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Sample records for n-terminal actin-binding domain

  1. Thermodynamic stability, unfolding kinetics, and aggregation of the N-terminal actin-binding domains of utrophin and dystrophin.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surinder M; Molas, Justine F; Kongari, Narsimulu; Bandi, Swati; Armstrong, Geoffrey S; Winder, Steve J; Mallela, Krishna M G

    2012-05-01

    Muscular dystrophy (MD) is the most common genetic lethal disorder in children. Mutations in dystrophin trigger the most common form of MD, Duchenne, and its allelic variant Becker MD. Utrophin is the closest homologue and has been shown to compensate for the loss of dystrophin in human disease animal models. However, the structural and functional similarities and differences between utrophin and dystrophin are less understood. Both proteins interact with actin through their N-terminal actin-binding domain (N-ABD). In this study, we examined the thermodynamic stability and aggregation of utrophin N-ABD and compared with that of dystrophin. Our results show that utrophin N-ABD has spectroscopic properties similar to dystrophin N-ABD. However, utrophin N-ABD has decreased denaturant and thermal stability, unfolds faster, and is correspondingly more susceptible to proteolysis, which might account for its decreased in vivo half-life compared to dystrophin. In addition, utrophin N-ABD aggregates to a lesser extent compared with dystrophin N-ABD, contrary to the general behavior of proteins in which decreased stability enhances protein aggregation. Despite these differences in stability and aggregation, both proteins exhibit deleterious effects of mutations. When utrophin N-ABD mutations analogous in position to the dystrophin disease-causing mutations were generated, they behaved similarly to dystrophin mutants in terms of decreased stability and the formation of cross-β aggregates, indicating a possible role for utrophin mutations in disease mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Thermodynamic stability, unfolding kinetics, and aggregation of the N-terminal actin binding domains of utrophin and dystrophin†

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surinder M.; Molas, Justine F.; Kongari, Narsimulu; Bandi, Swati; Armstrong, Geoffrey S.; Winder, Steve J.; Mallela, Krishna M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Muscular dystrophy (MD) is the most common genetic lethal disorder in children. Mutations in dystrophin trigger the most common form of MD, Duchenne and its allelic variant Becker MD. Utrophin is the closest homologue and has been shown to compensate for the loss of dystrophin in human disease animal models. However, the structural and functional similarities and differences between utrophin and dystrophin are less understood. Both proteins interact with actin through their N-terminal actin-binding domain (N-ABD). In this study, we examined the thermodynamic stability and aggregation of utrophin N-ABD and compared with that of dystrophin. Our results show that utrophin N-ABD has spectroscopic properties similar to dystrophin N-ABD. However, utrophin N-ABD has decreased denaturant and thermal stability, unfolds faster, and is correspondingly more susceptible to proteolysis, which might account for its decreased in-vivo half-life compared to dystrophin. In addition, utrophin N-ABD aggregates to a lesser extent compared with dystrophin N-ABD, contrary to the general behavior of proteins in which decreased stability enhances protein aggregation. Despite these differences in stability and aggregation, both proteins exhibit deleterious effects of mutations. When utrophin N-ABD mutations analogous in position to the dystrophin disease-causing mutations were generated, they behaved similarly to dystrophin mutants in terms of decreased stability and the formation of cross-β aggregates, indicating a possible role for utrophin mutations in disease mechanisms. PMID:22275054

  3. Characterization of the microtubule binding domain of microtubule actin crosslinking factor (MACF): identification of a novel group of microtubule associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Sun, D; Leung, C L; Liem, R K

    2001-01-01

    MACF (microtubule actin cross-linking factor) is a large, 608-kDa protein that can associate with both actin microfilaments and microtubules (MTs). Structurally, MACF can be divided into 3 domains: an N-terminal domain that contains both a calponin type actin-binding domain and a plakin domain; a rod domain that is composed of 23 dystrophin-like spectrin repeats; and a C-terminal domain that includes two EF-hand calcium-binding motifs, as well as a region that is homologous to two related proteins, GAR22 and Gas2. We have previously demonstrated that the C-terminal domain of MACF binds to MTs, although no homology was observed between this domain and other known microtubule-binding proteins. In this report, we describe the characterization of this microtubule-binding domain of MACF by transient transfection studies and in vitro binding assays. We found that the C-terminus of MACF contains at least two microtubule-binding regions, a GAR domain and a domain containing glycine-serine-arginine (GSR) repeats. In transfected cells, the GAR domain bound to and partially stabilized MTs to depolymerization by nocodazole. The GSR-containing domain caused MTs to form bundles that are still sensitive to nocodazole-induced depolymerization. When present together, these two domains acted in concert to bundle MTs and render them stable to nocodazole treatment. Recently, a study has shown that the N-terminal half of the plakin domain (called the M1 domain) of MACF also binds MTs. We therefore examined the microtubule binding ability of the M1 domain in the context of the entire plakin domain with and without the remaining N-terminal regions of two different MACF isoforms. Interestingly, in the presence of the surrounding sequences, the M1 domain did not bind MTs. In addition to MACF, cDNA sequences encoding the GAR and GSR-containing domains are also found in the partial human EST clone KIAA0728, which has high sequence homology to the 3' end of the MACF cDNA; hence, we refer to

  4. The N-terminal tropomyosin- and actin-binding sites are important for leiomodin 2's function.

    PubMed

    Ly, Thu; Moroz, Natalia; Pappas, Christopher T; Novak, Stefanie M; Tolkatchev, Dmitri; Wooldridge, Dayton; Mayfield, Rachel M; Helms, Gregory; Gregorio, Carol C; Kostyukova, Alla S

    2016-08-15

    Leiomodin is a potent actin nucleator related to tropomodulin, a capping protein localized at the pointed end of the thin filaments. Mutations in leiomodin-3 are associated with lethal nemaline myopathy in humans, and leiomodin-2-knockout mice present with dilated cardiomyopathy. The arrangement of the N-terminal actin- and tropomyosin-binding sites in leiomodin is contradictory and functionally not well understood. Using one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance and the pointed-end actin polymerization assay, we find that leiomodin-2, a major cardiac isoform, has an N-terminal actin-binding site located within residues 43-90. Moreover, for the first time, we obtain evidence that there are additional interactions with actin within residues 124-201. Here we establish that leiomodin interacts with only one tropomyosin molecule, and this is the only site of interaction between leiomodin and tropomyosin. Introduction of mutations in both actin- and tropomyosin-binding sites of leiomodin affected its localization at the pointed ends of the thin filaments in cardiomyocytes. On the basis of our new findings, we propose a model in which leiomodin regulates actin poly-merization dynamics in myocytes by acting as a leaky cap at thin filament pointed ends. © 2016 Ly, Moroz, et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  5. Filament assembly by Spire: key residues and concerted actin binding.

    PubMed

    Rasson, Amy S; Bois, Justin S; Pham, Duy Stephen L; Yoo, Haneul; Quinlan, Margot E

    2015-02-27

    The most recently identified class of actin nucleators, WASp homology domain 2 (WH2) nucleators, use tandem repeats of monomeric actin-binding WH2 domains to facilitate actin nucleation. WH2 domains are involved in a wide variety of actin regulatory activities. Structurally, they are expected to clash with interprotomer contacts within the actin filament. Thus, the discovery of their role in nucleation was surprising. Here we use Drosophila Spire (Spir) as a model system to investigate both how tandem WH2 domains can nucleate actin and what differentiates nucleating WH2-containing proteins from their non-nucleating counterparts. We found that the third WH2 domain in Spir (Spir-C or SC) plays a unique role. In the context of a short nucleation construct (containing only two WH2 domains), placement of SC in the N-terminal position was required for the most potent nucleation. We found that the native organization of the WH2 domains with respect to each other is necessary for binding to actin with positive cooperativity. We identified two residues within SC that are critical for its activity. Using this information, we were able to convert a weak synthetic nucleator into one with activity equal to a native Spir construct. Lastly, we found evidence that SC binds actin filaments, in addition to monomers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Myocardin-Related Transcription Factor A Activation by Competition with WH2 Domain Proteins for Actin Binding.

    PubMed

    Weissbach, Julia; Schikora, Franziska; Weber, Anja; Kessels, Michael; Posern, Guido

    2016-05-15

    The myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs) are coactivators of serum response factor (SRF)-mediated gene expression. Activation of MRTF-A occurs in response to alterations in actin dynamics and critically requires the dissociation of repressive G-actin-MRTF-A complexes. However, the mechanism leading to the release of MRTF-A remains unclear. Here we show that WH2 domains compete directly with MRTF-A for actin binding. Actin nucleation-promoting factors, such as N-WASP and WAVE2, as well as isolated WH2 domains, including those of Spire2 and Cobl, activate MRTF-A independently of changes in actin dynamics. Simultaneous inhibition of Arp2-Arp3 or mutation of the CA region only partially reduces MRTF-A activation by N-WASP and WAVE2. Recombinant WH2 domains and the RPEL domain of MRTF-A bind mutually exclusively to cellular and purified G-actin in vitro The competition by different WH2 domains correlates with MRTF-SRF activation. Following serum stimulation, nonpolymerizable actin dissociates from MRTF-A, and de novo formation of the G-actin-RPEL complex is impaired by a transferable factor. Our work demonstrates that WH2 domains activate MRTF-A and contribute to target gene regulation by a competitive mechanism, independently of their role in actin filament formation. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Myocardin-Related Transcription Factor A Activation by Competition with WH2 Domain Proteins for Actin Binding

    PubMed Central

    Weissbach, Julia; Schikora, Franziska; Weber, Anja; Kessels, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs) are coactivators of serum response factor (SRF)-mediated gene expression. Activation of MRTF-A occurs in response to alterations in actin dynamics and critically requires the dissociation of repressive G-actin–MRTF-A complexes. However, the mechanism leading to the release of MRTF-A remains unclear. Here we show that WH2 domains compete directly with MRTF-A for actin binding. Actin nucleation-promoting factors, such as N-WASP and WAVE2, as well as isolated WH2 domains, including those of Spire2 and Cobl, activate MRTF-A independently of changes in actin dynamics. Simultaneous inhibition of Arp2-Arp3 or mutation of the CA region only partially reduces MRTF-A activation by N-WASP and WAVE2. Recombinant WH2 domains and the RPEL domain of MRTF-A bind mutually exclusively to cellular and purified G-actin in vitro. The competition by different WH2 domains correlates with MRTF-SRF activation. Following serum stimulation, nonpolymerizable actin dissociates from MRTF-A, and de novo formation of the G-actin–RPEL complex is impaired by a transferable factor. Our work demonstrates that WH2 domains activate MRTF-A and contribute to target gene regulation by a competitive mechanism, independently of their role in actin filament formation. PMID:26976641

  8. Novel alternative splicings of BPAG1 (bullous pemphigoid antigen 1) including the domain structure closely related to MACF (microtubule actin cross-linking factor).

    PubMed

    Okumura, Masayo; Yamakawa, Hisashi; Ohara, Osamu; Owaribe, Katsushi

    2002-02-22

    BPAG1 (bullous pemphigoid antigen 1) was originally identified as a 230-kDa hemidesmosomal protein and belongs to the plakin family, because it consists of a plakin domain, a coiled-coil rod domain and a COOH-terminal intermediate filament binding domain. To date, alternatively spliced products of BPAG1, BPAG1e, and BPAG1n are known. BPAG1e is expressed in epithelial tissues and localized to hemidesmosomes, on the other hand, BPAG1n is expressed in neural tissues and muscles and has an actin binding domain at the NH(2)-terminal of BPAG1e. BPAG1 is also known as a gene responsible for Dystonia musculorum (dt) neurodegeneration syndrome of the mouse. Another plakin family protein MACF (microtubule actin cross-linking factor) has also an actin binding domain and the plakin domain at the NH(2)-terminal. However, in contrast to its high homology with BPAG1 at the NH(2)-terminal, the COOH-terminal structure of MACF, including a microtubule binding domain, resembles dystrophin rather than plakins. Here, we investigated RNAs and proteins expressed from the BPAG1 locus and suggest novel alternative splicing variants, which include one consisting of the COOH-terminal domain structure homologous to MACF. The results indicate that BPAG1 has three kinds of cytoskeletal binding domains and seems to play an important role in linking the different types of cytoskeletons.

  9. Identification and biochemical analysis of Slac2-c/MyRIP as a Rab27A-, myosin Va/VIIa-, and actin-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Taruho S; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2005-01-01

    Slac2-c/MyRIP is a specific Rab27A-binding protein that contains an N-terminal synaptotagmin-like protein (Slp) homology domain (SHD, a newly identified GTP-Rab27A-binding motif), but in contrast to the Slp family proteins, it lacks C-terminal tandem C2 domains. In vitro Slac2-c simultaneously directly interacts with both Rab27A and an actin-based motor protein, myosin Va, via its N-terminal SHD and middle region, respectively, consistent with the fact that the overall structure of Slac2-c is similar to that of Slac2-a/melanophilin, a linker protein between Rab27A and myosin Va in the melanosome transport in melanocytes. Unlike Slac2-a, however, the middle region of Slac2-c interacts with two types of myosins, myosin Va and myosin VIIa. In addition, the most C-terminal part of both Slac2-a and Slac2-c functions as an actin-binding domain: it directly interacts with globular and fibrous actin in vitro, and the actin-binding domain of Slac2-a and Slac2-c colocalizes with actin filaments when it is expressed in living cells (i.e., PC12 cells and mouse melanocytes). In this chapter we describe the methods that have been used to analyze the protein-protein interactions of Slac2-c, specifically with Rab27A, myosin Va/VIIa, and actin.

  10. Interactions between G-actin and myosin subfragment 1: immunochemical probing of the NH2-terminal segment on actin.

    PubMed

    DasGupta, G; White, J; Cheung, P; Reisler, E

    1990-09-11

    The role of the N-terminal segment of actin in myosin-induced polymerization of G-actin was studied by using peptide antibodies directed against the first seven N-terminal residues of alpha-skeletal actin. Light scattering, fluorescence, and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments showed that the Fab fragments of these antibodies inhibited the polymerization of G-actin by myosin subfragment 1 (S-1) by inhibiting the binding of these proteins to each other. Fluorescence measurements using actin labeled with pyrenyliodoacetamide revealed that Fab inhibited the initial step in the binding of S-1 to G-actin. It is deduced from these results and from other literature data that the initial contact between G-actin and S-1 involves residues 1-7 on actin and residues 633-642 on the S-1 heavy chain. This interaction appears to be of major importance for the binding of S-1 and G-actin. The presence of additional myosin contact sites on G-actin was indicated by concentration-dependent recovery of S-1 binding to G-actin without displacement of Fab. The reduced Fab inhibition of S-1 binding to polymerizing and polymerized actin is consistent with the tightening of acto-S-1 binding at these sites or the creation of new sites upon formation of F-actin.

  11. Missense Mutations in the N-Terminal Domain of Human Phenylalanine Hydroxylase Interfere with Binding of Regulatory Phenylalanine

    PubMed Central

    Gjetting, Torben; Petersen, Marie; Guldberg, Per; Güttler, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    Hyperphenylalaninemia due to a deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by >400 mutations in the PAH gene. Recent work has suggested that the majority of PAH missense mutations impair enzyme activity by causing increased protein instability and aggregation. In this study, we describe an alternative mechanism by which some PAH mutations may render PAH defective. Database searches were used to identify regions in the N-terminal domain of PAH with homology to the regulatory domain of prephenate dehydratase (PDH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the bacterial phenylalanine biosynthesis pathway. Naturally occurring N-terminal PAH mutations are distributed in a nonrandom pattern and cluster within residues 46–48 (GAL) and 65–69 (IESRP), two motifs highly conserved in PDH. To examine whether N-terminal PAH mutations affect the ability of PAH to bind phenylalanine at the regulatory domain, wild-type and five mutant (G46S, A47V, T63P/H64N, I65T, and R68S) forms of the N-terminal domain (residues 2–120) of human PAH were expressed as fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. Binding studies showed that the wild-type form of this domain specifically binds phenylalanine, whereas all mutations abolished or significantly reduced this phenylalanine-binding capacity. Our data suggest that impairment of phenylalanine-mediated activation of PAH may be an important disease-causing mechanism of some N-terminal PAH mutations, which may explain some well-documented genotype-phenotype discrepancies in PAH deficiency. PMID:11326337

  12. The C Terminus of Formin FMNL3 Accelerates Actin Polymerization and Contains a WH2 Domain-like Sequence That Binds Both Monomers and Filament Barbed Ends*

    PubMed Central

    Heimsath, Ernest G.; Higgs, Henry N.

    2012-01-01

    Formin proteins are actin assembly factors that accelerate filament nucleation then remain on the elongating barbed end and modulate filament elongation. The formin homology 2 (FH2) domain is central to these activities, but recent work has suggested that additional sequences enhance FH2 domain function. Here we show that the C-terminal 76 amino acids of the formin FMNL3 have a dramatic effect on the ability of the FH2 domain to accelerate actin assembly. This C-terminal region contains a WASp homology 2 (WH2)-like sequence that binds actin monomers in a manner that is competitive with other WH2 domains and with profilin. In addition, the C terminus binds filament barbed ends. As a monomer, the FMNL3 C terminus inhibits actin polymerization and slows barbed end elongation with moderate affinity. As a dimer, the C terminus accelerates actin polymerization from monomers and displays high affinity inhibition of barbed end elongation. These properties are not common to all formin C termini, as those of mDia1 and INF2 do not behave similarly. Interestingly, mutation of two aliphatic residues, which blocks high affinity actin binding by the WH2-like sequence, has no effect on the ability of the C terminus to enhance FH2-mediated polymerization. However, mutation of three successive basic residues at the C terminus of the WH2-like sequence compromises polymerization enhancement. These results illustrate that the C termini of formins are highly diverse in their interactions with actin. PMID:22094460

  13. The N-Terminal Domain of the Flo1 Flocculation Protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Binds Specifically to Mannose Carbohydrates ▿

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Katty V. Y.; Stassen, Catherine; Stals, Ingeborg; Donohue, Dagmara S.; Devreese, Bart; De Greve, Henri; Willaert, Ronnie G.

    2011-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells possess a remarkable capacity to adhere to other yeast cells, which is called flocculation. Flocculation is defined as the phenomenon wherein yeast cells adhere in clumps and sediment rapidly from the medium in which they are suspended. These cell-cell interactions are mediated by a class of specific cell wall proteins, called flocculins, that stick out of the cell walls of flocculent cells. The N-terminal part of the three-domain protein is responsible for carbohydrate binding. We studied the N-terminal domain of the Flo1 protein (N-Flo1p), which is the most important flocculin responsible for flocculation of yeast cells. It was shown that this domain is both O and N glycosylated and is structurally composed mainly of β-sheets. The binding of N-Flo1p to d-mannose, α-methyl-d-mannoside, various dimannoses, and mannan confirmed that the N-terminal domain of Flo1p is indeed responsible for the sugar-binding activity of the protein. Moreover, fluorescence spectroscopy data suggest that N-Flo1p contains two mannose carbohydrate binding sites with different affinities. The carbohydrate dissociation constants show that the affinity of N-Flo1p for mono- and dimannoses is in the millimolar range for the binding site with low affinity and in the micromolar range for the binding site with high affinity. The high-affinity binding site has a higher affinity for low-molecular-weight (low-MW) mannose carbohydrates and no affinity for mannan. However, mannan as well as low-MW mannose carbohydrates can bind to the low-affinity binding site. These results extend the cellular flocculation model on the molecular level. PMID:21076009

  14. The activities of the C-terminal regions of the formin protein disheveled-associated activator of morphogenesis (DAAM) in actin dynamics.

    PubMed

    Vig, Andrea Teréz; Földi, István; Szikora, Szilárd; Migh, Ede; Gombos, Rita; Tóth, Mónika Ágnes; Huber, Tamás; Pintér, Réka; Talián, Gábor Csaba; Mihály, József; Bugyi, Beáta

    2017-08-18

    Disheveled-associated activator of morphogenesis (DAAM) is a diaphanous-related formin protein essential for the regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in diverse biological processes. The conserved formin homology 1 and 2 (FH1-FH2) domains of DAAM catalyze actin nucleation and processively mediate filament elongation. These activities are indirectly regulated by the N- and C-terminal regions flanking the FH1-FH2 domains. Recently, the C-terminal diaphanous-autoregulatory domain (DAD) and the C terminus (CT) of formins have also been shown to regulate actin assembly by directly interacting with actin. Here, to better understand the biological activities of DAAM, we studied the role of DAD-CT regions of Drosophila DAAM in its interaction with actin with in vitro biochemical and in vivo genetic approaches. We found that the DAD-CT region binds actin in vitro and that its main actin-binding element is the CT region, which does not influence actin dynamics on its own. However, we also found that it can tune the nucleating activity and the filament end-interaction properties of DAAM in an FH2 domain-dependent manner. We also demonstrate that DAD-CT makes the FH2 domain more efficient in antagonizing with capping protein. Consistently, in vivo data suggested that the CT region contributes to DAAM-mediated filopodia formation and dynamics in primary neurons. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the CT region of DAAM plays an important role in actin assembly regulation in a biological context. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Presence of an SH2 domain in the actin-binding protein tensin.

    PubMed

    Davis, S; Lu, M L; Lo, S H; Lin, S; Butler, J A; Druker, B J; Roberts, T M; An, Q; Chen, L B

    1991-05-03

    The molecular cloning of the complementary DNA coding for a 90-kilodalton fragment of tensin, an actin-binding component of focal contacts and other submembraneous cytoskeletal structures, is reported. The derived amino acid sequence revealed the presence of a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. This domain is shared by a number of signal transduction proteins including nonreceptor tyrosine kinases such as Abl, Fps, Src, and Src family members, the transforming protein Crk, phospholipase C-gamma 1, PI-3 (phosphatidylinositol) kinase, and guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein (GAP). Like the SH2 domain found in Src, Crk, and Abl, the SH2 domain of tensin bound specifically to a number of phosphotyrosine-containing proteins from v-src-transformed cells. Tensin was also found to be phosphorylated on tyrosine residues. These findings suggest that by possessing both actin-binding and phosphotyrosine-binding activities and being itself a target for tyrosine kinases, tensin may link signal transduction pathways with the cytoskeleton.

  16. Molecular Characterization of abLIM, a Novel Actin-binding and Double Zinc Finger Protein

    PubMed Central

    Roof, Dorothy J.; Hayes, Annmarie; Adamian, Michael; Chishti, Athar H.; Li, Tiansen

    1997-01-01

    Molecules that couple the actin-based cytoskeleton to intracellular signaling pathways are central to the processes of cellular morphogenesis and differentiation. We have characterized a novel protein, the actin-binding LIM (abLIM) protein, which could mediate such interactions between actin filaments and cytoplasmic targets. abLIM protein consists of a COOH-terminal cytoskeletal domain that is fused to an NH2-terminal domain consisting of four double zinc finger motifs. The cytoskeletal domain is ∼50% identical to erythrocyte dematin, an actin-bundling protein of the red cell membrane skeleton, while the zinc finger domains conform to the LIM motif consensus sequence. In vitro expression studies demonstrate that abLIM protein can bind to F-actin through the dematin-like domain. Transcripts corresponding to three distinct isoforms have a widespread tissue distribution. However, a polypeptide corresponding to the full-length isoform is found exclusively in the retina and is enriched in biochemical extracts of retinal rod inner segments. abLIM protein also undergoes extensive phosphorylation in light-adapted retinas in vivo, and its developmental expression in the retina coincides with the elaboration of photoreceptor inner and outer segments. Based on the composite primary structure of abLIM protein, actin-binding capacity, potential regulation via phosphorylation, and isoform expression pattern, we speculate that abLIM may play a general role in bridging the actin-based cytoskeleton with an array of potential LIM protein-binding partners. The developmental time course of abLIM expression in the retina suggests that the retina-specific isoform may have a specialized role in the development or elaboration of photoreceptor inner and outer segments. PMID:9245787

  17. Z-disc-associated, Alternatively Spliced, PDZ Motif-containing Protein (ZASP) Mutations in the Actin-binding Domain Cause Disruption of Skeletal Muscle Actin Filaments in Myofibrillar Myopathy*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaoyan; Ruiz, Janelle; Bajraktari, Ilda; Ohman, Rachel; Banerjee, Soojay; Gribble, Katherine; Kaufman, Joshua D.; Wingfield, Paul T.; Griggs, Robert C.; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.; Mankodi, Ami

    2014-01-01

    The core of skeletal muscle Z-discs consists of actin filaments from adjacent sarcomeres that are cross-linked by α-actinin homodimers. Z-disc-associated, alternatively spliced, PDZ motif-containing protein (ZASP)/Cypher interacts with α-actinin, myotilin, and other Z-disc proteins via the PDZ domain. However, these interactions are not sufficient to maintain the Z-disc structure. We show that ZASP directly interacts with skeletal actin filaments. The actin-binding domain is between the modular PDZ and LIM domains. This ZASP region is alternatively spliced so that each isoform has unique actin-binding domains. All ZASP isoforms contain the exon 6-encoded ZASP-like motif that is mutated in zaspopathy, a myofibrillar myopathy (MFM), whereas the exon 8–11 junction-encoded peptide is exclusive to the postnatal long ZASP isoform (ZASP-LΔex10). MFM is characterized by disruption of skeletal muscle Z-discs and accumulation of myofibrillar degradation products. Wild-type and mutant ZASP interact with α-actin, α-actinin, and myotilin. Expression of mutant, but not wild-type, ZASP leads to Z-disc disruption and F-actin accumulation in mouse skeletal muscle, as in MFM. Mutations in the actin-binding domain of ZASP-LΔex10, but not other isoforms, cause disruption of the actin cytoskeleton in muscle cells. These isoform-specific mutation effects highlight the essential role of the ZASP-LΔex10 isoform in F-actin organization. Our results show that MFM-associated ZASP mutations in the actin-binding domain have deleterious effects on the core structure of the Z-discs in skeletal muscle. PMID:24668811

  18. Computational Study of the Binding Mechanism of Actin-Depolymerizing Factor 1 with Actin in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Wang, Xue; Dong, Chun-Hai; Yang, Jian Ming; Yao, Xiao Jun

    2016-01-01

    Actin is a highly conserved protein. It plays important roles in cellular function and exists either in the monomeric (G-actin) or polymeric form (F-actin). Members of the actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin protein family bind to both G-actin and F-actin and play vital roles in actin dynamics by manipulating the rates of filament polymerization and depolymerization. It has been reported that the S6D and R98A/K100A mutants of actin-depolymerizing factor 1 (ADF1) in Arabidopsis thaliana decreased the binding affinity of ADF for the actin monomer. To investigate the binding mechanism and dynamic behavior of the ADF1-actin complex, we constructed a homology model of the AtADF1-actin complex based on the crystal structure of AtADF1 and the twinfilin C-terminal ADF-H domain in a complex with a mouse actin monomer. The model was then refined for subsequent molecular dynamics simulations. Increased binding energy of the mutated system was observed using the Molecular Mechanics Generalized Born Surface Area and Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM-GB/PBSA) methods. To determine the residues that make decisive contributions to the ADF1 actin-binding affinity, per-residue decomposition and computational alanine scanning analyses were performed, which provided more detailed information on the binding mechanism. Root-mean-square fluctuation and principal component analyses confirmed that the S6D and R98A/K100A mutants induced an increased conformational flexibility. The comprehensive molecular insight gained from this study is of great importance for understanding the binding mechanism of ADF1 and G-actin.

  19. Computational Study of the Binding Mechanism of Actin-Depolymerizing Factor 1 with Actin in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue; Dong, Chun-Hai; Yang, Jian Ming; Yao, Xiao Jun

    2016-01-01

    Actin is a highly conserved protein. It plays important roles in cellular function and exists either in the monomeric (G-actin) or polymeric form (F-actin). Members of the actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin protein family bind to both G-actin and F-actin and play vital roles in actin dynamics by manipulating the rates of filament polymerization and depolymerization. It has been reported that the S6D and R98A/K100A mutants of actin-depolymerizing factor 1 (ADF1) in Arabidopsis thaliana decreased the binding affinity of ADF for the actin monomer. To investigate the binding mechanism and dynamic behavior of the ADF1–actin complex, we constructed a homology model of the AtADF1–actin complex based on the crystal structure of AtADF1 and the twinfilin C-terminal ADF-H domain in a complex with a mouse actin monomer. The model was then refined for subsequent molecular dynamics simulations. Increased binding energy of the mutated system was observed using the Molecular Mechanics Generalized Born Surface Area and Poisson–Boltzmann Surface Area (MM-GB/PBSA) methods. To determine the residues that make decisive contributions to the ADF1 actin-binding affinity, per-residue decomposition and computational alanine scanning analyses were performed, which provided more detailed information on the binding mechanism. Root-mean-square fluctuation and principal component analyses confirmed that the S6D and R98A/K100A mutants induced an increased conformational flexibility. The comprehensive molecular insight gained from this study is of great importance for understanding the binding mechanism of ADF1 and G-actin. PMID:27414648

  20. Membrane interaction of the N-terminal domain of chemokine receptor CXCR1.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Sourav; Raghuraman, H; Namani, Trishool; Rajarathnam, Krishna; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2010-06-01

    The N-terminal domain of chemokine receptors constitutes one of the two critical ligand binding sites, and plays important roles by mediating binding affinity, receptor selectivity, and regulating function. In this work, we monitored the organization and dynamics of a 34-mer peptide of the CXC chemokine receptor 1 (CXCR1) N-terminal domain and its interaction with membranes by utilizing a combination of fluorescence-based approaches and surface pressure measurements. Our results show that the CXCR1 N-domain 34-mer peptide binds vesicles of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and upon binding, the tryptophan residues of the peptide experience motional restriction and exhibit red edge excitation shift (REES) of 19nm. These results are further supported by increase in fluorescence anisotropy and mean fluorescence lifetime upon membrane binding. These results constitute one of the first reports demonstrating membrane interaction of the N-terminal domain of CXCR1 and gain relevance in the context of the emerging role of cellular membranes in chemokine signaling.

  1. A gain-of-function mutation in the M-domain of cardiac myosin-binding protein-C increases binding to actin.

    PubMed

    Bezold, Kristina L; Shaffer, Justin F; Khosa, Jaskiran K; Hoye, Elaine R; Harris, Samantha P

    2013-07-26

    The M-domain is the major regulatory subunit of cardiac myosin-binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) that modulates actin and myosin interactions to influence muscle contraction. However, the precise mechanism(s) and the specific residues involved in mediating the functional effects of the M-domain are not fully understood. Positively charged residues adjacent to phosphorylation sites in the M-domain are thought to be critical for effects of cMyBP-C on cross-bridge interactions by mediating electrostatic binding with myosin S2 and/or actin. However, recent structural studies revealed that highly conserved sequences downstream of the phosphorylation sites form a compact tri-helix bundle. Here we used site-directed mutagenesis to probe the functional significance of charged residues adjacent to the phosphorylation sites and conserved residues within the tri-helix bundle. Results confirm that charged residues adjacent to phosphorylation sites and residues within the tri-helix bundle are important for mediating effects of the M-domain on contraction. In addition, four missense variants within the tri-helix bundle that are associated with human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused either loss-of-function or gain-of-function effects on force. Importantly, the effects of the gain-of-function variant, L348P, increased the affinity of the M-domain for actin. Together, results demonstrate that functional effects of the M-domain are not due solely to interactions with charged residues near phosphorylatable serines and provide the first demonstration that the tri-helix bundle contributes to the functional effects of the M-domain, most likely by binding to actin.

  2. Direct binding of F actin to the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha 2 integrin chain in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, J. D.; Plopper, G.; Ingber, D. E.; Hartwig, J. H.; Kupper, T. S.

    1995-01-01

    The transmembrane integrins have been shown to interact with the cytoskeleton via noncovalent binding between cytoplasmic domains (CDs) of integrin beta chains and various actin binding proteins within the focal adhesion complex. Direct or indirect integrin alpha chain CD binding to the actin cytoskeleton has not been reported. We show here that actin, as an abundant constituent of focal adhesion complex proteins isolated from fibroblasts, binds strongly and specifically to alpha 2 CD, but not to alpha 1 CD peptide. Similar specific binding to alpha 2 CD peptide was seen for highly purified F actin, free of putative actin-binding proteins. The bound complex of actin and peptide was visualized directly by coprecipitation, and actin binding was abrogated by removal of a five amino acid sequence from the alpha 2 CD peptide. Our findings may explain the earlier observation that, while integrins alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 1 beta 1 both bind to collagen, only alpha 2 beta 1 can mediate contraction of extracellular collagen matrices.

  3. A single charge in the actin binding domain of fascin can independently tune the linear and non-linear response of an actin bundle network.

    PubMed

    Maier, M; Müller, K W; Heussinger, C; Köhler, S; Wall, W A; Bausch, A R; Lieleg, O

    2015-05-01

    Actin binding proteins (ABPs) not only set the structure of actin filament assemblies but also mediate the frequency-dependent viscoelastic moduli of cross-linked and bundled actin networks. Point mutations in the actin binding domain of those ABPs can tune the association and dissociation dynamics of the actin/ABP bond and thus modulate the network mechanics both in the linear and non-linear response regime. We here demonstrate how the exchange of a single charged amino acid in the actin binding domain of the ABP fascin triggers such a modulation of the network rheology. Whereas the overall structure of the bundle networks is conserved, the transition point from strain-hardening to strain-weakening sensitively depends on the cross-linker off-rate and the applied shear rate. Our experimental results are consistent both with numerical simulations of a cross-linked bundle network and a theoretical description of the bundle network mechanics which is based on non-affine bending deformations and force-dependent cross-link dynamics.

  4. Functional correction of dystrophin actin binding domain mutations by genome editing

    PubMed Central

    Kyrychenko, Viktoriia; Kyrychenko, Sergii; Tiburcy, Malte; Shelton, John M.; Long, Chengzu; Schneider, Jay W.; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda

    2017-01-01

    Dystrophin maintains the integrity of striated muscles by linking the actin cytoskeleton with the cell membrane. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene (DMD) that result in progressive, debilitating muscle weakness, cardiomyopathy, and a shortened lifespan. Mutations of dystrophin that disrupt the amino-terminal actin-binding domain 1 (ABD-1), encoded by exons 2–8, represent the second-most common cause of DMD. In the present study, we compared three different strategies for CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to correct mutations in the ABD-1 region of the DMD gene by deleting exons 3–9, 6–9, or 7–11 in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and by assessing the function of iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes. All three exon deletion strategies enabled the expression of truncated dystrophin protein and restoration of cardiomyocyte contractility and calcium transients to varying degrees. We show that deletion of exons 3–9 by genomic editing provides an especially effective means of correcting disease-causing ABD-1 mutations. These findings represent an important step toward eventual correction of common DMD mutations and provide a means of rapidly assessing the expression and function of internally truncated forms of dystrophin-lacking portions of ABD-1. PMID:28931764

  5. Bean peptides have higher in silico binding affinities than ezetimibe for the N-terminal domain of cholesterol receptor Niemann-Pick C1 Like-1.

    PubMed

    Real Hernandez, Luis M; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2017-04-01

    Niemann-Pick C1 like-1 (NPC1L1) mediates cholesterol absorption at the apical membrane of enterocytes through a yet unknown mechanism. Bean, pea, and lentil proteins are naturally hydrolyzed during digestion to produce peptides. The potential for pulse peptides to have high binding affinities for NPC1L1 has not been determined. In this study , in silico binding affinities and interactions were determined between the N-terminal domain of NPC1L1 and 14 pulse peptides (5≥ amino acids) derived through pepsin-pancreatin digestion. Peptides were docked in triplicate to the N-terminal domain using docking program AutoDock Vina, and results were compared to those of ezetimibe, a prescribed NPC1L1 inhibitor. Three black bean peptides (-7.2 to -7.0kcal/mol) and the cowpea bean dipeptide Lys-Asp (-7.0kcal/mol) had higher binding affinities than ezetimibe (-6.6kcal/mol) for the N-terminal domain of NPC1L1. Lentil and pea peptides studied did not have high binding affinities. The common bean peptide Tyr-Ala-Ala-Ala-Thr (-7.2kcal/mol), which can be produced from black or navy bean proteins, had the highest binding affinity. Ezetimibe and peptides with high binding affinities for the N-terminal domain are expected to interact at different locations of the N-terminal domain. All high affinity black bean peptides are expected to have van der Waals interactions with SER130, PHE136, and LEU236 and a conventional hydrogen bond with GLU238 of NPC1L1. Due to their high affinity for the N-terminal domain of NPC1L1, black and cowpea bean peptides produced in the digestive track have the potential to disrupt interactions between NPC1L1 and membrane proteins that lead to cholesterol absorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neuronal entry and high neurotoxicity of botulinum neurotoxin A require its N-terminal binding sub-domain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiafu; Meng, Jianghui; Nugent, Marc; Tang, Minhong; Dolly, J. Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic proteins known, due to inhibiting the neuronal release of acetylcholine and causing flaccid paralysis. Most BoNT serotypes target neurons by binding to synaptic vesicle proteins and gangliosides via a C-terminal binding sub-domain (HCC). However, the role of their conserved N-terminal sub-domain (HCN) has not been established. Herein, we created a mutant form of recombinant BoNT/A lacking HCN (rAΔHCN) and showed that the lethality of this mutant is reduced 3.3 × 104-fold compared to wild-type BoNT/A. Accordingly, low concentrations of rAΔHCN failed to bind either synaptic vesicle protein 2C or neurons, unlike the high-affinity neuronal binding obtained with 125I-BoNT/A (Kd = 0.46 nM). At a higher concentration, rAΔHCN did bind to cultured sensory neurons and cluster on the surface, even after 24 h exposure. In contrast, BoNT/A became internalised and its light chain appeared associated with the plasmalemma, and partially co-localised with vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 in some vesicular compartments. We further found that a point mutation (W985L) within HCN reduced the toxicity over 10-fold, while this mutant maintained the same level of binding to neurons as wild type BoNT/A, suggesting that HCN makes additional contributions to productive internalization/translocation steps beyond binding to neurons. PMID:28295026

  7. Enhancement of branching efficiency by the actin filament-binding activity of N-WASP/WAVE2.

    PubMed

    Suetsugu, S; Miki, H; Yamaguchi, H; Obinata, T; Takenawa, T

    2001-12-01

    The actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex is an essential regulator of de novo actin filament formation. Arp2/3 nucleates the polymerization of actin and creates branched actin filaments when activated by Arp2/3-complex activating domain (VCA) of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome proteins (WASP family proteins). We found that the branching of actin filaments on pre-existing ADP filaments mediated by the Arp2/3 complex is twice as efficient when Arp2/3 was activated by wild-type neural WASP (N-WASP) or WASP-family verprolin-homologous protein (WAVE) 2 than when activated by the VCA domain alone. By contrast, there was no difference between wild-type N-WASP or WAVE2 and VCA in the branching efficiency on de novo filaments, which are thought to consist mainly of ADP-phosphate filaments. This increased branching efficiency on ADP filaments is due to the basic region located in the center of N-WASP and WAVE2, which was found to associate with ADP actin filaments. Actin filaments and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) associate with N-WASP at different sites. This association of N-WASP and WAVE2 with actin filaments enhanced recruitment of Arp2/3 to the pre-existing filaments, presumably leading to efficient nucleation and branch formation on pre-existing filaments. These data together suggest that the actin filament binding activity of N-WASP and WAVE2 in the basic region increases the number of barbed ends created on pre-existing filaments. Efficient branching on ADP filaments may be important for initiation of actin-based motility.

  8. Modes of caldesmon binding to actin: sites of caldesmon contact and modulation of interactions by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Foster, D Brian; Huang, Renjian; Hatch, Victoria; Craig, Roger; Graceffa, Philip; Lehman, William; Wang, C-L Albert

    2004-12-17

    Smooth muscle caldesmon binds actin and inhibits actomyosin ATPase activity. Phosphorylation of caldesmon by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) reverses this inhibitory effect and weakens actin binding. To better understand this function, we have examined the phosphorylation-dependent contact sites of caldesmon on actin by low dose electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of actin filaments decorated with a C-terminal fragment, hH32K, of human caldesmon containing the principal actin-binding domains. Helical reconstruction of negatively stained filaments demonstrated that hH32K is located on the inner portion of actin subdomain 1, traversing its upper surface toward the C-terminal segment of actin, and forms a bridge to the neighboring actin monomer of the adjacent long pitch helical strand by connecting to its subdomain 3. Such lateral binding was supported by cross-linking experiments using a mutant isoform, which was capable of cross-linking actin subunits. Upon ERK phosphorylation, however, the mutant no longer cross-linked actin to polymers. Three-dimensional reconstruction of ERK-phosphorylated hH32K indeed indicated loss of the interstrand connectivity. These results, together with fluorescence quenching data, are consistent with a phosphorylation-dependent conformational change that moves the C-terminal end segment of caldesmon near the phosphorylation site but not the upstream region around Cys(595), away from F-actin, thus neutralizing its inhibitory effect on actomyosin interactions. The binding pattern of hH32K suggests a mechanism by which unphosphorylated, but not ERK-phosphorylated, caldesmon could stabilize actin filaments and resist F-actin severing or depolymerization in both smooth muscle and nonmuscle cells.

  9. Neurosteroid binding to the amino terminal and glutamate binding domains of ionotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Krasnodara; Bartle, Emily; Roark, Ryan; Fanelli, David; Pham, Melissa; Pollard, Beth; Borkowski, Brian; Rhoads, Sarah; Kim, Joon; Rocha, Monica; Kahlson, Martha; Kangala, Melinda; Gentile, Lisa

    2012-06-01

    The endogenous neurosteroids, pregnenolone sulfate (PS) and 3α-hydroxy-5β-pregnan-20-one sulfate (PREGAS), have been shown to differentially regulate the ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) family of ligand-gated ion channels. Upon binding to these receptors, PREGAS decreases current flow through the channels. Upon binding to non-NMDA or NMDA receptors containing an GluN2C or GluN2D subunit, PS also decreases current flow through the channels, however, upon binding to NMDA receptors containing an GluN2A or GluN2B subunit, flow through the channels increases. To begin to understand this differential regulation, we have cloned the S1S2 and amino terminal domains (ATD) of the NMDA GluN2B and GluN2D and AMPA GluA2 subunits. Here we present results that show that PS and PREGAS bind to different sites in the ATD of the GluA2 subunit, which when combined with previous results from our lab, now identifies two binding domains for each neurosteroid. We also show both neurosteroids bind only to the ATD of the GluN2D subunit, suggesting that this binding is distinct from that of the AMPA GluA2 subunit, with both leading to iGluR inhibition. Finally, we provide evidence that both PS and PREGAS bind to the S1S2 domain of the NMDA GluN2B subunit. Neurosteroid binding to the S1S2 domain of NMDA subunits responsible for potentiation of iGluRs and to the ATD of NMDA subunits responsible for inhibition of iGluRs, provides an interesting option for therapeutic design. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The F-Actin Binding Protein Cortactin Regulates the Dynamics of the Exocytotic Fusion Pore through its SH3 Domain

    PubMed Central

    González-Jamett, Arlek M.; Guerra, María J.; Olivares, María J.; Haro-Acuña, Valentina; Baéz-Matus, Ximena; Vásquez-Navarrete, Jacqueline; Momboisse, Fanny; Martinez-Quiles, Narcisa; Cárdenas, Ana M.

    2017-01-01

    Upon cell stimulation, the network of cortical actin filaments is rearranged to facilitate the neurosecretory process. This actin rearrangement includes both disruption of the preexisting actin network and de novo actin polymerization. However, the mechanism by which a Ca2+ signal elicits the formation of new actin filaments remains uncertain. Cortactin, an actin-binding protein that promotes actin polymerization in synergy with the nucleation promoting factor N-WASP, could play a key role in this mechanism. We addressed this hypothesis by analyzing de novo actin polymerization and exocytosis in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells expressing different cortactin or N-WASP domains, or cortactin mutants that fail to interact with proline-rich domain (PRD)-containing proteins, including N-WASP, or to be phosphorylated by Ca2+-dependent kinases, such as ERK1/2 and Src. Our results show that the activation of nicotinic receptors in chromaffin cells promotes cortactin translocation to the cell cortex, where it colocalizes with actin filaments. We further found that, in association with PRD-containing proteins, cortactin contributes to the Ca2+-dependent formation of F-actin, and regulates fusion pore dynamics and the number of exocytotic events induced by activation of nicotinic receptors. However, whereas the actions of cortactin on the fusion pore dynamics seems to depend on the availability of monomeric actin and its phosphorylation by ERK1/2 and Src kinases, cortactin regulates the extent of exocytosis by a mechanism independent of actin polymerization. Together our findings point out a role for cortactin as a critical modulator of actin filament formation and exocytosis in neuroendocrine cells. PMID:28522963

  11. The C-terminal heavy-chain domain of botulinum neurotoxin a is not the only site that binds neurons, as the N-terminal heavy-chain domain also plays a very active role in toxin-cell binding and interactions.

    PubMed

    Ayyar, B Vijayalakshmi; Aoki, K Roger; Atassi, M Zouhair

    2015-04-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) possess unique specificity for nerve terminals. They bind to the presynaptic membrane and then translocate intracellularly, where the light-chain endopeptidase cleaves the SNARE complex proteins, subverting the synaptic exocytosis responsible for acetylcholine release to the synaptic cleft. This inhibits acetylcholine binding to its receptor, causing paralysis. Binding, an obligate event for cell intoxication, is believed to occur through the heavy-chain C-terminal (HC) domain. It is followed by toxin translocation and entry into the cell cytoplasm, which is thought to be mediated by the heavy-chain N-terminal (HN) domain. Submolecular mapping analysis by using synthetic peptides spanning BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A) and mouse brain synaptosomes (SNPs) and protective antibodies against toxin from mice and cervical dystonia patients undergoing BoNT/A treatment revealed that not only regions of the HC domain but also regions of the HN domain are involved in the toxin binding process. Based on these findings, we expressed a peptide corresponding to the BoNT/A region comprising HN domain residues 729 to 845 (HN729-845). HN729-845 bound directly to mouse brain SNPs and substantially inhibited BoNT/A binding to SNPs. The binding involved gangliosides GT1b and GD1a and a few membrane lipids. The peptide bound to human or mouse neuroblastoma cells within 1 min. Peptide HN729-845 protected mice completely against a lethal BoNT/A dose (1.05 times the 100% lethal dose). This protective activity was obtained at a dose comparable to that of the peptide from positions 967 to 1296 in the HC domain. These findings strongly indicate that HN729-845 and, by extension, the HN domain are fully programmed and equipped to bind to neuronal cells and in the free state can even inhibit the binding of the toxin. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Plasmodium falciparum aldolase and the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of certain apical organellar proteins promote actin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Suraya A; Martin, Stephen R; Grainger, Munira; Howell, Steven A; Green, Judith L; Holder, Anthony A

    2014-10-01

    The current model of Apicomplexan motility and host cell invasion is that both processes are driven by an actomyosin motor located beneath the plasma membrane, with the force transduced to the outside of the cell via coupling through aldolase and the cytoplasmic tail domains (CTDs) of certain type 1 membrane proteins. In Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), aldolase is thought to bind to the CTD of members of the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) family, which are micronemal proteins and represented by MTRAP in merozoites. Other type 1 membrane proteins including members of the erythrocyte binding antigen (EBA) and reticulocyte binding protein homologue (RH) protein families, which are also apical organellar proteins, have also been implicated in host cell binding in erythrocyte invasion. However, recent studies with Toxoplasma gondii have questioned the importance of aldolase in these processes. Using biolayer interferometry we show that Pf aldolase binds with high affinity to both rabbit and Pf actin, with a similar affinity for filamentous (F-) actin and globular (G-) actin. The interaction between Pf aldolase and merozoite actin was confirmed by co-sedimentation assays. Aldolase binding was shown to promote rabbit actin polymerization indicating that the interaction is more complicated than binding alone. The CTDs of some but not all type 1 membrane proteins also promoted actin polymerization in the absence of aldolase; MTRAP and RH1 CTDs promoted actin polymerization but EBA175 CTD did not. Direct actin polymerization mediated by membrane protein CTDs may contribute to actin recruitment, filament formation and stability during motor assembly, and actin-mediated movement, independent of aldolase. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cloning and characterization of mouse ACF7, a novel member of the dystonin subfamily of actin binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Bernier, G; Mathieu, M; De Repentigny, Y; Vidal, S M; Kothary, R

    1996-11-15

    We have recently cloned the gene responsible for the mouse neurological disorder dystonia musculorum. The predicted product of this gene, dystonin (Dst), is a neural isoform of bullous pemphigoid antigen 1 (Bpag1) with an N-terminal actin binding domain. Here we report on the cloning and characterization of mouse ACF7. Sequence analysis revealed extended homology of mACF7 with both the actin binding domain (ABD) and the Bpag1 portions of dystonin. Moreover, mACF7 and Dst display similar isoform diversity and encode similar sized transcripts in the nervous system. Phylogenetic analysis of mACF7 and dystonin ABD sequences suggests a recent evolutionary origin and that these proteins form a separate novel subfamily within the beta-spectrin superfamily of actin binding proteins. Given the implication of several actin binding proteins in genetic disorders, it is important to know the pattern of mACF7 expression. mACF7 transcripts are detected principally in lung, brain, spinal cord, skeletal and cardiac muscle, and skin. Intriguingly, mACF7 expression in lung is strongly induced just before birth and is restricted to type II alveolar cells. To determine whether spontaneous mutants that may be defective in mACF7 exist, we have mapped the mACF7 gene to mouse chromosome 4.

  14. Point mutations in the tri-helix bundle of the M-domain of cardiac myosin binding protein-C influence systolic duration and delay cardiac relaxation.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Sabine J; Kooiker, Kristina B; Napierski, Nathaniel C; Touma, Katia D; Mazzalupo, Stacy; Harris, Samantha P

    2018-06-01

    Cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) is an essential regulatory protein required for proper systolic contraction and diastolic relaxation. We previously showed that N'-terminal domains of cMyBP-C stimulate contraction by binding to actin and activating the thin filament in vitro. In principle, thin filament activating effects of cMyBP-C could influence contraction and relaxation rates, or augment force amplitude in vivo. cMyBP-C binding to actin could also contribute to an internal load that slows muscle shortening velocity as previously hypothesized. However, the functional significance of cMyBP-C binding to actin has not yet been established in vivo. We previously identified an actin binding site in the regulatory M-domain of cMyBP-C and described two missense mutations that either increased (L348P) or decreased (E330K) binding affinity of recombinant cMyBP-C N'-terminal domains for actin in vitro. Here we created transgenic mice with either the L348P or E330K mutations to determine the functional significance of cMyBP-C binding to actin in vivo. Results showed that enhanced binding of cMyBP-C to actin in L348P-Tg mice prolonged the time to end-systole and slowed relaxation rates. Reduced interactions between cMyBP-C and actin in E330K-Tg mice had the opposite effect and significantly shortened the duration of ejection. Neither mouse model displayed overt systolic dysfunction, but L348P-Tg mice showed diastolic dysfunction presumably resulting from delayed relaxation. We conclude that cMyBP-C binding to actin contributes to sustained thin filament activation at the end of systole and during isovolumetric relaxation. These results provide the first functional evidence that cMyBP-C interactions with actin influence cardiac function in vivo. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The SH2-containing inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, SHIP-2, binds filamin and regulates submembraneous actin

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Jennifer M.; O'Malley, Cindy J.; Becanovic, Jelena; Munday, Adam D.; Berndt, Michael C.; Coghill, Imogen D.; Nandurkar, Harshal H.; Ooms, Lisa M.; Mitchell, Christina A.

    2001-01-01

    SHIP-2 is a phosphoinositidylinositol 3,4,5 trisphosphate (PtdIns[3,4,5]P3) 5-phosphatase that contains an NH2-terminal SH2 domain, a central 5-phosphatase domain, and a COOH-terminal proline-rich domain. SHIP-2 negatively regulates insulin signaling. In unstimulated cells, SHIP-2 localized in a perinuclear cytosolic distribution and at the leading edge of the cell. Endogenous and recombinant SHIP-2 localized to membrane ruffles, which were mediated by the COOH-terminal proline–rich domain. To identify proteins that bind to the SHIP-2 proline–rich domain, yeast two-hybrid screening was performed, which isolated actin-binding protein filamin C. In addition, both filamin A and B specifically interacted with SHIP-2 in this assay. SHIP-2 coimmunoprecipitated with filamin from COS-7 cells, and association between these species did not change after epidermal growth factor stimulation. SHIP-2 colocalized with filamin at Z-lines and the sarcolemma in striated muscle sections and at membrane ruffles in COS-7 cells, although the membrane ruffling response was reduced in cells overexpressing SHIP-2. SHIP-2 membrane ruffle localization was dependent on filamin binding, as SHIP-2 was expressed exclusively in the cytosol of filamin-deficient cells. Recombinant SHIP-2 regulated PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 levels and submembraneous actin at membrane ruffles after growth factor stimulation, dependent on SHIP-2 catalytic activity. Collectively these studies demonstrate that filamin-dependent SHIP-2 localization critically regulates phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase signaling to the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:11739414

  16. Specific binding of the WASP N-terminal domain to Btk is critical for TLR2 signaling in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Chisato; Sato, Mitsuru; Takenouchi, Takato; Kitani, Hiroshi

    2015-02-01

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) is an adaptor molecule in immune cells. Recently, we revealed that WASP is involved in lipopolysaccharide-TLR4 signaling in macrophages by association of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) with the WASP N-terminal domain. Btk has been shown to play important roles in the signaling of several TLRs and to modulate the inflammatory response in macrophages. In this study, we evaluated the importance of the interaction between Btk and WASP in TLR2 signaling by using bone marrow-derived macrophage cell lines from transgenic (Tg) mice expressing anti-WASP N-terminal domain single-chain variable fragment (scFv) or VL single-domain intrabodies. In this Tg bone marrow-derived macrophages, specific interaction between WASP and Btk were strongly inhibited by masking of the binding site in the WASP N-terminal domain. There was impairment of gene expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β and phosphorylation of inhibitor of κB α/β (IKKα/β) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB upon stimulation with TLR2 ligands. Furthermore, tyrosine phosphorylation of WASP following TLR2-ligand stimulation was severely inhibited in the Tg bone marrow-derived macrophages, as shown by the impairment in WASP tyrosine phosphorylation following lipopolysaccharide stimulation. These results strongly suggest that the association between the WASP N-terminal domain and Btk plays an important role in the TLR2-signaling pathway in macrophages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Amino-terminal domains of c-myc and N-myc proteins mediate binding to the retinoblastoma gene product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustgi, Anil K.; Dyson, Nicholas; Bernards, Rene

    1991-08-01

    THE proteins encoded by the myc gene family are involved in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation, and aberrant expression of myc proteins has been implicated in the genesis of a variety of neoplasms1. In the carboxyl terminus, myc proteins have two domains that encode a basic domain/helix-loop-helix and a leucine zipper motif, respectively. These motifs are involved both in DNA binding and in protein dimerization2-5. In addition, myc protein family members share several regions of highly conserved amino acids in their amino termini that are essential for transformation6,7. We report here that an N-terminal domain present in both the c-myc and N-myc proteins mediates binding to the retinoblastoma gene product, pRb. We show that the human papilloma virus E7 protein competes with c-myc for binding to pRb, indicating that these proteins share overlapping binding sites on pRb. Furthermore, a mutant Rb protein from a human tumour cell line that carried a 35-amino-acid deletion in its C terminus failed to bind to c-myc. Our results suggest that c-myc and pRb cooperate through direct binding to control cell proliferation.

  18. Molecular architecture of the Spire-actin nucleus and its implication for actin filament assembly.

    PubMed

    Sitar, Tomasz; Gallinger, Julia; Ducka, Anna M; Ikonen, Teemu P; Wohlhoefler, Michael; Schmoller, Kurt M; Bausch, Andreas R; Joel, Peteranne; Trybus, Kathleen M; Noegel, Angelika A; Schleicher, Michael; Huber, Robert; Holak, Tad A

    2011-12-06

    The Spire protein is a multifunctional regulator of actin assembly. We studied the structures and properties of Spire-actin complexes by X-ray scattering, X-ray crystallography, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, and actin polymerization assays. We show that Spire-actin complexes in solution assume a unique, longitudinal-like shape, in which Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein homology 2 domains (WH2), in an extended configuration, line up actins along the long axis of the core of the Spire-actin particle. In the complex, the kinase noncatalytic C-lobe domain is positioned at the side of the first N-terminal Spire-actin module. In addition, we find that preformed, isolated Spire-actin complexes are very efficient nucleators of polymerization and afterward dissociate from the growing filament. However, under certain conditions, all Spire constructs--even a single WH2 repeat--sequester actin and disrupt existing filaments. This molecular and structural mechanism of actin polymerization by Spire should apply to other actin-binding proteins that contain WH2 domains in tandem.

  19. Molecular architecture of the Spire–actin nucleus and its implication for actin filament assembly

    PubMed Central

    Sitar, Tomasz; Gallinger, Julia; Ducka, Anna M.; Ikonen, Teemu P.; Wohlhoefler, Michael; Schmoller, Kurt M.; Bausch, Andreas R.; Joel, Peteranne; Trybus, Kathleen M.; Noegel, Angelika A.; Schleicher, Michael; Huber, Robert; Holak, Tad A.

    2011-01-01

    The Spire protein is a multifunctional regulator of actin assembly. We studied the structures and properties of Spire–actin complexes by X-ray scattering, X-ray crystallography, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, and actin polymerization assays. We show that Spire–actin complexes in solution assume a unique, longitudinal-like shape, in which Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein homology 2 domains (WH2), in an extended configuration, line up actins along the long axis of the core of the Spire–actin particle. In the complex, the kinase noncatalytic C-lobe domain is positioned at the side of the first N-terminal Spire–actin module. In addition, we find that preformed, isolated Spire–actin complexes are very efficient nucleators of polymerization and afterward dissociate from the growing filament. However, under certain conditions, all Spire constructs—even a single WH2 repeat—sequester actin and disrupt existing filaments. This molecular and structural mechanism of actin polymerization by Spire should apply to other actin-binding proteins that contain WH2 domains in tandem. PMID:22106272

  20. Kinetics of Binding of Caldesmon to Actin*

    PubMed Central

    Chalovich, Joseph M.; Chen, Yi-der; Dudek, Ronald; Luo, Hai

    2005-01-01

    The time course of interaction of caldesmon with actin may be monitored by fluorescence changes that occur upon the binding of 12-(N-methyl-N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-l,3-diazol-4-yl))-labeled caldesmon to actin or to acrylodan actin. The concentration dependence of the observed rate of caldesmon-actin binding was analyzed to a first approximation as a single-step reaction using a Monte Carlo simulation. The derived association and dissociation rates were 107 m−1 s−1 and 18.2 s−1, respectively. Smooth muscle tropomyosin enhances the binding of caldesmon to actin, and this was found to be due to a reduction in the rate of dissociation to 6.3 s −1. There is no evidence from this study for a different mechanism of binding in the presence of tropomyosin. The fluorescence changes that occurred with the binding of 12-(N-methyl-N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-l,3-diazol-4-yl))-labeled caldesmon to actin or actin-tropomyosin were reversed by the addition of myosin subfragment 1 as predicted by a competitive binding mechanism. PMID:7730374

  1. Identification of the WW domain-interaction sites in the unstructured N-terminal domain of EBV LMP 2A.

    PubMed

    Seo, Min-Duk; Park, Sung Jean; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Bong Jin

    2007-01-09

    Epstein-Barr virus latency is maintained by the latent membrane protein (LMP) 2A, which mimics the B-cell receptor (BCR) and perturbs BCR signaling. The cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of LMP2A is composed of 119 amino acids. The N-terminal domain of LMP2A (LMP2A NTD) contains two PY motifs (PPPPY) that interact with the WW domains of Nedd4 family ubiquitin-protein ligases. Based on our analysis of NMR data, we found that the LMP2A NTD adopts an overall random-coil structure in its native state. However, the region between residues 60 and 90 was relatively ordered, and seemed to form the hydrophobic core of the LMP2A NTD. This region resides between two PY motifs and is important for WW domain binding. Mapping of the residues involved in the interaction between the LMP2A NTD and WW domains was achieved by chemical shift perturbation, by the addition of WW2 and WW3 peptides. Interestingly, the binding of the WW domains mainly occurred in the hydrophobic core of the LMP2A NTD. In addition, we detected a difference in the binding modes of the two PY motifs against the two WW peptides. The binding of the WW3 peptide caused the resonances of five residues (Tyr(60), Glu(61), Asp(62), Trp(65), and Gly(66)) just behind the N-terminal PY motif of the LMP2A NTD to disappear. A similar result was obtained with WW2 binding. However, near the C-terminal PY motif, the chemical shift perturbation caused by WW2 binding was different from that due to WW3 binding, indicating that the residues near the PY motifs are involved in selective binding of WW domains. The present work represents the first structural study of the LMP2A NTD and provides fundamental structural information about its interaction with ubiquitin-protein ligase.

  2. The formin DAD domain plays dual roles in autoinhibition and actin nucleation

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Christopher J.; Maiti, Sankar; Michelot, Alphée; Graziano, Brian R.; Blanchoin, Laurent; Goode, Bruce L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Formins are a large family of actin assembly-promoting proteins with many important biological roles [1-3]. However, it has remained unclear how formins nucleate actin polymerization. All other nucleators are known to recruit actin monomers as a central part of their mechanisms [3-5]. However, the actin-nucleating FH2 domain of formins lacks appreciable affinity for monomeric actin [6, 7]. Here, we found that yeast and mammalian formins bind actin monomers, but this activity requires their C-terminal DAD domains. Further, we observed that the DAD works in concert with the FH2 to enhance nucleation without affecting the rate of filament elongation. We dissected this mechanism in mDia1, mapped nucleation activity to conserved residues in the DAD, and demonstrated that DAD roles in nucleation and autoinhibition are separable. Further, DAD enhancement of nucleation was independent of contributions from the FH1 domain to nucleation [8]. Together, our data show that: (i) the DAD has dual functions in autoinhibition and nucleation, (ii) the FH1, FH2 and DAD form a tri-partite nucleation machine, and (iii) formins nucleate by recruiting actin monomers, and therefore are more similar to other nucleators than previously thought. PMID:21333540

  3. Conformational change of Sos-derived proline-rich peptide upon binding Grb2 N-terminal SH3 domain probed by NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogura, Kenji; Okamura, Hideyasu

    2013-10-01

    Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) is a small adapter protein composed of a single SH2 domain flanked by two SH3 domains. The N-terminal SH3 (nSH3) domain of Grb2 binds a proline-rich region present in the guanine nucleotide releasing factor, son of sevenless (Sos). Using NMR relaxation dispersion and chemical shift analysis methods, we investigated the conformational change of the Sos-derived proline-rich peptide during the transition between the free and Grb2 nSH3-bound states. The chemical shift analysis revealed that the peptide does not present a fully random conformation but has a relatively rigid structure. The relaxation dispersion analysis detected conformational exchange of several residues of the peptide upon binding to Grb2 nSH3.

  4. The heparin-binding site in tetranectin is located in the N-terminal region and binding does not involve the carbohydrate recognition domain.

    PubMed Central

    Lorentsen, R H; Graversen, J H; Caterer, N R; Thogersen, H C; Etzerodt, M

    2000-01-01

    Tetranectin is a homotrimeric plasma and extracellular-matrix protein that binds plasminogen and complex sulphated polysaccharides including heparin. In terms of primary and tertiary structure, tetranectin is related to the collectin family of Ca(2+)-binding C-type lectins. Tetranectin is encoded in three exons. Exon 3 encodes the carbohydrate recognition domain, which binds to kringle 4 in plasminogen at low levels of Ca(2+). Exon 2 encodes an alpha-helix, which is necessary and sufficient to govern the trimerization of tetranectin by assembling into a triple-helical coiled-coil structural element. Here we show that the heparin-binding site in tetranectin resides not in the carbohydrate recognition domain but within the N-terminal region, comprising the 16 amino acid residues encoded by exon 1. In particular, the lysine residues in the decapeptide segment KPKKIVNAKK (tetranectin residues 6-15) are shown to be of primary importance in heparin binding. PMID:10727405

  5. The heparin-binding site in tetranectin is located in the N-terminal region and binding does not involve the carbohydrate recognition domain.

    PubMed

    Lorentsen, R H; Graversen, J H; Caterer, N R; Thogersen, H C; Etzerodt, M

    2000-04-01

    Tetranectin is a homotrimeric plasma and extracellular-matrix protein that binds plasminogen and complex sulphated polysaccharides including heparin. In terms of primary and tertiary structure, tetranectin is related to the collectin family of Ca(2+)-binding C-type lectins. Tetranectin is encoded in three exons. Exon 3 encodes the carbohydrate recognition domain, which binds to kringle 4 in plasminogen at low levels of Ca(2+). Exon 2 encodes an alpha-helix, which is necessary and sufficient to govern the trimerization of tetranectin by assembling into a triple-helical coiled-coil structural element. Here we show that the heparin-binding site in tetranectin resides not in the carbohydrate recognition domain but within the N-terminal region, comprising the 16 amino acid residues encoded by exon 1. In particular, the lysine residues in the decapeptide segment KPKKIVNAKK (tetranectin residues 6-15) are shown to be of primary importance in heparin binding.

  6. Microtubule actin cross-linking factor (MACF): a hybrid of dystonin and dystrophin that can interact with the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons.

    PubMed

    Leung, C L; Sun, D; Zheng, M; Knowles, D R; Liem, R K

    1999-12-13

    We cloned and characterized a full-length cDNA of mouse actin cross-linking family 7 (mACF7) by sequential rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR. The completed mACF7 cDNA is 17 kb and codes for a 608-kD protein. The closest relative of mACF7 is the Drosophila protein Kakapo, which shares similar architecture with mACF7. mACF7 contains a putative actin-binding domain and a plakin-like domain that are highly homologous to dystonin (BPAG1-n) at its NH(2) terminus. However, unlike dystonin, mACF7 does not contain a coiled-coil rod domain; instead, the rod domain of mACF7 is made up of 23 dystrophin-like spectrin repeats. At its COOH terminus, mACF7 contains two putative EF-hand calcium-binding motifs and a segment homologous to the growth arrest-specific protein, Gas2. In this paper, we demonstrate that the NH(2)-terminal actin-binding domain of mACF7 is functional both in vivo and in vitro. More importantly, we found that the COOH-terminal domain of mACF7 interacts with and stabilizes microtubules. In transfected cells full-length mACF7 can associate not only with actin but also with microtubules. Hence, we suggest a modified name: MACF (microtubule actin cross-linking factor). The properties of MACF are consistent with the observation that mutations in kakapo cause disorganization of microtubules in epidermal muscle attachment cells and some sensory neurons.

  7. The Nonreceptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP1B Binds to the Cytoplasmic Domain of N-Cadherin and Regulates the Cadherin–Actin Linkage

    PubMed Central

    Balsamo, Janne; Arregui, Carlos; Leung, TinChung; Lilien, Jack

    1998-01-01

    Cadherin-mediated adhesion depends on the association of its cytoplasmic domain with the actin-containing cytoskeleton. This interaction is mediated by a group of cytoplasmic proteins: α-and β- or γ- catenin. Phosphorylation of β-catenin on tyrosine residues plays a role in controlling this association and, therefore, cadherin function. Previous work from our laboratory suggested that a nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase, bound to the cytoplasmic domain of N-cadherin, is responsible for removing tyrosine-bound phosphate residues from β-catenin, thus maintaining the cadherin–actin connection (Balsamo et al., 1996). Here we report the molecular cloning of the cadherin-associated tyrosine phosphatase and identify it as PTP1B. To definitively establish a causal relationship between the function of cadherin-bound PTP1B and cadherin-mediated adhesion, we tested the effect of expressing a catalytically inactive form of PTP1B in L cells constitutively expressing N-cadherin. We find that expression of the catalytically inactive PTP1B results in reduced cadherin-mediated adhesion. Furthermore, cadherin is uncoupled from its association with actin, and β-catenin shows increased phosphorylation on tyrosine residues when compared with parental cells or cells transfected with the wild-type PTP1B. Both the transfected wild-type and the mutant PTP1B are found associated with N-cadherin, and recombinant mutant PTP1B binds to N-cadherin in vitro, indicating that the catalytically inactive form acts as a dominant negative, displacing endogenous PTP1B, and rendering cadherin nonfunctional. Our results demonstrate a role for PTP1B in regulating cadherin-mediated cell adhesion. PMID:9786960

  8. Cdc13 N-Terminal Dimerization DNA Binding and Telomere Length Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    M Mitchell; J Smith; M Mason

    The essential yeast protein Cdc13 facilitates chromosome end replication by recruiting telomerase to telomeres, and together with its interacting partners Stn1 and Ten1, it protects chromosome ends from nucleolytic attack, thus contributing to genome integrity. Although Cdc13 has been studied extensively, the precise role of its N-terminal domain (Cdc13N) in telomere length regulation remains unclear. Here we present a structural, biochemical, and functional characterization of Cdc13N. The structure reveals that this domain comprises an oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding (OB) fold and is involved in Cdc13 dimerization. Biochemical data show that Cdc13N weakly binds long, single-stranded, telomeric DNA in a fashion that ismore » directly dependent on domain oligomerization. When introduced into full-length Cdc13 in vivo, point mutations that prevented Cdc13N dimerization or DNA binding caused telomere shortening or lengthening, respectively. The multiple DNA binding domains and dimeric nature of Cdc13 offer unique insights into how it coordinates the recruitment and regulation of telomerase access to the telomeres.« less

  9. Structural determinants and cellular environment define processed actin as the sole substrate of the N-terminal acetyltransferase NAA80.

    PubMed

    Goris, Marianne; Magin, Robert S; Foyn, Håvard; Myklebust, Line M; Varland, Sylvia; Ree, Rasmus; Drazic, Adrian; Bhambra, Parminder; Støve, Svein I; Baumann, Markus; Haug, Bengt Erik; Marmorstein, Ronen; Arnesen, Thomas

    2018-04-24

    N-terminal (Nt) acetylation is a major protein modification catalyzed by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). Methionine acidic N termini, including actin, are cotranslationally Nt acetylated by NatB in all eukaryotes, but animal actins containing acidic N termini, are additionally posttranslationally Nt acetylated by NAA80. Actin Nt acetylation was found to regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and motility, thus making NAA80 a potential target for cell migration regulation. In this work, we developed potent and selective bisubstrate inhibitors for NAA80 and determined the crystal structure of NAA80 in complex with such an inhibitor, revealing that NAA80 adopts a fold similar to other NAT enzymes but with a more open substrate binding region. Furthermore, in contrast to most other NATs, the substrate specificity of NAA80 is mainly derived through interactions between the enzyme and the acidic amino acids at positions 2 and 3 of the actin substrate and not residues 1 and 2. A yeast model revealed that ectopic expression of NAA80 in a strain lacking NatB activity partially restored Nt acetylation of NatB substrates, including yeast actin. Thus, NAA80 holds intrinsic capacity to posttranslationally Nt acetylate NatB-type substrates in vivo. In sum, the presence of a dominant cotranslational NatB in all eukaryotes, the specific posttranslational actin methionine removal in animals, and finally, the unique structural features of NAA80 leave only the processed actins as in vivo substrates of NAA80. Together, this study reveals the molecular and cellular basis of NAA80 Nt acetylation and provides a scaffold for development of inhibitors for the regulation of cytoskeletal properties. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  10. Human sperm bind to the N-terminal domain of ZP2 in humanized zonae pellucidae in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Baibakov, Boris; Boggs, Nathan A.; Yauger, Belinda; Baibakov, Galina

    2012-01-01

    Fertilization requires taxon-specific gamete recognition, and human sperm do not bind to zonae pellucidae (ZP1–3) surrounding mouse eggs. Using transgenesis to replace endogenous mouse proteins with human homologues, gain-of-function sperm-binding assays were established to evaluate human gamete recognition. Human sperm bound only to zonae pellucidae containing human ZP2, either alone or coexpressed with other human zona proteins. Binding to the humanized matrix was a dominant effect that resulted in human sperm penetration of the zona pellucida and accumulation in the perivitelline space, where they were unable to fuse with mouse eggs. Using recombinant peptides, the site of gamete recognition was located to a defined domain in the N terminus of ZP2. These results provide experimental evidence for the role of ZP2 in mediating sperm binding to the zona pellucida and support a model in which human sperm–egg recognition is dependent on an N-terminal domain of ZP2, which is degraded after fertilization to provide a definitive block to polyspermy. PMID:22734000

  11. The extracellular protein factor Epf from Streptococcus pyogenes is a cell surface adhesin that binds to cells through an N-terminal domain containing a carbohydrate-binding module.

    PubMed

    Linke, Christian; Siemens, Nikolai; Oehmcke, Sonja; Radjainia, Mazdak; Law, Ruby H P; Whisstock, James C; Baker, Edward N; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2012-11-02

    Streptococcus pyogenes is an exclusively human pathogen. Streptococcal attachment to and entry into epithelial cells is a prerequisite for a successful infection of the human host and requires adhesins. Here, we demonstrate that the multidomain protein Epf from S. pyogenes serotype M49 is a streptococcal adhesin. An epf-deficient mutant showed significantly decreased adhesion to and internalization into human keratinocytes. Cell adhesion is mediated by the N-terminal domain of Epf (EpfN) and increased by the human plasma protein plasminogen. The crystal structure of EpfN, solved at 1.6 Å resolution, shows that it consists of two subdomains: a carbohydrate-binding module and a fibronectin type III domain. Both fold types commonly participate in ligand receptor and protein-protein interactions. EpfN is followed by 18 repeats of a domain classified as DUF1542 (domain of unknown function 1542) and a C-terminal cell wall sorting signal. The DUF1542 repeats are not involved in adhesion, but biophysical studies show they are predominantly α-helical and form a fiber-like stalk of tandem DUF1542 domains. Epf thus conforms with the widespread family of adhesins known as MSCRAMMs (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules), in which a cell wall-attached stalk enables long range interactions via its adhesive N-terminal domain.

  12. Characterization, cell-surface expression and ligand-binding properties of different truncated N-terminal extracellular domains of the ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit GluR1.

    PubMed

    McIlhinney, R A; Molnár, E

    1996-04-01

    To identify the location of the first transmembrane segment of the GluR1 glutamate receptor subunit artificial stop codons have been introduced into the N-terminal domain at amino acid positions 442, 510, and 563, namely just before and spanning the proposed first two transmembrane regions. The resultant truncated N-terminal fragments of GluR1, termed NT1, NT2, and NT3 respectively were expressed in Cos-7 cells and their cellular distribution and cell-surface expression analysed using an N-terminal antibody to GluR1. All of the fragments were fully glycosylated and were found to be associated with cell membranes but none was secreted. Differential extraction of the cell membranes indicated that both NT1 and NT2 behave as peripheral membrane proteins. In contrast NT3, like the full subunit, has integral membrane protein properties. Furthermore only NT3 is expressed at the cell surface as determined by immunofluorescence and cell-surface biotinylation. Protease protection assays indicated that only NT3 had a cytoplasmic tail. Binding studies using the selective ligand [(3)H]alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate ([(3)H]AMPA) demonstrated that NT3 does not bind ligand. Together these results indicate that the first transmembrane domain of the GluR1 subunit lies between residues 509 and 562, that the N-terminal domain alone cannot form a functional ligand-binding site and that this domain can be targeted to the cell surface provided that it has a transmembrane-spanning region.

  13. The structure of the nucleoprotein binding domain of lyssavirus phosphoprotein reveals a structural relationship between the N-RNA binding domains of Rhabdoviridae and Paramyxoviridae.

    PubMed

    Delmas, Olivier; Assenberg, Rene; Grimes, Jonathan M; Bourhy, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    The phosphoprotein P of non-segmented negative-sense RNA viruses is an essential component of the replication and transcription complex and acts as a co-factor for the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. P recruits the viral polymerase to the nucleoprotein-bound viral RNA (N-RNA) via an interaction between its C-terminal domain and the N-RNA complex. We have obtained the structure of the C-terminal domain of P of Mokola virus (MOKV), a lyssavirus that belongs to the Rhabdoviridae family and mapped at the amino acid level the crucial positions involved in interaction with N and in the formation of the viral replication complex. Comparison of the N-RNA binding domains of P solved to date suggests that the N-RNA binding domains are structurally conserved among paramyxoviruses and rhabdoviruses in spite of low sequence conservation. We also review the numerous other functions of this domain and more generally of the phosphoprotein.

  14. A novel actin binding site of myosin required for effective muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Várkuti, Boglárka H; Yang, Zhenhui; Kintses, Bálint; Erdélyi, Péter; Bárdos-Nagy, Irén; Kovács, Attila L; Hári, Péter; Kellermayer, Miklós; Vellai, Tibor; Málnási-Csizmadia, András

    2012-02-12

    F-actin serves as a track for myosin's motor functions and activates its ATPase activity by several orders of magnitude, enabling actomyosin to produce effective force against load. Although actin activation is a ubiquitous property of all myosin isoforms, the molecular mechanism and physiological role of this activation are unclear. Here we describe a conserved actin-binding region of myosin named the 'activation loop', which interacts with the N-terminal segment of actin. We demonstrate by biochemical, biophysical and in vivo approaches using transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strains that the interaction between the activation loop and actin accelerates the movement of the relay, stimulating myosin's ATPase activity. This interaction results in efficient force generation, but it is not essential for the unloaded motility. We conclude that the binding of actin to myosin's activation loop specifically increases the ratio of mechanically productive to futile myosin heads, leading to efficient muscle contraction.

  15. The actin-microtubule cross-linking activity of Drosophila Short stop is regulated by intramolecular inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Applewhite, Derek A.; Grode, Kyle D.; Duncan, Mara C.; Rogers, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    Actin and microtubule dynamics must be precisely coordinated during cell migration, mitosis, and morphogenesis—much of this coordination is mediated by proteins that physically bridge the two cytoskeletal networks. We have investigated the regulation of the Drosophila actin-microtubule cross-linker Short stop (Shot), a member of the spectraplakin family. Our data suggest that Shot's cytoskeletal cross-linking activity is regulated by an intramolecular inhibitory mechanism. In its inactive conformation, Shot adopts a “closed” conformation through interactions between its NH2-terminal actin-binding domain and COOH-terminal EF-hand-GAS2 domain. This inactive conformation is targeted to the growing microtubule plus end by EB1. On activation, Shot binds along the microtubule through its COOH-terminal GAS2 domain and binds to actin with its NH2-terminal tandem CH domains. We propose that this mechanism allows Shot to rapidly cross-link dynamic microtubules in response to localized activating signals at the cell cortex. PMID:23885120

  16. Interaction between two adapter proteins, PAG and EBP50: a possible link between membrane rafts and actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Brdicková, N; Brdicka, T; Andera, L; Spicka, J; Angelisová, P; Milgram, S L; Horejsí, V

    2001-10-26

    Phosphoprotein associated with GEMs (PAG), also known as Csk-binding protein (Cbp), is a broadly expressed palmitoylated transmembrane adapter protein found in membrane rafts, also called GEMs (glycosphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains). PAG is known to bind and activate the essential regulator of Src-family kinases, cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase Csk. In the present study we used the yeast 2-hybrid system to search for additional proteins which might bind to PAG. We have identified the abundant cytoplasmic adapter protein EBP50 (ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM)-binding phosphoprotein of 50 kDa), also known as NHERF (Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor), as a specific PAG-binding partner. The interaction involves the C-terminal sequence (TRL) of PAG and N-terminal PDZ domain(s) of EBP50. As EBP50 is known to interact via its C-terminal domain with the ERM-family proteins, which in turn bind to actin cytoskeleton, the PAG-EBP50 interaction may be important for connecting membrane rafts to the actin cytoskeleton.

  17. Mutagenesis of the Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate (Pip2) Binding Site in the Nh2-Terminal Domain of Ezrin Correlates with Its Altered Cellular Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Barret, Cécile; Roy, Christian; Montcourrier, Philippe; Mangeat, Paul; Niggli, Verena

    2000-01-01

    The cytoskeleton-membrane linker protein ezrin has been shown to associate with phosphatidyl-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2)-containing liposomes via its NH2-terminal domain. Using internal deletions and COOH-terminal truncations, determinants of PIP2 binding were located to amino acids 12–115 and 233–310. Both regions contain a KK(X)nK/RK motif conserved in the ezrin/radixin/moesin family. K/N mutations of residues 253 and 254 or 262 and 263 did not affect cosedimentation of ezrin 1-333 with PIP2-containing liposomes, but their combination almost completely abolished the capacity for interaction. Similarly, double mutation of Lys 63, 64 to Asn only partially reduced lipid interaction, but combined with the double mutation K253N, K254N, the interaction of PIP2 with ezrin 1-333 was strongly inhibited. Similar data were obtained with full-length ezrin. When residues 253, 254, 262, and 263 were mutated in full-length ezrin, the in vitro interaction with the cytoplasmic tail of CD44 was not impaired but was no longer PIP2 dependent. This construct was also expressed in COS1 and A431 cells. Unlike wild-type ezrin, it was not any more localized to dorsal actin-rich structures, but redistributed to the cytoplasm without strongly affecting the actin-rich structures. We have thus identified determinants of the PIP2 binding site in ezrin whose mutagenesis correlates with an altered cellular localization. PMID:11086008

  18. Characterization of the ligand-binding site of the transferrin receptor in Trypanosoma brucei demonstrates a structural relationship with the N-terminal domain of the variant surface glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Salmon, D; Hanocq-Quertier, J; Paturiaux-Hanocq, F; Pays, A; Tebabi, P; Nolan, D P; Michel, A; Pays, E

    1997-12-15

    The Trypanosoma brucei transferrin (Tf) receptor is a heterodimer encoded by ESAG7 and ESAG6, two genes contained in the different polycistronic transcription units of the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) gene. The sequence of ESAG7/6 differs slightly between different units, so that receptors with different affinities for Tf are expressed alternatively following transcriptional switching of VSG expression sites during antigenic variation of the parasite. Based on the sequence homology between pESAG7/6 and the N-terminal domain of VSGs, it can be predicted that the four blocks containing the major sequence differences between pESAG7 and pESAG6 form surface-exposed loops and generate the ligand-binding site. The exchange of a few amino acids in this region between pESAG6s encoded by different VSG units greatly increased the affinity for bovine Tf. Similar changes in other regions were ineffective, while mutations predicted to alter the VSG-like structure abolished the binding. Chimeric proteins containing the N-terminal dimerization domain of VSG and the C-terminal half of either pESAG7 or pESAG6, which contains the ligand-binding domain, can form heterodimers that bind Tf. Taken together, these data provided evidence that the T.brucei Tf receptor is structurally related to the N-terminal domain of the VSG and that the ligand-binding site corresponds to the exposed surface loops of the protein.

  19. UNC-45/CRO1/She4p (UCS) Protein Forms Elongated Dimer and Joins Two Myosin Heads Near Their Actin Binding Region

    SciTech Connect

    H Shi; G Blobel

    2011-12-31

    UNC-45/CRO1/She4p (UCS) proteins have variously been proposed to affect the folding, stability, and ATPase activity of myosins. They are the only proteins known to interact directly with the motor domain. To gain more insight into UCS function, we determined the atomic structure of the yeast UCS protein, She4p, at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution. We found that 16 helical repeats are organized into an L-shaped superhelix with an amphipathic N-terminal helix dangling off the short arm of the L-shaped molecule. In the crystal, She4p forms a 193-{angstrom}-long, zigzag-shaped dimer through three distinct and evolutionary conserved interfaces. We have identified She4p's C-terminal regionmore » as a ligand for a 27-residue-long epitope on the myosin motor domain. Remarkably, this region consists of two adjacent, but distinct, binding epitopes localized at the nucleotide-responsive cleft between the nucleotide- and actin-filament-binding sites. One epitope is situated inside the cleft, the other outside the cleft. After ATP hydrolysis and Pi ejection, the cleft narrows at its base from 20 to 12 {angstrom} thereby occluding the inside the cleft epitope, while leaving the adjacent, outside the cleft binding epitope accessible to UCS binding. Hence, one cycle of higher and lower binding affinity would accompany one ATP hydrolysis cycle and a single step in the walk on an actin filament rope. We propose that a UCS dimer links two myosins at their motor domains and thereby functions as one of the determinants for step size of myosin on actin filaments.« less

  20. Structure of the C-terminal effector-binding domain of AhrC bound to its corepressor l-arginine

    SciTech Connect

    Garnett, James A.; Baumberg, Simon; Stockley, Peter G.

    2007-11-01

    The crystal structure of the C-terminal domain hexameric core of AhrC, with bound corepressor (l-arginine), has been solved at 1.95 Å resolution. Binding of l-arginine results in a rotation between the two trimers of the hexamer, leading to the activation of the DNA-binding state. The arginine repressor/activator protein (AhrC) from Bacillus subtilis belongs to a large family of multifunctional transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of bacterial arginine metabolism. AhrC interacts with operator sites in the promoters of arginine biosynthetic and catabolic operons, acting as a transcriptional repressor at biosynthetic sites and an activator of transcription at catabolicmore » sites. AhrC is a hexamer of identical subunits, each having two domains. The C-terminal domains form the core of the protein and are involved in oligomerization and l-arginine binding. The N-terminal domains lie on the outside of the compact core and play a role in binding to 18 bp DNA operators called ARG boxes. The C-terminal domain of AhrC has been expressed, purified and characterized, and also crystallized as a hexamer with the bound corepressor l-arginine. Here, the crystal structure refined to 1.95 Å is presented.« less

  1. The Association of Myosin IB with Actin Waves in Dictyostelium Requires Both the Plasma Membrane-Binding Site and Actin-Binding Region in the Myosin Tail

    PubMed Central

    Brzeska, Hanna; Pridham, Kevin; Chery, Godefroy; Titus, Margaret A.; Korn, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    F-actin structures and their distribution are important determinants of the dynamic shapes and functions of eukaryotic cells. Actin waves are F-actin formations that move along the ventral cell membrane driven by actin polymerization. Dictyostelium myosin IB is associated with actin waves but its role in the wave is unknown. Myosin IB is a monomeric, non-filamentous myosin with a globular head that binds to F-actin and has motor activity, and a non-helical tail comprising a basic region, a glycine-proline-glutamine-rich region and an SH3-domain. The basic region binds to acidic phospholipids in the plasma membrane through a short basic-hydrophobic site and the Gly-Pro-Gln region binds F-actin. In the current work we found that both the basic-hydrophobic site in the basic region and the Gly-Pro-Gln region of the tail are required for the association of myosin IB with actin waves. This is the first evidence that the Gly-Pro-Gln region is required for localization of myosin IB to a specific actin structure in situ. The head is not required for myosin IB association with actin waves but binding of the head to F-actin strengthens the association of myosin IB with waves and stabilizes waves. Neither the SH3-domain nor motor activity is required for association of myosin IB with actin waves. We conclude that myosin IB contributes to anchoring actin waves to the plasma membranes by binding of the basic-hydrophobic site to acidic phospholipids in the plasma membrane and binding of the Gly-Pro-Gln region to F-actin in the wave. PMID:24747353

  2. Directed evolution of the TALE N-terminal domain for recognition of all 5' bases.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Brian M; Mercer, Andrew C; Barbas, Carlos F

    2013-11-01

    Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins can be designed to bind virtually any DNA sequence. General guidelines for design of TALE DNA-binding domains suggest that the 5'-most base of the DNA sequence bound by the TALE (the N0 base) should be a thymine. We quantified the N0 requirement by analysis of the activities of TALE transcription factors (TALE-TF), TALE recombinases (TALE-R) and TALE nucleases (TALENs) with each DNA base at this position. In the absence of a 5' T, we observed decreases in TALE activity up to >1000-fold in TALE-TF activity, up to 100-fold in TALE-R activity and up to 10-fold reduction in TALEN activity compared with target sequences containing a 5' T. To develop TALE architectures that recognize all possible N0 bases, we used structure-guided library design coupled with TALE-R activity selections to evolve novel TALE N-terminal domains to accommodate any N0 base. A G-selective domain and broadly reactive domains were isolated and characterized. The engineered TALE domains selected in the TALE-R format demonstrated modularity and were active in TALE-TF and TALEN architectures. Evolved N-terminal domains provide effective and unconstrained TALE-based targeting of any DNA sequence as TALE binding proteins and designer enzymes.

  3. Direct membrane binding by bacterial actin MreB.

    PubMed

    Salje, Jeanne; van den Ent, Fusinita; de Boer, Piet; Löwe, Jan

    2011-08-05

    Bacterial actin MreB is one of the key components of the bacterial cytoskeleton. It assembles into short filaments that lie just underneath the membrane and organize the cell wall synthesis machinery. Here we show that MreB from both T. maritima and E. coli binds directly to cell membranes. This function is essential for cell shape determination in E. coli and is proposed to be a general property of many, if not all, MreBs. We demonstrate that membrane binding is mediated by a membrane insertion loop in TmMreB and by an N-terminal amphipathic helix in EcMreB and show that purified TmMreB assembles into double filaments on a membrane surface that can induce curvature. This, the first example of a membrane-binding actin filament, prompts a fundamental rethink of the structure and dynamics of MreB filaments within cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Extracellular Protein Factor Epf from Streptococcus pyogenes Is a Cell Surface Adhesin That Binds to Cells through an N-terminal Domain Containing a Carbohydrate-binding Module*

    PubMed Central

    Linke, Christian; Siemens, Nikolai; Oehmcke, Sonja; Radjainia, Mazdak; Law, Ruby H. P.; Whisstock, James C.; Baker, Edward N.; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is an exclusively human pathogen. Streptococcal attachment to and entry into epithelial cells is a prerequisite for a successful infection of the human host and requires adhesins. Here, we demonstrate that the multidomain protein Epf from S. pyogenes serotype M49 is a streptococcal adhesin. An epf-deficient mutant showed significantly decreased adhesion to and internalization into human keratinocytes. Cell adhesion is mediated by the N-terminal domain of Epf (EpfN) and increased by the human plasma protein plasminogen. The crystal structure of EpfN, solved at 1.6 Å resolution, shows that it consists of two subdomains: a carbohydrate-binding module and a fibronectin type III domain. Both fold types commonly participate in ligand receptor and protein-protein interactions. EpfN is followed by 18 repeats of a domain classified as DUF1542 (domain of unknown function 1542) and a C-terminal cell wall sorting signal. The DUF1542 repeats are not involved in adhesion, but biophysical studies show they are predominantly α-helical and form a fiber-like stalk of tandem DUF1542 domains. Epf thus conforms with the widespread family of adhesins known as MSCRAMMs (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules), in which a cell wall-attached stalk enables long range interactions via its adhesive N-terminal domain. PMID:22977243

  5. Mutational analysis reveals a noncontractile but interactive role of actin and profilin in viral RNA-dependent RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Harpen, Mary; Barik, Tiasha; Musiyenko, Alla; Barik, Sailen

    2009-11-01

    As obligatory parasites, viruses co-opt a variety of cellular functions for robust replication. The expression of the nonsegmented negative-strand RNA genome of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a significant pediatric pathogen, absolutely requires actin and is stimulated by the actin-regulatory protein profilin. As actin is a major contractile protein, it was important to determine whether the known functional domains of actin and profilin were important for their ability to activate RSV transcription. Analyses of recombinant mutants in a reconstituted RSV transcription system suggested that the divalent-cation-binding domain of actin is critically needed for binding to the RSV genome template and for the activation of viral RNA synthesis. In contrast, the nucleotide-binding domain and the N-terminal acidic domain were needed neither for template binding nor for transcription. Specific surface residues of actin, required for actin-actin contact during filamentation, were also nonessential for viral transcription. Unlike actin, profilin did not directly bind to the viral template but was recruited by actin. Mutation of the interactive residues of actin or profilin, resulting in the loss of actin-profilin binding, also abolished profilin's ability to stimulate viral transcription. Together, these results suggest that actin acts as a classical transcription factor for the virus by divalent-cation-dependent binding to the viral template and that profilin acts as a transcriptional cofactor, in part by associating with actin. This essential viral role of actin is independent of its contractile cellular role.

  6. Solution structure of the His12 --> Cys mutant of the N-terminal zinc binding domain of HIV-1 integrase complexed to cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Cai, M.; Huang, Y.; Caffrey, M.; Zheng, R.; Craigie, R.; Clore, G. M.; Gronenborn, A. M.

    1998-01-01

    The solution structure of His12 --> Cys mutant of the N-terminal zinc binding domain (residues 1-55; IN(1-55)) of HIV-1 integrase complexed to cadmium has been solved by multidimensional heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. The overall structure is very similar to that of the wild-type N-terminal domain complexed to zinc. In contrast to the wild-type domain, however, which exists in two interconverting conformational states arising from different modes of coordination of the two histidine side chains to the metal, the cadmium complex of the His12 --> Cys mutant exists in only a single form at low pH. The conformation of the polypeptide chain encompassing residues 10-18 is intermediate between the two forms of the wild-type complex. PMID:9865962

  7. Molecular recognition of the Tes LIM2-3 domains by the actin-related protein Arp7A.

    PubMed

    Boëda, Batiste; Knowles, Phillip P; Briggs, David C; Murray-Rust, Judith; Soriano, Erika; Garvalov, Boyan K; McDonald, Neil Q; Way, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Actin-related proteins (Arps) are a highly conserved family of proteins that have extensive sequence and structural similarity to actin. All characterized Arps are components of large multimeric complexes associated with chromatin or the cytoskeleton. In addition, the human genome encodes five conserved but largely uncharacterized "orphan" Arps, which appear to be mostly testis-specific. Here we show that Arp7A, which has 43% sequence identity with β-actin, forms a complex with the cytoskeletal proteins Tes and Mena in the subacrosomal layer of round spermatids. The N-terminal 65-residue extension to the actin-like fold of Arp7A interacts directly with Tes. The crystal structure of the 1-65(Arp7A)·LIM2-3(Tes)·EVH1(Mena) complex reveals that residues 28-49 of Arp7A contact the LIM2-3 domains of Tes. Two alanine residues from Arp7A that occupy equivalent apolar pockets in both LIM domains as well as an intervening GPAK linker that binds the LIM2-3 junction are critical for the Arp7A-Tes interaction. Equivalent occupied apolar pockets are also seen in the tandem LIM domain structures of LMO4 and Lhx3 bound to unrelated ligands. Our results indicate that apolar pocket interactions are a common feature of tandem LIM domain interactions, but ligand specificity is principally determined by the linker sequence.

  8. Thermodynamic Characterization of Binding Oxytricha nova Single Strand Telomere DNA with the Alpha Protein N-terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Buczek, Pawel; Horvath, Martin P.

    2010-01-01

    The Oxytricha nova telomere binding protein alpha subunit binds single strand DNA and participates in a nucleoprotein complex that protects the very ends of chromosomes. To understand how the N-terminal, DNA binding domain of alpha interacts with DNA we measured the stoichiometry, enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS), and dissociation constant (KD-DNA) for binding telomere DNA fragments at different temperatures and salt concentrations using native gel electrophoresis and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). About 85% of the total free energy of binding corresponded with non-electrostatic interactions for all DNAs. Telomere DNA fragments d(T2G4), d(T4G4), d(G3T4G4), and d(G4T4G4) each formed monovalent protein complexes. In the case of d(T4G4T4G4), which has two tandemly repeated d(TTTTTGGGG) telomere motifs, two binding sites were observed. The high-affinity “A site” has a dissociation constant, KD-DNA(A)=13(±4) nM, while the low-affinity “B site” is characterized by KD-DNA(B)=5600(±600) nM at 25 °C. Nucleotide substitution variants verified that the A site corresponds principally with the 3′-terminal portion of d(T4G4T4G4). The relative contributions of entropy (ΔS) and enthalpy (ΔH) for binding reactions were DNA length-dependent as was heat capacity (ΔCp). These trends with respect to DNA length likely reflect structural transitions in the DNA molecule that are coupled with DNA–protein association. Results presented here are important for understanding early intermediates and subsequent stages in the assembly of the full telomere nucleoprotein complex and how binding events can prepare the telomere DNA for extension by telomerase, a critical event in telomere biology. PMID:16678852

  9. Thermodynamic characterization of binding Oxytricha nova single strand telomere DNA with the alpha protein N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Buczek, Pawel; Horvath, Martin P

    2006-06-23

    The Oxytricha nova telemere binding protein alpha subunit binds single strand DNA and participates in a nucleoprotein complex that protects the very ends of chromosomes. To understand how the N-terminal, DNA binding domain of alpha interacts with DNA we measured the stoichiometry, enthalpy (DeltaH), entropy (DeltaS), and dissociation constant (K(D-DNA)) for binding telomere DNA fragments at different temperatures and salt concentrations using native gel electrophoresis and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). About 85% of the total free energy of binding corresponded with non-electrostatic interactions for all DNAs. Telomere DNA fragments d(T(2)G(4)), d(T(4)G(4)), d(G(3)T(4)G(4)), and d(G(4)T(4)G(4)) each formed monovalent protein complexes. In the case of d(T(4)G(4)T(4)G(4)), which has two tandemly repeated d(TTTTTGGGG) telomere motifs, two binding sites were observed. The high-affinity "A site" has a dissociation constant, K(D-DNA(A)) = 13(+/-4) nM, while the low-affinity "B site" is characterized by K(D-DNA(B)) = 5600(+/-600) nM at 25 degrees C. Nucleotide substitution variants verified that the A site corresponds principally with the 3'-terminal portion of d(T(4)G(4)T(4)G(4)). The relative contributions of entropy (DeltaS) and enthalpy (DeltaH) for binding reactions were DNA length-dependent as was heat capacity (DeltaCp). These trends with respect to DNA length likely reflect structural transitions in the DNA molecule that are coupled with DNA-protein association. Results presented here are important for understanding early intermediates and subsequent stages in the assembly of the full telomere nucleoprotein complex and how binding events can prepare the telomere DNA for extension by telomerase, a critical event in telomere biology.

  10. Role of the C-terminal Extension of Formin 2 in Its Activation by Spire Protein and Processive Assembly of Actin Filaments.

    PubMed

    Montaville, Pierre; Kühn, Sonja; Compper, Christel; Carlier, Marie-France

    2016-02-12

    Formin 2 (Fmn2), a member of the FMN family of formins, plays an important role in early development. This formin cooperates with profilin and Spire, a WASP homology domain 2 (WH2) repeat protein, to stimulate assembly of a dynamic cytoplasmic actin meshwork that facilitates translocation of the meiotic spindle in asymmetric division of mouse oocytes. The kinase-like non-catalytic domain (KIND) of Spire directly interacts with the C-terminal extension of the formin homology domain 2 (FH2) domain of Fmn2, called FSI. This direct interaction is required for the synergy between the two proteins in actin assembly. We have recently demonstrated how Spire, which caps barbed ends via its WH2 domains, activates Fmn2. Fmn2 by itself associates very poorly to filament barbed ends but is rapidly recruited to Spire-capped barbed ends via the KIND domain, and it subsequently displaces Spire from the barbed end to elicit rapid processive assembly from profilin·actin. Here, we address the mechanism by which Spire and Fmn2 compete at barbed ends and the role of FSI in orchestrating this competition as well as in the processivity of Fmn2. We have combined microcalorimetric, fluorescence, and hydrodynamic binding assays, as well as bulk solution and single filament measurements of actin assembly, to show that removal of FSI converts Fmn2 into a Capping Protein. This activity is mimicked by association of KIND to Fmn2. In addition, FSI binds actin at filament barbed ends as a weak capper and plays a role in displacing the WH2 domains of Spire from actin, thus allowing the association of actin-binding regions of FH2 to the barbed end. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Role of the C-terminal Extension of Formin 2 in Its Activation by Spire Protein and Processive Assembly of Actin Filaments*

    PubMed Central

    Montaville, Pierre; Kühn, Sonja; Compper, Christel; Carlier, Marie-France

    2016-01-01

    Formin 2 (Fmn2), a member of the FMN family of formins, plays an important role in early development. This formin cooperates with profilin and Spire, a WASP homology domain 2 (WH2) repeat protein, to stimulate assembly of a dynamic cytoplasmic actin meshwork that facilitates translocation of the meiotic spindle in asymmetric division of mouse oocytes. The kinase-like non-catalytic domain (KIND) of Spire directly interacts with the C-terminal extension of the formin homology domain 2 (FH2) domain of Fmn2, called FSI. This direct interaction is required for the synergy between the two proteins in actin assembly. We have recently demonstrated how Spire, which caps barbed ends via its WH2 domains, activates Fmn2. Fmn2 by itself associates very poorly to filament barbed ends but is rapidly recruited to Spire-capped barbed ends via the KIND domain, and it subsequently displaces Spire from the barbed end to elicit rapid processive assembly from profilin·actin. Here, we address the mechanism by which Spire and Fmn2 compete at barbed ends and the role of FSI in orchestrating this competition as well as in the processivity of Fmn2. We have combined microcalorimetric, fluorescence, and hydrodynamic binding assays, as well as bulk solution and single filament measurements of actin assembly, to show that removal of FSI converts Fmn2 into a Capping Protein. This activity is mimicked by association of KIND to Fmn2. In addition, FSI binds actin at filament barbed ends as a weak capper and plays a role in displacing the WH2 domains of Spire from actin, thus allowing the association of actin-binding regions of FH2 to the barbed end. PMID:26668326

  12. Identification of actin binding protein, ABP-280, as a binding partner of human Lnk adaptor protein.

    PubMed

    He, X; Li, Y; Schembri-King, J; Jakes, S; Hayashi, J

    2000-08-01

    Human Lnk (hLnk) is an adaptor protein with multiple functional domains that regulates T cell activation signaling. In order to identify cellular Lnk binding partners, a yeast two-hybrid screening of human spleen cDNA library was carried out using human hLnk as bait. A polypeptide sequence identical to the C-terminal segment of the actin binding protein (ABP-280) was identified as a hLnk binding protein. The expressed hLnk and the FLAG tagged C-terminal 673 amino acid residues of ABP-280 or the endogenous ABP-280 in COS-7 cells could be co-immunoprecipitated using antibodies either to hLnk, FLAG or ABP-280, respectively. Furthermore, immunofluorescence confocal microscope showed that hLnk and ABP-280 co-localized at the plasma membrane and at juxtanuclear region of COS-7 cells. In Jurkat cells, the endogenous hLnk also associates with the endogenous ABP-280 indicating that the association of these two proteins is physiological. The interacting domains of both proteins were mapped using yeast two-hybrid assays. Our results indicate that hLnk binds to the residues 2006-2454 (repeats 19-23C) of ABP-280. The domain in hLnk that associates with ABP-280 was mapped to an interdomain region of 56 amino acids between pleckstrin homology and Src homology 2 domains. These results suggest that hLnk may exert its regulatory role through its association with ABP-280.

  13. The amino acid motif L/IIxxFE defines a novel actin-binding sequence in PDZ-RhoGEF

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Jayashree; Fischer, Christopher C.; Wedegaertner, Philip B.

    2009-01-01

    PDZ-RhoGEF is a member of the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) domain-containing RhoGEFs (RGS-RhoGEFs) that link activated heterotrimeric G protein α subunits of the G12 family to activation of the small GTPase RhoA. Unique among the RGS-RhoGEFs, PDZ-RhoGEF contains a short sequence that localizes the protein to the actin cytoskeleton. In this report, we demonstrate that the actin-binding domain, located between amino acids 561–585, directly binds to F-actin in vitro. Extensive mutagenesis identifies isoleucine 568, isoleucine 569, phenylalanine 572, and glutamic acid 573 as necessary for binding to actin and for co-localization with the actin cytoskeleton in cells. These results define a novel actin-binding sequence in PDZ-RhoGEF with a critical amino acid motif of IIxxFE. Moreover, sequence analysis identifies a similar actin-binding motif in the N-terminus of the RhoGEF frabin, and, as with PDZ-RhoGEF, mutagenesis and actin interaction experiments demonstrate a motif of LIxxFE, consisting of the key amino acids leucine 23, isoleucine 24, phenylalanine 27, and glutamic acid 28. Taken together, results with PDZ-RhoGEF and frabin identify a novel actin binding sequence. Lastly, inducible dimerization of the actin-binding region of PDZ-RhoGEF revealed a dimerization-dependent actin bundling activity in vitro. PDZ-RhoGEF exists in cells as a dimer, raising the possibility that PDZ-RhoGEF could influence actin structure independent of its ability to activate RhoA. PMID:19618964

  14. Binding mode of cytochalasin B to F-actin is altered by lateral binding of regulatory proteins.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, N; Mihashi, K

    1991-01-01

    The binding of cytochalasin B (CB) to F-actin was studied using a trace amount of [3H]-cytochalasin B. F-Actin-bound CB was separated from free CB by ultracentrifugation and the amount of F-actin-bound CB was determined by comparing the radioactivity both in the supernatant and in the precipitate. A filament of pure F-actin possessed one high-affinity binding site for CB (Kd = 5.0 nM) at the B-end. When the filament was bound to native tropomyosin (complex of tropomyosin and troponin), two low-affinity binding sites for CB (Kd = 230 nM) were created, while the high-affinity binding site was reserved (Kd = 3.4 nM). It was concluded that the creation of low-affinity binding sites was primarily due to binding of tropomyosin to F-actin, as judged from the following two observations: (1) a filament of F-actin/tropomyosin complex possessed one high-affinity binding site (Kd = 3.9 nM) plus two low-affinity binding sites (Kd = 550 nM); (2) the Ca2(+)-receptive state of troponin C in F-actin/native tropomyosin complex did not affect CB binding.

  15. The N-terminal domain of the thermo-regulated surface protein PrpA of Enterococcus faecium binds to fibrinogen, fibronectin and platelets

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán Prieto, Ana M.; Urbanus, Rolf T.; Zhang, Xinglin; Bierschenk, Damien; Koekman, C. Arnold; van Luit-Asbroek, Miranda; Ouwerkerk, Janneke P.; Pape, Marieke; Paganelli, Fernanda L.; Wobser, Dominique; Huebner, Johannes; Hendrickx, Antoni P. A.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Willems, Rob J. L.; van Schaik, Willem

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium is a commensal of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, but is also found in non-enteric environments where it can grow between 10 °C and 45 °C. E. faecium has recently emerged as a multi-drug resistant nosocomial pathogen. We hypothesized that genes involved in the colonization and infection of mammals exhibit temperature-regulated expression control and we therefore performed a transcriptome analysis of the clinical isolate E. faecium E1162, during mid-exponential growth at 25 °C and 37 °C. One of the genes that exhibited differential expression between 25 °C and 37 °C, was predicted to encode a peptidoglycan-anchored surface protein. The N-terminal domain of this protein is unique to E. faecium and closely related enterococci, while the C-terminal domain is homologous to the Streptococcus agalactiae surface protein BibA. This region of the protein contains proline-rich repeats, leading us to name the protein PrpA for proline-rich protein A. We found that PrpA is a surface-exposed protein which is most abundant during exponential growth at 37 °C in E. faecium E1162. The heterologously expressed and purified N-terminal domain of PrpA was able to bind to the extracellular matrix proteins fibrinogen and fibronectin. In addition, the N-terminal domain of PrpA interacted with both non-activated and activated platelets. PMID:26675410

  16. The N-terminal domain of the thermo-regulated surface protein PrpA of Enterococcus faecium binds to fibrinogen, fibronectin and platelets.

    PubMed

    Guzmán Prieto, Ana M; Urbanus, Rolf T; Zhang, Xinglin; Bierschenk, Damien; Koekman, C Arnold; van Luit-Asbroek, Miranda; Ouwerkerk, Janneke P; Pape, Marieke; Paganelli, Fernanda L; Wobser, Dominique; Huebner, Johannes; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; van Schaik, Willem

    2015-12-17

    Enterococcus faecium is a commensal of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, but is also found in non-enteric environments where it can grow between 10 °C and 45 °C. E. faecium has recently emerged as a multi-drug resistant nosocomial pathogen. We hypothesized that genes involved in the colonization and infection of mammals exhibit temperature-regulated expression control and we therefore performed a transcriptome analysis of the clinical isolate E. faecium E1162, during mid-exponential growth at 25 °C and 37 °C. One of the genes that exhibited differential expression between 25 °C and 37 °C, was predicted to encode a peptidoglycan-anchored surface protein. The N-terminal domain of this protein is unique to E. faecium and closely related enterococci, while the C-terminal domain is homologous to the Streptococcus agalactiae surface protein BibA. This region of the protein contains proline-rich repeats, leading us to name the protein PrpA for proline-rich protein A. We found that PrpA is a surface-exposed protein which is most abundant during exponential growth at 37 °C in E. faecium E1162. The heterologously expressed and purified N-terminal domain of PrpA was able to bind to the extracellular matrix proteins fibrinogen and fibronectin. In addition, the N-terminal domain of PrpA interacted with both non-activated and activated platelets.

  17. HIP1 and HIP12 display differential binding to F-actin, AP2, and clathrin. Identification of a novel interaction with clathrin light chain.

    PubMed

    Legendre-Guillemin, Valerie; Metzler, Martina; Charbonneau, Martine; Gan, Lu; Chopra, Vikramjit; Philie, Jacynthe; Hayden, Michael R; McPherson, Peter S

    2002-05-31

    Huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (HIP1) and HIP12 are orthologues of Sla2p, a yeast protein with essential functions in endocytosis and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. We now report that HIP1 and HIP12 are major components of the clathrin coat that interact but differ in their ability to bind clathrin and the clathrin adaptor AP2. HIP1 contains a clathrin-box and AP2 consensus-binding sites that display high affinity binding to the terminal domain of the clathrin heavy chain and the ear domain of the AP2 alpha subunit, respectively. These consensus sites are poorly conserved in HIP12 and correspondingly, HIP12 does not bind to AP2 nor does it demonstrate high affinity clathrin binding. Moreover, HIP12 co-sediments with F-actin in contrast to HIP1, which exhibits no interaction with actin in vitro. Despite these differences, both proteins efficiently stimulate clathrin assembly through their central helical domain. Interestingly, in both HIP1 and HIP12, this domain binds directly to the clathrin light chain. Our data suggest that HIP1 and HIP12 play related yet distinct functional roles in clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

  18. Directed evolution of the TALE N-terminal domain for recognition of all 5′ bases

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Brian M.; Mercer, Andrew C.; Barbas, Carlos F.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins can be designed to bind virtually any DNA sequence. General guidelines for design of TALE DNA-binding domains suggest that the 5′-most base of the DNA sequence bound by the TALE (the N0 base) should be a thymine. We quantified the N0 requirement by analysis of the activities of TALE transcription factors (TALE-TF), TALE recombinases (TALE-R) and TALE nucleases (TALENs) with each DNA base at this position. In the absence of a 5′ T, we observed decreases in TALE activity up to >1000-fold in TALE-TF activity, up to 100-fold in TALE-R activity and up to 10-fold reduction in TALEN activity compared with target sequences containing a 5′ T. To develop TALE architectures that recognize all possible N0 bases, we used structure-guided library design coupled with TALE-R activity selections to evolve novel TALE N-terminal domains to accommodate any N0 base. A G-selective domain and broadly reactive domains were isolated and characterized. The engineered TALE domains selected in the TALE-R format demonstrated modularity and were active in TALE-TF and TALEN architectures. Evolved N-terminal domains provide effective and unconstrained TALE-based targeting of any DNA sequence as TALE binding proteins and designer enzymes. PMID:23980031

  19. NETWORKED 3B: a novel protein in the actin cytoskeleton-endoplasmic reticulum interaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengwei; Hussey, Patrick J

    2017-03-01

    In plants movement of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. However little is known about proteins that link the ER membrane and the actin cytoskeleton. Here we identified a novel protein, NETWORKED 3B (NET3B), which is associated with the ER and actin cytoskeleton in vivo. NET3B belongs to a superfamily of plant specific actin binding proteins, the NETWORKED family. NET3B associates with the actin cytoskeleton in vivo through an N-terminal NET actin binding (NAB) domain, which has been well-characterized in other members of the NET family. A three amino acid insertion, Val-Glu-Asp, in the NAB domain of NET3B appears to lower its ability to localize to the actin cytoskeleton compared with NET1A, the founding member of the NET family. The C-terminal domain of NET3B links the protein to the ER. Overexpression of NET3B enhanced the association between the ER and the actin cytoskeleton, and the extent of this association was dependent on the amount of NET3B available. Another effect of NET3B overexpression was a reduction in ER membrane diffusion. In conclusion, our results revealed that NET3B modulates ER and actin cytoskeleton interactions in higher plants. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Cooperative interactions at the SLP-76 complex are critical for actin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Barda-Saad, Mira; Shirasu, Naoto; Pauker, Maor H; Hassan, Nirit; Perl, Orly; Balbo, Andrea; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Houtman, Jon C D; Appella, Ettore; Schuck, Peter; Samelson, Lawrence E

    2010-07-21

    T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) engagement induces formation of multi-protein signalling complexes essential for regulating T-cell functions. Generation of a complex of SLP-76, Nck and VAV1 is crucial for regulation of the actin machinery. We define the composition, stoichiometry and specificity of interactions in the SLP-76, Nck and VAV1 complex. Our data reveal that this complex can contain one SLP-76 molecule, two Nck and two VAV1 molecules. A direct interaction between Nck and VAV1 is mediated by binding between the C-terminal SH3 domain of Nck and the VAV1 N-terminal SH3 domain. Disruption of the VAV1:Nck interaction deleteriously affected actin polymerization. These novel findings shed new light on the mechanism of actin polymerization after T-cell activation.

  1. The pH sensibility of actin-bundling LIM proteins is governed by the acidic properties of their C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Moes, Danièle; Hoffmann, Céline; Dieterle, Monika; Moreau, Flora; Neumann, Katrin; Papuga, Jessica; Furtado, Angela Tavares; Steinmetz, André; Thomas, Clément

    2015-08-19

    Actin-bundling Arabidopsis LIM proteins are subdivided into two subfamilies differing in their pH sensitivity. Widely-expressed WLIMs are active under low and high physiologically-relevant pH conditions, whereas pollen-enriched PLIMs are inactivated by pH values above 6.8. By a domain swapping approach we identified the C-terminal (Ct) domain of PLIMs as the domain responsible for pH responsiveness. Remarkably, this domain conferred pH sensitivity to LIM proteins, when provided "in trans" (i.e., as a single, independent, peptide), indicating that it operates through the interaction with another domain. An acidic 6xc-Myc peptide functionally mimicked the Ct domain of PLIMs and efficiently inhibited LIM actin bundling activity under high pH conditions. Together, our data suggest a model where PLIMs are regulated by an intermolecular interaction between their acidic Ct domain and another, yet unidentified, domain. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. F-actin clustering and cell dysmotility induced by the pathological W148R missense mutation of filamin B at the actin-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongtong; Shapiro, Sandor S; Eto, Masumi

    2016-01-01

    Filamin B (FLNB) is a dimeric actin-binding protein that orchestrates the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Congenital mutations of FLNB at the actin-binding domain (ABD) are known to cause abnormalities of skeletal development, such as atelosteogenesis types I and III and Larsen's syndrome, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, using fluorescence microscopy, we characterized the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in cells expressing each of six pathological FLNB mutants that have been linked to skeletal abnormalities. The subfractionation assay showed a greater accumulation of the FLNB ABD mutants W148R and E227K than the wild-type protein to the cytoskeleton. Ectopic expression of FLNB-W148R and, to a lesser extent, FLNB-E227K induced prominent F-actin accumulations and the consequent rearrangement of focal adhesions, myosin II, and septin filaments and results in a delayed directional migration of the cells. The W148R protein-induced cytoskeletal rearrangement was partially attenuated by the inhibition of myosin II, p21-activated protein kinase, or Rho-associated protein kinase. The expression of a single-head ABD fragment with the mutations partially mimicked the rearrangement induced by the dimer. The F-actin clustering through the interaction with the mutant FLNB ABD may limit the cytoskeletal reorganization, preventing normal skeletal development. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Actin-induced dimerization of palladin promotes actin-bundling

    PubMed Central

    Vattepu, Ravi; Yadav, Rahul; Beck, Moriah R

    2015-01-01

    A subset of actin binding proteins is able to form crosslinks between two or more actin filaments, thus producing structures of parallel or networked bundles. These actin crosslinking proteins interact with actin through either bivalent binding or dimerization. We recently identified two binding sites within the actin binding domain of palladin, an actin crosslinking protein that plays an important role in normal cell adhesion and motility during wound healing and embryonic development. In this study, we show that actin induces dimerization of palladin. Furthermore, the extent of dimerization reflects earlier comparisons of actin binding and bundling between different domains of palladin. On the basis of these results we hypothesized that actin binding may promote a conformational change that results in dimerization of palladin, which in turn may drive the crosslinking of actin filaments. The proximal distance between two actin binding sites on crosslinking proteins determines the ultrastructural properties of the filament network, therefore we also explored interdomain interactions using a combination of chemical crosslinking experiments and actin cosedimentation assays. Limited proteolysis data reveals that palladin is less susceptible to enzyme digestion after actin binding. Our results suggest that domain movements in palladin are necessary for interactions with actin and are induced by interactions with actin filaments. Accordingly, we put forth a model linking the structural changes to functional dynamics. PMID:25307943

  4. Conformation changes, N-terminal involvement and cGMP signal relay in phosphodiesterase-5 GAF domain

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.; Robinson, H.; Ke, H.

    2010-12-03

    The activity of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) is specific for cGMP and is regulated by cGMP binding to GAF-A in its regulatory domain. To better understand the regulatory mechanism, x-ray crystallographic and biochemical studies were performed on constructs of human PDE5A1 containing the N-terminal phosphorylation segment, GAF-A, and GAF-B. Superposition of this unliganded GAF-A with the previously reported NMR structure of cGMP-bound PDE5 revealed dramatic conformational differences and suggested that helix H4 and strand B3 probably serve as two lids to gate the cGMP-binding pocket in GAF-A. The structure also identified an interfacial region among GAF-A, GAF-B, and the N-terminal loop, whichmore » may serve as a relay of the cGMP signal from GAF-A to GAF-B. N-terminal loop 98-147 was physically associated with GAF-B domains of the dimer. Biochemical analyses showed an inhibitory effect of this loop on cGMP binding and its involvement in the cGMP-induced conformation changes.« less

  5. Actin, actin-binding proteins, and actin-related proteins in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kristó, Ildikó; Bajusz, Izabella; Bajusz, Csaba; Borkúti, Péter; Vilmos, Péter

    2016-04-01

    Extensive research in the past decade has significantly broadened our view about the role actin plays in the life of the cell and added novel aspects to actin research. One of these new aspects is the discovery of the existence of nuclear actin which became evident only recently. Nuclear activities including transcriptional activation in the case of all three RNA polymerases, editing and nuclear export of mRNAs, and chromatin remodeling all depend on actin. It also became clear that there is a fine-tuned equilibrium between cytoplasmic and nuclear actin pools and that this balance is ensured by an export-import system dedicated to actin. After over half a century of research on conventional actin and its organizing partners in the cytoplasm, it was also an unexpected finding that the nucleus contains more than 30 actin-binding proteins and new classes of actin-related proteins which are not able to form filaments but had evolved nuclear-specific functions. The actin-binding and actin-related proteins in the nucleus have been linked to RNA transcription and processing, nuclear transport, and chromatin remodeling. In this paper, we attempt to provide an overview of the wide range of information that is now available about actin, actin-binding, and actin-related proteins in the nucleus.

  6. HIP1 and HIP1r stabilize receptor tyrosine kinases and bind 3-phosphoinositides via epsin N-terminal homology domains.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Teresa S; Rao, Dinesh S; Saint-Dic, Djenann; Michael, L Evan; Kumar, Priti D; Bradley, Sarah V; Mizukami, Ikuko F; Oravecz-Wilson, Katherine I; Ross, Theodora S

    2004-04-02

    Huntingtin-interacting protein 1-related (HIP1r) is the only known mammalian relative of huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (HIP1), a protein that transforms fibroblasts via undefined mechanisms. Here we demonstrate that both HIP1r and HIP1 bind inositol lipids via their epsin N-terminal homology (ENTH) domains. In contrast to other ENTH domain-containing proteins, lipid binding is preferential to the 3-phosphate-containing inositol lipids, phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate. Furthermore, the HIP1r ENTH domain, like that of HIP1, is necessary for lipid binding, and expression of an ENTH domain-deletion mutant, HIP1r/deltaE, induces apoptosis. Consistent with the ability of HIP1r and HIP1 to affect cell survival, full-length HIP1 and HIP1r stabilize pools of growth factor receptors by prolonging their half-life following ligand-induced endocytosis. Although HIP1r and HIP1 display only a partially overlapping pattern of protein interactions, these data suggest that both proteins share a functional homology by binding 3-phosphorylated inositol lipids and stabilizing receptor tyrosine kinases in a fashion that may contribute to their ability to alter cell growth and survival.

  7. Electrostatic interactions between the Bni1p formin FH2 domain and actin influence actin filament nucleation

    DOE PAGES

    Baker, Joseph L.; Courtemanche, Naomi; Parton, Daniel L.; ...

    2014-12-04

    Formins catalyze nucleation and growth of actin filaments. In this paper, we study the structure and interactions of actin with the FH2 domain of budding yeast formin Bni1p. We built an all-atom model of the formin dimer on an Oda actin filament 7-mer and studied structural relaxation and interprotein interactions by molecular dynamics simulations. These simulations produced a refined model for the FH2 dimer associated with the barbed end of the filament and showed electrostatic interactions between the formin knob and actin target-binding cleft. Mutations of two formin residues contributing to these interactions (R1423N, K1467L, or both) reduced the interactionmore » energies between the proteins, and in coarse-grained simulations, the formin lost more interprotein contacts with an actin dimer than with an actin 7-mer. Finally, biochemical experiments confirmed a strong influence of these mutations on Bni1p-mediated actin filament nucleation, but not elongation, suggesting that different interactions contribute to these two functions of formins.« less

  8. Control of actin-based motility through localized actin binding

    PubMed Central

    Banigan, Edward J.; Lee, Kun-Chun; Liu, Andrea J.

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of cell biological and biomimetic systems use actin polymerization to drive motility. It has been suggested that an object such as a bacterium can propel itself by self-assembling a high concentration of actin behind it if it is repelled by actin. However, it is also known that it is essential for the moving object to bind actin. Therefore, a key question is how the actin tail can propel an object when it both binds and repels the object. We present a physically consistent Brownian dynamics model for actin-based motility that includes the minimal components of the dendritic nucleation model and allows for both attractive and repulsive interactions between actin and a moveable disk. We find that the concentration gradient of filamentous actin generated by polymerization is sufficient to propel the object, even with moderately strong binding interactions. Additionally, actin binding can act as a biophysical cap, and may directly control motility through modulation of network growth. Overall, this mechanism is robust in that it can drive motility against a load up to a stall pressure that depends on the Young’s modulus of the actin network and can explain several aspects of actin-based motility. PMID:24225232

  9. Conformation Changes, N-terminal Involvement, and cGMP Signal Relay in the Phosphodiesterase-5 GAF Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huanchen; Robinson, Howard; Ke, Hengming

    2010-01-01

    The activity of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) is specific for cGMP and is regulated by cGMP binding to GAF-A in its regulatory domain. To better understand the regulatory mechanism, x-ray crystallographic and biochemical studies were performed on constructs of human PDE5A1 containing the N-terminal phosphorylation segment, GAF-A, and GAF-B. Superposition of this unliganded GAF-A with the previously reported NMR structure of cGMP-bound PDE5 revealed dramatic conformational differences and suggested that helix H4 and strand B3 probably serve as two lids to gate the cGMP-binding pocket in GAF-A. The structure also identified an interfacial region among GAF-A, GAF-B, and the N-terminal loop, which may serve as a relay of the cGMP signal from GAF-A to GAF-B. N-terminal loop 98–147 was physically associated with GAF-B domains of the dimer. Biochemical analyses showed an inhibitory effect of this loop on cGMP binding and its involvement in the cGMP-induced conformation changes. PMID:20861010

  10. Conformation Changes N-terminal Involvement and cGMP Signal Relay in the Phosphodiesterase-5 GAF Domain

    SciTech Connect

    H Wang; H Robinson; H Ke

    2011-12-31

    The activity of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) is specific for cGMP and is regulated by cGMP binding to GAF-A in its regulatory domain. To better understand the regulatory mechanism, x-ray crystallographic and biochemical studies were performed on constructs of human PDE5A1 containing the N-terminal phosphorylation segment, GAF-A, and GAF-B. Superposition of this unliganded GAF-A with the previously reported NMR structure of cGMP-bound PDE5 revealed dramatic conformational differences and suggested that helix H4 and strand B3 probably serve as two lids to gate the cGMP-binding pocket in GAF-A. The structure also identified an interfacial region among GAF-A, GAF-B, and the N-terminal loop, whichmore » may serve as a relay of the cGMP signal from GAF-A to GAF-B. N-terminal loop 98-147 was physically associated with GAF-B domains of the dimer. Biochemical analyses showed an inhibitory effect of this loop on cGMP binding and its involvement in the cGMP-induced conformation changes.« less

  11. Interaction between the C-terminal domains of measles virus nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein: a tight complex implying one binding site.

    PubMed

    Blocquel, David; Habchi, Johnny; Costanzo, Stéphanie; Doizy, Anthony; Oglesbee, Michael; Longhi, Sonia

    2012-10-01

    The intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain (N(TAIL) ) of the measles virus (MeV) nucleoprotein undergoes α-helical folding upon binding to the C-terminal X domain (XD) of the phosphoprotein. The N(TAIL) region involved in binding coupled to folding has been mapped to a conserved region (Box2) encompassing residues 489-506. In the previous studies published in this journal, we obtained experimental evidence supporting a K(D) for the N(TAIL) -XD binding reaction in the nM range and also showed that an additional N(TAIL) region (Box3, aa 517-525) plays a role in binding to XD. In striking contrast with these data, studies published in this journal by Kingston and coworkers pointed out a much less stable complex (K(D) in the μM range) and supported lack of involvement of Box3 in complex formation. The objective of this study was to critically re-evaluate the role of Box3 in N(TAIL) -XD binding. Since our previous studies relied on N(TAIL) -truncated forms possessing an irrelevant Flag sequence appended at their C-terminus, we, herein, generated an N(TAIL) devoid of Box3 and any additional C-terminal residues, as well as a form encompassing only residues 482-525. We then used isothermal titration calorimetry to characterize the binding reactions between XD and these N(TAIL) forms. Results effectively argue for the presence of a single XD-binding site located within Box2, in agreement with the results by Kingston et al., while providing clear experimental support for a high-affinity complex. Altogether, the present data provide mechanistic insights into the replicative machinery of MeV and clarify a hitherto highly debated point. Copyright © 2012 The Protein Society.

  12. An antifungal protein from Ginkgo biloba binds actin and can trigger cell death.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ningning; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Mühlhäuser, Philipp; Liu, Qiong; Riemann, Michael; Ulrich, Anne S; Nick, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Ginkbilobin is a short antifungal protein that had been purified and cloned from the seeds of the living fossil Ginkgo biloba. Homologues of this protein can be detected in all seed plants and the heterosporic fern Selaginella and are conserved with respect to domain structures, peptide motifs, and specific cysteine signatures. To get insight into the cellular functions of these conserved motifs, we expressed green fluorescent protein fusions of full-length and truncated ginkbilobin in tobacco BY-2 cells. We show that the signal peptide confers efficient secretion of ginkbilobin. When this signal peptide is either cleaved or masked, ginkbilobin binds and visualizes the actin cytoskeleton. This actin-binding activity of ginkbilobin is mediated by a specific subdomain just downstream of the signal peptide, and this subdomain can also coassemble with actin in vitro. Upon stable overexpression of this domain, we observe a specific delay in premitotic nuclear positioning indicative of a reduced dynamicity of actin. To elucidate the cellular response to the binding of this subdomain to actin, we use chemical engineering based on synthetic peptides comprising different parts of the actin-binding subdomain conjugated with the cell-penetrating peptide BP100 and with rhodamine B as a fluorescent reporter. Binding of this synthetic construct to actin efficiently induces programmed cell death. We discuss these findings in terms of a working model, where ginkbilobin can activate actin-dependent cell death.

  13. A novel calmodulin-regulated Ca2+-ATPase (ACA2) from Arabidopsis with an N-terminal autoinhibitory domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, J. F.; Hong, B.; Hwang, I.; Guo, H. Q.; Stoddard, R.; Huang, J. F.; Palmgren, M. G.; Sze, H.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    To study transporters involved in regulating intracellular Ca2+, we isolated a full-length cDNA encoding a Ca2+-ATPase from a model plant, Arabidopsis, and named it ACA2 (Arabidopsis Ca2+-ATPase, isoform 2). ACA2p is most similar to a "plasma membrane-type" Ca2+-ATPase, but is smaller (110 kDa), contains a unique N-terminal domain, and is missing a long C-terminal calmodulin-binding regulatory domain. In addition, ACA2p is localized to an endomembrane system and not the plasma membrane, as shown by aqueous-two phase fractionation of microsomal membranes. ACA2p was expressed in yeast as both a full-length protein (ACA2-1p) and an N-terminal truncation mutant (ACA2-2p; Delta residues 2-80). Only the truncation mutant restored the growth on Ca2+-depleted medium of a yeast mutant defective in both endogenous Ca2+ pumps, PMR1 and PMC1. Although basal Ca2+-ATPase activity of the full-length protein was low, it was stimulated 5-fold by calmodulin (50% activation around 30 nM). In contrast, the truncated pump was fully active and insensitive to calmodulin. A calmodulin-binding sequence was identified within the first 36 residues of the N-terminal domain, as shown by calmodulin gel overlays on fusion proteins. Thus, ACA2 encodes a novel calmodulin-regulated Ca2+-ATPase distinguished by a unique N-terminal regulatory domain and a non-plasma membrane localization.

  14. Chemical Shift Assignments of the C-terminal Eps15 Homology Domain-3 EH Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Steve; Sorgen, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    The C-terminal Eps15 homology (EH) domain 3 (EHD3) belongs to a eukaryotic family of endocytic regulatory proteins and is involved in the recycling of various receptors from the early endosome to the endocytic recycling compartment or in retrograde transport from the endosomes to the Golgi. EH domains are highly conserved in the EHD family and function as protein-protein interaction units that bind to Asn-Pro-Phe (NPF) motif-containing proteins. The EH domain of EHD1 was the first C-terminal EH domain from the EHD family to be solved by NMR. The differences observed between this domain and proteins with N-terminal EH domains helped describe a mechanism for the differential binding of NPF-containing proteins. Here, structural studies were expanded to include the EHD3 EH domain. While the EHD1 and EHD3 EH domains are highly homologous, they have different protein partners. A comparison of these structures will help determine the selectivity in protein binding between the EHD family members and lead to a better understanding of their unique roles in endocytic regulation. PMID:23754701

  15. Technical advance: identification of plant actin-binding proteins by F-actin affinity chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, S.; Brady, S. R.; Kovar, D. R.; Staiger, C. J.; Clark, G. B.; Roux, S. J.; Muday, G. K.

    2000-01-01

    Proteins that interact with the actin cytoskeleton often modulate the dynamics or organization of the cytoskeleton or use the cytoskeleton to control their localization. In plants, very few actin-binding proteins have been identified and most are thought to modulate cytoskeleton function. To identify actin-binding proteins that are unique to plants, the development of new biochemical procedures will be critical. Affinity columns using actin monomers (globular actin, G-actin) or actin filaments (filamentous actin, F-actin) have been used to identify actin-binding proteins from a wide variety of organisms. Monomeric actin from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) hypocotyl tissue was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and shown to be native and competent for polymerization to actin filaments. G-actin, F-actin and bovine serum albumin affinity columns were prepared and used to separate samples enriched in either soluble or membrane-associated actin-binding proteins. Extracts of soluble actin-binding proteins yield distinct patterns when eluted from the G-actin and F-actin columns, respectively, leading to the identification of a putative F-actin-binding protein of approximately 40 kDa. When plasma membrane-associated proteins were applied to these columns, two abundant polypeptides eluted selectively from the F-actin column and cross-reacted with antiserum against pea annexins. Additionally, a protein that binds auxin transport inhibitors, the naphthylphthalamic acid binding protein, which has been previously suggested to associate with the actin cytoskeleton, was eluted in a single peak from the F-actin column. These experiments provide a new approach that may help to identify novel actin-binding proteins from plants.

  16. Technical advance: identification of plant actin-binding proteins by F-actin affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hu, S; Brady, S R; Kovar, D R; Staiger, C J; Clark, G B; Roux, S J; Muday, G K

    2000-10-01

    Proteins that interact with the actin cytoskeleton often modulate the dynamics or organization of the cytoskeleton or use the cytoskeleton to control their localization. In plants, very few actin-binding proteins have been identified and most are thought to modulate cytoskeleton function. To identify actin-binding proteins that are unique to plants, the development of new biochemical procedures will be critical. Affinity columns using actin monomers (globular actin, G-actin) or actin filaments (filamentous actin, F-actin) have been used to identify actin-binding proteins from a wide variety of organisms. Monomeric actin from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) hypocotyl tissue was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and shown to be native and competent for polymerization to actin filaments. G-actin, F-actin and bovine serum albumin affinity columns were prepared and used to separate samples enriched in either soluble or membrane-associated actin-binding proteins. Extracts of soluble actin-binding proteins yield distinct patterns when eluted from the G-actin and F-actin columns, respectively, leading to the identification of a putative F-actin-binding protein of approximately 40 kDa. When plasma membrane-associated proteins were applied to these columns, two abundant polypeptides eluted selectively from the F-actin column and cross-reacted with antiserum against pea annexins. Additionally, a protein that binds auxin transport inhibitors, the naphthylphthalamic acid binding protein, which has been previously suggested to associate with the actin cytoskeleton, was eluted in a single peak from the F-actin column. These experiments provide a new approach that may help to identify novel actin-binding proteins from plants.

  17. Structures of minute virus of mice replication initiator protein N-terminal domain: Insights into DNA nicking and origin binding

    SciTech Connect

    Tewary, Sunil K.; Liang, Lingfei; Lin, Zihan

    Members of the Parvoviridae family all encode a non-structural protein 1 (NS1) that directs replication of single-stranded viral DNA, packages viral DNA into capsid, and serves as a potent transcriptional activator. Here we report the X-ray structure of the minute virus of mice (MVM) NS1 N-terminal domain at 1.45 Å resolution, showing that sites for dsDNA binding, ssDNA binding and cleavage, nuclear localization, and other functions are integrated on a canonical fold of the histidine-hydrophobic-histidine superfamily of nucleases, including elements specific for this Protoparvovirus but distinct from its Bocaparvovirus or Dependoparvovirus orthologs. High resolution structural analysis reveals a nickase activemore » site with an architecture that allows highly versatile metal ligand binding. The structures support a unified mechanism of replication origin recognition for homotelomeric and heterotelomeric parvoviruses, mediated by a basic-residue-rich hairpin and an adjacent helix in the initiator proteins and by tandem tetranucleotide motifs in the replication origins. - Highlights: • The structure of a parvovirus replication initiator protein has been determined; • The structure sheds light on mechanisms of ssDNA binding and cleavage; • The nickase active site is preconfigured for versatile metal ligand binding; • The binding site for the double-stranded replication origin DNA is identified; • A single domain integrates multiple functions in virus replication.« less

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of human trabeculin-alpha, a giant protein defining a new family of actin-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Zhang, J; Kraeft, S K; Auclair, D; Chang, M S; Liu, Y; Sutherland, R; Salgia, R; Griffin, J D; Ferland, L H; Chen, L B

    1999-11-19

    We describe the molecular cloning and characterization of a novel giant human cytoplasmic protein, trabeculin-alpha (M(r) = 614,000). Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence reveals homologies with several putative functional domains, including a pair of alpha-actinin-like actin binding domains; regions of homology to plakins at either end of the giant polypeptide; 29 copies of a spectrin-like motif in the central region of the protein; two potential Ca(2+)-binding EF-hand motifs; and a Ser-rich region containing a repeated GSRX motif. With similarities to both plakins and spectrins, trabeculin-alpha appears to have evolved as a hybrid of these two families of proteins. The functionality of the actin binding domains located near the N terminus was confirmed with an F-actin binding assay using glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins comprising amino acids 9-486 of the deduced peptide. Northern and Western blotting and immunofluorescence studies suggest that trabeculin is ubiquitously expressed and is distributed throughout the cytoplasm, though the protein was found to be greatly up-regulated upon differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes. Finally, the presence of cDNAs similar to, yet distinct from, trabeculin-alpha in both human and mouse suggests that trabeculins may form a new subfamily of giant actin-binding/cytoskeletal cross-linking proteins.

  19. The N-terminal domain of a tick evasin is critical for chemokine binding and neutralization and confers specific binding activity to other evasins

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, James R. O.; Alenazi, Yara; Singh, Kamayani; Davies, Graham; Geis-Asteggiante, Lucia; Kessler, Benedikt; Robinson, Carol V.; Kawamura, Akane; Bhattacharya, Shoumo

    2018-01-01

    Tick chemokine-binding proteins (evasins) are an emerging class of biologicals that target multiple chemokines and show anti-inflammatory activities in preclinical disease models. Using yeast surface display, we identified a CCL8-binding evasin, P672, from the tick Rhipicephalus pulchellus. We found that P672 binds CCL8 and eight other CC-class chemokines with a Kd < 10 nm and four other CC chemokines with a Kd between 10 and 100 nm and neutralizes CCL3, CCL3L1, and CCL8 with an IC50 < 10 nm. The CC chemokine–binding profile was distinct from that of evasin 1 (EVA1), which does not bind CCL8. We also show that P672's binding activity can be markedly modulated by the location of a StrepII-His purification tag. Combining native MS and bottom-up proteomics, we further demonstrated that P672 is glycosylated and forms a 1:1 complex with CCL8, disrupting CCL8 homodimerization. Homology modeling of P672 using the crystal structure of the EVA1 and CCL3 complex as template suggested that 44 N-terminal residues of P672 form most of the contacts with CCL8. Replacing the 29 N-terminal residues of EVA1 with the 44 N-terminal residues of P672 enabled this hybrid evasin to bind and neutralize CCL8, indicating that the CCL8-binding properties of P672 reside, in part, in its N-terminal residues. This study shows that the function of certain tick evasins can be manipulated simply by adding a tag. We conclude that homology modeling helps identify regions with transportable chemokine-binding functions within evasins, which can be used to construct hybrid evasins with altered properties. PMID:29487134

  20. From N-WASP to WAVE: key molecules for regulation of cortical actin organization.

    PubMed

    Takenawa, Tadaomi

    2005-01-01

    We first isolated N-WASP as one of the proteins bound to Ash/Grb2 SH3 domain. This protein has a VCA region (verplorin-like, cofilin-like, acidic region) at the C-terminus, which binds to G-actin and Arp2/3 complex, and several functional domains at the N-terminus, such as WHD (WASP homology domain) and GBD/CRIB domain. N-WASP activates Arp2/3 complex-dependent actin polymerization through the VCA region, leading to filopodium formation. Next, we found WAVE1, WAVE2 and WAVE3. All these proteins have also VCA regions at C-terminal areas and induce membrane ruffle formation. To clarify the different roles of WAVE1 and WAVE2, we established WAVE1- and WAVE2-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), because these two WAVEs are expressed in MEF. When wild-type MEFs are stimulated randomly by PDGF, two types of ruffles, peripheral and dorsal, are formed. However, dorsal ruffle formation does not occurin WAVE1-deficient MEFs. In contrast, peripheral ruffle formation is diminished in WAVE2-deficient MEFs. On the other hand, in MEFs migrating towards a chemoattractant gradient, only peripheral ruffles (lamellipodia) are formed. In this migration, WAVE1-deficient MEFs still could form lamellipodia but WAVE2-deficient MEFs could not. All these data show that WAVE2 but not WAVE1 is essential for lamellipodium formation and directed migration.

  1. Structure, Dynamics, and Allosteric Potential of Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor N-Terminal Domains

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, James; Bahar, Ivet; Greger, Ingo H.

    2015-01-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are tetrameric cation channels that mediate synaptic transmission and plasticity. They have a unique modular architecture with four domains: the intracellular C-terminal domain (CTD) that is involved in synaptic targeting, the transmembrane domain (TMD) that forms the ion channel, the membrane-proximal ligand-binding domain (LBD) that binds agonists such as L-glutamate, and the distal N-terminal domain (NTD), whose function is the least clear. The extracellular portion, comprised of the LBD and NTD, is loosely arranged, mediating complex allosteric regulation and providing a rich target for drug development. Here, we briefly review recent work on iGluR NTD structure and dynamics, and further explore the allosteric potential for the NTD in AMPA-type iGluRs using coarse-grained simulations. We also investigate mechanisms underlying the established NTD allostery in NMDA-type iGluRs, as well as the fold-related metabotropic glutamate and GABAB receptors. We show that the clamshell motions intrinsically favored by the NTD bilobate fold are coupled to dimeric and higher-order rearrangements that impact the iGluR LBD and ultimately the TMD. Finally, we explore the dynamics of intact iGluRs and describe how it might affect receptor operation in a synaptic environment. PMID:26255587

  2. Ionic interaction of myosin loop 2 with residues located beyond the N-terminal part of actin probed by chemical cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Pliszka, Barbara; Martin, Brian M; Karczewska, Emilia

    2008-02-01

    To probe ionic contacts of skeletal muscle myosin with negatively charged residues located beyond the N-terminal part of actin, myosin subfragment 1 (S1) and actin split by ECP32 protease (ECP-actin) were cross-linked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC). We have found that unmodified S1 can be cross-linked not only to the N-terminal part, but also to the C-terminal 36 kDa fragment of ECP-actin. Subsequent experiments performed on S1 cleaved by elastase or trypsin indicate that the cross-linking site in S1 is located within loop 2. This site is composed of Lys-636 and Lys-637 and can interact with negatively charged residues of the 36 kDa actin fragment, most probably with Glu-99 and Glu-100. Cross-links are formed both in the absence and presence of MgATP.P(i) analog, although the addition of nucleotide decreases the efficiency of the cross-linking reaction.

  3. Functional adaptation between yeast actin and its cognate myosin motors.

    PubMed

    Stark, Benjamin C; Wen, Kuo-Kuang; Allingham, John S; Rubenstein, Peter A; Lord, Matthew

    2011-09-02

    We employed budding yeast and skeletal muscle actin to examine the contribution of the actin isoform to myosin motor function. While yeast and muscle actin are highly homologous, they exhibit different charge density at their N termini (a proposed myosin-binding interface). Muscle myosin-II actin-activated ATPase activity is significantly higher with muscle versus yeast actin. Whether this reflects inefficiency in the ability of yeast actin to activate myosin is not known. Here we optimized the isolation of two yeast myosins to assess actin function in a homogenous system. Yeast myosin-II (Myo1p) and myosin-V (Myo2p) accommodate the reduced N-terminal charge density of yeast actin, showing greater activity with yeast over muscle actin. Increasing the number of negative charges at the N terminus of yeast actin from two to four (as in muscle) had little effect on yeast myosin activity, while other substitutions of charged residues at the myosin interface of yeast actin reduced activity. Thus, yeast actin functions most effectively with its native myosins, which in part relies on associations mediated by its outer domain. Compared with yeast myosin-II and myosin-V, muscle myosin-II activity was very sensitive to salt. Collectively, our findings suggest differing degrees of reliance on electrostatic interactions during weak actomyosin binding in yeast versus muscle. Our study also highlights the importance of native actin isoforms when considering the function of myosins.

  4. The TDP-43 N-terminal domain structure at high resolution.

    PubMed

    Mompeán, Miguel; Romano, Valentina; Pantoja-Uceda, David; Stuani, Cristiana; Baralle, Francisco E; Buratti, Emanuele; Laurents, Douglas V

    2016-04-01

    Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) is an RNA transporting and processing protein whose aberrant aggregates are implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. The C-terminal domain of this protein plays a key role in mediating this process. However, the N-terminal domain (residues 1-77) is needed to effectively recruit TDP-43 monomers into this aggregate. In the present study, we report, for the first time, the essentially complete (1) H, (15) N and (13) C NMR assignments and the structure of the N-terminal domain determined on the basis of 26 hydrogen-bond, 60 torsion angle and 1058 unambiguous NOE structural restraints. The structure consists of an α-helix and six β-strands. Two β-strands form a β-hairpin not seen in the ubiquitin fold. All Pro residues are in the trans conformer and the two Cys are reduced and distantly separated on the surface of the protein. The domain has a well defined hydrophobic core composed of F35, Y43, W68, Y73 and 17 aliphatic side chains. The fold is topologically similar to the reported structure of axin 1. The protein is stable and no denatured species are observed at pH 4 and 25 °C. At 4 kcal·mol(-1) , the conformational stability of the domain, as measured by hydrogen/deuterium exchange, is comparable to ubiquitin (6 kcal·mol(-1) ). The β-strands, α-helix, and three of four turns are generally rigid, although the loop formed by residues 47-53 is mobile, as determined by model-free analysis of the (15) N{(1) H}NOE, as well as the translational and transversal relaxation rates. Structural data have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank under accession code: 2n4p. The NMR assignments have been deposited in the BMRB database under access code: 25675. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  5. Tropomodulins: pointed-end capping proteins that regulate actin filament architecture in diverse cell types

    PubMed Central

    Yamashiro, Sawako; Gokhin, David S.; Kimura, Sumiko; Nowak, Roberta B.; Fowler, Velia M.

    2012-01-01

    Tropomodulins are a family of four proteins (Tmods 1–4) that cap the pointed ends of actin filaments in actin cytoskeletal structures in a developmentally regulated and tissue-specific manner. Unique among capping proteins, Tmods also bind tropomyosins (TMs), which greatly enhance the actin filament pointed-end capping activity of Tmods. Tmods are defined by a tropomyosin (TM)-regulated/Pointed-End Actin Capping (TM-Cap) domain in their unstructured N-terminal portion, followed by a compact, folded Leucine-Rich Repeat/Pointed-End Actin Capping (LRR-Cap) domain. By inhibiting actin monomer association and dissociation from pointed ends, Tmods regulate regulate actin dynamics and turnover, stabilizing actin filament lengths and cytoskeletal architecture. In this review, we summarize the genes, structural features, molecular and biochemical properties, actin regulatory mechanisms, expression patterns, and cell and tissue functions of Tmods. By understanding Tmods’ functions in the context of their molecular structure, actin regulation, binding partners, and related variants (leiomodins 1–3), we can draw broad conclusions that can explain the diverse morphological and functional phenotypes that arise from Tmod perturbation experiments in vitro and in vivo. Tmod-based stabilization and organization of intracellular actin filament networks provide key insights into how the emergent properties of the actin cytoskeleton drive tissue morphogenesis and physiology. PMID:22488942

  6. The Tyrosine Sulfate Domain of Fibromodulin Binds Collagen and Enhances Fibril Formation.

    PubMed

    Tillgren, Viveka; Mörgelin, Matthias; Önnerfjord, Patrik; Kalamajski, Sebastian; Aspberg, Anders

    2016-11-04

    Small leucine-rich proteoglycans interact with other extracellular matrix proteins and are important regulators of matrix assembly. Fibromodulin has a key role in connective tissues, binding collagen through two identified binding sites in its leucine-rich repeat domain and regulating collagen fibril formation in vitro and in vivo Some nine tyrosine residues in the fibromodulin N-terminal domain are O-sulfated, a posttranslational modification often involved in protein interactions. The N-terminal domain mimics heparin, binding proteins with clustered basic amino acid residues. Because heparin affects collagen fibril formation, we investigated whether tyrosine sulfate is involved in fibromodulin interactions with collagen. Using full-length fibromodulin and its N-terminal tyrosine-sulfated domain purified from tissue, as well as recombinant fibromodulin fragments, we found that the N-terminal domain binds collagen. The tyrosine-sulfated domain and the leucine-rich repeat domain both bound to three specific sites along the collagen type I molecule, at the N terminus and at 100 and 220 nm from the N terminus. The N-terminal domain shortened the collagen fibril formation lag phase and tyrosine sulfation was required for this effect. The isolated leucine-rich repeat domain inhibited the fibril formation rate, and full-length fibromodulin showed a combination of these effects. The fibrils formed in the presence of fibromodulin or its fragments showed more organized structure. Fibromodulin and its tyrosine sulfate domain remained bound on the formed fiber. Taken together, this suggests a novel, regulatory function for tyrosine sulfation in collagen interaction and control of fibril formation. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Cortactin binding to F-actin revealed by electron microscopy and 3D reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Pant, Kiran; Chereau, David; Hatch, Victoria; Dominguez, Roberto; Lehman, William

    2006-06-16

    Cortactin and WASP activate Arp2/3-mediated actin filament nucleation and branching. However, different mechanisms underlie activation by the two proteins, which rely on distinct actin-binding modules and modes of binding to actin filaments. It is generally thought that cortactin binds to "mother" actin filaments, while WASP donates actin monomers to Arp2/3-generated "daughter" filament branches. Interestingly, cortactin also binds WASP in addition to F-actin and the Arp2/3 complex. However, the structural basis for the role of cortactin in filament branching remains unknown, making interpretation difficult. Here, electron microscopy and 3D reconstruction were carried out on F-actin decorated with the actin-binding repeating domain of cortactin, revealing conspicuous density on F-actin attributable to cortactin that is located on a consensus-binding site on subdomain-1 of actin subunits. Strikingly, the binding of cortactin widens the gap between the two long-pitch filament strands. Although other proteins have been found to alter the structure of the filament, the cortactin-induced conformational change appears unique. The results are consistent with a mechanism whereby alterations of the F-actin structure may facilitate recruitment of the Arp2/3 complex to the "mother" filament in the cortex of cells. In addition, cortactin may act as a structural adapter protein, stabilizing nascent filament branches while mediating the simultaneous recruitment of Arp2/3 and WASP.

  8. The N-terminal DNA-binding domain of Rad52 promotes RAD51-independent recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Mariko; Yamashita, Kentaro; Miyazaki, Toshiko; Shinohara, Miki; Shinohara, Akira

    2003-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Rad52 protein plays a role in both RAD51-dependent and RAD51-independent recombination pathways. We characterized a rad52 mutant, rad52-329, which lacks the C-terminal Rad51-interacting domain, and studied its role in RAD51-independent recombination. The rad52-329 mutant is completely defective in mating-type switching, but partially proficient in recombination between inverted repeats. We also analyzed the effect of the rad52-329 mutant on telomere recombination. Yeast cells lacking telomerase maintain telomere length by recombination. The rad52-329 mutant is deficient in RAD51-dependent telomere recombination, but is proficient in RAD51-independent telomere recombination. In addition, we examined the roles of other recombination genes in the telomere recombination. The RAD51-independent recombination in the rad52-329 mutant is promoted by a paralogue of Rad52, Rad59. All components of the Rad50-Mre11-Xrs2 complex are also important, but not essential, for RAD51-independent telomere recombination. Interestingly, RAD51 inhibits the RAD51-independent, RAD52-dependent telomere recombination. These findings indicate that Rad52 itself, and more precisely its N-terminal DNA-binding domain, promote an essential reaction in recombination in the absence of RAD51. PMID:14704160

  9. Stereochemical determinants of C-terminal specificity in PDZ peptide-binding domains: a novel contribution of the carboxylate-binding loop.

    PubMed

    Amacher, Jeanine F; Cushing, Patrick R; Bahl, Christopher D; Beck, Tobias; Madden, Dean R

    2013-02-15

    PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) binding domains often serve as cellular traffic engineers, controlling the localization and activity of a wide variety of binding partners. As a result, they play important roles in both physiological and pathological processes. However, PDZ binding specificities overlap, allowing multiple PDZ proteins to mediate distinct effects on shared binding partners. For example, several PDZ domains bind the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an epithelial ion channel mutated in CF. Among these binding partners, the CFTR-associated ligand (CAL) facilitates post-maturational degradation of the channel and is thus a potential therapeutic target. Using iterative optimization, we previously developed a selective CAL inhibitor peptide (iCAL36). Here, we investigate the stereochemical basis of iCAL36 specificity. The crystal structure of iCAL36 in complex with the CAL PDZ domain reveals stereochemical interactions distributed along the peptide-binding cleft, despite the apparent degeneracy of the CAL binding motif. A critical selectivity determinant that distinguishes CAL from other CFTR-binding PDZ domains is the accommodation of an isoleucine residue at the C-terminal position (P(0)), a characteristic shared with the Tax-interacting protein-1. Comparison of the structures of these two PDZ domains in complex with ligands containing P(0) Leu or Ile residues reveals two distinct modes of accommodation for β-branched C-terminal side chains. Access to each mode is controlled by distinct residues in the carboxylate-binding loop. These studies provide new insights into the primary sequence determinants of binding motifs, which in turn control the scope and evolution of PDZ interactomes.

  10. The C-Terminal Domain of the Virulence Factor MgtC Is a Divergent ACT Domain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yinshan; Labesse, Gilles; Carrère-Kremer, Séverine; Esteves, Kevin; Kremer, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    MgtC is a virulence factor of unknown function important for survival inside macrophages in several intracellular bacterial pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is also involved in adaptation to Mg2+ deprivation, but previous work suggested that MgtC is not a Mg2+ transporter. In this study, we demonstrated that the amount of the M. tuberculosis MgtC protein is not significantly increased by Mg2+ deprivation. Members of the MgtC protein family share a conserved membrane N-terminal domain and a more divergent cytoplasmic C-terminal domain. To get insights into MgtC functional and structural organization, we have determined the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of the C-terminal domain of M. tuberculosis MgtC. This structure is not affected by the Mg2+ concentration, indicating that it does not bind Mg2+. The structure of the C-terminal domain forms a βαββαβ fold found in small molecule binding domains called ACT domains. However, the M. tuberculosis MgtC ACT domain differs from canonical ACT domains because it appears to lack the ability to dimerize and to bind small molecules. We have shown, using a bacterial two-hybrid system, that the M. tuberculosis MgtC protein can dimerize and that the C-terminal domain somehow facilitates this dimerization. Taken together, these results indicate that M. tuberculosis MgtC does not have an intrinsic function related to Mg2+ uptake or binding but could act as a regulatory factor based on protein-protein interaction that could be facilitated by its ACT domain. PMID:22984256

  11. Deletion of the N-terminal Domain (NTD) Alters the Ethanol Inhibition of NMDA Receptors in a Subunit-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Smothers, C. Thetford; Jin, Chun; Woodward, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ethanol inhibition of NMDA receptors is poorly understood due in part to the organizational complexity of the receptor that provides ample locations for sites of action. Among these the N-terminal domain of NMDA receptor subunits contains binding sites for a variety of modulatory agents including zinc, protons and GluN2B selective antagonists such as ifenprodil or Ro-25–6981. Ethanol inhibition of neuronal NMDA receptors expressed in some brain areas has been reported to be occluded by the presence of ifenprodil or similar compounds suggesting that the N-terminal domain may be important in regulating the ethanol sensitivity of NMDA receptors. Methods Wild-type GluN1 and GluN2 subunits and those in which the coding sequence for the N-terminal domain was deleted were expressed in HEK293 cells. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recording was used to assess ethanol inhibition of wild-type and mutant receptors lacking the N-terminal domain. Results As compared to wild-type GluN1/GluN2A receptors, ethanol inhibition was slightly greater in cells expressing GluN2A subunits lacking the N-terminal domain. In contrast, GluN2B N-terminal deletion mutants showed normal ethanol inhibition while those lacking the N-terminal domain in both GluN1 and GluN2B subunits had decreased ethanol inhibition as compared to wild-type receptors. N-terminal domain lacking GluN2B receptors were insensitive to ifenprodil but retained normal sensitivity to ethanol. Conclusions These findings indicate that the N-terminal domain modestly influences the ethanol sensitivity of NMDA receptors in a subunit-dependent manner. They also show that ifenprodil’s actions on GluN2B containing receptors can be dissociated from those of ethanol. These results suggest that while the N-terminal domain is not a primary site of action for ethanol on NMDA receptors, it likely affects sensitivity via actions on intrinsic channel properties. PMID:23905549

  12. Clostridium perfringens Iota-Toxin: Mapping of Receptor Binding and Ia Docking Domains on Ib

    PubMed Central

    Marvaud, Jean-Christophe; Smith, Theresa; Hale, Martha L.; Popoff, Michel R.; Smith, Leonard A.; Stiles, Bradley G.

    2001-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin is a binary toxin consisting of iota a (Ia), an ADP-ribosyltransferase that modifies actin, and iota b (Ib), which binds to a cell surface protein and translocates Ia into a target cell. Fusion proteins of recombinant Ib and truncated variants were tested for binding to Vero cells and docking with Ia via fluorescence-activated cytometry and cytotoxicity experiments. C-terminal residues (656 to 665) of Ib were critical for cell surface binding, and truncated Ib variants containing ≥200 amino acids of the C terminus were effective Ib competitors and prevented iota cytotoxicity. The N-terminal domain (residues 1 to 106) of Ib was important for Ia docking, yet this region was not an effective competitor of iota cytotoxicity. Further studies showed that Ib lacking just the N-terminal 27 residues did not facilitate Ia entry into a target cell and subsequent cytotoxicity. Five monoclonal antibodies against Ib were also tested with each truncated Ib variant for epitope and structural mapping by surface plasmon resonance and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Each antibody bound to a linear epitope within the N terminus (residues 28 to 66) or the C terminus (residues 632 to 655). Antibodies that target the C terminus neutralized in vitro cytotoxicity and delayed the lethal effects of iota-toxin in mice. PMID:11254604

  13. Structure of the Tropomyosin Overlap Complex from Chicken Smooth Muscle: Insight into the Diversity of N-Terminal Recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, Jeremiah; Klenchin, Vadim A.; Rayment, Ivan

    Tropomyosin is a stereotypical {alpha}-helical coiled coil that polymerizes to form a filamentous macromolecular assembly that lies on the surface of F-actin. The interaction between the C-terminal and N-terminal segments on adjacent molecules is known as the overlap region. We report here two X-ray structures of the chicken smooth muscle tropomyosin overlap complex. A novel approach was used to stabilize the C-terminal and N-terminal fragments. Globular domains from both the human DNA ligase binding protein XRCC4 and bacteriophage {phi}29 scaffolding protein Gp7 were fused to 37 and 28 C-terminal amino acid residues of tropomyosin, respectively, whereas the 29 N-terminal aminomore » acids of tropomyosin were fused to the C-terminal helix bundle of microtubule binding protein EB1. The structures of both the XRCC4 and Gp7 fusion proteins complexed with the N-terminal EB1 fusion contain a very similar helix bundle in the overlap region that encompasses {approx}15 residues. The C-terminal coiled coil opens to allow formation of the helix bundle, which is stabilized by hydrophobic interactions. These structures are similar to that observed in the NMR structure of the rat skeletal overlap complex [Greenfield, N. J., et al. (2006) J. Mol. Biol. 364, 80-96]. The interactions between the N- and C-terminal coiled coils of smooth muscle tropomyosin show significant curvature, which differs somewhat between the two structures and implies flexibility in the overlap complex, at least in solution. This is likely an important attribute that allows tropomyosin to assemble around the actin filaments. These structures provide a molecular explanation for the role of N-acetylation in the assembly of native tropomyosin.« less

  14. Crystal structure of the motor domain of a class-I myosin

    PubMed Central

    Kollmar, Martin; Dürrwang, Ulrike; Kliche, Werner; Manstein, Dietmar J.; Kull, F.Jon

    2002-01-01

    The crystal structure of the motor domain of Dictyostelium discoideum myosin-IE, a monomeric unconventional myosin, was determined. The crystallographic asymmetric unit contains four independently resolved molecules, highlighting regions that undergo large conformational changes. Differences are particularly pronounced in the actin binding region and the converter domain. The changes in position of the converter domain reflect movements both parallel to and perpendicular to the actin axis. The orientation of the converter domain is ∼30° further up than in other myosin structures, indicating that MyoE can produce a larger power stroke by rotating its lever arm through a larger angle. The role of extended loops near the actin-binding site is discussed in the context of cellular localization. The core regions of the motor domain are similar, and the structure reveals how that core is stabilized in the absence of an N-terminal SH3-like domain. PMID:12032065

  15. Kindlin-2 directly binds actin and regulates integrin outside-in signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bledzka, Kamila; Bialkowska, Katarzyna; Sossey-Alaoui, Khalid; Vaynberg, Julia; Pluskota, Elzbieta

    2016-01-01

    Reduced levels of kindlin-2 (K2) in endothelial cells derived from K2+/− mice or C2C12 myoblastoid cells treated with K2 siRNA showed disorganization of their actin cytoskeleton and decreased spreading. These marked changes led us to examine direct binding between K2 and actin. Purified K2 interacts with F-actin in cosedimentation and surface plasmon resonance analyses and induces actin aggregation. We further find that the F0 domain of K2 binds actin. A mutation, LK47/AA, within a predicted actin binding site (ABS) of F0 diminishes its interaction with actin by approximately fivefold. Wild-type K2 and K2 bearing the LK47/AA mutation were equivalent in their ability to coactivate integrin αIIbβ3 in a CHO cell system when coexpressed with talin. However, K2-LK47/AA exhibited a diminished ability to support cell spreading and actin organization compared with wild-type K2. The presence of an ABS in F0 of K2 that influences outside-in signaling across integrins establishes a new foundation for considering how kindlins might regulate cellular responses. PMID:27044892

  16. Structural transitions in full-length human prion protein detected by xenon as probe and spin labeling of the N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sunilkumar Puthenpurackal; Nair, Divya Gopalakrishnan; Schaal, Daniel; Barbosa de Aguiar, Marisa; Wenzel, Sabine; Kremer, Werner; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert

    2016-06-24

    Fatal neurodegenerative disorders termed transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are associated with the accumulation of fibrils of misfolded prion protein PrP. The noble gas xenon accommodates into four transiently enlarged hydrophobic cavities located in the well-folded core of human PrP(23-230) as detected by [(1)H, (15)N]-HSQC spectroscopy. In thermal equilibrium a fifth xenon binding site is formed transiently by amino acids A120 to L125 of the presumably disordered N-terminal domain and by amino acids K185 to T193 of the well-folded domain. Xenon bound PrP was modelled by restraint molecular dynamics. The individual microscopic and macroscopic dissociation constants could be derived by fitting the data to a model including a dynamic opening and closing of the cavities. As observed earlier by high pressure NMR spectroscopy xenon binding influences also other amino acids all over the N-terminal domain including residues of the AGAAAAGA motif indicating a structural coupling between the N-terminal domain and the core domain. This is in agreement with spin labelling experiments at positions 93 or 107 that show a transient interaction between the N-terminus and the start of helix 2 and the end of helix 3 of the core domain similar to that observed earlier by Zn(2+)-binding to the octarepeat motif.

  17. Structural transitions in full-length human prion protein detected by xenon as probe and spin labeling of the N-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Sunilkumar Puthenpurackal; Nair, Divya Gopalakrishnan; Schaal, Daniel; Barbosa de Aguiar, Marisa; Wenzel, Sabine; Kremer, Werner; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert

    2016-01-01

    Fatal neurodegenerative disorders termed transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are associated with the accumulation of fibrils of misfolded prion protein PrP. The noble gas xenon accommodates into four transiently enlarged hydrophobic cavities located in the well-folded core of human PrP(23–230) as detected by [1H, 15N]-HSQC spectroscopy. In thermal equilibrium a fifth xenon binding site is formed transiently by amino acids A120 to L125 of the presumably disordered N-terminal domain and by amino acids K185 to T193 of the well-folded domain. Xenon bound PrP was modelled by restraint molecular dynamics. The individual microscopic and macroscopic dissociation constants could be derived by fitting the data to a model including a dynamic opening and closing of the cavities. As observed earlier by high pressure NMR spectroscopy xenon binding influences also other amino acids all over the N-terminal domain including residues of the AGAAAAGA motif indicating a structural coupling between the N-terminal domain and the core domain. This is in agreement with spin labelling experiments at positions 93 or 107 that show a transient interaction between the N-terminus and the start of helix 2 and the end of helix 3 of the core domain similar to that observed earlier by Zn2+-binding to the octarepeat motif. PMID:27341298

  18. Characterization of f-actin tryptophan phosphorescence in the presence and absence of tryptophan-free myosin motor domain.

    PubMed

    Bódis, Emöke; Strambini, Giovanni B; Gonnelli, Margherita; Málnási-Csizmadia, András; Somogyi, Béla

    2004-08-01

    The effect of binding the Trp-free motor domain mutant of Dictyostelium discoideum, rabbit skeletal muscle myosin S1, and tropomyosin on the dynamics and conformation of actin filaments was characterized by an analysis of steady-state tryptophan phosphorescence spectra and phosphorescence decay kinetics over a temperature range of 140-293 K. The binding of the Trp-free motor domain mutant of D. discoideum to actin caused red shifts in the phosphorescence spectrum of two internal Trp residues of actin and affected the intrinsic lifetime of each emitter, decreasing by roughly twofold the short phosphorescence lifetime components (tau(1) and tau(2)) and increasing by approximately 20% the longest component (tau(3)). The alteration of actin phosphorescence by the motor protein suggests that i), structural changes occur deep down in the core of actin and that ii), subtle changes in conformation appear also on the surface but in regions distant from the motor domain binding site. When actin formed complexes with skeletal S1, an extra phosphorescence lifetime component appeared (tau(4), twice as long as tau(3)) in the phosphorescence decay that is absent in the isolated proteins. The lack of this extra component in the analogous actin-Trp-free motor domain mutant of D. discoideum complex suggests that it should be assigned to Trps in S1 that in the complex attain a more compact local structure. Our data indicated that the binding of tropomyosin to actin filaments had no effect on the structure or flexibility of actin observable by this technique.

  19. Structure, Dynamics, and Allosteric Potential of Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor N-Terminal Domains.

    PubMed

    Krieger, James; Bahar, Ivet; Greger, Ingo H

    2015-09-15

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are tetrameric cation channels that mediate synaptic transmission and plasticity. They have a unique modular architecture with four domains: the intracellular C-terminal domain (CTD) that is involved in synaptic targeting, the transmembrane domain (TMD) that forms the ion channel, the membrane-proximal ligand-binding domain (LBD) that binds agonists such as L-glutamate, and the distal N-terminal domain (NTD), whose function is the least clear. The extracellular portion, comprised of the LBD and NTD, is loosely arranged, mediating complex allosteric regulation and providing a rich target for drug development. Here, we briefly review recent work on iGluR NTD structure and dynamics, and further explore the allosteric potential for the NTD in AMPA-type iGluRs using coarse-grained simulations. We also investigate mechanisms underlying the established NTD allostery in NMDA-type iGluRs, as well as the fold-related metabotropic glutamate and GABAB receptors. We show that the clamshell motions intrinsically favored by the NTD bilobate fold are coupled to dimeric and higher-order rearrangements that impact the iGluR LBD and ultimately the TMD. Finally, we explore the dynamics of intact iGluRs and describe how it might affect receptor operation in a synaptic environment. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tyrosine sulfation in N-terminal domain of human C5a receptor is necessary for binding of chemotaxis inhibitory protein of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen-jia; Yang, Yan-juan; Jiang, Lei; Xu, Ying-chun; Wang, Ai-xia; Du, Guan-hua; Gao, Jin-ming

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Staphylococcus aureus evades host defense through releasing several virulence proteins, such as chemotaxis inhibitory protein of staphylococcus aureus (CHIPS). It has been shown that extracellular N terminus of C5a receptor (C5aR) forms the binding domain for CHIPS, and tyrosine sulfation is emerging as a key factor in determining protein-protein interaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of tyrosine sulfation of N-terminal of C5aR in its binding with CHIPS. Methods: Expression plasmids encoding C5aR and its mutants were prepared using PCR and site-directed mutagenesis and were used to transfect HEK 293T cells using calcium phosphate. Recombinant CHIPS protein was purified. Western blotting was used to examine the binding efficiency of CHIPS to C5aR or its mutants. Results: CHIPS exclusively binds to C5aR, but not to C5L2 or C3aR. A nonspecific sulfation inhibitor, sodium chlorate (50 nmol/L), diminishes the binding ability of C5aR with CHIPS. Blocking sulfation by mutation of tyrosine to phenylalanine at positions 11 and 14 of C5aR N terminus, which blocked sulfation, completely abrogates CHIPS binding. When tyrosine 14 alone was mutated to phenylalanine, the binding efficiency of recombinant CHIPS was substantially decreased. Conclusion: The results demonstrate a structural basis of C5aR-CHIPS association, in which tyrosine sulfation of N-terminal C5aR plays an important role. Our data may have potential significance in development of novel drugs for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21706042

  1. Actin-related proteins regulate the RSC chromatin remodeler by weakening intramolecular interactions of the Sth1 ATPase.

    PubMed

    Turegun, Bengi; Baker, Richard W; Leschziner, Andres E; Dominguez, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    The catalytic subunits of SWI/SNF-family and INO80-family chromatin remodelers bind actin and actin-related proteins (Arps) through an N-terminal helicase/SANT-associated (HSA) domain. Between the HSA and ATPase domains lies a conserved post-HSA (pHSA) domain. The HSA domain of Sth1, the catalytic subunit of the yeast SWI/SNF-family remodeler RSC, recruits the Rtt102-Arp7/9 heterotrimer. Rtt102-Arp7/9 regulates RSC function, but the mechanism is unclear. We show that the pHSA domain interacts directly with another conserved region of the catalytic subunit, protrusion-1. Rtt102-Arp7/9 binding to the HSA domain weakens this interaction and promotes the formation of stable, monodisperse complexes with DNA and nucleosomes. A crystal structure of Rtt102-Arp7/9 shows that ATP binds to Arp7 but not Arp9. However, Arp7 does not hydrolyze ATP. Together, the results suggest that Rtt102 and ATP stabilize a conformation of Arp7/9 that potentiates binding to the HSA domain, which releases intramolecular interactions within Sth1 and controls DNA and nucleosome binding.

  2. The N- and C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domains of Haemonchus contortus galectin bind to distinct receptors of goat PBMC and contribute differently to its immunomodulatory functions in host-parasite interactions.

    PubMed

    Lu, MingMin; Tian, XiaoWei; Yang, XinChao; Yuan, Cheng; Ehsan, Muhammad; Liu, XinChao; Yan, RuoFeng; Xu, LiXin; Song, XiaoKai; Li, XiangRui

    2017-09-05

    Hco-gal-m is a tandem-repeat galectin isolated from the adult worm of Haemonchus contortus. A growing body of studies have demonstrated that Hco-gal-m could exert its immunomodulatory effects on host peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to facilitate the immune evasion. Our previous work revealed that C-terminal and N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD) of Hco-gal-m had different sugar binding abilities. However, whether different domains of Hco-gal-m account differently for its multiple immunomodulatory functions in the host-parasite interaction remains to be elucidated. We found that the N-terminal CRD of Hco-gal-m (MNh) and the C-terminal CRD (MCh) could bind to goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells by distinct receptors: transmembrane protein 63A (TMEM63A) was a binding receptor of MNh, while transmembrane protein 147 (TMEM147) was a binding receptor of MCh. In addition, MCh was much more potent than MNh in inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis, while MNh was much more effective in inhibiting NO production. Moreover, MNh could suppress the transcription of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), but MCh not. Our data suggested that these two CRDs of Hco-gal-m bind to distinct receptors and contributed differently to its ability to downregulate host immune response. These results will improve our understanding of galectins from parasitic nematodes contributing to the mechanism of parasitic immune evasion and continue to illustrate the diverse range of biological activities attributable to the galectin family.

  3. Abl N-terminal Cap stabilization of SH3 domain dynamics†

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shugui; Dumitrescu, Teodora Pene; Smithgall, Thomas E.; Engen, John R.

    2008-01-01

    Crystal structures and other biochemical data indicate that the N-terminal cap (NCap) region of the Abelson tyrosine kinase (c-Abl) is important for maintaining the downregulated conformation of the kinase domain. The exact contributions that NCap makes in stabilizing the various intramolecular interactions within c-Abl are less clear. While the NCap appears important for locking the SH3/SH2 domains to the back of the kinase domain, there may be other more subtle elements of regulation. Hydrogen exchange (HX) and mass spectrometry (MS) were used to determine if the NCap contributes to intramolecular interactions involving the Abl SH3 domain. Under physiological conditions, the Abl SH3 domain underwent partial unfolding and its unfolding half-life was slowed during binding to the SH2-kinase linker, providing a unique assay to test NCap-induced stabilization of the SH3 domain in various constructs. The results showed that NCap stabilizes the dynamics of the SH3 domain in certain constructs but does not increase the relative affinity of the SH3 domain for the native SH2-kinase linker. The stabilization effect was absent in constructs of just NCap + SH3 but was obvious when the SH2 domain and the SH2-kinase linker were present. These results suggest that interactions between NCap and the SH3 domain can contribute to c-Abl stabilization in constructs that contain at least the SH2 domain, an effect that may partially compensate for the absence of the negative regulatory C-terminal tail found in the related Src family of kinases. PMID:18452309

  4. Plasmodium falciparum coronin organizes arrays of parallel actin filaments potentially guiding directional motility in invasive malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Olshina, Maya A; Angrisano, Fiona; Marapana, Danushka S; Riglar, David T; Bane, Kartik; Wong, Wilson; Catimel, Bruno; Yin, Meng-Xin; Holmes, Andrew B; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Kovar, David R; Baum, Jake

    2015-07-18

    Gliding motility in Plasmodium parasites, the aetiological agents of malaria disease, is mediated by an actomyosin motor anchored in the outer pellicle of the motile cell. Effective motility is dependent on a parasite myosin motor and turnover of dynamic parasite actin filaments. To date, however, the basis for directional motility is not known. Whilst myosin is very likely orientated as a result of its anchorage within the parasite, how actin filaments are orientated to facilitate directional force generation remains unexplained. In addition, recent evidence has questioned the linkage between actin filaments and secreted surface antigens leaving the way by which motor force is transmitted to the extracellular milieu unknown. Malaria parasites possess a markedly reduced repertoire of actin regulators, among which few are predicted to interact with filamentous (F)-actin directly. One of these, PF3D7_1251200, shows strong homology to the coronin family of actin-filament binding proteins, herein referred to as PfCoronin. Here the N terminal beta propeller domain of PfCoronin (PfCor-N) was expressed to assess its ability to bind and bundle pre-formed actin filaments by sedimentation assay, total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy and confocal imaging as well as to explore its ability to bind phospholipids. In parallel a tagged PfCoronin line in Plasmodium falciparum was generated to determine the cellular localization of the protein during asexual parasite development and blood-stage merozoite invasion. A combination of biochemical approaches demonstrated that the N-terminal beta-propeller domain of PfCoronin is capable of binding F-actin and facilitating formation of parallel filament bundles. In parasites, PfCoronin is expressed late in the asexual lifecycle and localizes to the pellicle region of invasive merozoites before and during erythrocyte entry. PfCoronin also associates strongly with membranes within the cell, likely mediated by interactions

  5. Identification of key residues for the binding of glucagon to the N-terminal domain of its receptor: an alanine scan and modeling study.

    PubMed

    Prévost, M; Vertongen, P; Waelbroeck, M

    2012-10-01

    Glucagon plays an essential role in the glycemia maintenance during fasting, but also aggravates hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. A series of analogues of glucagon were synthesized replacing each amino acid of the C-terminal region (residues 15-29) with alanine. The residues affecting the binding to the glucagon receptor are found to be located on one face of the glucagon helix. Several 3-dimensional models of the N-terminal domain of the glucagon receptor in complex with its ligand peptide were built and used to analyze the peptide-receptor interface in terms of the nature of the peptide residues and the interactions they form with the receptor. The models suggest that glucagon keeps its native helical structure upon binding, and that a large part of the interface formed with the receptor is hydrophobic. We find that in the C-terminal region, F22, V23, M27, and D15 are the most important residues for peptide binding. They bury a large portion of their solvent accessible surface area and make numerous interactions with the receptor mainly of the hydrophobic type. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Crystal Structure of a Coiled-Coil Domain from Human ROCK I

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Daqi; Li, Yiqun; Song, Hyun Kyu; Toms, Angela V.; Gould, Christopher J.; Ficarro, Scott B.; Marto, Jarrod A.; Goode, Bruce L.; Eck, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The small GTPase Rho and one of its targets, Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), participate in a variety of actin-based cellular processes including smooth muscle contraction, cell migration, and stress fiber formation. The ROCK protein consists of an N-terminal kinase domain, a central coiled-coil domain containing a Rho binding site, and a C-terminal pleckstrin homology domain. Here we present the crystal structure of a large section of the central coiled-coil domain of human ROCK I (amino acids 535–700). The structure forms a parallel α-helical coiled-coil dimer that is structurally similar to tropomyosin, an actin filament binding protein. There is an unusual discontinuity in the coiled-coil; three charged residues (E613, R617 and D620) are positioned at what is normally the hydrophobic core of coiled-coil packing. We speculate that this conserved irregularity could function as a hinge that allows ROCK to adopt its autoinhibited conformation. PMID:21445309

  7. Structural and functional insight into the N-terminal domain of the clathrin adaptor Ent5 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Song, Yang; Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Niu, Liwen; Teng, Maikun; Li, Xu

    2016-09-02

    Clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) play critical roles in multiple cellular processes, including nutrient uptake, endosome/lysosome biogenesis, pathogen invasion, regulation of signalling receptors, etc. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ent5 (ScEnt5) is one of the two major adaptors supporting the CCV-mediated TGN/endosome traffic in yeast cells. However, the classification and phosphoinositide binding characteristic of ScEnt5 remain elusive. Here we report the crystal structures of the ScEnt5 N-terminal domain, and find that ScEnt5 contains an insertion α' helix that does not exist in other ENTH or ANTH domains. Furthermore, we investigate the classification of ScEnt5-N(31-191) by evolutionary history analyses and structure comparisons, and find that the ScEnt5 N-terminal domain shows different phosphoinositide binding property from rEpsin1 and rCALM. Above results facilitate the understanding of the ScEnt5-mediated vesicle coat formation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Yeast eIF4B binds to the head of the 40S ribosomal subunit and promotes mRNA recruitment through its N-terminal and internal repeat domains.

    PubMed

    Walker, Sarah E; Zhou, Fujun; Mitchell, Sarah F; Larson, Victoria S; Valasek, Leos; Hinnebusch, Alan G; Lorsch, Jon R

    2013-02-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF)4B stimulates recruitment of mRNA to the 43S ribosomal pre-initiation complex (PIC). Yeast eIF4B (yeIF4B), shown previously to bind single-stranded (ss) RNA, consists of an N-terminal domain (NTD), predicted to be unstructured in solution; an RNA-recognition motif (RRM); an unusual domain comprised of seven imperfect repeats of 26 amino acids; and a C-terminal domain. Although the mechanism of yeIF4B action has remained obscure, most models have suggested central roles for its RRM and ssRNA-binding activity. We have dissected the functions of yeIF4B's domains and show that the RRM and its ssRNA-binding activity are dispensable in vitro and in vivo. Instead, our data indicate that the 7-repeats and NTD are the most critical domains, which mediate binding of yeIF4B to the head of the 40S ribosomal subunit via interaction with Rps20. This interaction induces structural changes in the ribosome's mRNA entry channel that could facilitate mRNA loading. We also show that yeIF4B strongly promotes productive interaction of eIF4A with the 43S•mRNA PIC in a manner required for efficient mRNA recruitment.

  9. Yeast eIF4B binds to the head of the 40S ribosomal subunit and promotes mRNA recruitment through its N-terminal and internal repeat domains

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Sarah E.; Zhou, Fujun; Mitchell, Sarah F.; Larson, Victoria S.; Valasek, Leos; Hinnebusch, Alan G.; Lorsch, Jon R.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF)4B stimulates recruitment of mRNA to the 43S ribosomal pre-initiation complex (PIC). Yeast eIF4B (yeIF4B), shown previously to bind single-stranded (ss) RNA, consists of an N-terminal domain (NTD), predicted to be unstructured in solution; an RNA-recognition motif (RRM); an unusual domain comprised of seven imperfect repeats of 26 amino acids; and a C-terminal domain. Although the mechanism of yeIF4B action has remained obscure, most models have suggested central roles for its RRM and ssRNA-binding activity. We have dissected the functions of yeIF4B’s domains and show that the RRM and its ssRNA-binding activity are dispensable in vitro and in vivo. Instead, our data indicate that the 7-repeats and NTD are the most critical domains, which mediate binding of yeIF4B to the head of the 40S ribosomal subunit via interaction with Rps20. This interaction induces structural changes in the ribosome’s mRNA entry channel that could facilitate mRNA loading. We also show that yeIF4B strongly promotes productive interaction of eIF4A with the 43S•mRNA PIC in a manner required for efficient mRNA recruitment. PMID:23236192

  10. Cofilin and DNase I affect the conformation of the small domain of actin.

    PubMed Central

    Dedova, Irina V; Dedov, Vadim N; Nosworthy, Neil J; Hambly, Brett D; dos Remedios, Cris G

    2002-01-01

    Cofilin binding induces an allosteric conformational change in subdomain 2 of actin, reducing the distance between probes attached to Gln-41 (subdomain 2) and Cys-374 (subdomain 1) from 34.4 to 31.4 A (pH 6.8) as demonstrated by fluorescence energy transfer spectroscopy. This effect was slightly less pronounced at pH 8.0. In contrast, binding of DNase I increased this distance (35.5 A), a change that was not pH-sensitive. Although DNase I-induced changes in the distance along the small domain of actin were modest, a significantly larger change (38.2 A) was observed when the ternary complex of cofilin-actin-DNase I was formed. Saturation binding of cofilin prevents pyrene fluorescence enhancement normally associated with actin polymerization. Changes in the emission and excitation spectra of pyrene-F actin in the presence of cofilin indicate that subdomain 1 (near Cys-374) assumes a G-like conformation. Thus, the enhancement of pyrene fluorescence does not correspond to the extent of actin polymerization in the presence of cofilin. The structural changes in G and F actin induced by these actin-binding proteins may be important for understanding the mechanism regulating the G-actin pool in cells. PMID:12023237

  11. Aurora A regulates the activity of HURP by controlling the accessibility of its microtubule-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jim; Lerrigo, Robert; Jang, Chang-Young; Fang, Guowei

    2008-05-01

    HURP is a spindle-associated protein that mediates Ran-GTP-dependent assembly of the bipolar spindle and promotes chromosome congression and interkinetochore tension during mitosis. We report here a biochemical mechanism of HURP regulation by Aurora A, a key mitotic kinase that controls the assembly and function of the spindle. We found that HURP binds to microtubules through its N-terminal domain that hyperstabilizes spindle microtubules. Ectopic expression of this domain generates defects in spindle morphology and function that reduce the level of tension across sister kinetochores and activate the spindle checkpoint. Interestingly, the microtubule binding activity of this N-terminal domain is regulated by the C-terminal region of HURP: in its hypophosphorylated state, C-terminal HURP associates with the microtubule-binding domain, abrogating its affinity for microtubules. However, when the C-terminal domain is phosphorylated by Aurora A, it no longer binds to N-terminal HURP, thereby releasing the inhibition on its microtubule binding and stabilizing activity. In fact, ectopic expression of this C-terminal domain depletes endogenous HURP from the mitotic spindle in HeLa cells in trans, suggesting the physiological importance for this mode of regulation. We concluded that phosphorylation of HURP by Aurora A provides a regulatory mechanism for the control of spindle assembly and function.

  12. Mena–GRASP65 interaction couples actin polymerization to Golgi ribbon linking

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Danming; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Shijiao; Yuan, Hebao; Li, Jie; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2016-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the Golgi reassembly stacking protein 65 (GRASP65) has been implicated in both Golgi stacking and ribbon linking by forming trans-oligomers through the N-terminal GRASP domain. Because the GRASP domain is globular and relatively small, but the gaps between stacks are large and heterogeneous, it remains puzzling how GRASP65 physically links Golgi stacks into a ribbon. To explore the possibility that other proteins may help GRASP65 in ribbon linking, we used biochemical methods and identified the actin elongation factor Mena as a novel GRASP65-binding protein. Mena is recruited onto the Golgi membranes through interaction with GRASP65. Depleting Mena or disrupting actin polymerization resulted in Golgi fragmentation. In cells, Mena and actin were required for Golgi ribbon formation after nocodazole washout; in vitro, Mena and microfilaments enhanced GRASP65 oligomerization and Golgi membrane fusion. Thus Mena interacts with GRASP65 to promote local actin polymerization, which facilitates Golgi ribbon linking. PMID:26538023

  13. The AAA+ ATPase TRIP13 remodels HORMA domains through N-terminal engagement and unfolding

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Qiaozhen; Kim, Dong Hyun; Dereli, Ihsan

    Proteins of the conserved HORMA domain family, including the spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD2 and the meiotic HORMADs, assemble into signaling complexes by binding short peptides termed “closure motifs”. The AAA+ ATPase TRIP13 regulates both MAD2 and meiotic HORMADs by disassembling these HORMA domain–closure motif complexes, but its mechanisms of substrate recognition and remodeling are unknown. Here, we combine X-ray crystallography and crosslinking mass spectrometry to outline how TRIP13 recognizes MAD2 with the help of the adapter protein p31comet. We show that p31comet binding to the TRIP13 N-terminal domain positions the disordered MAD2 N-terminus for engagement by the TRIP13 “poremore » loops”, which then unfold MAD2 in the presence of ATP. N-terminal truncation of MAD2 renders it refractory to TRIP13 action in vitro, and in cells causes spindle assembly checkpoint defects consistent with loss of TRIP13 function. Similar truncation of HORMAD1 in mouse spermatocytes compromises its TRIP13-mediated removal from meiotic chromosomes, highlighting a conserved mechanism for recognition and disassembly of HORMA domain–closure motif complexes by TRIP13.« less

  14. Myopodin is an F-actin bundling protein with multiple independent actin-binding regions.

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Anja; Vakeel, Padmanabhan; Bezerra, Eduardo; Orfanos, Zacharias; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina; van der Ven, Peter F M; Kirfel, Gregor; Fürst, Dieter O

    2013-02-01

    The assembly of striated muscle myofibrils is a multistep process in which a variety of proteins is involved. One of the first and most important steps in myofibrillogenesis is the arrangement of thin myofilaments into ordered I-Z-I brushes, requiring the coordinated activity of numerous actin binding proteins. The early expression of myopodin prior to sarcomeric α-actinin, as well as its binding to actin, α-actinin and filamin indicate an important role for this protein in actin cytoskeleton remodelling with the precise function of myopodin in this process yet remaining to be resolved. While myopodin was previously described as a protein capable of cross-linking actin filaments into thick bundles upon transient transfections, it has remained unclear whether myopodin alone is capable of bundling actin, or if additional proteins are involved. We have therefore investigated the in vitro actin binding properties of myopodin. High speed cosedimentation assays with skeletal muscle actin confirmed direct binding of myopodin to F-actin and showed that this interaction is mediated by at least two independent actin binding sites, found in all myopodin isoforms identified to date. Furthermore, low-speed cosedimentation assays revealed that not only full length myopodin, but also the fragment containing only the second binding site, bundles microfilaments in the absence of accessory proteins. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that this bundling activity resembled that of α-actinin. Biochemical experiments revealed that bundling was not achieved by myopodin's ability to dimerize, indicating the presence of two individual F-actin binding sites within the second binding segment. Thus full length myopodin contains at least three F-actin binding sites. These data provide further understanding of the mechanisms by which myopodin contributes to actin reorganization during myofibril assembly.

  15. Miro's N-Terminal GTPase Domain Is Required for Transport of Mitochondria into Axons and Dendrites

    PubMed Central

    Babic, Milos; Russo, Gary J.; Wellington, Andrea J.; Sangston, Ryan M.; Gonzalez, Migdalia

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamically transported in and out of neuronal processes to maintain neuronal excitability and synaptic function. In higher eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GTPase Miro binds Milton/TRAK adaptor proteins linking microtubule motors to mitochondria. Here we show that Drosophila Miro (dMiro), which has previously been shown to be required for kinesin-driven axonal transport, is also critically required for the dynein-driven distribution of mitochondria into dendrites. In addition, we used the loss-of-function mutations dMiroT25N and dMiroT460N to determine the significance of dMiro's N-terminal and C-terminal GTPase domains, respectively. Expression of dMiroT25N in the absence of endogenous dMiro caused premature lethality and arrested development at a pupal stage. dMiroT25N accumulated mitochondria in the soma of larval motor and sensory neurons, and prevented their kinesin-dependent and dynein-dependent distribution into axons and dendrites, respectively. dMiroT25N mutant mitochondria also were severely fragmented and exhibited reduced kinesin and dynein motility in axons. In contrast, dMiroT460N did not impair viability, mitochondrial size, or the distribution of mitochondria. However, dMiroT460N reduced dynein motility during retrograde mitochondrial transport in axons. Finally, we show that substitutions analogous to the constitutively active Ras-G12V mutation in dMiro's N-terminal and C-terminal GTPase domains cause neomorphic phenotypic effects that are likely unrelated to the normal function of each GTPase domain. Overall, our analysis indicates that dMiro's N-terminal GTPase domain is critically required for viability, mitochondrial size, and the distribution of mitochondria out of the neuronal soma regardless of the employed motor, likely by promoting the transition from a stationary to a motile state. PMID:25855186

  16. Structure of the Fibrillin-1 N-Terminal Domains Suggests that Heparan Sulfate Regulates the Early Stages of Microfibril Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Yadin, David A.; Robertson, Ian B.; McNaught-Davis, Joanne; Evans, Paul; Stoddart, David; Handford, Penny A.; Jensen, Sacha A.; Redfield, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Summary The human extracellular matrix glycoprotein fibrillin-1 is the primary component of the 10- to 12-nm-diameter microfibrils, which perform key structural and regulatory roles in connective tissues. Relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms of fibrillin assembly into microfibrils. Studies using recombinant fibrillin fragments indicate that an interaction between the N- and C-terminal regions drives head-to-tail assembly. Here, we present the structure of a fibrillin N-terminal fragment comprising the fibrillin unique N-terminal (FUN) and the first three epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains (FUN-EGF3). Two rod-like domain pairs are separated by a short, flexible linker between the EGF1 and EGF2 domains. We also show that the binding site for the C-terminal region spans multiple domains and overlaps with a heparin interaction site. These data suggest that heparan sulfate may sequester fibrillin at the cell surface via FUN-EGF3 prior to aggregation of the C terminus, thereby regulating microfibril assembly. PMID:24035709

  17. Oxidation of F-actin controls the terminal steps of cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Frémont, Stéphane; Hammich, Hussein; Bai, Jian; Wioland, Hugo; Klinkert, Kerstin; Rocancourt, Murielle; Kikuti, Carlos; Stroebel, David; Romet-Lemonne, Guillaume; Pylypenko, Olena; Houdusse, Anne; Echard, Arnaud

    2017-01-01

    Cytokinetic abscission, the terminal step of cell division, crucially depends on the local constriction of ESCRT-III helices after cytoskeleton disassembly. While the microtubules of the intercellular bridge are cut by the ESCRT-associated enzyme Spastin, the mechanism that clears F-actin at the abscission site is unknown. Here we show that oxidation-mediated depolymerization of actin by the redox enzyme MICAL1 is key for ESCRT-III recruitment and successful abscission. MICAL1 is recruited to the abscission site by the Rab35 GTPase through a direct interaction with a flat three-helix domain found in MICAL1 C terminus. Mechanistically, in vitro assays on single actin filaments demonstrate that MICAL1 is activated by Rab35. Moreover, in our experimental conditions, MICAL1 does not act as a severing enzyme, as initially thought, but instead induces F-actin depolymerization from both ends. Our work reveals an unexpected role for oxidoreduction in triggering local actin depolymerization to control a fundamental step of cell division. PMID:28230050

  18. Thermodynamic Linkage Between Calmodulin Domains Binding Calcium and Contiguous Sites in the C-Terminal Tail of CaV1.2

    PubMed Central

    Evans, T. Idil Apak; Hell, Johannes; Shea, Madeline A.

    2011-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) binding to the intracellular C-terminal tail (CTT) of the cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel (CaV1.2) regulates Ca2+ entry by recognizing sites that contribute to negative feedback mechanisms for channel closing. CaM associates with CaV1.2 under low resting [Ca2+], but is poised to change conformation and position when intracellular [Ca2+] rises. CaM binding Ca2+, and the domains of CaM binding the CTT are linked thermodynamic functions. To better understand regulation, we determined the energetics of CaM domains binding to peptides representing pre-IQ sites A1588, and C1614 and the IQ motif studied as overlapping peptides IQ1644 and IQ′1650 as well as their effect on calcium binding. (Ca2+)4-CaM bound to all four peptides very favorably (Kd ≤ 2 nM). Linkage analysis showed that IQ1644–1670 bound with a Kd ~1 pM. In the pre-IQ region, (Ca2+)2-N-domain bound preferentially to A1588, while (Ca2+)2-C-domain preferred C1614. When bound to C1614, calcium binding in the N-domain affected the tertiary conformation of the C-domain. Based on the thermodynamics, we propose a structural mechanism for calcium-dependent conformational change in which the linker between CTT sites A and C buckles to form an A-C hairpin that is bridged by calcium-saturated CaM. PMID:21757287

  19. Acetylation within the N- and C-Terminal Domains of Src Regulates Distinct Roles of STAT3-Mediated Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Lihan; Lee, Hank W; Ayrapetov, Marina K; Zhao, Ting C; Hao, Yimei; Gao, Jinsong; Yang, Chunzhang; Mehta, Gautam U; Zhuang, Zhengping; Zhang, Xiaoren; Hu, Guohong; Chin, Y Eugene

    2018-06-01

    Posttranslational modifications of mammalian c-Src N-terminal and C-terminal domains regulate distinct functions. Myristoylation of G 2 controls its cell membrane association and phosphorylation of Y419/Y527 controls its activation or inactivation, respectively. We provide evidence that Src-cell membrane association-dissociation and catalytic activation-inactivation are both regulated by acetylation. In EGF-treated cells, CREB binding protein (CBP) acetylates an N-terminal lysine cluster (K5, K7, and K9) of c-Src to promote dissociation from the cell membrane. CBP also acetylates the C-terminal K401, K423, and K427 of c-Src to activate intrinsic kinase activity for STAT3 recruitment and activation. N-terminal domain phosphorylation (Y14, Y45, and Y68) of STAT3 by c-Src activates transcriptionally active dimers of STAT3. Moreover, acetyl-Src translocates into nuclei, where it forms the Src-STAT3 enhanceosome for gene regulation and cancer cell proliferation. Thus, c-Src acetylation in the N-terminal and C-terminal domains play distinct roles in Src activity and regulation. Significance: CBP-mediated acetylation of lysine clusters in both the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of c-Src provides additional levels of control over STAT3 transcriptional activity. Cancer Res; 78(11); 2825-38. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Long non-coding RNA CRYBG3 blocks cytokinesis by directly binding G-actin.

    PubMed

    Pei, Hailong; Hu, Wentao; Guo, Ziyang; Chen, Huaiyuan; Ma, Ji; Mao, Weidong; Li, Bingyan; Wang, Aiqing; Wan, Jianmei; Zhang, Jian; Nie, Jing; Zhou, Guangming; Hei, Tom K

    2018-06-22

    The dynamic interchange between monomeric globular actin (G-actin) and polymeric filamentous actin filaments (F-actin) is fundamental and essential to many cellular processes including cytokinesis and maintenance of genomic stability. Here we report that the long non-coding RNA LNC CRYBG3 directly binds G-actin to inhibit its polymerization and formation of contractile rings, resulting in M-Phase cell arrest. Knockdown of LNC CRYBG3 in tumor cells enhanced their malignant phenotypes. Nucleotide sequence 228-237 of the full-length LNC CRYBG3 and the ser14 domain of beta-actin are essential for their interaction, and mutation of either of these sites abrogated binding of LNC CRYBG3 to G-actin. Binding of LNC CRYBG3 to G-actin blocked nuclear localization of MAL, which consequently kept serum response factor (SRF) away from the promoter region of several immediate early genes, including JUNB and Arp3, which are necessary for cellular proliferation, tumor growth, adhesion, movement, and metastasis. These findings reveal a novel lncRNA-actin-MAL-SRF pathway and highlight LNC CRYBG3 as a means to block cytokinesis and treat cancer by targeting the actin cytoskeleton. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. NMR assignments of the N-terminal domain of Nephila clavipes spidroin 1

    PubMed Central

    Parnham, Stuart; Gaines, William A.; Duggan, Brendan M.; Marcotte, William R.

    2011-01-01

    The building blocks of spider dragline silk are two fibrous proteins secreted from the major ampullate gland named spidroins 1 and 2 (MaSp1, MaSp2). These proteins consist of a large central domain composed of approximately 100 tandem copies of a 35–40 amino acid repeat sequence. Non-repetitive N and C-terminal domains, of which the C-terminal domain has been implicated to transition from soluble and insoluble states during spinning, flank the repetitive core. The N-terminal domain until recently has been largely unknown due to difficulties in cloning and expression. Here, we report nearly complete assignment for all 1H, 13C, and 15N resonances in the 14 kDa N-terminal domain of major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1-N) of the golden orb-web spider Nephila clavipes. PMID:21152998

  2. Resemblance of actin-binding protein/actin gels to covalently crosslinked networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janmey, Paul A.; Hvidt, Søren; Lamb, Jennifer; Stossel, Thomas P.

    1990-05-01

    THE maintainance of the shape of cells is often due to their surface elasticity, which arises mainly from an actin-rich cytoplasmic cortex1,2. On locomotion, phagocytosis or fission, however, these cells become partially fluid-like. The finding of proteins that can bind to actin and control the assembly of, or crosslink, actin filaments, and of intracellular messages that regulate the activities of some of these actin-binding proteins, indicates that such 'gel sol' transformations result from the rearrangement of cortical actin-rich networks3. Alternatively, on the basis of a study of the mechanical properties of mixtures of actin filaments and an Acanthamoeba actin-binding protein, α-actinin, it has been proposed that these transformations can be accounted for by rapid exchange of crosslinks between actin filaments4: the cortical network would be solid when the deformation rate is greater than the rate of crosslink exchange, but would deform or 'creep' when deformation is slow enough to permit crosslinker molecules to rearrange. Here we report, however, that mixtures of actin filaments and actin-binding protein (ABP), an actin crosslinking protein of many higher eukaryotes, form gels Theologically equivalent to covalently crosslinked networks. These gels do not creep in response to applied stress on a time scale compatible with most cell-surface movements. These findings support a more complex and controlled mechanism underlying the dynamic mechanical properties of cortical cytoplasm, and can explain why cells do not collapse under the constant shear forces that often exist in tissues.

  3. Abl N-terminal cap stabilization of SH3 domain dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shugui; Dumitrescu, Teodora Pene; Smithgall, Thomas E; Engen, John R

    2008-05-27

    Crystal structures and other biochemical data indicate that the N-terminal cap (NCap) region of the Abelson tyrosine kinase (c-Abl) is important for maintaining the downregulated conformation of the kinase domain. The exact contributions that the NCap makes in stabilizing the various intramolecular interactions within c-Abl are less clear. While the NCap appears to be important for locking the SH3 and SH2 domains to the back of the kinase domain, there may be other more subtle elements of regulation. Hydrogen exchange (HX) and mass spectrometry (MS) were used to determine if the NCap contributes to intramolecular interactions involving the Abl SH3 domain. Under physiological conditions, the Abl SH3 domain underwent partial unfolding and its unfolding half-life was slowed during binding to the SH2 kinase linker, providing a unique assay for testing NCap-induced stabilization of the SH3 domain in various constructs. The results showed that the NCap stabilizes the dynamics of the SH3 domain in certain constructs but does not increase the relative affinity of the SH3 domain for the native SH2 kinase linker. The stabilization effect was absent in constructs of just the NCap and SH3 but was obvious when the SH2 domain and the SH2 kinase linker were present. These results suggest that interactions between the NCap and the SH3 domain can contribute to c-Abl stabilization in constructs that contain at least the SH2 domain, an effect that may partially compensate for the absence of the negative regulatory C-terminal tail found in the related Src family of kinases.

  4. The N-Terminal Domain of Human DNA Helicase Rtel1 Contains a Redox Active Iron-Sulfur Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Aaron P.

    2014-01-01

    Human telomere length regulator Rtel1 is a superfamily II DNA helicase and is essential for maintaining proper length of telomeres in chromosomes. Here we report that the N-terminal domain of human Rtel1 (RtelN) expressed in Escherichia coli cells produces a protein that contains a redox active iron-sulfur cluster with the redox midpoint potential of −248 ± 10 mV (pH 8.0). The iron-sulfur cluster in RtelN is sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide, indicating that reactive oxygen/nitrogen species may modulate the DNA helicase activity of Rtel1 via modification of its iron-sulfur cluster. Purified RtelN retains a weak binding affinity for the single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) DNA in vitro. However, modification of the iron-sulfur cluster by hydrogen peroxide or nitric oxide does not significantly affect the DNA binding activity of RtelN, suggesting that the iron-sulfur cluster is not directly involved in the DNA interaction in the N-terminal domain of Rtel1. PMID:25147792

  5. The N-terminal domain of human DNA helicase Rtel1 contains a redox active iron-sulfur cluster.

    PubMed

    Landry, Aaron P; Ding, Huangen

    2014-01-01

    Human telomere length regulator Rtel1 is a superfamily II DNA helicase and is essential for maintaining proper length of telomeres in chromosomes. Here we report that the N-terminal domain of human Rtel1 (RtelN) expressed in Escherichia coli cells produces a protein that contains a redox active iron-sulfur cluster with the redox midpoint potential of -248 ± 10 mV (pH 8.0). The iron-sulfur cluster in RtelN is sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide, indicating that reactive oxygen/nitrogen species may modulate the DNA helicase activity of Rtel1 via modification of its iron-sulfur cluster. Purified RtelN retains a weak binding affinity for the single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) DNA in vitro. However, modification of the iron-sulfur cluster by hydrogen peroxide or nitric oxide does not significantly affect the DNA binding activity of RtelN, suggesting that the iron-sulfur cluster is not directly involved in the DNA interaction in the N-terminal domain of Rtel1.

  6. ATP Binding to p97/VCP D1 Domain Regulates Selective Recruitment of Adaptors to Its Proximal N-Domain

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Wei Sheng; Chia, Diana Xueqi; Rao, Feng; Bar Nun, Shoshana; Geifman Shochat, Susana

    2012-01-01

    p97/Valosin-containing protein (VCP) is a member of the AAA-ATPase family involved in many cellular processes including cell division, intracellular trafficking and extraction of misfolded proteins in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). It is a homohexamer with each subunit containing two tandem D1 and D2 ATPase domains and N- and C-terminal regions that function as adaptor protein binding domains. p97/VCP is directed to its many different functional pathways by associating with various adaptor proteins. The regulation of the recruitment of the adaptor proteins remains unclear. Two adaptor proteins, Ufd1/Npl4 and p47, which bind exclusively to the p97/VCP N-domain and direct p97/VCP to either ERAD-related processes or homotypic fusion of Golgi fragments, were studied here. Surface plasmon resonance biosensor-based assays allowed the study of binding kinetics in real time. In competition experiments, it was observed that in the presence of ATP, Ufd1/Npl4 was able to compete more effectively with p47 for binding to p97/VCP. By using non-hydrolysable ATP analogues and the hexameric truncated p97/N-D1 fragment, it was shown that binding rather than hydrolysis of ATP to the proximal D1 domain strengthened the Ufd1/Npl4 association with the N-domain, thus regulating the recruitment of either Ufd1/Npl4 or p47. This novel role of ATP and an assigned function to the D1 AAA-ATPase domain link the multiple functions of p97/VCP to the metabolic status of the cell. PMID:23226521

  7. ATP binding to p97/VCP D1 domain regulates selective recruitment of adaptors to its proximal N-domain.

    PubMed

    Chia, Wei Sheng; Chia, Diana Xueqi; Rao, Feng; Bar Nun, Shoshana; Geifman Shochat, Susana

    2012-01-01

    p97/Valosin-containing protein (VCP) is a member of the AAA-ATPase family involved in many cellular processes including cell division, intracellular trafficking and extraction of misfolded proteins in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). It is a homohexamer with each subunit containing two tandem D1 and D2 ATPase domains and N- and C-terminal regions that function as adaptor protein binding domains. p97/VCP is directed to its many different functional pathways by associating with various adaptor proteins. The regulation of the recruitment of the adaptor proteins remains unclear. Two adaptor proteins, Ufd1/Npl4 and p47, which bind exclusively to the p97/VCP N-domain and direct p97/VCP to either ERAD-related processes or homotypic fusion of Golgi fragments, were studied here. Surface plasmon resonance biosensor-based assays allowed the study of binding kinetics in real time. In competition experiments, it was observed that in the presence of ATP, Ufd1/Npl4 was able to compete more effectively with p47 for binding to p97/VCP. By using non-hydrolysable ATP analogues and the hexameric truncated p97/N-D1 fragment, it was shown that binding rather than hydrolysis of ATP to the proximal D1 domain strengthened the Ufd1/Npl4 association with the N-domain, thus regulating the recruitment of either Ufd1/Npl4 or p47. This novel role of ATP and an assigned function to the D1 AAA-ATPase domain link the multiple functions of p97/VCP to the metabolic status of the cell.

  8. Pub1p C-Terminal RRM Domain Interacts with Tif4631p through a Conserved Region Neighbouring the Pab1p Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Rico-Lastres, Palma; Pérez-Cañadillas, José Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Pub1p, a highly abundant poly(A)+ mRNA binding protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, influences the stability and translational control of many cellular transcripts, particularly under some types of environmental stresses. We have studied the structure, RNA and protein recognition modes of different Pub1p constructs by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of the C-terminal RRM domain (RRM3) shows a non-canonical N-terminal helix that packs against the canonical RRM fold in an original fashion. This structural trait is conserved in Pub1p metazoan homologues, the TIA-1 family, defining a new class of RRM-type domains that we propose to name TRRM (TIA-1 C-terminal domain-like RRM). Pub1p TRRM and the N-terminal RRM1-RRM2 tandem bind RNA with high selectivity for U-rich sequences, with TRRM showing additional preference for UA-rich ones. RNA-mediated chemical shift changes map to β-sheet and protein loops in the three RRMs. Additionally, NMR titration and biochemical in vitro cross-linking experiments determined that Pub1p TRRM interacts specifically with the N-terminal region (1–402) of yeast eIF4G1 (Tif4631p), very likely through the conserved Box1, a short sequence motif neighbouring the Pab1p binding site in Tif4631p. The interaction involves conserved residues of Pub1p TRRM, which define a protein interface that mirrors the Pab1p-Tif4631p binding mode. Neither protein nor RNA recognition involves the novel N-terminal helix, whose functional role remains unclear. By integrating these new results with the current knowledge about Pub1p, we proposed different mechanisms of Pub1p recruitment to the mRNPs and Pub1p-mediated mRNA stabilization in which the Pub1p/Tif4631p interaction would play an important role. PMID:21931728

  9. Fimbrin phosphorylation by metaphase Cdk1 regulates actin cable dynamics in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yansong; Han, Xuemei; Zheng, Liangzhen; Xie, Ying; Mu, Yuguang; Yates, John R.; Drubin, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Actin cables, composed of actin filament bundles nucleated by formins, mediate intracellular transport for cell polarity establishment and maintenance. We previously observed that metaphase cells preferentially promote actin cable assembly through cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) activity. However, the relevant metaphase Cdk1 targets were not known. Here we show that the highly conserved actin filament crosslinking protein fimbrin is a critical Cdk1 target for actin cable assembly regulation in budding yeast. Fimbrin is specifically phosphorylated on threonine 103 by the metaphase cyclin–Cdk1 complex, in vivo and in vitro. On the basis of conformational simulations, we suggest that this phosphorylation stabilizes fimbrin's N-terminal domain, and modulates actin filament binding to regulate actin cable assembly and stability in cells. Overall, this work identifies fimbrin as a key target for cell cycle regulation of actin cable assembly in budding yeast, and suggests an underlying mechanism. PMID:27068241

  10. Crystal Structure of the N-terminal Domain of the Group B Streptococcus Alpha C Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Auperin,T.; Bolduc, G.; Baron, M.

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis among neonates and an important cause of morbidity among pregnant women and immunocompromised adults. Invasive diseases due to GBS are attributed to the ability of the pathogen to translocate across human epithelial surfaces. The alpha C protein (ACP) has been identified as an invasin that plays a role in internalization and translocation of GBS across epithelial cells. The soluble N-terminal domain of ACP (NtACP) blocks the internalization of GBS. We determined the 1.86-{angstrom} resolution crystal structure of NtACP comprising residues Ser{sup 52} through Leu{sup 225} ofmore » the full-length ACP. NtACP has two domains, an N-terminal {beta}-sandwich and a C-terminal three-helix bundle. Structural and topological alignments reveal that the {beta}-sandwich shares structural elements with the type III fibronectin fold (FnIII), but includes structural elaborations that make it unique. We have identified a potential integrin-binding motif consisting of Lys-Thr-Asp{sup 146}, Arg{sup 110}, and Asp{sup 118}. A similar arrangement of charged residues has been described in other invasins. ACP shows a heparin binding activity that requires NtACP. We propose a possible heparin-binding site, including one surface of the three-helix bundle, and nearby portions of the sandwich and repeat domains. We have validated this prediction using assays of the heparin binding and cell-adhesion properties of engineered fragments of ACP. This is the first crystal structure of a member of the highly conserved Gram-positive surface alpha-like protein family, and it will enable the internalization mechanism of GBS to be dissected at the atomic level.« less

  11. The secondary cell wall polysaccharide of Bacillus anthracis provides the specific binding ligand for the C-terminal cell wall-binding domain of two phage endolysins, PlyL and PlyG

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Jhuma; Low, Lieh Y; Kamal, Nazia; Saile, Elke; Forsberg, L Scott; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Liddington, Robert; Quinn, Conrad P; Carlson, Russell W; Kannenberg, Elmar L

    2013-01-01

    Endolysins are bacteriophage enzymes that lyse their bacterial host for phage progeny release. They commonly contain an N-terminal catalytic domain that hydrolyzes bacterial peptidoglycan (PG) and a C-terminal cell wall-binding domain (CBD) that confers enzyme localization to the PG substrate. Two endolysins, phage lysin L (PlyL) and phage lysin G (PlyG), are specific for Bacillus anthracis. To date, the cell wall ligands for their C-terminal CBD have not been identified. We recently described structures for a number of secondary cell wall polysaccharides (SCWPs) from B. anthracis and B. cereus strains. They are covalently bound to the PG and are comprised of a -ManNAc-GlcNAc-HexNAc- backbone with various galactosyl or glucosyl substitutions. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) showed that the endolysins PlyL and PlyG bind to the SCWP from B. anthracis (SCWPBa) with high affinity (i.e. in the μM range with dissociation constants ranging from 0.81 × 10−6 to 7.51 × 10−6 M). In addition, the PlyL and PlyG SCWPBa binding sites reside with their C-terminal domains. The dissociation constants for the interactions of these endolysins and their derived C-terminal domains with the SCWPBa were in the range reported for other protein–carbohydrate interactions. Our findings show that the SCWPBa is the ligand that confers PlyL and PlyG lysin binding and localization to the PG. PlyL and PlyG also bound the SCWP from B. cereus G9241 with comparable affinities to SCWPBa. No detectable binding was found to the SCWPs from B. cereus ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) 10987 and ATCC 14579, thus demonstrating specificity of lysin binding to SCWPs. PMID:23493680

  12. Requirement of the basic region of N-WASP/WAVE2 for actin-based motility.

    PubMed

    Suetsugu, S; Miki, H; Yamaguchi, H; Takenawa, T

    2001-04-06

    WASP family proteins activate nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex, inducing rapid actin polymerization in vitro. Although the C-terminal portion of WASP family proteins (VCA) activates nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex in pure systems, we find that this fragment lacks activity in cell extracts. Thus, polystyrene beads coated with VCA did not move in brain cytosol, while beads coated with N-WASP or WAVE2 did move. The basic clusters between the WH1 domain and the CRIB domain of N-WASP were critical for movement since beads coated with N-WASP or WAVE2 constructs missing the basic clusters (Delta basic) also did not move. Furthermore, VCA and N-WASP/WAVE2 Delta basic constructs were much less able than wild-type N-WASP and WAVE2 to induce actin polymerization in cytosol. All of the proteins, with or without the basic domain, were potent activators of nucleation by purified Arp2/3 complex. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  13. Elucidation of the Hsp90 C-terminal Inhibitor Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Matts, Robert L.; Dixit, Anshuman; Peterson, Laura B.; Sun, Liang; Voruganti, Sudhakar; Kalyanaraman, Palgunan; Hartson, Steve D.; Verkhivker, Gennady M.; Blagg, Brian S. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Hsp90 chaperone machine is required for the folding, activation and/or stabilization of more than 50 proteins directly related to malignant progression. Hsp90 contains small molecule binding sites at both its N- and C-terminal domains, however, limited structural and biochemical data regarding the C-terminal binding site is available. In this report, the small molecule binding site in the Hsp90 C-terminal domain was revealed by protease fingerprinting and photoaffinity labeling utilizing LC-MS/MS. The identified site was characterized by generation of a homology model for hHsp90α using the SAXS open structure of HtpG and docking the bioactive conformation of NB into the generated model. The resulting model for the bioactive conformation of NB bound to Hsp90α is presented herein. PMID:21548602

  14. Actin-binding and cell proliferation activities of angiomotin family members are regulated by Hippo pathway-mediated phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Siew Wee; Lim, Chun Jye; Guo, Fusheng; Tan, Ivan; Leung, Thomas; Hong, Wanjin

    2013-12-27

    Whether the Hippo pathway has downstream targets other than YAP and TAZ is unknown. In this report, we have identified angiomotin (Amot) family members as novel substrates of Hippo core kinases. The N-terminal regions of Amot proteins contain a conserved HXRXXS consensus site for LATS1/2-mediated phosphorylation. Phospho-specific antibodies showed that Hippo core kinases could mediate phosphorylation of endogenous as well as exogenous Amot family members. Knockdown of LATS1 and LATS2 endogenously reduced the phosphorylation of Amots detected by the phospho-specific antibodies. Mutation of the serine to alanine within this HXRXXS site in Amot and AmotL2 established that this site was essential for Hippo core kinase-mediated phosphorylation. Wild-type and non-phosphorylated Amot (Amot-S175A) were targeted to actin filaments, whereas phospho-mimic Amot (Amot-S175D) failed to be localized with actin. Overexpression of LATS2 caused dissociation of Amot from actin but not Amot-S175A. Mapping of the actin-binding site of Amot showed that serine 175 of Amot was important for the actin-binding activity. Amot-S175A promoted, whereas Amot and Amot-S175D inhibited, cell proliferation. These results collectively suggest that the Hippo pathway negatively regulates the actin-binding activity of Amot family members through direct phosphorylation.

  15. An unexpected N-terminal loop in PD-1 dominates binding by nivolumab

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shuguang; Zhang, Hao; Chai, Yan; Song, Hao; Tong, Zhou; Wang, Qihui; Qi, Jianxun; Wong, Gary; Zhu, Xiaodong; Liu, William J.; Gao, Shan; Wang, Zhongfu; Shi, Yi; Yang, Fuquan; Gao, George F.; Yan, Jinghua

    2017-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy by targeting of immune checkpoint molecules has been a research ‘hot-spot' in recent years. Nivolumab, a human monoclonal antibody targeting PD-1, has been widely used clinically since 2014. However, the binding mechanism of nivolumab to PD-1 has not yet been shown, despite a recent report describing the complex structure of pembrolizumab/PD-1. It has previously been speculated that PD-1 glycosylation is involved in nivolumab recognition. Here we report the complex structure of nivolumab with PD-1 and evaluate the effects of PD-1 N-glycosylation on the interactions with nivolumab. Structural and functional analyses unexpectedly reveal an N-terminal loop outside the IgV domain of PD-1. This loop is not involved in recognition of PD-L1 but dominates binding to nivolumab, whereas N-glycosylation is not involved in binding at all. Nivolumab binds to a completely different area than pembrolizumab. These results provide the basis for the design of future inhibitory molecules targeting PD-1. PMID:28165004

  16. Functional Roles of the Non-Catalytic Calcium-Binding Sites in the N-Terminal Domain of Human Peptidylarginine Deiminase 4

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi-Liang; Tsai, I-Chen; Chang, Chia-Wei; Liao, Ya-Fan; Liu, Guang-Yaw; Hung, Hui-Chih

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the functional roles of the N-terminal Ca2+ ion-binding sites, in terms of enzyme catalysis and stability, of peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4). Amino acid residues located in the N-terminal Ca2+-binding site of PAD4 were mutated to disrupt the binding of Ca2+ ions. Kinetic data suggest that Asp155, Asp157 and Asp179, which directly coordinate Ca3 and Ca4, are essential for catalysis in PAD4. For D155A, D157A and D179A, the k cat/K m,BAEE values were 0.02, 0.63 and 0.01 s−1mM−1 (20.8 s−1mM−1 for WT), respectively. Asn153 and Asp176 are directly coordinated with Ca3 and indirectly coordinated with Ca5 via a water molecule. However, N153A displayed low enzymatic activity with a k cat value of 0.3 s−1 (13.3 s−1 for wild-type), whereas D176A retained some catalytic power with a k cat of 9.7 s−1. Asp168 is the direct ligand for Ca5, and Ca5 coordination by Glu252 is mediated by two water molecules. However, mutation of these two residues to Ala did not cause a reduction in the k cat/K m,BAEE values, which indicates that the binding of Ca5 may not be required for PAD4 enzymatic activity. The possible conformational changes of these PAD4 mutants were examined. Thermal stability analysis of the PAD4 mutants in the absence or presence of Ca2+ indicated that the conformational stability of the enzyme is highly dependent on Ca2+ ions. In addition, the results of urea-induced denaturation for the N153, D155, D157 and D179 series mutants further suggest that the binding of Ca2+ ions in the N-terminal Ca2+-binding site stabilizes the overall conformational stability of PAD4. Therefore, our data strongly suggest that the N-terminal Ca2+ ions play critical roles in the full activation of the PAD4 enzyme. PMID:23382808

  17. Microscopy basics and the study of actin-actin-binding protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Thomasson, Maggie S; Macnaughtan, Megan A

    2013-12-15

    Actin is a multifunctional eukaryotic protein with a globular monomer form that polymerizes into a thin, linear microfilament in cells. Through interactions with various actin-binding proteins (ABPs), actin plays an active role in many cellular processes, such as cell motility and structure. Microscopy techniques are powerful tools for determining the role and mechanism of actin-ABP interactions in these processes. In this article, we describe the basic concepts of fluorescent speckle microscopy, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and cryoelectron microscopy and review recent studies that utilize these techniques to visualize the binding of actin with ABPs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mouse Hepatitis Virus Strain A59 and Blocking Antireceptor Monoclonal Antibody Bind to the N-Terminal Domain of Cellular Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dveksler, Gabriela S.; Pensiero, Michael N.; Dieffenbach, Carl W.; Cardellichio, Christine B.; Basile, Alexis A.; Elia, Patrick E.; Holmes, Kathryn V.

    1993-03-01

    Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) strain A59 uses as cellular receptors members of the carcinoembryonic antigen family in the immunoglobulin superfamily. Recombinant receptor proteins with deletions of whole or partial immunoglobulin domains were used to identify the regions of receptor glycoprotein recognized by virus and by antireceptor monoclonal antibody CC1, which blocks infection of murine cells. Monoclonal antibody CC1 and MHV-A59 virions bound only to recombinant proteins containing the entire first domain of MHV receptor. To determine which of the proteins could serve as functional virus receptors, receptor-negative hamster cells were transfected with recombinant deletion clones and then challenged with MHV-A59 virions. Receptor activity required the entire N-terminal domain with either the second or the fourth domain and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. Recombinant proteins lacking the first domain or its C-terminal portion did not serve as viral receptors. Thus, like other virus receptors in the immunoglobulin superfamily, including CD4, poliovirus receptor, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1, the N-terminal domain of MHV receptor is recognized by the virus and the blocking monoclonal antibody.

  19. Compaction and binding properties of the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of Henipavirus nucleoprotein as unveiled by deletion studies.

    PubMed

    Blocquel, David; Habchi, Johnny; Gruet, Antoine; Blangy, Stéphanie; Longhi, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Henipaviruses are recently emerged severe human pathogens within the Paramyxoviridae family. Their genome is encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (N) within a helical nucleocapsid that recruits the polymerase complex via the phosphoprotein (P). We have previously shown that in Henipaviruses the N protein possesses an intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain, N(TAIL), which undergoes α-helical induced folding in the presence of the C-terminal domain (P(XD)) of the P protein. Using computational approaches, we previously identified within N(TAIL) four putative molecular recognition elements (MoREs) with different structural propensities, and proposed a structural model for the N(TAIL)-P(XD) complex where the MoRE encompassing residues 473-493 adopt an α-helical conformation at the P(XD) surface. In this work, for each N(TAIL) protein, we designed four deletion constructs bearing different combinations of the predicted MoREs. Following purification of the N(TAIL) truncated proteins from the soluble fraction of E. coli, we characterized them in terms of their conformational, spectroscopic and binding properties. These studies provided direct experimental evidence for the structural state of the four predicted MoREs, and showed that two of them have clear α-helical propensities, with the one spanning residues 473-493 being strictly required for binding to P(XD). We also showed that Henipavirus N(TAIL) and P(XD) form heterologous complexes, indicating that the P(XD) binding regions are functionally interchangeable between the two viruses. By combining spectroscopic and conformational analyses, we showed that the content in regular secondary structure is not a major determinant of protein compaction.

  20. The antibiotic cyclomarin blocks arginine-phosphate-induced millisecond dynamics in the N-terminal domain of ClpC1 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Weinhäupl, Katharina; Brennich, Martha; Kazmaier, Uli; Lelievre, Joel; Ballell, Lluis; Goldberg, Alfred; Schanda, Paul; Fraga, Hugo

    2018-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis can remain dormant in the host, an ability that explains the failure of many current tuberculosis treatments. Recently, the natural products cyclomarin, ecumicin, and lassomycin have been shown to efficiently kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis persisters. Their target is the N-terminal domain of the hexameric AAA+ ATPase ClpC1, which recognizes, unfolds, and translocates protein substrates, such as proteins containing phosphorylated arginine residues, to the ClpP1P2 protease for degradation. Surprisingly, these antibiotics do not inhibit ClpC1 ATPase activity, and how they cause cell death is still unclear. Here, using NMR and small-angle X-ray scattering, we demonstrate that arginine-phosphate binding to the ClpC1 N-terminal domain induces millisecond dynamics. We show that these dynamics are caused by conformational changes and do not result from unfolding or oligomerization of this domain. Cyclomarin binding to this domain specifically blocked these N-terminal dynamics. On the basis of these results, we propose a mechanism of action involving cyclomarin-induced restriction of ClpC1 dynamics, which modulates the chaperone enzymatic activity leading eventually to cell death. © 2018 Weinhäupl et al.

  1. The roles of RIIbeta linker and N-terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding domain in determining the unique structures of Type IIbeta Protein Kinase A. A small angle X-ray and neutron scattering study

    DOE PAGES

    Blumenthal, Donald K.; Copps, Jeffrey; Smith-Nguyen, Eric V.; ...

    2014-08-11

    Protein kinase A (PKA) is ubiquitously expressed and is responsible for regulating many important cellular functions in response to changes in intracellular cAMP concentrations. Moreover, the PKA holoenzyme is a tetramer (R 2:C 2), with a regulatory subunit homodimer (R 2) that binds and inhibits two catalytic (C) subunits; binding of cAMP to the regulatory subunit homodimer causes activation of the catalytic subunits. Four different R subunit isoforms exist in mammalian cells, and these confer different structural features, subcellular localization, and biochemical properties upon the PKA holoenzymes they form. The holoenzyme containing RIIβ is structurally unique in that the typemore » IIβ holoenzyme is much more compact than the free RIIβ homodimer. We have used small angle x-ray scattering and small angle neutron scattering to study the solution structure and subunit organization of a holoenzyme containing an RIIβ C-terminal deletion mutant (RIIβ(1–280)), which is missing the C-terminal cAMP-binding domain to better understand the structural organization of the type IIβ holoenzyme and the RIIβ domains that contribute to stabilizing the holoenzyme conformation. These results demonstrate that compaction of the type IIβ holoenzyme does not require the C-terminal cAMP-binding domain but rather involves large structural rearrangements within the linker and N-terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding domain of the RIIβ homodimer. The structural rearrangements are significantly greater than seen previously with RIIα and are likely to be important in mediating short range and long range interdomain and intersubunit interactions that uniquely regulate the activity of the type IIβ isoform of PKA.« less

  2. MIT domain of Vps4 is a Ca2+-dependent phosphoinositide-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Iwaya, Naoko; Takasu, Hirotoshi; Goda, Natsuko; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Tanaka, Toshiki; Hamada, Daizo; Hiroaki, Hidekazu

    2013-05-01

    The microtubule interacting and trafficking (MIT) domain is a small protein module that is conserved in proteins of diverged function, such as Vps4, spastin and sorting nexin 15 (SNX15). The molecular function of the MIT domain is protein-protein interaction, in which the domain recognizes peptides containing MIT-interacting motifs. Recently, we identified an evolutionarily related domain, 'variant' MIT domain at the N-terminal region of the microtubule severing enzyme katanin p60. We found that the domain was responsible for binding to microtubules and Ca(2+). Here, we have examined whether the authentic MIT domains also bind Ca(2+). We found that the loop between the first and second α-helices of the MIT domain binds a Ca(2+) ion. Furthermore, the MIT domains derived from Vps4b and SNX15a showed phosphoinositide-binding activities in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. We propose that the MIT domain is a novel membrane-associating domain involved in endosomal trafficking.

  3. Calcium-controlled conformational choreography in the N-terminal half of adseverin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumnarnsilpa, Sakesit; Robinson, Robert C.; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Leyrat, Cedric

    2015-09-01

    Adseverin is a member of the calcium-regulated gelsolin superfamily of actin-binding proteins. Here we report the crystal structure of the calcium-free N-terminal half of adseverin (iA1-A3) and the Ca2+-bound structure of A3, which reveal structural similarities and differences with gelsolin. Solution small-angle X-ray scattering combined with ensemble optimization revealed a dynamic Ca2+-dependent equilibrium between inactive, intermediate and active conformations. Increasing calcium concentrations progressively shift this equilibrium from a main population of inactive conformation to the active form. Molecular dynamics simulations of iA1-A3 provided insights into Ca2+-induced destabilization, implicating a critical role for the A2 type II calcium-binding site and the A2A3 linker in the activation process. Finally, mutations that disrupt the A1/A3 interface increase Ca2+-independent F-actin severing by A1-A3, albeit at a lower efficiency than observed for gelsolin domains G1-G3. Together, these data address the calcium dependency of A1-A3 activity in relation to the calcium-independent activity of G1-G3.

  4. Different domains of the murine RNA polymerase I-specific termination factor mTTF-I serve distinct functions in transcription termination.

    PubMed

    Evers, R; Smid, A; Rudloff, U; Lottspeich, F; Grummt, I

    1995-03-15

    Termination of mouse ribosomal gene transcription by RNA polymerase I (Pol I) requires the specific interaction of a DNA binding protein, mTTF-I, with an 18 bp sequence element located downstream of the rRNA coding region. Here we describe the molecular cloning and functional characterization of the cDNA encoding this transcription termination factor. Recombinant mTTF-I binds specifically to the murine terminator elements and terminates Pol I transcription in a reconstituted in vitro system. Deletion analysis has defined a modular structure of mTTF-I comprising a dispensable N-terminal half, a large C-terminal DNA binding region and an internal domain which is required for transcription termination. Significantly, the C-terminal region of mTTF-I reveals striking homology to the DNA binding domains of the proto-oncogene c-Myb and the yeast transcription factor Reb1p. Site-directed mutagenesis of one of the tryptophan residues that is conserved in the homology region of c-Myb, Reb1p and mTTF-I abolishes specific DNA binding, a finding which underscores the functional relevance of these residues in DNA-protein interactions.

  5. Different domains of the murine RNA polymerase I-specific termination factor mTTF-I serve distinct functions in transcription termination.

    PubMed Central

    Evers, R; Smid, A; Rudloff, U; Lottspeich, F; Grummt, I

    1995-01-01

    Termination of mouse ribosomal gene transcription by RNA polymerase I (Pol I) requires the specific interaction of a DNA binding protein, mTTF-I, with an 18 bp sequence element located downstream of the rRNA coding region. Here we describe the molecular cloning and functional characterization of the cDNA encoding this transcription termination factor. Recombinant mTTF-I binds specifically to the murine terminator elements and terminates Pol I transcription in a reconstituted in vitro system. Deletion analysis has defined a modular structure of mTTF-I comprising a dispensable N-terminal half, a large C-terminal DNA binding region and an internal domain which is required for transcription termination. Significantly, the C-terminal region of mTTF-I reveals striking homology to the DNA binding domains of the proto-oncogene c-Myb and the yeast transcription factor Reb1p. Site-directed mutagenesis of one of the tryptophan residues that is conserved in the homology region of c-Myb, Reb1p and mTTF-I abolishes specific DNA binding, a finding which underscores the functional relevance of these residues in DNA-protein interactions. Images PMID:7720715

  6. Insights into PG-binding, conformational change, and dimerization of the OmpA C-terminal domains from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Borrelia burgdorferi: Characterization of OmpA C-Terminal Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Kemin; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L.; Wu, Ruiying

    S. Typhimurium can induce both humoral and cell-mediated responses when establishing itself in the host. These responses are primarily stimulated against the lipopolysaccharide and major outer membrane (OM) proteins of the bacterium. OmpA is one of these major OM proteins. It comprises a N-terminal eight-stranded -barrel membrane domain and a C-terminal so-called OmpA C-terminal domain (OmpACTD). The OmpACTD and its homologs are believed to bind to peptidoglycan (PG) within the periplasm, maintaining bacterial osmotic homeostasis and modulating the permeability and integrity of the outer membrane. Here we present the structures of two forms of the OmpACTD of S. Typhimurium (STOmpACTD)more » and one structure of the less-studied OmpACTD of Borrelia burgdorferi (BbOmpACTD). In the open form of STOmpACTD, an aspartic acid residue from a long 2-3 loop points into the binding pocket, suggesting that an anion group such as a carboxylate group from PG is favored at the binding site. In the closed form of STOmpACTD and in the structure of BbOmpACTD, a sulfate group from the crystallization buffer is tightly bound at the equivalent site. The differences between the closed and open forms of STOmpACTD, suggest a large conformational change that includes an extension of 3 helix by ordering a part of 2-3 loop. We suggest that the sulfate anion observed in these structures mimics the carboxylate group of PG when bound to STOmpACTD. In addition, the binding of PG or a ligand mimic may enhance dimerization of STOmpACTD, or possibly that of full length STOmpA.« less

  7. Concerted regulation of ISWI by an autoinhibitory domain and the H4 N-terminal tail

    PubMed Central

    Ludwigsen, Johanna; Pfennig, Sabrina; Singh, Ashish K; Schindler, Christina; Harrer, Nadine; Forné, Ignasi; Zacharias, Martin; Mueller-Planitz, Felix

    2017-01-01

    ISWI-family nucleosome remodeling enzymes need the histone H4 N-terminal tail to mobilize nucleosomes. Here we mapped the H4-tail binding pocket of ISWI. Surprisingly the binding site was adjacent to but not overlapping with the docking site of an auto-regulatory motif, AutoN, in the N-terminal region (NTR) of ISWI, indicating that AutoN does not act as a simple pseudosubstrate as suggested previously. Rather, AutoN cooperated with a hitherto uncharacterized motif, termed AcidicN, to confer H4-tail sensitivity and discriminate between DNA and nucleosomes. A third motif in the NTR, ppHSA, was functionally required in vivo and provided structural stability by clamping the NTR to Lobe 2 of the ATPase domain. This configuration is reminiscent of Chd1 even though Chd1 contains an unrelated NTR. Our results shed light on the intricate structural and functional regulation of ISWI by the NTR and uncover surprising parallels with Chd1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21477.001 PMID:28109157

  8. Interaction between the C-terminal domains of measles virus nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein: A tight complex implying one binding site

    PubMed Central

    Blocquel, David; Habchi, Johnny; Costanzo, Stéphanie; Doizy, Anthony; Oglesbee, Michael; Longhi, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain (NTAIL) of the measles virus (MeV) nucleoprotein undergoes α-helical folding upon binding to the C-terminal X domain (XD) of the phosphoprotein. The NTAIL region involved in binding coupled to folding has been mapped to a conserved region (Box2) encompassing residues 489–506. In the previous studies published in this journal, we obtained experimental evidence supporting a KD for the NTAIL–XD binding reaction in the nM range and also showed that an additional NTAIL region (Box3, aa 517–525) plays a role in binding to XD. In striking contrast with these data, studies published in this journal by Kingston and coworkers pointed out a much less stable complex (KD in the μM range) and supported lack of involvement of Box3 in complex formation. The objective of this study was to critically re-evaluate the role of Box3 in NTAIL–XD binding. Since our previous studies relied on NTAIL-truncated forms possessing an irrelevant Flag sequence appended at their C-terminus, we, herein, generated an NTAIL devoid of Box3 and any additional C-terminal residues, as well as a form encompassing only residues 482–525. We then used isothermal titration calorimetry to characterize the binding reactions between XD and these NTAIL forms. Results effectively argue for the presence of a single XD-binding site located within Box2, in agreement with the results by Kingston et al., while providing clear experimental support for a high-affinity complex. Altogether, the present data provide mechanistic insights into the replicative machinery of MeV and clarify a hitherto highly debated point. PMID:22887965

  9. The SWI/SNF Subunit INI1 Contains an N-Terminal Winged Helix DNA Binding Domain that Is a Target for Mutations in Schwannomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Mark D.; Freund, Stefan M.V.; Zinzalla, Giovanna; Bycroft, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Summary SWI/SNF complexes use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to remodel chromatin. In mammals they play a central role in regulating gene expression during differentiation and proliferation. Mutations in SWI/SNF subunits are among the most frequent gene alterations in cancer. The INI1/hSNF5/SMARCB1 subunit is mutated in both malignant rhabdoid tumor, a highly aggressive childhood cancer, and schwannomatosis, a tumor-predisposing syndrome characterized by mostly benign tumors of the CNS. Here, we show that mutations in INI1 that cause schwannomatosis target a hitherto unidentified N-terminal winged helix DNA binding domain that is also present in the BAF45a/PHF10 subunit of the SWI/SNF complex. The domain is structurally related to the SKI/SNO/DAC domain, which is found in a number of metazoan chromatin-associated proteins. PMID:26073604

  10. Cofilin is a pH sensor for actin free barbed end formation: role of phosphoinositide binding.

    PubMed

    Frantz, Christian; Barreiro, Gabriela; Dominguez, Laura; Chen, Xiaoming; Eddy, Robert; Condeelis, John; Kelly, Mark J S; Jacobson, Matthew P; Barber, Diane L

    2008-12-01

    Newly generated actin free barbed ends at the front of motile cells provide sites for actin filament assembly driving membrane protrusion. Growth factors induce a rapid biphasic increase in actin free barbed ends, and we found both phases absent in fibroblasts lacking H(+) efflux by the Na-H exchanger NHE1. The first phase is restored by expression of mutant cofilin-H133A but not unphosphorylated cofilin-S3A. Constant pH molecular dynamics simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) reveal pH-sensitive structural changes in the cofilin C-terminal filamentous actin binding site dependent on His133. However, cofilin-H133A retains pH-sensitive changes in NMR spectra and severing activity in vitro, which suggests that it has a more complex behavior in cells. Cofilin activity is inhibited by phosphoinositide binding, and we found that phosphoinositide binding is pH-dependent for wild-type cofilin, with decreased binding at a higher pH. In contrast, phosphoinositide binding by cofilin-H133A is attenuated and pH insensitive. These data suggest a molecular mechanism whereby cofilin acts as a pH sensor to mediate a pH-dependent actin filament dynamics.

  11. PHF1 Tudor and N-terminal domains synergistically target partially unwrapped nucleosomes to increase DNA accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Matthew D.; Gatchalian, Jovylyn; Slater, Andrew; Kutateladze, Tatiana G.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Tudor domain of human PHF1 recognizes trimethylated lysine 36 on histone H3 (H3K36me3). PHF1 relies on this interaction to regulate PRC2 methyltransferase activity, localize to DNA double strand breaks and mediate nucleosome accessibility. Here, we investigate the impact of the PHF1 N-terminal domain (NTD) on the Tudor domain interaction with the nucleosome. We show that the NTD is partially ordered when it is natively attached to the Tudor domain. Through a combination of FRET and single molecule studies, we find that the increase of DNA accessibility within the H3K36me3-containing nucleosome, instigated by the Tudor binding to H3K36me3, is dramatically enhanced by the NTD. We demonstrate that this nearly order of magnitude increase is due to preferential binding of PHF1 to partially unwrapped nucleosomes, and that PHF1 alters DNA–protein binding within the nucleosome by decreasing dissociation rates. These results highlight the potency of a PTM-binding protein to regulate DNA accessibility and underscores the role of the novel mechanism by which nucleosomes control DNA–protein binding through increasing protein dissociation rates. PMID:28082396

  12. Insights into EB1 structure and the role of its C-terminal domain for discriminating microtubule tips from the lattice

    PubMed Central

    Buey, Rubén M.; Mohan, Renu; Leslie, Kris; Walzthoeni, Thomas; Missimer, John H.; Menzel, Andreas; Bjelić, Saša; Bargsten, Katja; Grigoriev, Ilya; Smal, Ihor; Meijering, Erik; Aebersold, Ruedi; Akhmanova, Anna; Steinmetz, Michel O.

    2011-01-01

    End-binding proteins (EBs) comprise a conserved family of microtubule plus end–tracking proteins. The concerted action of calponin homology (CH), linker, and C-terminal domains of EBs is important for their autonomous microtubule tip tracking, regulation of microtubule dynamics, and recruitment of numerous partners to microtubule ends. Here we report the detailed structural and biochemical analysis of mammalian EBs. Small-angle X-ray scattering, electron microscopy, and chemical cross-linking in combination with mass spectrometry indicate that EBs are elongated molecules with two interacting CH domains, an arrangement reminiscent of that seen in other microtubule- and actin-binding proteins. Removal of the negatively charged C-terminal tail did not affect the overall conformation of EBs; however, it increased the dwell times of EBs on the microtubule lattice in microtubule tip–tracking reconstitution experiments. An even more stable association with the microtubule lattice was observed when the entire negatively charged C-terminal domain of EBs was replaced by a neutral coiled-coil motif. In contrast, the interaction of EBs with growing microtubule tips was not significantly affected by these C-terminal domain mutations. Our data indicate that long-range electrostatic repulsive interactions between the C-terminus and the microtubule lattice drive the specificity of EBs for growing microtubule ends. PMID:21737692

  13. How actin binds and assembles onto plasma membranes from Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    We have shown previously (Schwartz, M. A., and E. J. Luna. 1986. J. Cell Biol. 102: 2067-2075) that actin binds with positive cooperativity to plasma membranes from Dictyostelium discoideum. Actin is polymerized at the membrane surface even at concentrations well below the critical concentration for polymerization in solution. Low salt buffer that blocks actin polymerization in solution also prevents actin binding to membranes. To further explore the relationship between actin polymerization and binding to membranes, we prepared four chemically modified actins that appear to be incapable of polymerizing in solution. Three of these derivatives also lost their ability to bind to membranes. The fourth derivative (EF actin), in which histidine-40 is labeled with ethoxyformic anhydride, binds to membranes with reduced affinity. Binding curves exhibit positive cooperativity, and cross- linking experiments show that membrane-bound actin is multimeric. Thus, binding and polymerization are tightly coupled, and the ability of these membranes to polymerize actin is dramatically demonstrated. EF actin coassembles weakly with untreated actin in solution, but coassembles well on membranes. Binding by untreated actin and EF actin are mutually competitive, indicating that they bind to the same membrane sites. Hill plots indicate that an actin trimer is the minimum assembly state required for tight binding to membranes. The best explanation for our data is a model in which actin oligomers assemble by binding to clustered membrane sites with successive monomers on one side of the actin filament bound to the membrane. Individual binding affinities are expected to be low, but the overall actin-membrane avidity is high, due to multivalency. Our results imply that extracellular factors that cluster membrane proteins may create sites for the formation of actin nuclei and thus trigger actin polymerization in the cell. PMID:3392099

  14. The Carboxy-Terminal Domain of Hsc70 Provides Binding Sites for a Distinct Set of Chaperone Cofactors

    PubMed Central

    Demand, Jens; Lüders, Jens; Höhfeld, Jörg

    1998-01-01

    The modulation of the chaperone activity of the heat shock cognate Hsc70 protein in mammalian cells involves cooperation with chaperone cofactors, such as Hsp40; BAG-1; the Hsc70-interacting protein, Hip; and the Hsc70-Hsp90-organizing protein, Hop. By employing the yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro interaction assays, we have provided insight into the structural basis that underlies Hsc70’s cooperation with different cofactors. The carboxy-terminal domain of Hsc70, previously shown to form a lid over the peptide binding pocket of the chaperone protein, mediates the interaction of Hsc70 with Hsp40 and Hop. Remarkably, the two cofactors bind to the carboxy terminus of Hsc70 in a noncompetitive manner, revealing the existence of distinct binding sites for Hsp40 and Hop within this domain. In contrast, Hip interacts exclusively with the amino-terminal ATPase domain of Hsc70. Hence, Hsc70 possesses separate nonoverlapping binding sites for Hsp40, Hip, and Hop. This appears to enable the chaperone protein to cooperate simultaneously with multiple cofactors. On the other hand, BAG-1 and Hip have recently been shown to compete in binding to the ATPase domain. Our data thus establish the existence of a network of cooperating and competing cofactors regulating the chaperone activity of Hsc70 in the mammalian cell. PMID:9528774

  15. F-actin and G-actin binding are uncoupled by mutation of conserved tyrosine residues in maize actin depolymerizing factor (ZmADF)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chang-Jie; Weeds, Alan G.; Khan, Safina; Hussey, Patrick J.

    1997-01-01

    Actin depolymerizing factors (ADF) are stimulus responsive actin cytoskeleton modulating proteins. They bind both monomeric actin (G-actin) and filamentous actin (F-actin) and, under certain conditions, F-actin binding is followed by filament severing. In this paper, using mutant maize ADF3 proteins, we demonstrate that the maize ADF3 binding of F-actin can be spatially distinguished from that of G-actin. One mutant, zmadf3–1, in which Tyr-103 and Ala-104 (equivalent to destrin Tyr-117 and Ala-118) have been replaced by phenylalanine and glycine, respectively, binds more weakly to both G-actin and F-actin compared with maize ADF3. A second mutant, zmadf3–2, in which both Tyr-67 and Tyr-70 are replaced by phenylalanine, shows an affinity for G-actin similar to maize ADF3, but F-actin binding is abolished. The two tyrosines, Tyr-67 and Tyr-70, are in the equivalent position to Tyr-82 and Tyr-85 of destrin, respectively. Using the tertiary structure of destrin, yeast cofilin, and Acanthamoeba actophorin, we discuss the implications of removing the aromatic hydroxyls of Tyr-82 and Tyr-85 (i.e., the effect of substituting phenylalanine for tyrosine) and conclude that Tyr-82 plays a critical role in stabilizing the tertiary structure that is essential for F-actin binding. We propose that this tertiary structure is maintained as a result of a hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl of Tyr-82 and the carbonyl of Tyr-117, which is located in the long α-helix; amino acid components of this helix (Leu-111 to Phe-128) have been implicated in G-actin and F-actin binding. The structures of human destrin and yeast cofilin indicate a hydrogen distance of 2.61 and 2.77 Å, respectively, with corresponding bond angles of 99.5° and 113°, close to the optimum for a strong hydrogen bond. PMID:9275236

  16. The roles of the RIIβ linker and N-terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding domain in determining the unique structures of the type IIβ protein kinase A: a small angle x-ray and neutron scattering study.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Donald K; Copps, Jeffrey; Smith-Nguyen, Eric V; Zhang, Ping; Heller, William T; Taylor, Susan S

    2014-10-10

    Protein kinase A (PKA) is ubiquitously expressed and is responsible for regulating many important cellular functions in response to changes in intracellular cAMP concentrations. The PKA holoenzyme is a tetramer (R2:C2), with a regulatory subunit homodimer (R2) that binds and inhibits two catalytic (C) subunits; binding of cAMP to the regulatory subunit homodimer causes activation of the catalytic subunits. Four different R subunit isoforms exist in mammalian cells, and these confer different structural features, subcellular localization, and biochemical properties upon the PKA holoenzymes they form. The holoenzyme containing RIIβ is structurally unique in that the type IIβ holoenzyme is much more compact than the free RIIβ homodimer. We have used small angle x-ray scattering and small angle neutron scattering to study the solution structure and subunit organization of a holoenzyme containing an RIIβ C-terminal deletion mutant (RIIβ(1-280)), which is missing the C-terminal cAMP-binding domain to better understand the structural organization of the type IIβ holoenzyme and the RIIβ domains that contribute to stabilizing the holoenzyme conformation. Our results demonstrate that compaction of the type IIβ holoenzyme does not require the C-terminal cAMP-binding domain but rather involves large structural rearrangements within the linker and N-terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding domain of the RIIβ homodimer. The structural rearrangements are significantly greater than seen previously with RIIα and are likely to be important in mediating short range and long range interdomain and intersubunit interactions that uniquely regulate the activity of the type IIβ isoform of PKA. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. The SWI/SNF Subunit INI1 Contains an N-Terminal Winged Helix DNA Binding Domain that Is a Target for Mutations in Schwannomatosis.

    PubMed

    Allen, Mark D; Freund, Stefan M V; Zinzalla, Giovanna; Bycroft, Mark

    2015-07-07

    SWI/SNF complexes use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to remodel chromatin. In mammals they play a central role in regulating gene expression during differentiation and proliferation. Mutations in SWI/SNF subunits are among the most frequent gene alterations in cancer. The INI1/hSNF5/SMARCB1 subunit is mutated in both malignant rhabdoid tumor, a highly aggressive childhood cancer, and schwannomatosis, a tumor-predisposing syndrome characterized by mostly benign tumors of the CNS. Here, we show that mutations in INI1 that cause schwannomatosis target a hitherto unidentified N-terminal winged helix DNA binding domain that is also present in the BAF45a/PHF10 subunit of the SWI/SNF complex. The domain is structurally related to the SKI/SNO/DAC domain, which is found in a number of metazoan chromatin-associated proteins. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of sucrose synthase as an actin-binding protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, H.; Huber, J. L.; Huber, S. C.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that sucrose synthase (SuSy) binds both G- and F-actin: (i) presence of SuSy in the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction of microsomal membranes (i.e. crude cytoskeleton fraction); (ii) co-immunoprecipitation of actin with anti-SuSy monoclonal antibodies; (iii) association of SuSy with in situ phalloidin-stabilized F-actin filaments; and (iv) direct binding to F-actin, polymerized in vitro. Aldolase, well known to interact with F-actin, interfered with binding of SuSy, suggesting that a common or overlapping binding site may be involved. We postulate that some of the soluble SuSy in the cytosol may be associated with the actin cytoskeleton in vivo.

  19. Intrasteric inhibition mediates the interaction of the I/LWEQ module proteins Talin1, Talin2, Hip1, and Hip12 with actin.

    PubMed

    Senetar, Melissa A; Foster, Stanley J; McCann, Richard O

    2004-12-14

    The I/LWEQ module superfamily is a class of actin-binding proteins that contains a conserved C-terminal actin-binding element known as the I/LWEQ module. I/LWEQ module proteins include the metazoan talins, the cellular slime mold talin homologues TalA and TalB, fungal Sla2p, and the metazoan Sla2 homologues Hip1 and Hip12 (Hip1R). These proteins possess a similar modular organization that includes an I/LWEQ module at their C-termini and either a FERM domain or an ENTH domain at their N-termini. As a result of this modular organization, I/LWEQ module proteins may serve as linkers between cellular compartments, such as the plasma membrane and the endocytic machinery, and the actin cytoskeleton. Previous studies have shown that I/LWEQ module proteins bind to F-actin. In this report, we have determined the affinity of the I/LWEQ module proteins Talin1, Talin2, huntingtin interacting protein-1 (Hip1), and the Hip1-related protein (Hip1R/Hip12) for F-actin and identified a conserved structural element that interferes with the actin binding capacity of these proteins. Our data support the hypothesis that the actin-binding determinants in native talin and other I/LWEQ module proteins are cryptic and indicate that the actin binding capacities of Talin1, Talin2, Hip1, and Hip12 are regulated by intrasteric occlusion of primary actin-binding determinants within the I/LWEQ module. We have also found that the I/LWEQ module contains a dimerization motif and stabilizes actin filaments against depolymerization. This activity may contribute to the function of talin in cell adhesion and the roles of Hip1, Hip12 (Hip1R), and Sla2p in endocytosis.

  20. Transfer of C-terminal residues of human apolipoprotein A-I to insect apolipophorin III creates a two-domain chimeric protein with enhanced lipid binding activity.

    PubMed

    Horn, James V C; Ellena, Rachel A; Tran, Jesse J; Beck, Wendy H J; Narayanaswami, Vasanthy; Weers, Paul M M

    2017-08-01

    Apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) is an insect apolipoprotein (18kDa) that comprises a single five-helix bundle domain. In contrast, human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is a 28kDa two-domain protein: an α-helical N-terminal domain (residues 1-189) and a less structured C-terminal domain (residues 190-243). To better understand the apolipoprotein domain organization, a novel chimeric protein was engineered by attaching residues 179 to 243 of apoA-I to the C-terminal end of apoLp-III. The apoLp-III/apoA-I chimera was successfully expressed and purified in E. coli. Western blot analysis and mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of the C-terminal domain of apoA-I within the chimera. While parent apoLp-III did not self-associate, the chimera formed oligomers similar to apoA-I. The chimera displayed a lower α-helical content, but the stability remained similar compared to apoLp-III, consistent with the addition of a less structured domain. The chimera was able to solubilize phospholipid vesicles at a significantly higher rate compared to apoLp-III, approaching that of apoA-I. The chimera was more effective in protecting phospholipase C-treated low density lipoprotein from aggregation compared to apoLp-III. In addition, binding interaction of the chimera with phosphatidylglycerol vesicles and lipopolysaccharides was considerably improved compared to apoLp-III. Thus, addition of the C-terminal domain of apoA-I to apoLp-III created a two-domain protein, with self-association, lipid and lipopolysaccharide binding properties similar to apoA-I. The apoA-I like behavior of the chimera indicate that these properties are independent from residues residing in the N-terminal domain of apoA-I, and that they can be transferred from apoA-I to apoLp-III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mechanism of calmodulin recognition of the binding domain of isoform 1b of the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase: kinetic pathway and effects of methionine oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Slaughter, Brian D.; Bieber Urbauer, Ramona J.; Urbauer, Jeffrey L.; Johnson, Carey K.

    2008-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) binds to a domain near the C-terminus of the plasma-membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA), causing the release of this domain and relief of its autoinhibitory function. We investigated the kinetics of dissociation and binding of Ca2+-CaM with a 28-residue peptide (C28W(1b)) corresponding to the CaM binding domain of isoform 1b of PMCA. CaM was labeled with a fluorescent probe on either the N-terminal domain at residue 34 or on the C-terminal domain at residue 110. Formation of complexes of CaM with C28W(1b) results in a decrease in the fluorescence yield of the fluorophore, allowing the kinetics of dissociation or binding to be detected. Using a maximum entropy method, we determined the minimum number and magnitudes of rate constants required to fit the data. Comparison of the fluorescence changes for CaM labeled on the C-terminal or N-terminal domain suggests sequential and ordered binding of the C-terminal and N-terminal domains of CaM with C28W(1b). For dissociation of C28W(1b) from CaM labeled on the N-terminal domain, we observed three time constants, indicating the presence of two intermediate states in the dissociation pathway. However, for CaM labeled on the C-terminal domain, we observed only two time constants, suggesting that the fluorescence label on the C-terminal domain was not sensitive to one of the kinetic steps. The results were modeled by a kinetic mechanism where an initial complex forms upon binding of the C-terminal domain of CaM to C28W(1b), followed by binding of the N-terminal domain, and then formation of a tight binding complex. Oxidation of methionine residues in CaM resulted in significant perturbations to the binding kinetics. The rate of formation of a tight binding complex was reduced, consistent with the lower effectiveness of oxidized CaM in activating the Ca2+ pump. PMID:17343368

  2. Mutational analyses of Aquifex pyrophilus DNA ligase define essential domains for self-adenylation and DNA binding activity.

    PubMed

    Lim, J H; Choi, J; Kim, W; Ahn, B Y; Han, Y S

    2001-04-15

    We constructed nine deletion mutants of NAD+-dependent DNA ligase from Aquifex pyrophilus to characterize the functional domains. All of DNA ligase deletion mutants were analyzed in biochemical assays for NAD+-dependent self-adenylation, DNA binding, and nick-closing activity. Although the mutant lsub1 (91-362) included the active site lysine (KxDG), self-adenylation was not shown. However, the mutants lsub6 (1-362), lsub7 (1-516), and lsub9 (1-635) showed the same adenylation activity as that of wild type. The lsub5 (91-719), which has the C-terminal domain (487-719) as to lsub4 (91-486), showed minimal adenylation activity. These results suggest that the presence of N-terminal 90 residues is essential for the formation of an enzyme-AMP complex, while C-terminal domain (487-719) appears to play a minimal role in adenylation. It was found that the presence of C-terminal domain (487-719) is indispensable for DNA binding activity of lsub5 (91-719). The mutant lsub9 (1-635) showed reduced DNA binding activity compared to that of wild type, suggesting the contribution of the domain (636-719) for the DNA binding activity. Thus, we concluded that the N-terminal 90 residues and C-terminal domain (487-719) of NAD+-dependent DNA ligase from A. pyrophilus are mutually indispensable for binding of DNA substrate.

  3. Structure-Based Mutational Analysis of the C-Terminal DNA-Binding Domain of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Integrase: Critical Residues for Protein Oligomerization and DNA Binding

    PubMed Central

    Lutzke, Ramon A. Puras; Plasterk, Ronald H. A.

    1998-01-01

    The C-terminal domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase (IN) is a dimer that binds to DNA in a nonspecific manner. The structure of the minimal region required for DNA binding (IN220–270) has been solved by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The overall fold of the C-terminal domain of HIV-1 IN is similar to those of Src homology region 3 domains. Based on the structure of IN220–270, we studied the role of 15 amino acid residues potentially involved in DNA binding and oligomerization by mutational analysis. We found that two amino acid residues, arginine 262 and leucine 234, contribute to DNA binding in the context of IN220–270, as indicated by protein-DNA UV cross-link analysis. We also analyzed mutant proteins representing portions of the full-length IN protein. Amino acid substitution of residues located in the hydrophobic dimer interface, such as L241A and L242A, results in the loss of oligomerization of IN; consequently, the levels of 3′ processing, DNA strand transfer, and intramolecular disintegration are strongly reduced. These results suggest that dimerization of the C-terminal domain of IN is important for correct multimerization of IN. PMID:9573250

  4. The N-terminal domain of the mammalian nucleoporin p62 interacts with other nucleoporins of the FXFG family during interphase

    SciTech Connect

    Stochaj, Ursula; Banski, Piotr; Kodiha, Mohamed

    2006-08-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) provide the only sites for macromolecular transport between nucleus and cytoplasm. The nucleoporin p62, a component of higher eukaryotic NPCs, is located at the central gated channel and involved in nuclear trafficking of various cargos. p62 is organized into an N-terminal segment that contains FXFG repeats and binds the soluble transport factor NTF2, whereas the C-terminal portion associates with other nucleoporins and importin-{beta}1. We have now identified new components that interact specifically with the p62 N-terminal domain. Using the p62 N-terminal segment as bait, we affinity-purified nucleoporins Nup358, Nup214 and Nup153 from crude cell extracts. Inmore » ligand binding assays, the N-terminal p62 segment associated with Nup358 and p62, suggesting their direct binding to the p62 N-terminal portion. Furthermore, p62 was isolated in complex with Nup358, Nup214 and Nup153 from growing HeLa cells, indicating that the interactions Nup358/p62, Nup214/p62 and p62/Nup153 also occur in vivo. The formation of Nup358/p62 and p62/Nup153 complexes was restricted to interphase cells, whereas Nup214/p62 binding was detected in interphase as well as during mitosis. Our results support a model of complex interactions between FXFG containing nucleoporins, and we propose that some of these interactions may contribute to the movement of cargo across the NPC.« less

  5. Solution structure and backbone dynamics of the N-terminal region of the calcium regulatory domain from soybean calcium-dependent protein kinase alpha.

    PubMed

    Weljie, Aalim M; Gagné, Stéphane M; Vogel, Hans J

    2004-12-07

    Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are vital Ca(2+)-signaling proteins in plants and protists which have both a kinase domain and a self-contained calcium regulatory calmodulin-like domain (CLD). Despite being very similar to CaM (>40% identity) and sharing the same fold, recent biochemical and structural evidence suggests that the behavior of CLD is distinct from its namesake, calmodulin. In this study, NMR spectroscopy is employed to examine the structure and backbone dynamics of a 168 amino acid Ca(2+)-saturated construct of the CLD (NtH-CLD) in which almost the entire C-terminal domain is exchange broadened and not visible in the NMR spectra. Structural characterization of the N-terminal domain indicates that the first Ca(2+)-binding loop is significantly more open than in a recently reported structure of the CLD complexed with a putative intramolecular binding region (JD) in the CDPK. Backbone dynamics suggest that parts of the third helix exhibit unusually high mobility, and significant exchange, consistent with previous findings that this helix interacts with the C-terminal domain. Dynamics data also show that the "tether" region, consisting of the first 11 amino acids of CLD, is highly mobile and these residues exhibit distinctive beta-type secondary structure, which may help to position the JD and CLD. Finally, the unusual global dynamic behavior of the protein is rationalized on the basis of possible interdomain rearrangements and the highly variable environments of the C- and N-terminal domains.

  6. A peek into tropomyosin binding and unfolding on the actin filament.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhishek; Hitchcock-Degregori, Sarah E

    2009-07-24

    Tropomyosin is a prototypical coiled coil along its length with subtle variations in structure that allow interactions with actin and other proteins. Actin binding globally stabilizes tropomyosin. Tropomyosin-actin interaction occurs periodically along the length of tropomyosin. However, it is not well understood how tropomyosin binds actin. Tropomyosin's periodic binding sites make differential contributions to two components of actin binding, cooperativity and affinity, and can be classified as primary or secondary sites. We show through mutagenesis and analysis of recombinant striated muscle alpha-tropomyosins that primary actin binding sites have a destabilizing coiled-coil interface, typically alanine-rich, embedded within a non-interface recognition sequence. Introduction of an Ala cluster in place of the native, more stable interface in period 2 and/or period 3 sites (of seven) increased the affinity or cooperativity of actin binding, analysed by cosedimentation and differential scanning calorimetry. Replacement of period 3 with period 5 sequence, an unstable region of known importance for cooperative actin binding, increased the cooperativity of binding. Introduction of the fluorescent probe, pyrene, near the mutation sites in periods 2 and 3 reported local instability, stabilization by actin binding, and local unfolding before or coincident with dissociation from actin (measured using light scattering), and chain dissociation (analyzed using circular dichroism). This, and previous work, suggests that regions of tropomyosin involved in binding actin have non-interface residues specific for interaction with actin and an unstable interface that is locally stabilized upon binding. The destabilized interface allows residues on the coiled-coil surface to obtain an optimal conformation for interaction with actin by increasing the number of local substates that the side chains can sample. We suggest that local disorder is a property typical of coiled coil binding

  7. hLARP7 C-terminal domain contains an xRRM that binds the 3' hairpin of 7SK RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Eichhorn, Catherine D.; Chug, Rahul; Feigon, Juli

    The 7SK small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) sequesters and inactivates the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), an essential eukaryotic mRNA transcription factor. The human La-related protein group 7 (hLARP7) is a constitutive component of the 7SK snRNP and localizes to the 3' terminus of the 7SK long noncoding RNA. hLARP7, and in particular its C-terminal domain (CTD), is essential for 7SK RNA stability and assembly with P-TEFb. The hLARP7 N-terminal Lamodule binds and protects the 3' end from degradation, but the structural and functional role of its CTD is unclear.We report the solution NMR structure of the hLARP7 CTD andmore » show that this domain contains an xRRM, a class of atypical RRM first identified in the Tetrahymena thermophila telomerase LARP7 protein p65. The xRRM binds the 3' end of 7SK RNA at the top of stem-loop 4 (SL4) and interacts with both unpaired and base-paired nucleotides. This study thus confirms that the xRRM is general to the LARP7 family of proteins and defines the binding site for hLARP7 on the 7SK RNA, providing insight into function.« less

  8. hLARP7 C-terminal domain contains an xRRM that binds the 3' hairpin of 7SK RNA

    DOE PAGES

    Eichhorn, Catherine D.; Chug, Rahul; Feigon, Juli

    2016-09-26

    The 7SK small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) sequesters and inactivates the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), an essential eukaryotic mRNA transcription factor. The human La-related protein group 7 (hLARP7) is a constitutive component of the 7SK snRNP and localizes to the 3' terminus of the 7SK long noncoding RNA. hLARP7, and in particular its C-terminal domain (CTD), is essential for 7SK RNA stability and assembly with P-TEFb. The hLARP7 N-terminal Lamodule binds and protects the 3' end from degradation, but the structural and functional role of its CTD is unclear.We report the solution NMR structure of the hLARP7 CTD andmore » show that this domain contains an xRRM, a class of atypical RRM first identified in the Tetrahymena thermophila telomerase LARP7 protein p65. The xRRM binds the 3' end of 7SK RNA at the top of stem-loop 4 (SL4) and interacts with both unpaired and base-paired nucleotides. This study thus confirms that the xRRM is general to the LARP7 family of proteins and defines the binding site for hLARP7 on the 7SK RNA, providing insight into function.« less

  9. A WASp–VASP complex regulates actin polymerization at the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Flavia; Le Clainche, Christophe; Patin, Delphine; Carlier, Marie-France; Chavrier, Philippe

    2001-01-01

    Proteins of the Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome and Ena/VASP families both play essential functions in the regulation of actin dynamics at the cell leading edge. However, possibilities of functional interplay between members of these two families have not been addressed. Here we show that, in hemopoietic cells, recruitment of the C-terminal VCA (Verprolin homology, Cofilin homology, Acidic) domain of WASp at the plasma membrane by a ligand technique using rapamycin as an intermediate is not sufficient to elicit efficient Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin polymerization. Other domains of WASp, in particular the proline-rich domain, are required for the formation of actin-rich structures. An in vitro analysis demonstrates that the proline-rich domain of WASp binds VASP with an affinity of ∼106 M–1. In addition, WASp and VASP both accumulate in actin-rich phagocytic cups. Finally, in a reconstituted motility medium, VASP enhances actin-based propulsion of WASp-coated beads in a fashion reminiscent of its effect on Listeria movement. We propose that VASP and WASp cooperation is essential in stimulating actin assembly and membrane protrusion at the leading edge. PMID:11598004

  10. AlphaII-spectrin interacts with Tes and EVL, two actin-binding proteins located at cell contacts.

    PubMed

    Rotter, Björn; Bournier, Odile; Nicolas, Gael; Dhermy, Didier; Lecomte, Marie-Christine

    2005-06-01

    The spectrin-based membrane skeleton, a multi-protein scaffold attached to diverse cellular membranes, is presumed to be involved in the stabilization of membranes, the establishment of membrane domains as well as in vesicle trafficking and nuclear functions. Spectrin tetramers made of alpha- and beta-subunits are linked to actin microfilaments, forming a network that binds a multitude of proteins. The most prevalent alpha-spectrin subunit in non-erythroid cells, alphaII-spectrin, contains two particular spectrin repeats in its central region, alpha9 and alpha10, which host an Src homology 3 domain, a tissue-specific spliced sequence of 20 residues, a calmodulin-binding site and major cleavage sites for caspases and calpains. Using yeast two-hybrid screening of kidney libraries, we identified two partners of the alpha9-alpha10 repeats: the potential tumour suppressor Tes, an actin-binding protein mainly located at focal adhesions; and EVL (Ena/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein-like protein), another actin-binding protein, equally recruited at focal adhesions. Interactions between spectrin and overexpressed Tes and EVL were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. In vitro studies showed that the interaction between Tes and spectrin is mediated by a LIM (Lin-11, Isl-1 and Mec3) domain of Tes and by the alpha10 repeat of alphaII-spectrin whereas EVL interacts with the Src homology 3 domain located within the alpha9 repeat. Moreover, we describe an in vitro interaction between Tes and EVL, and a co-localization of these two proteins at focal adhesions. These interactions between alphaII-spectrin, Tes and EVL indicate new functions for spectrin in actin dynamics and focal adhesions.

  11. Structure of myostatin·follistatin-like 3: N-terminal domains of follistatin-type molecules exhibit alternate modes of binding.

    PubMed

    Cash, Jennifer N; Angerman, Elizabeth B; Kattamuri, Chandramohan; Nolan, Kristof; Zhao, Huaying; Sidis, Yisrael; Keutmann, Henry T; Thompson, Thomas B

    2012-01-06

    TGF-β family ligands are involved in a variety of critical physiological processes. For instance, the TGF-β ligand myostatin is a staunch negative regulator of muscle growth and a therapeutic target for muscle-wasting disorders. Therefore, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms of TGF-β family regulation. One form of regulation is through inhibition by extracellular antagonists such as the follistatin (Fst)-type proteins. Myostatin is tightly controlled by Fst-like 3 (Fstl3), which is the only Fst-type molecule that has been identified in the serum bound to myostatin. Here, we present the crystal structure of myostatin in complex with Fstl3. The structure reveals that the N-terminal domain (ND) of Fstl3 interacts uniquely with myostatin as compared with activin A, because it utilizes different surfaces on the ligand. This results in conformational differences in the ND of Fstl3 that alter its position in the type I receptor-binding site of the ligand. We also show that single point mutations in the ND of Fstl3 are detrimental to ligand binding, whereas corresponding mutations in Fst have little effect. Overall, we have shown that the NDs of Fst-type molecules exhibit distinctive modes of ligand binding, which may affect overall affinity of ligand·Fst-type protein complexes.

  12. Crystal structure of the UBR-box from UBR6/FBXO11 reveals domain swapping mediated by zinc binding.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Escobar, Juliana; Kozlov, Guennadi; Gehring, Kalle

    2017-10-01

    The UBR-box is a 70-residue zinc finger domain present in the UBR family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that directly binds N-terminal degradation signals in substrate proteins. UBR6, also called FBXO11, is an UBR-box containing E3 ubiquitin ligase that does not bind N-terminal signals. Here, we present the crystal structure of the UBR-box domain from human UBR6. The dimeric crystal structure reveals a unique form of domain swapping mediated by zinc coordination, where three independent protein chains come together to regenerate the topology of the monomeric UBR-box fold. Analysis of the structure suggests that the absence of N-terminal residue binding arises from the lack of an amino acid binding pocket. © 2017 The Authors Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Protein Society.

  13. A Second Las17 Monomeric Actin-Binding Motif Functions in Arp2/3-Dependent Actin Polymerization During Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Feliciano, Daniel; Tolsma, Thomas O.; Farrell, Kristen B.; Aradi, Al; Di Pietro, Santiago M.

    2018-01-01

    During clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), actin assembly provides force to drive vesicle internalization. Members of the Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family play a fundamental role stimulating actin assembly. WASP family proteins contain a WH2 motif that binds globular actin (G-actin) and a central-acidic motif that binds the Arp2/3 complex, thus promoting the formation of branched actin filaments. Yeast WASP (Las17) is the strongest of five factors promoting Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization during CME. It was suggested that this strong activity may be caused by a putative second G-actin-binding motif in Las17. Here, we describe the in vitro and in vivo characterization of such Las17 G-actin-binding motif (LGM) and its dependence on a group of conserved arginine residues. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, GST-pulldown, fluorescence polarization and pyrene-actin polymerization assays, we show that LGM binds G-actin and is necessary for normal Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization in vitro. Live-cell fluorescence microscopy experiments demonstrate that LGM is required for normal dynamics of actin polymerization during CME. Further, LGM is necessary for normal dynamics of endocytic machinery components that are recruited at early, intermediate and late stages of endocytosis, as well as for optimal endocytosis of native CME cargo. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments show that LGM has relatively lower potency compared to the previously known Las17 G-actin-binding motif, WH2. These results establish a second G-actin-binding motif in Las17 and advance our knowledge on the mechanism of actin assembly during CME. PMID:25615019

  14. Insights into PG-binding, conformational change, and dimerization of the OmpA C-terminal domains from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Borrelia burgdorferi: Characterization of OmpA C-Terminal Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Kemin; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L.; Wu, Ruiying

    S. Typhimurium can induce both humoral and cell-mediated responses when establishing itself in the host. These responses are primarily stimulated against the lipopolysaccharide and major outer membrane (OM) proteins. OmpA is one of these major OM proteins. It comprises a N-terminal eight-stranded b-barrel trans membrane domain and a C-terminal domain (OmpACTD). The OmpACTD and its homologs are believed to bind to peptidoglycan (PG) within the periplasm, maintaining bacterial osmotic homeostasis and modulating the permeability and integrity of the OM. Here we present the first crystal structures of the OmpACTD from two pathogens: S. Typhimurium (STOmpACTD) in open and closed formsmore » and causative agent of Lyme Disease Borrelia burgdorferi (BbOmpACTD), in closed form. In the open form of STOmpACTD, an aspartic acid residue from a long b2-a3 loop points into the binding pocket, suggesting that an anion group such as a carboxylate group from PG is favored at the binding site. In the closed form of STOmpACTD and in the structure of BbOmpACTD, a sulfate group from the crystallization buffer is tightly bound at the binding site. The differences between the closed and open forms of STOmpACTD, suggest a large conformational change that includes an extension of a3 helix by ordering a part of b2-a3 loop. We propose that the sulfate anion observed in these structures mimics the carboxylate group of PG when bound to STOmpACTD suggesting PG-anchoring mechanism. In addition, the binding of PG or a ligand mimic may enhance dimerization of STOmpACTD, or possibly that of full length STOmpA.« less

  15. Structural basis of filopodia formation induced by the IRSp53/MIM homology domain of human IRSp53

    PubMed Central

    Millard, Thomas H; Bompard, Guillaume; Heung, Man Yeung; Dafforn, Timothy R; Scott, David J; Machesky, Laura M; Fütterer, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    The scaffolding protein insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate p53 (IRSp53), a ubiquitous regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, mediates filopodia formation under the control of Rho-family GTPases. IRSp53 comprises a central SH3 domain, which binds to proline-rich regions of a wide range of actin regulators, and a conserved N-terminal IRSp53/MIM homology domain (IMD) that harbours F-actin-bundling activity. Here, we present the crystal structure of this novel actin-bundling domain revealing a coiled-coil domain that self-associates into a 180 Å-long zeppelin-shaped dimer. Sedimentation velocity experiments confirm the presence of a single molecular species of twice the molecular weight of the monomer in solution. Mutagenesis of conserved basic residues at the extreme ends of the dimer abrogated actin bundling in vitro and filopodia formation in vivo, demonstrating that IMD-mediated actin bundling is required for IRSp53-induced filopodia formation. This study promotes an expanded view of IRSp53 as an actin regulator that integrates scaffolding and effector functions. PMID:15635447

  16. Actin-binding proteins sensitively mediate F-actin bundle stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claessens, Mireille M. A. E.; Bathe, Mark; Frey, Erwin; Bausch, Andreas R.

    2006-09-01

    Bundles of filamentous actin (F-actin) form primary structural components of a broad range of cytoskeletal processes including filopodia, sensory hair cell bristles and microvilli. Actin-binding proteins (ABPs) allow the cell to tailor the dimensions and mechanical properties of the bundles to suit specific biological functions. Therefore, it is important to obtain quantitative knowledge on the effect of ABPs on the mechanical properties of F-actin bundles. Here we measure the bending stiffness of F-actin bundles crosslinked by three ABPs that are ubiquitous in eukaryotes. We observe distinct regimes of bundle bending stiffness that differ by orders of magnitude depending on ABP type, concentration and bundle size. The behaviour observed experimentally is reproduced quantitatively by a molecular-based mechanical model in which ABP shearing competes with F-actin extension/compression. Our results shed new light on the biomechanical function of ABPs and demonstrate how single-molecule properties determine mesoscopic behaviour. The bending mechanics of F-actin fibre bundles are general and have implications for cytoskeletal mechanics and for the rational design of functional materials.

  17. Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 Binds to Neuronal Vesicles through Protein Interactions Mediated by Its C-Terminal WD40 Domain

    PubMed Central

    Piccoli, Giovanni; Onofri, Franco; Cirnaru, Maria Daniela; Kaiser, Christoph J. O.; Jagtap, Pravinkumar; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Pischedda, Francesca; Marte, Antonella; von Zweydorf, Felix; Vogt, Andreas; Giesert, Florian; Pan, Lifeng; Antonucci, Flavia; Kiel, Christina; Zhang, Mingjie; Weinkauf, Sevil; Sattler, Michael; Sala, Carlo; Matteoli, Michela; Ueffing, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) are associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 is a complex protein that consists of multiple domains, including predicted C-terminal WD40 repeats. In this study, we analyzed functional and molecular features conferred by the WD40 domain. Electron microscopic analysis of the purified LRRK2 C-terminal domain revealed doughnut-shaped particles, providing experimental evidence for its WD40 fold. We demonstrate that LRRK2 WD40 binds and sequesters synaptic vesicles via interaction with vesicle-associated proteins. In fact, a domain-based pulldown approach combined with mass spectrometric analysis identified LRRK2 as being part of a highly specific protein network involved in synaptic vesicle trafficking. In addition, we found that a C-terminal sequence variant associated with an increased risk of developing PD, G2385R, correlates with a reduced binding affinity of LRRK2 WD40 to synaptic vesicles. Our data demonstrate a critical role of the WD40 domain within LRRK2 function. PMID:24687852

  18. Crystallized N-terminal domain of influenza virus matrix protein M1 and method of determining and using same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Ming (Inventor); Sha, Bingdong (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The matrix protein, M1, of influenza virus strain A/PR/8/34 has been purified from virions and crystallized. The crystals consist of a stable fragment (18 Kd) of the M1 protein. X-ray diffraction studies indicated that the crystals have a space group of P3.sub.t 21 or P3.sub.2 21. Vm calculations showed that there are two monomers in an asymmetric unit. A crystallized N-terminal domain of M1, wherein the N-terminal domain of M1 is crystallized such that the three dimensional structure of the crystallized N-terminal domain of M1 can be determined to a resolution of about 2.1 .ANG. or better, and wherein the three dimensional structure of the uncrystallized N-terminal domain of M1 cannot be determined to a resolution of about 2.1 .ANG. or better. A method of purifying M1 and a method of crystallizing M1. A method of using the three-dimensional crystal structure of M1 to screen for antiviral, influenza virus treating or preventing compounds. A method of using the three-dimensional crystal structure of M1 to screen for improved binding to or inhibition of influenza virus M1. The use of the three-dimensional crystal structure of the M1 protein of influenza virus in the manufacture of an inhibitor of influenza virus M1. The use of the three-dimensional crystal structure of the M1 protein of influenza virus in the screening of candidates for inhibition of influenza virus M1.

  19. Molecular modeling study of CodX reveals importance of N-terminal and C-terminal domain in the CodWX complex structure of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Navaneethakrishnan; Gajendrarao, Poornima; Eom, Soo Hyun; Kwon, Yong Jung; Cheong, Gang-Won; Lee, Keun Woo

    2008-08-01

    In Bacillus subtilis, CodW peptidase and CodX ATPase function together as a distinctive ATP-dependent protease called CodWX, which participates in protein degradation and regulates cell division. The molecular structure of CodX and the assembly structure of CodW-CodX have not yet been resolved. Here we present the first three-dimensional structure of CodX N-terminal (N) and C-terminal (C) domain including possible structure of intermediate (I) domain based on the crystal structure of homologous Escherichia coli HslU ATPase. Moreover, the biologically relevant CodWX (W(6)W(6)X(6)) octadecamer complex structure was constructed using the recently identified CodW-HslU hybrid crystal structure. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation shows a reasonably stable structure of modeled CodWX and explicit behavior of key segments in CodX N and C domain: nucleotide binding residues, GYVG pore motif and CodW-CodX interface. Predicted structure of the possible I domain is flexible in nature with highly coiled hydrophobic region (M153-M206) that could favor substrate binding and entry. Electrostatic surface potential observation unveiled charge complementarity based CodW-CodX interaction pattern could be a possible native interaction pattern in the interface of CodWX. CodX GYVG pore motif structural features, flexible nature of glycine (G92 and G95) residues and aromatic ring conformation preserved Y93 indicated that it may follow the similar mode during the proteolysis mechanism as in the HslU closed state. This molecular modeling study uncovers the significance of CodX N and C domain in CodWX complex and provides possible explanations which would be helpful to understand the CodWX-dependent proteolysis mechanism of B. subtilis.

  20. Solution structure of the C-terminal X domain of the measles virus phosphoprotein and interaction with the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of the nucleoprotein.

    PubMed

    Gely, Stéphane; Lowry, David F; Bernard, Cédric; Jensen, Malene R; Blackledge, Martin; Costanzo, Stéphanie; Bourhis, Jean-Marie; Darbon, Hervé; Daughdrill, Gary; Longhi, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    In this report, the solution structure of the nucleocapsid-binding domain of the measles virus phosphoprotein (XD, aa 459-507) is described. A dynamic description of the interaction between XD and the disordered C-terminal domain of the nucleocapsid protein, (N(TAIL), aa 401-525), is also presented. XD is an all alpha protein consisting of a three-helix bundle with an up-down-up arrangement of the helices. The solution structure of XD is very similar to the crystal structures of both the free and bound form of XD. One exception is the presence of a highly dynamic loop encompassing XD residues 489-491, which is involved in the embedding of the alpha-helical XD-binding region of N(TAIL). Secondary chemical shift values for full-length N(TAIL) were used to define the precise boundaries of a transient helical segment that coincides with the XD-binding domain, thus shedding light on the pre-recognition state of N(TAIL). Titration experiments with unlabeled XD showed that the transient alpha-helical conformation of N(TAIL) is stabilized upon binding. Lineshape analysis of NMR resonances revealed that residues 483-506 of N(TAIL) are in intermediate exchange with XD, while the 475-482 and 507-525 regions are in fast exchange. The N(TAIL) resonance behavior in the titration experiments is consistent with a complex binding model with more than two states.

  1. Specificity and Versatility of Substrate Binding Sites in Four Catalytic Domains of Human N-Terminal Acetyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Grauffel, Cédric; Abboud, Angèle; Liszczak, Glen; Marmorstein, Ronen; Arnesen, Thomas; Reuter, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Nt-acetylation is among the most common protein modifications in eukaryotes. Although thought for a long time to protect proteins from degradation, the role of Nt-acetylation is still debated. It is catalyzed by enzymes called N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). In eukaryotes, several NATs, composed of at least one catalytic domain, target different substrates based on their N-terminal sequences. In order to better understand the substrate specificity of human NATs, we investigated in silico the enzyme-substrate interactions in four catalytic subunits of human NATs (Naa10p, Naa20p, Naa30p and Naa50p). To date hNaa50p is the only human subunit for which X-ray structures are available. We used the structure of the ternary hNaa50p/AcCoA/MLG complex and a structural model of hNaa10p as a starting point for multiple molecular dynamics simulations of hNaa50p/AcCoA/substrate (substrate = MLG, EEE, MKG), hNaa10p/AcCoA/substrate (substrate = MLG, EEE). Nine alanine point-mutants of the hNaa50p/AcCoA/MLG complex were also simulated. Homology models of hNaa20p and hNaa30p were built and compared to hNaa50p and hNaa10p. The simulations of hNaa50p/AcCoA/MLG reproduce the interactions revealed by the X-ray data. We observed strong hydrogen bonds between MLG and tyrosines 31, 138 and 139. Yet the tyrosines interacting with the substrate’s backbone suggest that their role in specificity is limited. This is confirmed by the simulations of hNaa50p/AcCoA/EEE and hNaa10p/AcCoA/MLG, where these hydrogen bonds are still observed. Moreover these tyrosines are all conserved in hNaa20p and hNaa30p. Other amino acids tune the specificity of the S1’ sites that is different for hNaa10p (acidic), hNaa20p (hydrophobic/basic), hNaa30p (basic) and hNaa50p (hydrophobic). We also observe dynamic correlation between the ligand binding site and helix that tightens under substrate binding. Finally, by comparing the four structures we propose maps of the peptide-enzyme interactions that

  2. Binding of actin to lens alpha crystallins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, S.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Actin has been coupled to a cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose 4B column, then tested for binding to alpha, beta, and gamma crystallin preparations from the bovine lens. Alpha, but not beta or gamma, crystallins bound to the actin affinity column in a time dependent and saturable manner. Subfractionation of the alpha crystallin preparation into the alpha-A and alpha-B species, followed by incubation with the affinity column, demonstrated that both species bound approximately the same. Together, these studies demonstrate a specific and saturable binding of lens alpha-A and alpha-B with actin.

  3. Structure of the mouse galectin-4 N-terminal carbohydrate-recognition domain reveals the mechanism of oligosaccharide recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Krejciríková, Veronika; Pachl, Petr; Fábry, Milan

    2011-11-18

    Galectin-4, a member of the tandem-repeat subfamily of galectins, participates in cell-membrane interactions and plays an important role in cell adhesion and modulation of immunity and malignity. The oligosaccharide specificity of the mouse galectin-4 carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) has been reported previously. In this work, the structure and binding properties of the N-terminal domain CRD1 were further investigated and the crystal structure of CRD1 in complex with lactose was determined at 2.1 {angstrom} resolution. The lactose-binding affinity was characterized by fluorescence measurements and two lactose-binding sites were identified: a high-affinity site with a K{sub d} value in the micromolar range (K{submore » d1} = 600 {+-} 70 {mu}M) and a low-affinity site with K{sub d2} = 28 {+-} 10 mM.« less

  4. Ribonucleocapsid Formation of SARS-COV Through Molecular Action of the N-Terminal Domain of N Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Saikatendu, K.S.; Joseph, J.S.; Subramanian, V.

    Conserved amongst all coronaviruses are four structural proteins, the matrix (M), small envelope (E) and spike (S) that are embedded in the viral membrane and the nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N), which exists in a ribonucleoprotein complex in their lumen. The N terminal domain of coronaviral N proteins (N-NTD) provides a scaffold for RNA binding while the C-terminal domain (N-CTD) mainly acts as oligomerization modules during assembly. The C-terminus of N protein anchors it to the viral membrane by associating with M protein. We characterized the structures of N-NTD from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in two crystal forms, at 1.17Amore » (monoclinic) and 1.85 A (cubic) respectively, solved by molecular replacement using the homologous avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) structure. Flexible loops in the solution structure of SARS-CoV N-NTD are now shown to be well ordered around the beta-sheet core. The functionally important positively charged beta-hairpin protrudes out of the core and is oriented similar to that in the IBV N-NTD and is involved in crystal packing in the monoclinic form. In the cubic form, the monomers form trimeric units that stack in a helical array. Comparison of crystal packing of SARS-CoV and IBV N-NTDs suggest a common mode of RNA recognition, but probably associate differently in vivo during the formation of the ribonucleoprotein complex. Electrostatic potential distribution on the surface of homology models of related coronaviral N-NTDs hints that they employ different modes of both RNA recognition as well as oligomeric assembly, perhaps explaining why their nucleocapsids have different morphologies.« less

  5. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein 3C binds to the N-terminal (NTD) and beta trefoil domains (BTD) of RBP/CSL; Only the NTD interaction is essential for lymphoblastoid cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Calderwood, Michael A.; Lee, Sungwook; Holthaus, Amy M.

    Association of EBV nuclear proteins EBNA2, EBNA3A and EBNA3C with RBP/CSL, is essential for lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) proliferation. Conserved residues in the EBNA3 homology domain, required for RBP/CSL interaction, lack the W{Phi}P motif that mediates EBNA2 and Notch binding to the RBP/CSL beta-trefoil domain (BTD). We map RBP/CSL interacting residues within EBNA3A(aa128-204) and EBNA3C(aa211-233). The EBNA3A results are consistent with an earlier report (aa125-222), but the EBNA3C domain is unexpectedly small and includes a 'WTP' sequence. This EBNA3C WTP motif confers RBP/CSL binding in vitro, in yeast, and in mammalian cells. Further, an EBNA3C WTP {yields} STP(W227S) mutation impairedmore » BTD binding whereas EBNA3 homology domain mutations disrupted RBP/CSL N-terminal domain (NTD) binding. WTP was not essential for EBNA3C repression of EBNA2 in reporter assays or for maintenance of LCL growth. Our results indicate that EBNA3 proteins interact with multiple RBP/CSL domains, but only NTD interactions are required for LCL growth.« less

  6. Glutathione depletion triggers actin cytoskeleton changes via actin-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Zepeta-Flores, Nahum; Valverde, Mahara; Lopez-Saavedra, Alejandro; Rojas, Emilio

    2018-06-04

    The importance of glutathione (GSH) in alternative cellular roles to the canonically proposed, were analyzed in a model unable to synthesize GSH. Gene expression analysis shows that the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton pathway is strongly impacted by the absence of GSH. To test this hypothesis, we evaluate the effect of GSH depletion via buthionine sulfoximine (5 and 12.5 mM) in human neuroblastoma MSN cells. In the present study, 70% of GSH reduction did not induce reactive oxygen species, lipoperoxidation, or cytotoxicity, which enabled us to evaluate the effect of glutathione in the absence of oxidative stress. The cells with decreasing GSH levels acquired morphology changes that depended on the actin cytoskeleton and not on tubulin. We evaluated the expression of three actin-binding proteins: thymosin β4, profilin and gelsolin, showing a reduced expression, both at gene and protein levels at 24 hours of treatment; however, this suppression disappears after 48 hours of treatment. These changes were sufficient to trigger the co-localization of the three proteins towards cytoplasmic projections. Our data confirm that a decrease in GSH in the absence of oxidative stress can transiently inhibit the actin binding proteins and that this stimulus is sufficient to induce changes in cellular morphology via the actin cytoskeleton.

  7. The pH-sensitive structure of the C-terminal domain of voltage-gated proton channel and the thermodynamic characteristics of Zn{sup 2+} binding to this domain

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Qing; Li, Chuanyong; Li, Shu Jie, E-mail: shujieli@nankai.edu.cn

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • The α-helical content of the C-terminus is decreased with a pH increase. • The thermostability of the C-terminus is decreased with a pH increase. • Zn{sup 2+} binds to His{sup 244} and His{sup 266} residues within the C-terminal domain. • The binding of Zn{sup 2+} to His{sup 244} residue is an endothermic heat reaction. • The binding of Zn{sup 2+} to His{sup 266} residue is an exothermic heat reaction. - Abstract: The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is strongly sensitive to Zn{sup 2+}. The H{sup +} conduction is decreased at a high concentration of Zn{sup 2+} and Hv1 channelmore » closing is slowed by the internal application of Zn{sup 2+}. Although the recent studies demonstrated that Zn{sup 2+} interacts with the intracellular C-terminal domain, the binding sites and details of the interaction remain unknown. Here, we studied the pH-dependent structural stability of the intracellular C-terminal domain of human Hv1 and showed that Zn{sup 2+} binds to His{sup 244} and His{sup 266} residues. The thermodynamics signature of Zn{sup 2+} binding to the two sites was investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry. The binding of Zn{sup 2+} to His{sup 244} (mutant H266A) and His{sup 266} (mutant H244A) were an endothermic heat reaction and an exothermic heat reaction, respectively.« less

  8. Actin Polymerization is Stimulated by Actin Crosslinking Protein Palladin

    PubMed Central

    Gurung, Ritu; Yadav, Rahul; Brungardt, Joseph G.; Orlova, Albina; Egelman, Edward H.; Beck, Moriah R.

    2016-01-01

    The actin scaffold protein palladin regulates both normal cell migration and invasive cell motility, processes that require the coordinated regulation of actin dynamics. However, the potential effect of palladin on actin dynamics has remained elusive. Here we show that the actin binding immunoglobulin-like domain of palladin, which is directly responsible for both actin binding and bundling, also stimulates actin polymerization in vitro. Palladin eliminated the lag phase that is characteristic of the slow nucleation step of actin polymerization. Furthermore, palladin dramatically reduced depolymerization, slightly enhanced the elongation rate, and did not alter the critical concentration. Microscopy and in vitro crosslinking assays reveal differences in actin bundle architecture when palladin is incubated with actin before or after polymerization. These results suggest a model whereby palladin stimulates a polymerization-competent form of G-actin, akin to metal ions, either through charge neutralization or conformational changes. PMID:26607837

  9. 1-Oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol stimulates 5-lipoxygenase activity via a putative (phospho)lipid binding site within the N-terminal C2-like domain.

    PubMed

    Hörnig, Christina; Albert, Dana; Fischer, Lutz; Hörnig, Michael; Rådmark, Olof; Steinhilber, Dieter; Werz, Oliver

    2005-07-22

    5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) catalysis is positively regulated by Ca2+ ions and phospholipids that both act via the N-terminal C2-like domain of 5-LO. Previously, we have shown that 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol (OAG) functions as an agonist for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) in stimulating 5-LO product formation. Here we have demonstrated that OAG directly stimulates 5-LO catalysis in vitro. In the absence of Ca2+ (chelated using EDTA), OAG strongly and concentration-dependently stimulated crude 5-LO in 100,000 x g supernatants as well as purified 5-LO enzyme from PMNL. Also, the monoglyceride 1-O-oleyl-rac-glycerol and 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol were effective, whereas various phospholipids did not stimulate 5-LO. However, in the presence of Ca2+, OAG caused no stimulation of 5-LO. Also, phospholipids or cellular membranes abolished the effects of OAG. As found previously for Ca2+, OAG renders 5-LO activity resistant against inhibition by glutathione peroxidase activity, and this effect of OAG is reversed by phospholipids. Intriguingly, a 5-LO mutant lacking tryptophan residues (Trp-13, -75, and -102) important for the binding of the 5-LO C2-like domain to phospholipids was not stimulated by OAG. We conclude that OAG directly stimulates 5-LO by acting at a phospholipid binding site located within the C2-like domain.

  10. Structures of actin-bound Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein homology 2 (WH2) domains of Spire and the implication for filament nucleation.

    PubMed

    Ducka, Anna M; Joel, Peteranne; Popowicz, Grzegorz M; Trybus, Kathleen M; Schleicher, Michael; Noegel, Angelika A; Huber, Robert; Holak, Tad A; Sitar, Tomasz

    2010-06-29

    Three classes of proteins are known to nucleate new filaments: the Arp2/3 complex, formins, and the third group of proteins that contain ca. 25 amino acid long actin-binding Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein homology 2 domains, called the WH2 repeats. Crystal structures of the complexes between the actin-binding WH2 repeats of the Spire protein and actin were determined for the Spire single WH2 domain D, the double (SpirCD), triple (SpirBCD), quadruple (SpirABCD) domains, and an artificial Spire WH2 construct comprising three identical D repeats (SpirDDD). SpirCD represents the minimal functional core of Spire that can nucleate actin filaments. Packing in the crystals of the actin complexes with SpirCD, SpirBCD, SpirABCD, and SpirDDD shows the presence of two types of assemblies, "side-to-side" and "straight-longitudinal," which can serve as actin filament nuclei. The principal feature of these structures is their loose, open conformations, in which the sides of actins that normally constitute the inner interface core of a filament are flipped inside out. These Spire structures are distant from those seen in the filamentous nuclei of Arp2/3, formins, and in the F-actin filament.

  11. Structures of actin-bound Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein homology 2 (WH2) domains of Spire and the implication for filament nucleation

    PubMed Central

    Ducka, Anna M.; Joel, Peteranne; Popowicz, Grzegorz M.; Trybus, Kathleen M.; Schleicher, Michael; Noegel, Angelika A.; Huber, Robert; Holak, Tad A.; Sitar, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    Three classes of proteins are known to nucleate new filaments: the Arp2/3 complex, formins, and the third group of proteins that contain ca. 25 amino acid long actin-binding Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein homology 2 domains, called the WH2 repeats. Crystal structures of the complexes between the actin-binding WH2 repeats of the Spire protein and actin were determined for the Spire single WH2 domain D, the double (SpirCD), triple (SpirBCD), quadruple (SpirABCD) domains, and an artificial Spire WH2 construct comprising three identical D repeats (SpirDDD). SpirCD represents the minimal functional core of Spire that can nucleate actin filaments. Packing in the crystals of the actin complexes with SpirCD, SpirBCD, SpirABCD, and SpirDDD shows the presence of two types of assemblies, “side-to-side” and “straight-longitudinal,” which can serve as actin filament nuclei. The principal feature of these structures is their loose, open conformations, in which the sides of actins that normally constitute the inner interface core of a filament are flipped inside out. These Spire structures are distant from those seen in the filamentous nuclei of Arp2/3, formins, and in the F-actin filament. PMID:20538977

  12. Structural insights into the specific binding of huntingtin proline-rich region with the SH3 and WW domains.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yong-Guang; Yan, Xian-Zhong; Song, Ai-Xin; Chang, Yong-Gang; Gao, Xue-Chao; Jiang, Nan; Zhang, Qi; Hu, Hong-Yu

    2006-12-01

    The interactions of huntingtin (Htt) with the SH3 domain- or WW domain-containing proteins have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD). We report the specific interactions of Htt proline-rich region (PRR) with the SH3GL3-SH3 domain and HYPA-WW1-2 domain pair by NMR. The results show that Htt PRR binds with the SH3 domain through nearly its entire chain, and that the binding region on the domain includes the canonical PxxP-binding site and the specificity pocket. The C terminus of PRR orients to the specificity pocket, whereas the N terminus orients to the PxxP-binding site. Htt PRR can also specifically bind to WW1-2; the N-terminal portion preferentially binds to WW1, while the C-terminal portion binds to WW2. This study provides structural insights into the specific interactions between Htt PRR and its binding partners as well as the alteration of these interactions that involve PRR, which may have implications for the understanding of HD.

  13. The amino-terminal matrix assembly domain of fibronectin stabilizes cell shape and prevents cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Christopher, R A; Judge, S R; Vincent, P A; Higgins, P J; McKeown-Longo, P J

    1999-10-01

    Adhesion to the extracellular matrix modulates the cellular response to growth factors and is critical for cell cycle progression. The present study was designed to address the relationship between fibronectin matrix assembly and cell shape or shape dependent cellular processes. The binding of fibronectin's amino-terminal matrix assembly domain to adherent cells represents the initial step in the assembly of exogenous fibronectin into the extracellular matrix. When added to monolayers of pulmonary artery endothelial cells, the 70 kDa fragment of fibronectin (which contains the matrix assembly domain) stabilized both the extracellular fibronectin matrix as well as the actin cytoskeleton against cytochalasin D-mediated structural reorganization. This activity appeared to require specific fibronectin sequences as fibronectin fragments containing the cell adhesion domain as well as purified vitronectin were ineffective inhibitors of cytochalasin D-induced cytoarchitectural restructuring. Such pronounced morphologic consequences associated with exposure to the 70 kDa fragment suggested that this region of the fibronectin molecule may affect specific growth traits known to be influenced by cell shape. To assess this possibility, the 70 kDa fragment was added to scrape-wounded monolayers of bovine microvessel endothelium and the effects on two shape-dependent processes (i.e. migration and proliferation) were measured as a function of time after injury and location from the wound. The addition of amino-terminal fragments of fibronectin to the monolayer significantly inhibited (by >50%) wound closure. Staining of wounded monolayers with BrdU, moreover, indicated that either the 70 kDa or 25 kDa amino-terminal fragments of fibronectin, but not the 40 kDa collagen binding fragment, also inhibited cell cycle progression. These results suggest that the binding of fibronectin's amino-terminal region to endothelial cell layers inhibits cell cycle progression by stabilizing cell

  14. Mena-GRASP65 interaction couples actin polymerization to Golgi ribbon linking.

    PubMed

    Tang, Danming; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Shijiao; Yuan, Hebao; Li, Jie; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2016-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the Golgi reassembly stacking protein 65 (GRASP65) has been implicated in both Golgi stacking and ribbon linking by forming trans-oligomers through the N-terminal GRASP domain. Because the GRASP domain is globular and relatively small, but the gaps between stacks are large and heterogeneous, it remains puzzling how GRASP65 physically links Golgi stacks into a ribbon. To explore the possibility that other proteins may help GRASP65 in ribbon linking, we used biochemical methods and identified the actin elongation factor Mena as a novel GRASP65-binding protein. Mena is recruited onto the Golgi membranes through interaction with GRASP65. Depleting Mena or disrupting actin polymerization resulted in Golgi fragmentation. In cells, Mena and actin were required for Golgi ribbon formation after nocodazole washout; in vitro, Mena and microfilaments enhanced GRASP65 oligomerization and Golgi membrane fusion. Thus Mena interacts with GRASP65 to promote local actin polymerization, which facilitates Golgi ribbon linking. © 2016 Tang et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  15. Highly potent antimicrobial peptides from N-terminal membrane-binding region of E. coli MreB.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Karabi; Sravani, Yalavarthi Durga; Ramakrishnan, Vibin; Chaudhary, Nitin

    2017-02-23

    Microbial pathogenesis is a serious health concern. The threat escalates as the existing conventional antimicrobials are losing their efficacy against the evolving pathogens. Peptides hold promise to be developed into next-generation antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides adopt amphipathic structures that could selectively bind to and disrupt the microbial membranes. Interaction of proteins with membranes is central to all living systems and we reasoned that the membrane-binding domains in microbial proteins could be developed into efficient antimicrobials. This is an interesting approach as self-like sequences could elude the microbial strategies of degrading the antimicrobial peptides, one of the mechanisms of showing resistance to antimicrobials. We selected the 9-residue-long membrane-binding region of E. coli MreB protein. The 9-residue peptide (C-terminal amide) and its N-terminal acetylated analog displayed broad-spectrum activity, killing Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungi. Extension with a tryptophan residue at the N-terminus drastically improved the activity of the peptides with lethal concentrations ≤10 μM against all the organisms tested. The tryptophan-extended peptides caused complete killing of C. albicans as well as gentamicin and methicillin resistant S. aureus at 5 μM concentration. Lipid-binding studies and electron microscopic analyses of the peptide-treated microbes suggest membrane disruption as the mechanism of killing.

  16. C-terminal fragment of amebin promotes actin filament bundling, inhibits acto-myosin ATPase activity and is essential for amoeba migration.

    PubMed

    Jóźwiak, Jolanta; Rzhepetskyy, Yuriy; Sobczak, Magdalena; Kocik, Elżbieta; Skórzewski, Radosław; Kłopocka, Wanda; Rędowicz, Maria Jolanta

    2011-02-01

    Amebin [formerly termed as ApABP-FI; Sobczak et al. (2007) Biochem. Cell Biol. 85] is encoded in Amoeba proteus by two transcripts, 2672-nt and 1125-nt. A product of the shorter transcript (termed as C-amebin), comprising C-terminal 375 amino-acid-residue fragment of amebin, has been expressed and purified as the recombinant GST-fusion protein. GST-C-amebin bound both to monomeric and filamentous actin. The binding was Ca(2+)-independent and promoted filament bundling, as revealed with the transmission electron microscopy. GST-C-amebin significantly decreased MgATPase activity of rabbit skeletal muscle acto-S1. Removal with endoproteinase ArgC of a positively charged C-terminal region of GST-amebin containing KLASMWEQ sequence abolished actin-binding and bundling as well as the ATPase-inhibitory effect of C-amebin, indicating that this protein region was involved in the interaction with actin. Microinjection of amoebae with antibody against C-terminus of amebin significantly affected amoebae morphology, disturbed cell polarization and transport of cytoplasmic granules as well as blocked migration. These data indicate that amebin may be one of key regulators of the actin-cytoskeleton dynamics and actin-dependent motility in A. proteus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Contributions of the N- and C-terminal helical segments to the lipid-free structure and lipid interaction of apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masafumi; Dhanasekaran, Padmaja; Nguyen, David; Ohta, Shinya; Lund-Katz, Sissel; Phillips, Michael C; Saito, Hiroyuki

    2006-08-29

    The tertiary structure of lipid-free apolipoprotein (apo) A-I in the monomeric state comprises two domains: a N-terminal alpha-helix bundle and a less organized C-terminal domain. This study examined how the N- and C-terminal segments of apoA-I (residues 1-43 and 223-243), which contain the most hydrophobic regions in the molecule and are located in opposite structural domains, contribute to the lipid-free conformation and lipid interaction. Measurements of circular dichroism in conjunction with tryptophan and 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid fluorescence data demonstrated that single (L230P) or triple (L230P/L233P/Y236P) proline insertions into the C-terminal alpha helix disrupted the organization of the C-terminal domain without affecting the stability of the N-terminal helix bundle. In contrast, proline insertion into the N terminus (Y18P) disrupted the bundle structure in the N-terminal domain, indicating that the alpha-helical segment in this region is part of the helix bundle. Calorimetric and gel-filtration measurements showed that disruption of the C-terminal alpha helix significantly reduced the enthalpy and free energy of binding of apoA-I to lipids, whereas disruption of the N-terminal alpha helix had only a small effect on lipid binding. Significantly, the presence of the Y18P mutation offset the negative effects of disruption/removal of the C-terminal helical domain on lipid binding, suggesting that the alpha helix around Y18 concealed a potential lipid-binding region in the N-terminal domain, which was exposed by the disruption of the helix-bundle structure. When these results are taken together, they indicate that the alpha-helical segment in the N terminus of apoA-I modulates the lipid-free structure and lipid interaction in concert with the C-terminal domain.

  18. The C-terminus SH3-binding domain of Kv1.3 is required for the actin-mediated immobilization of the channel via cortactin

    PubMed Central

    Hajdu, Peter; Martin, Geoffrey V.; Chimote, Ameet A.; Szilagyi, Orsolya; Takimoto, Koichi; Conforti, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Kv1.3 channels play a pivotal role in the activation and migration of T-lymphocytes. These functions are accompanied by the channels' polarization, which is essential for associated downstream events. However, the mechanisms that govern the membrane movement of Kv1.3 channels remain unclear. F-actin polymerization occurs concomitantly to channel polarization, implicating the actin cytoskeleton in this process. Here we show that cortactin, a factor initiating the actin network, controls the membrane mobilization of Kv1.3 channels. FRAP with EGFP-tagged Kv1.3 channels demonstrates that knocking down cortactin decreases the actin-based immobilization of the channels. Using various deletion and mutation constructs, we show that the SH3 motif of Kv1.3 mediates the channel immobilization. Proximity ligation assays indicate that deletion or mutation of the SH3 motif also disrupts interaction of the channel with cortactin. In T-lymphocytes, the interaction between HS1 (the cortactin homologue) and Kv1.3 occurs at the immune synapse and requires the channel's C-terminal domain. These results show that actin dynamics regulates the membrane motility of Kv1.3 channels. They also provide evidence that the SH3 motif of the channel and cortactin plays key roles in this process. PMID:25739456

  19. Akt1 binds focal adhesion kinase via the Akt1 kinase domain independently of the pleckstrin homology domain.

    PubMed

    Basson, M D; Zeng, B; Wang, S

    2015-10-01

    Akt1 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are protein kinases that play key roles in normal cell signaling. Individually, aberrant expression of these kinases has been linked to a variety of cancers. Together, Akt1/FAK interactions facilitate cancer metastasis by increasing cell adhesion under conditions of increased extracellular pressure. Pathological and iatrogenic sources of pressure arise from tumor growth against constraining stroma or direct perioperative manipulation. We previously reported that 15 mmHg increased extracellular pressure causes Akt1 to both directly interact with FAK and to phosphorylate and activate it. We investigated the nature of the Akt1/FAK binding by creating truncations of recombinant FAK, conjugated to glutathione S-transferase (GST), to pull down full-length Akt1. Western blots probing for Akt1 showed that FAK/Akt1 binding persisted in FAK truncations consisting of only amino acids 1-126, FAK(NT1), which contains the F1 subdomain of its band 4.1, ezrin, radixin, and moesin (FERM) domain. Using FAK(NT1) as bait, we then pulled down truncated versions of recombinant Akt1 conjugated to HA (human influenza hemagglutinin). Probes for GST-FAK(NT1) showed Akt1-FAK binding to occur in the absence of the both the Akt1 (N)-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and its adjacent hinge region. The Akt1 (C)-terminal regulatory domain was equally unnecessary for Akt1/FAK co-immunoprecipitation. Truncations involving the Akt1 catalytic domain showed that the domain by itself was enough to pull down FAK. Additionally, a fragment spanning from the PH domain to half way through the catalytic domain demonstrated increased FAK binding compared to full length Akt1. These results begin to delineate the Akt1/FAK interaction and can be used to manipulate their force-activated signal interactions. Furthermore, the finding that the N-terminal half of the Akt1 catalytic domain binds so strongly to FAK when cleaved from the rest of the protein may suggest a means

  20. Structural and Functional Investigations of the N-Terminal Ubiquitin Binding Region of Usp25.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuanyuan; Shi, Li; Ding, Yiluan; Shi, Yanhong; Hu, Hong-Yu; Wen, Yi; Zhang, Naixia

    2017-05-23

    Ubiquitin-specific protease 25 (Usp25) is a deubiquitinase that is involved in multiple biological processes. The N-terminal ubiquitin-binding region (UBR) of Usp25 contains one ubiquitin-associated domain, one small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-interacting motif and two ubiquitin-interacting motifs. Previous studies suggest that the covalent sumoylation in the UBR of Usp25 impairs its enzymatic activity. Here, we raise the hypothesis that non-covalent binding of SUMO, a prerequisite for efficient sumoylation, will impair Usp25's catalytic activity as well. To test our hypothesis and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism, we investigated the structure and function of the Usp25 N-terminal UBR. The solution structure of Usp25 1-146 is obtained, and the key residues responsible for recognition of ubiquitin and SUMO2 are identified. Our data suggest inhibition of Usp25's catalytic activity upon the non-covalent binding of SUMO2 to the Usp25 SUMO-interacting motif. We also find that SUMO2 can competitively block the interaction between the Usp25 UBR and its ubiquitin substrates. Based on our findings, we have proposed a working model to depict the regulatory role of the Usp25 UBR in the functional display of the enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Structure and Regulatory Interactions of the Cytoplasmic Terminal Domains of Serotonin Transporter

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Uptake of neurotransmitters by sodium-coupled monoamine transporters of the NSS family is required for termination of synaptic transmission. Transport is tightly regulated by protein–protein interactions involving the small cytoplasmic segments at the amino- and carboxy-terminal ends of the transporter. Although structures of homologues provide information about the transmembrane regions of these transporters, the structural arrangement of the terminal domains remains largely unknown. Here, we combined molecular modeling, biochemical, and biophysical approaches in an iterative manner to investigate the structure of the 82-residue N-terminal and 30-residue C-terminal domains of human serotonin transporter (SERT). Several secondary structures were predicted in these domains, and structural models were built using the Rosetta fragment-based methodology. One-dimensional 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism spectroscopy supported the presence of helical elements in the isolated SERT N-terminal domain. Moreover, introducing helix-breaking residues within those elements altered the fluorescence resonance energy transfer signal between terminal cyan fluorescent protein and yellow fluorescent protein tags attached to full-length SERT, consistent with the notion that the fold of the terminal domains is relatively well-defined. Full-length models of SERT that are consistent with these and published experimental data were generated. The resultant models predict confined loci for the terminal domains and predict that they move apart during the transport-related conformational cycle, as predicted by structures of homologues and by the “rocking bundle” hypothesis, which is consistent with spectroscopic measurements. The models also suggest the nature of binding to regulatory interaction partners. This study provides a structural context for functional and regulatory mechanisms involving SERT terminal domains. PMID:25093911

  2. Concentration profiles of actin-binding molecules in lamellipodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcke, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Motile cells form lamellipodia in the direction of motion, which are flat membrane protrusions containing an actin filament network. The network flows rearward relative to the leading edge of the lamellipodium due to actin polymerization at the front. Thus, actin binding molecules are subject to transport towards the rear of the cell in the bound state and diffuse freely in the unbound state. We analyze this reaction-diffusion-advection process with respect to the concentration profiles of these species and provide an analytic approximation for them. Network flow may cause a depletion zone of actin binding molecules close to the leading edge. The existence of such zone depends on the free molecule concentration in the cell body, on the ratio of the diffusion length to the distance bound molecules travel rearward with the flow before dissociating, and the ratio of the diffusion length to the width of the region with network flow and actin binding. Our calculations suggest the existence of depletion zones for the F-actin cross-linkers filamin and α-actinin in fish keratocytes (and other cell types), which is in line with the small elastic moduli of the F-actin network close to the leading edge found in measurements of the force motile cells are able to exert.

  3. A high-resolution structure of the DNA-binding domain of AhrC, the arginine repressor/activator protein from Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Garnett, James A.; Baumberg, Simon; Stockley, Peter G.

    2007-11-01

    The structure of the winged helix–turn–helix DNA-binding domain of AhrC has been determined at 1.0 Å resolution. The largely hydrophobic β-wing shows high B factors and may mediate the dimer interface in operator complexes. In Bacillus subtilis the concentration of l-arginine is controlled by the transcriptional regulator AhrC, which interacts with 18 bp DNA operator sites called ARG boxes in the promoters of arginine biosynthetic and catabolic operons. AhrC is a 100 kDa homohexamer, with each subunit having two domains. The C-terminal domains form the core, mediating intersubunit interactions and binding of the co-repressor l-arginine, whilst the N-terminal domains containmore » a winged helix–turn–helix DNA-binding motif and are arranged around the periphery. The N-terminal domain of AhrC has been expressed, purified and characterized and it has been shown that the fragment still binds DNA operators as a recombinant monomer. The DNA-binding domain has also been crystallized and the crystal structure refined to 1.0 Å resolution is presented.« less

  4. 1H, 15N and 13C assignments of domain 5 of Dictyostelium discoideum gelation factor (ABP-120) in its native and 8M urea-denatured states.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shang-Te Danny; Cabrita, Lisa D; Christodoulou, John; Dobson, Christopher M

    2009-06-01

    The gelation factor from Dictyostelium discoideum (ABP-120) is an actin binding protein consisting of six immunoglobulin (Ig) domains in the C-terminal rod domain. We have recently used the pair of domains 5 and 6 of ABP-120 as a model system for studying multi-domain nascent chain folding on the ribosome. Here we present the NMR assignments of domain 5 in its native and 8M urea-denatured states.

  5. Actin binding by Hip1 (huntingtin-interacting protein 1) and Hip1R (Hip1-related protein) is regulated by clathrin light chain.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, Jeremy D; Chen, Chih-Ying; Manalo, Venus; Hwang, Peter K; Fletterick, Robert J; Brodsky, Frances M

    2008-11-21

    The huntingtin-interacting protein family members (Hip1 and Hip1R in mammals and Sla2p in yeast) link clathrin-mediated membrane traffic to actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Genetic data in yeast have implicated the light chain subunit of clathrin in regulating this link. To test this hypothesis, the biophysical properties of mammalian Hip1 and Hip1R and their interaction with clathrin light chain and actin were analyzed. The coiled-coil domains (clathrin light chain-binding) of Hip1 and Hip1R were found to be stable homodimers with no propensity to heterodimerize in vitro. Homodimers were also predominant in vivo, accounting for cellular segregation of Hip1 and Hip1R functions. Coiled-coil domains of Hip1 and Hip1R differed in their stability and flexibility, correlating with slightly different affinities for clathrin light chain and more markedly with effects of clathrin light chain binding on Hip protein-actin interactions. Clathrin light chain binding induced a compact conformation of both Hip1 and Hip1R and significantly reduced actin binding by their THATCH domains. Thus, clathrin is a negative regulator of Hip-actin interactions. These observations necessarily change models proposed for Hip protein function.

  6. Characterization of local polarity and hydrophobic binding sites of beta-lactoglobulin by using N-terminal specific fluorescence labeling.

    PubMed

    Dong, Su-Ying; Zhao, Zhen-Wen; Ma, Hui-Min

    2006-01-01

    Because of wide ligand-binding ability and significant industrial interest of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG), its binding properties have been extensively studied. However, there still exists a controversy as to where a ligand binds, since at least two potential hydrophobic binding sites in beta-LG have been postulated for ligand binding: an internal one (calyx) and an external one (near the N-terminus). In this work, the local polarity and hydrophobic binding sites of beta-LG have been characterized by using N-terminal specific fluorescence labeling combined with a polarity-sensitive fluorescent probe 3-(4-chloro-6-hydrazino- 1,3,5-triazinylamino)-7-(dimethylamino)-2-methylphenazine (CHTDP). The polarity within the calyx is found to be extremely low, which is explained in terms of superhydrophobicity possibly resulting from its nanostructure, and the polarity is increased with the destruction of the calyx by heat treatment. However, the polarity of the N-terminal domain in native beta-LG is decreased after thermal denaturation. This polarity trend toward decreasing instead of increasing shows that beta-LG may have no definite external hydrophobic binding site. The hydrophobic binding of a ligand such as CHTDP at the surface of the protein is probably achieved via appropriate assembling of corresponding hydrophobic residues rather than via a fixed external hydrophobic binding site. Also, the ligand-binding location in beta-LG is found to be relevant to not only experimental conditions (pH < or = 6.2 or pH > 7.1) but also binding mechanisms (hydrophobic affinity or electrostatic interaction).

  7. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2: contributions of the C-terminal domain to insulin-like growth factor-1 binding.

    PubMed

    Kibbey, Megan M; Jameson, Mark J; Eaton, Erin M; Rosenzweig, Steven A

    2006-03-01

    Signaling by the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor (IGF-1R) has been implicated in the promotion and aggressiveness of breast, prostate, colorectal, and lung cancers. The IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) represent a class of natural IGF antagonists that bind to and sequester IGF-1/2 from the IGF-1R, making them attractive candidates as therapeutics for cancer prevention and control. Recombinant human IGFBP-2 significantly attenuated IGF-1-stimulated MCF-7 cell proliferation with coaddition of 20 or 100 nM IGFBP-2 (50 or 80% inhibition, respectively). We previously identified IGF-1 contact sites both upstream and downstream of the CWCV motif (residues 247-250) in human IGFBP-2 (J Biol Chem 276:2880-2889, 2001). To further test their contributions to IGFBP-2 function, the single tryptophan in human IGFBP-2, Trp-248, was selectively cleaved with 2-(2'nitrophenylsulfenyl)-3-methyl-3 bromoindolenine (BNPS-skatole) and the BNPS-skatole products IGFBP-2(1-248) and IGFBP-2(249-289) as well as IGFBP-2(1-190) were expressed as glutathione S-transferase-fusion proteins and purified. Based on competition binding analysis, deletion of residues 249 to 289 caused an approximately 20-fold decrease in IGF-1 binding affinity (IGFBP-2 EC50 = 0.35 nM and IGFBP-2(1-248) = 7 nM). Removal of the remainder of the C-terminal domain had no further effect on affinity (IGFBP-2(1-190) EC50 = 9.2 nM). In kinetic assays, IGFBP-2(1-248) and IGFBP-2(1-190) exhibited more rapid association and dissociation rates than full-length IGFBP-2. These results confirm that regions upstream and downstream of the CWCV motif participate in IGF-1 binding. They further support the development of full-length IGFBP-2 as a cancer therapeutic.

  8. Domain wise docking analyses of the modular chitin binding protein CBP50 from Bacillus thuringiensis serovar konkukian S4.

    PubMed

    Sehar, Ujala; Mehmood, Muhammad Aamer; Hussain, Khadim; Nawaz, Salman; Nadeem, Shahid; Siddique, Muhammad Hussnain; Nadeem, Habibullah; Gull, Munazza; Ahmad, Niaz; Sohail, Iqra; Gill, Saba Shahid; Majeed, Summera

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an in silico characterization of the chitin binding protein CBP50 from B. thuringiensis serovar konkukian S4 through homology modeling and molecular docking. The CBP50 has shown a modular structure containing an N-terminal CBM33 domain, two consecutive fibronectin-III (Fn-III) like domains and a C-terminal CBM5 domain. The protein presented a unique modular structure which could not be modeled using ordinary procedures. So, domain wise modeling using MODELLER and docking analyses using Autodock Vina were performed. The best conformation for each domain was selected using standard procedure. It was revealed that four amino acid residues Glu-71, Ser-74, Glu-76 and Gln-90 from N-terminal domain are involved in protein-substrate interaction. Similarly, amino acid residues Trp-20, Asn-21, Ser-23 and Val-30 of Fn-III like domains and Glu-15, Ala-17, Ser-18 and Leu-35 of C-terminal domain were involved in substrate binding. Site-directed mutagenesis of these proposed amino acid residues in future will elucidate the key amino acids involved in chitin binding activity of CBP50 protein.

  9. In vitro and in vivo evidence for actin association of the naphthylphthalamic acid-binding protein from zucchini hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. H.; Hu, S.; Brady, S. R.; Dixon, M. W.; Muday, G. K.

    1998-01-01

    The N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA)-binding protein is part of the auxin efflux carrier, the protein complex that controls polar auxin transport in plant tissues. This study tested the hypothesis that the NPA-binding protein (NBP) is associated with the actin cytoskeleton in vitro and that an intact actin cytoskeleton is required for polar auxin transport in vivo. Cytoskeletal polymerization was altered in extracts of zucchini hypocotyls with reagents that stabilized either the polymeric or monomeric forms of actin or tubulin. Phalloidin treatment altered actin polymerization, as demonstrated by immunoblot analyses following native and denaturing electrophoresis. Phalloidin increased both filamentous actin (F-actin) and NPA-binding activity, while cytochalasin D and Tris decreased both F-actin and NPA-binding activity in cytoskeletal pellets. The microtubule stabilizing drug taxol increased pelletable tubulin, but did not alter either the amount of pelletable actin or NPA-binding activity. Treatment of etiolated zucchini hypocotyls with cytochalasin D decreased the amount of auxin transport and its regulation by NPA. These experimental results are consistent with an in vitro actin cytoskeletal association of the NPA-binding protein and with the requirement of an intact actin cytoskeleton for maximal polar auxin transport in vivo.

  10. Antibodies to B7.1 define the GFCC'C" face of the N-terminal domain as critical for co-stimulatory interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Suyue; Veldman, Geertruida M; Stahl, Mark; Xing, Yuzhe; Tobin, James F; Erbe, David V

    2002-09-02

    Antagonists of the B7 family of co-stimulatory molecules have the potential for altering immune responses therapeutically. To better define the requirements for such inhibitors, we have mapped the binding of an entire panel of blocking antibodies specific for human B7.1. By mutagenesis, each of the residues critical for blocking antibody binding appeared to fall entirely within the N-terminal V-set domain of B7.1. Thus, although antibody-antigen interacting surfaces can be quite large, these results indicate that a relatively small portion of the GFCC'C" face of this domain is crucial for further antagonist development.

  11. Vaccinia Virus Immunomodulator A46: A Lipid and Protein-Binding Scaffold for Sequestering Host TIR-Domain Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Radakovics, Katharina; Smith, Terry K.; Bobik, Nina; Round, Adam; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina; Usón, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinia virus interferes with early events of the activation pathway of the transcriptional factor NF-kB by binding to numerous host TIR-domain containing adaptor proteins. We have previously determined the X-ray structure of the A46 C-terminal domain; however, the structure and function of the A46 N-terminal domain and its relationship to the C-terminal domain have remained unclear. Here, we biophysically characterize residues 1–83 of the N-terminal domain of A46 and present the X-ray structure at 1.55 Å. Crystallographic phases were obtained by a recently developed ab initio method entitled ARCIMBOLDO_BORGES that employs tertiary structure libraries extracted from the Protein Data Bank; data analysis revealed an all β-sheet structure. This is the first such structure solved by this method which should be applicable to any protein composed entirely of β-sheets. The A46(1–83) structure itself is a β-sandwich containing a co-purified molecule of myristic acid inside a hydrophobic pocket and represents a previously unknown lipid-binding fold. Mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the presence of long-chain fatty acids in both N-terminal and full-length A46; mutation of the hydrophobic pocket reduced the lipid content. Using a combination of high resolution X-ray structures of the N- and C-terminal domains and SAXS analysis of full-length protein A46(1–240), we present here a structural model of A46 in a tetrameric assembly. Integrating affinity measurements and structural data, we propose how A46 simultaneously interferes with several TIR-domain containing proteins to inhibit NF-κB activation and postulate that A46 employs a bipartite binding arrangement to sequester the host immune adaptors TRAM and MyD88. PMID:27973613

  12. Fatty acids bind tightly to the N-terminal domain of angiopoietin-like protein 4 and modulate its interaction with lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed

    Robal, Terje; Larsson, Mikael; Martin, Miina; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Lookene, Aivar

    2012-08-24

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl4), a potent regulator of plasma triglyceride metabolism, binds to lipoprotein lipase (LPL) through its N-terminal coiled-coil domain (ccd-Angptl4) inducing dissociation of the dimeric enzyme to inactive monomers. In this study, we demonstrate that fatty acids reduce the inactivation of LPL by Angptl4. This was the case both with ccd-Angptl4 and full-length Angptl4, and the effect was seen in human plasma or in the presence of albumin. The effect decreased in the sequence oleic acid > palmitic acid > myristic acid > linoleic acid > linolenic acid. Surface plasmon resonance, isothermal titration calorimetry, fluorescence, and chromatography measurements revealed that fatty acids bind with high affinity to ccd-Angptl4. The interactions were characterized by fast association and slow dissociation rates, indicating formation of stable complexes. The highest affinity for ccd-Angptl4 was detected for oleic acid with a subnanomolar equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d)). The K(d) values for palmitic and myristic acid were in the nanomolar range. Linoleic and linolenic acid bound with much lower affinity. On binding of fatty acids, ccd-Angptl4 underwent conformational changes resulting in a decreased helical content, weakened structural stability, dissociation of oligomers, and altered fluorescence properties of the Trp-38 residue that is located close to the putative LPL-binding region. Based on these results, we propose that fatty acids play an important role in modulating the effects of Angptl4.

  13. The intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of the measles virus nucleoprotein interacts with the C-terminal domain of the phosphoprotein via two distinct sites and remains predominantly unfolded

    PubMed Central

    Bourhis, Jean-Marie; Receveur-Bréchot, Véronique; Oglesbee, Michael; Zhang, Xinsheng; Buccellato, Matthew; Darbon, Hervé; Canard, Bruno; Finet, Stéphanie; Longhi, Sonia

    2005-01-01

    Measles virus is a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus within theMononegavirales order,which includes several human pathogens, including rabies, Ebola, Nipah, and Hendra viruses. Themeasles virus nucleoprotein consists of a structured N-terminal domain, and of an intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain, NTAIL (aa 401–525), which undergoes induced folding in the presence of the C-terminal domain (XD, aa 459–507) of the viral phosphoprotein. With in NTAIL, an α-helical molecular recognition element (α-MoRE, aa 488–499) involved in binding to P and in induced folding was identified and then observed in the crystal structure of XD. Using small-angle X-ray scattering, we have derived a low-resolution structural model of the complex between XD and NTAIL, which shows that most of NTAIL remains disordered in the complex despite P-induced folding within the α-MoRE. The model consists of an extended shape accommodating the multiple conformations adopted by the disordered N-terminal region of NTAIL, and of a bulky globular region, corresponding to XD and to the C terminus of NTAIL (aa 486–525). Using surface plasmon resonance, circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, and heteronuclear magnetic resonance, we show that NTAIL has an additional site (aa 517–525) involved in binding to XD but not in the unstructured-to-structured transition. This work provides evidence that intrinsically disordered domains can establish complex interactions with their partners, and can contact them through multiple sites that do not all necessarily gain regular secondary structure. PMID:16046624

  14. Expression, purification, crystallization and structure determination of the N terminal domain of Fhb, a factor H binding protein from Streptococcus suis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chunmao; Yu, You; Yang, Maojun, E-mail: maojunyang@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2015-10-23

    Fhb is a surface virulence protein from Streptococcus suis, which could aid bacterial evasion of host innate immune defense by recruiting complement regulator factor H to inactivate C3b deposited on bacterial surface in blood. Here we successfully expressed and purified the N terminal domain of Fhb (N-Fhb) and obtained crystals of the N-Fhb by sitting-drop vapor diffusion method with a resolution of 1.50 Å. The crystals belong to space group C2 with unit cell parameters a = 127.1 Å, b = 77.3 Å, c = 131.6 Å, α = 90°, β = 115.9°, γ = 90°. The structure of N-Fhb was determined by SAD method and the core structure of N-Fhb is a β sandwich. Wemore » speculated that binding of Fhb to human factor H may be mainly mediated by surface amino acids with negative charges. - Highlights: • We expressed N-Fhb as the soluble protein in Escherichia coli. • Crystals of N-Fhb were grown by sitting drop vapor diffusion method. • Crystals of N-Fhb could diffracted to 1.5 Å. • The core structure of N-Fhb was a β sandwich. • A part of the surface of N-Fhb was rich with negative charges.« less

  15. Actin Binding by Hip1 (Huntingtin-interacting Protein 1) and Hip1R (Hip1-related Protein) Is Regulated by Clathrin Light Chain*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, Jeremy D.; Chen, Chih-Ying; Manalo, Venus; Hwang, Peter K.; Fletterick, Robert J.; Brodsky, Frances M.

    2008-01-01

    The huntingtin-interacting protein family members (Hip1 and Hip1R in mammals and Sla2p in yeast) link clathrin-mediated membrane traffic to actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Genetic data in yeast have implicated the light chain subunit of clathrin in regulating this link. To test this hypothesis, the biophysical properties of mammalian Hip1 and Hip1R and their interaction with clathrin light chain and actin were analyzed. The coiled-coil domains (clathrin light chain-binding) of Hip1 and Hip1R were found to be stable homodimers with no propensity to heterodimerize in vitro. Homodimers were also predominant in vivo, accounting for cellular segregation of Hip1 and Hip1R functions. Coiled-coil domains of Hip1 and Hip1R differed in their stability and flexibility, correlating with slightly different affinities for clathrin light chain and more markedly with effects of clathrin light chain binding on Hip protein-actin interactions. Clathrin light chain binding induced a compact conformation of both Hip1 and Hip1R and significantly reduced actin binding by their THATCH domains. Thus, clathrin is a negative regulator of Hip-actin interactions. These observations necessarily change models proposed for Hip protein function. PMID:18790740

  16. Identification of a Src kinase SH3 binding site in the C-terminal domain of the human ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Bornet, Olivier; Nouailler, Matthieu; Feracci, Michaël; Sebban-Kreuzer, Corinne; Byrne, Deborah; Halimi, Hubert; Morelli, Xavier; Badache, Ali; Guerlesquin, Françoise

    2014-06-05

    Overexpression of the ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase is associated with most aggressive tumors in breast cancer patients and is thus one of the main investigated therapeutic targets. Human ErbB2 C-terminal domain is an unstructured anchor that recruits specific adaptors for signaling cascades resulting in cell growth, differentiation and migration. Herein, we report the presence of a SH3 binding motif in the proline rich unfolded ErbB2 C-terminal region. NMR analysis of this motif supports a PPII helix conformation and the binding to Fyn-SH3 domain. The interaction of a kinase of the Src family with ErbB2 C-terminal domain could contribute to synergistic intracellular signaling and enhanced oncogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Crystal structure of mouse coronavirus receptor-binding domain complexed with its murine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Guiqing; Sun, Dawei; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.

    2011-09-28

    Coronaviruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to recognize different receptors for their cross-species transmission and host-range expansion. Mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) uses the N-terminal domain (NTD) of its spike protein as its receptor-binding domain. Here we present the crystal structure of MHV NTD complexed with its receptor murine carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1a (mCEACAM1a). Unexpectedly, MHV NTD contains a core structure that has the same {beta}-sandwich fold as human galectins (S-lectins) and additional structural motifs that bind to the N-terminal Ig-like domain of mCEACAM1a. Despite its galectin fold, MHV NTD does not bind sugars, but instead binds mCEACAM1a through exclusivemore » protein-protein interactions. Critical contacts at the interface have been confirmed by mutagenesis, providing a structural basis for viral and host specificities of coronavirus/CEACAM1 interactions. Sugar-binding assays reveal that galectin-like NTDs of some coronaviruses such as human coronavirus OC43 and bovine coronavirus bind sugars. Structural analysis and mutagenesis localize the sugar-binding site in coronavirus NTDs to be above the {beta}-sandwich core. We propose that coronavirus NTDs originated from a host galectin and retained sugar-binding functions in some contemporary coronaviruses, but evolved new structural features in MHV for mCEACAM1a binding.« less

  18. The N-terminal domain of substance P is required for complete homologous desensitization but not phosphorylation of the rat neurokinin-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Vigna, S R

    2001-02-01

    The agonist activity of substance P (SP) is a function of the C-terminal domain of the peptide. A C-terminal SP fragment (SP(6-11)) and analog (septide) and neurokinin A (NKA; a related tachykinin with a divergent N-terminal amino acid sequence) were found to be full neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) agonists, but were not able to desensitize the receptor maximally as much as SP. Substance P caused 95.6 +/- 0.9% maximal desensitization of the NK-1R whereas SP(6-11), septide, and NKA(only)caused 74 +/- 3.5, 50.6 +/- 8, and 71.5 +/- 4.4% maximal desensitization, respectively (mean +/- SEM; P < 0.001 vs SP). When a series of SP C-terminal fragment peptides were tested for their NK-1R desensitizing activity, it was found that SP(5-11)and SP(6-11)caused significantly less maximal NK-1R desensitization than SP. SP N-terminal fragment peptides had no effect on the ability of SP(6-11)to compete with(3)H-SP binding, generate an IP(3)response, or cause NK-1R desensitization when tested with or without SP(6-11). SP, SP(6-11), septide, and NKA all maximally stimulated 8-9-fold increases in NK-1R phosphorylation. When attached to the C-terminal domain of SP responsible for NK-1R binding and agonism, the N-terminus of SP is responsible for 25-50% of homologous desensitization and this may occur via a mechanism other than NK-1R phosphorylation. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  19. Molecular basis for subtype-specificity and high-affinity zinc inhibition in the GluN1-GluN2A NMDA receptor amino terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Hernandez, Annabel; Simorowski, Noriko; Karakas, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Zinc is vastly present in the mammalian brain and controls functions of various cell surface receptors to regulate neurotransmission. A distinctive characteristic of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors containing a GluN2A subunit is that their ion channel activity is allosterically inhibited by a nano-molar concentration of zinc that binds to an extracellular domain called an amino terminal domain (ATD). Despite physiological importance, the molecular mechanism underlying the high-affinity zinc inhibition has been incomplete due to lack of a GluN2A ATD structure. Here we show the first crystal structures of the heterodimeric GluN1-GluN2A ATD, which provide the complete map of the high-affinity zinc binding site and reveals distinctive features from the ATD of the GluN1-GluN2B subtype. Perturbation of hydrogen bond networks at the hinge of the GluN2A bi-lobe structure affects both zinc inhibition and open probability supporting the general model where the bi-lobe motion in ATD regulates the channel activity in NMDA receptors. PMID:27916457

  20. Structure of the ACF7 EF-Hand-GAR Module and Delineation of Microtubule Binding Determinants.

    PubMed

    Lane, Thomas R; Fuchs, Elaine; Slep, Kevin C

    2017-07-05

    Spectraplakins are large molecules that cross-link F-actin and microtubules (MTs). Mutations in spectraplakins yield defective cell polarization, aberrant focal adhesion dynamics, and dystonia. We present the 2.8 Å crystal structure of the hACF7 EF1-EF2-GAR MT-binding module and delineate the GAR residues critical for MT binding. The EF1-EF2 and GAR domains are autonomous domains connected by a flexible linker. The EF1-EF2 domain is an EFβ-scaffold with two bound Ca 2+ ions that straddle an N-terminal α helix. The GAR domain has a unique α/β sandwich fold that coordinates Zn 2+ . While the EF1-EF2 domain is not sufficient for MT binding, the GAR domain is and likely enhances EF1-EF2-MT engagement. Residues in a conserved basic patch, distal to the GAR domain's Zn 2+ -binding site, mediate MT binding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In vivo binding properties of SH2 domains from GTPase-activating protein and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, J A; Kashishian, A

    1993-01-01

    We have used a transient expression system and mutant platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors to study the binding specificities of the Src homology 2 (SH2) regions of the Ras GTPase-activator protein (GAP) and the p85 alpha subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3 kinase). A number of fusion proteins, each tagged with an epitope allowing recognition by a monoclonal antibody, were expressed at levels comparable to those of endogenous GAP. Fusion proteins containing the central SH2-SH3-SH2 region of GAP or the C-terminal region of p85 alpha, which includes two SH2 domains, bound to PDGF receptors in response to PDGF stimulation. Both fusion proteins showed the same requirements for tyrosine phosphorylation sites in the PDGF receptor as the full-length proteins from which they were derived, i.e., binding of the GAP fusion protein was reduced by mutation of Tyr-771, and binding of the p85 fusion protein was reduced by mutation of Tyr-740, Tyr-751, or both residues. Fusion proteins containing single SH2 domains from either GAP or p85 alpha did not bind detectably to PDGF receptors in this system, suggesting that two SH2 domains in a single polypeptide cooperate to raise the affinity of binding. The sequence specificities of individual SH2 domains were deduced from the binding properties of fusion proteins containing one SH2 domain from GAP and another from p85. The results suggest that the C-terminal GAP SH2 domain specifies binding to Tyr-771, the C-terminal p85 alpha SH2 domain binds to either Tyr-740 or Tyr-751, and each protein's N-terminal SH2 domain binds to unidentified phosphorylation sites.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:8382774

  2. The Carboxy-Terminal Domain of Erb1 Is a Seven-Bladed ß-Propeller that Binds RNA

    PubMed Central

    Marcin, Wegrecki; Neira, Jose Luis; Bravo, Jeronimo

    2015-01-01

    Erb1 (Eukaryotic Ribosome Biogenesis 1) protein is essential for the maturation of the ribosomal 60S subunit. Functional studies in yeast and mammalian cells showed that altogether with Nop7 and Ytm1 it forms a stable subcomplex called PeBoW that is crucial for a correct rRNA processing. The exact function of the protein within the process remains unknown. The N-terminal region of the protein includes a well conserved region shown to be involved in PeBoW complex formation whereas the carboxy-terminal half was predicted to contain seven WD40 repeats. This first structural report on Erb1 from yeast describes the architecture of a seven-bladed β-propeller domain that revealed a characteristic extra motif formed by two α-helices and a β-strand that insert within the second WD repeat. We performed analysis of molecular surface and crystal packing, together with multiple sequence alignment and comparison of the structure with other β-propellers, in order to identify areas that are more likely to mediate protein-protein interactions. The abundance of many positively charged residues on the surface of the domain led us to investigate whether the propeller of Erb1 might be involved in RNA binding. Three independent assays confirmed that the protein interacted in vitro with polyuridilic acid (polyU), thus suggesting a possible role of the domain in rRNA rearrangement during ribosome biogenesis. PMID:25880847

  3. Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 1 Is Regulated by Its N-Terminal Domain in Response to Allosteric Effectors.

    PubMed

    Caldo, Kristian Mark P; Acedo, Jeella Z; Panigrahi, Rashmi; Vederas, John C; Weselake, Randall J; Lemieux, M Joanne

    2017-10-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) is an integral membrane enzyme catalyzing the final and committed step in the acyl-coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent biosynthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG). The biochemical regulation of TAG assembly remains one of the least understood areas of primary metabolism to date. Here, we report that the hydrophilic N-terminal domain of Brassica napus DGAT1 (BnaDGAT1 1-113 ) regulates activity based on acyl-CoA/CoA levels. The N-terminal domain is not necessary for acyltransferase activity and is composed of an intrinsically disordered region and a folded segment. We show that the disordered region has an autoinhibitory function and a dimerization interface, which appears to mediate positive cooperativity, whereas the folded segment of the cytosolic region was found to have an allosteric site for acyl-CoA/CoA. Under increasing acyl-CoA levels, the binding of acyl-CoA with this noncatalytic site facilitates homotropic allosteric activation. Enzyme activation, on the other hand, is prevented under limiting acyl-CoA conditions (low acyl-CoA-to-CoA ratio), whereby CoA acts as a noncompetitive feedback inhibitor through interaction with the same folded segment. The three-dimensional NMR solution structure of the allosteric site revealed an α-helix with a loop connecting a coil fragment. The conserved amino acid residues in the loop interacting with CoA were identified, revealing details of this important regulatory element for allosteric regulation. Based on these results, a model is proposed illustrating the role of the N-terminal domain of BnaDGAT1 as a positive and negative modulator of TAG biosynthesis. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. A TPR domain-containing N-terminal module of MPS1 is required for its kinetochore localization by Aurora B.

    PubMed

    Nijenhuis, Wilco; von Castelmur, Eleonore; Littler, Dene; De Marco, Valeria; Tromer, Eelco; Vleugel, Mathijs; van Osch, Maria H J; Snel, Berend; Perrakis, Anastassis; Kops, Geert J P L

    2013-04-15

    The mitotic checkpoint ensures correct chromosome segregation by delaying cell cycle progression until all kinetochores have attached to the mitotic spindle. In this paper, we show that the mitotic checkpoint kinase MPS1 contains an N-terminal localization module, organized in an N-terminal extension (NTE) and a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain, for which we have determined the crystal structure. Although the module was necessary for kinetochore localization of MPS1 and essential for the mitotic checkpoint, the predominant kinetochore binding activity resided within the NTE. MPS1 localization further required HEC1 and Aurora B activity. We show that MPS1 localization to kinetochores depended on the calponin homology domain of HEC1 but not on Aurora B-dependent phosphorylation of the HEC1 tail. Rather, the TPR domain was the critical mediator of Aurora B control over MPS1 localization, as its deletion rendered MPS1 localization insensitive to Aurora B inhibition. These data are consistent with a model in which Aurora B activity relieves a TPR-dependent inhibitory constraint on MPS1 localization.

  5. Human Hsp70 molecular chaperone binds two calcium ions within the ATPase domain.

    PubMed

    Sriram, M; Osipiuk, J; Freeman, B; Morimoto, R; Joachimiak, A

    1997-03-15

    The 70 kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp70) are a family of molecular chaperones, which promote protein folding and participate in many cellular functions. The Hsp70 chaperones are composed of two major domains. The N-terminal ATPase domain binds to and hydrolyzes ATP, whereas the C-terminal domain is required for polypeptide binding. Cooperation of both domains is needed for protein folding. The crystal structure of bovine Hsc70 ATPase domain (bATPase) has been determined and, more recently, the crystal structure of the peptide-binding domain of a related chaperone, DnaK, in complex with peptide substrate has been obtained. The molecular chaperone activity and conformational switch are functionally linked with ATP hydrolysis. A high-resolution structure of the ATPase domain is required to provide an understanding of the mechanism of ATP hydrolysis and how it affects communication between C- and N-terminal domains. The crystal structure of the human Hsp70 ATPase domain (hATPase) has been determined and refined at 1. 84 A, using synchrotron radiation at 120K. Two calcium sites were identified: the first calcium binds within the catalytic pocket, bridging ADP and inorganic phosphate, and the second calcium is tightly coordinated on the protein surface by Glu231, Asp232 and the carbonyl of His227. Overall, the structure of hATPase is similar to bATPase. Differences between them are found in the loops, the sites of amino acid substitution and the calcium-binding sites. Human Hsp70 chaperone is phosphorylated in vitro in the presence of divalent ions, calcium being the most effective. The structural similarity of hATPase and bATPase and the sequence similarity within the Hsp70 chaperone family suggest a universal mechanism of ATP hydrolysis among all Hsp70 molecular chaperones. Two calcium ions have been found in the hATPase structure. One corresponds to the magnesium site in bATPase and appears to be important for ATP hydrolysis and in vitro phosphorylation. Local changes

  6. Amino acid mutations in the caldesmon COOH-terminal functional domain increase force generation in bladder smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Maoxian; Boopathi, Ettickan; Hypolite, Joseph A.; Raabe, Tobias; Chang, Shaohua; Zderic, Stephen; Wein, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Caldesmon (CaD), a component of smooth muscle thin filaments, binds actin, tropomyosin, calmodulin, and myosin and inhibits actin-activated ATP hydrolysis by smooth muscle myosin. Internal deletions of the chicken CaD functional domain that spans from amino acids (aa) 718 to 731, which corresponds to aa 512–530 including the adjacent aa sequence in mouse CaD, lead to diminished CaD-induced inhibition of actin-activated ATP hydrolysis by myosin. Transgenic mice with mutations of five aa residues (Lys523 to Gln, Val524 to Leu, Ser526 to Thr, Pro527 to Cys, and Lys529 to Ser), which encompass the ATPase inhibitory determinants located in exon 12, were generated by homologous recombination. Homozygous (−/−) animals did not develop, but heterozygous (+/−) mice carrying the expected mutations in the CaD ATPase inhibitory domain (CaD mutant) matured and reproduced normally. The peak force produced in response to KCl and electrical field stimulation by the detrusor smooth muscle from the CaD mutant was high compared with that of the wild type. CaD mutant mice revealed nonvoiding contractions during bladder filling on awake cystometry, suggesting that the CaD ATPase inhibitory domain suppresses force generation during the filling phase and this suppression is partially released by mutations in 50% of CaD in heterozygous. Our data show for the first time a functional phenotype, at the intact smooth muscle tissue and in vivo organ levels, following mutation of a functional domain at the COOH-terminal region of CaD. PMID:23986516

  7. The basic leucine zipper domain of c-Jun functions in transcriptional activation through interaction with the N terminus of human TATA-binding protein-associated factor-1 (human TAF(II)250).

    PubMed

    Lively, Tricia N; Nguyen, Tuan N; Galasinski, Shelly K; Goodrich, James A

    2004-06-18

    We previously reported that c-Jun binds directly to the N-terminal 163 amino acids of Homo sapiens TATA-binding protein-associated factor-1 (hsTAF1), causing a derepression of transcription factor IID (TFIID)-driven transcription (Lively, T. N., Ferguson, H. A., Galasinski, S. K., Seto, A. G., and Goodrich, J. A. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 25582-25588). This region of hsTAF1 binds TATA-binding protein to repress TFIID DNA binding and transcription. Here we show that the basic leucine zipper domain of c-Jun, which allows for DNA binding and homodimerization, is necessary and sufficient for interaction with hsTAF1. Interestingly, the isolated basic leucine zipper domain of c-Jun was able to derepress TFIID-directed basal transcription in vitro. Moreover, when the N-terminal region of hsTAF1 was added to in vitro transcription reactions and overexpressed in cells, it blocked c-Jun activation. c-Fos, another basic leucine zipper protein, did not interact with hsTAF1, but c-Fos/c-Jun heterodimers did bind the N terminus of hsTAF1. Our studies show that, in addition to dimerization and DNA binding, the well characterized basic leucine zipper domain of c-Jun functions in transcriptional activation by binding to the N terminus of hsTAF1 to derepress transcription.

  8. Vfa1 binds to the N-terminal microtubule-interacting and trafficking (MIT) domain of Vps4 and stimulates its ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Vild, Cody J; Xu, Zhaohui

    2014-04-11

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) are responsible for multivesicular body biogenesis, membrane abscission during cytokinesis, and retroviral budding. They function as transiently assembled molecular complexes on the membrane, and their disassembly requires the action of the AAA-ATPase Vps4. Vps4 is regulated by a multitude of ESCRT and ESCRT-related proteins. Binding of these proteins to Vps4 is often mediated via the microtubule-interacting and trafficking (MIT) domain of Vps4. Recently, a new Vps4-binding protein Vfa1 was identified in a yeast genetic screen, where overexpression of Vfa1 caused defects in vacuolar morphology. However, the function of Vfa1 and its role in vacuolar biology were largely unknown. Here, we provide the first detailed biochemical and biophysical study of Vps4-Vfa1 interaction. The MIT domain of Vps4 binds to the C-terminal 17 residues of Vfa1. This interaction is of high affinity and greatly stimulates the ATPase activity of Vps4. The crystal structure of the Vps4-Vfa1 complex shows that Vfa1 adopts a canonical MIT-interacting motif 2 structure that has been observed previously in other Vps4-ESCRT interactions. These findings suggest that Vfa1 is a novel positive regulator of Vps4 function.

  9. Vfa1 Binds to the N-terminal Microtubule-interacting and Trafficking (MIT) Domain of Vps4 and Stimulates Its ATPase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Vild, Cody J.; Xu, Zhaohui

    2014-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) are responsible for multivesicular body biogenesis, membrane abscission during cytokinesis, and retroviral budding. They function as transiently assembled molecular complexes on the membrane, and their disassembly requires the action of the AAA-ATPase Vps4. Vps4 is regulated by a multitude of ESCRT and ESCRT-related proteins. Binding of these proteins to Vps4 is often mediated via the microtubule-interacting and trafficking (MIT) domain of Vps4. Recently, a new Vps4-binding protein Vfa1 was identified in a yeast genetic screen, where overexpression of Vfa1 caused defects in vacuolar morphology. However, the function of Vfa1 and its role in vacuolar biology were largely unknown. Here, we provide the first detailed biochemical and biophysical study of Vps4-Vfa1 interaction. The MIT domain of Vps4 binds to the C-terminal 17 residues of Vfa1. This interaction is of high affinity and greatly stimulates the ATPase activity of Vps4. The crystal structure of the Vps4-Vfa1 complex shows that Vfa1 adopts a canonical MIT-interacting motif 2 structure that has been observed previously in other Vps4-ESCRT interactions. These findings suggest that Vfa1 is a novel positive regulator of Vps4 function. PMID:24567329

  10. Structural dynamics of F-actin: I. Changes in the C terminus.

    PubMed

    Orlova, A; Egelman, E H

    1995-02-03

    The biochemical properties of G-actin, and the kinetics of polymerization of G-actin into F-actin, are dependent upon whether Mg2+ or Ca2+ is bound at the high-affinity metal-binding site in actin. Three-dimensional reconstructions from electron micrographs show that a bridge of density, that we interpret as arising from a major shift of the C terminus, exists between the two strands of the filament in Ca(2+)-actin that is absent in Mg(2+)-actin. This bridge is also absent in models of F-actin built from an atomic structure of G-Ca(2+)-actin. The cleavage of the DNase I-binding loop in actin between residues 42 and 43, with the non-covalent association of the 42 cleaved residues with the remainder of the actin, induces an even larger bridge of density between the two strands. When the bridge is absent, the two C-terminal residues in F-actin are easily cleaved by trypsin, while these residues become increasingly resistant to tryptic cleavage as the bridge becomes more prominent. Conversely, cleavage of the two C-terminal residues leads to a conformational change in the DNase I-binding loop. Since both the DNase I-binding loop and the metal-binding site are quite distant from the C terminus, large allosteric effects must exist in F-actin. The conformational change in F-actin that results from the creation of this bridge may be induced by myosin binding, since this movement generates changes in actin's diffraction that are very similar to the changes in the muscle X-ray pattern during activation that are associated with the binding of myosin to the thin filament.

  11. Rsp5 WW domains interact directly with the carboxyl-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Chang, A; Cheang, S; Espanel, X; Sudol, M

    2000-07-07

    RSP5 is an essential gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and was recently shown to form a physical and functional complex with RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II). The amino-terminal half of Rsp5 consists of four domains: a C2 domain, which binds membrane phospholipids; and three WW domains, which are protein interaction modules that bind proline-rich ligands. The carboxyl-terminal half of Rsp5 contains a HECT (homologous to E6-AP carboxyl terminus) domain that catalytically ligates ubiquitin to proteins and functionally classifies Rsp5 as an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. The C2 and WW domains are presumed to act as membrane localization and substrate recognition modules, respectively. We report that the second (and possibly third) Rsp5 WW domain mediates binding to the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of the RNA pol II large subunit. The CTD comprises a heptamer (YSPTSPS) repeated 26 times and a PXY core that is critical for interaction with a specific group of WW domains. An analysis of synthetic peptides revealed a minimal CTD sequence that is sufficient to bind to the second Rsp5 WW domain (Rsp5 WW2) in vitro and in yeast two-hybrid assays. Furthermore, we found that specific "imperfect" CTD repeats can form a complex with Rsp5 WW2. In addition, we have shown that phosphorylation of this minimal CTD sequence on serine, threonine and tyrosine residues acts as a negative regulator of the Rsp5 WW2-CTD interaction. In view of the recent data pertaining to phosphorylation-driven interactions between the RNA pol II CTD and the WW domain of Ess1/Pin1, we suggest that CTD dephosphorylation may be a prerequisite for targeted RNA pol II degradation.

  12. Identification of a Major Dimorphic Region in the Functionally Critical N-Terminal ID1 Domain of VAR2CSA

    PubMed Central

    Doritchamou, Justin; Sabbagh, Audrey; Jespersen, Jakob S.; Renard, Emmanuelle; Salanti, Ali; Nielsen, Morten A.; Deloron, Philippe; Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise

    2015-01-01

    The VAR2CSA protein of Plasmodium falciparum is transported to and expressed on the infected erythrocyte surface where it plays a key role in placental malaria (PM). It is the current leading candidate for a vaccine to prevent PM. However, the antigenic polymorphism integral to VAR2CSA poses a challenge for vaccine development. Based on detailed analysis of polymorphisms in the sequence of its ligand-binding N-terminal region, currently the main focus for vaccine development, we assessed var2csa from parasite isolates infecting pregnant women. The results reveal for the first time the presence of a major dimorphic region in the functionally critical N-terminal ID1 domain. Parasite isolates expressing VAR2CSA with particular motifs present within this domain are associated with gravidity- and parasite density-related effects. These observations are of particular interest in guiding efforts with respect to optimization of the VAR2CSA-based vaccines currently under development. PMID:26393516

  13. The huntingtin interacting protein HIP1 is a clathrin and alpha-adaptin-binding protein involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Waelter, S; Scherzinger, E; Hasenbank, R; Nordhoff, E; Lurz, R; Goehler, H; Gauss, C; Sathasivam, K; Bates, G P; Lehrach, H; Wanker, E E

    2001-08-15

    The huntingtin interacting protein (HIP1) is enriched in membrane-containing cell fractions and has been implicated in vesicle trafficking. It is a multidomain protein containing an N-terminal ENTH domain, a central coiled-coil forming region and a C-terminal actin-binding domain. In the present study we have identified three HIP1 associated proteins, clathrin heavy chain and alpha-adaptin A and C. In vitro binding studies revealed that the central coiled-coil domain is required for the interaction of HIP1 with clathrin, whereas DPF-like motifs located upstream to this domain are important for the binding of HIP1 to the C-terminal 'appendage' domain of alpha-adaptin A and C. Expression of full length HIP1 in mammalian cells resulted in a punctate cytoplasmic immunostaining characteristic of clathrin-coated vesicles. In contrast, when a truncated HIP1 protein containing both the DPF-like motifs and the coiled-coil domain was overexpressed, large perinuclear vesicle-like structures containing HIP1, huntingtin, clathrin and endocytosed transferrin were observed, indicating that HIP1 is an endocytic protein, the structural integrity of which is crucial for maintenance of normal vesicle size in vivo.

  14. Coordinated autoinhibition of F-BAR domain membrane binding and WASp activation by Nervous Wreck.

    PubMed

    Stanishneva-Konovalova, Tatiana B; Kelley, Charlotte F; Eskin, Tania L; Messelaar, Emily M; Wasserman, Steven A; Sokolova, Olga S; Rodal, Avital A

    2016-09-20

    Membrane remodeling by Fes/Cip4 homology-Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs167 (F-BAR) proteins is regulated by autoinhibitory interactions between their SRC homology 3 (SH3) and F-BAR domains. The structural basis of autoregulation, and whether it affects interactions of SH3 domains with other cellular ligands, remain unclear. Here we used single-particle electron microscopy to determine the structure of the F-BAR protein Nervous Wreck (Nwk) in both soluble and membrane-bound states. On membrane binding, Nwk SH3 domains do not completely dissociate from the F-BAR dimer, but instead shift from its concave surface to positions on either side of the dimer. Unexpectedly, along with controlling membrane binding, these autoregulatory interactions inhibit the ability of Nwk-SH3a to activate Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp)/actin related protein (Arp) 2/3-dependent actin filament assembly. In Drosophila neurons, Nwk autoregulation restricts SH3a domain-dependent synaptopod formation, synaptic growth, and actin organization. Our results define structural rearrangements in Nwk that control F-BAR-membrane interactions as well as SH3 domain activities, and suggest that these two functions are tightly coordinated in vitro and in vivo.

  15. C-terminal domains of bacterial proteases: structure, function and the biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Wu, C; Liu, D; Yang, X; Wu, R; Zhang, J; Ma, C; He, H

    2017-01-01

    C-terminal domains widely exist in the C-terminal region of multidomain proteases. As a β-sandwich domain in multidomain protease, the C-terminal domain plays an important role in proteolysis including regulation of the secretory process, anchoring and swelling the substrate molecule, presenting as an inhibitor for the preprotease and adapting the protein structural flexibility and stability. In this review, the diversity, structural characteristics and biological function of C-terminal protease domains are described. Furthermore, the application prospects of C-terminal domains, including polycystic kidney disease, prepeptidase C-terminal and collagen-binding domain, in the area of medicine and biological artificial materials are also discussed. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Mouse models of two missense mutations in actin-binding domain 1 of dystrophin associated with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    McCourt, Jackie L; Talsness, Dana M; Lindsay, Angus; Arpke, Robert W; Chatterton, Paul D; Nelson, D'anna M; Chamberlain, Christopher M; Olthoff, John T; Belanto, Joseph J; McCourt, Preston M; Kyba, Michael; Lowe, Dawn A; Ervasti, James M

    2018-02-01

    Missense mutations in the dystrophin protein can cause Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) or Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) through an undefined pathomechanism. In vitro studies suggest that missense mutations in the N-terminal actin-binding domain (ABD1) cause protein instability, and cultured myoblast studies reveal decreased expression levels that can be restored to wild-type with proteasome inhibitors. To further elucidate the pathophysiology of missense dystrophin in vivo, we generated two transgenic mdx mouse lines expressing L54R or L172H mutant dystrophin, which correspond to missense mutations identified in human patients with DMD or BMD, respectively. Our biochemical, histologic and physiologic analysis of the L54R and L172H mice show decreased levels of dystrophin which are proportional to the phenotypic severity. Proteasome inhibitors were ineffective in both the L54R and L172H mice, yet mice homozygous for the L172H transgene were able to express even higher levels of dystrophin which caused further improvements in muscle histology and physiology. Given that missense dystrophin is likely being degraded by the proteasome but whole body proteasome inhibition was not possible, we screened for ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes involved in targeting dystrophin to the proteasome. A myoblast cell line expressing L54R mutant dystrophin was screened with an siRNA library targeting E1, E2 and E3 ligases which identified Amn1, FBXO33, Zfand5 and Trim75. Our study establishes new mouse models of dystrophinopathy and identifies candidate E3 ligases that may specifically regulate dystrophin protein turnover in vivo. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Crystal structure of ryanodine receptor N-terminal domain from Plutella xylostella reveals two potential species-specific insecticide-targeting sites.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lianyun; Liu, Chen; Qin, Juan; Wang, Jie; Dong, Shengjie; Chen, Wei; He, Weiyi; Gao, Qingzhi; You, Minsheng; Yuchi, Zhiguang

    2018-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are large calcium-release channels located in sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. They play a central role in excitation-contraction coupling of muscle cells. Three commercialized insecticides targeting pest RyRs generate worldwide sales over 2 billion U.S. dollars annually, but the structure of insect RyRs remains elusive, hindering our understanding of the mode of action of RyR-targeting insecticides and the development of insecticide resistance in pests. Here we present the crystal structure of RyR N-terminal domain (NTD) (residue 1-205) at 2.84 Å resolution from the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, a destructive pest devouring cruciferous crops all over the world. Similar to its mammalian homolog, DBM RyR NTD consists of a beta-trefoil folding motif and a flanking alpha helix. Interestingly, two regions in NTD interacting with neighboring domains showed distinguished conformations in DBM relative to mammalian RyRs. Using homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulation, we created a structural model of the N-terminal three domains, showing two unique binding pockets that could be targeted by potential species-specific insecticides. Thermal melt experiment showed that the stability of DBM RyR NTD was higher than mammalian RyRs, probably due to a stable intra-domain disulfide bond observed in the crystal structure. Previously DBM NTD was shown to be one of the two critical regions to interact with insecticide flubendiamide, but isothermal titration calorimetry experiments negated DBM NTD alone as a major binding site for flubendiamide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Structure of the Nucleoprotein Binding Domain of Mokola Virus Phosphoprotein▿

    PubMed Central

    Assenberg, René; Delmas, Olivier; Ren, Jingshan; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Verma, Anil; Larrous, Florence; Graham, Stephen C.; Tangy, Frédéric; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Bourhy, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    Mokola virus (MOKV) is a nonsegmented, negative-sense RNA virus that belongs to the Lyssavirus genus and Rhabdoviridae family. MOKV phosphoprotein P is an essential component of the replication and transcription complex and acts as a cofactor for the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. P recruits the viral polymerase to the nucleoprotein-bound viral RNA (N-RNA) via an interaction between its C-terminal domain and the N-RNA complex. Here we present a structure for this domain of MOKV P, obtained by expression of full-length P in Escherichia coli, which was subsequently truncated during crystallization. The structure has a high degree of homology with P of rabies virus, another member of Lyssavirus genus, and to a lesser degree with P of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a member of the related Vesiculovirus genus. In addition, analysis of the crystal packing of this domain reveals a potential binding site for the nucleoprotein N. Using both site-directed mutagenesis and yeast two-hybrid experiments to measure P-N interaction, we have determined the relative roles of key amino acids involved in this interaction to map the region of P that binds N. This analysis also reveals a structural relationship between the N-RNA binding domain of the P proteins of the Rhabdoviridae and the Paramyxoviridae. PMID:19906936

  19. Interaction between the PH and START domains of ceramide transfer protein competes with phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate binding by the PH domain

    SciTech Connect

    Prashek, Jennifer; Bouyain, Samuel; Fu, Mingui

    De novo synthesis of the sphingolipid sphingomyelin requires non-vesicular transport of ceramide from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi by the multidomain protein ceramide transfer protein (CERT). CERT's N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain targets it to the Golgi by binding to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns(4)P) in the Golgi membrane, whereas its C-terminal StAR-related lipid transfer domain (START) carries out ceramide transfer. Hyperphosphorylation of a serine-rich motif immediately after the PH domain decreases both PtdIns(4)P binding and ceramide transfer by CERT. This down-regulation requires both the PH and START domains, suggesting a possible inhibitory interaction between the two domains. In this studymore » we show that isolated PH and START domains interact with each other. The crystal structure of a PH–START complex revealed that the START domain binds to the PH domain at the same site for PtdIns(4)P-binding, suggesting that the START domain competes with PtdIns(4)P for association with the PH domain. We further report that mutations disrupting the PH–START interaction increase both PtdIns(4)P-binding affinity and ceramide transfer activity of a CERT-serine–rich phosphorylation mimic. We also found that these mutations increase the Golgi localization of CERT inside the cell, consistent with enhanced PtdIns(4)P binding of the mutant. Collectively, our structural, biochemical, and cellular investigations provide important structural insight into the regulation of CERT function and localization.« less

  20. Multiple-interactions among EMILIN1 and EMILIN2 N- and C-terminal domains.

    PubMed

    Bot, Simonetta; Andreuzzi, Eva; Capuano, Alessandra; Schiavinato, Alvise; Colombatti, Alfonso; Doliana, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    EMILIN1 and EMILIN2 belong to a family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins characterized by the N-terminal cysteine-rich EMI domain, a long segment with high probabilty for coiled-coil structure formation and a C-terminal gC1q domain. To study EMILIN1 and EMILIN2 interaction and assembly we have applied qualitative and quantitative two hybrid systems using constructs corresponding to the gC1q and EMI domains. The identified interactions were further confirmed in yeast extracts of co-transfected cells followed by co-immunoprecipitation. The data indicated that gC1q domains are able to self-interact as well as to interact one each other and with the EMI domains, but no self interactions were detected between the EMI domains. Furthermore EMILINs interactions were studied in 293-EBNA cells co-transfected with full lenght EMILIN1 and EMILIN2 constructs. Specific antibodies were able to co-immunoprecipitate EMILINs, indicating that also full-lenght proteins can give rise to non-covalent homo- and hetero-multimers even if reduced and alkylated before mixing. Immunofluorescence analysis on mouse cell cultures and tissues sections with specific antibodies showed co-distribution of EMILIN1 and EMILIN2. Thus, we can hypothesize that EMILINs multimers are formed by head-to-tail interaction between C-terminal and N-terminal domains of EMILIN1 and/or EMILIN2 but also by tail-to-tail interaction between gC1q domains. These multiple interactions may regulate homo-typic and/or hetero-typic linear and eventually lateral branching assemblies of EMILIN1 and EMILIN2 in tissues. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Structure of the effector-binding domain of the arabinose repressor AraR from Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Procházková, Kateřina; Čermáková, Kateřina; Pachl, Petr

    2012-02-01

    The crystal structure of the effector-binding domain of the transcriptional repressor AraR from B. subtilis in complex with the effector molecule (l-arabinose) was determined at 2.2 Å resolution. A detailed analysis of the crystal identified a dimer organization that is distinctive from that of other members of the GalR/LacI family. In Bacillus subtilis, the arabinose repressor AraR negatively controls the expression of genes in the metabolic pathway of arabinose-containing polysaccharides. The protein is composed of two domains of different phylogenetic origin and function: an N-terminal DNA-binding domain belonging to the GntR family and a C-terminal effector-binding domain that shows similaritymore » to members of the GalR/LacI family. The crystal structure of the C-terminal effector-binding domain of AraR in complex with the effector l-arabinose has been determined at 2.2 Å resolution. The l-arabinose binding affinity was characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry and differential scanning fluorimetry; the K{sub d} value was 8.4 ± 0.4 µM. The effect of l-arabinose on the protein oligomeric state was investigated in solution and detailed analysis of the crystal identified a dimer organization which is distinctive from that of other members of the GalR/LacI family.« less

  2. N-terminal domains of human DNA polymerase lambda promote primer realignment during translesion DNA synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Taggart, David J.; Dayeh, Daniel M.; Fredrickson, Saul W.; Suo, Zucai

    2014-01-01

    The X-family DNA polymerases λ (Polλ) and β (Polβ) possess similar 5′-2-deoxyribose-5-phosphatelyase (dRPase) and polymerase domains. Besides these domains, Polλ also possesses a BRCA1 C-terminal (BRCT) domain and a proline-rich domain at its N terminus. However, it is unclear how these non-enzymatic domains contribute to the unique biological functions of Polλ. Here, we used primer extension assays and a newly developed high-throughput short oligonucleotide sequencing assay (HT-SOSA) to compare the efficiency of lesion bypass and fidelity of human Polβ, Polλ and two N-terminal deletion constructs of Polλ during the bypass of either an abasic site or a 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) lesion. We demonstrate that the BRCT domain of Polλ enhances the efficiency of abasic site bypass by approximately 1.6-fold. In contrast, deletion of the N-terminal domains of Polλ did not affect the efficiency of 8-oxodG bypass relative to nucleotide incorporations opposite undamaged dG. HT-SOSA analysis demonstrated that Polλ and Polβ preferentially generated −1 or −2 frameshift mutations when bypassing an abasic site and the single or double base deletion frequency was highly sequence dependent. Interestingly, the BRCT and proline-rich domains of Polλ cooperatively promoted the generation of −2 frameshift mutations when the abasic site was situated within a sequence context that was susceptible to homology-driven primer realignment. Furthermore, both N-terminal domains of Polλ increased the generation of −1 frameshift mutations during 8-oxodG bypass and influenced the frequency of substitution mutations produced by Polλ opposite the 8-oxodG lesion. Overall, our data support a model wherein the BRCT and proline-rich domains of Polλ act cooperatively to promote primer/template realignment between DNA strands of limited sequence homology. This function of the N-terminal domains may facilitate the role of Polλ as a gap-filling polymerase

  3. Loss of glomerular foot processes is associated with uncoupling of podocalyxin from the actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Tetsuro; McQuistan, Tammie; Orlando, Robert A.; Farquhar, Marilyn G.

    2001-01-01

    Podocalyxin (PC), the major sialoprotein of glomerular epithelial cells (GECs), helps maintain the characteristic architecture of the foot processes and the patency of the filtration slits. PC associates with actin via ezrin, a member of the ERM family of cytoskeletal linker proteins. Here we show that PC is linked to ezrin and the actin cytoskeleton via Na+/H+-exchanger regulatory factor 2 (NHERF2), a scaffold protein containing two PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) domains and an ERM-binding region. The cytoplasmic tail of PC contains a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif (DTHL) that binds to the second PDZ domain of NHERF2 in yeast two-hybrid and in vitro pull-down assays. By immunocytochemistry NHERF2 colocalizes with PC and ezrin along the apical domain of the GEC plasma membrane. NHERF2 and ezrin form a multimeric complex with PC, as they coimmunoprecipitate with PC. The PC/NHERF2/ezrin complex interacts with the actin cytoskeleton, and this interaction is disrupted in GECs from puromycin aminonucleoside–, protamine sulfate–, or sialidase-treated rats, which show a dramatic loss of foot processes, comparable to that seen in the nephrotic syndrome. Thus NHERF2 appears to function as a scaffold protein linking PC to ezrin and the actin cytoskeleton. PC/NHERF2/ezrin/actin interactions are disrupted in pathologic conditions associated with changes in GEC foot processes, indicating their importance for maintaining the unique organization of this epithelium. J. Clin. Invest. 108:289–301 (2001). DOI:10.1172/JCI200112539. PMID:11457882

  4. A novel Amoeba proteus 120 kDa actin-binding protein with only 1 filamin repeat and a coiled-coil region.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Magdalena; Kocik, Elzbieta; Redowicz, Maria Jolanta

    2007-02-01

    A novel 120 kDa actin-binding protein (ApABP-F1) was found in Amoeba proteus. It was distributed throughout the cytoplasm, mainly in the subplasma membrane and perinuclear-nuclear areas, enriched in actin. The full-length cDNA of ApABP consisted of 2672 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 878 amino acids, giving a ~95 kDa protein with a theoretical pI value of 5.11. It had a novel domain organization pattern: the N terminus (residues 1-104) contained 1 calponin-homology (CH) domain, followed by only 1 region that was homologous to the filamin repeat (FR, residues 209-324), and a central region (residues 344-577) exhibiting a very high probability of coiled-coil formation, probably engaged in the observed protein dimerization. A phylogenetic tree constructed for CH domains from 25 various proteins revealed that the CH domain of ApABP was most related to that of the hypothetical mouse KIAA0903-like protein, whereas not much relationship to either filamins or the gelation factor (ABP-120) of Dictyostelium discoideum and Entamoeba histolytica was found.

  5. Characterisation of single domain ATP-binding cassette protien homologues of Theileria parva.

    PubMed

    Kibe, M K; Macklin, M; Gobright, E; Bishop, R; Urakawa, T; ole-MoiYoi, O K

    2001-09-01

    Two distinct genes encoding single domain, ATP-binding cassette transport protein homologues of Theileria parva were cloned and sequenced. Neither of the genes is tandemly duplicated. One gene, TpABC1, encodes a predicted protein of 593 amino acids with an N-terminal hydrophobic domain containing six potential membrane-spanning segments. A single discontinuous ATP-binding element was located in the C-terminal region of TpABC1. The second gene, TpABC2, also contains a single C-terminal ATP-binding motif. Copies of TpABC2 were present at four loci in the T. parva genome on three different chromosomes. TpABC1 exhibited allelic polymorphism between stocks of the parasite. Comparison of cDNA and genomic sequences revealed that TpABC1 contained seven short introns, between 29 and 84 bp in length. The full-length TpABC1 protein was expressed in insect cells using the baculovirus system. Application of antibodies raised against the recombinant antigen to western blots of T. parva piroplasm lysates detected an 85 kDa protein in this life-cycle stage.

  6. C-Terminal β9-Strand of the Cyclic Nucleotide-Binding Homology Domain Stabilizes Activated States of Kv11.1 Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Chai Ann; Ke, Ying; Perry, Matthew D.; Tan, Peter S.; Hill, Adam P.; Vandenberg, Jamie I.

    2013-01-01

    Kv11.1 potassium channels are important for regulation of the normal rhythm of the heartbeat. Reduced activity of Kv11.1 channels causes long QT syndrome type 2, a disorder that increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac arrest. Kv11.1 channels are members of the KCNH subfamily of voltage-gated K+ channels. However, they also share many similarities with the cyclic nucleotide gated ion channel family, including having a cyclic nucleotide-binding homology (cNBH) domain. Kv11.1 channels, however, are not directly regulated by cyclic nucleotides. Recently, crystal structures of the cNBH domain from mEAG and zELK channels, both members of the KCNH family of voltage-gated potassium channels, revealed that a C-terminal β9-strand in the cNBH domain occupied the putative cyclic nucleotide-binding site thereby precluding binding of cyclic nucleotides. Here we show that mutations to residues in the β9-strand affect the stability of the open state relative to the closed state of Kv11.1 channels. We also show that disrupting the structure of the β9-strand reduces the stability of the inactivated state relative to the open state. Clinical mutations located in this β9-strand result in reduced trafficking efficiency, which suggests that binding of the C-terminal β9-strand to the putative cyclic nucleotide-binding pocket is also important for assembly and trafficking of Kv11.1 channels. PMID:24204727

  7. Novel Structure and Unexpected RNA-Binding Ability of the C-Terminal Domain of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Tegument Protein UL21

    SciTech Connect

    Metrick, Claire M.; Heldwein, Ekaterina E.; Sandri-Goldin, R. M.

    Proteins forming the tegument layers of herpesviral virions mediate many essential processes in the viral replication cycle, yet few have been characterized in detail. UL21 is one such multifunctional tegument protein and is conserved among alphaherpesviruses. While UL21 has been implicated in many processes in viral replication, ranging from nuclear egress to virion morphogenesis to cell-cell spread, its precise roles remain unclear. Here we report the 2.7-Å crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) UL21 (UL21C), which has a unique α-helical fold resembling a dragonfly. Analysis of evolutionary conservation patterns and surface electrostatics pinpointed fourmore » regions of potential functional importance on the surface of UL21C to be pursued by mutagenesis. In combination with the previously determined structure of the N-terminal domain of UL21, the structure of UL21C provides a 3-dimensional framework for targeted exploration of the multiple roles of UL21 in the replication and pathogenesis of alphaherpesviruses. Additionally, we describe an unanticipated ability of UL21 to bind RNA, which may hint at a yet unexplored function. IMPORTANCEDue to the limited genomic coding capacity of viruses, viral proteins are often multifunctional, which makes them attractive antiviral targets. Such multifunctionality, however, complicates their study, which often involves constructing and characterizing null mutant viruses. Systematic exploration of these multifunctional proteins requires detailed road maps in the form of 3-dimensional structures. In this work, we determined the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of UL21, a multifunctional tegument protein that is conserved among alphaherpesviruses. Structural analysis pinpointed surface areas of potential functional importance that provide a starting point for mutagenesis. In addition, the unexpected RNA-binding ability of UL21 may expand its functional repertoire. The structure

  8. Arabidopsis F-box protein containing a Nictaba-related lectin domain interacts with N-acetyllactosamine structures.

    PubMed

    Stefanowicz, Karolina; Lannoo, Nausicaä; Proost, Paul; Van Damme, Els J M

    2012-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains a small group of bipartite F-box proteins, consisting of an N-terminal F-box domain and a C-terminal domain sharing sequence similarity with Nictaba, the jasmonate-induced glycan-binding protein (lectin) from tobacco. Based on the high sequence similarity between the C-terminal domain of these proteins and Nictaba, the hypothesis was put forward that the so-called F-box-Nictaba proteins possess carbohydrate-binding activity and accordingly can be considered functional homologs of the mammalian sugar-binding F-box or Fbs proteins which are involved in proteasomal degradation of glycoproteins. To obtain experimental evidence for the carbohydrate-binding activity and specificity of the A. thaliana F-box-Nictaba proteins, both the complete F-box-Nictaba sequence of one selected Arabidopsis F-box protein (in casu At2g02360) as well as the Nictaba-like domain only were expressed in Pichia pastoris and analyzed by affinity chromatography, agglutination assays and glycan micro-array binding assays. These results demonstrated that the C-terminal Nictaba-like domain provides the F-box-protein with a carbohydrate-binding activity that is specifically directed against N- and O-glycans containing N-acetyllactosamine (Galβ1-3GlcNAc and Galβ1-4GlcNAc) and poly-N-acetyllactosamine ([Galβ1-4GlcNAc]n) as well as Lewis A (Galβ1-3(Fucα1-4)GlcNAc), Lewis X (Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAc, Lewis Y (Fucα1-2Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAc) and blood type B (Galα1-3(Fucα1-2)Galβ1-3GlcNAc) motifs. Based on these findings one can reasonably conclude that at least the A. thaliana F-box-Nictaba protein encoded by At2g02360 can act as a carbohydrate-binding protein. The results from the glycan array assays revealed differences in sugar-binding specificity between the F-box protein and Nictaba, indicating that the same carbohydrate-binding motif can accommodate unrelated oligosaccharides.

  9. Helix A Stabilization Precedes Amino-terminal Lobe Activation upon Calcium Binding to Calmodulin

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baowei; Lowry, David; Mayer, M. Uljana

    2008-08-09

    The structural coupling between opposing domains of CaM was investigated using the conformationally sensitive biarsenical probe 4,5-bis(1,3,2-dithioarsolan-2-yl)-resorufin (ReAsH), which upon binding to an engineered tetracysteine binding motif near the end of helix A (Thr-5 to Phe-19) becomes highly fluorescent. Changes in conformation and dynamics are reflective of the native CaM structure, as there is no change in the 1H- 15N HSQC NMR spectrum in comparison to wild-type CaM. We find evidence of a conformational intermediate associated with CaM activation, where calcium occupancy of sites in the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal lobes of CaM differentially affect the fluorescence intensity of bound ReAsH.more » Insight into the structure of the conformational intermediate is possible from a consideration of calcium-dependent changes in rates of ReAsH binding and helix A mobility, which respectively distinguish secondary structural changes associated with helix A stabilization from the tertiary structural reorganization of the amino-terminal lobe of CaM necessary for high-affinity binding to target proteins. Helix A stabilization is associated with calcium occupancy of sites in the carboxyl-terminal lobe (Kd = 0.36 ± 0.04 μM), which results in a reduction in the rate of ReAsH binding from 4900 M -1 sec -1 to 370 M -1 sec -1. In comparison, tertiary structural changes involving helix A and other structural elements in the amino-terminal lobe requires calcium-occupancy of amino-terminal sites (Kd = 18 ± 3 μM). Observed secondary and tertiary structural changes involving helix A in response to the sequential calcium occupancy of carboxyl- and amino-terminal lobe calcium binding sites suggest an important involvement of helix A in mediating the structural coupling between the opposing domains of CaM. These results are discussed in terms of a model in which carboxyl-terminal lobe calcium activation induces secondary structural changes within the interdomain

  10. Solution Structure of the cGMP Binding GAF Domain from Phosphodiesterase 5: Insights into Nucleotide Specificity, Dimerization, and cGMP-Dependent Conformational Change

    SciTech Connect

    Heikaus, Clemens C.; Stout, Joseph R.; Sekharan, Monica R.

    2008-08-15

    Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) controls intracellular levels of cGMP through its regulation of cGMP hydrolysis. Hydrolytic activity of the C-terminal catalytic domain is increased by cGMP binding to the N-terminal GAF A domain. We present the NMR solution structure of the cGMP-bound PDE5A GAF A domain. The cGMP orientation in the buried binding pocket was defined through 37 intermolecular NOEs.

  11. Solution structure and DNA-binding properties of the C-terminal domain of UvrC from E.coli

    PubMed Central

    Singh, S.; Folkers, G.E.; Bonvin, A.M.J.J.; Boelens, R.; Wechselberger, R.; Niztayev, A.; Kaptein, R.

    2002-01-01

    The C-terminal domain of the UvrC protein (UvrC CTD) is essential for 5′ incision in the prokaryotic nucleotide excision repair process. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of the UvrC CTD using heteronuclear NMR techniques. The structure shows two helix–hairpin–helix (HhH) motifs connected by a small connector helix. The UvrC CTD is shown to mediate structure-specific DNA binding. The domain binds to a single-stranded–double-stranded junction DNA, with a strong specificity towards looped duplex DNA that contains at least six unpaired bases per loop (‘bubble DNA’). Using chemical shift perturbation experiments, the DNA-binding surface is mapped to the first hairpin region encompassing the conserved glycine–valine–glycine residues followed by lysine–arginine–arginine, a positively charged surface patch and the second hairpin region consisting of glycine–isoleucine–serine. A model for the protein– DNA complex is proposed that accounts for this specificity. PMID:12426397

  12. N-terminal domain of the dual-targeted pea glutathione reductase signal peptide controls organellar targeting efficiency.

    PubMed

    Rudhe, Charlotta; Clifton, Rachel; Whelan, James; Glaser, Elzbieta

    2002-12-06

    Import of nuclear-encoded proteins into mitochondria and chloroplasts is generally organelle specific and its specificity depends on the N-terminal signal peptide. Yet, a group of proteins known as dual-targeted proteins have a targeting peptide capable of leading the mature protein to both organelles. We have investigated the domain structure of the dual-targeted pea glutathione reductase (GR) signal peptide by using N-terminal truncations. A mutant of the GR precursor (pGR) starting with the second methionine residue of the targeting peptide, pGRdelta2-4, directed import into both organelles, negating the possibility that dual import was controlled by the nature of the N terminus. The deletion of the 30 N-terminal residues (pGRdelta2-30) inhibited import efficiency into chloroplasts substantially and almost completely into mitochondria, whereas the removal of only 16 N-terminal amino acid residues (pGRdelta2-16) resulted in the strongly stimulated mitochondrial import without significantly affecting chloroplast import. Furthermore, N-terminal truncations of the signal peptide (pGRdelta2-16 and pGRdelta2-30) greatly stimulated the mitochondrial processing activity measured with the isolated processing peptidase. These results suggest a domain structure for the dual-targeting peptide of pGR and the existence of domains controlling organellar import efficiency therein.

  13. Non-native, N-terminal Hsp70 Molecular Motor Recognition Elements in Transit Peptides Support Plastid Protein Translocation*

    PubMed Central

    Chotewutmontri, Prakitchai; Bruce, Barry D.

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we identified the N-terminal domain of transit peptides (TPs) as a major determinant for the translocation step in plastid protein import. Analysis of Arabidopsis TP dataset revealed that this domain has two overlapping characteristics, highly uncharged and Hsp70-interacting. To investigate these two properties, we replaced the N-terminal domains of the TP of the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and its reverse peptide with a series of unrelated peptides whose affinities to the chloroplast stromal Hsp70 have been determined. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that eight out of nine peptides in this series are not similar to the TP N terminus. Using in vivo and in vitro protein import assays, the majority of the precursors containing Hsp70-binding elements were targeted to plastids, whereas none of the chimeric precursors lacking an N-terminal Hsp70-binding element were targeted to the plastids. Moreover, a pulse-chase assay showed that two chimeric precursors with the most uncharged peptides failed to translocate into the stroma. The ability of multiple unrelated Hsp70-binding elements to support protein import verified that the majority of TPs utilize an N-terminal Hsp70-binding domain during translocation and expand the mechanistic view of the import process. This work also indicates that synthetic biology may be utilized to create de novo TPs that exceed the targeting activity of naturally occurring sequences. PMID:25645915

  14. Differential structural properties of GLP-1 and exendin-4 determine their relative affinity for the GLP-1 receptor N-terminal extracellular domain.

    PubMed

    Runge, Steffen; Schimmer, Susann; Oschmann, Jan; Schiødt, Christine Bruun; Knudsen, Sanne Möller; Jeppesen, Claus Bekker; Madsen, Kjeld; Lau, Jesper; Thøgersen, Henning; Rudolph, Rainer

    2007-05-15

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and exendin-4 (Ex4) are homologous peptides with established potential for treatment of type 2 diabetes. They bind and activate the pancreatic GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) with similar affinity and potency and thereby promote insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. GLP-1R belongs to family B of the seven transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors. The N-terminal extracellular domain (nGLP-1R) is a ligand binding domain with differential affinity for Ex4 and GLP-1: low affinity for GLP-1 and high affinity for exendin-4. The superior affinity of nGLP-1R for Ex4 was previously explained by an additional interaction between nGLP-1R and the C-terminal Trp-cage of Ex4. In this study we have combined biophysical and pharmacological approaches thus relating structural properties of the ligands in solution to their relative binding affinity for nGLP-1R. We used both a tracer competition assay and ligand-induced thermal stabilization of nGLP-1R to measure the relative affinity of full length, truncated, and chimeric ligands for soluble refolded nGLP-1R. The ligands in solution and the conformational consequences of ligand binding to nGLP-1R were characterized by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. We found a correlation between the helical content of the free ligands and their relative binding affinity for nGLP-1R, supporting the hypothesis that the ligands are helical at least in the segment that binds to nGLP-1R. The Trp-cage of Ex4 was not necessary to maintain a superior helicity of Ex4 compared to GLP-1. The results suggest that the differential affinity of nGLP-1R is explained almost entirely by divergent residues in the central part of the ligands: Leu10-Gly30 of Ex4 and Val16-Arg36 of GLP-1. In view of our results it appears that the Trp-cage plays only a minor role for the interaction between Ex4 and nGLP-1R and for the differential affinity of nGLP-1R for GLP-1 and Ex4.

  15. Computational simulation of formin-mediated actin polymerization predicts homologue-dependent mechanosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Derek; Clemens, Lara; Allard, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Many actin structures are nucleated and assembled by the barbed-end tracking polymerase formin family, including filopodia, focal adhesions, the cytokinetic ring and cell cortex. These structures respond to forces in distinct ways. Formins typically have profilin-actin binding sites embedded in highly flexible disordered FH1 domains, hypothesized to diffusively explore space to rapidly capture actin monomers for delivery to the barbed end. Recent experiments demonstrate that formin-mediated polymerization accelerates when under tension. The acceleration has been attributed to modifying the state of the FH2 domain of formin. Intriguingly, the same acceleration is reported when tension is applied to the FH1 domains, ostensibly pulling monomers away from the barbed end. Here we develop a mesoscale coarse-grain model of formin-mediated actin polymerization, including monomer capture and delivery by FH1, which sterically interacts with actin along its entire length. The binding of actin monomers to their specific sites on FH1 is entropically disfavored by the high disorder. We find that this penalty is attenuated when force is applied to the FH1 domain by revealing the binding site, increasing monomer capture efficiency. Overall polymerization rates can decrease or increase with increasing force, depending on the length of FH1 domain and location of binding site. Our results suggest that the widely varying FH1 lengths and binding site locations found in known formins could be used to differentially respond to force, depending on the actin structure being assembled. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Phosphorylation and calcium antagonistically tune myosin-binding protein C’s structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Previs, Michael J.; Mun, Ji Young; Michalek, Arthur J.; Previs, Samantha Beck; Gulick, James; Robbins, Jeffrey; Warshaw, David M.; Craig, Roger

    2016-01-01

    During each heartbeat, cardiac contractility results from calcium-activated sliding of actin thin filaments toward the centers of myosin thick filaments to shorten cellular length. Cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C) is a component of the thick filament that appears to tune these mechanochemical interactions by its N-terminal domains transiently interacting with actin and/or the myosin S2 domain, sensitizing thin filaments to calcium and governing maximal sliding velocity. Both functional mechanisms are potentially further tunable by phosphorylation of an intrinsically disordered, extensible region of cMyBP-C’s N terminus, the M-domain. Using atomic force spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and mutant protein expression, we demonstrate that phosphorylation reduced the M-domain’s extensibility and shifted the conformation of the N-terminal domain from an extended structure to a compact configuration. In combination with motility assay data, these structural effects of M-domain phosphorylation suggest a mechanism for diminishing the functional potency of individual cMyBP-C molecules. Interestingly, we found that calcium levels necessary to maximally activate the thin filament mitigated the structural effects of phosphorylation by increasing M-domain extensibility and shifting the phosphorylated N-terminal fragments back to the extended state, as if unphosphorylated. Functionally, the addition of calcium to the motility assays ablated the impact of phosphorylation on maximal sliding velocities, fully restoring cMyBP-C’s inhibitory capacity. We conclude that M-domain phosphorylation may have its greatest effect on tuning cMyBP-C’s calcium-sensitization of thin filaments at the low calcium levels between contractions. Importantly, calcium levels at the peak of contraction would allow cMyBP-C to remain a potent contractile modulator, regardless of cMyBP-C’s phosphorylation state. PMID:26908872

  17. P-glycoprotein binds to ezrin at amino acid residues 149-242 in the FERM domain and plays a key role in the multidrug resistance of human osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Daria; Zamboni, Silvia; Federici, Cristina; Lugini, Luana; Lozupone, Francesco; De Milito, Angelo; Cecchetti, Serena; Cianfriglia, Maurizio; Fais, Stefano

    2012-06-15

    Overexpression of the mdr1 gene encoding P-glycoprotein (Pgp) exerts a major role in reducing the effectiveness of cytotoxic therapy in osteosarcoma. The interaction between actin and Pgp has been shown to be instrumental in the establishment of multidrug resistance (MDR) in human tumor cells. The cytoskeleton linker ezrin exerts a pivotal role in maintaining the functional connection between actin and Pgp. We investigated the role of ezrin in a human multidrug-resistant osteosarcoma cell line overexpressing Pgp and compared it to its counterpart that overexpresses an ezrin deletion mutant. The results showed that Pgp binds at amino acid residues 149-242 of the N-terminal domain of ezrin. The interaction between ezrin and Pgp occurs in the plasma membrane of MDR cells, where they also co-localize with the ganglioside G(M1) located in lipid rafts. The overexpression of the ezrin deletion mutant entirely restored drug susceptibility of osteosarcoma cells, consistent with Pgp dislocation to cytoplasmic compartments and abrogation of G(M1) /Pgp co-localization at the plasma membrane. Our study provides evidence that ezrin exerts a key role in MDR of human osteosarcoma cells through a Pgp-ezrin-actin connection that is instrumental for the permanence of Pgp into plasma membrane lipid rafts. We also show for the first time that Pgp-binding site is localized to amino acid residues 149-242 of the ezrin Band 4.1, Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin (FERM) domain, thus proposing a specific target for future molecular therapy aimed at counteracting MDR in osteosarcoma patients. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  18. Mouse Noxa uses only the C-terminal BH3-domain to inactivate Mcl-1.

    PubMed

    Weber, Arnim; Ausländer, David; Häcker, Georg

    2013-09-01

    Noxa is a member of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only group of Bcl-2 proteins that is known to bind specifically to anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 and A1, antagonizing their function. Mcl-1 has been reported to have a short half-life, and Noxa up-regulation accelerates Mcl-1 degradation by the proteasome. Unlike human Noxa, mouse Noxa has two BH3-domains, which both have affinity for Mcl-1. We here investigate two aspects of the molecular function of Noxa, namely the requirements for the two BH3-domains in mouse Noxa and the role of Noxa in Mcl-1-degradation. We found that only the C-terminal BH3-domain of mouse Noxa is active in neutralizing Mcl-1. This was the result of the targeting of Noxa to the outer mitochondrial membrane through its C-terminal alpha-helix, which allowed Mcl-1-neutralization only when the BH3-domain was immediately N-terminal of the membrane anchor. However, the N-terminal BH3-domain enhanced interaction with Mcl-1 and A1. The Noxa-dependent degradation of Mcl-1 was independent of the kinase GSK3 and the deubiquitinase Usp9x in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. These data show that Noxa is targeted to the mitochondrial membrane where it neutralises Mcl-1 via its C-terminal BH3-domain and suggest that Noxa is co-degraded with Noxa, in a way independent of ubiquitin-modifying enzymes described for Mcl-1.

  19. Immunological and protective effects of Bordetella bronchiseptica subunit vaccines based on the recombinant N-terminal domain of dermonecrotic toxin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuanwen; Liu, Liping; Zhang, Zhen; Yan, Zhengui; Yu, Cuilian; Shao, Mingxu; Jiang, Xiaodong; Chi, Shanshan; Wei, Kai; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2015-10-01

    Dermonecrotic toxin (DNT) produced by Bordetella bronchiseptica (B. bronchiseptica) can cause clinical turbinate atrophy in swine and induce dermonecrotic lesions in model mice. We know that the N-terminal of DNT molecule contains the receptor-binding domain, which facilitates binding to the target cells. However, we do not know whether this domain has sufficient immunogenicity to resist B. bronchiseptica damage and thereby to develop a subunit vaccine for the swine industry. In this study, we prokaryotically expressed the recombinant N-terminal of DNT from B. bronchiseptica (named DNT-N) and prepared it for the subunit vaccine to evaluate its immunogenicity. Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS), a known immunomodulator, was used as the adjuvant to examine its immune-conditioning effects. At 49 d after inoculation, 10 mice from each group were challenged with B. bronchiseptica, and another 10 mice were intradermally challenged with native DNT, to examine the protection imparted by the vaccines. The immune parameters (T-lymphocyte counts, cytokine secretions, serum antibody titers, and survival rates) and skin lesions were determined. The results showed that pure DNT-N vaccine significantly induced immune responses and had limited ability to resist the B. bronchiseptica and DNT challenge, whereas the mice administered with TPPPS or Freund's incomplete adjuvant vaccine could induce higher levels of the above immune parameters. Remarkably, the DNT-N vaccine combined with TPPPS adjuvant protected the mice effectively to prevent B. bronchiseptica infection. Our findings indicated that DNT-N has potential for development as an effective subunit vaccine to counteract the damage of B. bronchiseptica infection, especially when used conjointly with TPPPS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. WRNIP1 accumulates at laser light irradiated sites rapidly via its ubiquitin-binding zinc finger domain and independently from its ATPase domain

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Hironoshin; Yoshimura, Akari, E-mail: akari_yo@musashino-u.ac.jp; Edo, Takato

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WRNIP1 accumulates in laser light irradiated sites very rapidly via UBZ domain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ATPase domain of WRNIP1 is dispensable for its accumulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The accumulation of WRNIP1 seems not to be dependent on the interaction with WRN. -- Abstract: WRNIP1 (Werner helicase-interacting protein 1) was originally identified as a protein that interacts with the Werner syndrome responsible gene product. WRNIP1 contains a ubiquitin-binding zinc-finger (UBZ) domain in the N-terminal region and two leucine zipper motifs in the C-terminal region. In addition, it possesses an ATPase domain in the middle of the molecule and the lysine residues servingmore » as ubiquitin acceptors in the entire of the molecule. Here, we report that WRNIP1 accumulates in laser light irradiated sites very rapidly via its ubiquitin-binding zinc finger domain, which is known to bind polyubiquitin and to be involved in ubiquitination of WRNIP1 itself. The accumulation of WRNIP1 in laser light irradiated sites also required the C-terminal region containing two leucine zippers, which is reportedly involved in the oligomerization of WRNIP1. Mutated WRNIP1 with a deleted ATPase domain or with mutations in lysine residues, which serve as ubiquitin acceptors, accumulated in laser light irradiated sites, suggesting that the ATPase domain of WRNIP1 and ubiquitination of WRNIP1 are dispensable for the accumulation.« less

  1. Computational modeling highlights disordered Formin Homology 1 domain's role in profilin-actin transfer.

    PubMed

    Horan, Brandon G; Zerze, Gül H; Kim, Young C; Vavylonis, Dimitrios; Mittal, Jeetain

    2018-05-13

    Formins accelerate actin polymerization, assumed to occur through flexible FH1 domain mediated transfer of profilin-actin to the barbed end. To study FH1 properties and address sequence effects including varying length/distributionof profilin-binding proline-rich motifs, we performed allatom simulations of mouse mDia1, mDia2; budding yeast Bni1, Bnr1; fission yeast Cdc12, For3, and Fus1 FH1s. We find FH1 has flexible regions between high propensity polyproline helix regions. A coarse-grained model retaining sequence-specificity, assuming rigid polyproline segments,describes their size. Multiple bound profilins or profilin-actin complexes expand mDia1-FH1, which may be important in cells. Simulations of the barbed end bound to Bni1-FH1-FH2 dimer show the leading FH1 can better transfer profilin or profilin-actin, having decreasing probability with increasing distance from FH2. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Novobiocin and additional inhibitors of the Hsp90 C-terminal nucleotide-binding pocket.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Alison; Blagg, Brian S J

    2008-01-01

    The 90 kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp90), which are integrally involved in cell signaling, proliferation, and survival, are ubiquitously expressed in cells. Many proteins in tumor cells are dependent upon the Hsp90 protein folding machinery for their stability, refolding, and maturation. Inhibition of Hsp90 uniquely targets client proteins associated with all six hallmarks of cancer. Thus, Hsp90 has emerged as a promising target for the treatment of cancer. Hsp90 exists as a homodimer, which contains three domains. The N-terminal domain contains an ATP-binding site that binds the natural products geldanamycin and radicicol. The middle domain is highly charged and has high affinity for co-chaperones and client proteins. Initial studies by Csermely and co-workers suggested a second ATP-binding site in the C-terminus of Hsp90. This C-terminal nucleotide binding pocket has been shown to not only bind ATP, but cisplatin, novobiocin, epilgallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and taxol. The coumarin antibiotics novobiocin, clorobiocin, and coumermycin A1 were isolated from several streptomyces strains and exhibit potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria. These compounds bind type II topoisomerases, including DNA gyrase, and inhibit the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of ATP. As a result, novobiocin analogues have garnered the attention of numerous researchers as an attractive agent for the treatment of bacterial infection. Novobiocin was reported to bind weakly to the newly discovered Hsp90 C-terminal ATP binding site ( approximately 700 M in SkBr3 cells) and induce degradation of Hsp90 client proteins. Structural modification of this compound has led to an increase of 1000-fold in activity in anti-proliferative assays. Recent studies of structure-activity relationship (SAR) by Renoir and co-workers highlighted the crucial role of the C-4 and/or C-7 positions of the coumarin and removal of the noviose moiety, which appeared to be essential for degradation of Hsp90 client

  3. A unique GCN5-related glucosamine N-acetyltransferase region exist in the fungal multi-domain glycoside hydrolase family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidase.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhen; Xiao, Yibei; Yang, Xinbin; Mesters, Jeroen R; Yang, Shaoqing; Jiang, Zhengqiang

    2015-12-16

    Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidases widely exist in the filamentous fungi, which may play a key role in chitin metabolism of fungi. A multi-domain GH family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidase from Rhizomucor miehei (RmNag), exhibiting a potential N-acetyltransferase region, has been recently reported to show great potential in industrial applications. In this study, the crystal structure of RmNag was determined at 2.80 Å resolution. The three-dimensional structure of RmNag showed four distinctive domains, which belong to two distinguishable functional regions--a GH family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidase region (N-terminal) and a N-acetyltransferase region (C-terminal). From structural and functional analysis, the C-terminal region of RmNag was identified as a unique tandem array linking general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5)-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT), which displayed glucosamine N-acetyltransferase activity. Structural analysis of this glucosamine N-acetyltransferase region revealed that a unique glucosamine binding pocket is located in the pantetheine arm binding terminal region of the conserved CoA binding pocket, which is different from all known GNAT members. This is the first structural report of a glucosamine N-acetyltransferase, which provides novel structural information about substrate specificity of GNATs. The structural and functional features of this multi-domain β-N-acetylglucosaminidase could be useful in studying the catalytic mechanism of GH family 3 proteins.

  4. (1)H, (13)C, (15)N backbone and side-chain resonance assignment of Nostoc sp. C139A variant of the heme-nitric oxide/oxygen binding (H-NOX) domain.

    PubMed

    Alexandropoulos, Ioannis I; Argyriou, Aikaterini I; Marousis, Kostas D; Topouzis, Stavros; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Spyroulias, Georgios A

    2016-10-01

    The H-NOX (Heme-nitric oxide/oxygen binding) domain is conserved across eukaryotes and bacteria. In human soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) the H-NOX domain functions as a sensor for the gaseous signaling agent nitric oxide (NO). sGC contains the heme-binding H-NOX domain at its N-terminus, which regulates the catalytic site contained within the C-terminal end of the enzyme catalyzing the conversion of GTP (guanosine 5'-triphosphate) to GMP (guanylyl monophosphate). Here, we present the backbone and side-chain assignments of the (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonances of the 183-residue H-NOX domain from Nostoc sp. through solution NMR.

  5. Calorimetric and spectroscopic investigation of the interaction between the C-terminal domain of Enzyme I and its ligands

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Young-Joo; Suh, Jeong-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Enzyme I initiates a series of phosphotransfer reactions during sugar uptake in the bacterial phosphotransferase system. Here, we have isolated a stable recombinant C-terminal domain of Enzyme I (EIC) of Escherichia coli and characterized its interaction with the N-terminal domain of Enzyme I (EIN) and also with various ligands. EIC can phosphorylate EIN, but their binding is transient regardless of the presence of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). Circular dichroism and NMR indicate that ligand binding to EIC induces changes near aromatic groups but not in the secondary structure of EIC. Binding of PEP to EIC is an endothermic reaction with the equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of 0.28 mM, whereas binding of the inhibitor oxalate is an exothermic reaction with KD of 0.66 mM from calorimetry. The binding thermodynamics of EIC and PEP compared to that of Enzyme I (EI) and PEP reveals that domain–domain motion in EI can contribute as large as ∼−3.2 kcal/mol toward PEP binding. PMID:22936614

  6. Simultaneous prediction of binding free energy and specificity for PDZ domain-peptide interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivelli, Joseph J.; Lemmon, Gordon; Kaufmann, Kristian W.; Meiler, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Interactions between protein domains and linear peptides underlie many biological processes. Among these interactions, the recognition of C-terminal peptides by PDZ domains is one of the most ubiquitous. In this work, we present a mathematical model for PDZ domain-peptide interactions capable of predicting both affinity and specificity of binding based on X-ray crystal structures and comparative modeling with R osetta. We developed our mathematical model using a large phage display dataset describing binding specificity for a wild type PDZ domain and 91 single mutants, as well as binding affinity data for a wild type PDZ domain binding to 28 different peptides. Structural refinement was carried out through several R osetta protocols, the most accurate of which included flexible peptide docking and several iterations of side chain repacking and backbone minimization. Our findings emphasize the importance of backbone flexibility and the energetic contributions of side chain-side chain hydrogen bonds in accurately predicting interactions. We also determined that predicting PDZ domain-peptide interactions became increasingly challenging as the length of the peptide increased in the N-terminal direction. In the training dataset, predicted binding energies correlated with those derived through calorimetry and specificity switches introduced through single mutations at interface positions were recapitulated. In independent tests, our best performing protocol was capable of predicting dissociation constants well within one order of magnitude of the experimental values and specificity profiles at the level of accuracy of previous studies. To our knowledge, this approach represents the first integrated protocol for predicting both affinity and specificity for PDZ domain-peptide interactions.

  7. Hsp90 N- and C-terminal double inhibition synergistically suppresses Bcr-Abl-positive human leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xianling; Chen, Xiaole; Li, Ding; Fan, Yingjuan; Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Yuanzhong; Wu, Lixian

    2017-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) contains amino (N)–terminal domain, carboxyl(C)-terminal domain, and middle domains, which activate Hsp90 chaperone function cooperatively in tumor cells. One terminal occupancy might influence another terminal binding with inhibitor. The Bcr-Abl kinase is one of the Hsp90 clients implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Present studies demonstrate that double inhibition of the N- and C-terminal termini can disrupt Hsp90 chaperone function synergistically, but not antagonistically, in Bcr-Abl-positive human leukemia cells. Furthermore, both the N-terminal inhibitor 17-AAG and the C-terminal inhibitor cisplatin (CP) have the capacity to suppress progenitor cells; however, only CP is able to inhibit leukemia stem cells (LSCs) significantly, which implies that the combinational treatment is able to suppress human leukemia in different mature states. PMID:28036294

  8. Overexpression of violaxanthin de-epoxidase: properties of C-terminal deletions on activity and pH-dependent lipid binding.

    PubMed

    Hieber, A David; Bugos, Robert C; Verhoeven, Amy S; Yamamoto, Harry Y

    2002-01-01

    Violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) is localized in the thylakoid lumen and catalyzes the de-epoxidation of violaxanthin to form antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin. VDE is predicted to be a lipocalin protein with a central barrel structure flanked by a cysteine-rich N-terminal domain and a glutamate-rich C-terminal domain. A full-length Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. VDE and deletion mutants of the N- and C-terminal regions were expressed in Escherichia coli and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) plants. High expression of VDE in E. coli was achieved after adding the argU gene that encodes the E. coli arginine AGA tRNA. However, the specific activity of VDE expressed in E. coli was low, possibly due to incorrect folding. Removal of just 4 amino acids from the N-terminal region abolished all VDE activity whereas 71 C-terminal amino acids could be removed without affecting activity. The difficulties with expression in E. coli were overcome by expressing the Arabidopsis VDE in tobacco. The transformed tobacco exhibited a 13- to 19-fold increase in VDE specific activity, indicating correct protein folding. These plants also demonstrated an increase in the initial rate of nonphotochemical quenching consistent with an increased initial rate of de-epoxidation. Deletion mutations of the C-terminal region suggest that this region is important for binding of VDE to the thylakoid membrane. Accordingly, in vitro lipid-micelle binding experiments identified a region of 12 amino acids that is potentially part of a membrane-binding domain. The transformed tobacco plants are the first reported example of plants with an increased level of VDE activity.

  9. The binding of TIA-1 to RNA C-rich sequences is driven by its C-terminal RRM domain.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Gallardo, Isabel; Aroca, Ángeles; Gunzburg, Menachem J; Sivakumaran, Andrew; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Angulo, Jesús; Persson, Cecilia; Gorospe, Myriam; Karlsson, B Göran; Wilce, Jacqueline A; Díaz-Moreno, Irene

    2014-01-01

    T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) is a key DNA/RNA binding protein that regulates translation by sequestering target mRNAs in stress granules (SG) in response to stress conditions. TIA-1 possesses three RNA recognition motifs (RRM) along with a glutamine-rich domain, with the central domains (RRM2 and RRM3) acting as RNA binding platforms. While the RRM2 domain, which displays high affinity for U-rich RNA sequences, is primarily responsible for interaction with RNA, the contribution of RRM3 to bind RNA as well as the target RNA sequences that it binds preferentially are still unknown. Here we combined nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) techniques to elucidate the sequence specificity of TIA-1 RRM3. With a novel approach using saturation transfer difference NMR (STD-NMR) to quantify protein-nucleic acids interactions, we demonstrate that isolated RRM3 binds to both C- and U-rich stretches with micromolar affinity. In combination with RRM2 and in the context of full-length TIA-1, RRM3 significantly enhanced the binding to RNA, particularly to cytosine-rich RNA oligos, as assessed by biotinylated RNA pull-down analysis. Our findings provide new insight into the role of RRM3 in regulating TIA-1 binding to C-rich stretches, that are abundant at the 5' TOPs (5' terminal oligopyrimidine tracts) of mRNAs whose translation is repressed under stress situations.

  10. The binding of TIA-1 to RNA C-rich sequences is driven by its C-terminal RRM domain

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Gallardo, Isabel; Aroca, Ángeles; Gunzburg, Menachem J; Sivakumaran, Andrew; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Angulo, Jesús; Persson, Cecilia; Gorospe, Myriam; Karlsson, B Göran; Wilce, Jacqueline A; Díaz-Moreno, Irene

    2014-01-01

    T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) is a key DNA/RNA binding protein that regulates translation by sequestering target mRNAs in stress granules (SG) in response to stress conditions. TIA-1 possesses three RNA recognition motifs (RRM) along with a glutamine-rich domain, with the central domains (RRM2 and RRM3) acting as RNA binding platforms. While the RRM2 domain, which displays high affinity for U-rich RNA sequences, is primarily responsible for interaction with RNA, the contribution of RRM3 to bind RNA as well as the target RNA sequences that it binds preferentially are still unknown. Here we combined nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) techniques to elucidate the sequence specificity of TIA-1 RRM3. With a novel approach using saturation transfer difference NMR (STD-NMR) to quantify protein–nucleic acids interactions, we demonstrate that isolated RRM3 binds to both C- and U-rich stretches with micromolar affinity. In combination with RRM2 and in the context of full-length TIA-1, RRM3 significantly enhanced the binding to RNA, particularly to cytosine-rich RNA oligos, as assessed by biotinylated RNA pull-down analysis. Our findings provide new insight into the role of RRM3 in regulating TIA-1 binding to C-rich stretches, that are abundant at the 5′ TOPs (5′ terminal oligopyrimidine tracts) of mRNAs whose translation is repressed under stress situations. PMID:24824036

  11. Srv2/CAP is required for polarized actin cable assembly and patch internalization during clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Toshima, Junko Y; Horikomi, Chika; Okada, Asuka; Hatori, Makiko N; Nagano, Makoto; Masuda, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Wataru; Siekhaus, Daria Elisabeth; Toshima, Jiro

    2016-01-15

    The dynamic assembly and disassembly of actin filaments is essential for the formation and transport of vesicles during endocytosis. In yeast, two types of actin structures, namely cortical patches and cytoplasmic cables, play a direct role in endocytosis, but how their interaction is regulated remains unclear. Here, we show that Srv2/CAP, an evolutionarily conserved actin regulator, is required for efficient endocytosis owing to its role in the formation of the actin patches that aid initial vesicle invagination and of the actin cables that these move along. Deletion of the SRV2 gene resulted in the appearance of aberrant fragmented actin cables that frequently moved past actin patches, the sites of endocytosis. We find that the C-terminal CARP domain of Srv2p is vitally important for the proper assembly of actin patches and cables; we also demonstrate that the N-terminal helical folded domain of Srv2 is required for its localization to actin patches, specifically to the ADP-actin rich region through an interaction with cofilin. These results demonstrate the in vivo roles of Srv2p in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton during clathrin-mediated endocytosis. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Structural basis for profilin-mediated actin nucleotide exchange

    PubMed Central

    Porta, Jason C.; Borgstahl, Gloria E.O.

    2015-01-01

    Actin is a ubiquitous eukaryotic protein that is responsible for cellular scaffolding, motility and division. The ability of actin to form a helical filament is the driving force behind these cellular activities. Formation of a filament is dependent the successful exchange of actin’s ADP for ATP. Mammalian profilin is a small actin binding protein that catalyzes the exchange of nucleotide and facilitates the addition of an actin monomer to a growing filament. Here, crystal structures of profilin:actin have been determined showing an actively exchanging ATP. The structural analysis shows how the binding of profilin to the barbed end of actin causes a rotation of the small domain relative to the large domain. This conformational change is propagated to the ATP site and causes a shift in the nucleotide loops which in turn causes a repositioning of Ca2+ to its canonical position as the cleft closes around ATP. Reversing the solvent exposure of Trp-356 is also involved in cleft closure. In addition, secondary calcium binding sites were identified. PMID:22366544

  13. Arabidopsis Microtubule-Associated Protein MAP65-3 Cross-Links Antiparallel Microtubules toward Their Plus Ends in the Phragmoplast via Its Distinct C-Terminal Microtubule Binding Domain[W

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Chin-Min Kimmy; Lee, Yuh-Ru Julie; Kiyama, Lindsay D.; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P.; Liu, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Plant cytokinesis is brought about by the phragmoplast, which contains an antiparallel microtubule (MT) array. The MT-associated protein MAP65-3 acts as an MT-bundling factor that specifically cross-links antiparallel MTs near their plus ends. MAP65 family proteins contain an N-terminal dimerization domain and C-terminal MT interaction domain. Compared with other MAP65 isoforms, MAP65-3 contains an extended C terminus. A MT binding site was discovered in the region between amino acids 496 and 588 and found to be essential for the organization of phragmoplast MTs. The frequent cytokinetic failure caused by loss of MAP65-3 was not rescued by ectopic expression of MAP65-1 under the control of the MAP65-3 promoter, indicating nonoverlapping functions between the two isoforms. In the presence of MAP65-3, however, ectopic MAP65-1 appeared in the phragmoplast midline. We show that MAP65-1 could acquire the function of MAP65-3 when the C terminus of MAP65-3, which contains the MT binding site, was grafted to it. Our results also show that MAP65-1 and MAP65-3 may share redundant functions in MT stabilization. Such a stabilization effect was likely brought about by MT binding and bundling. We conclude that MAP65-3 contains a distinct C-terminal MT binding site with a specific role in cross-linking antiparallel MTs toward their plus ends in the phragmoplast. PMID:22570443

  14. A low-complexity region in the YTH domain protein Mmi1 enhances RNA binding.

    PubMed

    Stowell, James A W; Wagstaff, Jane L; Hill, Chris H; Yu, Minmin; McLaughlin, Stephen H; Freund, Stefan M V; Passmore, Lori A

    2018-06-15

    Mmi1 is an essential RNA-binding protein in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe that eliminates meiotic transcripts during normal vegetative growth. Mmi1 contains a YTH domain that binds specific RNA sequences, targeting mRNAs for degradation. The YTH domain of Mmi1 uses a noncanonical RNA-binding surface that includes contacts outside the conserved fold. Here, we report that an N-terminal extension that is proximal to the YTH domain enhances RNA binding. Using X-ray crystallography, NMR, and biophysical methods, we show that this low-complexity region becomes more ordered upon RNA binding. This enhances the affinity of the interaction of the Mmi1 YTH domain with specific RNAs by reducing the dissociation rate of the Mmi1-RNA complex. We propose that the low-complexity region influences RNA binding indirectly by reducing dynamic motions of the RNA-binding groove and stabilizing a conformation of the YTH domain that binds to RNA with high affinity. Taken together, our work reveals how a low-complexity region proximal to a conserved folded domain can adopt an ordered structure to aid nucleic acid binding. © 2018 Stowell et al.

  15. Evidence for an uncommon alpha-actinin protein in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Bricheux, G; Coffe, G; Pradel, N; Brugerolle, G

    1998-09-15

    As part of our ongoing project of identification of actin-binding proteins implicated in the cell transition (flagellate to amoeboid/adherent) of Trichomonas vaginalis, we have characterized an alpha-actinin-related protein in this parasite. The protein (P100) has a molecular mass of 100 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.5. A monoclonal antibody raised against this protein co-localizes with the actin network. P100 gene transcripts are co-expressed with actin throughout the cell cycle. Analysis of the deduced protein sequence reveals three domains: an N-terminal actin-binding region; a central region rich in alpha-helix; and a C-terminal domain with Ca(2+)-binding capacity. Whereas the N- and C-terminal regions are well-conserved as compared to other alpha-actinins, we observe in the central region an atypical distribution of residues in five repeats. The sequence of the repeats does not show any homology with the rod domain of the other alpha-actinins, except for the first repeat which shows some similarity. The four other repeats of T. vaginalis P100 appear to result from a duplication event which is not detectable in the other sequences.

  16. Side-binding proteins modulate actin filament dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Crevenna, Alvaro H; Arciniega, Marcelino; Dupont, Aurélie; Mizuno, Naoko; Kowalska, Kaja; Lange, Oliver F; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland; Lamb, Don C

    2015-01-01

    Actin filament dynamics govern many key physiological processes from cell motility to tissue morphogenesis. A central feature of actin dynamics is the capacity of filaments to polymerize and depolymerize at their ends in response to cellular conditions. It is currently thought that filament kinetics can be described by a single rate constant for each end. In this study, using direct visualization of single actin filament elongation, we show that actin polymerization kinetics at both filament ends are strongly influenced by the binding of proteins to the lateral filament surface. We also show that the pointed-end has a non-elongating state that dominates the observed filament kinetic asymmetry. Estimates of flexibility as well as effects on fragmentation and growth suggest that the observed kinetic diversity arises from structural alteration. Tuning elongation kinetics by exploiting the malleability of the filament structure may be a ubiquitous mechanism to generate a rich variety of cellular actin dynamics. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04599.001 PMID:25706231

  17. Src binds cortactin through an SH2 domain cystine-mediated linkage.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jason V; Ammer, Amanda G; Jett, John E; Bolcato, Chris A; Breaux, Jason C; Martin, Karen H; Culp, Mark V; Gannett, Peter M; Weed, Scott A

    2012-12-15

    Tyrosine-kinase-based signal transduction mediated by modular protein domains is critical for cellular function. The Src homology (SH)2 domain is an important conductor of intracellular signaling that binds to phosphorylated tyrosines on acceptor proteins, producing molecular complexes responsible for signal relay. Cortactin is a cytoskeletal protein and tyrosine kinase substrate that regulates actin-based motility through interactions with SH2-domain-containing proteins. The Src kinase SH2 domain mediates cortactin binding and tyrosine phosphorylation, but how Src interacts with cortactin is unknown. Here we demonstrate that Src binds cortactin through cystine bonding between Src C185 in the SH2 domain within the phosphotyrosine binding pocket and cortactin C112/246 in the cortactin repeats domain, independent of tyrosine phosphorylation. Interaction studies show that the presence of reducing agents ablates Src-cortactin binding, eliminates cortactin phosphorylation by Src, and prevents Src SH2 domain binding to cortactin. Tandem MS/MS sequencing demonstrates cystine bond formation between Src C185 and cortactin C112/246. Mutational studies indicate that an intact cystine binding interface is required for Src-mediated cortactin phosphorylation, cell migration, and pre-invadopodia formation. Our results identify a novel phosphotyrosine-independent binding mode between the Src SH2 domain and cortactin. Besides Src, one quarter of all SH2 domains contain cysteines at or near the analogous Src C185 position. This provides a potential alternative mechanism to tyrosine phosphorylation for cysteine-containing SH2 domains to bind cognate ligands that may be widespread in propagating signals regulating diverse cellular functions.

  18. Src binds cortactin through an SH2 domain cystine-mediated linkage

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Jason V.; Ammer, Amanda G.; Jett, John E.; Bolcato, Chris A.; Breaux, Jason C.; Martin, Karen H.; Culp, Mark V.; Gannett, Peter M.; Weed, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Tyrosine-kinase-based signal transduction mediated by modular protein domains is critical for cellular function. The Src homology (SH)2 domain is an important conductor of intracellular signaling that binds to phosphorylated tyrosines on acceptor proteins, producing molecular complexes responsible for signal relay. Cortactin is a cytoskeletal protein and tyrosine kinase substrate that regulates actin-based motility through interactions with SH2-domain-containing proteins. The Src kinase SH2 domain mediates cortactin binding and tyrosine phosphorylation, but how Src interacts with cortactin is unknown. Here we demonstrate that Src binds cortactin through cystine bonding between Src C185 in the SH2 domain within the phosphotyrosine binding pocket and cortactin C112/246 in the cortactin repeats domain, independent of tyrosine phosphorylation. Interaction studies show that the presence of reducing agents ablates Src-cortactin binding, eliminates cortactin phosphorylation by Src, and prevents Src SH2 domain binding to cortactin. Tandem MS/MS sequencing demonstrates cystine bond formation between Src C185 and cortactin C112/246. Mutational studies indicate that an intact cystine binding interface is required for Src-mediated cortactin phosphorylation, cell migration, and pre-invadopodia formation. Our results identify a novel phosphotyrosine-independent binding mode between the Src SH2 domain and cortactin. Besides Src, one quarter of all SH2 domains contain cysteines at or near the analogous Src C185 position. This provides a potential alternative mechanism to tyrosine phosphorylation for cysteine-containing SH2 domains to bind cognate ligands that may be widespread in propagating signals regulating diverse cellular functions. PMID:23097045

  19. The carboxyl-terminal region of ahnak provides a link between cardiac L-type Ca2+ channels and the actin-based cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Hohaus, Annette; Person, Veronika; Behlke, Joachim; Schaper, Jutta; Morano, Ingo; Haase, Hannelore

    2002-08-01

    Ahnak is a ubiquitously expressed giant protein of 5643 amino acids implicated in cell differentiation and signal transduction. In a recent study, we demonstrated the association of ahnak with the regulatory beta2 subunit of the cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel. Here we identify the most carboxyl-terminal ahnak region (aa 5262-5643) to interact with recombinant beta2a as well as with beta2 and beta1a isoforms of native muscle Ca2+ channels using a panel of GST fusion proteins. Equilibrium sedimentation analysis revealed Kd values of 55 +/- 11 nM and 328 +/- 24 nM for carboxyl-terminal (aa 195-606) and amino-terminal (aa 1-200) truncates of the beta2a subunit, respectively. The same carboxyl-terminal ahnak region (aa 5262-5643) bound to G-actin and cosedimented with F-actin. Confocal microscopy of human left ventricular tissue localized the carboxyl-terminal ahnak portion to the sarcolemma including the T-tubular system and the intercalated disks of cardiomyocytes. These results suggest that ahnak provides a structural basis for the subsarcolemmal cytoarchitecture and confers the regulatory role of the actin-based cytoskeleton to the L-type Ca2+ channel.

  20. Structure of the E2 DNA-binding domain from human papillomavirus serotype 31 at 2.4 A.

    PubMed

    Bussiere, D E; Kong, X; Egan, D A; Walter, K; Holzman, T F; Lindh, F; Robins, T; Giranda, V L

    1998-11-01

    The papillomaviruses are a family of small double-stranded DNA viruses which exclusively infect epithelial cells and stimulate the proliferation of those cells. A key protein within the papillomavirus life-cycle is known as the E2 (Early 2) protein and is responsible for regulating viral transcription from all viral promoters as well as for replication of the papillomavirus genome in tandem with another protein known as E1. The E2 protein itself consists of three functional domains: an N-terminal trans-activation domain, a proline-rich linker, and a C-terminal DNA-binding domain. The first crystal structure of the human papillomavirus, serotype 31 (HPV-31), E2 DNA-binding domain has been determined at 2.4 A resolution. The HPV DNA-binding domain monomer consists of two beta-alpha-beta repeats of approximately equal length and is arranged as to have an anti-parallel beta-sheet flanked by the two alpha-helices. The monomers form the functional in vivo dimer by association of the beta-sheets of each monomer so as to form an eight-stranded anti-parallel beta-barrel at the center of the dimer, with the alpha-helices lining the outside of the barrel. The overall structure of HVP-31 E2 DNA-binding domain is similar to both the bovine papillomavirus E2-binding domain and the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 DNA-binding domain.

  1. Identification of two pentatricopeptide repeat genes required for RNA editing and zinc binding by C-terminal cytidine deaminase-like domains.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Michael L; Giang, Karolyn; Berhane, Beniam; Mulligan, R Michael

    2013-12-20

    Many transcripts expressed from plant organelle genomes are modified by C-to-U RNA editing. Nuclear encoded pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are required as RNA binding specificity determinants in the RNA editing mechanism. Bioinformatic analysis has shown that most of the Arabidopsis PPR proteins necessary for RNA editing events include a C-terminal portion that shares structural characteristics with a superfamily of deaminases. The DYW deaminase domain includes a highly conserved zinc binding motif that shares characteristics with cytidine deaminases. The Arabidopsis PPR genes, ELI1 and DOT4, both have DYW deaminase domains and are required for single RNA editing events in chloroplasts. The ELI1 DYW deaminase domain was expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and was shown to bind two zinc atoms per polypeptide. Thus, the DYW deaminase domain binds a zinc metal ion, as expected for a cytidine deaminase, and is potentially the catalytic component of an editing complex. Genetic complementation experiments demonstrate that large portions of the DYW deaminase domain of ELI1 may be eliminated, but the truncated genes retain the ability to restore editing site conversion in a mutant plant. These results suggest that the catalytic activity can be supplied in trans by uncharacterized protein(s) of the editosome.

  2. Atypical binding of the Swa2p UBA domain to ubiquitin.

    PubMed

    Matta-Camacho, Edna; Kozlov, Guennadi; Trempe, Jean-François; Gehring, Kalle

    2009-02-20

    Swa2p is an auxilin-like yeast protein that is involved in vesicular transport and required for uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles. Swa2p contains a ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain, which is present in a variety of proteins involved in ubiquitin (Ub)-mediated processes. We have determined a structural model of the Swa2p UBA domain in complex with Ub using NMR spectroscopy and molecular docking. Ub recognition occurs predominantly through an atypical interaction in which UBA helix alpha1 and the N-terminal part of helix alpha2 bind to Ub. Mutation of Ala148, a key residue in helix alpha1, to polar residues greatly reduced the affinity of the UBA domain for Ub and revealed a second low-affinity Ub-binding site located on the surface formed by helices alpha1 and alpha3. Surface plasmon resonance showed that the Swa2p UBA domain binds K48- and K63-linked di-Ub in a non-linkage-specific manner. These results reveal convergent evolution of a Ub-binding site on helix alpha1 of UBA domains involved in membrane protein trafficking.

  3. Functional hierarchy of the N-terminal tyrosines of SLP-76.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Martha S; Sadler, Jeffrey; Austin, Jessica E; Finkelstein, Lisa D; Singer, Andrew L; Schwartzberg, Pamela L; Koretzky, Gary A

    2006-02-15

    The adaptor protein Src homology 2 domain-containing leukocyte phosphoprotein of 76 kDa (SLP-76) plays a central role in T cell activation and T cell development. SLP-76 has three functional modules: an acidic domain with three key tyrosines, a central proline-rich domain, and a C-terminal Src homology 2 domain. Of these, mutation of the three N-terminal tyrosines (Y112, Y128, and Y145) results in the most profound effects on T cell development and function. Y112 and Y128 associate with Vav and Nck, two proteins shown to be important for TCR-induced phosphorylation of proximal signaling substrates, Ca(2+) flux, and actin reorganization. Y145 has been shown to be important for optimal association of SLP-76 with inducible tyrosine kinase, a key regulator of T cell function. To investigate further the role of the phosphorylatable tyrosines of SLP-76 in TCR signaling, cell lines and primary T cells expressing SLP-76 with mutations in individual or paired tyrosine residues were analyzed. These studies show that Tyr(145) of SLP-76 is the most critical tyrosine for both T cell function in vitro and T cell development in vivo.

  4. Solution structure of telomere binding domain of AtTRB2 derived from Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Ji-Hye; Lee, Won Kyung; Kim, Heeyoun

    Highlights: • We have determined solution structure of Myb domain of AtTRB2. • The Myb domain of AtTRB2 is located in the N-terminal region. • The Myb domain of AtTRB2 binds to plant telomeric DNA without fourth helix. • Helix 2 and 3 of the Myb domain of AtTRB2 are involved in DNA recognition. • AtTRB2 is a novel protein distinguished from other known plant TBP. - Abstract: Telomere homeostasis is regulated by telomere-associated proteins, and the Myb domain is well conserved for telomere binding. AtTRB2 is a member of the SMH (Single-Myb-Histone)-like family in Arabidopsis thaliana, having an N-terminalmore » Myb domain, which is responsible for DNA binding. The Myb domain of AtTRB2 contains three α-helices and loops for DNA binding, which is unusual given that other plant telomere-binding proteins have an additional fourth helix that is essential for DNA binding. To understand the structural role for telomeric DNA binding of AtTRB2, we determined the solution structure of the Myb domain of AtTRB2 (AtTRB2{sub 1–64}) using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, the inter-molecular interaction between AtTRB2{sub 1–64} and telomeric DNA has been characterized by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and NMR titration analyses for both plant (TTTAGGG)n and human (TTAGGG)n telomere sequences. Data revealed that Trp28, Arg29, and Val47 residues located in Helix 2 and Helix 3 are crucial for DNA binding, which are well conserved among other plant telomere binding proteins. We concluded that although AtTRB2 is devoid of the additional fourth helix in the Myb-extension domain, it is able to bind to plant telomeric repeat sequences as well as human telomeric repeat sequences.« less

  5. Impact of the Motor and Tail Domains of Class III Myosins on Regulating the Formation and Elongation of Actin Protrusions*

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Omar A.; Weck, Meredith L.; Unrath, William C.; Gallagher, James W.; Cui, Runjia; Kachar, Bechara; Tyska, Matthew J.; Yengo, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Class III myosins (MYO3A and MYO3B) are proposed to function as transporters as well as length and ultrastructure regulators within stable actin-based protrusions such as stereocilia and calycal processes. MYO3A differs from MYO3B in that it contains an extended tail domain with an additional actin-binding motif. We examined how the properties of the motor and tail domains of human class III myosins impact their ability to enhance the formation and elongation of actin protrusions. Direct examination of the motor and enzymatic properties of human MYO3A and MYO3B revealed that MYO3A is a 2-fold faster motor with enhanced ATPase activity and actin affinity. A chimera in which the MYO3A tail was fused to the MYO3B motor demonstrated that motor activity correlates with formation and elongation of actin protrusions. We demonstrate that removal of individual exons (30–34) in the MYO3A tail does not prevent filopodia tip localization but abolishes the ability to enhance actin protrusion formation and elongation in COS7 cells. Interestingly, our results demonstrate that MYO3A slows filopodia dynamics and enhances filopodia lifetime in COS7 cells. We also demonstrate that MYO3A is more efficient than MYO3B at increasing formation and elongation of stable microvilli on the surface of cultured epithelial cells. We propose that the unique features of MYO3A, enhanced motor activity, and an extended tail with tail actin-binding motif, allow it to play an important role in stable actin protrusion length and ultrastructure maintenance. PMID:27582493

  6. Role of ANC-1 in tethering nuclei to the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Starr, Daniel A; Han, Min

    2002-10-11

    Mutations in anc-1 (nuclear anchorage defective) disrupt the positioning of nuclei and mitochondria in Caenorhabditis elegans. ANC-1 is shown to consist of mostly coiled regions with a nuclear envelope localization domain (called the KASH domain) and an actin-binding domain; this structure was conserved with the Drosophila protein Msp-300 and the mammalian Syne proteins. Antibodies against ANC-1 localized cytoplasmically and were enriched at the nuclear periphery in an UNC-84-dependent manner. Overexpression of the KASH domain or the actin-binding domain caused a dominant negative anchorage defect. Thus, ANC-1 may connect nuclei to the cytoskeleton by interacting with UNC-84 at the nuclear envelope and with actin in the cytoplasm.

  7. The Tip of the Four N-Terminal α-Helices of Clostridium sordellii Lethal Toxin Contains the Interaction Site with Membrane Phosphatidylserine Facilitating Small GTPases Glucosylation

    PubMed Central

    Varela Chavez, Carolina; Haustant, Georges Michel; Baron, Bruno; England, Patrick; Chenal, Alexandre; Pauillac, Serge; Blondel, Arnaud; Popoff, Michel-Robert

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin (TcsL) is a powerful virulence factor responsible for severe toxic shock in man and animals. TcsL belongs to the large clostridial glucosylating toxin (LCGT) family which inactivates small GTPases by glucosylation with uridine-diphosphate (UDP)-glucose as a cofactor. Notably, TcsL modifies Rac and Ras GTPases, leading to drastic alteration of the actin cytoskeleton and cell viability. TcsL enters cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis and delivers the N-terminal glucosylating domain (TcsL-cat) into the cytosol. TcsL-cat was found to preferentially bind to phosphatidylserine (PS)-containing membranes and to increase the glucosylation of Rac anchored to the lipid membrane. We have previously reported that the N-terminal four helical bundle structure (1–93 domain) recognizes a broad range of lipids, but that TcsL-cat specifically binds to PS and phosphatidic acid. Here, we show using mutagenesis that the PS binding site is localized on the tip of the four-helix bundle which is rich in positively-charged amino acids. Residues Y14, V15, F17, and R18 on loop 1, between helices 1 and 2, in coordination with R68 from loop 3, between helices 3 and 4, form a pocket which accommodates L-serine. The functional PS-binding site is required for TcsL-cat binding to the plasma membrane and subsequent cytotoxicity. TcsL-cat binding to PS facilitates a high enzymatic activity towards membrane-anchored Ras by about three orders of magnitude as compared to Ras in solution. The PS-binding site is conserved in LCGTs, which likely retain a common mechanism of binding to the membrane for their full activity towards membrane-bound GTPases. PMID:27023605

  8. The intermembrane space domain of Tim23 is intrinsically disordered with a distinct binding region for presequences

    PubMed Central

    de la Cruz, Laura; Bajaj, Rakhi; Becker, Stefan; Zweckstetter, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Proteins targeted to the mitochondrial matrix are translocated through the outer and the inner mitochondrial membranes by two protein complexes, the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) and one of the translocases of the inner membrane (TIM23). The protein Tim23, the core component of TIM23, consists of an N-terminal, soluble domain in the intermembrane space (IMS) and a C-terminal domain that forms the import pore across the inner membrane. Before translocation proceeds, precursor proteins are recognized by the N-terminal domain of Tim23, Tim23N (residues 1–96). By using NMR spectroscopy, we show that Tim23N is a monomeric protein belonging to the family of intrinsically disordered proteins. Titrations of Tim23N with two presequences revealed a distinct binding region of Tim23N formed by residues 71–84. In a charge-hydropathy plot containing all soluble domains of TOM and TIM23, Tim23N was found to be the only domain with more than 40 residues in the IMS that is predicted to be intrinsically disordered, suggesting that Tim23N might function as hub in the mitochondrial import machinery protein network. PMID:20718036

  9. Structure of metabotropic glutamate receptor C-terminal domains in contact with interacting proteins.

    PubMed

    Enz, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) regulate intracellular signal pathways that control several physiological tasks, including neuronal excitability, learning, and memory. This is achieved by the formation of synaptic signal complexes, in which mGluRs assemble with functionally related proteins such as enzymes, scaffolds, and cytoskeletal anchor proteins. Thus, mGluR associated proteins actively participate in the regulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission. Importantly, dysfunction of mGluRs and interacting proteins may lead to impaired signal transduction and finally result in neurological disorders, e.g., night blindness, addiction, epilepsy, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders and Parkinson's disease. In contrast to solved crystal structures of extracellular N-terminal domains of some mGluR types, only a few studies analyzed the conformation of intracellular receptor domains. Intracellular C-termini of most mGluR types are subject to alternative splicing and can be further modified by phosphorylation and SUMOylation. In this way, diverse interaction sites for intracellular proteins that bind to and regulate the glutamate receptors are generated. Indeed, most of the known mGluR binding partners interact with the receptors' C-terminal domains. Within the last years, different laboratories analyzed the structure of these domains and described the geometry of the contact surface between mGluR C-termini and interacting proteins. Here, I will review recent progress in the structure characterization of mGluR C-termini and provide an up-to-date summary of the geometry of these domains in contact with binding partners.

  10. IQGAP Proteins Reveal an Atypical Phosphoinositide (aPI) Binding Domain with a Pseudo C2 Domain Fold*

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Miles J.; Gray, Alexander; Schenning, Martijn; Agacan, Mark; Tempel, Wolfram; Tong, Yufeng; Nedyalkova, Lyudmila; Park, Hee-Won; Leslie, Nicholas R.; van Aalten, Daan M. F.; Downes, C. Peter; Batty, Ian H.

    2012-01-01

    Class I phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinases act through effector proteins whose 3-PI selectivity is mediated by a limited repertoire of structurally defined, lipid recognition domains. We describe here the lipid preferences and crystal structure of a new class of PI binding modules exemplified by select IQGAPs (IQ motif containing GTPase-activating proteins) known to coordinate cellular signaling events and cytoskeletal dynamics. This module is defined by a C-terminal 105–107 amino acid region of which IQGAP1 and -2, but not IQGAP3, binds preferentially to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdInsP3). The binding affinity for PtdInsP3, together with other, secondary target-recognition characteristics, are comparable with those of the pleckstrin homology domain of cytohesin-3 (general receptor for phosphoinositides 1), an established PtdInsP3 effector protein. Importantly, the IQGAP1 C-terminal domain and the cytohesin-3 pleckstrin homology domain, each tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein, were both re-localized from the cytosol to the cell periphery following the activation of PI 3-kinase in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, consistent with their common, selective recognition of endogenous 3-PI(s). The crystal structure of the C-terminal IQGAP2 PI binding module reveals unexpected topological similarity to an integral fold of C2 domains, including a putative basic binding pocket. We propose that this module integrates select IQGAP proteins with PI 3-kinase signaling and constitutes a novel, atypical phosphoinositide binding domain that may represent the first of a larger group, each perhaps structurally unique but collectively dissimilar from the known PI recognition modules. PMID:22493426

  11. IQGAP Proteins Reveal an Atypical Phosphoinositide (aPI) Binding Domain with a Pseudo C2 Domain Fold

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Miles J.; Gray, Alexander; Schenning, Martijn

    2012-10-16

    Class I phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinases act through effector proteins whose 3-PI selectivity is mediated by a limited repertoire of structurally defined, lipid recognition domains. We describe here the lipid preferences and crystal structure of a new class of PI binding modules exemplified by select IQGAPs (IQ motif containing GTPase-activating proteins) known to coordinate cellular signaling events and cytoskeletal dynamics. This module is defined by a C-terminal 105-107 amino acid region of which IQGAP1 and -2, but not IQGAP3, binds preferentially to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdInsP3). The binding affinity for PtdInsP3, together with other, secondary target-recognition characteristics, are comparable with those ofmore » the pleckstrin homology domain of cytohesin-3 (general receptor for phosphoinositides 1), an established PtdInsP3 effector protein. Importantly, the IQGAP1 C-terminal domain and the cytohesin-3 pleckstrin homology domain, each tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein, were both re-localized from the cytosol to the cell periphery following the activation of PI 3-kinase in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, consistent with their common, selective recognition of endogenous 3-PI(s). The crystal structure of the C-terminal IQGAP2 PI binding module reveals unexpected topological similarity to an integral fold of C2 domains, including a putative basic binding pocket. We propose that this module integrates select IQGAP proteins with PI 3-kinase signaling and constitutes a novel, atypical phosphoinositide binding domain that may represent the first of a larger group, each perhaps structurally unique but collectively dissimilar from the known PI recognition modules.« less

  12. Distinctive functions of Syk N-terminal and C-terminal SH2 domains in the signaling cascade elicited by oxidative stress in B cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, J; Takano, T; Hermann, P; Gao, S; Han, W; Noda, C; Yanagi, S; Yamamura, H

    2000-05-01

    Syk plays a crucial role in the transduction of oxidative stress signaling. In this paper, we investigated the roles of Src homology 2 (SH2) domains of Syk in oxidative stress signaling, using Syk-negative DT40 cells expressing the N- or C-terminal SH2 domain mutant [mSH2(N) or mSH2(C)] of Syk. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk in cells expressing mSH2(N) Syk after H(2)O(2) treatment was higher than that in cells expressing wild-type Syk or mSH2(C) Syk. The tyrosine phosphorylation of wild-type Syk and mSH2(C) Syk, but not that of mSH2(N), was sensitive to PP2, a specific inhibitor of Src-family protein-tyrosine kinase. In oxidative stress, the C-terminal SH2 domain of Syk was demonstrated to be required for induction of tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins, phospholipase C (PLC)-gamma2 phosphorylation, inositol 1,4, 5-triphosphate (IP(3)) generation, Ca(2)(+) release from intracellular stores, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation. In contrast, in mSH2(N) Syk-expressing cells, tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular proteins including PLC-gamma2 was markedly induced in oxidative stress. The enhanced phosphorylation of mSH2(N) Syk and PLC-gamma2, however, did not link to Ca(2)(+) mobilization from intracellular pools and IP(3) generation. Thus, the N- and C-terminal SH2 domains of Syk possess distinctive functions in oxidative stress signaling.

  13. Tobacco Arp3 is localized to actin-nucleating sites in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Maisch, Jan; Fišerová, Jindřiška; Fischer, Lukáš; Nick, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The polarity of actin is a central determinant of intracellular transport in plant cells. To visualize actin polarity in living plant cells, the tobacco homologue of the actin-related protein 3 (ARP3) was cloned and a fusion with the red fluorescent protein (RFP) was generated. Upon transient expression of these fusions in the tobacco cell line BY-2 (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Bright Yellow 2), punctate structures were observed near the nuclear envelope and in the cortical plasma. These dots could be shown to decorate actin filaments by expressing RFP–ARP3 in a marker line, where actin was tagged by GFP (green fluorescent protein)–FABD (fimbrin actin-binding domain 2). When actin filaments were disrupted by latrunculin B or by prolonged cold treatment, and subsequently allowed to recover, the actin filaments reformed from the RFP–ARP3 structures, that therefore represented actin nucleation sites. The intracellular distribution of these sites was followed during the formation of pluricellular files, and it was observed that the density of RFP–ARP3 increased in the apex of the polarized, terminal cells of a file, whereas it was equally distributed in the central cells of a file. These findings are interpreted in terms of position-dependent differences of actin organization. PMID:19129161

  14. A unique GCN5-related glucosamine N-acetyltransferase region exist in the fungal multi-domain glycoside hydrolase family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidase

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zhen; Xiao, Yibei; Yang, Xinbin; Mesters, Jeroen R.; Yang, Shaoqing; Jiang, Zhengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidases widely exist in the filamentous fungi, which may play a key role in chitin metabolism of fungi. A multi-domain GH family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidase from Rhizomucor miehei (RmNag), exhibiting a potential N-acetyltransferase region, has been recently reported to show great potential in industrial applications. In this study, the crystal structure of RmNag was determined at 2.80 Å resolution. The three-dimensional structure of RmNag showed four distinctive domains, which belong to two distinguishable functional regions — a GH family 3 β-N-acetylglucosaminidase region (N-terminal) and a N-acetyltransferase region (C-terminal). From structural and functional analysis, the C-terminal region of RmNag was identified as a unique tandem array linking general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5)-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT), which displayed glucosamine N-acetyltransferase activity. Structural analysis of this glucosamine N-acetyltransferase region revealed that a unique glucosamine binding pocket is located in the pantetheine arm binding terminal region of the conserved CoA binding pocket, which is different from all known GNAT members. This is the first structural report of a glucosamine N-acetyltransferase, which provides novel structural information about substrate specificity of GNATs. The structural and functional features of this multi-domain β-N-acetylglucosaminidase could be useful in studying the catalytic mechanism of GH family 3 proteins. PMID:26669854

  15. Effect of sodium chloride on the structure and stability of spider silk's N-terminal protein domain.

    PubMed

    Gronau, Greta; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J

    2013-03-01

    A spider's ability to store silk protein solutions at high concentration is believed to be related to the protein's terminal domains. It has been suggested that a shift in salt concentration and pH can have a significant influence on the assembly process. Based on experimental data, a model has been proposed in which the N-terminal domain exists as a monomer during storage and assembles into a homodimer upon spinning. Here we perform a systematic computational study using atomistic, coarse-grained and well-tempered metadynamics simulation to understand how the NaCl concentration in the solution affects the N-terminal domain of the silk protein. Our results show that a high salt concentration, as found during storage, weakens key salt bridges between the monomers, inducing a loss in bond energy by 28.6% in a single salt bridge. As a result dimer formation is less likely as 35.5% less energy is required to unfold the dimer by mechanical force. Conversely, homodimer formation appears to be more likely at low salt concentrations as the salt bridge stays at the lower energy state. The link between salt concentration, structure and stability of the N-terminal domain provides a possible mechanism that prevents premature fiber formation during storage.

  16. EtpE Binding to DNase X Induces Ehrlichial Entry via CD147 and hnRNP-K Recruitment, Followed by Mobilization of N-WASP and Actin.

    PubMed

    Mohan Kumar, Dipu; Lin, Mingqun; Xiong, Qingming; Webber, Mathew James; Kural, Comert; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2015-11-03

    Obligate intracellular bacteria, such as Ehrlichia chaffeensis, perish unless they can enter eukaryotic cells. E. chaffeensis is the etiological agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, an emerging infectious disease. To infect cells, Ehrlichia uses the C terminus of the outer membrane invasin entry-triggering protein (EtpE) of Ehrlichia (EtpE-C), which directly binds the mammalian cell surface glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored protein, DNase X. How this binding drives Ehrlichia entry is unknown. Here, using affinity pulldown of host cell lysates with recombinant EtpE-C (rEtpE-C), we identified two new human proteins that interact with EtpE-C: CD147 and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP-K). The interaction of CD147 with rEtpE-C was validated by far-Western blotting and coimmunoprecipitation of native EtpE with endogenous CD147. CD147 was ubiquitous on the cell surface and also present around foci of rEtpE-C-coated-bead entry. Functional neutralization of surface-exposed CD147 with a specific antibody inhibited Ehrlichia internalization and infection but not binding. Downregulation of CD147 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) impaired E. chaffeensis infection. Functional ablation of cytoplasmic hnRNP-K by a nanoscale intracellular antibody markedly attenuated bacterial entry and infection but not binding. EtpE-C also interacted with neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP), which is activated by hnRNP-K. Wiskostatin, which inhibits N-WASP activation, and cytochalasin D, which inhibits actin polymerization, inhibited Ehrlichia entry. Upon incubation with host cell lysate, EtpE-C but not an EtpE N-terminal fragment stimulated in vitro actin polymerization in an N-WASP- and DNase X-dependent manner. Time-lapse video images revealed N-WASP recruitment at EtpE-C-coated bead entry foci. Thus, EtpE-C binding to DNase X drives Ehrlichia entry by engaging CD147 and hnRNP-K and activating N-WASP-dependent actin polymerization. Ehrlichia chaffeensis, an

  17. Solution Structure of Calmodulin Bound to the Binding Domain of the HIV-1 Matrix Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Vlach, Jiri; Samal, Alexandra B.; Saad, Jamil S.

    2014-01-01

    Subcellular distribution of calmodulin (CaM) in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-infected cells is distinct from that observed in uninfected cells. CaM co-localizes and interacts with the HIV-1 Gag protein in the cytosol of infected cells. Although it has been shown that binding of Gag to CaM is mediated by the matrix (MA) domain, the structural details of this interaction are not known. We have recently shown that binding of CaM to MA induces a conformational change that triggers myristate exposure, and that the CaM-binding domain of MA is confined to a region spanning residues 8–43 (MA-(8–43)). Here, we present the NMR structure of CaM bound to MA-(8–43). Our data revealed that MA-(8–43), which contains a novel CaM-binding motif, binds to CaM in an antiparallel mode with the N-terminal helix (α1) anchored to the CaM C-terminal lobe, and the C-terminal helix (α2) of MA-(8–43) bound to the N-terminal lobe of CaM. The CaM protein preserves a semiextended conformation. Binding of MA-(8–43) to CaM is mediated by numerous hydrophobic interactions and stabilized by favorable electrostatic contacts. Our structural data are consistent with the findings that CaM induces unfolding of the MA protein to have access to helices α1 and α2. It is noteworthy that several MA residues involved in CaM binding have been previously implicated in membrane binding, envelope incorporation, and particle production. The present findings may ultimately help in identification of the functional role of CaM in HIV-1 replication. PMID:24500712

  18. N-terminal functional domain of Gasdermin A3 regulates mitochondrial homeostasis via mitochondrial targeting.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Hsuan; Lin, Hsien-Yi; Kuo, Cheng-Chin; Yang, Liang-Tung

    2015-06-24

    The epidermis forms a critical barrier that is maintained by orchestrated programs of proliferation, differentiation, and cell death. Gene mutations that disturb this turnover process may cause skin diseases. Human GASDERMIN A (GSDMA) is frequently silenced in gastric cancer cell lines and its overexpression has been reported to induce apoptosis. GSDMA has also been linked with airway hyperresponsiveness in genetic association studies. The function of GSDMA in the skin was deduced by dominant mutations in mouse gasdermin A3 (Gsdma3), which caused skin inflammation and hair loss. However, the mechanism for the autosomal dominance of Gsdma3 mutations and the mode of Gsdma3's action remain unanswered. We demonstrated a novel function of Gsdma3 in modulating mitochondrial oxidative stress. We showed that Gsdma3 is regulated by intramolecular fold-back inhibition, which is disrupted by dominant mutations in the C-terminal domain. The unmasked N-terminal domain of Gsdma3 associates with Hsp90 and is delivered to mitochondrial via mitochondrial importer receptor Tom70, where it interacts with the mitochondrial chaperone Trap1 and causes increased production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). Overexpression of the C-terminal domain of Gsdma3 as well as pharmacological interventions of mitochondrial translocation, ROS production, and MPT pore opening alleviate the cell death induced by Gsdma3 mutants. Our results indicate that the genetic mutations in the C-terminal domain of Gsdma3 are gain-of-function mutations which unmask the N-terminal functional domain of Gsdma3. Gsdma3 regulates mitochondrial oxidative stress through mitochondrial targeting. Since mitochondrial ROS has been shown to promote epidermal differentiation, we hypothesize that Gsdma3 regulates context-dependent response of keratinocytes to differentiation and cell death signals by impinging on

  19. Simultaneous Binding of Two Peptidyl Ligands by a Src Homology 2 Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Jinjin; Yuan, Chunhua

    Src homology 2 (SH2) domains mediate protein-protein interactions by recognizing phosphotyrosine (pY)-containing sequences of target proteins. In all of the SH2 domain-pY peptide interactions described to date, the SH2 domain binds to a single pY peptide. Here, determination of the cocrystal structure of the N-terminal SH2 domain of phosphatase SHP-2 bound to a class IV peptide (VIpYFVP) revealed a noncanonical 1:2 (protein-peptide) complex. The first peptide binds in a canonical manner with its pY side chain inserted in the usual binding pocket, while the second pairs up with the first to form two antiparallel {beta}-strands that extend the central {beta}-sheetmore » of the SH2 domain. This unprecedented binding mode was confirmed in the solution phase by NMR experiments and shown to be adopted by pY peptides derived from cellular proteins. Site-directed mutagenesis and surface plasmon resonance studies revealed that the binding of the first peptide is pY-dependent, but phosphorylation is not required for the second peptide. Our findings suggest a potential new function for the SH2 domain as a molecular clamp to promote dimerization of signaling proteins.« less

  20. Structure of the Rigor Actin-Tropomyosin-Myosin Complex

    PubMed Central

    Behrmann, Elmar; Müller, Mirco; Penczek, Pawel A.; Mannherz, Hans Georg; Manstein, Dietmar J.; Raunser, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of myosin with actin filaments is the central feature of muscle contraction and cargo movement along actin filaments of the cytoskeleton. Myosin converts the chemical energy stored in ATP into force and movement along actin filaments. Myosin binding to actin induces conformational changes that are coupled to the nucleotide-binding pocket and amplified by a specialized region of the motor domain for efficient force generation. Tropomyosin plays a key role in regulating the productive interaction between myosins and actin. Here, we report the 8 Å resolution structure of the actin-tropomyosin-myosin complex determined by cryo electron microscopy. The pseudo-atomic model of the complex obtained from fitting crystal structures into the map defines the large actin-myosin-tropomyosin interface and the molecular interactions between the proteins in detail and allows us to propose a structural model for tropomyosin dependent myosin binding to actin and actin-induced nucleotide release from myosin. PMID:22817895

  1. Drosophila Spire is an actin nucleation factor.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Margot E; Heuser, John E; Kerkhoff, Eugen; Mullins, R Dyche

    2005-01-27

    The actin cytoskeleton is essential for many cellular functions including shape determination, intracellular transport and locomotion. Previous work has identified two factors--the Arp2/3 complex and the formin family of proteins--that nucleate new actin filaments via different mechanisms. Here we show that the Drosophila protein Spire represents a third class of actin nucleation factor. In vitro, Spire nucleates new filaments at a rate that is similar to that of the formin family of proteins but slower than in the activated Arp2/3 complex, and it remains associated with the slow-growing pointed end of the new filament. Spire contains a cluster of four WASP homology 2 (WH2) domains, each of which binds an actin monomer. Maximal nucleation activity requires all four WH2 domains along with an additional actin-binding motif, conserved among Spire proteins. Spire itself is conserved among metazoans and, together with the formin Cappuccino, is required for axis specification in oocytes and embryos, suggesting that multiple actin nucleation factors collaborate to construct essential cytoskeletal structures.

  2. NMR assignments of SPOC domain of the human transcriptional corepressor SHARP in complex with a C-terminal SMRT peptide.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Suzuka; Kanaba, Teppei; Ito, Yutaka; Mishima, Masaki

    2013-10-01

    The transcriptional corepressor SMRT/HDAC1-associated repressor protein (SHARP) recruits histone deacetylases. Human SHARP protein is thought to function in processes involving steroid hormone responses and the Notch signaling pathway. SHARP consists of RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) in the N-terminal region and the spen paralog and ortholog C-terminal (SPOC) domain in the C-terminal region. It is known that the SPOC domain binds the LSD motif in the C-terminal tail of corepressors silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid receptor (SMRT)/nuclear receptor corepressor (NcoR). We are interested in delineating the mechanism by which the SPOC domain recognizes the LSD motif of the C-terminal tail of SMRT/NcoR. To this end, we are investigating the tertiary structure of the SPOC/SMRT peptide using NMR. Herein, we report on the (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonance assignments of the SPOC domain in complex with a SMRT peptide, which contributes towards a structural understanding of the SPOC/SMRT peptide and its molecular recognition.

  3. HAMLET binding to α-actinin facilitates tumor cell detachment.

    PubMed

    Trulsson, Maria; Yu, Hao; Gisselsson, Lennart; Chao, Yinxia; Urbano, Alexander; Aits, Sonja; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Svanborg, Catharina

    2011-03-08

    Cell adhesion is tightly regulated by specific molecular interactions and detachment from the extracellular matrix modifies proliferation and survival. HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells) is a protein-lipid complex with tumoricidal activity that also triggers tumor cell detachment in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that molecular interactions defining detachment are perturbed in cancer cells. To identify such interactions, cell membrane extracts were used in Far-western blots and HAMLET was shown to bind α-actinins; major F-actin cross-linking proteins and focal adhesion constituents. Synthetic peptide mapping revealed that HAMLET binds to the N-terminal actin-binding domain as well as the integrin-binding domain of α-actinin-4. By co-immunoprecipitation of extracts from HAMLET-treated cancer cells, an interaction with α-actinin-1 and -4 was observed. Inhibition of α-actinin-1 and α-actinin-4 expression by siRNA transfection increased detachment, while α-actinin-4-GFP over-expression significantly delayed rounding up and detachment of tumor cells in response to HAMLET. In response to HAMLET, adherent tumor cells rounded up and detached, suggesting a loss of the actin cytoskeletal organization. These changes were accompanied by a reduction in β1 integrin staining and a decrease in FAK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, consistent with a disruption of integrin-dependent cell adhesion signaling. Detachment per se did not increase cell death during the 22 hour experimental period, regardless of α-actinin-4 and α-actinin-1 expression levels but adherent cells with low α-actinin levels showed increased death in response to HAMLET. The results suggest that the interaction between HAMLET and α-actinins promotes tumor cell detachment. As α-actinins also associate with signaling molecules, cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane receptors and ion channels, additional α-actinin-dependent mechanisms are discussed.

  4. HAMLET Binding to α-Actinin Facilitates Tumor Cell Detachment

    PubMed Central

    Trulsson, Maria; Yu, Hao; Gisselsson, Lennart; Chao, Yinxia; Urbano, Alexander; Aits, Sonja; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Svanborg, Catharina

    2011-01-01

    Cell adhesion is tightly regulated by specific molecular interactions and detachment from the extracellular matrix modifies proliferation and survival. HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells) is a protein-lipid complex with tumoricidal activity that also triggers tumor cell detachment in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that molecular interactions defining detachment are perturbed in cancer cells. To identify such interactions, cell membrane extracts were used in Far-western blots and HAMLET was shown to bind α-actinins; major F-actin cross-linking proteins and focal adhesion constituents. Synthetic peptide mapping revealed that HAMLET binds to the N-terminal actin-binding domain as well as the integrin-binding domain of α-actinin-4. By co-immunoprecipitation of extracts from HAMLET-treated cancer cells, an interaction with α-actinin-1 and -4 was observed. Inhibition of α-actinin-1 and α-actinin-4 expression by siRNA transfection increased detachment, while α-actinin-4-GFP over-expression significantly delayed rounding up and detachment of tumor cells in response to HAMLET. In response to HAMLET, adherent tumor cells rounded up and detached, suggesting a loss of the actin cytoskeletal organization. These changes were accompanied by a reduction in β1 integrin staining and a decrease in FAK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, consistent with a disruption of integrin-dependent cell adhesion signaling. Detachment per se did not increase cell death during the 22 hour experimental period, regardless of α-actinin-4 and α-actinin-1 expression levels but adherent cells with low α-actinin levels showed increased death in response to HAMLET. The results suggest that the interaction between HAMLET and α-actinins promotes tumor cell detachment. As α-actinins also associate with signaling molecules, cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane receptors and ion channels, additional α-actinin-dependent mechanisms are discussed. PMID:21408150

  5. A genetic screen for terminator function in yeast identifies a role for a new functional domain in termination factor Nab3

    PubMed Central

    Loya, Travis J.; O’Rourke, Thomas W.; Reines, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The yeast IMD2 gene encodes an enzyme involved in GTP synthesis. Its expression is controlled by guanine nucleotides through a set of alternate start sites and an intervening transcriptional terminator. In the off state, transcription results in a short non-coding RNA that starts upstream of the gene. Transcription terminates via the Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1 complex and is degraded by the nuclear exosome. Using a sensitive terminator read-through assay, we identified trans-acting Terminator Override (TOV) genes that operate this terminator. Four genes were identified: the RNA polymerase II phosphatase SSU72, the RNA polymerase II binding protein PCF11, the TRAMP subunit TRF4 and the hnRNP-like, NAB3. The TOV phenotype can be explained by the loss of function of these gene products as described in models in which termination and RNA degradation are coupled to the phosphorylation state of RNA polymerase II's repeat domain. The most interesting mutations were those found in NAB3, which led to the finding that the removal of merely three carboxy-terminal amino acids compromised Nab3's function. This region of previously unknown function is distant from the protein's well-known RNA binding and Nrd1 binding domains. Structural homology modeling suggests this Nab3 ‘tail’ forms an α-helical multimerization domain that helps assemble it onto an RNA substrate. PMID:22564898

  6. A genetic screen for terminator function in yeast identifies a role for a new functional domain in termination factor Nab3.

    PubMed

    Loya, Travis J; O'Rourke, Thomas W; Reines, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    The yeast IMD2 gene encodes an enzyme involved in GTP synthesis. Its expression is controlled by guanine nucleotides through a set of alternate start sites and an intervening transcriptional terminator. In the off state, transcription results in a short non-coding RNA that starts upstream of the gene. Transcription terminates via the Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1 complex and is degraded by the nuclear exosome. Using a sensitive terminator read-through assay, we identified trans-acting Terminator Override (TOV) genes that operate this terminator. Four genes were identified: the RNA polymerase II phosphatase SSU72, the RNA polymerase II binding protein PCF11, the TRAMP subunit TRF4 and the hnRNP-like, NAB3. The TOV phenotype can be explained by the loss of function of these gene products as described in models in which termination and RNA degradation are coupled to the phosphorylation state of RNA polymerase II's repeat domain. The most interesting mutations were those found in NAB3, which led to the finding that the removal of merely three carboxy-terminal amino acids compromised Nab3's function. This region of previously unknown function is distant from the protein's well-known RNA binding and Nrd1 binding domains. Structural homology modeling suggests this Nab3 'tail' forms an α-helical multimerization domain that helps assemble it onto an RNA substrate.

  7. Novobiocin and Additional Inhibitors of the Hsp90 C-Terminal Nucleotide-binding Pocket

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Alison; Blagg, Brian S. J.

    2009-01-01

    The 90 kDa heal shock proteins (Hsp90), which are integrally involved in cell signaling, proliferation, and survival, are ubiquitously expressed in cells. Many proteins in tumor cells are dependent upon the Hsp90 protein folding machinery for their stability, refolding, and maturation. Inhibition of Hsp90 uniquely targets client proteins associated with all six hallmarks of cancer. Thus, Hsp90 has emerged as a promising target for the treatment of cancer. Hsp90 exists as a homodimer, which contains three domains. The N-terminal domain contains an ATP-binding site that binds the natural products geldanamycin and radicicol. The middle domain is highly charged and has high affinity for co-chaperones and client proteins. Initial studies by Csermely and co-workers suggested a second ATP-binding site in the C-terminus of Hsp90. This C-terminal nucleotide binding pocket has been shown to not only bind ATP, but cisplatin, novobiocin, epilgallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and taxol. The coumarin antibiotics novobiocin, clorobiocin, and coumermycin A1 were isolated from several streptomyces strains and exhibit potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria. These compounds bind type II topoisomerases, including DNA gyrase, and inhibit the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of ATP. As a result, novobiocin analogues have garnered the attention of numerous researchers as an attractive agent for the treatment of bacterial infection. Novobiocin was reported to bind weakly to the newly discovered Hsp90 C-terminal ATP binding site (~700 M in SkBr3 cells) and induce degradation of Hsp90 client proteins. Structural modification of this compound has led to an increase of 1000-fold in activity in anti-proliferative assays. Recent studies of structure-activity relationship (SAR) by Renoir and co-workers highlighted the crucial role of the C-4 and/or C-7 positions of the coumarin and removal of the noviose moiety, which appeared to be essential for degradation of Hsp90 client proteins. Unlike the

  8. Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding for Taenia solium TATA-Box Binding Protein 1 (TsTBP1) and Study of Its Interactions with the TATA-Box of Actin 5 and Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Genes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; García-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Jiménez, Lucía; Zarain-Herzberg, Ángel; Lazzarini, Roberto; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the TATA-box and TATA-box-less gene promoters. We report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA that encodes a Taenia solium TATA-box binding protein 1 (TsTBP1). Deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kDa, and a theoretical pI of 10.6. The NH2-terminal domain shows no conservation when compared with to pig and human TBP1s. However, it shows high conservation in size and amino acid identity with taeniids TBP1s. In contrast, the TsTBP1 COOH-terminal domain is highly conserved among organisms, and contains the amino acids involved in interactions with the TATA-box, as well as with TFIIA and TFIIB. In silico TsTBP1 modeling reveals that the COOH-terminal domain forms the classical saddle structure of the TBP family, with one α-helix at the end, not present in pig and human. Native TsTBP1 was detected in T. solium cysticerci´s nuclear extract by western blot using rabbit antibodies generated against two synthetic peptides located in the NH2 and COOH-terminal domains of TsTBP1. These antibodies, through immunofluorescence technique, identified the TBP1 in the nucleus of cells that form the bladder wall of cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps, an organism close related to T. solium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from T. solium cysticerci and antibodies against the NH2-terminal domain of TsTBP1 showed the interaction of native TsTBP1 with the TATA-box present in T. solium actin 5 (pAT5) and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Ts2-CysPrx) gene promoters; in contrast, when antibodies against the anti-COOH-terminal domain of TsTBP1 were used, they inhibited the binding of TsTBP1 to the TATA-box of the pAT5 promoter gene.

  9. Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding for Taenia solium TATA-Box Binding Protein 1 (TsTBP1) and Study of Its Interactions with the TATA-Box of Actin 5 and Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; García-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Jiménez, Lucía; Zarain-Herzberg, Ángel; Lazzarini, Roberto; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the TATA-box and TATA-box-less gene promoters. We report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA that encodes a Taenia solium TATA-box binding protein 1 (TsTBP1). Deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kDa, and a theoretical pI of 10.6. The NH2-terminal domain shows no conservation when compared with to pig and human TBP1s. However, it shows high conservation in size and amino acid identity with taeniids TBP1s. In contrast, the TsTBP1 COOH-terminal domain is highly conserved among organisms, and contains the amino acids involved in interactions with the TATA-box, as well as with TFIIA and TFIIB. In silico TsTBP1 modeling reveals that the COOH-terminal domain forms the classical saddle structure of the TBP family, with one α-helix at the end, not present in pig and human. Native TsTBP1 was detected in T. solium cysticerci´s nuclear extract by western blot using rabbit antibodies generated against two synthetic peptides located in the NH2 and COOH-terminal domains of TsTBP1. These antibodies, through immunofluorescence technique, identified the TBP1 in the nucleus of cells that form the bladder wall of cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps, an organism close related to T. solium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from T. solium cysticerci and antibodies against the NH2-terminal domain of TsTBP1 showed the interaction of native TsTBP1 with the TATA-box present in T. solium actin 5 (pAT5) and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Ts2-CysPrx) gene promoters; in contrast, when antibodies against the anti-COOH-terminal domain of TsTBP1 were used, they inhibited the binding of TsTBP1 to the TATA-box of the pAT5 promoter gene. PMID:26529408

  10. Regulatory interactions between two actin nucleators, Spire and Cappuccino.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Margot E; Hilgert, Susanne; Bedrossian, Anaid; Mullins, R Dyche; Kerkhoff, Eugen

    2007-10-08

    Spire and Cappuccino are actin nucleation factors that are required to establish the polarity of Drosophila melanogaster oocytes. Their mutant phenotypes are nearly identical, and the proteins interact biochemically. We find that the interaction between Spire and Cappuccino family proteins is conserved across metazoan phyla and is mediated by binding of the formin homology 2 (FH2) domain from Cappuccino (or its mammalian homologue formin-2) to the kinase noncatalytic C-lobe domain (KIND) from Spire. In vitro, the KIND domain is a monomeric folded domain. Two KIND monomers bind each FH2 dimer with nanomolar affinity and strongly inhibit actin nucleation by the FH2 domain. In contrast, formation of the Spire-Cappuccino complex enhances actin nucleation by Spire. In Drosophila oocytes, Spire localizes to the cortex early in oogenesis and disappears around stage 10b, coincident with the onset of cytoplasmic streaming.

  11. WAVE binds Ena/VASP for enhanced Arp2/3 complex–based actin assembly

    PubMed Central

    Havrylenko, Svitlana; Noguera, Philippe; Abou-Ghali, Majdouline; Manzi, John; Faqir, Fahima; Lamora, Audrey; Guérin, Christophe; Blanchoin, Laurent; Plastino, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The WAVE complex is the main activator of the Arp2/3 complex for actin filament nucleation and assembly in the lamellipodia of moving cells. Other important players in lamellipodial protrusion are Ena/VASP proteins, which enhance actin filament elongation. Here we examine the molecular coordination between the nucleating activity of the Arp2/3 complex and the elongating activity of Ena/VASP proteins for the formation of actin networks. Using an in vitro bead motility assay, we show that WAVE directly binds VASP, resulting in an increase in Arp2/3 complex–based actin assembly. We show that this interaction is important in vivo as well, for the formation of lamellipodia during the ventral enclosure event of Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis. Ena/VASP's ability to bind F-actin and profilin-complexed G-actin are important for its effect, whereas Ena/VASP tetramerization is not necessary. Our data are consistent with the idea that binding of Ena/VASP to WAVE potentiates Arp2/3 complex activity and lamellipodial actin assembly. PMID:25355952

  12. Reverse actin sliding triggers strong myosin binding that moves tropomyosin

    SciTech Connect

    Bekyarova, T.I.; Reedy, M.C.; Baumann, B.A.J.

    2008-09-03

    Actin/myosin interactions in vertebrate striated muscles are believed to be regulated by the 'steric blocking' mechanism whereby the binding of calcium to the troponin complex allows tropomyosin (TM) to change position on actin, acting as a molecular switch that blocks or allows myosin heads to interact with actin. Movement of TM during activation is initiated by interaction of Ca{sup 2+} with troponin, then completed by further displacement by strong binding cross-bridges. We report x-ray evidence that TM in insect flight muscle (IFM) moves in a manner consistent with the steric blocking mechanism. We find that both isometric contraction, at highmore » [Ca{sup 2+}], and stretch activation, at lower [Ca{sup 2+}], develop similarly high x-ray intensities on the IFM fourth actin layer line because of TM movement, coinciding with x-ray signals of strong-binding cross-bridge attachment to helically favored 'actin target zones.' Vanadate (Vi), a phosphate analog that inhibits active cross-bridge cycling, abolishes all active force in IFM, allowing high [Ca{sup 2+}] to elicit initial TM movement without cross-bridge attachment or other changes from relaxed structure. However, when stretched in high [Ca{sup 2+}], Vi-'paralyzed' fibers produce force substantially above passive response at pCa {approx} 9, concurrent with full conversion from resting to active x-ray pattern, including x-ray signals of cross-bridge strong-binding and TM movement. This argues that myosin heads can be recruited as strong-binding 'brakes' by backward-sliding, calcium-activated thin filaments, and are as effective in moving TM as actively force-producing cross-bridges. Such recruitment of myosin as brakes may be the major mechanism resisting extension during lengthening contractions.« less

  13. Mutations to the Formin Homology 2 Domain of INF2 Protein Have Unexpected Effects on Actin Polymerization and Severing*

    PubMed Central

    Ramabhadran, Vinay; Gurel, Pinar S.; Higgs, Henry N.

    2012-01-01

    INF2 (inverted formin 2) is a formin protein with unusual biochemical characteristics. As with other formins, the formin homology 2 (FH2) domain of INF2 accelerates actin filament assembly and remains at the barbed end, modulating elongation. The unique feature of INF2 is its ability to sever filaments and enhance depolymerization, which requires the C-terminal region. Physiologically, INF2 acts in the secretory pathway and is mutated in two human diseases, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. In this study, we investigate the effects of mutating two FH2 residues found to be key in other formins: Ile-643 and Lys-792. Surprisingly, neither mutation abolishes barbed end binding, as judged by pyrene-actin and total internal reflection (TIRF) microscopy elongation assays. The I643A mutation causes tight capping of a subset of filaments, whereas K792A causes slow elongation of all filaments. The I643A mutation has a minor inhibitory effect on polymerization activity but causes almost complete abolition of severing and depolymerization activity. The K792A mutation has relatively small effects on polymerization, severing, and depolymerization. In cells, the K792A mutant causes actin accumulation around the endoplasmic reticulum to a similar extent as wild type, whereas the I643A mutant causes no measurable polymerization. The inability of I643A to induce actin polymerization in cells is explained by its inability to promote robust actin polymerization in the presence of capping protein. These results highlight an important point: it is dangerous to assume that mutation of conserved FH2 residues will have equivalent effects in all formins. The work also suggests that both mutations have effects on the mechanism of processive elongation. PMID:22879592

  14. Building bridges: formin1 of Arabidopsis forms a connection between the cell wall and the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Martinière, Alexandre; Gayral, Philippe; Hawes, Chris; Runions, John

    2011-04-01

    Actin microfilament (MF) organization and remodelling is critical to cell function. The formin family of actin binding proteins are involved in nucleating MFs in Arabidopsis thaliana. They all contain formin homology domains in the intracellular, C-terminal half of the protein that interacts with MFs. Formins in class I are usually targeted to the plasma membrane and this is true of Formin1 (AtFH1) of A. thaliana. In this study, we have investigated the extracellular domain of AtFH1 and we demonstrate that AtFH1 forms a bridge from the actin cytoskeleton, across the plasma membrane and is anchored within the cell wall. AtFH1 has a large, extracellular domain that is maintained by purifying selection and that contains four conserved regions, one of which is responsible for immobilising the protein. Protein anchoring within the cell wall is reduced in constructs that express truncations of the extracellular domain and in experiments in protoplasts without primary cell walls. The 18 amino acid proline-rich extracellular domain that is responsible for AtFH1 anchoring has homology with cell-wall extensins. We also have shown that anchoring of AtFH1 in the cell wall promotes actin bundling within the cell and that overexpression of AtFH1 has an inhibitory effect on organelle actin-dependant dynamics. Thus, the AtFH1 bridge provides stable anchor points for the actin cytoskeleton and is probably a crucial component of the signalling response and actin-remodelling mechanisms. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. N-Terminal Domain of Turkey Pancreatic Lipase is Active on Long Chain Triacylglycerols and Stabilized by Colipase

    PubMed Central

    Bou Ali, Madiha; Karray, Aida; Gargouri, Youssef; Ben Ali, Yassine

    2013-01-01

    The gene encoding the TPL N-terminal domain (N-TPL), fused with a His6-tag, was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris, under the control of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) constitutive promoter. The recombinant protein was successfully expressed and secreted with an expression level of 5 mg/l of culture medium after 2 days of culture. The N-TPL was purified through a one-step Ni-NTA affinity column with a purification factor of approximately 23-fold. The purified N-TPL, with a molecular mass of 35 kDa, had a specific activity of 70 U/mg on tributyrin. Surprisingly, this domain was able to hydrolyse long chain TG with a specific activity of 11 U/mg using olive oil as substrate. This result was confirmed by TLC analysis showing that the N-TPL was able to hydrolyse insoluble substrates as olive oil. N-TPL was unstable at temperatures over 37°C and lost 70% of its activity at acid pH, after 5 min of incubation. The N-TPL exhibited non linear kinetics, indicating its rapid denaturation at the tributyrin–water interface. Colipase increased the N-TPL stability at the lipid-water interface, so the TPL N-terminal domain probably formed functional interactions with colipase despite the absence of the C-terminal domain. PMID:23977086

  16. Identification of novel phosphatidic acid binding domain on sphingosine kinase 1 of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Shatakshi; Dalal, Vikram; Mishra, Girish

    2018-07-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is an important lipid signaling molecule which interacts with Arabidopsis thaliana Sphingosine kinase1 (AtSPHK1) during several abiotic stresses particularly drought stress as a result of Abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in guard cells. PA molecules respond by generating lipid signal and/or by binding and translocating target proteins to membrane. However, site of interaction and role of PA binding to AtSPHK1 is not clear yet. Owing to the importance of AtSPHK1 during stress signaling it is imperative to decipher the site of PA interaction with AtSPHK1. To identify the PA binding region of AtSPHK1, various deletion fragments from N-terminal and C-terminal region were prepared. Results from protein lipid overlay assay using various truncated proteins of AtSPHK1 suggested the involvement of N-terminal region, between 110 and 205 amino acids, in binding with PA. In-silico analyses performed to build homologous structure of AtSPHK1 revealed that PA docking occurs in the hydrophobic cavity of DAG-Kinase domain. Deletion of amino acids 182 VSGDGI 187 perturbed PA-AtSPHK1 binding, indicating an essential role of these six amino acids in PA-AtSPHK1 binding. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The Contributions of the Amino and Carboxy Terminal Domains of Flightin to the Biomechanical Properties of Drosophila Flight Muscle Thick Filaments.

    PubMed

    Gasek, Nathan S; Nyland, Lori R; Vigoreaux, Jim O

    2016-04-27

    Flightin is a myosin binding protein present in Pancrustacea. In Drosophila, flightin is expressed in the indirect flight muscles (IFM), where it is required for the flexural rigidity, structural integrity, and length determination of thick filaments. Comparison of flightin sequences from multiple Drosophila species revealed a tripartite organization indicative of three functional domains subject to different evolutionary constraints. We use atomic force microscopy to investigate the functional roles of the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal domain that show different patterns of sequence conservation. Thick filaments containing a C-terminal domain truncated flightin (fln(ΔC44)) are significantly shorter (2.68 ± 0.06 μm; p < 0.005) than thick filaments containing a full length flightin (fln⁺; 3.21 ± 0.05 μm) and thick filaments containing an N-terminal domain truncated flightin (fln(ΔN62); 3.21 ± 0.06 μm). Persistence length was significantly reduced in fln(ΔN62) (418 ± 72 μm; p < 0.005) compared to fln⁺ (1386 ± 196μm) and fln(ΔC44)(1128 ± 193 μm). Statistical polymer chain analysis revealed that the C-terminal domain fulfills a secondary role in thick filament bending propensity. Our results indicate that the flightin amino and carboxy terminal domains make distinct contributions to thick filament biomechanics. We propose these distinct roles arise from the interplay between natural selection and sexual selection given IFM's dual role in flight and courtship behaviors.

  18. A basic domain in the histone H2B N-terminal tail is important for nucleosome assembly by FACT

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Peng; Kyriss, McKenna N. M.; Hodges, Amelia J.; Duan, Mingrui; Morris, Robert T.; Lavine, Mark D.; Topping, Traci B.; Gloss, Lisa M.; Wyrick, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Nucleosome assembly in vivo requires assembly factors, such as histone chaperones, to bind to histones and mediate their deposition onto DNA. In yeast, the essential histone chaperone FACT (FAcilitates Chromatin Transcription) functions in nucleosome assembly and H2A–H2B deposition during transcription elongation and DNA replication. Recent studies have identified candidate histone residues that mediate FACT binding to histones, but it is not known which histone residues are important for FACT to deposit histones onto DNA during nucleosome assembly. In this study, we report that the histone H2B repression (HBR) domain within the H2B N-terminal tail is important for histone deposition by FACT. Deletion of the HBR domain causes significant defects in histone occupancy in the yeast genome, particularly at HBR-repressed genes, and a pronounced increase in H2A–H2B dimers that remain bound to FACT in vivo. Moreover, the HBR domain is required for purified FACT to efficiently assemble recombinant nucleosomes in vitro. We propose that the interaction between the highly basic HBR domain and DNA plays an important role in stabilizing the nascent nucleosome during the process of histone H2A–H2B deposition by FACT. PMID:27369377

  19. The metal-binding domain of wheat heavy metal ATPase 2 (TaHMA2) is involved in zinc/cadmium tolerance and translocation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Kun; Gong, Liang; Tian, Yanbao; Wang, Hong; Chai, Tuanyao

    2018-06-23

    Cysteine in the N-terminal metal-binding domain (N-MBD) of TaHMA2 participates in Zn 2+ /Cd 2+ binding and translocation in Arabidopsis. Wheat heavy metal ATPase 2 (TaHMA2) can transport Zn 2+ and Cd 2+ across membranes. A previous study showed that cysteine (Cys) and glutamate residues in the N-terminal metal-binding domain (N-MBD) were necessary for metal-binding and translocation of TaHMA2 in yeast. However, the function of TaHMA2 in plants was not fully revealed. In this study, we investigated the roles of the CCxxE and CPC motifs in the N-MBD and the N/C-terminal regions of TaHMA2 in Zn 2+ /Cd 2+ translocation in root and shoot of Arabidopsis. Compared with the wild type, overexpression of TaHMA2 and the TaHMA2 derivative (glutamic substituted for alanine from CCxxE) in Arabidopsis increased root length, fresh weight and enhanced Zn 2+ /Cd 2+ root-to-shoot translocation. The plants with a truncated N/C-terminal of TaHMA2 were impaired in Zn 2+ /Cd 2+ tolerance and translocation, while mutagenesis of Cys in the N-MBD reduced the tolerance and transport activity of TaHMA2, suggesting the involvement of Cys in Zn 2+ /Cd 2+ binding and translocation in Arabidopsis. This study therefore provides a theoretical possibility for the application of TaHMA2 in transgenic breeding to regulate metal element balance in crop plants.

  20. Functional relationship between CABIT, SAM and 14-3-3 binding domains of GAREM1 that play a role in its subcellular localization

    SciTech Connect

    Nishino, Tasuku; Matsunaga, Ryota; Konishi, Hiroaki, E-mail: hkonishi@pu-hiroshima.ac.jp

    2015-08-21

    GAREM1 (Grb2-associated regulator of Erk/MAPK1) is an adaptor protein that is involved in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathway. The nuclear localization of GAREM1 depends on the nuclear localization sequence (NLS), which is located at the N-terminal CABIT (cysteine-containing, all in Themis) domain. Here, we identified 14-3-3ε as a GAREM-binding protein, and its binding site is closely located to the NLS. This 14-3-3 binding site was of the atypical type and independent of GAREM phosphorylation. Moreover, the binding of 14-3-3 had an effect on the nuclear localization of GAREM1. Unexpectedly, we observed that the CABIT domain had intramolecular association withmore » the C-terminal SAM (sterile alpha motif) domain. This association might be inhibited by binding of 14-3-3 at the CABIT domain. Our results demonstrate that the mechanism underlying the nuclear localization of GAREM1 depends on its NLS in the CABIT domain, which is controlled by the binding of 14-3-3 and the C-terminal SAM domain. We suggest that the interplay between 14-3-3, SAM domain and CABIT domain might be responsible for the distribution of GAREM1 in mammalian cells. - Highlights: • 14-3-3ε regulated the nuclear localization of GAREM1 as its binding partner. • The atypical 14-3-3 binding site of GAREM1 is located near the NLS in CABIT domain. • The CABIT domain had intramolecular association with the SAM domain in GAREM1. • Subcellular localization of GAREM1 is affected with its CABIT-SAM interaction.« less

  1. Effect of sodium chloride on the structure and stability of spider silk’s N-terminal protein domain

    PubMed Central

    Gronau, Greta; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.

    2013-01-01

    A spider’s ability to store silk protein solutions at high concentration is believed to be related to the protein’s terminal domains. It has been suggested that a shift in salt concentration and pH can have a significant influence on the assembly process. Based on experimental data, a model has been proposed in which the N-terminal domain exists as a monomer during storage and assembles into a homodimer upon spinning. Here we perform a systematic computational study using atomistic, coarse-grained and well-tempered metadynamics simulation to understand how the NaCl concentration in the solution affects the N-terminal domain of the silk protein. Our results show that a high salt concentration, as found during storage, weakens key salt bridges between the monomers, inducing a loss in bond energy by 28.6% in a single salt bridge. As a result dimer formation is less likely as 35.5% less energy is required to unfold the dimer by mechanical force. Conversely, homodimer formation appears to be more likely at low salt concentrations as the salt bridge stays at the lower energy state. The link between salt concentration, structure and stability of the N-terminal domain provides a possible mechanism that prevents premature fiber formation during storage. PMID:23833703

  2. The N-terminal Region of the Ubiquitin Regulatory X (UBX) Domain-containing Protein 1 (UBXD1) Modulates Interdomain Communication within the Valosin-containing Protein p97*

    PubMed Central

    Trusch, Franziska; Matena, Anja; Vuk, Maja; Koerver, Lisa; Knævelsrud, Helene; Freemont, Paul S.; Meyer, Hemmo; Bayer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Valosin-containing protein/p97 is an ATP-driven protein segregase that cooperates with distinct protein cofactors to control various aspects of cellular homeostasis. Mutations at the interface between the regulatory N-domain and the first of two ATPase domains (D1 and D2) deregulate the ATPase activity and cause a multisystem degenerative disorder, inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Intriguingly, the mutations affect only a subset of p97-mediated pathways correlating with unbalanced cofactor interactions and most prominently compromised binding of the ubiquitin regulatory X domain-containing protein 1 (UBXD1) cofactor during endolysosomal sorting of caveolin-1. However, how the mutations impinge on the p97-cofactor interplay is unclear so far. In cell-based endosomal localization studies, we identified a critical role of the N-terminal region of UBXD1 (UBXD1-N). Biophysical studies using NMR and CD spectroscopy revealed that UBXD1-N can be classified as intrinsically disordered. NMR titration experiments confirmed a valosin-containing protein/p97 interaction motif and identified a second binding site at helices 1 and 2 of UBXD1-N as binding interfaces for p97. In reverse titration experiments, we identified two distant epitopes on the p97 N-domain that include disease-associated residues and an additional interaction between UBXD1-N and the D1D2 barrel of p97 that was confirmed by fluorescence anisotropy. Functionally, binding of UBXD1-N to p97 led to a reduction of ATPase activity and partial protection from proteolysis. These findings indicate that UBXD1-N intercalates into the p97-ND1 interface, thereby modulating interdomain communication of p97 domains and its activity with relevance for disease pathogenesis. We propose that the polyvalent binding mode characterized for UBXD1-N is a more general principle that defines a subset of p97 cofactors. PMID:26475856

  3. Rapid formin-mediated actin-filament elongation is essential for polarized plant cell growth.

    PubMed

    Vidali, Luis; van Gisbergen, Peter A C; Guérin, Christophe; Franco, Paula; Li, Ming; Burkart, Graham M; Augustine, Robert C; Blanchoin, Laurent; Bezanilla, Magdalena

    2009-08-11

    Formins are present in all eukaryotes and are essential for the creation of actin-based structures responsible for diverse cellular processes. Because multicellular organisms contain large formin gene families, establishing the physiological functions of formin isoforms has been difficult. Using RNAi, we analyzed the function of all 9 formin genes within the moss Physcomitrella patens. We show that plants lacking class II formins (For2) are severely stunted and composed of spherical cells with disrupted actin organization. In contrast, silencing of all other formins results in normal elongated cell morphology and actin organization. Consistent with a role in polarized growth, For2 are apically localized in growing cells. We show that an N-terminal phosphatase tensin (PTEN)-like domain mediates apical localization. The PTEN-like domain is followed by a conserved formin homology (FH)1-FH2 domain, known to promote actin polymerization. To determine whether apical localization of any FH1-FH2 domain mediates polarized growth, we performed domain swapping. We found that only the class II FH1-FH2, in combination with the PTEN-like domain, rescues polarized growth, because it cannot be replaced with a similar domain from a For1. We used in vitro polymerization assays to dissect the functional differences between these FH1-FH2 domains. We found that both the FH1 and the FH2 domains from For2 are required to mediate exceptionally rapid rates of actin filament elongation, much faster than any other known formin. Thus, our data demonstrate that rapid rates of actin elongation are critical for driving the formation of apical filamentous actin necessary for polarized growth.

  4. Structures of the N-acetyltransferase domain of Xylella fastidiosa N-acetyl-L-glutamate synthase/kinase with and without a His tag bound to N-acetyl-L-glutamate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gengxiang; Jin, Zhongmin; Allewell, Norma M; Tuchman, Mendel; Shi, Dashuang

    2015-01-01

    Structures of the catalytic N-acetyltransferase (NAT) domain of the bifunctional N-acetyl-L-glutamate synthase/kinase (NAGS/K) from Xylella fastidiosa bound to N-acetyl-L-glutamate (NAG) with and without an N-terminal His tag have been solved and refined at 1.7 and 1.4 Å resolution, respectively. The NAT domain with an N-terminal His tag crystallized in space group P4(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a=b=51.72, c=242.31 Å. Two subunits form a molecular dimer in the asymmetric unit, which contains ∼41% solvent. The NAT domain without an N-terminal His tag crystallized in space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a=63.48, b=122.34, c=75.88 Å, β=107.6°. Eight subunits, which form four molecular dimers, were identified in the asymmetric unit, which contains ∼38% solvent. The structures with and without the N-terminal His tag provide an opportunity to evaluate how the His tag affects structure and function. Furthermore, multiple subunits in different packing environments allow an assessment of the plasticity of the NAG binding site, which might be relevant to substrate binding and product release. The dimeric structure of the X. fastidiosa N-acetytransferase (xfNAT) domain is very similar to that of human N-acetyltransferase (hNAT), reinforcing the notion that mammalian NAGS is evolutionally derived from bifunctional bacterial NAGS/K.

  5. Structure of the N-terminal domain of human thioredoxin-interacting protein.

    PubMed

    Polekhina, Galina; Ascher, David Benjamin; Kok, Shie Foong; Beckham, Simone; Wilce, Matthew; Waltham, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is one of the six known α-arrestins and has recently received considerable attention owing to its involvement in redox signalling and metabolism. Various stress stimuli such as high glucose, heat shock, UV, H2O2 and mechanical stress among others robustly induce the expression of TXNIP, resulting in the sequestration and inactivation of thioredoxin, which in turn leads to cellular oxidative stress. While TXNIP is the only α-arrestin known to bind thioredoxin, TXNIP and two other α-arrestins, Arrdc4 and Arrdc3, have been implicated in metabolism. Furthermore, owing to its roles in the pathologies of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, TXNIP is considered to be a promising drug target. Based on their amino-acid sequences, TXNIP and the other α-arrestins are remotely related to β-arrestins. Here, the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of TXNIP is reported. It provides the first structural information on any of the α-arrestins and reveals that although TXNIP adopts a β-arrestin fold as predicted, it is structurally more similar to Vps26 proteins than to β-arrestins, while sharing below 15% pairwise sequence identity with either.

  6. Bulkiness or aromatic nature of tyrosine-143 of actin is important for the weak binding between F-actin and myosin-ADP-phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Gomibuchi, Yuki; Uyeda, Taro Q.P.; Wakabayashi, Takeyuki, E-mail: tw007@nasu.bio.teikyo-u.ac.jp

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •The effect of mutation of Tyr143 that becomes more exposed on assembly was examined. •Mutation of tyrosine-143 of Dictyostelium actin changed actin polymerizability. •The bulkiness or aromatic nature of Tyr143 is important for the weak binding. •The weak interaction between myosin and actin strengthened by Tyr143Trp mutation. -- Abstract: Actin filaments (F-actin) interact with myosin and activate its ATPase to support force generation. By comparing crystal structures of G-actin and the quasi-atomic model of F-actin based on high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy, the tyrosine-143 was found to be exposed more than 60 Å{sup 2} to the solvent in F-actin. Because tyrosine-143more » flanks the hydrophobic cleft near the hydrophobic helix that binds to myosin, the mutant actins, of which the tyrosine-143 was replaced with tryptophan, phenylalanine, or isoleucine, were generated using the Dictyostelium expression system. It polymerized significantly poorly when induced by NaCl, but almost normally by KCl. In the presence of phalloidin and KCl, the extents of the polymerization of all the mutant actins were comparable to that of the wild-type actin so that the actin-activated myosin ATPase activity could be reliably compared. The affinity of skeletal heavy meromyosin to F-actin and the maximum ATPase activity (V{sub max}) were estimated by a double reciprocal plot. The Tyr143Trp-actin showed the higher affinity (smaller K{sub app}) than that of the wild-type actin, with the V{sub max} being almost unchanged. The K{sub app} and V{sub max} of the Tyr143Phe-actin were similar to those of the wild-type actin. However, the activation by Tyr143Ile-actin was much smaller than the wild-type actin and the accurate determination of K{sub app} was difficult. Comparison of the myosin ATPase activated by the various mutant actins at the same concentration of F-actin showed that the extent of activation correlates well with the solvent-accessible surface areas

  7. Activity Augmentation of Amphioxus Peptidoglycan Recognition Protein BbtPGRP3 via Fusion with a Chitin Binding Domain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Jie; Cheng, Wang; Luo, Ming; Yan, Qingyu; Yu, Hong-Mei; Li, Qiong; Cao, Dong-Dong; Huang, Shengfeng; Xu, Anlong; Mariuzza, Roy A.; Chen, Yuxing; Zhou, Cong-Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs), which have been identified in most animals, are pattern recognition molecules that involve antimicrobial defense. Resulting from extraordinary expansion of innate immune genes, the amphioxus encodes many PGRPs of diverse functions. For instance, three isoforms of PGRP encoded by Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense, termed BbtPGRP1~3, are fused with a chitin binding domain (CBD) at the N-terminus. Here we report the 2.7 Å crystal structure of BbtPGRP3, revealing an overall structure of an N-terminal hevein-like CBD followed by a catalytic PGRP domain. Activity assays combined with site-directed mutagenesis indicated that the individual PGRP domain exhibits amidase activity towards both DAP-type and Lys-type peptidoglycans (PGNs), the former of which is favored. The N-terminal CBD not only has the chitin-binding activity, but also enables BbtPGRP3 to gain a five-fold increase of amidase activity towards the Lys-type PGNs, leading to a significantly broadened substrate spectrum. Together, we propose that modular evolution via domain shuffling combined with gene horizontal transfer makes BbtPGRP1~3 novel PGRPs of augmented catalytic activity and broad recognition spectrum. PMID:26479246

  8. Different Functions of the Paralogs to the N-Terminal Domain of the Orange Carotenoid Protein in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 71201[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    López-Igual, Rocío; Wilson, Adjélé; Bourcier de Carbon, Céline; Sutter, Markus; Turmo, Aiko

    2016-01-01

    The photoactive Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP) is involved in cyanobacterial photoprotection. Its N-terminal domain (NTD) is responsible for interaction with the antenna and induction of excitation energy quenching, while the C-terminal domain is the regulatory domain that senses light and induces photoactivation. In most nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterial strains, there are one to four paralogous genes coding for homologs to the NTD of the OCP. The functions of these proteins are unknown. Here, we study the expression, localization, and function of these genes in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. We show that the four genes present in the genome are expressed in both vegetative cells and heterocysts but do not seem to have an essential role in heterocyst formation. This study establishes that all four Anabaena NTD-like proteins can bind a carotenoid and the different paralogs have distinct functions. Surprisingly, only one paralog (All4941) was able to interact with the antenna and to induce permanent thermal energy dissipation. Two of the other Anabaena paralogs (All3221 and Alr4783) were shown to be very good singlet oxygen quenchers. The fourth paralog (All1123) does not seem to be involved in photoprotection. Structural homology modeling allowed us to propose specific features responsible for the different functions of these soluble carotenoid-binding proteins. PMID:27208286

  9. Structural Basis of Actin Filament Nucleation by Tandem W Domains

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaorui; Ni, Fengyun; Tian, Xia; Kondrashkina, Elena; Wang, Qinghua; Ma, Jianpeng

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Spontaneous nucleation of actin is very inefficient in cells. To overcome this barrier, cells have evolved a set of actin filament nucleators to promote rapid nucleation and polymerization in response to specific stimuli. However, the molecular mechanism of actin nucleation remains poorly understood. This is hindered largely by the fact that actin nucleus, once formed, rapidly polymerizes into filament, thus making it impossible to capture stable multisubunit actin nucleus. Here, we report an effective double-mutant strategy to stabilize actin nucleus by preventing further polymerization. Employing this strategy, we solved the crystal structure of AMPPNP-actin in complex with the first two tandem W domains of Cordon-bleu (Cobl), a potent actin filament nucleator. Further sequence comparison and functional studies suggest that the nucleation mechanism of Cobl is probably shared by the p53 cofactor JMY, but not Spire. Moreover, the double-mutant strategy opens the way for atomic mechanistic study of actin nucleation and polymerization. PMID:23727244

  10. Crystal Structure of the C-terminal Region of Streptococcus mutans Antigen I/II and Characterization of Salivary Agglutinin Adherence Domains

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, Matthew R.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Crowley, Paula J.

    2012-05-29

    The Streptococcus mutans antigen I/II (AgI/II) is a cell surface-localized protein that adheres to salivary components and extracellular matrix molecules. Here we report the 2.5 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the complete C-terminal region of AgI/II. The C-terminal region is comprised of three major domains: C{sub 1}, C{sub 2}, and C{sub 3}. Each domain adopts a DE-variant IgG fold, with two {beta}-sheets whose A and F strands are linked through an intramolecular isopeptide bond. The adherence of the C-terminal AgI/II fragments to the putative tooth surface receptor salivary agglutinin (SAG), as monitored by surface plasmon resonance, indicated that the minimalmore » region of binding was contained within the first and second DE-variant-IgG domains (C{sub 1} and C{sub 2}) of the C terminus. The minimal C-terminal region that could inhibit S. mutans adherence to SAG was also confirmed to be within the C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} domains. Competition experiments demonstrated that the C- and N-terminal regions of AgI/II adhere to distinct sites on SAG. A cleft formed at the intersection between these C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} domains bound glucose molecules from the cryo-protectant solution, revealing a putative binding site for its highly glycosylated receptor SAG. Finally, electron microscopy images confirmed the elongated structure of AgI/II and enabled building a composite tertiary model that encompasses its two distinct binding regions.« less

  11. The N Domain of Human Angiotensin-I-converting Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Colin S.; Corradi, Hazel R.; Schwager, Sylva L. U.; Redelinghuys, Pierre; Georgiadis, Dimitris; Dive, Vincent; Acharya, K. Ravi; Sturrock, Edward D.

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) plays a critical role in the regulation of blood pressure through its central role in the renin-angiotensin and kallikrein-kinin systems. ACE contains two domains, the N and C domains, both of which are heavily glycosylated. Structural studies of ACE have been fraught with severe difficulties because of surface glycosylation of the protein. In order to investigate the role of glycosylation in the N domain and to create suitable forms for crystallization, we have investigated the importance of the 10 potential N-linked glycan sites using enzymatic deglycosylation, limited proteolysis, and mass spectrometry. A number of glycosylation mutants were generated via site-directed mutagenesis, expressed in CHO cells, and analyzed for enzymatic activity and thermal stability. At least eight of 10 of the potential glycan sites are glycosylated; three C-terminal sites were sufficient for expression of active N domain, whereas two N-terminal sites are important for its thermal stability. The minimally glycosylated Ndom389 construct was highly suitable for crystallization studies. The structure in the presence of an N domain-selective phosphinic inhibitor RXP407 was determined to 2.0 Å resolution. The Ndom389 structure revealed a hinge region that may contribute to the breathing motion proposed for substrate binding. PMID:20826823

  12. Soybean agglutinin binding to corneal endothelial cell surfaces disrupts in situ monolayer integrity and actin organization and interferes with wound repair.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Sheldon R; Wood, Meredith

    2009-03-01

    Rat corneal endothelium demonstrates cell-surface soybean agglutinin (SBA) binding during organ-culture or injury. When organ-cultured in medium containing SBA, the endothelial monolayer is disrupted because of cell-cell and cell-matrix alterations. SBA binding disorganizes the circumferential microfilament bundles (CMBs), an effect that is partially prevented by phallacidin preincubation. This disruption is reversible if tissues are returned to standard culture medium. Serum heightens SBA binding, whereas puromycin prevents it. Neither actinomycin D nor alpha-amanitin inhibits SBA binding, suggesting that SBA-binding protein(s) may be post-transcriptionally regulated. During injury-induced cell migration in the presence of SBA, cellular processes are blunted and fail to extend significantly outward. By 72 h post-injury, cells of SBA-treated tissues repopulate the wound but demonstrate little association with neighboring cells. Cells migrating in the presence of N-acetylgalactosamine appear normal but also fail to reassociate with other cells in the jury zone. Immunofluorescent staining for ZO-1 reveals punctuate patterns in cells of control tissues, whereas neither SBA- nor N-acetylgalactosamine-treated tissues exhibit ZO-1 staining. Terminal N-acetylgalactosamine removal fails to affect cell morphology, actin organization, or migration but prevents lectin binding. Our results suggest that SBA binding reflects the synthesis of a stress-induced protein(s) that may play a role in reestablishing cell-cell relationships during monolayer reorganization following injury.

  13. Control of the Ability of Profilin to Bind and Facilitate Nucleotide Exchange from G-actin*

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Kuo-Kuang; McKane, Melissa; Houtman, Jon C. D.; Rubenstein, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    A major factor in profilin regulation of actin cytoskeletal dynamics is its facilitation of G-actin nucleotide exchange. However, the mechanism of this facilitation is unknown. We studied the interaction of yeast (YPF) and human profilin 1 (HPF1) with yeast and mammalian skeletal muscle actins. Homologous pairs (YPF and yeast actin, HPF1 and muscle actin) bound more tightly to one another than heterologous pairs. However, with saturating profilin, HPF1 caused a faster etheno-ATP exchange with both yeast and muscle actins than did YPF. Based on the -fold change in ATP exchange rate/Kd, however, the homologous pairs are more efficient than the heterologous pairs. Thus, strength of binding of profilin to actin and nucleotide exchange rate are not tightly coupled. Actin/HPF interactions were entropically driven, whereas YPF interactions were enthalpically driven. Hybrid yeast actins containing subdomain 1 (sub1) or subdomain 1 and 2 (sub12) muscle actin residues bound more weakly to YPF than did yeast actin (Kd = 2 μm versus 0.6 μm). These hybrids bound even more weakly to HPF than did yeast actin (Kd = 5 μm versus 3.2 μm). sub1/YPF interactions were entropically driven, whereas the sub12/YPF binding was enthalpically driven. Compared with WT yeast actin, YPF binding to sub1 occurred with a 5 times faster koff and a 2 times faster kon. sub12 bound with a 3 times faster koff and a 1.5 times slower kon. Profilin controls the energetics of its interaction with nonhybrid actin, but interactions between actin subdomains 1 and 2 affect the topography of the profilin binding site. PMID:18223293

  14. A novel signal transduction protein: Combination of solute binding and tandem PAS-like sensor domains in one polypeptide chain: Periplasmic Ligand Binding Protein Dret_0059

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, R.; Wilton, R.; Cuff, M. E.

    We report the structural and biochemical characterization of a novel periplasmic ligand-binding protein, Dret_0059, from Desulfohalobium retbaense DSM 5692, an organism isolated from the Salt Lake Retba in Senegal. The structure of the protein consists of a unique combination of a periplasmic solute binding protein (SBP) domain at the N-terminal and a tandem PAS-like sensor domain at the C-terminal region. SBP domains are found ubiquitously and their best known function is in solute transport across membranes. PAS-like sensor domains are commonly found in signal transduction proteins. These domains are widely observed as parts of many protein architectures and complexes butmore » have not been observed previously within the same polypeptide chain. In the structure of Dret_0059, a ketoleucine moiety is bound to the SBP, whereas a cytosine molecule is bound in the distal PAS-like domain of the tandem PAS-like domain. Differential scanning flourimetry support the binding of ligands observed in the crystal structure. There is significant interaction between the SBP and tandem PAS-like domains, and it is possible that the binding of one ligand could have an effect on the binding of the other. We uncovered three other proteins with this structural architecture in the non-redundant sequence data base, and predict that they too bind the same substrates. The genomic context of this protein did not offer any clues for its function. We did not find any biological process in which the two observed ligands are coupled. The protein Dret_0059 could be involved in either signal transduction or solute transport.« less

  15. Oligomerization of coronin: Implication on actin filament length in Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Rashmi; Prasadareddy Kajuluri, Lova; Pathak, Neelam; Gupta, Chhitar M; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh A

    2015-12-01

    Coronin proteins bind with actin filaments and participate in regulation of actin-dependent processes. These proteins contain a coiled-coil domain at their C-terminus, which is responsible for their dimeric or trimeric forms. However, the functional significance of these oligomeric configurations in organizing the actin cytoskeleton is obscure. Here, we report that the Leishmania coronin exists in a higher oligomeric form through its coiled-coil domain, the truncation of which ablates the ability of Leishmania coronin to assist actin-filament formation. F-actin co-sedimentation assay using purified proteins shows that the coiled-coil domain does not interact with actin-filaments and its absence does not abrogate actin-coronin interaction. Furthermore, it was shown that unlike other coronins, Leishmania coronin interacts with actin-filaments through its unique region. These results provided important insights into the role of coronin oligomerization in modulating actin-network. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Switch II Mutants Reveal Coupling between the Nucleotide- and Actin-Binding Regions in Myosin V

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Darshan V.; David, Charles; Jacobs, Donald J.; Yengo, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    Conserved active-site elements in myosins and other P-loop NTPases play critical roles in nucleotide binding and hydrolysis; however, the mechanisms of allosteric communication among these mechanoenzymes remain unresolved. In this work we introduced the E442A mutation, which abrogates a salt-bridge between switch I and switch II, and the G440A mutation, which abolishes a main-chain hydrogen bond associated with the interaction of switch II with the γ phosphate of ATP, into myosin V. We used fluorescence resonance energy transfer between mant-labeled nucleotides or IAEDANS-labeled actin and FlAsH-labeled myosin V to examine the conformation of the nucleotide- and actin-binding regions, respectively. We demonstrate that in the absence of actin, both the G440A and E442A mutants bind ATP with similar affinity and result in only minor alterations in the conformation of the nucleotide-binding pocket (NBP). In the presence of ADP and actin, both switch II mutants disrupt the formation of a closed NBP actomyosin.ADP state. The G440A mutant also prevents ATP-induced opening of the actin-binding cleft. Our results indicate that the switch II region is critical for stabilizing the closed NBP conformation in the presence of actin, and is essential for communication between the active site and actin-binding region. PMID:22713570

  17. N-terminal aliphatic residues dictate the structure, stability, assembly, and small molecule binding of the coiled-coil region of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein.

    PubMed

    Gunasekar, Susheel K; Asnani, Mukta; Limbad, Chandani; Haghpanah, Jennifer S; Hom, Wendy; Barra, Hanna; Nanda, Soumya; Lu, Min; Montclare, Jin Kim

    2009-09-15

    The coiled-coil domain of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMPcc) assembles into a homopentamer that naturally recognizes the small molecule 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (vit D). To identify the residues critical for the structure, stability, oligomerization, and binding to vit D as well as two other small molecules, all-trans-retinol (ATR) and curcumin (CCM), here we perform an alanine scanning mutagenesis study. Ten residues lining the hydrophobic pocket of COMPcc were mutated into alanine; of the mutated residues, the N-terminal aliphatic residues L37, L44, V47, and L51 are responsible for maintaining the structure and function. Furthermore, two polar residues, T40 and Q54, within the N-terminal region when converted into alanine improve the alpha-helical structure, stability, and self-assembly behavior. Helical stability, oligomerization, and binding appear to be linked in a manner in which mutations that abolish helical structure and assembly bind poorly to vit D, ATR, and CCM. These results provide not only insight into COMPcc and its functional role but also useful guidelines for the design of stable, pentameric coiled-coils capable of selectively storing and delivering various small molecules.

  18. Structure of the EMMPRIN N-terminal domain 1: Dimerization via [beta]-strand swapping

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Jinquan; Teplyakov, Alexey; Obmolova, Galina

    2010-09-27

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), also known as Hab18G, CD147, Basigin, M6, and neurothelin, is a membrane glycoprotein expressed on the surface of various cell types and many cancer cells. EMMPRIN stimulates adjacent fibroblasts and tumor cells to produce matrix metalloproteinases and plays an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis, spermatogensis and fertilization, cell-cell adhesion and communication, and other biological processes (reviewed in Ref. 1 and references therein). It was demonstrated that the EMMPRIN extracellular domain (ECD), which structurally belongs to the IgG superfamily, can form homo-oligomers in a cis dependent manner and the N-terminal domain 1 (residuesmore » 22-101) was necessary and sufficient to mediate this interaction. The crystal structure of the ECD of recombinant human EMMPRIN (Hab18G/CD147) expressed in E. coli was reported at 2.8 {angstrom} resolution (Yu et al. 2008). The construct consists of residues 22-205 of the mature protein and has both an N-terminal IgC2 domain (ND1, residues 22-101) and a C-terminal IgC2 domain (ND2, residues 107-205). The two domains are joined by a five amino acid residue linker that constitutes a flexible hinge between the two domains. The crystal form has four copies of the molecule in the asymmetric unit, each of which has a different inter-domain angle that varies from 121{sup o} to 144{sup o}. The two domains each have a conserved disulfide bridge and both are comprised of two {beta}-sheets formed by strands EBA and GFCC, and DEBA and AGFCC for ND1 and ND2, respectively. Based on the crystal packing in this structure, the authors proposed that lateral packing between the two IgG domains of EMMPRIN ECD represents a potential mechanism for cell adhesion. Here we report the 2.0-{angstrom} crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of EMMPRIN ECD (ND1) expressed in mammalian cells. The overall structure of the domain is very similar to that in the full

  19. Mechanism of Mediator recruitment by tandem Gcn4 activation domains and three Gal11 activator-binding domains.

    PubMed

    Herbig, Eric; Warfield, Linda; Fish, Lisa; Fishburn, James; Knutson, Bruce A; Moorefield, Beth; Pacheco, Derek; Hahn, Steven

    2010-05-01

    Targets of the tandem Gcn4 acidic activation domains in transcription preinitiation complexes were identified by site-specific cross-linking. The individual Gcn4 activation domains cross-link to three common targets, Gal11/Med15, Taf12, and Tra1, which are subunits of four conserved coactivator complexes, Mediator, SAGA, TFIID, and NuA4. The Gcn4 N-terminal activation domain also cross-links to the Mediator subunit Sin4/Med16. The contribution of the two Gcn4 activation domains to transcription was gene specific and varied from synergistic to less than additive. Gcn4-dependent genes had a requirement for Gal11 ranging from 10-fold dependence to complete Gal11 independence, while the Gcn4-Taf12 interaction did not significantly contribute to the expression of any gene studied. Complementary methods identified three conserved Gal11 activator-binding domains that bind each Gcn4 activation domain with micromolar affinity. These Gal11 activator-binding domains contribute additively to transcription activation and Mediator recruitment at Gcn4- and Gal11-dependent genes. Although we found that the conserved Gal11 KIX domain contributes to Gal11 function, we found no evidence of specific Gcn4-KIX interaction and conclude that the Gal11 KIX domain does not function by specific interaction with Gcn4. Our combined results show gene-specific coactivator requirements, a surprising redundancy in activator-target interactions, and an activator-coactivator interaction mediated by multiple low-affinity protein-protein interactions.

  20. The Arabidopsis Histone Methyltransferase SUVR4 Binds Ubiquitin via a Domain with a Four-Helix Bundle Structure

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mohummad Aminur; Kristiansen, Per E.; Veiseth, Silje V.; Andersen, Jan Terje; Yap, Kyoko L.; Zhou, Ming-Ming; Sandlie, Inger; Thorstensen, Tage; Aalen, Reidunn B.

    2014-01-01

    In eukaryotes, different chromatin states facilitate or repress gene expression and restrict the activity of transposable elements. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of amino acid residues on the N-terminal tails of histones are suggested to define such states. The histone lysine methyltransferase (HKMTase) SU(VAR)3-9 RELATED4 (SUVR4) of Arabidopsis thaliana functions as a repressor of transposon activity. Binding of ubiquitin by the WIYLD domain facilitates the addition of two methyl groups to monomethylated lysine 9 of histone H3. By using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we identified SUVR4 WIYLD (S4WIYLD) as a domain with a four-helix bundle structure, in contrast to three-helix bundles of other ubiquitin binding domains. NMR titration analyses showed that residues of helix α1 (Q38, L39, and D40) and helix α4 (N68, T70, A71, V73, D74, I76, S78, and E82) of S4WIYLD and residues between the first and second β-strands (T9 and G10) and on β-strands 3 (R42, G47, K48, and Q49) and 4 (H68, R72, and L73) undergo significant chemical shift changes when the two proteins interact. A model of the complex, generated using HADDOCK, suggests that the N-terminal and C-terminal parts of S4WIYLD constitute a surface that interacts with charged residues close to the hydrophobic patch of ubiquitin. The WIYLD domains of the closely related SUVR1 and SUVR2 Arabidopsis proteins also bind ubiquitin, indicating that this is a general feature of this domain. The question of whether SUVR proteins act as both readers of monoubiquitinated H2B and writers of histone PTMs is discussed. PMID:24625295

  1. The Contributions of the Amino and Carboxy Terminal Domains of Flightin to the Biomechanical Properties of Drosophila Flight Muscle Thick Filaments

    PubMed Central

    Gasek, Nathan S.; Nyland, Lori R.; Vigoreaux, Jim O.

    2016-01-01

    Flightin is a myosin binding protein present in Pancrustacea. In Drosophila, flightin is expressed in the indirect flight muscles (IFM), where it is required for the flexural rigidity, structural integrity, and length determination of thick filaments. Comparison of flightin sequences from multiple Drosophila species revealed a tripartite organization indicative of three functional domains subject to different evolutionary constraints. We use atomic force microscopy to investigate the functional roles of the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal domain that show different patterns of sequence conservation. Thick filaments containing a C-terminal domain truncated flightin (flnΔC44) are significantly shorter (2.68 ± 0.06 μm; p < 0.005) than thick filaments containing a full length flightin (fln+; 3.21 ± 0.05 μm) and thick filaments containing an N-terminal domain truncated flightin (flnΔN62; 3.21 ± 0.06 μm). Persistence length was significantly reduced in flnΔN62 (418 ± 72 μm; p < 0.005) compared to fln+ (1386 ± 196μm) and flnΔC44(1128 ± 193 μm). Statistical polymer chain analysis revealed that the C-terminal domain fulfills a secondary role in thick filament bending propensity. Our results indicate that the flightin amino and carboxy terminal domains make distinct contributions to thick filament biomechanics. We propose these distinct roles arise from the interplay between natural selection and sexual selection given IFM’s dual role in flight and courtship behaviors. PMID:27128952

  2. Hypotonic activation of short ClC3 isoform is modulated by direct interaction between its cytosolic C-terminal tail and subcortical actin filaments.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Diana T; Doherty, Lynda; Dai, Yan-Ping; Miller, Lisa; Hume, Joseph R; Yamboliev, Ilia A

    2007-06-08

    Short ClC3 isoform (sClC3) functions as a volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying anion channel (VSOAC) in some cell types. In previous studies, we have shown that the hypotonic activation of sClC3 is linked to cell swelling-mediated remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. In the present study, we have tested the hypothesis that the cytosolic tails of sClC3 bind to actin directly and that binding modulates the hypotonic activation of the channel. Co-sedimentation assays in vitro demonstrated a strong binding between the glutathione S-transferase-fused cytosolic C terminus of sClC3 (GST-sClC3-CT) to filamentous actin (F-actin) but not to globular monomeric actin (G-actin). The GST-fused N terminus (GST-sClC3-NT) exhibited low binding affinity to both G- and F-actin. Co-sedimentation experiments with progressively truncated GST-sClC3-CT indicated that the F-actin binding region is located between amino acids 690 and 760 of sClC3. Two synthetic peptides mapping basic clusters of the cytosolic sClC3-CT (CTP2, isoleucine 716 to leucine 734; and CTP3, proline 688 to proline 709) prevented binding of GST-sClC3-CT to F-actin in vitro. Dialysis into NIH/3T3 cells of these two peptides (but not of synthetic peptide CTP1 (isoleucine 737 to glutamine 748)) reduced the maximal current density by 60 and 38%, respectively. Based on these results, we have concluded that, by direct interaction with subcortical actin filaments, sClC3 contributes to the hypotonic stress-induced VSOACs in NIH/3T3 cells.

  3. Myosin 7 and its adaptors link cadherins to actin.

    PubMed

    Yu, I-Mei; Planelles-Herrero, Vicente J; Sourigues, Yannick; Moussaoui, Dihia; Sirkia, Helena; Kikuti, Carlos; Stroebel, David; Titus, Margaret A; Houdusse, Anne

    2017-06-29

    Cadherin linkages between adjacent stereocilia and microvilli are essential for mechanotransduction and maintaining their organization. They are anchored to actin through interaction of their cytoplasmic domains with related tripartite complexes consisting of a class VII myosin and adaptor proteins: Myo7a/SANS/Harmonin in stereocilia and Myo7b/ANKS4B/Harmonin in microvilli. Here, we determine high-resolution structures of Myo7a and Myo7b C-terminal MyTH4-FERM domain (MF2) and unveil how they recognize harmonin using a novel binding mode. Systematic definition of interactions between domains of the tripartite complex elucidates how the complex assembles and prevents possible self-association of harmonin-a. Several Myo7a deafness mutants that map to the surface of MF2 disrupt harmonin binding, revealing the molecular basis for how they impact the formation of the tripartite complex and disrupt mechanotransduction. Our results also suggest how switching between different harmonin isoforms can regulate the formation of networks with Myo7a motors and coordinate force sensing in stereocilia.

  4. Myosin 7 and its adaptors link cadherins to actin

    PubMed Central

    Yu, I-Mei; Planelles-Herrero, Vicente J.; Sourigues, Yannick; Moussaoui, Dihia; Sirkia, Helena; Kikuti, Carlos; Stroebel, David; Titus, Margaret A.; Houdusse, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Cadherin linkages between adjacent stereocilia and microvilli are essential for mechanotransduction and maintaining their organization. They are anchored to actin through interaction of their cytoplasmic domains with related tripartite complexes consisting of a class VII myosin and adaptor proteins: Myo7a/SANS/Harmonin in stereocilia and Myo7b/ANKS4B/Harmonin in microvilli. Here, we determine high-resolution structures of Myo7a and Myo7b C-terminal MyTH4-FERM domain (MF2) and unveil how they recognize harmonin using a novel binding mode. Systematic definition of interactions between domains of the tripartite complex elucidates how the complex assembles and prevents possible self-association of harmonin-a. Several Myo7a deafness mutants that map to the surface of MF2 disrupt harmonin binding, revealing the molecular basis for how they impact the formation of the tripartite complex and disrupt mechanotransduction. Our results also suggest how switching between different harmonin isoforms can regulate the formation of networks with Myo7a motors and coordinate force sensing in stereocilia. PMID:28660889

  5. SECRET domain of variola virus CrmB protein can be a member of poxviral type II chemokine-binding proteins family.

    PubMed

    Antonets, Denis V; Nepomnyashchikh, Tatyana S; Shchelkunov, Sergei N

    2010-10-27

    Variola virus (VARV) the causative agent of smallpox, eradicated in 1980, have wide spectrum of immunomodulatory proteins to evade host immunity. Recently additional biological activity was discovered for VARV CrmB protein, known to bind and inhibit tumour necrosis factor (TNF) through its N-terminal domain homologous to cellular TNF receptors. Besides binding TNF, this protein was also shown to bind with high affinity several chemokines which recruit B- and T-lymphocytes and dendritic cells to sites of viral entry and replication. Ability to bind chemokines was shown to be associated with unique C-terminal domain of CrmB protein. This domain named SECRET (Smallpox virus-Encoded Chemokine Receptor) is unrelated to the host proteins and lacks significant homology with other known viral chemokine-binding proteins or any other known protein. De novo modelling of VARV-CrmB SECRET domain spatial structure revealed its apparent structural homology with cowpox virus CC-chemokine binding protein (vCCI) and vaccinia virus A41 protein, despite low sequence identity between these three proteins. Potential ligand-binding surface of modelled VARV-CrmB SECRET domain was also predicted to bear prominent electronegative charge which is characteristic to known orthopoxviral chemokine-binding proteins. Our results suggest that SECRET should be included into the family of poxviral type II chemokine-binding proteins and that it might have been evolved from the vCCI-like predecessor protein.

  6. Structural basis for the inhibition of insulin-like growth factors by insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sitar, Tomasz; Popowicz, Grzegorz M.; Siwanowicz, Igor; Huber, Robert; Holak, Tad A.

    2006-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) control bioavailability, activity, and distribution of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)1 and -2 through high-affinity IGFBP/IGF complexes. IGF-binding sites are found on N- and C-terminal fragments of IGFBPs, the two conserved domains of IGFBPs. The relative contributions of these domains to IGFBP/IGF complexation has been difficult to analyze, in part, because of the lack of appropriate three-dimensional structures. To analyze the effects of N- and C-terminal domain interactions, we determined several x-ray structures: first, of a ternary complex of N- and C-terminal domain fragments of IGFBP4 and IGF1 and second, of a “hybrid” ternary complex using the C-terminal domain fragment of IGFBP1 instead of IGFBP4. We also solved the binary complex of the N-terminal domains of IGFBP4 and IGF1, again to analyze C- and N-terminal domain interactions by comparison with the ternary complexes. The structures reveal the mechanisms of IGF signaling regulation via IGFBP binding. This finding supports research into the design of IGFBP variants as therapeutic IGF inhibitors for diseases of IGF disregulation. In IGFBP4, residues 1–38 form a rigid disulphide bond ladder-like structure, and the first five N-terminal residues bind to IGF and partially mask IGF residues responsible for the type 1 IGF receptor binding. A high-affinity IGF1-binding site is located in a globular structure between residues 39 and 82. Although the C-terminal domains do not form stable binary complexes with either IGF1 or the N-terminal domain of IGFBP4, in the ternary complex, the C-terminal domain contacts both and contributes to blocking of the IGF1 receptor-binding region of IGF1. PMID:16924115

  7. Actin-Binding Protein Requirement for Cortical Stability and Efficient Locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, C. Casey; Gorlin, Jed B.; Kwiatkowski, David J.; Hartwig, John H.; Janmey, Paul A.; Randolph Byers, H.; Stossel, Thomas P.

    1992-01-01

    Three unrelated tumor cell lines derived from human malignant melanomas lack actin-binding protein (ABP), which cross-links actin filaments in vitro and connects these filaments to plasma membrane glycoproteins. The ABP-deficient cells have impaired locomotion and display circumferential blebbing of the plasma membrane. Expression of ABP in one of the lines after transfection restored translocational motility and reduced membrane blebbing. These findings establish that ABP functions to stabilize cortical actin in vivo and is required for efficient cell locomotion.

  8. Solution structure of the N-terminal domain of a replication restart primosome factor, PriC, in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Aramaki, Takahiko; Abe, Yoshito; Katayama, Tsutomu; Ueda, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    In eubacterial organisms, the oriC-independent primosome plays an essential role in replication restart after the dissociation of the replication DNA-protein complex by DNA damage. PriC is a key protein component in the replication restart primosome. Our recent study suggested that PriC is divided into two domains: an N-terminal and a C-terminal domain. In the present study, we determined the solution structure of the N-terminal domain, whose structure and function have remained unknown until now. The revealed structure was composed of three helices and one extended loop. We also observed chemical shift changes in the heteronuclear NMR spectrum and oligomerization in the presence of ssDNA. These abilities may contribute to the PriC-ssDNA complex, which is important for the replication restart primosome. PMID:23868391

  9. Gamma Interferon-Induced Guanylate Binding Protein 1 Is a Novel Actin Cytoskeleton Remodeling Factor

    PubMed Central

    Ostler, Nicole; Britzen-Laurent, Nathalie; Liebl, Andrea; Naschberger, Elisabeth; Lochnit, Günter; Ostler, Markus; Forster, Florian; Kunzelmann, Peter; Ince, Semra; Supper, Verena; Praefcke, Gerrit J. K.; Schubert, Dirk W.; Stockinger, Hannes; Herrmann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) regulates immune defenses against viruses, intracellular pathogens, and tumors by modulating cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and vesicle trafficking processes. The large GTPase guanylate binding protein 1 (GBP-1) is among the cellular proteins that is the most abundantly induced by IFN-γ and mediates its cell biologic effects. As yet, the molecular mechanisms of action of GBP-1 remain unknown. Applying an interaction proteomics approach, we identified actin as a strong and specific binding partner of GBP-1. Furthermore, GBP-1 colocalized with actin at the subcellular level and was both necessary and sufficient for the extensive remodeling of the fibrous actin structure observed in IFN-γ-exposed cells. These effects were dependent on the oligomerization and the GTPase activity of GBP-1. Purified GBP-1 and actin bound to each other, and this interaction was sufficient to impair the formation of actin filaments in vitro, as demonstrated by atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and fluorescence-monitored polymerization. Cosedimentation and band shift analyses demonstrated that GBP-1 binds robustly to globular actin and slightly to filamentous actin. This indicated that GBP-1 may induce actin remodeling via globular actin sequestering and/or filament capping. These results establish GBP-1 as a novel member within the family of actin-remodeling proteins specifically mediating IFN-γ-dependent defense strategies. PMID:24190970

  10. Gamma interferon-induced guanylate binding protein 1 is a novel actin cytoskeleton remodeling factor.

    PubMed

    Ostler, Nicole; Britzen-Laurent, Nathalie; Liebl, Andrea; Naschberger, Elisabeth; Lochnit, Günter; Ostler, Markus; Forster, Florian; Kunzelmann, Peter; Ince, Semra; Supper, Verena; Praefcke, Gerrit J K; Schubert, Dirk W; Stockinger, Hannes; Herrmann, Christian; Stürzl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) regulates immune defenses against viruses, intracellular pathogens, and tumors by modulating cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and vesicle trafficking processes. The large GTPase guanylate binding protein 1 (GBP-1) is among the cellular proteins that is the most abundantly induced by IFN-γ and mediates its cell biologic effects. As yet, the molecular mechanisms of action of GBP-1 remain unknown. Applying an interaction proteomics approach, we identified actin as a strong and specific binding partner of GBP-1. Furthermore, GBP-1 colocalized with actin at the subcellular level and was both necessary and sufficient for the extensive remodeling of the fibrous actin structure observed in IFN-γ-exposed cells. These effects were dependent on the oligomerization and the GTPase activity of GBP-1. Purified GBP-1 and actin bound to each other, and this interaction was sufficient to impair the formation of actin filaments in vitro, as demonstrated by atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and fluorescence-monitored polymerization. Cosedimentation and band shift analyses demonstrated that GBP-1 binds robustly to globular actin and slightly to filamentous actin. This indicated that GBP-1 may induce actin remodeling via globular actin sequestering and/or filament capping. These results establish GBP-1 as a novel member within the family of actin-remodeling proteins specifically mediating IFN-γ-dependent defense strategies.

  11. Parkin binds the Rpn10 subunit of 26S proteasomes through its ubiquitin-like domain

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Eri; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Kurimoto, Eiji; Kikuchi, Jun; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Yamada, Shingo; Kawahara, Hiroyuki; Yokosawa, Hideyoshi; Hattori, Nobutaka; Mizuno, Yoshikuni; Tanaka, Keiji; Kato, Koichi

    2003-01-01

    Parkin, a product of the causative gene of autosomal-recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP), is a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase and has an amino-terminal ubiquitin-like (Ubl) domain. Although a single mutation that causes an Arg to Pro substitution at position 42 of the Ubl domain (the Arg 42 mutation) has been identified in AR-JP patients, the function of this domain is not clear. In this study, we determined the three-dimensional structure of the Ubl domain of parkin by NMR, in particular by extensive use of backbone 15N-1H residual dipolar-coupling data. Inspection of chemical-shift-perturbation data showed that the parkin Ubl domain binds the Rpn10 subunit of 26S proteasomes via the region of parkin that includes position 42. Our findings suggest that the Arg 42 mutation induces a conformational change in the Rpn10-binding site of Ubl, resulting in impaired proteasomal binding of parkin, which could be the cause of AR-JP. PMID:12634850

  12. The chitin-binding domain of a GH-18 chitinase from Vibrio harveyi is crucial for chitin-chitinase interactions.

    PubMed

    Suginta, Wipa; Sirimontree, Paknisa; Sritho, Natchanok; Ohnuma, Takayuki; Fukamizo, Tamo

    2016-12-01

    Vibrio harveyi chitinase A (VhChiA) is a GH-18 glycosyl hydrolase with a structure containing three distinct domains: i) the N-terminal chitin-binding domain; ii) the (α/β) 8 TIM barrel catalytic domain; and iii) the α+β insertion domain. In this study, we cloned the gene fragment encoding the chitin-binding domain of VhChiA, termed ChBD Vh ChiA . The recombinant ChBD Vh ChiA was heterologously expressed in E. coli BL21 strain Tuner(DE3)pLacI host cells, and purified to homogeneity. CD measurements suggested that ChBD Vh ChiA contained β-sheets as major structural components and fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the protein domain was folded correctly, and suitable for functional characterization. Chitin binding assays showed that ChBD Vh ChiA bound to both α- and β-chitins, with the greatest affinity for β-colloidal chitin, but barely bound to polymeric chitosan. These results identified the tandem N-acetamido functionality on chitin chains as the specific sites of enzyme-substrate interactions. The binding affinity of the isolated domain was significantly lower than that of intact VhChiA, suggesting that the catalytic domain works synergistically with the chitin-binding domain to guide the polymeric substrate into the substrate binding cleft. These data confirm the physiological role of the chitin-binding domain of the marine bacterial GH-18 chitinase A in chitin-chitinase interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mutations in actin used for structural studies partially disrupt β-thymosin/WH2 domains interaction.

    PubMed

    Deville, Célia; Girard-Blanc, Christine; Assrir, Nadine; Nhiri, Naïma; Jacquet, Eric; Bontems, François; Renault, Louis; Petres, Stéphane; van Heijenoort, Carine

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the structural basis of actin cytoskeleton remodeling requires stabilization of actin monomers, oligomers, and filaments in complex with partner proteins, using various biochemical strategies. Here, we report a dramatic destabilization of the dynamic interaction with a model β-thymosin/WH2 domain induced by mutations in actin. This result underlines that mutant actins should be used with prudence to characterize interactions with intrinsically disordered partners as destabilization of dynamic interactions, although identifiable by NMR, may be invisible to other structural techniques. It also highlights how both β-thymosin/WH2 domains and actin tune local structure and dynamics in regulatory processes involving intrinsically disordered domains. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  14. Effect of phosphorylation of myelin basic protein by MAPK on its interactions with actin and actin binding to a lipid membrane in vitro.

    PubMed

    Boggs, Joan M; Rangaraj, Godha; Gao, Wen; Heng, Yew-Meng

    2006-01-17

    Myelin basic protein (MBP) binds to negatively charged lipids on the cytosolic surface of oligodendrocyte membranes and is most likely responsible for adhesion of these surfaces in the multilayered myelin sheath. It can also polymerize actin, bundle F-actin filaments, and bind actin filaments to lipid bilayers through electrostatic interactions. MBP consists of a number of posttranslationally modified isomers of varying charge, some resulting from phosphorylation at several sites by different kinases, including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Phosphorylation of MBP in oligodendrocytes occurs in response to various extracellular stimuli. Phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of MBP also occurs in the myelin sheath in response to electrical activity in the brain. Here we investigate the effect of phosphorylation of MBP on its interaction with actin in vitro by phosphorylating the most highly charged unmodified isomer, C1, at two sites with MAPK. Phosphorylation decreased the ability of MBP to polymerize actin and to bundle actin filaments but had no effect on the dissociation constant of the MBP-actin complex or on the ability of Ca2+-calmodulin to dissociate the complex. The most significant effect of phosphorylation on the MBP-actin complex was a dramatic reduction in its ability to bind to negatively charged lipid bilayers. The effect was much greater than that reported earlier for another charge isomer of MBP, C8, in which six arginines were deiminated to citrulline, resulting in a reduction of net positive charge of 6. These results indicate that although average electrostatic forces are the primary determinant of the interaction of MBP with actin, phosphorylation may have an additional effect due to a site-specific electrostatic effect or to a conformational change. Thus, phosphorylation of MBP, which occurs in response to various extracellular signals in both myelin and oligodendrocytes, attenuates the ability of MBP to polymerize and bundle actin and to

  15. A Conserved Acidic Motif in the N-Terminal Domain of Nitrate Reductase Is Necessary for the Inactivation of the Enzyme in the Dark by Phosphorylation and 14-3-3 Binding1

    PubMed Central

    Pigaglio, Emmanuelle; Durand, Nathalie; Meyer, Christian

    1999-01-01

    It has previously been shown that the N-terminal domain of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) nitrate reductase (NR) is involved in the inactivation of the enzyme by phosphorylation, which occurs in the dark (L. Nussaume, M. Vincentz, C. Meyer, J.P. Boutin, and M. Caboche [1995] Plant Cell 7: 611–621). The activity of a mutant NR protein lacking this N-terminal domain was no longer regulated by light-dark transitions. In this study smaller deletions were performed in the N-terminal domain of tobacco NR that removed protein motifs conserved among higher plant NRs. The resulting truncated NR-coding sequences were then fused to the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA promoter and introduced in NR-deficient mutants of the closely related species Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. We found that the deletion of a conserved stretch of acidic residues led to an active NR protein that was more thermosensitive than the wild-type enzyme, but it was relatively insensitive to the inactivation by phosphorylation in the dark. Therefore, the removal of this acidic stretch seems to have the same effects on NR activation state as the deletion of the N-terminal domain. A hypothetical explanation for these observations is that a specific factor that impedes inactivation remains bound to the truncated enzyme. A synthetic peptide derived from this acidic protein motif was also found to be a good substrate for casein kinase II. PMID:9880364

  16. Identification of amino acids in the tetratricopeptide repeat and C-terminal domains of protein phosphatase 5 involved in autoinhibition and lipid activation.

    PubMed

    Kang, H; Sayner, S L; Gross, K L; Russell, L C; Chinkers, M

    2001-09-04

    Protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) exhibits low basal activity due to the autoinhibitory properties of its N-terminal and C-terminal domains but can be activated approximately 40-fold in vitro by polyunsaturated fatty acids. To identify residues involved in regulating PP5 activity, we performed scanning mutagenesis of its N-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain and deletion mutagenesis of its C-terminal domain. Mutating residues in a groove of the TPR domain that binds to heat shock protein 90 had no effect on basal phosphatase activity. Mutation of Glu-76, however, whose side chain projects away from this groove, resulted in a 10-fold elevation of basal activity without affecting arachidonic acid-stimulated activity. Thus, the interface of the TPR domain involved in PP5 autoinhibition appears to be different from that involved in heat shock protein 90 binding. We also observed a 10-fold elevation of basal phosphatase activity upon removing the C-terminal 13 amino acids of PP5, with a concomitant 50% decrease in arachidonic acid-stimulated activity. These two effects were accounted for by two distinct amino acid deletions: deleting the four C-terminal residues (496-499) of PP5 had no effect on its activity, but removing Gln-495 elevated basal activity 10-fold. Removal of a further three amino acids had no additional effect, but deleting Asn-491 resulted in a 50% reduction in arachidonic acid-stimulated activity. Thus, Glu-76 in the TPR domain and Gln-495 at the C-terminus were implicated in maintaining the low basal activity of PP5. While the TPR domain alone has been thought to mediate fatty acid activation of PP5, our data suggest that Asn-491, near its C-terminus, may also be involved in this process.

  17. A periodic pattern of evolutionarily conserved basic and acidic residues constitutes the binding interface of actin-tropomyosin.

    PubMed

    Barua, Bipasha; Fagnant, Patricia M; Winkelmann, Donald A; Trybus, Kathleen M; Hitchcock-DeGregori, Sarah E

    2013-04-05

    Actin filament cytoskeletal and muscle functions are regulated by actin binding proteins using a variety of mechanisms. A universal actin filament regulator is the protein tropomyosin, which binds end-to-end along the length of the filament. The actin-tropomyosin filament structure is unknown, but there are atomic models in different regulatory states based on electron microscopy reconstructions, computational modeling of actin-tropomyosin, and docking of atomic resolution structures of tropomyosin to actin filament models. Here, we have tested models of the actin-tropomyosin interface in the "closed state" where tropomyosin binds to actin in the absence of myosin or troponin. Using mutagenesis coupled with functional analyses, we determined residues of actin and tropomyosin required for complex formation. The sites of mutations in tropomyosin were based on an evolutionary analysis and revealed a pattern of basic and acidic residues in the first halves of the periodic repeats (periods) in tropomyosin. In periods P1, P4, and P6, basic residues are most important for actin affinity, in contrast to periods P2, P3, P5, and P7, where both basic and acidic residues or predominantly acidic residues contribute to actin affinity. Hydrophobic interactions were found to be relatively less important for actin binding. We mutated actin residues in subdomains 1 and 3 (Asp(25)-Glu(334)-Lys(326)-Lys(328)) that are poised to make electrostatic interactions with the residues in the repeating motif on tropomyosin in the models. Tropomyosin failed to bind mutant actin filaments. Our mutagenesis studies provide the first experimental support for the atomic models of the actin-tropomyosin interface.

  18. Structural and Histone Binding Ability Characterizations of Human PWWP Domains

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hong; Zeng, Hong; Lam, Robert

    2013-09-25

    The PWWP domain was first identified as a structural motif of 100-130 amino acids in the WHSC1 protein and predicted to be a protein-protein interaction domain. It belongs to the Tudor domain 'Royal Family', which consists of Tudor, chromodomain, MBT and PWWP domains. While Tudor, chromodomain and MBT domains have long been known to bind methylated histones, PWWP was shown to exhibit histone binding ability only until recently. The PWWP domain has been shown to be a DNA binding domain, but sequence analysis and previous structural studies show that the PWWP domain exhibits significant similarity to other 'Royal Family' members,more » implying that the PWWP domain has the potential to bind histones. In order to further explore the function of the PWWP domain, we used the protein family approach to determine the crystal structures of the PWWP domains from seven different human proteins. Our fluorescence polarization binding studies show that PWWP domains have weak histone binding ability, which is also confirmed by our NMR titration experiments. Furthermore, we determined the crystal structures of the BRPF1 PWWP domain in complex with H3K36me3, and HDGF2 PWWP domain in complex with H3K79me3 and H4K20me3. PWWP proteins constitute a new family of methyl lysine histone binders. The PWWP domain consists of three motifs: a canonical {beta}-barrel core, an insertion motif between the second and third {beta}-strands and a C-terminal {alpha}-helix bundle. Both the canonical {beta}-barrel core and the insertion motif are directly involved in histone binding. The PWWP domain has been previously shown to be a DNA binding domain. Therefore, the PWWP domain exhibits dual functions: binding both DNA and methyllysine histones.« less

  19. A Feedback Loop between Dynamin and Actin Recruitment during Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Marcus J.; Lampe, Marko; Merrifield, Christien J.

    2012-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis proceeds by a sequential series of reactions catalyzed by discrete sets of protein machinery. The final reaction in clathrin-mediated endocytosis is membrane scission, which is mediated by the large guanosine triophosphate hydrolase (GTPase) dynamin and which may involve the actin-dependent recruitment of N-terminal containing BIN/Amphiphysin/RVS domain containing (N-BAR) proteins. Optical microscopy has revealed a detailed picture of when and where particular protein types are recruited in the ∼20–30 s preceding scission. Nevertheless, the regulatory mechanisms and functions that underpin protein recruitment are not well understood. Here we used an optical assay to investigate the coordination and interdependencies between the recruitment of dynamin, the actin cytoskeleton, and N-BAR proteins to individual clathrin-mediated endocytic scission events. These measurements revealed that a feedback loop exists between dynamin and actin at sites of membrane scission. The kinetics of dynamin, actin, and N-BAR protein recruitment were modulated by dynamin GTPase activity. Conversely, acute ablation of actin dynamics using latrunculin-B led to a ∼50% decrease in the incidence of scission, an ∼50% decrease in the amplitude of dynamin recruitment, and abolished actin and N-BAR recruitment to scission events. Collectively these data suggest that dynamin, actin, and N-BAR proteins work cooperatively to efficiently catalyze membrane scission. Dynamin controls its own recruitment to scission events by modulating the kinetics of actin and N-BAR recruitment to sites of scission. Conversely actin serves as a dynamic scaffold that concentrates dynamin and N-BAR proteins at sites of scission. PMID:22505844

  20. Identification of cation-binding sites on actin that drive polymerization and modulate bending stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyeran; Bradley, Michael J.; McCullough, Brannon R.; Pierre, Anaëlle; Grintsevich, Elena E.; Reisler, Emil; De La Cruz, Enrique M.

    2012-01-01

    The assembly of actin monomers into filaments and networks plays vital roles throughout eukaryotic biology, including intracellular transport, cell motility, cell division, determining cellular shape, and providing cells with mechanical strength. The regulation of actin assembly and modulation of filament mechanical properties are critical for proper actin function. It is well established that physiological salt concentrations promote actin assembly and alter the overall bending mechanics of assembled filaments and networks. However, the molecular origins of these salt-dependent effects, particularly if they involve nonspecific ionic strength effects or specific ion-binding interactions, are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that specific cation binding at two discrete sites situated between adjacent subunits along the long-pitch helix drive actin polymerization and determine the filament bending rigidity. We classify the two sites as “polymerization” and “stiffness” sites based on the effects that mutations at the sites have on salt-dependent filament assembly and bending mechanics, respectively. These results establish the existence and location of the cation-binding sites that confer salt dependence to the assembly and mechanics of actin filaments. PMID:23027950

  1. Structures of the Gasdermin D C-Terminal Domains Reveal Mechanisms of Autoinhibition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhonghua; Wang, Chuanping; Rathkey, Joseph K; Yang, Jie; Dubyak, George R; Abbott, Derek W; Xiao, Tsan Sam

    2018-05-01

    Pyroptosis is an inflammatory form of programmed cell death that plays important roles in immune protection against infections and in inflammatory disorders. Gasdermin D (GSDMD) is an executor of pyroptosis upon cleavage by caspases-1/4/5/11 following canonical and noncanonical inflammasome activation. GSDMD N-terminal domain assembles membrane pores to induce cytolysis, whereas its C-terminal domain inhibits cell death through intramolecular association with the N domain. The molecular mechanisms of autoinhibition for GSDMD are poorly characterized. Here we report the crystal structures of the human and murine GSDMD C-terminal domains, which differ from those of the full-length murine GSDMA3 and the human GSDMB C-terminal domain. Mutations of GSDMD C-domain residues predicted to locate at its interface with the N-domain enhanced pyroptosis. Our results suggest that GSDMDs may employ a distinct mode of intramolecular domain interaction and autoinhibition, which may be relevant to its unique role in pyroptosis downstream of inflammasome activation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Salvador has an extended SARAH domain that mediates binding to Hippo kinase.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Leah; Tran, Thao; Fowl, Brendan H; Patterson, Angela; Kim, Yoo Jin; Bothner, Brian; Kavran, Jennifer M

    2018-04-13

    The Hippo pathway controls cell proliferation and differentiation through the precisely tuned activity of a core kinase cassette. The activity of Hippo kinase is modulated by interactions between its C-terminal coiled-coil, termed the SARAH domain, and the SARAH domains of either dRassF or Salvador. Here, we wanted to understand the molecular basis of SARAH domain-mediated interactions and their influence on Hippo kinase activity. We focused on Salvador, a positive effector of Hippo activity and the least well-characterized SARAH domain-containing protein. We determined the crystal structure of a complex between Salvador and Hippo SARAH domains from Drosophila This structure provided insight into the organization of the Salvador SARAH domain including a folded N-terminal extension that expands the binding interface with Hippo SARAH domain. We also found that this extension improves the solubility of the Salvador SARAH domain, enhances binding to Hippo, and is unique to Salvador. We therefore suggest expanding the definition of the Salvador SARAH domain to include this extended region. The heterodimeric assembly observed in the crystal was confirmed by cross-linked MS and provided a structural basis for the mutually exclusive interactions of Hippo with either dRassF or Salvador. Of note, Salvador influenced the kinase activity of Mst2, the mammalian Hippo homolog. In co-transfected HEK293T cells, human Salvador increased the levels of Mst2 autophosphorylation and Mst2-mediated phosphorylation of select substrates, whereas Salvador SARAH domain inhibited Mst2 autophosphorylation in vitro These results suggest Salvador enhances the effects of Hippo kinase activity at multiple points in the Hippo pathway. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Three-dimensional (3D) structure prediction and function analysis of the chitin-binding domain 3 protein HD73_3189 from Bacillus thuringiensis HD73.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yiling; Guo, Shuyuan

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is capable of producing a chitin-binding protein believed to be functionally important to bacteria during the stationary phase of its growth cycle. In this paper, the chitin-binding domain 3 protein HD73_3189 from B. thuringiensis has been analyzed by computer technology. Primary and secondary structural analyses demonstrated that HD73_3189 is negatively charged and contains several α-helices, aperiodical coils and β-strands. Domain and motif analyses revealed that HD73_3189 contains a signal peptide, an N-terminal chitin binding 3 domains, two copies of a fibronectin-like domain 3 and a C-terminal carbohydrate binding domain classified as CBM_5_12. Moreover, analysis predicted the protein's associated localization site to be the cell wall. Ligand site prediction determined that amino acid residues GLU-312, TRP-334, ILE-341 and VAL-382 exposed on the surface of the target protein exhibit polar interactions with the substrate.

  4. The DnaA N-terminal domain interacts with Hda to facilitate replicase clamp-mediated inactivation of DnaA.

    PubMed

    Su'etsugu, Masayuki; Harada, Yuji; Keyamura, Kenji; Matsunaga, Chika; Kasho, Kazutoshi; Abe, Yoshito; Ueda, Tadashi; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2013-12-01

    DnaA activity for replication initiation of the Escherichia coli chromosome is negatively regulated by feedback from the DNA-loaded form of the replicase clamp. In this process, called RIDA (regulatory inactivation of DnaA), ATP-bound DnaA transiently assembles into a complex consisting of Hda and the DNA-clamp, which promotes inter-AAA+ domain association between Hda and DnaA and stimulates hydrolysis of DnaA-bound ATP, producing inactive ADP-DnaA. Using a truncated DnaA mutant, we previously demonstrated that the DnaA N-terminal domain is involved in RIDA. However, the precise role of the N-terminal domain in RIDA has remained largely unclear. Here, we used an in vitro reconstituted system to demonstrate that the Asn-44 residue in the N-terminal domain of DnaA is crucial for RIDA but not for replication initiation. Moreover, an assay termed PDAX (pull-down after cross-linking) revealed an unstable interaction between a DnaA-N44A mutant and Hda. In vivo, this mutant exhibited an increase in the cellular level of ATP-bound DnaA. These results establish a model in which interaction between DnaA Asn-44 and Hda stabilizes the association between the AAA+ domains of DnaA and Hda to facilitate DnaA-ATP hydrolysis during RIDA. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Runt domain of AML1 (RUNX1) binds a sequence-conserved RNA motif that mimics a DNA element.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Junichi; Nomura, Yusuke; Tanaka, Yoichiro; Amano, Ryo; Tanaka, Taku; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Kawai, Gota; Sakamoto, Taiichi; Kozu, Tomoko

    2013-07-01

    AML1 (RUNX1) is a key transcription factor for hematopoiesis that binds to the Runt-binding double-stranded DNA element (RDE) of target genes through its N-terminal Runt domain. Aberrations in the AML1 gene are frequently found in human leukemia. To better understand AML1 and its potential utility for diagnosis and therapy, we obtained RNA aptamers that bind specifically to the AML1 Runt domain. Enzymatic probing and NMR analyses revealed that Apt1-S, which is a truncated variant of one of the aptamers, has a CACG tetraloop and two stem regions separated by an internal loop. All the isolated aptamers were found to contain the conserved sequence motif 5'-NNCCAC-3' and 5'-GCGMGN'N'-3' (M:A or C; N and N' form Watson-Crick base pairs). The motif contains one AC mismatch and one base bulged out. Mutational analysis of Apt1-S showed that three guanines of the motif are important for Runt binding as are the three guanines of RDE, which are directly recognized by three arginine residues of the Runt domain. Mutational analyses of the Runt domain revealed that the amino acid residues used for Apt1-S binding were similar to those used for RDE binding. Furthermore, the aptamer competed with RDE for binding to the Runt domain in vitro. These results demonstrated that the Runt domain of the AML1 protein binds to the motif of the aptamer that mimics DNA. Our findings should provide new insights into RNA function and utility in both basic and applied sciences.

  6. The structure of S . lividans acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase shows a novel interaction between the C-terminal extension and the N-terminal domain

    DOE PAGES

    Mitchell, Carter A.; Tucker, Alex C.; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.; ...

    2014-12-09

    The adenosine monoposphate-forming acyl-CoA synthetase enzymes catalyze a two-step reaction that involves the initial formation of an acyl adenylate that reacts in a second partial reaction to form a thioester between the acyl substrate and CoA. These enzymes utilize a Domain Alternation catalytic mechanism, whereby a ~110 residue C-terminal domain rotates by 140° to form distinct catalytic conformations for the two partial reactions. In this paper, the structure of an acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase (AacS) is presented that illustrates a novel aspect of this C-terminal domain. Specifically, several acetyl- and acetoacetyl-CoA synthetases contain a 30-residue extension on the C-terminus compared to othermore » members of this family. Finally, whereas residues from this extension are disordered in prior structures, the AacS structure shows that residues from this extension may interact with key catalytic residues from the N-terminal domain.« less

  7. The key DNA-binding residues in the C-terminal domain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA gyrase A subunit (GyrA)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, You-Yi; Deng, Jiao-Yu; Gu, Jing; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Maxwell, Anthony; Bi, Li-Jun; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Zhou, Ya-Feng; Yu, Zi-Niu; Zhang, Xian-En

    2006-01-01

    As only the type II topoisomerase is capable of introducing negative supercoiling, DNA gyrase is involved in crucial cellular processes. Although the other domains of DNA gyrase are better understood, the mechanism of DNA binding by the C-terminal domain of the DNA gyrase A subunit (GyrA-CTD) is less clear. Here, we investigated the DNA-binding sites in the GyrA-CTD of Mycobacterium tuberculosis gyrase through site-directed mutagenesis. The results show that Y577, R691 and R745 are among the key DNA-binding residues in M.tuberculosis GyrA-CTD, and that the third blade of the GyrA-CTD is the main DNA-binding region in M.tuberculosis DNA gyrase. The substitutions of Y577A, D669A, R691A, R745A and G729W led to the loss of supercoiling and relaxation activities, although they had a little effect on the drug-dependent DNA cleavage and decatenation activities, and had no effect on the ATPase activity. Taken together, these results showed that the GyrA-CTD is essential to DNA gyrase of M.tuberculosis, and promote the idea that the M.tuberculosis GyrA-CTD is a new potential target for drug design. It is the first time that the DNA-binding sites in GyrA-CTD have been identified. PMID:17038336

  8. Unfurling of the band 4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin (FERM) domain of the merlin tumor suppressor

    SciTech Connect

    Yogesha, S.D.; Sharff, Andrew J.; Giovannini, Marco

    The merlin-1 tumor suppressor is encoded by the Neurofibromatosis-2 (Nf2) gene and loss-of-function Nf2 mutations lead to nervous system tumors in man and to several tumor types in mice. Merlin is an ERM (ezrin, radixin, moesin) family cytoskeletal protein that interacts with other ERM proteins and with components of cell-cell adherens junctions (AJs). Merlin stabilizes the links of AJs to the actin cytoskeleton. Thus, its loss destabilizes AJs, promoting cell migration and invasion, which in Nf2{sup +/-} mice leads to highly metastatic tumors. Paradoxically, the 'closed' conformation of merlin-1, where its N-terminal four-point-one, ezrin, radixin, moesin (FERM) domain binds tomore » its C-terminal tail domain, directs its tumor suppressor functions. Here we report the crystal structure of the human merlin-1 head domain when crystallized in the presence of its tail domain. Remarkably, unlike other ERM head-tail interactions, this structure suggests that binding of the tail provokes dimerization and dynamic movement and unfurling of the F2 motif of the FERM domain. We conclude the 'closed' tumor suppressor conformer of merlin-1 is in fact an 'open' dimer whose functions are disabled by Nf2 mutations that disrupt this architecture.« less

  9. Structure of the USP15 N-terminal domains: a β-hairpin mediates close association between the DUSP and UBL domains.

    PubMed

    Harper, Stephen; Besong, Tabot M D; Emsley, Jonas; Scott, David J; Dreveny, Ingrid

    2011-09-20

    Ubiquitin specific protease 15 (USP15) functions in COP9 signalosome mediated regulation of protein degradation and cellular signaling through catalyzing the ubiquitin deconjugation reaction of a discrete number of substrates. It influences the stability of adenomatous polyposis coli, IκBα, caspase-3, and the human papillomavirus type 16 E6. USP15 forms a subfamily with USP4 and USP11 related through a shared presence of N-terminal "domain present in ubiquitin specific proteases" (DUSP) and "ubiquitin-like" (UBL) domains (DU subfamily). Here we report the 1.5 Å resolution crystal structure of the human USP15 N-terminal domains revealing a 80 Å elongated arrangement with the DU domains aligned in tandem. This architecture is generated through formation of a defined interface that is dominated by an intervening β-hairpin structure (DU finger) that engages in an intricate hydrogen-bonding network between the domains. The UBL domain is closely related to ubiquitin among β-grasp folds but is characterized by the presence of longer loop regions and different surface characteristics, indicating that this domain is unlikely to act as ubiquitin mimic. Comparison with the related murine USP4 DUSP-UBL crystal structure reveals that the main DU interdomain contacts are conserved. Analytical ultracentrifugation, small-angle X-ray scattering, and gel filtration experiments revealed that USP15 DU is monomeric in solution. Our data provide a framework to advance study of the structure and function of the DU subfamily. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. Alteration of the C-terminal ligand specificity of the erbin PDZ domain by allosteric mutational effects.

    PubMed

    Murciano-Calles, Javier; McLaughlin, Megan E; Erijman, Ariel; Hooda, Yogesh; Chakravorty, Nishant; Martinez, Jose C; Shifman, Julia M; Sidhu, Sachdev S

    2014-10-23

    Modulation of protein binding specificity is important for basic biology and for applied science. Here we explore how binding specificity is conveyed in PDZ (postsynaptic density protein-95/discs large/zonula occludens-1) domains, small interaction modules that recognize various proteins by binding to an extended C terminus. Our goal was to engineer variants of the Erbin PDZ domain with altered specificity for the most C-terminal position (position 0) where a Val is strongly preferred by the wild-type domain. We constructed a library of PDZ domains by randomizing residues in direct contact with position 0 and in a loop that is close to but does not contact position 0. We used phage display to select for PDZ variants that bind to 19 peptide ligands differing only at position 0. To verify that each obtained PDZ domain exhibited the correct binding specificity, we selected peptide ligands for each domain. Despite intensive efforts, we were only able to evolve Erbin PDZ domain variants with selectivity for the aliphatic C-terminal side chains Val, Ile and Leu. Interestingly, many PDZ domains with these three distinct specificities contained identical amino acids at positions that directly contact position 0 but differed in the loop that does not contact position 0. Computational modeling of the selected PDZ domains shows how slight conformational changes in the loop region propagate to the binding site and result in different binding specificities. Our results demonstrate that second-sphere residues could be crucial in determining protein binding specificity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. SECRET domain of variola virus CrmB protein can be a member of poxviral type II chemokine-binding proteins family

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Variola virus (VARV) the causative agent of smallpox, eradicated in 1980, have wide spectrum of immunomodulatory proteins to evade host immunity. Recently additional biological activity was discovered for VARV CrmB protein, known to bind and inhibit tumour necrosis factor (TNF) through its N-terminal domain homologous to cellular TNF receptors. Besides binding TNF, this protein was also shown to bind with high affinity several chemokines which recruit B- and T-lymphocytes and dendritic cells to sites of viral entry and replication. Ability to bind chemokines was shown to be associated with unique C-terminal domain of CrmB protein. This domain named SECRET (Smallpox virus-Encoded Chemokine Receptor) is unrelated to the host proteins and lacks significant homology with other known viral chemokine-binding proteins or any other known protein. Findings De novo modelling of VARV-CrmB SECRET domain spatial structure revealed its apparent structural homology with cowpox virus CC-chemokine binding protein (vCCI) and vaccinia virus A41 protein, despite low sequence identity between these three proteins. Potential ligand-binding surface of modelled VARV-CrmB SECRET domain was also predicted to bear prominent electronegative charge which is characteristic to known orthopoxviral chemokine-binding proteins. Conclusions Our results suggest that SECRET should be included into the family of poxviral type II chemokine-binding proteins and that it might have been evolved from the vCCI-like predecessor protein. PMID:20979600

  12. Evolutionary analysis of a novel zinc ribbon in the N-terminal region of threonine synthase.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurmeet; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2017-10-18

    Threonine synthase (TS) catalyzes the terminal reaction in the biosynthetic pathway of threonine and requires pyridoxal phosphate as a cofactor. TSs share a common catalytic domain with other fold type II PALP dependent enzymes. TSs are broadly grouped into two classes based on their sequence, quaternary structure, and enzyme regulation. We report the presence of a novel zinc ribbon domain in the N-terminal region preceding the catalytic core in TS. The zinc ribbon domain is present in TSs belonging to both classes. Our sequence analysis reveals that archaeal TSs possess all zinc chelating residues to bind a metal ion that are lacking in the structurally characterized homologs. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that TSs with an N-terminal zinc ribbon likely represents the ancestral state of the enzyme while TSs without a zinc ribbon must have diverged later in specific lineages. The zinc ribbon and its N- and C-terminal extensions are important for enzyme stability, activity and regulation. It is likely that the zinc ribbon domain is involved in higher order oligomerization or mediating interactions with other biomolecules leading to formation of larger metabolic complexes.

  13. Positive selection in the N-terminal extramembrane domain of lung surfactant protein C (SP-C) in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Foot, Natalie J; Orgeig, Sandra; Donnellan, Stephen; Bertozzi, Terry; Daniels, Christopher B

    2007-07-01

    Maximum-likelihood models of codon and amino acid substitution were used to analyze the lung-specific surfactant protein C (SP-C) from terrestrial, semi-aquatic, and diving mammals to identify lineages and amino acid sites under positive selection. Site models used the nonsynonymous/synonymous rate ratio (omega) as an indicator of selection pressure. Mechanistic models used physicochemical distances between amino acid substitutions to specify nonsynonymous substitution rates. Site models strongly identified positive selection at different sites in the polar N-terminal extramembrane domain of SP-C in the three diving lineages: site 2 in the cetaceans (whales and dolphins), sites 7, 9, and 10 in the pinnipeds (seals and sea lions), and sites 2, 9, and 10 in the sirenians (dugongs and manatees). The only semi-aquatic contrast to indicate positive selection at site 10 was that including the polar bear, which had the largest body mass of the semi-aquatic species. Analysis of the biophysical properties that were influential in determining the amino acid substitutions showed that isoelectric point, chemical composition of the side chain, polarity, and hydrophobicity were the crucial determinants. Amino acid substitutions at these sites may lead to stronger binding of the N-terminal domain to the surfactant phospholipid film and to increased adsorption of the protein to the air-liquid interface. Both properties are advantageous for the repeated collapse and reinflation of the lung upon diving and resurfacing and may reflect adaptations to the high hydrostatic pressures experienced during diving.

  14. Nucleoplasmin-like domain of FKBP39 from Drosophila melanogaster forms a tetramer with partly disordered tentacle-like C-terminal segments

    PubMed Central

    Kozłowska, Małgorzata; Tarczewska, Aneta; Jakób, Michał; Bystranowska, Dominika; Taube, Michał; Kozak, Maciej; Czarnocki-Cieciura, Mariusz; Dziembowski, Andrzej; Orłowski, Marek; Tkocz, Katarzyna; Ożyhar, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Nucleoplasmins are a nuclear chaperone family defined by the presence of a highly conserved N-terminal core domain. X-ray crystallographic studies of isolated nucleoplasmin core domains revealed a β-propeller structure consisting of a set of five monomers that together form a stable pentamer. Recent studies on isolated N-terminal domains from Drosophila 39-kDa FK506-binding protein (FKBP39) and from other chromatin-associated proteins showed analogous, nucleoplasmin-like (NPL) pentameric structures. Here, we report that the NPL domain of the full-length FKBP39 does not form pentameric complexes. Multi-angle light scattering (MALS) and sedimentation equilibrium ultracentrifugation (SE AUC) analyses of the molecular mass of the full-length protein indicated that FKBP39 forms homotetrameric complexes. Molecular models reconstructed from small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that the NPL domain forms a stable, tetrameric core and that FK506-binding domains are linked to it by intrinsically disordered, flexible chains that form tentacle-like segments. Analyses of full-length FKBP39 and its isolated NPL domain suggested that the distal regions of the polypeptide chain influence and determine the quaternary conformation of the nucleoplasmin-like protein. These results provide new insights regarding the conserved structure of nucleoplasmin core domains and provide a potential explanation for the importance of the tetrameric structural organization of full-length nucleoplasmins. PMID:28074868

  15. The ATPase domain of the large terminase protein, gp17, from bacteriophage T4 binds DNA: implications to the DNA packaging mechanism.

    PubMed

    Alam, Tanfis I; Rao, Venigalla B

    2008-03-07

    Translocation of double-stranded DNA into a preformed capsid by tailed bacteriophages is driven by powerful motors assembled at the special portal vertex. The motor is thought to drive processive cycles of DNA binding, movement, and release to package the viral genome. In phage T4, there is evidence that the large terminase protein, gene product 17 (gp17), assembles into a multisubunit motor and translocates DNA by an inchworm mechanism. gp17 consists of two domains; an N-terminal ATPase domain (amino acids 1-360) that powers translocation of DNA, and a C-terminal nuclease domain (amino acids 361-610) that cuts concatemeric DNA to generate a headful-size viral genome. While the functional motifs of ATPase and nuclease have been well defined and the ATPase atomic structure has been solved, the DNA binding motif(s) responsible for viral DNA recognition, cutting, and translocation are unknown. Here we report the first evidence for the presence of a double-stranded DNA binding activity in the gp17 ATPase domain. Binding to DNA is sensitive to Mg(2+) and salt, but not the type of DNA used. DNA fragments as short as 20 bp can bind to the ATPase but preferential binding was observed to DNA greater than 1 kb. A high molecular weight ATPase-DNA complex was isolated by gel filtration, suggesting oligomerization of ATPase following DNA interaction. DNA binding was not observed with the full-length gp17, or the C-terminal nuclease domain. The small terminase protein, gp16, inhibited DNA binding, which was further accentuated by ATP. The presence of a DNA binding site in the ATPase domain and its binding properties implicate a role in the DNA packaging mechanism.

  16. The Dictyostelium Carmil Protein Links Capping Protein and the Arp2/3 Complex to Type I Myosins through Their Sh3 Domains

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Goeh; Remmert, Kirsten; Wu, Xufeng; Volosky, Joanne M.; III, John A. Hammer

    2001-01-01

    Fusion proteins containing the Src homology (SH)3 domains of Dictyostelium myosin IB (myoB) and IC (myoC) bind a 116-kD protein (p116), plus nine other proteins identified as the seven member Arp2/3 complex, and the α and β subunits of capping protein. Immunoprecipitation reactions indicate that myoB and myoC form a complex with p116, Arp2/3, and capping protein in vivo, that the myosins bind to p116 through their SH3 domains, and that capping protein and the Arp2/3 complex in turn bind to p116. Cloning of p116 reveals a protein dominated by leucine-rich repeats and proline-rich sequences, and indicates that it is a homologue of Acan 125. Studies using p116 fusion proteins confirm the location of the myosin I SH3 domain binding site, implicate NH2-terminal sequences in binding capping protein, and show that a region containing a short sequence found in several G-actin binding proteins, as well as an acidic stretch, can activate Arp2/3-dependent actin nucleation. p116 localizes along with the Arp2/3 complex, myoB, and myoC in dynamic actin-rich cellular extensions, including the leading edge of cells undergoing chemotactic migration, and dorsal, cup-like, macropinocytic extensions. Cells lacking p116 exhibit a striking defect in the formation of these macropinocytic structures, a concomitant reduction in the rate of fluid phase pinocytosis, a significant decrease in the efficiency of chemotactic aggregation, and a decrease in cellular F-actin content. These results identify a complex that links key players in the nucleation and termination of actin filament assembly with a ubiquitous barbed end–directed motor, indicate that the protein responsible for the formation of this complex is physiologically important, and suggest that previously reported myosin I mutant phenotypes in Dictyostelium may be due, at least in part, to defects in the assembly state of actin. We propose that p116 and Acan 125, along with homologues identified in Caenorhabditis elegans

  17. Analysis of the function of Spire in actin assembly and its synergy with formin and profilin.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Montserrat; Le, Kim Ho Diep; Bugyi, Beata; Correia, John J; Renault, Louis; Carlier, Marie-France

    2007-11-30

    The Spire protein, together with the formin Cappuccino and profilin, plays an important role in actin-based processes that establish oocyte polarity. Spire contains a cluster of four actin-binding WH2 domains. It has been shown to nucleate actin filaments and was proposed to remain bound to their pointed ends. Here we show that the multifunctional character of the WH2 domains allows Spire to sequester four G-actin subunits binding cooperatively in a tight SA(4) complex and to nucleate, sever, and cap filaments at their barbed ends. Binding of Spire to barbed ends does not affect the thermodynamics of actin assembly at barbed ends but blocks barbed end growth from profilin-actin. The resulting Spire-induced increase in profilin-actin concentration enhances processive filament assembly by formin. The synergy between Spire and formin is reconstituted in an in vitro motility assay, which provides a functional basis for the genetic interplay between Spire, formin, and profilin in oogenesis.

  18. Electrostatics effects on Ca(2+) binding and conformational changes in EF-hand domains: Functional implications for EF-hand proteins.

    PubMed

    Ababou, Abdessamad; Zaleska, Mariola

    2015-12-01

    Mutations of Gln41 and Lys75 with nonpolar residues in the N-terminal domain of calmodulin (N-Cam) revealed the importance of solvation energetics in conformational change of Ca(2+) sensor EF-hand domains. While in general these domains have polar residues at these corresponding positions yet the extent of their conformational response to Ca(2+) binding and their Ca(2+) binding affinity can be different from N-Cam. Consequently, here we address the charge state of the polar residues at these positions. The results show that the charge state of these polar residues can affect substantially the conformational change and the Ca(2+) binding affinity of our N-Cam variants. Since all the variants kept their conformational activity in the presence of Ca(2+) suggests that the differences observed among them mainly originate from the difference in their molecular dynamics. Hence we propose that the molecular dynamics of Ca(2+) sensor EF-hand domains is a key factor in the multifunctional aspect of EF-hand proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Structure of the Zinc-Bound Amino-Terminal Domain of the NMDA Receptor NR2B Subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Karakas, E.; Simorowski, N; Furukawa, H

    2009-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors belong to the family of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) that mediate the majority of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the mammalian brain. One of the hallmarks for the function of NMDA receptors is that their ion channel activity is allosterically regulated by binding of modulator compounds to the extracellular amino-terminal domain (ATD) distinct from the L-glutamate-binding domain. The molecular basis for the ATD-mediated allosteric regulation has been enigmatic because of a complete lack of structural information on NMDA receptor ATDs. Here, we report the crystal structures of ATD from the NR2B NMDA receptor subunit in the zinc-freemore » and zinc-bound states. The structures reveal the overall clamshell-like architecture distinct from the non-NMDA receptor ATDs and molecular determinants for the zinc-binding site, ion-binding sites, and the architecture of the putative phenylethanolamine-binding site.« less

  20. Modulation of chaperone function and cochaperone interaction by novobiocin in the C-terminal domain of Hsp90: evidence that coumarin antibiotics disrupt Hsp90 dimerization.

    PubMed

    Allan, Rudi K; Mok, Danny; Ward, Bryan K; Ratajczak, Thomas

    2006-03-17

    The C-terminal domain of Hsp90 displays independent chaperone activity, mediates dimerization, and contains the MEEVD motif essential for interaction with tetratricopeptide repeat-containing immunophilin cochaperones assembled in mature steroid receptor complexes. An alpha-helical region, upstream of the MEEVD peptide, helps form the dimerization interface and includes a hydrophobic microdomain that contributes to the Hsp90 interaction with the immunophilin cochaperones and corresponds to the binding site for novobiocin, a coumarin-related Hsp90 inhibitor. Mutation of selected residues within the hydrophobic microdomain significantly impacted the chaperone function of a recombinant C-terminal Hsp90 fragment and novobiocin inhibited wild-type chaperone activity. Prior incubation of the Hsp90 fragment with novobiocin led to a direct blockade of immunophilin cochaperone binding. However, the drug had little influence on the pre-formed Hsp90-immunophilin complex, suggesting that bound cochaperones mask the novobiocin-binding site. We observed a differential effect of the drug on Hsp90-immunophilin interaction, suggesting that the immunophilins make distinct contacts within the C-terminal domain to specifically modulate Hsp90 function. Novobiocin also precluded the interaction of full-length Hsp90 with the p50(cdc37) cochaperone, which targets the N-terminal nucleotide-binding domain, and is prevalent in Hsp90 complexes with protein kinase substrates