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Sample records for n-phenylacetyl-l-prolylglycine ethyl ester

  1. The major metabolite of dipeptide piracetam analogue GVS-111 in rat brain and its similarity to endogenous neuropeptide cyclo-L-prolylglycine.

    PubMed

    Gudasheva, T A; Boyko, S S; Ostrovskaya, R U; Voronina, T A; Akparov, V K; Trofimov, S S; Rozantsev, G G; Skoldinov, A P; Zherdev, V P; Seredenin, S B

    1997-01-01

    The metabolism of a new piracetam analogue, the dipeptide cognitive enhancer N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester (GVS-111) was studied in vivo. GVS-111 itself was not found in rat brain 1 h after 5 mg/kg i.p. administration up to limit of detection (LOD) under high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions. Three substances corresponding to the three possible GVS-111 metabolites, namely phenylacetic acid, prolylglycine and cyclo-prolylglycine, were found in experimental rat brain samples as well as in controls using HPLC, gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods. Only cyclo-prolylglycine concentration increased (2.5-fold) 1 h after GVS-111 administration. Cyclo-prolylglycine formation from GVS-111 in the presence of plasma and brain enzymes was shown in vitro. These data could be considered as evidence that GVS-111 is prodrug which converts in the body to cyclo-prolylglycine, and which is identical to the endogenous cyclopeptide that produces the nootropic activity.

  2. [Effect of the novel dipeptide nootropic agent noopept and its metabolite cyclo-L-prolylglycine on the transcallosal evoked potential in the rat brain].

    PubMed

    Molodavkin, G M; Borlikova, G G; Voronina, T A; Gudasheva, T A; Ostrovskaia, R U; Tushmalova, N A; Seredenin, S B

    2002-01-01

    The effect of new nootropic dipeptides--noopept (N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine, GVS-111) and its metabolite (cyclo-L-prolylglycine)--and a standard nootrope piracetam on the transcallosal evoked potential (TEP) in rat brain was studied. In the dose range from 150 to 300 mg/kg, piracetam increased the TEP amplitude, which exhibited a maximum after 1.5-2 h and then gradually decreased. Both noopept and cyclo-L-prolylglycine also increased the TEP amplitude, which attained a plateau and retained this level over the entire observation time (above 3.5 h). All the nootropes studied increased both components of the evoked potential. Piracetam and cyclo-L-prolylglycine led to an approximately equal increase in both waves, while noopept induced a somewhat greater increase in the negative TEP wave amplitude. It is suggested that the positive effect of noopept and cyclo-L-prolylglycine upon the interhemispheric signal transfer (indicated by the improved transcallosal response) can be considered as a potential neurophysiological basis for a positive drug influence on the behavioral level.

  3. Efficiency of noopept in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Ostrovskaya, R U; Ozerova, I V; Gudascheva, T A; Kapitsa, I G; Ivanova, E A; Voronina, T A; Seredenin, S B

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of new nootropic and neuroprotective drug Noopept (N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) in various dosage regimens on the dynamics of glycemia, body weight, and pain sensitivity in rats receiving diabetogenic toxin streptozotocin. In experimental diabetic rats, Noopept alleviated glycemia and weight loss and normalized enhanced pain sensitivity. The normalizing effect of Noopept was most pronounced when it was administered as a preventive agent prior to injection of the toxin. Both preventive and therapeutic administration of Noopept (delayed injections included) significantly weakened the examined metabolic effects of diabetogenic toxin. Possible mechanisms of the antidiabetic action of Noopept are analyzed.

  4. Dipeptide Piracetam Analogue Noopept Improves Viability of Hippocampal HT-22 Neurons in the Glutamate Toxicity Model.

    PubMed

    Antipova, T A; Nikolaev, S V; Ostrovskaya, P U; Gudasheva, T A; Seredenin, S B

    2016-05-01

    Effect of noopept (N-phenylacetyl-prolylglycine ethyl ester) on viability of neurons exposed to neurotoxic action of glutamic acid (5 mM) was studied in vitro in immortalized mouse hippocampal HT-22 neurons. Noopept added to the medium before or after glutamic acid improved neuronal survival in a concentration range of 10-11-10-5 M. Comparison of the effective noopept concentrations determined in previous studies on cultured cortical and cerebellar neurons showed that hippocampal neurons are more sensitive to the protective effect of noopept.

  5. S-Nitroso-N-acetyl-L-cysteine ethyl ester (SNACET) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine ethyl ester (NACET)-Cysteine-based drug candidates with unique pharmacological profiles for oral use as NO, H2S and GSH suppliers and as antioxidants: Results and overview.

    PubMed

    Tsikas, Dimitrios; Schwedhelm, Kathrin S; Surdacki, Andrzej; Giustarini, Daniela; Rossi, Ranieri; Kukoc-Modun, Lea; Kedia, George; Ückert, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    S -Nitrosothiols or thionitrites with the general formula RSNO are formally composed of the nitrosyl cation (NO + ) and a thiolate (RS - ), the base of the corresponding acids RSH. The smallest S -nitrosothiol is HSNO and derives from hydrogen sulfide (HSH, H 2 S). The most common physiological S -nitrosothiols are derived from the amino acid L-cysteine (CysSH). Thus, the simplest S -nitrosothiol is S -nitroso-L-cysteine (CysSNO). CysSNO is a spontaneous potent donor of nitric oxide (NO) which activates soluble guanylyl cyclase to form cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). This activation is associated with multiple biological actions that include relaxation of smooth muscle cells and inhibition of platelet aggregation. Like NO, CysSNO is a short-lived species and occurs physiologically at concentrations around 1 nM in human blood. CysSNO can be formed from CysSH and higher oxides of NO including nitrous acid (HONO) and its anhydride (N 2 O 3 ). The most characteristic feature of RSNO is the S-transnitrosation reaction by which the NO + group is reversibly transferred to another thiolate. By this way numerous RSNO can be formed such as the low-molecular-mass S -nitroso- N -acetyl-L-cysteine (SNAC) and S -nitroso-glutathione (GSNO), and the high-molecular-mass S -nitrosol-L-cysteine hemoglobin (HbCysSNO) present in erythrocytes and S -nitrosol-L-cysteine albumin (AlbCysSNO) present in plasma at concentrations of the order of 200 nM. All above mentioned RSNO exert NO-related biological activity, but they must be administered intravenously. This important drawback can be overcome by lipophilic charge-free RSNO. Thus, we prepared the ethyl ester of SNAC, the S -nitroso- N -acetyl-L-cysteine ethyl ester (SNACET), from synthetic N -acetyl-L-cysteine ethyl ester (NACET). Both NACET and SNACET have improved pharmacological features over N -acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and S -nitroso- N -acetyl-L-cysteine (SNAC), respectively, including higher oral bioavailability. SNACET

  6. The electron transport mechanism in ester and its influence on bioactivity in the anticancer drug N-(6-ferrocenyl-2-naphthoyl)-L-alanine-glycine ethyl ester(FNLAGEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhi, Geethu; Rajina, S. R.; Praveen, S. G.; Xavier, T. S.; Kenny, Peter T. M.; Binoy, J.

    2018-05-01

    The reactivity of ester group plays key role in inducing bioactivity of many ferrocenyl biconjugated compounds. The ester reactivity can be explained, based on electron transport mechanism using vibrational spectroscopy, aided by DFT simulation. The FT IR and FT Raman spectral measurements have been carried out for N-(6-ferrocenyl-2-naphthoyl)-L-alanine-glycine ethyl ester (FNLAGEE) and the optimized geometry and vibrational spectra have been computed using DFT method, at B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theory. The cis conformation of ester and electron transport mechanism, thus analyzed, has been correlated to the geometry and the spectral characteristics of ester. To investigate the bioactivity and binding interactions of the molecule, molecular docking simulations and UV-Vis absorption studies of FNLAGEE with BSA and DNA has been performed.

  7. Kinetics and stereochemistry of hydrolysis of an N-(phenylacetyl)-α-hydroxyglycine ester catalyzed by serine β-lactamases and DD-peptidases.

    PubMed

    Pelto, Ryan B; Pratt, R F

    2012-09-28

    The α-hydroxydepsipeptide 3-carboxyphenyl N-(phenylacetyl)-α-hydroxyglycinate (5) is a quite effective substrate of serine β-lactamases and low molecular mass DD-peptidases. The class C P99 and ampC β-lactamases catalyze the hydrolysis of both enantiomers of 5, although they show a strong preference for one of them. The class A TEM-2 and class D OXA-1 β-lactamases and the Streptomyces R61 and Actinomadura R39 DD-peptidases catalyze hydrolysis of only one enantiomer of at any significant rate. Experiments show that all of the above enzymes strongly prefer the same enantiomer, a surprising result since β-lactamases usually prefer L(S) enantiomers and DD-peptidases D(R). Product analysis, employing peptidylglycine α-amidating lyase, showed that the preferred enantiomer is D(R). Thus, it is the β-lactamases that have switched preference rather than the DD-peptidases. Molecular modeling of the P99 β-lactamase active site suggests that the α-hydroxyl 5 of may interact with conserved Asn and Lys residues. Both α-hydroxy and α-amido substituents on a glycine ester substrate can therefore enhance its productive interaction with the β-lactamase active site, although their effects are not additive; this may also be true for inhibitors.

  8. Genotype-dependent characteristics of behavior in mice in cognitive tests. The effects of Noopept.

    PubMed

    Bel'nik, A P; Ostrovskaya, R U; Poletaeva, I I

    2009-01-01

    Male C57BL/6J, BALB/c, and DBA/2J mice showed differences in their abilities to perform two cognitive tests. C57BL/6J mice had good learning ability and memory trace retention (at 10 days) in a simplified Morris maze, while BALB/c mice had low levels of memory trace retention and DBA/2J mice had low learning ability in this test. I.p. administration of the nootropic agent Noopept (GVS-111, N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg 15 min before the start of the test induced significant improvements in long-term memory in this test in BALB/c mice but no further improvement in C57BL/6J mice, and had no effect in DBA/2J mice. On testing the ability to extrapolate the direction of movement of a stimulus, administration of Noopept increased the proportion of correct responses in C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice, but had no effect in DBA/2J mice.

  9. Noopept normalizes parameters of the incretin system in rats with experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ostrovskaya, R U; Zolotov, N N; Ozerova, I V; Ivanova, E A; Kapitsa, I G; Taraban, K V; Michunskaya, A M; Voronina, T A; Gudasheva, T A; Seredenin, S B

    2014-07-01

    Experiments on adult Wistar rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes showed that antihyperglycemic activity of an original nootropic and neuroprotective drug Noopept (N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) is more pronounced under conditions of oral application than after intraperitoneal injection. These data provided a basis for studying the effect of Noopept on major indexes of the incretin system. Streptozotocin was shown to decrease the concentrations of incretin GLP-1 and insulin in the blood. Noopept had a normalizing effect on these parameters. This influence of Noopept was not related to the inhibition of a major enzyme metabolizing incretins (dipeptidyl peptidase IV). A reference drug sitagliptin also increased the contents of incretins and insulin, which was associated with the inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV. It is known that GLP-1 increases NGF expression in the insular system. Our results suggest that the increase in incretin activity contributes to the antiapoptotic effect of Noopept on pancreatic β cells. The mechanism for an increase in blood GLP-1 level after oral application of Noopept requires further investigations.

  10. Memory restoring and neuroprotective effects of the proline-containing dipeptide, GVS-111, in a photochemical stroke model.

    PubMed

    Ostrovskaya, R U; Romanova, G A; Barskov, I V; Shanina, E V; Gudasheva, T A; Victorov, I V; Voronina, T A; Seredenin, S B

    1999-09-01

    Local thrombosis of the frontal cortex (Fr1 and Fr3 fields), caused by combination of the intravenous photosensitive dye Rose Bengal administration with focused high-intensity illumination of the frontal bone, was shown to provoke a pronounced deficit in step-through passive avoidance performance in rats without concomitant motor disturbances. N-Phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester (GVS-111) administered intravenously at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day, for the first time 1 h after ischaemic lesion and then for 9 post-operative days, with the last administration 15 min before testing, attenuated the deficit. This treatment significantly diminished the volume of the infarcted area. Thus, post-ischaemic injection of GVS-111 demonstrated both cognition-restoring and neuroprotective properties. The cognition-restoring effect is probably based on an increase in neocortical and hippocampal neuronal plasticity. Neuroprotective effects of GVS-111 combine antioxidant activity with the ability to attenuate glutamate-provoked neurotoxicity and block voltage-gated ionic channels, i.e. the compound mitigates the main metabolic shifts involved in pathogenesis of brain ischaemia.

  11. N-alpha-Cocoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester, DL-pyroglutamic acid salt, as an inactivator of hepatitis B surface antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Y; Toyoshima, S

    1979-01-01

    N-alpha-Cocoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester, DL-pyroglutamic acid salt (CAE), exhibited a strong inactivating effect on hepatitis B surface antigen. Concentrations of CAE required for 50 and 100% inactivation of the antigen were 0.01 to 0.025% and 0.025 to 0.05% respectively. CAE completely inactivated hepatitis B surface antigen at the lowest concentration compared with various compounds including about 500 amino acid derivatives, sodium hypochlorite, 2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether, and some detergents. Furthermore, CAE inactivated vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus, and influenza virus, whereas poliovirus was not inactivated at all. The results suggest that the inactivating effects of CAE are related to interaction with lipid-containing viral envelopes. PMID:228595

  12. Multicomponent Synthesis of a N-Protected Alpha-Amino Ester: Ethyl 2-((4-Methoxyphenyl)Amino)-3-Phenylpropanoate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Gall, Erwan; Pignon, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    This laboratory experiment describes the preparation of a N-protected phenylalanine ethyl ester by a zinc-mediated Mannich-like multicomponent reaction between benzyl bromide, "p"-anisidine, and ethyl glyoxylate. The one-step reaction involves the in situ metallation of benzyl bromide into a benzylzinc reagent and its addition onto imine (Barbier…

  13. [On the mechanism of noopept action: decrease in activity of stress-induced kinases and increase in expression of neutrophines].

    PubMed

    Ostrovskaia, R U; Vakhitova, Iu V; Salimgareeva, M Kh; Iamidanov, R S; Sadovnikov, S V; Kapitsa, I G; Seredenin, S B

    2010-12-01

    The influence of noopept (N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester, GVS-111)--a drug combining the nootrope and neuroprotector properties--on the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the level of NGF and BDNF gene and protein expression in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus has been studied in rats. Under conditions of chronic administration (28 days, 0.5 mg/day, i.p.), noopept decreased the activity of stress-induced kinases (SAPK/JNK 46/54 and pERK1/2) in rat hippocampus and increases the level of mRNA of the BDNF gene in both hypothalamus and hippocampus. The content of BDNF protein in the hypothalamus was also somewhat increased. In the context of notions about the activation of stress-induced kinases, as an important factor of amyloidogenesis and tau-protein deposition in brain tissue, and the role of deficiency of the neurotrophic factors in the development of neurodegenerative processes, the observed decrease in the activity of stress-activated MAPKs and increased expression of BDNF as a result of noopept administration suggest thatthis drug hasaspecific activity withrespect to some pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the Alzheimer disease.

  14. Biocatalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of (1R, 2S)-N-Boc-vinyl-ACCA Ethyl Ester with a Newly Isolated Sphingomonas aquatilis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shaozhou; Shi, Ying; Zhang, Xinyu; Zheng, Guojun

    2018-02-01

    1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACCA) and its derivatives are essential pharmacophoric unit that widely used in drug research and development. Specifically, (1R, 2S)-N-Boc-vinyl-ACCA ethyl ester (vinyl-ACCA) is a key chiral intermediate in the synthesis of highly potent hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitors such as asunaprevir and simeprevir. Developing strategies for the asymmetric synthesis of vinyl-ACCA is thus extremely high demand. In this study, 378 bacterial strains were isolated from soil samples using N-Boc-vinyl-ACCA ethyl ester as the sole carbon source and were screened for esterase activity. Fourteen of which worked effectively for the asymmetric synthesis of (1R, 2S)-N-Boc-1-vinyl ACCA ethyl ester. The strain CY-2, identified as Sphingomonas aquatilis, which showed the highest stability and enantioselectivity was selected as whole cell biocatalyst for further study. A systematic study of all factors influencing the enzymatic hydrolysis was performed. Under optimized conditions, resolution of rac-vinyl-ACCA to (1R, 2S)-N-Boc-1-vinyl ACCA ethyl ester with 88.2% ee and 62.4% conversion (E = 9) was achieved. Besides, S. aquatilis was also used to transform other 10 different substrates. Notably, it was found that 7 of them could be stereoselectively hydrolyzed, especially for (1R,2S)-1-amino-vinyl-ACCA ethyl ester hydrochloride (99.6% ee, E>200). Our investigations provide a new efficient whole cell biocatalyst for resolution of ACCA and might be developed for industry application.

  15. Efficient Metabolic Engineering of GM3 on Tumor Cells by N-Phenylacetyl-D-mannosamine†

    PubMed Central

    Chefalo, Peter; Pan, Yanbin; Nagy, Nancy; Guo, Zhongwu; Harding, Clifford V.

    2008-01-01

    Abnormal carbohydrates expressed on tumor cells, which are referred to as tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs), are potential targets for development of cancer vaccines. However, immune tolerance to TACAs has severely hindered progress in this area. To overcome this problem, we have developed a novel immunotherapeutic strategy based on synthetic cancer vaccines and metabolic engineering of TACAs on tumor cells. One critical step of this new strategy is metabolic engineering of cancer, namely to induce expression of an artificial form of a TACA by supplying tumors with an artificial monosaccharide precursor. To identify the proper precursor for this application, N-propionyl, N-butanoyl, N-iso-butanoyl and N-phenylacetyl derivatives of D-mannosamine were synthesized, and their efficiency as biosynthetic precursors to modify sialic acid and induce expression of modified forms of GM3 antigen on tumor cells was investigated. For this purpose, tumor cells were incubated with different N-acyl-D-mannosamines, and modified forms of GM3 expressed on tumor cells were analyzed by flow cytometry using antigen-specific antisera. N-phenylacetyl-D-mannosamine was efficiently incorporated in a time and dose dependent manner to bioengineer GM3 expression by several tumor cell lines including K562, SKMEL-28 and B16-F0. Moreover, these tumor cell lines also showed ManPAc-dependent sensitivity to cytotoxicity medicated by anti-PAcGM3 immune serum and complement. These results provide an important validation for this novel therapeutic strategy. Because N-phenylacetyl GM3-protein conjugates are particularly immunogenic, the combination of an N-phenylacetyl GM3 conjugate vaccine with systemic N-phenylacetyl-D-mannosamine treatment is a promising immunotherapy for future development and application to melanoma and other GM3-bearing tumors. PMID:16533056

  16. Synthesis, Structural and Antioxidant Studies of Some Novel N-Ethyl Phthalimide Esters

    PubMed Central

    Chandraju, Siddegowda; Win, Yip-Foo; Tan, Weng Kang; Quah, Ching Kheng; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2015-01-01

    A series of N-ethyl phthalimide esters 4(a-n) were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic studies. Further, the molecular structure of majority of compounds were analysed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The X-ray analysis revealed the importance of substituents on the crystal stability and molecular packing. All the synthesized compounds were tested for in vitro antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging, FRAP and CUPRAC methods. Few of them have shown good antioxidant activity. PMID:25742494

  17. Synthesis, structural and antioxidant studies of some novel N-ethyl phthalimide esters.

    PubMed

    Chidan Kumar, C S; Loh, Wan-Sin; Chandraju, Siddegowda; Win, Yip-Foo; Tan, Weng Kang; Quah, Ching Kheng; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2015-01-01

    A series of N-ethyl phthalimide esters 4(a-n) were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic studies. Further, the molecular structure of majority of compounds were analysed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The X-ray analysis revealed the importance of substituents on the crystal stability and molecular packing. All the synthesized compounds were tested for in vitro antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging, FRAP and CUPRAC methods. Few of them have shown good antioxidant activity.

  18. Temperature-Triggered Switchable Helix-Helix Inversion of Poly(phenylacetylene) Bearing l-Valine Ethyl Ester Pendants and Its Chiral Recognition Ability.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanli; Zhang, Chunhong; Qiu, Yuan; Liu, Lijia; Yang, Taotao; Dong, Hongxing; Satoh, Toshifumi; Okamoto, Yoshio

    2016-11-21

    A phenylacetylene containing the l-valine ethyl ester pendant (PAA-Val) was synthesized and polymerized by an organorhodium catalyst (Rh(nbd)BPh₄) to produce the corresponding one-handed helical cis -poly(phenylacetylene) (PPAA-Val). PPAA-Val showed a unique temperature-triggered switchable helix-sense in chloroform, while it was not observed in highly polar solvents, such as N , N '-dimethylformamide (DMF). By heating the solution of PPAA-Val in chloroform, the sign of the CD absorption became reversed, but recovered after cooling the solution to room temperature. Even after six cycles of the heating-cooling treatment, the helix sense of the PPAA-Val's backbone was still switchable without loss of the CD intensity. The PPAA-Val was then coated on silica gel particles to produce novel chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These novel PPAA-Val based CSPs showed a high chiral recognition ability for racemic mandelonitrile ( α = 2.18) and racemic trans - N , N '-diphenylcyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxamide ( α = 2.60). Additionally, the one-handed helical cis -polyene backbone of PPAA-Val was irreversibly destroyed to afford PPAA-Val-H by heating in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) accompanied by the complete disappearance of the Cotton effect. Although PPAA-Val-H had the same l-valine ethyl ester pendants as its cis -isomer PPAA-Val, it showed no chiral recognition. It was concluded that the one-handed helical cis -polyene backbone of PPAA-Val plays an important role in the chiral recognition ability.

  19. [Role of functional state of neuronal mitochondria of cerebral cortex in mechanisms of nootropic activity of neuroprotectors in rats with alloxan hyperglycemia].

    PubMed

    Zhiliuk, V I; Mamchur, V I; Pavlov, S V

    2015-01-01

    The influence of citicoline, phenylpiracetam, pentoxifylline and N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine on cognitive processes and functional state of mitochondria in the neocortex of alloxan-diabetic rats has been studied. The drug effects on cognitive processes were assessed using passive avoidance tests in the dark-light camera. Latent period and the number of animals with amnesia skill on 6th and 20th days of drug administration were recorded. Functional status of mitochondria was assessed by mitochondrial pore opening and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Y) on 20th day. It has been established that course administration of phenylpiracetam, citicoline and to a lesser extent N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine, but not pentoxifylline, improves the processes of learning and storing conditional skill. At the same time, the nootropic activity of studied drugs was comparable to their effect on the functional state of mitochondria in neocortical neurons in rats with chronic hyperglycemia. According to mitoprotective activity (prevention of opening of mitochondrial cyclosporin-A-sensitive pores and restoration of mitochondrial transmembrane potential), the maximum potential was observed for citicoline and phenylpiracetam, and the minimum--for pentoxifylline. The results point out the importance of mitoprotective properties in nootropic effects of studied drugs.

  20. Non-enzymatic cyclization of creatine ethyl ester to creatinine.

    PubMed

    Giese, Matthew W; Lecher, Carl S

    2009-10-16

    Creatine ethyl ester was incubated at 37 degrees C in both water and phosphate-buffered saline and the diagnostic methylene resonances in the (1)H NMR spectrum were used to identify the resultant products. It was found that mild aqueous conditions result in the cyclization of creatine ethyl ester to provide inactive creatinine as the exclusive product, and this transformation becomes nearly instantaneous as the pH approaches 7.4. This study demonstrates that mild non-enzymatic conditions are sufficient for the cyclization of creatine ethyl ester into creatinine, and together with previous results obtained under enzymatic conditions suggests that there are no physiological conditions that would result in the production of creatine. It is concluded that creatine ethyl ester is a pronutrient for creatinine rather than creatine under all physiological conditions encountered during transit through the various tissues, thus no ergogenic effect is to be expected from supplementation.

  1. Icosapent ethyl (eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester): Effects on remnant-like particle cholesterol from the MARINE and ANCHOR studies.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Christie M; Bays, Harold E; Philip, Sephy; Doyle, Ralph T; Braeckman, Rene A; Stirtan, William G; Soni, Paresh N; Juliano, Rebecca A

    2016-10-01

    Remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) is atherogenic and may increase atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk. Icosapent ethyl is a high-purity prescription eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (approved as an adjunct to diet to reduce triglyceride [TG] levels in adult patients with TGs ≥500 mg/dL [≥5.65 mmol/L] at 4 g/day). In the MARINE and ANCHOR studies, icosapent ethyl reduced TG and other atherogenic lipid parameter levels without increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. This exploratory analysis evaluated the effects of icosapent ethyl on calculated and directly measured RLP-C. MARINE (TGs ≥500 and ≤2000 mg/dL [≥5.65 mmol/L and ≤22.6 mmol/L]) and ANCHOR (TGs ≥200 and <500 mg/dL [≥2.26 and <5.65 mmol/L] despite statin-controlled LDL-C) were phase 3, 12-week, double-blind studies that randomized adult patients to icosapent ethyl 4 g/day, 2 g/day, or placebo. This analysis assessed median percent change from baseline to study end in directly measured (immunoseparation assay) RLP-C levels (MARINE, n = 218; ANCHOR, n = 252) and calculated RLP-C levels in the full populations. Icosapent ethyl 4 g/day significantly reduced directly measured RLP-C levels -29.8% (p = 0.004) in MARINE and -25.8% (p = 0.0001) in ANCHOR versus placebo, and also reduced directly measured RLP-C levels to a greater extent in subgroups with higher versus lower baseline TG levels, in patients receiving statins versus no statins (MARINE), and in patients receiving medium/higher-intensity versus lower-intensity statins (ANCHOR). Strong correlations were found between calculated and directly measured RLP-C for baseline, end-of-treatment, and percent change values in ANCHOR and MARINE (0.73-0.92; p < 0.0001 for all). Icosapent ethyl 4 g/day significantly reduced calculated and directly measured RLP-C levels versus placebo in patients with elevated TG levels from the MARINE and ANCHOR studies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors

  2. Kinetics and thermodynamics of oxidation mediated reaction in L-cysteine and its methyl and ethyl esters in dimethyl sulfoxide-d6 by NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, Ryan J.; Singh, Jaideep; Krishnan, V. V.

    2017-03-01

    L-Cysteine (L-Cys), L-Cysteine methyl ester (L-CysME) or L-Cysteine ethyl ester (L-CysEE), when dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, undergoes an oxidation process. This process is slow enough and leads to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral changes that could be monitored in real time. The oxidation mediated transition is modeled as a pseudo-first order kinetics and the thermodynamic parameters are estimated using the Eyring's formulation. L-Cysteine and their esters are often used as biological models due to the remarkable thiol group that can be found in different oxidation states. This oxidation mediated transition is due to the combination of thiol oxidation to a disulfide followed by solvent-induced effects may be relevant in designing cysteine-based molecular models.

  3. Spectroscopy reveals that ethyl esters interact with proteins in wine.

    PubMed

    Di Gaspero, Mattia; Ruzza, Paolo; Hussain, Rohanah; Vincenzi, Simone; Biondi, Barbara; Gazzola, Diana; Siligardi, Giuliano; Curioni, Andrea

    2017-02-15

    Impairment of wine aroma after vinification is frequently associated to bentonite treatments and this can be the result of protein removal, as recently demonstrated for ethyl esters. To evaluate the existence of an interaction between wine proteins and ethyl esters, the effects induced by these fermentative aroma compounds on the secondary structure and stability of VVTL1, a Thaumatin-like protein purified from wine, was analyzed by Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy. The secondary structure of wine VVTL1 was not strongly affected by the presence of selected ethyl esters. In contrast, VVTL1 stability was slightly increased by the addition of ethyl-octanoate, -decanoate and -dodecanoate, but decreased by ethyl-hexanoate. This indicates the existence of an interaction between VVTL1 and at least some aroma compounds produced during fermentation. The data suggest that proteins removal from wine by bentonite can result in indirect removal of at least some aroma compounds associated with them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Amidation reaction of eugenyl oxyacetate ethyl ester with 1,3 diaminopropane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryanti, V.; Wibowo, F. R.; Kusumaningsih, T.; Wibowo, A. H.; Khumaidah, S. A.; Wijayanti, L. A.

    2016-04-01

    Eugenol having various substituents on the aromatic ring (hydroxy, methoxy and allyl) are useful for starting material in synthesizing of its derivatives. Eugenol derivatives have shown wide future potential applications in many areas, especially as future drugs against many diseases. The aim of this work was to synthesize an amide of eugenol derivative. The starting material used was eugenol from clove oil and the reaction was conducted in 3 step reactions to give the final product. Firstly, eugenol was converted into eugenyl oxyacetate [2-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy) acetic acid] as a white crystal with 70.5% yield, which was then esterified with ethanol to have eugenyl oxyacetate ethyl ester [ethyl 2-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy) acetate] as brown liquid in 75.7%. The last step was the reaction between eugenyl oxyacetate ethyl ester and 1,3 diaminopropane to give 2-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy)-N-(3-aminopropyl) acetamide as a brown powder with 71.6% yield, where the amidation reaction was occurred.

  5. [Neuroprotective activity of the proline-containing dipeptide noopept on the model of brain ischemia induced by the middle cerebral artery occlusion].

    PubMed

    Gavrilova, S A; Us, K S; Ostrovskaia, R U; Koshelev, V B

    2006-01-01

    The influence of noopept (N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester, GVS-111) on the extent of ischemic cortical stroke was investigated in experiments on white mongrel male rats with ischemia induced by a combination of the middle cerebral artery occlusion with ipsilateral common carotid artery ligation. Animals were treated with noopept (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) according to the following schedule: 15 min and 2, 24, and 48 h after the occlusion. Test rats were decapitated 72 h after occlusion, brains were extracted and frozen, and thin brain slices were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. The slices were scanned and processed using Auc 1 computer program, which estimates the percentage of damaged area relative to that of the whole ipsilateral hemisphere. The conditions of coagulation the distal segment of middle cerebral artery were selected, which caused necrosis localized in the fronto-parietal and dorso-lateral regions of the brain cortex without any damage of subcortical structures. The extent of the brain damage in control group (treated by saline) was 18.6%, while that in the group treated with noopept was 12.2%, thus demonstrating a decrease in the infarction area by 34.5% (p < 05). The data on noopept efficacy on the model of the extensive ischemic injury of brain cortex show that this drug has good prospects for use in the neuroprotective treatment of stroke.

  6. [The pharmacokinetics of the dipeptide analog of piracetam with nootropic activity GVS-111 and of its basic metabolites].

    PubMed

    Boĭko, S S; Zherdev, V P; Dvorianinov, A A; Gudasheva, T A; Ostrovskaia, R U; Voronina, T A; Rozantsev, G G; Seredenin, S B

    1997-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of a new nootropic dipeptide analog of piracetam-N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine (GWS-111) and its main metabolites were studied in rats by means of high performance liquid chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography. The compound under study showed a greater resistance to an enzymatic effect than natural neuropeptides. In addition to an unchanged compound three of its metabolites were found in the blood plasma of the rats. One of them, cyclo-Pro-Gly was an active metabolite of GWS-111.

  7. Application of ethyl esters and d3-methyl esters as internal standards for the gas chromatographic quantification of transesterified fatty acid methyl esters in food.

    PubMed

    Thurnhofer, Saskia; Vetter, Walter

    2006-05-03

    Ethyl esters (FAEE) and trideuterium-labeled methyl esters (d3-FAME) of fatty acids were prepared and investigated regarding their suitability as internal standards (IS) for the determination of fatty acids as methyl esters (FAME). On CP-Sil 88, ethyl esters of odd-numbered fatty acids eluted approximately 0.5 min after the respective FAME, and only coelutions with minor FAME were observed. Depending on the problem, one or even many FAEE can be added as IS for the quantification of FAME by both GC-FID and GC-MS. By contrast, d3-FAME coeluted with FAME on the polar GC column, and the use of the former as IS requires application of GC-MS. In the SIM mode, m/z 77 and 90 are suggested for d3-methyl esters of saturated fatty acids, whereas m/z 88 and 101 are recommended for ethyl esters of saturated fatty acids. These m/z values give either no or very low response for FAME and can thus be used for the analysis of FAME in food by GC-MS in the SIM mode. Fatty acids in sunflower oil and mozzarella cheese were quantified using five saturated FAEE as IS. Gravimetric studies showed that the transesterification procedure could be carried out without of loss of fatty acids. GC-EI/MS full scan analysis was suitable for the quantitative determination of all unsaturated fatty acids in both food samples, whereas GC-EI/MS in the SIM mode was particularly valuable for quantifying minor fatty acids. The novel GC-EI/MS/SIM method using fatty acid ethyl esters as internal standards can be used to quantify individual fatty acids only, that is, without determination of all fatty acids (the common 100% method), although this is present. This was demonstrated by the exclusive quantification of selected fatty acids including methyl-branched fatty acids, erucic acid (18:1n-9trans), and polyunsaturated fatty acids in cod liver oil and goat's milk fat.

  8. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to the...

  9. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to the...

  10. 75 FR 17769 - In the Matter of Certain Products Advertised as Containing Creatine Ethyl Ester; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... Advertised as Containing Creatine Ethyl Ester; Notice of Commission Issuance of a Limited Exclusion Order Against the Products Advertised as Containing Creatine Ethyl Ester of Respondents Found in Default... importation of certain products advertised as containing creatine ethyl ester by reason of false advertising...

  11. Electrode Potentials of l-Tryptophan, l-Tyrosine, 3-Nitro-l-tyrosine, 2,3-Difluoro-l-tyrosine, and 2,3,5-Trifluoro-l-tyrosine.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Leila; Kissner, Reinhard; Nauser, Thomas; Koppenol, Willem H

    2016-05-24

    Electrode potentials for aromatic amino acid radical/amino acid couples were deduced from cyclic voltammograms and pulse radiolysis experiments. The amino acids investigated were l-tryptophan, l-tyrosine, N-acetyl-l-tyrosine methyl ester, N-acetyl-3-nitro-l-tyrosine ethyl ester, N-acetyl-2,3-difluoro-l-tyrosine methyl ester, and N-acetyl-2,3,5-trifluoro-l-tyrosine methyl ester. Conditional potentials were determined at pH 7.4 for all compounds listed; furthermore, Pourbaix diagrams for l-tryptophan, l-tyrosine, and N-acetyl-3-nitro-l-tyrosine ethyl ester were obtained. Electron transfer accompanied by proton transfer is reversible, as confirmed by detailed analysis of the current waves, and because the slopes of the Pourbaix diagrams obey Nernst's law. E°'(Trp(•),H(+)/TrpH) and E°'(TyrO(•),H(+)/TyrOH) at pH 7 are 0.99 ± 0.01 and 0.97 ± 0.01 V, respectively. Pulse radiolysis studies of two dipeptides that contain both amino acids indicate a difference in E°' of approximately 0.06 V. Thus, in small peptides, we recommend values of 1.00 and 0.96 V for E°'(Trp(•),H(+)/TrpH) and E°'(TyrO(•),H(+)/TyrOH), respectively. The electrode potential of N-acetyl-3-nitro-l-tyrosine ethyl ester is higher, while because of mesomeric stabilization of the radical, those of N-acetyl-2,3-difluoro-l-tyrosine methyl ester and N-acetyl-2,3,5-trifluoro-l-tyrosine methyl ester are lower than that of tyrosine. Given that the electrode potentials at pH 7 of E°'(Trp(•),H(+)/TrpH) and E°'(TyrO(•),H(+)/TyrOH) are nearly equal, they would be, in principle, interchangeable. Proton-coupled electron transfer pathways in proteins that use TrpH and TyrOH are thus nearly thermoneutral.

  12. [Noopept improves the spatial memory and stimulates prefibrillar beta-amyloid(25-35) antibody production in mice].

    PubMed

    Bobkova, N V; Gruden', M A; Samokhin, A N; Medvinskaia, N I; Morozova-Roch, L; Uudasheva, T A; Ostrovskaia, R U; Seredinin, S B

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the novel proline-containing nootropic and neuroprotective dipeptide noopept (GVS-111, N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) were studied on NMRI mice upon olfactory bulbectomy, which had been previously shown to imitate the main morphological and biochemical signs of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The spatial memory was assessed using the Morris (water maze) test; the immunological status was characterized by ELISA with antibodies to prefibrillar beta-amyloid(25-35), S100b protein, and protofilaments of equine lysozyme, which are the molecular factors involved in the pathogenesis of AD. The control (sham-operated) animals during the Morris test preferred a sector where the safety platform was placed during the learning session. Bulbectomized animals treated with saline failed to recognize this sector, while bulbectomized animals treated with noopept (0.01 mg/kg for 21 days) restored this predominance, thus demonstrating the improvement of the spatial memory. These animals also demonstrated an increase in the level of antibodies to beta-amyloid(25-35)--the effect, which was more pronounced in the sham-operated than in bulbectomized mice. The latter demonstrated a profound decrease of immunological reactivity in a large number of tests. Noopept, stimulating the production of antibodies to beta-amyloid(25-35), can attenuate the well-known neurotoxic effects of beta-amyloid. The obtained data on the mnemotropic and immunostimulant effects noopept are indicative of good prospects for the clinical usage of this drug in the therapy of patients with neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Qualitative in vitro NMR analysis of creatine ethyl ester pronutrient in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Giese, M W; Lecher, C S

    2009-10-01

    There are a number of forms of creatine available that attempt to improve the solubility and permeability, with the anticipation this will result in an improved pharmacokinetic profile and ultimately an enhanced ergogenic response. Previous research has shown that the different salt forms can improve solubility resulting in slightly altered pharmacokinetic profiles, however specific data exploring the conversion of esterified derivatives to creatine is lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the assertion that creatine ethyl ester undergoes enzymatic conversion to creatine in human tissues. The IN VITRO response of creatine ethyl ester to incubation in human plasma was examined by H-NMR analysis. Lyophilized human plasma was reconstituted in D2O and phosphate-buffered saline and 1.5 mg of the analyte was added. Following incubation at 37 degrees C for 4 h and subsequent protein precipitation, the supernatant was analyzed by NMR, utilizing the diagnostic chemical shift of the methylene signal to determine the species present in solution, I.E. creatine ethyl ester, creatine, or creatinine. Both creatine and creatinine were run in parallel as control experiments and each assay was run in triplicate. As expected both creatine and creatinine remained unchanged. However, conversion of creatine ethyl ester to creatine by the esterases in human plasma was not observed to any detectable extent and the only species detected after the incubation period was creatinine. While not a definitive characterization of the IN VIVO behavior, these results strongly warrant a complete IN VIVO pharmacokinetic analysis of creatine ethyl ester since it appears these "pronutrients" may actually provide large exogenous sources of pharmacologically inactive creatinine rather than ergogenic creatine.

  14. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to the...

  15. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to the...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1323 - Ethyl-2E,4Z-decadienoate (Pear Ester); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethyl-2E,4Z-decadienoate (Pear Ester... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1323 Ethyl-2E,4Z-decadienoate (Pear Ester); exemption... for residues of the biochemical pesticide, ethyl-2E,4Z-decadienoate (pear ester), in or on all food...

  17. Pentynyl dextran as a support matrix for immobilization of serine protease subtilisin Carlsberg and its use for transesterification of N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester in organic media.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Muhammad Nazir; Cho, Eunae; Mischnick, Petra; Lee, Jae Yung; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Jung, Seunho

    2014-04-01

    In this study, serine protease (subtilisin Carlsberg) was immobilized on pentynyl dextran (PyD, O-alkynyl ether of dextran, 1) and used for the transesterification of N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester (2) with different aliphatic (1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol) and aromatic (benzyl alcohol, 2-phenyl ethanol, 4-phenyl-1-butanol) alcohols in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The effect of carbon chain length in aliphatic and aromatic alcohols on initial and average transesterification rate, transesterification activity of immobilized enzyme and yield of the reaction under selected reaction conditions was investigated. The transesterification reactivity of the enzyme and yield of the reaction increased as the chain length of the alcohols decreased. Furthermore, almost no change in yield was observed when the immobilized enzyme was repeatedly used for selected alcohols over six cycles. Intrinsic fluorescence analysis showed that the catalytic activity of the immobilized enzyme in THF was maintained due to retention of the tertiary structure of the enzyme after immobilization on PyD (1).

  18. Ethyl ester formation is enhanced by ethanol addition in mini Swiss cheese with and without added propionibacteria.

    PubMed

    Thierry, Anne; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Richoux, Romain; Lortal, Sylvie

    2006-09-06

    Esters are important contributors to cheese flavor, but their mechanisms of synthesis in cheese are largely unknown. This study aimed to determine whether ethanol concentration limits the formation of ethyl esters in cheese. Mini Swiss cheeses were manufactured with (E) or without (C) the addition of ethanol to cheese milk. Ethanol concentrations (enzymatic analysis) were 64 +/- 17 and 330 +/- 82 microg g(-1), respectively, in C and E cheeses. E cheeses also contained 5.4 +/- 2.3 times more of the five ethyl esters quantified than C cheeses, regardless of the concentrations of esters in C cheeses (range 1-128 ng g(-1)). Furthermore, the presence of propionibacteria added as acid-producing secondary starters was associated with greater concentrations of esters, due to the increase in acid concentrations that propionibacteria induced and/or to an involvement of propionibacteria enzymes in ester synthesis. This study demonstrates that ethanol is the limiting factor of ethyl ester synthesis in Swiss cheese.

  19. The nootropic and neuroprotective proline-containing dipeptide noopept restores spatial memory and increases immunoreactivity to amyloid in an Alzheimer's disease model.

    PubMed

    Ostrovskaya, Rita U; Gruden, Marina A; Bobkova, Natalya A; Sewell, Robert D E; Gudasheva, Tatyana A; Samokhin, Alexander N; Seredinin, Sergey B; Noppe, Wim; Sherstnev, Vladimir V; Morozova-Roche, Ludmilla A

    2007-08-01

    The effects of the novel proline-containing nootropic and neuroprotective dipeptide, noopept (GVS-111, N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) were investigated in NMRI mice following olfactory bulbectomy. We have shown previously that these animals developed Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like behaviour, morphology and biochemistry including impairment of spatial memory, regional neuronal degeneration and elevated Abeta peptide brain levels. In the current investigation, spatial memory was assessed using the Morris water maze and serum antibodies to in vitro morphologically characterized amyloid structures of both Abeta((25-35)) peptide and equine lysozyme, as well as to neurotrophic glial factor S100b, were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Noopept (administered at a dose of 0.01 mg/kg for a period of 21 days and during a further 5 days training) restored spatial memory and increased serum antibody levels to oligomers of Abeta((25-35)) peptide but not to equine lysozyme amyloid or S100b protein in bulbectomized animals. The positive immunotropic effect of noopept to Abeta((25-35)) peptide prefibrillar aggregates was more marked in sham-operated compared to the bulbectomized subjects which were characterized by an overall suppression of immunoreactivity. Enhancement of the immune response to Abeta((25-35)) peptide prefibrils caused by noopept may attenuate the neurotoxic consequences of amyloid fibrillization and also be associated with an improvement in spatial memory in bulbectomized mice. These actions of noopept, combined with its previously reported neuroprotective and cholinomimetic properties, suggests that this dipeptide may well be useful for improving cognitive deficits induced by neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. [Multicomponent antithrombotic effect of the neuroprotective prolyl dipeptide GVS-111 and its major metabolite cyclo-L-prolylglycine].

    PubMed

    Ostrovskaia, R U; Liapina, L A; Pastorova, V E; Mirzoev, T Kh; Gudasheva, T A; Seredenin, S B; Ashmarin, I P

    2002-01-01

    The experiments in vivo showed that the new nootropic prolyl-containing GVS-111 produces an antithrombotic effect, influencing various stages of the blood coagulation process. GVS-111 exhibits anticoagulant and fibrinolytic properties and enhances fibrin destabilization by reducing the XIIIa factor activity. These effects are manifested upon both intraperitoneal (1 mg/kg) and peroral (10 mg/kg) administration of GVS-111 (in both cases, a single daily treatment over a period of 10 days). The same effects (anticoagulant, fibrinolytic, antifibrin-stabilizing) were observed in in vitro experiments with both GVS-111 (10(-3)-10(-6) M) and its main metabolite cyclo-L-prolylglycine (up to 10(-10) M). In addition, the latter metabolite exhibited an antiaggregant effect. The antithrombotic activity of GVS-111, together with previously established neuroprotector properties, low toxicity, and the absence of complications, makes this compound a promising antistroke drug.

  1. Metabolic pathway engineering for fatty acid ethyl ester production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using stable chromosomal integration.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Bouke Wim; Shi, Shuobo; Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-03-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters are fatty acid derived molecules similar to first generation biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters; FAMEs) which can be produced in a microbial cell factory. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a suitable candidate for microbial large scale and long term cultivations, which is the typical industrial production setting for biofuels. It is crucial to conserve the metabolic design of the cell factory during industrial cultivation conditions that require extensive propagation. Genetic modifications therefore have to be introduced in a stable manner. Here, several metabolic engineering strategies for improved production of fatty acid ethyl esters in S. cerevisiae were combined and the genes were stably expressed from the organisms' chromosomes. A wax ester synthase (ws2) was expressed in different yeast strains with an engineered acetyl-CoA and fatty acid metabolism. Thus, we compared expression of ws2 with and without overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2), acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD6) and acetyl-CoA synthetase (acs SE (L641P) ) and further evaluated additional overexpression of a mutant version of acetyl-CoA decarboxylase (ACC1 (S1157A,S659A) ) and the acyl-CoA binding protein (ACB1). The combined engineering efforts of the implementation of ws2, ADH2, ALD6 and acs SE (L641P) , ACC1 (S1157A,S659A) and ACB1 in a S. cerevisiae strain lacking storage lipid formation (are1Δ, are2Δ, dga1Δ and lro1Δ) and β-oxidation (pox1Δ) resulted in a 4.1-fold improvement compared with sole expression of ws2 in S. cerevisiae.

  2. Potential grape-derived contributions to volatile ester concentrations in wine.

    PubMed

    Boss, Paul K; Pearce, Anthony D; Zhao, Yanjia; Nicholson, Emily L; Dennis, Eric G; Jeffery, David W

    2015-04-29

    Grape composition affects wine flavour and aroma not only through varietal compounds, but also by influencing the production of volatile compounds by yeast. C9 and C12 compounds that potentially influence ethyl ester synthesis during fermentation were studied using a model grape juice medium. It was shown that the addition of free fatty acids, their methyl esters or acyl-carnitine and acyl-amino acid conjugates can increase ethyl ester production in fermentations. The stimulation of ethyl ester production above that of the control was apparent when lower concentrations of the C9 compounds were added to the model musts compared to the C12 compounds. Four amino acids, which are involved in CoA biosynthesis, were also added to model grape juice medium in the absence of pantothenate to test their ability to influence ethyl and acetate ester production. β-Alanine was the only one shown to increase the production of ethyl esters, free fatty acids and acetate esters. The addition of 1 mg∙L(-1) β-alanine was enough to stimulate production of these compounds and addition of up to 100 mg∙L(-1) β-alanine had no greater effect. The endogenous concentrations of β-alanine in fifty Cabernet Sauvignon grape samples exceeded the 1 mg∙L(-1) required for the stimulatory effect on ethyl and acetate ester production observed in this study.

  3. Synthesis of fruity ethyl esters by acyl coenzyme A: alcohol acyltransferase and reverse esterase activities in Oenococcus oeni and Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Costello, P J; Siebert, T E; Solomon, M R; Bartowsky, E J

    2013-03-01

    To assess the abilities of commercial wine lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to synthesize potentially flavour active fatty acid ethyl esters and determine mechanisms involved in their production. Oenococcus oeni AWRI B551 produced significant levels of ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate following growth in an ethanolic test medium, and ester formation generally increased with increasing pH (4.5 > 3.5), anaerobiosis and precursor supplementation. Cell-free extracts of commercial O. oeni strains and Lactobacillus plantarum AWRI B740 were also tested for ester-synthesizing capabilities in a phosphate buffer via: (i) acyl coenzyme A: alcohol acyltransferase (AcoAAAT) activity and (ii) reverse esterase activity. For both ester-synthesizing activities, strain-dependent variation was observed, with AcoAAAT activity generally greater than reverse esterase. Reverse esterase in O. oeni AWRI B551 also esterified 1-propanol to produce propyl octanoate, and deuterated substrates ([(2)H(6)]ethanol and [(2)H(15)]octanoic acid) to produce the fully deuterated ester, [(2)H(5)]ethyl [(2)H(15)]octanoate. Wine LAB exhibit ethyl ester-synthesizing capability and possess two different ester-synthesizing activities, one of which is associated with an acyl coenzyme A: alcohol acyltransferase. This study demonstrates that wine LAB exhibit enzyme activities that can augment the ethyl ester content of wine. This knowledge will facilitate greater control over the impacts of malolactic fermentation on the fruity sensory properties and quality of wine. © 2012 Australian Wine Research Institute © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Reduction of circulating FABP4 level by treatment with omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters.

    PubMed

    Furuhashi, Masato; Hiramitsu, Shinya; Mita, Tomohiro; Omori, Akina; Fuseya, Takahiro; Ishimura, Shutaro; Watanabe, Yuki; Hoshina, Kyoko; Matsumoto, Megumi; Tanaka, Marenao; Moniwa, Norihito; Yoshida, Hideaki; Ishii, Junnichi; Miura, Tetsuji

    2016-01-12

    Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2) mainly expressed in adipocytes is secreted and acts as an adipokine. Increased circulating FABP4 level is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the modulation of serum FABP4 level by drugs including anti-dyslipidemic agents. Patients with dyslipidemia were treated with omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters (4 g/day; n = 14) containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for 4 weeks. Serum FABP4 level was measured before and after treatment. Expression and secretion of FABP4 were also examined in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with EPA or DHA. Treatment with omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters significantly decreased triglycerides and serum FABP4 level (13.5 ± 1.5 vs. 11.5 ± 1.1 ng/ml, P = 0.017). Change in FABP4 level by omega-3 fatty acids was negatively correlated with change in levels of EPA + DHA (r = -0.643, P = 0.013), EPA (r = -0.540, P = 0.046) and DHA (r = -0.650, P = 0.011) but not change in the level of triglycerides or other fatty acid composition. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with EPA or DHA had no effect on short-term (2 h) secretion of FABP4. However, gene expression and long-term (24 h) secretion of FABP4 were significantly reduced by treatment with EPA or DHA. Omega-3 fatty acids decrease circulating FABP4 level, possibly by reducing expression and consecutive secretion of FABP4 in adipocytes. Reducing FABP4 level might be involved in suppression of cardiovascular events by omega-3 fatty acids.

  5. Increase of medium-chain fatty acid ethyl ester content in mixed H. uvarum/S. cerevisiae fermentation leads to wine fruity aroma enhancement.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kai; Jin, Guo-Jie; Mei, Wen-Chao; Li, Ting; Tao, Yong-Sheng

    2018-01-15

    Medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) ethyl esters, as yeast secondary metabolites, significantly contribute to the fruity aroma of foods and beverages. To improve the MCFA ethyl ester content of wine, mixed fermentations with Hanseniaspora uvarum Yun268 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were performed. Final volatiles were analyzed by gas solid phase microextraction-chromatography-mass spectrometry, and aroma characteristics were quantitated by sensory analysis. Results showed that mixed fermentation increased MCFA ethyl ester content by 37% in Cabernet Gernischt wine compared to that obtained by pure fermentation. Partial least-squares regression analysis further revealed that the improved MCFA ethyl esters specifically enhanced the temperate fruity aroma of wine. The enhancement of MCFA ethyl esters was attributed to the increased contents of MCFAs that could be induced by the presence of H. uvarum Yun268 in mixed fermentation. Meanwhile, the timing of yeast inoculations significantly affected the involving biomass of each strain and the dynamics of ethanol accumulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Noopept stimulates the expression of NGF and BDNF in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ostrovskaya, R U; Gudasheva, T A; Zaplina, A P; Vahitova, Ju V; Salimgareeva, M H; Jamidanov, R S; Seredenin, S B

    2008-09-01

    We studied the effect of original dipeptide preparation Noopept (N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester, GVS-111) with nootropic and neuroprotective properties on the expression of mRNA for neurotropic factors NGF and BDNF in rat hippocampus. Expression of NGF and BDNF mRNA in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus was studied by Northern blot analysis. Taking into account the fact that pharmacological activity of Noopept is realized after both acute and chronic treatment, we studied the effect of single and long-term treatment (28 days) with this drug. Expression of the studied neurotropic factors in the cerebral cortex was below the control after single administration of Noopept, while chronic administration caused a slight increase in BDNF expression. In the hippocampus, expression of mRNA for both neurotrophins increased after acute administration of Noopept. Chronic treatment with Noopept was not followed by the development of tolerance, but even potentiated the neurotrophic effect. These changes probably play a role in neuronal restoration. We showed that the nootropic drug increases expression of neurotrophic factors in the hippocampus. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that neurotrophin synthesis in the hippocampus determines cognitive function, particularly in consolidation and delayed memory retrieval. Published data show that neurotrophic factor deficiency in the hippocampus is observed not only in advanced Alzheimer's disease, but also at the stage of mild cognitive impairment (pre-disease state). In light of this our findings suggest that Noopept holds much promise to prevent the development of Alzheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Moreover, therapeutic effectiveness of Noopept should be evaluated at the initial stage of Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Usefulness of Icosapent Ethyl (Eicosapentaenoic Acid Ethyl Ester) in Women to Lower Triglyceride Levels (Results from the MARINE and ANCHOR Trials).

    PubMed

    Mosca, Lori; Ballantyne, Christie M; Bays, Harold E; Guyton, John R; Philip, Sephy; Doyle, Ralph T; Juliano, Rebecca A

    2017-02-01

    There are limited data on the efficacy and safety of triglyceride (TG)-lowering agents in women. We conducted subgroup analyses of the effects of icosapent ethyl (a high-purity prescription form of the ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid) on TG levels (primary efficacy variable) and other atherogenic and inflammatory parameters in a total of 215 women with a broad range of TG levels (200-2000 mg/dl) enrolled in two 12-week placebo-controlled trials: MARINE (n = 18; placebo, n = 18) and ANCHOR (n = 91; placebo, n = 88). Icosapent ethyl 4 g/day significantly reduced TG levels from baseline to week 12 versus placebo in both MARINE (-22.7%; p = 0.0327) and ANCHOR (-21.5%; p <0.0001) without increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Significant improvements were also observed in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in MARINE (-15.7%; p = 0.0082) and ANCHOR (-14.2%; p <0.0001) and total cholesterol levels in MARINE (-14.9%; p = 0.0023) and ANCHOR (-12.1%; p <0.0001), along with significant increases of >500% in eicosapentaenoic acid levels in plasma and red blood cells (all p <0.001). Icosapent ethyl was well tolerated, with adverse-event profiles comparable with findings in the overall studies. In conclusion, icosapent ethyl 4 g/day significantly reduced TG levels and other atherogenic parameters in women without increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with placebo; the clinical implications of these findings are being evaluated in the REDUCtion of Cardiovascular Events With Eicosapentaenoic Acid [EPA]-Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT) cardiovascular outcomes study. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Furo-fused BINOL based crown as a fluorescent chiral sensor for enantioselective recognition of phenylethylamine and ethyl ester of valine.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Sunil P; Pissurlenkar, Raghuvir R S; Coutinho, Evans C; Karnik, Anil V

    2007-07-20

    A furo-fused BINOL based chiral crown was developed as an enantioselective chiral sensor for phenylethylamine and ethyl ester of valine. Fusion of furan to BINOL has resulted in a highly stereo-discriminating backbone for the chiral crown developed. This chiral crown exhibited a fluorescence enhancement difference of 2.97 times between two enantiomers of phenylethylamine and 2.55 times between two enantiomers of ethyl ester of valine. The ratio of association constants for two diastereomeric complexes of two enantiomers of phenylethylamine was found to be 11.30, and the ratio for two enantiomers of ethyl ester of valine was 7.02.

  9. Transesterification process to manufacture ethyl ester of rape oil

    SciTech Connect

    Korus, R.A.; Hoffman, D.S.; Bam, N.

    1993-12-31

    A process for the production of the ethyl ester of winter rape [EEWR] for use as a biodiesel fuel has been studied. The essential part of the process is the transesterification of rape oil with ethanol, in the presence of a catalyst, to yield the ethyl ester of rape oil as a product and glycerin as a by-product. Experiments have been performed to determine the optimum conditions for the preparation of EEWR. The process variables were: (1) temperature, (2) catalyst, (3) rate of agitation, (4) water content of the alcohol used, and (5) the amount of excess alcohol used. Themore » optimum conditions were: (1) room temperature, (2) 0.5% sodium methoxide or 1% potassium hydroxide catalyst by weight of rapeseed oil, (3) extremely vigorous agitation with some splashing during the initial phase of the reaction and agitation was not necessary after the reaction mixture became homogeneous, (4) absolute ethanol was necessary for high conversion, and (5) 50% excess ethanol with NaOCH{sub 3} or 100% excess with KOH gave a maximum conversion. Viscosity, cloud point and pour point of the EEWR were measured. A preliminary break-even cost for the commercial production of EEWR was found to be $0.55/liter [$2.08/US gallon].« less

  10. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10300 Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10300 Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10300 Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha...

  13. Solid dispersions of the penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA): Formulation design and optimization studies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-Tsai; Di Pasqua, Anthony J.; Zhang, Yong; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Jay, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), which exists as an oily liquid, was incorporated into a solid dispersion for oral administration by the solvent evaporation method using blends of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol. D-optimal mixture design was used to optimize the formulation. Formulations that had a high concentration of both Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol exhibited low water absorption and enhanced stability of the DTPA prodrug. Physicochemical properties of the optimal formulation were evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro release of the prodrug was evaluated using the USP Type II apparatus dissolution method. DSC studies indicated that the matrix had an amorphous structure, while FTIR spectrometry showed that DTPA penta-ethyl ester and excipients did not react with each other during formation of the solid dispersion.. Dissolution testing showed that the optimized solid dispersion exhibited a prolonged release profile, which could potentially result in a sustained delivery of DTPA penta-ethyl to enhance bioavailability. In conclusion, DTPA penta-ethyl ester was successfully incorporated into a solid matrix with high drug loading and improved stability compared to prodrug alone. PMID:24047113

  14. [The effect of the new nootropic dipeptide GVS-111 in different functional disorders of the escape reaction].

    PubMed

    Inozemtsev, A N; Trofimov, S S; Borlikova, G G; Firova, F A; Pragina, L L; Gudasheva, T A; Ostrovskaia, R U; Tushmalova, N A; Voronina, T A

    1998-01-01

    The authors studied the effect of a new nootropic agent with anxiolytic properties GVS-111 (ethyl ether N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine) on formation of the avoidance reaction (AR) in rats and its functional disorders which were induced by two methods. In one case the stereotype of the relations between the stimulus, reaction and its consequence which developed during the experiment were urgently disturbed: the change of the animal to the other half of the chamber in response to a conditioned stimulus did not lead to its cutting off and prevention of the electropain stimulation for three successive combinations (AR error). In another case the spatial stereotype of the experiment was altered by changing the place of the opening through which the animal avoided the stimulus (spatial remodeling). Intraperitoneal injection of GVS-111 (0.1 mg/kg/day) improved the learning, but the effect differed from experiment to experiment. Along with this, the dipeptide prevented AR disturbance during the error and quickened restoration of the habit in spatial remodeling. It was shown earlier that AR disorders during an error are prevented by anxiolytics and nootropic agents but during spatial remodeling only by nootropic agents. It may be assumed that the positive effect of GSV-111 on AR in functional disorders is due to its nootropic effect.

  15. Critical aggregates concentration of fatty esters present in biodiesel determined by turbidity and fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Froehner, Sandro; Sánez, Juan; Dombroski, Luiz Fernando; Gracioto, Maria Paula

    2017-09-01

    Biodiesel for combustible engine is available as mixture of fossil diesel and fatty esters obtained by transesterification of vegetable oils. The use of biodiesel reduces the amount of SO x , mainly. However, it was already observed that biodiesel has a different behavior in environment in cases of accidental spill and groundwater contamination. It was noticed that the biodegradation of hydrocarbons (cyclic and aliphatic) in the presence of biodiesel are speeded, although the mechanism is still unclear. Considering the chemical structure of fatty esters, it was investigated the formation of aggregates in water solution by fatty esters present in commercial biodiesel. In Brazil, biodiesel is composed by 95% of fossil diesel and 5% of fatty esters mixture. In this work, fatty esters were treated as neutral surfactant, i.e., it was treated as a molecule with polar and non-polar part. Turbidity and fluorescence were used to determine the critical aggregates concentration (CAC). Water solutions containing fatty esters were examined exploiting changes in turbidity and fluorescence intensity of pyrene. Abrupt changes were attributed to aggregates formation, following the same behavior of traditional amphiphilic compounds. It was determined the CAC for ethyl palmitate, ethyl stearate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl linoleate. The values of CAC for fatty esters varied from 1.91 to 4.27 μmol/L, while CAC for the mixture of esters (biodiesel) was 2.01 for methyl esters and 1.19 for ethyl esters, both prepared using soybean oil. The aggregates formation was also determined by fluorescence measurements considering the changes in intensity of peaks I and III of pyrene. Pyrene senses the changes in environment polarity. The values found of CAC by fluorescence for individual ethyl esters varied from 1.85 to 3.21 μmol/L, while mixtures of ethyl esters was 2.23 and 2.07 μmol/L for mixture of methyl esters. The results clearly showed that fatty esters form aggregates and might be

  16. Photosynthetic CO2 Conversion to Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEEs) Using Engineered Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jeong; Choi, Jaeyeon; Lee, Sun-Mi; Um, Youngsoon; Sim, Sang Jun; Kim, Yunje; Woo, Han Min

    2017-02-15

    Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria has received attention as a sustainable strategy to convert carbon dioxide to fatty acid-derived chemicals that are widely used in the food and chemical industries. Herein, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, a model cyanobacterium, was engineered for the first time to produce fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) from CO 2 . Due to the lack of an endogenous ethanol production pathway and wax ester synthase (AftA) activity in the wild-type cyanobacterium, we metabolically engineered S. elongatus PCC 7942 by expressing heterologous AftA and introducing the ethanol pathway, resulting in detectable peaks of FAEEs. To enhance FAEE production, a heterologous phosphoketolase pathway was introduced in the FAEE-producing strain to supply acetyl-CoA. Subsequent optimization of the cyanobacterial culture with a hexadecane overlay resulted in engineered S. elongatus PCC 7942 that produced photosynthetic FAEEs (10.0 ± 0.7 mg/L/OD 730 ) from CO 2 . This paper is the first report of photosynthetic production of FAEEs from CO 2 in cyanobacteria.

  17. Fatty acid ethyl ester concentrations in hair and self-reported alcohol consumption in 644 cases from different origin.

    PubMed

    Süsse, Silke; Selavka, Carl M; Mieczkowski, Tom; Pragst, Fritz

    2010-03-20

    For diagnosis of chronic alcohol abuse, fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) were determined in hair samples from 644 individuals, mainly parents from child protection cases. The analysis for ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate was performed according to a validated procedure consisting of external degreasing by two times washing with n-heptane, extraction with a mixture of dimethylsulfoxide and n-heptane, separation and evaporation of the n-heptane layer, headspace solid phase microextraction of the residue after addition of phosphate buffer pH 7.6 and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using deuterated internal standards. For interpretation, the sum of the concentrations of the four esters C(FAEE) was used with the cut-off's 0.5 ng/mg for the proximal scalp hair segment 0-3 cm or less and 1.0 ng/mg for scalp hair samples with a length between 3 and 6 cm and for body hair. C(FAEE) ranged from 0.11 to 31 ng/mg (mean 1.77 ng/mg, median 0.82 ng/mg). The mean concentration ratio between the 4 esters was 8:45:38:9. 298 cases had C(FAEE) above the cut-off's. Self-reported drinking data were obtained in 553 of the cases in the categories abstinent (156 cases), moderate drinking (252 cases) and excessive drinking (145 cases). Median and box-plot data clearly demonstrate differentiation of these ingestor sub-populations by C(FAEE). However, in the abstinent and moderate groups the consumption was frequently underreported (37 and 110 cases positive) whereas in the group self-reported excessive drinking 32 cases were negative. Comparison of C(FAEE) with carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) in 139 cases and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in 136 cases showed a good agreement in CDT- and GGT positive cases (27/28 and 32/41) but a large portion of the negative CDT- and GGT-results with positive hair test (44/100 and 48/95) which is explained mainly by the much shorter time window of CDT and GGT. No significant correlation was found between persons

  18. Orally administered DTPA penta-ethyl ester for the decorporation of inhaled 241Am

    PubMed Central

    Sueda, Katsuhiko; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Huckle, James E.; Leed, Marina G. D.; Weber, Waylon M.; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Jay, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an effective decorporation agent to facilitate the elimination of radionuclides from the body, but its permeability-limited oral bioavailability limits its utility in mass-casualty emergencies. To overcome this limitation, a prodrug strategy using the penta-ethyl ester form of DTPA is under investigation. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies were conducted in rats by orally administering [14C]DTPA penta-ethyl ester, and this prodrug and its hydrolysis products were analyzed as a single entity. Compared to a previous reporting of intravenously administered DTPA, the oral administration of this prodrug resulted in a sustained plasma concentration profile with higher plasma exposure and lower clearance. An assessment of the urine composition revealed that the bioactivation was extensive but incomplete, with no detectable levels of the penta- or tetra-ester forms. Tissue distribution at 12 h was limited, with approximately 73% of the administered dose being associated with the gastrointestinal tract. In the efficacy study, rats were exposed to aerosols of 241Am nitrate before receiving a single oral treatment of the prodrug. The urinary excretion of 241Am was found to be 19% higher than with the control. Consistent with prior reports of DTPA, the prodrug was most effective when the treatment delays were minimized. PMID:24619514

  19. 40 CFR 721.6120 - Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. 721.6120 Section 721.6120 Protection of Environment...-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6120 - Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. 721.6120 Section 721.6120 Protection of Environment...-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6120 - Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. 721.6120 Section 721.6120 Protection of Environment...-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6120 - Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. 721.6120 Section 721.6120 Protection of Environment...-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6120 - Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. 721.6120 Section 721.6120 Protection of Environment...-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses...

  4. The structure and mechanism of stem bromelain. Evaluation of the homogeneity of purified stem bromelain, determination of the molecular weight and kinetic analysis of the bromelain-catalysed hydrolysis of N-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-phenylalanyl-l-serine methyl ester

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, Christopher W.

    1974-01-01

    1. Purified stem bromelain (EC 3.4.22.4) was eluted from Sephadex G-100 as a single peak. The specific activity across the elution peak was approximately constant towards p-nitrophenyl hippurate but increased with elution volume with N2-benzoyl-l-arginine ethyl ester as substrate. 2. The apparent molecular weight, determined by elution analysis on Sephadex G-100, is 22500±1500, an anomalously low value. 3. Purified stem bromelain was eluted from CM-cellulose CM-32 as a single peak and behaved as a single species during column electrophoresis on Sephadex G-100. 4. Purified stem bromelain migrates as a single band during polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis under a wide variety of conditions. 5. The molecular weight determined by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate is 28500±1000. 6. Sedimentation-velocity and equilibrium-ultracentrifugation experiments, under a variety of conditions, indicate that bromelain is an apparently homogeneous single peptide chain of mol.wt. 28400±1400. 7. The N-terminal amino acid composition is 0.64±0.04mol of valine and 0.36±0.04mol of alanine per mol of enzyme of mol.wt. 28500. (The amino acid recovery of the cyanate N-terminal amino acid analysis was standardized by inclusion of carbamoyl-norleucine at the cyclization stage.) 8. The pH-dependence of the Michaelis parameters of the bromelain-catalysed hydrolysis of N-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-phenylalanyl-l-serine methyl ester was determined. 9. The magnitude and pH-dependence of the Michaelis parameters have been interpreted in terms of the mechanism of the enzyme. 10. The enzyme is able to bind N-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-phenylalanyl-l-serine methyl ester relatively strongly but seems unable to make use of the binding energy to promote catalysis. PMID:4462742

  5. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to the following prescribed conditions: (a) The...

  6. The neuropharmacology of L-theanine(N-ethyl-L-glutamine): a possible neuroprotective and cognitive enhancing agent.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Pradeep J; Lu, Kristy; Gray, M; Oliver, C

    2006-01-01

    L-theanine (N-ethyl-L-glutamine) or theanine is a major amino acid uniquely found in green tea. L-theanine has been historically reported as a relaxing agent, prompting scientific research on its pharmacology. Animal neurochemistry studies suggest that L-theanine increases brain serotonin, dopamine, GABA levels and has micromolar affinities for AMPA, Kainate and NMDA receptors. In addition has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in animal models possibly through its antagonistic effects on group 1 metabotrophic glutamate receptors. Behavioural studies in animals suggest improvement in learning and memory. Overall, L-theanine displays a neuropharmacology suggestive of a possible neuroprotective and cognitive enhancing agent and warrants further investigation in animals and humans.

  7. Phentermine interference and high L-methamphetamine concentration problems in GC-EI-MS SIM Analyses of R-(-)-α-methoxy-α-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetyl chloride-derivatized amphetamines and methamphetamines†.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Theron J; Qui, Harry Z; Dozier, Katherine V R; Fuller, Zachary J

    2014-09-01

    In order to achieve chromatographic separation, urine samples shown to be initially positive for amphetamines and methamphetamines in US Department of Defense immunoassays are derivatized with R-(-)-α-methoxy-α-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetyl chloride (R-(-)-MTPA) prior to gas chromatography-electron impact-mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS) analysis. Phentermine, a member of the phenethylamine class of drugs and a common appetite suppressant, interferes with GC-EI-MS assays of R-(-)-MTPA-derivatized d-amphetamine, degrading the chromatography of the internal standard and analyte ions and skewing concentration calculations. Additionally, when specimens with high concentrations of l-methamphetamine are derivatized with R-(-)-MTPA, signal peaks have the potential to be misidentified by integration software as d-methamphetamine. We have found that replacing R-(-) MTPA with (S)-(+)-α-methoxy-α-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetyl chloride reduces phentermine interference problems related to internal standard chromatography, reduces the possibility of concentrated l-methamphetamine peaks being misidentified by integration software, improves resolution of d-methamphetamine in the presence of high l-methamphetamine concentrations, and is a cost-neutral change that can be applied to current amphetamines GC-EI-MS methods without the need for method modification. Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. 40 CFR 721.10595 - Octadecen-1-aminium, N-ethyl-N,N-dimethy-, ethyl sulfate (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-dimethy-, ethyl sulfate (1:1). 721.10595 Section 721.10595 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-, ethyl sulfate (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecen-1-aminium, N-ethyl-N,N-dimethy-, ethyl sulfate (1:1) (PMN P-11...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10595 - Octadecen-1-aminium, N-ethyl-N,N-dimethy-, ethyl sulfate (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-dimethy-, ethyl sulfate (1:1). 721.10595 Section 721.10595 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-, ethyl sulfate (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecen-1-aminium, N-ethyl-N,N-dimethy-, ethyl sulfate (1:1) (PMN P-11...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10457 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mixed esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mixed... Substances § 721.10457 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mixed esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mixed esters with benzyl...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10457 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mixed esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mixed... Substances § 721.10457 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mixed esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mixed esters with benzyl...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5375 - Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis-[[[[(sub-sti-tut-ed)] amino]-alkyl-phenyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic acid... Substances § 721.5375 Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis-[[[[(sub-sti-tut-ed)] amino... reporting. (1) The chemical substance ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic acid, ethyl ester, bis...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5375 - Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis-[[[[(sub-sti-tut-ed)] amino]-alkyl-phenyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic acid... Substances § 721.5375 Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis-[[[[(sub-sti-tut-ed)] amino... reporting. (1) The chemical substance ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic acid, ethyl ester, bis...

  14. Phthalate esters in main source water and drinking water of Zhejiang Province (China): Distribution and health risks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Nianhua; Ding, Gangqiang; Chen, Zhijian; Xu, Peiwei; Wu, Lizhi; Cai, Jianmin; Han, Jianlong; Qiu, Xueting

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the distributions and health risks of phthalate esters in the main source water and corresponding drinking water of Zhejiang Province, the concentrations of 16 phthalate esters in water samples from 19 sites were measured from samples taken in the dry season and wet season. The concentration of the total phthalate ester congeners in source water ranged from 1.07 μg/L to 7.12 μg/L in the wet season, from 0.01 μg/L to 1.58 μg/L in the dry season, from 1.18 μg/L to 15.28 μg/L from drinking water in the wet season, and from 0.16 μg/L to 1.86 μg/L from drinking water in the dry season. Of the 16 phthalate esters, dimethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate, di-iso-butyl phthalate, bis-2-n-butoxyethyl phthalate, and dicyclohexyl phthalate were present in the samples analyzed, dominated by di-iso-butyl phthalate and di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate. The concentrations of phthalate esters in the wet season were all relatively higher than those in the dry season, and the drinking water had higher concentrations of phthalate esters than source water. The phthalate ester congeners studied pose little health risk to nearby citizens. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:2205-2212. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  15. Icosapent ethyl: a review of its use in severe hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Esther S; McCormack, Paul L

    2014-12-01

    Icosapent ethyl (Vascepa®) is a high-purity ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) that is de-esterified to EPA following oral administration. Both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are long-chain omega-3 fatty acids that have been associated with triglyceride (TG)-lowering. However, DHA has been associated with increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Icosapent ethyl contains ≥96 % of the EPA ethyl ester, does not contain DHA, and is approved in the USA for use as an adjunct to diet to lower TG levels in adult patients with severe (≥500 mg/dL [≥5.65 mmol/L]) hypertriglyceridemia. In a pivotal phase III trial, oral icosapent ethyl 4 g/day significantly decreased the placebo-corrected median TG levels by 33.1 %. It did not increase LDL-C, had favorable effects on other lipid parameters, and had a tolerability profile similar to that of placebo. Therefore, icosapent ethyl is an effective and well-tolerated agent for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia in adults.

  16. Application of AlkBGT and AlkL from Pseudomonas putida GPo1 for Selective Alkyl Ester ω-Oxyfunctionalization in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Eggink, Gerrit; Weusthuis, Ruud A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The enzyme system AlkBGT from Pseudomonas putida GPo1 can efficiently ω-functionalize fatty acid methyl esters. Outer membrane protein AlkL boosts this ω-functionalization. In this report, it is shown that whole cells of Escherichia coli expressing the AlkBGT system can also ω-oxidize ethyl nonanoate (NAEE). Coexpression of AlkBGT and AlkL resulted in 1.7-fold-higher ω-oxidation activity on NAEE. With this strain, initial activity on NAEE was 70 U/g (dry weight) of cells (gcdw), 67% of the initial activity on methyl nonanoate. In time-lapse conversions with 5 mM NAEE the main product was 9-hydroxy NAEE (3.6 mM), but also 9-oxo NAEE (0.1 mM) and 9-carboxy NAEE (0.6 mM) were formed. AlkBGT also ω-oxidized ethyl, propyl, and butyl esters of fatty acids ranging from C6 to C10. Increasing the length of the alkyl chain improved the ω-oxidation activity of AlkBGT on esters of C6 and C7 fatty acids. From these esters, application of butyl hexanoate resulted in the highest ω-oxidation activity, 82 U/gcdw. Coexpression of AlkL only had a positive effect on ω-functionalization of substrates with a total length of C11 or longer. These findings indicate that AlkBGT(L) can be applied as a biocatalyst for ω-functionalization of ethyl, propyl, and butyl esters of medium-chain fatty acids. IMPORTANCE Fatty acid esters are promising renewable starting materials for the production of ω-hydroxy fatty acid esters (ω-HFAEs). ω-HFAEs can be used to produce sustainable polymers. Chemical conversion of the fatty acid esters to ω-HFAEs is challenging, as it generates by-products and needs harsh reaction conditions. Biocatalytic production is a promising alternative. In this study, biocatalytic conversion of fatty acid esters toward ω-HFAEs was investigated using whole cells. This was achieved with recombinant Escherichia coli cells that produce the AlkBGT enzymes. These enzymes can produce ω-HFAEs from a wide variety of fatty acid esters. Medium-chain-length acids (C

  17. Enzymatic synthesis of ethyl esters from waste oil using mixtures of lipases in a plug-flow packed-bed continuous reactor.

    PubMed

    Kathiele Poppe, Jakeline; Matte, Carla Roberta; Olave de Freitas, Vitória; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto; Rodrigues, Rafael C; Záchia Ayub, Marco Antônio

    2018-04-30

    This work describes the continuous synthesis of ethyl esters via enzymatic catalysis on a packed-bed continuous reactor, using mixtures of immobilized lipases (combi-lipases) of Candida antarctica (CALB), Thermomyces lanuginosus (TLL), and Rhizomucor miehei (RML). The influence of the addition of glass beads to the reactor bed, evaluation of the use of different solvents, and flow rate on reaction conditions were studied. All experiments were conducted using the best combination of lipases according to the fatty acid composition of the waste oil (combi-lipase composition: 40% of TLL, 35% of CALB, and 25% of RML), and soybean oil (combi-lipase composition: 22.5% of TLL, 50% of CALB, and 27.5% of RML). The best general reaction conditions were found to be using tert-butanol as solvent, and the flow rate of 0.08 mL min -1 . The combi-lipase reactors operating at steady state for over 30 days (720 h), kept conversion yields of approximately 50%, with average productivity of 1.94 g ethyl esters g substrate -1 h -1 , regardless of the type of oil in use. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  18. Progesterone up-regulates vasodilator effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide in N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gangula, P R; Wimalawansa, S J; Yallampalli, C

    1997-04-01

    We recently reported that calcitonin gene-related peptide can reverse the hypertension produced by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester in pregnant rats. In the current study we investigated whether these vasodilator effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide were progesterone dependent. Calcitonin gene-related peptide or N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester was infused through osmotic minipumps, either separately or in combination, to groups of five pregnant rats from day 17 of gestation until day 8 post partum or to nonpregnant ovariectomized rats for 8 days. Progesterone was injected during days 1 to 6 post partum and for 6 days after ovariectomy. Systolic blood pressure was measured daily. Animals receiving N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester exhibited significant elevations of blood pressure during pregnancy and post partum. Coadministration of calcitonin gene-related peptide to these rats reversed the hypertension during pregnancy but not during the postpartum period. At the dose used in this study calcitonin gene-related peptide administered alone was without significant effects on blood pressure. However, it reduced both the mortality and growth restriction of the fetus associated with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester in these animals. Calcitonin gene-related peptide reversed the hypertension in N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-infused postpartum rats during the periods of progesterone treatment only, and these effects were lost when progesterone treatment was stopped. Neither progesterone nor calcitonin gene-related peptide alone were effective. To further confirm these observations, progesterone effects were tested in ovariectomized adult rats. Similar to the findings in postpartum rats, calcitonin gene-related peptide completely reversed the elevation in blood pressure in N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-treated rats receiving progesterone injections. The effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide were apparent only during the progesterone treatment

  19. Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE); comparative accumulation in human and guinea pig hair as a biomarker for prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Kulaga, Vivian; Caprara, Daniela; Iqbal, Umar; Kapur, Bhushan; Klein, Julia; Reynolds, James; Brien, James; Koren, Gideon

    2006-01-01

    To compare the incorporation rate (ICR) of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) in hair between guinea pigs and humans, and to assess the relationship between ethanol exposure and FAEE concentrations in hair. Published data from pregnant guinea pigs, including maximum blood ethanol concentration (BEC), dosage regimen, and total hair FAEE concentration, were compared with published data from alcoholic patients, where dose of ethanol consumed and total hair FAEE concentration were reported. Mean values of ethanol Vmax for pregnant guinea pigs and humans were obtained from published data (26.2 and 24 mg/dl/h, respectively). Total and individual FAEE ICRs, defined as the ratio of hair FAEE to the area under the BEC-time curve (total systemic ethanol exposure), were found to be on average an order of magnitude lower in the guinea pig than in the human. The profiles of ester incorporation also differed slightly between species, with ethyl stearate being highly incorporated in guinea pig hair and less so in human hair. The results may reflect in the human greater FAEE production, greater FAEE deposition in hair, slower FAEE catabolism, differential sebum production and composition, or a combination thereof. Also, ethyl oleate was found to correlate with total systemic ethanol exposure for both guinea pigs and humans, correlation coefficients equalling 0.67 (P < 0.05) and 0.49 (P < 0.05), respectively. No other ethyl esters, nor total FAEE, were found to correlate with systemic ethanol exposure. When extrapolating FAEE concentrations in hair from guinea pigs to humans, an order of magnitude difference should be considered, with humans incorporating more FAEE per unit of ethanol exposure. Also, the results suggest caution should be taken when interpreting values of single esters because of their differential incorporation among species. Lastly, our findings suggest ethyl oleate may be of keen interest in FAEE hair analysis, particularly across species.

  20. Production of 10(S)-hydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic and 7,10(S,S)-hydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic ethyl esters by Novozym 435 in solvent-free media

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Novozym 435, lipase B from Candida antarctica, was used in this study for the production of ethyl esters. For the first time, trans-hydroxy-fatty acid ethyl esters were synthesized in vitro in solvent-free media. We studied the effects of the substrate–ethanol molar ratio and enzyme synthetic stabil...

  1. Fatty acid ethyl esters in hair: correlation with self-reported ethanol intake in 160 subjects and influence of estroprogestin therapy.

    PubMed

    Bertol, Elisabetta; Del Bravo, Ester; Vaiano, Fabio; Mari, Francesco; Favretto, Donata

    2014-09-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are minor ethanol metabolites that can accumulate in hair. The performance of hair FAEEs as a biomarker that can discriminate null or moderate drinking from risky, excessive drinking was verified by evaluating the relationship between self-reported daily alcohol intake and FAEE concentration in hair. The study subjects were 160 healthy volunteers (52% female) that included teetotallers, moderate/social drinkers (< 60 g of ethanol per day), and heavy drinkers (≥ 60 g/day).The estimated daily alcohol intake (EDAI) was assessed by a specific written questionnaire aimed at estimating the measure and the frequency of alcohol drinking and at excluding confounding factors. FAEEs (ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate) were extracted from the hair matrix by overnight incubation in n-hexane/dimethylsulphoxide, purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selected ion monitoring and Electron ionization (EI) mode, using pentadeuterated internal standards. Hair samples exhibited FAEE concentrations (expressed as the sum of the four esters, CFAEE ) ranging from 0.01 to 10.78 ng/mg (average 1.16 and median 0.60 ng/mg). The EDAI was from 0 to 246 g of ethanol per day, average 28 g/day and median 15 g/day. A cut-off of 0.5 ng/mg in 3 cm of a proximal hair segment was adopted to discriminate social drinking from excessive ethanol consumption. False positive samples were identified in subjects using ethanol-containing hair lotions and women on estroprogestin therapy. Specificity of 87% was reached when the identified false positives were excluded from data elaboration. CFAEE in hair at a predetermined cut-off can be used to discriminate between moderate and excessive drinking only when confounding factors are meticulously removed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Maternal melatonin or N-acetylcysteine therapy regulates hydrogen sulfide-generating pathway and renal transcriptome to prevent prenatal NG-Nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced fetal programming of hypertension in adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Tain, You-Lin; Lee, Chien-Te; Chan, Julie Y H; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2016-11-01

    Pregnancy is a critical time for fetal programming of hypertension. Nitric oxide deficiency during pregnancy causes hypertension in adult offspring. We examined whether maternal melatonin or N-acetylcysteine therapy can prevent N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-induced fetal programming of hypertension in adult offspring. Next, we aimed to identify potential gatekeeper pathways that contribute to N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester -induced programmed hypertension using the next generation RNA sequencing technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 4 groups: control, N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester, N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester +melatonin, and N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester+N-acetylcysteine. Pregnant rats received N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester administration at 60 mg/kg/d subcutaneously during pregnancy alone, with additional 0.01% melatonin in drinking water, or with additional 1% N-acetylcysteine in drinking water during the entire pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring (n=8/group) were killed at 12 weeks of age. N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester exposure during pregnancy induced programmed hypertension in adult male offspring, which was prevented by maternal melatonin or N-acetylcysteine therapy. Protective effects of melatonin and N-acetylcysteine against N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-induced programmed hypertension were associated with an increase in hydrogen sulfide-generating enzymes and hydrogen sulfide synthesis in the kidneys. Nitric oxide inhibition by N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester in pregnancy caused >2000 renal transcripts to be modified during nephrogenesis stage in 1-day-old offspring kidney. Among them, genes belong to the renin-angiotensin system, and arachidonic acid metabolism pathways were potentially involved in the N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-induced programmed hypertension. However, melatonin and N-acetylcysteine reprogrammed the renin-angiotensin system and arachidonic acid pathway

  3. Analysis of fatty acid ethyl esters in hair as possible markers of chronically elevated alcohol consumption by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Pragst, F; Auwaerter, V; Sporkert, F; Spiegel, K

    2001-09-15

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) are products of the nonoxidative ethanol metabolism, which are known to be detectable in blood only about 24h after the last alcohol intake. After deposition in hair they should be suitable long-term markers of chronically elevated alcohol consumption. Therefore, a method for the analysis of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate from hair was developed based on the extraction of the hair sample by a dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO)/n-hexane mixture, separation and evaporation of the n-hexane phase and application of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to the extract. For use as internal standards, the corresponding D(5)-ethyl esters were prepared. The HS-SPME/GC-MS measurements were automatically performed using a multi-purpose sampler. The detection limits of the FAEE were between 0.01 and 0.04ng/mg and the reproducibility was between 3.5 and 16%. By application of the method to hair samples of 21 fatalities with known heavy alcohol abuse 0.045-2.4ng/mg ethyl myristate, 0.35-13.5ng/mg ethyl palmitate, 0.25-7.7ng/mg ethyl oleate and 0.05-3.85ng/mg ethyl stearate were measured. For social drinkers (30-60g ethanol per week), the concentrations were about one order of magnitude smaller. For 10 teetotalers negative results or traces of ethyl palmitate were found. It was shown by supplementary investigations in single cases that FAEE are also present in sebum, that there is no strong difference in their concentrations between pubic, chest and scalp hair, and that they are detectable in hair segments after a 2 months period of abstinence. From the results follows that the measurement of FAEE concentrations in hair is a useful way for a retrospective detection of alcohol abuse.

  4. n-3 PUFA esterified to glycerol or as ethyl esters reduce non-fasting plasma triacylglycerol in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hedengran, Anne; Szecsi, Pal B; Dyerberg, Jørn; Harris, William S; Stender, Steen

    2015-02-01

    To date, treatment of hypertriglyceridemia with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been investigated solely in fasting and postprandial subjects. However, non-fasting triacylglycerols are more strongly associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of long-chain n-3 PUFA on non-fasting triacylglycerol levels and to compare the effects of n-3 PUFA formulated as acylglycerol (AG-PUFA) or ethyl esters (EE-PUFA). The study was a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled interventional trial, and included 120 subjects with non-fasting plasma triacylglycerol levels of 1.7-5.65 mmol/L (150-500 mg/dL). The participants received approximately 3 g/day of AG-PUFA, EE-PUFA, or placebo for a period of eight weeks. The levels of non-fasting plasma triacylglycerols decreased 28% in the AG-PUFA group and 22% in the EE-PUFA group (P < 0.001 vs. placebo), with no significant difference between the two groups. The triacylglycerol lowering effect was evident after four weeks, and was inversely correlated with the omega-3 index (EPA + DHA content in erythrocyte membranes). The omega-3 index increased 63.2% in the AG-PUFA group and 58.5% in the EE-PUFA group (P < 0.001). Overall, the heart rate in the AG-PUFA group decreased by three beats per minute (P = 0.045). High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol increased in the AG-PUFA group (P < 0.001). Neither total nor non-HDL cholesterol changed in any group. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (LpPLA2) decreased in the EE-PUFA group (P = 0.001). No serious adverse events were observed. Supplementation with long-chain n-3 PUFA lowered non-fasting triacylglycerol levels, suggestive of a reduction in cardiovascular risk. Regardless of the different effects on heart rate, HDL, and LpPLA2 that were observed, compared to placebo, AG-PUFA, and EE-PUFA are equally effective in reducing non-fasting triacylglycerol levels.

  5. A new precursor for the preparation of 6-[18F]-fluoro-L-m-tyrosine (FMT): Efficient synthesis and comparison of radiolabeling

    SciTech Connect

    VanBrocklin, Henry F.; Blagoev, Milan; Hoepping, Alexander

    For the electrophilic preparation of 6-[18F]-Fluoro-L-m-tyrosine (FMT), a PET tracer for measuring changes in dopaminergic function in movement disorders, a novel precursor, N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-3-(tert-butoxycarbonyloxy)-6-trimethylstannnyl-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester, was synthesized in four steps and 26 percent yield starting from L-m-tyrosine. FMT produced by two methods at two institutions was comparable in decay corrected yield, 25-26 percent, and quality (chemical, enantiomeric, and radiochemical purity and specific activity) as that obtained with the original N-trifluoroacetyl-3-acetyl-6-trimethylstannyl-L-m-tyrosine ethyl ester FMT precursor.

  6. 40 CFR 721.3152 - Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates (salts). 721.3152 Section 721... Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates... ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3152 - Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates (salts). 721.3152 Section 721... Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates... ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3152 - Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates (salts). 721.3152 Section 721... Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates... ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3152 - Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates (salts). 721.3152 Section 721... Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates... ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates...

  10. N-Acetyl-D- and L-esters of 5'-AMP hydrolyze at different rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickramasinghe, N. S.; Lacey, J. C. Jr; Lacey JC, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the properties of aminoacyl derivatives of 5'-AMP are aimed at understanding the origin of the process of protein synthesis. Aminoacyl (2',3') esters of 5'-AMP can serve as models of the 3'-terminus of aminoacyl tRNA. We report here on the relative rates of hydrolysis of Ac-D- and L-Phe AMP esters as a function of pH. At all pHs above 3, the rate constant of hydrolysis of the Ac-L-Phe ester is 1.7 to 2.1 times that of Ac-D-Phe ester. The D-isomer seems partially protected from hydrolysis by a stronger association with the adenine ring of the 5'-AMP.

  11. Bioequivalence of two omega-3 fatty acid ethyl ester formulations: a case of clinical pharmacology of dietary supplements

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Claudio; Maggi, Franco M; Risé, Patrizia; Sirtori, Cesare R

    2012-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the bioequivalence of two omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) ethyl ester preparations, previously shown not to be bioequivalent in healthy subjects, with the objective of providing a guideline for future work in this area. METHOD A randomized double-blind crossover protocol was chosen. Volunteers with the lowest blood concentrations of n-3 LC-PUFA were selected. They received the ethyl esters in a single high dose (12 g) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) blood concentrations were analyzed after fingerprick collection at intervals up to 24 h. RESULTS Differently from a prior study, the pharmacokinetic analysis indicated a satisfactory bioequivalence: for the AUC(0,24 h) 90% CI of the ratio between the two formulations were in the range for bioequivalence (for EPA 0.98, 1.04 and for DHA 0.99, 1.04) and the same was true for Cmax and tmax (90% CI were 0.95, 1.14 and 1.10, 1.25 for EPA and 0.88, 1.02 and 0.84, 1.24 for DHA). CONCLUSION This study shows that, in order to obtain reliable bioequivalence data of products present in the daily diet, certain conditions should be met. Subjects should have low, homogeneous baseline concentrations and not be exposed to food items containing the product under evaluation, e.g. fish. Finally, as in the case of omega-3 fatty acids, selected doses should be high, eventually with appropriate conditions of intake. PMID:22242645

  12. 4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-6-phenylbenzofuran-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester derivatives as potent anti-tumor agents.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Ichiro; Shioya, Rieko; Agatsuma, Toshinori; Furukawa, Hidehiko; Naruto, Shunji; Sugano, Yuichi

    2004-01-19

    Based on the structure of 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-6-phenylbenzofuran-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (1), which exhibits selective cytotoxicity against a tumorigenic cell line, (2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-(4-hydroxy-3-methyl-6-phenylbenzofuran-2-yl)-methanone (18m) was designed and synthesized as a biologically stable derivative containing no ester group. Although the potency of 18m was almost the same as our initial hit compound 1, 18m is expected to last longer in the human body as an anticancer agent.

  13. Upper limits for the ethyl-cyanide abundances in TMC-1 and L134N - Chemical implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Irvine, W. M.

    1991-01-01

    Interstellar ethyl-cyanide has been sought via its 2(02)-1(01) transition towards two cold, dark clouds, and upper limits of the total column densities of 3 x 10 to the 12th/sq cm and 2 x 10 to the 12th/sq cm for TMC-1 and L134N, respectively. The 2(02)-1(01) transition of vynil cyanide, previously identified in TMC-1 by Matthews and Sears (1983b), was also observed. The detection of vinyl cyanide and the nondetection of ethyl cyanide in TMC-1 are consistent with gas phase ion-molecule chemical models, and there is thus no necessity of invoking grain surface synthesis for vinyl cyanide in cold clouds.

  14. Nitrosamine-induced carcinogenesis. The alkylation of N-7 of guanine of nucleic acids of the rat by diethylnitrosamine, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and ethyl methanesulphonate

    PubMed Central

    Swann, P. F.; Magee, P. N.

    1971-01-01

    1. The extent of ethylation of N-7 of guanine in the nucleic acids of rat tissue in vivo by diethylnitrosamine, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and ethyl methanesulphonate was measured. 2. All compounds produced measurable amounts of 7-ethyl-guanine. 3. A single dose of diethylnitrosamine or N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea produced tumours of the kidney in the rat. Three doses of ethyl methanesulphonate produced kidney tumours, but a single dose did not. 4. A single dose of diethylnitrosamine produced twice as much ethylation of N-7 of guanine in DNA of kidney as did N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. A single dose of both compounds induced kidney tumours, although of a different histological type. 5. A single dose of ethyl methanesulphonate produced ten times as much ethylation of N-7 of guanine in kidney DNA as did N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea without producing tumours. 6. The relevance of these findings to the hypothesis that alkylation of a cellular component is the mechanism of induction of tumours by nitroso compounds is discussed. PMID:5145908

  15. Quantification of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in meconium for detection of alcohol abuse during pregnancy: Correlation study between both biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Cabarcos, Pamela; Tabernero, María Jesús; Otero, José Luís; Míguez, Martha; Bermejo, Ana María; Martello, Simona; De Giovanni, Nadia; Chiarotti, Marcello

    2014-11-01

    This article presents results from 47 meconium samples, which were analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for detection of gestational alcohol consumption. A validated microwave assisted extraction (MAE) method in combination with GC-MS developed in the Institute of Forensic Science (Santiago de Compostela) was used for FAEE and the cumulative concentration of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate and ethyl stearate with a cut-off of 600ng/g was applied for interpretation. A simple method for identification and quantification of EtG has been evaluated by ultrasonication followed solid phase extraction (SPE). Successful validation parameters were obtained for both biochemical markers of alcohol intake. FAEE and EtG concentrations in meconium ranged between values lower than LOD and 32,892ng/g or 218ng/g respectively. We have analyzed FAEE and EtG in the same meconium aliquot, enabling comparison of the efficiency of gestational ethanol exposure detection. Certain agreement between the two biomarkers was found as they are both a very specific alcohol markers, making it a useful analysis for confirmation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Heat capacities and thermal diffusivities of n-alkane acid ethyl esters—biodiesel fuel components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogatishcheva, N. S.; Faizullin, M. Z.; Nikitin, E. D.

    2017-09-01

    The heat capacities and thermal diffusivities of ethyl esters of liquid n-alkane acids C n H2 n-1O2C2H5 with the number of carbon atoms in the parent acid n = 10, 11, 12, 14, and 16 are measured. The heat capacities are measured using a DSC 204 F1 Phoenix heat flux differential scanning calorimeter (Netzsch, Germany) in the temperature range of 305-375 K. Thermal diffusivities are measured by means of laser flash method on an LFA-457 instrument (Netzsch, Germany) at temperatures of 305-400 K. An equation is derived for the dependence of the molar heat capacities of the investigated esters on temperature. It is shown that the dependence of molar heat capacity C p,m (298.15 K) on n ( n = 1-6) is close to linear. The dependence of thermal diffusivity on temperature in the investigated temperature range is described by a first-degree polynomial, but thermal diffusivity a (298.15 K) as a function of n has a minimum at n = 5.

  17. How 'ground-picked' olive fruits affect virgin olive oil ethanol content, ethyl esters and quality.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Gabriel; Sánchez, Raquel; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Aguilera, Maria P; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Olives dropped on the ground naturally sometimes are not separated from those fresh and healthy collected from the tree for harvest and processing. In this work we compared the quality, ethanol content and bioactive components of virgin olive oils from ground-picked olives, tree-picked fruits and their mixture. Ground-picked olives produced 'Lampante' virgin olive oils; these are of a lower quality category, because of important alterations in chemical and sensory characteristics. Ethyl esters showed the highest values, although under the regulated limit. The mixture of ground and tree-picked olives gave oils classified as 'virgin' because of sensory defects, although the quality parameters did not exceed the limits for the 'extra' category. Ethanol content showed a significant increase in the oils from ground- picked olives and their mixture with respect to those from tree-picked fruits. Furthermore, bioactive compounds showed a significant decrease as fruit quality was poorer. Ground-picked olives must be harvested and processed separately since they produce low-quality virgin olive oils with sensory defects and lower concentrations of bioactive compounds. The higher acidity and ethanol concentration observed in oils from ground-picked fruits or their mixture may help ethyl ester synthesis during storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Nonaqueous gel for the transdermal delivery of a DTPA penta-ethyl ester prodrug.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Yang, Yu-Tsai; Pacyniak, Erik K; Kagel, John R; Braun, Brenda A; Zamboni, William C; Mumper, Russell J; Jay, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid penta-ethyl ester, designated as C2E5, was successfully incorporated into a nonaqueous gel for transdermal delivery. The thermal and rheological properties of a formulation containing 40% C2E5, 20% ethyl cellulose, and 40% Miglyol 840® prepared using the solvent evaporation method demonstrated that the gel had acceptable content uniformity and flow properties. In vitro studies showed that C2E5 was steadily released from the gel at a rate suitable for transdermal delivery. Topical application of the gel at a 200 mg C2E5/kg dose level in rats achieved significantly higher plasma exposures of several active metabolites compared with neat C2E5 oil at the same dose level. The results suggest that transdermal delivery of a chelator prodrug is an effective radionuclide decorporation strategy by delivering chelators to the circulation with a pharmacokinetic profile that is more consistent with the biokinetic profile of transuranic elements in contaminated individuals.

  19. Aroma-active ester profile of ale beer produced under different fermentation and nutritional conditions.

    PubMed

    Hiralal, Lettisha; Olaniran, Ademola O; Pillay, Balakrishna

    2014-01-01

    A broad range of aroma-active esters produced during fermentation are vital for the complex flavour of beer. This study assessed the influence of fermentation temperature, pH, and wort nutritional supplements on the production of yeast-derived ester compounds and the overall fermentation performance. The best fermentation performance was achieved when wort was supplemented with 0.75 g/l l-leucine resulting in highest reducing sugar and FAN (free amino nitrogen) utilization and ethanol production. At optimum fermentation pH of 5, 38.27% reducing sugars and 35.28% FAN was utilized resulting in 4.07% (v/v) ethanol. Wort supplemented with zinc sulphate (0.12 g/l) resulted in 5.01% ethanol (v/v) production and 54.32% reducing sugar utilization. Increase in fermentation temperature from 18°C to room temperature (± 22.5°C) resulted in 17.03% increased ethanol production and 14.42% and 62.82% increase in total acetate ester concentration and total ethyl ester concentration, respectively. Supplementation of worth with 0.12 g/l ZnSO4 resulted in 2.46-fold increase in both isoamyl acetate and ethyl decanoate concentration, while a 7.05-fold and 1.96-fold increase in the concentration of isoamyl acetate and ethyl decanoate, respectively was obtained upon 0.75 g/l l-leucine supplementation. Wort supplemented with l-leucine (0.75 g/l) yielded the highest beer foam head stability with a rating of 2.67, while highest yeast viability was achieved when wort was supplemented with 0.12 g/l zinc sulphate. Results from this study suggest that supplementing wort with essential nutrients required for yeast growth and optimizing the fermentation conditions could be an effective way of improving fermentation performance and controlling aroma-active esters in beer. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 78 FR 53051 - Ethyl-2E,4Z-Decadienoate (Pear Ester); Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide chemical residue in establishing a tolerance and to ``ensure that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result to infants and children... identifiable subgroups of consumers, including infants and children. A. Overview of Pear Ester Ethyl-2E,4Z...

  1. Determination of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair: a promising way for retrospective detection of alcohol abuse during pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Pragst, Fritz; Yegles, Michel

    2008-04-01

    The retrospective detection of alcohol consumption during pregnancy is an important part of the diagnosis of the fetal alcohol syndrome. A promising way to solve this problem can be the determination of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) or/and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair of the mothers. In this article, the present state in analytical determination and interpretation of FAEE and EtG concentrations in hair are reviewed. Both FAEE and EtG are minor metabolites of ethanol and as direct alcohol markers very specific for alcohol. They are durably deposited in hair, which enables taking advantage of the long diagnostic time window of this sample material. In the last years, specific and sensitive methods for determination of both alcohol markers in hair were developed. Headspace solid phase microextraction in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy after hair extraction with an n-heptane/dimethylsulfoxide mixture proved to be a favorable technique for determination of four characteristic FAEE (ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate). EtG is extracted from hair by water and analyzed either by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy with negative chemical ionization after cleanup with solid phase extraction and derivatization with pentafluoropropionic anhydride or by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy-mass spectroscopy. The detection limits of the single FAEE as well as of EtG are in the range of 1 to 10 pg/mg. FAEE as well as EtG were determined in a larger number of hair samples of teetotalers, social drinkers, patients in alcohol withdrawal treatment, and death cases with previous known heavy drinking. From the results, the following criteria were derived: strict abstinence is excluded or improbable at C FAEE >0.2 ng/mg or C EtG >7 pg/mg. Moderate social drinkers should have C FAEE <0.5 ng/mg and C EtG <25 pg/mg; above these values, alcohol abuse is probable. Until now, there has been no evaluation in context of FAS diagnosis

  2. Role of omega-3 ethyl ester concentrate in reducing sudden cardiac death following myocardial infarction and in management of hypertriglyceridemia: An Indian consensus statement

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, J.J.; Kasliwal, R.R.; Dutta, A.L.; Sawhney, J.P.S.; Iyengar, S.S.; Dani, S.; Desai, N.; Sathyamurthy, I.; Rao, D.; Menon, A.; Dasbiswas, A.; Wander, G.S.; Chadha, M.; Hiremath, M.S.; Roy, D.G.; Gupta, V.; Shivakadaksham, N.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the most lethal manifestation of heart disease. In an Indian study the SCDs contribute about 10% of the total mortality and SCD post ST elevation myocardial infarction (MI) constitutes for about half of total deaths. Objective Given the limitations of existing therapy there is a need for an effective, easy to use, broadly applicable and affordable intervention to prevent SCD post MI. Leading cardiologists from all over India came together to discuss the potential role of n-3 acid ethyl esters (90%) of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) 460 mg & docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 380 mg in the management of post MI patients and those with hypertriglyceridemia. Recommendations Highly purified & concentrated omega-3 ethyl esters (90%) of EPA (460 mg) & DHA (380 mg) has clinically proven benefits in improving post MI outcomes (significant 15% risk reduction for all-cause mortality, 20% risk reduction for CVD and 45% risk reduction in SCD in GISSI-Prevenzione trial) and in reducing hypertriglyceridemia, and hence, represent an interesting option adding to the treatment armamentarium in the secondary prevention after MI based on its anti-arrhythmogenic effects and also in reducing hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:23102390

  3. Biomonitoring of N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone in automobile varnishers.

    PubMed

    Koslitz, Stephan; Meier, Swetlana; Schindler, Birgit Karin; Weiss, Tobias; Koch, Holger Martin; Brüning, Thomas; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo

    2014-12-01

    N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones are important organic solvents for varnishes in industry. This study investigates exposure to N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (NEP) in varnishing of hard plastic components in an automobile plant. Two specific biomarkers of exposure, 5-hydroxy-N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNEP) and 2-hydroxy-N-ethylsuccinimide (2-HESI), were analyzed in urine samples of 14 workers. For this purpose, pre-shift, post-shift and next day pre-shift urine samples were collected midweek. Twelve workers performed regular work tasks (loading, wiping and packing), whereas two workers performed special work tasks including cleaning the sprayer system with organic solvents containing N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones. Spot urine samples of nine non-exposed persons of the same plant served as controls. Median post-shift urinary levels of workers with regular work tasks (5-HNEP: 0.15 mg/L; 2-HESI: 0.19 mg/L) were ∼5-fold higher compared to the controls (0.03 mg/L each). Continuously increasing metabolite levels, from pre-shift via post-shift to pre-shift samples of the following day, were observed in particular for the two workers with the special working tasks. Maximum levels were 31.01 mg/L (5-HNEP) and 8.45 mg/L (2-HESI). No clear trend was evident for workers with regular working tasks. In summary, we were able to show that workers can be exposed to NEP during varnishing tasks in the automobile industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [The role of non-NMDA glutamate receptors in the EEG effects of chronic administration of noopept GVS-111 in awake rats].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, G I; Vorob'ev, V V

    2002-01-01

    Participation of the non-NMDA glutamate receptor subtype in the formation of the EEG frequency spectrum was studied in wakeful rats upon a long-term (10 x 0.2 mg/kg, s.c.) administration of the nootropic dipeptide GVS-111 (noopept or N-phenylacetyl-L-prolyglycine ethylate). The EEGs were measured with electrodes implanted into somatosensor cortex regions, hippocampus, and a cannula in the lateral ventricle. The acute reactions (characteristic of nootropes) in the alpha and beta ranges of EEG exhibited inversion after the 6th injection of noopept and almost completely vanished after the 9th injection. Preliminary introduction of the non-NMDA antagonist GDEE (glutamic acid diethyl ester) in a dose of 1 mumole into the lateral ventricle restored the EEG pattern observed upon the 6th dose of GVS-111. The role of glutamate receptors in the course of a prolonged administration of nootropes, as well as the possible mechanisms accounting for a difference in the action of GVS-111 and piracetam are discussed.

  5. Convenient synthesis of 6-nor-9,10-dihydrolysergic acid methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Crider, A M; Grubb, R; Bachmann, K A; Rawat, A K

    1981-12-01

    6-Nor-9,10-dihydrolysergic acid methyl ester (IV) was prepared by demethylation of 9,10-dihydrolysergic acid methyl ester (II) with 2,2,2-trichloroethyl chloroformate, followed by reduction of the intermediate carbamate (III) with zinc in acetic acid. The 6-ethyl-V and 6-n-propyl-VI derivatives were prepared by alkylation of IV with the appropriate halide. All of the ergoline derivatives were evaluated for stereotyped behavior in rats, with 6-nor-6-ethyl-9,10-dihydrolysergic acid methyl ester (V) being active but much less potent than apomorphine. Compound VI was evaluated for its effect on blood pressure; at a dose of 30 mg/kg ip, it significantly lowered, diastolic pressure in normotensive rats.

  6. Quantitation using a stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) and thresholds of taste-active pyroglutamyl decapeptide ethyl esters (PGDPEs) in sake.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Katsumi; Ito, Toshiko; Igarashi, Shinya

    2017-03-01

    A stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) for two taste-active pyroglutamyl decapeptide ethyl esters (PGDPE1; (pGlu)LFGPNVNPWCOOC 2 H 5 , PGDPE2; (pGlu)LFNPSTNPWCOOC 2 H 5 ) in sake was developed using deuterated isotopes and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Recognition thresholds of PGDPEs in sake were estimated as 3.8 μg/L for PGDPE1 and 8.1 μg/L for PGDPE2, evaluated using 11 student panelists aged in their twenties. Quantitated concentrations in 18 commercial sake samples ranged from 0 to 27 μg/L for PGDPE1 and from 0 to 202 μg/L for PGDPE2. The maximum levels of PGDPE1 and PGDPE2 in the sake samples were approximately 8 and 25 times higher than the estimated recognition thresholds, respectively. The results indicated that PGDPEs may play significant sensory roles in the sake. The level of PGDPEs in unpasteurized sake samples decreased during storage for 50 days at 6 °C, suggesting PGDPEs may be enzymatically decomposed.

  7. Synthesis of the Commercial Fragrance Compound Ethyl 6-Acetoxyhexanoate: A Multistep Ester Experiment for the Second-Year Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullagh, James V.; Hirakis, Sophia P.

    2017-01-01

    This synthesis of ethyl 6-acetoxyhexanoate (Berryflor) is designed as an experiment for use in a second-year organic chemistry course focusing on the synthesis and reaction of esters. The compound is described as having a raspberry-like odor with jasmine and anise aspects. A two-step procedure for its synthesis beginning with inexpensive…

  8. Investigations of vibrational spectra and bioactivity of novel anticancer drug N-(6-ferrocenyl-2-naphthoyl)-gamma-amino butyric acid ethyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhi, Geethu; Rajina, S. R.; Praveen, S. G.; Xavier, T. S.; Kenny, Peter T. M.; Jaiswal-Nagar, D.; Binoy, J.

    2017-10-01

    The bioactivity of compounds is mainly dependent on molecular structure and the present work aims to explore the bonding features responsible for biological activity of novel anticancer drug N-(6-ferrocenyl-2-naphthoyl)-gamma-amino butyric acid ethyl ester (FNGABEE). In the present study, we investigate the molecular structural properties of newly synthesized title compound through experimental and quantum chemical studies. The detailed vibrational analysis has been performed using FT IR and FT Raman spectrum, aided by DFT computed geometry, vibrational spectrum, Eigen vector distribution and PED, at B3LYP/6-311 ++G(d,p) level. The resonance structure of naphthalene, different from that of benzene, revealed by molecular structure has been investigated using Csbnd C and Cdbnd C stretching modes. The proton transfer in amide has been analyzed to obtain spectral distinction between different carbonyl and Csbnd N groups which point to the reactive sites responsible for binding with DNA and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The spectral distinction between eclipsed and staggered form of ferrocene has been analyzed. The molecular docking of FNGABEE with BSA and DNA has been performed to find the strength of binding and the moieties responsible for the interactions. The experimental binding studies of FNGABEE with BSA and DNA has been performed using UV absorption spectroscopy and fluorometric assay, to find the nature and strength of binding.

  9. Permeation enhancement via thiolation: in vitro and ex vivo evaluation of hyaluronic acid-cysteine ethyl ester.

    PubMed

    Laffleur, Flavia; Psenner, Julia; Suchaoin, Wongsakorn

    2015-07-01

    It was the aim of this study to evaluate the permeation-enhancing effect of synthesized thiolated hyaluronic acid (HA). HA, a naturally found polysaccharide, was chemically modified with l-cysteine ethyl ether (C) via amide bond formation. In vitro permeation enhancement was tested on Caco-2 cells with two compounds, sulforhodamine (SR) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FD4). Cytotoxicity assays as lactate dehydrogenase and thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) were performed on colon carcinoma cell line. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements were conducted. Ex vivo evaluation was accomplished on rat intestinal mucosa in order to predict the permeation enhancing effect with SR, sodium fluorescein (SF), and FD4, respectively. The MTT as well as lactate dehydrogenase revealed no toxicity over time periods of 3 and 12 h, respectively. The bioconjugate is biocompatible and safe to use. Furthermore, TEER measurements showed the integrity of tight junctions. The in vitro permeation studies on cell studies exhibit 1.28-fold enhancement for SR and 1.47-fold enhancement for FD4 with hyaluronic acid-cysteine ethyl ester (HAC) in comparison to unmodified one. The ex vivo transport studies exhibit 1.9-fold enhancement for SF, 1.31-fold enhancement for Rhodamine123, and 1.3-fold enhancement for FD4 with HAC in comparison to unmodified one, respectively. Thus, the promising results encourage further investigations and exploitation of this versatile polysaccharide. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  10. β-Keto esters from ketones and ethyl chloroformate: a rapid, general, efficient synthesis of pyrazolones and their antimicrobial, in silico and in vitro cytotoxicity studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pyrazolones are traditionally synthesized by the reaction of β-keto esters with hydrazine and its derivatives. There are methods to synthesize β-keto esters from esters and aldehydes, but these methods have main limitation in varying the substituents. Often, there are a number of methods such as acylation of enolates in which a chelating effect has been employed to lock the enolate anion using lithium and magnesium salts; however, these methods suffer from inconsistent yields in the case of aliphatic acylation. There are methods to synthesize β-keto esters from ketones like caboxylation of ketone enolates using carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide sources in the presence of palladium or transition metal catalysts. Currently, the most general and simple method to synthesize β-keto ester is the reaction of dimethyl or ethyl carbonate with ketone in the presence of strong bases which also requires long reaction time, use of excessive amount of reagent and inconsistent yield. These factors lead us to develop a simple method to synthesize β-keto esters by changing the base and reagent. Results A series of β-keto esters were synthesized from ketones and ethyl chloroformate in the presence of base which in turn are converted to pyrazolones and then subjected to cytotoxicity studies towards various cancer cell lines and antimicrobial activity studies towards various bacterial and fungal strains. Conclusion The β-keto esters from ethyl chloroformate was successfully attempted, and the developed method is simple, fast and applicable to the ketones having the alkyl halogens, protecting groups like Boc and Cbz that were tolerated and proved to be useful in the synthesis of fused bicyclic and tricyclic pyrazolones efficiently using cyclic ketones. Since this method is successful for different ketones, it can be useful for the synthesis of pharmaceutically important pyrazolones also. The synthesized pyrazolones were subjected to antimicrobial, docking and

  11. [Synthesis and monolayer behaviors of 4-methyl-5-hydroxy-ethyl isothiazole stearic ester].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu-hua; Kong, Lin; Yang, Jia-xiang; Xie, An-jian; Qian, Jia-sheng; Ouyang, Jian-ming; Xia, Bing

    2002-12-01

    4-methyl-5-hydroxy-ethyl isothiazole stearic ester (HISE) was synthesized and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, 1H NMR and MS. The monolayer-forming ability of HISE was studied in subphases with different pH values using isotherms of surface pressure-area per molecule (pi-A). It was observed that the collapse pressure and the film-forming ability of the monolayers of HISE increased gradually as pH values ascended. Research of differentiated pi-A curves (d pi(/dA-A) indicated that there were one or two phase change points during the compressing process, and the incompressibility and the stability of HISE monolayers on alkalescent subphases were better than on acid subphases.

  12. Mechanism of alpha-amino acids decomposition in the gas phase. experimental and theoretical study of the elimination kinetics of N-benzyl glycine ethyl ester.

    PubMed

    Tosta, Maria; Oliveros, Jhenny C; Mora, Jose R; Córdova, Tania; Chuchani, Gabriel

    2010-02-25

    The gas-phase elimination kinetics of N-benzylglycine ethyl ester was examined in a static system, seasoned with allyl bromide, and in the presence of the free chain radical suppressor toluene. The working temperature and pressure range were 386.4-426.7 degrees C and 16.7-40.0 torr, respectively. The reaction showed to be homogeneous, unimolecular, and obeys a first-order rate law. The elimination products are benzylglycine and ethylene. However, the intermediate benzylglycine is unstable under the reaction conditions decomposing into benzyl methylamine and CO(2) gas. The variation of the rate coefficients with temperature is expressed by the following Arrhenius equation: log k(1) (s(-1)) = (11.83 +/- 0.52) - (190.3 +/- 6.9) kJ mol(-1) (2.303RT)(-1). The theoretical calculation of the kinetic parameters and mechanism of elimination of this ester were performed at B3LYP/6-31G*, B3LYP/6-31+G**, MPW1PW91/6-31G*, and MPW1PW91/6-31+G** levels of theory. The calculation results suggest a molecular mechanism of a concerted nonsynchronous six-membered cyclic transition state process. The analysis of bond order and natural bond orbital charges implies that the bond polarization of C(=O)O-C, in the sense of C(=O)O(delta-)...C(delta+), is rate determining. The experimental and theoretical parameters have been found to be in reasonable agreement.

  13. Microwave spectroscopy and curious molecular dynamics of ethyl trifluoroacetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Robert K.; Montgomery, John A.; Harvey Michels, H.; Acharte, Christian

    2017-05-01

    The first ethyl ester whose structure was determined by microwave spectroscopy is ethyl formate. It exists in two conformations. In the 1970s, that study was used as a model to determine the structures of other ethyl esters, ethyl cyanoformate, chloroformate, and trifluoroacetate. They display the same conformations as ethyl formate. But under the experimental conditions used, Stark modulation with a maximum electric field, static low pressure gas, rapid sweeping, and long detector time constants, each of those esters displays bands of an additional third species. A careful, high resolution study of ethyl cyanoformate only observed two conformers. A model has been proposed that the third species derives from a dense array of torsionally excited states with broadened transitions due to short lifetimes. The present study of ethyl trifluoroacetate in a pulsed jet Fourier Transform spectrometer is intended to clarify the earlier results. Two conformers are observed including all their monosubstituted 13C and 18O isotopologs. In a pulsed jet Fourier Transform spectrometer using argon as the carrier gas, only one conformer is observed. Switching to helium as the carrier gas, another, higher energy conformer is also observed.

  14. Combined approaches using sex pheromone and pear ester for behavioral disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies utilized the attractive properties of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., for behavioural disruption. Standard dispensers loaded with codlemone alone or in combination with pear ester (c...

  15. Poly (N-ethyl aniline)/Ag Nanocomposite as Humidity Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Nishigandh S.; Jaspal, Dipika; Ambekar, Jalindar

    Poly (N-ethyl aniline)/Ag organic-inorganic composite has been synthesized by a single step in situ chemical oxidative polymerization method. The synthesis of Poly (N-ethyl aniline)/Ag nanocomposite has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Ultraviolet-Vis Spectroscopy (UV-visible), Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) and FE-SEM investigations. XRD spectral study exhibited major diffraction in the range 20-80∘ (2θ) and indicated the semicrystalline nature of poly (N-ethyl aniline)/Ag nanocomposite. Characteristic peaks in UV-visible and FTIR spectra of poly (N-ethyl aniline) switched to higher wave numbers in poly (N-ethyl aniline)/Ag nanocomposite. Peaks at 1789cm-1, 1595cm-1, 667cm-1 and 501cm-1 in FTIR spectrum confirmed the formation of poly (N-ethyl aniline)/Ag nanocomposite. FE-SEM photographs reported agglomerated granular particulate nature of poly (N-ethyl aniline)/Ag nanocomposite. Synthesized poly (N-ethyl aniline)/Ag nanocomposite exhibited a high response to humidity, good reproducibility and stability at room temperature. An appreciable response was shown in the presence of 40% humid atmosphere for up to successive four cycles. Composite sensitivity has been found to increase with the increasing concentration of humidity, at room temperature.

  16. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2), 2,2'-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis[2-methylbutanenitrile]- and 2,2'-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis[2-methylpropanenitrile]-initiated. 721.10326...

  17. Acetate ester production by Chinese yellow rice wine yeast overexpressing the alcohol acetyltransferase-encoding gene ATF2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Zhang, C; Qi, Y; Dai, L; Ma, H; Guo, X; Xiao, D

    2014-11-27

    Acetate ester, which are produced by fermenting yeast cells in an enzyme-catalyzed intracellular reaction, are responsible for the fruity character of fermented alcoholic beverages such as Chinese yellow rice wine. Alcohol acetyltransferase (AATase) is currently believed to be the key enzyme responsible for the production of acetate ester. In order to determine the precise role of the ATF2 gene in acetate ester production, an ATF2 gene encoding a type of AATase was overexpressed and the ability of the mutant to form acetate esters (including ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, and isobutyl acetate) was investigated. The results showed that after 5 days of fermentation, the concentrations of ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, and isobutyl acetate in yellow rice wines fermented with EY2 (pUC-PIA2K) increased to 137.79 mg/L (an approximate 4.9-fold increase relative to the parent cell RY1), 26.68 mg/L, and 7.60 mg/L, respectively. This study confirms that the ATF2 gene plays an important role in the production of acetate ester production during Chinese yellow rice wine fermentation, thereby offering prospects for the development of yellow rice wine yeast starter strains with optimized ester-producing capabilities.

  18. Adsorption of acetanilide herbicides on soil and its components. II. Adsorption and catalytic hydrolysis of diethatyl-ethyl on saturated Na(+)-, K(+)-, Ca(2+)-, and Mg(2+)-montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Liu, W P; Fang, Z; Liu, H J; Yang, W C

    2001-04-01

    Adsorption and catalytic hydrolysis of the herbicide diethatyl-ethyl [N-chloroacetyl-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)glycine ethyl ester] on homoionic Na(+)-, K(+)-, Ca(2+)-, and Mg(2+)-montmorillonite clays were investigated in water solution. The Freundlich adsorption coefficient, Ki, got from isotherms on clay followed the order of Na+ approximately K+ > Mg2+ approximately Ca2+. Analysis of FT-IR spectra of diethatyl-ethyl adsorbed on clay suggests probable bonding at the carboxyl and amide carbonyl groups of the herbicide. The rate of herbicide hydrolysis in homoionic clay suspensions followed the same order as that for adsorption, indicating that adsorption may have preceded and thus caused hydrolysis. Preliminary product identification showed that hydrolysis occurred via nucleophilic substitution at the carboxyl carbon, causing the cleavage of the ester bond and formation of diethatyl and its dechlorinated derivative, and at the amide carbon, yielding an ethyl ester derivative and its acid. These pathways also suggest that hydrolysis of diethatyl-ethyl was catalyzed by adsorption on the clay surface.

  19. Icosapent ethyl: Eicosapentaenoic acid concentration and triglyceride-lowering effects across clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Bays, Harold E; Ballantyne, Christie M; Doyle, Ralph T; Juliano, Rebecca A; Philip, Sephy

    2016-09-01

    Icosapent ethyl is a high-purity prescription form of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ethyl ester approved at a dose of 4g/day as an adjunct to diet to reduce triglyceride (TG) levels in adult patients with severe (≥500mg/dL) hypertriglyceridemia. This post-hoc exploratory analysis examined the relationship of icosapent ethyl dose with EPA concentrations in plasma and red blood cells (RBCs) across 3 clinical studies-a phase 1 pharmacokinetic study in healthy adult volunteers and 2 pivotal phase 3 studies (MARINE and ANCHOR) in adult patients with hypertriglyceridemia-and examined the relationship between EPA levels and TG-lowering effects in MARINE and ANCHOR. In all 3 studies, icosapent ethyl produced dose-dependent increases in the concentrations of EPA in plasma and RBCs. In both MARINE and ANCHOR, these dose-dependent EPA increases correlated with the degree of TG level lowering (all P<0.01). In patients with high TG levels (≥200mg/dL) and treated with icosapent ethyl 4g/day, the end-of-treatment plasma and RBC EPA concentrations were >170μg/mL and>70μg/mL, respectively. These studies support icosapent ethyl as producing predictable dose-dependent pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, with TG level lowering dependent upon icosapent ethyl dose and EPA concentrations in plasma and RBCs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2), 2,2â²-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis[2-methylbutanenitrile]- and 2,2â²-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis[2-methylpropanenitrile]-initiated. 721.10326...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2), 2,2â²-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis[2-methylbutanenitrile]- and 2,2â²-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis[2-methylpropanenitrile]-initiated. 721.10326...

  2. On the chemical ladder of esters. Detection and formation of ethyl formate in the W51 e2 hot molecular core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivilla, V. M.; Beltrán, M. T.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Fontani, F.; Caselli, P.; Cesaroni, R.

    2017-03-01

    Context. In recent years, the detection of organic molecules with increasing complexity and potential biological relevance is opening the possibility to understand the formation of the building blocks of life in the interstellar medium. One of the families of molecules of substantial astrobiological interest are the esters. The simplest ester, methyl formate (CH3OCHO), is rather abundant in star-forming regions. The next step in the chemical complexity of esters is ethyl formate, C2H5OCHO. Despite the increase in sensitivity of current telescopes, the detection of complex molecules with more than ten atoms such as C2H5OCHO is still a challenge. Only two detections of this species have been reported so far, which strongly limits our understanding of how complex molecules are formed in the interstellar medium. New detections towards additional sources with a wide range of physical conditions are crucial to differentiate between competing chemical models based on dust grain surface and gas-phase chemistry. Aims: We have searched for ethyl formate towards the W51 e2 hot molecular core, one of the most chemically rich sources in the Galaxy and one of the most promising regions to study prebiotic chemistry, especially after the recent discovery of the P-O bond, key in the formation of DNA. Methods: We have analyzed a spectral line survey towards the W51 e2 hot molecular core, which covers 44 GHz in the 1, 2 and 3 mm bands, carried out with the IRAM 30 m telescope. Results: We report the detection of the trans and gauche conformers of ethyl formate. A local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis indicates that the excitation temperature is 78 ± 10 K and that the two conformers have similar source-averaged column densities of (2.0 ± 0.3) × 10-16 cm-2 and an abundance of 10-8. We compare for the first time the observed molecular abundances of ethyl formate with different competing chemical models based on grain surface and gas-phase chemistry. Conclusions: We propose that

  3. pH-Dependent Stability of Creatine Ethyl Ester: Relevance to Oral Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Gufford, Brandon T.; Ezell, Edward L.; Robinson, Dennis H.; Miller, Donald W.; Miller, Nicholas J.; Gu, Xiaochen; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Creatine ethyl ester hydrochloride (CEE) was synthesized as a prodrug of creatine (CRT) to improve aqueous solubility, gastrointestinal permeability, and ultimately the pharmacodynamics of CRT. We used high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to characterize the pH-dependent stability of CEE in aqueous solution and compared the permeability of CEE to CRT and creatinine (CRN) across Caco-2 human epithelial cell monolayers and transdermal permeability across porcine skin. CEE was most stable in a strongly acidic condition (half-life = 570 hours at pH 1.0) where it undergoes ester hydrolysis to CRT and ethanol. At pH ≥ 1.0, CEE cyclizes to CRN with the logarithm of the first order rate constant increasing linearly with pH. Above pH 8.0 (half-life = 23 sec) the rate of degradation was too rapid to be determined. The rate of degradation of CEE in cell culture media and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) was a function of pH and correlated well with the stability in aqueous buffered solutions. The permeability of CEE across Caco-2 monolayers and porcine skin was significantly greater than that of CRT or CRN. The stability of CEE in acidic media together with its improved permeability suggests that CEE has potential for improved oral absorption compared to CRT. PMID:23957855

  4. pH-dependent stability of creatine ethyl ester: relevance to oral absorption.

    PubMed

    Gufford, Brandon T; Ezell, Edward L; Robinson, Dennis H; Miller, Donald W; Miller, Nicholas J; Gu, Xiaochen; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L

    2013-09-01

    Creatine ethyl ester hydrochloride (CEE) was synthesized as a prodrug of creatine (CRT) to improve aqueous solubility, gastrointestinal permeability, and ultimately the pharmacodynamics of CRT. We used high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to characterize the pH-dependent stability of CEE in aqueous solution and compared the permeability of CEE to CRT and creatinine (CRN) across Caco-2 human epithelial cell monolayers and transdermal permeability across porcine skin. CEE was most stable in a strongly acidic condition (half-life = 570 hours at pH 1.0) where it undergoes ester hydrolysis to CRT and ethanol. At pH ≥ 1.0, CEE cyclizes to CRN with the logarithm of the first order rate constant increasing linearly with pH. Above pH 8.0 (half-life = 23 sec) the rate of degradation was too rapid to be determined. The rate of degradation of CEE in cell culture media and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) was a function of pH and correlated well with the stability in aqueous buffered solutions. The permeability of CEE across Caco-2 monolayers and porcine skin was significantly greater than that of CRT or CRN. The stability of CEE in acidic media together with its improved permeability suggests that CEE has potential for improved oral absorption compared to CRT.

  5. Catalyst-free ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zullaikah, Siti; Afifudin, Riza; Amalia, Rizky

    2015-12-01

    In-situ ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical water and ethanol with no catalyst was employed. This process is environmentally friendly and is very flexible in term of feedstock utilization since it can handle relatively high moisture and free fatty acids (FFAs) contents. In addition, the alcohol, i.e. bioethanol, is a non-toxic, biodegradable, and green raw material when produced from non-edible biomass residues, leading to a 100% renewable biodiesel. The fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, ethyl biodiesel) are better than fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, methyl biodiesel) in terms of fuel properties, including cetane number, oxidation stability and cold flow properties. The influences of the operating variables such as reaction time (1 - 10 h), ethanol concentration (12.5 - 87.5%), and pressurizing gas (N2 and CO2) on the ethyl biodiesel yield and purity have been investigated systematically while the temperature and pressure were kept constant at 200 °C and 40 bar. The optimum results were obtained at 5 h reaction time and 75% ethanol concentration using CO2 as compressing gas. Ethyl biodiesel yield and purity of 58.78% and 61.35%, respectively, were obtained using rice bran with initial FFAs content of 37.64%. FFAs level was reduced to 14.22% with crude ethyl biodiesel recovery of 95.98%. Increasing the reaction time up to 10 h only increased the yield and purity by only about 3%. Under N2 atmosphere and at the same operating conditions (5h and 75% ethanol), ethyl biodiesel yield and purity decreased to 54.63% and 58.07%, respectively, while FFAs level was increased to 17.93% and crude ethyl biodiesel recovery decreased to 87.32%.

  6. Determination of selected fate and aquatic toxicity characteristics of acrylic acid and a series of acrylic esters.

    PubMed

    Staples, C A; Murphy, S R; McLaughlin, J E; Leung, H W; Cascieri, T C; Farr, C H

    2000-01-01

    Acrylic acid, methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, and butyl acrylate are commercially important and widely used materials. This paper reports the results of a series of fate and aquatic toxicity studies. The mobility in soil of acrylic acid and its esters ranged from 'medium' to 'very high'. Calculated bioconcentration factors ranged from 1 to 37, suggesting a low bioconcentration potential. Acrylic acid and methyl acrylate showed limited biodegradability in the five day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) test, while ethyl acrylate and butyl acrylate were degraded easily (77% and 56%, respectively). Using the OECD method 301D 28-d closed bottle test, degradability for acrylic acid was 81% at 28 days, while the acrylic esters ranged from 57% to 60%. Acrylic acid degraded rapidly to carbon dioxide in soil (t1/2 < 1 day). Toxicity tests were conducted using freshwater and marine fish, invertebrates, and algae. Acrylic acid effect concentrations for fish and invertebrates ranged from 27 to 236 mg/l. Effect concentrations (LC50 or EC50) for fish and invertebrates using methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, and butyl acrylate ranged from 1.1 to 8.2 mg/l. The chronic MATC for acrylic acid with Daphnia magna was 27 mg/l based on length and young produced per adult reproduction day and for ethyl acrylate was 0.29 mg/l based on both the reproductive and growth endpoints. Overall these studies show that acrylic acid and the acrylic esters studied can rapidly biodegrade, have a low potential for persistence or bioaccumulation in the environment, and have low to moderate toxicity.

  7. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of ethyl palmitate calibration and resolution with ethyl oleate as biomarker ethanol sub acute in urine application study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suaniti, Ni Made; Manurung, Manuntun

    2016-03-01

    Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry is used to separate two and more compounds and identify fragment ion specific of biomarker ethanol such as palmitic acid ethyl ester (PAEE), as one of the fatty acid ethyl esters as early detection through conyugated reaction. This study aims to calibrate ethyl palmitate and develop analysis with oleate acid. This methode can be used analysis ethanol and its chemistry biomarker in ethanol sub-acute consumption as analytical forensic toxicology. The result show that ethanol level in urine rats Wistar were 9.21 and decreased 6.59 ppm after 48 hours consumption. Calibration curve of ethyl palmitate was y = 0.2035 x + 1.0465 and R2 = 0.9886. Resolution between ethyl palmitate and oleate were >1.5 as good separation with fragment ion specific was 88 and the retention time was 18 minutes.

  8. Wax Ester Rich Oil From The Marine Crustacean, Calanus finmarchicus, is a Bioavailable Source of EPA and DHA for Human Consumption.

    PubMed

    Cook, Chad M; Larsen, Terje S; Derrig, Linda D; Kelly, Kathleen M; Tande, Kurt S

    2016-10-01

    Oil from the marine copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, which contains >86 % of fatty acids present as wax esters, is a novel source of n-3 fatty acids for human consumption. In a randomized, two-period crossover study, 18 healthy adults consumed 8 capsules providing 4 g of Calanus(®) Oil supplying a total of 260 mg EPA and 156 mg DHA primarily as wax esters, or 1 capsule of Lovaza(®) providing 465 mg EPA and 375 mg DHA as ethyl esters, each with an EPA- and DHA-free breakfast. Plasma EPA and DHA were measured over a 72 h period (t = 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h). The positive incremental area under the curve over the 72 h test period (iAUC0-72 h) for both EPA and DHA was significantly different from zero (p < 0.0001) in both test conditions, with similar findings for the iAUC0-24 h and iAUC0-48 h, indicating the fatty acids were absorbed. There was no difference in the plasma iAUC0-72 h for EPA + DHA, or DHA individually, in response to Calanus Oil vs the ethyl ester condition; however, the iAUC0-48 h and iAUC0-72 h for plasma EPA in response to Calanus Oil were both significantly increased relative to the ethyl ester condition (iAUC0-48 h: 381 ± 31 vs 259 ± 39 μg*h/mL, p = 0.026; iAUC0-72 h: 514 ± 47 vs 313 ± 49 μg*h/mL, p = 0.009). These data demonstrate a novel wax ester rich marine oil is a suitable alternative source of EPA and DHA for human consumption.

  9. A novel liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) based bioanalytical method for quantification of ethyl esters of Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and its application in pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Sekarbabu; Verma, P R P; Ganesan, Muniyandithevar; Manivannan, Jeganathan

    2017-07-15

    Omega-3 fatty acids are clinically useful and the two marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are prevalent in fish and fish oils. Omega-3 fatty acid formulations should undergo a rigorous regulatory step in order to obtain United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) approval as prescription drug. In connection with that, despite quantifying EPA and DHA fatty acids, there is a need for quantifying the level of ethyl esters of them in biological samples. In this study, we make use of reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC-MS)technique for the method development. Here, we have developed a novel multiple reaction monitoring method along with optimized parameters for quantification of EPA and DHA as ethyl esters. Additionally, we attempted to validate the bio-analytical method by conducting the sensitivity, selectivity, precision accuracy batch, carryover test and matrix stability experiments. Furthermore, we also implemented our validated method for evaluation of pharmacokinetics of omega fatty acid ethyl ester formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Antiangiogenic effects and mechanisms of trans-ethyl p-methoxycinnamate from Kaempferia galanga L.

    PubMed

    He, Zhi-Heng; Yue, Grace Gar-Lee; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Ge, Wei; But, Paul Pui-Hay

    2012-11-14

    Kaempferia galanga L. (Zingiberaceae) is an aromatic herb and a popular spice used as a condiment in Asian cuisine. The ethanol extract of the dried plant and its successive four subfractions were investigated on zebrafish model by quantitative endogenous alkaline phosphatase assay. Both n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions had antiangiogenic activity, and two major active components (trans-ethyl p-methoxycinnamate and kaempferol) showed potent antiangiogenic effects on wild-type zebrafish. Because of its much stronger effect and no antiangiogenic activity reported, trans-ethyl p-methoxycinnamate was further investigated for its action mechanism. It dose dependently inhibited vessel formation on both wild- and Tg(fli1a:EGFP)y1-type zebrafish embryos. The semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay suggested that trans-ethyl p-methoxycinnamate affects multiple molecular targets related to angiogenesis. In vitro, it specifically inhibited the migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In vivo, it could block bFGF-induced vessel formation on Matrigel plug assay.

  11. Encapsulation of ferulic acid ethyl ester in caseinate to suppress off-flavor formation in UHT milk.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yongguang; Zhong, Qixin

    2017-12-15

    Phenolic compounds can principally suppress the off-flavor development in ultrahigh temperature (UHT) treated milk, but little has been studied for lipophilic phenolic compounds that are to be encapsulated for even distribution in milk. The objective of this work was to study physicochemical properties of ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) encapsulated in sodium caseinate and the inhibition of volatile formation after UHT processing. The capsules had an average hydrodynamic diameter of 246.2±10.9nm, a polydispersity index of 0.26±0.01, and a zeta-potential of -31.72±0.74mV. The capsules and the encapsulated FAEE were stable after heating at 138°C for 16min and UV radiation at 365nm for 32h. The encapsulated FAEE at a level of 0.18-1.42mg/mL suppressed the formation of 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline in model UHT milk by 32.8-63.2% after 30-day storage at 30°C. Therefore, FAEE encapsulated in caseinate can be potentially used to improve the quality of UHT milk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Palladium(II) complexes with R(2)edda derived ligands. Part IV. O,O'-dialkyl esters of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-2-(4-methyl)-pentanoic acid dihydrochloride and their palladium(II) complexes: synthesis, characterization and in vitro antitumoral activity against chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells.

    PubMed

    Vujić, Jelena M; Cvijović, Milica; Kaluderović, Goran N; Milovanović, Marija; Zmejkovski, Bojana B; Volarević, Vladislav; Arsenijević, Nebojsa; Sabo, Tibor J; Trifunović, Srećko R

    2010-09-01

    Four novel bidentate N,N'-ligand precursors, including O,O'-dialkyl esters (alkyl = ethyl, n-propyl, n-butyl and n-pentyl), L1 x 2 HCl-L4 x 2 HCl, of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-2-(4-methyl)-pentanoic acid dihydrochloride [(S,S)-H(4)eddl]Cl(2) and the corresponding palladium(II) complexes 1-4, were prepared and characterized by IR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. In vitro cytotoxicity of all compounds was determined against chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells (CLL). The compounds were found to exhibit higher antitumoral activity than cisplatin. The most active compound 2, [PdCl(2){(S,S)-nPr(2)eddl}], was found to be 13.6 times more active than cisplatin on CLL cells. 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Production and Characterization of Ethyl Ester from Crude Jatropha curcas Oil having High Free Fatty Acid Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajneesh; Dixit, Anoop; Singh, Shashi Kumar; Singh, Gursahib; Sachdeva, Monica

    2015-09-01

    The two step process was carried out to produce biodiesel from crude Jatropha curcas oil. The pretreatment process was carried out to reduce the free fatty acid content by (≤2 %) acid catalyzed esterification. The optimum reaction conditions for esterification were reported to be 5 % H2SO4, 20 % ethanol and 1 h reaction time at temperature of 65 °C. The pretreatment process reduced the free fatty acid of oil from 7 to 1.85 %. In second process, alkali catalysed transesterification of pretreated oil was carried and the effects of the varying concentrations of KOH and ethanol: oil ratios on percent ester recovery were investigated. The optimum reaction conditions for transesterification were reported to be 3 % KOH (w/v of oil) and 30 % (v/v) ethanol: oil ratio and reaction time 2 h at 65 °C. The maximum percent recovery of ethyl ester was reported to be 60.33 %.

  14. High Fat Diet Dysregulates Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis Gene Expression Levels which are Differentially Rescued by EPA and DHA Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Saame Raza; Shaver, Patti R; Shewchuk, Brian M

    2018-05-08

    Dietary fat composition can modulate gene expression in peripheral tissues in obesity. Observations of the dysregulation of growth hormone (GH) in obesity indicate that these effects extend to the hypothalamic-pituitary (H-P) axis. The authors thus determine whether specific high fat (HF) diets influence the levels of Gh and other key gene transcripts in the H-P axis. C57BL/6 mice are fed a lean control diet or a HF diet in the absence or presence of OA, EPA, or DHA ethyl esters. Comparative studies are conducted with menhaden fish oil. The HF diet lowered pituitary Gh mRNA and protein levels, and cell culture studies reveal that elevated insulin and glucose can reduce Gh transcripts. Supplementation of the HF diet with OA, EPA, DHA, or menhaden fish oil do not improve pituitary Gh levels. The HF diet also impaired the levels of additional genes in the pituitary and hypothalamus, which are selectively rescued with EPA or DHA ethyl esters. The effects of EPA and DHA are more robust relative to fish oil. A HF diet can affect H-P axis transcription, which can be mitigated in some genes by EPA and DHA, but not fish oil in most cases. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Effects of N-acetylcysteine and glutathione ethyl ester drops on streptozotocin-induced diabetic cataract in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Chai, Fei-Yan; Yan, Hong; Guo, Yong; Harding, J J

    2008-05-12

    To evaluate the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and glutathione ethyl ester (GSH-EE) eye drops on the progression of diabetic cataract formation induced by streptozotocin (STZ). One hundred and thirty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were selected, and diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg bodyweight) in a single intraperitoneal injection. The control group (group I) received only vehicle. Then, 78 rats with random blood glucose above 14 mmol/l were divided into four groups (group II-V). The drug-treated rats received NAC and GSH-EE eye drops five days before STZ injection. Group I and V animals received sodium phosphate buffer drops (pH 7.4), and those in groups II, III, and IV received 0.01% NAC, 0.05% NAC, and 0.1% GSH-EE drops, respectively. Lens transparency was monitored with a slit lamp biomicroscope and classified into six stages. At the end of four weeks, eight weeks, and 13 weeks, animals were killed and components involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic cataract including thiols (from glutathione and protein), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), and glycated proteins were investigated in the lens extracts. Blood glucose, urine glucose, and bodyweight were also determined. The progression in lens opacity induced by diabetes showed a biphasic pattern in which an initial slow increase in the first seven weeks after STZ injection was followed by a rapid increase in the next six weeks. The progression of lens opacity in the treated groups (group II-IV) was slower than that of the untreated group (group V) in the earlier period and especially in the fourth week. There were statistically significant differences between the treated groups and the untreated group (p<0.05). However, these differences became insignificant after the sixth week, and the progression of lens opacification in all diabetic groups became aggravated. The content of thiol (from glutathione and protein), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT) were lower in the lens

  16. Crystal structure of azilsartan methyl ester ethyl acetate hemisolvate.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengyi; Liu, Rong; Zhu, Meilan; Chen, Liang; Sun, Xiaoqiang

    2015-02-01

    The title compound, C26H22N4O5 (systematic name: methyl 2-eth-oxy-1-{4-[2-(5-oxo-4,5-di-hydro-1,2,4-oxa-diazol-3-yl)phenyl]benz-yl}-1H-1,3-benzo-diazole-7-carboxyl-ate ethyl acetate hemisolvate), was obtained via cyclization of methyl (Z)-2-eth-oxy-1-{(2'-(N'-hy-droxy-carbamimido-yl)-[1,1'-biphen-yl]-4-yl)meth-yl}-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-7-carboxyl-ate with diphen-yl carbonate. There are two independent mol-ecules (A and B) with different conformations and an ethyl acetate solvent mol-ecule in the asymmetric unit. In mol-ecule A, the dihedral angle between the benzene ring and its attached oxa-diazole ring is 59.36 (17); the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 43.89 (15) and that between the benzene ring and its attached imidazole ring system is 80.06 (11)°. The corres-ponding dihedral angles in mol-ecule B are 58.45 (18), 50.73 (16) and 85.37 (10)°, respectively. The C-O-C-Cm (m = meth-yl) torsion angles for the eth-oxy side chains attached to the imidazole rings in mol-ecules A and B are 93.9 (3) and -174.6 (3)°, respectively. In the crystal, the components are linked by N-H⋯N and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. Aromatic π-π stacking inter-actions [shortest centroid-centroid separation = 3.536 (3)Å] are also observed.

  17. Safety of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) administered as DHA ethyl ester in a 9-month toxicity study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Dahms, Irina; Beilstein, Paul; Bonnette, Kimberly; Salem, Norman

    2016-06-01

    DHA Ethyl Ester (DHA-EE) is a 90% concentrated ethyl ester of docosahexaenoic acid manufactured from the microalgal oil. The objective of the 9-month study was to evaluate safety of DHA-EE administered to beagle dogs at dose levels 150, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw/day by oral gavage and to determine reversibility of any findings after a 2-month recovery period. DHA-EE was well tolerated at all doses. There were observations of dry flaky skin with occasional reddened areas at doses ≥1000 mg/kg bw/day. These findings lacked any microscopic correlate and were no longer present after the recovery period. There were no toxicologically relevant findings in body weights, body weight gains, food consumption, ophthalmological examinations, and ECG measurements. Test article-related changes in hematology parameters were limited to decreases in reticulocyte count in the high-dose males and considered non-adverse. In clinical chemistry parameters, dose-related decreases in cholesterol and triglycerides levels were observed at all doses in males and females and attributed to the known lipid-lowering effects of DHA. There were no effects on other clinical chemistry, urinalysis or coagulation parameters. There were no abnormal histopathology findings attributed to test article. The No-Observable-Adverse-Effect Level of DHA-EE was established at 2000 mg/kg bw/day for both genders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Apple volatiles synergize the response of codling moth to pear ester

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This work was undertaken to identify host volatiles from apples and investigate whether these can be used to enhance the efficacy of pear ester, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, for monitoring female and male codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. Volatiles from immature apple trees were collected in the f...

  19. A library synthesis of 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-6-phenylbenzofuran-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester derivatives as anti-tumor agents.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Ichiro; Shioya, Rieko; Agatsuma, Toshinori; Furukawa, Hidehiko; Naruto, Shunji; Sugano, Yuichi

    2004-09-06

    As a result of a hit-to-lead program using a technique of solution-phase parallel synthesis, a highly potent (2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-[6-(3-fluorophenyl)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbenzofuran-2-yl]methanone (15b) was synthesized as an optimized derivative of 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-6-phenylbenzofuran-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (1), which was discovered as a screening hit from small-molecule libraries and exhibited selective cytotoxicity against a tumorigenic cell line.

  20. Comparative study on the radiolytic degradation of 4-hydroxybenzoate and 4-hydroxybenzoic ethyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swoboda, F.; Solar, S.

    1999-09-01

    The radiolytic degradation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester (4-HBAEE) and 4-hydroxybenzoate (4-HBA) and the subsequent product formation in N 2O-saturated and aerated solutions has been studied as a function of dose. The rate constants of OH • radicals with the substrates are k(OH •+4-HBAEE)=7.5×10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 and k(OH • +4-HBA)=6.7×10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1. Irradiation of 5×10 -4 mol dm -3 aqueous solutions (N 2O, pH 6.0) of 4-HBA leads to the products 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHBA) and hydroquinone (HQ). In the case of 4-HBAEE neither hydroxylation nor decarboxylation products are observable. The predominating reaction pathway with 4-HBAEE is water elimination from the primarily formed dihydroxycyclohexadienyl radicals. By pulse radiolysis a protonation equilibrium of these transients with pK=8.0 could be determined. The protonated OH •-adducts (λ max=385 nm, ɛ=300 m 2 mol -1) decay with k=7×10 4 s -1, the radical anions (λ max=425 nm, ɛ=240 m 2 mol -1) with k=4×10 5 s -1, yielding phenoxyl radicals λ max 405 nm, ɛ=160 m 2 mol -1 and 425 nm, ɛ=175 m 2 mol -1, 2 k=3.6×10 8 dm 3 mol -1 s -1, which do not form phenolic compounds. With 4-HBA OH •-adducts water splitting at pH 6 is very slow, k=4×10 3 s -1, therefore second order decay reactions can compete. At pH 10, where base catalysed water elimination takes place, no hydroxylation products are observable either. In aerated solutions dihydroxy-compounds are formed with both substrates, due to the fast addition of oxygen to the OH •-adducts. In the case of 4-HBA 68% of the OH • radicals result in 3,4-dihydroxyderivatives; for 4-HBAEE these are only 25%. The decarboxylation product hydroquinone is generated only from 4-HBA, its yield corresponds to 18% of the OH • radicals. Comparison of the initial degradation yields demonstrates 4-HBAEE to be 1.6 times more stable towards radiation, for a 50% decomposition of the ester a 2.3 times higher dose as for 4-HBA is required

  1. Kinetics of the hydrolysis of N-benzoyl-l-serine methyl ester catalysed by bromelain and by papain. Analysis of modifier mechanisms by lattice nomography, computational methods of parameter evaluation for substrate-activated catalyses and consequences of postulated non-productive binding in bromelain- and papain-catalysed hydrolyses

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, Christopher W.; Cornish-Bowden, Athel; Brocklehurst, Keith; Crook, Eric M.

    1974-01-01

    1. N-Benzoyl-l-serine methyl ester was synthesized and evaluated as a substrate for bromelain (EC 3.4.22.4) and for papain (EC 3.4.22.2). 2. For the bromelain-catalysed hydrolysis at pH7.0, plots of [S0]/vi (initial substrate concn./initial velocity) versus [S0] are markedly curved, concave downwards. 3. Analysis by lattice nomography of a modifier kinetic mechanism in which the modifier is substrate reveals that concave-down [S0]/vi versus [S0] plots can arise when the ratio of the rate constants that characterize the breakdown of the binary (ES) and ternary (SES) complexes is either less than or greater than 1. In the latter case, there are severe restrictions on the values that may be taken by the ratio of the dissociation constants of the productive and non-productive binary complexes. 4. Concave-down [S0]/vi versus [S0] plots cannot arise from compulsory substrate activation. 5. Computational methods, based on function minimization, for determination of the apparent parameters that characterize a non-compulsory substrate-activated catalysis are described. 6. In an attempt to interpret the catalysis by bromelain of the hydrolysis of N-benzoyl-l-serine methyl ester in terms of substrate activation, the general substrate-activation model was simplified to one in which only one binary ES complex (that which gives rise directly to products) can form. 7. In terms of this model, the bromelain-catalysed hydrolysis of N-benzoyl-l-serine methyl ester at pH7.0, I=0.1 and 25°C is characterized by Km1 (the dissociation constant of ES)=1.22±0.73mm, k (the rate constant for the breakdown of ES to E+products, P)=1.57×10−2±0.32×10−2s−1, Ka2 (the dissociation constant that characterizes the breakdown of SES to ES and S)=0.38±0.06m, and k′ (the rate constant for the breakdown of SES to E+P+S)=0.45±0.04s−1. 8. These parameters are compared with those in the literature that characterize the bromelain-catalysed hydrolysis of α-N-benzoyl-l-arginine ethyl ester and

  2. Poly(styrene-co-N-methacryloyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester)-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as sorbents for the analysis of sodium benzoate in beverages.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shilei; Li, Nan; Qi, Li; Wang, Minglin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, poly(styrene-co-N-methacryloyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester)-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were constructed and used as magnetic solid-phase extraction sorbents for analysis of food preservatives in beverages. To prepare the poly(amino acid)-based sorbents, N-methacryloyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester, and styrene served as the functional monomers and modified onto the magnetic nanoparticles via free radical polymerization. Interestingly, compared with propylparaben and potassium sorbate, the proposed poly(amino acid)-based sorbents showed a good selectivity to sodium benzoate. The adsorption capacity of the sorbents to sodium benzoate was 6.08 ± 0.31 mg/g. Moreover, the fast adsorption equilibrium could be reached within 5 min. Further, the resultant poly(amino acid)-based sorbents were applied in the analysis of sodium benzoate in real beverage samples. The results proved that the proposed magnetic solid-phase extraction sorbents have a great potential for the analysis of preservatives in food samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Analysis of methyloxime derivatives of intact esters of testosterone and boldenone in equine plasma using ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gray, Bobby P; Teale, Phil; Pearce, Clive M

    2011-04-01

    Analysis of equine plasma samples to detect the abuse of anabolic steroids can be complicated when the parent steroid is endogenous to the animal. Anabolic steroids are usually administered intramuscularly as synthetic esters and therefore detection of the exogenous esters provides unequivocal proof of illegal administration. An ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MSMS) method for the analysis of esters of testosterone (propionate, phenylpropionate, isocaproate, and decanoate) and boldenone (undecylenate) in equine plasma has been developed. Esters were extracted from equine plasma using a mixture of hexane and ethyl acetate and treated with methoxyamine hydrochloride to form methyloxime derivatives. Metenolone enanthate was used as an internal standard. After chromatographic separation, the derivatized steroid esters were quantified using selected reaction monitoring (SRM). The limit of detection for all of the steroid esters, based on a signal to noise ratio (S/N) of 3:1, was 1-3 pg/mL. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for the all of the steroid esters was 5 pg/mL when 2 mL of plasma was extracted. Recovery of the steroid esters was 85-97% for all esters except for testosterone decanoate which was recovered at 62%. The intra-day coefficient of variation (CV) for the analysis of plasma quality control (QC) samples was less than 9.2% at 40 pg/mL and less than 6.0% at 400 pg/mL. The developed assay was used to successfully confirm the presence of intact testosterone esters in equine plasma samples following intramuscular injection of Durateston® (mixed testosterone esters). Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. 40 CFR 721.1085 - Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benzenamine,4,4â²-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. 721.1085 Section 721.1085 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1085 Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. (a) Chemical...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1085 - Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzenamine,4,4â²-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. 721.1085 Section 721.1085 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1085 Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. (a) Chemical...

  6. Evaluation of Zygosaccharomyces bailii BCV 08 as a co-starter in wine fermentation for the improvement of ethyl esters production.

    PubMed

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Schneider, Rosana de Cassia de Souza; Camargo Mendes, Sandra Denise; Welke, Juliane Elisa; Zini, Cláudia Alcaraz; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Valente, Patrícia

    2015-04-01

    Zygosaccharomyces bailii BCV 08, a yeast isolated from red wine barrels in Brazil, was evaluated as co-starter in fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Z. bailii BCV 08 was preliminarily shown to produce high levels of esters, and the production was optimized in bench and bioreactor scales using grape must. White wine vinifications were conducted with mixed cultures containing different proportions of Z. bailii BCV 08 and an enological strain of S. cerevisiae. In all trials that contained Z. bailii BCV 08, the production of ethyl esters was enhanced in comparison to the vinification control. Our results clearly show the potential of Z. bailii BCV 08 as a mixed starter with S. cerevisiae in order to increase the aromatic complexity of wine. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. Overproduction of Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters by the Oleaginous Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica through Metabolic Engineering and Process Optimization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qi; Cao, Xuan; Huang, Yu-Ying; Yang, Jing-Lin; Chen, Jun; Wei, Liu-Jing; Hua, Qiang

    2018-05-18

    Recent advances in the production of biofuels by microbes have attracted attention due to increasingly limited fossil fuels. Biodiesels, especially fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), are considered a potentially fully sustainable fuel in the near future due to similarities with petrodiesels and compatibility with existing infrastructure. However, biosynthesis of FAEEs is limited by the supply of precursor lipids and acetyl-CoA. In the present study, we explored the production potential of an engineered biosynthetic pathway coupled to the addition of ethanol in the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. This type of yeast is able to supply a greater amount of precursor lipids than species typically used. To construct the FAEEs synthesis pathway, WS genes that encode wax ester synthases (WSs) from different species were codon-optimized and heterologously expressed in Y. lipolytica. The most productive engineered strain was found to express a WS gene from Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus strain DSM 8798. To stepwisely increase FAEEs production, we optimized the promoter of WS overexpression, eliminated β-oxidation by deleting the PEX10 gene in our engineered strains, and redirected metabolic flux toward acetyl-CoA. The new engineered strain, coupled with an optimized ethanol concentration, led to an approximate 5.5-fold increase in extracellular FAEEs levels compared to the wild-type strain and a maximum FAEEs titer of 1.18 g/L in shake flask cultures. In summary, the present study demonstrated that an engineered Y. lipolytica strain possessed a high capacity for FAEEs production and may serve as a platform for more efficient biodiesel production in the future.

  8. 40 CFR 721.8100 - Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis (hy-droxy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis (hy-droxy-ethyl) tal-lo-wa-mine oxide phos-phate. 721.8100...-droxy-ethyl) tal-lo-wa-mine oxide phos-phate. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject to...

  9. 40 CFR 721.8100 - Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis (hy-droxy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis (hy-droxy-ethyl) tal-lo-wa-mine oxide phos-phate. 721.8100...-droxy-ethyl) tal-lo-wa-mine oxide phos-phate. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject to...

  10. 40 CFR 721.8100 - Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis (hy-droxy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis (hy-droxy-ethyl) tal-lo-wa-mine oxide phos-phate. 721.8100...-droxy-ethyl) tal-lo-wa-mine oxide phos-phate. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject to...

  11. 40 CFR 721.8100 - Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis (hy-droxy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis (hy-droxy-ethyl) tal-lo-wa-mine oxide phos-phate. 721.8100...-droxy-ethyl) tal-lo-wa-mine oxide phos-phate. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject to...

  12. 40 CFR 721.8100 - Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis (hy-droxy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis (hy-droxy-ethyl) tal-lo-wa-mine oxide phos-phate. 721.8100...-droxy-ethyl) tal-lo-wa-mine oxide phos-phate. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject to...

  13. Carbodithioic acid esters of fluoxetine, a novel class of dual-function spermicides.

    PubMed

    Kiran Kumar, S T V S; Kumar, Lalit; Sharma, Vishnu L; Jain, Ashish; Jain, Rajeev K; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Kumar, Manish; Shukla, Praveen K; Gupta, Gopal

    2008-10-01

    Carbodithioic acid esters of fluoxetine have been prepared by replacing the methylamino function in aminopropane chain with carbodithioic acid ester group and by adding various S-2-hydroxypropyl ester of dialkyl carbodithioic acid at 3-methylamino group. Some of these compounds showed spermicidal, antifungal and anti-Trichomonas activities. The study revealed that incorporation of carbodithioic acid residue directly into fluoxetine structure leads to compounds with better antifungal and anti-Trichomonas activities, and N-methyl-[3-phenyl-3-(4-trifluoromethyl-phenoxy)-propyl]carbodithioic acid S-(2-pyrrolidino-ethyl) ester (14) has shown better profile than both fluoxetine and nonoxynol-9. Further lead optimization may yield a potent dual-function spermicide.

  14. Synthesis of Novel Chiral Sulfonamide-Bearing 1,2,4-Triazole-3-thione Analogs Derived from D- and L-Phenylalanine Esters as Potential Anti-Influenza Agents.

    PubMed

    Başaran, Eyüp; Karaküçük-Iyidoğan, Ayşegül; Schols, Dominique; Oruç-Emre, Emine Elçin

    2016-06-01

    Novel enantiopure 1,2,4-trizole-3-thiones containing a benzensulfonamide moiety were synthesized via multistep reaction sequence starting with D-phenylalanine methyl ester and L-phenylalanine ethyl ester as a source of chirality. The chemical structures of all compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, UV, IR, (1) H NMR, (13) C NMR, 2D NMR (HETCOR), and mass spectral data. All compounds were tested in vitro antiviral activity against a broad variety of DNA and RNA viruses and in vitro cytostatic activity against murine leukemia (L1210), human T-lymphocyte (CEM) and human cervix carcinoma (HeLa) cell lines. Although enantiopure 1,2,4-triazole-3-thione analogs in (R) configuration emerged as promising anti-influenza A H1N1 subtype in Madin Darby canine kidney cell cultures (MDCK), their enantiomers exhibited no activity. Especially compounds , , , , and (EC50 : 6.5, 6.1, 2.4, 1.6, 1.7 μM, respectively) had excellent activity against influenza A H1N1 subtype compared to the reference drug ribavirin (EC50 : 8.0 μM). Several compounds have been found to inhibit proliferation of L1210, CEM and HeLa cell cultures with IC50 in the 12-53 μM range. Compound and in (R) configuration were the most active compounds (IC50 : 12-22 μM for and IC50 : 19-23 μM for ). Chirality 28:495-513, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A new pure ω-3 eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (AMR101) for the management of hypertriglyceridemia: the MARINE trial.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Terry A

    2012-06-01

    ω-3 fatty acids reduce triglyceride (TG) levels, but corresponding increases in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels may compromise achievement of lipid goals in patients with elevated cardiovascular risk. AMR101 is an investigational agent containing ≥96% of pure icosapent ethyl (the ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid). The Phase III Multi-Center, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Double-Blind, 12-Week Study with an Open-Label Extension (MARINE) investigated the efficacy and safety of AMR101 in 229 patients with very high TG levels (≥500 mg/dl). AMR101 4 g/day significantly reduced median placebo-adjusted TG levels from baseline by 33.1% (p < 0.0001), and AMR101 2 g/day reduced TG levels by 19.7% (p = 0.0051). Changes in LDL-C were minimal and nonsignificant. AMR101 may offer substantial TG lowering without increases in LDL-C levels.

  16. Oxygenated N-Acyl Alanine Methyl Esters (NAMEs) from the Marine Bacterium Roseovarius tolerans EL-164.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Hilke; Herrmann, Jennifer; Müller, Rolf; Wang, Hui; Wagner Döbler, Irene; Schulz, Stefan

    2018-01-26

    The marine bacterium Roseovarius tolerans EL-164 (Rhodobacteraceae) can produce unique N-acylalanine methyl esters (NAMEs) besides strucutrally related N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs), bacterial signaling compounds widespread in the Rhodobacteraceae. The structures of two unprecedented NAMEs carrying a rare terminally oxidized acyl chain are reported here. The compounds (Z)-N-16-hydroxyhexadec-9-enoyl-l-alanine methyl ester (Z9-16-OH-C16:1-NAME, 3) and (Z)-N-15-carboxypentadec-9-enoyl-l-alanine methyl ester (16COOH-C16:1-NAME, 4) were isolated, and the structures were determined by NMR and MS experiments. Both compounds were synthesized to prove assignments and to test their biological activity. Finally, non-natural, structurally related Z9-3-OH-C16:1-NAME (18) was synthesized to investigate the mass spectroscopy of structurally related NAMEs. Compound 3 showed moderate antibacterial activity against microorganisms such as Bacillus, Streptococcus, Micrococcus, or Mucor strains. In contrast to AHLs, quorum-sensing or quorum-quenching activity was not observed.

  17. Preparation and characterization of the graft copolymer of chitosan with poly[rosin-(2-acryloyloxy)ethyl ester].

    PubMed

    Duan, Wengui; Chen, Chunhong; Jiang, Linbin; Li, Guang Hua

    2008-09-05

    Graft copolymerization of rosin-(2-acryloyloxy)ethyl ester (RAEE) onto chitosan (Cts) was carried out under microwave irradiation using potassium persulfate as an initiator. The structures, morphology, and thermal properties of the Cts graft copolymer (Cts-g-PRAEE) were characterized by means of FT-IR, XRD, SEM, and TG. Also, Cts and Cts-g-PRAEE copolymer were used as carriers of fenoprofen calcium (FC), and their controlled release behavior in artificial intestinal juice were studied. The results show that the rate of release of fenoprofen calcium from the carrier of Cts-g-PRAEE copolymer becomes very slower than that of Cts in artificial intestinal juice. Copyright © 2008. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Alkylation of deoxyribonucleic acid by carcinogens dimethyl sulphate, ethyl methanesulphonate, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Relative reactivity of the phosphodiester site thymidylyl(3'-5')thymidine.

    PubMed Central

    Swenson, D H; Lawley, P D

    1978-01-01

    1. The ethyl phosphotriester of thymidylyl(3'-5')thymidine, dTp(Et)dT, was identified as a product from reaction of DNA with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, by procedures parallel to those reported previously for the methyl homologue produced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. 2. Enzymic degradation to yield alkyl phosphotriesters from DNA alkylated by these carcinogens and by dimethyl sulphate and ethyl methanesulphonate was studied quantitatively, and the relative yields of the triesters dTp(Alk)dT were determined. The relative reactivity of the phosphodiester group dTpdT to each of the four carcinogens was thus obtained, and compared with that of DNA overall, or with that of the N-7 atom of guanine in DNA. Relative reactivity of the phosphodiester group was lowest towards dimethyl sulphate, the least electrophilic of the reagents used, and was highest towards N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, the most electrophilic reagent. 3. The nature of the alkyl group transferred also influenced reactivity of the phosphodiester site, since this site was relatively more reactive towards ethylation than would be predicted simply from the known Swain-Scott s values of the alkylating agents. It was therefore suggested that the steric accessibility of the weakly nucleophilic phosphodiester group on the outside of the DNA macromolecule favours its reaction with ethylating, as opposed to methylating, reagents. 4. Taking a value of the Swain-Scott nucleophilicity (n) of 2.5 for an average DNA nucleotide unit [Walles & Ehrenberg (1969) Acta Chem. Scand. 23, 1080-1084], a value of n of about 1 for the phosphodiester group was deduced, and this value was found to be 2-3 units less than that for the N-7 atom of guanine in DNA. 5. The reactivity of DNA overall was markedly high towards the alkylnitrosoureas, despite their relatively low s values. This was ascribed to an electrostatic factor that favoured reaction of the negatively charged polymer with alkyldiazonium cation intermediates. PMID:208508

  19. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate...) The acrylate ester copolymer is a fully polymerized copolymer of ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate...

  20. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of fatty acid short- and branched-chain alkyl esters biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Teo, Wei Suong; Ling, Hua; Yu, Ai-Qun; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel is a mixture of fatty acid short-chain alkyl esters of different fatty acid carbon chain lengths. However, while fatty acid methyl or ethyl esters are useful biodiesel produced commercially, fatty acid esters with branched-chain alcohol moieties have superior fuel properties. Crucially, this includes improved cold flow characteristics, as one of the major problems associated with biodiesel use is poor low-temperature flow properties. Hence, microbial production as a renewable, nontoxic and scalable method to produce fatty acid esters with branched-chain alcohol moieties from biomass is critical. We engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce fatty acid short- and branched-chain alkyl esters, including ethyl, isobutyl, isoamyl and active amyl esters using endogenously synthesized fatty acids and alcohols. Two wax ester synthase genes (ws2 and Maqu_0168 from Marinobacter sp.) were cloned and expressed. Both enzymes were found to catalyze the formation of fatty acid esters, with different alcohol preferences. To boost the ability of S. cerevisiae to produce the aforementioned esters, negative regulators of the INO1 gene in phospholipid metabolism, Rpd3 and Opi1, were deleted to increase flux towards fatty acyl-CoAs. In addition, five isobutanol pathway enzymes (Ilv2, Ilv5, Ilv3, Aro10, and Adh7) targeted into the mitochondria were overexpressed to enhance production of alcohol precursors. By combining these engineering strategies with high-cell-density fermentation, over 230 mg/L fatty acid short- and branched-chain alkyl esters were produced, which is the highest titer reported in yeast to date. In this work, we engineered the metabolism of S. cerevisiae to produce biodiesels in the form of fatty acid short- and branched-chain alkyl esters, including ethyl, isobutyl, isoamyl and active amyl esters. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the production of fatty acid isobutyl and active amyl esters in S. cerevisiae. Our findings will be useful for

  1. Mode of oxygen and carbon dioxide action on strawberry ester biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, D.; Zhou, L.; Kader, A.A.

    1994-09-01

    Chandler strawberries (Fragaria ananassa Duck.) were kept in air, 0.25% O[sub 2], 21% O[sub 2] + 50% CO[sub 2], or 0.25 O[sub 2] + 50% CO[sub 2] (balance N[sub 2]) at 5 C for 1 to 7 days to study the effects of controlled atmospheres (CAs) on volatiles and fermentation enzymes. Concentrations of acetaldehyde, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and ethyl butyrate were greatly increased, while concentrations of isopropyl acetate, propyl acetate, and butyl acetate were reduced by the three CA treatments compared to those of air-control fruit. The CA treatments enhanced activities of pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) butmore » slightly decreased activity of alcohol acetyltransferase (AAT). The results indicate that the enhanced PDC and ADH activities by CA treatments cause ethanol accumulation, which in turn drives the biosynthesis of ethyl esters. The increased ethanol concentration also competes with other alcohols for carboxyl groups for esterification reactions. The reduced AAT activity and limited availability of carboxyl groups due to ethanol competition decrease production of other acetate esters.« less

  2. Evaluating dispensers loaded with codlemone and pear ester for disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyvinyl chloride polymer (pvc) dispensers loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) plus the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were compared with similar dispensers and a commercial dispenser (Isomate®-C Plus) loaded with codle...

  3. 21 CFR 182.60 - Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... aldehyde). N-Butyric acid (butanoic acid). d- or l-Carvone (carvol). Cinnamaldehyde (cinnamic aldehyde... aldehyde, caprinaldehyde, aldehyde C-10). Ethyl acetate. Ethyl butyrate. 3-Methyl-3-phenyl glycidic acid ethyl ester (ethyl-methyl-phenyl-glycidate, so-called strawberry aldehyde, C-16 aldehyde). Ethyl...

  4. Review of Vaccinia Virus and Baculovirus Viability Versus Virucides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    21 disinfectant. Sugimoto and Toyoshima (1979) reported on the inactivation of VACV by Na-Cocoyi-L-Arginine Ethyl Ester, DL- Pyroglutamic Acid Salt...12, pp 473-475. Sugimoto, Y.; Toyoshima, S. N"-Cocoyi-L-Arginine Ethyl Ester, DL- Pyroglutamic Acid Salt, as an Inactivator of Hepatitis B Surface...20 5.1.3 Ascorbic Acid ....................................................................... 20 5.1.4 Dithiothreitol Reducing Agent

  5. Optimisation of Croton gratissimus Oil Extraction by n-Hexane and Ethyl Acetate Using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Jiyane, Phiwe Charles; Tumba, Kaniki; Musonge, Paul

    2018-04-01

    The extraction of oil from Croton gratissimus seeds was studied using the three-factor five-level full-factorial central composite rotatable design (CCRD) of the response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of the three factors selected, viz., extraction time, extraction temperature and solvent-to-feed ratio on the extraction oil yield was investigated when n-hexane and ethyl acetate were used as extraction solvents. The coefficients of determination (R 2 ) of the models developed were 0.98 for n-hexane extraction and 0.97 for ethyl acetate extraction. These results demonstrated that the models developed adequately represented the processes they described. From the optimized model, maximum extraction yield obtained from n-hexane and ethyl acetate extraction were 23.88% and 23.25%, respectively. In both cases the extraction temperature and solvent-to-feed ratio were 35°C and 5 mL/g, respectively. In n-hexane extraction the maximum conditions were reached only after 6 min whereas in ethyl acetate extraction it took 20 min to get the maximum extraction oil yield. Oil extraction of Croton gratissimus seeds, in this work, favoured the use of n-hexane as an extraction solvent as it offered higher oil yields at low temperatures and reduced residence times.

  6. Organic reactions catalyzed by methylrhenium trioxide: Reactions of ethyl diazoacetate and organic azides

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Z.; Espenson, J.H.

    1996-10-16

    Methylrhenium trioxide (CH{sub 3}ReO{sub 3} or MTO) catalyzes several classes of reactions of ethyl diazoacetate, EDA. It is the first high valent oxo complex for carbene transfer. Under mild conditions and in the absence of other substrates, EDA was converted to a 9:1 mixture of diethyl maleate and diethyl fumarate. In the presence of alcohols, {alpha}-alkoxy ethyl acetates were obtained in good yield. The yields dropped for the larger and more branched alcohols, the balance of material being diethyl maleate and fumarate. An electron-donating group in the para position of phenols favors the formation of {alpha}-phenoxy ethyl acetates. The usemore » of EDA to form {alpha}-thio ethyl acetates and N-substituted glycine ethyl esters, on the other hand, is hardly affected by the size or structure of the parent thiol or amine, with all of these reactions proceeding in high yield. MTO-catalyzed cycloaddition reactions occur between EDA and aromatic imines, olefins, and carbonyl compounds. Three-membered ring products are formed: aziridines, cyclopropanes, and epoxides, respectively. The reactions favor the formation of trans products, and provide a convenient route for the preparation of aziridines. Intermediate carbenoid and nitrenoid species have been proposed. In the presence of an oxygen source such as an epoxide, ethyl diazoacetate and azibenzil are converted to an oxalic acid monoethyl ester and to benzil; at the same time the epoxide was converted to an olefin. 75 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.« less

  7. Vasodilatory effects and underlying mechanisms of the ethyl acetate extracts from Gastrodia elata.

    PubMed

    Dai, Rong; Wang, Ting; Si, Xiaoqin; Jia, Yuanyuan; Wang, Lili; Yuan, Yan; Lin, Qing; Yang, Cui

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the ethyl acetate extracts of Gastrodia elata Blume (GEB) on vascular tone and the mechanisms involved. GEB was extracted with 95% EtOH followed by a further extraction with ethyl acetate. The effects of GEB and its ingredients on the isometric tensions of the aortic rings from rats were measured. The ethyl acetate extract of GEB induced a vasodilatory effect on rat aorta, which was partially dependent on endothelium. Four chemical compounds isolated from GEB were identified as 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (DB), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (HB), 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol (MA), and 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl methane (DM), respectively. All of these compounds induced vasodilatations, which were dependent on the endothelium to different degrees. After pretreatment with N ω -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, indomethacin, or methylene blue, the vasodilatations induced by DB, HB, and MA were significantly decreased. In addition, the contractions of the rat aortic rings due to Ca 2+ influx and intracellular Ca 2+ release were also inhibited by DM. Furthermore, the administration of DB significantly enhanced the productions of nitric oxide (NO) and the activities of the endothelial NO synthase in aorta and in endothelial cells. Thus, GEB may play an important role in the amelioration of hypertension by modulating vascular tones.

  8. n-Ethyl Pentylone-Related Deaths in Alabama.

    PubMed

    Atherton, Daniel; Dye, Daniel; Robinson, C Andrew; Beck, Rachel

    2018-05-16

    n-Ethyl pentylone (NEP) is a chemical substance derived from cathinone. Synthetic cathinones are an evolving group of drugs with stimulating, mind-altering effects sometimes referred to as novel or new psychoactive substances (NPS). There is scarce information in the medical literature regarding forensic cases in which NEP is detected in toxicological testing. We present four fatalities involving NEP from Alabama in 2017. Deaths were attributed to NEP toxicity in two cases (peripheral blood concentrations of 0.121 and 0.953 mg/L) and injuries caused by gunshot wounds in two cases (peripheral blood concentrations of 0.045 and 0.031 mg/L). One case involving NEP described an individual who exhibited classic CNS-stimulant induced erratic behavior before being found dead. These cases enhance the forensic literature regarding specific NPS like NEP and provide contextual reference for professionals considering the significance of NEP in toxicological interpretation. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Oxidizing action of purine N-oxide esters.

    PubMed

    Stöhrer, G; Salemnick, G

    1975-01-01

    A technique involving O-acetylation of purine N-oxide derivatives in buffered aqueous solutions has permitted studies of the reactivity of many compounds for which the O-acetyl derivatives are not otherwise available. The oxidizing properties of a variety of N-acetoxypurines have been measured through their ability to oxidize iodide ion ot iodine, a reaction which is representative of a more general oxidizing ability. Those esters that oxidize iodide ion also catalyze the autoxidation of sulfite, a property characteristic of radicals. The same esters also oxidize cysteine to cysteic acid and tryptophan, tyrosine, and uric acid to yet uncharacterized products. Their oxidizing reactivity was compared with the ability of the same esters to react as electrophiles in another assay that measured the rate of formation of pyridine substitution products. The sulfate ester of 3-hydroxyxanthine has been synthesized. Its reactivity is qualitatively the same as that of 3-acetoxyxanthine but proceeds at a higher rate. Syntheses of S-(8-xanthyl)-N-acetylcysteine, 8-(2-hydroxyethylthio)xanthine, and 1-methyl-8-mehtylmercaptoguanine are also described.

  10. Stereocontrolled reduction of alpha- and beta-keto esters with micro green algae, Chlorella strains.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, K; Yamaguchi, H; Adachi, N; Hamada, H; Nakajima, N

    2000-10-01

    The stereocontrolled reduction of alpha- and beta-keto esters using micro green algae was accomplished by a combination of the cultivation method and the introduction of an additive. The reduction of ethyl pyruvate and ethyl benzoylformate by the photoautotrophically cultivated Chlorella sorokiniana gave the corresponding alcohol in high e.e. (>99% e.e. (S) and >99% e.e. (R), respectively). In the presence of glucose as an additive, the reduction of ethyl 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate by the heterotrophically cultivated C. sorokiniana afforded the corresponding (R)-alcohol. On the other hand, the reduction in the presence of ethyl propionate gave the (S)-alcohol. Ethyl 2-methyl-3-oxobutanoate was reduced in the presence of glycerol by the photoautotrophically cultivated C. sorokiniana or the heterotrophically cultivated C. sorokiniana to the corresponding syn-(2R,3S)-hydroxy ester with high diastereo- and enantiomeric excess (e.e.). Some additives altered the stereochemical course in the reduction of alpha- and beta-keto esters.

  11. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in orchards treated with pear ester and sex pheromone combo dispensers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lures for monitoring codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were tested in apple and walnut blocks treated with Cidetrak CM-DA Combo dispensers loaded with pear ester, ethyl (E, Z)-2,4-decadienoate (PE), and sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Total and female moth catches with combin...

  12. Triphenyltin derivatives of sulfanylcarboxylic esters.

    PubMed

    Casas, José S; Couce, María D; Sánchez, Agustín; Seoane, Rafael; Sordo, José; Perez-Estévez, Antonio; Vázquez-López, Ezequiel

    2018-03-01

    The reaction of 3-(aryl)-2-sulfanylpropenoic acids [H 2 xspa; x: p=3-phenyl-, f=3-(2-furyl)-, t=3-(2-thienyl)-] with methanol or ethanol gave the corresponding methyl (Hxspme) or ethyl (Hxspee) esters. The reaction of these esters (HL) with triphenyltin(IV) hydroxide gave compounds of the type [SnPh 3 L], which were isolated and characterized as solids by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry and in solution by multinuclear ( 1 H, 13 C and 119 Sn) NMR spectroscopy. The structures of [SnPh 3 (pspme)], [SnPh 3 (fspme)] and [SnPh 3 (fspee)] were determined by X-ray diffractometry and the antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, Resistant P. aeruginosa (a strain resistant to 'carbapenem'), and C. albicans was tested and the in vitro cytotoxic activity against the HeLa-229, A2780 and A2780cis cell lines was determined for all compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Adding microencapsulated pear ester to insecticides for control of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae) in apple

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated whether the efficacy of various insecticides for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), could be improved with the addition of a microencapsulated formulation of pear ester, ethyl (2E, 4Z)-2,4-decadienoate (PE-MEC, 5% AI), in field trials from 2005 to 2009. The addition of PE-MEC (< 3.0 g ...

  14. Synthesis and characterization of a thermo-sensitive poly( N-methyl acryloylglycine methyl ester) used as a drug release carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Kui-Lin; Zhong, Hai-Bin; Jiao, Yi-Suo; Fan, Ting; Qiao, Xiao; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Ren, Xiao-Bo

    2010-06-01

    In this article, poly( N-methyl acryloylglycine methyl ester) (PNMAME) was prepared as a novel thermosensitive material with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) at around 49.5°C. The chemical structures of the monomer NMAME and PNMAME were characterized by 1H NMR and IR measurements. The LCST was investigated systematically as a function of PNMAME concentration, inorganic salt solution and pH value. The results indicated that LCST of PNMAME was obviously dependent on PNMAME concentration and pH. The LCST was increased with a decrease in pH value and PNMAME concentration. To obtain a thermo-sensitive hydrogel with the phase transition temperature close to human body temperature, the copolymerization was conducted between NMAME and N-acryloylglycine ethyl ester (NAGEE). The release behavior of caffeine was evaluated at different temperatures and contents of cross-linkers ( N, N-methylenebis(acrylamide) (NMBA)). The increase of cross-linker content led to a decrease in the release rate of caffeine due to higher crossing density in the hydrogel network. In addition, a faster release of caffeine from the hydrogel with 3% NMBA at 37°C was found in contrast to that at 18°C.

  15. Highly sensitive sites for guanine-O6 ethylation in rat brain DNA exposed to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Nehls, P; Rajewsky, M F; Spiess, E; Werner, D

    1984-01-01

    Brain chromosomal DNA isolated from fetal BDIX-rats 1 h after i.v. administration of the ethylating N-nitroso carcinogen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (75 micrograms/g body weight), statistically contained one molecule of O6-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (O6-EtdGuo) per 81 micron of DNA, as determined in enzymatic DNA hydrolysates by competitive radio-immunoassay using a high-affinity anti-(O6-EtdGuo) monoclonal antibody (ER-6). After fragmentation of the DNA by the restriction enzyme AluI (average fragment length, Lav = 0.28 micron = 970 bp; length range, Lr = 1.87-0.02 micron = 6540 - 60 bp), a small (approximately 2%) fraction of DNA enriched in specific polypeptides tightly associated with DNA was separated from the bulk DNA by a glass fiber binding technique. As analyzed by immune electron microscopy, approximately 1% of the DNA molecules in this fraction contained clusters of 2-10 (O6-EtdGuo)-antibody binding sites (ABS). On the cluster-bearing fragments (Lav, 0.85 micron +/- 0.50 micron S.D.; corresponding to 2970 +/- 1760 bp) the average ABS-ABS interspace distance was 110 nm (= 390 bp; range approximately 9-600 nm), indicating a highly non-random distribution of O6-EtdGuo in target cell DNA. Images Fig. 2. PMID:6370677

  16. Triterpene Esters and Biological Activities from Edible Fruits of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard, Sapotaceae

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Caio P.; Corrêa, Arthur L.; Lobo, Jonathas F. R.; Caramel, Otávio P.; de Almeida, Fernanda B.; Castro, Elaine S.; Souza, Kauê F. C. S.; Burth, Patrícia; Amorim, Lidia M. F.; Santos, Marcelo G.; Ferreira, José Luiz P.; Falcão, Deborah Q.; Carvalho, José C. T.; Rocha, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard (Sapotaceae) is popularly known in Brazil as “guracica.” Studies with Manilkara spp indicated the presence of triterpenes, saponins, and flavonoids. Several activities have been attributed to Manilkara spp such as antimicrobial, antiparasitic and antitumoral, which indicates the great biological potential of this genus. In all, 87.19% of the hexanic extract from fruits relative composition were evaluated, in which 72.81% were beta- and alpha-amyrin esters, suggesting that they may be chemical markers for M. subsericea. Hexadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, (E)-9-octadecenoic acid ethyl ester, and octadecanoic acid ethyl ester were also identified. Ethanolic crude extracts from leaves, stems, and hexanic extract from fruits exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923. These extracts had high IC50 values against Vero cells, demonstrating weak cytotoxicity. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that beta- and alpha-amyrin caproates and caprylates are described for Manilkara subsericea. PMID:23509702

  17. 40 CFR 721.4090 - Ethanaminium, N-[bis(diethylamino)-methylene]-N-ethyl-, bromide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethanaminium, N-[bis(diethylamino)-methylene]-N-ethyl-, bromide. 721.4090 Section 721.4090 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4090 Ethanaminium, N-[bis(diethylamino)-methylene]-N...

  18. 40 CFR 721.4090 - Ethanaminium, N-[bis(diethylamino)-methylene]-N-ethyl-, bromide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethanaminium, N-[bis(diethylamino)-methylene]-N-ethyl-, bromide. 721.4090 Section 721.4090 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4090 Ethanaminium, N-[bis(diethylamino)-methylene]-N...

  19. Synthesis and biological evaluation of N-(carbobenzyloxy)-l-phenylalanine and N-(carbobenzyloxy)-l-aspartic acid-β-benzyl ester derivatives as potent topoisomerase IIα inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaoyan; Zhong, Yifan; Zhou, Guan; Qi, Hui; Li, Shengbin; Ding, Qiang; Liu, Zhenming; Song, Yali; Qiao, Xiaoqiang

    2017-06-15

    A new series of thirteen N-(carbobenzyloxy)-l-phenylalanine and N-(carbobenzyloxy)-l-aspartic acid-β-benzyl ester compounds were synthesized and evaluated for antiproliferative activity against four different human cancer cell lines: cervical cancer (HeLa), lung cancer (A549), gastric cancer (MGC-803) and breast cancer (MCF-7) as well as topoisomerase I and IIα inhibitory activity. Compounds (5a, 5b, 5e, 8a, 8b) showed significant antiproliferative activity with low IC 50 values against the four cancer cell lines. Equally, compounds 5a, 5b, 5e, 5f, 8a, 8d, 8e and 8f showed topoisomerase IIα inhibitory activity at 100μM with 5b, 5e, 8f exhibiting potential topoisomerase IIα inhibitory activity compared to positive control at 100μM and 20μM, respectively. Conversely compounds 5e, 5f, 5g and 8a showed weaker topoisomerase I inhibitory activity compared to positive control at 100μM. Compound 5b exhibited the most potent topoisomerase IIα inhibitory activity at low concentration and better antiproliferative activity against the four human cancer cell lines. The molecular interactions between compounds 5a-5g, 8a-8f and the topoisomerase IIα (PDB ID: 1ZXM) were further investigated through molecular docking. The results indicated that these compounds could serve as promising leads for further optimization as novel antitumor agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fermentative behavior of Saccharomyces strains during microvinification of raspberry juice (Rubus idaeus L.).

    PubMed

    Duarte, Whasley F; Dragone, Giuliano; Dias, Disney R; Oliveira, José M; Teixeira, José A; Silva, João B Almeida E; Schwan, Rosane F

    2010-10-15

    Sixteen different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus were evaluated in the production of raspberry fruit wine. Raspberry juice sugar concentrations were adjusted to 16° Brix with a sucrose solution, and batch fermentations were performed at 22 °C. Various kinetic parameters, such as the conversion factors of the substrates into ethanol (Y(p/s)), biomass (Y(x/s)), glycerol (Y(g/s)) and acetic acid (Y(ac/s)), the volumetric productivity of ethanol (Q(p)), the biomass productivity (P(x)), and the fermentation efficiency (E(f)) were calculated. Volatile compounds (alcohols, ethyl esters, acetates of higher alcohols and volatile fatty acids) were determined by gas chromatography (GC-FID). The highest values for the E(f), Y(p/s), Y(g/s), and Y(x/s) parameters were obtained when strains commonly used in the fuel ethanol industry (S. cerevisiae PE-2, BG, SA, CAT-1, and VR-1) were used to ferment raspberry juice. S. cerevisiae strain UFLA FW 15, isolated from fruit, displayed similar results. Twenty-one volatile compounds were identified in raspberry wines. The highest concentrations of total volatile compounds were found in wines produced with S. cerevisiae strains UFLA FW 15 (87,435 μg/L), CAT-1 (80,317.01 μg/L), VR-1 (67,573.99 μg/L) and S. bayanus CBS 1505 (71,660.32 μg/L). The highest concentrations of ethyl esters were 454.33 μg/L, 440.33 μg/L and 438 μg/L for S. cerevisiae strains UFLA FW 15, VR-1 and BG, respectively. Similar to concentrations of ethyl esters, the highest concentrations of acetates (1927.67 μg/L) and higher alcohols (83,996.33 μg/L) were produced in raspberry wine from S. cerevisiae UFLA FW 15. The maximum concentration of volatile fatty acids was found in raspberry wine produced by S. cerevisiae strain VR-1. We conclude that S. cerevisiae strain UFLA FW 15 fermented raspberry juice and produced a fruit wine with low concentrations of acids and high concentrations of acetates, higher alcohols and ethyl esters

  1. Production of Mahua Oil Ethyl Ester (MOEE) and its Performance test on four stroke single cylinder VCR engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soudagar, Manzoor Elahi M.; Kittur, Prasanna; Parmar, Fulchand; Batakatti, Sachin; Kulkarni, Prasad; Kallannavar, Vinayak

    2017-08-01

    Biodiesel is a substitute for gasoline that is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats. It has gained popularity due to depleting fossil fuel resources, its renewable character and comparable combustion properties to diesel fuel. Biodiesel is formed from non-edible oils, edible oils, tallow, animal fats and waste cooked oils. Biodiesels are monoalkyl esters of elongated chain fatty acids. Biodiesel can be a viable choice for satisfying long term energy requirements if they are managed proficiently. The method of the transesterification shows how the reaction occurs and advances. In this study, biodiesel is produced from Madhuca indica seeds commonly known as Mahua by using transesterification process using a low capacity pressure reactor and by-product of transesterification is glycerol, which is used in preparation of soaps. Mahua Oil Ethyl Ester (MOEE) was produced from the Mahua oil and is mixed with diesel to get different ratios of blends. MOEE was tested in a 4-stroke single cylinder VCR diesel engine. The study was extended to understand the effect of biodiesel blend magnitude on the performance of engine parameters like, brake thermal efficiency, brake power and fuel properties like flash point, cloud point, kinematic viscosity, calorific value, cetane number and density were studied.

  2. Physiological basis for isoxadifen-ethyl induction of nicosulfuron detoxification in maize hybrids.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lanlan; Wu, Renhai; Su, Wangcang; Gao, Zenggui; Lu, Chuantao

    2017-01-01

    Isoxadifen-ethyl can effectively alleviate nicosulfuron injury in the maize. However, the effects of safener isoxadifen-ethyl on detoxifying enzymes in maize is unknown. The individual and combined effects of the sulfonylurea herbicide nicosulfuron and the safener isoxadifen-ethyl on the growth and selected physiological processes of maize were evaluated. Bioassays showed that the EC50 values of nicosulfuron and nicosulfuron plus isoxadifen-ethyl for maize cultivar Zhengdan958 were 18.87 and 249.28 mg kg-1, respectively, and were 24.8 and 275.51 mg kg-1, respectively, for Zhenghuangnuo No. 2 cultivar. Evaluations of the target enzyme of acetolactate synthase showed that the I50 values of nicosulfuron and nicosulfuron plus isoxadifen-ethyl for the ALS of Zhengdan958 were 15.46 and 28.56 μmol L-1, respectively, and were 0.57 and 2.17 μmol L-1, respectively, for the acetolactate synthase of Zhenghuangnuo No. 2. The safener isoxadifen-ethyl significantly enhanced tolerance of maize to nicosulfuron. The enhanced tolerance of maize to nicosulfuron in the presence of the safener, coupled with the enhanced injury observed in the presence of piperonyl butoxide, 1-aminobenzotriazole, and malathion, suggested cytochrome P450 monooxygenases may be involved in metabolism of nicosulfuron. We proposed that isoxadifen-ethyl increases plant metabolism of nicosulfuron through non-P450-catalyzed routes or through P450 monooxygenases not inhibited by piperonyl butoxide, 1-aminobenzotriazole, and malathion. Isoxadifen-ethyl, at a rate of 33 mg kg-1, completely reversed the effects of all doses (37.5-300 mg kg-1) of nicosulfuron on both of the maize cultivars. When the two compounds were given simultaneously, isoxadifen-ethyl enhanced activity of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and acetolactate synthase activity in maize. The free acid 4,5-dihydro-5,5-diphenyl-1,2-oxazole-3-carboxylic was equally effective at inducing GSTs as the parent ester and appeared to be the active safener

  3. Physiological basis for isoxadifen-ethyl induction of nicosulfuron detoxification in maize hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lanlan; Wu, Renhai; Su, Wangcang; Gao, Zenggui; Lu, Chuantao

    2017-01-01

    Isoxadifen-ethyl can effectively alleviate nicosulfuron injury in the maize. However, the effects of safener isoxadifen-ethyl on detoxifying enzymes in maize is unknown. The individual and combined effects of the sulfonylurea herbicide nicosulfuron and the safener isoxadifen-ethyl on the growth and selected physiological processes of maize were evaluated. Bioassays showed that the EC50 values of nicosulfuron and nicosulfuron plus isoxadifen-ethyl for maize cultivar Zhengdan958 were 18.87 and 249.28 mg kg-1, respectively, and were 24.8 and 275.51 mg kg-1, respectively, for Zhenghuangnuo No. 2 cultivar. Evaluations of the target enzyme of acetolactate synthase showed that the I50 values of nicosulfuron and nicosulfuron plus isoxadifen-ethyl for the ALS of Zhengdan958 were 15.46 and 28.56 μmol L-1, respectively, and were 0.57 and 2.17 μmol L-1, respectively, for the acetolactate synthase of Zhenghuangnuo No. 2. The safener isoxadifen-ethyl significantly enhanced tolerance of maize to nicosulfuron. The enhanced tolerance of maize to nicosulfuron in the presence of the safener, coupled with the enhanced injury observed in the presence of piperonyl butoxide, 1-aminobenzotriazole, and malathion, suggested cytochrome P450 monooxygenases may be involved in metabolism of nicosulfuron. We proposed that isoxadifen-ethyl increases plant metabolism of nicosulfuron through non-P450-catalyzed routes or through P450 monooxygenases not inhibited by piperonyl butoxide, 1-aminobenzotriazole, and malathion. Isoxadifen-ethyl, at a rate of 33 mg kg-1, completely reversed the effects of all doses (37.5–300 mg kg-1) of nicosulfuron on both of the maize cultivars. When the two compounds were given simultaneously, isoxadifen-ethyl enhanced activity of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and acetolactate synthase activity in maize. The free acid 4,5-dihydro-5,5-diphenyl-1,2-oxazole-3-carboxylic was equally effective at inducing GSTs as the parent ester and appeared to be the active safener

  4. Optimized Carbonate and Ester-Based Li-Ion Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall; Bugga, Ratnakumar

    2008-01-01

    To maintain high conductivity in low temperatures, electrolyte co-solvents have been designed to have a high dielectric constant, low viscosity, adequate coordination behavior, and appropriate liquid ranges and salt solubilities. Electrolytes that contain ester-based co-solvents in large proportion (greater than 50 percent) and ethylene carbonate (EC) in small proportion (less than 20 percent) improve low-temperature performance in MCMB carbon-LiNiCoO2 lithium-ion cells. These co-solvents have been demonstrated to enhance performance, especially at temperatures down to 70 C. Low-viscosity, ester-based co-solvents were incorporated into multi-component electrolytes of the following composition: 1.0 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC) + ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) + X (1:1:8 volume percent) [where X = methyl butyrate (MB), ethyl butyrate EB, methyl propionate (MP), or ethyl valerate (EV)]. These electrolyte formulations result in improved low-temperature performance of lithium-ion cells, with dramatic results at temperatures below 40 C.

  5. Elevated plasma creatinine due to creatine ethyl ester use.

    PubMed

    Velema, M S; de Ronde, W

    2011-02-01

    Creatine is a nutritional supplement widely used in sport, physical fitness training and bodybuilding. It is claimed to enhance performance. We describe a case in which serum creatinine is elevated due to the use of creatine ethyl esther. One week after withdrawal, the plasma creatinine had normalised. There are two types of creatine products available: creatine ethyl esther (CEE) and creatine monohydrate (CM). Plasma creatinine is not elevated in all creatine-using subjects. CEE , but not CM, is converted into creatinine in the gastrointestinal tract. As a result the use of CEE may be associated with elevated plasma creatinine levels. Since plasma creatinine is a widely used marker for renal function, the use of CEE may lead to a false assumption of renal failure.

  6. Palm ethyl ester purification by using Choline Chloride - 1,2 propanediol as deep eutectic solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manurung, R.; Alhamdi, M. A.; Syahputra, A.

    2018-02-01

    Deep eutectic solvent (DES) has gained more attention for using in biodiesel production because of environmental benefits and process improvements. This study was aimed to test the potency and effectiveness of Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES) based choline chloride: 1.2-propanediol as co-solvent in biodiesel purification. The method used in preparing DES synthesis process was conducted by mixing choline chloride: 1.2-propanediol with mole ratio variation such as: 1:2 ; 1:2.5 ; 1:3 ; and 1:3.5 (mole/mole). The temperature of DES synthesis was at 80 °C with 300 rpm stirring speed for 60 minutes. Variation of DES concentration base on percentage palm oil used: 1, 3, and 5 %. DES possible to increase the ethyl ester yield of biodiesel in the purification process. The best result of yield was 89.95% with the 9:1 molar ratio ethanol: oil and 5% of DES. The operation condition was at 70 °C of temperature reaction, 400 rpm of stirring speed, and 90 minutes of reaction time.

  7. Photoelectron spectroscopy of a series of acetate and propionate esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Śmiałek, Małgorzata A.; Guthmuller, Julien; MacDonald, Michael A.; Zuin, Lucia; Delwiche, Jacques; Hubin-Franskin, Marie-Jeanne; Lesniewski, Tadeusz; Mason, Nigel J.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo

    2017-10-01

    The electronic state and photoionization spectroscopy of a series of acetate esters: methyl acetate, isopropyl acetate, butyl acetate and pentyl acetate as well as two propionates: methyl propionate and ethyl propionate, have been determined using vacuum-ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. These experimental investigations are complemented by ab initio calculations. The measured first adiabatic and vertical ionization energies were determined as: 10.21 and 10.45 eV for methyl acetate, 9.99 and 10.22 eV for isopropyl acetate, 10.07 and 10.26 eV for butyl acetate, 10.01 and 10.22 eV for pentyl acetate, 10.16 and 10.36 eV for methyl propionate and 9.99 and 10.18 eV for ethyl propionate. For the four smaller esters vibrational transitions were calculated and compared with those identified in the photoelectron spectrum, revealing the most distinctive ones to be a Csbnd O stretch combined with a Cdbnd O stretch. The ionization energies of methyl and ethyl esters as well as for a series of formates and acetates were compared showing a clear dependence of the value of the ionization energy on the size of the molecule with very little influence of its conformation.

  8. Chloridobis(ethyl­enediamine-κ2 N,N′)(n-pentyl­amine-κN)cobalt(III) dichloride monhydrate

    PubMed Central

    Anbalagan, K.; Tamilselvan, M.; Nirmala, S.; Sudha, L.

    2009-01-01

    The title complex, [CoCl(C5H13N)(C2H8N2)2]Cl2·H2O, comprises one chloridobis(ethyl­enediamine)(n-pentyl­amine)cobalt(III) cation, two chloride counter-anions and a water mol­ecule. The CoIII atom of the complex is hexa­coordinated by five N and one Cl atoms. The five N atoms are from two chelating ethyl­enediamine and one n-pentyl­amine ligands. Neighbouring cations and anions are connected by N—H⋯Cl and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to each other and also to the water mol­ecule. PMID:21582753

  9. Enrichment of Bacteria From Eastern Mediterranean Sea Involved in Lignin Degradation via the Phenylacetyl-CoA Pathway.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hannah L; Hazen, Terry C

    2018-01-01

    The degradation of allochthonous terrestrial organic matter, such as recalcitrant lignin and hemicellulose from plants, occurs in the ocean. We hypothesize that bacteria instead of white-rot fungi, the model organisms of aerobic lignin degradation within terrestrial environments, are responsible for lignin degradation in the ocean due to the ocean's oligotrophy and hypersalinity. Warm oxic seawater from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea was enriched on lignin in laboratory microcosms. Lignin mineralization rates by the lignin-adapted consortia improved after two sequential incubations. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing detected a higher abundance of aromatic compound degradation genes in response to lignin, particularly phenylacetyl-CoA, which may be an effective strategy for marine microbes in fluctuating oxygen concentrations. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing detected a higher abundance of Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria bacteria such as taxonomic families Idiomarinaceae , Alcanivoraceae , and Alteromonadaceae in response to lignin. Meanwhile, fungal Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes remained at very low abundance. Our findings demonstrate the significant potential of bacteria and microbes utilizing the phenylacetyl-CoA pathway to contribute to lignin degradation in the Eastern Mediterranean where environmental conditions are unfavorable for fungi. Exploring the diversity of bacterial lignin degraders may provide important enzymes for lignin conversion in industry. Enzymes may be key in breaking down high molecular weight lignin and enabling industry to use it as a low-cost and sustainable feedstock for biofuels or other higher-value products.

  10. Carotenoids and Carotenoid Esters of Red and Yellow Physalis (Physalis alkekengi L. and P. pubescens L.) Fruits and Calyces.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xin; Hempel, Judith; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Ni, Yuanying; Carle, Reinhold

    2017-08-02

    Carotenoid profiles of fruits and calyces of red (Physalis alkekengi L.) and yellow (P. pubescens L.) Physalis were characterized by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS n . Altogether 69 carotenoids were detected in red Physalis, thereof, 45 were identified. In yellow Physalis, 40 carotenoids were detected and 33 were identified. Zeaxanthin esters with various fatty acids were found to be the most abundant carotenoids in red Physalis, accounting for 51-63% of total carotenoids, followed by β-cryptoxanthin esters (16-24%). In yellow Physalis, mainly free carotenoids such as lutein and β-carotene were found. Total carotenoid contents ranged between 19.8 and 21.6 mg/100 g fresh red Physalis fruits and 1.28-1.38 mg/100 g fresh yellow Physalis fruits, demonstrating that Physalis fruits are rich sources of dietary carotenoids. Yellow Physalis calyces contained only 153-306 μg carotenoids/g dry weight, while those of red Physalis contained substantially higher amounts (14.6-17.6 mg/g dry weight), thus possibly exhibiting great potential as a natural source for commercial zeaxanthin extraction.

  11. Tuning Chocolate Flavor through Development of Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Starter Cultures with Increased Acetate Ester Production

    PubMed Central

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Struyf, Nore; Paulus, Tinneke; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Allegaert, Leen; Vrancken, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Microbial starter cultures have extensively been used to enhance the consistency and efficiency of industrial fermentations. Despite the advantages of such controlled fermentations, the fermentation involved in the production of chocolate is still a spontaneous process that relies on the natural microbiota at cocoa farms. However, recent studies indicate that certain thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures can be used as starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentation. In this study, we investigate the potential of specifically developed starter cultures to modulate chocolate aroma. Specifically, we developed several new S. cerevisiae hybrids that combine thermotolerance and efficient cocoa pulp fermentation with a high production of volatile flavor-active esters. In addition, we investigated the potential of two strains of two non-Saccharomyces species that produce very large amounts of fruity esters (Pichia kluyveri and Cyberlindnera fabianii) to modulate chocolate aroma. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the cocoa liquor revealed an increased concentration of various flavor-active esters and a decrease in spoilage-related off-flavors in batches inoculated with S. cerevisiae starter cultures and, to a lesser extent, in batches inoculated with P. kluyveri and Cyb. fabianii. Additionally, GC-MS analysis of chocolate samples revealed that while most short-chain esters evaporated during conching, longer and more-fat-soluble ethyl and acetate esters, such as ethyl octanoate, phenylethyl acetate, ethyl phenylacetate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl dodecanoate, remained almost unaffected. Sensory analysis by an expert panel confirmed significant differences in the aromas of chocolates produced with different starter cultures. Together, these results show that the selection of different yeast cultures opens novel avenues for modulating chocolate flavor. PMID:26590272

  12. Tuning Chocolate Flavor through Development of Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Starter Cultures with Increased Acetate Ester Production.

    PubMed

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Struyf, Nore; Paulus, Tinneke; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Allegaert, Leen; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2016-01-15

    Microbial starter cultures have extensively been used to enhance the consistency and efficiency of industrial fermentations. Despite the advantages of such controlled fermentations, the fermentation involved in the production of chocolate is still a spontaneous process that relies on the natural microbiota at cocoa farms. However, recent studies indicate that certain thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures can be used as starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentation. In this study, we investigate the potential of specifically developed starter cultures to modulate chocolate aroma. Specifically, we developed several new S. cerevisiae hybrids that combine thermotolerance and efficient cocoa pulp fermentation with a high production of volatile flavor-active esters. In addition, we investigated the potential of two strains of two non-Saccharomyces species that produce very large amounts of fruity esters (Pichia kluyveri and Cyberlindnera fabianii) to modulate chocolate aroma. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the cocoa liquor revealed an increased concentration of various flavor-active esters and a decrease in spoilage-related off-flavors in batches inoculated with S. cerevisiae starter cultures and, to a lesser extent, in batches inoculated with P. kluyveri and Cyb. fabianii. Additionally, GC-MS analysis of chocolate samples revealed that while most short-chain esters evaporated during conching, longer and more-fat-soluble ethyl and acetate esters, such as ethyl octanoate, phenylethyl acetate, ethyl phenylacetate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl dodecanoate, remained almost unaffected. Sensory analysis by an expert panel confirmed significant differences in the aromas of chocolates produced with different starter cultures. Together, these results show that the selection of different yeast cultures opens novel avenues for modulating chocolate flavor. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Metabolism of captopril carboxyl ester derivatives for percutaneous absorption.

    PubMed

    Gullick, Darren R; Ingram, Matthew J; Pugh, W John; Cox, Paul A; Gard, Paul; Smart, John D; Moss, Gary P

    2009-02-01

    To determine the metabolism of captopril n-carboxyl derivatives and how this may impact on their use as transdermal prodrugs. The pharmacological activity of the ester derivatives was also characterised in order to compare the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory potency of the derivatives compared with the parent drug, captopril. The metabolism rates of the ester derivatives were determined in vitro (using porcine liver esterase and porcine ear skin) and in silico (using molecular modelling to investigate the potential to predict metabolism). Relatively slow pseudo first-order metabolism of the prodrugs was observed, with the ethyl ester displaying the highest rate of metabolism. A strong relationship was established between in-vitro methods, while in-silico methods support the use of in-vitro methods and highlight the potential of in-silico techniques to predict metabolism. All the prodrugs behaved as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, with the methyl ester displaying optimum inhibition. In-vitro porcine liver esterase metabolism rates inform in-vitro skin rates well, and in-silico interaction energies relate well to both. Thus, in-silico methods may be developed that include interaction energies to predict metabolism rates.

  14. In vitro protection of biological macromolecules against oxidative stress and in vivo toxicity evaluation of Acacia nilotica (L.) and ethyl gallate in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, enormous research has been focused on natural bioactive compounds possessing potential antioxidant and anticancer properties using cell lines and animal models. Acacia nilotica (L.) is widely distributed in Asia, Africa, Australia and Kenya. The plant is traditionally used to treat mouth, ear and bone cancer. However, reports on Acacia nilotica (L.) Wild. Ex. Delile subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan regarding its toxicity profile is limited. Hence in this study, we investigated the antioxidant capacity and acute toxicity of ethyl gallate, a phenolic antioxidant present in the A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract. Methods The antioxidant activity of ethyl gallate against Fenton’s system (Fe3+/H2O2/ascorbic acid) generated oxidative damage to pBR322 DNA and BSA was investigated. We also studied the interaction of ethyl gallate to CT-DNA by wave scan and FTIR analysis. The amount of ethyl gallate present in the A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract was calculated using HPLC and represented in gram equivalence of ethyl gallate. The acute toxicity profile of ethyl gallate in the A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract was analyzed in albino Wistar rats. Measurement of liver and kidney function markers, total proteins and glucose were determined in the serum. Statistical analysis was done using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) tool version 16.0. Results Ethyl gallate was found to be effective at 100 μg/mL concentration by inhibiting the free radical mediated damage to BSA and pBR322 DNA. We also found that the interaction of ethyl gallate and A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract to CT-DNA occurs through intercalation. One gram of A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract was found to be equivalent to 20 mg of ethyl gallate through HPLC analysis. Based on the acute toxicity results, A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract and ethyl gallate as well was found to be non-toxic and safe. Conclusions Results revealed no mortality or abnormal biochemical changes in vivo and the protective effect

  15. Optimization of esterification of dicarboxylic acids and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafri, Nur Hafifah Nahdirah; Othman, Nor Hamidah Abu; Salimon, Jumat

    2018-04-01

    Dicarboxylate ester has the potential alternative as plasticizer which environmentally friendly in polymeric formulation especially for poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC). Dicarboxylate ester compounds were synthesized via esterification between dicarboxylic acid and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol by using sulfuric acid as catalyst. The effects of reaction parameters were studied by optimizing temperature, mole ratio of reactants, amount of catalyst and reaction to obtain highest ester conversion. The optimum results showed dicarboxylic acid successfully converted to the dicarboxylate ester at parameters; 4 hours; 120 °C; catalyst amount: 2% w/w of diacid; and mole ratio: 1:2.5. Functional group analysis was conducted by using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

  16. Comparative behavioral pharmacology and toxicology of cocaine and its ethanol-derived metabolite, cocaine ethyl-ester (cocaethylene)

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.L.; Terry, P.; Witkin, J.M.

    The present study compared the behavioral and toxic effects of cocaine and its ethanol derived metabolite, cocaine ethyl-ester (cocaethylene). Both drugs produced qualitatively similar psychomoter stimulant effects. Cocaine and cocaethylene increased locomotor activity in mice, with cocaine approximately four times more potent than cocaethylene. The durations of action of ED{sub 75} doses of each of the drugs were comparable. Each of the drugs also produced stimulation of operant responding in rats. In rats and squirrel monkeys trained to discriminate cocaine injections from saline, cocaine was approximately three to five times more potent than cocaethylene in producing these cocaine-like interoceptive effects.more » In contrast to the behavioral effects, cocaine and cocaethylene were equipotent in producing convulsions, and cocaethylene was more potent than cocaine in producing lethality. These results suggest that the conversion of cocaine to cocaethylene with simultaneous cocaine and alcohol use may produce an increased risk of toxicity due to a decrease in the potency of cocaethylene in producing psychomotor stimulant effects, and its increased potency in producing toxicity.« less

  17. Evaluation of cysteine ethyl ester as efficient inducer for glutathione overproduction in Saccharomyces spp.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Eric; Schmacht, Maximilian; Senz, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Economical yeast based glutathione (GSH) production is a process that is influenced by several factors like raw material and production costs, biomass production and efficient biotransformation of adequate precursors into the final product GSH. Nowadays the usage of cysteine for the microbial conversion into GSH is industrial state of practice. In the following study, the potential of different inducers to increase the GSH content was evaluated by means of design of experiments methodology. Investigations were executed in three natural Saccharomyces strains, S. cerevisiae, S. bayanus and S. boulardii, in a well suited 50ml shake tube system. Results of shake tube experiments were confirmed in traditional baffled shake flasks and finally via batch cultivation in lab-scale bioreactors under controlled conditions. Comprehensive studies showed that the usage of cysteine ethyl ester (CEE) for the batch-wise biotransformation into GSH led up to a more than 2.2 times higher yield compared to cysteine as inducer. Additionally, the intracellular GSH content could be significantly increased for all strains in terms of 2.29±0.29% for cysteine to 3.65±0.23% for CEE, respectively, in bioreactors. Thus, the usage of CEE provides a highly attractive inducing strategy for the GSH overproduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of arctigenin ester and ether derivatives as activators of AMPK.

    PubMed

    Shen, Sida; Zhuang, Jingjing; Chen, Yijia; Lei, Min; Chen, Jing; Shen, Xu; Hu, Lihong

    2013-07-01

    A series of new arctigenin and 9-deoxy-arctigenin derivatives bearing different ester and ether side chains at the phenolic hydroxyl positions are designed, synthesized, and evaluated for activating AMPK potency in L6 myoblasts. Initial biological evaluation indicates that some alkyl ester and phenethyl ether arctigenin derivatives display potential activities in AMPK phosphorylation improvement. Further structure-activity relationship analysis shows that arctigenin ester derivatives 3a, 3h and 9-deoxy-arctigenin phenethyl ether derivatives 6a, 6c, 6d activate AMPK more potently than arctigenin. Moreover, the 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl ether moiety of 6c has been demonstrated as a potential functional group to improve the effect of AMPK phosphorylation. The structural optimization of arctigenin leads to the identification of 6c as a promising lead compound that exhibits excellent activity in AMPK activation. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Increase of fruity aroma during mixed T. delbrueckii/S. cerevisiae wine fermentation is linked to specific esters enhancement.

    PubMed

    Renault, Philippe; Coulon, Joana; de Revel, Gilles; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Bely, Marina

    2015-08-17

    The aim of this work was to study ester formation and the aromatic impact of Torulaspora delbrueckii when used in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the alcoholic fermentation of must. In order to evaluate the influence of the inoculation procedure, sequential and simultaneous mixed cultures were carried out and compared to pure cultures of T. delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae. Our results showed that mixed inoculations allowed the increase, in comparison to S. cerevisiae pure culture, of some esters specifically produced by T. delbrueckii and significantly correlated to the maximal T. delbrueckii population reached in mixed cultures. Thus, ethyl propanoate, ethyl isobutanoate and ethyl dihydrocinnamate were considered as activity markers of T. delbrueckii. On the other hand, isobutyl acetate and isoamyl acetate concentrations were systematically increased during mixed inoculations although not correlated with the development of either species but were rather due to positive interactions between these species. Favoring T. delbrueckii development when performing sequential inoculation enhanced the concentration of esters linked to T. delbrueckii activity. On the contrary, simultaneous inoculation restricted the growth of T. delbrueckii, limiting the production of its activity markers, but involved a very important production of numerous esters due to more important positive interactions between species. These results suggest that the ester concentrations enhancement via interactions during mixed modalities was due to S. cerevisiae production in response to the presence of T. delbrueckii. Finally, sensory analyses showed that mixed inoculations between T. delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae allowed to enhance the complexity and fruity notes of wine in comparison to S. cerevisiae pure culture. Furthermore, the higher levels of ethyl propanoate, ethyl isobutanoate, ethyl dihydrocinnamate and isobutyl acetate in mixed wines were found responsible for the increase of

  20. Determination of 13C isotopic enrichment of valine and threonine by GC-C-IRMS after formation of the N(O,S)-ethoxycarbonyl ethyl ester derivatives of the amino acids.

    PubMed

    Godin, Jean-Philippe; Faure, Magali; Breuille, Denis; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Fay, Laurent-Bernard

    2007-06-01

    We describe a new method of assessing, in a single run, (13)C isotopic enrichment of both Val and Thr by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). This method characterised by a rapid one-step derivatisation procedure performed at room temperature to form the N(O,S)-ethoxycarbonyl ethyl ester derivatives, and a polar column for GC. The suitability of this method for Val and Thr in in-vivo samples (mucosal hydrolysate) was demonstrated by studying protein metabolism with two tracers ((13)C-valine or (13)C-threonine). The intra-day and inter-day repeatability were both assessed either with standards or with in-vivo samples at natural abundance and at low (13)C isotopic enrichment. For inter-day repeatability CVs were between 0.8 and 1.5% at natural abundance and lower than 5.5% at 0.112 and 0.190 atom% enrichment for Val and Thr, respectively. Overall isotopic precision was studied for eleven standard amino acid derivatives (those of Val, Ala, Leu, Iso, Gly, Pro, Asp, Thr, Ser, Met, and Phe) and was assessed at 0.32 per thousand. The (13)C isotopic measurement was then extended to the other amino acids (Ala, Val, Leu, Iso, Gly, Pro, Thr, and Phe) at natural abundance for in-vivo samples. The isotopic precision was better than 0.002 atom% per amino acid (for n = 4 rats). This analytical method was finally applied to an animal study to measure Thr utilization in protein synthesis.

  1. Biocatalytic ammonolysis of (5S)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-5-ethyl ester: preparation of an intermediate to the dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor Saxagliptin.

    PubMed

    Gill, Iqbal; Patel, Ramesh

    2006-02-01

    An efficient biocatalytic method has been developed for the conversion of (5S)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-5-ethyl ester (1) into the corresponding amide (5S)-5-aminocarbonyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1-carboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)ester (2), which is a critical intermediate in the synthesis of the dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) inhibitor Saxagliptin (3). Candida antartica lipase B mediates ammonolysis of the ester with ammonium carbamate as ammonia donor to yield up to 71% of the amide. The inclusion of Ascarite and calcium chloride as adsorbents for carbon dioxide and ethanol byproducts, respectively, increases the yield to 98%, thereby offering an efficient and practical alternative to chemical routes which yield 57-64%.

  2. Magnetic N-doped mesoporous carbon as an adsorbent for the magnetic solid-phase extraction of phthalate esters from soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Li, Menghua; Jiao, Caina; Yang, Xiumin; Wang, Chun; Wu, Qiuhua; Wang, Zhi

    2017-04-01

    A new kind of magnetic N-doped mesoporous carbon was prepared by the one-step carbonization of a hybrid precursor (glucose, melamine, and iron chloride) in a N 2 atmosphere with a eutectic salt (KCl/ZnCl 2 ) as the porogen. The obtained magnetic N-doped mesoporous carbon showed excellent characteristics, such as strong magnetic response, high surface area, large pore volume, and abundant π-electron system, which endow it with a great potential as a magnetic solid-phase extraction adsorbent. To evaluate its adsorption performance, the magnetic N-doped mesoporous carbon was used for the extraction of three phthalate esters from soft drink samples followed by high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Under the optimum conditions, the developed method showed a good linearity (1.0-120.0 ng/mL), low limit of detection (0.1-0.3 ng/mL, S/N = 3), and good recoveries (83.2-119.0%) in soft drink samples. The results indicated that the magnetic N-doped mesoporous carbon has an excellent adsorption capacity for phthalate esters and the present method is simple, accurate, and highly efficient for the extraction and determination of phthalate esters in complex matrix samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Synthesis, spectral characterization, thermal behaviour, antibacterial activity and DFT calculation on N‧-[bis(methylsulfanyl) methylene]-2-hydroxybenzohydrazide and N‧-(4-methoxy benzoyl)-hydrazinecarbodithioic acid ethyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharty, M. K.; Dani, R. K.; Kushawaha, S. K.; Prakash, Om; Singh, Ranjan K.; Sharma, V. K.; Kharwar, R. N.; Singh, N. K.

    2015-06-01

    Two new compounds N‧-[bis(methylsulfanyl) methylene]-2-hydroxybenzohydrazide {Hbmshb (1)} and N‧-(4-methoxy benzoyl)-hydrazinecarbodithioic acid ethyl ester {H2mbhce (2)} have been synthesized and characterized with the aid of elemental analyses, IR, NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Compounds 1 and 2 crystallize in orthorhombic and monoclinic systems with space group Pna21 and P21/n, respectively. Inter and intra molecular hydrogen bonding link two molecules and provide linear chain structure. In addition to this, compound 2 is stabilized by CH⋯π and NH⋯π interactions. Molecular geometry from X-ray analysis, geometry optimization, charge distribution, bond analysis, frontier molecular orbital (FMO) analysis and non-linear optical (NLO) effects have been performed using the density functional theory (DFT) with the B3LYP functional. The bioefficacy of compounds has been examined against the growth of bacteria to evaluate their anti-microbial potential. Compounds 1 and 2 are thermally stable and show NLO behaviour better than the urea crystal.

  4. The impact of cold storage and ethylene on volatile ester production and aroma perception in 'Hort16A' kiwifruit.

    PubMed

    Günther, Catrin S; Marsh, Ken B; Winz, Robert A; Harker, Roger F; Wohlers, Mark W; White, Anne; Goddard, Matthew R

    2015-02-15

    Fruit esters are regarded as key volatiles for fruit aroma. In this study, the effects of cold storage on volatile ester levels of 'Hort16A' (Actinidia chinensis Planch. var chinensis) kiwifruit were examined and the changes in aroma perception investigated. Cold storage (1.5°C) for two or four months of fruit matched for firmness and soluble solids concentration resulted in a significant reduction in aroma-related esters such as methyl/ethyl propanoate, methyl/ethyl butanoate and methyl/ethyl hexanoate. Levels of these esters, however, were restored by ethylene treatment (100ppm, 24h) before ripening. A sensory panel found that "tropical" and "fruit candy" aroma was stronger and "green" odour notes less intensively perceived in kiwifruit which were ethylene-treated after cold storage compared to untreated fruit. The key findings presented in this study may lead to further work on the ethylene pathway, and innovative storage and marketing solutions for current and novel fruit cultivars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. SciTech Connect

    Uranga, Carla C., E-mail: curanga@cicese.edu.mx; Beld, Joris, E-mail: joris.beld@drexelmed.edu; Mrse, Anthony, E-mail: amrse@ucsd.edu

    The Botryosphaeriaceae are a family of trunk disease fungi that cause dieback and death of various plant hosts. This work sought to characterize fatty acid derivatives in a highly virulent member of this family, Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of an isolated compound revealed (Z, Z)-9,12-ethyl octadecadienoate, (trivial name ethyl linoleate), as one of the most abundant fatty acid esters produced by L. theobromae. A variety of naturally produced esters of fatty acids were identified in Botryosphaeriaceae. In comparison, the production of fatty acid esters in the soil-borne tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, and the non-phytopathogenic fungusmore » Trichoderma asperellum was found to be limited. Ethyl linoleate, ethyl hexadecanoate (trivial name ethyl palmitate), and ethyl octadecanoate, (trivial name ethyl stearate), significantly inhibited tobacco seed germination and altered seedling leaf growth patterns and morphology at the highest concentration (0.2 mg/mL) tested, while ethyl linoleate and ethyl stearate significantly enhanced growth at low concentrations, with both still inducing growth at 98 ng/mL. This work provides new insights into the role of naturally esterified fatty acids from L. theobromae as plant growth regulators with similar activity to the well-known plant growth regulator gibberellic acid. - Highlights: • Lasiodiplodia theobromae produces a wide variety of fatty acid esters in natural substrates. • Ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate inhibit tobacco germination at 0.2 mg/mL. • Ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate induce tobacco germination at 98 ng/mL. • Tobacco growth increase in ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate parallels gibberellic acid. • A role as plant growth regulators is proposed for fatty acid esters.« less

  6. Combined use of fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide in hair for diagnosis of alcohol abuse: interpretation and advantages.

    PubMed

    Pragst, F; Rothe, M; Moench, B; Hastedt, M; Herre, S; Simmert, D

    2010-03-20

    In this study the combined use of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for diagnoses of chronically excessive alcohol abuse is investigated at 174 hair samples from driving ability examination, workplace testing and child custody cases for family courts and evaluated with respect to the basics of interpretation. Using the cut-off values of 0.50 ng/mg for FAEE and 25 pg/mg for EtG, both markers were in agreement in 75% of the cases with 103 negative and 28 positive results and there were 30 cases with FAEE positive and EtG negative and 13 cases with FAEE negative and EtG positive. As the theoretical basis of interpretation, the pharmacokinetics of FAEE and EtG is reviewed for all steps between drinking of ethanol to incorporation in hair with particular attention to relationships between alcohol dose and concentrations in hair. It is shown that the concentrations of both markers are essentially determined by the area under the ethanol concentration in blood vs. time curve AUC(EtOH), despite large inter-individual variations. It is demonstrated by calculation of AUC(EtOH) on monthly basis for moderate, risky and heavy drinking that AUC(EtOH) increases very strongly in the range between 60 and 120 g ethanol per day. This specific feature which is caused by the zero-order elimination of ethanol is a favorable prerequisite for a high discrimination power of the hair testing for alcohol abuse. From the consideration of the different profiles of FAEE and EtG along the hair and in agreement with the literature survey, a standardized hair segment 0-3 cm is proposed with cut-off values of 0.5 ng/mg for FAEE and 30 pg/mg for EtG. This improves also the agreement between FAEE and EtG results in the cases of the present study. A scheme for combined interpretation of FAEE and EtG is proposed which uses the levels of abstinence and the double of the cut-off values as criteria in addition to the cut-off's. Considering the large variations in the relationship

  7. Pretreatment of industrial wastewater containing phthalate esters by centrifugation

    SciTech Connect

    Petrosky, C.J.; Vidic, R.D.

    1996-11-01

    In this study, a full-scale commercial centrifuge was used to treat, on a continuous basis, the entire wastewater stream generated by a chemical manufacturing facility which produces a variety of phthalate, adipate, maleate, and trimellitate esters. The wastewater from this facility is comprised of process water, equipment was water, and rain water runoff containing varying concentrations of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DNBP) esters in addition to mono-ester salts and alcohols. The wastewater is discharged to the local Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW) under pretreatment regulations which specify an effluent limitation of 5.0 mg/L on themore » total toxic organic (TTO) concentration which can be placed on the combined BEHP, DNOP, and DNBP ester concentration. Various esters and long chain alcohols present in the wastewater have very low water solubilities and are considered immiscible. They form a dispersed phase in the wastewater that has a specific gravity in the range of 0.88 to 0.93. Separation of the dispersed phase containing the regulated esters from the heavier water phase to consistently below 5.0 mg/L poses a challenge due to the stability of this colloidal suspension. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of centrifugation in meeting the 5.0 mg/L effluent limit on the total BEHP, DNOP, and DNBP ester concentration.« less

  8. Synthesis and molecular docking against dihydrofolate reductase of novel pyridin-N-ethyl-N-methylbenzenesulfonamides as efficient anticancer and antimicrobial agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debbabi, Khaled F.; Bashandy, Mahmoud S.; Al-Harbi, Sami A.; Aljuhani, Enas H.; Al-Saidi, Hamed M.

    2017-03-01

    This article describes the synthesis of some novel sulfonamides having biologically active pyridine 21-28. Starting with 4-(1-(2-(2-cyanoacetyl)hydrazono)ethyl)-N-ethyl-N-methylbenzenesulfonamide (2), which was prepared from condensation of acetophenone derivative 1 with 2-cyanoacetohydrazide. Interaction of compound 2 with different aldehydes namely 4-fluorobenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-N,N-dimethylbenzaldehyde afforded the corresponding hydrazono-ethyl-N-ethyl-N-methylbenzene sulfonamides 18-20 respectively, which when reacted with malononitrile and ethyl cyanoacetate afforded compounds 21-26 respectively. These compounds 21-26 can be prepared by another reaction route by interaction of compounds 2 with arylidine malononitrile and arylidine ethyl cyanoacetate in refluxing dioxane in the presence of trimethylamine as catalyst. Interaction of compound 2 with malononitrile and ethyl cyanoacetate afforded oxopyridine derivatives 27 and 28 respectively. All the new prepared compounds were evaluated for their antitumor activities against the cell lines MCF-7 in comparison with the reference drug Doxorubicin using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay. Compounds 25, 21, 23 with SI values of 9.72, 9.71, 8.81 respectively, exhibited better activity than doxorubicin (Dox) as a reference drug with SI value of 8.49. In addition, compounds 25, 27 and 22 exhibited anti-bacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae) with inhibition zones 22.6, 20.3 and 19.3 mm respectively, which were more active than gentamicin as a reference drug with inhibition zone 17.3 mm. Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) performed virtual screening using molecular docking studies of the synthesized compounds. The results indicated that some synthesized compounds suitable inhibitor against dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme (PDB SD: 4DFR) with further modification.

  9. Enzymatic production of L-alanyl-L-glutamine by recombinant E. coli expressing α-amino acid ester acyltransferase from Sphingobacterium siyangensis.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Yoshinori; Mihara, Yasuhiro; Kira, Ikuo; Abe, Isao; Yokozeki, Kenzo

    2013-01-01

    An enzymatic production method for synthesizing L-alanyl-L-glutamine (Ala-Gln) from L-alanine methyl ester hydrochloride (AlaOMe) and L-glutamine (Gln) was developed in this study. The cultivation conditions for an Escherichia coli strain overexpressing α-amino acid ester acyltransferase from Sphingobacterium siyangensis AJ 2458 (SAET) and reaction conditions for Ala-Gln production were optimized. A high cell density culture broth prepared by fed-batch cultivation showed 440 units/mL of Ala-Gln-producing activity. In addition, an Ala-Gln-producing reaction using intact E. coli cells overexpressing SAET under optimum conditions was conducted. A total Ala-Gln yield of 69.7 g/L was produced in 40 min. The molar yield was 67% against both AlaOMe and Gln.

  10. Total enzymatic synthesis of cholecystokinin CCK-5.

    PubMed

    Xiang, H; Xiang, G Y; Lu, Z M; Guo, L; Eckstein, H

    2004-08-01

    This paper describes the enzymatic synthesis of the C-terminal fragment H-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2 of cholecystokinin. Immobilized enzymes were used for the formation of all peptide bonds except thermolysin. Beginning the synthesis with phenylacetyl (PhAc) glycine carboxamidomethyl ester (OCam) and H-Trp-OMe by using immobilized papain as biocatalyst in buffered ethyl acetate, the dipeptide methyl ester was then coupled directly with Met-OEt.HCl by alpha-chymotrypsin/Celite 545 in a solvent free system. For the 3+2 coupling PhAc-Gly-Trp-Met-OEt had to be converted into its OCam ester. The other fragment H-Asp(OMe)-Phe-NH2 resulted from the coupling of Cbo-Asp(OMe)-OH with H-Phe-NH2.HCl and thermolysin as catalyst, followed by catalytic hydrogenation. Finally PhAc-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2 was obtained in a smooth reaction from PhAc-Gly-Trp-Met-OCam and H-Asp(OMe)-Phe-NH2 with alpha-chymotrypsin/Celite 545 in acetonitrile, followed by basic hydrolysis of the beta-methyl ester. The PhAc-group is removed with penicillin G amidase and CCK-5 is obtained in an overall isolated yield of 19.6%.

  11. Control and monitoring of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in walnut orchards treated with novel high-load, low-density “meso” dispensers of sex pheromone and pear ester

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Novel low-density per ha “meso” dispensers loaded with both pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, kairomone and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., were evaluated versus meso dispensers loaded with pheromone-alone for their mating disru...

  12. L-arginine and arginine analogues: effects on isolated blood vessels and cultured endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, H. H.; Baeblich, S. E.; Zernikow, B. C.; Klein, M. M.; Böhme, E.

    1990-01-01

    1. The present study examined effects of arginine (Arg) and various Arg analogues on the vascular tone of rabbit and rat aortic rings, the release of nitrite from cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells and the metabolism of L-Arg in bovine and porcine endothelial cell homogenates. The respective D-enantiomers or N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester did not substitute for L-Arg. 2. In bovine aortic endothelial cells, the release of nitrite was only observed in the presence of L-Arg or L-Arg methyl ester in the cell culture medium. 3. In dialyzed homogenates of porcine and bovine aortic endothelial cells, L-Arg was metabolized independently of NADPH and Ca2+ to yield L-ornithine (L-Orn) and L-citrulline (L-Cit). No concomitant nitrite formation was detected. 4. Pretreatment of rabbit and rat aortic rings with L-canavanine (L-Can) or NG-monomethyl-L-Arg (L-NMMA) inhibited ATP- and acetylcholine-induced relaxations (endothelium-dependent) but not glyceryltrinitrate-induced relaxations (endothelium-independent). 5. In rabbit aortic rings, Arg and monomeric Arg analogues induced endothelium-independent relaxations. L-Arg methyl ester induced an endothelium-independent contraction, and L-NMMA induced a relaxation in the absence of endothelium and a contraction in the presence of endothelium. Polymeric basic amino acids such as poly L-Arg induced endothelium-dependent relaxations (inhibited by L-Can), a subsequent refractoriness to endothelium-dependent vasodilators (not prevented by L-Can) and endothelial cell death.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2282457

  13. ESR study of electron reactions with esters and triglycerides

    SciTech Connect

    Sevilla, M.D.; Morehouse, K.M.; Swarts, S.

    1981-04-02

    Reactions which occurred after electron attachment at 77K to a number of small carboxylic acid esters and triglycerides in an aqueous glass are reported. Most ester anions are found to decay on warming to form alkyl radicals by ..beta.. scission: RC(O/sup -/)OR' ..-->.. RCO/sub 2//sup -/ + R'.. The alkyl radical (R'.) produced by annealing is found to abstract hydrogen from the parent ester at an ..cap alpha..-carbon site, R'.+ R''CH/sub 2/CO/sub 2/R' ..-->.. R''CHCO/sub 2/R', or in the case of ethyl formate from the formate hydrogen, CH/sub 3/CH/sub 2/.+ HCO/sub 2/C/sub 2/H/sub 5/ ..-->.. C/sub 2/H/sub 6/ +.CO/sub 2/C/submore » 2/H/sub 5/. Results found for the methyl formate anion suggest hydrogen abstraction by the anion itself may compete with alkyl radical formation. The anion of the triglyceride triacetin is found to undergo an analogous mechanism to the ester anions producing the propane diol diester radical, .CH/sub 2/CH(Ac)CH/sub 2/(Ac), Ac = acetate. This species subsequently abstracts hydrogen from the parent compound to produce the ..cap alpha..-carbon radical, .CH/sub 2/CO/sub 2/R. Results found after annealing the tripropionin radical anion give evidence for abstraction from the ..cap alpha.. carbon in the propionate side groups producing CH/sub 3/CHCO/sub 2/R. Studies of a ..gamma..-irradiated ester (ethyl myristate) and two triglycerides (tripalmitin and tristearin) yield results which suggest that the mechanism of ester anion decay found in aqueous glasses applies to ..gamma..-irradiated neat long-chain esters and triglycerides. Results found in this work are compared to the results of product analysis.« less

  14. Anti-oedematous activities of the main triterpendiol esters of marigold (Calendula officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Zitterl-Eglseer, K; Sosa, S; Jurenitsch, J; Schubert-Zsilavecz, M; Della Loggia, R; Tubaro, A; Bertoldi, M; Franz, C

    1997-07-01

    Separation and isolation of the genuine faradiol esters (1, 2) from flower heads of Marigold (Calendula (officinalis L., Asteraceae) could be achieved by means of repeated column chromatography (CC) and HPLC for the first time. Structure elucidation of faradiol-3-myristic acid ester 1, faradiol-3-palmitic acid ester 2 and psi-taraxasterol 3 has been also performed, without any previous degradation by means of MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and 2D-NMR experiments. The anti-oedematous activities of these three compounds were tested by means of inhibition of Croton oil-induced oedema of the mouse ear. Both faradiol esters showed nearly the same dose dependent anti-oedematous activity and no significant synergism appeared with their mixture. The free monol, psi-taraxasterol, had a slightly lower effect. Furthermore, faradiol was more active than its esters and than psi-taraxasterol and showed the same effect as an equimolar dose of indomethacin.

  15. Agreement between the fatty acid ethyl ester hair test for alcohol and social workers' reports.

    PubMed

    Kulaga, Vivian; Gareri, Joey; Fulga, Netta; Koren, Gideon

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between social worker reports and the fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) test as a biomarker for heavy alcohol use. In 2005, a diagnostic program to detect excessive alcohol use by FAEE hair analysis in parents at high risk of having children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders was established. All cases submitted by Child Protective Services between May and December of 2007 (n = 172) were included comparing social worker reports with FAEE test outcome by odds ratio analysis. A subanalysis of mothers (n = 119), excluding fathers, was also performed. Factors associated with testing positive for hair FAEE in parents, and mothers alone, were: knowledge of a specific instance of problem drinking within the past 6 months (odds ratio [OR] = 5.11, 2.57-10.16 and OR = 8.51, 3.59-20.18, respectively) and third party reports alleging alcohol abuse (OR = 3.31, 1.69-6.46 and OR = 3.30, 1.45-7.50, respectively). Mothers who admitted to heavy drinking were also seven times more likely to test positive for hair FAEE (OR = 6.74, 1.50-30.38) than those who did not. Factors negatively associated with testing positive for hair FAEE in parents, and mothers alone, were: social workers testing for FAEE without the suspicion of alcohol use but rather as a measure to "cover all bases" (OR = 0.09, 0.02-0.40 and (OR = 0.13, 0.03-0.58, respectively) or because of a history/suspicion of illicit drug use (OR = 0.2, 0.07-0.55 and OR = 0.26, 0.08-0.80, respectively). Eleven of 15 reports, indicating levels of consumption, were also in clinical agreement with FAEE test outcome. The FAEE hair test is being applied for the first time in the present context. Our results show the test corroborates well with social workers' suspicion of alcohol use. Reported factors directly related to alcohol use were significantly associated with testing positive for excessive alcohol use, whereas factors not directly related to alcohol use were negatively

  16. Fast transient currents in Na,K-ATPase induced by ATP concentration jumps from the P3-[1-(3',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-phenyl-2-oxo]ethyl ester of ATP.

    PubMed Central

    Sokolov, V S; Apell, H J; Corrie, J E; Trentham, D R

    1998-01-01

    Electrogenic ion transport by Na,K-ATPase was investigated by analysis of transient currents in a model system of protein-containing membrane fragments adsorbed to planar lipid bilayers. Sodium transport was triggered by ATP concentration jumps in which ATP was released from an inactive precursor by an intense near-UV light flash. The method has been used previously with the P3-1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethyl ester of ATP (NPE-caged ATP), from which the relatively slow rate of ATP release limits analysis of processes in the pump mechanism controlled by rate constants greater than 100 s(-1) at physiological pH. Here Na,K-ATPase was reinvestigated using the P3-[1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-phenyl-2-oxo]ethyl ester of ATP (DMB-caged ATP), which has an ATP release rate of >10(5) s(-1). Under otherwise identical conditions, photorelease of ATP from DMB-caged ATP showed faster kinetics of the transient current compared to that from NPE-caged ATP. With DMB-caged ATP, transient currents had rate profiles that were relatively insensitive to pH and the concentration of caged compound. Rate constants of ATP binding and of the E1 to E2 conformational change were compatible with earlier studies. Rate constants of enzyme phosphorylation and ADP-dependent dephosphorylation were 600 s(-1) and 1.5 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1), respectively, at pH 7.2 and 22 degrees C. PMID:9591656

  17. Screening of adjunct cultures and their application in ester formation in Camembert-type cheese.

    PubMed

    Hong, Q; Liu, X M; Hang, F; Zhao, J X; Zhang, H; Chen, W

    2018-04-01

    The ethanol content and esterase and alcohol acyltransferase activities are the limiting factors in the synthesis of ethyl esters in Camembert-type cheeses. This study aimed to investigate the effects of alcohol, esterase and alcohol acyltransferase activities on ethyl ester formation in Camembert-type cheeses. Five experimental cheeses were prepared with three adjunct cultures with different enzyme activities and two levels of ethanol content (400 or 800 μg/g). The cheeses were aged for 4 weeks and analysed weekly for basic physicochemical, textural, volatile and sensory properties. The results showed that both the enzyme activity and ethanol content were limiting factors in the synthesis of ethyl esters in the Camembert-type cheeses. Variation in the esterase synthesis activity was observed among lactic acid bacteria, and the starter culture Lactococcus lactis MA 14 LYO distinguished itself through its high acidifying and esterase hydrolysis abilities. The addition of CCFM 12, a lactic acid bacteria strain with high esterase and alcohol acyltransferase activity, along with 400 or 800 μg/g of ethanol, notably enhanced the generation of ethyl esters and the corresponding fruity flavour, without causing dramatic changes in the basic physicochemical indices and microbial profile. In addition, cohesiveness was influenced by the addition of 400 and 800 μg/g of ethanol, and more resilience with 800 μg/g of ethanol had been found. The results showed that the addition of CCFM12 with 400 and 800 μg/g of ethanol may be applied in the production of Camembert cheese to enhance its fruity flavour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Spectrophotometric Determination of Nitrogen Oxides in the Air with 2-N-Ethyl-5-Naphthol-7-Sulfonic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Shi, W.; Zhang, C.; Wen, H.

    2017-09-01

    For the determination of nitrogen oxides in the air, the structure of diazo and coupling compounds was studied and tested by experiments. The conditions and methods of diazo and coupling reactions were investigated. Furthermore, a spectrophotometric method using sulfanilamide as a diazo compound and 2-N-ethyl-5-naphthol-7-sulfonic acid (N-ethyl J acid) as a coupling compound was proposed. The maximum absorption wavelength of sulfanilamide-Nethyl J acid azo compound was at 478 nm. The molar absorptivity was 4.31 × 104 L/(mol × cm) with a recovery of 98.7-100.9% and RSD of 1.85%. For nitrogen oxides, the determinate limit of this measurement was 0.015 mg/m3 and the determinate range 0.024-2.0 mg/m3. Moreover, a high degree of correlation was observed between the results obtained by the proposed method and the standard methods. The proposed method can be easily applied to determine nitrogen oxides in the air.

  19. Asymmetric homologation of boronic esters bearing azido and silyloxy substituents.

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Matteson, D S

    2000-10-06

    In the asymmetric homologation of boronic esters with a (dihalomethyl)lithium, substituents that can bind metal cations tend to interfere. Accordingly, we undertook the introduction of weakly basic oxygen and nitrogen substituents into boronic esters in order to maximize the efficiency of multistep syntheses utilizing this chemistry. Silyloxy boronic esters cannot be made efficiently by direct substitution, but a (hydroxymethyl)boronic ester has been silylated in the usual manner. Conversion of alpha-halo boronic esters to alpha-azido boronic esters has been carried out with sodium azide and a tetrabutylammonium salt as phase-transfer catalyst in a two-phase system with water and either nitromethane or ethyl acetate. These are safer solvents than the previously used dichloromethane, which can form an explosive byproduct with azide ion. Boronic esters containing silyloxy or alkoxy and azido substituents have been shown to react efficiently with (dihalomethyl)lithiums, resulting in efficient asymmetric insertion of the halomethyl group into the carbon-boron bond.

  20. Efficacy and safety of eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (AMR101) therapy in statin-treated patients with persistent high triglycerides (from the ANCHOR study).

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Christie M; Bays, Harold E; Kastelein, John J; Stein, Evan; Isaacsohn, Jonathan L; Braeckman, Rene A; Soni, Paresh N

    2012-10-01

    AMR101 is an ω-3 fatty acid agent containing ≥96% pure icosapent-ethyl, the ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid. The efficacy and safety of AMR101 were evaluated in this phase 3, multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, 12-week clinical trial (ANCHOR) in high-risk statin-treated patients with residually high triglyceride (TG) levels (≥200 and <500 mg/dl) despite low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol control (≥40 and <100 mg/dl). Patients (n = 702) on a stable diet were randomized to AMR101 4 or 2 g/day or placebo. The primary end point was median percent change in TG levels from baseline versus placebo at 12 weeks. AMR101 4 and 2 g/day significantly decreased TG levels by 21.5% (p <0.0001) and 10.1% (p = 0.0005), respectively, and non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol by 13.6% (p <0.0001) and 5.5% (p = 0.0054), respectively. AMR101 4 g/day produced greater TG and non-HDL cholesterol decreases in patients with higher-efficacy statin regimens and greater TG decreases in patients with higher baseline TG levels. AMR101 4 g/day decreased LDL cholesterol by 6.2% (p = 0.0067) and decreased apolipoprotein B (9.3%), total cholesterol (12.0%), very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (24.4%), lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (19.0%), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (22.0%) versus placebo (p <0.001 for all comparisons). AMR101 was generally well tolerated, with safety profiles similar to placebo. In conclusion, AMR101 4 g/day significantly decreased median placebo-adjusted TG, non-HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, total cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in statin-treated patients with residual TG elevations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Self-Assembly, Supramolecular Organization, and Phase Behavior of L-Alanine Alkyl Esters (n = 9-18) and Characterization of Equimolar L-Alanine Lauryl Ester/Lauryl Sulfate Catanionic Complex.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishna, D; Swamy, Musti J

    2015-09-08

    A homologous series of l-alanine alkyl ester hydrochlorides (AEs) bearing 9-18 C atoms in the alkyl chain have been synthesized and characterized with respect to self-assembly, supramolecular structure, and phase transitions. The CMCs of AEs bearing 11-18 C atoms were found to range between 0.1 and 10 mM. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) studies showed that the transition temperatures (Tt), enthalpies (ΔHt) and entropies (ΔSt) of AEs in the dry state exhibit odd-even alternation, with the odd-chain-length compounds having higher Tt values, but the even-chain-length homologues showing higher values of ΔHt and ΔSt. In DSC measurements on hydrated samples, carried out at pH 5.0 and pH 10.0 (where they exist in cationic and neutral forms, respectively), compounds with 13-18 C atoms in the alkyl chain showed sharp gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transitions, and odd-even alternation was not seen in the thermodynamic parameters. The molecular structure, packing properties, and intermolecular interactions of AEs with 9 and 10 C atoms in the alkyl chain were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction, which showed that the alkyl chains are packed in a tilted interdigitated bilayer format. d-Spacings obtained from powder X-ray diffraction studies exhibited a linear dependence on the alkyl chain length, suggesting that the other AEs also adopt an interdigitated bilayer structure. Turbidimetric, fluorescence spectroscopic, and isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) studies established that in aqueous dispersions l-alanine lauryl ester hydrochloride (ALE·HCl) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) form an equimolar complex. Transmission electron microscopic and DSC studies indicate that the complex exists as unilamellar liposomes, which exhibit a sharp phase transition at ∼39 °C. The aggregates were disrupted at high pH, suggesting that the catanionic complex would be useful to develop a base-labile drug delivery system. ITC studies indicated that ALE·HCl forms

  2. Identification and biosynthesis of novel male specific esters in the wings of the tropical butterfly, Bicyclus martius sanaos.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Lei; Brattström, Oskar; Brakefield, Paul M; Francke, Wittko; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-06-01

    Representatives of the highly speciose tropical butterfly genus Bicyclus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) are characterized by morphological differences in the male androconia, a set of scales and hair pencils located on the surface of the wings. These androconia are assumed to be associated with the release of courtship pheromones. In the present study, we report the identification and biosynthetic pathways of several novel esters from the wings of male B. martius sanaos. We found that the volatile compounds in this male butterfly were similar to female-produced moth sex pheromones. Components associated with the male wing androconial areas were identified as ethyl, isobutyl and 2-phenylethyl hexadecanoates and (11Z)-11-hexadecenoates, among which the latter are novel natural products. By topical application of deuterium-labelled fatty acid and amino acid precursors, we found these pheromone candidates to be produced in patches located on the forewings of the males. Deuterium labels from hexadecanoic acid were incorporated into (11Z)-11-hexadecenoic acid, providing experimental evidence of a Δ11-desaturase being active in butterflies. This unusual desaturase was found previously to be involved in the biosynthesis of female-produced sex pheromones of moths. In the male butterflies, both hexadecanoic acid and (11Z)-11-hexadecenoic acid were then enzymatically esterified to form the ethyl, isobutyl and 2-phenylethyl esters, incorporating ethanol, isobutanol, and 2-phenylethanol, derived from the corresponding amino acids L-alanine, L-valine, and L-phenylalanine.

  3. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid ethyl esters differentially enhance B-cell activity in murine obesity[S

    PubMed Central

    Teague, Heather; Harris, Mitchel; Fenton, Jenifer; Lallemand, Perrine; Shewchuk, Brian M.; Shaikh, Saame Raza

    2014-01-01

    EPA and DHA are not biologically equivalent; however, their individual activity on B cells is unknown. We previously reported fish oil enhanced murine B-cell activity in obesity. To distinguish between the effects of EPA and DHA, we studied the ethyl esters of EPA and DHA on murine B-cell function as a function of time. We first demonstrate that EPA and DHA maintained the obese phenotype, with no improvements in fat mass, adipose inflammatory cytokines, fasting insulin, or glucose clearance. We then tested the hypothesis that EPA and DHA would increase the frequency of splenic B cells. EPA and DHA differentially enhanced the frequency and/or percentage of select B-cell subsets, correlating with increased natural serum IgM and cecal IgA. We next determined the activities of EPA and DHA on ex vivo production of cytokines upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation of B cells. EPA and DHA, in a time-dependent manner, enhanced B-cell cytokines with DHA notably increasing IL-10. At the molecular level, EPA and DHA differentially enhanced the formation of ordered microdomains but had no effect on Toll-like receptor 4 mobility. Overall, the results establish differential effects of EPA and DHA in a time-dependent manner on B-cell activity in obesity, which has implications for future clinical studies. PMID:24837990

  4. Cytochrome c oxidase inhibition in the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L.) by formate, the toxic metabolite of volatile alkyl formates.

    PubMed

    Haritos, V S; Dojchinov, G

    2003-10-01

    Volatile alkyl formates are potential replacements for the ozone-depleting fumigant, methyl bromide, as postharvest insecticides and here we have investigated their mode of insecticidal action. Firstly, a range of alkyl esters, ethanol and formic acid were tested in mortality bioassays with adults of the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and the grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) to determine whether the intact ester or one of its components was the toxic moiety. Volatile alkyl formates and formic acid caused similar levels of mortality (LC(50) 131-165 micromol l(-1)) to S. oryzae and were more potent than non-formate containing alkyl esters and ethanol (LC(50)>275 micromol l(-1)). The order of potency was the same in R. dominica. Ethyl formate was rapidly metabolised in vitro to formic acid when incubated with insect homogenates, presumably through the action of esterases. S. oryzae and R. dominica fumigated with a lethal dose of ethyl formate had eight and 17-fold higher concentrations of formic acid, respectively, in their bodies than untreated controls. When tested against isolated mitochondria from S. oryzae, alkyl esters, alcohols, acetate and propionate salts were not inhibitory towards cytochrome c oxidase (EC 1.9.3.1), but sodium cyanide and sodium formate were inhibitory with IC(50) values of 0.0015 mM and 59 mM, respectively. Volatile formate esters were more toxic than other alkyl esters, and this was found to be due, at least in part, to their hydrolysis to formic acid and its inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase.

  5. Ferulic acid ethyl ester diminished Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced incapacitation through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Francisco Valmor Macedo; Gomes, Bruno de Sousa; Neto, Benedito de Sousa; Ferreira, Alana Rodrigues; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Carvalho e Martins, Maria do Carmo; Oliveira, Francisco de Assis

    2016-01-01

    Ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) is a derivate from ferulic acid which reportedly has antioxidant effect; however, its role on inflammation was unknown. In this study, we investigated the orally administered FAEE anti-inflammatory activity on experimental inflammation models and Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats. CFA-induced arthritis has been evaluated by incapacitation model and radiographic knee joint records at different observation time. FAEE (po) reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema (p < 0.001) within the 1st to 5th hours at 50 and 100 mg/kg doses. FAEE 50 and 100 mg/kg, po inhibited leukocyte migration into air pouch model (p < 0.001), and myeloperoxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities (p < 0.001) increased total thiol concentration and decreased the TNF-α and IL-1β concentrations, NO, and thiobarbituric acid reactive species. In the CFA-induced arthritis, FAEE 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly reduced the edema and the elevation paw time, a joint disability parameter, since second hour after arthritis induction (p < 0.001). FAEE presented rat joint protective activity in radiographic records (p < 0.001). The data suggest that the FAEE exerts anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting leukocyte migration, oxidative stress reduction, and pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  6. Hydrolysis of Synthetic Esters by the Antibacterial Agent in Serum

    PubMed Central

    Yotis, William W.

    1966-01-01

    Yotis, William W. (Loyola University, Chicago, Ill.). Hydrolysis of synthetic esters by the antibacterial agent in serum. J. Bacteriol. 91:488–493. 1966.—An antistaphylococcal serum agent was assayed colorimetrically, manometrically, and titrimetrically for esterase activity. p-Nitrophenol acetate, triacetin, l-lysine methyl and ethyl ester, and norleucine methyl ester were hydrolyzed by the antistaphylococcal agent. Acetylcholine and benzoylcholine esters, triolein, tristearin, and p-tosylarginine methyl ester were not attacked by this agent. With p-nitrophenol acetate as substrate, optimal activity occurred at pH 7.4. Incubation at 60 C for 30 min reduced drastically the esterase activity of the antistaphylococcal agent, and incubation at 75 C for 30 min abolished the esterase activity of this agent. Almost complete inhibition of esterase activity was observed with 0.001 m HgCl2, ZnSO4, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). EDTA inhibition could be reversed by the addition of CaCl2, but not MgCl2. Cysteine reversed the inhibition of HgCl2. NaF, atoxyl, diisopropyl fluorophosphate, quinine, and physostigmine did not influence the esterase activity of the antibacterial agent. The demonstration of esterase activity of both the antistaphylococcal agent and coagulase may shed further light on the reported ability of coagulase to neutralize the antistaphylococcal activity of this agent, or the prevention of absorption of the agent on the staphylococcal cell surface. In addition, the colorimetric procedure described in this report may be a convenient tool in assaying the potency of the antistaphylococcal agent. Images PMID:4956776

  7. 40 CFR 721.5625 - Oxiranemethanamine, N,N′-[methylenebis(2-ethyl-4,1-phenylene)]bis[N-(oxiranylmethyl)]-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxiranemethanamine, N,Nâ²-[methylenebis(2-ethyl-4,1-phenylene)]bis[N-(oxiranylmethyl)]-. 721.5625 Section 721.5625 Protection of... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5625 Oxiranemethanamine, N...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5625 - Oxiranemethanamine, N,N′-[methylenebis(2-ethyl-4,1-phenylene)]bis[N-(oxiranylmethyl)]-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxiranemethanamine, N,Nâ²-[methylenebis(2-ethyl-4,1-phenylene)]bis[N-(oxiranylmethyl)]-. 721.5625 Section 721.5625 Protection of... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5625 Oxiranemethanamine, N...

  9. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in sex phermone-treated orchards with (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene or pear ester in combination with codlemone and acetic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Traps baited with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) or (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) in two- or three-way combinations with the sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) and acetic acid (AA) were evaluated for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). All studies were conduct...

  10. Biotransformation Capacity of Carboxylesterase in Skin and Keratinocytes for the Penta-Ethyl Ester Prodrug of DTPA.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Sadgrove, Matthew; Marson, Lesley; Jay, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The penta-ethyl ester prodrug of the chelating agent diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), referred to as C2E5, effectively accelerated clearance of americium after transdermal delivery. Carboxylesterases (CESs) play important roles in facilitating C2E5 hydrolysis. However, whether CESs in human skin hydrolyze C2E5 remains unknown. We evaluated the gene and protein expression of CESs in distinctive human epidermal cell lines: HEKa, HEKn, HaCaT, and A431. The substrates p-nitrophenyl acetate (pNPA) and 4-nitrophenyl valerate (4-NPV) were used to access esterase and CES activity. C2E5 hydrolysis was measured by radiometric high-performance liquid chromatography after incubation of [(14)C]C2E5 with supernatant fractions after centrifugation at 9000g (S9) prepared from skin cell lines. CES-specific inhibitors were used to access metabolism in human skin S9 fractions with analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We identified the human carboxylesterase 1 and 2 (CES1 and CES2) bands in a Western blot. The gene expression of these enzymes was supported by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). pNPA and 4-NPV assays demonstrated esterase and CES activity in all the cell lines that were comparable to human skin S9 fractions. The prodrug C2E5 was hydrolyzed by skin S9 fractions, resulting in a primary metabolite, C2E4. In human skin S9 fractions, inhibition of C2E5 hydrolysis was greatest with a pan-CES inhibitor (benzil). CES1 inhibition (troglitazone) was greater than CES2 (loperamide), suggesting a primary metabolic role for CES1. These results indicate that human keratinocyte cell lines are useful for the evaluation of human cutaneous metabolism and absorption of ester-based prodrugs. However, keratinocytes from skin provide a small contribution to the overall metabolism of C2E5. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  11. Synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers by atom transfer radical polymerization for the solid-phase extraction of phthalate esters in edible oil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ningning; He, Juan; Wu, Chaojun; Li, Yuanyuan; Suo, An; Wei, Hongliang; He, Lijun; Zhang, Shusheng

    2017-03-01

    Novel molecularly imprinted polymers of phthalate esters were prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization using methyl methacrylate as functional monomer, cyclohexanone as solvent, cuprous chloride as catalyst, 1-chlorine-1-ethyl benzene as initiator and 2,2-bipyridyl as cross-linker in the mixture of methanol and water (1:1, v/v). The effect of reaction conditions such as monomer ratio and template on the adsorption properties was investigated. The optimum condition was obtained by an orthogonal experiment. The obtained polymers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The binding property was studied with both static and dynamic methods. Results showed that the polymers exhibited excellent recognition capacity and outstanding selectivity for ten phthalate esters. Factors affecting the extraction efficiency of the molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction were systematically investigated. An analytical method based on the molecularly imprinted coupled with gas chromatography and flame ionization detection was successfully developed for the simultaneous determination of ten phthalate esters from edible oil. The method detection limits were 0.10-0.25 μg/mL, and the recoveries of spiked samples were 82.5-101.4% with relative standard deviations of 1.24-5.37% (n = 6). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Evaluation Lactogenic Activity of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Torbangun (Coleus amboinicus L.) Leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damanik, R. M.; Kustiyah, L.; Hanafi, M.; Iwansyah, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the lactogenic property of ethyl acetate fraction of torbangun (Coleus amboinicus L.) leaves and to identify the compounds that responsibility as ‘milk booster’ using LC- MS approach. Lactagogue activity was evaluated in terms of quantity of milk produced from the rats treated with commercial milk booster (AF), ethyl acetate fraction of torbangun leaves (EA), water extraction of torbangun (AQ) and kaempferol (KP). The feed was given orally every two days and starting from Day 2 after giving birth until Day 28. The performance of milk production was measured along the experimental period by weight-suckle-weight method. The level of prolactin serum was determined by ELISA methods. Histopathological analysis of mammary gland, liver, intestines and kidney tissues was carried out. Moreover, in order to profiling and identification of compounds of ethyl acetate fraction, ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-ESI-MS) in the positive-ion mode was performed. The ethyl acetate fraction of torbangun leaves (EA) was induced milk production about 17%, and AF 22% and KP 51% compared to the control group. Meanwhile, the EA was not significantly stimulate the synthesis of serum prolactin at Day 14 and Day 28 (p>0.05). Administration of EA did not cause any signs or symptoms of toxicity. In addition, a total of ten compounds was identified by UPLC-QTOF-ESI/MS in the ethyl acetate fraction of the leaves of C. amboinicus, mostly phenolic compounds, flavonols and some of their glycoside derivatives, such as: digiprolatone, and kaempferol-3-7-O-di-rhamnopyranoside. The present study reveals the ethyl acetate fraction of torbangun leaves and its bioactive compounds has the potency as a remedy for stimulating and improving milk production.

  13. Spectroscopic investigation (FT-IR, FT-Raman), HOMO-LUMO, NBO, and molecular docking analysis of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, a potential anticancer agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Priyanka; Islam, S. S.; Ahmad, Hilal; Prabaharan, A.

    2018-02-01

    Nitrosourea plays an important role in the treatment of cancer. N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, also known as ENU, (chemical formula C3H7N3O2), is a highly potent mutagen. The chemical is an alkylating agent and acts by transferring the ethyl group of ENU to nucleobases (usually thymine) in nucleic acids. The molecular structure of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea has been elucidated using experimental (FT-IR and FT-Raman) and theoretical (DFT) techniques. APT charges, Mulliken atomic charges, Natural bond orbital, Electrostatic potential, HOMO-LUMO and AIM analysis were performed to identify the reactive sites and charge transfer interactions. Furthermore, to evaluate the anticancer activity of ENU molecular docking studies were carried out against 2JIU protein.

  14. Anti-knock quality of sugar derived levulinic esters and cyclic ethers

    DOE PAGES

    Tian, Miao; McCormick, Robert L.; Luecke, Jon; ...

    2017-04-22

    Here, the objective of this paper is to investigate the anti-knock quality of sugar-derived levulinic esters (methyl levulinate (ML) and ethyl levulinate (EL)) and cyclic ethers (furfuryl ethyl ether (FEE) and ethyl tetrahydrofurfuryl ether (ETE)). To this end, combustion experiments were carried out in both an engine and a constant volume autoignition device. The results from both apparati demonstrate that ML, EL and FEE have superior anti-knock quality than the reference Euro95 gasoline. ETE, conversely, performed markedly worse than the reference fuel on both setups and might therefore be a more appropriate fuel for compression ignition engines. The main reasonmore » of the distinctions in anti-knock quality can be found in the molecular structure of the neat biofuels. ML and EL are levulinic esters, with a ketone (C=O) functionality and an ester (C(=O)-O) group on the carbon chain. They can readily produce stable intermediates during the auto-ignition process, thereby slowing down the overall reaction rate. The unsaturated cyclic ether (FEE) has very strong ring C-H bonds. However, the saturated cyclic ether (ETE) has weak ring C-H bonds, which facilitate more readily ring opening reactions. Long side chains on the cyclic ethers further accelerate the reaction rate. Importantly for future research, our results suggest that IQT and engine experiments are interchangeable setups with respect to qualitative anti-knock quality evaluation of novel compounds.« less

  15. Anti-knock quality of sugar derived levulinic esters and cyclic ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Miao; McCormick, Robert L.; Luecke, Jon

    Here, the objective of this paper is to investigate the anti-knock quality of sugar-derived levulinic esters (methyl levulinate (ML) and ethyl levulinate (EL)) and cyclic ethers (furfuryl ethyl ether (FEE) and ethyl tetrahydrofurfuryl ether (ETE)). To this end, combustion experiments were carried out in both an engine and a constant volume autoignition device. The results from both apparati demonstrate that ML, EL and FEE have superior anti-knock quality than the reference Euro95 gasoline. ETE, conversely, performed markedly worse than the reference fuel on both setups and might therefore be a more appropriate fuel for compression ignition engines. The main reasonmore » of the distinctions in anti-knock quality can be found in the molecular structure of the neat biofuels. ML and EL are levulinic esters, with a ketone (C=O) functionality and an ester (C(=O)-O) group on the carbon chain. They can readily produce stable intermediates during the auto-ignition process, thereby slowing down the overall reaction rate. The unsaturated cyclic ether (FEE) has very strong ring C-H bonds. However, the saturated cyclic ether (ETE) has weak ring C-H bonds, which facilitate more readily ring opening reactions. Long side chains on the cyclic ethers further accelerate the reaction rate. Importantly for future research, our results suggest that IQT and engine experiments are interchangeable setups with respect to qualitative anti-knock quality evaluation of novel compounds.« less

  16. Mutations in the Fusion Protein of Measles Virus That Confer Resistance to the Membrane Fusion Inhibitors Carbobenzoxy-d-Phe-l-Phe-Gly and 4-Nitro-2-Phenylacetyl Amino-Benzamide

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Michael N.; Delpeut, Sébastien; Noyce, Ryan S.; Sisson, Gary; Black, Karen M.; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Bilimoria, Darius; Plemper, Richard K.; Privé, Gilbert G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The inhibitors carbobenzoxy (Z)-d-Phe-l-Phe-Gly (fusion inhibitor peptide [FIP]) and 4-nitro-2-phenylacetyl amino-benzamide (AS-48) have similar efficacies in blocking membrane fusion and syncytium formation mediated by measles virus (MeV). Other homologues, such as Z-d-Phe, are less effective but may act through the same mechanism. In an attempt to map the site of action of these inhibitors, we generated mutant viruses that were resistant to the inhibitory effects of Z-d-Phe-l-Phe-Gly. These 10 mutations were localized to the heptad repeat B (HRB) region of the fusion protein, and no changes were observed in the viral hemagglutinin, which is the receptor attachment protein. Mutations were validated in a luciferase-based membrane fusion assay, using transfected fusion and hemagglutinin expression plasmids or with syncytium-based assays in Vero, Vero-SLAM, and Vero-Nectin 4 cell lines. The changes I452T, D458N, D458G/V459A, N462K, N462H, G464E, and I483R conferred resistance to both FIP and AS-48 without compromising membrane fusion. The inhibitors did not block hemagglutinin protein-mediated binding to the target cell. Edmonston vaccine/laboratory and IC323 wild-type strains were equally affected by the inhibitors. Escape mutations were mapped upon a three-dimensional (3D) structure modeled from the published crystal structure of parainfluenzavirus 5 fusion protein. The most effective mutations were situated in a region located near the base of the globular head and its junction with the alpha-helical stalk of the prefusion protein. We hypothesize that the fusion inhibitors could interfere with the structural changes that occur between the prefusion and postfusion conformations of the fusion protein. IMPORTANCE Due to lapses in vaccination worldwide that have caused localized outbreaks, measles virus (MeV) has regained importance as a pathogen. Antiviral agents against measles virus are not commercially available but could be useful in conjunction with Me

  17. Molecular Mechanism Underlying the Action of Substituted Pro-Gly Dipeptide Noopept.

    PubMed

    Vakhitova, Y V; Sadovnikov, S V; Borisevich, S S; Ostrovskaya, R U; A Gudasheva, T; Seredenin, S B

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed in order to reveal the effect of Noopept (ethyl ester of N-phenylacetyl-Lprolylglycine, GVS-111) on the DNA-binding activity of transcriptional factors (TF) in HEK293 cells transiently transfected with luciferase reporter constructs containing sequences for CREB, NFAT, NF-κB, p53, STAT1, GAS, VDR, HSF1, and HIF-1. Noopept (10 μM) was shown to increase the DNA-binding activity of HIF-1 only, while lacking the ability to affect that of CREB, NFAT, NF-κB, p53, STAT1, GAS, VDR, and HSF1. Noopept provoked an additional increase in the DNA-binding activity of HIF-1 when applied in conditions of CoCl2-induced HIF- 1 stabilization. The degree of this HIF-positive effect of Noopept was shown to be concentration-dependent. Piracetam (1 mM) failed to affect significantly any of the TF under study. The results of molecular docking showed that Noopept (L-isomer), as well as its metabolite, L-isomer of N-phenyl-acetylprolyl, unlike its pharmacologically ineffective D-isomer, is able to bind to the active site of prolyl hydroxylase 2. Taking into account the important role of the genes activated by HIF-1 in the formation of an adaptive response to hypoxia, data on the ability of Noopept to provoke a selective increase in the DNA-binding activity of HIF-1 explain the wide spectrum of neurochemical and pharmacological effects of Noopept revealed before. The obtained data allow one to propose the HIF-positive effect as the primary mechanism of the activity of this Pro-Gly-containing dipeptide.

  18. Molecular Mechanism Underlying the Action of Substituted Pro-Gly Dipeptide Noopept

    PubMed Central

    Vakhitova, Y. V.; Sadovnikov, S. V.; Borisevich, S. S.; Ostrovskaya, R. U.; A.Gudasheva, T.; Seredenin, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed in order to reveal the effect of Noopept (ethyl ester of N-phenylacetyl-Lprolylglycine, GVS-111) on the DNA-binding activity of transcriptional factors (TF) in HEK293 cells transiently transfected with luciferase reporter constructs containing sequences for CREB, NFAT, NF-κB, p53, STAT1, GAS, VDR, HSF1, and HIF-1. Noopept (10 μM) was shown to increase the DNA-binding activity of HIF-1 only, while lacking the ability to affect that of CREB, NFAT, NF-κB, p53, STAT1, GAS, VDR, and HSF1. Noopept provoked an additional increase in the DNA-binding activity of HIF-1 when applied in conditions of CoCl2-induced HIF- 1 stabilization. The degree of this HIF-positive effect of Noopept was shown to be concentration-dependent. Piracetam (1 mM) failed to affect significantly any of the TF under study. The results of molecular docking showed that Noopept (L-isomer), as well as its metabolite, L-isomer of N-phenyl-acetylprolyl, unlike its pharmacologically ineffective D-isomer, is able to bind to the active site of prolyl hydroxylase 2. Taking into account the important role of the genes activated by HIF-1 in the formation of an adaptive response to hypoxia, data on the ability of Noopept to provoke a selective increase in the DNA-binding activity of HIF-1 explain the wide spectrum of neurochemical and pharmacological effects of Noopept revealed before. The obtained data allow one to propose the HIF-positive effect as the primary mechanism of the activity of this Pro-Gly-containing dipeptide. PMID:27099787

  19. Apple Aminoacid Profile and Yeast Strains in the Formation of Fusel Alcohols and Esters in Cider Production.

    PubMed

    Eleutério Dos Santos, Caroline Mongruel; Pietrowski, Giovana de Arruda Moura; Braga, Cíntia Maia; Rossi, Márcio José; Ninow, Jorge; Machado Dos Santos, Tâmisa Pires; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Jorge, Regina Maria Matos; Nogueira, Alessandro

    2015-06-01

    The amino acid profile in dessert apple must and its effect on the synthesis of fusel alcohols and esters in cider were established by instrumental analysis. The amino acid profile was performed in nine apple musts. Two apple musts with high (>150 mg/L) and low (<75 mg/L) nitrogen content, and four enological yeast strains, were used in cider fermentation. The aspartic acid, asparagine and glutamic acid amino acids were the majority in all the apple juices, representing 57.10% to 81.95%. These three amino acids provided a high consumption (>90%) during fermentation in all the ciders. Principal component analysis (PCA) explained 81.42% of data variability and the separation of three groups for the analyzed samples was verified. The ciders manufactured with low nitrogen content showed sluggish fermentation and around 50% less content of volatile compounds (independent of the yeast strain used), which were mainly 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol) and esters. However, in the presence of amino acids (asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and alanine) there was a greater differentiation between the yeasts in the production of fusel alcohols and ethyl esters. High contents of these aminoacids in dessert apple musts are essential for the production of fusel alcohols and most of esters by aromatic yeasts during cider fermentation. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. [Inhibition effect on Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806 as well as separation and identification of algicidal substances isolated from Salvinia natans (L.) All].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengjuan; Xia, Wentong; Yang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Tingting

    2016-05-01

    To study the inhibition effect of Salvinia natans ( L. ) All. on harmful algae. With Microcystis aeruginosa as the subjects, deionized water, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate as solvent, four kinds of crude extracts from Salvinia natans (L.) All. were prepared, and their alga-inhibiting actions were verified, respectively. The crude extracts of Salvinia natans (L.) All. with better inhibition effect were selected. The components of algal inhibiting material through macroporous resin purification were obtained, and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The algicidal effect as follows: ethyl acetate extract > acetone crude extract > ethanol crude extract > water crude extract. Meanwhile, the inhibitory substances of Salvinia natans (L.) All. may be: diacetone alcohol, methyl isobutenyl ketone, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-1-hexanol, pentadecanal, 14-heptadecenal, cumene, butyl acetate, ascorbyl dipalmitate, 1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono (2- ethylhexyl) ester, dibutyl phthalate and phthalic acid, butyl undecane ester. The algal inhibiting effect research of Salvinia natans (L.) All., as well as its separation and identification of allelochemicals supplys theoretical basis and practical evidence not only for algae control, but also exploitation of algal inhibiting agent.

  1. Sequence distribution of acetaldehyde-derived N2-ethyl-dG adducts along duplex DNA.

    PubMed

    Matter, Brock; Guza, Rebecca; Zhao, Jianwei; Li, Zhong-ze; Jones, Roger; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2007-10-01

    Acetaldehyde (AA) is the major metabolite of ethanol and may be responsible for an increased gastrointestinal cancer risk associated with alcohol beverage consumption. Furthermore, AA is one of the most abundant carcinogens in tobacco smoke and induces tumors of the respiratory tract in laboratory animals. AA binding to DNA induces Schiff base adducts at the exocyclic amino group of dG, N2-ethylidene-dG, which are reversible on the nucleoside level but can be stabilized by reduction to N2-ethyl-dG. Mutagenesis studies in the HPRT reporter gene and in the p53 tumor suppressor gene have revealed the ability of AA to induce G-->A transitions and A-->T transversions, as well as frameshift and splice mutations. AA-induced point mutations are most prominent at 5'-AGG-3' trinucleotides, possibly a result of sequence specific adduct formation, mispairing, and/or repair. However, DNA sequence preferences for the formation of acetaldehyde adducts have not been previously examined. In the present work, we employed a stable isotope labeling-HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS approach developed in our laboratory to analyze the distribution of acetaldehyde-derived N2-ethyl-dG adducts along double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides representing two prominent lung cancer mutational "hotspots" and their surrounding DNA sequences. 1,7,NH 2-(15)N-2-(13)C-dG was placed at defined positions within DNA duplexes derived from the K-ras protooncogene and the p53 tumor suppressor gene, followed by AA treatment and NaBH 3CN reduction to convert N2-ethylidene-dG to N2-ethyl-dG. Capillary HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS was used to quantify N2-ethyl-dG adducts originating from the isotopically labeled and unlabeled guanine nucleobases and to map adduct formation along DNA duplexes. We found that the formation of N2-ethyl-dG adducts was only weakly affected by the local sequence context and was slightly increased in the presence of 5-methylcytosine within CG dinucleotides. These results are in contrast with sequence

  2. The influence of gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on acute and chronic ethanol administration in mice. The effect of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and L-arginine.

    PubMed

    Boban-Blagaic, Alenka; Blagaic, Vladimir; Romic, Zeljko; Jelovac, Nikola; Dodig, Goran; Rucman, Rudolf; Petek, Marijan; Turkovic, Branko; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol disturbances, NO stimulation (by the NO-precursor L-arginine), and/or NO-synthesis blockade (by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, i.e. L-NAME) were challenged with stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, which inhibits both acute alcohol intoxication and alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Mice received intraperitoneally (i.p.) BPC 157 (10 microg/kg), L-NAME (10 mg/kg), and L-arginine (400 mg/kg), alone or in combination, 5 minutes before or after acute ethanol (4 g/kg i.p.) intoxication or after 0, 3, or 7 hours of withdrawal after drinking 20% alcohol for 13 days. BPC 157 rapidly opposes the strongest disturbance presentations in acute intoxication (sustained ethanol anesthesia, complete loss of righting reflex, no reaction to external stimuli, hypothermia, 25% mortality) and withdrawal (prominent seizures). NO-agents: Aggravation of acute alcohol intoxication and opposition to withdrawal are common, but the later intervals affected by L-arginine and the action throughout the experiment by L-NAME are distinctive. Given together, L-arginine and L-NAME counteract each other, while either the "L-NAME presentation" (acute intoxication) or the "L-arginine presentation" (withdrawal) predominates. BPC157+NO-agent: In acute intoxication (L-NAME predominating in NO-system functioning to aggravate intoxication), both BPC157+L-NAME and BPC157+L-arginine follow the presentation of L-NAME, but without worsened mortality. In withdrawal (L-arginine predominating in NO-system functioning to oppose disturbance symptoms), BPC157+L-NAME follows the presentation of L-NAME, while BPC 157+L-arginine imitates that of L-arginine. The relationships among pentadecapeptide BPC 157, the NO-system, acute alcohol intoxication, and opposed withdrawal may be important, presenting pentadecapeptide BPC 157 as a suitable alcohol antagonist.

  3. Effect of creatine, creatinine, and creatine ethyl ester on TLR expression in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Leland, Korey M; McDonald, Thomas L; Drescher, Kristen M

    2011-09-01

    Despite the widespread availability and use of dietary supplements, minimal work has been performed to assess the potential dangers many of these supplements may have on the host's well-being, in particular the host's ability to respond to infection. One supplement extensively used by both adolescents and adults is creatine. Using Real-time PCR, we examined the impact of short-term exposure of a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7 cells) to two readily available forms of creatine used in supplements--creatine monohydrate (CR) and creatine ethyl ester (CEE) as well as the end product of creatine metabolism, creatinine (CRN), on expression of toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2), TLR-3, TLR-4, and TLR-7. CR down-regulated TLR-2, TLR-3, TLR-4 and TLR-7 mRNA levels in RAW cells. Similar results were observed following exposure of RAW cells to CRN. Conversely CEE appears to possess immunostimulatory properties and increases expression of TLR-2, TLR-3, TLR-4, and TLR-7 in RAW cells. These data are supported by immunostaining using antibodies specific for the individual TLRs before and after exposure of RAW cells to CR, CRN, or CEE. To extend these findings, we isolated murine splenocytes and exposed the cells to CR, CEE, or CRN for 24 hours and performed immunofluorescent staining for TLR-2, TLR-3, TLR-4 and TLR-7. The results obtained from this study with primary splenocytes were consistent with the studies using RAW cells. Together, these data suggest that creatine and creatine derivatives may impact the ability of immune cells to sense a wide array of viral and bacterial pathogens. Of great interest, CRN--largely considered to be a waste product of the argenine biosynthesis pathway may also have immunosuppressive properties similar to those of CR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of creatine, creatinine, and creatine ethyl ester on TLR expression in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Leland, Korey M.; McDonald, Thomas L.; Drescher, Kristen M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the widespread availability and use of dietary supplements, minimal work has been performed to assess the potential dangers many of these supplements may have on the host’s well-being, in particular the host’s ability to respond to infection. One supplement extensively used by both adolescents and adults is creatine. Using Real-time PCR, we examined the impact of short-term exposure of a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7 cells) to two readily available forms of creatine used in supplements – creatine monohydrate (CR) and creatine ethyl ester (CEE) as well as the end product of creatine metabolism, creatinine (CRN), on expression of toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2), TLR-3, TLR-4, and TLR-7. CR down-regulated TLR-2, TLR-3, TLR-4 and TLR-7 mRNA levels in RAW cells. Similar results were observed following exposure of RAW cells to CRN. Conversely CEE appears to possess immunostimulatory properties and increases expression of TLR-2, TLR-3, TLR-4, and TLR-7 in RAW cells. These data are supported by immunostaining using antibodies specific for the individual TLRs before and after exposure of RAW cells to CR, CRN, or CEE. To extend these findings, we isolated murine splenocytes and exposed the cells to CR, CEE, or CRN for 24 hours and performed immunofluorescent staining for TLR-2, TLR-3, TLR-4 and TLR-7. The results obtained from this study with primary splenocytes were consistent with the studies using RAW cells. Together, these data suggest that creatine and creatine derivatives may impact the ability of immune cells to sense a wide array of viral and bacterial pathogens. Of great interest, CRN - largely considered to be a waste product of the argenine biosynthesis pathway may also have immunosuppressive properties similar to those of CR. PMID:21575742

  5. Enzyme-synthesized Poly(amine-co-esters) as Non-viral Vectors for Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Jiang, Zhaozhong; Zhou, Jiangbing; Zhang, Shengmin; Saltzman, W. Mark

    2010-01-01

    A family of biodegradable poly(amine-co-esters) was synthesized in one step via enzymatic copolymerization of diesters with amino-substituted diols. Diesters of length C4–C12 (i.e., from succinate to dodecanedioate) were successfully copolymerized with diethanolamines with either an alkyl (methyl, ethyl, n-butyl, t-butyl) or an aryl (phenyl) substituent on the nitrogen. Upon protonation at slightly acidic conditions, these poly(amine-co-esters) readily turned to cationic polyelectrolytes, which were capable of condensing with polyanionic DNA to form nanometer-sized polyplexes. In vitro screening with pLucDNA revealed that two of the copolymers, poly(N-methyldiethyleneamine sebacate) (PMSC) and poly(N-ethyldiethyleneamine sebacate) (PESC), possessed comparable or higher transfection efficiencies compared to Lipofectamine 2000. PMSC/pLucDNA and PESC/pLucDNA nanoparticles had desirable particle sizes (40–70 nm) for cellular uptake and were capable of functioning as proton sponges to facilitate endosomal escape after cellular uptake. These polyplex nanoparticles exhibited extremely low cytotoxicity. Furthermore, in vivo gene transfection experiments revealed that PMSC is a substantially more effective gene carrier than PEI in delivering pLucDNAto cells in tumors in mice. All these properties suggest that poly(amine-co-esters) are promising non-viral vectors for safe and efficient DNA delivery in gene therapy. PMID:21171165

  6. Experimental and theoretical studies of the molecular structure of 7-Methyl-3-[(3-methyl-3-mesityl-cyclobutyl]-5-phenyl-5H-thiazolo[3,2-α]pyrimidine-6-carboxylic acid ethyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar, Betül; Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Çalışkan, Nezihe; Cukurovali, Alaaddin

    2017-07-01

    In this work, the title molecule, 7-Methyl-3-[(3-methyl-3-mesityl-cyclobutyl]-5-phenyl-5H-thiazolo[3,2-α]pyrimidine-6-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (C30H34N2O2S1), was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P21/c. with Z = 4, a = 14.1988(6), b = 19.0893(5), c = 10.1325(4) Å, V = 2674.56(17) A3. The optimized structure parameters of the studied molecule was determined theoretically using HF/6-31G(d) and B3LYP/6-31G(d) methods for ground state, and compared with previously reported experimental findings. The calculated harmonic vibrational frequencies are scaled and they are compared with experimental frequencies obtained by FT-IR spectra. The electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies, and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) are also performed.

  7. Chronic N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-induced hypertension : novel molecular adaptation to systolic load in absence of hypertrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartunek, J.; Weinberg, E. O.; Tajima, M.; Rohrbach, S.; Katz, S. E.; Douglas, P. S.; Lorell, B. H.; Schneider, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), which inhibits nitric oxide synthesis, causes hypertension and would therefore be expected to induce robust cardiac hypertrophy. However, L-NAME has negative metabolic effects on protein synthesis that suppress the increase in left ventricular (LV) mass in response to sustained pressure overload. In the present study, we used L-NAME-induced hypertension to test the hypothesis that adaptation to pressure overload occurs even when hypertrophy is suppressed. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male rats received L-NAME (50 mg. kg(-1). d(-1)) or no drug for 6 weeks. Rats with L-NAME-induced hypertension had levels of systolic wall stress similar to those of rats with aortic stenosis (85+/-19 versus 92+/-16 kdyne/cm). Rats with aortic stenosis developed a nearly 2-fold increase in LV mass compared with controls. In contrast, in the L-NAME rats, no increase in LV mass (1. 00+/-0.03 versus 1.04+/-0.04 g) or hypertrophy of isolated myocytes occurred (3586+/-129 versus 3756+/-135 microm(2)) compared with controls. Nevertheless, chronic pressure overload was not accompanied by the development of heart failure. LV systolic performance was maintained by mechanisms of concentric remodeling (decrease of in vivo LV chamber dimension relative to wall thickness) and augmented myocardial calcium-dependent contractile reserve associated with preserved expression of alpha- and beta-myosin heavy chain isoforms and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA-2). CONCLUSIONS: When the expected compensatory hypertrophic response is suppressed during L-NAME-induced hypertension, severe chronic pressure overload is associated with a successful adaptation to maintain systolic performance; this adaptation depends on both LV remodeling and enhanced contractility in response to calcium.

  8. Toxicity of phosphor esters: Willy Lange (1900-1976) and Gerda von Krueger (1907-after 1970).

    PubMed

    Petroianu, G A

    2010-10-01

    In 1851 Williamson serendipitously discovered a new and efficient way to produce ethers using ethyl iodide and potassium salts. Based on this new synthetic approach, the Frenchman Philippe de Clermont and the Muscovite Wladimir Moschnin, both élèves of Adolphe Wurtz in his Paris School of Chemistry, achieved the synthesis of the first ester of pyrophosphoric acid (TEPP). de Clermont "tasted" the new compound and although TEPP is a potent cholinesterase inhibitor he failed to recognize its toxicity. Almost a century later, in 1932, Willy Lange (1900-1976) and his graduate student Gerda v. Krueger (1907-after 1970) described the toxicity of organophosphonates. While the classic paper of the two "Uber Ester der Monofluorphosphorsäure." is cited by almost everybody working in the field, little is known about Lange and almost nothing about v. Krueger. This brief communication attempts to shed some light on the life of both.

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Ethyl Acetate the Extract of Noni Fruit (Morinda citrifolia L.) Against Bacterial Spoilage in Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugraheni, E. R.; Adriani, G. R.; Munawaroh, H.

    2017-04-01

    Noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia L.) contains compounds that have potential as antibacterial agent. Antibacterial compounds produced noni fruit (M. citrifolia L.) can inhibit bacterial growth. This study was conducted to test the antibacterial activity of ethyl acetate extract of noni fruit (M. citrifolia L.) against spoilage bacterial in fish. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Enterobacter aerogenes isolates and examine antibacterial phytochemical profile. Extraction of noni compounds was done by maceration, followed by partition with ethyl acetate to obtain the soluble and insoluble ethyl acetate fraction. Previews result show that the ethyl acetate extract had very strong activity. Extraction process continued by separation and isolation used preparative thin layer chromatography method, so that obtained five isolates and mark them as A, B, C, D and E. Antibacterial activity assay performed on isolates A, B, C, D, and E with 20 and 30% concentration. The test results showed that isolates A could not be inhibit the growth of bacteria, isolates B, C, D, and E has antibacterial activity with weak to strong inhibition. Isolate B had the greatest inhibition activity against the B. cereus, whereas isolates E had the greatest inhibition activity against P. aeroginosa. MIC (Minimum Inhibitor Concentration) and MBC (Minimum Bactericidal Concentration) test result showed that MIC and MBC values could not be determined. Analysis of compounds by TLC showed that isolate B suspected contains coumarin or flavonoids compounds that have antibacterial activity.

  10. Glycidyl fatty acid esters in food by LC-MS/MS: method development.

    PubMed

    Becalski, A; Feng, S Y; Lau, B P-Y; Zhao, T

    2012-07-01

    An improved method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the analysis of glycidyl fatty acid esters in oils was developed. The method incorporates stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) for quantifying the five target analytes: glycidyl esters of palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3). For the analysis, 10 mg sample of edible oil or fat is dissolved in acetone, spiked with deuterium labelled analogs of glycidyl esters and purified by a two-step chromatography on C18 and normal silica solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges using methanol and 5% ethyl acetate in hexane, respectively. If the concentration of analytes is expected to be below 0.5 mg/kg, 0.5 g sample of oil is pre-concentrated first using a silica column. The dried final extract is re-dissolved in 250 μL of a mixture of methanol/isopropanol (1:1, v/v), 15 μL is injected on the analytical C18 LC column and analytes are eluted with 100% methanol. Detection of target glycidyl fatty acid esters is accomplished by LC-MS/MS using positive ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization operating in Multiple Reaction Monitoring mode monitoring 2 ion transitions for each analyte. The method was tested on replicates of a virgin olive oil which was free of glycidyl esters. The method detection limit was calculated to be in the range of 70-150 μg/kg for each analyte using 10 mg sample and 1-3 μg/kg using 0.5 g sample of oil. Average recoveries of 5 glycidyl esters spiked at 10, 1 and 0.1 mg/kg were in the range 84% to 108%. The major advantage of our method is use of SIDA for all analytes using commercially available internal standards and detection limits that are lower by a factor of 5-10 from published methods when 0.5 g sample of oil is used. Additionally, MS/MS mass chromatograms offer greater specificity than liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry operated in selected ion monitoring mode. The method will be applied to

  11. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. 176.160 Section 176.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS...

  12. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. 176.160 Section 176.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS...

  13. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. 176.160 Section 176.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS...

  14. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. 176.160 Section 176.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS...

  15. Efficient glycoengineering of GM3 on melanoma cell and monoclonal antibody-mediated selective killing of the glycoengineered cancer cell

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qianli; Zhang, Junping; Guo, Zhongwu

    2007-01-01

    To verify the principal of a new immunotherapeutic strategy for cancer, a monoclonal antibody 2H3 against N-phenylacetyl GM3, an unnatural form of the tumor-associated antigen GM3, was prepared and employed to demonstrate that murine melanoma cell B16F0 could be effectively glycoengineered by N-phenylacetyl-d-mannosamine to express N-phenylacetyl GM3 and that 2H3 was highly cytotoxic to the glycoengineered B16F0 cell in the presence of complements. It was further demonstrated that B16F0 cell could be glycoengineered 4-5 times more effectively than 3T3 A31 cell, a normal murine embryo fibroblast cell, and that the antibody and complement mediated cytotoxicity was at least 200 times more potent to the glycoengineered B16F0 cell than to the N-phenylacetyl-d-mannosamine-treated 3T3 A31 cell. These results show the promise for developing useful melanoma immunotherapies based on vaccination against N-phenylacetyl GM3 followed by treatment with N-phenylacetyl-d-mannosamine. PMID:17892942

  16. Efficient glycoengineering of GM3 on melanoma cell and monoclonal antibody-mediated selective killing of the glycoengineered cancer cell.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qianli; Zhang, Junping; Guo, Zhongwu

    2007-12-15

    To verify the principal of a new immunotherapeutic strategy for cancer, a monoclonal antibody 2H3 against N-phenylacetyl GM3, an unnatural form of the tumor-associated antigen GM3, was prepared and employed to demonstrate that murine melanoma cell B16F0 could be effectively glycoengineered by N-phenylacetyl-d-mannosamine to express N-phenylacetyl GM3 and that 2H3 was highly cytotoxic to the glycoengineered B16F0 cell in the presence of complements. It was further demonstrated that B16F0 cell could be glycoengineered 4-5 times more effectively than 3T3 A31 cell, a normal murine embryo fibroblast cell, and that the antibody and complement mediated cytotoxicity was at least 200 times more potent to the glycoengineered B16F0 cell than to the N-phenylacetyl-d-mannosamine-treated 3T3 A31 cell. These results show the promise for developing useful melanoma immunotherapies based on vaccination against N-phenylacetyl GM3 followed by treatment with N-phenylacetyl-d-mannosamine.

  17. Quantification of residual EDU (N-ethyl-N'-(dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) hydrolyzed urea derivative) and other residual by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Lei, Q Paula; Lamb, David H; Shannon, Anthony G; Cai, Xinxing; Heller, Ronald K; Huang, Michael; Zablackis, Earl; Ryall, Robert; Cash, Patricia

    2004-12-25

    An LC-MS/MS method for determination of the break down product of N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) urea derivative, EDU, has been developed and validated for monitoring the residual coupling reagents. Results indicate that the method exhibits suitable specificity, sensitivity, precision, linearity and accuracy for quantification of residual EDU in the presence of meningococcal polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine and other vaccine matrix compounds. The assay has been validated for a detection range of 10-100 ng/mL and then successfully transferred to quality control (QC) lab. This same method has also been applied to the determination of residual diaminohexane (DAH) in the presence of EDU. LC-MS/MS has proven to be useful as a quick and sensitive approach for simultaneous determination of multiple residual compounds in glycoconjugate vaccine samples.

  18. [Chemical Constituents from Ethyl Acetate Extract of Psidium guajava Leaves (II)].

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wen; Zhu, Xiao-ai; He, Cui-xia; Chen, Xue-xiang; Ye, Shu-min; Peng, Shan; Cao, Yong

    2015-08-01

    To study the chemical constituents from ethyl acetate extract of Psidium guajava leaves. The constituents were separated and purified by silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and their structures were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. Eleven compounds were isolated and identified as 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (1), phytyl-acetate (2), cubenol (3), eucalyptin (4), n-docosanoic acid-p-hydroxy-phenethylol ester (5),8-methyl-5,7- dihydroxy-flavonone (6), 6-methyl-5,7-dihydroxy-flavonone (7), betulinic acid (8), carnosol (9), quercetin (10), and 2,4,6-tirhydroxy- 3,5-dimethyl-diphenylketone-4-O-(6'"-O-galloyl)-β-D-glucoside (11). Compounds 1-9 are isolated from this plant for the first time.

  19. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. 176.160 Section 176.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances for Use Only as Components of...

  20. Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Detection of 3-Monochloropropanediol Esters and Glycidyl Esters in Infant Formula.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Jessica K; MacMahon, Shaun

    2016-12-14

    A method was developed for the extraction of fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and glycidol from infant formula, followed by quantitative analysis of the extracts using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These process-induced chemical contaminants are found in refined vegetable oils, and studies have shown that they are potentially carcinogenic and/or genotoxic, making their presence in edible oils (and processed foods containing these oils) a potential health risk. The extraction procedure involves a liquid-liquid extraction, where powdered infant formula is dissolved in water and extracted with ethyl acetate. Following shaking, centrifugation, and drying of the organic phase, the resulting fat extract is cleaned-up using solid-phase extraction and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Method performance was confirmed by verifying the percent recovery of each 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester in a homemade powdered infant formula reference material. Average ester recoveries in the reference material ranged from 84.9 to 109.0% (0.6-9.5% RSD). The method was also validated by fortifying three varieties of commercial infant formulas with a 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester solution. Average recoveries of the esters across all concentrations and varieties of infant formula ranged from 88.7 to 107.5% (1.0-9.5% RSD). Based on the validation results, this method is suitable for producing 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester occurrence data in all commercially available varieties of infant formula.

  1. Gas Phase Reactivity of Carboxylates with N-Hydroxysuccinimide Esters

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhou; McGee, William M.; Bu, Jiexun; Barefoot, Nathan Z.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) esters have been used for gas phase conjugation reactions with peptides at nucleophilic sites, such as primary amines (N-terminus, ε-amine of lysine) or guanidines, by forming amide bonds through a nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon. The carboxylate has recently been found to also be a reactive nucleophile capable of initiating a similar nucleophilic attack to form a labile anhydride bond. The fragile bond is easily cleaved, resulting in an oxygen transfer from the carboxylate-containing species to the reagent, nominally observed as a water transfer. This reactivity is shown for both peptides and non-peptidic species. Reagents isotopically labeled with O18 were used to confirm reactivity. This constitutes an example of distinct differences in reactivity of carboxylates between the gas-phase, where they are shown to be reactive, and the solution-phase, where they are not regarded as reactive with NHS esters. PMID:25338221

  2. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) by DPPH radical scavenging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warsi; Sholichah, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    Basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) contains various compounds such as flavonoid, alkaloid, phenol and essential oil, so it needs to be fractionated to find out the flavonoid compound with the greatest potential as an antioxidant. This research was aimed to know the chemical compound, antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf. The basil leaf was extracted by maceration using ethanol 70 %. The crude extract was fractionated with ethyl acetate. The ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction were screened of phytochemical content including identification of flavonoids, alkaloids and polyphenolics. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction were tested qualitatively with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and phosphomolybdate. Its antioxidant activity was determined quantitatively using DPPH radical scavenging method. Phytochemical screening test showed that ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf contain flavonoids, polyphenolics, and alkaloids. The qualitative analysis of antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf showed an antioxidant activity. The IC50 value of ethanolic extract, ethyl acetate fraction and quercetin were 1,374.00±6.20 389.00±1.00 2.10±0.01μg/mL, respectively. The research showed that antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate fraction more potential than the ethanol extract of the basil leaf, but less than quercetin.

  3. Effects of MAT9001 containing eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid, compared to eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl esters, on triglycerides, lipoprotein cholesterol, and related variables.

    PubMed

    Maki, Kevin C; Bobotas, George; Dicklin, Mary R; Huebner, Margie; Keane, William F

    Long-chain omega-3 fatty acid concentrate pharmaceuticals are used in the United States for treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia (≥500 mg/dL) and are under investigation as adjuncts to statins for lowering cardiovascular risk in patients with high triglycerides (TGs; 200-499 mg/dL). To evaluate MAT9001, an investigational prescription-only omega-3 fatty acid agent containing predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosapentaenoic acid, in 42 men and women with fasting TG 200 to 400 mg/dL. In this open-label, crossover trial, subjects received MAT9001 and EPA ethyl esters (EPA-EE) in random order. They were housed in a clinical research unit for 2 14-day treatment periods, separated by a ≥35-day washout. Lipoprotein lipids, apolipoproteins (Apos) and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 levels were measured before and at the end of each treatment period. MAT9001, compared with EPA-EE, resulted in significantly (P < .05) larger reductions from pretreatment levels for TG (-33.2% vs -10.5%), total cholesterol (-9.0% vs -6.2%), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-8.8% vs -4.6%), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-32.5% vs -8.1%), Apo C3 (-25.5% vs -5.0%), and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (-12.3% vs +8.8%). MAT9001 also produced a significantly (P = .003) larger reduction in Apo A1 (-15.3% vs -10.2%), but responses for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-11.3% vs -11.1%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-2.4% vs -4.3%), and Apo B (-3.8% vs -0.7%), respectively, were not significantly different relative to EPA-EE. MAT9001 produced significantly larger reductions than EPA-EE in several lipoprotein-related variables that would be expected to favorably alter cardiovascular disease risk in men and women with hypertriglyceridemia. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A simple and sensitive fluorescent sensor for methyl parathion based on L-tyrosine methyl ester functionalized carbon dots.

    PubMed

    Hou, Juying; Dong, Jing; Zhu, Haishuang; Teng, Xue; Ai, Shiyun; Mang, Minglin

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, a simple and sensitive fluorescent sensor for methyl parathion is developed based on L-tyrosine methyl ester functionalized carbon dots (Tyr-CDs) and tyrosinase system. The carbon dots are obtained by simple hydrothermal reaction using citric acid as carbon resource and L-tyrosine methyl ester as modification reagent. The carbon dots are characterized by transmission electron microscope, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The carbon dots show strong and stable photoluminescence with a quantum yield of 3.8%. Tyrosinase can catalyze the oxidation of tyrosine methyl ester on the surface of carbon dots to corresponding quinone products, which can quench the fluorescence of carbon dots. When organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are introduced in system, they can decrease the enzyme activity, thus decrease the fluorescence quenching rate. Methyl parathion, as a model of OPs, was detected. Experimental results show that the enzyme inhibition rate is proportional to the logarithm of the methyl parathion concentration in the range 1.0×10(-10)-1.0×10(-4) M with the detection limit (S/N=3) of 4.8×10(-11) M. This determination method shows a low detection limit, wide linear range, good selectivity and high reproducibility. This sensing system has been successfully used for the analysis of cabbage, milk and fruit juice samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The use of fatty acid esters to enhance free acid sophorolipid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Richard D; Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Foglia, Thomas A

    2006-02-01

    Fatty acid esters were prepared by transesterification of soy oil with methanol (methyl-soyate, Me-Soy), ethanol (ethyl-soyate, Et-Soy) and propanol (propyl-soyate, Pro-Soy) and used with glycerol as fermentation substrates to enhance production of free-acid sophorolipids (SLs). Fed-batch fermentations of Candida bombicola resulted in SL yields of 46 +/- 4 g/l, 42 +/- 7 g/l and 18 +/- 6 g/l from Me-Soy, Et-Soy, and Pro-Soy, respectively. Liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (LC/API-MS) showed that Me-Soy resulted in 71% open-chain SLs with 59% of those molecules remaining esterified at the carboxyl end of the fatty acids. Et-Soy and Pro-Soy resulted in 43% and 80% open-chain free-acid SLs, respectively (containing linoleic acid and oleic acid as the principal fatty acid species linked to the sophorose sugar at the omega-1 position), with no evidence of residual esterification.

  6. Phthalate esters in the environment: A critical review of their occurrence, biodegradation, and removal during wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Da-Wen; Wen, Zhi-Dan

    2016-01-15

    Phthalate esters are one of the most frequently detected persistent organic pollutants in the environment. A better understanding of their occurrence and degradation in the environment and during wastewater treatment processes will facilitate the development of strategies to reduce these pollutants and to bioremediate contaminated freshwater and soil. Phthalate esters occur at measurable levels in different environments worldwide. For example, the concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in atmospheric particulate matter, fresh water and sediments, soil, and landfills are N.D.-10.4 ng/m(3), N.D.-31.7 μg/L, N.D.-316 μg/kg dry weight, and N.D.-200 μg/kg dry weight, N.D.-43.27 μg/L, respectively. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) are primary phthalate ester pollutants. Urbanization has increased the discharge of phthalate esters to atmospheric and aquatic environments, and the use of agricultural plastics has exacerbated soil contamination by phthalate esters in rural areas. Aerobic biodegradation is the primary manner of phthalate ester mineralization in the environment, and this process has been widely studied. Phthalate esters can be removed during wastewater treatment processes. The combination of different wastewater treatment technologies showed greater efficiency in the removal of phthalate esters than individual treatment steps, such as the combination of anaerobic wastewater treatment with a membrane bioreactor would increase the efficiency of phthalate ester removal from 65%-71% to 95%-97%. This review provides a useful framework to identify future research objectives to achieve the mineralization and elimination of phthalate esters in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [(S)-1-Carbamoylethyl]bis(dimethylglyoximato-kappa2N,N')[(S)-1-phenylethylamine]cobalt(III) and bis(dimethylglyoximato-kappa2N,N')[(R)-1-(N-methylcarbamoyl)ethyl][(R)-1-phenylethylamine]cobalt(III) monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Orisaku, Keiko Komori; Hagiwara, Mieko; Ohgo, Yoshiki; Arai, Yoshifusa; Ohgo, Yoshiaki

    2005-04-01

    The title complexes, [Co(C3H6NO)(C4H7N2O2)2(C8H11N)] and [Co(C4H8NO)(C4H7N2O2)2(C8H11N)].H2O, were resolved from [(RS)-1-carbamoylethyl]bis(dimethylglyoximato)[(S)-1-phenylethylamine]cobalt(III) and bis(dimethylglyoximato)[(RS)-1-(N-methylcarbamoyl)ethyl][(R)-1-phenylethylamine]cobalt(III), respectively, and their crystal structures were determined in order to reveal the absolute configuration of the major enantiomer produced in the photoisomerization of each series of 2-carbamoylethyl and 2-(N-methylcarbamoyl)ethyl cobaloxime complexes.

  8. Quantification of four major metabolites of embryotoxic N-methyl- and N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone in human urine by cooled-injection gas chromatography and isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Birgit K; Koslitz, Stephan; Meier, Swetlana; Belov, Vladimir N; Koch, Holger M; Weiss, Tobias; Brüning, Thomas; Käfferlein, Heiko U

    2012-04-17

    N-Methyl- and N-ethyl-2-pyrollidone (NMP and NEP) are frequently used industrial solvents and were shown to be embryotoxic in animal experiments. We developed a sensitive, specific, and robust analytical method based on cooled-injection (CIS) gas chromatography and isotope dilution mass spectrometry to analyze 5-hydroxy-N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNEP) and 2-hydroxy-N-ethylsuccinimide (2-HESI), two newly identified presumed metabolites of NEP, and their corresponding methyl counterparts (5-HNMP, 2-HMSI) in human urine. The urine was spiked with deuterium-labeled analogues of these metabolites. The analytes were separated from urinary matrix by solid-phase extraction and silylated prior to quantification. Validation of this method was carried out by using both, spiked pooled urine samples and urine samples from 56 individuals of the general population with no known occupational exposure to NMP and NEP. Interday and intraday imprecision was better than 8% for all metabolites, while the limits of detection were between 5 and 20 μg/L depending on the analyte. The high sensitivity of the method enables us to quantify NMP and NEP metabolites at current environmental exposures by human biomonitoring.

  9. Effect of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester on intestinal permeability following intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Luo, C C; Chen, H M; Chiu, C H; Lin, J N; Chen, J C

    2001-07-01

    Subclinical intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) causes an increase in mucosal permeability and may represent an early event in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants. Previous studies suggested that continuous, endogenous formation of nitric oxide (NO) maintains the mucosal integrity of the intestine, thus protecting the gut from injuries from blood-borne toxins and tissue-destructive mediators. This study was undertaken to assess whether the inhibition of NO production causes an increase in intestinal permeability in rats following IRI. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-300 g were divided into 4 groups: (1) untreated group (normal control); (2) ischemia-reperfusion group; (3) early N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a specific inhibitor of NO production, treatment group, and (4) late L-NAME treatment group. Transient IRI was induced by 30-min occlusion, followed by reperfusion of the isolated ileal loop. The L-NAME was administered 15 min before and after mesenteric ischemia as a 25-mg/kg bolus. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-D) was used to quantitatively assess the alteration in mucosal permeability of the intestine. There was no significant increase in the portal vein FITC-D level among normal controls, ischemia-reperfusion group and late L-NAME-treated group, but there was an approximately 6-fold increase in the early L-NAME treatment group. The pathological features of the intestine following IRI include denudation of the villus epithelium and reduction of villus height, associated with marked inflammatory cell infiltration over the lamina propria. These results suggest that endogenous NO may play a role in the protecting intestinal integrity after IRI. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  10. Characterization of l-Theanine Excitatory Actions on Hippocampal Neurons: Toward the Generation of Novel N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor Modulators Based on Its Backbone.

    PubMed

    Sebih, Fatiha; Rousset, Matthieu; Bellahouel, Salima; Rolland, Marc; de Jesus Ferreira, Marie Celeste; Guiramand, Janique; Cohen-Solal, Catherine; Barbanel, Gérard; Cens, Thierry; Abouazza, Mohammed; Tassou, Adrien; Gratuze, Maud; Meusnier, Céline; Charnet, Pierre; Vignes, Michel; Rolland, Valérie

    2017-08-16

    l-Theanine (or l-γ-N-ethyl-glutamine) is the major amino acid found in Camellia sinensis. It has received much attention because of its pleiotropic physiological and pharmacological activities leading to health benefits in humans, especially. We describe here a new, easy, efficient, and environmentally friendly chemical synthesis of l-theanine and l-γ-N-propyl-Gln and their corresponding d-isomers. l-Theanine, and its derivatives obtained so far, exhibited partial coagonistic action at N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, with no detectable agonist effect at other glutamate receptors, on cultured hippocampal neurons. This activity was retained on NMDA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. In addition, both GluN2A and GluN2B containing NMDA receptors were equally modulated by l-theanine. The stereochemical change from l-theanine to d-theanine along with the substitution of the ethyl for a propyl moiety in the γ-N position of l- and d-theanine significantly enhanced the biological efficacy, as measured on cultured hippocampal neurons. l-Theanine structure thus represents an interesting backbone to develop novel NMDA receptor modulators.

  11. Orally Administered DTPA Di-ethyl Ester for Decorporation of 241Am in dogs: Assessment of Safety and Efficacy in an Inhalation-Contamination Model

    PubMed Central

    Huckle, James E.; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Pacyniak, Erik; Leed, Marina G. D.; Weber, Waylon M.; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Agha, Bushra J.; Susick, Robert L.; Mumper, Russell J.; Jay, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Currently two injectable products of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) are U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for decorporation of 241Am, however, an oral product is considered more amenable in a mass casualty situation. The diethyl ester of DTPA, named C2E2, is being developed as an oral drug for treatment of internal radionuclide contamination. Materials and methods Single dose decorporation efficacy of C2E2 administered 24-hours post contamination was determined in beagle dogs using a 241Am nitrate inhalation contamination model. Single and multiple dose toxicity studies in beagle dogs were performed as part of an initial safety assessment program. In addition, the genotoxic potential of C2E2 was evaluated by the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation Ames test, mammalian cell chromosome aberration cytogenetic assay and an in vivo micronucleus test. Results Oral administration of C2E2 significantly increased 241Am elimination over untreated controls and significantly reduced the retention of 241Am in tissues, especially liver, kidney, lung and bone. Daily dosing of 200 mg/kg/day for 10 days was well tolerated in dogs. C2E2 was found to be neither mutagenic or clastogenic. Conclusions The di-ethyl ester of DTPA (C2E2) was shown to effectively enhance the elimination of 241Am after oral administration in a dog inhalation-contamination model and was well tolerated in toxicity studies. PMID:25912343

  12. Development of l-Tyrosine-Based Enzyme-Responsive Amphiphilic Poly(ester-urethane) Nanocarriers for Multiple Drug Delivery to Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Aluri, Rajendra; Jayakannan, Manickam

    2017-01-09

    New classes of enzymatic-biodegradable amphiphilic poly(ester-urethane)s were designed and developed from l-tyrosine amino acid resources and their self-assembled nanoparticles were employed as multiple drug delivery vehicles in cancer therapy. The amine and carboxylic acid functional groups in l-tyrosine were converted into dual functional ester-urethane monomers and they were subjected to solvent free melt polycondensation with hydrophilic polyethylene glycols to produce comb-type poly(ester-urethane)s. The phenolic unit in the l-tyrosine was anchored with hydrophobic alkyl side chain to bring appropriate amphiphilicity in the polymer geometry to self-assemble them as stable nanoscaffolds in aqueous medium. The topology of the polymer was found to play a major role on the glass transition, crystallinity, and viscoelastic rheological properties of l-tyrosine poly(ester-urethane)s. The amphiphilic polymers were self-assembled as 200 ± 10 nm nanoparticles and they exhibited excellent encapsulation capabilities for anticancer drugs such as doxorubicin (DOX) and camptothecin (CPT). In vitro drug release studies revealed that the drug-loaded l-tyrosine nanoparticles were stable at extracellular conditions and they underwent enzymatic-biodegradation exclusively at the intracellular level to release the drugs. Cytotoxicity studies in the cervical cancer (HeLa) and normal WT-MEFs cell lines revealed that the nascent l-tyrosine nanoparticles were nontoxic, whereas the CPT and DOX drug-loaded polymer nanoparticles exhibited excellent cell killing in cancer cells. Confocal microscopic imaging confirmed the cellular internalization of drug-loaded nanoparticles. The drugs were taken up by the cells much higher quantity while delivering them from l-tyrosine nanoparticle platform compared to their free state. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the DOX-loaded polymer nanoscaffolds internalized the drugs 8-10× higher compared to free DOX. Both the synthesis of new classes of

  13. Acidic electrolyzed water efficiently improves the flavour of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Mopan) wine.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wanqi; Zhu, Baoqing; Li, Yao; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2016-04-15

    The ability of acidic (AcW) and alkaline electrolyzed waters (AlW) to improve the flavour of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) wine was evaluated. Wines made with AcW (WAcW) were significantly better than wines made with AlW or pure water (PW) in aroma, taste, and colour. Volatile analysis showed that WAcW has high alcohol and ester contents, including 2-phenylethanol, isopentanol, isobutanol, ethyl dodecanoate, phenethyl acetate, and butanedioic acid diethyl ester. The total amino acid content of persimmon slurry soaked with AcW reached 531.2 mg/l, which was much higher than those of the slurries soaked in AlW (381.3 mg/l) and PW (182.7 mg/l). The composition of major amino acids in the AcW-soaked slurry may contribute to the strong ester flavour of WAcW. This is the first report to suggest that electrolyzed functional water (EFW) can be used to improve wine flavour, leading to the possible use of EFW in food processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Electrochemical preparation of polyaniline-polypyrrole solid-phase microextraction coating and its application in the GC determination of several esters.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shasha; Wu, Mian; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

    2013-12-15

    A novel polyaniline-polypyrrole (PANI-PPY) composite film coated stainless steel wire was prepared by cyclic voltammetry. Firstly, PANI was electrodeposited on a stainless steel wire from a solution containing 0.1 M aniline and 1M HNO3, after the PANI coating was dried in air PPY was electrodeposited on it from a solution containing 0.1 M pyrrole and 0.1 M p-methylbenzene sulfonic acid. The resulting PANI-PPY fiber showed reticulate structure and had large specific surface area. When it was used for the headspace solid-phase microextraction of several esters (i.e. methyl anthranilate, ethyl-o-aminobenzoate, dimethyl phthalate, methyl laurate, and diethyl phthalate), followed by gas chromatographic determination, it presented higher extraction capability in comparison with PPY and PANI coatings. Under the optimized conditions, the linear ranges were 0.07-300 μg L(-1) and the detection limits were 0.05-0.38 μg L(-1) for different esters. The PANI-PPY fiber also showed high durability, after being used for about 160 times its extraction capacity only changed a little. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of these esters in real samples and the recoveries were 90-102%. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of Grape Composition on Red Wine Ester Profile: Comparison between Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz Cultivars from Australian Warm Climate.

    PubMed

    Antalick, Guillaume; Šuklje, Katja; Blackman, John W; Meeks, Campbell; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2015-05-13

    The relationship between grape composition and subsequent red wine ester profile was examined. Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz, from the same Australian very warm climate vineyard, were harvested at two different stages of maturity and triplicate wines were vinified. Grape analyses focused on nitrogen and lipid composition by measuring 18 amino acids by HPLC-FLD, 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and 6 C6-compounds derived from lipid degradation by GC-MS. Twenty esters and four higher alcohols were analyzed in wines by HS-SPME-GC-MS. Concentrations of the ethyl esters of branched acids were significantly affected by grape maturity, but the variations were inconsistent between cultivars. Small relative variations were observed between wines for ethyl esters of fatty acids, whereas higher alcohol acetates displayed the most obvious differences with concentrations ranging from 1.5- to 26-fold higher in Shiraz than in Cabernet Sauvignon wines regardless of the grape maturity. Grape analyses revealed the variations of wine ester composition might be related to specific grape juice nitrogen composition and lipid metabolism. To the authors' knowledge the present study is the first to investigate varietal differences in the ester profiles of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wines made with grapes harvested at different maturity stages.

  16. Influence of alcohol containing and alcohol free cosmetics on FAEE concentrations in hair. A performance evaluation of ethyl palmitate as sole marker, versus the sum of four FAEEs.

    PubMed

    Dumitrascu, C; Paul, R; Kingston, R; Williams, Rachel

    2018-02-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) are direct metabolites of ethanol and have been shown to be suitable markers for the evaluation of alcohol consumption. Previous research has suggested that the regular use of alcohol containing cosmetic products can influence the concentration of FAEE detected in hair. In this study we investigated the influence of alcohol containing and alcohol free hair cosmetics (hairspray and waxes) on the FAEE concentrations in hair. The effect of cosmetic treatment was measured against the impact on ethyl palmitate in isolation as compared to the sum of four esters. 10 volunteers treated part of their scalp with cosmetic products every day during a 2 month period (alcohol free hairspray n=2, hairspray containing alcohol (42% by volume) n=3, alcohol free wax n=2, wax containing alcohol (11% by volume) n=3). After the 2 month period of cosmetic application hair samples from volunteers were collected from both sides of the scalp. Hair samples were washed with n-heptane, and then cut finely into small pieces. All samples were subjected to clean-up by HS-SPME and then GC PCI-MS/MS for analysis of FAEEs. Comparison of FAEE concentrations between treated and untreated hair showed in some instances that application of hair spray or wax products caused an increase in FAEE levels. Products containing alcohol caused a more substantial increase in alcohol metabolite concentrations in hair when compared to alcohol free products. Three volunteers using an alcohol based hairspray in the study experienced a significant increase in FAEE levels (+27.4%, +205.5%, and +1287.5%), with one of the volunteers showing levels below the cut off for 'abstinence' in the untreated scalp portion, and levels above the cut off for 'chronic excessive consumption' in the treated scalp portion. Performance evaluation of ethyl palmitate as sole marker, compared to the sum of four esters approach suggested that the two quantification approaches react in a very similar manner to the

  17. Self-assembly modes of glycyrrhetinic acid esters in view of the crystal packing of related triterpene molecules.

    PubMed

    Langer, Dominik; Wicher, Barbara; Szczołko, Wojciech; Gdaniec, Maria; Tykarska, Ewa

    2016-08-01

    The crystal structures of three ester derivatives of glycyrrhetinic acid (GE) are reported. X-ray crystallography revealed that despite differences in the size of the ester substituents (ethyl, isopropyl and 2-morpholinoethyl) the scheme of molecular self-assembly is similar in all three cases but differs significantly from that observed in other known GE esters. According to our analysis, the two basic patterns of self-assembly of GE esters observed in their unsolvated crystals correspond to two distinct orientations of the ester groups relative to the triterpene backbone. Moreover, comparison of the self-assembly modes of GE esters in their unsolvated forms with the supramolecular organization of GE and carbenoxolone in their solvated crystals revealed that ester substituents replace solvent molecules hydrogen bonded to the COOH group at the triterpene skeleton, resulting in similar packing arrangements of these compounds.

  18. The hydrolysis kinetics of monobasic and dibasic aminoalkyl esters of ketorolac.

    PubMed

    Qandil, Amjad M; Jamhawi, Noor M; Tashtoush, Bassam M; Al-Ajlouni, Ahmad M; Idkaidek, Nasir M; Obaidat, Aiman A

    2013-09-01

    Six aminoethyl and aminobutyl esters of ketorolac containing 1-methylpiperazine (MPE and MPB), N-acetylpiperazine (APE and APB) or morpholine (ME and MB), were synthesized and their hydrolysis kinetics were studied. The hydrolysis was studied at pH 1 to 9 (for MPE, APE and ME) and pH 1 to 8 (for MPB, APB and MB) in aqueous phosphate buffer (0.16 M) with ionic strength (0.5 M) at 37°C. Calculation of k(obs), construction of the pH-rate profiles and determination of the rate equations were performed using KaleidaGraph® 4.1. The hydrolysis displays pseudo-first order kinetics and the pH-rate profiles shows that the aminobutyl esters, MPE, APB and MB, are the most stable. The hydrolysis of the ethyl esters MPE, APE and ME, depending on the pH, is either fast and catalyzed by the hydroxide anion or slow and uncatalyzed for the diprotonated, monoprotonated and nonprotonated forms. The hydrolysis of the butyl esters showed a similar profile, albeit it was also catalyzed by hydronium cation. In addition, the hydroxide anion is 105 more effective in catalyzing the hydrolysis than the hydronium cation. The hydrolysis pattern of the aminoethyl esters is affected by the number and pKa of its basic nitrogen atoms. The monobasic APE and ME, show a similar hydrolysis pattern that is different than the dibasic MPE. The length of the side chain and the pKa of the basic nitrogen atoms in the aminoethyl moiety affect the mechanism of hydrolysis as the extent of protonation at a given pH is directly related to the pKa.

  19. Attractants from Bartlett pear for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Alan L.; Light, Douglas M.

    2001-08-01

    The alkyl ethyl and methyl esters of (2 E,4 Z)-2,4-decadienoic acid found in head-space samples of ripe Bartlett pear ( Pyrus communis L.) stimulated a response from neonate larvae of the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), in both static-air Petri-plate and in upwind Y-tube and straight-tube olfactometer bioassays. In comparison with the known CM neonate attractant, ( E,E)-α-farnesene, ethyl (2 E,4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate was attractive at 10-fold and 1,000-fold lower threshold dosages in the Petri-plate and in the Y-tube bioassays, respectively. Methyl (2 E,4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate was attractive to CM neonates in these bioassays at much higher doses than ethyl (2 E,4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate. Other principal head-space volatiles from ripe pear fruit and pear leaves, including butyl acetate, hexyl acetate, ( Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and ( E)-β-ocimene, were not attractive to CM neonates. The potential uses of these pear kairomones for monitoring and control of CM in walnuts and apple are discussed.

  20. Evaluation of the DNA damaging potential of cannabis cigarette smoke by the determination of acetaldehyde derived N2-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine adducts.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajinder; Sandhu, Jatinderpal; Kaur, Balvinder; Juren, Tina; Steward, William P; Segerbäck, Dan; Farmer, Peter B

    2009-06-01

    Acetaldehyde is an ubiquitous genotoxic compound that has been classified as a possible carcinogen to humans. It can react with DNA to form primarily a Schiff base N(2)-ethylidene-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-ethylidene-dG) adduct. An online column-switching valve liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method was developed for the determination of N(2)-ethylidene-dG adducts in DNA following reduction with sodium cyanoborohydride (NaBH(3)CN) to the chemically stable N(2)-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-ethyl-dG) adduct. Accurate quantitation of the adduct was obtained by the addition of the [(15)N(5)]N(2)-ethyl-dG stable isotope-labeled internal standard prior to enzymatic hydrolysis of the DNA samples to 2'-deoxynucleosides with the incorporation of NaBH(3)CN in the DNA hydrolysis buffer. The method required 50 microg of hydrolyzed DNA on column for the analysis, and the limit of detection for N(2)-ethyl-dG was 2.0 fmol. The analysis of calf thymus DNA treated in vitro with acetaldehyde (ranging from 0.5 to 100 mM) or with the smoke generated from 1, 5, and 10 cannabis cigarettes showed linear dose-dependent increases in the level of N(2)-ethyl-dG adducts (r = 0.954 and r = 0.999, respectively). Similar levels (332.8 +/- 21.9 vs 348.4 +/- 19.1 adducts per 10(8) 2'-deoxynucleosides) of N(2)-ethyl-dG adducts were detected following the exposure of calf thymus DNA to 10 tobacco or 10 cannabis cigarettes. No significant difference was found in the levels of N(2)-ethyl-dG adducts in human lung DNA obtained from nonsmokers (n = 4) and smokers (n = 4) with the average level observed as 13.3 +/- 0.7 adducts per 10(8) 2'-deoxynucleosides. No N(2)-ethyl-dG adducts were detected in any of the DNA samples following analysis with the omission of NaBH(3)CN from the DNA hydrolysis buffer. In conclusion, these results provide evidence for the DNA damaging potential of cannabis smoke, implying that the consumption of cannabis

  1. Regulation of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase in L6 cells by polyamines and related compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Erwin, B G; Pegg, A E

    1986-01-01

    Exposure of rat L6 cells in culture to exogenous polyamines led to a very large increase in the activity of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase. Spermine was more potent than spermidine in bringing about this increase, but in both cases the elevated acetyltransferase activity increased the cellular conversion of spermidine into putrescine. The N1-acetyltransferase turned over very rapidly in the L6 cells, with a half-life of 9 min after spermidine and 18 min after spermine. A wide variety of synthetic polyamine analogues also brought about a substantial induction of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase activity. These included sym-norspermidine, sym-norspermine, sym-homospermidine, N4-substituted spermidine derivatives, 1,3,6-triaminohexane, 1,4,7-triaminoheptane and deoxyspergualin, which were comparable with spermidine in their potency, and N1N8-bis(ethyl)spermidine, N1N9-bis(ethyl)homospermidine, methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), ethylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) and 1,1'-[(methylethanediylidene)dinitrilo]bis(3-amino-guanidine ), which were even more active than spermidine. It is suggested that these polyamine analogues may bring about a decrease in cellular polyamines not only by inhibiting biosynthesis but by stimulating the degradation of spermidine into putrescine. PMID:3800951

  2. N-Heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed direct cross-aza-benzoin reaction: Efficient synthesis of α-amino-β-keto esters.

    PubMed

    Uno, Takuya; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Takemoto, Yoshiji

    2012-01-01

    An efficient catalytic synthesis of α-amino-β-keto esters has been newly developed. Cross-coupling of various aldehydes with α-imino ester, catalyzed by N-heterocyclic carbene, leads chemoselectively to α-amino-β-keto esters in moderate to good yields with high atom efficiency. The reaction mechanism is discussed, and it is proposed that the α-amino-β-keto esters are formed under thermodynamic control.

  3. The actions of some esters of 4-hydroxyquinuclidine on guinea-pig ileum, atria and rat fundus strip.

    PubMed

    Barlow, R B; Kitchen, R

    1982-11-01

    1 The acetyl, phenylacetyl, and diphenylacetyl esters of 4-hydroxyquinuclidine and their methiodides have been prepared.2 4-Diphenylacetoxyquinuclidine methiodide has higher affinity for muscarinic receptors than 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP methiodide) but it is less selective. At 30 degrees C its affinity for receptors in ileum is about 5 times that for receptors in atria, a difference similar to that found with diphenylacetoxytrophine methiodide. With 4-DAMP methiodide affinity for receptors in the ileum is over 10 times that for receptors in atria.3 4-Diphenylacetoxyquinuclidine methiodide has higher affinity for muscarinic receptors than 3-diphenylacetoxyquinuclidine hydrochloride or its methiodide.4 4-Acetoxyquinuclidine hydrochloride has less than one-hundredth of the activity of 3-acetoxyquinuclidine hydrochloride (acecyclidine) on guinea-pig ileum, atria, and rat fundus: however, 4-acetoxyquinuclidine methiodide is consistently more active than its 3-isomer, though it is only about 1/25 times as active as acecyclidine.5 4-Acetoxyquinuclidine hydrochloride is only a poor substrate for electric eel acetylcholinesterase: its affinity is similar to that of acecyclidine but it is greatly reduced by methylation.6 The relations between the structure and activity of the agonists are very different from the relations between the structure and affinity of the antagonists, which supports the view that agonists and antagonists bind to different conformations of the muscarinic receptor.

  4. 40 CFR 180.430 - Fenoxaprop-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the... for residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the... registration, as defined in § 180.1(l), are established for residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl...

  5. Deuterium Exchange in Ethyl Acetoacetate: An Undergraduate GC-MS [Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy] Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinson, C. D.; Williams, J. M.; Tinnerman, W. N.; Malloy, T. B.

    2005-01-01

    The role of ethanol O-d in nullifying the deuterolysis may be demonstrated by determining that transesterification of methyl acetoacetate of the ethyl ester occurs as well as deuterium exchange of the five acetoacetate hydrogens. The significant acidity of the methylene protons in the acetoacetate group, the efficacy of base catalysis, the role of…

  6. Fatty acid methyl esters are detectable in the plasma and their presence correlates with liver dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Aleryani, Samir Lutf; Cluette-Brown, Joanne E; Khan, Zia A; Hasaba, Hasan; Lopez de Heredia, Luis; Laposata, Michael

    2005-09-01

    Methanol is a component of certain alcoholic beverages and is also an endogenously formed product. On this basis, we have proposed that methanol may promote synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) in the same way that ethanol promotes fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) synthesis. We tested the hypothesis that FAMEs appear in the blood after ethanol intake. Patient plasma samples obtained from our laboratory (n=78) were grouped according to blood ethanol concentrations (intoxicated, blood ethanol >800 mg/l) and non-intoxicated. These samples were further subdivided into groups based on whether the patient had normal or abnormal liver function tests (abnormal, defined as > or =1 abnormality of plasma alanine and aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, total bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase). A separate set of plasma samples were also divided into normal and abnormal groups based on pancreatic function tests (amylase and lipase). There were no patients with detectable ethanol in this group. Patients with abnormalities in pancreatic function tests were included upon recognition of endogenously produced FAMEs by patients with liver function test abnormalities. FAMEs were extracted from plasma and individual species of FAMEs quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Increased concentrations of FAME were found in patient samples with evidence of liver dysfunction, regardless of whether or not they were intoxicated (n=21, p=0.01). No significant differences in plasma FAME concentrations were found between patients with normal (n=15) versus abnormal pancreatic function tests (n=22, p=0.72). The presence of FAMEs in human plasma may be related to the existence of liver disease, and not to blood ethanol concentrations or pancreatic dysfunction. The metabolic pathways associated with FAME production in patients with impaired liver function remain to be identified.

  7. Penicillins and other acylamino compounds synthesized by the cell-bound penicillin acylase of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Cole, M.

    1969-01-01

    1. The penicillin acylase of Eschericha coli N.C.I.B. 8743 is a reversible enzyme. Reaction rates for the two directions have been determined. 2. Measurements of the rates of enzymic synthesis of penicillins from 6-aminopenicillanic acid and various carboxylic acids revealed that p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid was the best substrate, followed by phenylacetic, 2-thienylacetic, substituted phenylacetic, 3-hexenoic and n-hexanoic acids. 3. The rate of synthesis of penicillin improved when amides or N-acylglycines were used; α-aminobenzylpenicillin and phenoxymethylpenicillin were only synthesized when using these more energy-rich compounds. 4. Phenyl-acetylglycine was the best substrate for the synthesis of benzylpenicillin compared with other derivatives of phenylacetic acid. 5. The enzyme was specific for acyl-l-amino acids, benzylpenicillin being synthesized from phenylacetyl-l-α-aminophenylacetic acid but not from phenylacetyl-d-α-aminophenylacetic acid. 6. α-Phenoxyethylpenicillin was synthesized from 6-aminopenicillanic acid and α-phenoxypropionylthioglycollic acid non-enzymically, but the rate was faster in the presence of the enzyme. 7. The E. coli acylase catalysed the acylation of hydroxylamine by acids or amides to give hydroxamic acids, the phenylacetyl group being the most suitable acyl group. The enzyme also catalysed other acyl-group transfers. PMID:4982418

  8. The gas-liquid chromatography of carboxylic acid esters of the urinary 11-deoxy-17-oxo steroids. Determination as n-butyrates.

    PubMed

    Sadler, P A; Kellie, A E

    1967-06-01

    1. The gas-liquid-chromatographic separations of the acetate, propionate, n-butyrate, isobutyrate and n-valerate esters of androsterone, aetiocholanolone and dehydroepiandrosterone were studied on a 1% neopentyl glycol sebacate column. The n-butyrate, isobutyrate and n-valerate esters were well resolved. 2. The three steroids derived from hydrolysed urinary 17-oxo steroid conjugate extracts were analysed by gas-liquid chromatography after conversion into their n-butyrate esters. The results were compared with independent determinations involving chromatography on alumina.

  9. Cocrystallization out of the blue: DL-mandelic acid/ethyl-DL-mandelate cocrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumanova, Natalia; Payen, Ricky; Springuel, Géraldine; Norberg, Bernadette; Robeyns, Koen; Le Duff, Cécile; Wouters, Johan; Leyssens, Tom

    2017-01-01

    This work focuses on a peculiar behavior of racemic mandelic acid in ethanol solution. Dissolution of racemic mandelic acid in ethanol followed by evaporation to dryness results in a DL-mandelic acid/ethyl-DL-mandelate cocrystal. This behavior indicates that racemic mandelic acid tends not only to transform into an ester in ethanol, but also to cocrystallize with untransformed acid molecules. Cocrystal formation for mandelic acid in ethanol was found to be reproducible under various conditions. DL-tropic acid and DL-phenyllactic acid that contain similar functional groups and that were tested as well, on the other hand, showed no cocrystal formation: DL-phenyllactic acid partly converted into an ester, whereas DL-tropic acid mostly recrystallized.

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis from ethyl chloride and benzocaine.

    PubMed

    Carazo, Juan Luis Anguita; Morera, Blanca Sáenz de San Pedro; Colom, Luis Palacios; Gálvez Lozano, José Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Ethyl chloride (EC) or chloroethane (C2H5Cl) is a volatile halogenated hydrocarbon. Reports of contact sensitivity to this gas are infrequent considering its widespread use as a local anesthetic, and it may have a relatively low sensitization potential. Benzocaine is another local anesthetic derivative of the ethyl ester of para-aminobenzoic acid, previously reported as a causative agent of delayed hypersensitivity reactions. We present a patient who developed a generalized itching dermatitis after the application of a medical aerosol containing EC, as well as facial angioedema and tongue swelling after the local application of benzocaine. Patch-test results were positive for EC "as is" (++), benzocaine 5% in petrolatum (++), and caine mix (+++) at 96 hours (day 4). The possibility of cross-sensitization between both drugs would not have been chemically plausible. We report the first published clinical case of contact allergic dermatitis from two chemically unrelated local anesthetics (EC and benzocaine) in the same patient.

  11. Witting Reaction Using a Stabilized Phosphorus Ylid: An Efficient and Stereoselective Synthesis of Ethyl Trans-Cinnamate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speed, Traci J.; Mclntyre, Jean P.; Thamattoor, Dasan M.

    2004-01-01

    An instructive experiment for the synthesis of ethyl trans-cinnamate, a pleasant smelling ester used in perfumery and flavoring by the reaction of benzaldehyde with the stable ylid triphenylphosphorane is described. The synthesis, workup and characterization of trans-cinnamate may be accomplished in a single laboratory session with commonly…

  12. New ester alkaloids from lupins (genus lupinus).

    PubMed

    Mühlbauer, P; Witte, L; Wink, M

    1988-06-01

    Esters of 13-hydroxylupanine and 4-hydroxylupanine with acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric, tiglic, benzoic, and TRANS-cinnamic acid have been synthesized and characterized by capillary gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (EI-MS, CI-MS). In LUPINUS POLYPHYLLUS, L. ALBUS, L. ANGUSTIFOLIUS, and L. MUTABILIS we could identify new ester alkaloids (e.g. 13-propyloxylupanine, 13-butyryloxylupanine, 13-isobutyryloxylupanine, and 4-tigloyloxylupanine) besides the known esters, i.e. 13-acetoxylupanine, 13-isovaleroyloxylupanine, 13-angeloyloxylupanine, 13-tigloyloxylupanine, 13-benzoyloxylupanine, 13- CIS-cinnamoyloxylupanine nine, and 13- TRANS-cinnamoyloxylupanine.

  13. Thermally reversible gels based on acryloyl- L-proline methyl ester as drug delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martellini, Flavia; Higa, Olga Z.; Takacs, Erzsebet; Safranj, Agneza; Yoshida, Masaru; Katakai, Ryoichi; Carenza, Mario

    1999-06-01

    Thermally reversible hydrogels were synthesized by radiation-induced copolymerization of acryloyl- L-proline methyl ester with hydrophilic or hydrophobic monomers. The swelling behaviour was found to be affected by a proper balance of the latter. In particular, the transition temperature of the different hydrogels shifted to higher or lower values depending on the presence of hydrophilic or hydrophobic moieties in the polymer chain, respectively. Acetaminophen, an analgesic and antipyretic drug, was entrapped into some hydrogels and a wide range of release rates was obtained according to the nature of the comonomers. A novel thermoresponsive hydrogel was also prepared by radiation polymerization of acryloyl- L-proline methyl ester in the presence of 4-acryloyloxy acetanilide, an acrylic derivative of acetaminophen. Again, the swelling curves showed an inverse function of temperature. It was shown that with this hydrogel bearing the drug covalently attached to the polymer backbone, the hydrolysis process was the rate-determining process of the drug release.

  14. Emission Studies in CI Engine using LPG and Palm Kernel Methyl Ester as Fuels and Di-ethyl Ether as an Additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dora, Nagaraju; Jothi, T. J. Sarvoththama

    2018-05-01

    The present study investigates the effectiveness of using di-ethyl ether (DEE) as the fuel additive in engine performance and emissions. Experiments are carried out in a single cylinder four stroke diesel engine at constant speed. Two different fuels namely liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and palm kernel methyl ester (PKME) are used as primary fuels with DEE as the fuel additive. LPG flow rates of 0.6 and 0.8 kg/h are considered, and flow rate of DEE is varied to maintain the constant engine speed. In case of PKME fuel, it is blended with diesel in the latter to the former ratio of 80:20, and DEE is varied in the volumetric proportion of 1 and 2%. Results indicate that for the engine operating in LPG-DEE mode at 0.6 kg/h of LPG, the brake thermal efficiency is lowered by 26%; however, NOx is subsequently reduced by around 30% compared to the engine running with only diesel fuel at 70% load. Similarly, results of PKME blended fuel showed a drastic reduction in the NOx and CO emissions. In these two modes of operation, DEE is observed to be significant fuel additive regarding emissions reduction.

  15. [The original novel nootropic and neuroprotective agent noopept].

    PubMed

    Ostrovskaia, R U; Gudasheva, T A; Voronina, T A; Seredenin, S B

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes pharmacological properties of the new nootropic drug noopept created using an original approach based on the imitation of a nonpeptide nootrope structure by means of the short-peptide design. In particular, the structure of pyracetam was designed using dipeptide nootropes. Experimental investigations of noopept (N-phenylacetyl-L-polyglycine ethyl ester) showed that the new drug exceeds pyracetam both with respect to the effective dose level (1000 times lower for noopept than for pyracetam) and in the spectrum of mnemotropic activity. In contrast to pyracetam facilitating only the early stages of the memory process, noopept positively influences the memory consolidation and retrieval steps as well. The new drug produces an additional selective anxiolytic action. The pronounced neuroprotective effect of noopept was demonstrated both in vivo (in cases of various forms of brain ischemia) and in vitro (on various neuronal models). The drug action is based on the antioxidant effect, the antiinflammatory action, and the ability to inhibit the neurotoxicity of excess calcium and glutamate, and to improve the blood rheology. It was established for the first time that the activity of noopept is retained both upon parenteral introduction and upon peroral administration, which is a principal advantage of this proline-containing dipeptide over other, more complex peptides. This property provided a basis for the development of a medicinal form of noopept for peroral usage. At present, noopept tablets (noopept 5 and 10 mg) are under clinical assessment as a means of treating cognitive deficiency of cerebrovascular and post-traumatic origin.

  16. Glutathione Ethyl Ester Supplementation during Pancreatic Islet Isolation Improves Viability and Transplant Outcomes in a Murine Marginal Islet Mass Model

    PubMed Central

    Raposo do Amaral, Alexandre S.; Pawlick, Rena L.; Rodrigues, Erika; Costal, Flavia; Pepper, Andrew; Ferreira Galvão, Flávio H.; Correa-Giannella, Maria Lucia; Shapiro, A. M.James

    2013-01-01

    Background The success of pancreatic islet transplantation still faces many challenges, mainly related to cell damage during islet isolation and early post-transplant. The increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during islet isolation and the consumption of antioxidant defenses appear to be an important pathway related to islet damage. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study we evaluated whether supplementation of glutathione-ethyl-ester (GEE) during islet isolation could improve islet viability and transplant outcomes in a murine marginal islet mass model. We also cultured human islets for 24 hours in standard CMRL media with or without GEE supplementation. Supplementation of GEE decreased the content of ROS in isolated islets, leading to a decrease in apoptosis and maintenance of islet viability. A higher percentage of mice transplanted with a marginal mass of GEE treated islets became euglycemic after transplant. The supplementation of 20 mM GEE in cultured human islets significantly reduced the apoptosis rate in comparison to untreated islets. Conclusions/Significance GEE supplementation was able to decrease the apoptosis rate and intracellular content of ROS in isolated islets and might be considered a potential intervention to improve islet viability during the isolation process and maintenance in culture before islet transplantation. PMID:23424628

  17. In Vitro Anti-inflammatory Effects of the Phenylbutyric Acid Metabolite Phenylacetyl Glutamine.

    PubMed

    Hazekawa, Mai; Ono, Kazuhiko; Nishinakagawa, Takuya; Kawakubo-Yasukochi, Tomoyo; Nakashima, Manabu

    2018-06-01

    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA), which exerts a wide range of anti-inflammatory effects, is rapidly cleared from the body (approximately 98%) by urinary excretion by 24 h after oral treatment in humans. PBA was almost entirely excreted to urine as phenylacetyl glutamine (PAGln). However, no data describe the potential anti-inflammatory effects of PAGln. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of PAGln on mouse spleen cells and peritoneal cavity cells, and explore the potential mechanism underlying this effect. PAGln was added to mouse spleen cell cultures stimulated by concanavalin A, or mouse peritoneal cavity cell cultures stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. After 72 h of culture, levels of inflammatory cytokines in culture supernatants were measured using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system, and levels of inflammatory proteins were assessed by Western blotting. PAGln significantly inhibited inflammatory cytokine (interferon-γ, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α) production, decrease of cell number in the spleen cell, and suppressed the expression of inflammatory proteins (nuclear factor κB, and inducible nitric oxide synthase). These results suggest that PAGln possesses anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of T cell activation and Toll-like receptor 4 signaling. This study of the anti-inflammatory mechanism of PAGln provides useful information about its potential for therapeutic applications.

  18. Inhibitory effects of ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from morus alba on lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee-Sook; Shim, Soon-Mi; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2013-11-01

    Fruits of mulberry (Morus alba) have been widely used for therapeutic purposes in Asian countries for centuries. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with ethanolic extracts of M. alba decreased adipocyte differentiation at 100 microg/mL by 18.6%. Treatment suppressed mRNA levels of PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha expression in 3T3-L1 cells. However, the extract did not change free glycerol release from mature adipocytes. Thus, M. alba inhibited lipid accumulation by regulating transcription factors in 3T3-L1 adipocytes without a lipolytic effect. Among the soluble- fractions, the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction had the highest antiadipogenic effects on 3T3-L1 cells. This fraction decreasing intracellular lipid accumulation by 38.5% in response to treatment with 100 microg/mL. In addition, HPLC analysis of the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of M. alba contained 167.7 microM of protocatechulic acid in 1 mg/mL of fraction, which inhibited lipid accumulation by 44.8% in response to treatment with 100 microM. From these results, M. alba is a possible candidate for regulating lipid accumulation in obesity.

  19. Expression Levels of the Yeast Alcohol Acetyltransferase Genes ATF1, Lg-ATF1, and ATF2 Control the Formation of a Broad Range of Volatile Esters

    PubMed Central

    Verstrepen, Kevin J.; Van Laere, Stijn D. M.; Vanderhaegen, Bart M. P.; Derdelinckx, Guy; Dufour, Jean-Pierre; Pretorius, Isak S.; Winderickx, Joris; Thevelein, Johan M.; Delvaux, Freddy R.

    2003-01-01

    Volatile aroma-active esters are responsible for the fruity character of fermented alcoholic beverages such as beer and wine. Esters are produced by fermenting yeast cells in an enzyme-catalyzed intracellular reaction. In order to investigate and compare the roles of the known Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol acetyltransferases, Atf1p, Atf2p and Lg-Atf1p, in volatile ester production, the respective genes were either deleted or overexpressed in a laboratory strain and a commercial brewing strain. Subsequently, the ester formation of the transformants was monitored by headspace gas chromatography and gas chromatography combined with mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Analysis of the fermentation products confirmed that the expression levels of ATF1 and ATF2 greatly affect the production of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate. GC-MS analysis revealed that Atf1p and Atf2p are also responsible for the formation of a broad range of less volatile esters, such as propyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, pentyl acetate, hexyl acetate, heptyl acetate, octyl acetate, and phenyl ethyl acetate. With respect to the esters analyzed in this study, Atf2p seemed to play only a minor role compared to Atf1p. The atf1Δ atf2Δ double deletion strain did not form any isoamyl acetate, showing that together, Atf1p and Atf2p are responsible for the total cellular isoamyl alcohol acetyltransferase activity. However, the double deletion strain still produced considerable amounts of certain other esters, such as ethyl acetate (50% of the wild-type strain), propyl acetate (50%), and isobutyl acetate (40%), which provides evidence for the existence of additional, as-yet-unknown ester synthases in the yeast proteome. Interestingly, overexpression of different alleles of ATF1 and ATF2 led to different ester production rates, indicating that differences in the aroma profiles of yeast strains may be partially due to mutations in their ATF genes. PMID:12957907

  20. Aroma enhancement and enzymolysis regulation of grape wine using β-glycosidase

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Feng-Mei; Du, Bin; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Adding β-glycosidase into grape wine for enhancing aroma was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Kramer sensory evaluation. Compared with the extract from control wines, the extract from enzyme-treated wines increased more aromatic compounds using steam distillation extraction (SDE) and GC-MS analyses. Theses aromatic compounds were as follows: 3-methyl-1-butanol formate, 3-pentanol, furfural, 3-methyl-butanoic acid, 2-methyl-butanoic acid, 3-hydroxy-butanoic acid ethyl ester, hexanoic acid, hexanoic acid ethyl ester, benzyl alcohol, octanoic acid, octanoic acid ethyl ester, dodecanoic acid, and ethyl ester. The enzymolysis regulation conditions, including enzymolysis temperature, enzymolysis time, and enzyme amount, were optimized through L9(34) orthogonal test. Kramer sensory evaluation was performed by an 11-man panel of judges. The optimum enzymolysis regulation conditions were found to be temperature of 45°C, enzymolysis time of 90 min, and enzyme amount of 58.32 U/mL grape wine, respectively. The Kramer sensory evaluation supported that the enzyme-treated wines produced a stronger fragrance. PMID:24804072

  1. Multistimuli-Responsive Amphiphilic Poly(ester-urethane) Nanoassemblies Based on l-Tyrosine for Intracellular Drug Delivery to Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Aluri, Rajendra; Saxena, Sonashree; Joshi, Dheeraj Chandra; Jayakannan, Manickam

    2018-06-11

    Multistimuli-responsive l-tyrosine-based amphiphilic poly(ester-urethane) nanocarriers were designed and developed for the first time to administer anticancer drugs in cancer tissue environments via thermoresponsiveness and lysosomal enzymatic biodegradation from a single polymer platform. For this purpose, multifunctional l-tyrosine monomer was tailor-made with a PEGylated side chain at the phenolic position along with urethane and carboxylic ester functionalities. Under melt dual ester-urethane polycondensation, the tyrosine monomer reacted with diols to produce high molecular weight amphiphilic poly(ester-urethane)s. The polymers produced 100 ± 10 nm spherical nanoparticles in aqueous medium, and they exhibited thermoresponsiveness followed by phase transition from clear solution into a turbid solution in heating/cooling cycles. Variable temperature transmittance, dynamic light scattering, and 1 H NMR studies revealed that the polymer chains underwent reversible phase transition from coil-to-expanded chain conformation for exhibiting the thermoresponsive behavior. The lower critical solution temperature of the nanocarriers was found to correspond to cancer tissue temperature (at 42-44 °C), which was explored as an extracellular trigger (stimuli-1) for drug delivery through the disassembly process. The ester bond in the poly(ester-urethane) backbones readily underwent enzymatic biodegradation in the lysosomal compartments that served as intracellular stimuli (stimuli-2) to deliver drugs. Doxorubicin (DOX) and camptothecin (CPT) drug-loaded polymer nanocarriers were tested for cellular uptake and cytotoxicity studies in the normal WT-MEF cell line and cervical (HeLa) and breast (MCF7) cancer cell lines. In vitro drug release studies revealed that the polymer nanoparticles were stable under physiological conditions (37 °C, pH 7.4) and they exclusively underwent disassembly at cancer tissue temperature (at 42 °C) and biodegradation by lysosomal-esterase enzyme

  2. Passive potassium transport in LK sheep red cells. Modification by N- ethyl maleimide

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Passive K transport, as modified by N-ethyl maleimide (NEM), was studied in erythrocytes of the low-K (LK) phenotype of sheep. Brief (5- min) treatment with NEM at less than 0.5 mM caused inhibition of passive K influx; NEM at concentrations greater than 0.5 mM caused stimulation of K influx. NEM had similar effects on K efflux. The treatments with NEM did not affect cell volumes (passive K transport in LK cells is sensitive to changes in cell volume). The stimulation of K transport by high [NEM] was also not a consequence of an effect on the metabolic state of the cells. Passive K transport in LK cells is dependent on Cl (it is inhibited in Cl-free media; it may be K/Cl cotransport). NEM had no effect on K influx in Cl-free (NO3- substituted) media. Pretreatment of the cells with anti-L antiserum (L antigen is found on LK cells and not on HK cells) prevented stimulation of K influx by NEM, but did not prevent inhibition. Therefore, NEM modifies the Cl-dependent K transport pathway at two separate sites, a low-affinity site, at which it stimulates, and a high-affinity site, at which it inhibits. Anti-L antibody prevents NEM's action, but only at the low-affinity site. PMID:6875508

  3. A new ester coumarin from Ferula Persica wild, indigenous to Iran.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Seyed Mehdi; Janani, Mehrnoush

    2015-01-01

    Ferula persica wild (Apiaceae) is a perennial herb indigenous to Iran. It has been used in folk medicine for treatment of diabetes, lowering of blood pressure and for antispasmodic, carminative, laxative and expectorant effects in central Iran. Dried ground roots of F. persica (150 g) were extracted sequentially with n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol (MeOH), 500 ml each, using a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane extract of the roots (3 g) was subjected to vacuum liquid chromatography on silica gel, eluting with solvent mixtures of increasing polarity: 100% n-hexane-ethyl acetate (EtOAc), to yield a number of fractions, Fraction 4 (80% EtOAc in n-hexane) was further analysed by preparative TLC (mobile phase was 12% acetone in chloroform) to yield a coumarin ester (10.1 mg, Rf = 0.31, blue florescent). The structure of the isolated compound was elucidated by spectroscopic means. The compound is 7-O-(4,8,12 -trihydroxy-4,8,12-trimethyl-tridecanoyl)-coumarin, named, ferulone C as a new natural product.

  4. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of alkylphosphonic acids from aqueous samples by ion-pair solid-phase extraction on activated charcoal and methylation.

    PubMed

    Vijaya Saradhi, U V R; Prabhakar, S; Jagadeshwar Reddy, T; Murty, M R V S

    2007-07-20

    In the present paper, we report an improved ion-pair solid-phase extraction (IP-SPE) method for the analysis of alkylphosphonic acids, namely, methyl, ethyl and propylphosphonic acids, present in the aqueous sample. The aqueous sample was mixed with an ion-pair reagent, phenyltrimethylammonium hydroxide (PTMAH) and passed through activated charcoal SPE cartridge. The retained chemicals in the cartridge were extracted with methanol and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) under the electron impact ionization (EI) mode. The analytes were converted to their methyl esters by pyrolytic methylation in the hot GC injection port. The recoveries of alkylphosphonic acids were above 95% and the minimum detection limits were as low as 10 ng/mL. The recovery of the test chemicals was tested with solvents, dichloromethane, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, acetonitrile and methanol. The chemicals could be efficiently extracted by the hydrophilic solvents. The method did not work at the highly acidic pH (when acidified with dilute HCl) but worked well from pH 4.0 to 14.0. The present method was also tested with other tetra-(methyl, ethyl, propyl and n-butyl)ammonium hydroxides. The test chemicals were not converted to their methyl and ethyl esters with tetramethyl and tetraethylammonium hydroxides, whereas they were converted to their corresponding propyl and n-butyl esters with tetrapropyl and tetra(n-butyl)ammonium hydroxides. The method was also applied to two highly cross-linked polymeric sorbents DSC-6S and Oasis HLB. The recovery of the chemicals on these sorbents was observed to be poor. Methylation using phenyltrimethylammonium hydroxide is non-hazardous and advantageous over methylation using diazomethane. The method was applied to the analysis of aqueous samples given in one of the official proficiency tests conducted by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons and all the spiked chemicals were identified as methyl esters.

  5. Rotational isomers of N-(β-phenylpropionyl)alanine ethyl dithioester: a Raman spectroscopic and MO study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fausto, R.; Teixeira-Dias, J. J. C.; Tonge, P. J.; Carey, P. R.

    1994-07-01

    Raman spectra of N-(β-phenylpropionyl)alanine ethyl dithioester (C 6H 5CH 2CH 2C(O)NHCH(CH 3)C(S)SC 2H 5) in CCl 4 and CH 3CN solutions were measured as a function of temperature and the enthalpy differences (Δ H) between rotational isomers differing by internal rotation around the NHCH(CH 3) and CH(CH 3)C(S) bonds (forms A, B and C 5) were evaluated from relative band intensities. The spectroscopic results are consistent with a greater thermodynamical stability of the B-type conformer, where the N and S (thiol) atoms are in close contact. In addition, a comparison of the measured Δ H(A-B) for the present molecules with previously reported values for a series of similar glycine-based ethyl dithioesters shows that the presence of the extra CH 3 group at the α-carbon atom leads to a stabilization of the B-type conformer relative to the A-type form in the alanine-based dithioester. Semiempirical AM1 molecular orbital calculations were also performed on the title molecule and on its glycine analogue, N(β-phenylpropionyl)glycine ethyl dithioester. In general terms, the results of these calculations agree with the experimental findings, thus providing good theoretical support for the experimental data.

  6. Molecular structure, supramolecular organization and thermotropic phase behavior of N-acylglycine alkyl esters with matched acyl and alkyl chains.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S Thirupathi; Swamy, Musti J

    2017-11-01

    N-Acylglycines (NAGs), the endogenous single-tailed lipids present in rat brain and other mammalian tissues, play significant roles in cell physiology and exhibit interesting pharmacological properties. In the present study, a homologous series of N-acylglycine alkyl esters (NAGEs) with matched chains were synthesized and characterized. Results of differential scanning calorimetric studies revealed that all NAGEs exhibit a single sharp phase transition and that the transition enthalpy and entropy show a linear dependence on the N-acyl and ester alkyl chain length. The structure of N-myristoylglycine myristyl ester (NMGME), solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, showed that the molecule adopts a linear geometry and revealed that the structure of N-myristoyl glycyl moiety in NMGME is identical to that in N-myristoylglycine. The molecules are packed in layers with the polar functional groups of the ester and amide functionalities located at the center of the layer. The crystal packing is stabilized by NH⋯O hydrogen bonds between the amide CO and NH groups of adjacent molecules as well as by CH⋯O hydrogen bonds between the amide carbonyl and the methylene CH adjacent to the ester carbonyl of neighboring molecules as well as between ester carbonyl and methylene group of the glycine moiety of adjacent molecules. Powder X-ray diffraction studies showed a linear dependence of the d-spacings on the acyl chain length, suggesting that all NAGEs adopt a structure similar to the packing exhibited in the crystal lattice of NMGME. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development and validation of a Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) model based on the determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in hair for the diagnosis of chronic alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Alladio, E; Giacomelli, L; Biosa, G; Corcia, D Di; Gerace, E; Salomone, A; Vincenti, M

    2018-01-01

    The chronic intake of an excessive amount of alcohol is currently ascertained by determining the concentration of direct alcohol metabolites in the hair samples of the alleged abusers, including ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and, less frequently, fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). Indirect blood biomarkers of alcohol abuse are still determined to support hair EtG results and diagnose a consequent liver impairment. In the present study, the supporting role of hair FAEEs is compared with indirect blood biomarkers with respect to the contexts in which hair EtG interpretation is uncertain. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves and multivariate Principal Component Analysis (PCA) demonstrated much stronger correlation of EtG results with FAEEs than with any single indirect biomarker or their combinations. Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) models based on hair EtG and FAEEs were developed to maximize the biomarkers information content on a multivariate background. The final PLS-DA model yielded 100% correct classification on a training/evaluation dataset of 155 subjects, including both chronic alcohol abusers and social drinkers. Then, the PLS-DA model was validated on an external dataset of 81 individual providing optimal discrimination ability between chronic alcohol abusers and social drinkers, in terms of specificity and sensitivity. The PLS-DA scores obtained for each subject, with respect to the PLS-DA model threshold that separates the probabilistic distributions for the two classes, furnished a likelihood ratio value, which in turn conveys the strength of the experimental data support to the classification decision, within a Bayesian logic. Typical boundary real cases from daily work are discussed, too. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Liner Technology Program. Volume 3. Liner Development Methodology Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    derivative of trimesic acid, trimenoyl-l- (2-ethyl) aziridine BNO Hydroxyl ethyl ester of carboxy-terminated polybutadiene Catocene Liquid ferrocene ...diisocyanate MAPO rris-l-(2-methyl) aziridinyl phosphine oxide I.’ lNA Methyl nedic anhydride; methyl endo-cis-cicyolo-2,2,1-5- heptene-2,3-dicarboxylic

  9. Temperature-Induced Phase Separation in Molecular Assembly of Nanotubes Comprising Amphiphilic Polypeptide with Poly( N-Ethyl Glycine) in Water by a Hydrophilic-Region Driven Type Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Tetsuya; Itagaki, Toru; Uji, Hirotaka; Kimura, Shunsaku

    2018-06-20

    Two kinds of amphiphilic polypeptides having different types of hydrophilic polypeptoids, poly(sarcosine)-b-(L-Leu-Aib)6 (ML12) and poly(N-ethyl glycine)-b-(L-Leu-Aib)6 (EL12), were self-assembled via two paths to phase-separated nanotubes. One path was via sticking ML12 nanotubes with EL12 nanotubes, and the other was a preparation from a mixture of ML12 and EL12 in solution. In either case, nanotubes showed temperature-induced phase separation along the long axis, which was observed by two methods of labeling one phase with gold nanoparticles and fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the components. The phase-separation was ascribed to aggregation of poly(N-ethyl glycine) blocks over the cloud point temperature. The addition of 5% trifluoroethanol was needed for the phase separation, because the tight association of the helices in the hydrophobic region should be loosened to allow lateral diffusion of the components to be separated. The phase-separation in molecular assemblies in water based on the hydrophilic-region driven type mechanism therefore requires sophisticated balances of association forces exerting among the hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions of the amphiphilic polypeptoids.

  10. [Genotype-dependent mice behavior in cognitive tasks. Effect of noopept].

    PubMed

    Bel'nik, A P; Ostrovskaia, R U; Poletaeva, I I

    2007-01-01

    The interstrain differences in performance of C57BL/6J, BALB/c and DBA/2J male mice in two cognitive tasks were found. Mice C57BL/6J showed good learning ability and preservation of memory traces tested 10 days after performance in a simplified version of Morris water maze. Mice BALB/c learned the task but, virtually, no long-term memory traces were revealed, whereas DBA/2J demonstrated poor learning. The effect of nootropic drug Noopept (GVS-111, N-phenil-acetyl-L-prolylglycin ethyl ether) was shown to be genotype-dependent. Its administration (0.5 mg/kg i.p., 15 min before learning) improved the long-term memory in Morris test in BALB/c mice but failed to produce any improvement in C57BL/6J. The ability of mice for extrapolation of the direction of stimulus movement differently changed after Noopept injections: the proportion of correct task solutions increased in C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice, whereas the performance of DBA/2J did not change.

  11. Rapid screening of fatty acid alkyl esters in olive oils by time domain reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Berardinelli, Annachiara; Ragni, Luigi; Bendini, Alessandra; Valli, Enrico; Conte, Lanfranco; Guarnieri, Adriano; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

    2013-11-20

    The main aim of the present research is to assess the possibility of quickly screening fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAE) in olive oils using time domain reflectometry (TDR) and partial least-squares (PLS) multivariate statistical analysis. Eighteen virgin olive oil samples with fatty acid alkyl ester contents and fatty acid ethyl ester/methyl ester ratios (FAEE/FAME) ranging from 3 to 100 mg kg(-1) and from 0.3 to 2.6, respectively, were submitted to tests with time domain resolution of 1 ps. The results obtained in test set validation demonstrated that this new and fast analytical approach is able to predict FAME, FAEE, and FAME + FAEE contents with R(2) values of 0.905, 0.923, and 0.927, respectively. Further measurements on mixtures between olive oil and FAAE standards confirmed that the prediction is based on a direct influence of fatty acid alkyl esters on the TDR signal. The suggested technique appeared potentially suitable for monitoring one of the most important quality attribute of the olive oil in the extraction process.

  12. Fatty acid ethyl ester synthase inhibition ameliorates ethanol-induced Ca2+-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Booth, David M; Cane, Matthew C; Chvanov, Michael; Javed, Muhammad A; Elliott, Victoria L; Armstrong, Jane A; Dingsdale, Hayley; Cash, Nicole; Li, Yan; Greenhalf, William; Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S; Jaffar, Mohammed; Petersen, Ole H; Tepikin, Alexei V; Sutton, Robert; Criddle, David N

    2014-01-01

    Objective Non-oxidative metabolism of ethanol (NOME) produces fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) via carboxylester lipase (CEL) and other enzyme action implicated in mitochondrial injury and acute pancreatitis (AP). This study investigated the relative importance of oxidative and non-oxidative pathways in mitochondrial dysfunction, pancreatic damage and development of alcoholic AP, and whether deleterious effects of NOME are preventable. Design Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]C), NAD(P)H, mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of apoptotic and necrotic cell death pathways were examined in isolated pancreatic acinar cells in response to ethanol and/or palmitoleic acid (POA) in the presence or absence of 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP) to inhibit oxidative metabolism. A novel in vivo model of alcoholic AP induced by intraperitoneal administration of ethanol and POA was developed to assess the effects of manipulating alcohol metabolism. Results Inhibition of OME with 4-MP converted predominantly transient [Ca2+]C rises induced by low ethanol/POA combination to sustained elevations, with concurrent mitochondrial depolarisation, fall of NAD(P)H and cellular necrosis in vitro. All effects were prevented by 3-benzyl-6-chloro-2-pyrone (3-BCP), a CEL inhibitor. 3-BCP also significantly inhibited rises of pancreatic FAEE in vivo and ameliorated acute pancreatic damage and inflammation induced by administration of ethanol and POA to mice. Conclusions A combination of low ethanol and fatty acid that did not exert deleterious effects per se became toxic when oxidative metabolism was inhibited. The in vitro and in vivo damage was markedly inhibited by blockade of CEL, indicating the potential for development of specific therapy for treatment of alcoholic AP via inhibition of FAEE generation. PMID:24162590

  13. The synthesis and structure of a potential immunosuppressant: N-mycophenoyl malonic acid dimethyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, Agnieszka; Cholewiński, Grzegorz; Garwolińska, Dorota; Olejnik, Adrian; Rachoń, Janusz; Chojnacki, Jarosław

    2018-01-01

    The synthesis of a potential immunosuppressant, i.e. dimethyl ester of N-mycophenoyl malonic acid was optimized in the reaction of mycophenolic acid (MPA) with amino malonic dimethyl ester in the presence of propanephosphonic anhydride (T3P) as a coupling reagent. The structural properties of the obtained MPA derivative were investigated by NMR, MS and single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. Theoretical considerations of conformational flexibility based on DFT calculations are presented.

  14. Microbial Transformation of Esters of Chlorinated Carboxylic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Paris, D. F.; Wolfe, N. L.; Steen, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    Two groups of compounds were selected for microbial transformation studies. In the first group were carboxylic acid esters having a fixed aromatic moiety and an increasing length of the alkyl component. Ethyl esters of chlorine-substituted carboxylic acids were in the second group. Microorganisms from environmental waters and a pure culture of Pseudomonas putida U were used. The bacterial populations were monitored by plate counts, and disappearance of the parent compound was followed by gas-liquid chromatography as a function of time. The products of microbial hydrolysis were the respective carboxylic acids. Octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) for the compounds were measured. These values spanned three orders of magnitude, whereas microbial transformation rate constants (kb) varied only 50-fold. The microbial rate constants of the carboxylic acid esters with a fixed aromatic moiety increased with an increasing length of alkyl substituents. The regression coefficient for the linear relationships between log kb and log Kow was high for group 1 compounds, indicating that these parameters correlated well. The regression coefficient for the linear relationships for group 2 compounds, however, was low, indicating that these parameters correlated poorly. PMID:16346459

  15. Comparison of Lures Loaded with Codlemone and Pear Ester for Capturing Codling Moths, Cydia pomonella, in Apple and Pear Orchards using Mating Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, D.E.; Cichón, L.; Garrido, S.; Ribes-Dasi, M.; Avilla, J.

    2010-01-01

    Studies were conducted in apple, Malus domestica Borkhausen and pear, Pyrus communis L. (Rosales: Rosaceae), orchards to evaluate the attractiveness of grey halobutyl septa loaded with 1 (L2) and 10 (Mega) mg of codlemone, 8E, 10E-dodecadien-1-ol, 3 mg of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (DA2313), and 3 mg of pear ester plus 3 mg of codlemone (Combo) to adult codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). All studies were conducted in orchards treated with pheromone mating disruption. All four lures were tested on diamond-shaped sticky traps placed in 60 plots of apple and 40 plots of pears in 2003/04, and in 62 plots of apples and 30 of pears in 2004–05. Combo lures attracted significantly more moths (males + females) than all the others in both years. Comparisons among flights showed significant differences mainly for flight 1 and 2, but not always for flight 3. Mega lures provided no significant improvement compared with L2 lures during both seasons regarding the total number of moths. Combo and DA2313 lures attracted fewer females than males during the whole season. For most sample dates, more virgin than mated females were attracted to Combo lures, except during the third flight, and the overall ratio was 60:40, although the difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that the Combo lures are better indicators of codling moth activity in pheromone treated orchards, regardless of pest population level, when compared with similar lures containing codlemone or pear ester alone. PMID:20883133

  16. Controlling The Spread of Land-Attack Cruise Missiles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    propellant additives and agents: (1) Bonding agents as follows: (i) tris(l-(2-methyl)aziridinyl) phosphine oxide (MAPO); (ii) trimesoyl-l(2-ethyl...Triphenyl bismuth (TPB) (ii) Isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) (3) Burning rate modifiers as follows: (i) Catocene (ii) N-butyl- ferrocene (iii...Butacene (iv) Other ferrocene derivatives 9g Controlling the Spread of Land-Attack Cruise Missiles (4) Nitrate esters and nitrato plasticizers as

  17. Gallic acid-based alkyl esters synthesis in a water-free system by celite-bound lipase of Bacillus licheniformis SCD11501.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shivika; Kanwar, Shamsher S; Dogra, Priyanka; Chauhan, Ghanshyam S

    2015-01-01

    Gallic acid (3, 4, 5- trihydroxybenzoic acid) is an important antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and radical scavenging agent. In the present study, a purified thermo-tolerant extra-cellular lipase of Bacillus licheniformis SCD11501 was successfully immobilized by adsorption on Celite 545 gel matrix followed by treatment with a cross-linking agent, glutaraldehyde. The celite-bound lipase treated with glutaraldehyde showed 94.8% binding/retention of enzyme activity (36 U/g; specific activity 16.8 U/g matrix; relative increase in enzyme activity 64.7%) while untreated matrix resulted in 88.1% binding/retention (28.0 U/g matrix; specific activity 8.5 U/g matrix) of lipase. The celite-bound lipase was successfully used to synthesis methyl gallate (58.2%), ethyl gallate (66.9%), n-propyl gallate (72.1%), and n-butyl gallate (63.8%) at 55(o) C in 10 h under shaking (150 g) in a water-free system by sequentially optimizing various reaction parameters. The low conversion of more polar alcohols such as methanol and ethanol into their respective gallate esters might be due to the ability of these alcohols to severely remove water from the protein hydration shell, leading to enzyme inactivation. Molecular sieves added to the reaction mixture resulted in enhanced yield of the alkyl ester(s). The characterization of synthesised esters was done through fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and (1) H NMR spectrum analysis. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  18. A new, direct analytical method using LC-MS/MS for fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD esters) in edible oils.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, K; Ogiso, M; Isagawa, S; Urushiyama, T; Ukena, T; Kibune, N

    2013-01-01

    A new, direct analytical method for the determination of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol fatty acid esters (3-MCPD esters) was developed. The targeted 3-MCPD esters included five types of monoester and 25 [corrected] types of diester. Samples (oils and fats) were dissolved in a mixture of tert-butyl methyl ether and ethyl acetate (4:1), purified using two solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges (C(18) and silica), then analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Five monoesters and five diesters with the same fatty acid group could be separated and quantified. Pairs of 3-MCPD diesters carrying the same two different fatty acid groups, but at reversed positions (sn-1 and sn-2), could not be separated and so were expressed as a sum of both compounds. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were estimated to be between 0.02 to 0.08 mg kg(-1), depending on the types of 3-MCPD ester. Repeatability expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD(r)%) varied from 5.5% to 25.5%. The new method was shown to be applicable to various commercial edible oils and showed levels of 3-MCPD esters varying from 0.58 to 25.35 mg kg(-1). The levels of mono- and diesters ranged from 0.10 to 0.69 mg kg(-1) and from 0.06 to 16 mg kg(-1), respectively.

  19. Final report of the safety assessment of methacrylate ester monomers used in nail enhancement products.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    Methacrylate ester monomers are used in as artificial nail builders in nail enhancement products. They undergo rapid polymerization to form a hard material on the nail that is then shaped. While Ethyl Methacrylate is the primary monomer used in nail enhancement products, other methacrylate esters are also used. This safety assessment addresses 22 other methacrylate esters reported by industry to be present in small percentages as artificial nail builders in cosmetic products. They function to speed up polymerization and/or form cross-links. Only Tetrahydrofurfuryl Methacrylate was reported to the FDA to be in current use. The polymerization rates of these methacrylate esters are within the same range as Ethyl Methacrylate. While data are not available on all of these methacrylate esters, the available data demonstrated little acute oral, dermal, or i.p. toxicity. In a 28-day inhalation study on rats, Butyl Methacrylate caused upper airway irritation; the NOAEL was 1801 mg/m3. In a 28-day oral toxicity study on rats, t-Butyl Methacrylate had a NOAEL of 20 mg/kg/day. Beagle dogs dosed with 0.2 to 2.0 g/kg/day of C12 to C18 methacrylate monomers for 13 weeks exhibited effects only in the highest dose group: weight loss, emesis, diarrhea, mucoid feces, or salivation were observed. Butyl Methacrylate (0.1 M) and Isobutyl Methacrylate (0.1 M) are mildly irritating to the rabbit eye. HEMA is corrosive when instilled in the rabbit eye, while PEG-4 Dimethacrylate and Trimethylolpropane Trimethacrylate are minimally irritating to the eye. Dermal irritation caused by methacrylates is documented in guinea pigs and rabbits. In guinea pigs, HEMA, Isopropylidenediphenyl Bisglycidyl Methacrylate, Lauryl Methacrylate, and Trimethylolpropane Trimethacrylate are strong sensitizers; Butyl Methacrylate, Cyclohexyl Methacrylate, Hexyl Methacrylate, and Urethane Methacrylate are moderate sensitizers; Hydroxypropyl Methacrylate is a weak sensitizer; and PEG-4 Dimethacrylate and

  20. Enantioselective synthesis of L-(-)-4- boronophenylalanine (L-BPA)

    DOEpatents

    Samsel, Edward G.

    1992-01-01

    A method of making substantially pure L-BPA is disclosed. The method includes the steps of reacting 4-bromobenzaldehyde with ethylene glycol to form 4-bromobenzaldehyde ethylene glycol acetal, sequentially reacting 4-bromobenzaldehyde ethyleneglycol acetal with Mg to produce the Grignard reagent and thereafter reacting with tributyl borate and then converting to an acid environment to form 4-boronobenzaldehyde, reacting 4-boronobenzaldehyde with diethanol amine to form 4-boronobenzaldehyde diethanolamine ester, condensing the 4-boronobenzaldehyde diethanolamine ester with 2-phenyl-2-oxazolin-5-one to form an azlactone, reacting the azlactone with an alkali metal hydroxide to form z-.alpha.-benzoylamino-4-boronocinnamic acid, asymmetrically hydrogenating the z-.alpha.-benzoylamino-4-boronocinnamic acid in the presence of a catalyst of a cheltate complex of rhodium (I) with chiral bisphosphines to form L-(+)-N-benzoyl-4-boronophenylalanine, and thereafter acidifying the L-(+)-N-benzoyl-4-boronophenylalanine in an organic medium to produce L-BPA.

  1. Enantioselective synthesis of L-(-)-4- boronophenylalanine (L-BPA)

    DOEpatents

    Samsel, E.G.

    1992-10-20

    A method of making substantially pure L-BPA is disclosed. The method includes the steps of reacting 4-bromobenzaldehyde with ethylene glycol to form 4-bromobenzaldehyde ethylene glycol acetal, sequentially reacting 4-bromobenzaldehyde ethyleneglycol acetal with Mg to produce the Grignard reagent and thereafter reacting with tributyl borate and then converting to an acid environment to form 4-boronobenzaldehyde, reacting 4-boronobenzaldehyde with diethanol amine to form 4-boronobenzaldehyde diethanolamine ester, condensing the 4-boronobenzaldehyde diethanolamine ester with 2-phenyl-2-oxazolin-5-one to form an azlactone, reacting the azlactone with an alkali metal hydroxide to form z-[alpha]-benzoylamino-4boronocinnamic acid, asymmetrically hydrogenating the z-[alpha]-benzoylamino-4-boronocinnamic acid in the presence of a catalyst of a cheltate complex of rhodium (I) with chiral bisphosphines to form L-(+)-N-benzoyl-4-boronophenylalanine, and thereafter acidifying the L-(+)-N-benzoyl-4-boronophenylalanine in an organic medium to produce L-BPA. 3 figs.

  2. 2-Decenoic acid ethyl ester, a derivative of unsaturated medium-chain fatty acids, facilitates functional recovery of locomotor activity after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, A; Shimizu, K; Fukumitsu, H; Soumiya, H; Iinuma, M; Furukawa, S

    2010-12-29

    There is increasing evidence that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have therapeutic potential in various animal models of neuronal injury. However, very few studies have examined the effect of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) on neuronal injury. So in the present study we synthesized various MCFAs and their derivatives, and found that exposure to trans-2-decenoic acid ethyl ester (DAEE) markedly activated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in cultured cortical neurons. Therefore, we examined the effect of DAEE treatment on a rat model of spinal cord injury. DAEE (150 μg/kg body weight) administered after hemisection of the spinal cord resulted in improved functional recovery, decreased the lesion size, increased the activation of ERK1/2, and enhanced the expression of bcl-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA in the injury site of the spinal cord. Furthermore, it also increased neuronal survival after spinal cord injury. These results indicate that the possibility that DAEE will become a promising tool for reducing the secondary damage observed following primary physical injury to the spinal cord. Copyright © 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Lactobacillus plantarum Esterase Active on a Broad Range of Phenolic Esters

    PubMed Central

    Esteban-Torres, María; Landete, José María; Reverón, Inés; Santamaría, Laura; de las Rivas, Blanca

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is the lactic acid bacterial species most frequently found in the fermentation of food products of plant origin on which phenolic compounds are abundant. L. plantarum strains showed great flexibility in their ability to adapt to different environments and growth substrates. Of 28 L. plantarum strains analyzed, only cultures from 7 strains were able to hydrolyze hydroxycinnamic esters, such as methyl ferulate or methyl caffeate. As revealed by PCR, only these seven strains possessed the est_1092 gene. When the est_1092 gene was introduced into L. plantarum WCFS1 or L. lactis MG1363, their cultures acquired the ability to degrade hydroxycinnamic esters. These results support the suggestion that Est_1092 is the enzyme responsible for the degradation of hydroxycinnamic esters on the L. plantarum strains analyzed. The Est_1092 protein was recombinantly produced and biochemically characterized. Surprisingly, Est_1092 was able to hydrolyze not only hydroxycinnamic esters, since all the phenolic esters assayed were hydrolyzed. Quantitative PCR experiments revealed that the expression of est_1092 was induced in the presence of methyl ferulate, an hydroxycinnamic ester, but was inhibited on methyl gallate, an hydroxybenzoic ester. As Est_1092 is an enzyme active on a broad range of phenolic esters, simultaneously possessing feruloyl esterase and tannase activities, its presence on some L. plantarum strains provides them with additional advantages to survive and grow on plant environments. PMID:25746986

  4. 3- and 4-pyridylalkyl adamantanecarboxylates: inhibitors of human cytochrome P450(17 alpha) (17 alpha-hydroxylase/C17,20-lyase). Potential nonsteroidal agents for the treatment of prostatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Chan, F C; Potter, G A; Barrie, S E; Haynes, B P; Rowlands, M G; Houghton, J; Jarman, M

    1996-08-16

    Various 3- and 4-pyridylalkyl 1-adamantanecarboxylates have been synthesized and tested for inhibitory activity toward the 17 alpha-hydroxylase and C17,20-lyase activities of human testicular cytochrome P450(17 alpha). The 4-pyridylalkyl esters were much more inhibitory than their 3-pyridylalkyl counterparts. The most potent was (S)-1-(4-pyridyl)ethyl 1-adamantanecarboxylate (3b; IC50 for lyase, 1.8 nM), whereas the (R)-enantiomer 3a was much less inhibitory (IC50 74 nM). Nearly as potent as 3b was the dimethylated counterpart, the 2-(4-pyridylpropan-2-yl) ester 5 (IC50 2.7 nM), which was also more resistant to degradation by esterases. In contrast to their 4-pyridyl analogs, the enantiomers of the 1-(3-pyridyl)ethyl ester were similarly inhibitory (IC50 for lyase; (R)-isomer 8a 150 nM, (S)-isomer 8b 230 nM). Amides corresponding to the 4-pyridylmethyl ester 1 and the (S)-1-(4-pyridyl)ethyl ester 3b, respectively 11 and 15b, were much less inhibitory than their ester counterparts. On the basis of a combination of inhibitory potency and resistance to esterases, the ester 5 was the best candidate for further development as a potential nonsteroidal inhibitor of cytochrome P450(17 alpha) for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  5. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of ethyl p-methoxycinnamate from Kaempferia galanga L. rhizome and its apoptotic induction in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Benguo; Liu, Feng; Chen, Chungang; Gao, Han

    2010-12-01

    In this study, supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of ethyl p-methoxycinnamate from Kaempferia galanga L. rhizome and its apoptotic induction in human HepG2 cells are reported for the first time. By using supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, the yield of ethyl p-methoxycinnamate identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was as high as 2.5% with respect to the raw materials. In the anticancer assay, it was found that ethyl p-methoxycinnamate could inhibit the proliferation of the human hepatocellular liver carcinoma HepG2 cell line in a dose-dependent manner and induce the significant increase of the subG0 cell population. After treatment with ethyl p-methoxycinnamate, phosphatidylserine of HepG2 cells could significantly translocate to the surface of the membrane. The increase of an early apoptotic population was observed by both annexin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and propidium iodide (PI) staining. It was concluded that ethyl p-methoxycinnamate not only induced cells to enter into apoptosis, but also affected the progress of the cell cycle.

  6. Production of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters from Menhaden Oil Using Proteus vulgaris Lipase-Mediated One-Step Transesterification and Urea Complexation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Kim, Hyung Kwoun

    2016-05-01

    An organic solvent-stable lipase from Proteus vulgaris K80 was used to produce the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ethyl esters (ω-3 PUFA EEs). First, the lyophilized recombinant lipase K80 (LyoK80) was used to perform the transesterification reaction of menhaden oil and ethanol. LyoK80 produced the ω-3 PUFA EEs with a conversion yield of 82 % in the presence of 20 % water content via a three-step ethanol-feeding process; however, in a non-aqueous condition, LyoK80 produced only a slight amount of the ω-3 PUFA EEs. To enhance its reaction properties, the lipase K80 was immobilized on a hydrophobic bead to derive ImmK80; the biochemical properties and substrate specificity of ImmK80 are similar to those of LyoK80. ImmK80 was then used to produce ω-3 PUFA EEs in accordance with the same transesterification reaction. Unlike LyoK80, ImmK80 achieved a high ω-3 PUFA EE conversion yield of 86 % under a non-aqueous system via a one-step ethanol-feeding reaction. The ω-3 PUFA EEs were purified up to 92 % using a urea complexation method.

  7. Effects of aqueous leaf extract of Tridax procumbens on contractile activity of corpus cavernosum in N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester-induced hypertensive male rats.

    PubMed

    Salami, Shakiru Ademola; Salahdeen, Hussein Mofomosara; Ugbebor, Evangelshane Chukwudubem; Murtala, Babatunde Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of aqueous leaf extract of Tridax procumbens (ALETP) on contractile activity of corpus cavernosum in N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)-induced hypertensive male rats. Twenty normal, adult male rats (130-150 g) were divided into four groups of five rats each. Group I (control) was given normal saline (0.6 mL/kg) and group II was given l-NAME (40 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. Groups III and IV also received l-NAME (40 mg/kg) for 6 weeks but were further co-treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg of ALETP, respectively, from week 4 to week 6. All treatments were given orally. Strips of corpus cavernosum from each of the four groups were exposed to increasing concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (10 -9 -10 -5 mol/L) after contraction with phenylephrine (10 -7  mol/L) to test for a dose-response effect. Response to potassium and calcium was also measured after cumulatively adding potassium and calcium (10-50 mmol/L) to potassium- and calcium-free organ chamber. Isometric contractions were recorded through an Ugo Basile data capsule acquisition system. Mean arterial blood pressure was significantly reduced in the ALETP co-treated group compared to the control and l-NAME-only groups (P < 0.05). Cavernosa strips from ALETP co-treated rats exhibited significant inhibition of contraction in response to phenylephrine, potassium chloride, and calcium chloride (P < 0.05). Relaxation in response to Ach and SNP was also significantly impaired in cavernosa strips from the l-NAME-only treated group (P < 0.05), while ALETP co-treated groups showed enhanced percentage relaxation. ALETP treatment of l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats promotes a relaxant effect on isolated cavernosa strips. ALETP shows potential in correcting erectile dysfunction in hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography of anthranilic acid-labelled oligosaccharides with a 4-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester-labelled dextran hydrolysate internal standard.

    PubMed

    Neville, David C A; Alonzi, Dominic S; Butters, Terry D

    2012-04-13

    Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) of fluorescently labelled oligosaccharides is used in many laboratories to analyse complex oligosaccharide mixtures. Separations are routinely performed using a TSK gel-Amide 80 HPLC column, and retention times of different oligosaccharide species are converted to glucose unit (GU) values that are determined with reference to an external standard. However, if retention times were to be compared with an internal standard, consistent and more accurate GU values would be obtained. We present a method to perform internal standard-calibrated HILIC of fluorescently labelled oligosaccharides. The method relies on co-injection of 4-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester (4-ABEE)-labelled internal standard and detection by UV absorption, with 2-AA (2-aminobenzoic acid)-labelled oligosaccharides. 4-ABEE is a UV chromophore and a fluorophore, but there is no overlap of the fluorescent spectrum of 4-ABEE with the commonly used fluorescent reagents. The dual nature of 4-ABEE allows for accurate calculation of the delay between UV and fluorescent signals when determining the GU values of individual oligosaccharides. The GU values obtained are inherently more accurate as slight differences in gradients that can influence retention are negated by use of an internal standard. Therefore, this paper provides the first method for determination of HPLC-derived GU values of fluorescently labelled oligosaccharides using an internal calibrant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis of N-formyl-3,4-di-t-butoxycarbonyloxy-6(trimethylstannyl)-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester and its regioselective radiofluorodestannylation to 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-dopa

    DOEpatents

    Satyamurthy, N.; Barrio, J.R.; Bishop, A.J.; Namavari, M.

    1995-02-28

    A protected 6-trimethylstannyl dopa derivative has been synthesized for the as a precursor for the preparation of 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-dopa. The tin derivative readily reacts with electrophilic radiofluorinating agents such as [{sup 18}F]F{sub 2}, [{sup 18}F]OF{sub 2} and [{sup 18}F]AcOF. The [{sup 18}F]fluoro intermediate was easily hydrolyzed with HBr and the product 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-dopa was isolated after HPLC purification in a maximum radiochemical yield of 23%, ready for human use. 1 fig.

  10. Synthesis of N-formyl-3,4-di-t-butoxycarbonyloxy-6(trimethylstannyl)-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester and its regioselective radiofluorodestannylation to 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-dopa

    SciTech Connect

    Satyamurthy, N.; Barrio, J.R.; Bishop, A.J.

    A protected 6-trimethylstannyl dopa derivative has been synthesized for the as a precursor for the preparation of 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-dopa. The tin derivative readily reacts with electrophilic radiofluorinating agents such as [{sup 18}F]F{sub 2}, [{sup 18}F]OF{sub 2} and [{sup 18}F]AcOF. The [{sup 18}F]fluoro intermediate was easily hydrolyzed with HBr and the product 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-dopa was isolated after HPLC purification in a maximum radiochemical yield of 23%, ready for human use. 1 fig.

  11. Synthesis of N-formyl-3,4-di-t-butoxycarbonyloxy-6-(trimethylstannyl)-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester and its regioselective radiofluorodestannylation to 6-[.sup.18 F]fluoro-L-dopa

    DOEpatents

    Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R.; Bishop, Allyson J.; Namavari, Mohammad

    1995-01-01

    A protected 6-trimethylstannyl dopa derivative has been synthesized for the as a precursor for the preparation of 6-[.sup.18 F]fluoro-L-dopa. The tin derivative readily reacts with electrophilic radiofluorinating agents such as [.sup.18 F]F.sub.2, [.sup.18 F]OF.sub.2 and [.sup.18 F]AcOF. The [.sup.18 F]fluoro intermediate was easily hydrolyzed with HBr and the product 6-[.sup.18 F]fluoro-L-dopa was isolated after HPLC purification in a maximum radiochemical yield of 23%, ready for human use.

  12. A Lactobacillus plantarum esterase active on a broad range of phenolic esters.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Torres, María; Landete, José María; Reverón, Inés; Santamaría, Laura; de las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario

    2015-05-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is the lactic acid bacterial species most frequently found in the fermentation of food products of plant origin on which phenolic compounds are abundant. L. plantarum strains showed great flexibility in their ability to adapt to different environments and growth substrates. Of 28 L. plantarum strains analyzed, only cultures from 7 strains were able to hydrolyze hydroxycinnamic esters, such as methyl ferulate or methyl caffeate. As revealed by PCR, only these seven strains possessed the est_1092 gene. When the est_1092 gene was introduced into L. plantarum WCFS1 or L. lactis MG1363, their cultures acquired the ability to degrade hydroxycinnamic esters. These results support the suggestion that Est_1092 is the enzyme responsible for the degradation of hydroxycinnamic esters on the L. plantarum strains analyzed. The Est_1092 protein was recombinantly produced and biochemically characterized. Surprisingly, Est_1092 was able to hydrolyze not only hydroxycinnamic esters, since all the phenolic esters assayed were hydrolyzed. Quantitative PCR experiments revealed that the expression of est_1092 was induced in the presence of methyl ferulate, an hydroxycinnamic ester, but was inhibited on methyl gallate, an hydroxybenzoic ester. As Est_1092 is an enzyme active on a broad range of phenolic esters, simultaneously possessing feruloyl esterase and tannase activities, its presence on some L. plantarum strains provides them with additional advantages to survive and grow on plant environments. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Effect of drug lipophilicity on in vitro release rate from oil vehicles using nicotinic acid esters as model prodrug derivatives.

    PubMed

    Weng Larsen, S; Engelbrecht Thomsen, A E; Rinvar, E; Friis, G J; Larsen, C

    2001-03-23

    The rate constants for transfer of a homologous series of nicotinic acid esters from oil vehicles to aqueous buffer phases were determined using a rotating dialysis cell. The chemical stability of butyl nicotinate has been investigated at 60 degrees C over pH range 0.5--10. Maximum stability occurs at pH 4--5 and an inflection point was seen around the pK(a). For the nicotinic acid esters, a linear correlation was established between the first-order rate constant related to attainment of equilibrium, k(obs) and the apparent partition coefficient, P(app): log k(obs)=-0.83log P(app)+0.26 (k(obs) in h(-1), n=9). For hexyl nicotinate with a true partition coefficient of 4 it was possible to determine k(obs) by decreasing pH in the aqueous release medium to 2.05. Thus, under the latter experimental conditions estimation of the relative release rates for the esters were performed. The ratio between the specific rate constant k(ow), related to the transport from oil vehicle to aqueous phase, for ethyl and hexyl nicotinate was 139. The hydrophobic substituent constant for a methylene group, pi(CH(2)), was determined for nicotinic acid esters in different oil/buffer partitioning systems to 0.54--0.58. Addition of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin to the aqueous release medium did not enhance the transport rate of the esters from the oil phase.

  14. The coordination structure of the extracted copper(II) complex with a synergistic mixture containing dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid and n-hexyl 3-pyridinecarboxylate ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shan; Hu, Huiping; Hu, Jiugang; Li, Jiyuan; Hu, Fang; Wang, Yongxi

    2017-09-01

    In continuation of our interest in the coordination structure of the nickel(II) complex with dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (HDNNS) and 2-ethylhexyl 4-pyridinecarboxylate ester (4PC), it was observed that the coordination sphere was completed by the coordination of two N atoms of pyridine rings in ligands 4PC and four water molecules while no direct interaction between Ni(II) and deprotonated HDNNS was observed. To investigate whether the coordination structure of nickel(II) with the synergistic mixture containing HDNNS and 4PC predominates or not in the copper(II) complex with the synergistic mixtures containing HDNNS and pyridinecarboxylate esters, a copper(II) synergist complex with n-hexyl 3-pyridinecarboxylate ester (L) and naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid (HNS, the short chain analogue of HDNNS), was prepared and studied by X-ray single crystal diffraction, elemental analyses and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. It was shown that the composition of the copper(II) synergist complex was [Cu(H2O)2(L)2(NS)2] and formed a trans-form distorted octahedral coordination structure. Two oxygen atoms of the two coordinated water molecules and two N atoms of the pyridine rings in the ligands L defined the basal plane while two O atoms from two sulfonate anions of the deprotonated HNS ligands occupied the apical positions by direct coordination with Cu(II), which was distinguished from the coordination structure of the nickel(II) synergist complex as reported in our previous work. In the crystal lattice, neighboring molecules [Cu(H2O)2L2(NS)2] were linked through the intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the hydrogen atoms of the coordinated water molecules and the oxygen atoms of the sulfonate anions in the copper(II) synergist complex to form a 2D plane. In order to bridge the gap between the solid state structure of the copper(II) synergist complex and the solution structure of the extracted copper(II) complex with the actual synergistic mixture containing

  15. [Study on chemical constituents from ethyl acetate extract of Myricaria bracteata].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Yuan, Yi; Cui, Baosong; Li, Shuai

    2011-04-01

    To study the chemical constituents from the ethyl acetate extract of Myricaria bracteata. The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by chromatographic techniques, and their structures were identified by physical characters and spectroscopic analysis. Sixteen compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate portion of the 95% ethanolic extract of Myricaria bracteata, and identified as myricarin (1), myricarin B (2), 3alpha-hydroxytaraxer-14-en-28-oic acid (3), myricadiol (4), trans-ferulic acid 22-hydroxydocosanoic acid ester (5), docosyl-3, 4-dihydroxy-trans-cinnamate (6), dillenetin (7), 3, 5, 4'-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (8), 3, 5, 4'-trihydroxy-7, 3'-dimethoxyflavone (9), methyl 3, 5-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzoate (10), 3-hydroxy-4-methoxy cinnamic acid (11), sinapaldehyde (12), vanillin (13), syringaldehyde (14), 3, 3', 4'-trimethoxyellagic acid (15), methyl p-hyroxybenzoate (16). Compounds 5, 6, 12-16 were isolated from the genus Myricaria for the fist time, all of the compounds were isolated from this plant for the fist time, except for 8 and 9.

  16. Intracellular L-arginine concentration does not determine NO production in endothelial cells: Implications on the 'L-arginine paradox'

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Soyoung; Mohan, Srinidi; Fung, Ho-Leung, E-mail: hlfung@buffalo.edu

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our findings provide a possible solution to the 'L-arginine paradox'. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extracellular L-arginine concentration is the major determinant of NO production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellular L-arginine action is limited by cellular ARG transport, not the K{sub m} of NOS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explain how L-arginine supplementation can work to increase endothelial function. -- Abstract: We examined the relative contributory roles of extracellular vs. intracellular L-arginine (ARG) toward cellular activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells. EA.hy926 human endothelial cells were incubated with different concentrations of {sup 15}N{sub 4}-ARG, ARG, or L-arginine ethyl ester (ARG-EE) for 2 h.more » To modulate ARG transport, siRNA for ARG transporter (CAT-1) vs. sham siRNA were transfected into cells. ARG transport activity was assessed by cellular fluxes of ARG, {sup 15}N{sub 4}-ARG, dimethylarginines, and L-citrulline by an LC-MS/MS assay. eNOS activity was determined by nitrite/nitrate accumulation, either via a fluorometric assay or by{sup 15}N-nitrite or estimated {sup 15}N{sub 3}-citrulline concentrations when {sup 15}N{sub 4}-ARG was used to challenge the cells. We found that ARG-EE incubation increased cellular ARG concentration but no increase in nitrite/nitrate was observed, while ARG incubation increased both cellular ARG concentration and nitrite accumulation. Cellular nitrite/nitrate production did not correlate with cellular total ARG concentration. Reduced {sup 15}N{sub 4}-ARG cellular uptake in CAT-1 siRNA transfected cells vs. control was accompanied by reduced eNOS activity, as determined by {sup 15}N-nitrite, total nitrite and {sup 15}N{sub 3}-citrulline formation. Our data suggest that extracellular ARG, not intracellular ARG, is the major determinant of NO production in endothelial cells. It is likely that once transported inside

  17. Synthesis and low temperature characterization of iso-oleic ester derivatives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three new iso-oleic ester derivatives (i.e., isopropyl esters (IOA-iPrE), n-butyl esters (IOA-n-BuE), and 2-ethylhexyl esters (IOA-2-EHE)) were synthesized from iso-oleic acid (IOA) using a standard esterification method. These esterified alcohols were chosen because of their bulky and branched-cha...

  18. Isolation of ethyl acetic based AGF bio-nutrient and its application on the growth of Capsicum annum L. plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrawan, Sonjaya, Yaya; Khoerunnisa, Fitri; Musthapa, Iqbal; Nurmala, Astri Rizki

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to obtain the bionutrient derived from extraction of AGF leafs in ethyl acetic solvents and to explore its application on the plant growth of capsicum annum L. (curly red chili). Particularly, the fraction of secondary metabolites groups composed bionutrient was intensively elucidated by liquid vacuum chromatography technique. The characterization of secondary metabolites groups was conducted through several methods, i.e. thin layer chromatography, phytochemical screening, and FTIR spectroscopy. The AGF extracts based bionutrient then was applied on capsicum annum L. plants with dosage of 2 and 10 mL/L. The ethyl acetic solvent and commercial nutrient of Phonska and pesticide of curacron (EC 500) were selected as a blank and a positive control to evaluate the growth pattern of capsicum annum L., respectively. The result showed that the CF 1 dan CF2 of AGF extract contained alkaloid and terpenoid of secondary metabolite group, the CF 3, and CF 4 of AGF extracts were dominated by alkaloid, flavonoid, and terpenoid, while the CF 5 of AGF extract contained alkaloid, tannin and terpenoid groups. The CF 2 of AGF extract has the highest growth rate constant of 0.1702 week-1 with the number and heaviest mass of the yield of 82 pieces and 186.60, respectively. It was also showed the significant bio-pesticide activity that should be useful to support plant growth, indicating that AGF extract can be applied as both bio-nutrient and bio-pesticide.

  19. Thermochromic Excited - State Dipole Moment Measurements of p-Cyano-N,N-diethylaniline in Ethyl Acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawski, A.; Kuklinski, B.; Bojarski, P.

    2003-03-01

    The effect of temperature on absorption and fluorescence spectra of p-cyano-N,N-diethylaniline (CDEA) in ethyl acetate has been studied for temperatures ranging from 293 K to 418 K. At T = 293 K two fluorescence bands are observed: long wavelength emission (LE) and short wavelength emission (SE) of much lower intensity compared to the first one.With temperature increase (which leads to the decrease of dielectric constant ɛ of the solvent) the intensity of SE band strongly increases, however its hypsochromic shift compared to the shift of LE band is rather slight. The electric dipole moments for CDEA determined based on this thermochromic method are: μLEe = 13.4 D and μSEe = 7.5 D for μg = 5.5 D, and μLE e = 13.9 D and μSEe = 8.3 D for μg = 6.6 D. The values obtained are compared with those of p-cyano-N,N-dimethylaniline (CDMA) determined using different methods.

  20. Fundamental Characterization of the Micellar Self-Assembly of Sophorolipid Esters.

    PubMed

    Koh, Amanda; Todd, Katherine; Sherbourne, Ezekiel; Gross, Richard A

    2017-06-13

    Surfactants are ubiquitous constituents of commercial and biological systems that function based on complex structure-dependent interactions. Sophorolipid (SL) n-alkyl esters (SL-esters) comprise a group of modified naturally derived glycolipids from Candida bombicola. Herein, micellar self-assembly behavior as a function of SL-ester chain length was studied. Surface tensions as low as 31.2 mN/m and critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) as low as 1.1 μM were attained for diacetylated SL-decyl ester (dASL-DE) and SL-octyl ester, respectively. For deacetylated SL-esters, CMC values reach a lower limit at SL-ester chains above n-butyl (SL-BE, 1-3 μM). This behavior of SL-esters with increasing hydrophobic tail length is unlike other known surfactants. Diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) and T 1 relaxation NMR experiments indicate this behavior is due to a change in intramolecular interactions, which impedes the self-assembly of SL-esters with chain lengths above SL-BE. This hypothesis is supported by micellar thermodynamics where a disruption in trends occurs at n-alkyl ester chain lengths above those of SL-BE and SL-hexyl ester (SL-HE). Diacetylated (dA) SL-esters exhibit an even more unusual trend in that CMC increases from 1.75 to 815 μM for SL-ester chain lengths of dASL-BE and dASL-DE, respectively. Foaming studies, performed to reveal the macroscopic implications of SL-ester micellar behavior, show that the observed instability in foams formed using SL-esters are due to coalescence, which highlights the importance of understanding intermicellar interactions. This work reveals that SL-esters are an important new family of green high-performing surfactants with unique structure-property relationships that can be tuned to optimize micellar characteristics.

  1. Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as markers for alcohol in meconium: method validation and implementation of a screening program for prenatal drug exposure.

    PubMed

    Hastedt, Martin; Krumbiegel, Franziska; Gapert, René; Tsokos, Michael; Hartwig, Sven

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a widespread problem and can cause severe fetal damage. As the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome is difficult, the implementation of a reliable marker for alcohol consumption during pregnancy into meconium drug screening programs would be invaluable. A previously published gas chromatography mass spectrometry method for the detection of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as alcohol markers in meconium was optimized and newly validated for a sample size of 50 mg. This method was applied to 122 cases from a drug-using population. The meconium samples were also tested for common drugs of abuse. In 73 % of the cases, one or more drugs were found. Twenty percent of the samples tested positive for FAEEs at levels indicating significant alcohol exposure. Consequently, alcohol was found to be the third most frequently abused substance within the study group. This re-validated method provides an increase in testing sensitivity, is reliable and easily applicable as part of a drug screening program. It can be used as a non-invasive tool to detect high alcohol consumption in the last trimester of pregnancy. The introduction of FAEEs testing in meconium screening was found to be of particular use in a drug-using population.

  2. Lipase-catalysed esters synthesis of cafestol and kahweol.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Fábio Junior Moreira; Itabaiana Junior, Ivaldo; Sutili, Felipe Korbus; Marriott, Philip John; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler de; Souza, Rodrigo Octávio Mendonça Alves de; Rezende, Claudia Moraes

    2018-09-01

    Cafestol and kahweol (C&K), two coffee diterpene alcohols with structural similarity which exhibit anticarcinogenic effects, were isolated from green coffee Arabica beans, followed by their lipase-catalysed esterification and purification by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The isolation and enzymatic synthesis parameters of C&K esters were studied, with the latter optimised by a Central Composite Design; both procedures were monitored by gas chromatography. Scale up and improved isolation conditions resulted in 1.29 g of C&K, with 98% purity from 300 g of green Arabica beans. The highest C&K ester yields were observed using an alcohol:fatty acid molar ratio of 1:5, 73.3 mg mL -1 of CAL-B enzyme, 70 °C and 240 rpm for 3 days in toluene, leading to 85-88% conversion among a variety of tested C&K esters, including n-C 14:0 -C 20:0 , C 18:1 , C 18:2 and C 18:3 . Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Wavelength Effect on the Action of a N-Phenylimide S-23142 and a Diphenylether Acifluorfen-Ethyl in Cotyledons of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Ryo; Nagano, Eiki; Oshio, Hiromichi; Kamoshita, Katsuzo; Furuya, Masaki

    1987-01-01

    Specific wavelengths of light required for expression of phytotoxic activity of S-23142 (N-[4-chloro-2-fluoro-5-propargyloxy]phenyl-3,4,5,6-tetra- hydrophthalimide) and acifluorfen-ethyl (ethyl-5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitro benzoic acid) were determined in cotyledons of cucumber seedlings using the Okazaki Large Spectrograph. Leakage of amino acids from the cotyledons was measured as an indication of the phytotoxic activity. The wavelength effects showed common major peaks of activity at 550 and 650 nanometers and a minor peak at 450 nanometers for both herbicides, indicating a common primary photoreaction. Concomitant application of DCMU (3-[3,4-dichlorophenyl]-1,1-dimethylurea) with S-23142 had little influence on the effective wavelengths for S-23142 activity. Light of 450 and 650 nanometers was relatively less effective in achlorophyllous tissue grown in far red light than in green tissue. These results strongly suggest that the phytotoxic action of S-23142 and diphenylethers involves multiple photoreactions and that one of the photoreceptor pigments may be chlorophyll or its related pigment, although photosynthesis is not involved. PMID:16665819

  4. Novel fatty acid methyl esters from the actinomycete Micromonospora aurantiaca

    PubMed Central

    Bruns, Hilke; Riclea, Ramona

    2011-01-01

    Summary The volatiles released by Micromonospora aurantiaca were collected by means of a closed-loop stripping apparatus (CLSA) and analysed by GC–MS. The headspace extracts contained more than 90 compounds from different classes. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) comprised the major compound class including saturated unbranched, monomethyl and dimethyl branched FAMEs in diverse structural variants: Unbranched, α-branched, γ-branched, (ω−1)-branched, (ω−2)-branched, α- and (ω−1)-branched, γ- and (ω−1)-branched, γ- and (ω−2)-branched, and γ- and (ω−3)-branched FAMEs. FAMEs of the last three types have not been described from natural sources before. The structures for all FAMEs have been suggested based on their mass spectra and on a retention index increment system and verified by the synthesis of key reference compounds. In addition, the structures of two FAMEs, methyl 4,8-dimethyldodecanoate and the ethyl-branched compound methyl 8-ethyl-4-methyldodecanoate were deduced from their mass spectra. Feeding experiments with isotopically labelled [2H10]leucine, [2H10]isoleucine, [2H8]valine, [2H5]sodium propionate, and [methyl-2H3]methionine demonstrated that the responsible fatty acid synthase (FAS) can use different branched and unbranched starter units and is able to incorporate methylmalonyl-CoA elongation units for internal methyl branches in various chain positions, while the methyl ester function is derived from S-adenosyl methionine (SAM). PMID:22238549

  5. L-Cysteine ethyl ester reverses the deleterious effects of morphine on, arterial blood-gas chemistry in tracheotomized rats.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, James; Passafaro, Rachael; Baby, Santhosh; Young, Alex P; Bates, James N; Gaston, Benjamin; Lewis, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    This study determined whether the membrane-permeable ventilatory stimulant, L-cysteine ethylester (L-CYSee), reversed the deleterious actions of morphine on arterial blood-gas chemistry in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. Morphine (2 mg/kg, i.v.) elicited sustained decreases in arterial blood pH, pO₂ and sO₂, and increases in pCO₂ (all responses indicative of hypoventilation) and alveolar-arterial gradient (indicative of ventilation-perfusion mismatch). Injections of L-CYSee (100 μmol/kg, i.v.) reversed the effects of morphine in tracheotomized rats but were minimally active in non-tracheotomized rats. L-cysteine or L-serine ethylester (100 μmol/kg, i.v.) were without effect. It is evident that L-CYSee can reverse the negative effects of morphine on arterial blood-gas chemistry and alveolar-arterial gradient but that this positive activity is negated by increases in upper-airway resistance. Since L-cysteine and L-serine ethylester were ineffective, it is evident that cell penetrability and the sulfur moiety of L-CYSee are essential for activity. Due to its ready penetrability into the lungs, chest wall muscle and brain, the effects of L-CYSee on morphine-induced changes in arterial blood-gas chemistry are likely to involve both central and peripheral sites of action. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester inhibits the up-regulated expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase/NMDA receptor in the morphine analgesia tolerance rats].

    PubMed

    Yu, Ling; Xue, Fu-Shan; Li, Cheng-Wen; Xu, Ya-Chao; Zhang, Guo-Hua; Liu, Kun-Peng; Liu, Yi; Sun, Hai-Tao

    2006-12-25

    The effect of systemic administration of nonspecific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, L-NAME) on morphine analgesia tolerance was observed by using the thermal tail-flick method, and the roles of NO and NMDA receptors in morphine analgesia tolerance were evaluated on the basis of the expressions of nNOS mRNA, NR1A mRNA and NR2A mRNA in spinal cord and midbrain. Thirty-six healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups (6 rats per group). Group 1, control group, received a subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of normal saline (1 ml); Groups 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, the treatment groups received s.c. injection of L-NAME 10 mg/kg, L-NAME 20 mg/kg, morphine 10 mg/kg, L-NAME 10 mg/kg + morphine 10 mg/kg, and L-NAME 20 mg/kg + morphine 10 mg/kg, respectively. All rats received s.c. injections twice per day (8:00 and 17:00). The tail-flick latency (TFL) was measured in each rat before the injection as a baseline value, and then TFL at 50 min after the 1st injection every day as the measuring values. The animals (except for groups 2 and 5) were decapitated at 80 min after the last injection on the 8th day. The spinal segments and midbrain were removed for analysis of nNOS mRNA, NR1A mRNA and NR2A mRNA expressions by the RT-PCR method. The results showed that TFL remained unchangeable in group 2 compared with baseline value during the 7-day observation, while increased significantly on the 7th day in group 3. In group 4, TFL was longest on the 1st day, then decreased gradually from the 2nd day to the 6th day, and restored to the baseline value on the 6th day. In group 5, TFL showed a decreasing tendency during the 7-day observation, but was still significantly longer than the baseline value on the 7th day. The changes of TFL obtained in group 6 were similar to those in group 5. The results of RT-PCR showed that as compared with group 1, nNOS mRNA expressions in spinal cord and midbrain were significantly down-regulated in

  7. Fetal Phthalate Screen: Assessment of Several Phthalate Esters on Fetal Rodent Testosterone Production and Gene Expression Following In Utero Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate esters(PE) are a large family of compounds used in a wide array of common products from medical tubing to pharmaceuticals to cables, and wall/floor coverings. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that in utero treatment with PE such as di-ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) du...

  8. The effect of ferulic acid ethyl ester on leptin-induced proliferation and migration of aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yung-Chieh; Lee, Yen-Mei; Hsu, Chih-Hsiung; Leu, Sy-Ying; Chiang, Hsiao-Yen; Yen, Mao-Hsiung; Cheng, Pao-Yun

    2015-08-28

    Leptin is a peptide hormone, which has a central role in the regulation of body weight; it also exerts many potentially atherogenic effects. Ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) has been approved for antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate whether FAEE can inhibit the atherogenic effects of leptin and the possible molecular mechanism of its action. Both of cell proliferation and migration were measured when the aortic smooth muscle cell (A10 cell) treated with leptin and/or FAEE. Phosphorylated p44/42MAPK, cell cycle-regulatory protein (for example, cyclin D1, p21, p27), β-catenin and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) proteins levels were also measured. Results demonstrated that leptin (10, 100 ng ml(-1)) significantly increased the proliferation of cells and the phosphorylation of p44/42MAPK in A10 cells. The proliferative effect of leptin was significantly reduced by the pretreatment of U0126 (0.5 μM), a MEK inhibitor, in A10 cells. Meanwhile, leptin significantly increased the protein expression of cyclin D1, p21, β-catenin and decreased the expression of p27 in A10 cells. In addition, leptin (10 ng ml(-1)) significantly increased the migration of A10 cells and the expression of MMP-9 protein. Above effects of leptin were significantly reduced by the pretreatment of FAEE (1 and 10 μM) in A10 cells. In conclusion, FAEE exerts multiple effects on leptin-induced cell proliferation and migration, including the inhibition of p44/42MAPK phosphorylation, cell cycle-regulatory proteins and MMP-9, thereby suggesting that FAEE may be a possible therapeutic approach to the inhibition of obese vascular disease.

  9. The effect of ferulic acid ethyl ester on leptin-induced proliferation and migration of aortic smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yung-Chieh; Lee, Yen-Mei; Hsu, Chih-Hsiung; Leu, Sy-Ying; Chiang, Hsiao-Yen; Yen, Mao-Hsiung; Cheng, Pao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Leptin is a peptide hormone, which has a central role in the regulation of body weight; it also exerts many potentially atherogenic effects. Ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) has been approved for antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate whether FAEE can inhibit the atherogenic effects of leptin and the possible molecular mechanism of its action. Both of cell proliferation and migration were measured when the aortic smooth muscle cell (A10 cell) treated with leptin and/or FAEE. Phosphorylated p44/42MAPK, cell cycle-regulatory protein (for example, cyclin D1, p21, p27), β-catenin and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) proteins levels were also measured. Results demonstrated that leptin (10, 100 ng ml−1) significantly increased the proliferation of cells and the phosphorylation of p44/42MAPK in A10 cells. The proliferative effect of leptin was significantly reduced by the pretreatment of U0126 (0.5 μM), a MEK inhibitor, in A10 cells. Meanwhile, leptin significantly increased the protein expression of cyclin D1, p21, β-catenin and decreased the expression of p27 in A10 cells. In addition, leptin (10 ng ml−1) significantly increased the migration of A10 cells and the expression of MMP-9 protein. Above effects of leptin were significantly reduced by the pretreatment of FAEE (1 and 10 μM) in A10 cells. In conclusion, FAEE exerts multiple effects on leptin-induced cell proliferation and migration, including the inhibition of p44/42MAPK phosphorylation, cell cycle-regulatory proteins and MMP-9, thereby suggesting that FAEE may be a possible therapeutic approach to the inhibition of obese vascular disease. PMID:26315599

  10. Vascular and antioxidant effects of an aqueous Mentha cordifolia extract in experimental N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Prachaney, Parichat; Berkban, Warinee; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Khrisanapant, Wilaiwan; Phirawatthakul, Yada

    2014-01-01

    The effect of an aqueous Mentha cordifolia (MC) extract on the haemodynamic status, vascular remodeling, function, and oxidative status in NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertension was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given L-NAME [50 mg/(kg body weight (BW) d)] in their drinking water for 5 weeks and were treated by intragastric administration with the MC extract [200 mg/(kgBWd)] for 2 consecutive weeks. Quercetin [25 mg/(kg BW d)] was used as a positive control. The effects of the MC extract on the haemodynamic status, thoracic aortic wall thickness, and oxidative stress markers were determined, and the vasorelaxant activity of the MC extract was tested in isolated mesenteric vascular beds in rats. Significant increases in the mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), hind limb vascular resistance (HVR), wall thickness, and cross-sectional area of the thoracic aorta, as well as oxidative stress markers were found in the L-NAME-treated group compared to the control (P < 0.05). MAP, HVR, wall thickness, cross-sectional area of the thoracic aorta, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), and vascular superoxide anion production were significantly reduced in L-NAME hypersensitive rats treated with the MC extract or quercetin. Furthermore, the MC extract induced vasorelaxation in the pre-constricted mesenteric vascular bed with intact and denuded endothelium of normotensive and hypertensive rats. Our results suggest that the MC extract exhibits an antihypertensive effect via its antioxidant capacity, vasodilator property, and reduced vascular remodeling.

  11. Kenaf methyl esters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Additional or alternative feedstocks are one of the major areas of interest regarding biodiesel. In this paper, for the first time, the fuel properties of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil methyl esters are comprehensively reported. This biodiesel is also relatively unique by containing small ...

  12. Optimisation of flavour ester biosynthesis in an aqueous system of coconut cream and fusel oil catalysed by lipase.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingcan; Yu, Bin; Curran, Philip; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2012-12-15

    Coconut cream and fusel oil, two low-cost natural substances, were used as starting materials for the biosynthesis of flavour-active octanoic acid esters (ethyl-, butyl-, isobutyl- and (iso)amyl octanoate) using lipase Palatase as the biocatalyst. The Taguchi design method was used for the first time to optimize the biosynthesis of esters by a lipase in an aqueous system of coconut cream and fusel oil. Temperature, time and enzyme amount were found to be statistically significant factors and the optimal conditions were determined to be as follows: temperature 30°C, fusel oil concentration 9% (v/w), reaction time 24h, pH 6.2 and enzyme amount 0.26 g. Under the optimised conditions, a yield of 14.25mg/g (based on cream weight) and signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of 23.07 dB were obtained. The results indicate that the Taguchi design method was an efficient and systematic approach to the optimisation of lipase-catalysed biological processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy and safety of TAK-085 compared with eicosapentaenoic acid in Japanese subjects with hypertriglyceridemia undergoing lifestyle modification: the omega-3 fatty acids randomized double-blind (ORD) study.

    PubMed

    Tatsuno, Ichiro; Saito, Yasushi; Kudou, Kentarou; Ootake, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and clinical practice guidelines advocate treatment to reduce triglyceride (TG) levels. In Japan, an EPA-E (eicosapentaenoic acid-ethyl ester) product has been used clinically for treating dyslipidemia. We investigated the TG-lowering effects of TAK-085 (EPA-E + docosahexaenoic acid-ethyl ester) in comparison with EPA-E in Japanese patients with hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥150 mg/dL and <750 mg/dL). In this multicenter, 12-week, double-blind study, subjects were stratified for coadministration of a 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor then randomized to TAK-085 2 g once daily (n = 205), TAK-085 2 g twice daily (n = 210), or EPA-E 0.6 g three times daily (n = 195). Each one gram of fatty acid in TAK-085 contains approximately 465 mg of EPA plus 375 mg of docosahexaenoic acid-ethyl as ethyl esters. Guidance on lifestyle modifications was provided throughout. The primary end point was the percent change in TG levels (baseline from end of treatment), which was -10.8 ± 22.6, -22.9 ± 23.1, and -11.2 ± 25.7 in the TAK-085 2 g/day, TAK-085 4 g/day, and EPA-E 1.8 g/day groups, respectively. TAK-085 4 g/day produced a significantly greater reduction in TG than EPA-E 1.8 g/day (P < .0001), whereas TAK-085 2 g/day was not inferior to EPA-E 1.8 g/day. Changes in other lipid parameters were relatively modest. There were no notable safety or tolerability differences between the groups. In Japanese patients with modest hypertriglyceridemia who also underwent lifestyle intervention, TAK-085 4 g/day reduced TG more than EPA-E 1.8 g/day. TAK-085 2 g/day had similar effects on TG as EPA-E 1.8 g/day. TAK-085 was well-tolerated. Copyright © 2013 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The clinical relevance of omega-3 fatty acids in the management of hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Backes, James; Anzalone, Deborah; Hilleman, Daniel; Catini, Julia

    2016-07-22

    Hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides > 150 mg/dL) affects ~25 % of the United States (US) population and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Severe hypertriglyceridemia (≥ 500 mg/dL) is also a risk factor for pancreatitis. Three omega-3 fatty acid (OM3FA) prescription formulations are approved in the US for the treatment of adults with severe hypertriglyceridemia: (1) OM3FA ethyl esters (OM3EE), a mixture of OM3FA ethyl esters, primarily eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (Lovaza®, Omtryg™, and generics); (2) icosapent ethyl (IPE), EPA ethyl esters (Vascepa®); and (3) omega-3 carboxylic acids (OM3CA), a mixture of OM3FAs in free fatty acid form, primarily EPA, DHA, and docosapentaenoic acid (Epanova®). At approved doses, all formulations substantially reduce triglyceride and very-low-density lipoprotein levels. DHA-containing formulations may also increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, this is not accompanied by increased non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which is thought to provide a better indication of cardiovascular risk in this patient population. Proposed mechanisms of action of OM3FAs include inhibition of diacylglycerol acyltransferase, increased plasma lipoprotein lipase activity, decreased hepatic lipogenesis, and increased hepatic β-oxidation. OM3CA bioavailability (area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to the last measurable concentration) is up to 4-fold greater than that of OM3FA ethyl esters, and unlike ethyl esters, the absorption of OM3CA is not dependent on pancreatic lipase hydrolysis. All three formulations are well tolerated (the most common adverse events are gastrointestinal) and demonstrate a lack of drug-drug interactions with other lipid-lowering drugs, such as statins and fibrates. OM3FAs appear to be an effective treatment option for patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia.

  15. Ethyl acetate fraction from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. attenuates diabetes-associated cognitive impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Seung, Tae Wan; Park, Seon Kyeong; Kang, Jin Yong; Kim, Jong Min; Park, Sang Hyun; Kwon, Bong Seok; Lee, Chang Jun; Kang, Jeong Eun; Kim, Dae Ok; Lee, Uk; Heo, Ho Jin

    2018-03-01

    The ameliorating effects of the ethyl acetate fraction from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (EFHS) 2 against diabetes mellitus (DM) 3 and DM-induced cognitive impairment were investigated on streptozotocin (STZ) 4 -induced DM mice. The EFHS groups showed improved hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance compared to the STZ group. Furthermore, their liver and kidney function and lipid metabolic imbalance in the blood serum were effectively recovered. The EFHS groups significantly ameliorated STZ-induced cognitive impairment in Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze (MWM) 5 tests. The EFHS groups showed significant improvement in the antioxidant and cholinergic systems of the brain tissue. In addition, EFHS had an excellent ameliorating effect on protein expression levels from the tau hyperphosphorylation pathways, such as phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinases (p-JNK), 6 phospho-tau (p-tau), 7 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (c-PARP). 8 The main compounds of EFHS were identified as various phenolic compounds, including hibiscus acid, caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) 9 isomers, and quercetin derivates. Therefore, EFHS containing various physiologically active materials can potentially be used for improving DM-induced cognitive impairment via its antioxidant activity, improvement of the cholinergic system, and hyperphosphorylation tau signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biodegradation and detoxification of chlorimuron-ethyl by Enterobacter ludwigii sp. CE-1.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiong; Wang, Saige; Shi, Nan; Fang, Hua; Yu, Yunlong

    2018-04-15

    The application of the herbicide chlorimuron-ethyl has a lasting toxic effect on some succession crops. Here, a bacterium capable of utilizing chlorimuron-ethyl as the sole source of nitrogen was isolated from the contaminated soil and was identified as Enterobacter ludwigii sp. CE-1, and its detoxification and degradation of the herbicide were then examined. The biodegradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by the isolate CE-1 was significantly accelerated with increasing concentration (1-10mg/l) and temperature (20-40°C). The optimal pH for the degradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by the isolate CE-1 was pH 7.0. A pathway for the biodegradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by the isolate CE-1 was proposed, in which it could be first converted into 2-amino-4-chloro-6-methoxypyrimidine and an intermediate product by the cleavage of the sulfonylurea bridge and then transformed into saccharin via hydrolysis and amidation. The plant height and fresh weight of corn that had been incubated in nutrient solution containing 0.2mg/l of chlorimuron-ethyl significantly recovered to 83.9% and 83.1% compared with those in the uninoculated control, although the root growth inhibition of chlorimuron-ethyl could not be alleviated after inoculation for 14 d. The results indicate that the isolate CE-1 is a promising bacterial resource for the biodegradation and detoxification of chlorimuron-ethyl. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bromidotetra-kis-(1H-2-ethyl-5-methyl-imidazole-κN)copper(II) bromide.

    PubMed

    Godlewska, Sylwia; Baranowska, Katarzyna; Socha, Joanna; Dołęga, Anna

    2011-12-01

    The Cu(II) ion in the title compound, [CuBr(C(6)H(10)N(2))(4)]Br, is coordinated in a square-based-pyramidal geometry by the N atoms of four imidazole ligands and a bromide anion in the apical site. Both the Cu(II) and Br(-) atoms lie on a crystallographic fourfold axis. In the crystal, the [CuBr(C(6)H(10)N(2))(4)](+) complex cations are linked to the uncoordinated Br(-) anions (site symmetry [Formula: see text]) by N-H⋯Br hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. The ethyl group of the imidazole ligand was modelled as disordered over two orientations with occupancies of 0.620 (8) and 0.380 (8).

  18. Variability of some diterpene esters in coffee beverages as influenced by brewing procedures.

    PubMed

    Moeenfard, Marzieh; Erny, Guillaume L; Alves, Arminda

    2016-11-01

    Several coffee brews, including classical and commercial beverages, were analyzed for their diterpene esters content (cafestol and kahweol linoleate, oleate, palmitate and stearate) by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) combined with spectral deconvolution. Due to the coelution of cafestol and kahweol esters at 225 nm, HPLC-DAD did not give accurate quantification of cafestol esters. Accordingly, spectral deconvolution was used to deconvolve the co-migrating profiles. Total cafestol and kahweol esters content of classical coffee brews ranged from 5-232 to 2-1016 mg/L, respectively. Commercial blends contained 1-54 mg/L of total cafestol esters and 2-403 mg/L of total kahweol esters. Boiled coffee had the highest diterpene esters content, while filtered and instant brews showed the lowest concentrations. However, individual diterpene esters content was not affected by brewing procedure as in terms of kahweol esters, kahweol palmitate was the main compound in all samples, followed by kahweol linoleate, oleate and stearate. Higher amounts of cafestol palmitate and stearate were also observed compared to cafestol linoleate and cafestol oleate. The ratio of diterpene esters esterified with unsaturated fatty acids to total diterpene esters was considered as measure of their unsaturation in analyzed samples which varied from 47 to 52%. Providing new information regarding the diterpene esters content and their distribution in coffee brews will allow a better use of coffee as a functional beverage.

  19. Quantitative analysis of anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging triterpenoid esters in evening primrose seeds.

    PubMed

    Zaugg, Janine; Potterat, Olivier; Plescher, Andreas; Honermeier, Bernd; Hamburger, Matthias

    2006-09-06

    Lipophilic triterpenoidal esters with radical scavenging and cyclooxygenase inhibitory properties were recently found in cold-pressed, nonraffinated evening primrose oil (EPO). A quantitative assay for the analysis of 3-O-trans-caffeoyl derivatives of betulinic, morolic, and oleanolic acid in evening primrose seeds was developed and validated. Extraction efficiency >99% was achieved by means of pressurized liquid extraction with two extraction cycles and 80% (v/v) ethanol at 120 degrees C. Analysis of esters was by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on a Diol column and hexane/ethyl acetate (containing 0.1% formic acid) (65:35) as the eluent. The analytes were determined without further prepurification. Seeds from defined cultures of Oenothera biennis, Oenothera lamarckiana, and Oenothera ammophila, grown under identical conditions, were analyzed. The cultures originated from seeds from eight collections in the wild and from selections from five cultivars. The content of total triterpenoidal esters in seeds varied between 1.34 and 2.78 mg/g. Three types of qualitative patterns were observed for the triterpenoidal esters. The influence of different harvest times and plant treatments was studied with the cultivar Anothera. Variations between 1.5 and 2.3 mg/g were found.

  20. Phorbol esters in seed oil of Jatropha curcas L. (saboodam in Thai) and their association with cancer prevention: from the initial investigation to the present topics.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Hirota; Suttajit, Maitree; Rawangkan, Anchalee; Iida, Keisuke; Limtrakul, Pornngarm; Umsumarng, Sonthaya; Suganuma, Masami

    2017-08-01

    In 1988, we first reported the complete chemical structure of a new type of phorbol ester, abbreviated to DHPB, found in seed oil of Jatropha curcas L. (Saboodam in Thai) and its tumor-promoting activity on mouse skin. Although this seed oil contains toxic phorbol ester, it was planned to use it as a feasible renewable oil and the extracted seed cake as fertilizer. This utilization value opened a new science of Jatropha curcas. The main experimental results are cited from our publications, and the relevant literature screened from journals and PubMed. This paper begins with our original work on the structural elucidation of a new phorbol ester, 12-deoxy-16-hydroxyphorbol (DHPB): its tumor-promoting activity was compared with that of TPA. We think that it is timely to review the following research advances with Jatropha curcas, so numerous topics are classified as follows: (1) historical development of phorbol esters in seed oil; (2) toxicity of phorbol ester based on various bioassays; (3) degradation of phorbol ester; (4) a new pharmaceutical compound in seed; and (5) tumor promotion and progression with endogeneous tumor promoters in human carcinogenesis. The discovery of phorbol ester in seed oil raised awareness of the danger of public use of seed oil and seed cake in Thailand, and also indicated the necessity of discussing the concept of primary and tertiary cancer preventions. It is worthwhile to study the future benefits and cancer risks of globally distributed Jatropha curcas L.

  1. sal Genes Determining the Catabolism of Salicylate Esters Are Part of a Supraoperonic Cluster of Catabolic Genes in Acinetobacter sp. Strain ADP1

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rheinallt M.; Pagmantidis, Vassilis; Williams, Peter A.

    2000-01-01

    A 5-kbp region upstream of the are-ben-cat genes was cloned from Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1, extending the supraoperonic cluster of catabolic genes to 30 kbp. Four open reading frames, salA, salR, salE, and salD, were identified from the nucleotide sequence. Reverse transcription-PCR studies suggested that these open reading frames are organized into two convergent transcription units, salAR and salDE. The salE gene, encoding a protein of 239 residues, was ligated into expression vector pET5a. Its product, SalE, was shown to have esterase activity against short-chain alkyl esters of 4-nitrophenol but was also able to hydrolyze ethyl salicylate to ethanol and salicylic acid. A mutant of ADP1 with a Kmr cassette introduced into salE had lost the ability to utilize only ethyl and methyl salicylates of the esters tested as sole carbon sources, and no esterase activity against ethyl salicylate could be detected in cell extracts. SalE was induced during growth on ethyl salicylate but not during growth on salicylate itself. salD encoded a protein of undetermined function with homologies to the Escherichia coli FadL membrane protein, which is involved in facilitating fatty acid transport, and a number of other proteins detected during aromatic catabolism, which may also function in hydrocarbon transport or uptake processes. A Kmr cassette insertion in salD deleteriously affected cell growth and viability. The salA and salR gene products closely resemble two Pseudomonas proteins, NahG and NahR, respectively encoding salicylate hydroxylase and the LysR family regulator of both salicylate and naphthalene catabolism. salA was cloned into pUC18 together with salR and salE, and its gene product showed salicylate-inducible hydroxylase activity against a range of substituted salicylates, with the same relative specific activities as found in wild-type ADP1 grown on salicylate. Mutations involving insertion of Kmr cassettes into salA and salR eliminated expression of salicylate

  2. Neuromuscular blocking properties of some bistropinium esters

    PubMed Central

    Haining, C. G.; Johnston, R. G.

    1962-01-01

    The neuromuscular blocking, anti-acetylcholine and ganglion blocking properties of two series of bistropinium esters were examined. The neuromuscular blocking activities of the mandelic acid esters of NN'-polymethylenebis(tropinium halides) were found to depend upon the number of carbon atoms (n) in the linking chain. Potency was enhanced more than 50 times as n was increased from 2 to 7. Compounds in which n equalled 7, 8, 9, 10 and 12 differed little in activity, but were generally more potent than tubocurarine in cats and rabbits. A peak of ganglion blocking action was obtained at the pentamethylene member. Esterification enhanced the feeble neuromuscular blocking properties of NN'-decamethylenebis(tropinium halide), the mandelic acid ester being more effective than the tropic, benzoic or phenylacetic acid esters in cats and rabbits. When two benzoic or mandelic acid esters of tropine were linked through their nitrogen atoms by a phenylenedimethyl grouping (-CH2.C6H4.CH2-), meta substitution was more effective than was ortho or para in producing neuromuscular block. The effectiveness of esterifying acids in m-phenylenedimethyl derivatives decreased in the following order, phenylacetic> tropic or mandelic>benzoic>acetic and diphenylacetic. PMID:13903721

  3. Linkage and Branch Analysis of High-Mannose Oligosaccharides Using Closed-Ring Labeling of 8-Aminopyrene-1,3,6-Trisulfonate and P-Aminobenzoic Ethyl Ester and Negative Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shu-Ting; Her, Guor-Rong

    2012-08-01

    A strategy based on negative ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and closed-ring labeling with both 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (APTS) and p-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester (ABEE) was developed for linkage and branch determination of high-mannose oligosaccharides. X-type cross-ring fragment ions obtained from APTS-labeled oligosaccharides by charge remote fragmentation provided information on linkages near the non-reducing terminus. In contrast, A-type cross-ring fragment ions observed from ABEE-labeled oligosaccharides yielded information on linkages near the reducing terminus. This complementary information provided by APTS- and ABEE-labeled oligosaccharides was utilized to delineate the structures of the high-mannose oligosaccharides. As a demonstration of this approach, the linkages and branches of high-mannose oligosaccharides Man5GlcNAc2, Man6GlcNAc2, Man8GlcNAc2, and Man9GlcNAc2 cleaved from the ribonuclease B were assigned from MS2 spectra of ABEE- and APTS-labeled derivatives.

  4. Fully convergent chemical synthesis of ester insulin: determination of the high resolution X-ray structure by racemic protein crystallography.

    PubMed

    Avital-Shmilovici, Michal; Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Gates, Zachary P; Phillips, Nelson B; Weiss, Michael A; Kent, Stephen B H

    2013-02-27

    Efficient total synthesis of insulin is important to enable the application of medicinal chemistry to the optimization of the properties of this important protein molecule. Recently we described "ester insulin"--a novel form of insulin in which the function of the 35 residue C-peptide of proinsulin is replaced by a single covalent bond--as a key intermediate for the efficient total synthesis of insulin. Here we describe a fully convergent synthetic route to the ester insulin molecule from three unprotected peptide segments of approximately equal size. The synthetic ester insulin polypeptide chain folded much more rapidly than proinsulin, and at physiological pH. Both the D-protein and L-protein enantiomers of monomeric DKP ester insulin (i.e., [Asp(B10), Lys(B28), Pro(B29)]ester insulin) were prepared by total chemical synthesis. The atomic structure of the synthetic ester insulin molecule was determined by racemic protein X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 1.6 Å. Diffraction quality crystals were readily obtained from the racemic mixture of {D-DKP ester insulin + L-DKP ester insulin}, whereas crystals were not obtained from the L-ester insulin alone even after extensive trials. Both the D-protein and L-protein enantiomers of monomeric DKP ester insulin were assayed for receptor binding and in diabetic rats, before and after conversion by saponification to the corresponding DKP insulin enantiomers. L-DKP ester insulin bound weakly to the insulin receptor, while synthetic L-DKP insulin derived from the L-DKP ester insulin intermediate was fully active in binding to the insulin receptor. The D- and L-DKP ester insulins and D-DKP insulin were inactive in lowering blood glucose in diabetic rats, while synthetic L-DKP insulin was fully active in this biological assay. The structural basis of the lack of biological activity of ester insulin is discussed.

  5. Fully Convergent Chemical Synthesis of Ester Insulin: Determination of the High Resolution X-ray Structure by Racemic Protein Crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Avital-Shmilovici, Michal; Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Gates, Zachary P.; Phillips, Nelson B.; Weiss, Michael A.; Kent, Stephen B.H.

    2013-01-01

    Efficient total synthesis of insulin is important to enable the application of medicinal chemistry to the optimization of the properties of this important protein molecule. Recently we described ‘ester insulin’ – a novel form of insulin in which the function of the 35 residue C-peptide of proinsulin is replaced by a single covalent bond – as a key intermediate for the efficient total synthesis of insulin. Here we describe a fully convergent synthetic route to the ester insulin molecule from three unprotected peptide segments of approximately equal size. The synthetic ester insulin polypeptide chain folded much more rapidly than proinsulin, and at physiological pH. Both the D-protein and L-protein enantiomers of monomeric DKP ester insulin (i.e. [AspB10, LysB28, ProB29]ester insulin) were prepared by total chemical synthesis. The atomic structure of the synthetic ester insulin molecule was determined by racemic protein X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 1.6 Å. Diffraction quality crystals were readily obtained from the racemic mixture of {D-DKP ester insulin + L-DKP ester insulin}, whereas crystals were not obtained from the L-ester insulin alone even after extensive trials. Both the D-protein and L-protein enantiomers of monomeric DKP ester insulin were assayed for receptor binding and in diabetic rats, before and after conversion by saponification to the corresponding DKP insulin enantiomers. L-DKP ester insulin bound weakly to the insulin receptor, while synthetic L-DKP insulin derived from the L-DKP ester insulin intermediate was fully active in binding to the insulin receptor. The D- and L-DKP ester insulins and D-DKP insulin were inactive in lowering blood glucose in diabetic rats, while synthetic L-DKP insulin was fully active in this biological assay. The structural basis of the lack of biological activity of ester insulin is discussed. PMID:23343390

  6. Molecular dynamics simulation of the ionic liquid N-ethyl-N,N-dimethyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl)ammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Leonardo J A; Ribeiro, Mauro C C

    2007-10-11

    Thermodynamics, structure, and dynamics of an ionic liquid based on a quaternary ammonium salt with ether side chain, namely, N-ethyl-N,N-dimethyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl)ammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, MOENM2E TFSI, are investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Average density and configurational energy of simulated MOENM2E TFSI are interpreted with models that take into account empirical ionic volumes. A throughout comparison of the equilibrium structure of MOENM2E TFSI with previous results for the more common ionic liquids based on imidazolium cations is provided. Several time correlation functions are used to reveal the microscopic dynamics of MOENM2E TFSI. Structural relaxation is discussed by the calculation of simultaneous space-time correlation functions. Temperature effects on transport coefficients (diffusion, conductivity, and viscosity) are investigated. The ratio between the actual conductivity and the estimate from ionic diffusion by the Nernst-Einstein equation indicates that correlated motion of neighboring ions in MOENM2E TFSI is similar to imidazolium ionic liquids. In line with experiment, Walden plot of conductivity and viscosity indicates that simulated MOENM2E TFSI should be classified as a poor ionic liquid.

  7. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Oligo(L-cysteine) for Use as a Thermostable Bio-Based Material.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yinan; Sato, Ryota; Li, Zhibo; Numata, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Oligomerization of thiol-unprotected L-cysteine ethyl ester (Cys-OEt) catalyzed by proteinase K in aqueous solution has been used to synthesize oligo(L-cysteine) (OligoCys) with a well-defined chemical structure and relatively large degree of polymerization (DP) up to 16-17 (average 8.8). By using a high concentration of Cys-OEt, 78.0% free thiol content was achieved. The thermal properties of OligoCys are stable, with no glass transition until 200 °C, and the decomposition temperature could be increased by oxidation. Chemoenzymatically synthesized OligoCys has great potential for use as a thermostable bio-based material with resistance to oxidation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Mitigation of 3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol Ester Formation by Radical Scavengers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai; Jin, Pengwei; Zhang, Min; Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Hu, Peng; Zhao, Yue; Yu, Liangli; Wang, Yong; Jiang, Yuanrong; Xu, Xuebing

    2016-07-27

    The present study investigated the possible mechanism of free radical scavengers on mitigation of 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) fatty acid ester formation in vegetable oils. The electron spin resonance investigation showed that the concentration of free radicals could be clearly decreased in 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycerol (DSG) samples by all four antioxidants (l-ascorbyl palmitate, α-tocopherol, lipophilic tea polyphenols, and rosemary extract) at 120 °C for 20 min under a N2 atmosphere. Moreover, the rosemary extract exhibited the highest inhibition efficiency. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy examination of DSG with α-tocopherol at 25 and 120 °C revealed that α-tocopherol could prevent the involvement of an ester carbonyl group of DSG in forming the cyclic acyloxonium free radical intermediate. Furthermore, the ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis showed that α-tocopherol could suppress the formation of 3-MCPD di- and monoesters. Finally, the four antioxidants could decrease 3-MCPD esters in the palm oil during deodorization. Particularly, the rosemary extract also showed the highest efficiency in 3-MCPD ester mitigation.

  9. Novel L-Dopa and dopamine prodrugs containing a 2-phenyl-imidazopyridine moiety.

    PubMed

    Denora, Nunzio; Laquintana, Valentino; Lopedota, Angela; Serra, Mariangela; Dazzi, Laura; Biggio, Giovanni; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K; Latrofa, Andrea; Trapani, Giuseppe; Liso, Gaetano

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the feasibility of enhancing the delivery of L-Dopa and dopamine to the brain by linking these neurotransmitters and L-Dopa ethyl ester to 2-phenyl-3-carboxymethyl-imidazopyridine compounds giving rise to the so-called Dopimid compounds. A number of Dopimid compounds were synthesized and both stability and binding studies to dopaminergic and benzodiazepine receptors were performed. To evaluate whether Dopimid compounds are P-gp substrates, [(3)H]ritonavir uptake experiments and bi-directional transport studies on confluent MDCKII-MDR1 monolayers were carried out. The brain penetration properties of Dopimid compounds were estimated by the Clark's computational model and evaluated by investigation of their transport across BBMECs monolayers. The dopamine levels following the intraperitoneal administration of the selected Dopimid compounds were measured in vivo by using brain microdialysis in rat. Tested compounds were adequately stable in solution buffered at pH 7.4 but undergo faster cleavage in dilute rat serum at 37 degrees C. Receptor binding studies showed that Dopimid compounds are essentially devoid of affinity for dopaminergic and benzodiazepine receptors. [(3)H]ritonavir uptake experiments indicated that selected Dopimid compounds, like L-Dopa and dopamine hydrochloride, are not substrates of P-gp and it was also confirmed by bi-directional transport experiments across MDCKII-MDR1 monolayers. By Clark's model a significant brain penetration was deduced for L-Dopa ethyl ester and dopamine derivatives. Transport studies involving BBMECs monolayers indicated that some of these compounds should be able to cross the BBB. Interestingly, the rank order of apparent permeability (P (app)) values observed in these assays parallels that calculated by the computational approach. Brain microdialysis experiments in rat showed that intraperitoneal acute administration of some Dopimid compounds induced a dose-dependent increase

  10. An ab initio density functional study of the optical functions of 9-Methyl-3-Thiophen-2-YI-Thieno [3,2e] [1,2,4] Thriazolo [4,3c] Pyrimidine-8-Carboxylic Acid Ethyl Ester crystals.

    PubMed

    Reshak, Ali H; Kityk, I V; Khenata, R; Al-Douri, Y; Auluck, S

    2012-09-01

    An ab initio investigation of the optical constants of 9-Methyl-3-Thiophen-2-YI-Thieno [3,2e] [1,2,4] Thriazolo [4,3c] Pyrimidine-8-Carboxylic Acid Ethyl Ester crystal is performed within a framework of local density approximation (LDA), and the Engel-Vosko generalized gradient approximation (EV-GGA) exchange correlation potentials. It is established that there are two independent molecules (A and B) exhibiting different intra-molecular interactions: C-H⋯O (A) and C-H⋯N (B). These intra-molecular interactions favor stabilization of the crystal structure for molecules A and B. It should be emphasized that there exist remarkable π-π interactions between the pyrimidine rings of the two neighbors B molecules giving extra strengths and stabilizations to the superamolecular structure. These different intra-molecular interactions C-H⋯O (A) and C-H⋯N (B) and the π-π interaction between the pyrimidine rings of the two neighbors B molecules give principal contribution to dispersion of optical properties. With a view to seek deeper insight into the electronic structure, the optical properties were investigated. Our calculations show that the optical constants are very anisotropic. The EVGGA calculation shows a blue spectral shift of around 0.024 eV with significant changes in the spectra compared to the LDA calculation. The observed spectral shifts are in agreement with the calculated band structure and corresponding electron density of states. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 2'-O-[2-[2-(N,N-Dimethylamino)ethoxy]ethyl] Modified Antisense Oligonucleotides: Symbiosis of Charge Interaction Factors and Stereoelectronic Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Prhavc, M.; Prakash, T.P.; Minasov, G.

    Oligonucleotides with a novel, 2'-O-[2-[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethoxy]ethyl] (2'-O-DMAEOE) modification have been synthesized. This modification, a cationic analogue of the 2'-O-(2-methoxyethyl) (2'-O-MOE) modification, exhibits high binding affinity to target RNA (but not to DNA) and exceptional resistance to nuclease degradation. Analysis of the crystal structure of a self-complementary oligonucleotide containing a single 2'-O-DMAEOE modification explains the importance of charge factors and gauche effects on the observed antisense properties. 2'-O-DMAEOE modified oligonucleotides are ideal candidates for antisense drugs.

  12. Cell Communication during Aggregation and Development of the Cellular Slime Mould Distyostelium discoideum.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    of actin protein xg relative centrifugal force glorin N-propionyl- Y -L-glutawyl-L-ornithine- S- lactam ethyl ester [3 H]FA [7,9,3’,5 ’-3H]folic acid...solubilize the pellet and radioactivity was measured on a LKB Rack Beta scintillation counter. cAMP Binding to Whole Cells. This assay followed the well...inserts, pre-filled with 4ml of Unisolve I scintillant, and radioactivity measured on a LKB Rack Beta scintillation counter. Controls included: a) no

  13. Rational selection of non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts for mixed starters based on ester formation and enological traits.

    PubMed

    Viana, Fernando; Gil, José V; Genovés, Salvador; Vallés, Salvador; Manzanares, Paloma

    2008-09-01

    Thirty-eight yeast strains belonging to the genera Candida, Hanseniaspora, Pichia, Torulaspora and Zygosaccharomyces were screened for ester formation on synthetic microbiological medium. The genera Hanseniaspora and Pichia stood out as the best acetate ester producers. Based on the ester profile Hanseniaspora guilliermondii 11027 and 11102, Hanseniaspora osmophila 1471 and Pichia membranifaciens 10113 and 10550 were selected for further characterization of enological traits. When growing on must H. osmophila 1471, which displayed a glucophilic nature and was able to consume more than 90% of initial must sugars, produced levels of acetic acid, medium chain fatty acids and ethyl acetate, within the ranges described for wine. On the other hand, it was found to be a strong producer of 2-phenylethyl acetate. Our data suggest that H. osmophila 1471 is a good candidate for mixed starters, although the possible interactions with S. cerevisiae deserve further research.

  14. [Ethyl 4-methyloctanoate, major component of male pherome in Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) (Coleoptera, Dynastidae)].

    PubMed

    Morin, J P; Rochat, D; Malosse, C; Lettere, M; de Chenon, R D; Wibwo, H; Descoins, C

    1996-07-01

    Ethyl 4-methyloctanoate, which has already been described in Oryctes monoceros, has been identified, using extracts of effluvia collected from males, as being a major component of the male pheromone of O. rhinoceros. Field trials have been carried out in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Ethyl 4-methyloctanoate synthesized in the laboratory and released at 10 mg/d resulted in the capture of 6.8 insects per week per trap, whereas ethyl chrysanthemate (40 mg/d), an allelochemical compound once used as an attractant, only led to the capture of 0.3 insects, and the control none at all. The insects captured with the pheromone were 81% females, the majority being sexually mature. Discovery of this compound opens up new prospects for O. rhinoceros control.

  15. Crystal structure of ethyl (E)-4-(4-chlorophen-yl)-4-meth-oxy-2-oxobut-3-enoate.

    PubMed

    Flores, Darlene Correia; Vicenti, Juliano Rosa de Menezes; Pereira, Bruna Ávila; da Silva, Gabriele Marques Dias; Zambiazi, Priscilla Jussiane

    2014-09-01

    In the title compound, C13H13ClO4, the dihedral angle between the chloro-benezene ring and the least-squares plane through the 4-meth-oxy-2-oxobut-3-enoate ethyl ester residue (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0975 Å) is 54.10 (5)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are connected by meth-oxy-ketone and benzene-carboxyl-ate carbonyl C-H⋯O inter-actions, generating a supra-molecular layer in the ac plane.

  16. Analysis of acylcarnitines as their N-demethylated ester derivatives by gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Z H; Gage, D A; Bieber, L L; Sweeley, C C

    1991-11-15

    A novel approach to the analysis of acylcarnitines has been developed. It involves a direct esterification using propyl chloroformate in aqueous propanol followed by ion-pair extraction with potassium iodide into chloroform and subsequent on-column N-demethylation of the resulting acylcarnitine propyl ester iodides. The products, acyl N-demethylcarnitine propyl esters, are volatile and are easily analyzed by gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry. For medium-chain-length (C4-C12) acylcarnitine standards, detection limits are demonstrated to be well below 1 ng starting material using selected ion monitoring. Well-separated gas chromatographic peaks and structure-specific mass spectra are obtained with samples of synthetic and biological origin. Seven acylcarnitines have been characterized in the urine of a patient suffering from medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

  17. Reactivity of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Iniesta García, María Paz; Moreno Sanroma, Alberto; Martín Porrero, María Pilar; Tapia Valle, Araceli; Cabañas Galán, Beatriz; Salgado Muñoz, María Sagrario

    2010-04-07

    Rate coefficients at room temperature for the reaction of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol with OH and NO(3) radicals and with Cl atoms have been determined in a 150 L PTFE chamber using GC-FID/SPME and FTIR as detection systems. The rate coefficients k (in units of cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) obtained were: (1.13 +/- 0.31) 10(-11) for the OH reaction, (2.93 +/- 0.92) 10(-15) for the NO(3) reaction and (1.88 +/- 0.25) 10(-10) for the Cl reaction. Despite the high concentrations of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, especially in indoor air, this is the first kinetic study carried out to date for these reactions. The results are consistent with the expected reactivity given the chemical structure of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. Calculated atmospheric lifetimes reveal that the dominant loss process for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is clearly the daytime reaction with the hydroxyl radical.

  18. Kinetic characterization of recombinant Bacillus coagulans FDP-activated l-lactate dehydrogenase expressed in Escherichia coli and its substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ting; Xu, Yanbing; Sun, Xiucheng; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Ouyang, Jia

    2014-03-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a homofermentative, acid-tolerant and thermophilic sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, which is capable of producing high yields of optically pure lactic acid. The l-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase (l-LDH) from B. coagulans is considered as an ideal biocatalyst for industrial production. In this study, the gene ldhL encoding a thermostable l-LDH was amplified from B. coagulans NL01 genomic DNA and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant enzyme was partially purified and its enzymatic properties were characterized. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the l-LDH was a fructose 1,6-diphosphate-activated NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase (l-nLDH). Its molecular weight was approximately 34-36kDa. The Km and Vmax values of the purified l-nLDH for pyruvate were 1.91±0.28mM and 2613.57±6.43μmol(minmg)(-1), respectively. The biochemical properties of l-nLDH showed that the specific activity were up to 2323.29U/mg with optimum temperature of 55°C and pH of 6.5 in the pyruvate reduction and 351.01U/mg with temperature of 55°C and pH of 11.5 in the lactate oxidation. The enzyme also showed some activity in the absence of FDP, with a pH optimum of 4.0. Compared to other lactic acid bacterial l-nLDHs, the enzyme was found to be relatively stable at 50°C. Ca(2+), Ba(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) ions had activated effects on the enzyme activity, and the enzyme was greatly inhibited by Ni(2+) ion. Besides these, l-nLDH showed the higher specificity towards pyruvate esters, such as methyl pyruvate and ethyl pyruvate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Caffeic acid methyl and ethyl esters exert potential antidiabetic effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in cultured murine insulin-sensitive cells through mechanisms implicating activation of AMPK.

    PubMed

    Eid, Hoda M; Thong, Farah; Nachar, Abir; Haddad, Pierre S

    2017-12-01

    Caffeic acid methyl (CAME) and ethyl (CAEE) esters stimulate glucose uptake and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in C2C12 myocytes (ATCC ® CRL-1772 TM ). Effects of CAME and CAEE were now assessed on myocyte glucose transporter GLUT4 activity and expression, on hepatic gluconeogenesis and on adipogenesis as well as major underlying signaling pathways. GLUT4 protein translocation was studied in L6 GLUT4myc cells, glucose-6-phospatase (G6Pase) in H4IIE hepatocytes and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Key modulators were measured using western immunoblot. Cells were treated for 18 h with either CAME or CAEE at various concentrations (12.5-100 μM). Myocyte glucose uptake rose from 10.1 ± 0.5 to 18.7 ± 0.8 and 21.9 ± 1.0 pmol/min/mg protein in DMSO-, CAME- and CAEE-stimulated cells, respectively, similar to insulin (17.7 ± 1.2 pmol/min/mg protein), while GLUT4myc translocation increased significantly by 1.70 ± 0.18, by 1.73 ± 0.18- and by 1.95 ± 0.30-fold (relative to DMSO), following insulin, CAME and CAEE stimulation, respectively. CAME and CAEE suppressed hepatocyte G6Pase by 62.0 ± 6.9% and 62.7 ± 6.0% with IC 50 of 45.93 and 22.64 μM, respectively, comparable to insulin (70.7 ± 2.3% inhibition). Finally, CAME and CAEE almost abrogated adipogenesis (83.3 ± 7.2% and 97.3 ± 3.0% at 100 μM; IC 50 of 13.8 and 12.9 μM, respectively). The compounds inhibited adipogenic factors C/EBP-β and PPAR-γ and stimulated AMPK activity in the three cell-lines. CAME and CAEE exerted antidiabetic activities in insulin-responsive cells through insulin-independent mechanisms involving AMPK and adipogenic factors.

  20. Synthesis and serotonergic activity of substituted 2, N-benzylcarboxamido-5-(2-ethyl-1-dioxoimidazolidinyl)-N, N-dimethyltryptamine derivatives: novel antagonists for the vascular 5-HT(1B)-like receptor.

    PubMed

    Moloney, G P; Martin, G R; Mathews, N; Milne, A; Hobbs, H; Dodsworth, S; Sang, P Y; Knight, C; Williams, M; Maxwell, M; Glen, R C

    1999-07-15

    The synthesis and vascular 5-HT(1B)-like receptor activity of a novel series of substituted 2, N-benzylcarboxamido-5-(2-ethyl-1-dioxoimidazolidinyl)-N, N-dimethyltryptamine derivatives are described. Modifications to the 5-ethylene-linked heterocycle and to substituents on the 2-benzylamide side chain have been explored. Several compounds were identified which exhibited affinity at the vascular 5-HT(1B)-like receptor of pK(B) > 7.0, up to 100-fold selectivity over alpha(1)-adrenoceptor affinity and 5-HT(2A) receptor affinity, and which exhibited a favorable pharmacokinetic profile. N-Benzyl-3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-5-[2-(4,4-dimethyl-2, 5-dioxo-1-imidazolidinyl)ethyl]-1H-indole-2-carboxamide (23) was identified as a highly potent, silent (as judged by the inability of angiotensin II to unmask 5-HT(1B)-like receptor-mediated agonist activity in the rabbit femoral artery), and competitive vascular 5-HT(1B)-like receptor antagonist with a plasma elimination half-life of approximately 4 h in dog plasma and with good oral bioavailability. The selectivity of compounds from this series for the vascular 5-HT(1B)-like receptors over other receptor subtypes is discussed as well as a proposed mode of binding to the receptor pharmacophore. It has been proposed that the aromatic ring of the 2, N-benzylcarboxamide group can occupy an aromatic binding site rather than the indole ring. The resulting conformation allows an amine-binding site to be occupied by the ethylamine nitrogen and a hydrogen-bonding site to be occupied by one of the hydantoin carbonyls. The electronic nature of the 2,N-benzylcarboxamide aromatic group as well as the size of substituents on this aromatic group is crucial for producing potent and selective antagonists. The structural requirement on the 3-ethylamine side chain incorporating the protonatable nitrogen is achieved by the bulky 2, N-benzylcarboxamide group and its close proximity to the 3-side chain.

  1. The amphiphilic alkyl ester derivatives of l-ascorbic acid induce reorganization of phospholipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Giudice, Francesca; Ambroggio, Ernesto E; Mottola, Milagro; Fanani, Maria Laura

    2016-09-01

    l-ascorbic acid alkyl esters (ASCn) are lipophilic forms of vitamin C, which maintain some of its antioxidant power. Those properties make this drug family attractive to be used in pharmacological preparations protecting other redox-sensible drugs or designed to reduce possible toxic oxidative processes. In this work, we tested the ability of l-ascorbic acid alkyl esters (ASCn) to modulate the structure, permeability, and rheological properties of phospholipid bilayers. The ASCn studied here (ASC16, ASC14, and ASC12) alter the structural integrity as well as the rheological properties of phospholipid membranes without showing any evident detergent activity. ASC14 appeared as the most efficient drug in destabilize the membrane structure of nano- and micro-size phospholipid liposomes inducing vesicle content leakage and shape elongation on giant unilamellar vesicles. It also was the most potent enhancer of membrane microviscosity and surface water structuring. Only ASC16 induced the formation of drug-enriched condensed domains after its incorporation into the lipid bilayer, while ASC12 appeared as the less membrane-disturbing compound, likely because of its poor, and more superficial, partition into the membrane. We also found that incorporation of ASCn into the lipid bilayers enhanced the reduction of membrane components, compared with soluble vitamin C. Our study shows that ASCn compounds, which vary in the length of the acyl chain, show different effects on phospholipid vesicles used as biomembrane models. Those variances may account for subtly differences in the effectiveness on their pharmacological applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanism of papain-catalyzed synthesis of oligo-tyrosine peptides.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Jun; Nakayama, Tsutomu; Narai-Kanayama, Asako

    2015-01-01

    Di-, tri-, and tetra-tyrosine peptides with angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity were synthesized by papain-catalyzed polymerization of L-tyrosine ethyl ester in aqueous media at 30 °C. Varying the reaction pH from 6.0 to 7.5 and the initial concentration of the ester substrate from 25 to 100 mM, the highest yield of oligo-tyrosine peptides (79% on a substrate basis) was produced at pH 6.5 and 75 mM, respectively. In the reaction initiated with 100 mM of the substrate, approx. 50% yield of insoluble, highly polymerized peptides accumulated. At less than 15 mM, the reaction proceeded poorly; however, from 30 mM to 120 mM a dose-dependent increase in the consumption rate of the substrate was observed with a sigmoidal curve. Meanwhile, each of the tri- and tetra-tyrosine peptides, even at approx. 5mM, was consumed effectively by papain but was not elongated to insoluble polymers. For deacylation of the acyl-papain intermediate through which a new peptide bond is made, L-tyrosine ethyl ester, even at 5mM, showed higher nucleophilic activity than di- and tri-tyrosine. These results indicate that the mechanism through which papain polymerizes L-tyrosine ethyl ester is as follows: the first interaction between papain and the ester substrate is a rate-limiting step; oligo-tyrosine peptides produced early in the reaction period are preferentially used as acyl donors, while the initial ester substrate strongly contributes as a nucleophile to the elongation of the peptide product; and the balance between hydrolytic fragmentation and further elongation of oligo-tyrosine peptides is dependent on the surrounding concentration of the ester substrate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Studies on the in vitro and in vivo hydrolysis and intramolecular aminolysis of L-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester

    SciTech Connect

    Bouvette, R.E.

    The disposition and metabolism of L-aspartyl-L-(/sup 14/C-phenyl) alanine methyl ester (/sup 14/C-APM) was studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats after a single intragastric injection. Plasma levels of /sup 14/C-activity increased slowly within the first four hours after a 5 ..mu..Ci dose. Within 2 hours after injection 90% of the /sup 14/C-activity observed in the plasma was incorporated into precipitated proteins. HPLC analysis of the deproteinated plasma showed the /sup 14/C-activity present to be in the form of phenylalanine Disposition studies of /sup 14/C-APM 4 hours after a single intragastric dose showed the highest organs of /sup 14/C-accumulation to be the blood,more » liver, stomach, and small intestine. The molecular form of the /sup 14/C-activity in the tissues was not determined.« less

  4. L-Leucyl-L-Leucine Methyl Ester Treatment of Canine Marrow and Peripheral Blood Cells: Inhibition of Proliferative Responses with Maintenance of the Capacity for Autologous Marrow Engraftment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    Copyright 0 198 by The Winiams & Wilkins Co. Printed in U.S.A. L-LEUCYL-L-LEUCINE METHYL ESTER TREATMENT OF CANINE MARROW AND PERIPHERAL BLOOD CELLS...Reearch CeThs eatetle, Washington 9%104 tInaiyuba on o canine UMrrowt and peripher hi Recently, Thiele and Lipsky have described adipeptide nionon clear...that marrow iincubation with Leu-Leu. Leu-Leu-OMe is a feasible method to deplete canine marrows of aloreactive and cytotoxic T cells prior to OMe

  5. A field trial of ethyl hexanediol against Aedes dorsalis in Sonoma County, California.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, L C; Hooper, R L; Wirtz, R A; Gupta, R K

    1989-09-01

    The repellent ethyl hexanediol (2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol) was tested against the mosquito Aedes dorsalis in a coastal salt marsh in California. The experimental design incorporated a linear regression model, sequential treatments and a proportional end point (95%) for protection time. The protection time of 0.10 mg/cm2 ethyl hexanediol was estimated at 0.8 h. This time is shorter than that obtained previously for deet (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) against Ae. dorsalis (4.4 h).

  6. Efficient synthesis of (+/-)-4-methyloctanoic acid, aggregation pheromone of rhinoceros beetles of the genus Oryctes (Coleoptera: Dynastidae, Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Ragoussis, Valentine; Giannikopoulos, Alexandros; Skoka, Efthymia; Grivas, Panagiotis

    2007-06-27

    (+/-)-4-Methyloctanoic acid and its ethyl ester are aggregation pheromones of many rhinoceros beetles of the genus Oryctes and are investigated for the control of these pests by olfactory trapping. A simple, economical, and high-yield (>50%) synthesis of (+/-)-4-methyloctanoic acid and its ethyl ester is presented starting from n-hexanal. The key step in this sequence is an orthoester Claisen rearrangement for the elongation of the carbon chain by two.

  7. Organic Reference Materials for Hydrogen, Carbon, and Nitrogen Stable Isotope-Ratio Measurements: Caffeines, n-Alkanes, Fatty Acid Methyl Esters, Glycines, L-Valines, Polyethylenes, and Oils.

    PubMed

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B; Brand, Willi A; Fong, Jon; Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Kemp, Helen F; Toman, Blaza; Ackermann, Annika; Assonov, Sergey; Aerts-Bijma, Anita T; Brejcha, Ramona; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Darwish, Tamim; Elsner, Martin; Gehre, Matthias; Geilmann, Heike; Gröning, Manfred; Hélie, Jean-François; Herrero-Martín, Sara; Meijer, Harro A J; Sauer, Peter E; Sessions, Alex L; Werner, Roland A

    2016-04-19

    An international project developed, quality-tested, and determined isotope-δ values of 19 new organic reference materials (RMs) for hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen stable isotope-ratio measurements, in addition to analyzing pre-existing RMs NBS 22 (oil), IAEA-CH-7 (polyethylene foil), and IAEA-600 (caffeine). These new RMs enable users to normalize measurements of samples to isotope-δ scales. The RMs span a range of δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) values from -210.8 to +397.0 mUr or ‰, for δ(13)C(VPDB-LSVEC) from -40.81 to +0.49 mUr and for δ(15)N(Air) from -5.21 to +61.53 mUr. Many of the new RMs are amenable to gas and liquid chromatography. The RMs include triads of isotopically contrasting caffeines, C16 n-alkanes, n-C20-fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), glycines, and l-valines, together with polyethylene powder and string, one n-C17-FAME, a vacuum oil (NBS 22a) to replace NBS 22 oil, and a (2)H-enriched vacuum oil. A total of 11 laboratories from 7 countries used multiple analytical approaches and instrumentation for 2-point isotopic normalization against international primary measurement standards. The use of reference waters in silver tubes allowed direct normalization of δ(2)H values of organic materials against isotopic reference waters following the principle of identical treatment. Bayesian statistical analysis yielded the mean values reported here. New RMs are numbered from USGS61 through USGS78, in addition to NBS 22a. Because of exchangeable hydrogen, amino acid RMs currently are recommended only for carbon- and nitrogen-isotope measurements. Some amino acids contain (13)C and carbon-bound organic (2)H-enrichments at different molecular sites to provide RMs for potential site-specific isotopic analysis in future studies.

  8. [Direct determination of ethyl carbamate in Chinese rice wine and grape wine by ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijuan; Ke, Runhui; Wang, Bing; Yin, Jianjun; Song, Quanhou

    2012-09-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was established for the direct determination of ethyl carbamate in Chinese rice wine and grape wine. The Chinese rice wine and grape wine samples were diluted with distilled water, filtered through 0. 22 microm microporous membrane. The LC separation was performed on a Waters Acquity UPLC system with a BEH C18 column, acetonitrile and 0. 1% (v/v) acetic acid aqueous solution as the mobile phase. The ethyl carbamate was determined in the mode of electrospray positive ionization (ESI+) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The butyl carbamate (BC) was used as the internal standard for the quantitative determination. The calibration curve showed good linearity in the range of 2 - 500 microg/L with the correlation coefficient greater than 0.995. The limit of detection (LOD) was 1.7 microg/L and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 5.0 microg/L. The recoveries of the ethyl carbamate in Chinese rice wine and grape wine was in the range of 90% - 102%. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra-day and inter-day determinations were 0. 8% - 4.5% and 1.4% - 5.6% (n = 6). The results indicated that the proposed method is easy, fast, sensitive, and suitable for the determination of ethyl carbamate in Chinese rice wine and grape wine.

  9. Semipurified Ethyl Acetate Partition of Methanolic Extract of Melastoma malabathricum Leaves Exerts Gastroprotective Activity Partly via Its Antioxidant-Antisecretory-Anti-Inflammatory Action and Synergistic Action of Several Flavonoid-Based Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ismail Suhaimy, Noor Wahida; Noor Azmi, Ahmad Khusairi; Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah; Cheema, Manraj Singh

    2017-01-01

    Recent study has demonstrated the gastroprotective activity of crude methanolic extract of M. malabathricum leaves. The present study evaluated the gastroprotective potential of semipurified extracts (partitions): petroleum ether, ethyl acetate (EAMM), and aqueous obtained from the methanolic extract followed by the elucidation of the gastroprotective mechanisms of the most effective partition. Using the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer assay, all partitions exerted significant gastroprotection, with EAMM being the most effective partition. EAMM significantly (i) reduced the volume and acidity (free and total) while increasing the pH of gastric juice and enhanced the gastric wall mucus secretion when assessed using the pylorus ligation assay, (ii) increased the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant activity of the stomach tissue, (iii) lost its gastroprotective activity following pretreatment with N-omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; NO blocker) or carbenoxolone (CBXN; NP-SH blocker), (iv) exerted antioxidant activity against various in vitro oxidation assays, and (v) showed moderate in vitro anti-inflammatory activity via the LOX-modulated pathway. In conclusion, EAMM exerts a remarkable NO/NP-SH-dependent gastroprotective effect that is attributed to its antisecretory and antioxidant activities, ability to stimulate the gastric mucus production and endogenous antioxidant system, and synergistic action of several gastroprotective-induced flavonoids. PMID:28168011

  10. Vanillin as a modulator agent in SMART test: inhibition in the steps that precede N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-, ethylmethanesulphonate- and bleomycin-genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sinigaglia, Marialva; Lehmann, Maurício; Baumgardt, Paula; do Amaral, Viviane Souza; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues; Reguly, Maria Luíza; de Andrade, Heloísa Helena Rodrigues

    2006-09-05

    Vanillin (VA), the world's major flavoring compound used in food industry and confectionery products - that has antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activity against a variety of mutagenic/carcinogenic agents - was tested for the interval between the formation of premutational lesion and it is finalization as a DNA lesion. The overall findings using co-treatment protocols in SMART test suggest that VA can lead to a significant protection against the general genotoxicity of ethylmethanesulphonate (EMS), N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and bleomycin sulphate (BLEO). Considering MNU, ENU and EMS the desmutagenic activity observed could result from VA-stimulation of detoxification, via induction of glutathione S-transferase. However, the protector effect related to BLEO could be attributed to its powerful scavenger ability, which has the potential to prevent oxidative damage induced by BLEO.

  11. Antiviral activity of a synthesized shikonin ester against influenza A (H1N1) virus and insights into its mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yahan; Han, Hongwei; Qiu, Hanyue; Lin, Hongyan; Yu, Lugang; Zhu, Wanzhan; Qi, Jinliang; Yang, Rongwu; Pang, Yanjun; Wang, Xiaoming; Lu, Guihua; Yang, Yonghua

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the antiviral effects of shikonin ester ((R)-1-(5, 8-dihydroxy-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl)-4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl3-(1H- indol-3-yl) propanoate (PMM-034) against influenza A (H1N1) virus. We investigated PMM-034 anti-H1N1 activity and its effect on caspase 3 gene expression during cellular apoptosis after influenza virus infection in vitro. Neuraminidase (NA) inhibition was assessed in comparison with oseltamivir in the influenza virus standard strains A/PR/8/34 to understand the viral mechanism. MDCK and A549 cells were used to investigate influenza viral infection and the structure-activity relationship between PMM-034 and NA was evaluated by pharmacophore-based docking modeling. The production of viral protein was tested by western blot. A/PR/8/34 induced cell inhibition but this was reduced by PMM-034 to 16μg/mL and this showed a selective index of 10mM. PMM-034 inhibited NA in a dose dependent manner, similar to oseltamivir inhibition. A sharp decrease in viral nucleocapsid protein mRNA was observed in infected cells after treatment with PMM-034. Apoptosis of infected A459 cells was inhibited by PMM-034 with decreased caspase 3 levels. ARG 118, ARG 152, ARG 371 and GLU 227 in the binding pocket of NA bound to PMM-034 in the docking model. Taken together, these results suggest PMM-034 shikonin ester blocked H1N1 infection and might be a potential anti-H1N1 drug. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Temperature-enhanced alumina HPLC method for the analysis of wax esters, sterol esters, and methyl esters.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Robert A; Kohout, Karen; Singh, Vijay

    2002-12-01

    Previous attempts at separating nonpolar lipid esters (including wax esters, sterol esters, and methyl esters) have achieved only limited success. Among the several normal-phase methods tested, a single recent report of a method employing an alumina column at 30 degrees C with a binary gradient system was the most promising. In the current study, modification of the alumina method by increasing the column temperature to 75 degrees C improved the separation of standards of wax esters and sterol esters. Elevated column temperature also enhanced the separation of FAME with differing degrees of unsaturation. Evidence was also presented to indicate that the method similarly separated phytosterol esters, based on their levels of unsaturation. With the increased interest in phytosterol- and phytostanol-ester enriched functional foods, this method should provide a technique to characterize and compare these products.

  13. Probing the effects of the ester functional group, alkyl side chain length and anions on the bulk nanostructure of ionic liquids: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Fakhraee, Mostafa; Gholami, Mohammad Reza

    2016-04-14

    The effects of ester addition on nanostructural properties of biodegradable ILs composed of 1-alkoxycarbonyl-3-alkyl-imidazolium cations ([C1COOCnC1im](+), n = 1, 2, 4) combined with [Br](-), [NO3](-), [BF4](-), [PF6](-), [TfO](-), and [Tf2N](-) were explored by using the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) analysis at 400 K. Various thermodynamic properties of these ILs were extensively computed in our earlier work (Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2015, 54, 11678-11700). Nano-scale segregation analysis demonstrates the formation of a small spherical island-like hydrocarbon within the continuous ionic domain for ILs with short alkyl side chain ([C1COOC1C1im]), and a sponge-like nanostructure for the compound with long alkyl side chain ([C1COOC4C1im]). Ester-functionalized ILs with ethyl side chain ([C1COOC2C1im]) are the turning point between two different morphologies. Non-polar channels were observed for [C1COOC4C1im] ILs composed of smaller anions such as [Br] and [NO3], whereas clustering organization was found for the other anions. Formation of the spherical micelle-like nanostructure was seen for lengthened cations. Finally, the incorporation of an ester group into the alkyl side chain of the cation leads to stronger segregation between charged and uncharged networks, which consequently increased the possibility of self-assembly and micelle formation.

  14. The stability of N-[2-(4-o-fluorophenylpiperazin-1-yl)ethyl]-2,5-dimethyl-1 -phenylpyrrole-3,4-dicarboximide in aqueous-organic solutions.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Marianna; Sobczak, Agnieszka; Malinka, Wiesław; Redzicka, Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    The first-order reaction of solvolysis of N-[2-(4-o-fluorophenylpiperazin-1-yl)ethyl]-2,5-dimethyl-1-phenylpyrrole-3,4-dicarboximide (PDI) was investigated as a function of pH at 333, 328, 323, 318 and 308 K in the pH range 1.11 - 12.78. The decomposition of PDI was followed by the HPLC method (Nucleosil 10-C8 column (250 x 4 mm I.D., dp = 10 microm), mobile phase: 0.018 mol/L ammonia acetate - acetonitrile (40: 60 v/v), UV detector: 240 nm, flow rate: 1 mL/min. Specific acid-base catalysis involves solvolysis of the undissociated molecules of PDI catalyzed by hydroxide ions and spontaneous solvolysis of the undissociated and monoprotonated forms of PDI under the influence of solvents. The thermodynamic parameters of the reactions--activation energy (E(a)), enthalpy (DH(#)), entropy (DS(#))--were calculated.

  15. Improvement of retinal functions after ischemia with L-arginine and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, S X; Chiou, G C; Varma, R S

    1995-01-01

    Retinal ischemia was created by occlusion of rat central retinal artery for 30 minutes. The loss of retinal function was indicated by the loss of b-wave of electroretinogram. The recovery of retinal function after reperfusion of central retinal artery was observed with the gradual recovery of b-wave amplitude to approximately 20% of original b-wave amplitude. When L-arginine (RVC-579) was administered at the time of retina ischemia, the b-wave amplitudes recovered up to 64% of original height and were significantly higher than corresponding controls at 120, 180, and 240 min after ischemia. When the derivative of L-arginine, N alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester (RVC-578), was administered, the b-wave recovery was significantly higher than corresponding controls at 90, 120, 180, and 240 min after ischemia; the recovery reached 51% of the original b-wave value. These results indicate that the L-arginine and its lipophilic derivatives could be used for the treatment of ischemic retinopathy. Since L-arginine is a natural amino acid, it is not expected to produce major side effects, if any, and could pave the way for the development of a safer drug to be used in the clinics. Compounds which increase the formation of NO in vivo, dilate blood vessels. Both L-arginine and RVC-578 can be placed in this category. They may improve effects of retinal ischemia by increasing NO production.

  16. New poly(ester urea) derived from L-leucine: electrospun scaffolds loaded with antibacterial drugs and enzymes.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Angélica; del Valle, Luis J; Tugushi, David; Katsarava, Ramaz; Puiggalí, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun scaffolds from an amino acid containing poly(ester urea) (PEU) were developed as promising materials in the biomedical field and specifically in tissue engineering applications. The selected poly(ester urea) was obtained with a high yield and molecular weight by reaction of phosgene with a bis(α-aminoacyl)-α,ω-diol-diester monomer. The polymer having L-leucine, 1,6-hexanediol and carbonic acid units had a semicrystalline character and relatively high glass transition and melting temperatures. Furthermore it was highly soluble in most organic solvents, an interesting feature that facilitated the electrospinning process and the effective incorporation of drugs with bactericidal activity (e.g. biguanide derivatives such as clorhexidine and polyhexamethylenebiguanide) and enzymes (e.g. α-chymotrypsin) that accelerated the degradation process. Continuous micro/nanofibers were obtained under a wide range of processing conditions, being diameters of electrospun fibers dependent on the drug and solvent used. Poly(ester urea) samples were degradable in media containing lipases and proteinases but the degradation rate was highly dependent on the surface area, being specifically greater for scaffolds with respect to films. The high hydrophobicity of new scaffolds had repercussions on enzymatic degradability since different weight loss rates were found depending on how samples were exposed to the medium (e.g. forced or non-forced immersion). New scaffolds were biocompatible, as demonstrated by adhesion and proliferation assays performed with fibroblast and epithelial cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Quizalofop-p-ethyl-induced phytotoxicity and genotoxicity in Lemna minor and Lemna gibba.

    PubMed

    Doganlar, Zeynep B

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effects of the herbicide, quizalofop-p-ethyl, on pigment contents (total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a/b, carotenoid), antioxidant enzyme [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and guaiacol peroxidase (POD)] activities, lipid peroxidation product (malondialdehyde: MDA) and DNA profiles were investigated in Lemna gibba and Lemna minor. Laboratory-acclimatized plants were treated with quizalofop-p-ethyl at 31.375, 62.75, 125 and 250 mg L(-1) for 24 and 96 h. It was determined that quizalofop-p-ethyl affected both the physiological status and the DNA profiles of L. gibba and L. minor. The photosynthetic pigments of L. gibba were more sensitive to the herbicide than were those of L. minor at both treatment times. SOD and POD activities were elevated in both plants at 24 h. However at 96 h, SOD activity decreased in L. minor and had irregular changes in L. gibba.. Significant increases in the amounts of MDA were observed in L. gibba, whereas the levels of this compound decreased in L. minor at 24 and 96 h. Polymorphism in DNA profiles was determined using the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Four primers were used for scoring (appearance and disappearance of DNA polymorphic bands), and equally weighted maximum parsimony analyses were performed. Fewer differences were observed at 24 h, and more new bands were observed at 96 h in L. gibba. The RAPD profiles of L. minor produced by all of the primers were slightly less affected by the herbicide treatment than were those of L. gibba.

  18. HMGB1 targeting by ethyl pyruvate suppresses malignant phenotype of human mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Laura; Xue, Jiaming; Larson, David; Pastorino, Sandra; Jube, Sandro; Forest, Kelly H; Saad-Jube, Zeyana Salim; Napolitano, Andrea; Pagano, Ian; Negi, Vishal S; Bianchi, Marco E; Morris, Paul; Pass, Harvey I; Gaudino, Giovanni; Carbone, Michele; Yang, Haining

    2017-04-04

    Human malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive cancer linked to asbestos and erionite exposure. We previously reported that High-Mobility Group Box-1 protein (HMGB1), a prototypic damage-associated molecular pattern, drives MM development and sustains MM progression. Moreover, we demonstrated that targeting HMGB1 inhibited MM cell growth and motility in vitro, reduced tumor growth in vivo, and prolonged survival of MM-bearing mice. Ethyl pyruvate (EP), the ethyl ester of pyruvic acid, has been shown to be an effective HMGB1 inhibitor in inflammation-related diseases and several cancers. Here, we studied the effect of EP on the malignant phenotype of MM cells in tissue culture and on tumor growth in vivo using an orthotopic MM xenograft model. We found that EP impairs HMGB1 secretion by MM cells leading to reduced RAGE expression and NF-κB activation. As a consequence, EP impaired cell motility, cell proliferation, and anchorage-independent growth of MM cells. Moreover, EP reduced HMGB1 serum levels in mice and inhibited the growth of MM xenografts.Our results indicate that EP effectively hampers the malignant phenotype of MM, offering a novel potential therapeutic approach to patients afflicted with this dismal disease.

  19. X-ray crystallographic study of 3-Oxo-2-{[4-(thiazol-2-ylsulfamoyl)-phenyl]-hydrazono}-butyric acid ethyl ester and its application in the solvent assisted naked eye sensing of Hg(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, K. K.; Upadhyay, Shalini; Kumar, Kamlesh; Prasad, Rajendra

    2009-06-01

    The 3-Oxo-2-{[4-(thiazol-2-ylsulfamoyl)-phenyl]-hydrazono}-butyric acid ethyl ester (OSPBE) was studied through single crystal structure analysis revealing some interesting supramolecular architectural patterns. The N(3)-N(4) bond length of OSPBE was found to be 1.36 Å matching well with reported N-N bond length in the literature and hence clearly proved that it is the keto form of OSPBE which is stable. Full structural optimization of OSPBE using density functional theory (DFT) at the HCTH407/6-31G ∗∗ level also proved that the keto form of OSPBE is stable. The UV-Vis absorption peaks for OSPBE predicted by the time dependent DFT at B3LYP/6-311G ∗∗ level matched quite well with the experimentally observed UV-Vis bands for OSPBE. The OSPBE was successfully tested as the naked eye sensor for Hg(II) as its chloride salt at the millimolar level in dimethylsulfoxide. A color change from red orange to olive green was observed on addition of 1.0 equiv. of Hg(II) to the 1.0 × 10 -3 M DMSO solution of the chemosensor. The role of DMSO in the sensing process appears to be the crucial one because the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) band of OSPBE in DMSO observed at 489 nm did not appear in the UV-Vis spectrum of OSPBE in nujol. The UV-Vis and 1H NMR titrations revealed that formation of six membered 1:1 chelate between OSPBE and Hg(II) along with reversible supramolecular association of DMSO with NH at N-2 position in OSPBE may be responsible for its Hg(II) sensing. No sensing for other d 10 metal ions like Zn(II) and Cd(II) were observed with OSPBE under similar conditions. Besides DMSO, some other polar aprotic solvents like DMF and acetone having X dbnd O (where X = C) also produced similar type of color change on the addition of 1.0 equiv. of Hg(II) to their respective 1.0 × 10 -3 M OSPBE solutions. Nevertheless, polar aprotic solvent like acetonitrile not having X dbnd O or non-polar aprotic solvent like chloroform no color change was observed under

  20. Myo-inositol esters of indole-3-acetic acid are endogenous components of Zea mays L. shoot tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chisnell, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters have been demonstrated to be endogenous components of etiolated Zea mays shoots tissue. This was accomplished by comparison of the putative compounds with authentic, synthetic esters. The properties compared were liquid and gas-liquid chromatographic retention times and the 70-ev mass spectral fragmentation pattern of the pentaacetyl derivative. The amount of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters in the shoots was determined to be 74 nanomoles per kilogram fresh weight as measured by isotope dilution, accounting for 19% of the ester indole-3-acetic acid of the shoot. This work is the first characterization of an ester conjugate of indole-3-acetate acid from vegetative shoot tissue using multiple chromatographic properties and mass spectral identification. The kernel and the seedling shoot both contain indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters, and these esters comprise approximately the same percentage of the total ester content of the kernel and of the shoot.

  1. Ethyl pyruvate inhibits hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and attenuates pulmonary artery cytokine expression

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ben M.; Lahm, Tim; Morrell, Eric D.; Crisostomo, Paul R.; Markel, Troy; Wang, Meijing; Meldrum, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is a common consequence of acute lung injury and may be mediated by increased local production of proinflammatory cytokines. Ethyl pyruvate is a novel anti-inflammatory agent that has been shown to downregulate proinflammatory genes following hemorrhagic shock; however, its effects on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction are unknown. We hypothesized that ethyl pyruvate would inhibit hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and downregulate pulmonary artery cytokine expression during hypoxia. To study this, isometric force displacement was measured in isolated rat pulmonary artery rings (n=8/group) during hypoxia (95% N2/5% CO2) with or without prior ethyl pyruvate (10 mM) treatment. Following 60 minutes of hypoxia, pulmonary artery rings were analyzed for TNF-α and IL-1 mRNA via RT-PCR. Ethyl pyruvate inhibited hypoxic pulmonary artery contraction (4.49±2.32% vs. 88.80±5.68% hypoxia alone) and attenuated the hypoxic upregulation of pulmonary artery TNF and IL-1 mRNA (p<0.05). These data indicate that: 1) hypoxia increases pulmonary artery vasoconstriction and proinflammatory cytokine gene expression; 2) ethyl pyruvate decreases hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and downregulates hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery proinflammatory cytokine gene expression; and 3) ethyl pyruvate may represent a novel therapeutic adjunct in the treatment of acute lung injury. PMID:17574585

  2. Combining mass spectrometry diagnostic and density functional theory calculations for a better understanding of the plasma polymerization of ethyl lactate.

    PubMed

    Ligot, S; Guillaume, M; Gerbaux, P; Thiry, D; Renaux, F; Cornil, J; Dubois, P; Snyders, R

    2014-04-17

    The focus of this work is on the growth mechanism of ethyl lactate-based plasma polymer film (ELPPF) that could be used as barrier coatings. In such an application, the ester density of the plasma polymer has to be controlled to tune the degradation rate of the material. Our strategy consists of correlating the plasma chemistry evaluated by RGA mass spectrometry and understanding, via DFT calculations, the chemistry of the synthesized thin films. The theoretical calculations helped us to understand the plasma chemistry in plasma ON and OFF conditions. From these data it is unambiguously shown that the signal m/z 75 can directly be correlated with the precursor density in the plasma phase. The combination of XPS and chemical derivatization experiments reveal that the ester content in the ELPFF can be tailored from 2 to 18 at. % by decreasing the RF power, which is perfectly correlated with the evolution of the plasma chemistry. Our results also highlight that the ELPPF chemistry, especially the ester content, is affected by the plasma mode of operation (continuous or pulsed discharge, at similar injected mean power) for similar ester content in the plasma. This could be related to different energy conditions at the interface of the growing films that could affect the sticking coefficient of the ester-bearing fragments.

  3. Melatonin prevents fibrosis but not hypertrophy development in the left ventricle of NG-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Paulis, Ludovit; Pechanova, Olga; Zicha, Josef; Krajcirovicova, Kristina; Barta, Andrej; Pelouch, Vaclav; Adamcova, Michaela; Simko, Fedor

    2009-08-01

    Melatonin was shown to reduce blood pressure, enhance nitric oxide availability and scavenge free radicals. There is, however, a shortage of data with respect to the effect of melatonin on pathological left ventricular remodelling associated with haemodynamic overload. We investigated whether melatonin was able to prevent left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and fibrosis associated with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertension. Four groups of male Wistar rats were investigated: control, L-NAME (50 mg/kg per day), melatonin (10 mg/kg per day) and L-NAME plus melatonin. Blood pressure was measured non-invasively each week. After 5 weeks of treatment the animals were killed and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, endothelial and inducible NOS expression, the level of collagenous proteins, hydroxyproline and conjugated dienes in the left ventricle were determined. The administration of L-NAME inhibited NOS activity, increased conjugated dienes concentration, elevated blood pressure and induced LVH and fibrosis (indicated by increased collagenous proteins and hydroxyproline levels). The addition of melatonin to L-NAME treatment failed to prevent the attenuation of NOS activity and the development of LVH and prevented hypertension only partly. The administration of melatonin, however, completely prevented the increase in conjugated dienes concentration and the development of left ventricular fibrosis. NOS expression was not different among experimental groups. Melatonin prevented the development of left ventricular fibrosis and the increase in oxidative load in rats with L-NAME-induced hypertension. The antifibrotic effect of melatonin seems to be independent of its effects on NOS activity and might be linked to its antioxidant properties.

  4. SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF HALIDE IONS ON THE CORROSION INHIBITION OF MILD STEEL IN SULPHURIC ACID USING METHYL, N-METHYL ETHYL AND ETHYL SUBSTITUTED γ-2,c-6-DIPHENYL PIPERIDIN-4-ONE SEMICARBAZONES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priya, V. Shanmuga; Rani, C. Uma; Velrani, S.

    The synergistic effect of halide ions such as KCl, KBr and KI on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1 N sulphuric acid by γ-2,c-6-diphenyl-t-3-methyl piperdin-4-ones with semicarbazone (01SC), γ-2,c-6-diphenyl-N-methyl-t-3-ethyl piperdin-4-ones with semicarbazone (02SC) and 2,6-diphenyl-t-3-ethyl piperdin-4-one with semicarbazone (03SC) has been examined by weight loss method, potentiodynamic polarization measurements and electrochemical AC impedance spectroscopy. Results show that substituted γ-2,c-6-diphenyl piperidin-4-ones with semicarbazone act as the perfect corrosion inhibitors and their inhibition efficiency increases with the addition of halide ions. The inhibitor (01SC) shows the inhibition efficiency of 78.28% (0.2mM) by using a weight loss method. The influence of I-, Br- and Cl- anions raises the inhibition efficiency of the substituted 2,6-diphenyl piperidin-4-ones with semicarbazone due to the synergistic effect. The synergistic effect of halide ions was formed in the following order: KI > KBr > KCl.

  5. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy of explosive 2,4-dinitroanisole using modified silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhonghou; Hao, Jumin; Braida, Washington; Strickland, David; Li, Fasheng; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2011-11-15

    2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN) is being used as a replacement for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) as a less-sensitive melt-cast medium explosive than TNT. In this paper, we studied the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) analysis of DNAN using Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) modified by L-cysteine methyl ester hydrochloride. Due to the formation of a Meisenheimer complex between DNAN and the modifier, the modified AgNPs can detect 20 μg/L (0.2 ng) and 0.1 mg/L (1 ng) DNAN in deionized water and aged tap water, respectively. Three other chemicals (L-cysteine, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, and L-cysteine ethyl ester hydrochloride) were used as AgNPs modifiers to study the mechanism of the SERS of DNAN. It was confirmed that the amino group of L-cysteine methyl ester hydrochloride was the active group and that the methyl ester group significantly contributed to the high SERS sensitivity of DNAN. In order to further test the mechanism of Meisenheimer complex formation, the effect of anions and cations present in natural water on the SERS of DNAN was studied. It was found that CO(3)(2-), Cl(-), and K(+) at 100 mg/L did not negatively affect the SERS of 10 mg/L DNAN, while SO(4)(2-), Na(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+) at 100 mg/L significantly quenched the SERS of 10 mg/L DNAN. The negative effect of the bivalent cations could be offset by SO(4)(2-).

  6. Behavior of N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetic acid (N-EtFOSAA) in biosolids amended soil-plant microcosms of seven plant species: Accumulation and degradation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Bei; Pan, Ying; Shi, Xiaoli; Zhang, Hongna; Hu, Xiaoyu; Huang, Honglin; Lv, Jitao; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2018-06-13

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) precursors have been found extensively in sewage sludge and biosolids-amended soils. The degradation of these precursors are regarded as a significant source of PFOS in the environment. In this study, the accumulation of N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetic acid (N-EtFOSAA) in the plants of seven species, namely alfalfa, lettuce, maize, mung bean, radish, ryegrass, and soybean from biosolids-amended soil, and the degradation kinetics of N-EtFOSAA in soil-plant microcosms were evaluated over 60 days. N-EtFOSAA was found in the roots of all plant species, while was not in stems and leaves. The root concentration factors of N-EtFOSAA ranged 0.52-1.37 (pmol/g root )/(pmol/g soil ). Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to elucidate the accumulation of N-EtFOSAA in the roots of plants. The results showed that the root protein and lipid contents explain 85.0% of the variation in root N-EtFOSAA levels (P < 0.05). Four degradation products, including N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (N-EtFOSA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide acetate (FOSAA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) and PFOS were found in soils and plant roots, stems and leaves, indicating the degradation of N-EtFOSAA in soil-plant system. Degradation kinetics fitted a first-order kinetic model well. Degradation rate constants of N-EtFOSAA in the microcosms with plants ranged 0.063-0.165 d -1 , which was 1.40-3.6 times higher than those without plants. Degradation rate constant of maize was relatively higher than those of other plant species. The results is the first to reveal N-EtFOSAA accumulation in plants and degradation in soil-plant microcosms. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Occurrence of fatty acid short-chain-alkyl esters in fruits of Celastraceae plants.

    PubMed

    Sidorov, Roman A; Zhukov, Anatoly V; Pchelkin, Vasily P; Vereshchagin, Andrei G; Tsydendambaev, Vladimir D

    2013-06-01

    Small amounts of a mixture of fatty acid short-chain-alkyl esters (FASCAEs) were obtained from the fruits of twelve plant species of Celastraceae family, and in five of them the FASCAEs were present not only in the arils but also in the seeds. These mixtures contained 32 individual FASCAE species, which formed four separate fractions, viz. FA methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, and butyl esters (FAMEs, FAEEs, FAIPEs, and FABEs, resp.). The FASCAE acyl components included the residues of 16 individual C₁₄-C₂₄ saturated, mono-, di-, and trienoic FAs. Linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acids, and, in some cases, also α-linolenic acid predominated in FAMEs and FAEEs, while myristic acid was predominant in FAIPEs. It can be suggested that, in the fruit arils of some plant species, FAMEs and FAEEs were formed at the expense of a same FA pool characteristic of a given species and were strongly different from FAIPEs and FABEs esters regarding the mechanism of their biosynthesis. However, as a whole, the qualitative and quantitative composition of various FASCAE fractions, as well as their FA composition, varied considerably depending on various factors. Therefore, separate FASCAE fractions seem to be synthesized from different FA pools other than those used for triacylglycerol formation. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  8. Peripheral substitution of pheophorbides and bacteriopheophorbides to promote inclusion into inert carrier systems for PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehrs, Susanne; Ruebner-Heuermann, Anja; Hartwich, G.; Scheer, H.; Moser, Joerg G.

    1996-01-01

    Pheophorbide a ethyl ester, pyropheophorbide a ethyl ester, and bacteriopheophorbide ethyl ester were substituted in 31-position with tert.butyl phenoxy or tert.butyl benzoic acid ester groups resp. in order to enhance affinity to (beta) -cyclodextrin dimers which form inclusion complexes with these photosensitizing drugs. This is a first step to construct inert transport complexes in order to photosensitize specifically cancer cells.

  9. Chemical Composition and Vasorelaxant and Antispasmodic Effects of Essential Oil from Rosa indica L. Petals

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Hafiz Majid; Khan, Taous; Wahid, Fazli; Khan, Rasool; Shah, Abdul Jabbar

    2015-01-01

    Rosa indica L. belongs to the family Rosaceae and is locally known as gulaab. It has different traditional uses in cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders but there is no scientific data available in this regard. Therefore, the basic aim of this study was to explore the chemical composition and gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects of the essential oil obtained from R. indica. The chemical composition of the essential oil was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The cardiovascular and gastrointestinal effects were investigated using electrophysiological measurements. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil showed various chemical components including acetic acid, mercaptohexyl ester, butanoic acid, 2-methyl-5-oxo-1-cyclopentene-1-yl ester, artemiseole, methyl santonilate, isosteviol, caryophyllene oxide, pentyl phenyl acetate, dihydromyrcene, 1,5-octadecadien, octadecanoic acid, ethyl ester, palmitic acid (2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl methyl ester), santolina epoxide, and 9-farnesene. The electrophysiological measurements revealed that essential oil was more potent against K+ (80 mM) than phenylephrine precontractions using isolated rabbit aorta preparations. In isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, it showed more potency against high K+ induced contractions than spontaneous contractions. Considering these evidences, it can be concluded that R. indica essential oil may work as a complementary and alternative medicine in gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26357519

  10. Effects of icosapent ethyl on lipid and inflammatory parameters in patients with diabetes mellitus-2, residual elevated triglycerides (200–500 mg/dL), and on statin therapy at LDL-C goal: the ANCHOR study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Icosapent ethyl (IPE) is a high-purity prescription form of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ethyl ester indicated as an adjunct to diet to reduce triglyceride (TG) levels in adult patients with severe (≥500 mg/dL) hypertriglyceridemia. ANCHOR was a 12-week, phase 3 study that evaluated the efficacy and safety of IPE in patients (N = 702) with residual high fasting TG levels (≥200 and <500 mg/dL) despite having optimized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels (≥40 and <100 mg/dL) on statin therapy. Among patients randomized to IPE (4 g/day or 2 g/day) or placebo, 514 (73%) had diabetes mellitus. Methods A post hoc subgroup analysis of the ANCHOR study was conducted to assess the effects of IPE on median placebo-adjusted percent change from baseline in efficacy end point parameters in 3 subgroups: total (all subjects with diabetes—overall median baseline glycosylated hemoglobin A1c [A1c] = 6.8%), better-controlled diabetes (below median baseline A1c), and less-controlled diabetes (above median baseline A1c). Results Baseline efficacy parameters were similar among all groups except high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), which was higher in the total and less-controlled diabetes groups. Compared with placebo, IPE 4 g/day significantly reduced TG, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, apolipoprotein B (Apo B), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, VLDL-TG, oxidized LDL, and remnant-like particle cholesterol in all 3 diabetes groups, LDL-C in the total diabetes group, and hsCRP in the total and less-controlled diabetes groups. Decreases in hsCRP and Apo B were much greater in patients with less-controlled diabetes. There were no significant increases in fasting plasma glucose, A1c, insulin, or homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance in any group. Conclusion IPE 4 g/day significantly improved

  11. In vitro antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect, on oleic acid-induced hepatic steatosis, of fractions and subfractions from oat (Avena sativa L.) ethanol extract

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oats (Avena sativa L.) were extracted with 80% aqueous ethanol and the extract was successively isolated by liquid-liquid partition to yield n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water layers. Among these extractions the ethyl acetate (EA) layer exhibited the highest total phenolic content (TPC), t...

  12. Evaluating the Intoxicating Degree of Liquor Products with Combinations of Fusel Alcohols, Acids, and Esters.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jia; Tian, Xiao-Fei; He, Song-Gui; Wei, Yun-Lu; Peng, Bin; Wu, Zhen-Qiang

    2018-05-23

    To investigate the effects of fusel alcohols on the intoxicating degree of liquor products, formulated liquors (FLs) were prepared by blending 1-propanol, isobutanol, and isoamyl alcohol with ethanol, organic acids, and corresponding ethyl esters to simulate the formula of traditional Chinese liquors. The prepared FLs were submitted for evaluation of their intoxicating degree (ID). The results showed that the fusel alcohols had a biphasic effect on the IDs of the FLs, depending on the comprehensive coordination of the characteristic minor components. The importance of the suitable ratio of alcohols/acids/esters (RAAE) on the IDs was also revealed. Under an optimal ratio level, the fusel alcohols exhibited negligible effects on the IDs of the FLs. Moreover, the ratio of isoamyl alcohol to isobutanol (IA/IB) showed a strong positive correlation to the IDs of the FLs. This study lays a foundation for the potential application in producing low-ID liquor.

  13. Sensomics analysis of key bitter compounds in the hard resin of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and their contribution to the bitter profile of Pilsner-type beer.

    PubMed

    Dresel, Michael; Dunkel, Andreas; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-04-08

    Recent brewing trials indicated the occurrence of valuable bitter compounds in the hard resin fraction of hop. Aiming at the discovery of these compounds, hop's ε-resin was separated by means of a sensory guided fractionation approach and the key taste molecules were identified by means of UV/vis, LC-TOF-MS, and 1D/2D-NMR studies as well as synthetic experiments. Besides a series of literature known xanthohumol derivatives, multifidol glucosides, flavon-3-on glycosides, and p-coumaric acid esters, a total of 11 bitter tastants are reported for the first time, namely, 1",2"-dihydroxanthohumol F, 4'-hydroxytunicatachalcone, isoxantholupon, 1-methoxy-4-prenylphloroglucinol, dihydrocyclohumulohydrochinone, xanthohumols M, N, and P, and isoxanthohumols M, N, and P, respectively. Human sensory analysis revealed low bitter recognition threshold concentrations ranging from 5 (co-multifidol glucopyranoside) to 198 μmol/L (trans-p-coumaric acid ethyl ester) depending on their chemical structure. For the first time, LC-MS/MS quantitation of these taste compounds in Pilsner-type beer, followed by taste re-engineering experiments, revealed the additive contribution of iso-α-acids and the identified hard resin components to be truly necessary and sufficient for constructing the authentic bitter percept of beer. Finally, brewing trails using the ε-resin as the only hop source impressively demonstrated the possibility to produce beverages strongly enriched with prenylated hop flavonoids.

  14. Synthesis of carboxylic acids, esters, alcohols and ethers containing a tetrahydropyran ring derived from 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one.

    PubMed

    Hanzawa, Yohko; Hashimoto, Kahoko; Kasashima, Yoshio; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Mino, Takashi; Sakamoto, Masami; Fujita, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    3-hydroxy acids, 3-hydroxy-3,7-dimethyloct-6-enoic acid (1) and 3-hydroxy-2,2,3,7-tetramethyloct-6-enoic acid (2), were prepared from 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and they were subsequently used to prepare (2,6,6-trimethyltetrahydropyran-2-yl)acetic acid (3) and 2-methyl-2-(2,6,6-trimethyltetrahydropyran-2-yl)propanoic acid (4), respectively, via cyclization with an acidic catalyst such as boron trifluoride diethyl etherate or iodine. The reaction of carboxylic acids 3 and 4 with alcohols, including methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol, produced the corresponding methyl, ethyl, and propyl esters, which all contained a tetrahydropyran ring. Reduction of carboxylic acids 3 and 4 afforded the corresponding alcohols. Subsequent reactions of these alcohols with several acyl chlorides produced novel esters. The alcohols also reacted with methyl iodide and sodium hydride to provide novel ethers. A one-pot cyclization-esterification of 1 to produce esters containing a tetrahydropyran ring, using iodine as a catalyst, was also investigated.

  15. Gas/solid particulate phthalic esters (PAEs) in Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) needles and rhizosphere surface soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-xin; Fan, Chinbay Q

    2014-07-15

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are used in many branches of industry and are produced in huge amounts throughout the world. An investigation on particulate- and gas-phase distribution of PAEs has been conducted between January 2011 and December 2012 in Nanjing (China). Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) needles and rhizosphere surface soils were sampled from urban to suburban/remote sites, to investigate the pine needle/soil distribution of PAEs. The results showed that the average total PAE concentration (gas+particle) was 97.0ngm(-3). The six PAE congeners considered predominantly existed in the gas phase and the average contribution of gas phase to total PAEs ranged from 75.0% to 89.1%. The PAE concentrations in rhizosphere soils and pine needles were positively correlated with their particulate- and gas-phase concentrations, respectively, which suggested that surface soils accumulated PAEs mainly through gravity deposition of particles and pine needle stomata absorbed PAEs mainly from the gas phase. The gas/particle partitioning (KP) and soil-pine needle ratio (Rs/n) were determined. Experimentally determined KP values correlated well with the subcooled liquid vapor pressures (PL). A set of interesting relationships of logRs/n-logKP-logPL was employed to explain the experimental findings of PAEs deposition to surface soils and to needles. This data set offered a unique perspective into the influence that Rs/n played in KP and correlated with PL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Telotristat Ethyl, a Tryptophan Hydroxylase Inhibitor for the Treatment of Carcinoid Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kulke, Matthew H; Hörsch, Dieter; Caplin, Martyn E; Anthony, Lowell B; Bergsland, Emily; Öberg, Kjell; Welin, Staffan; Warner, Richard R P; Lombard-Bohas, Catherine; Kunz, Pamela L; Grande, Enrique; Valle, Juan W; Fleming, Douglas; Lapuerta, Pablo; Banks, Phillip; Jackson, Shanna; Zambrowicz, Brian; Sands, Arthur T; Pavel, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Preliminary studies suggested that telotristat ethyl, a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, reduces bowel movement (BM) frequency in patients with carcinoid syndrome. This placebo-controlled phase III study evaluated telotristat ethyl in this setting. Patients and Methods Patients (N = 135) experiencing four or more BMs per day despite stable-dose somatostatin analog therapy received (1:1:1) placebo, telotristat ethyl 250 mg, or telotristat ethyl 500 mg three times per day orally during a 12-week double-blind treatment period. The primary end point was change from baseline in BM frequency. In an open-label extension, 115 patients subsequently received telotristat ethyl 500 mg. Results Estimated differences in BM frequency per day versus placebo averaged over 12 weeks were -0.81 for telotristat ethyl 250 mg ( P < .001) and ‒0.69 for telotristat ethyl 500 mg ( P < .001). At week 12, mean BM frequency reductions per day for placebo, telotristat ethyl 250 mg, and telotristat ethyl 500 mg were -0.9, -1.7, and -2.1, respectively. Responses, predefined as a BM frequency reduction ≥ 30% from baseline for ≥ 50% of the double-blind treatment period, were observed in 20%, 44%, and 42% of patients given placebo, telotristat ethyl 250 mg, and telotristat ethyl 500 mg, respectively. Both telotristat ethyl dosages significantly reduced mean urinary 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid versus placebo at week 12 ( P < .001). Mild nausea and asymptomatic increases in gamma-glutamyl transferase were observed in some patients receiving telotristat ethyl. Follow-up of patients during the open-label extension revealed no new safety signals and suggested sustained BM responses to treatment. Conclusion Among patients with carcinoid syndrome not adequately controlled by somatostatin analogs, treatment with telotristat ethyl was generally safe and well tolerated and resulted in significant reductions in BM frequency and urinary 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid.

  17. Electronic state spectroscopy by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption, He(I) photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations of ethyl acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Śmialek, Malgorzata A.; Łabuda, Marta; Guthmuller, Julien; Hubin-Franskin, Marie-Jeanne; Delwiche, Jacques; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Jones, Nykola C.; Mason, Nigel J.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo

    2016-06-01

    The high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectrum of ethyl acetate, C4H8O2, is presented over the energy range 4.5-10.7 eV (275.5-116.0 nm). Valence and Rydberg transitions and their associated vibronic series observed in the photoabsorption spectrum, have been assigned in accordance with new ab initio calculations of the vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths. Also, the photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of this ester in the upper stratosphere (20-50 km). Calculations have also been carried out to determine the ionisation energies and fine structure of the lowest ionic state of ethyl acetate and are compared with a newly recorded photoelectron spectrum (from 9.5 to 16.7 eV). Vibrational structure is observed in the first photoelectron band of this molecule for the first time.

  18. Effect of ω-3 fatty acid ethyl esters on apolipoprotein B-48 kinetics in obese subjects on a weight-loss diet: a new tracer kinetic study in the postprandial state.

    PubMed

    Wong, Annette T Y; Chan, Dick C; Barrett, P Hugh R; Adams, Leon A; Watts, Gerald F

    2014-08-01

    Dysregulated chylomicron metabolism may account for hypertriglyceridemia and increased risk of cardiovascular disease in obese subjects. Supplementation with ω-3 fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) decreases plasma triglyceride. However, its effect on postprandial chylomicron metabolism in obese subjects on a weight-loss diet has not yet been investigated. We aimed to examine the effect of ω-3 FAEE supplementation on apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 kinetics in obese subjects on a weight-loss diet. We carried out a 12-week, randomized trial of a hypocaloric diet plus 4 g/d ω-3 FAEE supplementation (46% eicosapentaenoic acid and 38% docosahexaenoic acid) (n = 13) compared with a hypocaloric diet alone (n = 12) on postprandial apoB-48 kinetics in obese subjects after ingestion of an oral load. The apoB-48 kinetics were determined using stable isotope tracer kinetics and multicompartmental modeling. We evaluated plasma total and incremental apoB-48 0- to 10-hour area under the curves (AUCs) as well as apoB-48 secretion and fractional catabolic rate. Weight loss with or without ω-3 FAEE supplementation significantly reduced body weight, total fat mass, homeostasis model assessment score, fasting triglyceride concentration, postprandial triglyceride AUC, and increased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration (P < .05 in all). Compared with weight loss alone, weight loss plus ω-3 FAEE significantly (all P < .05) decreased fasting triglyceride (-11%), apoB-48 (-36%) concentrations, postprandial triglyceride (-21%), and apoB-48 (-22%) total AUCs, as well as incremental postprandial triglyceride AUCs (-32%). The ω-3 FAEE also significantly decreased apoB-48 secretion in the basal state, without a significant effect during the postprandial period (3-6 hours). The fractional catabolic rate of apoB-48 increased with both interventions with no significant independent effect of ω-3 FAEE supplementation. Addition of ω-3 FAEE supplementation to a moderate weight

  19. Esters of Quinoxaline 1`4-Di-N-oxide with Cytotoxic Activity on Tumor Cell Lines Based on NCI-60 Panel.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Gildardo; Ahmad Shah, Syed Shoaib; Arrieta-Baez, Daniel; Palos, Isidro; Mongue, Antonio; Sánchez-Torres, Luvia Enid

    2017-01-01

    Quinoxalines display diverse and interesting pharmacological activities as antibacterial, antiviral, antiparasitic and anticancer agents. Particularly, their 1`4-di- N -oxide derivatives have proved to be cytotoxic agents that are active under hypoxic conditions as that of solid tumours. A new series of quinoxaline 1`4-di- N -oxide substitutes at 7-position with esters group were synthetized and characterized by infrared (IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H-NMR), spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Seventeen derivatives (M1-M3, E1-E8, P1-P3 and DR1-DR3) were selected and evaluated for antitumor activities using the NCI-60 human tumor cell lines screen. Results showed that E7, P3 and E6 were the most active compounds against the cell lines tested. Substitutions at 7-position with esters group not necessarily affect the biological activity, but the nature of the esters group could exert an influence on the selectivity. Additionally, substitutions at 2-position influenced the cytotoxic activity of the compounds.

  20. Chemical and physical analyses of wax ester properties

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sejal; Nelson, Dennis R.; Gibbs, Allen G.

    2001-01-01

    Wax esters are major constituents of the surface lipids in many terrestrial arthropods, but their study is complicated by their diversity. We developed a procedure for quantifying isomers in mixtures of straight-chain saturated and unsaturated wax esters having the same molecular weights, using single-ion monitoring of the total ion current data from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We examined the biological consequences of structural differences by measuring the melting temperatures, Tm, of >60 synthetic wax esters, containing 26–48 carbon atoms. Compounds containing saturated alcohol and acid moieties melted at 38–73°C. The main factor affecting Tm was the total chain length of the wax ester, but the placement of the ester bond also affected Tm. Insertion of a double bond into either the alcohol or acid moiety decreased Tm by ∼30°C. Simple mixtures of wax esters with n-alkanes melted several °C lower than predicted from the melting points of the component lipids. Our results indicate that the wax esters of primary alcohols that are most typically found on the cuticle of terrestrial arthropods occur in a solid state under physiological conditions, thereby conferring greater waterproofing. Wax esters of secondary alcohols, which occur on melanopline grasshoppers, melted >60°C below primary esters of the same molecular weight and reduced Tm of the total surface lipids to environmental values. PMID:15455064

  1. Ethyl caffeate suppresses NF-kappaB activation and its downstream inflammatory mediators, iNOS, COX-2, and PGE2 in vitro or in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yi-Ming; Lo, Chiu-Ping; Chen, Yi-Ping; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Yang, Ning-Sun; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Shyur, Lie-Fen

    2005-10-01

    Ethyl caffeate, a natural phenolic compound, was isolated from Bidens pilosa, a medicinal plant popularly used for treating certain inflammatory syndromes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the structural activity, and the anti-inflammatory functions and mechanism(s) of ethyl caffeate. Ethyl caffeate was found to markedly suppress the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production (IC(50) = 5.5 microg ml(-1)), mRNA and protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Transient gene expression assays using human cox-2 promoter construct revealed that ethyl caffeate exerted an inhibitory effect on cox-2 transcriptional activity in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated MCF-7 cells. Immunohistochemical studies of mouse skin demonstrated that TPA-induced COX-2 expression was significantly inhibited by ethyl caffeate with a superior effect to that of celecoxib, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor kappaB (IkappaB) and the translocation of nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) into the nucleus, as well as the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) induced by LPS in macrophages, were not affected by ethyl caffeate. Ethyl caffeate, however, could inhibit NF-kappaB activation by impairing the binding of NF-kappaB to its cis-acting element. These results suggest that ethyl caffeate suppresses iNOS and COX-2 expressions partly through the inhibition of the NF-kappaB.DNA complex formation. Structure-activity relationship analyses suggested that the catechol moiety and alpha,beta-unsaturated ester group in ethyl caffeate are important and essential structural features for preventing NF-kappaB.DNA complex formation. This study provides an insight into the probable mechanism(s) underlying the anti-inflammatory and therapeutic properties of ethyl caffeate.

  2. Neurotoxic and teratogenic effects of an organophosphorus insecticide (phenyl phosphonothioic acid-O-ethyl -O-[4-nitrophenyl] ester) on mallard development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.

    1984-01-01

    Phenyl phosphonothioic acid-O-ethyl-O-[4-nitrophenyl] ester (EPN) is one of the 10 most frequently used organophosphorus insecticides and causes delayed neurotoxicity in adult chickens and mallards. Small amounts of organophosphorus insecticides placed on birds' eggs are embryotoxic and teratogenic. For this reason, the effects of topical egg application on EPN were examined on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) embryo development. Mallard eggs were treated topically at 72 hr of incubation with 25 microliter of a nontoxic oil vehicle or with EPN in the vehicle at concentrations of approximately 12, 36, or 108 micrograms/g egg, equivalent to one, three, and nine times the agricultural level of application used to spray crops. Treatment with EPN resulted in 22 to 44% mortality over this dose range by 18 days of development compared with 4 and 5% for untreated and vehicle-treated controls. EPN impaired embryonic growth and was highly teratogenic: 37-42% of the surviving embryos at 18 days were abnormal with cervical and axial scoliosis as well as severe edema. Brain weights were significantly lower in EPN-treated groups at different stages of development including hatchlings. Brain neurotoxic esterase (NTE) activity was inhibited by as much as 91% at 11 days, 81% at 18 days, and 79% in hatchlings. Examination of brain NTE activity during the course of normal development revealed an increase of nearly sixfold from Day 11 through hatching. The most rapid increase occurred between Day 20 and hatching. Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was inhibited by as much as 41% at 11 days, 47% at 18 days, and 20% in hatchlings. Plasma cholinesterase and alkaline phosphatase activities were inhibited and plasma aspartate aminotransferase activity was increased at one or more stages of development. Hatchlings from EPN-treated eggs were weaker and slower to right themselves. Histopathological examination did not reveal demyelination and axonopathy of the spinal cord that was

  3. Toxic Effects of Ethyl Cinnamate on the Photosynthesis and Physiological Characteristics of Chlorella vulgaris Based on Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Flow Cytometry Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yang; Ouyang, Hui-Ling; Jiang, Yu-Jiao; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; He, Wei; Liu, Wen-Xiu; Yang, Bin; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2015-01-01

    The toxic effects of ethyl cinnamate on the photosynthetic and physiological characteristics of Chlorella vulgaris were studied based on chlorophyll fluorescence and flow cytometry analysis. Parameters, including biomass, F v/F m (maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII), ФPSII (actual photochemical efficiency of PSII in the light), FDA, and PI staining fluorescence, were measured. The results showed the following: (1) The inhibition on biomass increased as the exposure concentration increased. 1 mg/L ethyl cinnamate was sufficient to reduce the total biomass of C. vulgaris. The 48-h and 72-h EC50 values were 2.07 mg/L (1.94–2.20) and 1.89 mg/L (1.82–1.97). (2) After 24 h of exposure to 2–4 mg/L ethyl cinnamate, the photosynthesis of C. vulgaris almost ceased, manifesting in ФPSII being close to zero. After 72 h of exposure to 4 mg/L ethyl cinnamate, the F v/F m of C. vulgaris dropped to zero. (3) Ethyl cinnamate also affected the cellular physiology of C. vulgaris, but these effects resulted in the inhibition of cell yield rather than cell death. Exposure to ethyl cinnamate resulted in decreased esterase activities in C. vulgaris, increased average cell size, and altered intensities of chlorophyll a fluorescence. Overall, esterase activity was the most sensitive variable. PMID:26101784

  4. Determination of arsenic species in solid matrices utilizing supercritical fluid extraction coupled with gas chromatography after derivatization with thioglycolic acid n-butyl ester.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhifeng; Cui, Zhaojie

    2016-12-01

    A method using derivatization and supercritical fluid extraction coupled with gas chromatography was developed for the analysis of dimethylarsinate, monomethylarsonate and inorganic arsenic simultaneously in solid matrices. Thioglycolic acid n-butyl ester was used as a novel derivatizing reagent. A systematic discussion was made to investigate the effects of pressure, temperature, flow rate of the supercritical CO 2 , extraction time, concentration of the modifier, and microemulsion on extraction efficiency. The application for real environmental samples was also studied. Results showed that thioglycolic acid n-butyl ester was an effective derivatizing reagent that could be applied for arsenic speciation. Using methanol as modifier of the supercritical CO 2 can raise the extraction efficiency, which can be further enhanced by adding a microemulsion that contains Triton X-405. The optimum extraction conditions were: 25 MPa, 90°C, static extraction for 10 min, dynamic extraction for 25 min with a flow rate of 2.0 mL/min of supercritical CO 2 modified by 5% v/v methanol and microemulsion. The detection limits of dimethylarsinate, monomethylarsonate, and inorganic arsenic in solid matrices were 0.12, 0.26, and 1.1 mg/kg, respectively. The optimized method was sensitive, convenient, and reliable for the extraction and analysis of different arsenic species in solid samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. New organic reference materials for hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen stable isotope-ratio measurements: caffeines, n-alkanes, fatty acid methyl esters, glycines, L-valines, polyethylenes, and oils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Brand, Willi A.; Fong, Jon; Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Kemp, Helen F.; Toman, Blaza; Ackermann, Annika; Assonov, Sergey; Aerts-Bijma, Anita; Brejcha, Ramona; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Darwish, Tamim; Elsner, Martin; Gehre, Matthias; Geilmann, Heike; Gröning, Manfred; Hélie, Jean-François; Herrero-Martín, Sara; Meijer, Harro A.J.; Sauer, Peter E.; Sessions, Alex L.; Werner, Roland A.

    2016-01-01

    An international project developed, quality-tested, and determined isotope−δ values of 19 new organic reference materials (RMs) for hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen stable isotope-ratio measurements, in addition to analyzing pre-existing RMs NBS 22 (oil), IAEA-CH-7 (polyethylene foil), and IAEA-600 (caffeine). These new RMs enable users to normalize measurements of samples to isotope−δ scales. The RMs span a range of δ2HVSMOW-SLAP values from −210.8 to +397.0 mUr or ‰, for δ13CVPDB-LSVEC from −40.81 to +0.49 mUr and for δ15NAir from −5.21 to +61.53 mUr. Many of the new RMs are amenable to gas and liquid chromatography. The RMs include triads of isotopically contrasting caffeines, C16 n-alkanes, n-C20-fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), glycines, and l-valines, together with polyethylene powder and string, one n-C17-FAME, a vacuum oil (NBS 22a) to replace NBS 22 oil, and a 2H-enriched vacuum oil. A total of 11 laboratories from 7 countries used multiple analytical approaches and instrumentation for 2-point isotopic normalization against international primary measurement standards. The use of reference waters in silver tubes allowed direct normalization of δ2H values of organic materials against isotopic reference waters following the principle of identical treatment. Bayesian statistical analysis yielded the mean values reported here. New RMs are numbered from USGS61 through USGS78, in addition to NBS 22a. Because of exchangeable hydrogen, amino acid RMs currently are recommended only for carbon- and nitrogen-isotope measurements. Some amino acids contain 13C and carbon-bound organic 2H-enrichments at different molecular sites to provide RMs for potential site-specific isotopic analysis in future studies.

  6. Effect of alcohol on skin permeation and metabolism of an ester-type prodrug in Yucatan micropig skin.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Makiko; Ohara, Rieko; Matsumi, Azusa; Ohura, Kayoko; Koizumi, Naoya; Imai, Teruko; Watanabe, Yoshiteru

    2017-11-15

    We studied the effect that three alcohols, ethanol (EA), propanol (PA), and isopropanol (IPA), have on the skin permeation of p-hydroxy benzoic acid methyl ester (HBM), a model ester-type prodrug. HBM was applied to Yucatan micropig skin in a saturated phosphate buffered solution with or without 10% alcohol, and HBM and related materials in receptor fluid and skin were determined with HPLC. In the absence of alcohol, p-hydroxy benzoic acid (HBA), a metabolite of HBM, permeated the skin the most. The three alcohols enhanced the penetration of HBM at almost the same extent. The addition of 10% EA or PA to the HBM solution led to trans-esterification into the ethyl ester or propyl ester of HBA, and these esters permeated skin as well as HBA and HBM did. In contrast, the addition of 10% IPA promoted very little trans-esterification. Both hydrolysis and trans-esterification in the skin S9 fraction were inhibited by BNPP, an inhibitor of carboxylesterase (CES). Western blot and native PAGE showed the abundant expression of CES in micropig skin. Both hydrolysis and trans-esterification was simultaneously catalyzed by CES during skin permeation. Our data indicate that the alcohol used in dermal drug preparations should be selected not only for its ability to enhance the solubility and permeation of the drug, but also for the effect on metabolism of the drug in the skin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dopaminergic neurotoxicity of S-ethyl N,N-dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC), molinate, and S-methyl-N,N-diethylthiocarbamate (MeDETC) in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Caito, Samuel W.; Valentine, William M.; Aschner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies corroborate a correlation between pesticide use and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Thiocarbamate and dithiocarbamate pesticides are widely used and produce neurotoxicity in the peripheral nervous system. Recent evidence from rodent studies suggests that these compounds also cause dopaminergic (DAergic) dysfunction and altered protein processing, two hallmarks of PD. However, DAergic neurotoxicity has yet to be documented. We assessed DAergic dysfunction in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) to investigate the ability of thiocarbamate pesticides to induce DAergic neurodegeneration. Acute treatment with either S-ethyl N,N-dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC), molinate, or a common reactive intermediate of dithiocarbamate and thiocarbamate metabolism, S-methyl-N,N-diethylthiocarbamate (MeDETC), to gradual loss of DAergic cell morphology and structure over the course of 6 days in worms expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under a DAergic cell specific promoter. HPLC analysis revealed decreased DA content in the worms immediately following exposure to MeDETC, EPTC, and molinate. Additionally, worms treated with the three test compounds showed a drastic loss of DAergic-dependent behavior over a time course similar to changes in DAergic cell morphology. Alterations in the DAergic system were specific, as loss of cell structure and neurotransmitter content was not observed in cholinergic, glutamatergic, or GABAergic systems. Overall, our data suggest that thiocarbamate pesticides promote neurodegeneration and DAergic cell dysfunction in C. elegans, and may be an environmental risk factor for PD. PMID:23786526

  8. Dummy molecularly imprinted microbeads as solid-phase extraction material for selective determination of phthalate esters in water.

    PubMed

    Özer, Elif Tümay; Osman, Bilgen; Yazıcı, Tuğçe

    2017-06-02

    The aim of this study was to investigate the usability of newly synthesized dummy molecularly imprinted microbeads (DMIMs) as a solid phase extraction (SPE) material to determine six phthalate esters (PEs) in water by GC-MS analysis. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) was used as a dummy template to prepare poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate N-methacryloyl-l-tryptophan methyl ester) [PEMATrp)] DMIMs by using suspension polymerization. The PEMATrp DMIMs were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Firstly, the adsorption capacities of the DMIMs prepared in different template molecule (DEP) to functional monomer (MATrp) ratios were investigated by using DEP solutions in the concentration range of 1-500mg/L at pH 3.0. Styrene and vanillic acid were used to evaluate the selectivity of the prepared DMIMs towards the template molecule (DEP). Then, the best analytical conditions were investigated for the simultaneous determination of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) in aqueous media by using the PEMATrp DMIMs as SPE material. Validation experiments showed that the PEMATrp DMIMs-SPE method had good linearity at 12.5-250.0μg/L (0.988-0.999), good precision (1.2-5.9%), and limits of detection in a range of 0.31-0.41μg/L. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The novel imidazopyridine 2-[2-(4-methoxy-pyridin-2-yl)-ethyl]-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (BYK191023) is a highly selective inhibitor of the inducible nitric-oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Strub, Andreas; Ulrich, Wolf-Rüdiger; Hesslinger, Christian; Eltze, Manfrid; Fuchss, Thomas; Strassner, Jochen; Strand, Susanne; Lehner, Martin D; Boer, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    We have identified imidazopyridine derivatives as a novel class of NO synthase inhibitors with high selectivity for the inducible isoform. 2-[2-(4-Methoxy-pyridin-2-yl)-ethyl]-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (BYK191023) showed half-maximal inhibition of crudely purified human inducible (iNOS), neuronal (nNOS), and endothelial (eNOS) NO synthases at 86 nM, 17 microM, and 162 microM, respectively. Inhibition of inducible NO synthase was competitive with l-arginine, pointing to an interaction of BYK191023 with the catalytic center of the enzyme. In radioligand and surface plasmon resonance experiments, BYK191023 exhibited an affinity for iNOS, nNOS, and eNOS of 450 nM, 30 microM, and >500 microM, respectively. Inhibition of cellular nitrate/nitrite synthesis in RAW, rat mesangium, and human embryonic kidney 293 cells after iNOS induction showed 40- to 100-fold higher IC(50) values than at the isolated enzyme, in agreement with the much higher l-arginine concentrations in cell culture media and inside intact cells. BYK191023 did not show any toxicity in various rodent and human cell lines up to high micromolar concentrations. The inhibitory potency of BYK191023 was tested in isolated organ models of iNOS (lipopolysaccharide-treated and phenylephrine-precontracted rat aorta; IC(50) = 7 microM), eNOS (arecaidine propargyl ester-induced relaxation of phenylephrine-precontracted rat aorta; IC(50) > 100 microM), and nNOS (field-stimulated relaxation of phenylephrine-precontracted rabbit corpus cavernosum; IC(50) > 100 microM). These data confirm the high selectivity of BYK191023 for iNOS over eNOS and nNOS found at isolated enzymes. In summary, we have identified a new highly selective iNOS inhibitor structurally unrelated to known compounds and l-arginine. BYK191023 is a valuable tool for the investigation of iNOS-mediated effects in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Antibacterial Activity of the Isolation Ethyl Acetate-Soluble Extract Noni Fruit (Morindra citrifolia L.) against Meat Bacterial Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugraheni, E. R.; Nurrakhman, M. B. E.; Munawaroh, H.; Saputri, L.

    2017-02-01

    Noni (Morindra citrifolia L.) is native to Indonesia which have medicinal properties. One of them as an antibacterial. This study aims to determine the antibacterial activity of isolates from the ethanol extract noni fruit to bacterial decay meat is Bacillus licheniformis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus alvei, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. The extraction process using the maceration method, and then made a partition by centrifugation ethyl acetate. Soluble part partition showed bacterial growth inhibition activity of the strong to very strong. Furthermore, the ethyl acetate soluble partition on preparative thin layer chromatography produced 5 isolates. Isolates obtained antibacterial activity test performed with a concentration of 20% and 30%. The results of antibacterial test against bacteria test isolates, showing isolates A can not inhibit the growth of bacteria, isolates B and C have medium activity and strong, isolates D and E isolates have activity against bacteria that were tested. MIC and MBC test results showed that the isolates B gives an inhibitory effect (bacteriostatic) against all bacteria. Content analysis of compounds by TLC using the reagents cerium (IV) sulfate indicates a phenol group. Isolates B contains a major compound which can be used as an antibacterial candidate in food preservation replace chemical preservatives.

  11. Stereoselective formation of a 2 prime (3 prime)- aminoacyl ester of a nucleotide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, A. L.

    1986-01-01

    Reaction of DL-series and adenosine-5-phosphorimidazolide in the presence of adenosine-5'-(0-methylphosphate) and imidazole resulted in the stereoselective synthesis of the aminoacyl nucleotide ester, 2'(3')-0-seryl-adenosine-5'-(0-methylphosphate). The enantiomeric excess of D-serine incorporated into 2'(3')-0-seryl-adenosine-5'-(0-methylphosphate) was about 9%. Adenylyl-(5->N)-serine and an unknown product also incorporated an excess of D-serine, however, seryl-serine showed an excess of L-serine. The relationship of these results to the origin of the biological pairing of L-amino acids and nucleotides containing D-ribose is discussed.

  12. Identification and quantification of astaxanthin esters in shrimp (Pandalus borealis) and in a microalga (Haematococcus pluvialis) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using negative ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    PubMed

    Breithaupt, Dietmar E

    2004-06-16

    Negative ion liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry [negative ion LC-(APCI)MS] was used for the identification of astaxanthin esters in extracts of commercial shrimp (Pandalus borealis) and dried microalga (Haematococcus pluvialis) samples. A cleanup step using a normal phase solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge was applied prior to analysis. Recovery experiments with astaxanthin oleate as model compound proved the applicability of this step (98.5 +/- 7.6%; n = 4). The assignment of astaxanthin esters in negative ion LC-(APCI)MS was based on the detection of the molecular ion (M*-) and the formation of characteristic fragment ions, resulting from the loss of one or two fatty acids. Quantification of individual astaxanthin esters was performed using an astaxanthin calibration curve, which was found to be linear over the required range (1-51 micromol/L; r2 = 0.9996). Detection limits, based on the intensity of M*-, a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1, and an injection volume of 20 microL, were estimated to be 0.05 microg/mL (free astaxanthin), 0.28 microg/mL (astaxanthin-C16:0), and 0.78 microg/mL (astaxanthin-C16:0/C16:0), respectively. This LC-(APCI)MS method allows for the first time the characterization of native astaxanthin esters in P. borealis and H. pluvialis without using time-consuming isolation steps with subsequent gas chromatographic analyses of fatty acid methyl esters. The results suggest that the pattern of astaxanthin-bound polyunsaturated fatty acids of P. borealis does not reflect the respective fatty acid pattern found in triacylglycerides. Application of the presented LC-(APCI)MS technique in common astaxanthin ester analysis will forestall erroneous xanthophyll ester assignment in natural sources.

  13. A General and Selective Rhodium-Catalyzed Reduction of Amides, N-Acyl Amino Esters, and Dipeptides Using Phenylsilane.

    PubMed

    Das, Shoubhik; Li, Yuehui; Lu, Liang-Qiu; Junge, Kathrin; Beller, Matthias

    2016-05-17

    This article describes a selective reduction of functionalized amides, including N-acyl amino esters and dipeptides, to the corresponding amines using simple [Rh(acac)(cod)]. The catalyst shows excellent chemoselectivity in the presence of different sensitive functional moieties. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Antioxidant potential of n-butanol fraction from extract of Jasminum mesnyi Hance leaves.

    PubMed

    Borar, Sakshi; Punia, Priyanka; Kalia, A N

    2011-01-01

    Methanolic extract of Jasminum mesnyi Hance leaves having antidiabetic activity was subjected to fractionation to obtain antioxidant and antihyperglycemic rich fraction. Different concentrations of ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were subjected to antioxidant assay by DPPH method, nitric oxide scavenging activity and reducing power assay. The fractions showed dose dependent free radical scavenging property in all the models. IC50 values for ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were 153.45 +/- 6.65 and 6.22 +/- 0.25 microg/ml, respectively, as compared to L-ascorbic acid and rutin (as standards; IC50 values 6.54 +/- 0.24 and 5.43 +/- 0.21 microg/ml, respectively) in DPPH model. In nitric oxide scavenging activity, IC50 values were 141.54 +/- 9.95 microg/ml, 35.12 +/- 1.58 microg/ml, 21.06 +/- 0.95 microg/ml and 29.93 +/- 0.32 microg/ml for ethyl acetate, n-butanol fractions, L-ascorbic acid and rutin, respectively. n-Butanol fraction showed a good reducing potential and better free radical scavenging activity as compared to ethyl acetate fraction. Potent antioxidant n-butanol fraction showed better oral glucose tolerance test (antihyperglycemic) at par with metformin (standard drug), n-Butanol fraction contained secoiridoid glycosides which might be responsible for both antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activity.

  15. Analysis of seed phorbol-ester and curcin content together with genetic diversity in multiple provenances of Jatropha curcas L. from Madagascar and Mexico.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; King, Andrew J; Khan, M Awais; Cuevas, Jesús A; Ramiaramanana, Danièle; Graham, Ian A

    2011-10-01

    Jatropha curcas L. has been promoted as an oilseed crop for use to meet the increased world demand for vegetable oil production, and in particular, as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Seed meal is a protein-rich by-product of vegetable oil extraction, which can either be used as an organic fertilizer, or converted to animal feed. However, conversion of J. curcas seed meal into animal feed is complicated by the presence of toxins, though plants producing "edible" or "non-toxic" seeds occur in Mexico. Toxins present in the seeds of J. curcas include phorbol esters and a type-I ribosome inactivating protein (curcin). Although the edible seeds of J. curcas are known to lack phorbol esters, the curcin content of these seeds has not previously been studied. We analyzed the phorbol ester and curcin content of J. curcas seeds obtained from Mexico and Madagascar, and conclude that while phorbol esters are lacking in edible seeds, both types contain curcin. We also analyzed spatial distribution of these toxins in seeds. Phorbol-esters were most concentrated in the tegmen. Curcin was found in both the endosperm and tegmen. We conclude that seed toxicity in J. curcas is likely to be due to a monogenic trait, which may be under maternal control. We also conducted AFLP analysis and conclude that genetic diversity is very limited in the Madagascan collection compared to the Mexican collection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Flow injection analysis of ethyl xanthate by gas diffusion and UV detection as CS2 for process monitoring of sulfide ore flotation.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Thiago G; Hidalgo, Pilar; Gutz, Ivano G R; Pedrotti, Jairo J

    2010-07-15

    A sensitive and robust analytical method for spectrophotometric determination of ethyl xanthate, CH(3)CH(2)OCS(2)(-) at trace concentrations in pulp solutions from froth flotation process is proposed. The analytical method is based on the decomposition of ethyl xanthate, EtX(-), with 2.0 mol L(-1) HCl generating ethanol and carbon disulfide, CS(2). A gas diffusion cell assures that only the volatile compounds diffuse through a PTFE membrane towards an acceptor stream of deionized water, thus avoiding the interferences of non-volatile compounds and suspended particles. The CS(2) is selectively detected by UV absorbance at 206 nm (epsilon=65,000 L mol(-1) cm(-1)). The measured absorbance is directly proportional to EtX(-) concentration present in the sample solutions. The Beer's law is obeyed in a 1x10(-6) to 2x10(-4) mol L(-1) concentration range of ethyl xanthate in the pulp with an excellent correlation coefficient (r=0.999) and a detection limit of 3.1x10(-7) mol L(-1), corresponding to 38 microg L(-1). At flow rates of 200 microL min(-1) of the donor stream and 100 microL min(-1) of the acceptor channel a sampling rate of 15 injections per hour could be achieved with RSD<2.3% (n=10, 300 microL injections of 1x10(-5) mol L(-1) EtX(-)). Two practical applications demonstrate the versatility of the FIA method: (i) evaluation the free EtX(-) concentration during a laboratory study of the EtX(-) adsorption capacity on pulverized sulfide ore (pyrite) and (ii) monitoring of EtX(-) at different stages (from starting load to washing effluents) of a flotation pilot plant processing a Cu-Zn sulfide ore. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of phthalate esters from environmental water samples by micro-solid-phase extraction using TiO2 nanotube arrays before high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qingxiang; Fang, Zhi; Liao, Xiangkun

    2015-07-01

    We describe a highly sensitive micro-solid-phase extraction method for the pre-concentration of six phthalate esters utilizing a TiO2 nanotube array coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with a variable-wavelength ultraviolet visible detector. The selected phthalate esters included dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, butyl benzyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and dioctyl phthalate. The factors that would affect the enrichment, such as desorption solvent, sample pH, salting-out effect, extraction time and desorption time, were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range of the proposed method was 0.3-200 μg/L. The limits of detection were 0.04-0.2 μg/L (S/N = 3). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of six phthalate esters in water samples and satisfied spiked recoveries were achieved. These results indicated that the proposed method was appropriate for the determination of trace phthalate esters in environmental water samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Subacute exposure to N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanol results in the formation of perfluorooctanesulfonate and alters superoxide dismutase activity in female rats.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei; Wu, Qian; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Tharappel, Job C; Telu, Sanjay; Coleman, Mitchell C; Glauert, Howard P; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Mariappan, S V S; Spitz, Douglas R; Weydert, Jamie; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-10-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonamides, such as N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanol (N-EtFOSE), are large scale industrial chemicals but their disposition and toxicity are poorly understood despite significant human exposure. The hypothesis that subacute exposure to N-EtFOSE, a weak peroxisome proliferator, causes a redox imbalance in vivo was tested using the known peroxisome proliferator, ciprofibrate, as a positive control. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally with N-EtFOSE, ciprofibrate or corn oil (vehicle) for 21 days, and levels of N-EtFOSE and its metabolites as well as markers of peroxisome proliferation and oxidative stress were assessed in serum, liver and/or uterus. The N-EtFOSE metabolite profile in liver and serum was in good agreement with reported in vitro biotransformation pathways in rats and the metabolite levels decreasing in the order perfluorooctanesulfonate > perfluorooctanesulfonamide ~ N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate > perfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanol approximately N-EtFOSE. Although N-EtFOSE treatment significantly decreased the growth rate, increased relative liver weight and activity of superoxide dismutases (SOD) in liver and uterus (total SOD, CuZnSOD and MnSOD), a metabolic study revealed no differences in the metabolome in serum from N-EtFOSE-treated and control animals. Ciprofibrate treatment increased liver weight and peroxisomal acyl Co-A oxidase activity in the liver and altered antioxidant enzyme activities in the uterus and liver. According to NMR metabolomic studies, ciprofibrate treated animals had altered serum lipid profiles compared to N-EtFOSE-treated and control animals, whereas putative markers of peroxisome proliferation in serum were not affected. Overall, this study demonstrates the biotransformation of N-EtFOSE to PFOS in rats that is accompanied by N-EtFOSE-induced alterations in antioxidant enzyme activity.

  19. The effects of bupivacaine, L-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester, and phenylephrine on cardiovascular adaptations to asphyxia in the preterm fetal lamb.

    PubMed

    Santos, A C; Yun, E M; Bobby, P D; Noble, G; Arthur, G R; Finster, M

    1997-12-01

    The preterm fetal lamb that is exposed to clinically relevant plasma concentrations of lidocaine loses its cardiovascular adaptations to asphyxia, and its condition deteriorates further. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulator of vascular tone, and local anesthetics are known to inhibit endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the adverse effects of lidocaine noted in the preterm fetal lamb also occur with bupivacaine and whether the inhibition of NO results in effects similar to those of bupivacaine. Thirty-two chronically prepared pregnant sheep were studied at 117-119 days' gestation. Maternal and fetal blood pressure, heart rate, and acid-base state were evaluated. Fetal organ blood flows were determined using 15-microM diameter dye-labeled microspheres. After a control period, mild to moderate asphyxia (fetal PaO2 15 mm Hg) was induced by partial umbilical cord occlusion and maintained throughout the experiment. Ewes in Group I (n = 13) were given a two-step intravenous infusion of bupivacaine for 180 min. Fetuses in Group II (n = 12) received an intravenous injection of L-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) (25 mg/kg), and measurements were taken 10 and 30 min after the injection. A third group (Group III) of fetuses (n = 7) were given an intravenous infusion of phenylephrine to mimic the blood pressure increases noted in L-NAME-treated fetuses. At 90 min of stable asphyxia, there was a significant decrease in fetal PaO2 and pHa and an increase in PaCO2 and mean arterial blood pressure. There was also an increase in blood flow to the adrenals, myocardium, and cerebral cortex, whereas blood flow to the placenta decreased. Administration of bupivacaine during asphyxia did not affect the changes in mean arterial blood pressure and acid-base state but did abolish the increases in blood flows to the myocardium and cerebral cortex. Injection of L-NAME to the asphyxiated fetus resulted in an increase in

  20. Synthesis and molecular crystal of 3-Chloro-2-(1-chloro-1-methyl-ethyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-naphtho[2,1-b]oxepin-4-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tittal, Ram Kumar

    2018-03-01

    CuCl/TMEDA-promoted halogen atom transfer radical cyclization (HATRC) of dichloroacetic acid 1-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-naphthalen-2-yl ester in refluxing DCE gave chlorine containing 7-member lactone 3-Chloro-2-(1-chloro-1-methyl-ethyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-naphtho[2,1-b]oxepin-4-one via 7-exo trig radical cyclization reaction. The structure of the Lactone was confirmed by X-ray diffraction data.

  1. Postnatal exposure to N-ethyl-N-nitrosurea disrupts the subventricular zone in adult rodents.

    PubMed

    Capilla-Gonzalez, V; Gil-Perotin, S; Garcia-Verdugo, J M

    2010-12-01

    N-ethyl-N-nitrosurea (ENU), a type of N-nitrous compound (NOC), has been used as inductor for brain tumours due to its mutagenic effect on the rodent embryo. ENU also affected adult neurogenesis when administered during pregnancy. However, no studies have investigated the effect of ENU when exposured during adulthood. For this purpose, three experimental groups of adult mice were injected with ENU at different doses and killed shortly after exposure. When administered in adult mice, ENU did not form brain tumours but led to a disruption of the subventricular zone (SVZ), an adult neurogenic region. Analyses of the samples revealed a reduction in the numbers of neural progenitors compared with control animals, and morphological changes in ependymal cells. A significant decrease in proliferation was tested in vivo with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine administration and confirmed in vitro with a neurosphere assay. Cell death, assessed as active-caspase-3 reactivity, was more prominent in treated animals and cell death-related populations increased in parallel. Two additional groups were maintained for 45 and 120 days after five doses of ENU to study the potential regeneration of the SVZ, but only partial recovery was detected. In conclusion, exposure to ENU alters the organization of the SVZ and causes partial exhaustion of the neurogenic niche. The functional repercussion of these changes remains unknown, but exposure to NOCs implies a potential risk that needs further evaluation. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Red blood cell oleic acid levels reflect olive oil intake while omega-3 levels reflect fish intake and the use of omega-3 acid ethyl esters: The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico-Heart Failure trial.

    PubMed

    Harris, William S; Masson, Serge; Barlera, Simona; Milani, Valentina; Pileggi, Silvana; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Marchioli, Roberto; Tognoni, Gianni; Tavazzi, Luigi; Latini, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico-Heart Failure (GISSI-HF) study reported benefits of n-3 fatty acid (FA) treatment on cardiovascular (CV) events, but the effects of treatment on a putative CV disease risk factor, the red blood cell (RBC) n-3 FA level (the omega-3 index), have not been examined in this context. We hypothesized that treatment with prescription omega-3 acid ethyl esters (O3AEE) would increase the omega-3 index to the proposed cardioprotective value of 8%. RBCs were collected from a subset of patients participating in the GISSI-HF study (n=461 out of 6975 randomized), at baseline and after 3 months of treatment with either an olive oil placebo or O3AEE (1 g/d). RBC FA levels were expressed as a percentage of total FA. Patients also reported their typical olive oil and fish intakes. RBC oleic acid levels were directly correlated with reported frequency of olive oil consumption, and the omega-3 index was correlated with reported fish intake (P for trends <0.001 for both). After treatment, the omega-3 index increased from 4.8±1.7% to 6.7±1.9% but was unchanged in the placebo group (4.7±1.7 to 4.8±1.5%) (P<.0001 for changes between groups). At 3 months, more patients reached the proposed target omega-3 index level of 8%-12% in the treated vs placebo group (22.6% vs. 1.3%, P<.0001), however, what omega-3 index levels were ultimately achieved after four years in this trial are unknown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthetic approaches to peptides containing the L-Gln-L-Val-D(S)-Dmt motif.

    PubMed

    Suaifan, Ghadeer A R Y; Arafat, Tawfiq; Threadgill, Michael D

    2007-05-15

    The pseudoprolines S-Dmo (5,5-dimethyl-4-oxaproline) and R-Dmt (5,5-dimethyl-4-thiaproline) have been used to study the effects of forcing a fully cis conformation in peptides. Synthesis of peptides containing these (which have the same configuration as L-Pro) is straightforward. However, synthesis of peptides containing S-Dmt is difficult, owing to the rapid cyclisation of L-Aaa-S-Dmt amides and esters to form the corresponding diketopiperazines (DKP); thus the intermediacy of L-Aaa-S-Dmt amides and esters must be avoided in the synthetic sequence. Peptides containing the L-Gln-L-Val-D(S)-Dmt motif are particularly difficult, owing to the insolubility of coupling partners containing Gln. Introduction of Gln as N-Boc-pyroglutamate overcame the latter difficulty and the dipeptide active ester BocPygValOC(6)F(5) coupled in good yield with S-DmtOH. BocPygVal-S- DmtNH(CH(2))(2)C(6)H(4)NO(2) was converted quantitatively to BocGlnVal-S-DmtNH(CH(2))(2)C(6)H(4)NO(2) with ammonia, demonstrating the utility of this approach. Two peptide derivatives (CbzSerLysLeuGlnVal-S-DmtNH(CH(2))(2)C(6)H(4)NO(2) and CbzSerSerLysLeuGlnVal-S- DmtNH(CH(2))(2)C(6)H(4)NO(2)) were assembled, using these new methods of coupling a dipeptide acid active ester with S-DmtOH and introduction of Gln as Pyg, followed by conventional peptide couplings. The presence of the Val caused these peptides to be cleaved very slowly by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at Leu Gln, rather than the expected Gln Val.

  4. 40 CFR 414.70 - Applicability; description of the bulk organic chemicals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Calcium Salt Maleic Anhydride Methacrylic Acid *Methacrylic Acid Esters Methane Methyl Ethyl Ketone Methyl Methacrylate Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether Methylisobutyl Ketone *n-Alkanes n-Butyl Alcohol n-Butylacetate n... Acid Nylon Salt Oxalic Acid *Oxo Aldehydes—Alcohols Pentaerythritol Pentane *Pentenes *Petroleum...

  5. 40 CFR 414.70 - Applicability; description of the bulk organic chemicals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Calcium Salt Maleic Anhydride Methacrylic Acid *Methacrylic Acid Esters Methane Methyl Ethyl Ketone Methyl Methacrylate Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether Methylisobutyl Ketone *n-Alkanes n-Butyl Alcohol n-Butylacetate n... Acid Nylon Salt Oxalic Acid *Oxo Aldehydes—Alcohols Pentaerythritol Pentane *Pentenes *Petroleum...

  6. 40 CFR 414.70 - Applicability; description of the bulk organic chemicals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Calcium Salt Maleic Anhydride Methacrylic Acid *Methacrylic Acid Esters Methane Methyl Ethyl Ketone Methyl Methacrylate Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether Methylisobutyl Ketone *n-Alkanes n-Butyl Alcohol n-Butylacetate n... Acid Nylon Salt Oxalic Acid *Oxo Aldehydes—Alcohols Pentaerythritol Pentane *Pentenes *Petroleum...

  7. 40 CFR 414.70 - Applicability; description of the bulk organic chemicals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Calcium Salt Maleic Anhydride Methacrylic Acid *Methacrylic Acid Esters Methane Methyl Ethyl Ketone Methyl Methacrylate Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether Methylisobutyl Ketone *n-Alkanes n-Butyl Alcohol n-Butylacetate n... Acid Nylon Salt Oxalic Acid *Oxo Aldehydes—Alcohols Pentaerythritol Pentane *Pentenes *Petroleum...

  8. Protection of 2-(3-Thienyl)ethanol with 3-Thienylacetic Acid and Hard Cross- Linked Conducting Films by Electropolymerization of the Ester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Dass, Amala; Mulik, Sudir; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia

    2005-01-01

    The ester (compound 1) of 2-(3-thienyl)ethanol (T-etOH) with 3-thienylacetic acid was synthesized as a monomer whose two thiophene groups could be electropolymerized independently, becoming members of different polymer chains in a highly-crosslinked highly-insoluble polymer. Indeed, 1 was electropolymerized successfully alone and together with 3-methylthiophene (3MeT). Films of poly(1) are hard (3H, as opposed to less than 6B for poly(3MeT)), and the close proximity of the polymeric strands creates pi-stacking interactions. The behavior of 1 suggests that by: (a) limiting the potential used for the oxidation of monomeric esters of T-etOH at the foot of their oxidation waves (less than 1.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl); and, (b) compensating for the decrease in the electrogenerated radical concentration by increasing the monomer concentration, practically all esters of T-etOH should be electropolymerizable. This was confirmed by durable film formation from the archetypical ester of T-etOH, the 2-(3-thienyl)ethyl acetate (T-etOAc), whose homo-electropolymerization is reported for the first time.

  9. Esters of Quinoxaline 1ˏ4-Di-N-oxide with Cytotoxic Activity on Tumor Cell Lines Based on NCI-60 Panel

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Gildardo; Ahmad Shah, Syed Shoaib; Arrieta-Baez, Daniel; Palos, Isidro; Mongue, Antonio; Sánchez-Torres, Luvia Enid

    2017-01-01

    Quinoxalines display diverse and interesting pharmacological activities as antibacterial, antiviral, antiparasitic and anticancer agents. Particularly, their 1ˏ4-di-N-oxide derivatives have proved to be cytotoxic agents that are active under hypoxic conditions as that of solid tumours. A new series of quinoxaline 1ˏ4-di-N-oxide substitutes at 7-position with esters group were synthetized and characterized by infrared (IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Seventeen derivatives (M1-M3, E1-E8, P1-P3 and DR1-DR3) were selected and evaluated for antitumor activities using the NCI-60 human tumor cell lines screen. Results showed that E7, P3 and E6 were the most active compounds against the cell lines tested. Substitutions at 7-position with esters group not necessarily affect the biological activity, but the nature of the esters group could exert an influence on the selectivity. Additionally, substitutions at 2-position influenced the cytotoxic activity of the compounds. PMID:29201086

  10. Effect of total hydroalcholic extract of Nigella sativa and its n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions on ACHN and GP-293 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, Samira; Khajavirad, Abolfazl; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Tabasi, Nafisa Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants are noted for their many advantages including the ability to treat diseases such as cancer. In this study, we examined the antitumor effect of the medicinal plant Nigella sativa on the morphology, survival, and apoptosis of ACHN (human renal adenocarcinoma) and GP-293 (normal renal epithelial) cell lines. From a hydroalcoholic extract of N. sativa, n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions were extracted. Cells were treated with various concentrations of total hydroalcholic extract and n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions; cell viability, morphological changes, and apoptosis were then determined. Results were presented as mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied for the statistical analysis of the data. The total extract and the fractions in a dose- and time-dependent manner reduced the cell viability in ACHN with no effect on the GP-293 cell line. In addition, the total extract resulted in more morphological changes in the ACHN cells compared to the GP-293 cells. The effect of the total extract in inducing apoptosis after 48 hours in the ACHN cell line was greater than in GP-293. In addition, the effect of the two fractions was lower than the total extract at all used concentrations. Therefore, the effect of total extract and n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of N. sativa on cell viability and apoptosis in the ACHN cell line is greater than in the GP-293 cell line. However, the effect of the total extract is higher than either of the two fractions on their own.

  11. Effects of air exposure, temperature and additives on fermentation characteristics, yeast count, aerobic stability and volatile organic compounds in corn silage.

    PubMed

    Weiss, K; Kroschewski, B; Auerbach, H

    2016-10-01

    Ensiling conditions strongly influence fermentation characteristics, yeast count, and aerobic stability. Numerous volatile organic compounds including esters are produced, which may negatively affect feed intake and animal performance and air quality. In addition to a farm survey, 3 laboratory experiments were carried out to study the effects of air (by delayed sealing or by air infiltration during anaerobic storage), temperature (20 and 35°C), and various types of additives [blends of either sodium benzoate and sodium propionate (SBSP) or of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate (SBPS); buffered mixture of formic and propionic acids (FAPA); homofermentative inoculant (LAB)]. After additive treatment, chopped whole corn plants were packed into 1.5-L glass jars and stored for several months. For treatments with air infiltration, glass jars with holes in the lid and body were used. The farm survey in 2009 revealed large variation in lactate, acetate, ethanol, n-propanol, and 1,2-propanediol concentrations. Whereas ethyl esters were detected in all silages, the mean ethyl lactate concentrations were higher than those for ethyl acetate (474 vs. 38mg/kg of dry matter). In the ensiling experiments, few unequivocal effects of the tested factors on the analyzed parameters were observed due to many interactions. Delayed ensiling without additives decreased lactic acid production but, in one trial, increased acetic acid and had no effect on ethanol. The effect of delayed sealing on yeast counts and aerobic stability differed widely among experiments. Air infiltration during fermentation tested in one trial did not alter lactic acid production, but resulted in more acetic acid in delayed and more ethanol than in promptly sealed untreated silages. Greater ethanol production was associated with increased yeast numbers. Storage at high temperature resulted in lower lactic acid and n-propanol, and a trend toward reduced ethanol production was observed. The additive FAPA

  12. Inhibitory properties of the antibothropic complex from the South American opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) serum.

    PubMed

    Neves-Ferreira, A G; Perales, J; Ovadia, M; Moussatché, H; Domont, G B

    1997-06-01

    The South American opossum Didelphis marsupialis is known to be highly resistant to snake envenomation. In this paper it is shown that the opossum serum inhibits haemorrhage induced by both Crotalinae and Viperinae venoms. Tested against Bothrops jararaca (jararaca) venom, the antibothropic complex (ABC) isolated from the opossum serum was at least six times more antihaemorrhagic than the commercial antivenom. ABC showed no proteolytic activity by itself and was not hydrolysed by the venom. It inhibited the hydrolysis of casein by B. jararaca venom, but did not inhibit its hydrolytic activities upon N alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester (BAEE) and N alpha-benzoyl-DL-arginine p-nitroanilide (BAPNA). The inhibitor did not interfere with trypsin and bacterial collagenase activities on BAPNA and N-(3-[2-furyl]acryloyl)-Leu-Gly-Pro-Ala (FALGPA), respectively. It reduced chymotrypsin hydrolysis of N-acetyl-L-tyrosine ethyl ester (ATEE) because ABC is also a substrate for this enzyme. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, B. jararaca venom preferentially degraded fibrinogen A alpha-chain and fibrin alpha-chain. Tested on extracellular matrix proteins, the venom hydrolysed collagen IV, gelatins I and V, laminin and fibronectin, besides depolimerizing collagen I alpha-chain dimers. Fibrillar collagen V was not digested. These hydrolyses were inhibited by ABC and by EDTA. Our results show that the antibothropic complex is a venom metalloproteinase inhibitor, which could, at least partially, account for its antihaemorrhagic activity. Electrophoretic evidence indicated non-covalent complex formation between the antihaemorrhagic factor and component(s) of B. jararaca venom.

  13. Toxic effect and genotoxicity of the semisynthetic derivatives dillapiole ethyl ether and dillapiole n-butyl ether for control of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    da Fonseca Meireles, Sabrina; Domingos, Pedro Rauel Cândido; da Silva Pinto, Ana Cristina; Rafael, Míriam Silva

    2016-09-01

    Two derivatives of dillapiole, dillapiole ethyl ether (1KL39-B) and butyl ether-n dillapiole (1KL43-C), were studied for their toxicity and genotoxicity against Aedes albopictus, to help develop new strategies for the control of this potential vector of dengue and other arboviruses, because it is resistant to synthetic insecticides. Eggs and larvae exposed to different concentrations of 1KL39-B (25, 30, 50, 70, and 80μg/mL) and of 1KL43-C (12.5, 20, 25, 30 and 40μg/mL) exhibited toxicity and susceptibility, with 100% mortality. The LC50 was 55.86±1.57μg/mL for 1KL39-B and 25.60±1.24μg/mL for 1KL43-C, while the LC90 was 70.12μg/mL for 1KL39-B and 41.51μg/mL for 1KL43-C. The gradual decrease in oviposition of the females of the G1 to G4 generations was proportional to the increase in concentrations of these compounds, which could be related to the cumulative effect of cell anomalies in neuroblasts and oocytes (P<0.05), including micronuclei, budding, multinucleated cells and nuclear bridges. These findings showed that both 1KL39-B and 1KL43-C can serve as potential alternatives in the control of A. albopictus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Phytochemical contents and biological evaluation of Ruta chalepennsis L. growing in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Shorok M; Saleem, Monerah S; Al-Humaidi, Jehan G

    2018-05-01

    Phytochemical screening of Ruta chalepensis L. exhibited the presence of different chemical groups. The dried aerial parts of the plant was total extracted by ethanol and successively using chloroform, ethyl acetate and Butanol, out of the successive extracts four compounds namely, scopletin, kaempferol, quercetin, quercetin 3- O -α-L-rhamno glucopyranosyl (Rutin) were isolated and biological evaluations. Total ethanol and successive extracts; chloroform, ethyl acetate and Butanol were produced excellent antimicrobial activities against gram negative bacteria, gram positive bacteria and fungi. Ethyl acetate extract was the best for inhibition of the microorganism's growth. All extracts (total ethanol, and successive extracts) showed DPPH radical scavenging activity in a concentration-dependent manner. The best antioxidant activity was obtained by ethyl acetate & n -butanol extract (94.28%, IC 50  = 56.6 µg/ml). Also All extracts (total ethanol, and successive extracts) showed anticoagulant activity at higher concentration with prolonged clotting time 6:30 and 4:30 s at 10 mg/ml concentrations, respectively.

  15. TRO40303 Ameliorates Alcohol-Induced Pancreatitis Through Reduction of Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester–Induced Mitochondrial Injury and Necrotic Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Muhammad Ahsan; Wen, Li; Awais, Muhammad; Latawiec, Diane; Huang, Wei; Chvanov, Michael; Schaller, Sophie; Bordet, Thierry; Michaud, Magali; Pruss, Rebecca; Tepikin, Alexei; Criddle, David; Sutton, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibition is a promising approach to treat acute pancreatitis (AP). We sought to determine (i) the effects of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor 3,5-seco-4-nor-cholestan-5-one oxime-3-ol (TRO40303) on murine and human pancreatic acinar cell (PAC) injury induced by fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) or taurolithocholic acid-3-sulfate and (ii) TRO40303 pharmacokinetics and efficacy in experimental alcoholic AP (FAEE-AP). Methods Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c), and cell fate were examined in freshly isolated murine or human PACs by confocal microscopy. TRO40303 pharmacokinetics were assessed in cerulein-induced AP and therapeutic efficacy in FAEE-AP induced with palmitoleic acid and ethanol. Severity of AP was assessed by standard biomarkers and blinded histopathology. Results TRO40303 prevented loss of Δψm and necrosis induced by 100 μM palmitoleic acid ethyl ester or 500 μM taurolithocholic acid-3-sulfate in murine and human PACs. Pharmacokinetic analysis found TRO40303 accumulated in the pancreas. A single dose of 3 mg/kg TRO40303 significantly reduced serum amylase (P = 0.043), pancreatic trypsin (P = 0.018), and histopathology scores (P = 0.0058) in FAEE-AP. Conclusions TRO40303 protects mitochondria and prevents necrotic cell death pathway activation in murine and human PACs, ameliorates the severity of FAEE-AP, and is a candidate drug for human AP. PMID:29200128

  16. Poly(ester amide)s based on (L)-lactic acid oligomers and α-amino acids: influence of the α-amino acid side chain in the poly(ester amide)s properties.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Ana C; Coelho, Jorge F J; Valente, Joana F A; Correia, Tiago R; Correia, Ilídio J; Gil, Maria H; Simões, Pedro N

    2013-01-01

    Novel biodegradable and low cytotoxic poly(ester amide)s (PEAs) based on α-amino acids and (L)-lactic acid (L-LA) oligomers were successfully synthesized by interfacial polymerization. The chemical structure of the new polymers was confirmed by spectroscopic analyses. Further characterization suggests that the α-amino acid plays a critical role on the final properties of the PEA. L-phenylalanine provides PEAs with higher glass transition temperature, whereas glycine enhances the crystallinity. The hydrolytic degradation in PBS (pH = 7.4) at 37 °C also depends on the α-amino acid, being faster for glycine-based PEAs. The cytotoxic profiles using fibroblast human cells indicate that the PEAs did not elicit an acute cytotoxic effect. The strategy presented in this work opens the possibility of synthesizing biodegradable PEAs with low citotoxicity by an easy and fast method. It is worth to mention also that the properties of these materials can be fine-tuned only by changing the α-amino acid.

  17. Adhesion of Blood Plasma Proteins and Platelet-rich Plasma on l-Valine-Based Poly(ester urea).

    PubMed

    Childers, Erin P; Peterson, Gregory I; Ellenberger, Alex B; Domino, Karen; Seifert, Gabrielle V; Becker, Matthew L

    2016-10-10

    The competitive absorption of blood plasma components including fibrinogen (FG), bovine serum albumin (BSA), and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on l-valine-based poly(ester urea) (PEU) surfaces were investigated. Using four different PEU polymers, possessing compositionally dependent trends in thermal, mechanical, and critical surface tension measurements, water uptake studies were carried out to determine in vitro behavior of the materials. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements were used to quantify the adsorption characteristics of PRP onto PEU thin films by coating the surfaces initially with FG or BSA. Pretreatment of the PEU surfaces with FG inhibited the adsorption of PRP and BSA decreased the absorption 4-fold. In vitro studies demonstrated that cells cultured on l-valine-based PEU thin films allowed attachment and spreading of rat aortic cells. These measurements will be critical toward efforts to use this new class of materials in blood-contacting biomaterials applications.

  18. In Vitro and Ex Vivo Evaluation of Novel Curcumin-Loaded Excipient for Buccal Delivery.

    PubMed

    Laffleur, Flavia; Schmelzle, Franziska; Ganner, Ariane; Vanicek, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to develop a mucoadhesive polymeric excipient comprising curcumin for buccal delivery. Curcumin encompasses broad range of benefits such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemotherapeutic activity. Hyaluronic acid (HA) as polymeric excipient was modified by immobilization of thiol bearing ligands. L-Cysteine (SH) ethyl ester was covalently attached via amide bond formation between cysteine and the carboxylic moiety of hyaluronic acid. Succeeded synthesis was proved by H-NMR and IR spectra. The obtained thiolated polymer hyaluronic acid ethyl ester (HA-SH) was evaluated in terms of stability, safety, mucoadhesiveness, drug release, and permeation-enhancing properties. HA-SH showed 2.75-fold higher swelling capacity over time in comparison to unmodified polymer. Furthermore, mucoadhesion increased 3.4-fold in case of HA-SH and drug release was increased 1.6-fold versus HA control, respectively. Curcumin-loaded HA-SH exhibits a 4.4-fold higher permeation compared with respective HA. Taking these outcomes in consideration, novel curcumin-loaded excipient, namely thiolated hyaluronic acid ethyl ester appears as promising tool for pharyngeal diseases.

  19. A semisynthesis of 3'-O-ethyl-5,6-dihydrospinosyn J based on the spinosyn A aglycone.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Liu, Shenglan; Liu, Anjun; Chai, Hongxin; Li, Jiarong; A, Lamusi

    2017-01-01

    Spinetoram, a mixture of 3'- O -ethyl-5,6-dihydrospinosyn J (XDE-175-J, major component) and 3'- O -ethylspinosyn L (XDE-175-L, minor component), is a novel kind of green and efficient insecticide with a broad range of action against various insects. Nowadays, spinetoram is widely used in agriculture and food storage. This work reports a 7-step semisynthesis of 3'- O -ethyl-5,6-dihydrospinosyn J from spinosyn A aglycone. The C9-OH and C17-OH of the aglycone are successively connected to 3- O -ethyl-2,4-di- O -methylrhamnose and D-forosamine after selective protection and deprotection steps. Then, with 10% Pd/C as catalyst, the 5,6-double bond of the macrolide was selectively reduced to afford 3'- O -ethyl-5,6-dihydrospinosyn J. In addition, the 3- O -ethyl-2,4-di- O -methylrhamnose is synthesized from rhamnose which is available commercially, while the D-forosamine and aglycone are obtained via the hydrolysis of spinosyn A. High yields were obtained in each step, and all intermediates in the synthesis were characterized by 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR and MS techniques. This study can be helpful for developing an efficient chemical synthesis of spinetoram, and it also offers opportunities to synthesize spinosyn analogues and rhamnose derivatives.

  20. Electron ionisation induced fragmentation of ethyl 5(1H)-oxo- and 7(1H)-oxo-1-aryl-2,3-dihydroimidazo[1,2-a]-pyrimidine-6-carboxylates: evidence for an unusually regioselective rearrangement of M(+*) ions.

    PubMed

    Ovcharenko, V V; Pihlaja, K; Matosiuk, D

    2001-01-01

    The 70-eV electron ionisation (EI) mass spectra of the title compounds show clear differences between the 5-oxo and 7-oxo isomers due to regioselective fragmentations involving the ester function. Exceptionally abundant metastable peaks due to molecular ions fragmenting to [M -CO2](+.) were observed exclusively for the 7-oxo isomers, suggesting that the sufficiently long-lived molecular ions undergo a slow rearrangement preceding this fragmentation reaction. The results are contrasted to the available literature data on the ester group fragmentations involving the loss of CO2 and the EI mass spectrometry of pyrimidone beta-oxo esters. A reaction mechanism is proposed for the elimination of CO2 following ethyl group migration to the pyrimidone carbonyl oxygen. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, and ethanol in urine after sustained exposure to an ethanol-based hand sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Crews, Bridgit O; Pesce, Amadeo J; Wilson, George R; Teitelbaum, Scott A; Bertholf, Roger L

    2011-03-01

    To assess the degree of ethanol absorption and subsequent formation of urinary ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) following sustained application of hand sanitizer, 11 volunteers cleansed their hands with Purell(™) hand sanitizer (62% ethanol) every 5 min for 10 h on three consecutive days. Urine specimens were obtained at the beginning and end of each day of the study, and on the morning of the fourth day. Urinary creatinine, ethanol, EtG, and EtS concentrations were measured. EtG was undetectable in all pre-study urine specimens, but two pre-study specimens had detectable EtS (73 and 37 ng/mL). None of the pre-study specimens had detectable ethanol. The maximum EtG and EtS concentrations over the course of the study were 2001 and 84 ng/mL, respectively, and nearly all EtG- and EtS-positive urine specimens were collected at the conclusion of the individual study days. Only two specimens had detectable EtG at the beginning of any study day (96 and 139 ng/mL), and only one specimen had detectable EtS at the beginning of a study day (64 ng/mL), in addition to the two with detectable EtS prior to the study. Creatinine-adjusted maximum EtG and EtS concentrations were 1998 and 94 μg/g creatinine, respectively. In patients being monitored for ethanol use by urinary EtG concentrations, currently accepted EtG cutoffs do not distinguish between ethanol consumption and incidental exposures, particularly when urine specimens are obtained shortly after sustained use of ethanolcontaining hand sanitizer. Our data suggest that EtS may be an important complementary biomarker in distinguishing ethanol consumption from dermal exposure.

  2. The gas–liquid chromatography of carboxylic acid esters of the urinary 11-deoxy-17-oxo steroids

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Patricia A.; Kellie, A. E.

    1967-01-01

    1. The gas–liquid-chromatographic separations of the acetate, propionate, n-butyrate, isobutyrate and n-valerate esters of androsterone, aetiocholanolone and dehydroepiandrosterone were studied on a 1% neopentyl glycol sebacate column. The n-butyrate, isobutyrate and n-valerate esters were well resolved. 2. The three steroids derived from hydrolysed urinary 17-oxo steroid conjugate extracts were analysed by gas–liquid chromatography after conversion into their n-butyrate esters. The results were compared with independent determinations involving chromatography on alumina. PMID:4227802

  3. Subacute Exposure to N-Ethyl Perfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanol Results in the Formation of Perfluorooctanesulfonate and Alters Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wei; Wu, Qian; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Tharappel, Job C.; Telu, Sanjay; Coleman, Mitchell C.; Glauert, Howard P.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Santhana Mariappan, S. V.; Spitz, Douglas R.; Weydert, Jamie; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonamides, such as N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanol (N-EtFOSE), are large scale industrial chemicals but their disposition and toxicity are poorly understood despite significant human exposure. The hypothesis that subacute exposure to N-EtFOSE, a weak peroxisome proliferator, causes a redox imbalance in vivo was tested using the known peroxisome proliferator, ciprofibrate, as a positive control. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally with N-EtFOSE, ciprofibrate or corn oil (vehicle) for 21 days, and levels of N-EtFOSE and its metabolites as well as markers of peroxisome proliferation and oxidative stress were assessed in serum, liver and/or uterus. The N-EtFOSE metabolite profile in liver and serum was in good agreement with reported in vitro biotransformation pathways in rats and the metabolite levels decreasing in the order perfluorooctanesulfonate ≫ perfluorooctanesulfonamide ∼ N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate ≫ perfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanol ∼ N-EtFOSE. Although N-EtFOSE treatment significantly decreased the growth rate, increased relative liver weight and activity of superoxide dismutases (SOD) in liver and uterus (total SOD, CuZnSOD and MnSOD), a metabolic study revealed no differences in the metabolome in serum from N-EtFOSE-treated and control animals. Ciprofibrate treatment increased liver weight and peroxisomal acyl Co-A oxidase activity in the liver and altered antioxidant enzyme activities in the uterus and liver. According to NMR metabolomic studies, ciprofibrate treated animals had altered serum lipid profiles compared to N-EtFOSE-treated and control animals, whereas putative markers of peroxisome proliferation in serum were not affected. Overall, this study demonstrates the biotransformation of N-EtFOSE to PFOS in rats that is accompanied by N-EtFOSE-induced alterations in antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:19544052

  4. Amino acid-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes for improving compatibility with chiral poly(amide-ester-imide) containing L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine linkages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolmaleki, Amir; Mallakpour, Shadpour; Borandeh, Sedigheh

    2013-12-01

    Amino acid functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs)/poly(amide-ester-imide) (PAEI) composites were fabricated by solution mixing method. Proper functionalization and mixing strategy of MWCNTs provides the best opportunity for better distribution and bonding of nanoparticles to the polymer matrix. MWCNTs have been chemically modified with L-phenylalanine to improve their compatibility with L-phenylalanine based PAEI. Field emission scanning electron microscopy micrographs of composite revealed that f-MWCNTs made a good interaction with polymer chains by wrapping the polymer around them, and transmission electron microscopy results confirmed well dispersion with nano size of f-MWCNTs in the polymer matrix. In addition, thermal analysis showed good enhancement in thermal properties of composites compared to pure polymer. Thermal stability of the composites containing f-MWCNTs was enhanced due to their good dispersion and improved interfacial interaction between the amino acid based PAEI matrix and f-MWCNTs.

  5. Fatty acid methyl ester from Neurospora intermedia N-1 isolated from Indonesian red peanut cake (oncom merah).

    PubMed

    Priatni, S; Hartati, S; Dewi, P; Kardono, L B S; Singgih, M; Gusdinar, T

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) from Neurospora intermedia N-1 that isolated from Indonesian red peanut cake (oncom). FAME profiles have been used as biochemical characters to study many different groups of organisms, such as bacteria and yeasts. FAME from N. intermedia N-1 was obtained by some stages of extraction the orange spores and fractination using a chromatotron. The pure compound (1) was characterized by 500 mHz NMR (1H and 13C), FTIR and LC-MS. Summarized data's of 1H and 13C NMR spectra of compound 1 contained 19 Carbon, 34 Hydrogen and 2 Oxygen (C19H34O2). The position of the double bonds at carbon number 8 and 12 were indicated in the HMBC spectrum (2D-NMR). LC-MS spectrum indicates molecular weight of the compound 1 as 294 which is visible by the presence of protonated molecular ion [M+H] at m/z 295. Methyl esters of long chain fatty acids was presented by a 3 band pattern of IR spectrum with bands near 1249, 1199 and 1172 cm(-1). We suggested that the structure of the pure compound 1 is methyl octadeca-8,12-dienoate. The presence methyl octadeca-8,12-dienoate in N. intermedia is the first report.

  6. Bromidotetra­kis­(1H-2-ethyl-5-methyl­imidazole-κN 3)copper(II) bromide

    PubMed Central

    Godlewska, Sylwia; Baranowska, Katarzyna; Socha, Joanna; Dołęga, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The CuII ion in the title compound, [CuBr(C6H10N2)4]Br, is coordinated in a square-based-pyramidal geometry by the N atoms of four imidazole ligands and a bromide anion in the apical site. Both the CuII and Br− atoms lie on a crystallographic fourfold axis. In the crystal, the [CuBr(C6H10N2)4]+ complex cations are linked to the uncoordinated Br− anions (site symmetry ) by N—H⋯Br hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. The ethyl group of the imidazole ligand was modelled as disordered over two orientations with occupancies of 0.620 (8) and 0.380 (8). PMID:22199662

  7. Sensory profile of ethyl β-d-glucopyranoside and its contribution to quality of sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.).

    PubMed

    Ma, Xueying; Laaksonen, Oskar; Heinonen, Jari; Sainio, Tuomo; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2017-10-15

    The contribution of ethyl β-d-glucopyranoside (EG) to sensory profile of sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. rhamnoides) was studied. The content of natural existing EG varied between 0.6 and 19.8g/L in the sea buckthorn studied. The taste threshold of pure EG was estimated in water solution as 1.1±1.3g/L, and the suprathreshold aqueous EG solution (5.0g/L) was perceived mainly as bitter. In aqueous sugar-acid mixtures, acids were the major contributors to sourness and astringency, whereas the added EG or sugars showed little impact on the overall sensory profile. EG addition increased the bitterness of sea buckthorn juice. The sensory profiles of the juices were dominated by intense sourness correlating with the malic acid content. The bitterness of the juices correlated with the EG content as well as the ratios EG/acids and EG/sugars. EG content shall be considered when selecting raw materials for industrial processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Post-polymerization modification of poly(L-glutamic acid) with D-(+)-glucosamine.

    PubMed

    Perdih, Peter; Cebašek, Sašo; Možir, Alenka; Zagar, Ema

    2014-11-27

    Carboxyl functional groups of poly(L-glutamic acid) (PGlu) were modified with a D-(+)-glucosamine (GlcN) by amidation using 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMTMM) as a coupling reagent. The coupling reaction was performed in aqueous medium without protection of hydroxyl functional groups of D-(+)-glucosamine. Poly(L-glutamic acid) and GlcN functionalized polyglutamates (P(Glu-GlcN)) were thoroughly characterized by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and SEC-MALS to gain detailed information on their structure, composition and molar mass characteristics. The results reveal successful functionalization with GlcN through the amide bond and also to a minor extent through ester bond formation in position 1 of GlcN. In addition, a ratio between the α- and β-form of glucosamine substituent coupled to polyglutamate repeating units as well as the content of residual dimethoxy triazinyl active ester moiety in the samples were evaluated.

  9. Determination of 3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol and 2-Monochloropropane-1,3-diol (MCPD) Esters and Glycidyl Esters by Microwave Extraction in Different Foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Marc, Corinne; Drouard-Pascarel, Valérie; Rétho, Cécile; Janvion, Patrice; Saltron, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes a method for the determination of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol and 2-monochloropropane-1,3-diol (MCPD) esters and glycidyl esters in various foodstuffs, which are isolated using microwave extraction. The next step is based on alkaline-catalyzed ester cleavage. The released glycidol is transformed into monobromopropanediol (MBPD). All compounds are derivatized in free diols (MCPD and MBPD) with phenylboronic acid and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The method was validated for oils with a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.1 mg/kg, for chips and crisps with a LOQ of 0.02 mg/kg, and for infant formula with a LOQ of 0.0025 mg/L. Recoveries of each sample were controlled by standard addition on extracts before derivatization. Quantitation was performed by the addition of isotopically labeled glycidyl and 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters.

  10. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must be...

  11. Minimal food effect for eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bioavailability from omega-3-acid ethyl esters with an Advanced Lipid TechnologiesTM (ALT®)-based formulation.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Toledano, Miguel A; Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Daak, Ahmed A; Maki, Kevin C; Johns, Colleen; Rabinowicz, Adrian L; Sancilio, Frederick D

    The absorption of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) omega-3-acid ethyl esters (EEs) is influenced by food. There is a need for a formulation of EE that is less impacted by food effect. SC401 is a novel Advanced Lipid Technologies-based formulation of EPA-EE and DHA-EE. In the presence of an aqueous medium, Advanced Lipid Technologies forms stable micelles in situ independent of bile salt secretion. This effect is hypothesized to improve EPA-EE and DHA-EE bioavailability while it helps mitigate the food effect associated with their consumption. The aim of the article was to assess the effect of food on the bioavailability of DHA and EPA after a single oral dose of 1530 mg omega-3 fatty acids EE (SC401) in 24 healthy subjects under fasted and low-fat (9% of total calories from fat) and high-fat (50% of total calories from fat) meal conditions. This was a randomized, open-label, single-dose, 3-period, 3-way crossover study. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analyses were taken at predose and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours postdose. To assess the safety of the intervention, active monitoring of adverse events, physical examinations, vital signs, clinical laboratory assessments (chemistry, hematology, and urinalysis), and 12-lead electrocardiograms were conducted. SC401 showed high bioavailability of both EPA and DHA in fasted, low-fat meal, and high-fat meal conditions. No differences were found in SC401 DHA AUC 0-t (t = 24 hours) among the 3 conditions (91.69% high-fat/fasted, 97.12% low-fat/fasted, and 105.92% low-fat/high-fat; P > .05 in all cases). In contrast, SC401 EPA AUC 0-t was affected by food intake (179.06% high-fat/fasted, P < .0001; 150.05% low-fat/fasted, P < .0001) and the amount of fat taken with SC401 (83.80% low-fat/high-fat; P = .0009). SC401 was safe and well tolerated. A single dose of SC401 resulted in high levels of EPA and DHA total lipids in plasma

  12. Subchronic organophosphorus ester-induced delayed neurotoxicity in mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.; Murray, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    Eighteen-week-old mallard hens received 0, 10, 30, 90, or 270 ppm technical grade EPN (phenylphosphonothioic acid O-ethyl-O-4-nitrophenyl ester) in the diet for 90 days. Ataxia was first observed in the 270-ppm group after 16 days, in the 90-ppm group after 20 days, in the 30-ppm group after 38 days; 10 ppm failed to produce ataxia. By the end of 90 days all 6 birds in the 270-ppm group exhibited ataxia or paralysis whereas 5 of 6 birds in the 90-ppm group and 2 of 6 birds in the 30-ppm group were visibly affected. Treatment with 30 ppm or more resulted in a significant reduction in body weight. Brain neurotoxic esterase activity was inhibited by averages of 16, 69, 73, and 74% in the 10-, 30-, 90-, and 270-ppm groups, respectively. Brain acetylcholinesterase, plasma cholinesterase, and plasma alkaline phosphatase were significantly inhibited as well. Distinct histopathological effects were seen in the 30-, 90-, and 270-ppm groups which included demyelination and degeneration of axons of the spinal cord. Additional ducks were exposed in a similar manner to 60-, 270-, or 540-ppm leptophos (phosphonothioic acid O-4-bromo-2,5-dichlorophenyl-O-methylphenyl ester) which resulted in similar behavioral, biochemical, and histopathological alterations. These findings indicate that adult mallards are probably somewhat less sensitive than chickens to subchronic dietary exposure to organophosphorus insecticides that induce delayed neurotoxicity.

  13. Polyphosphazene/Nano-Hydroxyapatite Composite Microsphere Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Nukavarapu, Syam P.; Kumbar, Sangamesh G.; Brown, Justin L.; Krogman, Nicholas R.; Weikel, Arlin L.; Hindenlang, Mark D.; Nair, Lakshmi S.; Allcock, Harry R; Laurencin, Cato T.

    2009-01-01

    The non-toxic, neutral degradation products of amino acid ester polyphosphazenes make them ideal candidates for in vivo orthopaedic applications. The quest for new osteocompatible materials for load bearing tissue engineering applications has led us to investigate mechanically competent amino acid ester substituted polyphosphazenes. In this study, we have synthesized three biodegradable polyphosphazenes substituted with side groups namely leucine, valine and phenylalanine ethyl esters. Of these polymers, the phenylalanine ethyl ester substituted polyphosphazene showed the highest glass transition temperature (41.6 °C) and hence was chosen as a candidate material for forming composite microspheres with 100 nm sized hydroxyapatite (nHAp). The fabricated composite microspheres were sintered into a three-dimensional (3-D) porous scaffold by adopting a dynamic solvent sintering approach. The composite microsphere scaffolds showed compressive moduli of 46–81 MPa with mean pore diameters in the range of 86–145 µm. The three-dimensional polyphosphazene-nHAp composite microsphere scaffolds showed good osteoblast cell adhesion, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase expression, and are potential suitors for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:18517248

  14. Liquid Crystalline Thermosets from Ester, Ester-imide, and Ester-amide Oligomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dingemans, Theodorus J. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); St. Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Main chain thermotropic liquid crystal esters, ester-imides, and ester-amides were prepared from AA, BB, and AB type monomeric materials and end-capped with phenylacetylene, phenylmaleimide, or nadimide reactive end-groups. The end-capped liquid crystal oligomers are thermotropic and have, preferably, molecular weights in the range of approximately 1000-15,000 grams per mole. The end-capped liquid crystaloligomers have broad liquid crystalline melting ranges and exhibit high melt stability and very low melt viscosities at accessible temperatures. The end-capped liquid crystal oli-gomers are stable forup to an hour in the melt phase. They are highly processable by a variety of melt process shape forming and blending techniques. Once processed and shaped, the end-capped liquid crystal oigomers were heated to further polymerize and form liquid crystalline thermosets (LCT). The fully cured products are rubbers above their glass transition temperatures.

  15. Effect of sugar fatty acid esters on rumen fermentation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wakita, M; Hoshino, S

    1987-11-01

    1. The effect of sugar fatty acid esters (SFEs; currently used as food additives for human consumption) on rumen volatile fatty acids (VFA) and gas production was studied with sheep rumen contents in vitro. 2. Some SFEs having monoester contents of more than 70% increased the molar proportion of propionate in conjunction with reduction in the acetate:propionate ratio when the individual SFE was added to rumen contents in a final concentration of 4 g/l. Laurate sugar ester was the most potent propionate enhancer and rumen gas depressor, the effective dose being as low as 1 g/l in a final concentration. Fatty acid esters other than SFEs had little, if any, effect on rumen VFA production and their molar proportions. 3. Approximately 50% of laurate sugar ester was hydrolysed by in vitro incubation with rumen fluid for 2 h. The addition of fatty acids and sucrose was also effective in the alterations of rumen VFA and gas production. However, the effect of SFEs on in vitro rumen fermentation was significantly greater than that of their constituent fatty acids or sucrose, or both. Accordingly, the effect appeared to be ascribed to the complex action of SFE itself and to its constituents, free fatty acids and sucrose. 4. SFEs, at the level of 4 g/l, reduced substantially the froth formation (ingesta volume increase) and seemed to be effective for the prevention of bloat.

  16. A chiral Brønsted acid-catalyzed highly enantioselective Mannich-type reaction of α-diazo esters with in situ generated N-acyl ketimines.

    PubMed

    Unhale, Rajshekhar A; Sadhu, Milon M; Ray, Sumit K; Biswas, Rayhan G; Singh, Vinod K

    2018-04-03

    A chiral phosphoric acid-catalyzed asymmetric Mannich-type reaction of α-diazo esters with in situ generated N-acyl ketimines, derived from 3-hydroxyisoindolinones has been demonstrated in this communication. A variety of isoindolinone-based α-amino diazo esters bearing a quaternary stereogenic center were afforded in high yields (up to 99%) with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee). Furthermore, the synthetic utility of the products has been depicted by the hydrogenation of the diazo moiety of adducts.

  17. Environmentally Friendly Bio-Based Vinyl Ester Resins for Military Composite Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    composites, fatty acid , vinyl ester 9. Distribution $tatement (requr’iedl lsmanuscript subjectto export control? E ruo I yes Circfe appropriate l tter and...resins is to replace some or all of the styrene with fatty acid -based monomers. These fatty acid vinyl ester resins allow for the formulation of high...validation studies have been performed, showing that the fatty acid -based resins have sufficient, modulus, strength, glass transition temperature, and

  18. Synthesis, biological evaluation, and 3D QSAR study of 2-methyl-4-oxo-3-oxetanylcarbamic acid esters as N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ponzano, Stefano; Berteotti, Anna; Petracca, Rita; Vitale, Romina; Mengatto, Luisa; Bandiera, Tiziano; Cavalli, Andrea; Piomelli, Daniele; Bertozzi, Fabio; Bottegoni, Giovanni

    2014-12-11

    N-(2-Oxo-3-oxetanyl)carbamic acid esters have recently been reported to be noncompetitive inhibitors of the N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA) potentially useful for the treatment of pain and inflammation. In the present study, we further explored the structure-activity relationships of the carbamic acid ester side chain of 2-methyl-4-oxo-3-oxetanylcarbamic acid ester derivatives. Additional favorable features in the design of poten