given no prior task. For older adults, recall was significantly higher and self-reported anxiety was significantly lower for the prior task success group relative to the other groups. There was no effect of prior task experience on younger adults’ memory performance. Results suggest that older adults’ memory can be improved with a single successful prior task experience. PMID:23066803

  13. Improving older adults' memory performance using prior task success.

    PubMed

    Geraci, Lisa; Miller, Tyler M

    2013-06-01

    Holding negative aging stereotypes can lead older adults to perform poorly on memory tests. We attempted to improve older adults' memory performance by giving them task experience that would counter their negative performance expectations. Before participating in a memory experiment, younger and older adults were given a cognitive task that they could either successfully complete, not successfully complete, or they were given no prior task. For older adults, recall was significantly higher and self-reported anxiety was significantly lower for the prior task success group relative to the other groups. There was no effect of prior task experience on younger adults' memory performance. Results suggest that older adults' memory can be improved with a single successful prior task experience.

  14. Improved Readout For Micromagnet/Hall-Effect Memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.; Katti, Romney R.

    1993-01-01

    Two improved readout circuits for micromagnet/Hall-effect random-access memories designed to eliminate current shunts introducing errors into outputs of older readout circuits. Incorporate additional switching transistors to isolate Hall sensors as needed.

  15. Improvement of mouse memory by Myristica fragrans seeds.

    PubMed

    Parle, Milind; Dhingra, Dinesh; Kulkarni, S K

    2004-01-01

    Memory is one of the most complex functions of the brain and involves multiple neural pathways and neurotransmitter systems. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Myristica fragrans (MF) seeds on learning and memory in mice. The n-hexane extract of MF was administered orally in three doses (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg p.o.) for 3 successive days to different groups of young and aged mice. The learning and memory parameters were assessed using elevated plus-maze and passive-avoidance apparatus. The effect of MF extract on scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p.)- and diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p.)-induced impairment in learning and memory was also studied. MF extract at the lowest dose of 5 mg/kg p.o. administered for 3 successive days significantly improved learning and memory of young and aged mice. This extract also reversed scopolamine- and diazepam-induced impairment in learning and memory of young mice. MF extract enhanced learning and retention capacities of both young and aged mice. The exact mechanism of the memory-improving effect of MF extract was not explored in the present study. But, the observed memory-enhancing effect may be attributed to a variety of properties (individually or in combination) the plant is reported to possess, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, or perhaps procholinergic activity.

  16. Genistein improves spatial learning and memory in male rats with elevated glucose level during memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Kohara, Yumi; Kawaguchi, Shinichiro; Kuwahara, Rika; Uchida, Yutaro; Oku, Yushi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive dysfunction due to higher blood glucose level has been reported previously. Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen that we hypothesized might lead to improved memory, despite elevated blood glucose levels at the time of memory consolidation. To investigate this hypothesis, we compared the effects of orally administered GEN on the central nervous system in normal versus glucose-loaded adult male rats. A battery of behavioral assessments was carried out. In the MAZE test, which measured spatial learning and memory, the time of normal rats was shortened by GEN treatment compared to the vehicle group, but only in the early stages of testing. In the glucose-loaded group, GEN treatment improved performance as mazes were advanced. In the open-field test, GEN treatment delayed habituation to the new environment in normal rats, and increased the exploratory behaviors of glucose-loaded rats. There were no significant differences observed for emotionality or fear-motivated learning and memory. Together, these results indicate that GEN treatment improved spatial learning and memory only in the early stages of testing in the normal state, but improved spatial learning and memory when glucose levels increased during memory consolidation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nobiletin improves emotional and novelty recognition memory but not spatial referential memory.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jiyun; Shin, Jung-Won; Kim, Yoo-Rim; Swanberg, Kelley M; Kim, Yooseung; Bae, Jae Ryong; Kim, Young Ki; Lee, Jinwon; Kim, Soo-Yeon; Sohn, Nak-Won; Maeng, Sungho

    2017-01-01

    How to maintain and enhance cognitive functions for both aged and young populations is a highly interesting subject. But candidate memory-enhancing reagents are tested almost exclusively on lesioned or aged animals. Also, there is insufficient information on the type of memory these reagents can improve. Working memory, located in the prefrontal cortex, manages short-term sensory information, but, by gaining significant relevance, this information is converted to long-term memory by hippocampal formation and/or amygdala, followed by tagging with space-time or emotional cues, respectively. Nobiletin is a product of citrus peel known for cognitive-enhancing effects in various pharmacological and neurodegenerative disease models, yet, it is not well studied in non-lesioned animals and the type of memory that nobiletin can improve remains unclear. In this study, 8-week-old male mice were tested using behavioral measurements for working, spatial referential, emotional and visual recognition memory after daily administration of nobiletin. While nobiletin did not induce any change of spontaneous activity in the open field test, freezing by fear conditioning and novel object recognition increased. However, the effectiveness of spatial navigation in the Y-maze and Morris water maze was not improved. These results mean that nobiletin can specifically improve memories of emotionally salient information associated with fear and novelty, but not of spatial information without emotional saliency. Accordingly, the use of nobiletin on normal subjects as a memory enhancer would be more effective on emotional types but may have limited value for the improvement of episodic memories.

  18. Behavioral and memory improving effects of mirtazapine in rats.

    PubMed

    Nowakowska, E; Chodera, A; Kus, K

    1999-01-01

    These experiments examined the effects of the antidepressant mirtazapine in several behavioral and memory tests. The tests were carried out on male Wistar rats weighing about 200 g. The drugs were injected 30 min before the tests. The aim of the locomotor activity test was to select a dose which had no influence on the motility of the animals and, at the same time, was active at least in one behavioral test. The chosen dose was 2.5 mg/kg. In the two-compartment exploratory test, 2.5 mg/kg of mirtazapine had a distinct anxiolytic effect after the first treatment, after 7 days the effect was weaker but still significant and it disappeared after 14 days. In the forced swimming test, the immobility time was shortened only after 14 days of administering the drug. In the maze test, mirtazapine shortened the food finding time (it improved memory) and counteracted memory loss induced by scopolamine. In the conditioned avoidance responses test (CARs), mirtazapine improved memory only after its earlier impairment by scopolamine. The authors cohclude, contrary to some published data, that after proper dose (adequate for other tests but not for the locomotor activity test), mirtazapine has a distinct memory improving activity or a memory restoring effect after scopolamine treatment.

  19. Visual memory improved by non-invasive brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chi, Richard P; Fregni, Felipe; Snyder, Allan W

    2010-09-24

    Our visual memories are susceptible to errors, but less so in people who have a more literal cognitive style. This inspired us to attempt to improve visual memory with non-invasive brain stimulation. We applied 13 min of bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the anterior temporal lobes. Our stimulation protocol included 3 conditions, each with 12 neurotypical participants: (i) left cathodal stimulation together with right anodal stimulation, (ii) left anodal stimulation together with right cathodal stimulation, and (iii) sham (control) stimulation. Only participants who received left cathodal stimulation (decrease in excitability) together with right anodal stimulation (increase in excitability) showed an improvement in visual memory. This 110% improvement in visual memory was similar to the advantage people with autism, who are known to be more literal, show over normal people in the identical visual task. Importantly, participants receiving stimulation of the opposite polarity (left anodal together with right cathodal stimulation) failed to show any change in memory performance. This is the first demonstration that visual memory can be enhanced in healthy people using non-invasive brain stimulation.

  20. Light exposure before learning improves memory consolidation at night

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Li-Li; Guo, Hao; Song, Ning-Ning; Jia, Zheng-Ping; Hu, Xin-Tian; Huang, Jing-Fei; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Richter-Levine, Gal; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Xu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Light is recently recognized as a modulator able to activate the hippocampus and modulate memory processing, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms. Here, we report that in mice, a short pulse of white light before learning dramatically improves consolidation of contextual fear memory during the night. The light exposure increases hippocampal active p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP). These light effects are abolished in PAK1 knockout and dominant-negative transgenic mice, but preserved by expression of constitutively active PAK1 in the hippocampus. Our results indicate that light can act as a switch of PAK1 activity that modulate CA1 LTP and thereby memory consolidation without affecting learning and short-term memory. PMID:26493375

  1. A study of the viability of exploiting memory content similarity to improve resilience to memory errors

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, Scott; Ferreira, Kurt B.; Bridges, Patrick G.; Thompson, Aidan P.; Trott, Christian

    2014-12-09

    Building the next-generation of extreme-scale distributed systems will require overcoming several challenges related to system resilience. As the number of processors in these systems grow, the failure rate increases proportionally. One of the most common sources of failure in large-scale systems is memory. In this paper, we propose a novel runtime for transparently exploiting memory content similarity to improve system resilience by reducing the rate at which memory errors lead to node failure. We evaluate the viability of this approach by examining memory snapshots collected from eight high-performance computing (HPC) applications and two important HPC operating systems. Based on the characteristics of the similarity uncovered, we conclude that our proposed approach shows promise for addressing system resilience in large-scale systems.

  2. A study of the viability of exploiting memory content similarity to improve resilience to memory errors

    DOE PAGES

    Levy, Scott; Ferreira, Kurt B.; Bridges, Patrick G.; ...

    2014-12-09

    Building the next-generation of extreme-scale distributed systems will require overcoming several challenges related to system resilience. As the number of processors in these systems grow, the failure rate increases proportionally. One of the most common sources of failure in large-scale systems is memory. In this paper, we propose a novel runtime for transparently exploiting memory content similarity to improve system resilience by reducing the rate at which memory errors lead to node failure. We evaluate the viability of this approach by examining memory snapshots collected from eight high-performance computing (HPC) applications and two important HPC operating systems. Based on themore » characteristics of the similarity uncovered, we conclude that our proposed approach shows promise for addressing system resilience in large-scale systems.« less

  3. Endurance factors improve hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial memory in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kobilo, Tali; Yuan, Chunyan; van Praag, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity improves learning and hippocampal neurogenesis. It is unknown whether compounds that increase endurance in muscle also enhance cognition. We investigated the effects of endurance factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ agonist GW501516 and AICAR, activator of AMP-activated protein kinase on memory and neurogenesis. Mice were injected with GW for 7 d or AICAR for 7 or 14 d. Two weeks thereafter mice were tested in the Morris water maze. AICAR (7 d) and GW improved spatial memory. Moreover, AICAR significantly, and GW modestly, elevated dentate gyrus neurogenesis. Thus, pharmacological activation of skeletal muscle may mediate cognitive effects. PMID:21245211

  4. Coccomyxa Gloeobotrydiformis Improves Learning and Memory in Intrinsic Aging Rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Luning; Jin, Ying; Dong, Liming; Sui, Hai-Juan; Sumi, Ryo; Jahan, Rabita; Hu, Dahai; Li, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Declining in learning and memory is one of the most common and prominent problems during the aging process. Neurotransmitter changes, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal signal transduction were considered to participate in this process. In the present study, we examined the effects of Coccomyxa gloeobotrydiformis (CGD) on learning and memory ability of intrinsic aging rats. As a result, CGD treated (50 mg/kg·d or 100 mg/kg ·d for a duration of 8 weeks) 22-month-old male rats, which have shown significant improvement on learning and spatial memory ability compared with control, which was evidently revealed in both the hidden platform tasks and probe trials. The following immunohistochemistry and Western blot experiments suggested that CGD could increase the content of Ach and thereby improve the function of the cholinergic neurons in the hippocampus, and therefore also improving learning and memory ability of the aged rats by acting as an anti-inflammatory agent. The effects of CGD on learning and memory might also have an association with the ERK/CREB signalling. The results above suggest that the naturally made drug CGD may have several great benefit as a multi-target drug in the process of prevention and/or treatment of age-dependent cognitive decline and aging process.

  5. Knowledge Acquisition during Exam Preparation Improves Memory and Modulates Memory Formation.

    PubMed

    Brod, Garvin; Lindenberger, Ulman; Wagner, Anthony D; Shing, Yee Lee

    2016-08-03

    According to the schema-relatedness hypothesis, new experiences that make contact with existing schematic knowledge are more easily encoded and remembered than new experiences that do not. Here we investigate how real-life gains in schematic knowledge affect the neural correlates of episodic encoding, assessing medical students 3 months before and immediately after their final exams. Human participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while encoding associative information that varied in relatedness to medical knowledge (face-diagnosis vs face-name pairs). As predicted, improvements in memory performance over time were greater for face-diagnosis pairs (high knowledge-relevance) than for face-name pairs (low knowledge-relevance). Improved memory for face-diagnosis pairs was associated with smaller subsequent memory effects in the anterior hippocampus, along with increased functional connectivity between the anterior hippocampus and left middle temporal gyrus, a region important for the retrieval of stored conceptual knowledge. The decrease in the anterior hippocampus subsequent memory effect correlated with knowledge accumulation, as independently assessed by a web-based learning platform with which participants studied for their final exam. These findings suggest that knowledge accumulation sculpts the neural networks associated with successful memory formation, and highlight close links between knowledge acquired during studying and basic neurocognitive processes that establish durable memories. In a sample of medical students, we tracked knowledge accumulation via a web-based learning platform and investigated its effects on memory formation before and after participants' final medical exam. Knowledge accumulation led to significant gains in memory for knowledge-related events and predicted a selective decrease in hippocampal activation for successful memory formation. Furthermore, enhanced functional connectivity was found between

  6. Memory improves precision of cell sensing in fluctuating environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquino, Gerardo; Tweedy, Luke; Heinrich, Doris; Endres, Robert G.

    2014-07-01

    Biological cells are often found to sense their chemical environment near the single-molecule detection limit. Surprisingly, this precision is higher than simple estimates of the fundamental physical limit, hinting towards active sensing strategies. In this work, we analyse the effect of cell memory, e.g. from slow biochemical processes, on the precision of sensing by cell-surface receptors. We derive analytical formulas, which show that memory significantly improves sensing in weakly fluctuating environments. However, surprisingly when memory is adjusted dynamically, the precision is always improved, even in strongly fluctuating environments. In support of this prediction we quantify the directional biases in chemotactic Dictyostelium discoideum cells in a flow chamber with alternating chemical gradients. The strong similarities between cell sensing and control engineering suggest universal problem-solving strategies of living matter.

  7. Memory improves precision of cell sensing in fluctuating environments

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Gerardo; Tweedy, Luke; Heinrich, Doris; Endres, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Biological cells are often found to sense their chemical environment near the single-molecule detection limit. Surprisingly, this precision is higher than simple estimates of the fundamental physical limit, hinting towards active sensing strategies. In this work, we analyse the effect of cell memory, e.g. from slow biochemical processes, on the precision of sensing by cell-surface receptors. We derive analytical formulas, which show that memory significantly improves sensing in weakly fluctuating environments. However, surprisingly when memory is adjusted dynamically, the precision is always improved, even in strongly fluctuating environments. In support of this prediction we quantify the directional biases in chemotactic Dictyostelium discoideum cells in a flow chamber with alternating chemical gradients. The strong similarities between cell sensing and control engineering suggest universal problem-solving strategies of living matter. PMID:25023459

  8. Multifaceted Prospective Memory Intervention to Improve Medication Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Insel, Kathie C.; Einstein, Gilles O.; Morrow, Daniel G.; Koerner, Kari M.; Hepworth, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Older adults do not take medication as prescribed, diminishing the benefits of treatment and increasing costs to individuals and society. A multifaceted prospective memory intervention for improving adherence to antihypertensive medication was tested and assessed if executive function/working memory processes moderated intervention effects. Design A two group longitudinal randomized control trial was used. Setting and Participants and Measurements The sample consisted of community-based older adults (≥ 65 years of age) without signs of dementia or symptoms of severe depression who were self-managing prescribed medication. Following four weeks of initial adherence monitoring using a medication event monitoring system (MEMS®), individuals with 90% or less adherence were randomly assigned to groups. Intervention The prospective memory intervention was designed to provide strategies that switch older adults from relying on executive function/working memory processes (that show effects of cognitive aging) to mostly automatic associative processes (that are relatively spared with normal aging) for remembering to take one’s medications. Strategies included establishing a routine, establishing cues strongly associated with medication taking actions, performing the action immediately upon thinking about it, using a medication organizer, and imagining medication taking to enhance encoding and improve cuing. Results There was significant improvement in adherence for the intervention group (57% at baseline to 78% post intervention), but most of these gains were lost after 5 months. The control condition started at 68%, was stable during the intervention, but dropped to 62%. Executive function/working memory moderated the intervention effect, with the intervention producing greater benefit for those with lower executive function/working memory. Conclusion The intervention improved adherence, but the benefits were not sustained. Further research is

  9. Acute exposure to blue wavelength light during memory consolidation improves verbal memory performance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ryan; Dailey, Natalie S.; Bajaj, Sahil; Killgore, William D. S.

    2017-01-01

    Acute exposure to light within the blue wavelengths has been shown to enhance alertness and vigilance, and lead to improved speed on reaction time tasks, possibly due to activation of the noradrenergic system. It remains unclear, however, whether the effects of blue light extend beyond simple alertness processes to also enhance other aspects of cognition, such as memory performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a thirty minute pulse of blue light versus placebo (amber light) exposure in healthy normally rested individuals in the morning during verbal memory consolidation (i.e., 1.5 hours after memory acquisition) using an abbreviated version of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-II). At delayed recall, individuals who received blue light (n = 12) during the consolidation period showed significantly better long-delay verbal recall than individuals who received amber light exposure (n = 18), while controlling for the effects of general intelligence, depressive symptoms and habitual wake time. These findings extend previous work demonstrating the effect of blue light on brain activation and alertness to further demonstrate its effectiveness at facilitating better memory consolidation and subsequent retention of verbal material. Although preliminary, these findings point to a potential application of blue wavelength light to optimize memory performance in healthy populations. It remains to be determined whether blue light exposure may also enhance performance in clinical populations with memory deficits. PMID:28922397

  10. Acute exposure to blue wavelength light during memory consolidation improves verbal memory performance.

    PubMed

    Alkozei, Anna; Smith, Ryan; Dailey, Natalie S; Bajaj, Sahil; Killgore, William D S

    2017-01-01

    Acute exposure to light within the blue wavelengths has been shown to enhance alertness and vigilance, and lead to improved speed on reaction time tasks, possibly due to activation of the noradrenergic system. It remains unclear, however, whether the effects of blue light extend beyond simple alertness processes to also enhance other aspects of cognition, such as memory performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a thirty minute pulse of blue light versus placebo (amber light) exposure in healthy normally rested individuals in the morning during verbal memory consolidation (i.e., 1.5 hours after memory acquisition) using an abbreviated version of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-II). At delayed recall, individuals who received blue light (n = 12) during the consolidation period showed significantly better long-delay verbal recall than individuals who received amber light exposure (n = 18), while controlling for the effects of general intelligence, depressive symptoms and habitual wake time. These findings extend previous work demonstrating the effect of blue light on brain activation and alertness to further demonstrate its effectiveness at facilitating better memory consolidation and subsequent retention of verbal material. Although preliminary, these findings point to a potential application of blue wavelength light to optimize memory performance in healthy populations. It remains to be determined whether blue light exposure may also enhance performance in clinical populations with memory deficits.

  11. Brahmi rasayana improves learning and memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Hanumanthachar; Parle, Milind

    2006-03-01

    Cure of cognitive disorders such as amnesia, attention deficit and Alzheimer's disease is still a nightmare in the field of medicine. Nootropic agents such as piracetam, aniracetam and choline esterase inhibitors like Donepezil are being used to improve memory, mood and behavior, but the resulting side effects associated with these agents have made their use limited. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of Brahmi rasayana (BR) as a memory enhancer. BR (100 and 200 mg kg(-1) p.o.) was administered for eight successive days to both young and aged mice. Elevated plus maze and passive-avoidance paradigm were employed to evaluate learning and memory parameters. Scopolamine (0.4 mg kg(-1) i.p.) was used to induce amnesia in mice. The effect of BR on whole brain AChE activity was also assessed. Piracetam (200 mg kg(-1) i.p.) was used as a standard nootropic agent. BR significantly improved learning and memory in young mice and reversed the amnesia induced by both scopolamine (0.4 mg kg(-1) i.p.) and natural aging. BR significantly decreased whole brain acetyl cholinesterase activity. BR might prove to be a useful memory restorative agent in the treatment of dementia seen in elderly.

  12. Brahmi rasayana Improves Learning and Memory in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Hanumanthachar; Parle, Milind

    2006-01-01

    Cure of cognitive disorders such as amnesia, attention deficit and Alzheimer's disease is still a nightmare in the field of medicine. Nootropic agents such as piracetam, aniracetam and choline esterase inhibitors like Donepezil® are being used to improve memory, mood and behavior, but the resulting side effects associated with these agents have made their use limited. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of Brahmi rasayana (BR) as a memory enhancer. BR (100 and 200 mg kg−1 p.o.) was administered for eight successive days to both young and aged mice. Elevated plus maze and passive-avoidance paradigm were employed to evaluate learning and memory parameters. Scopolamine (0.4 mg kg−1 i.p.) was used to induce amnesia in mice. The effect of BR on whole brain AChE activity was also assessed. Piracetam (200 mg kg−1 i.p.) was used as a standard nootropic agent. BR significantly improved learning and memory in young mice and reversed the amnesia induced by both scopolamine (0.4 mg kg−1 i.p.) and natural aging. BR significantly decreased whole brain acetyl cholinesterase activity. BR might prove to be a useful memory restorative agent in the treatment of dementia seen in elderly. PMID:16550227

  13. Working Memory Training: Improving Intelligence--Changing Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2012-01-01

    The main objectives of the study were: to investigate whether training on working memory (WM) could improve fluid intelligence, and to investigate the effects WM training had on neuroelectric (electroencephalography--EEG) and hemodynamic (near-infrared spectroscopy--NIRS) patterns of brain activity. In a parallel group experimental design,…

  14. Improved Hall-Effect Sensors For Magnetic Memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.; Katti, Romney R.; Chen, Y. C.; Bhattacharya, Pallab K.

    1993-01-01

    High-electron-mobility sensor films deposited on superlattice buffer (strain) layers. Improved Hall-effect sensors offer combination of adequate response and high speed needed for use in micromagnet/Hall-effect random-access memories. Hall-effect material chosen for use in sensors is InAs.

  15. Endurance Factors Improve Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Spatial Memory in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilo, Tali; Yuan, Chunyan; van Praag, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity improves learning and hippocampal neurogenesis. It is unknown whether compounds that increase endurance in muscle also enhance cognition. We investigated the effects of endurance factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [delta] agonist GW501516 and AICAR, activator of AMP-activated protein kinase on memory and…

  16. Endurance Factors Improve Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Spatial Memory in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilo, Tali; Yuan, Chunyan; van Praag, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity improves learning and hippocampal neurogenesis. It is unknown whether compounds that increase endurance in muscle also enhance cognition. We investigated the effects of endurance factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [delta] agonist GW501516 and AICAR, activator of AMP-activated protein kinase on memory and…

  17. Working Memory Training: Improving Intelligence--Changing Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2012-01-01

    The main objectives of the study were: to investigate whether training on working memory (WM) could improve fluid intelligence, and to investigate the effects WM training had on neuroelectric (electroencephalography--EEG) and hemodynamic (near-infrared spectroscopy--NIRS) patterns of brain activity. In a parallel group experimental design,…

  18. Does working memory training lead to generalized improvements in children with low working memory? A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Dunning, Darren L; Holmes, Joni; Gathercole, Susan E

    2013-01-01

    Children with low working memory typically make poor educational progress, and it has been speculated that difficulties in meeting the heavy working memory demands of the classroom may be a contributory factor. Intensive working memory training has been shown to boost performance on untrained memory tasks in a variety of populations. This first randomized controlled trial with low working memory children investigated whether the benefits of training extend beyond standard working memory tasks to other more complex activities typical of the classroom in which working memory plays a role, as well as to other cognitive skills and developing academic abilities. Children aged 7–9 years received either adaptive working memory training, non-adaptive working memory training with low memory loads, or no training. Adaptive training was associated with selective improvements in multiple untrained tests of working memory, with no evidence of changes in classroom analogues of activities that tax working memory, or any other cognitive assessments. Gains in verbal working memory were sustained one year after training. Thus the benefits of working memory training delivered in this way may not extend beyond structured working memory tasks. PMID:24093880

  19. Nardostachys jatamansi improves learning and memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Hanumanthachar; Parle, Milind

    2006-01-01

    Cure of cognitive disorders such as amnesia, attention deficit, and Alzheimer's disease is still far from being realized in the field of medicine. Nootropic agents such as piracetam, aniracetam, and choline esterase inhibitors like donepezil are being used for improving memory, mood, and behavior, but the resulting side effects associated with these agents have made their applicability limited. In Ayurveda, the roots of Nardostachys jatamansi have been clinically employed for their anti-ischemic, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, and neuroprotective activities. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of N. jatmansi as a memory enhancer. The elevated plus maze and the passive avoidance paradigm were employed to evaluate learning and memory parameters. Three doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) of an ethanolic extract of N. jatamansi were administered for 8 successive days to both young and aged mice. The 200 mg/kg dose of N. jatmansi ethanolic extract significantly improved learning and memory in young mice and also reversed the amnesia induced by diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) and scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.). Furthermore, it also reversed aging-induced amnesia due to natural aging of mice. As scopolamine-induced amnesia was reversed, it is possible that the memory improvement may be because of facilitation of cholinergic transmission in the brain. Hence, N. jatmansi might prove to be a useful memory restorative agent in the treatment of dementia seen in elderly persons. The underlying mechanism of action can be attributed to its antioxidant property.

  20. Neutrophil depletion after subarachnoid hemorrhage improves memory via NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Provencio, Jose Javier; Swank, Valerie; Lu, Haiyan; Brunet, Sylvain; Baltan, Selva; Khapre, Rohini V; Seerapu, Himabindu; Kokiko-Cochran, Olga N; Lamb, Bruce T; Ransohoff, Richard M

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive deficits after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are common and disabling. Patients who experience delayed deterioration associated with vasospasm are likely to have cognitive deficits, particularly problems with executive function, verbal and spatial memory. Here, we report neurophysiological and pathological mechanisms underlying behavioral deficits in a murine model of SAH. On tests of spatial memory, animals with SAH performed worse than sham animals in the first week and one month after SAH suggesting a prolonged injury. Between three and six days after experimental hemorrhage, mice demonstrated loss of late long-term potentiation (L-LTP) due to dysfunction of the NMDA receptor. Suppression of innate immune cell activation prevents delayed vasospasm after murine SAH. We therefore explored the role of neutrophil-mediated innate inflammation on memory deficits after SAH. Depletion of neutrophils three days after SAH mitigates tissue inflammation, reverses cerebral vasoconstriction in the middle cerebral artery, and rescues L-LTP dysfunction at day 6. Spatial memory deficits in both the short and long-term are improved and associated with a shift of NMDA receptor subunit composition toward a memory sparing phenotype. This work supports further investigating suppression of innate immunity after SAH as a target for preventative therapies in SAH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute Exercise Improves Motor Memory Consolidation in Preadolescent Children.

    PubMed

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Skriver, Kasper; Nielsen, Jens B; Roig, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The ability to acquire new motor skills is essential both during childhood and later in life. Recent studies have demonstrated that an acute bout of exercise can improve motor memory consolidation in adults. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether acute exercise protocols following motor skill practice in a school setting can also improve long-term retention of motor memory in preadolescent children. Methods: Seventy-seven pre-adolescent children (age 10.5 ± 0.75 (SD)) participated in the study. Prior to the main experiment age, BMI, fitness status and general physical activity level was assessed in all children and they were then randomly allocated to three groups. All children practiced a visuomotor tracking task followed by 20 min of rest (CON), high intensity intermittent floorball (FLB) or running (RUN) with comparable exercise intensity and duration for exercise groups. Delayed retention of motor memory was assessed 1 h, 24 h and 7 days after motor skill acquisition. Results: During skill acquisition, motor performance improved significantly to the immediate retention test with no differences between groups. One hour following skill acquisition, motor performance decreased significantly for RUN. Twenty-four hours following skill acquisition there was a tendency towards improved performance for FLB but no significant effects. Seven days after motor practice however, both FLB and RUN performed better when compared to their immediate retention test indicating significant offline gains. This effect was not observed for CON. In contrast, 7 days after motor practice, retention of motor memory was significantly better for FLB and RUN compared to CON. No differences were observed when comparing FLB and RUN. Conclusions: Acute intense intermittent exercise performed immediately after motor skill acquisition facilitates long-term motor memory in pre-adolescent children, presumably by promoting memory consolidation. The results also

  2. Acute Exercise Improves Motor Memory Consolidation in Preadolescent Children

    PubMed Central

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Skriver, Kasper; Nielsen, Jens B.; Roig, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The ability to acquire new motor skills is essential both during childhood and later in life. Recent studies have demonstrated that an acute bout of exercise can improve motor memory consolidation in adults. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether acute exercise protocols following motor skill practice in a school setting can also improve long-term retention of motor memory in preadolescent children. Methods: Seventy-seven pre-adolescent children (age 10.5 ± 0.75 (SD)) participated in the study. Prior to the main experiment age, BMI, fitness status and general physical activity level was assessed in all children and they were then randomly allocated to three groups. All children practiced a visuomotor tracking task followed by 20 min of rest (CON), high intensity intermittent floorball (FLB) or running (RUN) with comparable exercise intensity and duration for exercise groups. Delayed retention of motor memory was assessed 1 h, 24 h and 7 days after motor skill acquisition. Results: During skill acquisition, motor performance improved significantly to the immediate retention test with no differences between groups. One hour following skill acquisition, motor performance decreased significantly for RUN. Twenty-four hours following skill acquisition there was a tendency towards improved performance for FLB but no significant effects. Seven days after motor practice however, both FLB and RUN performed better when compared to their immediate retention test indicating significant offline gains. This effect was not observed for CON. In contrast, 7 days after motor practice, retention of motor memory was significantly better for FLB and RUN compared to CON. No differences were observed when comparing FLB and RUN. Conclusions: Acute intense intermittent exercise performed immediately after motor skill acquisition facilitates long-term motor memory in pre-adolescent children, presumably by promoting memory consolidation. The results also

  3. A Single Bout of Exercise Improves Motor Memory

    PubMed Central

    Roig, Marc; Skriver, Kasper; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Kiens, Bente; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity has a positive impact on cognition and brain function. Here we investigated if a single bout of exercise can improve motor memory and motor skill learning. We also explored if the timing of the exercise bout in relation to the timing of practice has any impact on the acquisition and retention of a motor skill. Forty-eight young subjects were randomly allocated into three groups, which practiced a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task either before or after a bout of intense cycling or after rest. Motor skill acquisition was assessed during practice and retention was measured 1 hour, 24 hours and 7 days after practice. Differences among groups in the rate of motor skill acquisition were not significant. In contrast, both exercise groups showed a significantly better retention of the motor skill 24 hours and 7 days after practice. Furthermore, compared to the subjects that exercised before practice, the subjects that exercised after practice showed a better retention of the motor skill 7 days after practice. These findings indicate that one bout of intense exercise performed immediately before or after practicing a motor task is sufficient to improve the long-term retention of a motor skill. The positive effects of acute exercise on motor memory are maximized when exercise is performed immediately after practice, during the early stages of memory consolidation. Thus, the timing of exercise in relation to practice is possibly an important factor regulating the effects of acute exercise on long-term motor memory. PMID:22973462

  4. A single bout of exercise improves motor memory.

    PubMed

    Roig, Marc; Skriver, Kasper; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Kiens, Bente; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity has a positive impact on cognition and brain function. Here we investigated if a single bout of exercise can improve motor memory and motor skill learning. We also explored if the timing of the exercise bout in relation to the timing of practice has any impact on the acquisition and retention of a motor skill. Forty-eight young subjects were randomly allocated into three groups, which practiced a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task either before or after a bout of intense cycling or after rest. Motor skill acquisition was assessed during practice and retention was measured 1 hour, 24 hours and 7 days after practice. Differences among groups in the rate of motor skill acquisition were not significant. In contrast, both exercise groups showed a significantly better retention of the motor skill 24 hours and 7 days after practice. Furthermore, compared to the subjects that exercised before practice, the subjects that exercised after practice showed a better retention of the motor skill 7 days after practice. These findings indicate that one bout of intense exercise performed immediately before or after practicing a motor task is sufficient to improve the long-term retention of a motor skill. The positive effects of acute exercise on motor memory are maximized when exercise is performed immediately after practice, during the early stages of memory consolidation. Thus, the timing of exercise in relation to practice is possibly an important factor regulating the effects of acute exercise on long-term motor memory.

  5. Transcranial direct current stimulation during sleep improves declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Lisa; Mölle, Matthias; Hallschmid, Manfred; Born, Jan

    2004-11-03

    In humans, weak transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates excitability in the motor, visual, and prefrontal cortex. Periods rich in slow-wave sleep (SWS) not only facilitate the consolidation of declarative memories, but in humans, SWS is also accompanied by a pronounced endogenous transcortical DC potential shift of negative polarity over frontocortical areas. To experimentally induce widespread extracellular negative DC potentials, we applied anodal tDCS (0.26 mA) [correction] repeatedly (over 30 min) bilaterally at frontocortical electrode sites during a retention period rich in SWS. Retention of declarative memories (word pairs) and also nondeclarative memories (mirror tracing skills) learned previously was tested after this period and compared with retention performance after placebo stimulation as well as after retention intervals of wakefulness. Compared with placebo stimulation, anodal tDCS during SWS-rich sleep distinctly increased the retention of word pairs (p < 0.005). When applied during the wake retention interval, tDCS did not affect declarative memory. Procedural memory was also not affected by tDCS. Mood was improved both after tDCS during sleep and during wake intervals. tDCS increased sleep depth toward the end of the stimulation period, whereas the average power in the faster frequency bands (,alpha, and beta) was reduced. Acutely, anodal tDCS increased slow oscillatory activity <3 Hz. We conclude that effects of tDCS involve enhanced generation of slow oscillatory EEG activity considered to facilitate processes of neuronal plasticity. Shifts in extracellular ionic concentration in frontocortical tissue (expressed as negative DC potentials during SWS) may facilitate sleep-dependent consolidation of declarative memories.

  6. No Evidence for Improved Associative Memory Performance Following Process-Based Associative Memory Training in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bellander, Martin; Eschen, Anne; Lövdén, Martin; Martin, Mike; Bäckman, Lars; Brehmer, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Studies attempting to improve episodic memory performance with strategy instructions and training have had limited success in older adults: their training gains are limited in comparison to those of younger adults and do not generalize to untrained tasks and contexts. This limited success has been partly attributed to age-related impairments in associative binding of information into coherent episodes. We therefore investigated potential training and transfer effects of process-based associative memory training (i.e., repeated practice). Thirty-nine older adults (Mage = 68.8) underwent 6 weeks of either adaptive associative memory training or item recognition training. Both groups improved performance in item memory, spatial memory (object-context binding) and reasoning. A disproportionate effect of associative memory training was only observed for item memory, whereas no training-related performance changes were observed for associative memory. Self-reported strategies showed no signs of spontaneous development of memory-enhancing associative memory strategies. Hence, the results do not support the hypothesis that process-based associative memory training leads to higher associative memory performance in older adults. PMID:28119597

  7. Controlled architecture for improved macromolecular memory within polymer networks.

    PubMed

    DiPasquale, Stephen A; Byrne, Mark E

    2016-08-01

    This brief review analyzes recent developments in the field of living/controlled polymerization and the potential of this technique for creating imprinted polymers with highly structured architecture with macromolecular memory. As a result, it is possible to engineer polymers at the molecular level with increased homogeneity relating to enhanced template binding and transport. Only recently has living/controlled polymerization been exploited to decrease heterogeneity and substantially improve the efficiency of the imprinting process for both highly and weakly crosslinked imprinted polymers. Living polymerization can be utilized to create imprinted networks that are vastly more efficient than similar polymers produced using conventional free radical polymerization, and these improvements increase the role that macromolecular memory can play in the design and engineering of new drug delivery and sensing platforms.

  8. Parallel optical fuzzy logic inference using improved fuzzy associative memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, ShuQun; Karim, Mohammad A.

    1999-10-01

    A new optoelectronic fuzzy inference system is proposed for processing a large number of fuzzy rules in parallel. The proposed system using spatial light modulator implements various membership functions as well as max-min inference. It has the features of easy implementation and large data processing capability. The membership function decomposition method in the improved fuzzy associative memory is used to save both space bandwidth and accommodate multiple-input fuzzy inference.

  9. Predictable chronic mild stress improves mood, hippocampal neurogenesis and memory.

    PubMed

    Parihar, V K; Hattiangady, B; Kuruba, R; Shuai, B; Shetty, A K

    2011-02-01

    Maintenance of neurogenesis in adult hippocampus is important for functions such as mood and memory. As exposure to unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) results in decreased hippocampal neurogenesis, enhanced depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, and memory dysfunction, it is believed that declined hippocampal neurogenesis mainly underlies the behavioral and cognitive abnormalities after UCS. However, the effects of predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS) such as the routine stress experienced in day-to-day life on functions such as mood, memory and hippocampal neurogenesis are unknown. Using FST and EPM tests on a prototype of adult rats, we demonstrate that PCMS (comprising 5 min of daily restraint stress for 28 days) decreases depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors for prolonged periods. Moreover, we illustrate that decreased depression and anxiety scores after PCMS are associated with ~1.8-fold increase in the production and growth of new neurons in the hippocampus. Additionally, we found that PCMS leads to enhanced memory function in WMT as well as NORT. Collectively, these findings reveal that PCMS is beneficial to adult brain function, which is exemplified by increased hippocampal neurogenesis and improved mood and cognitive function.

  10. Some Improvements in Utilization of Flash Memory Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gender, Thomas K.; Chow, James; Ott, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Two developments improve the utilization of flash memory devices in the face of the following limitations: (1) a flash write element (page) differs in size from a flash erase element (block), (2) a block must be erased before its is rewritten, (3) lifetime of a flash memory is typically limited to about 1,000,000 erases, (4) as many as 2 percent of the blocks of a given device may fail before the expected end of its life, and (5) to ensure reliability of reading and writing, power must not be interrupted during minimum specified reading and writing times. The first development comprises interrelated software components that regulate reading, writing, and erasure operations to minimize migration of data and unevenness in wear; perform erasures during idle times; quickly make erased blocks available for writing; detect and report failed blocks; maintain the overall state of a flash memory to satisfy real-time performance requirements; and detect and initialize a new flash memory device. The second development is a combination of hardware and software that senses the failure of a main power supply and draws power from a capacitive storage circuit designed to hold enough energy to sustain operation until reading or writing is completed.

  11. Improving digit span assessment of short-term verbal memory.

    PubMed

    Woods, David L; Kishiyamaa, Mark M; Lund, E William; Herron, Timothy J; Edwards, Ben; Poliva, Oren; Hink, Robert F; Reed, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    We measured digit span (DS) in two experiments that used computerized presentation of randomized auditory digits with performance-adapted list length adjustment. A new mean span (MS) metric of DS was developed that showed reduced variance, improved test-retest reliability, and higher correlations with the results of other neuropsychological test results when compared to traditional DS measures. The MS metric also enhanced the sensitivity of forward versus backward span comparisons, enabled the development of normative performance criteria with subdigit precision, and elucidated changes in DS performance with age and education level. Computerized stimulus delivery and improved scoring metrics significantly enhance the precision of DS assessments of short-term verbal memory.

  12. Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I; Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Basak, Chandramallika; Szabo, Amanda; Chaddock, Laura; Kim, Jennifer S; Heo, Susie; Alves, Heloisa; White, Siobhan M; Wojcicki, Thomas R; Mailey, Emily; Vieira, Victoria J; Martin, Stephen A; Pence, Brandt D; Woods, Jeffrey A; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2011-02-15

    The hippocampus shrinks in late adulthood, leading to impaired memory and increased risk for dementia. Hippocampal and medial temporal lobe volumes are larger in higher-fit adults, and physical activity training increases hippocampal perfusion, but the extent to which aerobic exercise training can modify hippocampal volume in late adulthood remains unknown. Here we show, in a randomized controlled trial with 120 older adults, that aerobic exercise training increases the size of the anterior hippocampus, leading to improvements in spatial memory. Exercise training increased hippocampal volume by 2%, effectively reversing age-related loss in volume by 1 to 2 y. We also demonstrate that increased hippocampal volume is associated with greater serum levels of BDNF, a mediator of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Hippocampal volume declined in the control group, but higher preintervention fitness partially attenuated the decline, suggesting that fitness protects against volume loss. Caudate nucleus and thalamus volumes were unaffected by the intervention. These theoretically important findings indicate that aerobic exercise training is effective at reversing hippocampal volume loss in late adulthood, which is accompanied by improved memory function.

  13. Acute exercise improves motor memory: exploring potential biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Skriver, Kasper; Roig, Marc; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Pingel, Jessica; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Kiens, Bente; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2014-12-01

    We have recently shown that a single bout of acute cardiovascular exercise improves motor skill learning through an optimization of long-term motor memory. Here we expand this previous finding, to explore potential exercise-related biomarkers and their association with measures of motor memory and skill acquisition. Thirty-two healthy young male subjects were randomly allocated into either an exercise or control group. Following either an intense bout of cycling or rest subjects practiced a visuomotor tracking task. Motor skill acquisition was assessed during practice and retention 1 h, 24 h and 7 days after practice. Plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine and lactate were analyzed at baseline, immediately after exercise or rest and during motor practice. The exercise group showed significantly better skill retention 24h and 7 days after acquisition. The concentration of all blood compounds increased significantly immediately after exercise and remained significantly elevated for 15 min following exercise except for BDNF and VEGF. Higher concentrations of norepinephrine and lactate immediately after exercise were associated with better acquisition. Higher concentrations of BDNF correlated with better retention 1 h and 7 days after practice. Similarly, higher concentrations of norepinephrine were associated with better retention 7 days after practice whereas lactate correlated with better retention 1h as well as 24 h and 7 days after practice. Thus, improvements in motor skill acquisition and retention induced by acute cardiovascular exercise are associated with increased concentrations of biomarkers involved in memory and learning processes. More mechanistic studies are required to elucidate the specific role of each biomarker in the formation of motor memory.

  14. Improving memory following prefrontal cortex damage with the PQRST method

    PubMed Central

    Ciaramelli, Elisa; Neri, Francesco; Marini, Luca; Braghittoni, Davide

    2015-01-01

    We tested (1) whether the PQRST method, involving Preview (P), Question (Q), Read (R), State (S), and Test (T) phases, is effective in enhancing long-term memory in patients with mild memory problems due to prefrontal cortex lesions, and (2) whether patients also benefit from a more self-initiated version of the PQRST. Seven patients with prefrontal lesions encoded new texts under three different conditions: the Standard condition, requiring to read texts repeatedly, the PQRST-Other condition, in which the experimenter formulated questions about the text (Q phase), and the PQRST-Self condition, in which patients formulated the relevant questions on their own. Compared to the Standard condition, both the PQRST-Other and the PQRST-Self condition resulted in higher immediate and delayed recall rates, as well as a higher ability to answer questions about the texts. Importantly, the two PQRST conditions did not differ in efficacy. These results confirm that the PQRST method is effective in improving learning of new material in brain-injured populations with mild memory problems. Moreover, they indicate that the PQRST proves effective even under conditions with higher demands on patients’ autonomy and self-initiation, which encourages its application to real-life situations. PMID:26321932

  15. Working Memory Training Does Not Improve Intelligence in Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chooi, Weng-Tink; Thompson, Lee A.

    2012-01-01

    Jaeggi and her colleagues claimed that they were able to improve fluid intelligence by training working memory. Subjects who trained their working memory on a dual n-back task for a period of time showed significant improvements in working memory span tasks and fluid intelligence tests such as the Raven's Progressive Matrices and the Bochumer…

  16. Working Memory Training Does Not Improve Intelligence in Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chooi, Weng-Tink; Thompson, Lee A.

    2012-01-01

    Jaeggi and her colleagues claimed that they were able to improve fluid intelligence by training working memory. Subjects who trained their working memory on a dual n-back task for a period of time showed significant improvements in working memory span tasks and fluid intelligence tests such as the Raven's Progressive Matrices and the Bochumer…

  17. Severity of explicit memory impairment due to Alzheimer's disease improves effectiveness of implicit learning.

    PubMed

    Klimkowicz-Mrowiec, Aleksandra; Slowik, Agnieszka; Krzywoszanski, Lukasz; Herzog-Krzywoszanska, Radosława; Szczudlik, Andrzej

    2008-04-01

    Consistent evidence from human and experimental animals studies indicates that memory is organized into two relatively independent systems with different functions and brain mechanisms. The explicit memory system, dependent on the hippocampus and adjacent medial temporal lobe structures, refers to conscious knowledge acquisition and intentional recollection of previous experiences. The implicit memory system, dependent on the striatum, refers to learning of complex information without awareness or intention. The functioning of implicit memory can be observed in progressive, gradual improvement across many trials in performance on implicit learning tasks. The influence of explicit memory on implicit memory has not been precisely identified yet. According to data from some studies, explicit memory seems to exhibit no influence on implicit memory,whereas the other studies indicate that explicit memory may inhibit or facilitate implicit memory. The analysis of performance on implicit learning tasks in patients with different severity of explicit memory impairment due to Alzheimer's disease allows one to identify the potential influence of the explicit memory system on the implicit memory system. 51 patients with explicit memory impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 36 healthy controls were tested. Explicit memory was examined by means of a battery of neuropsychological tests. Implicit habit learning was examined on probabilistic classification task (weather prediction task). Patients with moderate explicit memory impairment performed the implicit task significantly better than those with mild AD and controls. Results of our study support the hypothesis of competition between the implicit and explicit memory systems in humans.

  18. Improving Memory Span in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, F. A.; Rosenquist, C. J.; Arnett, L.; Moore, M. S.; Hume, L. E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by impaired memory span, particularly auditory verbal memory span. Memory span is linked developmentally to several language capabilities, and may be a basic capacity that enables language learning. If children with DS had better memory span, they might benefit more from language intervention. The…

  19. Improving Memory Span in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, F. A.; Rosenquist, C. J.; Arnett, L.; Moore, M. S.; Hume, L. E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by impaired memory span, particularly auditory verbal memory span. Memory span is linked developmentally to several language capabilities, and may be a basic capacity that enables language learning. If children with DS had better memory span, they might benefit more from language intervention. The…

  20. Strategies for improving memory: a randomized trial of memory groups for older people, including those with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Kinsella, Glynda J; Ames, David; Storey, Elsdon; Ong, Ben; Pike, Kerryn E; Saling, Michael M; Clare, Linda; Mullaly, Elizabeth; Rand, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Governments are promoting the importance of maintaining cognitive health into older age to minimize risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Older people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are particularly vulnerable to memory challenges in daily activities and are seeking ways to maintain independent living. To evaluate the effectiveness of memory groups for improving memory strategies and memory ability of older people, especially those with aMCI. 113 healthy older adults (HOA) and 106 adults with aMCI were randomized to a six-week memory group or a waitlist control condition. Outcome was evaluated through knowledge and use of memory strategies, memory ability (self-report and neuropsychological tests), and wellbeing. Assessments included a six-month follow-up. Using intention to treat analyses, there were intervention effects for HOA and aMCI groups in strategy knowledge (HOA: η2= 0.20; aMCI: η2= 0.06), strategy use (HOA: η2= 0.18; aMCI: η2= 0.08), and wellbeing (HOA: η2= 0.11; aMCI: η2= 0.05). There were also intervention effects in the HOA group, but not the aMCI group, in self-reported memory ability (η2= 0.06) and prospective memory tests (η2= 0.02). By six-month follow-up, gains were found on most HOA outcomes. In the aMCI group gains were found in strategy use, and by this stage, gains in prospective memory were also found. Memory groups can engage older people in techniques for maintaining cognitive health and improve memory performance, but more modest benefits are seen for older adults with aMCI.

  1. Extinction Memory Improvement by the Metabolic Enhancer Methylene Blue

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Lima, F.; Bruchey, Aleksandra K.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether postextinction administration of methylene blue (MB) could enhance retention of an extinguished conditioned response. MB is a redox compound that at low doses elevates cytochrome oxidase activity, thereby improving brain energy production. Saline or MB (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were administered to rats for 5 d following extinction training of tone-footshock conditioning. Postextinction freezing was lower in rats receiving MB compared with saline, suggesting that MB improved retention of the extinction memory. The MB effect was specific to tone-evoked freezing because there were no differences in pretone freezing. Control subjects similarly injected with MB showed no evidence of nonspecific effects on measures of motor activity and fearfulness. MB-treated rats exhibited both greater retention of extinction and greater overall brain metabolic activity. Rats with higher retention of extinction also showed a relative increase in cytochrome oxidase activity in prefrontal cortical regions, especially anterior infralimbic cortex, dorsal and medial frontal cortex, and lateral orbital cortex. These regional metabolic increases were also correlated to the behavioral freezing index used to assess retention of extinction. It was concluded that MB administered postextinction could enhance retention of extinction memory through an increase in brain cytochrome oxidase activity. PMID:15466319

  2. Tocotrienol improves learning and memory deficit of aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Kaneai, Nozomi; Sumitani, Kazumi; Fukui, Koji; Koike, Taisuke; Takatsu, Hirokatsu; Urano, Shiro

    2016-01-01

    To define whether tocotrienol (T-3) improves cognitive deficit during aging, effect of T-3 on learning and memory functions of aged rats was assessed. It was found that T-3 markedly counteracts the decline in learning and memory function in aged rats. Quantitative analysis of T-3 content in the rat brain showed that the aged rats fed T-3 mixture-supplemented diet revealed the transport of α- and γ-T-3 to the brain. In contrast, normal young rats fed the same diet did not exhibit brain localization. Furthermore, the T-3 inhibited age-related decreases in the expression of certain blood brain barrier (BBB) proteins, including caludin-5, occludin and junctional adhesion molecule (JAM). It was found that the activation of the cellular proto-oncogene c-Src and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cell signaling pathway for neuronal cell death, was markedly inhibited by T-3. These results may reveal that aging induces partial BBB disruption caused by oxidative stress, thereby enabling the transport of T-3 through the BBB to the central nervous system, whereupon neuronal protection may be mediated by inhibition of c-Src and/or ERK activation, resulting in an improvement in age-related cognitive deficits. PMID:27013777

  3. Investigating How Implementation Intentions Improve Non-Focal Prospective Memory Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rebekah E.; McConnell Rogers, Melissa D.; McVay, Jennifer C.; Lopez, Joshua A.; Loft, Shayne

    2014-01-01

    Implementation intentions are a self-regulatory strategy broadly studied in the area of social cognition that can improve realization of one’s goals and improve performance on prospective memory tasks. Three experiments, using a non-focal task for which the prospective memory targets were specified at the time of intention formation, investigated whether (and how) implementation intentions can improve non-focal prospective memory performance. An improvement in prospective memory performance was accompanied by an increase in the allocation of conscious resources to the prospective memory task, but not by an increase in perceived importance of the prospective memory task. The third experiment also investigated the effects of implementation intentions on recall of the appropriate action and found that accurate action recall was improved by implementation intentions. Finally, the effect of implementation intention instructions on cognitive processes that underlie non-focal prospective memory performance was investigated using a multinomial model. PMID:24929276

  4. A Short Executive Function Training Program Improves Preschoolers' Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Blakey, Emma; Carroll, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive training has been shown to improve executive functions (EFs) in middle childhood and adulthood. However, fewer studies have targeted the preschool years-a time when EFs undergo rapid development. The present study tested the effects of a short four session EF training program in 54 four-year-olds. The training group significantly improved their working memory from pre-training relative to an active control group. Notably, this effect extended to a task sharing few surface features with the trained tasks, and continued to be apparent 3 months later. In addition, the benefits of training extended to a measure of mathematical reasoning 3 months later, indicating that training EFs during the preschool years has the potential to convey benefits that are both long-lasting and wide-ranging.

  5. Refreshing memory traces: thinking of an item improves retrieval from visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Souza, Alessandra S; Rerko, Laura; Oberauer, Klaus

    2015-03-01

    This article provides evidence that refreshing, a hypothetical attention-based process operating in working memory (WM), improves the accessibility of visual representations for recall. "Thinking of", one of several concurrently active representations, is assumed to refresh its trace in WM, protecting the representation from being forgotten. The link between refreshing and WM performance, however, has only been tenuously supported by empirical evidence. Here, we controlled which and how often individual items were refreshed in a color reconstruction task by presenting cues prompting participants to think of specific WM items during the retention interval. We show that the frequency with which an item is refreshed improves recall of this item from visual WM. Our study establishes a role of refreshing in recall from visual WM and provides a new method for studying the impact of refreshing on the amount of information we can keep accessible for ongoing cognition. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Chlorella sorokiniana Extract Improves Short-Term Memory in Rats.

    PubMed

    Morgese, Maria Grazia; Mhillaj, Emanuela; Francavilla, Matteo; Bove, Maria; Morgano, Lucia; Tucci, Paolo; Trabace, Luigia; Schiavone, Stefania

    2016-09-29

    Increasing evidence shows that eukaryotic microalgae and, in particular, the green microalga Chlorella, can be used as natural sources to obtain a whole variety of compounds, such as omega (ω)-3 and ω-6 polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFAs). Although either beneficial or toxic effects of Chlorella sorokiniana have been mainly attributed to its specific ω-3 and ω-6 PUFAs content, the underlying molecular pathways remain to be elucidated yet. Here, we investigate the effects of an acute oral administration of a lipid extract of Chlorella sorokiniana, containing mainly ω-3 and ω-6 PUFAs, on cognitive, emotional and social behaviour in rats, analysing possible underlying neurochemical alterations. Our results showed improved short-term memory in Chlorella sorokiniana-treated rats compared to controls, without any differences in exploratory performance, locomotor activity, anxiety profile and depressive-like behaviour. On the other hand, while the social behaviour of Chlorella sorokiniana-treated animals was significantly decreased, no effects on aggressivity were observed. Neurochemical investigations showed region-specific effects, consisting in an elevation of noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) content in hippocampus, but not in the prefrontal cortex and striatum. In conclusion, our results point towards a beneficial effect of Chlorella sorokiniana extract on short-term memory, but also highlight the need of caution in the use of this natural supplement due to its possible masked toxic effects.

  7. Do intensive studies of a foreign language improve associative memory performance?

    PubMed

    Mårtensson, Johan; Lövdén, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Formal education has been proposed to shape life-long cognitive development. Studies reporting that gains from cognitive training transfer to untrained tasks suggest direct effects of mental activity on cognitive processing efficiency. However, associative memory practice has not been known to produce transfer effects, which is odd considering that the key neural substrate of associative memory, the hippocampus, is known to be particularly plastic. We investigated whether extremely intensive studies of a foreign language, entailing demands on associative memory, cause improvements in associative memory performance. In a pretest-training-post-test design, military conscript interpreters and undergraduate students were measured on a battery of cognitive tasks. We found transfer from language studies to a face-name associative-memory task, but not to measures of working memory, strategy-sensitive episodic memory, or fluid intelligence. These findings provide initial evidence suggesting that associative memory performance can be improved in early adulthood, and that formal education can have such effects.

  8. Memory formation, amnesia, improved memory and reversed amnesia: 5-HT role.

    PubMed

    Perez-Garcia, G; Meneses, A

    2008-12-16

    Traditionally, the search for memory circuits has been focused on examinations of amnesic and AD patients, cerebral lesions and neuroimaging. A complementary alternative has become the use of autoradiography with radioligands, aiming to identify neurobiological markers associated with memory formation, amnesia states and (more recently) recovery from memory deficits. Indeed, ex vivo autoradiographic studies offer the advantage of detecting functionally active receptors altered by pharmacological tools during memory formation, amnesia states and memory recovery. Moreover, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) systems have become a pharmacological and genetic target in the treatment of memory disorders. Herein evidence from studies involving expression of 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(4), and 5-HT(6) receptors in memory formation, amnesia conditions (e.g., pharmacological models or aging) and recovery of memory is reviewed. Thus, specific 5-HT receptors were expressed in trained animals relative to untrained in brain areas such as cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. However, relative to the control group, rats showing amnesia or recovered memory, showed in the hippocampus, region where explicit memory is formed, a complex pattern of 5-HT receptor expression. An intermediate expression occurred in amygdala, septum and some cortical areas in charge of explicit memory storage. Even in brain areas thought to be in charge of procedural memory such as basal ganglia, animals showing recovered memory displayed an intermediate expression, while amnesic groups, depending on the pharmacological amnesia model, showed up- or down-regulation. In conclusion, evidence indicates that autoradiography, by using specific radioligands, offers excellent opportunities to map dynamic changes in brain areas engaged in these cognitive processes. The 5-HT modulatory role strengthens or suppresses memory is critically depend on the timing of the memory formation.

  9. Longitudinal Neurostimulation in Older Adults Improves Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kevin T.; Stephens, Jaclyn A.; Alam, Mahtab; Bikson, Marom; Berryhill, Marian E.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing concern affecting a growing aging population is working memory (WM) decline. Consequently, there is great interest in improving or stabilizing WM, which drives expanded use of brain training exercises. Such regimens generally result in temporary WM benefits to the trained tasks but minimal transfer of benefit to untrained tasks. Pairing training with neurostimulation may stabilize or improve WM performance by enhancing plasticity and strengthening WM-related cortical networks. We tested this possibility in healthy older adults. Participants received 10 sessions of sham (control) or active (anodal, 1.5 mA) tDCS to the right prefrontal, parietal, or prefrontal/parietal (alternating) cortices. After ten minutes of sham or active tDCS, participants performed verbal and visual WM training tasks. On the first, tenth, and follow-up sessions, participants performed transfer WM tasks including the spatial 2-back, Stroop, and digit span tasks. The results demonstrated that all groups benefited from WM training, as expected. However, at follow-up 1-month after training ended, only the participants in the active tDCS groups maintained significant improvement. Importantly, this pattern was observed for both trained and transfer tasks. These results demonstrate that tDCS-linked WM training can provide long-term benefits in maintaining cognitive training benefits and extending them to untrained tasks. PMID:25849358

  10. Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory

    PubMed Central

    Jaeggi, Susanne M.; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Perrig, Walter J.

    2008-01-01

    Fluid intelligence (Gf) refers to the ability to reason and to solve new problems independently of previously acquired knowledge. Gf is critical for a wide variety of cognitive tasks, and it is considered one of the most important factors in learning. Moreover, Gf is closely related to professional and educational success, especially in complex and demanding environments. Although performance on tests of Gf can be improved through direct practice on the tests themselves, there is no evidence that training on any other regimen yields increased Gf in adults. Furthermore, there is a long history of research into cognitive training showing that, although performance on trained tasks can increase dramatically, transfer of this learning to other tasks remains poor. Here, we present evidence for transfer from training on a demanding working memory task to measures of Gf. This transfer results even though the trained task is entirely different from the intelligence test itself. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the extent of gain in intelligence critically depends on the amount of training: the more training, the more improvement in Gf. That is, the training effect is dosage-dependent. Thus, in contrast to many previous studies, we conclude that it is possible to improve Gf without practicing the testing tasks themselves, opening a wide range of applications. PMID:18443283

  11. Imagine that: self-imagination improves prospective memory in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage.

    PubMed

    Grilli, Matthew D; McFarland, Craig P

    2011-12-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that "self-imagination" - a mnemonic strategy developed by Grilli and Glisky (2010) - enhances episodic memory in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage more than traditional cognitive strategies, including semantic elaboration and visual imagery. The present study investigated the effect of self-imagination on prospective memory in individuals with neurologically based memory deficits. In two separate sessions, 12 patients with memory impairment took part in a computerised general knowledge test that required them to answer multiple choice questions (i.e., ongoing task) and press the "1" key when a target word appeared in a question (i.e., prospective memory task). Prior to the start of the general knowledge test in each session, participants attempted to encode the prospective memory task with one of two strategies: self-imagination or rote-rehearsal. The findings revealed a "self-imagination effect (SIE)" in prospective memory as self-imagining resulted in better prospective memory performance than rote-rehearsal. These results demonstrate that the mnemonic advantage of self-imagination extends to prospective memory in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage and suggest that self-imagination has potential in cognitive rehabilitation.

  12. Reward improves long-term retention of a motor memory through induction of offline memory gains

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Mitsunari; Schambra, Heidi; Wassermann, Eric M; Luckenbaugh, Dave; Schweighofer, Nicolas; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2011-01-01

    Summary In humans, training in which good performance is rewarded or bad performance punished results in transient behavioral improvements [1–3]. Their relative effects on consolidation and long-term retention, critical behavioral stages for successful learning [4, 5], are not known. Here, we investigated the effects of reward and punishment on these different stages of human motor skill learning. We studied healthy subjects who trained on a motor task under rewarded, punished, or neutral control conditions. Performance was tested before, and immediately, 6 hs, 24 hs and 30 days after training in the absence of reward or punishment. Performance improvements immediately after training were comparable in the three groups. At 6 hs, the rewarded group maintained performance gains while the other two groups experienced significant forgetting. At 24 hs, the reward group showed significant offline (posttraining) improvements while the other two groups did not. At 30 days, the rewarded group retained the gains identified at 24 hs, while the other two groups experienced significant forgetting. We conclude that training under rewarded conditions is more effective than training under punished or neutral conditions in eliciting lasting motor learning, an advantage driven by offline memory gains that persist over time. PMID:21419628

  13. Reward improves long-term retention of a motor memory through induction of offline memory gains.

    PubMed

    Abe, Mitsunari; Schambra, Heidi; Wassermann, Eric M; Luckenbaugh, Dave; Schweighofer, Nicolas; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2011-04-12

    In humans, training in which good performance is rewarded or bad performance punished results in transient behavioral improvements. The relative effects of reward and punishment on consolidation and long-term retention, critical behavioral stages for successful learning, are not known. Here, we investigated the effects of reward and punishment on these different stages of human motor skill learning. We studied healthy subjects who trained on a motor task under rewarded, punished, or neutral control conditions. Performance was tested before and immediately, 6 hr, 24 hr, and 30 days after training in the absence of reward or punishment. Performance improvements immediately after training were comparable in the three groups. At 6 hr, the rewarded group maintained performance gains, whereas the other two groups experienced significant forgetting. At 24 hr, the reward group showed significant offline (posttraining) improvements, whereas the other two groups did not. At 30 days, the rewarded group retained the gains identified at 24 hr, whereas the other two groups experienced significant forgetting. We conclude that training under rewarded conditions is more effective than training under punished or neutral conditions in eliciting lasting motor learning, an advantage driven by offline memory gains that persist over time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Memory

    MedlinePlus

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  15. Acute social stress before the planning phase improves memory performance in a complex real life-related prospective memory task.

    PubMed

    Glienke, Katharina; Piefke, Martina

    2016-09-01

    Successful execution of intentions, but also the failure to recall are common phenomena in everyday life. The planning, retention, and realization of intentions are often framed as the scientific concept of prospective memory. The current study aimed to examine the influence of acute stress on key dimensions of complex "real life" prospective memory. To this end, we applied a prospective memory task that involved the planning, retention, and performance of intentions during a fictional holiday week. Forty healthy males participated in the study. Half of the subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions, and the other half of the participants underwent a control procedure at the same time. Salivary cortisol was used to measure the effectiveness of the SECPT stress induction. Stressed participants did not differ from controls in planning accuracy. However, when we compared stressed participants with controls during prospective memory retrieval, we found statistically significant differences in PM across the performance phase. Participants treated with the SECPT procedure before the planning phase showed improved prospective memory retrieval over time, while performance of controls declined. Particularly, there was a significant difference between the stress and control group for the last two days of the holiday week. Interestingly, control participants showed significantly better performance for early than later learned items, which could be an indicator of a primacy effect. This differential effect of stress on performance was also found in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that acute stress induced before the planning phase may improve prospective memory over the time course of the performance phase in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our data thus indicate that prospective memory can be enhanced by acute stress. Copyright © 2016

  16. Negative affect improves the quality of memories: trading capacity for precision in sensory and working memory.

    PubMed

    Spachtholz, Philipp; Kuhbandner, Christof; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2014-08-01

    Research has shown that negative affect reduces working memory capacity. Commonly, this effect has been attributed to an allocation of resources to task-irrelevant thoughts, suggesting that negative affect has detrimental consequences for working memory performance. However, rather than simply being a detrimental effect, the affect-induced capacity reduction may reflect a trading of capacity for precision of stored representations. To test this hypothesis, we induced neutral or negative affect and concurrently measured the number and precision of representations stored in sensory and working memory. Compared with neutral affect, negative affect reduced the capacity of both sensory and working memory. However, in both memory systems, this decrease in capacity was accompanied by an increase in precision. These findings demonstrate that observers unintentionally trade capacity for precision as a function of affective state and indicate that negative affect can be beneficial for the quality of memories. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of memory use for improved design and compile-time allocation of local memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcniven, Geoffrey D.; Davidson, Edward S.

    1986-01-01

    Trace analysis techniques are used to study memory referencing behavior for the purpose of designing local memories and determining how to allocate them for data and instructions. In an attempt to assess the inherent behavior of the source code, the trace analysis system described here reduced the effects of the compiler and host architecture on the trace by using a technical called flattening. The variables in the trace, their associated single-assignment values, and references are histogrammed on the basis of various parameters describing memory referencing behavior. Bounds are developed specifying the amount of memory space required to store all live values in a particular histogram class. The reduction achieved in main memory traffic by allocating local memory is specified for each class.

  18. Methionine increases BDNF DNA methylation and improves memory in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, R Ryley; Buckingham, Susan C; Mascia, Katherine L; Johnson, Jarvis J; Matyjasik, Michal M; Lockhart, Roxanne M; Lubin, Farah D

    2015-01-01

    Objective Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients exhibit signs of memory impairments even when seizures are pharmacologically controlled. Surprisingly, the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in TLE-associated memory impairments remain elusive. Memory consolidation requires epigenetic transcriptional regulation of genes in the hippocampus; therefore, we aimed to determine how epigenetic DNA methylation mechanisms affect learning-induced transcription of memory-permissive genes in the epileptic hippocampus. Methods Using the kainate rodent model of TLE and focusing on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) gene as a candidate of DNA methylation-mediated transcription, we analyzed DNA methylation levels in epileptic rats following learning. After detection of aberrant DNA methylation at the Bdnf gene, we investigated functional effects of altered DNA methylation on hippocampus-dependent memory formation in our TLE rodent model. Results We found that behaviorally driven BdnfDNA methylation was associated with hippocampus-dependent memory deficits. Bisulfite sequencing revealed that decreased BdnfDNA methylation levels strongly correlated with abnormally high levels of BdnfmRNA in the epileptic hippocampus during memory consolidation. Methyl supplementation via methionine (Met) increased BdnfDNA methylation and reduced BdnfmRNA levels in the epileptic hippocampus during memory consolidation. Met administration reduced interictal spike activity, increased theta rhythm power, and reversed memory deficits in epileptic animals. The rescue effect of Met treatment on learning-induced BdnfDNA methylation, Bdnf gene expression, and hippocampus-dependent memory, were attenuated by DNA methyltransferase blockade. Interpretation Our findings suggest that manipulation of DNA methylation in the epileptic hippocampus should be considered as a viable treatment option to ameliorate memory impairments associated with TLE. PMID:25909085

  19. Music training improves verbal but not visual memory: cross-sectional and longitudinal explorations in children.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yim-Chi; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Chan, Agnes S

    2003-07-01

    The hypothesis that music training can improve verbal memory was tested in children. The results showed that children with music training demonstrated better verbal but not visual memory than did their counterparts without such training. When these children were followed up after a year, those who had begun or continued music training demonstrated significant verbal memory improvement. Students who discontinued the training did not show any improvement. Contrary to the differences in verbal memory between the groups, their changes in visual memory were not significantly different. Consistent with previous findings for adults (A. S. Chan, Y. Ho, & M. Cheung, 1998), the results suggest that music training systematically affects memory processing in accordance with possible neuroanatomical modifications in the left temporal lobe.

  20. Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  1. Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  2. Do Computerised Training Programmes Designed to Improve Working Memory Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apter, Brian J. B.

    2012-01-01

    A critical review of working memory training research during the last 10 years is provided. Particular attention is given to research that has attempted to investigate the efficacy of commercially marketed computerised training programmes such as "Cogmed" and "Jungle Memory". Claimed benefits are questioned on the basis that research methodologies…

  3. Improving working memory in children with low language abilities

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Joni; Butterfield, Sally; Cormack, Francesca; van Loenhoud, Anita; Ruggero, Leanne; Kashikar, Linda; Gathercole, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether working memory training is effective in enhancing verbal memory in children with low language abilities (LLA). Cogmed Working Memory Training was completed by a community sample of children aged 8–11 years with LLA and a comparison group with matched non-verbal abilities and age-typical language performance. Short-term memory (STM), working memory, language, and IQ were assessed before and after training. Significant and equivalent post-training gains were found in visuo-spatial short-term memory in both groups. Exploratory analyses across the sample established that low verbal IQ scores were strongly and highly specifically associated with greater gains in verbal STM, and that children with higher verbal IQs made greater gains in visuo-spatial short-term memory following training. This provides preliminary evidence that intensive working memory training may be effective for enhancing the weakest aspects of STM in children with low verbal abilities, and may also be of value in developing compensatory strategies. PMID:25983703

  4. Improved memory word line configuration allows high storage density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Plated wire memory word drive line allows high storage density, good plated wire transmission and a simplified memory plane configuration. A half-turn word drive line with a magnetic keeper is used. The ground plane provides the return path for both the word current and the plated wire transmission line.

  5. Do Computerised Training Programmes Designed to Improve Working Memory Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apter, Brian J. B.

    2012-01-01

    A critical review of working memory training research during the last 10 years is provided. Particular attention is given to research that has attempted to investigate the efficacy of commercially marketed computerised training programmes such as "Cogmed" and "Jungle Memory". Claimed benefits are questioned on the basis that research methodologies…

  6. Intrahippocampal infusion of spermidine improves memory persistence: Involvement of protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Signor, Cristiane; Temp, Fernanda R; Mello, Carlos F; Oliveira, Mauro S; Girardi, Bruna A; Gais, Mayara A; Funck, Vinicius R; Rubin, Maribel A

    2016-05-01

    Spermidine (SPD) is an endogenous aliphatic amine that modulates GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors and improves memory. Recent evidence suggests that systemic SPD improves the persistence of the long term memory of fear. However, the role of hippocampal polyamines and its binding sites in the persistence of fear memory is to be determined, as well as its putative underlying mechanisms. This study investigated whether the intrahippocampal (i.h.) infusion of spermidine or arcaine, modulators of polyamine binding site at GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors, alters the persistence of the memory of contextual fear conditioning task in rats. We also investigated whether protein synthesis and cAMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) play a role in SPD-induced improvement of the fear memory persistence. While 12h post-training infusion of spermidine facilitated, arcaine and the inhibitor of protein synthesis (anisomycin) impaired the memory of fear assessed 7days after training. The infusion of arcaine, anisomycin or a selective PKA inhibitor (H-89), at doses that have no effect on memory per se, prevented the SPD-induced improvement of memory persistence. H-89 prevented the stimulatory effect of SPD on phospho-PKA/total-PKA ratio. These results suggests that the improvement of fear memory persistence induced by spermidine involves GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors, PKA pathway and protein synthesis in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Do transactive memory and participative teamwork improve nurses' quality of work life?

    PubMed

    Brunault, Paul; Fouquereau, Evelyne; Colombat, Philippe; Gillet, Nicolas; El-Hage, Wissam; Camus, Vincent; Gaillard, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Improvement in nurses' quality of work life (QWL) has become a major issue in health care organizations. We hypothesized that the level of transactive memory (defined as the way groups collectively encode, store, and retrieve knowledge) and participative teamwork (an organizational model of care based on vocational training, a specific service's care project, and regular interdisciplinary staffing) positively affect nurses' QWL. This cross-sectional study enrolled 84 ward-based psychiatric nurses. We assessed transactive memory, participative teamwork, perceived organizational justice, perceived organizational support, and QWL using psychometrically reliable and valid scales. Participative teamwork and transactive memory were positively associated with nurses' QWL. Perceived organizational support and organizational justice fully mediated the relationship between participative teamwork and QWL, but not between transactive memory and QWL. Improved transactive memory could directly improve nurses' QWL. Improved participative teamwork could improve nurses' QWL through better perceived organizational support and perceived organizational justice.

  8. Improving memory in outpatients with neurological disorders using a group-based training program.

    PubMed

    Radford, Kylie; Lah, Suncica; Thayer, Zoë; Say, Miranda J; Miller, Laurie A

    2012-07-01

    Memory problems are common in patients with a range of neurological conditions, but there have been few attempts to provide and evaluate the usefulness of memory training for groups of neurological outpatients. We used a waitlist-controlled trial design to assess the effectiveness of a newly created, 6-session intervention, which involved training in the use of compensatory strategies as well as education regarding memory function, neurological damage, sleep and lifestyle factors that have an impact on memory. Fifty-six patients with neurological conditions (e.g., stroke, epilepsy) and memory complaints completed the training and assessments. Outcomes were evaluated in terms of reported strategy use as well as objective and subjective measures of anterograde and prospective memory. Training resulted in significant improvements on number of strategies used, scores on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (total learning and delayed recall) and self-report on the Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory. Improvements were stable at 3-month follow-up. Better individual outcomes were related to lower baseline memory scores, fewer symptoms of depression and greater self-awareness of memory function. Overall the study provides encouraging results to indicate that patients with neurological conditions such as stroke and epilepsy can show improvements in memory after a relatively short group-based intervention.

  9. The Senior WISE study: Improving everyday memory in older adults

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather; Pituch, Keenan; Acee, Taylor W.; Vaughan, Phillip W.; Delville, Carol L.

    2009-01-01

    We tested whether at-risk older adults receiving memory training showed better memory self-efficacy, metamemory, memory performance, and function in instrumental activities of daily living than participants receiving a health promotion training comparison condition. We followed participants for 26 months. The sample was mostly female (79%) and Caucasian (71%), with 17% Hispanics, and 12% African Americans; average age was 75 years and average education was 13 years. The memory training group made greater gains on global cognition and had fewer memory complaints, but both groups generally maintained their performance on the other cognitive measures and IADLs throughout the 24-month study period. Black and Hispanic participants made greater gains than Whites did on some memory performance measures but not on memory self-efficacy. The unexpected finding that minority elders made the largest gains merits further study. This study contributed to the knowledge base of geropsychiatric nursing by providing evidence for an effective psychosocial intervention that could be delivered by advanced practice nurses. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00094731 PMID:20851321

  10. Memory Improvement via Slow Oscillatory Stimulation during Sleep in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Westerberg, Carmen E.; Florczak, Susan M.; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M.-Marsel; Marshall, Lisa; Zee, Phyllis C.; Paller, Ken A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the intriguing but controversial idea that disrupted sleep-dependent consolidation contributes to age-related memory decline. Slow-wave activity during sleep may help strengthen neural connections and provide memories with long-term stability, in which case decreased slow-wave activity in older adults could contribute to their weaker memories. One prediction from this account is that age-related memory deficits should be reduced by artificially enhancing slow-wave activity. In young adults, applying transcranial current oscillating at a slow frequency (.75 Hz) during sleep improves memory. Here, we tested whether this procedure can improve memory in older adults. In two sessions separated by 1 week, we applied either slow-oscillatory stimulation or sham stimulation during an afternoon nap in a double-blind, crossover design. Memory tests were administered before and after sleep. A larger improvement in word-pair recall and higher slow-wave activity were observed with slow-oscillatory stimulation than with sham stimulation. This is the first demonstration that this procedure can improve memory in older adults, suggesting that declarative memory performance in older adults is partly dependent on slow-wave activity during sleep. PMID:26116933

  11. Memory improvement via slow-oscillatory stimulation during sleep in older adults.

    PubMed

    Westerberg, Carmen E; Florczak, Susan M; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Marshall, Lisa; Zee, Phyllis C; Paller, Ken A

    2015-09-01

    We examined the intriguing but controversial idea that disrupted sleep-dependent consolidation contributes to age-related memory decline. Slow-wave activity during sleep may help strengthen neural connections and provide memories with long-term stability, in which case decreased slow-wave activity in older adults could contribute to their weaker memories. One prediction from this account is that age-related memory deficits should be reduced by artificially enhancing slow-wave activity. In young adults, applying transcranial current oscillating at a slow frequency (0.75 Hz) during sleep improves memory. Here, we tested whether this procedure can improve memory in older adults. In 2 sessions separated by 1 week, we applied either slow-oscillatory stimulation or sham stimulation during an afternoon nap in a double-blind, crossover design. Memory tests were administered before and after sleep. A larger improvement in word-pair recall and higher slow-wave activity was observed with slow-oscillatory stimulation than with sham stimulation. This is the first demonstration that this procedure can improve memory in older adults, suggesting that declarative memory performance in older adults is partly dependent on slow-wave activity during sleep. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Working memory training to improve speech perception in noise across languages

    PubMed Central

    Ingvalson, Erin M.; Dhar, Sumitrajit; Wong, Patrick C. M.; Liu, Hanjun

    2015-01-01

    Working memory capacity has been linked to performance on many higher cognitive tasks, including the ability to perceive speech in noise. Current efforts to train working memory have demonstrated that working memory performance can be improved, suggesting that working memory training may lead to improved speech perception in noise. A further advantage of working memory training to improve speech perception in noise is that working memory training materials are often simple, such as letters or digits, making them easily translatable across languages. The current effort tested the hypothesis that working memory training would be associated with improved speech perception in noise and that materials would easily translate across languages. Native Mandarin Chinese and native English speakers completed ten days of reversed digit span training. Reading span and speech perception in noise both significantly improved following training, whereas untrained controls showed no gains. These data suggest that working memory training may be used to improve listeners' speech perception in noise and that the materials may be quickly adapted to a wide variety of listeners. PMID:26093435

  13. Working memory training to improve speech perception in noise across languages.

    PubMed

    Ingvalson, Erin M; Dhar, Sumitrajit; Wong, Patrick C M; Liu, Hanjun

    2015-06-01

    Working memory capacity has been linked to performance on many higher cognitive tasks, including the ability to perceive speech in noise. Current efforts to train working memory have demonstrated that working memory performance can be improved, suggesting that working memory training may lead to improved speech perception in noise. A further advantage of working memory training to improve speech perception in noise is that working memory training materials are often simple, such as letters or digits, making them easily translatable across languages. The current effort tested the hypothesis that working memory training would be associated with improved speech perception in noise and that materials would easily translate across languages. Native Mandarin Chinese and native English speakers completed ten days of reversed digit span training. Reading span and speech perception in noise both significantly improved following training, whereas untrained controls showed no gains. These data suggest that working memory training may be used to improve listeners' speech perception in noise and that the materials may be quickly adapted to a wide variety of listeners.

  14. Aerobic exercise increases hippocampal volume and improves memory in multiple sclerosis: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, V M; Cirnigliaro, C; Cohen, A; Farag, A; Brooks, M; Wecht, J M; Wylie, G R; Chiaravalloti, N D; DeLuca, J; Sumowski, J F

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis leads to prominent hippocampal atrophy, which is linked to memory deficits. Indeed, 50% of multiple sclerosis patients suffer memory impairment, with negative consequences for quality of life. There are currently no effective memory treatments for multiple sclerosis either pharmacological or behavioral. Aerobic exercise improves memory and promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in nonhuman animals. Here, we investigate the benefits of aerobic exercise in memory-impaired multiple sclerosis patients. Pilot data were collected from two ambulatory, memory-impaired multiple sclerosis participants randomized to non-aerobic (stretching) and aerobic (stationary cycling) conditions. The following baseline/follow-up measurements were taken: high-resolution MRI (neuroanatomical volumes), fMRI (functional connectivity), and memory assessment. Intervention was 30-minute sessions 3 times per week for 3 months. Aerobic exercise resulted in 16.5% increase in hippocampal volume and 53.7% increase in memory, as well as increased hippocampal resting-state functional connectivity. Improvements were specific, with no comparable changes in overall cerebral gray matter (+2.4%), non-hippocampal deep gray matter structures (thalamus, caudate: -4.0%), or in non-memory cognitive functioning (executive functions, processing speed, working memory: changes ranged from -11% to +4%). Non-aerobic exercise resulted in relatively no change in hippocampal volume (2.8%) or memory (0.0%), and no changes in hippocampal functional connectivity. This is the first evidence for aerobic exercise to increase hippocampal volume and connectivity and improve memory in multiple sclerosis. Aerobic exercise represents a cost-effective, widely available, natural, and self-administered treatment with no adverse side effects that may be the first effective memory treatment for multiple sclerosis patients.

  15. Modafinil administration improves working memory in methamphetamine-dependent individuals who demonstrate baseline impairment.

    PubMed

    Kalechstein, Ari D; De La Garza, Richard; Newton, Thomas F

    2010-01-01

    Modafinil improves working memory in healthy subjects and individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, though the effects of modafinil have not been evaluated on working memory in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated whether a daily dose of 400 mg of modafinil, administered over three consecutive days, would enhance performance on a measure of working memory relative to test performance at baseline and following 3 days of placebo administration in 11 methamphetamine addicted, nontreatment-seeking volunteers. The results revealed that participants demonstrating relatively poor performance on the third day of a 3-day washout period (ie, at baseline), showed significant improvement on measures of working memory, but not on measures of episodic memory or information processing speed. In contrast, for participants demonstrating relatively high performance at baseline, modafinil administration did not affect test scores. The findings provide an initial indication that modafinil can reverse methamphetamine-associated impairments in working memory.

  16. 10 Hz flicker improves recognition memory in older people

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jonathan; Ramaswamy, Deepa; Oulhaj, Abderrahim

    2006-01-01

    Background 10 Hz electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha rhythms correlate with memory performance. Alpha and memory decline in older people. We wished to test if alpha-like EEG activity contributes to memory formation. Flicker can elicit alpha-like EEG activity. We tested if alpha-frequency flicker enhances memory in older people. Pariticpants aged 67–92 identified short words that followed 1 s of flicker at 9.0 Hz, 9.5 Hz, 10.0 Hz, 10.2 Hz, 10.5 Hz, 11.0 Hz, 11.5 Hz or 500 Hz. A few minutes later, we tested participants' recognition of the words (without flicker). Results Flicker frequencies close to 10 Hz (9.5–11.0 Hz) facilitated the identification of the test words in older participants. The same flicker frequencies increased recognition of the words more than other frequencies (9.0 Hz, 11.5 Hz and 500 Hz), irrespective of age. Conclusion The frequency-specificity of flicker's effects in our participants paralleled the power spectrum of EEG alpha in the general population. This indicates that alpha-like EEG activity may subserve memory processes. Flicker may be able to help memory problems in older people. PMID:16515710

  17. Neural conflict-control mechanisms improve memory for target stimuli.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Ruth M; Boehler, Carsten N; De Belder, Maya; Egner, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    According to conflict-monitoring models, conflict serves as an internal signal for reinforcing top-down attention to task-relevant information. While evidence based on measures of ongoing task performance supports this idea, implications for long-term consequences, that is, memory, have not been tested yet. Here, we evaluated the prediction that conflict-triggered attentional enhancement of target-stimulus processing should be associated with superior subsequent memory for those stimuli. By combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a novel variant of a face-word Stroop task that employed trial-unique face stimuli as targets, we were able to assess subsequent (incidental) memory for target faces as a function of whether a given face had previously been accompanied by congruent, neutral, or incongruent (conflicting) distracters. In line with our predictions, incongruent distracters not only induced behavioral conflict, but also gave rise to enhanced memory for target faces. Moreover, conflict-triggered neural activity in prefrontal and parietal regions was predictive of subsequent retrieval success, and displayed conflict-enhanced functional coupling with medial-temporal lobe regions. These data provide support for the proposal that conflict evokes enhanced top-down attention to task-relevant stimuli, thereby promoting their encoding into long-term memory. Our findings thus delineate the neural mechanisms of a novel link between cognitive control and memory. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Neural Conflict–Control Mechanisms Improve Memory for Target Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Ruth M.; Boehler, Carsten N.; De Belder, Maya; Egner, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    According to conflict-monitoring models, conflict serves as an internal signal for reinforcing top-down attention to task-relevant information. While evidence based on measures of ongoing task performance supports this idea, implications for long-term consequences, that is, memory, have not been tested yet. Here, we evaluated the prediction that conflict-triggered attentional enhancement of target-stimulus processing should be associated with superior subsequent memory for those stimuli. By combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a novel variant of a face-word Stroop task that employed trial-unique face stimuli as targets, we were able to assess subsequent (incidental) memory for target faces as a function of whether a given face had previously been accompanied by congruent, neutral, or incongruent (conflicting) distracters. In line with our predictions, incongruent distracters not only induced behavioral conflict, but also gave rise to enhanced memory for target faces. Moreover, conflict-triggered neural activity in prefrontal and parietal regions was predictive of subsequent retrieval success, and displayed conflict-enhanced functional coupling with medial-temporal lobe regions. These data provide support for the proposal that conflict evokes enhanced top-down attention to task-relevant stimuli, thereby promoting their encoding into long-term memory. Our findings thus delineate the neural mechanisms of a novel link between cognitive control and memory. PMID:24108799

  19. Effectiveness of a specific cueing method for improving autobiographical memory recall in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Potheegadoo, Jevita; Cordier, Adrian; Berna, Fabrice; Danion, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Autobiographical memory deficits in schizophrenia have a significant impact on patients' daily life. Our study was aimed at testing the effectiveness of a specific cueing (SC) method for improving autobiographical memory recall in patients with schizophrenia, particularly the phenomenological details of their memories. Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia and 25 comparison participants took part in the study. They recalled 6 specific autobiographical events which occurred during 3 different life periods. After each memory recall, participants were given a general cue which allowed them to add further information to their narration. The SC was then applied by means of a series of specific questions to elicit more precise memory detail. The overall memory specificity as well as the number and richness of 5 categories of memory detail (perceptual/sensory, temporal, contextual, emotional, and cognitive) were assessed before and after the SC phase. Before SC, patients' memories were less specific and less detailed. SC had a beneficial effect on patients' memory recall. The overall memory specificity of patients improved. The gain in the number and richness of memory details was comparable between patients and comparison participants. The difference between groups in terms of the number of memory details was not significant. Richness of details was still lower in patients, except for emotional and cognitive details, which were similarly rich in both groups. The cueing method reduces the autobiographical memory impairment of patients with schizophrenia and paves the way for developing specific cognitive remediation therapies to help patients in their daily life. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. An improved car-following model considering headway changes with memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shaowei; Shi, Zhongke

    2015-03-01

    To describe car-following behaviors in complex situations better, increase roadway traffic mobility and minimize cars' fuel consumptions, the linkage between headway changes with memory and car-following behaviors was explored with the field car-following data by using the gray correlation analysis method, and then an improved car-following model considering headway changes with memory on a single lane was proposed based on the full velocity difference model. Some numerical simulations were carried out by employing the improved car-following model to explore how headway changes with memory affected each car's velocity, acceleration, headway and fuel consumptions. The research results show that headway changes with memory have significant effects on car-following behaviors and fuel consumptions and that considering headway changes with memory in designing the adaptive cruise control strategy can improve the traffic flow stability and minimize cars' fuel consumptions.

  1. Utilizing Computerized Cognitive Training to Improve Working Memory and Encoding: Piloting a School-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiest, Dudley J.; Wong, Eugene H.; Minero, Laura P.; Pumaccahua, Tessy T.

    2014-01-01

    Working memory has been well documented as a significant predictor of academic outcomes (e.g., reading and math achievement as well as general life outcomes). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of computerized cognitive training to improve both working memory and encoding abilities in a school setting. Thirty students…

  2. Improvement in Working Memory Is Not Related to Increased Intelligence Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colom, Roberto; Quiroga, Ma. Angeles; Shih, Pei Chun; Martinez, Kenia; Burgaleta, Miguel; Martinez-Molina, Agustin; Roman, Francisco J.; Requena, Laura; Ramirez, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    The acknowledged high relationship between working memory and intelligence suggests common underlying cognitive mechanisms and, perhaps, shared biological substrates. If this is the case, improvement in working memory by repeated exposure to challenging span tasks might be reflected in increased intelligence scores. Here we report a study in which…

  3. Improvement in Working Memory Is Not Related to Increased Intelligence Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colom, Roberto; Quiroga, Ma. Angeles; Shih, Pei Chun; Martinez, Kenia; Burgaleta, Miguel; Martinez-Molina, Agustin; Roman, Francisco J.; Requena, Laura; Ramirez, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    The acknowledged high relationship between working memory and intelligence suggests common underlying cognitive mechanisms and, perhaps, shared biological substrates. If this is the case, improvement in working memory by repeated exposure to challenging span tasks might be reflected in increased intelligence scores. Here we report a study in which…

  4. A Chinese Chan-based Mind-Body Intervention Improves Memory of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Agnes S.; Cheung, Winnie K.; Yeung, Michael K.; Woo, Jean; Kwok, Timothy; Shum, David H. K.; Yu, Ruby; Cheung, Mei-chun

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in the adoption of lifestyle interventions to remediate age-related declines in memory functioning and physical and psychological health among older adults. This study aimed to investigate whether a Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention, the Dejian Mind-Body Intervention (DMBI), leads to positive benefits for memory functioning in older adults. Fifty-six adults aged 60 years or older with subjective memory complaints (SMC) were randomly assigned to receive the DMBI or a control intervention (i.e., a conventional memory intervention; MI) once a week for 10 weeks; 48 of the adults completed the intervention. Participants’ verbal and visual memory functioning before and after the intervention were compared. In addition, changes in the participants’ subjective feelings about their memory performance and physical and psychological health after the intervention were examined. The results showed that both the DMBI and MI resulted in significant improvements in both verbal and visual memory functioning and that the extent of the improvements was correlated with participants’ level of performance at baseline. In addition, compared to the MI group, the DMBI group had significantly greater improvements in subjective physical and psychological health after the intervention. In summary, the present findings support the potential of the DMBI as an alternative lifestyle intervention for improving memory functioning, subjective physical and psychological health of older adults with SMC. PMID:28659789

  5. When Kids Act Out: A Comparison of Embodied Methods to Improve Children's Memory for a Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenhaus, Molly; Oakhill, Jane; Rusted, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, embodied cognition, the idea that sensorimotor processes facilitate higher cognitive processes, has proven useful for improving children's memory for a story. In order to compare the benefits of two embodiment techniques, active experiencing (AE) and indexing, for children's memory for a story, we compared the immediate…

  6. When Kids Act Out: A Comparison of Embodied Methods to Improve Children's Memory for a Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenhaus, Molly; Oakhill, Jane; Rusted, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, embodied cognition, the idea that sensorimotor processes facilitate higher cognitive processes, has proven useful for improving children's memory for a story. In order to compare the benefits of two embodiment techniques, active experiencing (AE) and indexing, for children's memory for a story, we compared the immediate…

  7. Electrophysiological Correlates of Improved Short-Term Memory for Emotional Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langeslag, Sandra J. E.; Morgan, Helen M.; Jackson, Margaret C.; Linden, David E. J.; Van Strien, Jan W.

    2009-01-01

    Long-term memory (LTM) is enhanced for emotional information, but the influence of stimulus emotionality on short-term memory (STM) is less clear. We examined the electrophysiological correlates of improved visual STM for emotional face identity, focusing on the P1, N170, P3b and N250r event-related potential (ERP) components. These correlates are…

  8. Utilizing Computerized Cognitive Training to Improve Working Memory and Encoding: Piloting a School-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiest, Dudley J.; Wong, Eugene H.; Minero, Laura P.; Pumaccahua, Tessy T.

    2014-01-01

    Working memory has been well documented as a significant predictor of academic outcomes (e.g., reading and math achievement as well as general life outcomes). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of computerized cognitive training to improve both working memory and encoding abilities in a school setting. Thirty students…

  9. Herbal-caffeinated chewing gum, but not bubble gum, improves aspects of memory.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Matthew G

    2011-08-01

    Research has shown that standard chewing gum can affect aspects of both attention and memory. The present study examined the effects of Think Gum®, a caffeinated-herbal chewing gum, on both concentration and memory using a series of paper-based and online testing. Compared to standard chewing gum and a no-gum control, chewing caffeinated-herbal gum during testing improved aspects of memory, but did not affect concentration. The findings suggest that caffeinated-herbal chewing gum is an effective memory aid. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Improved memory loading techniques for the TSRV display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easley, W. C.; Lynn, W. A.; Mcluer, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    A recent upgrade of the TSRV research flight system at NASA Langley Research Center retained the original monochrome display system. However, the display memory loading equipment was replaced requiring design and development of new methods of performing this task. This paper describes the new techniques developed to load memory in the display system. An outdated paper tape method for loading the BOOTSTRAP control program was replaced by EPROM storage of the characters contained on the tape. Rather than move a tape past an optical reader, a counter was implemented which steps sequentially through EPROM addresses and presents the same data to the loader circuitry. A cumbersome cassette tape method for loading the applications software was replaced with a floppy disk method using a microprocessor terminal installed as part of the upgrade. The cassette memory image was transferred to disk and a specific software loader was written for the terminal which duplicates the function of the cassette loader.

  11. Improved uncertainty relation in the presence of quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Fei, Shao-Ming; Li-Jost, Xianqing

    2016-12-01

    Berta et al’s uncertainty principle in the presence of quantum memory (Berta et al 2010 Nat. Phys. 6 659) reveals uncertainties with quantum side information between the observables. In the recent important work of Coles and Piani (2014 Phys. Rev. A 89 022112), the entropic sum is controlled by the first and second maximum overlaps between the two projective measurements. We generalize the entropic uncertainty relation in the presence of quantum memory and find the exact dependence on all d largest overlaps between two measurements on any d-dimensional Hilbert space. Our bound is rigorously shown to be strictly tighter than previous entropic bounds in the presence of quantum memory, which have potential applications to quantum cryptography with entanglement witnesses and quantum key distributions.

  12. Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) and d-methamphetamine improve visuospatial associative memory, but not spatial working memory, in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Wright, M J; Vandewater, S A; Angrish, D; Dickerson, T J; Taffe, M A

    2012-11-01

    The novel cathinone derivative 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC; mephedrone) is increasingly popular with recreational users. Little scientific information is available but users report both entactogen-like and classic stimulant-like subjective properties. A recent study in humans reported psychomotor speed improvement after intranasal 4-MMC suggesting classic stimulant properties. Limitations of the user group (which was impaired on some tasks) prompt controlled laboratory investigation. Adult male rhesus monkeys were trained to perform tasks from the non-human primate Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, which assess spatial working memory, visuospatial associative memory, learning and motivation for food reward. Test of bimanual motor coordination and manual tracking were also included. The subjects were challenged with 0.178-0.56 mg·kg(-1) 4-MMC and 0.056-0.56 mg·kg(-1) d-methamphetamine (MA), i.m., in randomized order for behavioural evaluation. A pronounced improvement in visuospatial memory and learning was observed after the 0.32 mg·kg(-1) dose of each compound, this effect was confirmed with subsequent repetition of these conditions. Spatial working memory was not improved by either drug, and the progressive ratio, bimanual motor and rotating turntable tasks were all disrupted in a dose-dependent manner. These studies show that 4-MMC produces behavioural effects, including improvements in complex spatial memory and learning that are in large part similar to those of MA in non-human primates. Thus, the data suggest that the effects of 4-MMC in monkeys can be classified with classical psychomotor stimulants. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Midlife memory improvement predicts preservation of hippocampal volume in old age

    PubMed Central

    Borghesani, Paul R.; Weaver, Kurt E.; Aylward, Elizabeth H.; Richards, Anne L.; Madhyastha, Tara M; Kahn, Ali R.; Liang, Olivia; Ellenbogen, Rachel L.; Beg, M. Faisal; Schaie, K. Warner; Willis, Sherry L

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether midlife change in episodic memory predicts hippocampal volume in old-age. From the Seattle Longitudinal Study we retrospectively identified 84 healthy, cognitively normal individuals, age 52 to 87, whose episodic memory had reliably declined (n=33), improved (n=28) or remained stable (n=23) over a 14 year period in midlife (age 43–63). Midlife memory improvement was associated with 13% larger hippocampal volume (p < 0.01) in old-age (age 66–87), compared to old-age individuals whose midlife episodic memory had either declined or remained stable during midlife. Midlife memory change did not predict total hippocampal volume for those currently in late middle-age (age 52–65). The pattern of findings was not modified by gender, apolipoprotein ε4 status, education or current memory performance. Change in midlife memory scores over 14 years, but not any single assessment, predicted hippocampal volumes in old age, emphasizing the importance of longitudinal data in examining brain-cognition relationships. These findings suggest that improvement in memory in midlife is associated with sparing of hippocampal volume in later life. PMID:21074898

  14. Midlife memory improvement predicts preservation of hippocampal volume in old age.

    PubMed

    Borghesani, Paul R; Weaver, Kurt E; Aylward, Elizabeth H; Richards, Anne L; Madhyastha, Tara M; Kahn, Ali R; Liang, Olivia; Ellenbogen, Rachel L; Beg, M Faisal; Schaie, K Warner; Willis, Sherry L

    2012-07-01

    This study examines whether midlife change in episodic memory predicts hippocampal volume in old age. From the Seattle Longitudinal Study we retrospectively identified 84 healthy, cognitively normal individuals, age 52 to 87, whose episodic memory had reliably declined (n = 33), improved (n = 28) or remained stable (n = 23) over a 14-year period in midlife (age 43-63). Midlife memory improvement was associated with 13% larger hippocampal volume (p < 0.01) in old age (age 66-87), compared with old age individuals whose midlife episodic memory had either declined or remained stable during midlife. Midlife memory change did not predict total hippocampal volume for those currently in late middle age (age 52-65). The pattern of findings was not modified by gender, apolipoprotein ε4 status, education or current memory performance. Change in midlife memory scores over 14 years, but not any single assessment, predicted hippocampal volumes in old age, emphasizing the importance of longitudinal data in examining brain-cognition relationships. These findings suggest that improvement in memory in midlife is associated with sparing of hippocampal volume in later life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving the Patron Experience: Sterling Memorial Library's Single Service Point

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sider, Laura Galas

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the planning process and implementation of a single service point at Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library. While much recent scholarship on single service points (SSPs) has focused on the virtues or hazards of eliminating reference desks in libraries nationwide, this essay explores the ways in which single service…

  16. Tart cherries improve working memory in aged rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aged rats show impaired performance on cognitive tasks that require the use of spatial learning and memory. In previous studies, we have shown the beneficial effects of various dark-colored berry fruits (blueberries, strawberries, and blackberries) in reversing age-related deficits in behavioral and...

  17. Memory and Language Improvements Following Cognitive Control Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussey, Erika K.; Harbison, J. Isaiah; Teubner-Rhodes, Susan E.; Mishler, Alan; Velnoskey, Kayla; Novick, Jared M.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive control refers to adjusting thoughts and actions when confronted with conflict during information processing. We tested whether this ability is causally linked to performance on certain language and memory tasks by using cognitive control training to systematically modulate people's ability to resolve information-conflict across domains.…

  18. Memory and Language Improvements Following Cognitive Control Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussey, Erika K.; Harbison, J. Isaiah; Teubner-Rhodes, Susan E.; Mishler, Alan; Velnoskey, Kayla; Novick, Jared M.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive control refers to adjusting thoughts and actions when confronted with conflict during information processing. We tested whether this ability is causally linked to performance on certain language and memory tasks by using cognitive control training to systematically modulate people's ability to resolve information-conflict across domains.…

  19. Improving the Patron Experience: Sterling Memorial Library's Single Service Point

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sider, Laura Galas

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the planning process and implementation of a single service point at Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library. While much recent scholarship on single service points (SSPs) has focused on the virtues or hazards of eliminating reference desks in libraries nationwide, this essay explores the ways in which single service…

  20. Improving of Mechanical and Shape-Memory Properties in Hyperbranched Epoxy Shape-Memory Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, David; Fabregat-Sanjuan, Albert; Ferrando, Francesc; De la Flor, Silvia

    2016-09-01

    A series of shape-memory epoxy polymers were synthesized using an aliphatic amine and two different commercial hyperbranched poly(ethyleneimine)s with different molecular weights as crosslinking agents. Thermal, mechanical, and shape-memory properties in materials modified with different hyperbranched polymers were analyzed and compared in order to establish the effect of the structure and the molecular weight of the hyperbranched polymers used. The presence of hyperbranched polymers led to more heterogeneous networks, and the crosslinking densities of which increase as the hyperbranched polymer content increases. The transition temperatures can be tailored from 56 to 117 °C depending on the molecular weight and content of the hyperbranched polymer. The mechanical properties showed excellent values in all formulations at room temperature and, specially, at T_{{g}}^{{E^' with stress at break as high as 15 MPa and strain at break as high as 60 %. The shape-memory performances revealed recovery ratios around 95 %, fixity ratios around 97 %, and shape-recovery velocities as high as 22 %/min. The results obtained in this study reveal that hyperbranched polymers with different molecular weights can be used to enhance the thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy-based SMPs while keeping excellent shape-memory properties.

  1. Spermidine improves the persistence of reconsolidated fear memory and neural differentiation in vitro: Involvement of BDNF.

    PubMed

    Signor, Cristiane; Girardi, Bruna Amanda; Lorena Wendel, Arithane; Frühauf, Pâmella Karina Santana; Pillat, Micheli M; Ulrich, Henning; Mello, Carlos F; Rubin, Maribel A

    2017-04-01

    Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are organic cations implicated in learning, memory consolidation, reconsolidation and neurogenesis. These physiological processes are closely related, and convincing evidence indicates that neurogenesis is implicated both, in the establishment and maintenance of remote contextual fear memory. Although brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key mediator involved in both neurogenesis and memory consolidation, effects of spermidine on persistence of memory after reactivation (reconsolidation) and possible involvement of BDNF have not been investigated. Here, we investigated whether the intrahippocampal infusion of spermidine improves the persistence of reconsolidated contextual fear conditioning memory in rats and whether these possible changes depend on BDNF/TrkB signaling in the hippocampus. The infusion of spermidine immediately and 12h post-reactivation improved fear memory of the animals tested seven but not two days after reactivation. The facilitatory effect of spermidine on the persistence of reconsolidated memory was blocked by the TrkB inhibitor ANA-12 (73.6pmol/site) and accompanied by mature BDNF level increase in the hippocampus, indicating that it depends on the BDNF/TrkB pathway. We also investigated whether spermidine alters BDNF levels and neural progenitor cell differentiation in vitro. Spermidine increased BDNF levels in vitro, facilitating neuritogenesis and neural migration. Spermidine-induced neuritogenesis in vitro was also blocked by ANA-12 (10µM). Since spermidine increases BDNF levels and facilitates neural differentiation in vitro, similar mechanisms may be involved in spermidine-induced facilitation of the persistence of reconsolidated memory.

  2. From amusic to musical?--Improving pitch memory in congenital amusia with transcranial alternating current stimulation.

    PubMed

    Schaal, Nora K; Pfeifer, Jasmin; Krause, Vanessa; Pollok, Bettina

    2015-11-01

    Brain imaging studies highlighted structural differences in congenital amusia, a life-long perceptual disorder that is associated with pitch perception and pitch memory deficits. A functional anomaly characterized by decreased low gamma oscillations (30-40 Hz range) in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during pitch memory has been revealed recently. Thus, the present study investigates whether applying transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) at 35 Hz to the right DLPFC would improve pitch memory. Nine amusics took part in two tACS sessions (either 35 Hz or 90 Hz) and completed a pitch and visual memory task before and during stimulation. 35 Hz stimulation facilitated pitch memory significantly. No modulation effects were found with 90 Hz stimulation or on the visual task. While amusics showed a selective impairment of pitch memory before stimulation, the performance during 35 Hz stimulation was not significantly different to healthy controls anymore. Taken together, the study shows that modulating the right DLPFC with 35 Hz tACS in congenital amusia selectively improves pitch memory performance supporting the hypothesis that decreased gamma oscillations within the DLPFC are causally involved in disturbed pitch memory and highlight the potential use of tACS to interact with cognitive processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Learning Linear Spatial-Numeric Associations Improves Accuracy of Memory for Numbers

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Clarissa A.; Opfer, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Memory for numbers improves with age and experience. One potential source of improvement is a logarithmic-to-linear shift in children’s representations of magnitude. To test this, Kindergartners and second graders estimated the location of numbers on number lines and recalled numbers presented in vignettes (Study 1). Accuracy at number-line estimation predicted memory accuracy on a numerical recall task after controlling for the effect of age and ability to approximately order magnitudes (mapper status). To test more directly whether linear numeric magnitude representations caused improvements in memory, half of children were given feedback on their number-line estimates (Study 2). As expected, learning linear representations was again linked to memory for numerical information even after controlling for age and mapper status. These results suggest that linear representations of numerical magnitude may be a causal factor in development of numeric recall accuracy. PMID:26834688

  4. Improvement of Impaired Memory in Mice by Taurine

    PubMed Central

    Vohra, Bhupinder P. S.; Hui, Xiang

    2000-01-01

    Taurine was extracted from Pegasus later-narius Cuvier to study its effects on learning and memory in mice. Mice were treated with different doses of taurine (10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg). The mice were treated with various chemical agents (pentobarbital, cycloheximide, sodium nitrite, alcohol) to disrupt the normal memory process. We measured the effect of taurine on step-down latency (SDL) and escape latency (EL) in a passive avoidance task after 10 or 30 days. Treatment with taurine alone did not change either SDL or EL. Taurine protected mice .from the memory disruption induced by alcohol, pentobarbital, sodium nitrite, and cycloheximide but had no obvious effect on motor coordination, exploratory activity, or locomotor activity as measured using the rota-rod test and the hole board test. We conclude that taurine can be effective in attenuating the amnesia produced by alcohol, pentobarbital, cycloheximide, and sodium nitrite without compromising the behavioral aspects of the animals tested. PMID:11486485

  5. SenseCam improves memory for recent events and quality of life in a patient with memory retrieval difficulties.

    PubMed

    Browne, Georgina; Berry, Emma; Kapur, Narinder; Hodges, Steve; Smyth, Gavin; Watson, Peter; Wood, Ken

    2011-10-01

    A wearable camera that takes pictures automatically, SenseCam, was used to generate images for rehearsal, promoting consolidation and retrieval of memories for significant events in a patient with memory retrieval deficits. SenseCam images of recent events were systematically reviewed over a 2-week period. Memory for these events was assessed throughout and longer-term recall was tested up to 6 months later. A written diary control condition followed the same procedure. The SenseCam review procedure resulted in significantly more details of an event being recalled, with twice as many details recalled at 6 months follow up compared to the written diary method. Self-report measures suggested autobiographical recollection was triggered by the SenseCam condition but not by reviewing the written diary. Emotional and social wellbeing questionnaires indicated improved confidence and decreased anxiety as a result of memory rehearsal using SenseCam images. We propose that SenseCam images provide a powerful boost to autobiographical recall, with secondary benefits for quality of life.

  6. Cognitive training to improve memory in individuals undergoing electroconvulsive therapy: Negative findings.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jimmy; Wang, Yuanjia; Feng, Tianshu; Prudic, Joan

    2017-03-24

    Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains the most effective treatment for severe depression, some patients report persistent memory problems following ECT that impact their quality of life and their willingness to consent to further ECT. While cognitive training has been shown to improve memory performance in various conditions, this approach has never been applied to help patients regain their memory after ECT. In a double-blind study, we tested the efficacy of a new cognitive training program called Memory Training for ECT (Mem-ECT), specifically designed to target anterograde and retrograde memory that can be compromised following ECT. Fifty-nine patients with treatment-resistant depression scheduled to undergo ultra-brief right unilateral ECT were randomly assigned to either: (a) Mem-ECT, (b) active control comprised of nonspecific mental stimulation, or (c) treatment as usual. Participants were evaluated within one week prior to the start of ECT and then again within 2 weeks following the last ECT session. All three groups improved in global function, quality of life, depression, and self-reported memory abilities without significant group differences. While there was a decline in verbal delayed recall and mental status, there was no decline in general retrograde memory or autobiographical memory in any of the groups, with no significant memory or clinical benefit for the Mem-ECT or active control conditions compared to treatment as usual. While we report negative findings, these results continue to promote the much needed discussion on developing effective strategies to minimize the adverse memory side effects of ECT, in hopes it will make ECT a better and more easily tolerated treatment for patients with severe depression who need this therapeutic option.

  7. The AMPA modulator S 18986 improves declarative and working memory performances in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Marighetto, Aline; Valerio, Stephane; Jaffard, Robert; Mormede, Cecile; Muñoz, Carmen; Bernard, Katy; Morain, Philippe

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to further characterize the memory-enhancing profile of S 18986 a positive allosteric modulator of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors. S 18986 was studied in two mouse models of age-related memory deficits, using radial maze paradigms involving long-term/declarative memory and short-term/working memory. Aged mice exhibited severe deficits when compared with their younger counterparts in the two behavioural tests. S 18986 at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg selectively improved aged mouse performance in the test of long-term/declarative memory flexibility and exerted a beneficial effect on short-term retention of successive arm-visits in the short-term/working memory test. This study confirms the memory-enhancing properties of S 18986 and, in line with emerging data on multiple AMPA modulators, highlights the relevance of targeting AMPA receptors in the development of new memory enhancers.

  8. Associative Recognition Memory Awareness Improved by Theta-Burst Stimulation of Frontopolar Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ryals, Anthony J.; Rogers, Lynn M.; Gross, Evan Z.; Polnaszek, Kelly L.; Voss, Joel L.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging and lesion studies have implicated specific prefrontal cortex locations in subjective memory awareness. Based on this evidence, a rostrocaudal organization has been proposed whereby increasingly anterior prefrontal regions are increasingly involved in memory awareness. We used theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TBS) to temporarily modulate dorsolateral versus frontopolar prefrontal cortex to test for distinct causal roles in memory awareness. In three sessions, participants received TBS bilaterally to frontopolar cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or a control location prior to performing an associative-recognition task involving judgments of memory awareness. Objective memory performance (i.e., accuracy) did not differ based on stimulation location. In contrast, frontopolar stimulation significantly influenced several measures of memory awareness. During study, judgments of learning were more accurate such that lower ratings were given to items that were subsequently forgotten selectively following frontopolar TBS. Confidence ratings during test were also higher for correct trials following frontopolar TBS. Finally, trial-by-trial correspondence between overt performance and subjective awareness during study demonstrated a linear increase across control, dorsolateral, and frontopolar TBS locations, supporting a rostrocaudal hierarchy of prefrontal contributions to memory awareness. These findings indicate that frontopolar cortex contributes causally to memory awareness, which was improved selectively by anatomically targeted TBS. PMID:25577574

  9. Weight and See: Loading Working Memory Improves Incidental Identification of Irrelevant Faces

    PubMed Central

    Carmel, David; Fairnie, Jake; Lavie, Nilli

    2012-01-01

    Are task-irrelevant stimuli processed to a level enabling individual identification? This question is central both for perceptual processing models and for applied settings (e.g., eye-witness testimony). Lavie’s load theory proposes that working memory actively maintains attentional prioritization of relevant over irrelevant information. Loading working memory thus impairs attentional prioritization, leading to increased processing of task-irrelevant stimuli. Previous research has shown that increased working memory load leads to greater interference effects from response-competing distractors. Here we test the novel prediction that increased processing of irrelevant stimuli under high working memory load should lead to a greater likelihood of incidental identification of entirely irrelevant stimuli. To test this, we asked participants to perform a word-categorization task while ignoring task-irrelevant images. The categorization task was performed during the retention interval of a working memory task with either low or high load (defined by memory set size). Following the final experimental trial, a surprise question assessed incidental identification of the irrelevant image. Loading working memory was found to improve identification of task-irrelevant faces, but not of building stimuli (shown in a separate experiment to be less distracting). These findings suggest that working memory plays a critical role in determining whether distracting stimuli will be subsequently identified. PMID:22912623

  10. Weight and see: loading working memory improves incidental identification of irrelevant faces.

    PubMed

    Carmel, David; Fairnie, Jake; Lavie, Nilli

    2012-01-01

    Are task-irrelevant stimuli processed to a level enabling individual identification? This question is central both for perceptual processing models and for applied settings (e.g., eye-witness testimony). Lavie's load theory proposes that working memory actively maintains attentional prioritization of relevant over irrelevant information. Loading working memory thus impairs attentional prioritization, leading to increased processing of task-irrelevant stimuli. Previous research has shown that increased working memory load leads to greater interference effects from response-competing distractors. Here we test the novel prediction that increased processing of irrelevant stimuli under high working memory load should lead to a greater likelihood of incidental identification of entirely irrelevant stimuli. To test this, we asked participants to perform a word-categorization task while ignoring task-irrelevant images. The categorization task was performed during the retention interval of a working memory task with either low or high load (defined by memory set size). Following the final experimental trial, a surprise question assessed incidental identification of the irrelevant image. Loading working memory was found to improve identification of task-irrelevant faces, but not of building stimuli (shown in a separate experiment to be less distracting). These findings suggest that working memory plays a critical role in determining whether distracting stimuli will be subsequently identified.

  11. Sominone improves memory impairments and increases axonal density in Alzheimer's disease model mice, 5XFAD.

    PubMed

    Joyashiki, Eri; Matsuya, Yuji; Tohda, Chihiro

    2011-04-01

    Previously we showed that steroidal sapogenin, sominone improved memory after a single i.p. injection into normal mice. However, it had not been reported that sominone could recover memory deficits in a severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) model animal. Therefore, we aimed to investigate that sominone improved memory impairments in the 5XFAD mouse, model for AD. In the current study, we used sominone that we had synthesized. 5XFAD mice were given 10 μmol/kg sominone intraperitoneally for 9 days. In addition to object recognition memory, axonal density, amyloid plaque number, and activated microglia in the brain were evaluated. Sominone treatment significantly improved object recognition memory compared with vehicle control treatment. Sominone treatment significantly enhanced axonal densities in the frontal cortex and parietal cortex but had no effects on amyloid plaque number and activated microglia. In cultured cortical neurons, the axonal length was significantly reduced by Aβ(1-42) treatment. However, that was markedly recovered 5 days after the treatment with 1 μM sominone. Neuronal loss was not observed in the cortex and hippocampus of 5XFAD mice at 6-8 months of age. These results suggest that memory deficits in AD may be improved by sominone independently of reducing amyloid plaques and neuroinflammation.

  12. Effects of working memory and reading acceleration training on improving working memory abilities and reading skills among third graders.

    PubMed

    Nevo, Einat; Breznitz, Zvia

    2014-01-01

    Working memory (WM) plays a crucial role in supporting learning, including reading. This study investigated the influence of reading acceleration and WM training programs on improving reading skills and WM abilities. Ninety-seven children in third grade were divided into three study groups and one control group. The three study groups each received a different combination of two training programs: only reading acceleration, WM followed by reading acceleration, and reading acceleration followed by WM. All training programs significantly improved reading skills and WM abilities. Compared with the control group, the group trained with only the reading acceleration program improved word accuracy, whereas the groups trained with a combination of reading and WM programs improved word and pseudo-word fluency. The reading-acceleration-alone group and the WM-program-followed-by-reading-acceleration group improved phonological complex memory. We conclude that a training program that combines a long reading acceleration program and a short WM program is the most effective for improving the abilities most related to scholastic achievement.

  13. Improving Memory Subsystem Performance Using ViVA: Virtual Vector Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Gebis, Joseph; Oliker, Leonid; Shalf, John; Williams, Samuel; Yelick, Katherine

    2009-01-12

    The disparity between microprocessor clock frequencies and memory latency is a primary reason why many demanding applications run well below peak achievable performance. Software controlled scratchpad memories, such as the Cell local store, attempt to ameliorate this discrepancy by enabling precise control over memory movement; however, scratchpad technology confronts the programmer and compiler with an unfamiliar and difficult programming model. In this work, we present the Virtual Vector Architecture (ViVA), which combines the memory semantics of vector computers with a software-controlled scratchpad memory in order to provide a more effective and practical approach to latency hiding. ViVA requires minimal changes to the core design and could thus be easily integrated with conventional processor cores. To validate our approach, we implemented ViVA on the Mambo cycle-accurate full system simulator, which was carefully calibrated to match the performance on our underlying PowerPC Apple G5 architecture. Results show that ViVA is able to deliver significant performance benefits over scalar techniques for a variety of memory access patterns as well as two important memory-bound compact kernels, corner turn and sparse matrix-vector multiplication -- achieving 2x-13x improvement compared the scalar version. Overall, our preliminary ViVA exploration points to a promising approach for improving application performance on leading microprocessors with minimal design and complexity costs, in a power efficient manner.

  14. Improvement of Written-State Retentivity by Scaling Down MNOS Memory Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Shin-ichi; Kamigaki, Yoshiaki; Uchida, Ken; Furusawa, Kazunori; Hagiwara, Takaaki

    1988-11-01

    New MNOS retention characteristic phenomena are demonstrated. Shrunk MNOS memory devices are closely evaluated. While charge retentivity of the erased state depends only slightly on silicon nitride thickness, written-state retentivity is improved by reducing silicon nitride thickness. These new phenomena are applied to memory device design. A 1 M bit MNOS EEPROM can be designed with silicon nitride thickness 20.0 nm and programming voltage 10.7 V. These results show the MNOS memory device to be a very promising candidate for Megabit EEPROM’s.

  15. Predicting and Improving Recognition Memory Using Multiple Electrophysiological Signals in Real Time.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Keisuke; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2015-07-01

    Although people are capable of storing a virtually infinite amount of information in memory, their ability to encode new information is far from perfect. The quality of encoding varies from moment to moment and renders some memories more accessible than others. Here, we were able to forecast the likelihood that a given item will be later recognized by monitoring two dissociable fluctuations of the electroencephalogram during encoding. Next, we identified individual items that were poorly encoded, using our electrophysiological measures in real time, and we successfully improved the efficacy of learning by having participants restudy these items. Thus, our memory forecasts using multiple electrophysiological signals demonstrate the feasibility and the effectiveness of using real-time monitoring of the moment-to-moment fluctuations of the quality of memory encoding to improve learning. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Choline and Working Memory Training Improve Cognitive Deficits Caused by Prenatal Exposure to Ethanol.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Jaylyn; Mooney, Sandra M

    2017-09-29

    Prenatal ethanol exposure is associated with deficits in executive function such as working memory, reversal learning and attentional set shifting in humans and animals. These behaviors are dependent on normal structure and function in cholinergic brain regions. Supplementation with choline can improve many behaviors in rodent models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and also improves working memory function in normal rats. We tested the hypothesis that supplementation with choline in the postnatal period will improve working memory during adolescence in normal and ethanol-exposed animals, and that working memory engagement during adolescence will transfer to other cognitive domains and have lasting effects on executive function in adulthood. Male and female offspring of rats fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet (ET; 3% v/v) or control dams given a non-ethanol liquid diet (CT) were injected with choline (Cho; 100 mg/kg) or saline (Sal) once per day from postnatal day (P) 16-P30. Animals were trained/tested on a working memory test in adolescence and then underwent attentional set shifting and reversal learning in young adulthood. In adolescence, ET rats required more training to reach criterion than CT-Sal. Choline improved working memory performance for both CT and ET animals. In young adulthood, ET animals also performed poorly on the set shifting and reversal tasks. Deficits were more robust in ET male rats than female ET rats, but Cho improved performance in both sexes. ET male rats given a combination of Cho and working memory training in adolescence required significantly fewer trials to achieve criterion than any other ET group, suggesting that early interventions can cause a persistent improvement.

  17. Ventral hippocampal ibotenic acid lesions block chronic nicotine-induced spatial working memory improvement in rats.

    PubMed

    Levin, E D; Christopher, N C; Weaver, T; Moore, J; Brucato, F

    1999-01-01

    Chronic nicotine infusions have been found to significantly improve working memory performance in the radial-arm maze. This effect is blocked by co-infusions of the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine. Acute nicotine injections also improve working memory performance in the radial-arm maze. This effect is also blocked by mecamylamine co-administration. Recent local infusions studies have demonstrated the importance of the ventral hippocampus for nicotinic involvement in memory. Local infusions of mecamylamine, DHbetaE or MLA impair working memory performance on the radial-arm maze. The current study was conducted to determine the importance of the ventral hippocampus for the chronic effects of nicotine. Rats were trained on the working memory task in an eight-arm radial maze. After acquisition they underwent either infusions of ibotenic acid lesions or vehicle infusions and received subcutaneous implants of osmotic minipumps that delivered either nicotine at a dose of 5 mg kg-1 day-1 or vehicle in a 2x2 design. The rats then were given 2 days of recovery and were tested on the radial-arm maze three times per week for the next 4 weeks. As seen in previous studies, in the sham lesioned group nicotine infusions caused a significant improvement in choice accuracy. In contrast no nicotine-induced improvement was seen in the rats after ibotenic acid lesions of the ventral hippocampus. The effect of nicotine was blocked even though this lesion did not cause a deficit in performance. Previous work showed that chronic nicotine infusion still caused a significant improvement in working memory performance in the radial-arm maze after knife-cut lesions of the fimbria-fornix carrying the septo-hippocampal cholinergic innervation. Thus it appears that it is the postsynaptic nicotinic receptors in the ventral hippocampus which are critically important for the expression of the chronic nicotine induced working memory improvement. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  18. Performance Evaluation and Improvement of Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hyung Suk

    Flash memory is reaching scaling limitations rapidly due to reduction of charge in floating gates, charge leakage and capacitive coupling between cells which cause threshold voltage fluctuations, short retention times, and interference. Many new memory technologies are being considered as alternatives to flash memory in an effort to overcome these limitations. Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor (FeFET) is one of the main emerging candidates because of its structural similarity to conventional FETs and fast switching speed. Nevertheless, the performance of FeFETs have not been systematically compared and analyzed against other competing technologies. In this work, we first benchmark the intrinsic performance of FeFETs and other memories by simulations in order to identify the strengths and weaknesses of FeFETs. To simulate realistic memory applications, we compare memories on an array structure. For the comparisons, we construct an accurate delay model and verify it by benchmarking against exact HSPICE simulations. Second, we propose an accurate model for FeFET memory window since the existing model has limitations. The existing model assumes symmetric operation voltages but it is not valid for the practical asymmetric operation voltages. In this modeling, we consider practical operation voltages and device dimensions. Also, we investigate realistic changes of memory window over time and retention time of FeFETs. Last, to improve memory window and subthreshold swing, we suggest nonplanar junctionless structures for FeFETs. Using the suggested structures, we study the dimensional dependences of crucial parameters like memory window and subthreshold swing and also analyze key interference mechanisms.

  19. Global Processing Training to Improve Visuospatial Memory Deficits after Right-Brain Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peii; Hartman, Ashley J.; Priscilla Galarza, C.; DeLuca, John

    2012-01-01

    Visuospatial stimuli are normally perceived from the global structure to local details. A right-brain stroke often disrupts this perceptual organization, resulting in piecemeal encoding and thus poor visuospatial memory. Using a randomized controlled design, the present study examined whether promoting the global-to-local encoding improves retrieval accuracy in right-brain-damaged stroke survivors with visuospatial memory deficits. Eleven participants received a single session of the Global Processing Training (global-to-local encoding) or the Rote Repetition Training (no encoding strategy) to learn the Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure. The result demonstrated that the Global Processing Training significantly improved visuospatial memory deficits after a right-brain stroke. On the other hand, rote practice without a step-by-step guidance limited the degree of memory improvement. The treatment effect was observed both immediately after the training procedure and 24 h post-training. Overall, the present findings are consistent with the long-standing principle in cognitive rehabilitation that an effective treatment is based on specific training aimed at improving specific neurocognitive deficits. Importantly, visuospatial memory deficits after a right-brain stroke may improve with treatments that promote global processing at encoding. PMID:23070314

  20. Improving working memory performance in brain-injured patients using hypnotic suggestion.

    PubMed

    Lindeløv, Jonas K; Overgaard, Rikke; Overgaard, Morten

    2017-02-04

    Working memory impairment is prevalent in brain injured patients across lesion aetiologies and severities. Unfortunately, rehabilitation efforts for this impairment have hitherto yielded small or no effects. Here we show in a randomized actively controlled trial that working memory performance can be effectively restored by suggesting to hypnotized patients that they have regained their pre-injury level of working memory functioning. Following four 1-h sessions, 27 patients had a medium-sized improvement relative to 22 active controls (Bayes factors of 342 and 37.5 on the two aggregate outcome measures) and a very large improvement relative to 19 passive controls (Bayes factor = 1.7 × 1013). This was a long-term effect as revealed by no deterioration following a 6.7 week no-contact period (Bayes factors = 7.1 and 1.3 in favour of no change). To control for participant-specific effects, the active control group was crossed over to the working memory suggestion and showed superior improvement. By the end of the study, both groups reached a performance level at or above the healthy population mean with standardized mean differences between 1.55 and 2.03 relative to the passive control group. We conclude that, if framed correctly, hypnotic suggestion can effectively improve working memory following acquired brain injury. The speed and consistency with which this improvement occurred, indicate that there may be a residual capacity for normal information processing in the injured brain.

  1. Process window improvement on 45nm technology non volatile memory by CD uniformity improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttgereit, Ute; Birkner, Robert; Graitzer, Erez; Cohen, Avi; Triulzi, Benedetta; Romeo, Carmelo

    2010-09-01

    For the next years optical lithography stays at 193nm with a numerical aperture of 1.35. Mask design becomes more complex, mask and lithography specification tighten and process control becomes more important than ever. Accurate process control is a key factor to success to maintain a high yield in chip production. One of the key parameters necessary to assure a good and reliable functionality of any integrated circuit is the Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU). There are different contributors which impact the total wafer CDU: mask CD uniformity, scanner repeatability, resist process, lens fingerprint, wafer topography etc. In this work we focus on improvement of intra-field CDU at wafer level by improving the mask CD signature using a CDC200TM tool from Carl Zeiss SMS. The mask layout used is a line and space dark level of a 45nm node Non Volatile Memory (NVM). A prerequisite to improve intra-field CDU at wafer level is to characterize the mask CD signature precisely. For CD measurement on mask the newly developed wafer level CD metrology tool WLCD32 of Carl Zeiss SMS was used. The WLCD32 measures CD based on proven aerial imaging technology. The WLCD32 measurement data show an excellent correlation to wafer CD data. For CDU correction the CDC200TM tool is used which utilizes an ultrafast femto-second laser to write intra-volume shading elements (Shade-In ElementsTM) inside the bulk material of the mask. By adjusting the density of the shading elements, the light transmission through the mask is locally changed in a manner that improves wafer CDU when the corrected mask is printed. In the present work we will demonstrate a closed loop process of WLCD32 and CDC200TM to improve mask CD signature as one of the main contributors to intra-field wafer CDU. Furthermore we will show that the process window will be significantly enlarged by improvement of intra-field CDU. An increase of 20% in exposure latitude was observed.

  2. Retrieval Effort Improves Memory and Metamemory in the Face of Misinformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulevich, John B.; Thomas, Ayanna K.

    2012-01-01

    Retrieval demand, as implemented through test format and retrieval instructions, was varied across two misinformation experiments. Our goal was to examine whether increasing retrieval demand would improve the relationship between confidence and memory performance, and thereby reduce misinformation susceptibility. We hypothesized that improving the…

  3. Retrieval Effort Improves Memory and Metamemory in the Face of Misinformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulevich, John B.; Thomas, Ayanna K.

    2012-01-01

    Retrieval demand, as implemented through test format and retrieval instructions, was varied across two misinformation experiments. Our goal was to examine whether increasing retrieval demand would improve the relationship between confidence and memory performance, and thereby reduce misinformation susceptibility. We hypothesized that improving the…

  4. Divided attention improves delayed, but not immediate retrieval of a consolidated memory.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Yoav; Vandermorris, Susan; Gopie, Nigel; Daros, Alexander; Winocur, Gordon; Moscovitch, Morris

    2014-01-01

    A well-documented dissociation between memory encoding and retrieval concerns the role of attention in the two processes. The typical finding is that divided attention (DA) during encoding impairs future memory, but retrieval is relatively robust to attentional manipulations. However, memory research in the past 20 years had demonstrated that retrieval is a memory-changing process, in which the strength and availability of information are modified by various characteristics of the retrieval process. Based on this logic, several studies examined the effects of DA during retrieval (Test 1) on a future memory test (Test 2). These studies yielded inconsistent results. The present study examined the role of memory consolidation in accounting for the after-effect of DA during retrieval. Initial learning required a classification of visual stimuli, and hence involved incidental learning. Test 1 was administered 24 hours after initial learning, and therefore required retrieval of consolidated information. Test 2 was administered either immediately following Test 1 or after a 24-hour delay. Our results show that the effect of DA on Test 2 depended on this delay. DA during Test 1 did not affect performance on Test 2 when it was administered immediately, but improved performance when Test 2 was given 24-hours later. The results are consistent with other findings showing long-term benefits of retrieval difficulty. Implications for theories of reconsolidation in human episodic memory are discussed.

  5. Improving specific autobiographical memory in older adults: impacts on mood, social problem solving, and functional limitations.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Fiona; Ridout, Nathan; Mushtaq, Faizah; Holland, Carol

    2017-08-21

    Older adults have difficulty recalling specific autobiographical events. This over-general memory style is a vulnerability factor for depression. Two groups receiving interventions that have previously been successful at reducing over-general memory in depressed populations were compared to a control group. Participants were healthy older adults aged ≥70 years: memory specificity training (MEST; n = 22), life review (n = 22), and control group (n = 22). There were significant improvements in autobiographical memory specificity in the MEST and life review groups at post-training, relative to the control group, suggesting that over-general memory can be reduced in older adults. Change in social problem solving ability and functional limitations were related to change in autobiographical memory specificity, supporting the suggested role of specific retrieval in generating solutions to social problems and maintaining independence. Qualitative analysis of participants' feedback revealed that life review may be more appropriate for older adults, possibly because it involves integrating specific memories into a positive narrative.

  6. Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk improves learning and memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Ohsawa, Kazuhito; Uchida, Naoto; Ohki, Kohji; Nakamura, Yasunori; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the effects of Calpis sour milk whey, a Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk product, on learning and memory. We evaluated improvement in scopolamine-induced memory impairment using the spontaneous alternation behaviour test, a measure of short-term memory. We also evaluated learning and working memory in mice using the novel object recognition test, which does not involve primary reinforcement (food or electric shocks). A total of 195 male ddY mice were used in the spontaneous alternation behaviour test and 60 in the novel object recognition test. Forced orally administered Calpis sour milk whey powder (200 and 2000 mg/kg) significantly improved scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) and object recognition memory (2000 mg/kg; P < 0.05). These results suggest that Calpis sour milk whey may be useful for the prevention of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, and enhancing learning and memory in healthy human subjects; however, human clinical studies are necessary.

  7. Chronic nicotine improves working and reference memory performance and reduces hippocampal NGF in aged female rats.

    PubMed

    French, Kristen L; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte E; Moore, Alfred B; Nelson, Matthew E; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2006-05-15

    The cholinergic system is involved in cognition and several forms of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, and nicotine administration has been shown to improve cognitive performance in both humans and rodents. While experiments with humans have shown that nicotine improves the ability to handle an increasing working memory load, little work has been done in animal models evaluating nicotine effects on performance as working memory load increases. In this report, we demonstrate that in aged rats nicotine improved the ability to handle an increasing working memory load as well as enhanced performance on the reference memory component of the water radial arm maze task. The dose required to exert these effects (0.3mg/kg/day) was much lower than doses shown to be effective in young rats and appears to be a lower maintenance dose than is seen in light to moderate smokers. In addition, our study reports a nicotine-induced reduction in nerve growth factor (NGF) protein levels in the hippocampus of the aged rat. The effects of nicotine on hippocampal NGF levels are discussed as a potential mechanism of nicotine-induced improvements in working and reference memory.

  8. Improvement of memory impairments in poststroke patients by hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Boussi-Gross, Rahav; Golan, Haim; Volkov, Olga; Bechor, Yair; Hoofien, Dan; Beeri, Michal Schnaider; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Efrati, Shai

    2015-07-01

    Several recent studies have shown that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy carry cognitive and motor therapeutic effects for patients with acquired brain injuries. The goal of this study was to address the specific effects of HBO₂ on memory impairments after stroke at late chronic stages. A retrospective analysis was conducted on data of 91 stroke patients 18 years or older (mean age ∼60 years) who had either ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke 3-180 months before HBO₂ therapy (M = 30-35 months). The HBO₂ protocol included 40 to 60 daily sessions, 5 days per week, 90 min each, 100% oxygen at 2ATA, and memory tests were administered before and after HBO₂ therapy using NeuroTrax's computerized testing battery. Assessments were based on verbal or nonverbal, immediate or delayed memory measures. The cognitive tests were compared with changes in the brain metabolic state measured by single-photon emission computed tomography. Results revealed statistically significant improvements (p < .0005, effect sizes medium to large) in all memory measures after HBO₂ treatments. The clinical improvements were well correlated with improvement in brain metabolism, mainly in temporal areas. Although further research is needed, the results illustrate the potential of HBO₂ for improving memory impairments in poststroke patients, even years after the acute event. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Semen Ziziphi Spinosae and Fructus Gardeniae extracts synergistically improve learning and memory of a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    LI, BAOLI; FU, ZHAOYING; HU, RUI; CHEN, YAHUI; ZHANG, ZHENGXIANG

    2013-01-01

    Semen Ziziphi Spinosae (SZS) and Fructus Gardeniae (FG) are two herbs commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. Previous studies have suggested that Fructus Gardeniae as well as Semen Ziziphi Spinosae are able to regulate the function of the central nervous system. However, their effect on learning and memory has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the effect of SZS and FG on the learning and memory of mice using the methods of step-through and -down passive avoidance tasks and Morris water maze tasks. The results showed that SZS and FG extracts have certain effects on improving the performance of the learning and memory-impaired mouse model. Of note, compound extracts of SZS and FG have a synergistic effect on the learning and memory of mice. PMID:24648929

  10. Improving Academic Performance and Working Memory in Health Science Graduate Students Using Progressive Muscle Relaxation Training.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Kurt K; Blyler, Diane

    Research involving working memory has indicated that stress and anxiety compete for attentional resources when a person engages in attention-dependent cognitive processing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of perceived stress and state anxiety on working memory and academic performance among health science students and to explore whether the reduction of stress and anxiety was achieved through progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) training. A convenience sample of 128 graduate students participated in this study. Using an experimental pretest-posttest design, we randomly assigned participants to a PMR group or a control group. Results indicated that PMR reduced state anxiety, F(1, 126) = 15.58, p < .001, thereby freeing up working memory and leading to improved academic performance in the treatment group. The results of this study contribute to the literature on Attentional Control Theory by clarifying the process through which working memory and anxiety affect cognitive performance.

  11. Memory in Elementary School Children Is Improved by an Unrelated Novel Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ballarini, Fabricio; Martínez, María Cecilia; Díaz Perez, Magdalena; Moncada, Diego; Viola, Haydée

    2013-01-01

    Education is the most traditional means with formative effect on the human mind, learning and memory being its fundamental support. For this reason, it is essential to find different strategies to improve the studentś performance. Based on previous work, we hypothesized that a novel experience could exert an enhancing effect on learning and memory within the school environment. Here we show that novel experience improved the memory of literary or graphical activities when it is close to these learning sessions. We found memory improvements in groups of students who had experienced a novel science lesson 1 hour before or after the reading of a story, but not when these events were 4 hours apart. Such promoting effect on long-term memory (LTM) was also reproduced with another type of novelty (a music lesson) and also after another type of learning task (a visual memory). Interestingly, when the lesson was familiar, it failed to enhance the memory of the other task. Our results show that educationally relevant novel events experienced during normal school hours can improve LTM for tasks/activities learned during regular school lessons. This effect is restricted to a critical time window around learning and is particularly dependent on the novel nature of the associated experience. These findings provide a tool that could be easily transferred to the classroom by the incorporation of educationally novel events in the school schedule as an extrinsic adjuvant of other information acquired some time before or after it. This approach could be a helpful tool for the consolidation of certain types of topics that generally demand a great effort from the children. PMID:23840541

  12. Soyasaponin I Improved Neuroprotection and Regeneration in Memory Deficient Model Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sung-Woon; Heo, Hwon; Yang, Jeong-hwa; Han, Maeum; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kwon, Yunhee Kim

    2013-01-01

    Soy (Glycine Max Merr, family Leguminosae) has been reported to possess anti-cancer, anti-lipidemic, estrogen-like, and memory-enhancing effects. We investigated the memory-enhancing effects and the underlying mechanisms of soyasaponin I (soya-I), a major constituent of soy. Impaired learning and memory were induced by injecting ibotenic acid into the entorhinal cortex of adult rat brains. The effects of soya-I were evaluated by measuring behavioral tasks and neuronal regeneration of memory-deficient rats. Oral administration of soya-I exhibited significant memory-enhancing effects in the passive avoidance, Y-maze, and Morris water maze tests. Soya-Ι also increased BrdU incorporation into the dentate gyrus and the number of cell types (GAD67, ChAT, and VGluT1) in the hippocampal region of memory-deficient rats, whereas the number of reactive microglia (OX42) decreased. The mechanism underlying memory improvement was assessed by detecting the differentiation and proliferation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) prepared from the embryonic hippocampus (E16) of timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats using immunocytochemical staining and immunoblotting analysis. Addition of soya-Ι in the cultured NPCs significantly elevated the markers for cell proliferation (Ki-67) and neuronal differentiation (NeuN, TUJ1, and MAP2). Finally, soya-I increased neurite lengthening and the number of neurites during the differentiation of NPCs. Soya-Ι may improve hippocampal learning and memory impairment by promoting proliferation and differentiation of NPCs in the hippocampus through facilitation of neuronal regeneration and minimization of neuro-inflammation. PMID:24324703

  13. Caffeine and diphenyl diselenide improve long-term memory impaired in middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Leite, Marlon R; Marcondes Sari, Marcel Henrique; de Freitas, Mayara L; Oliveira, Lia P; Dalmolin, Laíza; Brandão, Ricardo; Zeni, Gilson

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 supplemented diet (10ppm) associated to the administration of caffeine (15mg/kg; i.g.) for 30days on the novel object recognition memory in middle-aged rats. The present findings showed that (PhSe)2-supplemented diet enhanced short-term memory, but not long-term memory, of middle-aged rats in the novel object recognition task. The (PhSe)2 supplemented diet associated with caffeine administration improved long-term memory, but did not alter short-term memory, impaired in middle-aged rats. Daily caffeine administration to middle-aged rats had no effect on the memory tasks. Diet supplemented with (PhSe)2 plus caffeine administration increased the number of crossings and rearings reduced in middle-aged rats. Caffeine administration plus (PhSe)2 diets were effective in increasing the number of rearings and crossings, respectively, in middle-aged rats, [(3)H] glutamate uptake was reduced in hippocampal slices of rats from (PhSe)2 and caffeine plus (PhSe)2 groups. In addition, animals supplemented with (PhSe)2 showed an increase in the pCREB/CREB ratio whereas pAkt/Akt ratio was not modified. These results suggest that the effects of (PhSe)2 on the short-term memory may be related to its ability to decrease the uptake of glutamate, influencing the increase of CREB phosphorylation. (PhSe)2-supplemented diet associated to the administration of caffeine improved long-term memory impaired in middle-aged rats, an effect independent of CREB and Akt phosphorylation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Soyasaponin I improved neuroprotection and regeneration in memory deficient model rats.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Woon; Heo, Hwon; Yang, Jeong-hwa; Han, Maeum; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kwon, Yunhee Kim

    2013-01-01

    Soy (Glycine Max Merr, family Leguminosae) has been reported to possess anti-cancer, anti-lipidemic, estrogen-like, and memory-enhancing effects. We investigated the memory-enhancing effects and the underlying mechanisms of soyasaponin I (soya-I), a major constituent of soy. Impaired learning and memory were induced by injecting ibotenic acid into the entorhinal cortex of adult rat brains. The effects of soya-I were evaluated by measuring behavioral tasks and neuronal regeneration of memory-deficient rats. Oral administration of soya-I exhibited significant memory-enhancing effects in the passive avoidance, Y-maze, and Morris water maze tests. Soya-Ι also increased BrdU incorporation into the dentate gyrus and the number of cell types (GAD67, ChAT, and VGluT1) in the hippocampal region of memory-deficient rats, whereas the number of reactive microglia (OX42) decreased. The mechanism underlying memory improvement was assessed by detecting the differentiation and proliferation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) prepared from the embryonic hippocampus (E16) of timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats using immunocytochemical staining and immunoblotting analysis. Addition of soya-Ι in the cultured NPCs significantly elevated the markers for cell proliferation (Ki-67) and neuronal differentiation (NeuN, TUJ1, and MAP2). Finally, soya-I increased neurite lengthening and the number of neurites during the differentiation of NPCs. Soya-Ι may improve hippocampal learning and memory impairment by promoting proliferation and differentiation of NPCs in the hippocampus through facilitation of neuronal regeneration and minimization of neuro-inflammation.

  15. Bandlimited computerized improvements in characterization of nonlinear systems with memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuttall, Albert H.; Katz, Richard A.; Hughes, Derke R.; Koch, Robert M.

    2016-05-01

    The present article discusses some inroads in nonlinear signal processing made by the prime algorithm developer, Dr. Albert H. Nuttall and co-authors, a consortium of research scientists from the Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division, Newport, RI. The algorithm, called the Nuttall-Wiener-Volterra 'NWV' algorithm is named for its principal contributors [1], [2],[ 3] over many years of developmental research. The NWV algorithm significantly reduces the computational workload for characterizing nonlinear systems with memory. Following this formulation, two measurement waveforms on the system are required in order to characterize a specified nonlinear system under consideration: (1) an excitation input waveform, x(t) (the transmitted signal); and, (2) a response output waveform, z(t) (the received signal). Given these two measurement waveforms for a given propagation channel, a 'kernel' or 'channel response', h= [h0,h1,h2,h3] between the two measurement points, is computed via a least squares approach that optimizes modeled kernel values by performing a best fit between measured response z(t) and a modeled response y(t). New techniques significantly diminish the exponential growth of the number of computed kernel coefficients at second and third order in order to combat and reasonably alleviate the curse of dimensionality.

  16. Working memory training improves emotional states of healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-01-01

    Working memory (WM) capacity is associated with various emotional aspects, including states of depression and stress, reactions to emotional stimuli, and regulatory behaviors. We have previously investigated the effects of WM training (WMT) on cognitive functions and brain structures. However, the effects of WMT on emotional states and related neural mechanisms among healthy young adults remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated these effects in young adults who underwent WMT or received no intervention for 4 weeks. Before and after the intervention, subjects completed self-report questionnaires related to their emotional states and underwent scanning sessions in which brain activities related to negative emotions were measured. Compared with controls, subjects who underwent WMT showed reduced anger, fatigue, and depression. Furthermore, WMT reduced activity in the left posterior insula during tasks evoking negative emotion, which was related to anger. It also reduced activity in the left frontoparietal area. These findings show that WMT can reduce negative mood and provide new insight into the clinical applications of WMT, at least among subjects with preclinical-level conditions. PMID:25360090

  17. Does Working Memory Training Lead to Generalized Improvements in Children with Low Working Memory? A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunning, Darren L.; Holmes, Joni; Gathercole, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Children with low working memory typically make poor educational progress, and it has been speculated that difficulties in meeting the heavy working memory demands of the classroom may be a contributory factor. Intensive working memory training has been shown to boost performance on untrained memory tasks in a variety of populations. This first…

  18. Does Working Memory Training Lead to Generalized Improvements in Children with Low Working Memory? A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunning, Darren L.; Holmes, Joni; Gathercole, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Children with low working memory typically make poor educational progress, and it has been speculated that difficulties in meeting the heavy working memory demands of the classroom may be a contributory factor. Intensive working memory training has been shown to boost performance on untrained memory tasks in a variety of populations. This first…

  19. Arginine vasopressin improves the memory deficits in Han Chinese patients with first-episode schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Geng, Cai-Hong; Wang, Chao; Yang, Jun; Wang, Hua; Ma, Rui-Qing; Liu, Xu; Wang, Chang-Hong

    2017-09-05

    The memory impairment is a core deficit in the first-episode schizophrenia patients. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the brain can improve learning and memory. We performed multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial to study the cognitive functioning in Han Chinese first-episode schizophrenic patients in a 12-week treatment regime with the intranasal administration of AVP (128 cases) or placebo (131 cases) in addition to the conventional treatment. The methods of positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), Wechsler memory scale-4th edition (WMS-IV) and event-related potential (ERP) were used to study the effects of AVP on the cognitive function. The results showed that (1) AVP concentration decreased in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the right-handed Han Chinese first-episode schizophrenic patients comparing with that of the health volunteers (7.1±1.5pg/ml vs 13.3±1.9pg/ml, p<0.01), and did not change in plasma; (2) AVP significantly improved PANSS scores including total scores, positive symptoms, negative symptoms and general psychopathology comparing with those of the placebo group; (3) AVP elevated WMS-IV scores including the long-term memory (accumulation), short-term memory (recognition, comprehension), immediate memory (number recitation) and memory quotient 4, 8 and 12 weeks after treatment; and (4) AVP did not influence the latency and wave amplitude of target stimulus of P300 of right-handed Han Chinese first-episode schizophrenic patients. The data suggested that AVP might improve cognitive process, such as memorizing and extraction of the information although there were many changes of cognitive functions in the right-handed Han Chinese first-episode schizophrenic patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Glucose improves object-location binding in visual-spatial working memory.

    PubMed

    Stollery, Brian; Christian, Leonie

    2016-02-01

    There is evidence that glucose temporarily enhances cognition and that processes dependent on the hippocampus may be particularly sensitive. As the hippocampus plays a key role in binding processes, we examined the influence of glucose on memory for object-location bindings. This study aims to study how glucose modifies performance on an object-location memory task, a task that draws heavily on hippocampal function. Thirty-one participants received 30 g glucose or placebo in a single 1-h session. After seeing between 3 and 10 objects (words or shapes) at different locations in a 9 × 9 matrix, participants attempted to immediately reproduce the display on a blank 9 × 9 matrix. Blood glucose was measured before drink ingestion, mid-way through the session, and at the end of the session. Glucose significantly improves object-location binding (d = 1.08) and location memory (d = 0.83), but not object memory (d = 0.51). Increasing working memory load impairs object memory and object-location binding, and word-location binding is more successful than shape-location binding, but the glucose improvement is robust across all difficulty manipulations. Within the glucose group, higher levels of circulating glucose are correlated with better binding memory and remembering the locations of successfully recalled objects. The glucose improvements identified are consistent with a facilitative impact on hippocampal function. The findings are discussed in the context of the relationship between cognitive processes, hippocampal function, and the implications for glucose's mode of action.

  1. Short-term inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 reversibly improves spatial memory but persistently impairs contextual fear memory in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Wheelan, Nicola; Webster, Scott P; Kenyon, Christopher J; Caughey, Sarah; Walker, Brian R; Holmes, Megan C; Seckl, Jonathan R; Yau, Joyce L W

    2015-04-01

    High glucocorticoid levels induced by stress enhance the memory of fearful events and may contribute to the development of anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder. In contrast, elevated glucocorticoids associated with ageing impair spatial memory. We have previously shown that pharmacological inhibition of the intracellular glucocorticoid-amplifying enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) improves spatial memory in aged mice. However, it is not known whether inhibition of 11β-HSD1 will have any beneficial effects on contextual fear memories in aged mice. Here, we examined the effects of UE2316, a selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor which accesses the brain, on both spatial and contextual fear memories in aged mice using a vehicle-controlled crossover study design. Short-term UE2316 treatment improved spatial memory in aged mice, an effect which was reversed when UE2316 was substituted with vehicle. In contrast, contextual fear memory induced by foot-shock conditioning was significantly reduced by UE2316 in a non-reversible manner. When the order of treatment was reversed following extinction of the original fear memory, and a second foot-shock conditioning was given in a novel context, UE2316 treated aged mice (previously on vehicle) now showed increased fear memory compared to vehicle-treated aged mice (previously on UE2316). Renewal of the original extinguished fear memory triggered by exposure to a new environmental context may explain these effects. Thus 11β-HSD1 inhibition reverses spatial memory impairments with ageing while reducing the strength and persistence of new contextual fear memories. Potentially this could help prevent anxiety-related disorders in vulnerable elderly individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Short-term inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 reversibly improves spatial memory but persistently impairs contextual fear memory in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Wheelan, Nicola; Webster, Scott P.; Kenyon, Christopher J.; Caughey, Sarah; Walker, Brian R.; Holmes, Megan C.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Yau, Joyce L.W.

    2015-01-01

    High glucocorticoid levels induced by stress enhance the memory of fearful events and may contribute to the development of anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder. In contrast, elevated glucocorticoids associated with ageing impair spatial memory. We have previously shown that pharmacological inhibition of the intracellular glucocorticoid-amplifying enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) improves spatial memory in aged mice. However, it is not known whether inhibition of 11β-HSD1 will have any beneficial effects on contextual fear memories in aged mice. Here, we examined the effects of UE2316, a selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor which accesses the brain, on both spatial and contextual fear memories in aged mice using a vehicle-controlled crossover study design. Short-term UE2316 treatment improved spatial memory in aged mice, an effect which was reversed when UE2316 was substituted with vehicle. In contrast, contextual fear memory induced by foot-shock conditioning was significantly reduced by UE2316 in a non-reversible manner. When the order of treatment was reversed following extinction of the original fear memory, and a second foot-shock conditioning was given in a novel context, UE2316 treated aged mice (previously on vehicle) now showed increased fear memory compared to vehicle-treated aged mice (previously on UE2316). Renewal of the original extinguished fear memory triggered by exposure to a new environmental context may explain these effects. Thus 11β-HSD1 inhibition reverses spatial memory impairments with ageing while reducing the strength and persistence of new contextual fear memories. Potentially this could help prevent anxiety-related disorders in vulnerable elderly individuals. PMID:25497454

  3. Improved Damage Resistant Composite Materials Incorporating Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, Jeffrey S. N.; Rogers, Craig A.

    1996-01-01

    Metallic shape memory alloys (SMA) such as nitinol have unique shape recovery behavior and mechanical properties associated with a material phase change that have been used in a variety of sensing and actuation applications. Recent studies have shown that integrating nitinol-SMA actuators into composite materials increases the composite material's functionality. Hybrid composites of conventional graphite/epoxy or glass/epoxy and nitinol-SMA elements can perform functions in applications where monolithic composites perform inadequately. One such application is the use of hybrid composites to function both in load bearing and armor capacities. While monolithic composites with high strength-to-weight ratios function efficiently as loadbearing structures, because of their brittle nature, impact loading can cause significant catastrophic damage. Initial composite failure modes such as delamination and matrix cracking dissipate some impact energy, but when stress exceeds the composite's ultimate strength, fiber fracture and material perforation become dominant. One of the few methods that has been developed to reduce material perforation is hybridizing polymer matrix composites with tough kevlar or high modulus polyethynylene plies. The tough fibers increase the impact resistance and the stiffer and stronger graphite fibers carry the majority of the load. Similarly, by adding nitinol-SMA elements that absorb impact energy through the stress-induced martensitic phase transformation, the composites' impact perforation resistance can be greatly enhanced. The results of drop-weight and high velocity gas-gun impact testing of various composite materials will be presented. The results demonstrate that hybridizing composites with nitinol-SMA elements significantly increases perforation resistance compared to other traditional toughening elements. Inspection of the composite specimens at various stages of perforation by optical microscope illustrates the mechanisms by which

  4. Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  5. Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  6. Enhancing memory and imagination improves problem solving among individuals with depression.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Craig P; Primosch, Mark; Maxson, Chelsey M; Stewart, Brandon T

    2017-08-01

    Recent work has revealed links between memory, imagination, and problem solving, and suggests that increasing access to detailed memories can lead to improved imagination and problem-solving performance. Depression is often associated with overgeneral memory and imagination, along with problem-solving deficits. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that an interview designed to elicit detailed recollections would enhance imagination and problem solving among both depressed and nondepressed participants. In a within-subjects design, participants completed a control interview or an episodic specificity induction prior to completing memory, imagination, and problem-solving tasks. Results revealed that compared to the control interview, the episodic specificity induction fostered increased detail generation in memory and imagination and more relevant steps on the problem-solving task among depressed and nondepressed participants. This study builds on previous work by demonstrating that a brief interview can enhance problem solving among individuals with depression and supports the notion that episodic memory plays a key role in problem solving. It should be noted, however, that the results of the interview are relatively short-lived.

  7. Hippocampal corticosterone impairs memory consolidation during sleep but improves consolidation in the wake state.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Eduard; Bahrendt, Marie; Born, Jan; Inostroza, Marion

    2014-05-01

    We studied the interaction between glucocorticoid (GC) level and sleep/wake state during memory consolidation. Recent research has accumulated evidence that sleep supports memory consolidation in a unique physiological process, qualitatively distinct from consolidation occurring during wakefulness. This appears particularly true for memories that rely on the hippocampus, a region with abundant expression of GC receptors. Against this backdrop we hypothesized that GC effects on consolidation depend on the brain state, i.e., sleep and wakefulness. Following exploration of two objects in an open field, during 80 min retention periods rats received an intrahippocampal infusion of corticosterone (10 ng) or vehicle while asleep or awake. Then the memory was tested in the hippocampus-dependent object-place recognition paradigm. GCs impaired memory consolidation when administered during sleep but improved consolidation during the wake retention interval. Intrahippocampal infusion of GC or sleep/wake manipulations did not alter novel-object recognition performance that does not require the hippocampus. This work corroborates the notion of distinct consolidation processes occurring in sleep and wakefulnesss, and identifies GCs as a key player controlling distinct hippocampal memory consolidation processes in sleep and wake conditions.

  8. No evidence of intelligence improvement after working memory training: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Redick, Thomas S; Shipstead, Zach; Harrison, Tyler L; Hicks, Kenny L; Fried, David E; Hambrick, David Z; Kane, Michael J; Engle, Randall W

    2013-05-01

    Numerous recent studies seem to provide evidence for the general intellectual benefits of working memory training. In reviews of the training literature, Shipstead, Redick, and Engle (2010, 2012) argued that the field should treat recent results with a critical eye. Many published working memory training studies suffer from design limitations (no-contact control groups, single measures of cognitive constructs), mixed results (transfer of training gains to some tasks but not others, inconsistent transfer to the same tasks across studies), and lack of theoretical grounding (identifying the mechanisms responsible for observed transfer). The current study compared young adults who received 20 sessions of practice on an adaptive dual n-back program (working memory training group) or an adaptive visual search program (active placebo-control group) with a no-contact control group that received no practice. In addition, all subjects completed pretest, midtest, and posttest sessions comprising multiple measures of fluid intelligence, multitasking, working memory capacity, crystallized intelligence, and perceptual speed. Despite improvements on both the dual n-back and visual search tasks with practice, and despite a high level of statistical power, there was no positive transfer to any of the cognitive ability tests. We discuss these results in the context of previous working memory training research and address issues for future working memory training studies. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study.

    PubMed

    Ferreri, Laura; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Muthalib, Makii; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bugaiska, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non-purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-two healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization) and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer's patients.

  10. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study

    PubMed Central

    Ferreri, Laura; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Muthalib, Makii; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bugaiska, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non-purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-two healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization) and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer’s patients. PMID:24339807

  11. Enriched environment increases neurogenesis and improves social memory persistence in socially isolated adult mice.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Brisa M M; Moreira, Fabrício A; Massensini, André R; Moraes, Márcio F D; Pereira, Grace S

    2014-02-01

    Social memory consists of the information necessary to identify and recognize cospecifics and is essential to many forms of social interaction. Social memory persistence is strongly modulated by the animal's experiences. We have shown in previous studies that social isolation (SI) in adulthood impairs social memory persistence and that an enriched environment (EE) prevents this impairment. However, the mechanisms involved in the effects of SI and EE on social memory persistence remain unknown. We hypothesized that the mechanism by which SI and EE affect social memory persistence is through their modulation of neurogenesis. To investigate this hypothesis, adult mice were submitted to 7 days of one of the following conditions: group-housing in a standard (GH) or enriched environment (GH+EE); social isolation in standard (SI) or enriched environment (SI+EE). We observed an increase in the number of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) and glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb (OB) in both GH+EE and SI+EE mice. However, this increase of newborn neurons in the granule cell layer of the OB was restricted to the GH+EE group. Furthermore, both SI and SI+EE groups showed less neurogenesis in the mitral layer of the OB. Interestingly, the performance of the SI mice in the buried food-finding task was inferior to that of the GH mice. To further analyze whether increased neurogenesis is in fact the mechanism by which the EE improves social memory persistence in SI mice, we administered the mitotic inhibitor AraC or saline directly into the lateral ventricles of the SI+EE mice. We found that the AraC treatment decreased cell proliferation in both the DG and OB, and impaired social memory persistence in the SI+EE mice. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that neurogenesis is what supports social memory persistence in socially isolated mice.

  12. Acoustic Enhancement of Sleep Slow Oscillations and Concomitant Memory Improvement in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Papalambros, Nelly A; Santostasi, Giovanni; Malkani, Roneil G; Braun, Rosemary; Weintraub, Sandra; Paller, Ken A; Zee, Phyllis C

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic stimulation methods applied during sleep in young adults can increase slow wave activity (SWA) and improve sleep-dependent memory retention. It is unknown whether this approach enhances SWA and memory in older adults, who generally have reduced SWA compared to younger adults. Additionally, older adults are at risk for age-related cognitive impairment and therefore may benefit from non-invasive interventions. The aim of this study was to determine if acoustic stimulation can increase SWA and improve declarative memory in healthy older adults. Thirteen participants 60-84 years old completed one night of acoustic stimulation and one night of sham stimulation in random order. During sleep, a real-time algorithm using an adaptive phase-locked loop modeled the phase of endogenous slow waves in midline frontopolar electroencephalographic recordings. Pulses of pink noise were delivered when the upstate of the slow wave was predicted. Each interval of five pulses ("ON interval") was followed by a pause of approximately equal length ("OFF interval"). SWA during the entire sleep period was similar between stimulation and sham conditions, whereas SWA and spindle activity were increased during ON intervals compared to matched periods during the sham night. The increases in SWA and spindle activity were sustained across almost the entire five-pulse ON interval compared to matched sham periods. Verbal paired-associate memory was tested before and after sleep. Overnight improvement in word recall was significantly greater with acoustic stimulation compared to sham and was correlated with changes in SWA between ON and OFF intervals. Using the phase-locked-loop method to precisely target acoustic stimulation to the upstate of sleep slow oscillations, we were able to enhance SWA and improve sleep-dependent memory storage in older adults, which strengthens the theoretical link between sleep and age-related memory integrity.

  13. Acoustic Enhancement of Sleep Slow Oscillations and Concomitant Memory Improvement in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Papalambros, Nelly A.; Santostasi, Giovanni; Malkani, Roneil G.; Braun, Rosemary; Weintraub, Sandra; Paller, Ken A.; Zee, Phyllis C.

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic stimulation methods applied during sleep in young adults can increase slow wave activity (SWA) and improve sleep-dependent memory retention. It is unknown whether this approach enhances SWA and memory in older adults, who generally have reduced SWA compared to younger adults. Additionally, older adults are at risk for age-related cognitive impairment and therefore may benefit from non-invasive interventions. The aim of this study was to determine if acoustic stimulation can increase SWA and improve declarative memory in healthy older adults. Thirteen participants 60–84 years old completed one night of acoustic stimulation and one night of sham stimulation in random order. During sleep, a real-time algorithm using an adaptive phase-locked loop modeled the phase of endogenous slow waves in midline frontopolar electroencephalographic recordings. Pulses of pink noise were delivered when the upstate of the slow wave was predicted. Each interval of five pulses (“ON interval”) was followed by a pause of approximately equal length (“OFF interval”). SWA during the entire sleep period was similar between stimulation and sham conditions, whereas SWA and spindle activity were increased during ON intervals compared to matched periods during the sham night. The increases in SWA and spindle activity were sustained across almost the entire five-pulse ON interval compared to matched sham periods. Verbal paired-associate memory was tested before and after sleep. Overnight improvement in word recall was significantly greater with acoustic stimulation compared to sham and was correlated with changes in SWA between ON and OFF intervals. Using the phase-locked-loop method to precisely target acoustic stimulation to the upstate of sleep slow oscillations, we were able to enhance SWA and improve sleep-dependent memory storage in older adults, which strengthens the theoretical link between sleep and age-related memory integrity. PMID:28337134

  14. Strength and Aerobic Exercises Improve Spatial Memory in Aging Rats Through Stimulating Distinct Neuroplasticity Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Thais Ceresér; Muller, Alexandre Pastoris; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; Macan, Tamires Pavei; da Silva, Sabrina; Canteiro, Paula Bortoluzzi; de Sena Casagrande, Alisson; Pedroso, Giulia Dos Santos; Nesi, Renata Tiscoski; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes; de Pinho, Ricardo Aurino

    2016-11-22

    Aging is associated with impaired cognition and memory and increased susceptibility to neurodegenerative disorders. Physical exercise is neuroprotective; however, the major evidence of this effect involves studies of only aerobic training in young animals. The benefits of other exercise protocols such as strength training in aged animals remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of aerobic and strength training on spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity in aging rats. Aging Wistar rats performed aerobic or strength training for 50 min 3 to 4 days/week for 8 weeks. Spatial memory and neurotrophic and glutamatergic signaling in the hippocampus of aged rats were evaluated after aerobic or strength training. Both aerobic and strength training improved cognition during the performance of a spatial memory task. Remarkably, the improvement in spatial memory was accompanied by an increase in synaptic plasticity proteins within the hippocampus after exercise training, with some differences in the intracellular functions of those proteins between the two exercise protocols. Moreover, neurotrophic signaling (CREB, BDNF, and the P75(NTR) receptor) increased after training for both exercise protocols, and aerobic exercise specifically increased glutamatergic proteins (NMDA receptor and PSD-95). We also observed a decrease in DNA damage after aerobic training. In contrast, strength training increased levels of PKCα and the proinflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-1β. Overall, our results show that both aerobic and strength training improved spatial memory in aging rats through inducing distinct molecular mechanisms of neuroplasticity. Our findings extend the idea that exercise protocols can be used to improve cognition during aging.

  15. Extinction Memory Improvement by the Metabolic Enhancer Methylene Blue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Lima, F.; Bruchey, Aleksandra K.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether postextinction administration of methylene blue (MB) could enhance retention of an extinguished conditioned response. MB is a redox compound that at low doses elevates cytochrome oxidase activity, thereby improving brain energy production. Saline or MB (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were administered to rats for 5 d following…

  16. Extinction Memory Improvement by the Metabolic Enhancer Methylene Blue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Lima, F.; Bruchey, Aleksandra K.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether postextinction administration of methylene blue (MB) could enhance retention of an extinguished conditioned response. MB is a redox compound that at low doses elevates cytochrome oxidase activity, thereby improving brain energy production. Saline or MB (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were administered to rats for 5 d following…

  17. Environmental enrichment modifies the PKA-dependence of hippocampal LTP and improves hippocampus-dependent memory.

    PubMed

    Duffy, S N; Craddock, K J; Abel, T; Nguyen, P V

    2001-01-01

    cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is critical for the expression of some forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) in area CA1 of the mouse hippocampus and for hippocampus-dependent memory. Exposure to spatially enriched environments can modify LTP and improve behavioral memory in rodents, but the molecular bases for the enhanced memory performance seen in enriched animals are undefined. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to a spatially enriched environment may alter the PKA dependence of hippocampal LTP. Hippocampal slices from enriched mice showed enhanced LTP following a single burst of 100-Hz stimulation in the Schaffer collateral pathway of area CA1. In slices from nonenriched mice, this single-burst form of LTP was less robust and was unaffected by Rp-cAMPS, an inhibitor of PKA. In contrast, the enhanced LTP in enriched mice was attenuated by Rp-cAMPS. Enriched slices expressed greater forskolin-induced, cAMP-dependent synaptic facilitation than did slices from nonenriched mice. Enriched mice showed improved memory for contextual fear conditioning, whereas memory for cued fear conditioning was unaffected following enrichment. Our data indicate that exposure of mice to spatial enrichment alters the PKA dependence of LTP and enhances one type of hippocampus-dependent memory. Environmental enrichment can transform the pharmacological profile of hippocampal LTP, possibly by altering the threshold for activity-dependent recruitment of the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway following electrical and chemical stimulation. We suggest that experience-dependent plasticity of the PKA dependence of hippocampal LTP may be important for regulating the efficacy of hippocampus-based memory.

  18. Apelin-13 exerts antidepressant-like and recognition memory improving activities in stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Li, E; Deng, Haifeng; Wang, Bo; Fu, Wan; You, Yong; Tian, Shaowen

    2016-03-01

    Apelin is the endogenous ligand for the G-protein-coupled receptor (APJ). The localization of APJ in limbic structures suggests a potential role for apelin in emotional processes. However, the role of apelin in the regulation of stress-induced responses such as depression and memory impairment is largely unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the role of apelin-13 in the regulation of stress-induced depression and memory impairment in rats. We report that repeated intracerebroventricular injections of apelin-13 reversed behavioral despair (immobility) in the forced swim (FS) test, a model widely used for the selection of new antidepressant agents. Apelin-13 also reversed behavioral deficits (escape failure) in the learned helplessness test. The magnitude of the antiimmobility and anti-escape failure effects of apelin-13 was comparable to that of imipramine, a classic antidepressant used as a positive control. Rats exposed to FS stress showed memory performance impairment in the novel object recognition test, and this impairment was improved by apelin-13 treatment. Apelin-13 did not affect recognition memory performance in non-stressed rats. Furthermore, the pretreatment of LY294002 (PI3K inhibitors) or PD98059 (ERK1/2 inhibitor) blocked apelin-13-mediated activities in FS-stressed rats. These findings suggest that apelin-13 exerts antidepressant-like and recognition memory improving activities through activating PI3K and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in stressed rats.

  19. Improvement/rehabilitation of memory functioning with neurotherapy/QEEG biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Thornton, K

    2000-12-01

    This article presents a new approach to the remediation of memory deficits by studying the electrophysiological functioning involved in memory and applying biofeedback techniques. A Quantitative EEG (QEEG) activation database was obtained with 59 right-handed subjects during two auditory memory tasks (prose passages and word lists). Memory performance was correlated with the QEEG variables. Clinical cases were administered the same QEEG activation study to determine their deviations from the values that predicted success for the reference group. EEG biofeedback interventions were designed to increase the value (to normal levels) of the specific electrophysiological variable that was related to successful memory function and deviant in the subject. Case examples are presented that indicate the successful use of this intervention style in normal subjects and in subjects with brain injury; improvement cannot be fully explained by spontaneous recovery, given the time postinjury. Five cases (two normal, two subjects with brain injury, and one subject who had stereotactic surgery of the hippocampus for seizure control) are presented. Improvements ranged from 68% to 181% in the group of patients with brain injury, as a result of the interventions.

  20. DNA methylation is necessary for erythropoietin to improve spatial learning and memory in SAMP8 mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nengwei; Liu, Jie; Yi, Gang; Ye, Fang; Xiao, Jun; Guo, Fuqiang

    2015-09-01

    To reveal the role of Dnmts in the improvement of spatial learning and memory induced by erythropoietin (EPO) in SAMP8 mice. The Morris water maze (MWM) was used to assess spatial learning and memory. Mice were administered by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of recombinant human EPO and hippocamppi infusion (IH) of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA). The expression of genes Dnmt1, Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b in the hippocampus was detected by real-time qPCR. The level of proteins DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B was measured by Western blotting. Spatial learning and memory in SAMP8 were promoted after i.p. injection of EPO (5000IU/kg/day) and expression of Dnmt3b mRNA and DNMT3B proteins in the hippocampus increased. The improved memory by EPO was blocked after IH 5-AZA. DNA methylation is necessary for EPO to enhance spatial learning and memory in SAMP8 mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Repeated administration of histamine improves memory retrieval of inhibitory avoidance by lithium in mice.

    PubMed

    Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza; Parsaei, Leila; Ahmadi, Shamseddin

    2008-01-01

    The influence of repeated administration of histamine on lithium-induced state dependency has been investigated. A single-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance task was used to assess memory in adult male NMRI mice. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of lithium (10 mg/kg), immediately after training (post-training), impaired inhibitory avoidance memory on the test day. Pre-test administration of lithium reversed amnesia induced by the drug given after training, with the maximum response at a dose of 10 mg/kg. Repeated intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of histamine (20 microg/mouse) for 3 consecutive days followed by 5 days of no drug treatment improved memory retrieval of inhibitory avoidance by a pre-test lower dose (5 mg/kg i.p.) of lithium. In contrast, 3 days of i.c.v. injections of both the histamine H1 receptor antagonist pyrilamine (40 microg/mouse) and the histamine H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (6.25 and 12.5 microg/mouse) prevented the improving effect of pre-test lithium (10 mg/kg i.p.) on memory retrieval. The results suggest that the repeated administration of histaminergic agents may induce a sensitization which affects the memory impairment induced by lithium.

  2. Recall Improves in Short-Term Memory The More Recall Context Resembles Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falkenberg, Philippe R.

    1972-01-01

    Eight experiments are reported: the first four demonstrate the context effects in short-term-memory (that retrieval from STM improves as the context for learning is made more similar to the context for retrieval), and four more experiments examine the mechanism by which the context effect might operate. (Author/MB)

  3. Spermidine-Induced Improvement of Reconsolidation of Memory Involves Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girardi, Bruna Amanda; Ribeiro, Daniela Aymone; Signor, Cristiane; Muller, Michele; Gais, Mayara Ana; Mello, Carlos Fernando; Rubin, Maribel Antonello

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we determined whether the calcium-dependent protein kinase (PKC) signaling pathway is involved in the improvement of fear memory reconsolidation induced by the intrahippocampal administration of spermidine in rats. Male Wistar rats were trained in a fear conditioning apparatus using a 0.4-mA footshock as an unconditioned stimulus.…

  4. Recall Improves in Short-Term Memory The More Recall Context Resembles Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falkenberg, Philippe R.

    1972-01-01

    Eight experiments are reported: the first four demonstrate the context effects in short-term-memory (that retrieval from STM improves as the context for learning is made more similar to the context for retrieval), and four more experiments examine the mechanism by which the context effect might operate. (Author/MB)

  5. Improved Learning and Memory in Aged Mice Deficient in Amyloid β-Degrading Neutral Endopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Thomas; Albrecht, Doris; Becker, Matthias; Schubert, Manja; Kouznetsova, Elena; Wiesner, Burkard; Maul, Björn; Schliebs, Reinhard; Grecksch, Gisela; Furkert, Jens; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Becker, Axel; Siems, Wolf-Eberhard

    2009-01-01

    Background Neutral endopeptidase, also known as neprilysin and abbreviated NEP, is considered to be one of the key enzymes in initial human amyloid-β (Aβ) degradation. The aim of our study was to explore the impact of NEP deficiency on the initial development of dementia-like symptoms in mice. Methodology/Principal Findings We found that while endogenous Aβ concentrations were elevated in the brains of NEP-knockout mice at all investigated age groups, immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies did not detect any Aβ deposits even in old NEP knockout mice. Surprisingly, tests of learning and memory revealed that the ability to learn was not reduced in old NEP-deficient mice but instead had significantly improved, and sustained learning and memory in the aged mice was congruent with improved long-term potentiation (LTP) in brain slices of the hippocampus and lateral amygdala. Our data suggests a beneficial effect of pharmacological inhibition of cerebral NEP on learning and memory in mice due to the accumulation of peptides other than Aβ degradable by NEP. By conducting degradation studies and peptide measurements in the brain of both genotypes, we identified two neuropeptide candidates, glucagon-like peptide 1 and galanin, as first potential candidates to be involved in the improved learning in aged NEP-deficient mice. Conclusions/Significance Thus, the existence of peptides targeted by NEP that improve learning and memory in older individuals may represent a promising avenue for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19240795

  6. Visual Working Memory in Deaf Children with Diverse Communication Modes: Improvement by Differential Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Crespo, Ginesa; Daza, Maria Teresa; Mendez-Lopez, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Although visual functions have been proposed to be enhanced in deaf individuals, empirical studies have not yet established clear evidence on this issue. The present study aimed to determine whether deaf children with diverse communication modes had superior visual memory and whether their performance was improved by the use of differential…

  7. Improving the Memory Sections of the Standardized Assessment of Concussion Using Item Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElhiney, Danielle; Kang, Minsoo; Starkey, Chad; Ragan, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to improve the immediate and delayed memory sections of the Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) by identifying a list of more psychometrically sound items (words). A total of 200 participants with no history of concussion in the previous six months (aged 19.60 ± 2.20 years; N?=?93 men, N?=?107 women)…

  8. Visual Working Memory in Deaf Children with Diverse Communication Modes: Improvement by Differential Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Crespo, Ginesa; Daza, Maria Teresa; Mendez-Lopez, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Although visual functions have been proposed to be enhanced in deaf individuals, empirical studies have not yet established clear evidence on this issue. The present study aimed to determine whether deaf children with diverse communication modes had superior visual memory and whether their performance was improved by the use of differential…

  9. Improving Reasoning Skills in Secondary History Education by Working Memory Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariës, Roel Jacobus; Groot, Wim; van den Brink, Henriette Maassen

    2015-01-01

    Secondary school pupils underachieve in tests in which reasoning abilities are required. Brain-based training of working memory (WM) may improve reasoning abilities. In this study, we use a brain-based training programme based on historical content to enhance reasoning abilities in history courses. In the first experiment, a combined intervention…

  10. Spermidine-Induced Improvement of Reconsolidation of Memory Involves Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girardi, Bruna Amanda; Ribeiro, Daniela Aymone; Signor, Cristiane; Muller, Michele; Gais, Mayara Ana; Mello, Carlos Fernando; Rubin, Maribel Antonello

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we determined whether the calcium-dependent protein kinase (PKC) signaling pathway is involved in the improvement of fear memory reconsolidation induced by the intrahippocampal administration of spermidine in rats. Male Wistar rats were trained in a fear conditioning apparatus using a 0.4-mA footshock as an unconditioned stimulus.…

  11. Improving Reasoning Skills in Secondary History Education by Working Memory Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariës, Roel Jacobus; Groot, Wim; van den Brink, Henriette Maassen

    2015-01-01

    Secondary school pupils underachieve in tests in which reasoning abilities are required. Brain-based training of working memory (WM) may improve reasoning abilities. In this study, we use a brain-based training programme based on historical content to enhance reasoning abilities in history courses. In the first experiment, a combined intervention…

  12. Improving the Memory Sections of the Standardized Assessment of Concussion Using Item Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElhiney, Danielle; Kang, Minsoo; Starkey, Chad; Ragan, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to improve the immediate and delayed memory sections of the Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) by identifying a list of more psychometrically sound items (words). A total of 200 participants with no history of concussion in the previous six months (aged 19.60 ± 2.20 years; N?=?93 men, N?=?107 women)…

  13. Static ferroelectric memory transistor having improved data retention

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Jr., Joseph T.; Warren, William L.; Tuttle, Bruce A.

    1996-01-01

    An improved ferroelectric FET structure in which the ferroelectric layer is doped to reduce retention loss. A ferroelectric FET according to the present invention includes a semiconductor layer having first and second contacts thereon, the first and second contacts being separated from one another. The ferroelectric FET also includes a bottom electrode and a ferroelectric layer which is sandwiched between the semiconductor layer and the bottom electrode. The ferroelectric layer is constructed from a perovskite structure of the chemical composition ABO.sub.3 wherein the B site comprises first and second elements and a dopant element that has an oxidation state greater than +4 in sufficient concentration to impede shifts in the resistance measured between the first and second contacts with time. The ferroelectric FET structure preferably comprises Pb in the A-site. The first and second elements are preferably Zr and Ti, respectively. The preferred B-site dopants are Niobium, Tantalum, and Tungsten at concentrations between 1% and 8%.

  14. Self-generated retrievals while multitasking improve memory for names.

    PubMed

    Helder, Elizabeth; Shaughnessy, John J

    2011-11-01

    We used a translational research paradigm to investigate whether distributed retrievals could benefit name learning in social situations. Undergraduates (N=64) were trained to generate distributed retrievals while they were multitasking. Students learned to generate distributed retrievals according to either an expanding or a uniform schedule. Their self-generated distributed retrievals while they were multitasking were effective in improving name recall for both retrieval schedules. The increase with self-generated retrievals while multitasking was greater (η² =.76) than the increase that Helder and Shaughnessy ( 2008 ) found with experimenter-controlled retrievals while multitasking (η² =.42). These findings provide evidence that the beneficial effect of distributed retrievals can extend to learning names in a social situation.

  15. Intake of Wild Blueberry Powder Improves Episodic-Like and Working Memory during Normal Aging in Mice.

    PubMed

    Beracochea, Daniel; Krazem, Ali; Henkouss, Nadia; Haccard, Guillaume; Roller, Marc; Fromentin, Emilie

    2016-08-01

    The number of Americans older than 65 years old is projected to more than double in the next 40 years. Cognitive changes associated to aging can affect an adult's day-to-day functioning. Among these cognitive changes, reasoning, episodic memory, working memory, and processing speed decline gradually over time. Early memory changes include a decline in both working and episodic memory. The aim of the present study was to determine whether chronic (up to 75 days) daily administration of wild blueberry extract or a wild blueberry full spectrum powder would help prevent memory failure associated with aging in tasks involving various forms of memory. Both blueberry ingredients were used in a study comparing young mice (6 months old) to aged mice (18 months old). At this age, mice exhibit memory decline due to aging, which is exacerbated first by a loss in working and contextual (episodic-like) memory. Contextual memory (episodic-like memory) was evaluated using the contextual serial discrimination test. Working and spatial memory were evaluated using the Morris-Water maze test and the sequential alternation test. Statistical analysis was performed using an ANOVA with the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Supplementation with wild blueberry full spectrum powder and wild blueberry extract resulted in significant improvement of contextual memory, while untreated aged mice experienced a decline in such memory. Only the wild blueberry full spectrum powder significantly contributed to an improvement of spatial and working memory versus untreated aged mice. These improvements of cognitive performance may be related to brain oxidative status, acetylcholinesterase activity, neuroprotection, or attenuation of immunoreactivity.

  16. Improved memory characteristics of charge trap memory by employing double layered ZrO2 nanocrystals and inserted Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Z. J.; Li, R.; Zhang, X. W.; Hu, D.; Zhao, Y. G.

    2016-07-01

    The charge trap memory capacitors incorporating a stacked charge trapping layer consisting of double layered ZrO2 nanocrystals (NCs) and inserted Al2O3 have been fabricated and investigated. It is observed that the memory capacitor with stacked trapping layer exhibits a hysteresis window as large as 14.3 V for ±10 V sweeping gate voltage range, faster program/erase speed, improved endurance performance, and good data retention characteristics with smaller extrapolated ten years charge loss at room temperature and 125 °C compared to single layered NCs. The special energy band alignment and the introduced additional traps of double layered ZrO2 NCs and inserted Al2O3 change the trapping and loss behavior of charges, and jointly contribute to the remarkable memory characteristics. Therefore, the memory capacitor with a stacked charge trapping layer is a promising candidate in future nonvolatile charge trap memory device design and application.

  17. Effects of lavender oil inhalation on improving scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Hritcu, Lucian; Cioanca, Oana; Hancianu, Monica

    2012-04-15

    Lavender is reported to be an effective medical plant in treating inflammation, depression, stress and mild anxiety in Europe and the USA. The present study investigated the effects of two different lavender essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia ssp. angustifolia Mill. (Lamiaceae) and Lavandula hybrida Rev. (Lamiaceae) on neurological capacity of male Wistar rats subjected to scopolamine (0.7mg/kg)-induced dementia rat model. Chronic exposures to lavender essential oils (daily, for 7 continuous days) significantly reduced anxiety-like behavior and inhibited depression in elevated plus-maze and forced swimming tests, suggesting anxiolytic and antidepressant activity. Also, spatial memory performance in Y-maze and radial arm-maze tasks was improved, suggesting positive effects on memory formation. Taken together, multiple exposures to lavender essential oils could effectively reverse spatial memory deficits induced by dysfunction of the cholinergic system in the rat brain and might provide an opportunity for management neurological abnormalities in dementia conditions.

  18. Improved memory behaviour of single-walled carbon nanotubes charge storage nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alba-Martin, Maria; Firmager, Timothy; Atherton, Joseph; Rosamond, Mark C.; Ashall, Daniel; Ghaferi, Amal Al; Ayesh, Ahmad; Gallant, Andrew J.; Mabrook, Mohammed F.; Petty, Michael C.; Zeze, Dagou A.

    2012-07-01

    To investigate their memory behaviours, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were embedded in the floating gate of a hybrid metal-insulator-semiconductor structure using layer-by-layer deposition, and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as the dielectric. Unlike longer SWCNT-based structures, shortened SWCNTs were shown to exhibit reliable and large memory windows by virtue of a better encapsulation which reduces charge leakage. The capacitance-voltage characteristics of the devices were consistent with electron injection into the SWCNT charge storage elements (in the floating) from the top electrode through the PMMA, using localized defects and crossing the PMMA energy barrier. In terms of material formulation, a combination of SWCNTs dispersed in sodium dodecyl sulfate and polyethyleneimine used as charge storage elements in the floating gate was shown to lead to repeatable and reliable memory characteristics. Fast switching and very large memory windows (˜7 V) exhibiting high charge density (2.6 × 1012 cm-2) and charge retention in excess of ˜76% were achieved under a ±10 V sweep voltage range. These results suggest that SWCNTs could lead to improved memory behaviour with the potential for application in plastic electronics.

  19. An Improved Fitness Evaluation Mechanism with Memory in Spatial Prisoner's Dilemma Game on Regular Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juan; Liu, Li-Na; Dong, En-Zeng; Wang, Li

    2013-03-01

    To deeply understand the emergence of cooperation in natural, social and economical systems, we present an improved fitness evaluation mechanism with memory in spatial prisoner's dilemma game on regular lattices. In our model, the individual fitness is not only determined by the payoff in the current game round, but also by the payoffs in previous round bins. A tunable parameter, termed as the memory strength (μ), which lies between 0 and 1, is introduced into the model to regulate the ratio of payoffs of current and previous game rounds in the individual fitness calculation. When μ = 0, our model is reduced to the standard prisoner's dilemma game; while μ = 1 represents the case in which the payoff is totally determined by the initial strategies and thus it is far from the realistic ones. Extensive numerical simulations indicate that the memory effect can substantially promote the evolution of cooperation. For μ < 1, the stronger the memory effect, the higher the cooperation level, but μ = 1 leads to a pathological state of cooperation, but can partially enhance the cooperation in the very large temptation parameter. The current results are of great significance for us to account for the role of memory effect during the evolution of cooperation among selfish players.

  20. The use of a wearable camera improves autobiographical memory in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Woodberry, Emma; Browne, Georgina; Hodges, Steve; Watson, Peter; Kapur, Narinder; Woodberry, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Despite the marked impairment of recent episodic memories in Alzheimer's disease, there have been few attempts to rehabilitate these deficits. We used a novel external memory aid to promote recall of episodic memories in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. SenseCam, a small wearable camera, recorded significant events in the lives of six Alzheimer's disease patients. Every two days for two weeks each patient's memory for an event was assessed, followed by a structured review of the SenseCam images. Longer-term recall was tested one and three months later. A written diary control condition followed the same procedure. Across 40 events the SenseCam review method resulted in significantly more details of an event being recalled over two weeks than the written diary method in five out of the six patients. At three months post event, four out of five patients (one had dropped out) recalled significantly more details of events in the SenseCam condition while the other patient showed no significant difference. Viewing SenseCam images of personally experienced events may significantly improve autobiographical memory in patients with even moderate Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Six-Year Training Improves Everyday Memory in Healthy Older People. Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Requena, Carmen; Turrero, Agustín; Ortiz, Tomás

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Everyday memory of older persons does not improve with intensive memory training programs. This study proposes a change in these programs based on a time-extended and massive intervention format. Design and Methods: The sample of 1007 healthy older persons (mean age 71.85; SD = 5.12) was randomized into 2 groups. The experimental group followed an extended 6 years of training (192 sessions over 192 weeks) whereas the control group received an intensive training (3 sessions per week for a total of 32 sessions in 11 weeks). The program included cognitive and emotional content whose effects were assessed with the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT) and with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Both groups were evaluated initially, after 32 sessions, and again after 6 years. Results: The relative improvements measured with Blom’s derivative showed that everyday memory and mental status of the experimental group were significantly better both in the short (Δ% 8.31 in RBMT and Δ% 1.51 in MMSE) and in the long term (Δ% 12.54 in RBMT and Δ% 2.56 in MMSE). For everyday memory and mental level, the overall gain estimate representing the mean difference in pre-post change between time-extended and intensive groups was 0.27 (95% CI: 0.13–0.40) and 0.54 (95% CI: 0.40–0.67), respectively. Time-extended programs have significantly improved everyday memory in contrast with the usual intensive programs whose effects decay with time. There are also significant increases in mental level scores while daily life functionality is preserved in all subjects who completed the training. Implications: These results suggest that it is possible to preserve everyday memory in the long term with continuous training and practice. Massive and time-extended formats may contribute in the future to a paradigm shift in memory programs for healthy older people. PMID:27375479

  2. Cronobacter sakazakii infection alters serotonin transporter and improved fear memory retention in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Sivamaruthi, Bhagavathi S.; Madhumita, Rajkumar; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy; Rajan, Koilmani E.

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that Cronobacter sakazakii infection cause septicemia, necrotizing enterocolitis and meningitis. In the present study, we tested whether the C. sakazakii infection alter the learning and memory through serotonin transporter (SERT). To investigate the possible effect on SERT, on postnatal day-15 (PND-15), wistar rat pups were administered with single dose of C. sakazakii culture (infected group; 107 CFU) or 100 μL of Luria-Bertani broth (medium control) or without any treatment (naïve control). All the individuals were subjected to passive avoidance test on PND-30 to test their fear memory. We show that single dose of C. sakazakii infection improved fear memory retention. Subsequently, we show that C. sakazakii infection induced the activation of toll-like receptor-3 and heat-shock proteins-90 (Hsp-90). On the other hand, level of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) and SERT protein was down-regulated. Furthermore, we show that C. sakazakii infection up-regulate microRNA-16 (miR-16) expression. The observed results highlight that C. sakazakii infections was responsible for improved fear memory retention and may have reduced the level of SERT protein, which is possibly associated with the interaction of up-regulated Hsp-90 with SERT protein or miR-16 with SERT mRNA. Taken together, observed results suggest that C. sakazakii infection alter the fear memory possibly through SERT. Hence, this model may be effective to test the C. sakazakii infection induced changes in synaptic plasticity through SERT and effect of other pharmacological agents against pathogen induced memory disorder. PMID:26388777

  3. Treadmill Exercise Improves Memory Function Depending on Circadian Rhythm Changes in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dong Sup; Kwak, Hyo Bum; Ko, Il Gyu; Kim, Sung Eun; Jin, Jun Jang; Ji, Eun Sang; Choi, Hyun Hee; Kwon, Oh Young

    2016-11-01

    Exercise enhances memory function by increasing neurogenesis in the hippocampus, and circadian rhythms modulate synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. The circadian rhythm-dependent effects of treadmill exercise on memory function in relation with neurogenesis were investigated using mice. The step-down avoidance test was used to evaluate short-term memory, the 8-arm maze test was used to test spatial learning ability, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine immunofluorescence was used to assess neurogenesis. Western blotting was also performed to assess levels of synaptic plasticity-associated proteins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tyrosine kinase receptor B, phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein, early growth response protein 1, postsynaptic density protein 95, and growth-associated protein 43. The mice in the treadmill exercise at zeitgeber 1 group started exercising 1 hour after sunrise, the mice in the treadmill exercise at zeitgeber 6 group started exercising 6 hours after sunrise, and the mice in the treadmill exercise at zeitgeber 13 group started exercising 1 hour after sunset. The mice in the exercise groups were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 minutes once a day for 7 weeks. Treadmill exercise improved short-term memory and spatial learning ability, and increased hippocampal neurogenesis and the expression of synaptic plasticity-associated proteins. These effects of treadmill exercise were stronger in mice that exercised during the day or in the evening than in mice that exercised at dawn. Treadmill exercise improved memory function by increasing neurogenesis and the expression of synaptic plasticity-associated proteins. These results suggest that the memory-enhancing effect of treadmill exercise may depend on circadian rhythm changes.

  4. Treadmill running improves spatial memory in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hoveida, Reihaneh; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Parivar, Kazem; Reisi, Parham

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by a decline in cognitive function and severe neuronal loss in the cerebral cortex and certain subcortical regions of the brain including nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) that play an important role in learning and memory. There are few therapeutic regimens that influence the underlying pathogenic phenotypes of AD, however, of the currently available therapies, exercise training is considered to be one of the best strategies for attenuating the pathological phenotypes of AD for people with AD. Here, we sought to investigate the effect of treadmill running on spatial memory in Alzheimer-induced rats. Male Wistar rats were split into two groups namely shams (n=7) and lesions with the lesion group subdivided further into the lesion-rest (n=7) and lesion-exercise (n=7). The lesion-exercise and shams were subjected to treadmill running at 17 meters per minute (m/min) for 60 min per day (min/day), 7 days per week (days/wk), for 60 days. Spatial memory was investigated using the Morris Water Maze test in the rats after 60 days of Alzheimer induction and the exercise. Our data demonstrated that spatial memory was indeed impaired in the lesion group compared with the shams. However, exercise notably improved spatial memory in the lesion-exercised rats compared to lesion-rested group. The present results suggest that spatial memory is affected under Alzheimer conditions and that treadmill running improves these effects. Our data suggested that treadmill running contributes to the alleviation of the cognitive decline in AD.

  5. Treadmill Exercise Improves Memory Function Depending on Circadian Rhythm Changes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Exercise enhances memory function by increasing neurogenesis in the hippocampus, and circadian rhythms modulate synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. The circadian rhythm-dependent effects of treadmill exercise on memory function in relation with neurogenesis were investigated using mice. Methods The step-down avoidance test was used to evaluate short-term memory, the 8-arm maze test was used to test spatial learning ability, and 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine immunofluorescence was used to assess neurogenesis. Western blotting was also performed to assess levels of synaptic plasticity-associated proteins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tyrosine kinase receptor B, phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein, early growth response protein 1, postsynaptic density protein 95, and growth-associated protein 43. The mice in the treadmill exercise at zeitgeber 1 group started exercising 1 hour after sunrise, the mice in the treadmill exercise at zeitgeber 6 group started exercising 6 hours after sunrise, and the mice in the treadmill exercise at zeitgeber 13 group started exercising 1 hour after sunset. The mice in the exercise groups were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 minutes once a day for 7 weeks. Results Treadmill exercise improved short-term memory and spatial learning ability, and increased hippocampal neurogenesis and the expression of synaptic plasticity-associated proteins. These effects of treadmill exercise were stronger in mice that exercised during the day or in the evening than in mice that exercised at dawn. Conclusions Treadmill exercise improved memory function by increasing neurogenesis and the expression of synaptic plasticity-associated proteins. These results suggest that the memory-enhancing effect of treadmill exercise may depend on circadian rhythm changes. PMID:27915477

  6. Early postnatal hyperthyroidism improves both working and reference memory in a spatial radial-maze task in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Crusio, W E; Schwegler, H

    1991-07-01

    Newborn male pups of the inbred mouse strain DBA/2J were injected with a buffered solution of L-thyroxine, known to induce a hyperplasia of the intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber terminal fields (iip-MF). Because previous studies have shown that the size of the iip-MF correlates positively with both reference memory and working memory in a spatial radial maze task, we expected improved performance on such a task in the treated animals. Such an improvement was in fact found for both reference and working memory. We conclude that the iip-MF are functionally involved in the regulation of spatial learning and memory in mice.

  7. Can We Improve the Clinical Assessment of Working Memory? An Evaluation of the WAIS-III Using a Working Memory Criterion Construct

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Benjamin; Elliott, Emily; Shelton, Jill; Pella, Russell; O’Jile, Judith; Gouvier, William

    2009-01-01

    Working memory is the cognitive ability to hold a discrete amount of information in mind in an accessible state for utilization in mental tasks. This cognitive ability is impaired in many clinical populations typically assessed by clinical neuropsychologists. Recently, there have been a number of theoretical shifts in the way that working memory is conceptualized and assessed in the experimental literature. This study sought to determine to what extent the WAIS-III working memory index (WMI) measures the construct studied in the cognitive working memory literature, whether an improved WMI could be derived from the subtests that comprise the WAIS-III, and what percent of variance in individual WAIS-III subtests is explained by working memory. It was hypothesized that subtests beyond those currently used to form the WAIS-III WMI would be able to account for a greater percentage of variance in a working memory criterion construct than the current WMI. Multiple regression analyses (n = 180) revealed that the best predictor model of subtests for assessing working memory was composed of the Digit Span, Letter-Number Sequencing, Matrix Reasoning, and Vocabulary. The Arithmetic subtest was not a significant contributor to the model. These results are discussed in the context of how they relate to Unsworth and Engle’s (2006, 2007) new conceptualization of working memory mechanisms. PMID:19657913

  8. Extra virgin olive oil improves learning and memory in SAMP8 mice.

    PubMed

    Farr, Susan A; Price, Tulin O; Dominguez, Ligia J; Motisi, Antonio; Saiano, Filippo; Niehoff, Michael L; Morley, John E; Banks, William A; Ercal, Nuran; Barbagallo, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Polyphenols are potent antioxidants found in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO); antioxidants have been shown to reverse age- and disease-related learning and memory deficits. We examined the effects of EVOO on learning and memory in SAMP8 mice, an age-related learning/memory impairment model associated with increased amyloid-β protein and brain oxidative damage. We administered EVOO, coconut oil, or butter to 11 month old SAMP8 mice for 6 weeks. Mice were tested in T-maze foot shock avoidance and one-trial novel object recognition with a 24 h delay. Mice which received EVOO had improved acquisition in the T-maze and spent more time with the novel object in one-trial novel object recognition versus mice which received coconut oil or butter. Mice that received EVOO had improve T-maze retention compared to the mice that received butter. EVOO increased brain glutathione levels suggesting reduced oxidative stress as a possible mechanism. These effects plus increased glutathione reductase activity, superoxide dismutase activity, and decreased tissue levels of 4-hydroxynoneal and 3-nitrotyrosine were enhanced with enriched EVOO (3 × and 5 × polyphenols concentration). Our findings suggest that EVOO has beneficial effects on learning and memory deficits found in aging and diseases, such as those related to the overproduction of amyloid-β protein, by reversing oxidative damage in the brain, effects that are augmented with increasing concentrations of polyphenols in EVOO.

  9. Future thinking improves prospective memory performance and plan enactment in older adults.

    PubMed

    Altgassen, Mareike; Rendell, Peter G; Bernhard, Anka; Henry, Julie D; Bailey, Phoebe E; Phillips, Louise H; Kliegel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Efficient intention formation might improve prospective memory by reducing the need for resource-demanding strategic processes during the delayed performance interval. The present study set out to test this assumption and provides the first empirical assessment of whether imagining a future action improves prospective memory performance equivalently at different stages of the adult lifespan. Thus, younger (n = 40) and older (n = 40) adults were asked to complete the Dresden Breakfast Task, which required them to prepare breakfast in accordance with a set of rules and time restrictions. All participants began by generating a plan for later enactment; however, after making this plan, half of the participants were required to imagine themselves completing the task in the future (future thinking condition), while the other half received standard instructions (control condition). As expected, overall younger adults outperformed older adults. Moreover, both older and younger adults benefited equally from future thinking instructions, as reflected in a higher proportion of prospective memory responses and more accurate plan execution. Thus, for both younger and older adults, imagining the specific visual-spatial context in which an intention will later be executed may serve as an easy-to-implement strategy that enhances prospective memory function in everyday life.

  10. Improvement in verbal memory performance in depressed in-patients after treatment with electroconvulsive therapy.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, S V; Bumb, J M; Demirakca, T; Ende, G; Sartorius, A

    2016-12-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective and well-tolerated therapy for severe and treatment-resistant depression. Cognitive side-effects are still feared by some patients and clinicians. Importantly, cognitive impairments are among the most disabling symptoms of depression itself. Patients suffering from a severe episode of depression were treated with either ECT or treatment as usual (TAU) in an in-patient setting. Matched healthy participants served as controls (HC). Verbal memory was tested with the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) before the specific treatment started (ECT = 15, TAU = 16, HC = 31) and 2 months after the last ECT session or 2 months after discharge respectively. Before the specific treatment started, depressed patients performed substantially worse compared with HC in total, short- and long-delay recall in the CVLT, while the ECT group showed the worst performance. More severely depressed patients showed worse performances in these measures. Intriguingly, verbal memory showed a significant improvement in ECT-treated patients, but not in the other groups. No differences between the groups were found at follow-up. Contrary to the widely feared assumption that ECT has long-term impact on memory functions, we found evidence that ECT is superior to TAU in improving verbal memory in depressed patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. DHEAS improves learning and memory in aged SAMP8 mice but not in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Farr, Susan A; Banks, William A; Uezu, Kayoko; Gaskin, F Spencer; Morley, John E

    2004-10-22

    Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) has been reported to improve memory in aged animals and suggested as a treatment for age-related dementias. The SAMP8 mouse, a model of Alzheimer's disease, has an age-related impairment in learning and memory and an increase in brain levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid beta protein (Abeta). Male SAMP8 mice also have a decrease in testosterone, to which DHEA is a precursor. Diabetes has been suggested as a model of aging and to be linked to Alzheimer's disease. Diabetics can have memory deficits and lower DHEAS levels. Here, we examined the effects of chronic oral DHEAS on acquisition and retention for T-maze footshock avoidance in 12 mo male SAMP8 mice and in CD-1 mice with streptozocin-induced diabetes. Learning and memory were improved in aged SAMP8 mice, but not in CD-1 mice with streptozocin-induced diabetes. These findings suggest that DHEAS is more effective in reversing the cognitive impairments associated with overexpression of Abeta than with diabetes.

  12. The PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast improves memory in rodents at non-emetic doses.

    PubMed

    Vanmierlo, Tim; Creemers, Pim; Akkerman, Sven; van Duinen, Marlies; Sambeth, Anke; De Vry, Jochen; Uz, Tolga; Blokland, Arjan; Prickaerts, Jos

    2016-04-15

    Enhancement of central availability of the second messenger cAMP is a promising approach to improve cognitive function. Pharmacological inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4), a group of cAMP hydrolyzing enzymes in the brain, has been shown to improve cognitive performances in rodents and monkeys. However, inhibition of PDE4 is generally associated with severe emetic side-effects. Roflumilast, an FDA-approved PDE4 inhibitor for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is yielding only mild emetic side effects. In the present study we investigate the potential of roflumilast as a cognition enhancer and to determine the potential coinciding emetic response in comparison to rolipram, a classic PDE4 inhibitor with pronounced emetic effects. Cognition enhancement was evaluated in mice and it was found that both roflumilast and rolipram enhanced memory in an object location task (0.03mg/kg), whereas only roflumilast was effective in a spatial Y-maze (0.1mg/kg). Emetic potential was measured using competition of PDE4 inhibition for α2-adrenergic receptor antagonism in which recovery from xylazine/ketamine-mediated anesthesia is used as a surrogate marker. While rolipram displayed emetic properties at a dose 10 times the memory-enhancing dose, roflumilast only showed increased emetic-like properties at a dose 100 times the memory-enhancing dose. Moreover, combining sub-efficacious doses of the approved cognition-enhancer donepezil and roflumilast, which did not improve memory when given alone, fully restored object recognition memory deficit in rats induced by the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine. These findings suggest that roflumilast offers a more favorable window for treatment of cognitive deficits compared to rolipram.

  13. Honokiol improves learning and memory impairments induced by scopolamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Xian, Yan-Fang; Ip, Siu-Po; Mao, Qing-Qiu; Su, Zi-Ren; Chen, Jian-Nan; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Lin, Zhi-Xiu

    2015-08-05

    Honokiol, a lignan isolated from the bark of Magnolia officinalis, has been reported to ameliorate the learning and memory impairments in senesed (SAMP8) mice. However, whether honokiol could improve scopolamine (SCOP)-induced learning and memory deficits in mice is still unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether honokiol could reverse the SCOP-induced learning and memory impairments in mice and to elucidate its underlying mechanisms of action. Mice were given daily intraperitoneal injection of honokiol (10 and 20mg/kg) for 21 consecutive days. The results showed that honokiol significantly improved spatial learning and memory function (as assessed by the Morris water maze test) in the SCOP-treated mice. In addition, treatment with honokiol significantly decreased the protein and mRNA levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), while significantly increased the protein and mRNA levels of IL-10, and the level of acetylcholine (Ach) in the brain of the SCOP-treated mice. Moreover, honokiol also significantly suppressed the production of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE2) and mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the brain of the SCOP-treated mice. Mechanistic investigations revealed that honokiol could markedly reverse the amount of phosphorylated Akt and extracellular regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) changes in the brain of the SCOP-treated mice. These results amply demonstrated that honokiol could improve learning and memory impairments induced by SCOP in mice, and the protective action may be mediated, at least in part, by inhibition of AChE activity, and amelioration of the neuroinflammatory processes in the SCOP-treated mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Spatial memory is improved by aerobic and resistance exercise through divergent molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cassilhas, R C; Lee, K S; Fernandes, J; Oliveira, M G M; Tufik, S; Meeusen, R; de Mello, M T

    2012-01-27

    A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that exercise has a positive impact on human health, including neurological health. Aerobic exercise, which is supposed to enhance cardiovascular functions and metabolism, also induces neurotrophic factors that affect hippocampal neurons, thereby improving spatial learning and memory. Alternatively, little is known about the effect of resistance exercise on hippocampus-dependent memory, although this type of exercise is increasingly recommended to improve muscle strength and bone density and to prevent age-related disabilities. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of resistance training on spatial memory and the signaling pathways of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), comparing these effects with those of aerobic exercise. Adult male Wistar rats underwent 8 weeks of aerobic training on a treadmill (AERO group) or resistance training on a vertical ladder (RES group). Control and sham groups were also included. After the training period, both AERO and RES groups showed improved learning and spatial memory in a similar manner. However, both groups presented distinct signaling pathways. Although the AERO group showed increased level of IGF-1, BDNF, TrkB, and β-CaMKII (calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II) in the hippocampus, the RES group showed an induction of peripheral and hippocampal IGF-1 with concomitant activation of receptor for IGF-1 (IGF-1R) and AKT in the hippocampus. These distinct pathways culminated in an increase of synapsin 1 and synaptophysin expression in both groups. These findings demonstrated that both aerobic and resistance exercise can employ divergent molecular mechanisms but achieve similar results on learning and spatial memory.

  15. Central insulin administration improves odor-cued reactivation of spatial memory in young men.

    PubMed

    Brünner, Yvonne F; Kofoet, Anja; Benedict, Christian; Freiherr, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Insulin receptors are ubiquitously found in the human brain, comprising the olfactory bulb, essential for odor processing, and the hippocampus, important for spatial memory processing. The present study aimed at examining if intranasal insulin, which is known to transiently increase brain insulin levels in humans, would improve odor-cued reactivation of spatial memory in young men. We applied a double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced within-subject design. The study was conducted at the research unit of a university hospital. Interventions/Participants/Main Outcome Measures: Following intranasal administration of either insulin (40 I.U.) or placebo, male subjects (n = 18) were exposed to eight odors. During each odor exposure, a green-colored field was presented on a 17-in. computer screen. During immediate recall (comprising 3 runs), the participants were re-exposed to each odor cue, and were asked to select the corresponding field (with visual feedback after each response). The delayed recall was scheduled ∼10 min later (without feedback). To test if insulin's putative effect on odor-place memory would be domain-specific, participants also performed a separate place and odor recognition task. Intranasal insulin improved the delayed but not immediate odor-cued recall of spatial memory. This effect was independent of odor type and in the absence of systemic side effects (eg, fasting plasma glucose levels remained unaltered). Place and odor recognition were unaffected by the insulin treatment. These findings suggest that acute intranasal insulin improves odor-cued reactivation of spatial memory in young men.

  16. Can improving working memory prevent academic difficulties? A school based randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Gehan; Quach, Jon; Gold, Lisa; Anderson, Peter; Rickards, Field; Mensah, Fiona; Ainley, John; Gathercole, Susan; Wake, Melissa

    2011-06-20

    Low academic achievement is common and is associated with adverse outcomes such as grade repetition, behavioural disorders and unemployment. The ability to accurately identify these children and intervene before they experience academic failure would be a major advance over the current 'wait to fail' model. Recent research suggests that a possible modifiable factor for low academic achievement is working memory, the ability to temporarily store and manipulate information in a 'mental workspace'. Children with working memory difficulties are at high risk of academic failure. It has recently been demonstrated that working memory can be improved with adaptive training tasks that encourage improvements in working memory capacity. Our trial will determine whether the intervention is efficacious as a selective prevention strategy for young children at risk of academic difficulties and is cost-effective. This randomised controlled trial aims to recruit 440 children with low working memory after a school-based screening of 2880 children in Grade one. We will approach caregivers of all children from 48 participating primary schools in metropolitan Melbourne for consent. Children with low working memory will be randomised to usual care or the intervention. The intervention will consist of 25 computerised working memory training sessions, which take approximately 35 minutes each to complete. Follow-up of children will be conducted at 6, 12 and 24 months post-randomisation through child face-to-face assessment, parent and teacher surveys and data from government authorities. The primary outcome is academic achievement at 12 and 24 months, and other outcomes include child behaviour, attention, health-related quality of life, working memory, and health and educational service utilisation. A successful start to formal learning in school sets the stage for future academic, psychological and economic well-being. If this preventive intervention can be shown to be efficacious, then

  17. Intensive video gaming improves encoding speed to visual short-term memory in young male adults.

    PubMed

    Wilms, Inge L; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of action video gaming on central elements of visual attention using Bundesen's (1990) Theory of Visual Attention. To examine the cognitive impact of action video gaming, we tested basic functions of visual attention in 42 young male adults. Participants were divided into three groups depending on the amount of time spent playing action video games: non-players (<2h/month, N=12), casual players (4-8h/month, N=10), and experienced players (>15h/month, N=20). All participants were tested in three tasks which tap central functions of visual attention and short-term memory: a test based on the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), an enumeration test and finally the Attentional Network Test (ANT). The results show that action video gaming does not seem to impact the capacity of visual short-term memory. However, playing action video games does seem to improve the encoding speed of visual information into visual short-term memory and the improvement does seem to depend on the time devoted to gaming. This suggests that intense action video gaming improves basic attentional functioning and that this improvement generalizes into other activities. The implications of these findings for cognitive rehabilitation training are discussed.

  18. Working Memory Training Does Not Improve Performance on Measures of Intelligence or Other Measures of “Far Transfer”

    PubMed Central

    Melby-Lervåg, Monica; Redick, Thomas S.; Hulme, Charles

    2016-01-01

    It has been claimed that working memory training programs produce diverse beneficial effects. This article presents a meta-analysis of working memory training studies (with a pretest-posttest design and a control group) that have examined transfer to other measures (nonverbal ability, verbal ability, word decoding, reading comprehension, or arithmetic; 87 publications with 145 experimental comparisons). Immediately following training there were reliable improvements on measures of intermediate transfer (verbal and visuospatial working memory). For measures of far transfer (nonverbal ability, verbal ability, word decoding, reading comprehension, arithmetic) there was no convincing evidence of any reliable improvements when working memory training was compared with a treated control condition. Furthermore, mediation analyses indicated that across studies, the degree of improvement on working memory measures was not related to the magnitude of far-transfer effects found. Finally, analysis of publication bias shows that there is no evidential value from the studies of working memory training using treated controls. The authors conclude that working memory training programs appear to produce short-term, specific training effects that do not generalize to measures of “real-world” cognitive skills. These results seriously question the practical and theoretical importance of current computerized working memory programs as methods of training working memory skills. PMID:27474138

  19. Visual working memory in deaf children with diverse communication modes: improvement by differential outcomes.

    PubMed

    López-Crespo, Ginesa; Daza, María Teresa; Méndez-López, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Although visual functions have been proposed to be enhanced in deaf individuals, empirical studies have not yet established clear evidence on this issue. The present study aimed to determine whether deaf children with diverse communication modes had superior visual memory and whether their performance was improved by the use of differential outcomes. Severely or profoundly deaf children who employed spoken Spanish, Spanish Sign Language (SSL), and both spoken Spanish and SSL modes of communication were tested in a delayed matching-to-sample task for visual working memory assessment. Hearing controls were used to compare performance. Participants were tested in two conditions, differential outcome and non-differential outcome conditions. Deaf groups with either oral or SSL modes of communication completed the task with less accuracy than bilingual and control hearing children. In addition, the performances of all groups improved through the use of differential outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Structured floral arrangement programme for improving visuospatial working memory in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki-Kawai, Hiroko; Yamakawa, Yuriko; Mochizuki, Satoshi; Anzai, Shoko; Arai, Masanobu

    2010-01-01

    Several cognitive therapies have been developed for patients with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the outcomes of these therapies in terms of non-verbal/visuospatial working memory, even though this may affect patients’ social outcomes. In the present pilot study, we investigated the effect of a structured floral arrangement (SFA) programme, where participants were required to create symmetrical floral arrangements. In this programme, the arrangement pattern and the order of placing each of the natural materials was predetermined. Participants have to identify where to place each material, and memorise the position temporarily to complete the floral arrangement. The schizophrenic patients who participated in this programme showed significant improvement in their scores for a block-tapping task backward version; whereas, non-treated control patients did not show such an improvement. The present results suggest that the SFA programme may positively stimulate visuospatial working memory in patients. PMID:20467963

  1. Memory retrieval improvement by Ptychopetalum olacoides in young and aging mice.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Adriana L; Piato, Angelo L S; Bardini, Simone; Netto, Carlos A; Nunes, Domingos S; Elisabetsky, Elaine

    2004-12-01

    Amazonian peoples use traditional remedies prepared with Ptychopetalum olacoides (PO) roots for treating various age-related conditions. This study shows that a single intraperitoneally (i.p.) administration of Ptychopetalum olacoides ethanol extract (POEE, 50 and 100mg/kg) improved memory retrieval in step-down inhibitory avoidance (P memory amelioration was also observed (P memory deficit (14.95 [10.8-41]) as compared to adult (2.5 months) mice (57 [15.7-141.2]), with the extract given acutely i.p. 100 mg/kg (300 [133.1-300] versus control 14.95 [10.8-41]) or p.o. 800 mg/kg (28.4 [15.1-84.6] versus control 11.5 [7.8-23.3]). Indeed, aging mice treated with POEE (800 mg/kg, p.o.) performed as well as adult mice. Consistently with its traditional use, the data suggest that POEE facilitates memory retrieval. Although the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory properties previously described for this extract may be of relevance, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the improvement in memory retrieval here reported merit further scrutiny.

  2. Adjunctive raloxifene treatment improves attention and memory in men and women with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Weickert, T W; Weinberg, D; Lenroot, R; Catts, S V; Wells, R; Vercammen, A; O'Donnell, M; Galletly, C; Liu, D; Balzan, R; Short, B; Pellen, D; Curtis, J; Carr, V J; Kulkarni, J; Schofield, P R; Weickert, C S

    2015-06-01

    There is increasing clinical and molecular evidence for the role of hormones and specifically estrogen and its receptor in schizophrenia. A selective estrogen receptor modulator, raloxifene, stimulates estrogen-like activity in brain and can improve cognition in older adults. The present study tested the extent to which adjunctive raloxifene treatment improved cognition and reduced symptoms in young to middle-age men and women with schizophrenia. Ninety-eight patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were recruited into a dual-site, thirteen-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of adjunctive raloxifene treatment in addition to their usual antipsychotic medications. Symptom severity and cognition in the domains of working memory, attention/processing speed, language and verbal memory were assessed at baseline, 6 and 13 weeks. Analyses of the initial 6-week phase of the study using a parallel groups design (with 39 patients receiving placebo and 40 receiving raloxifene) revealed that participants receiving adjunctive raloxifene treatment showed significant improvement relative to placebo in memory and attention/processing speed. There was no reduction in symptom severity with treatment compared with placebo. There were significant carryover effects, suggesting some cognitive benefits are sustained even after raloxifene withdrawal. Analysis of the 13-week crossover data revealed significant improvement with raloxifene only in attention/processing speed. This is the first study to show that daily, oral adjunctive raloxifene treatment at 120 mg per day has beneficial effects on attention/processing speed and memory for both men and women with schizophrenia. Thus, raloxifene may be useful as an adjunctive treatment for cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia.

  3. Adjunctive raloxifene treatment improves attention and memory in men and women with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Weickert, T W; Weinberg, D; Lenroot, R; Catts, S V; Wells, R; Vercammen, A; O'Donnell, M; Galletly, C; Liu, D; Balzan, R; Short, B; Pellen, D; Curtis, J; Carr, V J; Kulkarni, J; Schofield, P R; Weickert, C S

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing clinical and molecular evidence for the role of hormones and specifically estrogen and its receptor in schizophrenia. A selective estrogen receptor modulator, raloxifene, stimulates estrogen-like activity in brain and can improve cognition in older adults. The present study tested the extent to which adjunctive raloxifene treatment improved cognition and reduced symptoms in young to middle-age men and women with schizophrenia. Ninety-eight patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were recruited into a dual-site, thirteen-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of adjunctive raloxifene treatment in addition to their usual antipsychotic medications. Symptom severity and cognition in the domains of working memory, attention/processing speed, language and verbal memory were assessed at baseline, 6 and 13 weeks. Analyses of the initial 6-week phase of the study using a parallel groups design (with 39 patients receiving placebo and 40 receiving raloxifene) revealed that participants receiving adjunctive raloxifene treatment showed significant improvement relative to placebo in memory and attention/processing speed. There was no reduction in symptom severity with treatment compared with placebo. There were significant carryover effects, suggesting some cognitive benefits are sustained even after raloxifene withdrawal. Analysis of the 13-week crossover data revealed significant improvement with raloxifene only in attention/processing speed. This is the first study to show that daily, oral adjunctive raloxifene treatment at 120 mg per day has beneficial effects on attention/processing speed and memory for both men and women with schizophrenia. Thus, raloxifene may be useful as an adjunctive treatment for cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. PMID:25980345

  4. Unexpected Improvements of Spatial Learning and Memory Abilities in Chronic Rotenone Intoxicated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Fengju; Song, Ning; Zhao, Chenyang; Xie, Junxia; Jiang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The liposoluble insecticide rotenone is commonly used as a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor to replicate Parkinson's disease (PD) pathological features. However, there was no assessment of the spatial learning and memory abilities in chronic rotenone-induced PD models. In the present study, by rotarod test and Thioflavine T staining, we first noted the impairment of motor coordination in rotenone-treated group for 3 months, as well as alpha-synuclein inclusions in the nigral dopaminergic neurons in C57BL/6 mice with intragastrical delivery of rotenone (5 mg/Kg) for 3 months rather than 1 month. We then evaluated spatial learning and memory abilities by Morris water maze task in this model. The results showed escape latency reduced in rotenone-intoxicated mice for 3 months, indicating an improvement of learning ability. However, it was delayed slightly but not significantly in rotenone-intoxicated mice for 1 month. Similarly, we demonstrated that spatial memory ability was enhanced in 3-month-treatment group, but impaired in 1-month-treatment group. There were no proliferating cell nuclear antigen and doublecortin positive cells in the hippocampus by double immunofluorescent staining, indicating the absence of hippocampal neurogenesis in rotenone-intoxicated mice. These results suggest that spatial learning and memory abilities are disturbed in chronic rotenone-intoxicated PD model. PMID:24618574

  5. Maternal feeding with walnuts (Juglans regia) improves learning and memory in their adult pups

    PubMed Central

    Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Karimi, Abuzar; Shabani, Mohammad; Sheibani, Vahid; Esmaeilpour, Khadije

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Walnut (Juglans Regia) is a domestic fruit of Iran. Walnut kernel (WK) has many beneficial constituents such as unsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and vitamin E. Scientific studies have shown that fatty acids and vitamin E can modulate learning and memory processes. The aim of the present work was to study effects of walnut consumption by mothers during pregnancy and lactation on learning and memory in adult rat offsprings. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into three groups: control (fed with ordinary food, 20 g daily), gestation (fed with WK, 6% of food intake during pregnancy), and gestation and lactation (fed with WK, 6% of food intake during gestation and lactation). Morris water maze test was performed for their adult offsprings. Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference in learning and memory of rat offsprings between experimental and control groups. Conclusion: These data may indicate that feeding mothers with WK results in improvement in learning and memory of their offsprings. PMID:25050291

  6. Lacosamide reduces HDAC levels in the brain and improves memory: Potential for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bang, Shraddha R; Ambavade, Shirishkumar D; Jagdale, Priti G; Adkar, Prafulla P; Waghmare, Arun B; Ambavade, Prashant D

    2015-07-01

    Lacosamide, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, has been approved for the treatment of epilepsy. Some HDAC inhibitors have been proven effective for the treatment of memory disorders. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the effect of lacosamide on memory and brain HDAC levels. The effect on memory was evaluated in animals with scopolamine-induced amnesia using the elevated plus maze, object recognition test, and radial arm maze. The levels of acetylcholinesterase and HDAC in the cerebral cortex were evaluated. Lacosamide at doses of 10 and 30mg/kg significantly reduced the transfer latency in the elevated plus maze. Lacosamide at a dose of 30mg/kg significantly increased the time spent with a familiar object in the object recognition test at the 24h interval and decreased the time spent in the baited arm. Moreover, at this dose, the number of errors in the radial arm maze at 3 and 24h intervals was minimized and a reduction in the level of HDAC1, but not acetylcholinesterase, was observed in the cerebral cortex. These effects of lacosamide are equivalent to those of piracetam at a dose of 300mg/kg. These results suggest that lacosamide at a 30mg/kg dose improves disrupted memory, possibly by inhibiting HDAC, and could be used to treat amnesic symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Describe yourself to improve your autobiographical memory: A study in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    El Haj, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated whether retrieval of information related to conceptual self (i.e., self-images that encompass general factual and evaluative knowledge of one's identity) would improve autobiographical memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Participants with AD and controls were asked to retrieve autobiographical memories after providing statements to the question "Who am I? and after a control condition consisting of reading a general text. Autobiographical recall was analyzed with respect to specificity (general vs specific event), context recall (information describing the "when, where, and who" as well as affective states), and reliving (the subjective experience of recall). AD participants showed higher specificity, context recall and reliving after the "Who am I?" statements than after the text reading, and controls showed higher context recall after the former than after the latter condition. These findings highlight the relationship between self and autobiographical memory in AD and demonstrate how retrieval of information related to conceptual self may influence autobiographical memory in the disease.

  8. Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae improves learning and memory capabilities in ovariectomized rats☆

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuefen; Xu, Ya; Pan, Yanshu; Li, Weihong; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Jia, Jing; Li, Pengtao

    2013-01-01

    Kidney-tonifying recipe can reduce the accumulation of advanced glycation end products, prevent neuronal degeneration and improve cognitive functions in ovariectomized rats. Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae alcohol extracts may dose-dependently inhibit non-enzymatic saccharification in vitro. This study aimed to examine the effect of Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae on advanced glycation end products and on learning and memory capabilities in ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomized rats were treated with Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae alcohol extracts (containing 1.5 g/kg crude drug) or 0.1% aminoguanidine for 12 weeks and behavioral testing was performed with the Y-electrical maze. This test revealed that Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae and aminoguanidine could improve the learning and memory capabilities of ovariectomized rats. Results of competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that treatment with Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae or aminoguanidine reduced the accumulation of advanced glycation end products in the frontal cortex of ovariectomized rats, while increasing content in the blood and urine. Biochemical tests showed that treatment with Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae or aminoguanidine decreased superoxide dismutase activity in the serum and frontal cortex, and increased serum levels of glutathione peroxidase in ovariectomized rats. In addition, there was no apparent effect on malondialdehyde levels. These experimental findings indicate that Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae inhibits production of advanced glycation end products and its accumulation in brain tissue, and improves learning and memory capabilities in ovariectomized rats. These effects may be associated with an anti-oxidative action of the extract. PMID:25206461

  9. Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae improves learning and memory capabilities in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuefen; Xu, Ya; Pan, Yanshu; Li, Weihong; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Jia, Jing; Li, Pengtao

    2013-06-25

    Kidney-tonifying recipe can reduce the accumulation of advanced glycation end products, prevent neuronal degeneration and improve cognitive functions in ovariectomized rats. Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae alcohol extracts may dose-dependently inhibit non-enzymatic saccharification in vitro. This study aimed to examine the effect of Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae on advanced glycation end products and on learning and memory capabilities in ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomized rats were treated with Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae alcohol extracts (containing 1.5 g/kg crude drug) or 0.1% aminoguanidine for 12 weeks and behavioral testing was performed with the Y-electrical maze. This test revealed that Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae and aminoguanidine could improve the learning and memory capabilities of ovariectomized rats. Results of competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that treatment with Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae or aminoguanidine reduced the accumulation of advanced glycation end products in the frontal cortex of ovariectomized rats, while increasing content in the blood and urine. Biochemical tests showed that treatment with Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae or aminoguanidine decreased superoxide dismutase activity in the serum and frontal cortex, and increased serum levels of glutathione peroxidase in ovariectomized rats. In addition, there was no apparent effect on malondialdehyde levels. These experimental findings indicate that Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae inhibits production of advanced glycation end products and its accumulation in brain tissue, and improves learning and memory capabilities in ovariectomized rats. These effects may be associated with an anti-oxidative action of the extract.

  10. Two-silicon-nanocrystal layer memory structure with improved retention characteristics.

    PubMed

    Nassiopoulou, A G; Salonidou, A

    2007-01-01

    It was demonstrated in the literature that the use of self-aligned doubly-stacked Si dots improves retention characteristics of a nanocrystal memory. In this paper, we show that a similar effect may be obtained by using two distinct layers of silicon nanocrystals within the gate dielectric of the MOS structure, if the nanocrystal density in each layer is high enough (above 10(12) dots/cm2) so as to get an average effect of at least one smaller dot underneath each larger one. The relative distance of the layers and their position from the silicon substrate and the gate metal are critical for optimum memory operation. Two different double-nanocrystal-layer structures were investigated. In the first structure the two nanocrystal layers were close together and they were composed of dots of different size (lower layer: 3 nm, upper layer: 5 nm), while in the second structure the dot layers were composed of dots of equal diameter (d = 3 nm) and their inter-distance was much larger. In both cases, the retention characteristics of the structure were improved compared with a single dot layer structure. In the second case this improvement was significantly larger than in the first case. Extrapolation of the data to ten years memory operation, showed that the charge loss after this time was only approximately 12%.

  11. Oral administration of squid lecithin-transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine improves memory impairment in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bombi; Sur, Bong-Jun; Han, Jeong-Jun; Shim, Insop; Her, Song; Lee, Yang-Seok; Lee, Hye-Jung; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2015-01-02

    Recently, lecithin-derived phosphatidylserine (PS), which originates from marine life, has received much attention as a viable alternative to bovine cerebral cortex PS. In this study, the use of squid phosphatidylcholine-transphosphatidylated PS (SQ-PS) was evaluated through examination of its ameliorating effects on age-associated learning and memory deficits in rats. Aged rats were orally administered SQ-PS (10, 20, or 50 mg/kg per day) once a day for seven days 30 min prior to behavioral assessment in a Morris water maze. SQ-PS administration produced significant dose-dependent improvements in escape latency for finding the platform in the Morris water maze in the aged rats even though Soy-PS administration also exhibited comparable improvements with SQ-PS. Biochemical alterations in the hippocampal cholinergic system, including changes in choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase immunoreactivity, were consistent with the behavioral results. In addition, SQ-PS treatment significantly restored age-associated decreases of choline transporter and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor type 1 mRNA expression in the hippocampus. These results demonstrate that orally administered SQ-PS dose-dependently aids in the improvement of memory deficits that occur during normal aging in rats. This suggests that SQ-PS may be a useful therapeutic agent in the treatment of diminished memory function in elderly people.

  12. Exercise improves object recognition memory and induces BDNF expression and cell proliferation in cognitively enriched rats.

    PubMed

    Bechara, R G; Kelly, Á M

    2013-05-15

    Exercise and environmental enrichment are behavioural interventions that have been shown to improve learning and increase neurogenesis in rodents, possibly via neurotrophin-mediated mechanisms. However, many enrichment protocols incorporate exercise, which can itself be viewed as a source of cognitive stimulation in animals housed in standard laboratory conditions. In this experiment we investigate the effect of each intervention separately and in combination on object recognition memory, and analyse associated changes in the dentate gyrus: specifically, in BDNF expression and cell division. We show that both exercise and enrichment improve object recognition memory, but that BDNF mRNA expression and cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus increase only in exercised rats. These results are in general agreement with recent studies suggesting that the exercise component is the major neurogenic and neurotrophic stimulus in environmental enrichment protocols. We add to the expanding literature several novel aspects including the finding that enrichment in the absence of exercise can improve object recognition memory, probably via mechanisms that are independent of BDNF upregulation and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus.

  13. Daily supplementation with mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) improves balance and working memory in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Miller, Marshall G; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Decline in brain function during normal aging is partly due to the long-term effects of oxidative stress and inflammation. Several fruits and vegetables have been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the effects of dietary mushroom intervention on mobility and memory in aged Fischer 344 rats. We hypothesized that daily supplementation of mushroom would have beneficial effects on behavioral outcomes in a dose-dependent manner. Rats were randomly assigned to receive a diet containing either 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, or 5% lyophilized white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus); after 8 weeks on the diet, a battery of behavioral tasks was given to assess balance, coordination, and cognition. Rats on the 2% or 5% mushroom-supplemented diet consumed more food, without gaining weight, than rats in the other diet groups. Rats in the 0.5% and 1% group stayed on a narrow beam longer, indicating an improvement in balance. Only rats on the 0.5% mushroom diet showed improved performance in a working memory version of the Morris water maze. When taken together, the most effective mushroom dose that produced improvements in both balance and working memory was 0.5%, equivalent to about 1.5 ounces of fresh mushrooms for humans. Therefore, the results suggest that the inclusion of mushroom in the daily diet may have beneficial effects on age-related deficits in cognitive and motor function.

  14. Increasing stimulus duration improves attention and memory performance in elderly with cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Lavner, Yizhar; Rabinowitz, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In this study, we investigated whether increasing stimulus duration could improve performance on a test of attention and short-term memory in cognitively impaired individuals. Methods: A computer-generated forward digit span test was administered to 65 patients with mild cognitive impairment or dementia (28 intervention and 37 controls). After point of failure, testing in the intervention group was continued at the same rate, but with an average 150% digit lengthening to 800 ms. Testing of controls was continued using the standard digit span test. Results: In the intervention group, 13/28 (46.4%) improved their digit span test performance, compared to 2/37 (5.4%) in the control group (p = 0.00005). Conclusion: Cognitively impaired elderly participants improved performance on a test of attention and short-term memory, when stimulus duration was increased in proportion to elongation of the finger tap touch-phase previously found in a similar cohort. A possible mechanism for the effect of increased stimulus duration on attention and short-term memory is discussed. PMID:27081485

  15. Memantine improves memory for taste-avoidance learning in day-old chicks exposed to isolation stress.

    PubMed

    Barber, Teresa A; Meyers, Ryan A; McGettigan, Brian F

    2010-04-01

    Activation of NMDA receptors by glutamate is particularly important in the initial stages of memory consolidation. Memantine, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, ameliorates memory impairment under certain circumstances, despite blocking the activation of NMDA receptors. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that memantine can improve memory deficits induced by isolation stress in day-old chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) trained in a one-trial taste-avoidance task. Three experiments assessed the effects of memantine at different concentrations and in combination with isolation stress. The results of Experiment 1 indicate that, under normal, non-stressed conditions, memory in control animals is strong and 15.0 mM memantine impairs memory, similar to that seen in many studies of the effects of NMDA receptor antagonists on learning. However, the results of Experiments 2 and 3 showed that, when chicks were exposed to isolation stress during the pre-training period, memory formation for saline-injected control animals was impaired and 5.0 mM memantine significantly improved memory in an inverted U-shaped dose response function. The current results extend the findings that memantine can ameliorate memory impairment and supports the hypothesis that memantine, despite its action to reduce NMDA receptor activity, can facilitate normalized memory acquisition.

  16. A memory and organizational aid improves AD research consent capacity: Results of a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Rubright, Jonathan; Sankar, Pamela; Casarett, David J; Gur, Ruben; Xie, Sharon X; Karlawish, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Objectives AD patients' early and progressive cognitive impairments hinder their capacity to provide informed consent. Unfortunately, the limited research on techniques to improve capacity has shown mixed results. Therefore, we tested whether a memory and organizational aid improves AD patient performance on measures of capacity and competency to give informed consent. Design, Setting, and Participants AD patients randomly assigned to standard consent, or standard plus a memory and organizational aid. Intervention Memory and organizational aid summarized at a 6th grade reading level the content of information mandated under the Common Rule's informed consent disclosure requirements. Measurements Three psychiatrists without access to patient data independently reviewed MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR) interview transcripts to judge whether the patient was capable of providing informed consent. The agreement of at least two of three experts defined a participant as capable of providing informed consent. Secondary outcomes are MacCAT-CR measures of understanding, appreciation and reasoning, and comparison to cognitively normal older adult norms. Results AD intervention and control groups were similar in terms of age, education, and cognitive status. The intervention group was more likely to be judged competent than control group and had higher scores on MacCAT-CR measure of understanding. The intervention had no effect on measures of appreciation or reasoning. Conclusions A consent process that addresses an AD patients' deficits in memory and attention can improve capacity to give informed consent for early phase AD research. The results also validate the MacCAT-CR as an instrument to measure capacity, especially the understanding subscale. PMID:20808101

  17. Computerized Memory Training Leads to Sustained Improvement in Visuospatial Short-Term Memory Skills in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Stephanie J.; Holmes, Joni; Buckley, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a computerized visuospatial memory training intervention on the memory and behavioral skills of children with Down syndrome. Teaching assistants were trained to support the delivery of a computerized intervention program to individual children over a 10-16 week period in school. Twenty-one children aged 7-12…

  18. Computerized Memory Training Leads to Sustained Improvement in Visuospatial Short-Term Memory Skills in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Stephanie J.; Holmes, Joni; Buckley, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a computerized visuospatial memory training intervention on the memory and behavioral skills of children with Down syndrome. Teaching assistants were trained to support the delivery of a computerized intervention program to individual children over a 10-16 week period in school. Twenty-one children aged 7-12…

  19. Ciproxifan, an H3 receptor antagonist, improves short-term recognition memory impaired by isoflurane anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ding, Fang; Zheng, Limin; Liu, Min; Chen, Rongfa; Leung, L Stan; Luo, Tao

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to volatile anesthetics has been reported to cause temporary or sustained impairments in learning and memory in pre-clinical studies. The selective antagonists of the histamine H3 receptors (H3R) are considered to be a promising group of novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of cognitive disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of H3R antagonist ciproxifan on isoflurane-induced deficits in an object recognition task. Adult C57BL/6 J mice were exposed to isoflurane (1.3 %) or vehicle gas for 2 h. The object recognition tests were carried at 24 h or 7 days after exposure to anesthesia to exploit the tendency of mice to prefer exploring novel objects in an environment when a familiar object is also present. During the training phase, two identical objects were placed in two defined sites of the chamber. During the test phase, performed 1 or 24 h after the training phase, one of the objects was replaced by a new object with a different shape. The time spent exploring each object was recorded. A robust deficit in object recognition memory occurred 1 day after exposure to isoflurane anesthesia. Isoflurane-treated mice spent significantly less time exploring a novel object at 1 h but not at 24 h after the training phase. The deficit in short-term memory was reversed by the administration of ciproxifan 30 min before behavioral training. Isoflurane exposure induces reversible deficits in object recognition memory. Ciproxifan appears to be a potential therapeutic agent for improving post-anesthesia cognitive memory performance.

  20. Naringenin improves learning and memory in an Alzheimer's disease rat model: Insights into the underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ghofrani, Saeed; Joghataei, Mohammad-Taghi; Mohseni, Simin; Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht; Bagheri, Maryam; Khamse, Safoura; Roghani, Mehrdad

    2015-10-05

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the prevalent neurological disorders of the central nervous system hallmarked by increased beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and ensuing learning and memory deficit. In the present study, the beneficial effect of naringenin on improvement of learning and memory was evaluated in an Alzheimer's disease rat model. The Aβ-injected rats showed a lower alternation score in Y-maze task, impairment of retention and recall capability in passive avoidance test, and lower correct choices and higher errors in radial arm maze (RAM) task as compared to sham group in addition to enhanced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Naringenin, but not a combination of naringenin and fulvestrant (an estrogenic receptor antagonist) significantly improved the performance of Aβ-injected rats in passive avoidance and RAM tasks. Naringenin pretreatment of Aβ-injected rats also lowered hippocampal malondialdehyde (MDA) with no significant effect on nitrite and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in addition to lowering apoptosis. These results suggest naringenin pretreatment attenuates Aβ-induced impairment of learning and memory through mitigation of lipid peroxidation and apoptosis and its beneficial effect is somewhat mediated via estrogenic pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Concord grape juice supplementation improves memory function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Krikorian, Robert; Nash, Tiffany A; Shidler, Marcelle D; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A

    2010-03-01

    Concord grape juice contains polyphenol compounds, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and influence neuronal signalling. Concord grape juice supplementation has been shown to reduce inflammation, blood pressure and vascular pathology in individuals with CVD, and consumption of such flavonoid-containing foods is associated with a reduced risk for dementia. In addition, preliminary animal data have indicated improvement in memory and motor function with grape juice supplementation, suggesting potential for cognitive benefit in ageing humans. In this initial investigation of neurocognitive effects, we enrolled twelve older adults with memory decline but not dementia in a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial with Concord grape juice supplementation for 12 weeks. We observed significant improvement in a measure of verbal learning and non-significant enhancement of verbal and spatial recall. There was no appreciable effect of the intervention on depressive symptoms and no effect on weight or waist circumference. A small increase in fasting insulin was observed for those consuming grape juice. These preliminary findings suggest that supplementation with Concord grape juice may enhance cognitive function for older adults with early memory decline and establish a basis for more comprehensive investigations to evaluate potential benefit and assess mechanisms of action.

  2. Cathepsin B Improves ß-Amyloidosis and Learning and Memory in Models of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Embury, Christine M; Dyavarshetty, Bhagyalaxmi; Lu, Yaman; Wiederin, Jayme L; Ciborowski, Pawel; Gendelman, Howard E; Kiyota, Tomomi

    2016-12-13

    Amyloid-ß (Aß) precursor protein (APP) metabolism engages neuronal endolysosomal pathways for Aß processing and secretion. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), dysregulation of APP leads to excess Aß and neuronal dysfunction; suggesting that neuronal APP/Aß trafficking can be targeted for therapeutic gain. Cathepsin B (CatB) is a lysosomal cysteine protease that can lower Aß levels. However, whether CatB-modulation of Aß improves learning and memory function deficits in AD is not known. To this end, progenitor neurons were infected with recombinant adenovirus expressing CatB and recovered cell lysates subjected to proteomic analyses. The results demonstrated Lamp1 deregulation and linkages between CatB and the neuronal phagosome network. Hippocampal injections of adeno-associated virus expressing CatB reduced Aß levels, increased Lamp1 and improved learning and memory. The findings were associated with the emergence of c-fos + cells. The results support the idea that CatB can speed Aß metabolism through lysosomal pathways and as such reduce AD-associated memory deficits.

  3. Tualang honey supplement improves memory performance and hippocampal morphology in stressed ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Rahbi, Badriya; Zakaria, Rahimah; Othman, Zahiruddin; Hassan, Asma; Mohd Ismail, Zul Izhar; Muthuraju, Sangu

    2014-01-01

    Recently, our research team has reported that Tualang honey was able to improve immediate memory in postmenopausal women comparable with that of estrogen progestin therapy. Therefore the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of Tualang honey supplement on hippocampal morphology and memory performance in ovariectomized (OVX) rats exposed to social instability stress. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups: (i) sham-operated controls, (ii) stressed sham-operated controls, (iii) OVX rats, (iv) stressed OVX rats, (v) stressed OVX rats treated with 17β-estradiol (E2), and (vi) stressed OVX rats treated with Tualang honey. These rats were subjected to social instability stress procedure followed by novel object recognition (NOR) test. Right brain hemispheres were subjected to Nissl staining. The number and arrangement of pyramidal neurons in regions of CA1, CA2, CA3 and the dentate gyrus (DG) were recorded. Two-way ANOVA analyses showed significant interactions between stress and OVX in both STM and LTM test as well as number of Nissl-positive cells in all hippocampal regions. Both E2 and Tualang honey treatments improved both short-term and long-term memory and enhanced the neuronal proliferation of hippocampal CA2, CA3 and DG regions compared to that of untreated stressed OVX rats.

  4. A multifaceted prospective memory intervention to improve medication adherence: design of a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Insel, Kathleen C; Einstein, Gilles O; Morrow, Daniel G; Hepworth, Joseph T

    2013-01-01

    Adherence to prescribed antihypertensive agents is critical because control of elevated blood pressure is the single most important way to prevent stroke and other end organ damage. Unfortunately, nonadherence remains a significant problem. Previous interventions designed to improve adherence have demonstrated only small benefits of strategies that target single facets such as understanding medication directions. The intervention described here is informed by prospective memory theory and performance of older adults in laboratory-based paradigms and uses a comprehensive, multifaceted approach to improve adherence. It incorporates multiple strategies designed to support key components of prospective remembering involved in taking medication. The intervention is delivered by nurses in the home with an education control group for comparison. Differences between groups in overall adherence following the intervention and 6 months later will be tested. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels also will be examined between groups and as they relate to adherence. Intra-individual regression is planned to examine change in adherence over time and its predictors. Finally, we will examine the association between executive function/working memory and adherence, predicting that adherence will be related to executive/working memory in the control group but not in the intervention group.

  5. Tart cherry supplementation improves working memory, hippocampal inflammation, and autophagy in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Poulose, Shibu M; Gomes, Stacey M; Miller, Marshall G; Bielinski, Donna F; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    High consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with reduced risk of debilitating diseases and improved cognition in aged populations. These beneficial effects have been attributed to the phytochemicals found in fruits and vegetables, which have previously been shown to be anti-inflammatory and modulate autophagy. Tart cherries contain a variety of potentially beneficial phytochemicals; however, little research has been done to investigate the effects of tart cherry on the aging brain. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if tart cherry supplementation can improve cognitive and motor function of aged rats via modulation of inflammation and autophagy in the brain. Thirty 19-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were weight-matched and assigned to receive either a control diet or a diet supplemented with 2 % Montmorency tart cherry. After 6 weeks on the diet, rats were given a battery of behavioral tests to assess for strength, stamina, balance, and coordination, as well as learning and working memory. Although no significant effects were observed on tests of motor performance, tart cherry improved working memory of aged rats. Following behavioral testing, the hippocampus was collected for western/densitometric analysis of inflammatory (GFAP, NOX-2, and COX-2) and autophagy (phosphorylated mTOR, Beclin 1, and p62/SQSTM) markers. Tart cherry supplementation significantly reduced inflammatory markers and improved autophagy function. Daily consumption of tart cherry reduced age-associated inflammation and promoted protein/cellular homeostasis in the hippocampus, along with improvements in working memory. Therefore, addition of tart cherry to the diet may promote healthy aging and/or delay the onset of neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Design of an improved shape memory alloy actuator for rotor blade tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kiran; Chopra, Inderjit

    2002-07-01

    A shape memory alloy actuated tab deflection mechanism for in-flight rotor blade tracking was designed, fabricated and tested. The design, comprises of dual SMA wire actuation device, passive lock and on-blade sensors. The system is integrated with a feedback position controller. Improvements, over the previous design, in shape memory alloy wire clamping mechanism, locking mechanism and controller operation were examined. An analytical model, incorporating Brinson's thermomechanical model was developed to predict actuator behavior. A design methodology, based on this model, was applied to identify the relationship between actuator design parameters and actuator target goals. The actuation system integrated into an NACA0012 blade section was tested on the bench-top. Tracking capability of +/- 6 degree(s) with a resolution of +/- 0.1 degree(s) was demonstrated.

  7. Material engineering of GexTe100-x compounds to improve phase-change memory performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, G.; Sousa, V.; Persico, A.; Pashkov, N.; Toffoli, A.; Bastien, J.-C.; Perniola, L.; Maitrejean, S.; Roule, A.; Zuliani, P.; Annunziata, R.; De Salvo, B.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we provide a detailed physical and electrical characterization of Germanium Telluride compounds (GexTe100-x) targeting phase-change memory applications. Thin films of Germanium-rich as well as Tellurium-rich phase-change materials are deposited for material analysis (XRD, resistivity and optical characterization). GexTe100-x compounds are then integrated in lance-type analytical phase-change memory devices allowing for a thorough analysis of the switching characteristics, data retention and endurance performances. Tellurium-rich GeTe alloys exhibit stable programming characteristics and can sustain endurance up to 107 cycles, while Germanium-rich compounds show an unstable RESET state during repeated write/erase cycles, probably affected by Ge segregation. Finally we demonstrate that data retention is strongly improved departing from Ge50Te50 stoichiometric composition.

  8. Retraction: High uniformity and improved nonlinearity by embedding nanocrystals in selector-less resistive random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Writam; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Sun, Pengxiao; Liu, Qi; Lv, Hangbing; Long, Shibing; Liu, Ming

    2015-03-01

    Retraction of `High uniformity and improved nonlinearity by embedding nanocrystals in selector-less resistive random access memory' by Writam Banerjee et al., Nanoscale, 2014, advance article (C4NR05077K)

  9. Physical exercise during pregnancy improves object recognition memory in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Robinson, A M; Bucci, D J

    2014-01-03

    Exercising during pregnancy has been shown to improve spatial learning and short-term memory, as well as increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels and hippocampal cell survival in juvenile offspring. However, it remains unknown if these effects endure into adulthood. In addition, few studies have considered how maternal exercise can impact cognitive functions that do not rely on the hippocampus. To address these issues, the present study tested the effects of maternal exercise during pregnancy on object recognition memory, which relies on the perirhinal cortex (PER), in adult offspring. Pregnant rats were given access to a running wheel throughout gestation and the adult male offspring were subsequently tested in an object recognition memory task at three different time points, each spaced 2-weeks apart, beginning at 60 days of age. At each time point, offspring from exercising mothers were able to successfully discriminate between novel and familiar objects in that they spent more time exploring the novel object than the familiar object. The offspring of non-exercising mothers were not able to successfully discriminate between objects and spent an equal amount of time with both objects. A subset of rats was euthanized 1h after the final object recognition test to assess c-FOS expression in the PER. The offspring of exercising mothers had more c-FOS expression in the PER than the offspring of non-exercising mothers. By comparison, c-FOS levels in the adjacent auditory cortex did not differ between groups. These results indicate that maternal exercise during pregnancy can improve object recognition memory in adult male offspring and increase c-FOS expression in the PER; suggesting that exercise during the gestational period may enhance brain function of the offspring. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Physical Exercise During Pregnancy Improves Object Recognition Memory in Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Andrea M.; Bucci, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Exercising during pregnancy has been shown to improve spatial learning and short-term memory, as well as increase BDNF mRNA levels and hippocampal cell survival in juvenile offspring. However, it remains unknown if these effects endure into adulthood. In addition, few studies have considered how maternal exercise can impact cognitive functions that do not rely on the hippocampus. To address these issues, the present study tested the effects of maternal exercise during pregnancy on object recognition memory, which relies on the perirhinal cortex (PER), in adult offspring. Pregnant rats were given access to a running wheel throughout gestation and the adult male offspring were subsequently tested in an object recognition memory task at three different time points, each spaced 2-weeks apart, beginning at 60 days of age. At each time point, offspring from exercising mothers were able to successfully discriminate between novel and familiar objects in that they spent more time exploring the novel object than the familiar object. The offspring of non-exercising mothers were not able to successfully discriminate between objects and spent an equal amount of time with both objects. A subset of rats was euthanized 1 hr after the final object recognition test to assess c-FOS expression in the PER. The offspring of exercising mothers had more c-FOS expression in the PER than the offspring of non-exercising mothers. By comparison, c-FOS levels in the adjacent auditory cortex did not differ between groups. These results indicate that maternal exercise during pregnancy can improve object recognition memory in adult male offspring and increase c-FOS expression in the PER; suggesting that exercise during the gestational period may enhance brain function of the offspring. PMID:24157927

  11. A short cut to the past: Cueing via concrete objects improves autobiographical memory retrieval in Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Marie; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2017-07-01

    Older adults diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have difficulties accessing autobiographical memories. However, this deficit tends to spare memories dated to earlier parts of their lives, and may partially reflect retrieval deficits rather than complete memory loss. Introducing a novel paradigm, the present study examines whether autobiographical memory recall can be improved in AD by manipulating the sensory richness, concreteness and cultural dating of the memory cues. Specifically, we examine whether concrete everyday objects historically dated to the participants' youth (e.g., a skipping rope), relative to verbal cues (i.e., the verbal signifiers for the objects) facilitate access to autobiographical memories. The study includes 49 AD patients, and 50 healthy, older matched control participants, all tested on word versus object-cued recall. Both groups recalled significantly more memories, when cued by objects relative to words, but the advantage was significantly larger in the AD group. In both groups, memory descriptions were longer and significantly more episodic in nature in response to object-cued recall. Together these findings suggest that the multimodal nature of the object cues (i.e. vision, olfaction, audition, somatic sensation) along with specific cue characteristics, such as time reference, texture, shape, may constrain the retrieval search, potentially minimizing executive function demands, and hence strategic processing requirements, thus easing access to autobiographical memories in AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Donepezil improves episodic memory in young individuals vulnerable to the effects of sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Chuah, Lisa Y M; Chong, Delise L; Chen, Annette K; Rekshan, William R; Tan, Jiat-Chow; Zheng, Hui; Chee, Michael W L

    2009-08-01

    We investigated if donepezil, a long-acting orally administered cholinesterase inhibitor, would reduce episodic memory deficits associated with 24 h of sleep deprivation. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study involving 7 laboratory visits over 2 months. Participants underwent 4 functional MRI scans; 2 sessions (donepezil or placebo) followed a normal night's sleep, and 2 sessions followed a night of sleep deprivation. The study took place in a research laboratory. 26 young, healthy volunteers with no history of any sleep, psychiatric, or neurologic disorders. 5 mg of donepezil was taken once daily for approximately 17 days. Subjects were scanned while performing a semantic judgment task and tested for word recognition outside the scanner 45 minutes later. Sleep deprivation increased the frequency of non-responses at encoding and impaired delayed recognition. No benefit of donepezil was evident when participants were well rested. When sleep deprived, individuals who showed greater performance decline improved with donepezil, whereas more resistant individuals did not benefit. Accompanying these behavioral effects, there was corresponding modulation of task-related activation in functionally relevant brain regions. Brain regions identified in relation to donepezil-induced alteration in non-response rates could be distinguished from regions relating to improved recognition memory. This suggests that donepezil can improve delayed recognition in sleep-deprived persons by improving attention as well as enhancing memory encoding. Donepezil reduced decline in recognition performance in individuals vulnerable to the effects of sleep deprivation. Additionally, our findings demonstrate the utility of combined fMRI-behavior evaluation in psychopharmacological studies.

  13. Improving visual memory, attention, and school function with atomoxetine in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Shang, Chi-Yung; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-10-01

    Atomoxetine is efficacious in reducing symptoms of attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but its effect on visual memory and attention needs more investigation. This study aimed to assess the effect of atomoxetine on visual memory, attention, and school function in boys with ADHD in Taiwan. This was an open-label 12 week atomoxetine treatment trial among 30 drug-naíve boys with ADHD, aged 8-16 years. Before administration of atomoxetine, the participants were assessed using psychiatric interviews, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd edition (WISC-III), the school function of the Chinese version of the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents (SAICA), the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT), and the tasks of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) involving visual memory and attention: Pattern Recognition Memory, Spatial Recognition Memory, and Reaction Time, which were reassessed at weeks 4 and 12. Our results showed there was significant improvement in pattern recognition memory and spatial recognition memory as measured by the CANTAB tasks, sustained attention and response inhibition as measured by the CPT, and reaction time as measured by the CANTAB after treatment with atomoxetine for 4 weeks or 12 weeks. In addition, atomoxetine significantly enhanced school functioning in children with ADHD. Our findings suggested that atomoxetine was associated with significant improvement in visual memory, attention, and school functioning in boys with ADHD.

  14. Memory-improving activity of Melissa officinalis extract in naïve and scopolamine-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Soodi, M.; Naghdi, N.; Hajimehdipoor, H.; Choopani, S.; Sahraei, E.

    2014-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae) traditionally used in treating neurological disorders has also been identified as a memory-enhancing herb. The extract of M. officinalis has a cholinergic property. The role of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, the neurons that are destroyed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), in learning and memory, is also well known. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of cholinergic system on the memory improving activity of M. officinalis extract. The leaves of M. officinalis were extracted with ethanol 80% using the maceration method. Rats received intra-peritoneal injections of M. officinalis extract in different doses (50–400 mg/kg) alone or in combination with scopolamine (1 mg/kg) before being trained in a Morris water maze (MWM) in a single-day training protocol. After training, the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) activity was measured in the hippocampus. Administration of M. officinalis extract (200 mg/kg) could significantly enhance learning and memory of naïve rats (p<0.001) and significantly ameliorate scopolamine-induced learning deficit, but the effect of the extract was not dose dependent, and doses above 200 mg/kg could neither enhance memory in naïve rats nor reverse scopolamine-induced memory impairment. Also, inhibition of AChE activity was observed in both naïve and scopolamine-induced memory-impaired rats. These results suggest that M. officinalis can improve memory and that the cholinergic property of the extract may contribute to the memory-improving effects observed in this study. Then M. officinalis extract has potential therapeutic value in alleviating certain memory impairment observed in AD. PMID:25657779

  15. Improved memory for reward cues following acute buprenorphine administration in humans.

    PubMed

    Syal, Supriya; Ipser, Jonathan; Terburg, David; Solms, Mark; Panksepp, Jaak; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Bos, Peter A; Montoya, Estrella R; Stein, Dan J; van Honk, Jack

    2015-03-01

    In rodents, there is abundant evidence for the involvement of the opioid system in the processing of reward cues, but this system has remained understudied in humans. In humans, the happy facial expression is a pivotal reward cue. Happy facial expressions activate the brain's reward system and are disregarded by subjects scoring high on depressive mood who are low in reward drive. We investigated whether a single 0.2mg administration of the mixed mu-opioid agonist/kappa-antagonist, buprenorphine, would influence short-term memory for happy, angry or fearful expressions relative to neutral faces. Healthy human subjects (n38) participated in a randomized placebo-controlled within-subject design, and performed an emotional face relocation task after administration of buprenorphine and placebo. We show that, compared to placebo, buprenorphine administration results in a significant improvement of memory for happy faces. Our data demonstrate that acute manipulation of the opioid system by buprenorphine increases short-term memory for social reward cues.

  16. Metformin improves metabolic memory in high fat diet (HFD)-induced renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Tikoo, Kulbhushan; Sharma, Ekta; Amara, Venkateswara Rao; Pamulapati, Himani; Dhawale, Vaibhav Shrirang

    2016-08-22

    Recently, we have shown that high fat diet (HFD) in vivo and in vitro generates metabolic memory by altering H3K36me2 and H3K27me3 on the promoter of FOXO1 (transcription factor of gluconeogenic genes) (Kumar et al., 2015). Here we checked the hypothesis, whether concomitant diet reversal and metformin could overcome HFD-induced metabolic memory and renal damage. Male adult Sprague Dawley rats were rendered insulin resistant by feeding high fat diet for 16 weeks. Then the rats were subjected to diet reversal (REV) alone and along with metformin (REV+MET) for 8 weeks. Biochemical and histological markers of insulin resistance and kidney function were measured. Blood pressure and in vivo vascular reactivity to Angiotensin II (200 mgkg-1) were also checked. Diet reversal could improve lipid profile but could not prevent renal complications induced by HFD. Interestingly, metformin along with diet reversal restored the levels of blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. In kidney, metformin increased the activation of AMPK, decreased inflammatory markers-COX-2, IL-1β and apoptotic markers-PARP, Caspase3. Metformin was effective in lowering the elevated basal blood pressure, acute change in mean arterial pressure (ΔMAP) in response to Ang II. It also attenuated the tubulointerstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis induced by HFD-feeding in kidney. Here we report for the first time, that metformin treatment overcomes metabolic memory and prevents HFD-induced renal damage.

  17. The beta-1 adrenergic antagonist, betaxolol, improves working memory performance in rats and monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Brian P; Colgan, Lesley; Nou, Eric; Ovadia, Shira; Wilson, Steven R; Arnsten, Amy F T

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies have indicated that beta adrenergic receptor stimulation has no effect on the cognitive functioning of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Blockade of beta-1 and beta-2 receptors in the PFC with the mixed beta-1/beta-2 antagonist, propanolol, had no effect on spatial working memory performance. However, more selective blockade of beta-1 or beta-2 receptors might show efficacy if the two receptors have opposite effects on PFC function. The current study examined the effects of the selective beta-1 antagonist, betaxolol, on working memory in rats and monkeys. In rats, betaxolol (.0011-1.11 microg/.5 microL) was infused into the PFC 5 min before delayed alternation testing. Monkeys were systemically injected with betaxolol (.0000011-.11 mg/kg) 2 hours before delayed response testing. Betaxolol produced a dose-related improvement in working memory performance following either direct PFC infusion in rats, or systemic administration in monkeys. However, some aged monkeys developed serious pancreatic problems over the course of this study. These findings suggest that endogenous activation of the beta-1 adrenergic receptor impairs PFC cognitive function. These results may have therapeutic relevance to post-traumatic stress disorder or other disorders with excessive noradrenergic activity and PFC dysfunction. Pancreatic side effects in aged subjects taking betaxolol warrants further investigation.

  18. Ginsenoside Rd Improves Learning and Memory Ability in APP Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juanfang; Yan, Xiaodong; Li, Ling; Li, Yuan; Zhou, Linfu; Zhang, Xiaohui; Hu, Xinghua; Zhao, Gang

    2015-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complicated neurodegenerative disease which causes memory loss and dementia. Many researchers have revealed the vital roles of β-amyloid proteins (Aβ) in the proceeds of AD. Aβ deposition in AD patients' brains might function as immune stimulus, and inflammation is believed to play an important role in AD pathologically. We experimentally used amyloid β-protein precursor (APP) transgenic (Tg) mice in this study to further clarify the neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rd on AD and its possible mechanisms. It was found that Rd could improve learning and memory ability in APP Tg mice, probably through inhibiting the transcription activity of NFκB. With the activation of the NFκB pathway being suppressed, the reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the generation of protective factors had been increased ultimately. In conclusion, Rd had a neuroprotective effect on APP Tg mice, and it can be used as an alternative drug therapy in AD patients for their memory dysfunction.

  19. Nicotine improves AF64A-induced spatial memory deficits in Morris water maze in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kazuo; Furukawa, Satoshi; Iwasaki, Tsuneo; Ichitani, Yukio

    2010-01-18

    Ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion (AF64A) is a neurotoxic derivative of choline that produces not only long-term presynaptic cholinergic deficits, but also various memory deficits in rats similar to some characteristics observed in Alzheimer's disease patients. This study investigated whether nicotine (NCT) administration attenuated spatial learning deficits induced by intracerebroventricular AF64A treatment. AF64A (6 nmol/6 microl)-or saline (SAL)-treated rats were trained in Morris water maze task. NCT (0.025-0.25mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected 5 min before the training every day. The results showed that moderate dose (0.10mg/kg) of NCT attenuated AF64A-induced prolongation of escape latency. Furthermore, NCT dose-dependently recovered the AF64A-induced decrease of time spent in the target quadrant in the probe test. These results suggest that NCT improves AF64A-induced spatial memory deficits, and thus it is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of memory deficits in dementia.

  20. Properties of Dopants in HfOx for Improving the Performance of Nonvolatile Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Dan; Magyari-Köpe, Blanka; Nishi, Yoshio

    2017-03-01

    Doping is an increasingly popular technique for improving the characteristics of cutting-edge HfOx nonvolatile memory devices, but relatively few dopant species have been investigated. In this work, the properties of 50 different cation and anion dopants in HfOx are explored using density-functional theory and are corroborated with experimental data. Depending on the atomic species, dopants are found to preferentially form on either substitutional or interstitial lattice sites and to reduce the formation energy of oxygen vacancies in the surrounding oxide. The behavior of cation dopants in HfOx is also found to be well predicted by six properties: dopant valence, atomic radius, native-oxide enthalpy of formation, coordination number, magnetization, and charge transfer with the HfOx lattice. These results can be used to optimize dopant selection for tuning of the switching characteristics of HfOx -based resistance-change random-access-memory and conductive-bridge random-access-memory devices.

  1. Mitochondrial modulators improve lipid composition and attenuate memory deficits in experimental model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Arpit; Sood, Abhilasha; Sandhir, Rajat

    2015-12-01

    3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is an irreversible inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase and induces neuropathological changes similar to those observed in Huntington's disease (HD). The objective of the present study was to investigate neuroprotective effect of mitochondrial modulators; alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) on 3-NP-induced alterations in mitochondrial lipid composition, mitochondrial structure and memory functions. Experimental model of HD was developed by administering 3-NP at sub-chronic doses, twice daily for 17 days. The levels of conjugated dienes, cholesterol and glycolipids were significantly increased, whereas the levels of phospholipids (phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine) including cardiolipin were significantly decreased in the mitochondria isolated from the striatum of 3-NP-treated animals. In addition, the difference in molecular composition of each phospholipid class was also evaluated using mass spectrometry. Mitochondria lipid from 3-NP-treated animals showed increased cholesterol to phospholipid ratio, suggesting decreased mitochondrial membrane fluidity. 3-NP administration also resulted in ultra-structural changes in mitochondria, accompanied by swelling as assessed by transmission electron microscopy. The 3-NP administered animals had impaired spatial memory evaluated using elevated plus maze test. However, combined supplementation with ALA + ALCAR for 21 days normalized mitochondrial lipid composition, improved mitochondrial structure and ameliorated memory impairments in 3-NP-treated animals, suggesting an imperative role of these two modulators in combination in the management of HD.

  2. 4-Aminopyridine Improves Spatial Memory in a Murine Model of HIV-1 Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Keblesh, James P.; Dou, Huanyu; Gendelman, Howard E.; Xiong, Huangui

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains a significant source of morbidity in the era of wide spread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Disease is precipitated by low levels of viral growth and glial immune activation within the central nervous system. Blood borne macrophage and microglia affect a proinflammatory response and release viral proteins that affects neuronal viability and leads to death of nerve cells. Increasing evidence supports the notion that HAND is functional channelopathy, but proof of this concept remains incomplete. Based on their role in learning and memory processes, we now posit that voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels could be a functional substrate for disease. This was tested in the severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse model of HIV-1 encephalitis (HIVE) by examining whether the Kv channel blocker, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), could affect behavioral, electrophysiological, and morphological measures of learning and memory. HIVE SCID mice showed impaired spatial memory in radial arm water maze tests. Electrophysiology studies revealed a reduction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Importantly, systemic administration of 4-AP blocked HIV-1-associated reduction of LTP and improved animal performance in the radial arm water maze. These results support the importance of Kv channel dysfunction in disease but, more importantly, provide a potential target for adjunctive therapies for HAND. PMID:19462247

  3. Intelligent structures based on the improved activation of shape memory polymers using Peltier cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz Lantada, Andrés; Lafont Morgado, Pilar; Muñoz Sanz, José Luis; Muñoz García, Julio; Munoz-Guijosa, Juan Manuel; Echávarri Otero, Javier

    2010-05-01

    This study is focused on obtaining intelligent structures manufactured from shape memory polymers possessing the ability to change their geometry in successive or 'step-by-step' actions. This objective has been reached by changing the conventionally used shape memory activation systems (heating resistance, laser or induction heating). The solution set out consists in using Peltier cells as a heating system capable of heating (and activating) a specific zone of the device in the first activation, while the opposite zone keeps its original geometry. By carefully reversing the polarity of the electrical supply to the Peltier cell, in the second activation, the as yet unchanged zone is activated while the already changed zone in the first activation remains unaltered. We have described the criteria for the selection, calibration and design of this alternative heating (activation) system based on the thermoelectric effect, together with the development of different 'proof of concept' prototypes that have enabled us to validate the concepts put forward, as well as suggest future improvements for 'intelligent' shape memory polymer-based devices.

  4. Attentional Filter Training but Not Memory Training Improves Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Schmicker, Marlen; Müller, Patrick; Schwefel, Melanie; Müller, Notger G

    2017-01-01

    Decision-making has a high practical relevance for daily performance. Its relation to other cognitive abilities such as executive control and memory is not fully understood. Here we asked whether training of either attentional filtering or memory storage would influence decision-making as indexed by repetitive assessments of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The IGT was developed to assess and simulate real-life decision-making (Bechara et al., 2005). In this task, participants gain or lose money by developing advantageous or disadvantageous decision strategies. On five consecutive days we trained 29 healthy young adults (20-30 years) either in working memory (WM) storage or attentional filtering and measured their IGT scores after each training session. During memory training (MT) subjects performed a computerized delayed match-to-sample task where two displays of bars were presented in succession. During filter training (FT) participants had to indicate whether two simultaneously presented displays of bars matched or not. Whereas in MT the relevant target stimuli stood alone, in FT the targets were embedded within irrelevant distractors (bars in a different color). All subjects within each group improved their performance in the trained cognitive task. For the IGT, we observed an increase over time in the amount of money gained in the FT group only. Decision-making seems to be influenced more by training to filter out irrelevant distractors than by training to store items in WM. Selective attention could be responsible for the previously noted relationship between IGT performance and WM and is therefore more important for enhancing efficiency in decision-making.

  5. Attentional Filter Training but Not Memory Training Improves Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Schmicker, Marlen; Müller, Patrick; Schwefel, Melanie; Müller, Notger G.

    2017-01-01

    Decision-making has a high practical relevance for daily performance. Its relation to other cognitive abilities such as executive control and memory is not fully understood. Here we asked whether training of either attentional filtering or memory storage would influence decision-making as indexed by repetitive assessments of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The IGT was developed to assess and simulate real-life decision-making (Bechara et al., 2005). In this task, participants gain or lose money by developing advantageous or disadvantageous decision strategies. On five consecutive days we trained 29 healthy young adults (20–30 years) either in working memory (WM) storage or attentional filtering and measured their IGT scores after each training session. During memory training (MT) subjects performed a computerized delayed match-to-sample task where two displays of bars were presented in succession. During filter training (FT) participants had to indicate whether two simultaneously presented displays of bars matched or not. Whereas in MT the relevant target stimuli stood alone, in FT the targets were embedded within irrelevant distractors (bars in a different color). All subjects within each group improved their performance in the trained cognitive task. For the IGT, we observed an increase over time in the amount of money gained in the FT group only. Decision-making seems to be influenced more by training to filter out irrelevant distractors than by training to store items in WM. Selective attention could be responsible for the previously noted relationship between IGT performance and WM and is therefore more important for enhancing efficiency in decision-making. PMID:28386225

  6. Exploring new dielectrics to improve switching speeds of carbon nanotube memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Kristin Anne

    2011-12-01

    The hysteresis in carbon nanotube field effect transistor's (CNTFET) current vs. gate voltage curves can be used for memory devices. Testing possible changes to device structure and design, could improve both their endurance and switching speed characteristics. Preliminary work in the literature shows that the type of dielectric layer is a large factor in the device switching speed. Here, a new dielectric layer and a different device design will be tested to study how they affect the device performance. Results are compared to devices that are commercially available.

  7. An improved tuned mass damper (SMA-TMD) assisted by a shape memory alloy spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sudib K.; Gur, Sourav; Chakraborty, Subrata

    2013-09-01

    The tuned mass damper (TMD) is a well acclaimed passive control device for vibration control of structures. However, the requirement of a higher mass ratio restricts its applicability for seismic vibration control of civil engineering structures. Improving the performance of TMDs has been attempted by supplementing them with nonlinear restoring devices. In this regard, the ability of shape memory alloy (SMA) in dissipating energy through a hysteretic phase transformation of its microstructure triggered by cyclic loading is notable. An improved version of TMD assisted by a nonlinear shape memory alloy (SMA) spring, referred as SMA-TMD, is studied here for seismic vibration mitigation. Extensive numerical simulations are conducted based on nonlinear random vibration analysis via stochastic linearization of the nonlinear force-deformation hysteresis of the SMA. A design optimization based on minimizing the root mean square displacement of the main structure is also carried out to postulate the optimal design parameters for the proposed system. The viability of the optimal design is verified with respect to its performance under recorded earthquake motions. Significant improvements of the control efficiency and a reduction of the TMD displacement at a much reduced mass ratio are shown to be achieved in the proposed SMA-TMD over those in the linear TMD.

  8. Ketogenic Diet Reduces Midlife Mortality and Improves Memory in Aging Mice.

    PubMed

    Newman, John C; Covarrubias, Anthony J; Zhao, Minghao; Yu, Xinxing; Gut, Philipp; Ng, Che-Ping; Huang, Yu; Haldar, Saptarsi; Verdin, Eric

    2017-09-05

    Ketogenic diets recapitulate certain metabolic aspects of dietary restriction such as reliance on fatty acid metabolism and production of ketone bodies. We investigated whether an isoprotein ketogenic diet (KD) might, like dietary restriction, affect longevity and healthspan in C57BL/6 male mice. We find that Cyclic KD, KD alternated weekly with the Control diet to prevent obesity, reduces midlife mortality but does not affect maximum lifespan. A non-ketogenic high-fat diet (HF) fed similarly may have an intermediate effect on mortality. Cyclic KD improves memory performance in old age, while modestly improving composite healthspan measures. Gene expression analysis identifies downregulation of insulin, protein synthesis, and fatty acid synthesis pathways as mechanisms common to KD and HF. However, upregulation of PPARα target genes is unique to KD, consistent across tissues, and preserved in old age. In all, we show that a non-obesogenic ketogenic diet improves survival, memory, and healthspan in aging mice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Selective GABAA α5 Positive Allosteric Modulators Improve Cognitive Function in Aged Rats with Memory Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Ming Teng; Rosenzweig-Lipson, Sharon; Gallagher, Michela

    2012-01-01

    A condition of excess activity in the hippocampal formation is observed in the aging brain and in conditions that confer additional risk during aging for Alzheimer’s disease. Compounds that act as positive allosteric modulators at GABAA α5 receptors might be useful in targeting this condition because GABAA α5 receptors mediate tonic inhibition of principal neurons in the affected network. While agents to improve cognitive function in the past focused on inverse agonists, which are negative allosteric modulators at GABAA α5 receptors, research supporting that approach used only young animals and predated current evidence for excessive hippocampal activity in age-related conditions of cognitive impairment. Here, we used two compounds, Compound 44 [6,6-dimethyl-3-(3-hydroxypropyl)thio-1-(thiazol-2-yl)-6,7-dihydro-2-benzothiophen-4(5H)-one] and Compound 6 [methyl 3,5-diphenylpyridazine-4-carboxylate], with functional activity as potentiators of γ-aminobutyric acid at GABAA α5 receptors, to test their ability to improve hippocampal-dependent memory in aged rats with identified cognitive impairment. Improvement was obtained in aged rats across protocols differing in motivational and performance demands and across varying retention intervals. Significant memory improvement occurred after either intracereboventricular infusion with Compound 44 (100 μg) in a water maze task or systemic administration with Compound 6 (3 mg/kg) in a radial arm maze task. Furthermore, systemic administration improved behavioral performance at dosing shown to provide drug exposure in the brain and in vivo receptor occupancy in the hippocampus. These data suggest a novel approach to improve neural network function in clinical conditions of excess hippocampal activity. PMID:22732440

  10. Nicotine derived from the electronic cigarette improves time-based prospective memory in abstinent smokers.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, Lynne; Turner, John; Crowe, Eadaoin

    2013-06-01

    It is well established that nicotine improves, and deprivation impairs, cognitive performance and mood in smokers. Prospective memory (PM), remembering to execute a delayed intention at a given time point, is under-explored in smokers. Whilst a handful of studies have shown improved PM with nicotine, the effects of nicotine delivered via the electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) have not been investigated. This study explores whether, by comparison with placebo, nicotine delivered via the e-cigarette can improve PM, tobacco withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke in abstinent smokers. Twenty smokers, abstinent for 8-10 h, each completed two experimental sessions under nicotine (18 mg) and placebo (0 mg) e-cigarette conditions. Participants completed a single-item desire-to-smoke scale and the Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale. PM was measured using the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test. Compared with placebo, the nicotine e-cigarette reduced the desire to smoke and tobacco withdrawal symptoms, and improved time-based but not event-based PM. There was a moderate, marginally significant negative correlation between PM performance during abstinence and nicotine dependence. This is the first study to show that nicotine derived via e-cigarette can improve PM in abstinent smokers, suggesting efficient nicotine delivery. The finding that the effect of nicotine was restricted to time-based rather than event-based PM is consistent with the view that nicotine acts to improve performance on strategic (effortful) rather than automatic processing. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that the e-cigarette can replace some of the effects of nicotine derived from tobacco smoking, thus highlighting its potential for smoking cessation.

  11. Improvement of Allocentric Spatial Memory Resolution in Children from 2 to 4 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Farfalla Ribordy; Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2015-01-01

    Allocentric spatial memory, the memory for locations coded in relation to objects comprising our environment, is a fundamental component of episodic memory and is dependent on the integrity of the hippocampal formation in adulthood. Previous research from different laboratories reported that basic allocentric spatial memory abilities are reliably…

  12. Improvement of Allocentric Spatial Memory Resolution in Children from 2 to 4 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Farfalla Ribordy; Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2015-01-01

    Allocentric spatial memory, the memory for locations coded in relation to objects comprising our environment, is a fundamental component of episodic memory and is dependent on the integrity of the hippocampal formation in adulthood. Previous research from different laboratories reported that basic allocentric spatial memory abilities are reliably…

  13. Improvement in the Shape Memory Response of Ti50.5Ni24.5Pd25 High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloy with Scandium Microalloying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atli, K. C.; Karaman, I; Noebe, R. D.; Garg, A.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.; Kireeva, I. V.

    2010-01-01

    A Ti(50.5)Ni(24.5)Pd25 high-temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA) is microalloyed with 0.5 at. pct scandium (Sc) to enhance its shape-memory characteristics, in particular, dimensional stability under repeated thermomechanical cycles. For both Ti(50.5)Ni(24.5)Pd25 and the Sc-alloyed material, differential scanning calorimetry is conducted for multiple cycles to characterize cyclic stability of the transformation temperatures. The microstructure is evaluated using electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy. Isobaric thermal cycling experiments are used to determine transformation temperatures, dimensional stability, and work output as a function of stress. The Sc-doped alloy displays more stable shape memory response with smaller irrecoverable strain and narrower thermal hysteresis than the baseline ternary alloy. This improvement in performance is attributed to the solid solution hardening effect of Sc.

  14. Improvement in the Shape Memory Response of Ti50.5Ni24.5Pd25 High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloy with Scandium Microalloying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atli, K. C.; Karaman, I; Noebe, R. D.; Garg, A.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.; Kireeva, I. V.

    2010-01-01

    A Ti(50.5)Ni(24.5)Pd25 high-temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA) is microalloyed with 0.5 at. pct scandium (Sc) to enhance its shape-memory characteristics, in particular, dimensional stability under repeated thermomechanical cycles. For both Ti(50.5)Ni(24.5)Pd25 and the Sc-alloyed material, differential scanning calorimetry is conducted for multiple cycles to characterize cyclic stability of the transformation temperatures. The microstructure is evaluated using electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy. Isobaric thermal cycling experiments are used to determine transformation temperatures, dimensional stability, and work output as a function of stress. The Sc-doped alloy displays more stable shape memory response with smaller irrecoverable strain and narrower thermal hysteresis than the baseline ternary alloy. This improvement in performance is attributed to the solid solution hardening effect of Sc.

  15. AC-3933, a benzodiazepine partial inverse agonist, improves memory performance in MK-801-induced amnesia mouse model.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Takashi; Iwamura, Yoshihiro

    2016-05-01

    AC-3933, a novel benzodiazepine receptor partial inverse agonist, is a drug candidate for cognitive disorders including Alzheimer's disease. We have previously reported that AC-3933 enhances acetylcholine release in the rat hippocampus and ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory impairment and age-related cognitive decline in both rats and mice. In this study, we further evaluated the procognitive effect of AC-3933 on memory impairment induced by MK-801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, in mice. Unlike the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil and the benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonist FG-7142, oral administration of AC-3933 significantly ameliorated MK-801-induced memory impairment in the Y-maze test and in the object location test. Interestingly, the procognitive effects of AC-3933 on MK-801-induced memory impairment were not affected by the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil, although this was not the case for the beneficial effects of AC-3933 on scopolamine-induced memory deficit. Moreover, the onset of AC-3933 ameliorating effect on scopolamine- or MK-801-induced memory impairment was different in the Y-maze test. Taken together, these results indicate that AC-3933 improves memory deficits caused by both cholinergic and glutamatergic hypofunction and suggest that the ameliorating effect of AC-3933 on MK-801-induced memory impairment is mediated by a mechanism other than inverse activation of the benzodiazepine receptor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Targeting cellular memory to reprogram the epigenome, restore potential, and improve somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Eilertsen, K J; Power, R A; Harkins, L L; Misica, P

    2007-03-01

    Successful cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is thought to require reprogramming of a somatic nucleus to a state of restored totipotentiality [Dean, W., Santos, F., Reik, W., 2003. Epigenetic programming in early mammalian development and following somatic cell nuclear transfer. Semin. Cell. Dev. Biol. 14, 93-100; Jouneau, A., Renard, J.P., 2003. Reprogramming in nuclear transfer. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 13, 486-491; ]. Though SCNT-induced reprogramming is reminiscent of the reprogramming that occurs after fertilization, reprogramming a differentiated nucleus to an embryonic state is delayed and incomplete in comparison (for review, see ). This is likely due to the existence of an epigenetic-based cellular memory, or program, that serves to regulate global patterns of gene expression, and is the basis of a genome defense mechanism that silences viruses and transposons. The mechanisms of this memory include CpG methylation and modification of histones. Recent evidence by Feng et al. [Feng, Y.-Q., Desprat, R., Fu, H., Olivier, E., Lin, C.M., Lobell, A., Gowda, S.N., Aladjem, M.I., Bouhasira, E.E., 2006. DNA methylation supports intrinsic epigenetic memory in mammalian cells. PLOS Genet. 2, 0461-0470], using a transgenic experimental system, indicates that these marks may be acquired in more than one order and thus, silent heterochromatic structure can be initiated by either methylation of CpG dinucleotides or by histone modifications. In this system, however, CpG methylation appears to differ from histone modifications because it bestows a persistent epigenetic, or cellular, memory. In other words, CpG methylation can independently confer cellular memory, whereas histone modifications appear to be limited in this capacity. Therefore, in the context of genomic reprogramming induced by SCNT, efficient demethylation is likely a key (if not the only) rate-limiting step to improving the efficiency and outcomes of SCNT cloning. This review discusses the

  17. Taurine improves the spatial learning and memory ability impaired by sub-chronic manganese exposure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive manganese exposure induced cognitive deficit. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that taurine improves cognitive impairment induced by numerous neurotoxins. However, the role of taurine on manganese-induced damages in learning and memory is still elusive. This goal of this study was to investigate the beneficial effect of taurine on learning and memory capacity impairment by manganese exposure in an animal model. Results The escape latency in the Morris Water Maze test was significantly longer in the rats injected with manganese than that in the rats received both taurine and manganese. Similarly, the probe trial showed that the annulus crossings were significantly greater in the taurine plus manganese treated rats than those in the manganese-treated rats. However, the blood level of manganese was not altered by the taurine treatment. Interestingly, the exposure of manganese led to a significant increase in the acetylcholinesterase activity and an evidently decrease in the choline acetyltransferase activity, which were partially restored by the addition of taurine. Additionally, we identified 9 differentially expressed proteins between the rat hippocampus treated by manganese and the control or the manganese plus taurine in the proteomic analysis using the 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Most of these proteins play a role in energy metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and neuron synapse. Conclusions In summary, taurine restores the activity of AChE and ChAT, which are critical for the regulation of acetylcholine. We have identified seven differentially expressed proteins specifically induced by manganese and two proteins induced by taurine from the rat hippocampus. Our results support that taurine improves the impaired learning and memory ability caused by excessive exposure of manganese. PMID:24885898

  18. Escitalopram improves memory deficits induced by maternal separation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Couto, Frederico Simões do; Batalha, Vânia L; Valadas, Jorge S; Data-Franca, João; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Lopes, Luísa V

    2012-11-15

    Maternal separation (MS) induces depressive-like behavior and long-term changes in cognition in rats. Escitalopram is an antidepressant drug shown to reverse the depressive-like features caused by this stress model. However, it is not known if it can ameliorate the affected cognition. We now characterized the effect of escitalopram on hippocampal-dependent memory in rats submitted to the MS protocol. Male Wistar rats were assigned either to control (CTR) or maternal separated (MS) group. MS were separated from their dams between 2-14 postnatal days (PND) for 180min daily. Escitalopram was given in food pellets (0.34g/kg/day first 2 weeks and 0.41g/kg/day the subsequent period, average dose 25mg/kg) from PND 43 onwards, during 1 month. Depressive behavior was assessed in the forced swimming test (FST), and memory performance in the Morris water maze (MWM). Escitalopram significantly improved the FST's latency to despair in the MS group (n=6), but did not change the immobility time. All groups showed a significant learning effect in the MWM over time, but no differences have been found upon treatment (n=6). However, escitalopram treatment significantly increased the time spent on the platform quadrant in the probe trial in the MS group. We report here that chronic treatment with escitalopram is able to improve hippocampal dependent memory in a chronic stress model, while not changing the learning ability. Moreover, this is accompanied by an amelioration of the depressive like behavior. These results support the use of escitalopram to tackle underlying cognitive deficits caused by stress in early-life.

  19. Taurine improves the spatial learning and memory ability impaired by sub-chronic manganese exposure.

    PubMed

    Lu, Cai-Ling; Tang, Shen; Meng, Zhi-Juan; He, Yi-Yuan; Song, Ling-Yong; Liu, Yin-Pin; Ma, Ning; Li, Xi-Yi; Guo, Song-Chao

    2014-05-24

    Excessive manganese exposure induced cognitive deficit. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that taurine improves cognitive impairment induced by numerous neurotoxins. However, the role of taurine on manganese-induced damages in learning and memory is still elusive. This goal of this study was to investigate the beneficial effect of taurine on learning and memory capacity impairment by manganese exposure in an animal model. The escape latency in the Morris Water Maze test was significantly longer in the rats injected with manganese than that in the rats received both taurine and manganese. Similarly, the probe trial showed that the annulus crossings were significantly greater in the taurine plus manganese treated rats than those in the manganese-treated rats. However, the blood level of manganese was not altered by the taurine treatment. Interestingly, the exposure of manganese led to a significant increase in the acetylcholinesterase activity and an evidently decrease in the choline acetyltransferase activity, which were partially restored by the addition of taurine. Additionally, we identified 9 differentially expressed proteins between the rat hippocampus treated by manganese and the control or the manganese plus taurine in the proteomic analysis using the 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Most of these proteins play a role in energy metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and neuron synapse. In summary, taurine restores the activity of AChE and ChAT, which are critical for the regulation of acetylcholine. We have identified seven differentially expressed proteins specifically induced by manganese and two proteins induced by taurine from the rat hippocampus. Our results support that taurine improves the impaired learning and memory ability caused by excessive exposure of manganese.

  20. Dehydroepiandrosterone administration improves memory deficits following transient brain ischemia through sigma-1 receptor stimulation.

    PubMed

    Yabuki, Yasushi; Shinoda, Yasuharu; Izumi, Hisanao; Ikuno, Tatuya; Shioda, Norifumi; Fukunaga, Kohji

    2015-10-05

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is the most abundant neurosteroid synthesized de novo in the central nervous system. Oral DHEA administration elicits neuroprotection and cognitive improvement, but mechanisms underlying these functions in cerebral ischemia have remained unclear. Since DHEA is the endogenous ligand for the sigma-1 receptor (σ1R), we determined whether oral DHEA administration prevents neuronal cell death and improves cognition via σ1R stimulation in brain ischemia using a 20-min bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) mouse model. Twenty-four hours after BCCAO ischemia, mice were administered DHEA (15 or 30mg/kg p.o.) daily for 11 consecutive days. Memory deficits following brain ischemia were improved by DHEA administration dose-dependently. Accordingly, DHEA administration significantly prevented neuronal cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region in BCCAO mice. Interestingly, DHEA administration rescued decreases in Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase B (Akt) in the CA1 region. Moreover, DHEA administration significantly ameliorated decreases in adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) levels and decreased σ1R expression levels in CA1 following BCCAO ischemia. Finally, co-treatment of mice with the σ1R antagonist NE-100 (1mg/kg, p.o.) blocked DHEA effects on memory improvement and neuroprotection in ischemic mice. Taken together, DHEA prevents neuronal cell death and activates CaMKII via σ1R stimulation, thereby improving cognitive deficits following brain ischemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Myricetin protects hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons and improves learning and memory impairments in rats with Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramezani, Matin; Darbandi, Niloufar; Khodagholi, Fariba; Hashemi, Azam

    2016-01-01

    There is currently no treatment for effectively slowing the progression of Alzheimer's disease, so early prevention is very important. Numerous studies have shown that flavonoids can improve memory impairment. The present study investigated the effects of myricetin, a member of the flavonoids, on intracerebroventricular streptozotocin induced neuronal loss and memory impairment in rat models of Alzheimer's disease. Myricetin at 5 or 10 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected into rats over 21 days. Control rats were treated with 10 mL/kg saline. Behavioral test (the shuttle box test) was performed on day 22 to examine learning and memory in rats. Immediately after that, hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to observe the morphological change in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons. Myricetin greatly increased the number of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons and improved learning and memory impairments in rats with Alzheimer's disease. These findings suggest that myricetin is beneficial for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:28197195

  2. Promising therapeutics with natural bioactive compounds for improving learning and memory--a review of randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Hemant; More, Sandeep Vasant; Han, Sang-Don; Choi, Jin-Yong; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2012-09-03

    Cognitive disorders can be associated with brain trauma, neurodegenerative disease or as a part of physiological aging. Aging in humans is generally associated with deterioration of cognitive performance and, in particular, learning and memory. Different therapeutic approaches are available to treat cognitive impairment during physiological aging and neurodegenerative or psychiatric disorders. Traditional herbal medicine and numerous plants, either directly as supplements or indirectly in the form of food, improve brain functions including memory and attention. More than a hundred herbal medicinal plants have been traditionally used for learning and memory improvement, but only a few have been tested in randomized clinical trials. Here, we will enumerate those medicinal plants that show positive effects on various cognitive functions in learning and memory clinical trials. Moreover, besides natural products that show promising effects in clinical trials, we briefly discuss medicinal plants that have promising experimental data or initial clinical data and might have potential to reach a clinical trial in the near future.

  3. Improving Dorsal Stream Function in Dyslexics by Training Figure/Ground Motion Discrimination Improves Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, Teri

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether the cause of dyslexia is based on linguistic, auditory, or visual timing deficits. To investigate this issue three interventions were compared in 58 dyslexics in second grade (7 years on average), two targeting the temporal dynamics (timing) of either the auditory or visual pathways with a third reading intervention (control group) targeting linguistic word building. Visual pathway training in dyslexics to improve direction-discrimination of moving test patterns relative to a stationary background (figure/ground discrimination) significantly improved attention, reading fluency, both speed and comprehension, phonological processing, and both auditory and visual working memory relative to controls, whereas auditory training to improve phonological processing did not improve these academic skills significantly more than found for controls. This study supports the hypothesis that faulty timing in synchronizing the activity of magnocellular with parvocellular visual pathways is a fundamental cause of dyslexia, and argues against the assumption that reading deficiencies in dyslexia are caused by phonological deficits. This study demonstrates that visual movement direction-discrimination can be used to not only detect dyslexia early, but also for its successful treatment, so that reading problems do not prevent children from readily learning. PMID:27551263

  4. Improving Dorsal Stream Function in Dyslexics by Training Figure/Ground Motion Discrimination Improves Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Teri

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether the cause of dyslexia is based on linguistic, auditory, or visual timing deficits. To investigate this issue three interventions were compared in 58 dyslexics in second grade (7 years on average), two targeting the temporal dynamics (timing) of either the auditory or visual pathways with a third reading intervention (control group) targeting linguistic word building. Visual pathway training in dyslexics to improve direction-discrimination of moving test patterns relative to a stationary background (figure/ground discrimination) significantly improved attention, reading fluency, both speed and comprehension, phonological processing, and both auditory and visual working memory relative to controls, whereas auditory training to improve phonological processing did not improve these academic skills significantly more than found for controls. This study supports the hypothesis that faulty timing in synchronizing the activity of magnocellular with parvocellular visual pathways is a fundamental cause of dyslexia, and argues against the assumption that reading deficiencies in dyslexia are caused by phonological deficits. This study demonstrates that visual movement direction-discrimination can be used to not only detect dyslexia early, but also for its successful treatment, so that reading problems do not prevent children from readily learning.

  5. Aerobic training for improved memory in patients with stress-related exhaustion: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Eskilsson, Therese; Slunga Järvholm, Lisbeth; Malmberg Gavelin, Hanna; Stigsdotter Neely, Anna; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan

    2017-09-02

    Patients with stress-related exhaustion suffer from cognitive impairments, which often remain after psychological treatment or work place interventions. It is important to find effective treatments that can address this problem. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects on cognitive performance and psychological variables of a 12-week aerobic training program performed at a moderate-vigorous intensity for patients with exhaustion disorder who participated in a multimodal rehabilitation program. In this open-label, parallel, randomized and controlled trial, 88 patients diagnosed with exhaustion disorder participated in a 24-week multimodal rehabilitation program. After 12 weeks in the program the patients were randomized to either a 12-week aerobic training intervention or to a control group with no additional training. Primary outcome measure was cognitive function, and secondary outcome measures were psychological health variables and aerobic capacity. In total, 51% patients in the aerobic training group and 78% patients in the control group completed the intervention period. The aerobic training group significantly improved in maximal oxygen uptake and episodic memory performance. No additional improvement in burnout, depression or anxiety was observed in the aerobic group compared with controls. Aerobic training at a moderate-vigorous intensity within a multimodal rehabilitation program for patients with exhaustion disorder facilitated episodic memory. A future challenge would be the clinical implementation of aerobic training and methods to increase feasibility in this patient group. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03073772 . Retrospectively registered 21 February 2017.

  6. Cyclophilin D deficiency improves mitochondrial function and learning/memory in aging Alzheimer disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Du, Heng; Guo, Lan; Zhang, Wensheng; Rydzewska, Monika; Yan, Shidu

    2011-03-01

    Mitochondrial stress is one of the early features of Alzheimer disease (AD). Mitochondrial Aβ has been linked to mitochondrial toxicity. Our recent study demonstrated that cyclophilin D (CypD) mediated mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is an important mechanism for neuronal and synaptic stress induced by both Aβ and oxidative stress. In transgenic AD-type mice overexpressing mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Aβ (mAPP), CypD deficiency improves mitochondrial and synaptic function and learning/memory up to 12 months old. Here we provide evidence of the protective effects of CypD deficiency in aged AD mice (22-24 months). Cyp D deficient mAPP mice demonstrate less calcium-induced mitochondrial swelling, increased mitochondrial calcium uptake capacity, preserved mitochondrial respiratory function and improved spatial learning/memory even in old age (known to be the age for late stage AD pathology and synaptic dysfunction). These data demonstrate that abrogation of CypD results in persistent life-long protection against Aβ toxicity in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model, thereby suggesting that blockade of CypD may be of benefit for Alzheimer disease treatment. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. CART treatment improves memory and synaptic structure in APP/PS1 mice.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jia-li; Liou, Anthony K F; Shi, Yejie; Yin, Kai-lin; Chen, Ling; Li, Ling-ling; Zhu, Xiao-lei; Qian, Lai; Yang, Rong; Chen, Jun; Xu, Yun

    2015-05-11

    Major characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include deposits of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide in the brain, loss of synapses, and cognitive dysfunction. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has recently been reported to attenuate Aβ-induced toxicity. In this study, CART localization in APP/PS1 mice was characterized and the protective effects of exogenous CART treatment were examined. Compared to age-matched wild type mice, 8-month-old APP/PS1 mice had significantly greater CART immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and cortex. A strikingly similar pattern of Aβ plaque-associated CART immunoreactivity was observed in the cortex of AD cases. Treatment of APP/PS1 mice with exogenous CART ameliorated memory deficits; this effect was associated with improvements in synaptic ultrastructure and long-term potentiation, but not a reduction of the Aβ plaques. Exogenous CART treatment in APP/PS1 mice prevented depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and stimulated mitochondrial complex I and II activities, resulting in an increase in ATP levels. CART treatment of APP/PS1 mice also reduced reactive oxygen species and 4-hydroxynonenal, and mitigated oxidative DNA damage. In summary, CART treatment reduced multiple neuropathological measures and improved memory in APP/PS1 mice, and may therefore be a promising and novel therapy for AD.

  8. CART treatment improves memory and synaptic structure in APP/PS1 mice

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jia-li; Liou, Anthony K.F.; Shi, Yejie; Yin, Kai-lin; Chen, Ling; Li, Ling-ling; Zhu, Xiao-lei; Qian, Lai; Yang, Rong; Chen, Jun; Xu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Major characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) include deposits of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide in the brain, loss of synapses, and cognitive dysfunction. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has recently been reported to attenuate Aβ-induced toxicity. In this study, CART localization in APP/PS1 mice was characterized and the protective effects of exogenous CART treatment were examined. Compared to age-matched wild type mice, 8-month-old APP/PS1 mice had significantly greater CART immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and cortex. A strikingly similar pattern of Aβ plaque-associated CART immunoreactivity was observed in the cortex of AD cases. Treatment of APP/PS1 mice with exogenous CART ameliorated memory deficits; this effect was associated with improvements in synaptic ultrastructure and long-term potentiation, but not a reduction of the Aβ plaques. Exogenous CART treatment in APP/PS1 mice prevented depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and stimulated mitochondrial complex I and II activities, resulting in an increase in ATP levels. CART treatment of APP/PS1 mice also reduced reactive oxygen species and 4-hydroxynonenal, and mitigated oxidative DNA damage. In summary, CART treatment reduced multiple neuropathological measures and improved memory in APP/PS1 mice, and may therefore be a promising and novel therapy for AD. PMID:25959573

  9. Virtual Environmental Enrichment through Video Games Improves Hippocampal-Associated Memory

    PubMed Central

    Clemenson, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    The positive effects of environmental enrichment and their neural bases have been studied extensively in the rodent (van Praag et al., 2000). For example, simply modifying an animal's living environment to promote sensory stimulation can lead to (but is not limited to) enhancements in hippocampal cognition and neuroplasticity and can alleviate hippocampal cognitive deficits associated with neurodegenerative diseases and aging. We are interested in whether these manipulations that successfully enhance cognition (or mitigate cognitive decline) have similar influences on humans. Although there are many “enriching” aspects to daily life, we are constantly adapting to new experiences and situations within our own environment on a daily basis. Here, we hypothesize that the exploration of the vast and visually stimulating virtual environments within video games is a human correlate of environmental enrichment. We show that video gamers who specifically favor complex 3D video games performed better on a demanding recognition memory task that assesses participants' ability to discriminate highly similar lure items from repeated items. In addition, after 2 weeks of training on the 3D video game Super Mario 3D World, naive video gamers showed improved mnemonic discrimination ability and improvements on a virtual water maze task. Two control conditions (passive and training in a 2D game, Angry Birds), showed no such improvements. Furthermore, individual performance in both hippocampal-associated behaviors correlated with performance in Super Mario but not Angry Birds, suggesting that how individuals explored the virtual environment may influence hippocampal behavior. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The hippocampus has long been associated with episodic memory and is commonly thought to rely on neuroplasticity to adapt to the ever-changing environment. In animals, it is well understood that exposing animals to a more stimulating environment, known as environmental enrichment, can

  10. Virtual Environmental Enrichment through Video Games Improves Hippocampal-Associated Memory.

    PubMed

    Clemenson, Gregory D; Stark, Craig E L

    2015-12-09

    The positive effects of environmental enrichment and their neural bases have been studied extensively in the rodent (van Praag et al., 2000). For example, simply modifying an animal's living environment to promote sensory stimulation can lead to (but is not limited to) enhancements in hippocampal cognition and neuroplasticity and can alleviate hippocampal cognitive deficits associated with neurodegenerative diseases and aging. We are interested in whether these manipulations that successfully enhance cognition (or mitigate cognitive decline) have similar influences on humans. Although there are many "enriching" aspects to daily life, we are constantly adapting to new experiences and situations within our own environment on a daily basis. Here, we hypothesize that the exploration of the vast and visually stimulating virtual environments within video games is a human correlate of environmental enrichment. We show that video gamers who specifically favor complex 3D video games performed better on a demanding recognition memory task that assesses participants' ability to discriminate highly similar lure items from repeated items. In addition, after 2 weeks of training on the 3D video game Super Mario 3D World, naive video gamers showed improved mnemonic discrimination ability and improvements on a virtual water maze task. Two control conditions (passive and training in a 2D game, Angry Birds), showed no such improvements. Furthermore, individual performance in both hippocampal-associated behaviors correlated with performance in Super Mario but not Angry Birds, suggesting that how individuals explored the virtual environment may influence hippocampal behavior. The hippocampus has long been associated with episodic memory and is commonly thought to rely on neuroplasticity to adapt to the ever-changing environment. In animals, it is well understood that exposing animals to a more stimulating environment, known as environmental enrichment, can stimulate neuroplasticity and

  11. Cognitively impaired elderly exhibit insulin resistance and no memory improvement with infused insulin.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jill K; Vidoni, Eric D; Mahnken, Jonathan D; Montgomery, Robert N; Johnson, David K; Thyfault, John P; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2016-03-01

    Insulin resistance is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), although its role in AD etiology is unclear. We assessed insulin resistance using fasting and insulin-stimulated measures in 51 elderly subjects with no dementia (ND; n = 37) and with cognitive impairment (CI; n = 14). CI subjects exhibited either mild CI or AD. Fasting insulin resistance was measured using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal was assessed using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to calculate glucose disposal rate into lean mass, the primary site of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Because insulin crosses the blood-brain barrier, we also assessed whether insulin infusion would improve verbal episodic memory compared to baseline. Different but equivalent versions of cognitive tests were administered in counterbalanced order in the basal and insulin-stimulated state. Groups did not differ in age or body mass index. Cognitively impaired subjects exhibited greater insulin resistance as measured at fasting (HOMA-IR; ND: 1.09 [1.1] vs. CI: 2.01 [2.3], p = 0.028) and during the hyperinsulinemic clamp (glucose disposal rate into lean mass; ND: 9.9 (4.5) vs. AD 7.2 (3.2), p = 0.040). Cognitively impaired subjects also exhibited higher fasting insulin compared to ND subjects, (CI: 8.7 [7.8] vs. ND: 4.2 [3.8] μU/mL; p = 0.023) and higher fasting amylin (CI: 24.1 [39.1] vs. 8.37 [14.2]; p = 0.050) with no difference in fasting glucose. Insulin infusion elicited a detrimental effect on one test of verbal episodic memory (Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test) in both groups (p < 0.0001) and no change in performance on an additional task (delayed logical memory). In this study, although insulin resistance was observed in cognitively impaired subjects compared to ND controls, insulin infusion did not improve memory. Furthermore, a significant correlation between HOMA-IR and glucose disposal rate was present only in ND

  12. Improvement in memory and static balance with abstinence in alcoholic men and women: selective relations with change in brain structure.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Rohlfing, Torsten; O'Reilly, Anne W; Sassoon, Stephanie A; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V

    2007-07-15

    We investigated whether changes in memory or static balance in chronic alcoholics, occurring with abstinence or relapse, are associated with changes in lateral and fourth ventricular volume. Alcoholics meeting DSM-IV criteria for Alcohol Dependence (n=15) and non-alcoholic controls (n=26) were examined twice at a mean interval of 2 years with standard Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) tests, an ataxia battery, and structural MRI. At study entry, alcoholics had been abstinent on average for over 4 months and achieved lower scores than controls on WASI General IQ Index, WMS-R General Memory Index, and the ataxia battery. The 10 alcoholics who maintained sobriety at retest did not differ at study entry in socio-demographic measures, alcohol use, or WASI and WMS-R summary scores from the five relapsers. At follow-up, abstainers improved more than controls on the WMS-R General Memory Index. Ataxia tended to improve in abstainers relative to controls. Associations were observed between memory and lateral ventricular volume change and between ataxia and fourth ventricular volume change in alcoholics but not in the controls. Both memory and ataxia can improve with sustained sobriety, and brain-behavior associations suggest selective brain structural substrates for the changes observed.

  13. Improving prospective memory performance with future event simulation in traumatic brain injury patients.

    PubMed

    Mioni, Giovanna; Bertucci, Erica; Rosato, Antonella; Terrett, Gill; Rendell, Peter G; Zamuner, Massimo; Stablum, Franca

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients have difficulties with prospective memory (PM). Considering that PM is closely linked to independent living it is of primary interest to develop strategies that can improve PM performance in TBI patients. This study employed Virtual Week task as a measure of PM, and we included future event simulation to boost PM performance. Study 1 evaluated the efficacy of the strategy and investigated possible practice effects. Twenty-four healthy participants performed Virtual Week in a no strategy condition, and 24 healthy participants performed it in a mixed condition (no strategy - future event simulation). In Study 2, 18 TBI patients completed the mixed condition of Virtual Week and were compared with the 24 healthy controls who undertook the mixed condition of Virtual Week in Study 1. All participants also completed a neuropsychological evaluation to characterize the groups on level of cognitive functioning. Study 1 showed that participants in the future event simulation condition outperformed participants in the no strategy condition, and these results were not attributable to practice effects. Results of Study 2 showed that TBI patients performed PM tasks less accurately than controls, but that future event simulation can substantially reduce TBI-related deficits in PM performance. The future event simulation strategy also improved the controls' PM performance. These studies showed the value of future event simulation strategy in improving PM performance in healthy participants as well as in TBI patients. TBI patients performed PM tasks less accurately than controls, confirming prospective memory impairment in these patients. Participants in the future event simulation condition out-performed participants in the no strategy condition. Future event simulation can substantially reduce TBI-related deficits in PM performance. Future event simulation strategy also improved the controls' PM performance.

  14. Methylphenidate Improves Working Memory and Set-Shifting in AD/HD: Relationships to Baseline Memory Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Mitul A.; Goodyer, Ian M.; Sahakian, Barbara J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Catecholamine stimulant drugs are highly efficacious treatments for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (AD/HD). Catecholamine modulation in humans influences performance of numerous cognitive tasks, including tests of attention and working memory (WM). Clear delineation of the effects of methylphenidate upon such cognitive…

  15. Do improved patient recall and the provision of memory support enhance treatment adherence?

    PubMed

    Dong, Lu; Lee, Jason Y; Harvey, Allison G

    2017-03-01

    Patient adherence to psychosocial treatment is an important but understudied topic. The aim of this study was to examine whether better patient recall of treatment contents and therapist use of memory support (MS) were associated with better treatment adherence. Data were drawn from a pilot randomized controlled trial. Participants were 48 individuals (mean age = 44.27 years, 29 females) with Major Depressive Disorder randomized to receive either Cognitive Therapy (CT) with an adjunctive Memory Support Intervention (CT + Memory Support) or CT-as-usual. Therapist and patient ratings of treatment adherence were collected during each treatment session. Patient recall was assessed at mid-treatment. Therapist use of MS was manually coded for a random selection of sessions. Patient recall was significantly associated with better therapist and patient ratings of adherence. Therapist use of Application, a specific MS strategy, predicted higher therapist ratings of adherence. Attention Recruitment, another specific MS strategy, appeared to attenuate the positive impact of session number on patient ratings of adherence. Treatment groups, MS summary scores and other specific MS strategies were not significantly associated with adherence. The measure for treatment adherence is in the process of being formally validated. Results were based on small sample. These results support the importance of patient recall in treatment adherence. Although collectively the effects of MS on treatment adherence were not significant, the results support the use of certain specific MS strategy (i.e., application) as a potential pathway to improve treatment adherence. Larger-scale studies are needed to further examine these constructs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nicotine Improves Working Memory Span Capacity in Rats Following Sub-Chronic Ketamine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Rushforth, Samantha L; Steckler, Thomas; Shoaib, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Ketamine, an NMDA-receptor antagonist, produces cognitive deficits in humans in a battery of tasks involving attention and memory. Nicotine can enhance various indices of cognitive performance, including working memory span capacity measured using the odor span task (OST). This study examined the effects of a sub-chronic ketamine treatment to model cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia, and to evaluate the effectiveness of nicotine, antipsychotic clozapine, and the novel mGlu2/3 agonist, LY404039, in restoring OST performance. Male hooded Lister rats were trained in the OST, a working memory task involving detection of a novel odor from an increasing number of presented odors until they exhibited asymptotic levels of stable performance. Sub-chronic ketamine exposure (10 and 30 mg/kg i.p. for 5 consecutive days) produced a dose-dependent impairment that was stable beyond 14 days following exposure. In one cohort, administration of graded doses of nicotine (0.025–0.1 mg/kg) acutely restored the performance in ketamine-treated animals, while significant improvements in odor span were observed in control subjects. In a second cohort of rats, acute tests with clozapine (1–10 mg/kg) and LY404039 (0.3–10 mg/kg) failed to reverse ketamine-induced deficits in doses that were observed to impair performance in the control groups. These data suggest that sub-chronic ketamine exposure in the OST presents a valuable method to examine novel treatments to restore cognitive impairments associated with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Moreover, it highlights a central role for neuronal nicotinic receptors as viable targets for intervention that may be useful adjuncts to the currently prescribed anti-psychotics. PMID:21956441

  17. Nicotine improves working memory span capacity in rats following sub-chronic ketamine exposure.

    PubMed

    Rushforth, Samantha L; Steckler, Thomas; Shoaib, Mohammed

    2011-12-01

    Ketamine, an NMDA-receptor antagonist, produces cognitive deficits in humans in a battery of tasks involving attention and memory. Nicotine can enhance various indices of cognitive performance, including working memory span capacity measured using the odor span task (OST). This study examined the effects of a sub-chronic ketamine treatment to model cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia, and to evaluate the effectiveness of nicotine, antipsychotic clozapine, and the novel mGlu2/3 agonist, LY404039, in restoring OST performance. Male hooded Lister rats were trained in the OST, a working memory task involving detection of a novel odor from an increasing number of presented odors until they exhibited asymptotic levels of stable performance. Sub-chronic ketamine exposure (10 and 30 mg/kg i.p. for 5 consecutive days) produced a dose-dependent impairment that was stable beyond 14 days following exposure. In one cohort, administration of graded doses of nicotine (0.025-0.1 mg/kg) acutely restored the performance in ketamine-treated animals, while significant improvements in odor span were observed in control subjects. In a second cohort of rats, acute tests with clozapine (1-10 mg/kg) and LY404039 (0.3-10 mg/kg) failed to reverse ketamine-induced deficits in doses that were observed to impair performance in the control groups. These data suggest that sub-chronic ketamine exposure in the OST presents a valuable method to examine novel treatments to restore cognitive impairments associated with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Moreover, it highlights a central role for neuronal nicotinic receptors as viable targets for intervention that may be useful adjuncts to the currently prescribed anti-psychotics.

  18. No age deficits in the ability to use attention to improve visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Souza, Alessandra S

    2016-08-01

    Maintenance of information in mind to the moment-to-moment cognition is accomplished by working memory (WM). WM capacity is reduced in old age, but the nature of this decline is yet not clear. The current study examined the hypothesis that the decline in visual WM performance with age is related to a reduced ability to use attention to control the contents of WM. Young (M = 26 years) and old (M = 71 years) adults performed a color reproduction task in which the precise color of a set of dots had to be maintained in mind over a brief interval and later reproduced using a continuous color wheel. Attention was manipulated by presenting a spatial cue before the onset of the memory array (a precue) or during the maintenance phase (retro-cue). The cue indicated with 100% certainty the item to be tested at the end of the trial. A precue allows the selective encoding of only the relevant item to WM, whereas a retro-cue allows WM contents to be updated by refreshing the relevant (cued) item and removing nonrelevant (noncued) items. Aging was associated with a lower capacity in the baseline (no-cue) condition. Precues and (to a smaller extent) retro-cues improved WM performance (in terms of probability of recall and memory precision). Critically, the benefits of cueing were of similar magnitude in young and older adults showing that the ability to use attention to selectively encode and update the contents of WM is preserved with aging. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Handling of Adolescent Rats Improves Learning and Memory and Decreases Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Rafaela; Tamascia, Mariana L; Nogueira, Marie D; Casarini, Dulce E; Marcondes, Fernanda K

    2012-01-01

    Some environmental interventions can result in physiologic and behavioral changes in laboratory animals. In this context, the handling of adolescent or adult rodents has been reported to influence exploratory behavior and emotionality. Here we examined the effects of handling on memory and anxiety levels of adolescent rats. Male Sprague–Dawley rats (age, 60 d) were divided into a control group and a handled group, which were handled for 5 min daily, 5 d per week, for 6 wk. During handling bouts, the rat was removed from its cage, placed in the experimenter's lap or on the top of a table, and had its neck and back gently stroked by the experimenter's fingers. During week 6, each rat's anxiety level was evaluated in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test. Learning and memory were evaluated 48 h later, by measuring escape latency in the elevated plus-maze test. Plasma corticosterone and catecholamine levels were measured also. Norepinephrine levels were lower in the handled rats compared with control animals, with no differences in epinephrine and corticosterone. As compared with the control rats, the handled rats showed increases in the percentage of time spent in the open arms of the test apparatus, percentage of entries into open arms, and number of visits to the end of the open arms and decreases in the latency of the first open arm entry. Escape latency was lower in the handled rats compared with control rats in both the first and second trials. The data obtained suggest that handling decreases anxiety levels and improves learning skills and memory in rats. PMID:23312082

  20. Handling of adolescent rats improves learning and memory and decreases anxiety.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rafaela; Tamascia, Mariana L; Nogueira, Marie D; Casarini, Dulce E; Marcondes, Fernanda K

    2012-01-01

    Some environmental interventions can result in physiologic and behavioral changes in laboratory animals. In this context, the handling of adolescent or adult rodents has been reported to influence exploratory behavior and emotionality. Here we examined the effects of handling on memory and anxiety levels of adolescent rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (age, 60 d) were divided into a control group and a handled group, which were handled for 5 min daily, 5 d per week, for 6 wk. During handling bouts, the rat was removed from its cage, placed in the experimenter's lap or on the top of a table, and had its neck and back gently stroked by the experimenter's fingers. During week 6, each rat's anxiety level was evaluated in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test. Learning and memory were evaluated 48 h later, by measuring escape latency in the elevated plus-maze test. Plasma corticosterone and catecholamine levels were measured also. Norepinephrine levels were lower in the handled rats compared with control animals, with no differences in epinephrine and corticosterone. As compared with the control rats, the handled rats showed increases in the percentage of time spent in the open arms of the test apparatus, percentage of entries into open arms, and number of visits to the end of the open arms and decreases in the latency of the first open arm entry. Escape latency was lower in the handled rats compared with control rats in both the first and second trials. The data obtained suggest that handling decreases anxiety levels and improves learning skills and memory in rats.

  1. Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) Root Extract in Improving Memory and Cognitive Functions.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Dnyanraj; Bhattacharyya, Sauvik; Bose, Sekhar

    2017-11-02

    Cognitive decline is often associated with the aging process. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) has long been used in the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine to enhance memory and improve cognition. This pilot study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) in improving memory and cognitive functioning in adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 50 adults. Subjects were treated with either ashwagandha-root extract (300 mg twice daily) or placebo for eight weeks. After eight weeks of study, the ashwagandha treatment group demonstrated significant improvements compared with the placebo group in both immediate and general memory, as evidenced by Wechsler Memory Scale III subtest scores for logical memory I (p = 0.007), verbal paired associates I (p = 0.042), faces I (p = 0.020), family pictures I (p = 0.006), logical memory II (p = 0.006), verbal paired associates II (p = 0.031), faces II (p = 0.014), and family pictures II (p = 0.006). The treatment group also demonstrated significantly greater improvement in executive function, sustained attention, and information-processing speed as indicated by scores on the Eriksen Flanker task (p = 0.002), Wisconsin Card Sort test (p = 0.014), Trail-Making test part A (p = 0.006), and the Mackworth Clock test (p = 0.009). Ashwagandha may be effective in enhancing both immediate and general memory in people with MCI as well as improving executive function, attention, and information processing speed.

  2. Identifying the appropriate time for deep brain stimulation to achieve spatial memory improvement on the Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Da Un; Lee, Jihyeon; Chang, Won Seok; Chang, Jin Woo

    2017-03-07

    The possibility of using deep brain stimulation (DBS) for memory enhancement has recently been reported, but the precise underlying mechanisms of its effects remain unknown. Our previous study suggested that spatial memory improvement by medial septum (MS)-DBS may be associated with cholinergic regulation and neurogenesis. However, the affected stage of memory could not be distinguished because the stimulation was delivered during the execution of all memory processes. Therefore, this study was performed to determine the stage of memory affected by MS-DBS. Rats were administered 192 IgG-saporin to lesion cholinergic neurons. Stimulation was delivered at different times in different groups of rats: 5 days before the Morris water maze test (pre-stimulation), 5 days during the training phase of the Morris water maze test (training-stimulation), and 2 h before the Morris water maze probe test (probe-stimulation). A fourth group of rats was lesioned but received no stimulation. These four groups were compared with a normal (control) group. The most effective memory restoration occurred in the pre-stimulation group. Moreover, the pre-stimulation group exhibited better recall of the platform position than the other stimulation groups. An increase in the level of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was observed in the pre-stimulation group; this increase was maintained for 1 week. However, acetylcholinesterase activity in the pre-stimulation group was not significantly different from the lesion group. Memory impairment due to cholinergic denervation can be improved by DBS. The improvement is significantly correlated with the up-regulation of BDNF expression and neurogenesis. Based on the results of this study, the use of MS-DBS during the early stage of disease may restore spatial memory impairment.

  3. Clinical trials of antitumor vaccination with an autologous tumor cell vaccine modified by virus infection: improvement of patient survival based on improved antitumor immune memory.

    PubMed

    Schirrmacher, Volker

    2005-06-01

    For active specific immunotherapy of cancer patients, we designed the autologous virus-modified tumor cell vaccine ATV-NDV. The rationale of this vaccine is to link multiple tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) from individual patient-derived tumor cells with multiple danger signals (DS) derived from virus infection (dsRNA, HN, IFN-alpha). This allows activation of multiple innate immune responses (monocytes, dendritic cells, and NK cells) as well as adaptive immune responses (CD4 and CD8 memory T cells). Preexisting antitumor memory T cells from cancer patients could be activated by antitumor vaccination with ATV-NDV as seen by augmentation of antitumor memory delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses. In a variety of phase II vaccination studies, an optimal formulation of this vaccine could improve long-term survival beyond what is seen in conventional standard therapies. A new concept is presented which proposes that a certain threshold of antitumor immune memory plays an important role (1) in the control of residual tumor cells which remain after most therapies and (2) for long-term survival of treated cancer patients. This immune memory is T-cell based and most likely maintained by persisting TAAs from residual dormant tumor cells. Such immune memory was prominent in the bone marrow in animal tumor models as well as in cancer patients. Immunization with a tumor vaccine in which individual TAAs are combined with DS from virus infection appears to have a positive effect on antitumor immune memory and on patient survival.

  4. Improvement of memory recall by quercetin in rodent contextual fear conditioning and human early-stage Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Toshiyuki; Itoh, Masanori; Ohta, Kazunori; Hayashi, Yuichi; Hayakawa, Miki; Yamada, Yasushi; Akanabe, Hiroshi; Chikaishi, Tokio; Nakagawa, Kiyomi; Itoh, Yoshinori; Muro, Takato; Yanagida, Daisuke; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Mori, Tetsuya; Saito, Kazuki; Ohzawa, Kaori; Suzuki, Chihiro; Li, Shimo; Ueda, Masashi; Wang, Miao-Xing; Nishida, Emika; Islam, Saiful; Tana; Kobori, Masuko; Inuzuka, Takashi

    2016-06-15

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience a wide array of cognitive deficits, which typically include the impairment of explicit memory. In previous studies, the authors reported that a flavonoid, quercetin, reduces the expression of ATF4 and delays memory deterioration in an early-stage AD mouse model. In the present study, the effects of long-term quercetin intake on memory recall were assessed using contextual fear conditioning in aged wild-type mice. In addition, the present study examined whether memory recall was affected by the intake of quercetin-rich onion (a new cultivar of hybrid onion 'Quergold') powder in early-stage AD patients. In-vivo analysis indicated that memory recall was enhanced in aged mice fed a quercetin-containing diet. Memory recall in early-stage AD patients, determined using the Revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale, was significantly improved by the intake of quercetin-rich onion (Quergold) powder for 4 weeks compared with the intake of control onion ('Mashiro' white onion) powder. These results indicate that quercetin might influence memory recall.

  5. Cholinesterase Inhibitors Improve Both Memory and Complex Learning in Aged Beagle Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Joseph A.; Greig, Nigel H.; Ingram, Donald K.; Sandin, Johan; de Rivera, Christina; Milgram, Norton W.

    2016-01-01

    Similar to patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), dogs exhibit age-dependent cognitive decline, amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology, and evidence of cholinergic hypofunction. The present study sought to further investigate the role of cholinergic hypofunction in the canine model by examining the effect of the cholinesterase inhibitors phenserine and donepezil on performance of two tasks, a delayed non-matching-to-position task (DNMP) designed to assess working memory, and an oddity discrimination learning task designed to assess complex learning, in aged dogs. Phenserine (0.5 mg/kg; PO) significantly improved performance on the DNMP at the longest delay compared to wash-out and partially attenuated scopolamine-induced deficits (15 μg/kg; SC). Phenserine also improved learning on a difficult version of an oddity discrimination task compared to placebo, but had no effect on an easier version. We also examined the effects of three doses of donepezil (0.75, 1.5, and 6 mg/kg; PO) on performance of the DNMP. Similar to the results with phenserine, 1.5 mg/kg of donepezil improved performance at the longest delay compared to baseline and wash-out, indicative of memory enhancement. These results further extend the findings of cholinergic hypofunction in aged dogs and provide pharmacological validation of the canine model with a cholinesterase inhibitor approved for use in AD. Collectively, these studies support utilizing the aged dog in future screening of therapeutics for AD, as well as for investigating the links among cholinergic function, Aβ pathology, and cognitive decline. PMID:21593569

  6. Cholinesterase inhibitors improve both memory and complex learning in aged beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Joseph A; Greig, Nigel H; Ingram, Donald K; Sandin, Johan; de Rivera, Christina; Milgram, Norton W

    2011-01-01

    Similar to patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), dogs exhibit age-dependent cognitive decline, amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology, and evidence of cholinergic hypofunction. The present study sought to further investigate the role of cholinergic hypofunction in the canine model by examining the effect of the cholinesterase inhibitors phenserine and donepezil on performance of two tasks, a delayed non-matching-to-position task (DNMP) designed to assess working memory, and an oddity discrimination learning task designed to assess complex learning, in aged dogs. Phenserine (0.5 mg/kg; PO) significantly improved performance on the DNMP at the longest delay compared to wash-out and partially attenuated scopolamine-induced deficits (15 μg/kg; SC). Phenserine also improved learning on a difficult version of an oddity discrimination task compared to placebo, but had no effect on an easier version. We also examined the effects of three doses of donepezil (0.75, 1.5, and 6 mg/kg; PO) on performance of the DNMP. Similar to the results with phenserine, 1.5 mg/kg of donepezil improved performance at the longest delay compared to baseline and wash-out, indicative of memory enhancement. These results further extend the findings of cholinergic hypofunction in aged dogs and provide pharmacological validation of the canine model with a cholinesterase inhibitor approved for use in AD. Collectively, these studies support utilizing the aged dog in future screening of therapeutics for AD, as well as for investigating the links among cholinergic function, Aβ pathology, and cognitive decline.

  7. Cornel iridoid glycoside improves memory ability and promotes neuronal survival in fimbria-fornix transected rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-hong; Ding, Yue-xia; Zhang, Lan; Li, Lin

    2010-11-25

    Cornel iridoid glycoside (CIG) is a main component extracted from a traditional Chinese herb Cornus officinalis. Our previous study found that CIG improved neurological function in cerebral ischemic rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic benefit of CIG in rats with fimbria-fornix transection (FFT) and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. CIG (20, 60 and 180 mg/kg) or vehicle was intragastrically administered once daily to rats, starting immediately after the surgery and lasting for 4 weeks. Morris water maze and step-through tests showed that the memory deficits seen in FFT rats were significantly improved by CIG treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that CIG treatment attenuated the loss of neurons in hippocampus. To elucidate the memory-improving mechanism of CIG, the neurotrophic factors, synaptic proteins and Bcl-2 family proteins in hippocampus were measured by Western blot analysis. FFT reduced hippocampal protein levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), tyrosine receptor kinase A (Trk A), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), synaptophysin (SYP) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), but not levels of tyrosine receptor kinase B (Trk B) and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43). FFT also elevated cytochorome C (Cyt c) and bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax). Administration of CIG to FFT rats significantly elevated the expression of NGF, TrkA, BDNF, SYP, GAP-43 and Bcl-2, and decreased the expression of Cyt c and Bax. These results indicated that CIG effectively counteracted cognitive impairments caused by fimbria-fornix lesions, and the mechanisms might be related to promoting neuronal survival and providing a beneficial environment for brain repair. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic rhein treatment improves recognition memory in high-fat diet-induced obese male mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sen; Huang, Xu-Feng; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Hongqin; Zhang, Qingsheng; Yu, Shijia; Yu, Yinghua

    2016-10-01

    High-fat (HF) diet modulates gut microbiota and increases plasma concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) which is associated with obesity and its related low-grade inflammation and cognitive decline. Rhein is the main ingredient of the rhubarb plant which has been used as an anti-inflammatory agent for several millennia. However, the potential effects of rhein against HF diet-induced obesity and its associated alteration of gut microbiota, inflammation and cognitive decline have not been studied. In this study, C57BL/6J male mice were fed an HF diet for 8 weeks to induce obesity, and then treated with oral rhein (120 mg/kg body weight/day in HF diet) for a further 6 weeks. Chronic rhein treatment prevented the HF diet-induced recognition memory impairment assessed by the novel object recognition test, neuroinflammation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) deficits in the perirhinal cortex. Furthermore, rhein inhibited the HF diet-induced increased plasma LPS level and the proinflammatory macrophage accumulation in the colon and alteration of microbiota, including decreasing Bacteroides-Prevotella spp. and Desulfovibrios spp. DNA and increasing Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. DNA. Moreover, rhein also reduced body weight and improved glucose tolerance in HF diet-induced obese mice. In conclusion, rhein improved recognition memory and prevented obesity in mice on a chronic HF diet. These beneficial effects occur via the modulation of microbiota, hypoendotoxinemia, inhibition of macrophage accumulation, anti-neuroinflammation and the improvement of BDNF expression. Therefore, supplementation with rhein-enriched food or herbal medicine could be beneficial as a preventive strategy for chronic HF diet-induced cognitive decline, microbiota alteration and neuroinflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Working memory training with tDCS improves behavioral and neurophysiological symptoms in pilot group with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and with poor working memory.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Nerida; Downham, Russell; Turman, Bulent; Kropotov, Juri; Clark, Richard; Yumash, Rustam; Szatmary, Arielle

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the feasibility of treating people suffering from both post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and poor working memory by employing a combination of computerized working memory training and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). After treatment, all four participants showed clinically significant improvements on a range of cognitive and emotional performance measures. Moreover, these improvements were accompanied by theoretically significant neurophysiological changes between pre- and post-treatment electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. Specifically, the P3a component of participants' event related potentials (ERP) in response to novelty stimuli, characteristically abnormal in this clinical population, shifted significantly toward database norms. So, participants' initially slow alpha peak frequency (APF), theorized to underlie impaired cognitive processing abilities, also increased in both frequency and amplitude as a result of treatment. On the basis of these promising results, more extensive controlled studies are warranted.

  10. Improving working memory abilities in individuals with Down syndrome: a treatment case study

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Hiwet Mariam; Purser, Harry R. M.; Passolunghi, Maria Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) skills of individuals with Down’s syndrome (DS) tend to be very poor compared to typically developing children of similar mental age. In particular, research has found that in individuals with DS visuo-spatial WM is better preserved than verbal WM. This study investigated whether it is possible to train short-term memory (STM) and WM abilities in individuals with DS. The cases of two teenage children are reported: EH, 17 years and 3 months, and AS, 15 years and 11 months. A school-based treatment targeting visuo-spatial WM was given to EH and AS for six weeks. Both prior to and after the treatment, they completed a set of assessments to measure WM abilities and their performance was compared with younger typically developing non-verbal mental age controls. The results showed that the trained participants improved their performance in some of the trained and non-trained WM tasks proposed, especially with regard to the tasks assessing visuo-spatial WM abilities. These findings are discussed on the basis of their theoretical, educational, and clinical implications. PMID:26441713

  11. Neoechinulin A induced memory improvements and antidepressant-like effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Sasaki-Hamada, Sachie; Hoshi, Maho; Niwa, Yuki; Ueda, Yudai; Kokaji, Aya; Kamisuki, Shinji; Kuramochi, Kouji; Sugawara, Fumio; Oka, Jun-Ichiro

    2016-11-03

    Neoechinulin A is an isoprenyl indole alkaloid that exhibits scavenging, neurotrophic factor-like, and anti-apoptotic activities. However, the effectiveness of neoechinulin A in animal models of disease has not yet been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effects of neoechinulin A on memory impairment in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice and its antidepressant-like effects in mice. In the Y-maze test, the intracerebroventicular (i.c.v.) administration of LPS (10μg/mouse) significantly decreased spontaneous alternation behavior, which was prevented by the prior administration of neoechinulin A (300ng/mouse, i.c.v.). None of the treatments altered the locomotor activity of mice. Moreover, the administration of neoechinulin A decreased the immobility time in the forced-swim test or tail suspension test, which was prevented by the prior administration of WAY100635 (an antagonist of 5-HT1A receptors) and parachlorophenylalanine (an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase). These results suggest that neoechinulin A improves memory functions in LPS-treated mice, and also exerts antidepressant-like effects through changes in the 5-HT system.

  12. A Dynamical Model of Pitch Memory Provides an Improved Basis for Implied Harmony Estimation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Chul

    2017-01-01

    Tonal melody can imply vertical harmony through a sequence of tones. Current methods for automatic chord estimation commonly use chroma-based features extracted from audio signals. However, the implied harmony of unaccompanied melodies can be difficult to estimate on the basis of chroma content in the presence of frequent nonchord tones. Here we present a novel approach to automatic chord estimation based on the human perception of pitch sequences. We use cohesion and inhibition between pitches in auditory short-term memory to differentiate chord tones and nonchord tones in tonal melodies. We model short-term pitch memory as a gradient frequency neural network, which is a biologically realistic model of auditory neural processing. The model is a dynamical system consisting of a network of tonotopically tuned nonlinear oscillators driven by audio signals. The oscillators interact with each other through nonlinear resonance and lateral inhibition, and the pattern of oscillatory traces emerging from the interactions is taken as a measure of pitch salience. We test the model with a collection of unaccompanied tonal melodies to evaluate it as a feature extractor for chord estimation. We show that chord tones are selectively enhanced in the response of the model, thereby increasing the accuracy of implied harmony estimation. We also find that, like other existing features for chord estimation, the performance of the model can be improved by using segmented input signals. We discuss possible ways to expand the present model into a full chord estimation system within the dynamical systems framework.

  13. Preexisting semantic representation improves working memory performance in the visuospatial domain.

    PubMed

    Rudner, Mary; Orfanidou, Eleni; Cardin, Velia; Capek, Cheryl M; Woll, Bencie; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-05-01

    Working memory (WM) for spoken language improves when the to-be-remembered items correspond to preexisting representations in long-term memory. We investigated whether this effect generalizes to the visuospatial domain by administering a visual n-back WM task to deaf signers and hearing signers, as well as to hearing nonsigners. Four different kinds of stimuli were presented: British Sign Language (BSL; familiar to the signers), Swedish Sign Language (SSL; unfamiliar), nonsigns, and nonlinguistic manual actions. The hearing signers performed better with BSL than with SSL, demonstrating a facilitatory effect of preexisting semantic representation. The deaf signers also performed better with BSL than with SSL, but only when WM load was high. No effect of preexisting phonological representation was detected. The deaf signers performed better than the hearing nonsigners with all sign-based materials, but this effect did not generalize to nonlinguistic manual actions. We argue that deaf signers, who are highly reliant on visual information for communication, develop expertise in processing sign-based items, even when those items do not have preexisting semantic or phonological representations. Preexisting semantic representation, however, enhances the quality of the gesture-based representations temporarily maintained in WM by this group, thereby releasing WM resources to deal with increased load. Hearing signers, on the other hand, may make strategic use of their speech-based representations for mnemonic purposes. The overall pattern of results is in line with flexible-resource models of WM.

  14. A Dynamical Model of Pitch Memory Provides an Improved Basis for Implied Harmony Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Chul

    2017-01-01

    Tonal melody can imply vertical harmony through a sequence of tones. Current methods for automatic chord estimation commonly use chroma-based features extracted from audio signals. However, the implied harmony of unaccompanied melodies can be difficult to estimate on the basis of chroma content in the presence of frequent nonchord tones. Here we present a novel approach to automatic chord estimation based on the human perception of pitch sequences. We use cohesion and inhibition between pitches in auditory short-term memory to differentiate chord tones and nonchord tones in tonal melodies. We model short-term pitch memory as a gradient frequency neural network, which is a biologically realistic model of auditory neural processing. The model is a dynamical system consisting of a network of tonotopically tuned nonlinear oscillators driven by audio signals. The oscillators interact with each other through nonlinear resonance and lateral inhibition, and the pattern of oscillatory traces emerging from the interactions is taken as a measure of pitch salience. We test the model with a collection of unaccompanied tonal melodies to evaluate it as a feature extractor for chord estimation. We show that chord tones are selectively enhanced in the response of the model, thereby increasing the accuracy of implied harmony estimation. We also find that, like other existing features for chord estimation, the performance of the model can be improved by using segmented input signals. We discuss possible ways to expand the present model into a full chord estimation system within the dynamical systems framework. PMID:28522983

  15. Self-compliance-improved resistive switching using Ir/TaOx/W cross-point memory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Resistive switching properties of a self-compliance resistive random access memory device in cross-point architecture with a simple stack structure of Ir/TaO x /W have been investigated. A transmission electron microscope and atomic force microscope were used to observe the film properties and morphology of the stack. The device has shown excellent switching cycle uniformity with a small operation of ±2.5 V and a resistance ratio of >100. The device requires neither any frorming-process nor current compliance limit for repeatable operation in contrast to conventional resistive random access memory devices. The effect of bottom electrode morphology and surface roughness is also studied. The improvement is due to the enhanced electric field at the nanotips in the bottom electrode and the defective TaO x switching layer which enable controlled filament formation/rupture. The device area dependence of the low resistance state indicates multifilament formation. The device has shown a robust alternating current endurance of >105 cycles and a data retention of >104 s. PMID:24341544

  16. Improved self-healing of polyethylene/carbon black nanocomposites by their shape memory effect.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Jun; Chen, Min; Ma, Lan; Zhao, Xiaodong; Dang, Zhi-Min; Wang, Zhenwen

    2013-02-07

    In this work, the improved self-healing of cross-linked polyethylene (PE) (cPE)/carbon black (CB) nanocomposites by their shape memory effect (SME) is investigated. CB nanoparticles are found to be homogeneously dispersed in the PE matrix and significantly increase the strength of the materials. Compared with the breaking of linear PE (lPE) at the melting temperature (T(m)), the cPE and cPE/CB nanocomposites still have high strength above T(m) due to the formation of networks. The cPE and cPE/CB nanocomposites show both high strain fixity ratio (R(f)) and high strain recovery ratio (R(r)). Crystallization-induced elongation is observed for all the prepared shape memory polymer (SMP) materials and the effect becomes less remarkable with increasing volume fraction of CB nanoparticles (v(CB)). The scratch self-healing tests show that the cross-linking of PE matrix, the addition of CB nanoparticles, and the previous stretching in the direction perpendicular to the scratch favor the closure of the scratch and its complete healing. This SME-aided self-healing could have potential applications in diverse fields such as coating and structure materials.

  17. Improving working memory abilities in individuals with Down syndrome: a treatment case study.

    PubMed

    Costa, Hiwet Mariam; Purser, Harry R M; Passolunghi, Maria Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) skills of individuals with Down's syndrome (DS) tend to be very poor compared to typically developing children of similar mental age. In particular, research has found that in individuals with DS visuo-spatial WM is better preserved than verbal WM. This study investigated whether it is possible to train short-term memory (STM) and WM abilities in individuals with DS. The cases of two teenage children are reported: EH, 17 years and 3 months, and AS, 15 years and 11 months. A school-based treatment targeting visuo-spatial WM was given to EH and AS for six weeks. Both prior to and after the treatment, they completed a set of assessments to measure WM abilities and their performance was compared with younger typically developing non-verbal mental age controls. The results showed that the trained participants improved their performance in some of the trained and non-trained WM tasks proposed, especially with regard to the tasks assessing visuo-spatial WM abilities. These findings are discussed on the basis of their theoretical, educational, and clinical implications.

  18. Interleukin-2 improves amyloid pathology, synaptic failure and memory in Alzheimer's disease mice.

    PubMed

    Alves, Sandro; Churlaud, Guillaume; Audrain, Mickael; Michaelsen-Preusse, Kristin; Fol, Romain; Souchet, Benoit; Braudeau, Jérôme; Korte, Martin; Klatzmann, David; Cartier, Nathalie

    2016-12-20

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2)-deficient mice have cytoarchitectural hippocampal modifications and impaired learning and memory ability reminiscent of Alzheimer's disease. IL-2 stimulates regulatory T cells whose role is to control inflammation. As neuroinflammation contributes to neurodegeneration, we investigated IL-2 in Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we investigated IL-2 levels in hippocampal biopsies of patients with Alzheimer's disease relative to age-matched control individuals. We then treated APP/PS1ΔE9 mice having established Alzheimer's disease with IL-2 for 5 months using single administration of an AAV-IL-2 vector. We first found decreased IL-2 levels in hippocampal biopsies of patients with Alzheimer's disease. In mice, IL-2-induced systemic and brain regulatory T cells expansion and activation. In the hippocampus, IL-2 induced astrocytic activation and recruitment of astrocytes around amyloid plaques, decreased amyloid-β42/40 ratio and amyloid plaque load, improved synaptic plasticity and significantly rescued spine density. Of note, this tissue remodelling was associated with recovery of memory deficits, as assessed in the Morris water maze task. Altogether, our data strongly suggest that IL-2 can alleviate Alzheimer's disease hallmarks in APP/PS1ΔE9 mice with established pathology. Therefore, this should prompt the investigation of low-dose IL-2 in Alzheimer's disease and other neuroinflammatory/neurodegenerative disorders.

  19. Action video game playing is associated with improved visual sensitivity, but not alterations in visual sensory memory.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, L Gregory; Cain, Matthew S; Darling, Elise F; Mitroff, Stephen R

    2013-08-01

    Action video game playing has been experimentally linked to a number of perceptual and cognitive improvements. These benefits are captured through a wide range of psychometric tasks and have led to the proposition that action video game experience may promote the ability to extract statistical evidence from sensory stimuli. Such an advantage could arise from a number of possible mechanisms: improvements in visual sensitivity, enhancements in the capacity or duration for which information is retained in visual memory, or higher-level strategic use of information for decision making. The present study measured the capacity and time course of visual sensory memory using a partial report performance task as a means to distinguish between these three possible mechanisms. Sensitivity measures and parameter estimates that describe sensory memory capacity and the rate of memory decay were compared between individuals who reported high evels and low levels of action video game experience. Our results revealed a uniform increase in partial report accuracy at all stimulus-to-cue delays for action video game players but no difference in the rate or time course of the memory decay. The present findings suggest that action video game playing may be related to enhancements in the initial sensitivity to visual stimuli, but not to a greater retention of information in iconic memory buffers.

  20. Intranasal insulin improves cerebral blood flow, Nrf-2 expression and BDNF in STZ (ICV)-induced memory impaired rats.

    PubMed

    Rajasekar, N; Nath, Chandishwar; Hanif, Kashif; Shukla, Rakesh

    2017-03-15

    Insulin/insulin receptor signaling is involved in cognitive functions. Clinical studies have shown that intranasal insulin administration improves memory functions. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with improvement in memory functions are largely unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the protective effect of intranasal insulin in intracerebroventricular (ICV) streptozotocin (STZ) induced memory impairment in rats. Rats were injected with STZ (3mg/kg, ICV) bilaterally twice, on days 1 and 3 and intranasal insulin (2IU/rat/day) was given for 14days. Memory was assessed by Morris water maze test. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry. The biochemical and molecular studies were done in cortex and hippocampus of rat brain. STZ (ICV) administration caused memory impairment along with the reduction of CBF, ATP level, and Nrf-2 expression. Treatment with intranasal insulin significantly improved memory functions as well as restored CBF, ATP content and Nrf-2 expression in STZ injected rats. STZ administration stimulated oxidative-nitrosative stress as evidenced by a significant increase in ROS, malondialdehyde, NO level and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and the decrease in glutathione level; which was normalized by intranasal insulin delivery. STZ-induced cholinergic dysfunction (AChE activity and α7-nAChR expression), and mitochondrial hypofunction was largely prevented by treatment with intranasal insulin. Intranasal insulin delivery successfully restored BDNF level and pCREB expression in STZ injected rats. The study shows the beneficial effects of intranasal insulin against STZ-induced memory impairment, which attributed to improved CBF, cholinergic function, brain energy metabolism, BDNF, Nrf-2 expression and antioxidative action. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Improving Working Memory Efficiency by Reframing Metacognitive Interpretation of Task Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Autin, Frederique; Croizet, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Working memory capacity, our ability to manage incoming information for processing purposes, predicts achievement on a wide range of intellectual abilities. Three randomized experiments (N = 310) tested the effectiveness of a brief psychological intervention designed to boost working memory efficiency (i.e., state working memory capacity) by…

  2. Improving Working Memory Efficiency by Reframing Metacognitive Interpretation of Task Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Autin, Frederique; Croizet, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Working memory capacity, our ability to manage incoming information for processing purposes, predicts achievement on a wide range of intellectual abilities. Three randomized experiments (N = 310) tested the effectiveness of a brief psychological intervention designed to boost working memory efficiency (i.e., state working memory capacity) by…

  3. Inhibition of GABA A receptor improved special memory impairment in the local model of demyelination in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Mousavi Majd, Alireza; Ebrahim Tabar, Forough; Afghani, Arghavan; Ashrafpour, Sahand; Dehghan, Samaneh; Gol, Mohammad; Ashrafpour, Manouchehr; Pourabdolhossein, Fereshteh

    2018-01-15

    Cognitive impairment and memory deficit are common features in multiple Sclerosis patients. The mechanism of memory impairment in MS is unknown, but neuroimaging studies suggest that hippocampal demyelination is involved. Here, we investigate the role of GABA A receptor on spatial memory in the local model of hippocampal demyelination. Demyelination was induced in male Wistar rats by bilaterally injection of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) 1% into the CA1 region of the hippocampus. The treatment groups were received daily intraventricular injection of bicuculline (0.025, 0.05μg/2μl/animal) or muscimol (0.1, 0.2μg/2μl/animal) 5days after LPC injection. Morris Water Maze was used to evaluate learning and memory in rats. We used Luxol fast blue staining and qPCR to assess demyelination extention and MBP expression level respectively. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for CD45 and H&E staining were performed to assess inflammatory cells infiltration. Behavioral study revealed that LPC injection in the hippocampus impaired learning and memory function. Animals treated with both doses of bicuculline improved spatial learning and memory function; however, muscimol treatment had no effect. Histological and MBP expression studies confirmed that demylination in LPC group was maximal. Bicuculline treatment significantly reduced demyelination extension and increased the level of MBP expression. H&E and IHC results showed that bicuculline reduced inflammatory cell infiltration in the lesion site. Bicuculline improved learning and memory and decreased demyelination extention in the LPC-induced hippocampal demyelination model. We conclude that disruption of GABAergic homeostasis in hippocampal demyelination context may be involved in memory impairment with the implications for both pathophysiology and therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Improving the Spacelab mass memory unit tape layout with a simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noneman, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    A tape drive called the Mass Memory Unit (MMU) stores software used by Spacelab computers. MMU tape motion must be minimized during typical flight operations to avoid a loss of scientific data. A projection of the tape motion is needed for evaluation of candidate tape layouts. A computer simulation of the scheduled and unscheduled MMU tape accesses is developed for this purpose. This simulation permits evaluations of candidate tape layouts by tracking and summarizing tape movements. The factors that affect tape travel are investigated and a heuristic is developed to find a good tape layout. An improved tape layout for Spacelab I is selected after the evaluation of fourteen candidates. The simulation model will provide the ability to determine MMU layouts that substantially decrease the tape travel on future Spacelab flights.

  5. Using data tagging to improve the performance of Kanerva's sparse distributed memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, David

    1988-01-01

    The standard formulation of Kanerva's sparse distributed memory (SDM) involves the selection of a large number of data storage locations, followed by averaging the data contained in those locations to reconstruct the stored data. A variant of this model is discussed, in which the predominant pattern is the focus of reconstruction. First, one architecture is proposed which returns the predominant pattern rather than the average pattern. However, this model will require too much storage for most uses. Next, a hybrid model is proposed, called tagged SDM, which approximates the results of the predominant pattern machine, but is nearly as efficient as Kanerva's original formulation. Finally, some experimental results are shown which confirm that significant improvements in the recall capability of SDM can be achieved using the tagged architecture.

  6. Working memory load can both improve and impair selective attention: evidence from the Navon paradigm.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Lubna; de Fockert, Jan W

    2012-10-01

    Selective attention to relevant targets has been shown to depend on the availability of working memory (WM). Under conditions of high WM load, processing of irrelevant distractors is enhanced. Here we showed that this detrimental effect of WM load on selective attention efficiency is reversed when the task requires global- rather than local-level processing. Participants were asked to attend to either the local or the global level of a hierarchical Navon stimulus while keeping either a low or a high load in WM. In line with previous findings, during attention to the local level, distractors at the global level produced more interference under high than under low WM load. By contrast, loading WM had the opposite effect of improving selective attention during attention to the global level. The findings demonstrate that the impact of WM load on selective attention is not invariant, but rather is dependent on the level of the to-be-attended information.

  7. Interpolated memory tests reduce mind wandering and improve learning of online lectures

    PubMed Central

    Szpunar, Karl K.; Khan, Novall Y.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    The recent emergence and popularity of online educational resources brings with it challenges for educators to optimize the dissemination of online content. Here we provide evidence that points toward a solution for the difficulty that students frequently report in sustaining attention to online lectures over extended periods. In two experiments, we demonstrate that the simple act of interpolating online lectures with memory tests can help students sustain attention to lecture content in a manner that discourages task-irrelevant mind wandering activities, encourages task-relevant note-taking activities, and improves learning. Importantly, frequent testing was associated with reduced anxiety toward a final cumulative test and also with reductions in subjective estimates of cognitive demand. Our findings suggest a potentially key role for interpolated testing in the development and dissemination of online educational content. PMID:23576743

  8. Interpolated memory tests reduce mind wandering and improve learning of online lectures.

    PubMed

    Szpunar, Karl K; Khan, Novall Y; Schacter, Daniel L

    2013-04-16

    The recent emergence and popularity of online educational resources brings with it challenges for educators to optimize the dissemination of online content. Here we provide evidence that points toward a solution for the difficulty that students frequently report in sustaining attention to online lectures over extended periods. In two experiments, we demonstrate that the simple act of interpolating online lectures with memory tests can help students sustain attention to lecture content in a manner that discourages task-irrelevant mind wandering activities, encourages task-relevant note-taking activities, and improves learning. Importantly, frequent testing was associated with reduced anxiety toward a final cumulative test and also with reductions in subjective estimates of cognitive demand. Our findings suggest a potentially key role for interpolated testing in the development and dissemination of online educational content.

  9. Spermidine-induced improvement of memory involves a cross-talk between protein kinases C and A.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Gustavo P; Mello, Carlos F; Bochi, Guilherme V; Pazini, Andréia M; Rosa, Michelle M; Ferreira, Juliano; Rubin, Maribel A

    2012-07-01

    Spermidine (SPD) is an endogenous aliphatic amine with polycationic structure that modulates NMDA receptor activity and improves memory. Recent evidence suggests that cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) play a role in SPD-induced improvement of memory. In the current study, we determined whether the calcium-dependent protein kinase (PKC) signaling pathway is involved in SPD-induced facilitation of memory of inhibitory avoidance task in adult rats. The post-training administration of the PKC inhibitor, 3-[1-(dimethylaminopropyl)indol-3-yl]-4-(indol-3-yl)maleimide hydrochloride [GF 109203X, 2.5 ρmol, intrahippocampal (ih)] with SPD (0.2 nmol, ih) prevented memory improvement induced by SPD. Intrahippocampal administration of SPD (0.2 nmol) facilitated PKC phosphorylation in the hippocampus, 30 min after administration. GF 109203X prevented not only the stimulatory effect of SPD on PKC but also PKA and CREB phosphorylation. These results suggest that memory enhancement induced by the ih administration of SPD involves the cross-talk between PKC and PKA/CREB, with sequential activation of PKC and PKA/CREB pathways, in rats.

  10. Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Au, Jacky; Sheehan, Ellen; Tsai, Nancy; Duncan, Greg J; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jaeggi, Susanne M

    2015-04-01

    Working memory (WM), the ability to store and manipulate information for short periods of time, is an important predictor of scholastic aptitude and a critical bottleneck underlying higher-order cognitive processes, including controlled attention and reasoning. Recent interventions targeting WM have suggested plasticity of the WM system by demonstrating improvements in both trained and untrained WM tasks. However, evidence on transfer of improved WM into more general cognitive domains such as fluid intelligence (Gf) has been more equivocal. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis focusing on one specific training program, n-back. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar for all n-back training studies with Gf outcome measures, a control group, and healthy participants between 18 and 50 years of age. In total, we included 20 studies in our analyses that met our criteria and found a small but significant positive effect of n-back training on improving Gf. Several factors that moderate this transfer are identified and discussed. We conclude that short-term cognitive training on the order of weeks can result in beneficial effects in important cognitive functions as measured by laboratory tests.

  11. [Ginkgo leaves tablet improved the memory quotient of patients with mild cognitive impairment: a clinical observation].

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhong-Hai; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Pu, Bin-Hong; Xiao, Shi-Yuan; Dong, Zhen-Hua; Li, Ya-Ming

    2014-03-01

    To observe the effect of Ginkgo Leaves Tablet (GLT) on memory quotient (MQ) of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. One hundred and thirteen patients were randomly assigned to the control group (55 cases) and the treatment group (58 cases). Patients in the control group received dietetic therapy and physical exercises, while those in the treatment group additionally took GLT, 19.2 mg each time, three times daily. The treatment course was 12 months for all. The MQ of all the patients was assessed by WMS-RC before treatment,at 6-month of treatment, and 12-month of treatment. Compared with the control group, the improvement of MQ increased in the treatment group 0.5 and 1 year after treatment (P < 0.05). The clinical efficiency of MQ obviously increased in the treatment group (48.28% and 50.00%), showing statistical difference when compared with the control group (30.91% and 27.27%, P < 0.05, P < 0.01). There was statistical difference in added scores of recognition, regeneration, understanding, and recitation test at 6-month of treatment and 12-month of treatment between the treatment group and the control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). GLT was effective in improving MQ of MCI patients, especially in improving recognition, regeneration, understanding, and recitation test.

  12. The Importance of Knowing When You Don't Remember: Neural Signaling of Retrieval Failure Predicts Memory Improvement Over Time.

    PubMed

    Fandakova, Yana; Bunge, Silvia A; Wendelken, Carter; Desautels, Peter; Hunter, Lauren; Lee, Joshua K; Ghetti, Simona

    2016-11-23

    Just as the ability to remember prior events is critical for guiding our decision-making, so too is the ability to recognize the limitations of our memory. Indeed, we hypothesize that neural signaling of retrieval failure promotes more accurate memory judgments over time. To test this hypothesis, we collected longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 8 to 9 years olds, 10 to 12 years olds, and adults, with two time points spaced approximately 1.4 years apart (198 scan sessions in total). Participants performed an episodic memory retrieval task in which they could either select a response or report uncertainty about the target memory detail. Children who engaged anterior insula more strongly during inaccurate or uncertain responses exhibited greater longitudinal increases in anterior prefrontal cortex activation for decisions to report uncertainty; both of these neural variables predicted improvements in episodic memory. Together, the results suggest that the brain processes supporting effective cognitive control and decision-making continue to develop in middle childhood and play an important role for memory development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Increase in c-Fos and Arc protein in retrosplenial cortex after memory-improving lateral hypothalamic electrical stimulation treatment.

    PubMed

    Kádár, Elisabeth; Vico-Varela, Eva; Aldavert-Vera, Laura; Huguet, Gemma; Morgado-Bernal, Ignacio; Segura-Torres, Pilar

    2016-02-01

    Post-training Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) of the lateral hypothalamus (LH), a kind of rewarding deep-brain stimulation, potentiates learning and memory and increases c-Fos protein expression in specific memory-related brain regions. In a previous study, Aldavert-Vera et al. (2013) reported that post-acquisition LH-ICSS improved 48 h retention of a delay two-way active avoidance conditioning (TWAA) and induced c-Fos expression increase in CA3 at 90 min after administration. Nevertheless, this c-Fos induction was only observed after the acquisition session and not after the retention test at 48 h, when the ICSS improving effect was observed on memory. This current study aims to examine the hypothesis that post-training ICSS treatment may stimulate c-Fos expression at the time of the TWAA retention test in retrosplenial cortex (RSC), a hippocampus-related brain region more closely related with long-lasting memory storage. Effects of ICSS on Arc protein, a marker of memory-associated synaptic plasticity, were also measured by immunohistochemistry in granular and agranular RSC. The most innovative results are that the ICSS treatment potentiates the c-Fos induction across TWAA conditions (no conditioning, acquisition and retention), specifically in layer V of the granular RSC, along with increases of Arc protein levels in the granular but not in agranular areas of RSC ipsilaterally few hours after ICSS. This leads us to suggest that plasticity-related protein activation in the granular RSC could be involved in the positive modulatory effects of ICSS on TWAA memory consolidation, opening a new approach for future research in ICSS memory facilitation.

  14. Early exercise promotes positive hippocampal plasticity and improves spatial memory in the adult life of rats.

    PubMed

    Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; Unsain, Nicolas; Mascó, Daniel Hugo; Toscano-Silva, Michelle; de Amorim, Henrique Alves; Silva Araújo, Bruno Henrique; Simões, Priscila Santos Rodrigues; Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria da Graça; Mortara, Renato Arruda; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2012-02-01

    There is a great deal of evidence showing the capacity of physical exercise to enhance cognitive function, reduce anxiety and depression, and protect the brain against neurodegenerative disorders. Although the effects of exercise are well documented in the mature brain, the influence of exercise in the developing brain has been poorly explored. Therefore, we investigated the morphological and functional hippocampal changes in adult rats submitted to daily treadmill exercise during the adolescent period. Male Wistar rats aged 21 postnatal days old (P21) were divided into two groups: exercise and control. Animals in the exercise group were submitted to daily exercise on the treadmill between P21 and P60. Running time and speed gradually increased over this period, reaching a maximum of 18 m/min for 60 min. After the aerobic exercise program (P60), histological and behavioral (water maze) analyses were performed. The results show that early-life exercise increased mossy fibers density and hippocampal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B, improved spatial learning and memory, and enhanced capacity to evoke spatial memories in later stages (when measured at P96). It is important to point out that while physical exercise induces hippocampal plasticity, degenerative effects could appear in undue conditions of physical or psychological stress. In this regard, we also showed that the exercise protocol used here did not induce inflammatory response and degenerating neurons in the hippocampal formation of developing rats. Our findings demonstrate that physical exercise during postnatal development results in positive changes for the hippocampal formation, both in structure and function. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Improvement of episodic memory in persons with mild cognitive impairment and healthy older adults: evidence from a cognitive intervention program.

    PubMed

    Belleville, Sylvie; Gilbert, Brigitte; Fontaine, Francine; Gagnon, Lise; Ménard, Edith; Gauthier, Serge

    2006-01-01

    The efficacy of cognitive training was assessed in persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and persons with normal cognitive aging. Forty-seven participants were included in this study: 28 with MCI and 17 controls. Twenty-one participants received intervention (20 MCI and 9 controls) and 16 participants (8 MCI and 8 controls) received no intervention (waiting-list group). The intervention focused on teaching episodic memory strategies. Three tasks of episodic memory (list recall, face-name association, text memory) were used as primary outcome measures. Results were analyzed using analyses of variance. The intervention effect (pre- and post-intervention difference) was significant on two of the primary outcome measures (delayed list recall and face-name association). A significant pre-post-effect was also found on measures of subjective memory and well-being. There was no improvement in the performance of groups of individuals with MCI and normal elderly persons who did not receive the intervention. These results suggest that persons with MCI can improve their performance on episodic memory when provided with cognitive training.

  16. Feasibility of a 6-month exercise and recreation program to improve executive functioning and memory of individuals with chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Debbie; Eng, Janice J.; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Tawashy, Amira E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity has been shown to be beneficial for improving cognitive function in healthy older adults. However there is limited research on the benefits of physical activity on cognitive performance after stroke. Objective To determine if a combined exercise and recreation program can improve the executive functioning and memory in individuals with chronic stroke. Methods 11 ambulatory subjects with chronic stroke (mean age 67±10.8 years) participated in a 6 month program of exercise for 2 hours and recreation for 1 hour weekly. Executive functions and memory were assessed at baseline, 3, and 6 months by a battery of standard neuropsychological tests including response inhibition, cognitive flexibility, dual task (motor plus cognitive) and memory. Motor ability was also assessed. Non-parametric statistics were used to assess the differences between the three assessments. Results At baseline, substantial deficits in all aspects of executive functioning were revealed. From baseline to 3 mo, the mean improvement was 10±14% (χ2=9.3, p=0.0025) for the dual task (Walking while Talking), −3±22% (χ2=2.4, p>0.05) for response inhibition (Stroop test) and 61±69% (χ2=8.0, p=0.04) for memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test - long delay). From baseline to 6 months, the mean improvement was 7±7.5% (χ2=12.0, p=0.007) for response inhibition (Stroop Test). In addition, knee strength and walking speed improved significantly at 3 months. Conclusions This pilot study suggests that exercise and recreation may improve memory and executive functions of community dwelling individuals with stroke. Further studies require a larger sample size and a control group. PMID:20460494

  17. Collaboration can improve individual recognition memory: evidence from immediate and delayed tests.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, Suparna; Pereira-Pasarin, Luciane P

    2007-02-01

    In two experiments, we tested the effects of collaboration on individual recognition memory. In Experiment 1, participants studied pictures and words either for meaning or for surface properties and made recognition memory judgments individually either following group discussion among 3 members (collaborative condition) or in the absence of discussion (noncollaborative condition). Levels of processing and picture superiority effects were replicated, and collaboration significantly increased individual recognition memory. Experiment 2 replicated this positive effect and showed that even though memory sensitivity declined at longer delays (48 h and 1 week), collaboration continued to exert a positive influence. These findings show that (1) consensus is not necessary for producing benefits of collaboration on individual recognition, (2) collaborative facilitation on individual memory is robust, and (3) collaboration enhances individual memory further if conditions predispose individual accuracy in the absence of collaboration.

  18. Improvement of autobiographic memory recovery by means of sad music in Alzheimer's Disease type dementia.

    PubMed

    Meilán García, Juan José; Iodice, Rosario; Carro, Juan; Sánchez, José Antonio; Palmero, Francisco; Mateos, Ana María

    2012-06-01

    Autobiographic memory undergoes progressive deterioration during the evolution of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was to analyze mechanisms which facilitate recovery of autobiographic memories. We used a repeatedly employed mechanism, music, with the addition of an emotional factor. Autobiographic memory provoked by a variety of sounds (music which was happy, sad, lacking emotion, ambient noise in a coffee bar and no sound) was analyzed in a sample of 25 patients with AD. Emotional music, especially sad music for remote memories, was found to be the most effective kind for recall of autobiographic experiences. The factor evoking the memory is not the music itself, but rather the emotion associated with it, and is useful for semantic rather than episodic memory.

  19. Improving Problem Solving in Primary School Students: The Effect of a Training Programme Focusing on Metacognition and Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornoldi, Cesare; Carretti, Barbara; Drusi, Silvia; Tencati, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite doubts voiced on their efficacy, a series of studies has been carried out on the capacity of training programmes to improve academic and reasoning skills by focusing on underlying cognitive abilities and working memory in particular. No systematic efforts have been made, however, to test training programmes that involve both…

  20. Improving Reading Comprehension in Reading and Listening Settings: The Effect of Two Training Programmes Focusing on Metacognition and Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carretti, Barbara; Caldarola, Nadia; Tencati, Chiara; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Background: Metacognition and working memory (WM) have been found associated with success in reading comprehension, but no studies have examined their combined effect on the training of reading comprehension. Another open question concerns the role of listening comprehension: In particular, it is not clear whether training to improve reading…

  1. Improving Problem Solving in Primary School Students: The Effect of a Training Programme Focusing on Metacognition and Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornoldi, Cesare; Carretti, Barbara; Drusi, Silvia; Tencati, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite doubts voiced on their efficacy, a series of studies has been carried out on the capacity of training programmes to improve academic and reasoning skills by focusing on underlying cognitive abilities and working memory in particular. No systematic efforts have been made, however, to test training programmes that involve both…

  2. Daily exercise improves memory, stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and modulates immune and neuroimmune cytokines in aging rats

    PubMed Central

    Speisman, Rachel. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Rani, Asha; Foster, Thomas C.; Ormerod, Brandi K.

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether daily exercise modulates immune and neuroimmune cytokines, hippocampus-dependent behavior and hippocampal neurogenesis in aging male F344 rats (18 mo upon arrival). Twelve weeks after conditioned running or control group assignment (n = 6 per group), the rats were trained and tested in a rapid water maze followed by an inhibitory avoidance task. The rats were BrdU-injected beginning 12 days after behavioral testing and killed 3 weeks later to quantify cytokines and neurogenesis. Daily exercise increased neurogenesis and improved immediate and 24 h water maze discrimination index (DI) scores and 24 h inhibitory avoidance retention latencies. Daily exercise decreased cortical VEGF, hippocampal IL-1β and serum MCP-1, GRO-KC and leptin levels but increased hippocampal GRO-KC and IL-18 concentrations. Serum leptin concentration correlated negatively with new neuron number and both DI scores while hippocampal IL-1β concentration correlated negatively with memory scores in both tasks. Cortical VEGF, serum GRO-KC and serum MCP-1 levels correlated negatively with immediate DI score and we found a novel positive correlation between hippocampal IL-18 and GRO-KC levels and new neuron number. Pathway analyses revealed distinct serum, hippocampal and cortical compartment cytokine relationships. Our results suggest that daily exercise potentially improves cognition in aging rats by modulating hippocampal neurogenesis and immune and neuroimmune cytokine signaling. PMID:23078985

  3. Can physical exercise in old age improve memory and hippocampal function?

    PubMed

    Duzel, Emrah; van Praag, Henriette; Sendtner, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Physical exercise can convey a protective effect against cognitive decline in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. While the long-term health-promoting and protective effects of exercise are encouraging, it's potential to induce neuronal and vascular plasticity in the ageing brain is still poorly understood. It remains unclear whether exercise slows the trajectory of normal ageing by modifying vascular and metabolic risk factors and/or consistently boosts brain function by inducing structural and neurochemical changes in the hippocampus and related medial temporal lobe circuitry-brain areas that are important for learning and memory. Hence, it remains to be established to what extent exercise interventions in old age can improve brain plasticity above and beyond preservation of function. Existing data suggest that exercise trials aiming for improvement and preservation may require different outcome measures and that the balance between the two may depend on exercise intensity and duration, the presence of preclinical Alzheimer's disease pathology, vascular and metabolic risk factors and genetic variability.

  4. Improving protein disorder prediction by deep bidirectional long short-term memory recurrent neural networks.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jack; Yang, Yuedong; Paliwal, Kuldip; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2017-03-01

    Capturing long-range interactions between structural but not sequence neighbors of proteins is a long-standing challenging problem in bioinformatics. Recently, long short-term memory (LSTM) networks have significantly improved the accuracy of speech and image classification problems by remembering useful past information in long sequential events. Here, we have implemented deep bidirectional LSTM recurrent neural networks in the problem of protein intrinsic disorder prediction. The new method, named SPOT-Disorder, has steadily improved over a similar method using a traditional, window-based neural network (SPINE-D) in all datasets tested without separate training on short and long disordered regions. Independent tests on four other datasets including the datasets from critical assessment of structure prediction (CASP) techniques and >10 000 annotated proteins from MobiDB, confirmed SPOT-Disorder as one of the best methods in disorder prediction. Moreover, initial studies indicate that the method is more accurate in predicting functional sites in disordered regions. These results highlight the usefulness combining LSTM with deep bidirectional recurrent neural networks in capturing non-local, long-range interactions for bioinformatics applications. SPOT-disorder is available as a web server and as a standalone program at: http://sparks-lab.org/server/SPOT-disorder/index.php . j.hanson@griffith.edu.au or yuedong.yang@griffith.edu.au or yaoqi.zhou@griffith.edu.au. Supplementary data is available at Bioinformatics online.

  5. Can physical exercise in old age improve memory and hippocampal function?

    PubMed Central

    van Praag, Henriette; Sendtner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise can convey a protective effect against cognitive decline in ageing and Alzheimer’s disease. While the long-term health-promoting and protective effects of exercise are encouraging, it’s potential to induce neuronal and vascular plasticity in the ageing brain is still poorly understood. It remains unclear whether exercise slows the trajectory of normal ageing by modifying vascular and metabolic risk factors and/or consistently boosts brain function by inducing structural and neurochemical changes in the hippocampus and related medial temporal lobe circuitry—brain areas that are important for learning and memory. Hence, it remains to be established to what extent exercise interventions in old age can improve brain plasticity above and beyond preservation of function. Existing data suggest that exercise trials aiming for improvement and preservation may require different outcome measures and that the balance between the two may depend on exercise intensity and duration, the presence of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease pathology, vascular and metabolic risk factors and genetic variability. PMID:26912638

  6. Novel Television-Based Cognitive Training Improves Working Memory and Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bureš, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60–87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of “adequate” to “high” system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition. PMID:24992187

  7. Novel television-based cognitive training improves working memory and executive function.

    PubMed

    Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bureš, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60-87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of "adequate" to "high" system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition.

  8. [Study on effect of astragali radix polysaccharides in improving learning and memory functions in aged rats and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Yao, Hui; Gu, Li-Jia; Guo, Jian-You

    2014-06-01

    To observe the effect of Astragali Radix polysaccharides (APS) on the learning and memory functions of aged rats, in order to explore its mechanism for improving the learning and memory functions. Natural aging female SD rats were selected in the animal model and randomly divided into the control group, the APS low-dose group (50 mg x kg(-1)), the APS high-dose group (150 mg x kg(-1)) and the piracetam-treated group (560 mg x kg(-1)). They were orally administered with the corresponding drugs for consecutively 60 days. Besides, a young control group was set. The learning and memory functions of the rats were tested by the open-field test and the Morris water maze task. The Western-blot method was used to observe the levels of relevant neural plasticity protein N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA receptor) in hippocampus, calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II), protein kinase (PKA), the phosphorylation level of CAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and the protein expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF). In this study, the authors found that the learning and memory functions and the hippocampus neural plasticity protein expression of the aged rat group were much lower than that of the young control group (P < 0.01). Compared with the aged rat group, the APS group showed the significant improvement in the impaired learning and memory functions of aged rats and the up-regulation in the hippocampus neural plasticity protein expression. The results showed that APS may improve the learning and memory functions of aged rats by increasing the expressions of relevant neural plasticity proteins.

  9. Intravenous ascorbate improves spatial memory in middle-aged APP/PSEN1 and wild type mice

    PubMed Central

    Kennard, John A.; Harrison, Fiona E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of a single intravenous (i.v.) dose of Vitamin C (ascorbate, ASC) on spatial memory in APP/PSEN1 mice, an Alzheimer's disease model. First, we confirmed the uptake time course in ASC-depleted gulo (−/−) mice, which cannot synthesize ASC. Differential tissue uptake was seen based on ASC transporter distribution. Liver (SVCT1 & SVCT2) ASC was elevated at 30, 60 and 120 min post-treatment (125 mg/kg, i.v.), whereas spleen (SVCT2) ASC increased at 60 and 120 min. There was no detectable change in cortical (SVCT2 at choroid plexus, and neurons) ASC within the 2-hour interval, although the cortex preferentially retained ASC. APP/PSEN1 and wild type (WT) mice at three ages (3, 9, or 20 months) were treated with ASC (125 mg/kg, i.v.) or saline 45 min before testing on the Modified Y-maze, a two-trial task of spatial memory. Memory declined with age and ASC treatment improved performance in 9 month-old APP/PSEN1 and WT mice. APP/PSEN1 mice displayed no behavioral impairment relative to WT controls. Although dopamine and metabolite DOPAC decreased in the nucleus accumbens with age, and improved spatial memory was correlated with increased dopamine in saline treated mice, acute ASC treatment did not alter monoamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. These data show that the Modified Y-maze is sensitive to age-related deficits, but not additional memory deficits due to amyloid pathology in APP/PSEN1 mice. They also suggest improvements in short-term spatial memory were not due to changes in the neuropathological features of AD or monoamine signaling. PMID:24508240

  10. An Adaptive Memory Interface Controller for Improving Bandwidth Utilization of Hybrid and Reconfigurable Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Castellana, Vito G.; Tumeo, Antonino; Ferrandi, Fabrizio

    2014-05-30

    Emerging applications such as data mining, bioinformatics, knowledge discovery, social network analysis are irregular. They use data structures based on pointers or linked lists, such as graphs, unbalanced trees or unstructures grids, which generates unpredictable memory accesses. These data structures usually are large, but difficult to partition. These applications mostly are memory bandwidth bounded and have high synchronization intensity. However, they also have large amounts of inherent dynamic parallelism, because they potentially perform a task for each one of the element they are exploring. Several efforts are looking at accelerating these applications on hybrid architectures, which integrate general purpose processors with reconfigurable devices. Some solutions, which demonstrated significant speedups, include custom-hand tuned accelerators or even full processor architectures on the reconfigurable logic. In this paper we present an approach for the automatic synthesis of accelerators from C, targeted at irregular applications. In contrast to typical High Level Synthesis paradigms, which construct a centralized Finite State Machine, our approach generates dynamically scheduled hardware components. While parallelism exploitation in typical HLS-generated accelerators is usually bound within a single execution flow, our solution allows concurrently running multiple execution flow, thus also exploiting the coarser grain task parallelism of irregular applications. Our approach supports multiple, multi-ported and distributed memories, and atomic memory operations. Its main objective is parallelizing as many memory operations as possible, independently from their execution time, to maximize the memory bandwidth utilization. This significantly differs from current HLS flows, which usually consider a single memory port and require precise scheduling of memory operations. A key innovation of our approach is the generation of a memory interface controller, which

  11. Surface Engineering of ITO Substrates to Improve the Memory Performance of an Asymmetric Conjugated Molecule with a Side Chain.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiang; Cheng, Xue-Feng; Xiao, Xin; He, Jing-Hui; Xu, Qing-Feng; Li, Hua; Li, Na-Jun; Chen, Dong-Yun; Lu, Jian-Mei

    2017-09-05

    Organic multilevel random resistive access memory (RRAM) devices with an electrode/organic layer/electrode sandwich-like structure suffer from poor reproducibility, such as low effective ternary device yields and a wide threshold voltage distribution, and improvements through organic material renovation are rather limited. In contrast, engineering of the electrode surfaces rather than molecule design has been demonstrated to boost the performance of organic electronics effectively. Herein, we introduce surface engineering into organic multilevel RRAMs to enhance their ternary memory performance. A new asymmetric conjugated molecule composed of phenothiazine and malononitrile with a side chain (PTZ-PTZO-CN) was fabricated in an indium tin oxide (ITO)/PTZ-PTZO-CN/Al sandwich-like memory device. Modification of the ITO substrate with a phosphonic acid (PA) prior to device fabrication increased the ternary device yield (the ratio of effective ternary device) and narrowed the threshold voltage distribution. The crystallinity analysis revealed that PTZ-PTZO-CN grown on untreated ITO crystallized into two phases. After the surface engineering of ITO, this crystalline ambiguity was eliminated and a sole crystal phase was obtained that was the same as in the powder state. The unified crystal structure and improved grain mosaicity resulted in a lower threshold voltage and, therefore, a higher ternary device yield. Our result demonstrated that PA modification also improved the memory performance of an asymmetric conjugated molecule with a side chain. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Adaptive working memory training improved brain function in human immunodeficiency virus–seropositive patients

    PubMed Central

    Løhaugen, Gro C.; Andres, Tamara; Jiang, Caroline S.; Douet, Vanessa; Tanizaki, Naomi; Walker, Christina; Castillo, Deborrah; Lim, Ahnate; Skranes, Jon; Otoshi, Chad; Miller, Eric N.; Ernst, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an adaptive working memory (WM) training (WMT) program, the corresponding neural correlates, and LMX1A‐rs4657412 polymorphism on the adaptive WMT, in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) participants compared to seronegative (SN) controls. Methods A total of 201 of 206 qualified participants completed baseline assessments before randomization to 25 sessions of adaptive WMT or nonadaptive WMT. A total of 74 of 76 (34 HIV, 42 SN) completed adaptive WMT and all 40 completed nonadaptive WMT (20 HIV, 20 SN) and were assessed after 1 month, and 55 adaptive WMT participants were also assessed after 6 months. Nontrained near‐transfer WM tests (Digit‐Span, Spatial‐Span), self‐reported executive functioning, and functional magnetic resonance images during 1‐back and 2‐back tasks were performed at baseline and each follow‐up visit, and LMX1A‐rs4657412 was genotyped in all participants. Results Although HIV participants had slightly lower cognitive performance and start index than SN at baseline, both groups improved on improvement index (>30%; false discovery rate [FDR] corrected p < 0.0008) and nontrained WM tests after adaptive WMT (FDR corrected, p ≤ 0.001), but not after nonadaptive WMT (training by training type corrected, p = 0.01 to p = 0.05) 1 month later. HIV participants (especially LMX1A‐G carriers) also had poorer self‐reported executive functioning than SN, but both groups reported improvements after adaptive WMT (Global: training FDR corrected, p = 0.004), and only HIV participants improved after nonadaptive WMT. HIV participants also had greater frontal activation than SN at baseline, but brain activation decreased in both groups at 1 and 6 months after adaptive WMT (FDR corrected, p < 0.0001), with normalization of brain activation in HIV participants, especially the LMX1A‐AA carriers (LMX1A genotype by HIV status, cluster‐corrected‐p < 0

  13. Adaptive working memory training improved brain function in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients.

    PubMed

    Chang, Linda; Løhaugen, Gro C; Andres, Tamara; Jiang, Caroline S; Douet, Vanessa; Tanizaki, Naomi; Walker, Christina; Castillo, Deborrah; Lim, Ahnate; Skranes, Jon; Otoshi, Chad; Miller, Eric N; Ernst, Thomas M

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an adaptive working memory (WM) training (WMT) program, the corresponding neural correlates, and LMX1A-rs4657412 polymorphism on the adaptive WMT, in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) participants compared to seronegative (SN) controls. A total of 201 of 206 qualified participants completed baseline assessments before randomization to 25 sessions of adaptive WMT or nonadaptive WMT. A total of 74 of 76 (34 HIV, 42 SN) completed adaptive WMT and all 40 completed nonadaptive WMT (20 HIV, 20 SN) and were assessed after 1 month, and 55 adaptive WMT participants were also assessed after 6 months. Nontrained near-transfer WM tests (Digit-Span, Spatial-Span), self-reported executive functioning, and functional magnetic resonance images during 1-back and 2-back tasks were performed at baseline and each follow-up visit, and LMX1A-rs4657412 was genotyped in all participants. Although HIV participants had slightly lower cognitive performance and start index than SN at baseline, both groups improved on improvement index (>30%; false discovery rate [FDR] corrected p < 0.0008) and nontrained WM tests after adaptive WMT (FDR corrected, p ≤ 0.001), but not after nonadaptive WMT (training by training type corrected, p = 0.01 to p = 0.05) 1 month later. HIV participants (especially LMX1A-G carriers) also had poorer self-reported executive functioning than SN, but both groups reported improvements after adaptive WMT (Global: training FDR corrected, p = 0.004), and only HIV participants improved after nonadaptive WMT. HIV participants also had greater frontal activation than SN at baseline, but brain activation decreased in both groups at 1 and 6 months after adaptive WMT (FDR corrected, p < 0.0001), with normalization of brain activation in HIV participants, especially the LMX1A-AA carriers (LMX1A genotype by HIV status, cluster-corrected-p < 0.0001). Adaptive WMT, but not nonadaptive WMT, improved WM performance

  14. Does an Activity-Based Learning Strategy Improve Preschool Children's Memory for Narrative Passages?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biazak, Janna E.; Marley, Scott C.; Levin, Joel R.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary embodiment theory's indexical hypothesis predicts that engaging in text-relevant activity while listening to a story will: (1) enhance memory for enacted story content; and, (2) result in relatively greater memory enhancement for enacted atypical events than for typical ones ([Glenberg and Robertson, 1999] and [Glenberg and Robertson,…

  15. Heterogeneity in memory training improvement among older adults: a latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Fandakova, Yana; Shing, Yee Lee; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which older adults' associative memory functioning can be modified through instruction and practice based on individuals' memory status. Here 42 younger adults and 42 older adults performed four tasks that measured strategic and binding aspects of memory. With latent class analysis, two classes of older adults were identified. The first class showed higher memory functioning similar to younger adults, while the second class was characterised by lower memory functioning. A subsequent analysis examined whether the high- and low-performing older adults differ in patterns of gain from receiving instruction and practice on a mnemonic strategy. The results revealed that high-performing older adults, similar to younger adults, showed higher associative memory performance under explicit intentional encoding instruction and after extensive practice of the strategy. In contrast, low-performing older adults benefited more from directed instruction of the strategy. The results are discussed in relation to individual differences in the functional status of mechanisms underlying memory functioning, and how these differences may lead to compensation or magnification of training gain. The present findings highlight the importance of considering differential memory processes to develop specific training paradigms that target the processes that show the most prominent decline.

  16. No Evidence of Intelligence Improvement after Working Memory Training: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redick, Thomas S.; Shipstead, Zach; Harrison, Tyler L.; Hicks, Kenny L.; Fried, David E.; Hambrick, David Z.; Kane, Michael J.; Engle, Randall W.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous recent studies seem to provide evidence for the general intellectual benefits of working memory training. In reviews of the training literature, Shipstead, Redick, and Engle (2010, 2012) argued that the field should treat recent results with a critical eye. Many published working memory training studies suffer from design limitations…

  17. An investigation of errorless learning in memory-impaired patients: improving the technique and clarifying theory.

    PubMed

    Tailby, Rebecca; Haslam, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    In rehabilitating individuals who demonstrate severe memory impairment, errorless learning techniques have proven particularly effective. Prevention of errors during acquisition of information leads to better memory than does learning under errorful conditions. This paper presents results of a study investigating errorless learning in three patient groups: those demonstrating mild, moderate, and severe memory impairments. The first goal of the study was to trial a new version of errorless learning, one encouraging more active participation in learning by patients via the use of elaboration and self-generation. This technique led to significantly better memory performance than seen under standard errorless conditions. This finding highlights the value of encouraging active and meaningful involvement by patients in errorless learning, to build upon the benefits flowing from error prevention. A second goal of the study was to clarify the mechanisms underlying errorless learning. Memory performance under errorless and errorful conditions was compared within and across each group of patients, to facilitate theoretical insight into the memory processes underlying performance. The pattern of results observed was equivocal. The data most strongly supported the hypothesis that the benefits seen under errorless learning reflect the operation of residual explicit memory processes, however a concurrent role for implicit memory processes was not ruled out.

  18. No Evidence of Intelligence Improvement after Working Memory Training: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redick, Thomas S.; Shipstead, Zach; Harrison, Tyler L.; Hicks, Kenny L.; Fried, David E.; Hambrick, David Z.; Kane, Michael J.; Engle, Randall W.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous recent studies seem to provide evidence for the general intellectual benefits of working memory training. In reviews of the training literature, Shipstead, Redick, and Engle (2010, 2012) argued that the field should treat recent results with a critical eye. Many published working memory training studies suffer from design limitations…

  19. The production effect in adults with dysarthria: improving long-term verbal memory by vocal production.

    PubMed

    Icht, Michal; Bergerzon-Biton, Orly; Mama, Yaniv

    2016-12-29

    People show better memory for words read aloud relative to words read silently, the Production Effect (PE). Vocalisation at study makes the produced (aloud) words more distinct than the non-produced (silent) words, hence more memorable. Such encoding distinctiveness is related to the additional processing of aloud words that is later used during retrieval. This study investigated the PE in dysarthric adults, characterised by speech production difficulties. Their memory performance (recognition) was compared to a group of healthy adults. Results showed a PE for both groups. The production benefit was significantly larger for the dysarthric adults, despite their overall memory performance being reduced relative to controls. The results demonstrate long-term verbal memory deficits in dysarthria, and suggest that vocalisation (although impaired) may assist in remembering. Hence, vocalisation may be used in intervention contexts with this population, to compensate for memory decrease.

  20. Hippocampal CA3-dentate gyrus volume uniquely linked to improvement in associative memory from childhood to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Ana M; Flinn, Robert; Ofen, Noa

    2017-03-22

    Associative memory develops into adulthood and critically depends on the hippocampus. The hippocampus is a complex structure composed of subfields that are functionally-distinct, and anterior-posterior divisions along the length of the hippocampal horizontal axis that may also differ by cognitive correlates. Although each of these aspects has been considered independently, here we evaluate their relative contributions as correlates of age-related improvement in memory. Volumes of hippocampal subfields (subiculum, CA1-2, CA3-dentate gyrus) and anterior-posterior divisions (hippocampal head, body, tail) were manually segmented from high-resolution images in a sample of healthy participants (age 8-25 years). Adults had smaller CA3-dentate gyrus volume as compared to children, which accounted for 67% of the indirect effect of age predicting better associative memory via hippocampal volumes. Whereas hippocampal body volume demonstrated non-linear age differences, larger hippocampal body volume was weakly related to better associative memory only when accounting for the mutual correlation with subfields measured within that region. Thus, typical development of associative memory was largely explained by age-related differences in CA3-dentate gyrus.

  1. Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) improve scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Julio; Dang, Haixia; Gong, Mengjuan; Liu, Xinmin; Chen, Shi-Lin; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2007-10-01

    Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Brassicaceae), known as Maca, is a Peruvian hypocotyl growing exclusively between 4,000 and 4,500 m altitude in the central Peruvian Andes, particularly in Junin plateau. Previously, Black variety of Maca showed to be more beneficial than other varieties of Maca on learning and memory in ovariectomized mice on the water finding test. The present study aimed to test two different doses of aqueous (0.50 and 2.00 g/kg) and hydroalcoholic (0.25 and 1.00 g/kg) extracts of Black Maca administered for 35 days on memory impairment induced by scopolamine (1mg/kg body weight i.p.) in male mice. Memory and learning were evaluated using the water Morris maze and the step-down avoidance test. Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) activities in brain were also determined. Both extracts of Black Maca significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced memory impairment as measured in both the water Morris maze and the step-down avoidance tests. Black Maca extracts inhibited AChE activity, whereas MAO activity was not affected. These results indicate that Black Maca improves scopolamine-induced memory deficits.

  2. Tartary buckwheat improves cognition and memory function in an in vivo amyloid-β-induced Alzheimer model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Yeon; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Hae Song; Lee, Jeong Min; Yoon, Young-Ho; Lee, Sanghyun

    2013-03-01

    Protective effects of Tartary buckwheat (TB) and common buckwheat (CB) on amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced impairment of cognition and memory function were investigated in vivo in order to identify potential therapeutic agents against Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its associated progressive memory deficits, cognitive impairment, and personality changes. An in vivo mouse model of AD was created by injecting the brains of ICR mice with Aβ(25-35), a fragment of the full-length Aβ protein. Damage of mice recognition ability through following Aβ(25-35) brain injections was confirmed using the T-maze test, the object recognition test, and the Morris water maze test. Results of behavior tests in AD model showed that oral administration of the methanol (MeOH) extracts of TB and CB improved cognition and memory function following Aβ(25-35) injections. Furthermore, in groups receiving the MeOH extracts of TB and CB, lipid peroxidation was significantly inhibited, and nitric oxide levels in tissue, which are elevated by injection of Aβ(25-35), were also decrease. In particular, the MeOH extract of TB exerted a stronger protective activity than CB against Aβ(25-35)-induced memory and cognition impairment. The results indicate that TB may play a promising role in preventing or reversing memory and cognition loss associated with Aβ(25-35)-induced AD.

  3. The influences of juvenile diabetes on memory and hippocampal plasticity in rats: improving effects of glucagon-like peptide-1.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Takashi; Suzuki, Manabu; Kobayashi, Kazuma; Mori, Kazuhiro; Mogi, Yasuyuki; Oka, Jun-Ichiro

    2009-05-01

    Previous studies in children with diabetes found that hyperglycemia induces memory dysfunction. In this study, we investigated memory and synaptic plasticity in streptozotocine (STZ)-induced diabetic rats during the juvenile period. We further investigated the effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on the diabetes-induced profiles. STZ (85 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered to 17-day-old Wistar rats to induce type-1 juvenile diabetes mellitus (JDM). In the Y-maze test, JDM rats showed significant impairment of learning and memory, which were improved by GLP-1 (7-36) amide (1 microg/5 microl/rat, i.c.v.). Extracellular recording at Schaffer collateral synapses in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices showed that long-term potentiation and paired-pulse facilitation in JDM rats were similar to age-matched control rats. However, the input-output relation was strengthened, and long-term depression (LTD) and responses of N-methyl d-aspartic acid through NR2B subunits were weakened in the JDM rats. GLP-1 (7-36) amide (100 nM) increased the magnitude of LTD and the responses through NR2B in the JDM rats. These results indicate that the lack of LTD and NR2B responses may contribute to impairment of memory associated with JDM, suggesting the potential usefulness of GLP-1 in the treatment of memory dysfunction in JDM.

  4. Improvement of brain energy metabolism and cholinergic functions contributes to the beneficial effects of silibinin against streptozotocin induced memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Tota, Santoshkumar; Kamat, Pradeep Kumar; Shukla, Rakesh; Nath, Chandishwar

    2011-08-01

    Recently, silibinin, a clinically used hepatoprotectant, has been reported to prevent amyloid beta induced memory impairment by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in mice brain. However, the exact mechanism of neuroprotective effect of silibinin has not been properly studied especially in context of brain energy metabolism and cholinergic functions, the essential factors that undergo impairment in Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of silibinin on impairment in memory, brain energy metabolism and cholinergic function following intracerebral (IC) streptozotocin (STZ) administration in mice. STZ (0.5mg/kg), administered twice at an interval of 48h, caused significant memory impairment tested by Morris water maze. Further, STZ significantly decreased ATP and increased synaptosomal calcium level in mice brain. Increased oxidative and nitrosative stress was also observed in IC STZ injected mice brain. STZ IC induced memory impairment is associated with increased activity and mRNA expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and decreased α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α-7-nAChR) mRNA expression in mice brain. Pretreatment with silibinin (100 and 200mg/kg, po) attenuated STZ induced memory impairment by reducing oxidative and nitrosative stress and synaptosomal calcium ion level. Further, silibinin dose dependently restored ATP level indicating improvement in brain energy metabolism. The activity and mRNA expression of AChE was restored by silibinin. Moreover, α-7-nAChR mRNA expression was significantly increased by silibinin in STZ treated mice brain. The present study clearly demonstrates that beneficial effects of silibinin in STZ induced memory impairment in mice is due to improvement in brain energy metabolism and cholinergic function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Low-speed treadmill running exercise improves memory function after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Haruka; Hamakawa, Michiru; Ishida, Akimasa; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Nakashima, Hiroki; Ishida, Kazuto

    2013-04-15

    Physical exercise may enhance the recovery of impaired memory function in stroke rats. However the appropriate conditions of exercise and the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects are not yet known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect exercise intensity on memory function after cerebral infarction in rats. The animals were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min to induce stroke and were randomly assigned to four groups; Low-Ex, High-Ex, Non-Ex and Sham. On the fourth day after surgery, rats in the Low-Ex and High-Ex groups were forced to exercise using a treadmill for 30 min every day for four weeks. Memory functions were examined during the last 5 days of the experiment (27-32 days after MCAO) by three types of tests: an object recognition test, an object location test and a passive avoidance test. After the final memory test, the infarct volume, number of neurons and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus were analyzed by histochemistry. Memory functions in the Low-Ex group were improved in all tests. In the High-Ex group, only the passive avoidance test improved, but not the object recognition or object location tests. Both the Low-Ex and High-Ex groups had reduced infarct volumes. Although the number of neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of the Low-Ex and High-Ex groups was increased, the number for the Low-Ex group increased more than that for the High-Ex group. Moreover hippocampal MAP2 immunoreactivity in the High-Ex group was reduced compared to that in the Low-Ex group. These data suggest that the effects of exercise on memory impairment after cerebral infarction depend on exercise intensity.

  6. Right inferior frontal gyrus activation is associated with memory improvement in patients with left frontal low-grade glioma resection.

    PubMed

    Miotto, Eliane C; Balardin, Joana B; Vieira, Gilson; Sato, Joao R; Martin, Maria da Graça M; Scaff, Milberto; Teixeira, Manoel J; Junior, Edson Amaro

    2014-01-01

    Patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) have been studied as a model of functional brain reorganization due to their slow-growing nature. However, there is no information regarding which brain areas are involved during verbal memory encoding after extensive left frontal LGG resection. In addition, it remains unknown whether these patients can improve their memory performance after instructions to apply efficient strategies. The neural correlates of verbal memory encoding were investigated in patients who had undergone extensive left frontal lobe (LFL) LGG resections and healthy controls using fMRI both before and after directed instructions were given for semantic organizational strategies. Participants were scanned during the encoding of word lists under three different conditions before and after a brief period of practice. The conditions included semantically unrelated (UR), related-non-structured (RNS), and related-structured words (RS), allowing for different levels of semantic organization. All participants improved on memory recall and semantic strategy application after the instructions for the RNS condition. Healthy subjects showed increased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and middle frontal gyrus (MFG) during encoding for the RNS condition after the instructions. Patients with LFL excisions demonstrated increased activation in the right IFG for the RNS condition after instructions were given for the semantic strategies. Despite extensive damage in relevant areas that support verbal memory encoding and semantic strategy applications, patients that had undergone resections for LFL tumor could recruit the right-sided contralateral homologous areas after instructions were given and semantic strategies were practiced. These results provide insights into changes in brain activation areas typically implicated in verbal memory encoding and semantic processing.

  7. Attention training improves aberrant neural dynamics during working memory processing in veterans with PTSD.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Timothy J; Badura-Brack, Amy S; Becker, Katherine M; Ryan, Tara J; Bar-Haim, Yair; Pine, Daniel S; Khanna, Maya M; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Wilson, Tony W

    2016-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with executive functioning deficits, including disruptions in working memory (WM). Recent studies suggest that attention training reduces PTSD symptomatology, but the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. We used high-density magnetoencephalography (MEG) to evaluate whether attention training modulates brain regions serving WM processing in PTSD. Fourteen veterans with PTSD completed a WM task during a 306-sensor MEG recording before and after 8 sessions of attention training treatment. A matched comparison sample of 12 combat-exposed veterans without PTSD completed the same WM task during a single MEG session. To identify the spatiotemporal dynamics, each group's data were transformed into the time-frequency domain, and significant oscillatory brain responses were imaged using a beamforming approach. All participants exhibited activity in left hemispheric language areas consistent with a verbal WM task. Additionally, veterans with PTSD and combat-exposed healthy controls each exhibited oscillatory responses in right hemispheric homologue regions (e.g., right Broca's area); however, these responses were in opposite directions. Group differences in oscillatory activity emerged in the theta band (4-8 Hz) during encoding and in the alpha band (9-12 Hz) during maintenance and were significant in right prefrontal and right supramarginal and inferior parietal regions. Importantly, following attention training, these significant group differences were reduced or eliminated. This study provides initial evidence that attention training improves aberrant neural activity in brain networks serving WM processing.

  8. Performance improvement of gadolinium oxide resistive random access memory treated by hydrogen plasma immersion ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jer-Chyi Hsu, Chih-Hsien; Ye, Yu-Ren; Ai, Chi-Fong; Tsai, Wen-Fa

    2014-03-15

    Characteristics improvement of gadolinium oxide (Gd{sub x}O{sub y}) resistive random access memories (RRAMs) treated by hydrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) was investigated. With the hydrogen PIII treatment, the Gd{sub x}O{sub y} RRAMs exhibited low set/reset voltages and a high resistance ratio, which were attributed to the enhanced movement of oxygen ions within the Gd{sub x}O{sub y} films and the increased Schottky barrier height at Pt/Gd{sub x}O{sub y} interface, respectively. The resistive switching mechanism of Gd{sub x}O{sub y} RRAMs was dominated by Schottky emission, as proved by the area dependence of the resistance in the low resistance state. After the hydrogen PIII treatment, a retention time of more than 10{sup 4} s was achieved at an elevated measurement temperature. In addition, a stable cycling endurance with the resistance ratio of more than three orders of magnitude of the Gd{sub x}O{sub y} RRAMs can be obtained.

  9. Spermine improves recognition memory deficit in a rodent model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Velloso, Nádia A; Dalmolin, Gerusa D; Gomes, Guilherme M; Rubin, Maribel A; Canas, Paula M; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Mello, Carlos F

    2009-11-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with motor and cognitive impairment. Intrastriatal administration of quinolinic acid (QA) causes neurodegeneration, glial proliferation and cognitive impairment in animals, which are similar to these seen in human HD. Since polyamines improve memory in cognitive tasks, we now tested if the post-training intrastriatal administration of spermine, an agonist of the polyamine site at the NMDA receptor, reverses the deficits in the object recognition task induced by QA. Bilateral striatal injections of QA (180 or 360 nmol/site) caused object recognition impairment, neuronal death and reactive astrogliosis. A single injection of spermine (0.1 and 1 nmol/site), 5 days after QA injection, reversed QA-induced impairment of object recognition task. Spermine (0.1 nmol/site) also inhibited QA-induced reactive astrogliosis measured by a semi-quantitative determination of GFAP immunolabelling, but did not alter neuronal death, measured by a semi-quantitative determination of fluoro-Jade C staining. These results suggest that polyamine binding sites may be considered a novel therapeutic target to prevent reactive astrogliosis and mnemonic deficits in HD.

  10. tDCS selectively improves working memory in older adults with more education.

    PubMed

    Berryhill, Marian E; Jones, Kevin T

    2012-07-19

    Cognitive performance, including performance on working memory (WM) tasks declines with age. Changes in brain activations are one presumed contributor to WM decline in the healthy aging population. In particular, neuroimaging studies show that when older adults perform WM tasks there tends to be greater bilateral frontal activity than in younger adults. We hypothesized that stimulating the prefrontal cortex in healthy older adults would improve WM performance. To test this hypothesis we employed transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a neurostimulation technique in which small amounts of electrical current are applied to the scalp with the intent of modulating the activity in underlying neurons. Across three testing sessions we applied sham stimulation or anodal tDCS to the left (F3) or right (F4) prefrontal cortex to healthy older adults as they performed trials of verbal and visual 2-back WM tasks. Surprisingly, tDCS was uniformly beneficial across site and WM task, but only in older adults with more education. In the less educated group, tDCS provided no benefit to verbal or visual WM performance. We interpret these findings as evidence for differential frontal recruitment as a function of strategy when older adults perform WM tasks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Daily exercise improves memory, stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and modulates immune and neuroimmune cytokines in aging rats.

    PubMed

    Speisman, Rachel B; Kumar, Ashok; Rani, Asha; Foster, Thomas C; Ormerod, Brandi K

    2013-02-01

    We tested whether daily exercise modulates immune and neuroimmune cytokines, hippocampus-dependent behavior and hippocampal neurogenesis in aging male F344 rats (18mo upon arrival). Twelve weeks after conditioned running or control group assignment, the rats were trained and tested in a rapid water maze followed by an inhibitory avoidance task. The rats were BrdU-injected beginning 12days after behavioral testing and killed 3weeks later to quantify cytokines and neurogenesis. Daily exercise increased neurogenesis and improved immediate and 24h water maze discrimination index (DI) scores and 24h inhibitory avoidance retention latencies. Daily exercise decreased cortical VEGF, hippocampal IL-1β and serum MCP-1, GRO-KC and leptin levels but increased hippocampal GRO-KC and IL-18 concentrations. Serum leptin concentration correlated negatively with new neuron number and both DI scores while hippocampal IL-1β concentration correlated negatively with memory scores in both tasks. Cortical VEGF, serum GRO-KC and serum MCP-1 levels correlated negatively with immediate DI score and we found novel positive correlations between hippocampal IL-18 and GRO-KC levels and new neuron number. Pathway analyses revealed distinct serum, hippocampal and cortical compartment cytokine relationships. Our results suggest that daily exercise potentially improves cognition in aging rats by modulating hippocampal neurogenesis and immune and neuroimmune cytokine signaling. Our correlational data begin to provide a framework for systematically manipulating these immune and neuroimmune signaling molecules to test their effects on cognition and neurogenesis across lifespan in future experiments. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Chronic nicotine improves short-term memory selectively in a G72 mouse model of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hambsch, B; Keyworth, H; Lind, J; Otte, D M; Racz, I; Kitchen, I; Bailey, A; Zimmer, A

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The prevalence of smoking in schizophrenia patients is exceptionally high; it is not known why but many researchers suggest that smoking constitutes a form of self-medication. Among the symptoms of schizophrenia that may be improved by nicotine are cognitive deficits. Hence, we studied the effects of long-term nicotine administration on cognition in a genetic animal model of schizophrenia susceptibility, G72-transgenic (G72Tg) mice. Experimental Approach The effect of long-term nicotine or saline, administered by osmotic minipumps, on different cognitive domains was assessed in G72Tg mice and controls using a battery of behavioural tests. To investigate the mechanism underlying phenotypic differences, quantitative autoradiographic mapping of nACh receptor subtypes was performed in forebrain structures to explore effects of chronic nicotine exposure on nACh receptor density in wild-type (WT) and G72Tg mice. Key Results Genotype significantly affected the cognitive effects of chronic nicotine administration. Whereas chronic nicotine disrupted cognitive performance in WT mice, it was effective at restoring impaired prepulse inhibition, working memory and social recognition in G72Tg mice. However, long-term spatial learning was further impaired by nicotine in transgenic animals. In contrast, associative learning was protected by G72-expression against the adverse nicotine effects seen in WT animals. G72-expression did not decisively influence nicotine-induced up-regulation of the α4β2*subtype, whereas α7nACh receptor density was differentially altered by genotype or by a genotype·treatment interaction in specific brain areas, most notably hippocampal subregions. Conclusions and Implications Our data support the hypothesis that nicotine self-medication of schizophrenics improves cognitive symptoms, possibly by facilitating nicotine-induced α7nACh receptor activation in the hippocampus. PMID:24417347

  13. NGF improves spatial memory in aged rodents as a function of age.

    PubMed

    Fischer, W; Björklund, A; Chen, K; Gage, F H

    1991-07-01

    Aged rats were tested for place navigation in a circular water maze for spatial memory ability at 18 and 30 months of age; 45% of the 18-month-old rats displayed impaired place navigation performance relative to young control rats, while essentially all of the 30-month-old rats were impaired. The aged impaired rats were retested twice during NGF or vehicle infusion in the right lateral ventricle. In the 18-month-old group, NGF-infused rats showed improved retention of previously acquired place navigation performance and improved spatial acuity over the former platform site when the invisible platform was removed. NGF infusion also had a significant effect in the much more severely impaired 30-month-old rats: while the vehicle-infused aged rats showed a progressive decline in the performance between the first and second test weeks, the performance of the NGF-infused rats remained stable throughout the infusion period. The interpretation of these effects in the oldest animals, however, was confounded by a progressive decline in swim speed seen in the vehicle-infused animals. The 30-month-old vehicle-infused control rats showed a significant cell loss and cell shrinkage relative to the young control rats in the septal/diagonal band area, the striatum, and the nucleus basalis as assessed by NGF-receptor (NGFr) and ChAT double-label immunocytochemistry. A significant increase in the size but not in the number of cells was observed on the side of the NGF infusion in the 30-month-old NGF-infused rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Neural Differentiation Tracks Improved Recall of Competing Memories Following Interleaved Study and Retrieval Practice.

    PubMed

    Hulbert, J C; Norman, K A

    2015-10-01

    Selective retrieval of overlapping memories can generate competition. How does the brain adaptively resolve this competition? One possibility is that competing memories are inhibited; in support of this view, numerous studies have found that selective retrieval leads to forgetting of memories that are related to the just-retrieved memory. However, this retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) effect can be eliminated or even reversed if participants are given opportunities to restudy the materials between retrieval attempts. Here, we outline an explanation for such a reversal, rooted in a neural network model of RIF that predicts representational differentiation when restudy is interleaved with selective retrieval. To test this hypothesis, we measured changes in pattern similarity of the BOLD fMRI signal elicited by related memories after undergoing interleaved competitive retrieval and restudy. Reduced pattern similarity within the hippocampus positively correlated with retrieval-induced facilitation of competing memories. This result is consistent with an adaptive differentiation process that allows individuals to learn to distinguish between once-confusable memories.

  15. Lithium activates brain phospholipase A2 and improves memory in rats: implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mury, Fábio B; da Silva, Weber C; Barbosa, Nádia R; Mendes, Camila T; Bonini, Juliana S; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo Souza; Cammarota, Martin; Izquierdo, Ivan; Gattaz, Wagner F; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel

    2016-10-01

    Phospholipase A2 (Pla2) is required for memory retrieval, and its inhibition in the hippocampus has been reported to impair memory acquisition in rats. Moreover, cognitive decline and memory deficits showed to be reduced in animal models after lithium treatment, prompting us to evaluate possible links between Pla2, lithium and memory. Here, we evaluated the possible modulation of Pla2 activity by a long-term treatment of rats with low doses of lithium and its impact in memory. Wistar rats were trained for the inhibitory avoidance task, treated with lithium for 100 days and tested for perdurability of long-term memory. Hippocampal samples were used for quantifying the expression of 19 brain-expressed Pla2 genes and for evaluating the enzymatic activity of Pla2 using group-specific radio-enzymatic assays. Our data pointed to a significant perdurability of long-term memory, which correlated with increased transcriptional and enzymatic activities of certain members of the Pla2 family (iPla2 and sPla2) after the chronic lithium treatment. Our data suggest new possible targets of lithium, add more information on its pharmacological activity and reinforce the possible use of low doses of lithium for the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions such as the Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Effects of Medhya Rasayana and Yogic practices in improvement of short-term memory among school-going children

    PubMed Central

    Sarokte, Atul Shankar; Rao, Mangalagowri V.

    2013-01-01

    treatment is cost effective and devoid of side effects, which can be beneficial for the community. Mean increase after first follow-up in group B was higher as compared to group C. This shows that Medhya Rasayanas are quick in action and bring about improvement in memory faster when compared with Yogic practices. So, on the whole, group B can be considered to be the most efficient among the three groups. PMID:24695779

  17. Improvement in γ-hydroxybutyrate-induced contextual fear memory deficit by systemic administration of NCS-382

    PubMed Central

    Ishiwari, Keita

    2016-01-01

    Low, nonsedative doses of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) produce short-term anterograde amnesia in humans and memory impairments in experimental animals. We have previously shown that acute systemic treatment of GHB in adolescent female rats impairs the acquisition, but not the expression, of contextual fear memory while sparing both the acquisition and the expression of auditory cued fear memory. In the brain, GHB binds to specific GHB-binding sites as well as to γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptors. Although many of the behavioral effects of GHB at high doses have been attributed to its effects on the GABAB receptor, it is unclear which receptor mediates its relatively low-dose memory-impairing effects. The present study examined the ability of the putative GHB receptor antagonist NCS-382 to block the disrupting effects of GHB on fear memory in adolescent rat. Groups of rats received either a single dose of NCS-382 (3–10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or vehicle, followed by an injection of either GHB (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or saline. All rats were trained in the fear paradigm, and tested for contextual fear memory and auditory cued fear memory. NCS-382 dose-dependently reversed deficits in the acquisition of contextual fear memory induced by GHB in adolescent rats, with 5 mg/kg of NCS-382 maximally increasing freezing to the context compared with the group administered GHB alone. When animals were tested for cued fear memory, treatment groups did not differ in freezing responses to the tone. These results suggest that low-dose amnesic effects of GHB are mediated by GHB receptors. PMID:27105320

  18. The quantitative evaluation of cholinergic markers in spatial memory improvement induced by nicotine-bucladesine combination in rats.

    PubMed

    Azami, Kian; Etminani, Maryam; Tabrizian, Kaveh; Salar, Fatemeh; Belaran, Maryam; Hosseini, Asieh; Hosseini-Sharifabad, Ali; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad

    2010-06-25

    We previously showed that post-training intra-hippocampal infusion of nicotine-bucladesine combination enhanced spatial memory retention in the Morris water maze. Here we investigated the role of cholinergic markers in nicotine-bucladesine combination-induced memory improvement. We assessed the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in CA1 region of the hippocampus and medial septal area (MSA) of the brain. Post-training bilateral infusion of a low concentration of either nicotine or bucladesine into the CA1 region of the hippocampus did not affect spatial memory significantly. Quantitative immunostaining analysis of optical density in CA1 regions and evaluation of immunopositive neurons in medial septal area of brain sections from all combination groups revealed a significant increase (P<0.001) in the ChAT and VAChT immunoreactivity. The maximum increase was observed with combination of 10-microM/side bucladesine and 0.5 microg/side nicotine and in a concentration dependent manner. Also, increase in the optical density and amount of ChAT and VAChT immunostaining correlated with the decrease in escape latency and traveled distance in rats treated with nicotine and low dose of bucladesine. Taken together, these results suggest that significant increases of ChAT and VAChT protein expressions in the CA1 region and medial septal area are the possible mechanisms of spatial memory improvement induced by nicotine-bucladesine combination.

  19. Treadmill exercise improves short-term memory by enhancing hippocampal cell proliferation in quinolinic acid-induced Huntington's disease rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, You-Mi; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ko, Il-Gyu; Jin, Jun-Jang; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Tae-Wook; Kim, Dong-Hee

    2015-02-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited genetic disorder, characterized by cognitive dysfunction and abnormal body movements called chorea. Quinolinic acid (QA) is an endogenous metabolite of tryptophan in the kynurenine pathway. QA-induced alterations are similar to the symptoms of HD patients. Physical exercise has beneficial effects on the brain functions. Exercise increases production of neurotrophic factors in the brain and improves learning ability and memory function. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise short-term memory on QA-induced HD rats in relation with cell proliferation. For the induction of Huntington's animal model, 2 μL of 100 nmol QA was intrastriatal injected into the rats. The rats in the treadmill exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, five times a week for 2 weeks. Step-down avoidance test was conducted for the determination of short-term memory. Cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was determined by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry. Western blot for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) were performed. In the present results, treadmill exercise alleviated QA-induced short-term memory impairment in HD rats. Treadmill exercise increased cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus through enhancing BDNF expression in the HD rats. These results revealed that treadmill exercise is effective for the symptom improvement in the HD patients.

  20. Naringin Enhances CaMKII Activity and Improves Long-Term Memory in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Mei; Yang, Ya-Jun; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Xu; Guan, Fei-Fei; Zhang, Lian-Feng

    2013-03-11

    The Amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity is an underlying mechanism of memory loss in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in human and mouse models. The inhibition of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) autophosphorylation plays an important role in long-term memory. In this study, we isolated naringin from Pomelo peel (a Citrus species) and studied its effect on long-term memory in the APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mouse model of AD. Three-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice were randomly assigned to a vehicle group, two naringin (either 50 or 100 mg/kg body weight/day) groups, or an Aricept (2 mg/kg body weight/day) group. After 16 weeks of treatment, we observed that treatment with naringin (100 mg/kg body weight/day) enhanced the autophosphorylation of CaMKII, increased the phosphorylation of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic (AMPA) receptor at a CaMKII-dependent site and improved long-term learning and memory ability. These findings suggest that the increase in CaMKII activity may be one of the mechanisms by which naringin improves long-term cognitive function in the APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mouse model of AD.

  1. Dietary levels of pure flavonoids improve spatial memory performance and increase hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Rendeiro, Catarina; Vauzour, David; Rattray, Marcus; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Mérillon, Jean Michel; Butler, Laurie T; Williams, Claire M; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that flavonoid-rich foods are capable of inducing improvements in memory and cognition in animals and humans. However, there is a lack of clarity concerning whether flavonoids are the causal agents in inducing such behavioral responses. Here we show that supplementation with pure anthocyanins or pure flavanols for 6 weeks, at levels similar to that found in blueberry (2% w/w), results in an enhancement of spatial memory in 18 month old rats. Pure flavanols and pure anthocyanins were observed to induce significant improvements in spatial working memory (p = 0.002 and p = 0.006 respectively), to a similar extent to that following blueberry supplementation (p = 0.002). These behavioral changes were paralleled by increases in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (R = 0.46, p<0.01), suggesting a common mechanism for the enhancement of memory. However, unlike protein levels of BDNF, the regional enhancement of BDNF mRNA expression in the hippocampus appeared to be predominantly enhanced by anthocyanins. Our data support the claim that flavonoids are likely causal agents in mediating the cognitive effects of flavonoid-rich foods.

  2. Mangifera indica Fruit Extract Improves Memory Impairment, Cholinergic Dysfunction, and Oxidative Stress Damage in Animal Model of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Thukham-Mee, Wipawee; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Wittaya-Areekul, Sakchai

    2014-01-01

    To date, the effective preventive paradigm against mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is required. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether Mangifera indica fruit extract, a substance possessing antioxidant and cognitive enhancing effects, could improve memory impairment, cholinergic dysfunction, and oxidative stress damage in animal model of mild cognitive impairment. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180–200 g, were orally given the extract at doses of 12.5, 50, and 200 mg·kg−1 BW for 2 weeks before and 1 week after the bilateral injection of AF64A (icv). At the end of study, spatial memory, cholinergic neurons density, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px enzymes in hippocampus were determined. The results showed that all doses of extract could improve memory together with the decreased MDA level and the increased SOD and GSH-Px enzymes activities. The increased cholinergic neurons density in CA1 and CA3 of hippocampus was also observed in rats treated with the extract at doses of 50 and 200 mg·kg−1 BW. Therefore, our results suggested that M. indica, the potential protective agent against MCI, increased cholinergic function and the decreased oxidative stress which in turn enhanced memory. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredients and detail mechanism. PMID:24672632

  3. Using mental imagery to improve memory in patients with Alzheimer's disease: Trouble generating or remembering the mind's eye?

    PubMed Central

    Hussey, Erin; Smolinsky, John G.; Piryatinsky, Irene; Budson, Andrew E.; Ally, Brandon A.

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation worked to understand whether patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) could use general or self-referential mental imagery to improve their recognition of visually presented words. Experiment 1 showed that, unlike healthy controls, patients generally did not benefit from either type of imagery. To help determine whether the patients' inability to benefit from mental imagery at encoding was due to poor memory or due to an impairment in mental imagery, subjects then performed four imagery tasks, with varying imagery and cognitive demands. Experiment 2 showed that patients successfully performed basic visual imagery, but degraded semantic memory, coupled with visuospatial and executive functioning deficits, impaired their ability to perform more complex types of imagery. Given that patients with AD can perform basic mental imagery, our results suggest that episodic memory deficits likely prevent AD patients from storing or retrieving general mental images generated during encoding. Overall, the results of both experiments suggest that neurocognitive deficits do not allow patients with AD to perform complex mental imagery, which may be most beneficial to improving memory. However, our data also suggest that intact basic mental imagery and rehearsal could possibly be helpful if used in a rehabilitation multi-session intervention approach. PMID:21946012

  4. A systematic review and meta-analysis of acupuncture for improving learning and memory ability in animals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kai-Yu; Liang, Shuang; Yu, Mei-Ling; Fu, Shu-Ping; Chen, Xia; Lu, Sheng-Feng

    2016-08-19

    Memory loss is the most prominent symptoms of brain aging, but there is currently no evidence-based treatment strategy. Acupuncture has been widely used in China and the effectiveness for improving learning and memory has been mentioned in previous studies. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture for improving learning and memory in animal experiments. We searched Pubmed, Embase, Ovid Medline(R), the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (VIP) and Wanfang data Information Site to collect studies published up to December 2015. Study quality for each included article was evaluated according to the CAMARADES 10-item checklist. Outcome measure is Morris water maze. A meta-analysis was conducted according to the Cochrane systematic review method by using RevMan 5.3 software. Forty-two studies involving 944 animals were included. The quality score of the studies ranged from 2 to 8, with a mean of 5.3. Meta-analysis results showed that 24 studies reported significant effect of acupuncture for decreasing escape latency (-3.00, 95 % CI: -3.78 ~ -2.23, P < 0.00001), 14 studies reported significant effect of acupuncture for increasing frequency of cross platform (2.57, 95 % CI: 1.92 ~ 3.22, P < 0.00001), and 7 studies reported significant effect of acupuncture for increasing time in target quadrant (2.00, 95 % CI: 1.10 ~ 2.91, P < 0.00001) compared with the control group. These findings show acupuncture has a potential role in improving learning and memory ability in animal models, suggesting it as a candidate therapy for memory loss of aged brain.

  5. Angiotensin II and the transcription factor Rel/NF-kappaB link environmental water shortage with memory improvement.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, L; Freudenthal, R; Romano, A; Nahmod, V E; Maldonado, H; Delorenzi, A

    2002-01-01

    One of the essential requirements even in the most ancient life forms is to be able to preserve body fluid medium. In line with such requirement, animals need to perform different behaviors to cope with water shortages. As angiotensin II (ANGII) is involved on a widespread range of functions in vertebrates, including memory modulation, an integrative role, in response to an environmental water shortage, has been envisioned. Previous work on the semi-terrestrial and brackish-water crab Chasmagnathus granulatus showed that endogenous ANGII enhanced an associative long-term memory and, in addition, that high salinity environment induces both an increase of brain ANGII levels and memory improvement. Here, we show that in the crab Chasmagnathus air exposure transiently increases blood sodium concentration, significantly increases brain ANGII immunoreactivity, and has a facilitatory effect on memory that is abolished by a non-selective ANGII receptor antagonist, saralasin. Furthermore, Rel/NF-kappaB, a transcription factor activated by ANGII in mammals and during memory consolidation in Chasmagnathus brain, is induced in the crab's brain by air exposure. Moreover, nuclear brain NF-kappaB is activated by ANGII, and this effect is reversed by saralasin. Our results constitute the first demonstration in an invertebrate that cognitive functions are modulated by an environmental stimulus through a neuropeptide and give evolutionary support to the role of angiotensins in memory processes. Moreover, these results suggest that angiotensinergic system is preserved across evolution not only in its structure and molecular mechanisms, but also in its capability of coordinating specific adaptative responses.

  6. Nobiletin improves brain ischemia-induced learning and memory deficits through stimulation of CaMKII and CREB phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yui; Shioda, Norifumi; Han, Feng; Moriguchi, Shigeki; Nakajima, Akira; Yokosuka, Akihito; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Sashida, Yutaka; Yamakuni, Tohru; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Fukunaga, Kohji

    2009-10-27

    Decreased cerebral blood flow causes cognitive impairments and neuronal injury in the progressive age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia. In the present study, we for the first time found that nobiletin, a novel leading compound for AD therapy, improved cerebral ischemia-induced memory deficits in vivo. Treatment with 50 mg/kg of nobiletin (i.p.) for the consecutive 7 days before and after brain ischemia significantly inhibited delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 neurons in a 20-min bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAO) ischemia. However, the contextual memory assessed by passive avoidance task was not improved. On the other hand, a 5-min BCCAO-induced contextual memory deficit was significantly improved by the nobiletin treatment. In the 5-min BCCAO mice, Western blot analysis evidently showed that the levels of synaptic proteins, including calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1), significantly decreased in the hippocampal CA1 region. The nobiletin treatment prevented the reduction in CaMKII, MAP2 and GluR1 protein levels in the hippocampal CA1 region, accompanied by restoration of both ERK and CREB phosphorylation and CaMKII autophosphorylation. Consistent with the restored CaMKII and ERK phosphorylation, an electrophysiological study showed that the impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) observed in the 5-min ischemic mice was significantly improved by the nobiletin treatment. These findings suggest that the activation of CaMKII and ERK signaling in part mediates improvement of ischemia-induced learning and memory deficits by nobiletin.

  7. Improvement of switching endurance of conducting-bridge random access memory by addition of metal-ion-containing ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Kentaro; Sakaguchi, Atsushi; Harada, Akinori; Yamaoka, Hiroki; Kishida, Satoru; Fukaya, Yukinobu; Nokami, Toshiki; Itoh, Toshiyuki

    2017-04-01

    A remarkable improvement of cycling endurance was achieved by the addition of a trace amount of an ionic liquid ([bmim][Tf2N]) containing Cu(Tf2N)2 to the HfO2 layer of a conducting-bridge random access memory (CBRAM) with a Cu/HfO2/Pt structure. The improvement was brought about by the significant improvement of the dispersion of a set voltage and the suppression of the generation and migration of oxygen vacancies owing to the smooth diffusion of Cu ions in ionic liquids.

  8. Chronic Stress During Adolescence Impairs and Improves Learning and Memory in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Chaby, Lauren E.; Cavigelli, Sonia A.; Hirrlinger, Amy M.; Lim, James; Warg, Kendall M.; Braithwaite, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS This study tested the effects of adolescent-stress on adult learning and memory.Adolescent-stressed rats had enhanced reversal learning compared to unstressed rats.Adolescent-stress exposure made working memory more vulnerable to disturbance.Adolescent-stress did not affect adult associative learning or reference memory. Exposure to acute stress can cause a myriad of cognitive impairments, but whether negative experiences continue to hinder individual as they age is not as well understood. We determined how chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence affects multiple learning and memory processes in adulthood. Using male Sprague Dawley rats, we measured learning (both associative and reversal) and memory (both reference and working) starting 110 days after completion of an adolescent-stress treatment. We found that adolescent-stress affected adult cognitive abilities in a context-dependent way. Compared to rats reared without stress, adolescent-stressed rats exhibited enhanced reversal learning, an indicator of behavioral flexibility, but showed no change in associative learning and reference memory abilities. Working memory, which in humans is thought to underpin reasoning, mathematical skills, and reading comprehension, may be enhanced by exposure to adolescent-stress. However, when adolescent-stressed animals were tested after a novel disturbance, they exhibited a 5-fold decrease in working memory performance while unstressed rats continued to exhibit a linear learning curve. These results emphasize the capacity for stress during adolescence to transform the cognitive abilities of adult animals, even after stress exposure has ceased and animals have resided in safe environments for the majority of their lifespans. PMID:26696849

  9. Pharmacological REM sleep suppression paradoxically improves rather than impairs skill memory.

    PubMed

    Rasch, Björn; Pommer, Julian; Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan

    2009-04-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has been considered important for consolidation of memories, particularly of skills. Contrary to expectations, we found that REM sleep suppression by administration of selective serotonin or norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitors after training did not impair consolidation of skills or word-pairs in healthy men but rather enhanced gains in finger tapping accuracy together with sleep spindles. Our results indicate that REM sleep as a unitary phenomenon is not required for skill-memory consolidation.

  10. Chronic Stress During Adolescence Impairs and Improves Learning and Memory in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Chaby, Lauren E; Cavigelli, Sonia A; Hirrlinger, Amy M; Lim, James; Warg, Kendall M; Braithwaite, Victoria A

    2015-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS This study tested the effects of adolescent-stress on adult learning and memory.Adolescent-stressed rats had enhanced reversal learning compared to unstressed rats.Adolescent-stress exposure made working memory more vulnerable to disturbance.Adolescent-stress did not affect adult associative learning or reference memory. Exposure to acute stress can cause a myriad of cognitive impairments, but whether negative experiences continue to hinder individual as they age is not as well understood. We determined how chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence affects multiple learning and memory processes in adulthood. Using male Sprague Dawley rats, we measured learning (both associative and reversal) and memory (both reference and working) starting 110 days after completion of an adolescent-stress treatment. We found that adolescent-stress affected adult cognitive abilities in a context-dependent way. Compared to rats reared without stress, adolescent-stressed rats exhibited enhanced reversal learning, an indicator of behavioral flexibility, but showed no change in associative learning and reference memory abilities. Working memory, which in humans is thought to underpin reasoning, mathematical skills, and reading comprehension, may be enhanced by exposure to adolescent-stress. However, when adolescent-stressed animals were tested after a novel disturbance, they exhibited a 5-fold decrease in working memory performance while unstressed rats continued to exhibit a linear learning curve. These results emphasize the capacity for stress during adolescence to transform the cognitive abilities of adult animals, even after stress exposure has ceased and animals have resided in safe environments for the majority of their lifespans.

  11. Improving everyday prospective memory performance in older adults: comparing cognitive process and strategy training.

    PubMed

    Brom, Sarah Susanne; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-09-01

    Considering the importance of prospective memory for independence in old age recently, research has started to examine interventions to reduce prospective memory errors. Two general approaches can be proposed: (a) process training of executive control associated with prospective memory functioning, and/or (b) strategy training to reduce executive task demands. The present study was the first to combine and compare both training methods in a sample of 62 community-dwelling older adults (60-86 years) and to explore their effects on an ecologically valid everyday life prospective memory task (here: regular blood pressure monitoring). Even though the training of executive control was successful in enhancing the trained ability, clear transfer effects on prospective memory performance could only be found for the strategy training. However, participants with low executive abilities benefited particularly from the implementation intention strategy. Conceptually, this supports models suggesting interactions between task demands and individual differences in executive control in explaining individual differences in prospective memory performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Improving Memory Performances by Adjusting the Symmetry and Polarity of O-Fluoroazobenzene-Based Molecules.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan; Dong, Huilong; Li, Youyong; Li, Hua; Chen, Dongyun; Wang, Lihua; Xu, Qingfeng; Lu, Jianmei

    2016-02-18

    Three O-fluoroazobenzene-based molecules were chosen as memory-active molecules: FAZO-1 with a D-A2-D symmetric structure, FAZO-2 with an A1-A2-A1 symmetric structure, and FAZO-3 with a D-A2-A1 asymmetric structure. Both FAZO-1 and FAZO-2 had a lower molecular polarity, whereas FAZO-3 had a higher polarity. The fabricated indium-tin oxide (ITO)/FAZO-1/Al (Au) and ITO/FAZO-2/Al (Au) memory devices both exhibited volatile static random access memory (SRAM) behavior, whereas the ITO/FAZO-3/Al (Au) device showed nonvolatile ternary write-once-read-many-times (WORM) behavior. It should be noted that the reproducibility of these devices was considerably high, which is significant for practical application in memory devices. In addition, the different memory performances of the three active materials were determined to be attributable to the stability of electric-field-induced charge-transfer complexes. Therefore, the switching memory behavior could be tuned by adjusting the molecular polarity.

  13. Working Memory Training Does Not Improve Performance on Measures of Intelligence or Other Measures of "Far Transfer": Evidence From a Meta-Analytic Review.

    PubMed

    Melby-Lervåg, Monica; Redick, Thomas S; Hulme, Charles

    2016-07-01

    It has been claimed that working memory training programs produce diverse beneficial effects. This article presents a meta-analysis of working memory training studies (with a pretest-posttest design and a control group) that have examined transfer to other measures (nonverbal ability, verbal ability, word decoding, reading comprehension, or arithmetic; 87 publications with 145 experimental comparisons). Immediately following training there were reliable improvements on measures of intermediate transfer (verbal and visuospatial working memory). For measures of far transfer (nonverbal ability, verbal ability, word decoding, reading comprehension, arithmetic) there was no convincing evidence of any reliable improvements when working memory training was compared with a treated control condition. Furthermore, mediation analyses indicated that across studies, the degree of improvement on working memory measures was not related to the magnitude of far-transfer effects found. Finally, analysis of publication bias shows that there is no evidential value from the studies of working memory training using treated controls. The authors conclude that working memory training programs appear to produce short-term, specific training effects that do not generalize to measures of "real-world" cognitive skills. These results seriously question the practical and theoretical importance of current computerized working memory programs as methods of training working memory skills. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Neurokinin3 receptor as a target to predict and improve learning and memory in the aged organism.

    PubMed

    de Souza Silva, Maria A; Lenz, Bernd; Rotter, Andrea; Biermann, Teresa; Peters, Oliver; Ramirez, Alfredo; Jessen, Frank; Maier, Wolfgang; Hüll, Michael; Schröder, Johannes; Frölich, Lutz; Teipel, Stefan; Gruber, Oliver; Kornhuber, Johannes; Huston, Joseph P; Müller, Christian P; Schäble, Sandra

    2013-09-10

    Impaired learning and memory performance is often found in aging as an early sign of dementia. It is associated with neuronal loss and reduced functioning of cholinergic networks. Here we present evidence that the neurokinin3 receptors (NK3-R) and their influence on acetylcholine (ACh) release may represent a crucial mechanism that underlies age-related deficits in learning and memory. Repeated pharmacological stimulation of NK3-R in aged rats was found to improve learning in the water maze and in object-place recognition. This treatment also enhanced in vivo acetylcholinergic activity in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala but reduced NK3-R mRNA expression in the hippocampus. Furthermore, NK3-R agonism incurred a significantly higher increase in ACh levels in aged animals that showed superior learning than in those that were most deficient in learning. Our findings suggest that the induced activation of ACh, rather than basal ACh activity, is associated with superior learning in the aged. To test whether natural variation in NK3-R function also determines learning and memory performance in aged humans, we investigated 209 elderly patients with cognitive impairments. We found that of the 15 analyzed single single-nucleotide ploymorphism (SNPs) of the NK3-R-coding gene, TACR3, the rs2765 SNP predicted the degree of impairment of learning and memory in these patients. This relationship could be partially explained by a reduced right hippocampus volume in a subsample of 111 tested dementia patients. These data indicate the NK3-R as an important target to predict and improve learning and memory performance in the aged organism.

  15. Antagonizing the GABAA receptor during behavioral training improves spatial memory at different doses in control and chronically stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Kenji J; Ortiz, J Bryce; Conrad, Cheryl D

    2017-09-07

    Chronic stress leads to a dysregulated inhibitory tone that could impact hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory. The present study examined whether spatial memory deficits resulting from chronic stress could be overcome by antagonizing the GABAA receptor, a prominent inhibitory receptor of GABA in the hippocampus. Young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically stressed (STR, wire mesh restraint, 6h/d/21d) or placed in a no-stress control group (CON). When chronic restraint ended, rats were tested on a 2-trial object placement (OP) task at a delay (3h) that would result in chance performance without intervention and then on novel object recognition (NOR) and the elevated plus maze (EPM) to assess non-spatial memory and anxiety profile. In CON rats, Bicuculline (BIC, 0, 0.25, 0.5mg/kg), a GABAA antagonist, injected 30min prior to training led to facilitated OP performance with 0.25 and 0.5mg/kg doses. In contrast, STR rats required BIC at the highest dose (0.5mg/kg) to improve OP performance. While overall object exploration was decreased by chronic stress, motivation or anxiety profile were unlikely to explain these results. These findings reveal two different dose response functions for BIC in control and chronically stressed rats, with the dose response function of BIC being shifted to the right for chronically stressed rats compared to controls in order to improve spatial memory. While the literature demonstrates that chronic stress disrupts hippocampal inhibitory tone, the current study reveals that a single injection to antagonize the GABAA receptor can restore hippocampal-dependent spatial memory in chronically stressed subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Diphenyl diselenide diet intake improves spatial learning and memory deficits in hypothyroid female rats.

    PubMed

    Dias, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock; Vieira, Francielli Araújo; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Bridi, Jéssika Cristina; Balk, Rodrigo de Souza; Soares, Félix Antunes; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Barbosa, Nilda Berenice de Vargas

    2012-04-01

    Cognitive deficits have been observed in different animal models of adult-onset hypothyroidism. Thus, this study was delineated to evaluate whether diphenyl diselenide, an organoselenium compound with neuroprotective and antioxidant properties, could afford protection against the detrimental effects of hypothyroidism on behavioral parameters. Hypothyroidism condition was induced in female rats by continuous exposure to methimazole (MTZ) at 20 mg/100 ml in the drinking water, during 3 months. MTZ-induced hypothyroid rats were fed with either standard or a diet containing 5 ppm of diphenyl diselenide for 3 months. Behavioral assessments were performed monthly, in the following order: elevated plus maze, open field and Morris water maze. The levels of thyroid hormones in the animals exposed to MTZ were lower than control until the end of experimental period. The rats exposed to MTZ had a significant weight loss from the first month, which was not modified by diphenyl diselenide supplementation. In elevated plus maze test, MTZ exposure caused a reduction on the number of entries of animals in closed arms, which was avoided by diphenyl diselenide supplementation. In Morris water maze, the parameters latency to reach the platform and distance performed to find the escape platform in the test session were significantly greater in MTZ group when compared to control. These cognitive deficits observed in MTZ-induced hypothyroid rats were restored by dietary diphenyl diselenide. The group fed with diphenyl diselenide alone exhibited a better spatial learning and memory capability in some parameters of Morris water maze when compared to the control group. In summary, our data provide evidence of the effectiveness of dietary diphenyl diselenide in improving the performance of control and hypothyroid rats in the water maze test. Copyright © 2012 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Aging and memory improvement through semantic clustering: The role of list-presentation format.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, Beatrice G; Touron, Dayna R

    2016-11-01

    The present study examined how the presentation format of the study list influences younger and older adults' semantic clustering. Spontaneous clustering did not differ between age groups or between an individual-words (presentation of individual study words in consecution) and a whole-list (presentation of the whole study list at once for the same total duration) presentation format in 132 younger (18-30 years, M = 19.7) and 120 older (60-84 years, M = 69.5) adults. However, after instructions to use semantic clustering (second list) age-related differences in recall magnified, indicating a utilization deficiency, and both age groups achieved higher recall in the whole-list than in the individual-words format. While this whole-list benefit was comparable across age groups, it is notable that older adults were only able to improve their average recall performance after clustering instructions in the whole-list but not in the individual-words format. In both formats, instructed clustering was correlated with processing resources (processing speed and, especially, working memory capacity), particularly in older adults. Spontaneous clustering, however, was not related to processing resources but to metacognitive beliefs about the efficacy and difficulty of semantic clustering, neither of which indicated awareness of the benefits of the whole-list presentation format in either age group. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that presentation format has a nontrivial influence on the utilization of semantic clustering in adults. The analyses further highlight important differences between output-based and list-based clustering measures. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Methylene blue improves streptozotocin-induced memory deficit by restoring mitochondrial function in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Qin, Li; Lu, Hai-Long; Li, Ping-Jing; Song, Yuan-Jian; Yang, Rong-Li

    2017-02-15

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is well documented to involve mitochondrial dysfunction which causes subsequent oxidative stress and energy metabolic failure in hippocampus. Methylene blue (MB) has been implicated to be neuroprotective in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases by restoring mitochondrial function. The present work was to examine if MB was able to improve streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Alzheimer's type dementia in a rat model by attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction-derived oxidative stress and ATP synthesis decline. MB was administrated at a dose of 0.5mg/kg/day for consecutive 7days after bilateral STZ intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection (2.5mg/kg). We first demonstrated that MB treatment significantly ameliorated STZ-induced hippocampus-dependent memory loss in passive avoidance test. We also found that MB has the properties to preserve neuron survival and attenuate neuronal degeneration in hippocampus CA1 region after STZ injection. In addition, oxidative stress was subsequently evaluated by measuring the content of lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). Importantly, results from our study showed a remarkable suppression of MB treatment on both MDA production and 4-HNE immunoactivity. Finally, energy metabolism in CA1 region was examined by detecting mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) activity and the resultant ATP production. Of significant interest, our result displayed a robust facilitation of MB on CCO activity and the consequent ATP synthesis. The current study indicates that MB may be a promising therapeutic agent targeting oxidative damage and ATP synthesis failure during AD progression.

  19. Ketogenic diet improves the spatial memory impairment caused by exposure to hypobaric hypoxia through increased acetylation of histones in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ming; Huang, Xin; Cheng, Xiang; Lin, Xiao; Zhao, Tong; Wu, Liying; Yu, Xiaodan; Wu, Kuiwu; Fan, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia causes neuron cell damage, resulting in impaired cognitive function. Effective interventions to antagonize hypobaric hypoxia-induced memory impairment are in urgent need. Ketogenic diet (KD) has been successfully used to treat drug-resistant epilepsy and improves cognitive behaviors in epilepsy patients and other pathophysiological animal models. In the present study, we aimed to explore the potential beneficial effects of a KD on memory impairment caused by hypobaric hypoxia and the underlying possible mechanisms. We showed that the KD recipe used was ketogenic and increased plasma levels of ketone bodies, especially β-hydroxybutyrate. The results of the behavior tests showed that the KD did not affect general locomotor activity but obviously promoted spatial learning. Moreover, the KD significantly improved the spatial memory impairment caused by hypobaric hypoxia (simulated altitude of 6000 m, 24 h). In addition, the improving-effect of KD was mimicked by intraperitoneal injection of BHB. The western blot and immunohistochemistry results showed that KD treatment not only increased the acetylated levels of histone H3 and histone H4 compared to that of the control group but also antagonized the decrease in the acetylated histone H3 and H4 when exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. Furthermore, KD-hypoxia treatment also promoted PKA/CREB activation and BDNF protein expression compared to the effects of hypoxia alone. These results demonstrated that KD is a promising strategy to improve spatial memory impairment caused by hypobaric hypoxia, in which increased modification of histone acetylation plays an important role. PMID:28355243

  20. Calcium homeostasis and protein kinase/phosphatase balance participate in nicotine-induced memory improvement in passive avoidance task in mice.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Agnieszka; Biala, Grazyna

    2017-01-15

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) depend on specific postsynaptic Ca(2+)/calmodulin concentration. LTP results from Ca(2+) influx through the activated NMDA receptors or voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and is linked with activation of protein kinases including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Weaker synaptic stimulation, as a result of low Ca(2+) influx, leads to activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase (calcineurin - CaN) and triggers LTD. Interestingly, both memory formation and drug addiction share similar neuroplastic changes. Nicotine, which is one of the most common addictive drugs, manifests its memory effects through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Because nAChRs may also gate Ca(2+), it is suggested that calcium signaling pathways are involved in nicotine-induced memory effects. Within the scope of the study was to evaluate the importance of calcium homeostasis and protein kinase/phosphatase balance in nicotine-induced short- and long-term memory effects. To assess memory function in mice passive avoidance test was used. The presented results confirm that acute nicotine (0.1mg/kg) improves short- and long-term memory. Pretreatment with L-type VGCC blockers (amlodipine, nicardipine verapamil) increased nicotine-induced memory improvement in the context of short- and long-term memory. Pretreatment with FK-506 (a potent CaN inhibitor) enhanced short- but not long-term memory effects of nicotine, while SL-327 (a selective MAPK/ERK kinase inhibitor) attenuated both nicotine-induced short- and long-term memory improvement. Acute nicotine enhances both types of memory via L-type VGCC blockade and via ERK1/2 activation. Only short- but not long-term memory enhancement induced by nicotine is dependent on CaN inhibition.

  1. Presynaptic mitochondrial morphology in monkey prefrontal cortex correlates with working memory and is improved with estrogen treatment.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yuko; Yuk, Frank; Puri, Rishi; Janssen, William G M; Rapp, Peter R; Morrison, John H

    2014-01-07

    Humans and nonhuman primates are vulnerable to age- and menopause-related decline in working memory, a cognitive function reliant on the energy-demanding recurrent excitation of neurons within Brodmann's Area 46 of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Here, we tested the hypothesis that the number and morphology (straight, curved, or donut-shaped) of mitochondria in dlPFC presynaptic boutons are altered with aging and menopause in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and that these metrics correlate with delayed response (DR) accuracy, a well-characterized measure of dlPFC-dependent working memory. Although presynaptic bouton density or size was not significantly different across groups distinguished by age or menses status, DR accuracy correlated positively with the number of total and straight mitochondria per dlPFC bouton. In contrast, DR accuracy correlated inversely with the frequency of boutons containing donut-shaped mitochondria, which exhibited smaller active zone areas and fewer docked synaptic vesicles than those with straight or curved mitochondria. We then examined the effects of estrogen administration to test whether a treatment known to improve working memory influences mitochondrial morphology. Aged ovariectomized monkeys treated with vehicle displayed significant working memory impairment and a concomitant 44% increase in presynaptic donut-shaped mitochondria, both of which were reversed with cyclic estradiol treatment. Together, our data suggest that hormone replacement therapy may benefit cognitive aging, in part by promoting mitochondrial and synaptic health in the dlPFC.

  2. Improved Retention Characteristic in Polycrystalline Silicon-Oxide-Hafnium Oxide-Oxide-Silicon-Type Nonvolatile Memory with Robust Tunnel Oxynitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Chih Ren; Lai, Chiung Hui; Lin, Bo Chun; Zheng, Yuan Kai; Chung Lou, Jen; Lin, Gray

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we present a simple novel process for forming a robust and reliable oxynitride dielectric with a high nitrogen content. It is highly suitable for n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (nMOSFETs) and polycrystalline silicon-oxide-hafnium oxide-oxide-silicon (SOHOS)-type memory applications. The proposed approach is realized by using chemical oxide with ammonia (NH3) nitridation followed by reoxidation with oxygen (O2). The novel oxynitride process is not only compatible with the standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process, but also can ensure the improvement of flash memory with low-cost manufacturing. The characteristics of nMOSFETs and SOHOS-type nonvolatile memories (NVMs) with a robust oxynitride as a gate oxide or tunnel oxide are studied to demonstrate their advantages such as the retardation of the stress-induced trap generation during constant-voltage stress (CVS), the program/erase behaviors, cycling endurance, and data retention. The results indicate that the proposed robust oxynitride is suitable for future nonvolatile flash memory technology application.

  3. Acetylpuerarin reduces inflammation and improves memory function in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease induced by Abeta1-42.

    PubMed

    Meng, Q H; Lou, F L; Hou, W X; Liu, M; Guo, H; Zhang, X M

    2013-11-01

    This study was performed to determine if acetylpuerarin (compound N-2211) could reduce amyloid-beta1-42 (Abeta1-42) induced learning and memory deficits and to examine its anti-neuroinflammatory effects in a rat model. Forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 each): control, model (Abeta1-42 injected), low-dose and high-dose acetylpuerarin groups. The acetylpuerarin groups received peritoneal acetylpuerarin every day for 12 days after 2 weeks of Abeta1-42 (5 microg/1 microl) intrahippocampal injections. The Morris water maze (MWM) was used to assess rats' learning and memory abilities. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess expression levels of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule (Ibal), protein kinase C delta (PKCdelta), IkappaB kinase beta (IKKbeta), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in hippocampus. After Abeta1-42 injection, the learning and memory abilities of rats were reduced, and acetylpuerarin treatment ameliorated the observed deficits. Abeta1-42 injection resulted in microglia transforming from resting microglia into an activated state, but this was reduced by acetylpuerarin treatment. Furthermore, hippocampal expression of PKCdelta, IKKbeta, and iNOS increased following Abeta1-42 treatment, and acetylpuerarin could suppressed the levels of PKCdelta, iNOS, and IKKbeta. Acetylpuerarin improves learning and memory functions in Abeta1-42 induced rat models. These effects may be due to anti-neuroinflammatory effects.

  4. Curcuma comosa improves learning and memory function on ovariectomized rats in a long-term Morris water maze test

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jian; Sripanidkulchai, Kittisak; Wyss, J. Michael; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the study Curcuma comosa extract and some purified compounds from this plant have been reported to have estrogenic-like effects, and estrogen improves learning in some animals and potentially in postmenopausal women; therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that Curcuma comosa and estrogen have similar beneficial effects on spatial learning and memory. Materials and methods Curcuma comosa hexane extract, containing 0.165 mg of (4E,6E)-1,7-diphenylhepta-4,6-dien-3-one per mg of the crude extract, was orally administered to ovariectomized Wistar rats at the doses of 250 or 500 mg/kg body weight. 17β-estradiol (10 μg/kg body weight, subcutaneously) was used as a positive control. Thirty days after the initiation of treatment, animals were tested in a Morris water maze for spatial learning and memory. They were re-tested every 30 days and a final probe trial was run on day 119. Results Compared to control rats, OVX rats displayed significant memory impairment for locating the platform in the water maze from day 67 after the surgery, onward. In contrast, OVX rats treated with either Curcuma comosa or estrogen were significantly protected from this decline in cognitive function. Further, the protection of cognitive effects by Curcuma comosa was larger at higher dose. Conclusions These results suggest that long-term treatment with Curcuma comosa has beneficial effects on learning and memory function in rats. PMID:20420894

  5. Insulin receptor A and Sirtuin 1 synergistically improve learning and spatial memory following chronic salidroside treatment during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Barhwal, Kalpana; Das, Saroj K; Kumar, Ashish; Hota, Sunil K; Srivastava, Ravi B

    2015-10-01

    Hypoxia has been reported to cause hippocampal neurodegeneration resulting in learning and memory deficits. In the present study, we investigated the potential of salidroside, a glucoside derivative of tyrosol, in ameliorating hypoxia-induced neurodegeneration and memory impairment. Morris water maze test showed improvement in learning and spatial memory of salidroside-treated hypoxic rats correlating with increased dendritic intersections and arborization. Salidroside administration increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor subunit A (IRA) at Y972, Y1162/63, and Y1146 sites and subsequent activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α subunit isoforms pAMPKα1 and pAMPKα2 resulting in mitochondrial biogenesis. Contrarily, silencing of IRA in salidroside-supplemented hypoxic hippocampal cells could not improve cell viability or alter pAMPKα1 and pAMPKα2 expression. Rats administered with salidroside showed elevated expression of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein in the hippocampus. Salidroside administration also resulted in increased sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activity through a cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1)-regulated mechanism that was independent of pIRA. Taken together, these findings suggest a synergistic role of pIRA and SIRT1 in salidroside-mediated neuroprotection, mitochondrial biogenesis, and cognitive improvement during hypoxia. We propose a novel mechanism for salidroside-mediated neuroprotection in hypoxia. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. Functional compensation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex improves memory-dependent decisions in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lighthall, Nichole R; Huettel, Scott A; Cabeza, Roberto

    2014-11-19

    Everyday consumer choices frequently involve memory, as when we retrieve information about consumer products when making purchasing decisions. In this context, poor memory may affect decision quality, particularly in individuals with memory decline, such as older adults. However, age differences in choice behavior may be reduced if older adults can recruit additional neural resources that support task performance. Although such functional compensation is well documented in other cognitive domains, it is presently unclear whether it can support memory-guided decision making and, if so, which brain regions play a role in compensation. The current study engaged younger and older humans in a memory-dependent choice task in which pairs of consumer products from a popular online-shopping site were evaluated with different delays between the first and second product. Using functional imaging (fMRI), we found that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) supports compensation as defined by three a priori criteria: (1) increased vmPFC activation was observed in older versus younger adults; (2) age-related increases in vmPFC activity were associated with increased retrieval demands; and (3) increased vmPFC activity was positively associated with performance in older adults-evidence of successful compensation. Extending these results, we observed evidence for compensation in connectivity between vmPFC and the dorsolateral PFC during memory-dependent choice. In contrast, we found no evidence for age differences in value-related processing or age-related compensation for choices without delayed retrieval. Together, these results converge on the conclusion that age-related decline in memory-dependent choice performance can be minimized via functional compensation in vmPFC.

  7. Functional Compensation in the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Improves Memory-Dependent Decisions in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Huettel, Scott A.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Everyday consumer choices frequently involve memory, as when we retrieve information about consumer products when making purchasing decisions. In this context, poor memory may affect decision quality, particularly in individuals with memory decline, such as older adults. However, age differences in choice behavior may be reduced if older adults can recruit additional neural resources that support task performance. Although such functional compensation is well documented in other cognitive domains, it is presently unclear whether it can support memory-guided decision making and, if so, which brain regions play a role in compensation. The current study engaged younger and older humans in a memory-dependent choice task in which pairs of consumer products from a popular online-shopping site were evaluated with different delays between the first and second product. Using functional imaging (fMRI), we found that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) supports compensation as defined by three a priori criteria: (1) increased vmPFC activation was observed in older versus younger adults; (2) age-related increases in vmPFC activity were associated with increased retrieval demands; and (3) increased vmPFC activity was positively associated with performance in older adults—evidence of successful compensation. Extending these results, we observed evidence for compensation in connectivity between vmPFC and the dorsolateral PFC during memory-dependent choice. In contrast, we found no evidence for age differences in value-related processing or age-related compensation for choices without delayed retrieval. Together, these results converge on the conclusion that age-related decline in memory-dependent choice performance can be minimized via functional compensation in vmPFC. PMID:25411493

  8. The Development of Real-Time Stability Supports Visual Working Memory Performance: Young Children's Feature Binding Can Be Improved through Perceptual Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmering, Vanessa R.; Wood, Chelsey M.

    2017-01-01

    Working memory is a basic cognitive process that predicts higher-level skills. A central question in theories of working memory development is the generality of the mechanisms proposed to explain improvements in performance. Prior theories have been closely tied to particular tasks and/or age groups, limiting their generalizability. The cognitive…

  9. Verbal to visual code switching improves working memory in older adults: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Mariko; Otsuka, Yuki; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2012-01-01

    The effect of verbal to visual code switching training on working memory performance was investigated in individuals aged 63 and older. During verbal working memory task performance, the training group (n = 25) was introduced to a verbal to visual code switching strategy while the control group (n = 25) was not exposed to such a strategy. Working memory recognition accuracy was enhanced only in the training group. To explore the neural substrates underlying these strategy effects, fMRI was used to measure brain activity in both groups during working memory task performance before and after an attention training period. In a comparison between pre- and post-training sessions, results showed increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Relative to the control group, the post-training group exhibited increased activation in the left and right inferior parietal lobules (IPLs) and right superior parietal lobule (SPL). These findings suggest that use of a verbal to visual code switching strategy may assist older individuals in the maintenance of information in working memory.

  10. Allium sativum L. Improves Visual Memory and Attention in Healthy Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Tasnim, Sara; Haque, Parsa Sanjana; Bari, Md. Sazzadul; Hossain, Md. Monir; Islam, Sardar Mohd. Ashraful; Shahriar, Mohammad; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that Allium sativum L. (AS) protects amyloid-beta peptide-induced apoptosis, prevents oxidative insults to neurons and synapses, and thus prevent Alzheimer's disease progression in experimental animals. However, there is no experimental evidence in human regarding its putative role in memory and cognition. We have studied the effect of AS consumption by healthy human volunteers on visual memory, verbal memory, attention, and executive function in comparison to control subjects taking placebo. The study was conducted over five weeks and twenty volunteers of both genders were recruited and divided randomly into two groups: A (AS) and B (placebo). Both groups participated in the 6 computerized neuropsychological tests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) twice: at the beginning and after five weeks of the study. We found statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in several parameters of visual memory and attention due to AS ingestion. We also found statistically nonsignificant (p > 0.05) beneficial effects on verbal memory and executive function within a short period of time among the volunteers. Study for a longer period of time with patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases might yield more relevant results regarding the potential therapeutic role of AS. PMID:26351508

  11. Verbal to visual code switching improves working memory in older adults: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Osaka, Mariko; Otsuka, Yuki; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2012-01-01

    The effect of verbal to visual code switching training on working memory performance was investigated in individuals aged 63 and older. During verbal working memory task performance, the training group (n = 25) was introduced to a verbal to visual code switching strategy while the control group (n = 25) was not exposed to such a strategy. Working memory recognition accuracy was enhanced only in the training group. To explore the neural substrates underlying these strategy effects, fMRI was used to measure brain activity in both groups during working memory task performance before and after an attention training period. In a comparison between pre- and post-training sessions, results showed increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Relative to the control group, the post-training group exhibited increased activation in the left and right inferior parietal lobules (IPLs) and right superior parietal lobule (SPL). These findings suggest that use of a verbal to visual code switching strategy may assist older individuals in the maintenance of information in working memory. PMID:22363281

  12. Nicotine improves ethanol-induced impairment of memory: possible involvement of nitric oxide in the dorsal hippocampus of mice.

    PubMed

    Raoufi, N; Piri, M; Moshfegh, A; Shahin, M-S

    2012-09-06

    In the present study, the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) systems in the dorsal hippocampus in nicotine's effect on ethanol-induced amnesia and ethanol state-dependent memory was investigated. Adult male mice were cannulated in the CA1 regions of the dorsal hippocampus and trained on a passive avoidance learning task for memory assessment. We found that pre-training intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of ethanol (1 g/kg) decreased inhibitory avoidance memory when tested 24 h later. The response induced by pre-training ethanol was significantly reversed by pre-test administration of the drug. Similar to ethanol, pre-test administration of nicotine (0.4 and 0.8 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) alone and nicotine (0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 μg/mouse) plus an ineffective dose of ethanol also significantly reversed the amnesia induced by ethanol. Ethanol amnesia was also prevented by pre-test administration of L-arginine (1.2 μg/mouse, intra-CA1), a NO precursor. Interestingly, an ineffective dose of nicotine (0.2 μg/mouse) in combination with a low dose of L-arginine (0.8 μg/mouse) synergistically improved memory performance impaired by ethanol given before training. In contrast, pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of L-NAME (NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester), a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor (0.4 and 0.8 μg/mouse), which reduced memory retrieval in inhibitory avoidance task by itself, in combination with an effective dose of nicotine (0.4 μg/mouse) prevented the improving effect of nicotine on memory impaired by pre-training ethanol. Moreover, intra-CA1 microinjection of L-NAME reversed the L-arginine-induced potentiation of the nicotine response. The results suggest the importance of NO system(s) in the CA1 regions of the dorsal hippocampus for improving the effect of nicotine on the ethanol-induced amnesia.

  13. Improved Social Interaction, Recognition and Working Memory with Cannabidiol Treatment in a Prenatal Infection (poly I:C) Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Ashleigh L; Solowij, Nadia; Babic, Ilijana; Huang, Xu-Feng; Weston-Green, Katrina

    2017-06-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia are associated with cognitive impairment, including learning, memory and attention deficits. Antipsychotic drugs are limited in their efficacy to improve cognition; therefore, new therapeutic agents are required. Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-intoxicating component of cannabis, has anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antipsychotic-like properties; however, its ability to improve the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia remains unclear. Using a prenatal infection model, we examined the effect of chronic CBD treatment on cognition and social interaction. Time-mated pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n=16) were administered polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid (poly I:C) (POLY; 4 mg/kg) or saline (CONT) at gestation day 15. Male offspring (PN56) were injected twice daily with 10 mg/kg CBD (CONT+CBD, POLY+CBD; n=12 per group) or vehicle (VEH; CONT+VEH, POLY+VEH; n=12 per group) for 3 weeks. Body weight, food and water intake was measured weekly. The Novel Object Recognition and rewarded T-maze alternation tests assessed recognition and working memory, respectively, and the social interaction test assessed sociability. POLY+VEH offspring exhibited impaired recognition and working memory, and reduced social interaction compared to CONT+VEH offspring (p<0.01). CBD treatment significantly improved recognition, working memory and social interaction deficits in the poly I:C model (p<0.01 vs POLY+VEH), did not affect total body weight gain, food or water intake, and had no effect in control animals (all p>0.05). In conclusion, chronic CBD administration can attenuate the social interaction and cognitive deficits induced by prenatal poly I:C infection. These novel findings present interesting implications for potential use of CBD in treating the cognitive deficits and social withdrawal of schizophrenia.

  14. Meditation and Music Improve Memory and Cognitive Function in Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Innes, Kim E; Selfe, Terry Kit; Khalsa, Dharma Singh; Kandati, Sahiti

    2017-01-01

    While effective therapies for preventing or slowing cognitive decline in at-risk populations remain elusive, evidence suggests mind-body interventions may hold promise. In this study, we assessed the effects of Kirtan Kriya meditation (KK) and music listening (ML) on cognitive outcomes in adults experiencing subjective cognitive decline (SCD), a strong predictor of Alzheimer's disease. Sixty participants with SCD were randomized to a KK or ML program and asked to practice 12 minutes/day for 3 months, then at their discretion for the ensuing 3 months. At baseline, 3 months, and 6 months we measured memory and cognitive functioning [Memory Functioning Questionnaire (MFQ), Trail-making Test (TMT-A/B), and Digit-Symbol Substitution Test (DSST)]. The 6-month study was completed by 53 participants (88%). Participants performed an average of 93% (91% KK, 94% ML) of sessions in the first 3 months, and 71% (68% KK, 74% ML) during the 3-month, practice-optional, follow-up period. Both groups showed marked and significant improvements at 3 months in memory and cognitive performance (MFQ, DSST, TMT-A/B; p's≤0.04). At 6 months, overall gains were maintained or improved (p's≤0.006), with effect sizes ranging from medium (DSST, ML group) to large (DSST, KK group; TMT-A/B, MFQ). Changes were unrelated to treatment expectancies and did not differ by age, gender, baseline cognition scores, or other factors. Findings of this preliminary randomized controlled trial suggest practice of meditation or ML can significantly enhance both subjective memory function and objective cognitive performance in adults with SCD, and may offer promise for improving outcomes in this population.

  15. Improving problem solving in primary school students: The effect of a training programme focusing on metacognition and working memory.

    PubMed

    Cornoldi, Cesare; Carretti, Barbara; Drusi, Silvia; Tencati, Chiara

    2015-09-01

    Despite doubts voiced on their efficacy, a series of studies has been carried out on the capacity of training programmes to improve academic and reasoning skills by focusing on underlying cognitive abilities and working memory in particular. No systematic efforts have been made, however, to test training programmes that involve both general and specific underlying abilities. If effective, these programmes could help to increase students' motivation and competence. This study examined the feasibility of improving problem-solving skills in school children by means of a training programme that addresses general and specific abilities involved in problem solving, focusing on metacognition and working memory. The project involved a sample of 135 primary school children attending eight classes in the third, fourth, and fifth grades (age range 8-10 years). The classes were assigned to two groups, one attending the training programme in the first 3 months of the study (Training Group 1) and the other serving as a waiting-list control group (Training Group 2). In the second phase of the study, the role of the two groups was reversed, with Training Group 2 attending the training instead of Training Group 1. The training programme led to improvements in both metacognitive and working memory tasks, with positive-related effects on the ability to solve problems. The gains seen in Training Group 1 were also maintained at the second post-test (after 3 months). Specific activities focusing on metacognition and working memory may contribute to modifying arithmetical problem-solving performance in primary school children. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Memory Magic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Thomas G.; Nowak, Norman

    This paper outlines several "tricks" that aid students in improving their memories. The distinctions between operational and figural thought processes are noted. Operational memory is described as something that allows adults to make generalizations about numbers and the rules by which they may be combined, thus leading to easier memorization.…

  17. Negative air ionization improves memory and attention in learning-disabled and mentally retarded children.

    PubMed

    Morton, L L; Kershner, J R

    1984-06-01

    The effect of increased concentrations of ambient negative air ions on incidental visual memory for words and purposive auditory memory for dichotic digits was investigated in 20 normal grade 4 children, 8 learning-disabled children, and 8 mildly mentally retarded children. Half in each group were assigned randomly to an unmodified air-placebo condition under double-blind testing procedures. All of the children breathing negatively ionized air were superior in incidental memory. In dichotic listening, the negative ions produced a counter-priming effect in the two learning-impaired groups, offsetting the difficulties that they showed under placebo in switching attention selectively from one ear to the other. The action of negative ions on the neurotransmitter, serotonin, may be the mechanism by which negative ions produce such behavioral effects. In view of the important environmental and remedial implications of these novel findings, interpretations should be made cautiously pending larger-scale replications.

  18. Improving the Performance of Electrically Activated NiTi Shape Memory Actuators by Pre-Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathmann1, Christian; Fleczok1, Benjamin; Otibar1, Dennis; Kuhlenkötter, Bernd

    2017-06-01

    Shape memory alloys possess an array of unique functional properties which are influenced by a complex interaction of different factors. Due to thermal sensitivity, slight changes in temperature may cause the properties to change significantly. This poses a huge challenge especially for the use of shape memory alloys as actuators. The displacement is the key performance indicator, which has to be of equal or better quality compared to conventional actuators. One problem of shape memory alloys is the change in functional fatigue in the first cycles, which makes it rather difficult to design the actuator. Therefore, the reduction of this shakedown effect is crucial. For this reason, this paper investigates the effect of electrical heat treatment as a method for pre-aging. This topic has so far been little investigated so that the investigations focus on identifying important factors and effects by using the design of experiments.

  19. Improving memory performance in the aged through mnemonic training: a meta-analytic study.

    PubMed

    Verhaeghen, P; Marcoen, A; Goossens, L

    1992-06-01

    The effectiveness of memory training for the elderly was examined through a meta-analysis of pre-to-posttest gains on episodic memory tasks in healthy subjects aged 60 or above. Pre-to-posttest gains were found to be significantly larger in training groups (0.73 SD, k = 49) than in both control (0.38 SD, k = 10) and placebo (0.37 SD, k = 8) groups. Treatment gains in training groups were negatively affected by age of participants and duration of training sessions and positively affected by group treatment, pretraining, and memory-related interventions. No differences in treatment gain were obtained as a function of type of mnemonic taught nor the kind of pretraining used.

  20. Tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside improves learning and (or) memory ability of aged rats and may be connected to the APP pathway.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ying; Yang, Qidong; Zhou, Lin; Du, Xiaoping; Li, Min; Yuan, Mei; Zhou, Zhiwen; Li, Zhenguo

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the protective effects of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG) on learning and (or) memory deficit in aged rats, as well as to explore the possible connection between TSG and the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) pathway. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a young control group (age, 4 months), an aged control group (age, 22 months), and a TSG-treated group (age, 22 months). TSG at doses of 50 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) was intragastrically administered to 22-month-old rats for 4 weeks. The learning and (or) memory ability was measured using the Morris water maze (MWM) test, and the mRNA and protein expression of APP pathway proteins was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively. The aged rats exhibited obvious learning and (or) memory deficit when compared with the young rats, but TSG treatment significantly improved the learning and (or) memory ability in the aged rats, as noted from the MWM test. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed an increase in the expression of beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) in aged rats, and a decrease in ADAM10; however, TSG treatment significantly increased the mRNA and protein expression of ADAM10 (p < 0.01, compared with aged control rats). These results provide solid evidence for the therapeutic effect of TSG on age-related cognitive impairment, especially spatial learning and memory deficit. TSG might exert this effect through the APP pathway, although further studies on the topic are required.

  1. PROspective MEmory Training to improve HEart failUre Self-care (PROMETHEUS): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jan; Rendell, Peter G; Ski, Chantal F; Kure, Christina E; McLennan, Skye N; Rose, Nathan S; Prior, David L; Thompson, David R

    2015-04-29

    Cognitive impairment is seen in up to three quarters of heart failure (HF) patients and has a significant negative impact on patients' health outcomes. Prospective memory, which is defined as memory to carry out future intentions, is important for functional independence in older adults and involves application of multiple cognitive processes that are often impaired in HF patients. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of prospective memory training on patients' engagement in HF self-care and health outcomes, carer strain and quality of life. The proposed study is a randomised, controlled trial in which 200 patients diagnosed with HF, and their carers will be recruited from 3 major hospitals across Melbourne. Eligible patients with HF will be randomised to receive either: 1) The Virtual Week Training Program - a computerised prospective memory (PM) training program (intervention) or 2) non-adaptive computer-based word puzzles (active control). HF patients' baseline cognitive function will be compared to a healthy control group (n = 60) living independently in the community. Patients will undergo a comprehensive assessment of PM, neuropsychological functioning, self-care, physical, and emotional functioning. Assessments will take place at baseline, 4 weeks and 12 months following intervention. Carers will complete measures assessing quality of life, strain, perceived control in the management of the patients' HF symptoms, and ratings of the patients' level of engagement in HF self-care behaviours. If the Virtual Week Training Program is effective in improving: 1) prospective memory; 2) self-care behaviours, and 3) wellbeing in HF patients, this study will enhance our understanding of impaired cognitive processes in HF and potentially is a mechanism to reduce healthcare costs. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry #366376; 27 May 2014. https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=366376&isClinicalTrial=False .

  2. PDE5 Inhibition Improves Object Memory in Standard Housed Rats but Not in Rats Housed in an Enriched Environment: Implications for Memory Models?

    PubMed Central

    Bruder, Ann K.; Wolfs, Kevin H. M.; De Vry, Jochen; Vanmierlo, Tim; Blokland, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    Drug effects are usually evaluated in animals housed under maximally standardized conditions. However, it is assumed that an enriched environment (EE) more closely resembles human conditions as compared to maximally standardized laboratory conditions. In the present study, we examined the acute cognition enhancing effects of vardenafil, a PDE5 inhibitor, which stimulates protein kinase G/CREB signaling in cells, in three different groups of male Wistar rats tested in an object recognition task (ORT). Rats were either housed solitarily (SOL) or socially (SOC) under standard conditions, or socially in an EE. Although EE animals remembered object information longer in the vehicle condition, vardenafil only improved object memory in SOL and SOC animals. While EE animals had a heavier dorsal hippocampus, we found no differences between experimental groups in total cell numbers in the dentate gyrus, CA2–3 or CA1. Neither were there any differences in markers for pre- and postsynaptic density. No changes in PDE5 mRNA- and protein expression levels were observed. Basal pCREB levels were increased in EE rats only, whereas β-catenin was not affected, suggesting specific activation of the MAP kinase signaling pathway and not the AKT pathway. A possible explanation for the inefficacy of vardenafil could be that CREB signaling is already optimally stimulated in the hippocampus of EE rats. Since previous data has shown that acute PDE5 inhibition does not improve memory performance in humans, the use of EE animals could be considered as a more valid model for testing cognition enhancing drugs. PMID:25372140

  3. Tailored Information and Automated Reminding to Improve Medication Adherence in Spanish- and English-Speaking Elders Treated for Memory Impairment.

    PubMed

    Ownby, Raymond L; Hertzog, Christopher; Czaja, Sara J

    2012-05-01

    Medication adherence is recognized as an issue of critical importance within health care, as many patients do not take their medications as prescribed. This study evaluated two interventions targeted at improving adherence in elderly patients being treated for memory impairments. Twenty-seven participants were randomly assigned to control (n = 11), automated reminding (n = 8), or tailored information conditions (n = 8). Medication adherence was evaluated with an electronic pill bottle. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models assessed the effects of the interventions on electronically monitored medication adherence after controlling for covariates. Results showed that individuals in both intervention groups had higher levels of medication adherence than those in the control group. The presence of a caregiver was associated with substantially higher levels of adherence. Verbal memory, but not general cognitive status, predicted better adherence. Mood, health literacy, and executive functions were not associated with adherence. Results thus suggest that both automated reminding and tailored information interventions may improve medication adherence in elders, even among those with memory impairments.

  4. Global view of the mechanisms of improved learning and memory capability in mice with music-exposure by microarray.

    PubMed

    Meng, Bo; Zhu, Shujia; Li, Shijia; Zeng, Qingwen; Mei, Bing

    2009-08-28

    Music has been proved beneficial to improve learning and memory in many species including human in previous research work. Although some genes have been identified to contribute to the mechanisms, it is believed that the effect of music is manifold, behind which must concern a complex regulation network. To further understand the mechanisms, we exposed the mice to classical music for one month. The subsequent behavioral experiments showed improvement of spatial learning capability and elevation of fear-motivated memory in the mice with music-exposure as compared to the naïve mice. Meanwhile, we applied the microarray to compare the gene expression profiles of the hippocampus and cortex between the mice with music-exposure and the naïve mice. The results showed approximately 454 genes in cortex (200 genes up-regulated and 254 genes down-regulated) and 437 genes in hippocampus (256 genes up-regulated and 181 genes down-regulated) were significantly affected in music-exposing mice, which mainly involved in ion channel activity and/or synaptic transmission, cytoskeleton, development, transcription, hormone activity. Our work may provide some hints for better understanding the effects of music on learning and memory.

  5. Curcumin Improves Amyloid β-Peptide (1-42) Induced Spatial Memory Deficits through BDNF-ERK Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Fang, Yu; Xu, Yuming; Lian, Yajun; Xie, Nanchang; Wu, Tianwen; Zhang, Haifeng; Sun, Limin; Zhang, Ruifang; Wang, Zhenhua

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin, the most active component of turmeric, has various beneficial properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor effects. Previous studies have suggested that curcumin reduces the levels of amyloid and oxidized proteins and prevents memory deficits and thus is beneficial to patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying curcumin's effect on cognitive functions are not well-understood. In the present study, we examined the working memory and spatial reference memory in rats that received a ventricular injection of amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1-42), representing a rodent model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The rats treated with Aβ1-42 exhibited obvious cognitive deficits in behavioral tasks. Chronic (seven consecutive days, once per day) but not acute (once a day) curcumin treatments (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) improved the cognitive functions in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the beneficial effect of curcumin is accompanied by increased BDNF levels and elevated levels of phosphorylated ERK in the hippocampus. Furthermore, the cognition enhancement effect of curcumin could be mimicked by the overexpression of BDNF in the hippocampus and blocked by either bilateral hippocampal injections with lentiviruses that express BDNF shRNA or a microinjection of ERK inhibitor. These findings suggest that chronic curcumin ameliorates AD-related cognitive deficits and that upregulated BDNF-ERK signaling in the hippocampus may underlie the cognitive improvement produced by curcumin.

  6. Reflections of Distraction in Memory: Transfer of Previous Distraction Improves Recall in Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Ruthann C.; Hasher, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Three studies explored whether younger and older adults' free recall performance can benefit from prior exposure to distraction that becomes relevant in a memory task. Participants initially read stories that included distracting text. Later, they studied a list of words for free recall, with half of the list consisting of previously distracting…

  7. Experimental febrile seizures induce age-dependent structural plasticity and improve memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Tao, K; Ichikawa, J; Matsuki, N; Ikegaya, Y; Koyama, R

    2016-03-24

    Population-based studies have demonstrated that children with a history of febrile seizure (FS) perform better than age-matched controls at hippocampus-dependent memory tasks. Here, we report that FSs induce two distinct structural reorganizations in the hippocampus and bidirectionally modify future learning abilities in an age-dependent manner. Compared with age-matched controls, adult mice that had experienced experimental FSs induced by hyperthermia (HT) on postnatal day 14 (P14-HT) performed better in a cognitive task that requires dentate granule cells (DGCs). The enhanced memory performance correlated with an FS-induced persistent increase in the density of large mossy fiber terminals (LMTs) of the DGCs. The memory enhancement was not observed in mice that had experienced HT-induced seizures at P11 which exhibited abnormally located DGCs in addition to the increased LMT density. The ectopic DGCs of the P11-HT mice were abolished by the diuretic bumetanide, and this pharmacological treatment unveiled the masked memory enhancement. Thus, this work provides a novel basis for age-dependent structural plasticity in which FSs influence future brain function. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reflections of Distraction in Memory: Transfer of Previous Distraction Improves Recall in Younger and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Ruthann C.; Hasher, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Three studies explored whether younger and older adults’ free recall performance can benefit from prior exposure to distraction that becomes relevant in a memory task. Participants initially read stories that included distracting text. Later, they studied a list of words for free recall, with half of the list consisting of previously distracting words. When the memory task was indirect in its use of distraction (Study 1), only older adults showed transfer, with better recall of previously distracting compared with new words, which increased their recall to match that of younger adults. However, younger adults showed transfer when cued about the relevance of previous distraction both before studying the words (Study 2) and before recalling the words (Study 3) in the memory test. Results suggest that both younger and older adults encode distraction, but younger adults require explicit cueing to use their knowledge of distraction. In contrast, older adults transfer knowledge of distraction in both explicitly cued and indirect memory tasks. Results are discussed in terms of age differences in inhibition and source-constrained retrieval. PMID:21843024

  9. Methylene blue improves brain oxidative metabolism and memory retention in rats.

    PubMed

    Callaway, Narriman Lee; Riha, Penny D; Bruchey, Aleksandra K; Munshi, Zeenat; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2004-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB) increases mitochondrial oxygen consumption and restores memory retention in rats metabolically impaired by inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase. This study tested two related hypotheses using biochemical and behavioral techniques: (1) that low-level MB would enhance brain cytochrome c oxidation, as tested in vitro in brain homogenates and after in vivo administration to rats and (2) that corresponding low-dose MB would enhance spatial memory retention in normal rats, as tested 24 h after rats were trained in a baited holeboard maze for 5 days with daily MB posttraining injections. The biochemical in vitro studies showed an increased rate of brain cytochrome c oxidation with the low but not the high MB concentrations tested. The in vivo administration studies showed that the corresponding MB low dose (1 mg/kg) increased brain cytochrome c oxidation 24 h after intraperitoneal injection, but not after 1 or 2 h postinjection. In the behavioral studies, spatial memory retention in probe trials (percentage of visits to training-baited holes compared to total visits) was significantly better for MB-treated than saline control groups (66% vs. 31%). Together the findings suggest that low-dose MB enhances spatial memory retention in normal rats by increasing brain cytochrome c oxidase activity.

  10. Emilia coccinae (SIMS) G Extract improves memory impairment, cholinergic dysfunction, and oxidative stress damage in scopolamine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Foyet, Harquin Simplice; Abaïssou, Hervé Hervé Ngatanko; Wado, Eglantine; Acha, Emmanuel Asongalem; Alin, Ciobica

    2015-09-23

    E. coccinae (SIMS) G. (Asteraceae) is an annual plant commonly found throughout the plain of the Central Africa and widely used in Cameroonian folk medicine for the treatment of fever and convulsions in children. We previously reported that the methanolic extract of this plant improved spatial memory. However no underlying mechanism was explored. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Emilia coccinae on memory in scopolamine treated rats and to propose possible mechanisms of action. Novel object recognition and Y-maze paradigm were used to test memory while oxidative profile, AChE and ACh level of the whole brain were assessed to outline the mechanism of nootropic activity of the extract. 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract were chronically administrated during 14 consecutive days in separate groups of scopolamine intraperitoneal treated rats (1.5 mg/kg). The hydroalcoholic extract of Emilia coccinae (HEEC) at the dose of 200 mg/kg significantly improved the memory of rats and reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine. In addition, we showed that this extract is decreasing the acetyl cholinesterase activity while also increasing the acetylcholine levels in the brain. HEEC (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, GSH and CAT) and reduced lipid peroxidation (MDA level) in the rat whole brain homogenates. Taken together, our results suggested that the hydroalcoholic extract of Emilia coccinae ameliorated the cognitive dysfunction in scopolamine treated rats through the blockage of the oxidative effect of scopolamine and inhibition of AChE activity.

  11. FinFET memory cell improvements for higher immunity against single event upsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajit, Ahmed Sattar

    The 21st century is witnessing a tremendous demand for transistors. Life amenities have incorporated the transistor in every aspect of daily life, ranging from toys to rocket science. Day by day, scaling down the transistor is becoming an imperious necessity. However, it is not a straightforward process; instead, it faces overwhelming challenges. Due to these scaling changes, new technologies, such as FinFETs for example, have emerged as alternatives to the conventional bulk-CMOS technology. FinFET has more control over the channel, therefore, leakage current is reduced. FinFET could bridge the gap between silicon devices and non-silicon devices. The semiconductor industry is now incorporating FinFETs in systems and subsystems. For example, Intel has been using them in their newest processors, delivering potential saving powers and increased speeds to memory circuits. Memory sub-systems are considered a vital component in the digital era. In memory, few rows are read or written at a time, while the most rows are static; hence, reducing leakage current increases the performance. However, as a transistor shrinks, it becomes more vulnerable to the effects from radioactive particle strikes. If a particle hits a node in a memory cell, the content might flip; consequently, leading to corrupting stored data. Critical fields, such as medical and aerospace, where there are no second chances and cannot even afford to operate at 99.99% accuracy, has induced me to find a rigid circuit in a radiated working environment. This research focuses on a wide spectrum of memories such as 6T SRAM, 8T SRAM, and DICE memory cells using FinFET technology and finding the best platform in terms of Read and Write delay, susceptibility level of SNM, RSNM, leakage current, energy consumption, and Single Event Upsets (SEUs). This research has shown that the SEU tolerance that 6T and 8T FinFET SRAMs provide may not be acceptable in medical and aerospace applications where there is a very high

  12. Calcineurin inhibitors improve memory loss and neuropathological changes in mouse model of dementia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Singh, Nirmal

    2017-02-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the potential of Cyclosporine (CsA) and Tacrolimus, the inhibitors of calcineurin (CaN) in cognitive deficits of mice. Streptozotocin [STZ, 3mg/kg, injected intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.)] was used to induce memory deficits in NIH mice, while aged mice separately taken served as a natural model of dementia. Morris water maze (MWM) test was employed to evaluate learning and memory of the animals. A battery of biochemical and histopathological studies was also performed. Extent of oxidative stress was measured by estimating the levels of brain glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). Brain acetylcholinestrase (AChE) activity was estimated to assess cholinergic activity. The brain level of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured as a marker of inflammation. STZ i.c.v. and aging results in marked decline in MWM performance of the animals, reflecting impairment of learning and memory. STZ i.c.v. treated mice and aged mice exhibited a marked accentuation of AChE activity, TBARS and MPO levels along with a fall in GSH level. Further the stained micrographs of STZ treated mice and aged mice indicate pathological changes, severe neutrophilic infiltration and amyloid deposition. Cyclosporine and Tacrolimus treatment significantly attenuated STZ induced and age related memory deficits, biochemical and histopathological alterations. The findings demonstrate the potential of CaN inhibitors Cyclosporine and Tacrolimus in memory dysfunctions which may probably be attributed to anti-cholinesterase, anti-amyloid, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. It is concluded that CaN can be explored as a potential therapeutic target in dementia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intensive Auditory Cognitive Training Improves Verbal Memory in Adolescents and Young Adults at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Loewy, Rachel; Fisher, Melissa; Schlosser, Danielle A.; Biagianti, Bruno; Stuart, Barbara; Mathalon, Daniel H.; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis demonstrate cognitive impairments that predict later psychotic transition and real-world functioning. Cognitive training has shown benefits in schizophrenia, but has not yet been adequately tested in the CHR population. Methods: In this double-blind randomized controlled trial, CHR individuals (N = 83) were given laptop computers and trained at home on 40 hours of auditory processing-based exercises designed to target verbal learning and memory operations, or on computer games (CG). Participants were assessed with neurocognitive tests based on the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia initiative (MATRICS) battery and rated on symptoms and functioning. Groups were compared before and after training using a mixed-effects model with restricted maximum likelihood estimation, given the high study attrition rate (42%). Results: Participants in the targeted cognitive training group showed a significant improvement in Verbal Memory compared to CG participants (effect size = 0.61). Positive and Total symptoms improved in both groups over time. Conclusions: CHR individuals showed patterns of training-induced cognitive improvement in verbal memory consistent with prior observations in schizophrenia. This is a particularly vulnerable domain in individuals at-risk for psychosis that predicts later functioning and psychotic transition. Ongoing follow-up of this cohort will assess the durability of training effects in CHR individuals, as well as the potential impact on symptoms and functioning over time. Clinical Trials Number: NCT00655239. URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00655239?term=vinogradov&rank=5. PMID:26903238

  14. Reorganization of functional brain networks mediates the improvement of cognitive performance following real-time neurofeedback training of working memory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaoyan; Yao, Li; Shen, Jiahui; Yang, Yihong; Zhao, Xiaojie

    2015-05-01

    Working memory (WM) is essential for individuals' cognitive functions. Neuroimaging studies indicated that WM fundamentally relied on a frontoparietal working memory network (WMN) and a cinguloparietal default mode network (DMN). Behavioral training studies demonstrated that the two networks can be modulated by WM training. Different from the behavioral training, our recent study used a real-time functional MRI (rtfMRI)-based neurofeedback method to conduct WM training, demonstrating that WM performance can be significantly improved after successfully upregulating the activity of the target region of interest (ROI) in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Zhang et al., [2013]: PloS One 8:e73735); however, the neural substrate of rtfMRI-based WM training remains unclear. In this work, we assessed the intranetwork and internetwork connectivity changes of WMN and DMN during the training, and their correlations with the change of brain activity in the target ROI as well as with the improvement of post-training behavior. Our analysis revealed an "ROI-network-behavior" correlation relationship underlying the rtfMRI training. Further mediation analysis indicated that the reorganization of functional brain networks mediated the effect of self-regulation of the target brain activity on the improvement of cognitive performance following the neurofeedback training. The results of this study enhance our understanding of the neural basis of real-time neurofeedback and suggest a new direction to improve WM performance by regulating the functional connectivity in the WM related networks. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Red mold rice promoted antioxidase activity against oxidative injury and improved the memory ability of zinc-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bao-Hong; Ho, Bing-Ying; Wang, Chin-Thin; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2009-11-25

    Zn deficiency is a common disease leading to memory impairment with increasing age. This study evaluated the protection effects of red mold rice (RMR) administration and Zn supplementation against memory and learning ability impairments from oxidative stress caused by Zn deficiency. Rats (4 weeks old) were induced to be Zn deficiency by a Zn-deficient diet for 12 weeks. After that, rats were administered Zn, 1xRMR, 5xRMR, and various dosages of RMR plus Zn, respectively. Decreases of antioxidant enzyme activities in the hippocampus and cortex were observed, and the levels of Ca, Fe, and Mg were increased in the hippocampus and cortex of Zn-deficient rats, leading to memory and learning ability injury. However, the administration of RMR (1- or 5-fold dosage) and with or without Zn significantly improved the antioxidase and neural activity to maintain cortex and hippocampus functions. This study demonstrates that RMR is a possible functional food for the prevention or cure of neural injury associated with Zn deficiency.

  16. Using cascading Bloom filters to improve the memory usage for de Brujin graphs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background De Brujin graphs are widely used in bioinformatics for processing next-generation sequencing data. Due to a very large size of NGS datasets, it is essential to represent de Bruijn graphs compactly, and several approaches to this problem have been proposed recently. Results In this work, we show how to reduce the memory required by the data structure of Chikhi and Rizk (WABI’12) that represents de Brujin graphs using Bloom filters. Our method requires 30% to 40% less memory with respect to their method, with insignificant impact on construction time. At the same time, our experiments showed a better query time compared to the method of Chikhi and Rizk. Conclusion The proposed data structure constitutes, to our knowledge, currently the most efficient practical representation of de Bruijn graphs. PMID:24565280

  17. The multi-herbal formula Chong-Myung-Tang improves spatial memory and increases cell genesis in the dentate gyrus of aged mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Mingwei; Zhang, Ruifen; Lee, Mira; Wang, Zhen; Hou, Jingang; Sung, Chang-Keun

    2014-01-01

    Chong-Myung-Tang (CMT) is a multi-herbal formula that has been used to improve memory. However, the potential mechanism remains unknown. The present study investigated the effects of CMT (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) on spatial memory of aged mice. The behavioral training tests indicated that 200 mg/kg CMT treatment can significantly improve spatial memory of aged mice in the Morris water maze. Moreover, cell survival was examined by injecting bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) on the first three days. The result showed that 200 mg/kg CMT treatment significantly increased cell survival in the dentate gyrus. Cell proliferation was determined by injecting BrdU 2 h before the mice were killed. The result suggested that CMT treatments had no influence on cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus. Thus, an increase in cell survival in the dentate gyrus stimulated by CMT may be involved in the effect of CMT on spatial memory improvement.

  18. Effectiveness of different memory training programs on improving hyperphagic behaviors of residents with dementia: a longitudinal single-blind study.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chieh-Chun; Lin, Li-Chan; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Lin, Ker-Neng; Liu, Ching-Kuan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperphagia increases eating-associated risks for people with dementia and distress for caregivers. The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term effectiveness of spaced retrieval (SR) training and SR training combined with Montessori activities (SR + M) for improving hyperphagic behaviors of special care unit residents with dementia. The study enrolled patients with dementia suffering from hyperphagia resident in eight institutions and used a cluster-randomized single-blind design, with 46 participants in the SR group, 49 in the SR + M group, and 45 participants in the control group. For these three groups, trained research assistants collected baseline data on hyperphagic behavior, pica, changes in eating habits, short meal frequency, and distress to caregivers. The SR and SR + M groups underwent memory training over a 6-week training period (30 sessions), and a generalized estimating equation was used to compare data of all the three groups of subjects obtained immediately after the training period and at follow-ups 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months later. Results showed that the hyperphagic and pica behaviors of both the SR and SR + M groups were significantly improved (P<0.001) and that the effect lasted for 3 months after training. The improvement of fast eating was significantly superior in the SR + M group than in the SR group. The improvement in distress to caregivers in both intervention groups lasted only until the posttest. Improvement in changes in eating habits of the two groups was not significantly different from that of the control group. SR and SR + M training programs can improve hyperphagic behavior of patients with dementia. The SR + M training program is particularly beneficial for the improvement of rapid eating. Caregivers can choose a suitable memory training program according to the eating problems of their residents.

  19. Effectiveness of different memory training programs on improving hyperphagic behaviors of residents with dementia: a longitudinal single-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Chieh-Chun; Lin, Li-Chan; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Lin, Ker-Neng; Liu, Ching-Kuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyperphagia increases eating-associated risks for people with dementia and distress for caregivers. The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term effectiveness of spaced retrieval (SR) training and SR training combined with Montessori activities (SR + M) for improving hyperphagic behaviors of special care unit residents with dementia. Methods The study enrolled patients with dementia suffering from hyperphagia resident in eight institutions and used a cluster-randomized single-blind design, with 46 participants in the SR group, 49 in the SR + M group, and 45 participants in the control group. For these three groups, trained research assistants collected baseline data on hyperphagic behavior, pica, changes in eating habits, short meal frequency, and distress to caregivers. The SR and SR + M groups underwent memory training over a 6-week training period (30 sessions), and a generalized estimating equation was used to compare data of all the three groups of subjects obtained immediately after the training period and at follow-ups 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months later. Results Results showed that the hyperphagic and pica behaviors of both the SR and SR + M groups were significantly improved (P<0.001) and that the effect lasted for 3 months after training. The improvement of fast eating was significantly superior in the SR + M group than in the SR group. The improvement in distress to caregivers in both intervention groups lasted only until the posttest. Improvement in changes in eating habits of the two groups was not significantly different from that of the control group. Conclusion SR and SR + M training programs can improve hyperphagic behavior of patients with dementia. The SR + M training program is particularly beneficial for the improvement of rapid eating. Caregivers can choose a suitable memory training program according to the eating problems of their residents. PMID:27307717

  20. Xanthoceraside attenuates learning and memory deficits via improving insulin signaling in STZ-induced AD rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Zou, Libo; Jiao, Qing; Chi, Tianyan; Ji, Xuefei; Qi, Yue; Xu, Qian; Wang, Lihua

    2013-05-24

    Xanthoceraside, a triterpenoid saponin extracted from the fruit husks of Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge, has been shown to reverse the cognitive deficits observed in several Alzheimer's disease (AD) animal models. Increasing evidence suggests the involvement of the insulin signaling pathway in neurodegenerative disorders such as AD. Thus, we used an AD animal model of cognitive impairment induced by the intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) to test the effects of xanthoceraside on behavioral impairments and insulin signaling mechanisms. In our present study, memory impairment was assessed using the Morris water maze test. The expression of IR, IGF-1R and Raf-1/ERK/CREB was tested by western blotting. The STZ group showed memory deficits in the Morris water maze test and significant decreases in IR and IGF-1R protein levels in the hippocampus. Xanthoceraside treatment significantly rescued memory deficits, as well as IR and IGF-1R protein expression levels. STZ inhibited the Ras/ERK signaling cascade and decreased the phosphorylation of CREB; these effects were also attenuated by xanthoceraside treatment. These results suggest the potential use of xanthoceraside for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders in which brain insulin signaling may be involved.

  1. Cognitive strategy interventions improve word problem solving and working memory in children with math disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of strategy instruction and working memory capacity (WMC) on problem solving solution accuracy in children with and without math disabilities (MD). Children in grade 3 (N = 204) with and without MD subdivided into high and low WMC were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: verbal strategies (e.g., underlining question sentence), visual strategies (e.g., correctly placing numbers in diagrams), verbal + visual strategies, and an untreated control. The dependent measures for training were problem solving accuracy and two working memory transfer measures (operation span and visual-spatial span). Three major findings emerged: (1) strategy instruction facilitated solution accuracy but the effects of strategy instruction were moderated by WMC, (2) some strategies yielded higher post-test scores than others, but these findings were qualified as to whether children were at risk for MD, and (3) strategy training on problem solving measures facilitated transfer to working memory measures. The main findings were that children with MD, but high WM spans, were more likely to benefit from strategy conditions on target and transfer measures than children with lower WMC. The results suggest that WMC moderates the influence of cognitive strategies on both the targeted and non-targeted measures. PMID:26300803

  2. Mangiferin, a naturally occurring glucoxilxanthone improves long-term object recognition memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Pardo Andreu, Gilberto L; Maurmann, Natasha; Reolon, Gustavo Kellermann; de Farias, Caroline B; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Delgado, René; Roesler, Rafael

    2010-06-10

    Mangiferin (2-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone) is a xanthone widely distributed in higher plants showing antioxidative, antiviral, anticancer, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, and analgesic effects. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of systemic administration of mangiferin on behavioral outcomes of neurological function in normal rats. A single intraperitoneal injection of mangiferin (10, 50, or 100mg/kg body weight) enhanced novel object recognition (NOR) memory when given immediately post-training. The administration of mangiferin 6h post-training did not affect NOR memory. There were no significant differences between groups in the total time exploring both objects, indicating that mangiferin did not affect locomotion or motivation. Mangiferin stimulated cell proliferation and induced a significant increase in the supernatant levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in vitro in human U138-MG glioblastoma cells. The results indicate that mangiferin enhances recognition memory through a mechanism that might involve an increase in neurotrophin and cytokine levels.

  3. Improving potato drought tolerance through the induction of long-term water stress memory.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, D A; Rolando, J L; Yactayo, W; Monneveux, P; Mares, V; Quiroz, R

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge of drought tolerance in potato is limited and very little is known about stress memory in this crop. In the present study, long-term stress memory was tested on tuber yield and drought tolerance related traits in three potato varieties (Unica, Désirée and Sarnav) with contrasted yields under water restriction. Seed tubers produced by plants grown under non-restricted (non-primed tubers) and restricted (primed tubers) water conditions were sown and exposed to similar watering treatments. Tuber yield and leaf greenness of plants from primed and non-primed seeds as well as tuber carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C) and antioxidant activity (AA) responses to watering treatments were compared. Higher tuber yield, both under non-restricted and restricted water regimes, was produced by primed Sarnav plants. The decrease of tuber yield and Δ(13)C with water restriction was lower in primed Unica plants. Long-term stress memory consequently appears to be highly genotype-dependent in potato. Its expression in plants originated from primed tubers and facing water restriction seems to be positively associated to the degree of inherent capability of the cultivar to yield under water restriction. However, other effects of priming appear to be genotype-independent as priming enhanced the tuber AA in response to water restriction in the three varieties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dietary supplementation of walnuts improves memory deficits and learning skills in transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Muthaiyah, Balu; Essa, Musthafa M; Lee, Moon; Chauhan, Ved; Kaur, Kulbir; Chauhan, Abha

    2014-01-01

    Previous in vitro studies have shown that walnut extract can inhibit amyloid-β (Aβ) fibrillization, can solubilize its fibrils, and has a protective effect against Aβ-induced oxidative stress and cellular death. In this study, we analyzed the effect of dietary supplementation with walnuts on learning skills, memory, anxiety, locomotor activity, and motor coordination in the Tg2576 transgenic (tg) mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD-tg). From the age of 4 months, the experimental groups of AD-tg mice were fed custom-mixed diets containing 6% walnuts (T6) or 9% walnuts (T9), i.e., equivalent to 1 or 1.5 oz, respectively, of walnuts per day in humans. The control groups, i.e., AD-tg and wild-type mice, were fed a diet without walnuts (T0, Wt). These experimental and control mice were examined at the ages of 13-14 months by Morris water maze (for spatial memory and learning ability), T maze (for position discrimination learning ability), rotarod (for psychomotor coordination), and elevated plus maze (for anxiety-related behavior). AD-tg mice on the control diet (T0) showed memory deficit, anxiety-related behavior, and severe impairment in spatial learning ability, position discrimination learning ability, and motor coordination compared to the Wt mice on the same diet. The AD-tg mice receiving the diets with 6% or 9% walnuts (T6 and T9) showed a significant improvement in memory, learning ability, anxiety, and motor development compared to the AD-tg mice on the control diet (T0). There was no statistically significant difference in behavioral performance between the T6/T9 mice on walnuts-enriched diets and the Wt group on the control diet. These findings suggest that dietary supplementation with walnuts may have a beneficial effect in reducing the risk, delaying the onset, or slowing the progression of, or preventing AD.

  5. Treadmill exercise improves motor and memory functions in cerebral palsy rats through activation of PI3K-Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sun-Young; Kim, Dae-Young

    2017-04-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a chronic disorder characterized by physical disability and disruption of brain function. We evaluated the effects of treadmill exercise on motor and memory functions in relation with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway using CP rat model. Rota-rod test, step-down avoidance task, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry, and western blot for synapsin I, postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95), PI3K, Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) were performed. CP was induced by maternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injection with sensorimotor restriction. Five weeks after birth, the rats in the exercise groups were made to run on the treadmill for 30 min per one day, 5 times a week, during 4 weeks. Motor and memory functions were impaired in the LPS-induced CP rats and tread-mill exercise increased motor and memory functions in the CP rats. Cell proliferation in the hippocampus was suppressed in the LPS-induced CP rats and treadmill exercise increased hippocampal cell proliferation in the CP rats. Expressions of synapsin I, PSD-95, phosphorylated (p)-PI3K, and p-Akt were decreased in the LPS-induced CP rats and treadmill exercise enhanced the expressions of synapsin I, PSD-95, p-PI3K, and p-Akt in the CP rats. GSK-3β expression was increased in the LPS-induced CP rats and treadmill exercise suppressed GSK-3β expression in the CP rats. The present results suggest that treadmill exercise might improve motor and memory functions through activation of PI3K-Akt pathway.

  6. Intracranial self-stimulation to the lateral hypothalamus, a memory improving treatment, results in hippocampal changes in gene expression.

    PubMed

    Huguet, G; Aldavert-Vera, L; Kádár, E; Peña de Ortiz, S; Morgado-Bernal, I; Segura-Torres, P

    2009-08-18

    Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) within the medial forebrain bundle of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) facilitates consolidation of implicit and explicit memories for a variety of learning paradigms in rats. However, the neural and molecular mechanisms involved in memory facilitation by ICSS are not known. Here, we investigated the influence of ICSS treatment on hippocampal gene expression in order to identify potential signaling pathways and cellular processes involved in ICSS-mediated cognitive improvements. Immunohistochemistry studies demonstrated that ICSS caused a rapid induction of c-Fos expression in hippocampal cornu ammonis (CA) 3 and dentatus gyrus areas. Moreover, using microarray or quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, we showed that ICSS modulates the expression of 62 hippocampal genes shortly after training. Most of the proteins encoded by these genes, such as calmodulin-dependent-phosphodiesterase 1 A (Pde1a), are part of signal transduction machineries or are related to anti-apoptosis, as heat shock 70 kDa protein 1A (Hspa1a). Importantly, 10 of the regulated genes have been previously related with learning and memory or neural plasticity, including the cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (Cart), adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 (Adcyap1), serum/glucocorticoid regulated kinase (Sgk), Ret proto-oncogene (Ret), and Fos. The fact that the Fos gene was differentially expressed in our microarray experiments validated our findings from our immunohistochemical studies mentioned above. In addition, using quantitative real-time PCR, we confirmed the observed expression changes for several of the genes identified by our microarray analyses. Our results suggest that ICSS may facilitate learning and memory by regulation of multiple signaling pathways in the hippocampus that may promote neuroplasticity.

  7. Treadmill exercise improves motor and memory functions in cerebral palsy rats through activation of PI3K-Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sun-Young; Kim, Dae-Young

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a chronic disorder characterized by physical disability and disruption of brain function. We evaluated the effects of treadmill exercise on motor and memory functions in relation with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway using CP rat model. Rota-rod test, step-down avoidance task, 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry, and western blot for synapsin I, postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95), PI3K, Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) were performed. CP was induced by maternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injection with sensorimotor restriction. Five weeks after birth, the rats in the exercise groups were made to run on the treadmill for 30 min per one day, 5 times a week, during 4 weeks. Motor and memory functions were impaired in the LPS-induced CP rats and tread-mill exercise increased motor and memory functions in the CP rats. Cell proliferation in the hippocampus was suppressed in the LPS-induced CP rats and treadmill exercise increased hippocampal cell proliferation in the CP rats. Expressions of synapsin I, PSD-95, phosphorylated (p)-PI3K, and p-Akt were decreased in the LPS-induced CP rats and treadmill exercise enhanced the expressions of synapsin I, PSD-95, p-PI3K, and p-Akt in the CP rats. GSK-3β expression was increased in the LPS-induced CP rats and treadmill exercise suppressed GSK-3β expression in the CP rats. The present results suggest that treadmill exercise might improve motor and memory functions through activation of PI3K-Akt pathway. PMID:28503524

  8. Neuron-specific caveolin-1 overexpression improves motor function and preserves memory in mice subjected to brain trauma.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Junji; Schilling, Jan M; Cui, Weihua; Posadas, Edmund; Sawada, Atsushi; Alas, Basheer; Zemljic-Harpf, Alice E; Fannon-Pavlich, McKenzie J; Mandyam, Chitra D; Roth, David M; Patel, Hemal H; Patel, Piyush M; Head, Brian P

    2017-08-01

    Studies in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that membrane/lipid rafts and caveolin (Cav) organize progrowth receptors, and, when overexpressed specifically in neurons, Cav-1 augments neuronal signaling and growth and improves cognitive function in adult and aged mice; however, whether neuronal Cav-1 overexpression can preserve motor and cognitive function in the brain trauma setting is unknown. Here, we generated a neuron-targeted Cav-1-overexpressing transgenic (Tg) mouse [synapsin-driven Cav-1 (SynCav1 Tg)] and subjected it to a controlled cortical impact model of brain trauma and measured biochemical, anatomic, and behavioral changes. SynCav1 Tg mice exhibited increased hippocampal expression of Cav-1 and membrane/lipid raft localization of postsynaptic density protein 95, NMDA receptor, and tropomyosin receptor kinase B. When subjected to a controlled cortical impact, SynCav1 Tg mice demonstrated preserved hippocampus-dependent fear learning and memory, improved motor function recovery, and decreased brain lesion volume compared with wild-type controls. Neuron-targeted overexpression of Cav-1 in the adult brain prevents hippocampus-dependent learning and memory deficits, restores motor function after brain trauma, and decreases brain lesion size induced by trauma. Our findings demonstrate that neuron-targeted Cav-1 can be used as a novel therapeutic strategy to restore brain function and prevent trauma-associated maladaptive plasticity.-Egawa, J., Schilling, J. M., Cui, W., Posadas, E., Sawada, A., Alas, B., Zemljic-Harpf, A. E., Fannon-Pavlich, M. J., Mandyam, C. D., Roth, D. M., Patel, H. H., Patel, P. M., Head, B. P. Neuron-specific caveolin-1 overexpression improves motor function and preserves memory in mice subjected to brain trauma. © FASEB.

  9. Remediation of language processing in aphasia: Improving activation and maintenance of linguistic representations in (verbal) short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Kohen, Francine; Martin, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Background Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairments are invariably present in aphasia. Word processing involves a minimal form of verbal STM, i.e., the time course over which semantic and phonological representations are activated and maintained until they are comprehended, produced, or repeated. Thus it is reasonable that impairments of word processing and verbal STM may co-occur. The co-occurrence of language and STM impairments in aphasia has motivated an active area of research that has revealed much about the relationship of these two systems and the effect of their impairment on language function and verbal learning (Freedman & Martin, 2001; Martin & Saffran, 1999; Trojano & Grossi, 1995). In keeping with this view a number of researchers have developed treatment protocols to improve verbal STM in order to improve language function (e.g., Koenig-Bruhin & Studer-Eichenberger, 2007). This account of aphasia predicts that treatment of a fundamental ability, such as STM, which supports language function, should lead to improvements that generalise to content and tasks beyond those implemented in treatment. Aims We investigated the efficacy of a treatment for language impairment that targets two language support processes: verbal short-term memory (STM) and executive processing, in the context of a language task (repetition). We hypothesised that treatment of these abilities would improve repetition abilities and performance on other language tasks that require STM. Method A single-participant, multiple-baseline, multiple-probe design across behaviours was used with a participant with conduction aphasia. The treatment involved repetition of words and nonwords under three “interval” conditions, which varied the time between hearing and repeating the stimulus. Measures of treatment effects included acquisition, maintenance, and follow-up data, effect sizes, and pre- and post-treatment performance on a test battery that varies the STM and executive function

  10. Alpha-lipoic acid-mediated activation of muscarinic receptors improves hippocampus- and amygdala-dependent memory.

    PubMed

    Mahboob, Aamra; Farhat, Syeda Mehpara; Iqbal, Ghazala; Babar, Mustafeez Mujtaba; Zaidi, Najam-us-Sahar Sadaf; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Ahmed, Touqeer

    2016-04-01

    Aluminum (Al) is a neurotoxic agent which readily crosses the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and accumulates in the brain leading to neurodegenerative disorders, characterised by cognitive impairment. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is an antioxidant and has a potential to improve cognitive functions. This study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of ALA in AlCl3-induced neurotoxicity mouse model. Effect of ALA (25mg/kg/day) was evaluated in the AlCl3-induced neurotoxicity (AlCl3 150 mg/kg/day) mouse model on learning and memory using behaviour tests and on the expression of muscarinic receptor genes (using RT-PCR), in hippocampus and amygdala. Following ALA treatment, the expression of muscarinic receptor genes M1, M2 and choline acetyltransferase (ChaT) were significantly improved (p<0.05) relative to AlCl3-treated group. ALA enhanced fear memory (p<0.01) and social novelty preference (p<0.001) comparative to the AlCl3-treated group. Fear extinction memory was remarkably restored (p<0.001) in ALA-treated group demonstrated by reduced freezing response as compared to the AlCl3-treated group which showed higher freezing. In-silico analysis showed that racemic mixture of ALA has higher binding affinity for M1 and M2 compared to acetylcholine. These novel findings highlight the potential role of ALA in cognitive functions and cholinergic system enhancement thus presenting it an enviable therapeutic candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.