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Sample records for n-terminal ig domain

  1. N-Terminal Truncation of an Isolated Human IgG1 CH2 Domain Significantly Increases its Stability and Aggregation Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Rui; Wang, Yanping; Ying, Tianlei; Feng, Yang; Streaker, Emily; Prabakaran, Ponraj; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated human immunoglobulin G (IgG) CH2 domains are promising scaffolds for novel candidate therapeutics. Unlike other human IgG domains, CH2 is not involved in strong interchain interactions and isolated CH2 is relatively stable. However, isolated single CH2 is prone to aggregation. In native IgG and Fc molecules, the N-terminal residues of CH2 from the two heavy chains interact with each other and form hinge regions. By contrast, the N-terminal residues are highly disordered in isolated CH2. We have hypothesized that removal of the CH2 N-terminal residues may not only increase its stability but also its aggregation resistance. To test this hypothesis we constructed a shortened variant of IgG1 CH2 (CH2s) where the first seven residues of the N-terminus were deleted. We found that the thermal stability of CH2s was increased by 5°C compared to CH2. Importantly, we demonstrated that CH2s is significantly less prone to aggregation than CH2 as measured by Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence, turbidity and light scattering. We also found that the CH2s exhibited pH-dependent binding to a soluble single-chain human neonatal Fc receptor (shFcRn) which was significantly stronger than the very weak shFcRn binding to CH2 as measured by flow cytometry. Computer modeling suggested a possible mode of CH2 aggregation involving its N-terminal residues. Therefore, deletion of the N-terminal residues could increase drugability of CH2-based therapeutic candidates. This strategy to increase stability and aggregation resistance could also be applicable to other Ig-related proteins. PMID:23641816

  2. C0 and C1 N-terminal Ig domains of myosin binding protein C exert different effects on thin filament activation

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Samantha P.; Belknap, Betty; Van Sciver, Robert E.; White, Howard D.; Galkin, Vitold E.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in genes encoding myosin, the molecular motor that powers cardiac muscle contraction, and its accessory protein, cardiac myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C), are the two most common causes of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Recent studies established that the N-terminal domains (NTDs) of cMyBP-C (e.g., C0, C1, M, and C2) can bind to and activate or inhibit the thin filament (TF). However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which NTDs modulate interaction of myosin with the TF remains unknown and the contribution of each individual NTD to TF activation/inhibition is unclear. Here we used an integrated structure–function approach using cryoelectron microscopy, biochemical kinetics, and force measurements to reveal how the first two Ig-like domains of cMyPB-C (C0 and C1) interact with the TF. Results demonstrate that despite being structural homologs, C0 and C1 exhibit different patterns of binding on the surface of F-actin. Importantly, C1 but not C0 binds in a position to activate the TF by shifting tropomyosin (Tm) to the “open” structural state. We further show that C1 directly interacts with Tm and traps Tm in the open position on the surface of F-actin. Both C0 and C1 compete with myosin subfragment 1 for binding to F-actin and effectively inhibit actomyosin interactions when present at high ratios of NTDs to F-actin. Finally, we show that in contracting sarcomeres, the activating effect of C1 is apparent only once low levels of Ca2+ have been achieved. We suggest that Ca2+ modulates the interaction of cMyBP-C with the TF in the sarcomere. PMID:26831109

  3. C0 and C1 N-terminal Ig domains of myosin binding protein C exert different effects on thin filament activation.

    PubMed

    Harris, Samantha P; Belknap, Betty; Van Sciver, Robert E; White, Howard D; Galkin, Vitold E

    2016-02-09

    Mutations in genes encoding myosin, the molecular motor that powers cardiac muscle contraction, and its accessory protein, cardiac myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C), are the two most common causes of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Recent studies established that the N-terminal domains (NTDs) of cMyBP-C (e.g., C0, C1, M, and C2) can bind to and activate or inhibit the thin filament (TF). However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which NTDs modulate interaction of myosin with the TF remains unknown and the contribution of each individual NTD to TF activation/inhibition is unclear. Here we used an integrated structure-function approach using cryoelectron microscopy, biochemical kinetics, and force measurements to reveal how the first two Ig-like domains of cMyPB-C (C0 and C1) interact with the TF. Results demonstrate that despite being structural homologs, C0 and C1 exhibit different patterns of binding on the surface of F-actin. Importantly, C1 but not C0 binds in a position to activate the TF by shifting tropomyosin (Tm) to the "open" structural state. We further show that C1 directly interacts with Tm and traps Tm in the open position on the surface of F-actin. Both C0 and C1 compete with myosin subfragment 1 for binding to F-actin and effectively inhibit actomyosin interactions when present at high ratios of NTDs to F-actin. Finally, we show that in contracting sarcomeres, the activating effect of C1 is apparent only once low levels of Ca(2+) have been achieved. We suggest that Ca(2+) modulates the interaction of cMyBP-C with the TF in the sarcomere.

  4. L1 syndrome diagnosis complemented with functional analysis of L1CAM variants located to the two N-terminal Ig-like domains.

    PubMed

    Christaller, W A A; Vos, Y; Gebre-Medhin, S; Hofstra, R M W; Schäfer, M K E

    2017-01-01

    L1CAM gene mutations cause neurodevelopmental disorders collectively termed L1 syndrome. Insufficient information about L1CAM variants complicates clinical prognosis, genetic diagnosis and genetic counseling. We combined clinical data, in silico effect predictions and functional analysis of four L1CAM variants, p.I37N, p.T38M, p.M172I and p.D202Y, located to the two N-terminal Ig-like domains present in five families with symptoms of L1 syndrome. Software tools predicted destabilizing effects of p.I37N and p.D202Y but results for p.T38M and p.M172I were inconsistent. Cell surface expression of mutant proteins L1-T38M, L1-M172I and L1-D202Y was normal. Conversely, L1-I37N accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and showed temperature-sensitive protein maturation suggesting that p.I37N induces protein misfolding. L1CAM-mediated cell-cell aggregation was severely impaired by L1CAM variants p.I37N, p.M172I and p.D202Y but was preserved by the variant p.T38M. Our experimental data indicate that protein misfolding and accumulation in the ER affect function of the L1CAM variant p.I37N whereas the variants p.M172I and p.D202Y impair homophilic interaction at the cell surface.

  5. Ig-hepta, a novel member of the G protein-coupled hepta-helical receptor (GPCR) family that has immunoglobulin-like repeats in a long N-terminal extracellular domain and defines a new subfamily of GPCRs.

    PubMed

    Abe, J; Suzuki, H; Notoya, M; Yamamoto, T; Hirose, S

    1999-07-09

    A novel member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family was cloned and characterized, which is unique, among the members, in its long extracellular domain comprising Ig-like repeats and in its high expression predominantly in the lung. The clone (Ig-Hepta) was first identified as a polymerase chain reaction product generated with primers designed to amplify secretin receptor family members including the parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptors. Analysis of the open reading frame of cDNAs isolated from a rat lung cDNA library indicated that Ig-Hepta is a protein of 1389 amino acid residues and has two Ig-like repeats in the N-terminal extracellular domain (exodomain) of 1053 amino acid residues and 7 transmembrane spans in the C-terminal region. Northern blot analysis revealed very high expression of its mRNA in the lung and low but detectable levels in the kidney and heart. The mRNA expression in the lung was found to be strongly induced postnatally. Biochemical analysis indicated that Ig-Hepta is a highly glycosylated protein and exists as a disulfide-linked dimer. Immunohistochemistry on rat lung and kidney sections revealed dense localization of Ig-Hepta in alveolar walls and intercalated cells in the collecting duct, respectively, suggesting a role in the regulation of acid-base balance. Ig-Hepta defines a new subfamily of GPCRs.

  6. Structure of the N-terminal domain of GRP94. Basis for ligand specificity and regulation.

    PubMed

    Soldano, Karen L; Jivan, Arif; Nicchitta, Christopher V; Gewirth, Daniel T

    2003-11-28

    GRP94, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) paralog of the chaperone Hsp90, plays an essential role in the structural maturation or secretion of a subset of proteins destined for transport to the cell surface, such as the Toll-like receptors 2 and 4, and IgG, respectively. GRP94 differs from cytoplasmic Hsp90 by exhibiting very weak ATP binding and hydrolysis activity. GRP94 also binds selectively to a series of substituted adenosine analogs. The high resolution crystal structures at 1.75-2.1 A of the N-terminal and adjacent charged domains of GRP94 in complex with N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine, radicicol, and 2-chlorodideoxyadenosine reveals a structural mechanism for ligand discrimination among hsp90 family members. The structures also identify a putative subdomain that may act as a ligand-responsive switch. The residues of the charged region fold into a disordered loop whose termini are ordered and continue the twisted beta sheet that forms the structural core of the N-domain. This continuation of the beta sheet past the charged domain suggests a structural basis for the association of the N-terminal and middle domains of the full-length chaperone.

  7. N-terminal domain of complexin independently activates calcium-triggered fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ying; Choi, Ucheor B.; Zhang, Yunxiang; Zhao, Minglei; Pfuetzner, Richard A.; Wang, Austin L.; Brunger, Axel T.

    2016-01-01

    Complexin activates Ca2+-triggered neurotransmitter release and regulates spontaneous release in the presynaptic terminal by cooperating with the neuronal soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) and the Ca2+-sensor synaptotagmin. The N-terminal domain of complexin is important for activation, but its molecular mechanism is still poorly understood. Here, we observed that a split pair of N-terminal and central domain fragments of complexin is sufficient to activate Ca2+-triggered release using a reconstituted single-vesicle fusion assay, suggesting that the N-terminal domain acts as an independent module within the synaptic fusion machinery. The N-terminal domain can also interact independently with membranes, which is enhanced by a cooperative interaction with the neuronal SNARE complex. We show by mutagenesis that membrane binding of the N-terminal domain is essential for activation of Ca2+-triggered fusion. Consistent with the membrane-binding property, the N-terminal domain can be substituted by the influenza virus hemagglutinin fusion peptide, and this chimera also activates Ca2+-triggered fusion. Membrane binding of the N-terminal domain of complexin therefore cooperates with the other fusogenic elements of the synaptic fusion machinery during Ca2+-triggered release. PMID:27444020

  8. Antagonistic roles of the N-terminal domain of prion protein to doppel.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Suehiro

    2008-01-01

    Prion protein (PrP)-like molecule, doppel (Dpl), is neurotoxic in mice, causing Purkinje cell degeneration. In contrast, PrP antagonizes Dpl in trans, rescuing mice from Purkinje cell death. We have previously shown that PrP with deletion of the N-terminal residues 23-88 failed to neutralize Dpl in mice, indicating that the N-terminal region, particularly that including residues 23-88, may have trans-protective activity against Dpl. Interestingly, PrP with deletion elongated to residues 121 or 134 in the N-terminal region was shown to be similarly neurotoxic to Dpl, indicating that the PrP C-terminal region may have toxicity which is normally prevented by the N-terminal domain in cis. We recently investigated further roles for the N-terminal region of PrP in antagonistic interactions with Dpl by producing three different types of transgenic mice. These mice expressed PrP with deletion of residues 25-50 or 51-90, or a fusion protein of the N-terminal region of PrP with Dpl. Here, we discuss a possible model for the antagonistic interaction between PrP and Dpl.

  9. CD229 (Ly9) lymphocyte cell surface receptor interacts homophilically through its N-terminal domain and relocalizes to the immunological synapse.

    PubMed

    Romero, Xavier; Zapater, Nuria; Calvo, María; Kalko, Susana G; de la Fuente, Miguel Angel; Tovar, Victoria; Ockeloen, Charlotte; Pizcueta, Pilar; Engel, Pablo

    2005-06-01

    CD229 is a member of the CD150 family of the Ig superfamily expressed on T and B cells. Receptors of this family regulate cytokine production and cytotoxicity of lymphocytes and NK cells. The cytoplasmic tail of CD229 binds to SAP, a protein that is defective in X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome. To identify the CD229 ligand, we generated a soluble Ig fusion protein containing the two N-terminal extracellular domains of human CD229 (CD229-Ig). CD229-Ig bound to CD229-transfected cells, whereas no binding was detected on cells expressing other CD150 family receptors, showing that CD229 binds homophilically. Both human and mouse CD229 interacted with itself. Domain deletion mutants showed that the N-terminal Ig-domain mediates homophilic adhesion. CD229-CD229 binding was severely compromised when the charged amino acids E27 and E29 on the predicted B-C loop and R89 on the F-G loop of the N-terminal domain were mutated to alanine. In contrast, one mutation, R44A, enhanced the homophilic interaction. Confocal microscopy image analysis revealed relocalization of CD229 to the contact area of T and B cells during Ag-dependent immune synapse formation. Thus, CD229 is its own ligand and participates in the immunological synapse.

  10. N-terminal glutamate to pyroglutamate conversion in vivo for human IgG2 antibodies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y Diana; Goetze, Andrew M; Bass, Randal B; Flynn, Gregory C

    2011-04-01

    Therapeutic proteins contain a large number of post-translational modifications, some of which could potentially impact their safety or efficacy. In one of these changes, pyroglutamate can form on the N terminus of the polypeptide chain. Both glutamine and glutamate at the N termini of recombinant monoclonal antibodies can cyclize spontaneously to pyroglutamate (pE) in vitro. Glutamate conversion to pyroglutamate occurs more slowly than from glutamine but has been observed under near physiological conditions. Here we investigated to what extent human IgG2 N-terminal glutamate converts to pE in vivo. Pyroglutamate levels increased over time after injection into humans, with the rate of formation differing between polypeptide chains. These changes were replicated for the same antibodies in vitro under physiological pH and temperature conditions, indicating that the changes observed in vivo were due to chemical conversion not differential clearance. Differences in the conversion rates between the light chain and heavy chain on an antibody were eliminated by denaturing the protein, revealing that structural elements affect pE formation rates. By enzymatically releasing pE from endogenous antibodies isolated from human serum, we could estimate the naturally occurring levels of this post-translational modification. Together, these techniques and results can be used to predict the exposure of pE for therapeutic antibodies and to guide criticality assessments for this attribute.

  11. NMR assignments of the N-terminal domain of Nephila clavipes spidroin 1.

    PubMed

    Parnham, Stuart; Gaines, William A; Duggan, Brendan M; Marcotte, William R; Hennig, Mirko

    2011-10-01

    The building blocks of spider dragline silk are two fibrous proteins secreted from the major ampullate gland named spidroins 1 and 2 (MaSp1, MaSp2). These proteins consist of a large central domain composed of approximately 100 tandem copies of a 35-40 amino acid repeat sequence. Non-repetitive N and C-terminal domains, of which the C-terminal domain has been implicated to transition from soluble and insoluble states during spinning, flank the repetitive core. The N-terminal domain until recently has been largely unknown due to difficulties in cloning and expression. Here, we report nearly complete assignment for all (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N resonances in the 14 kDa N-terminal domain of major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1-N) of the golden orb-web spider Nephila clavipes.

  12. The N-terminal domain determines the affinity and specificity of H1 binding to chromatin

    SciTech Connect

    Oeberg, Christine; Belikov, Sergey

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer wt Human histone H1.4 and hH1.4 devoid of N-terminal domain, {Delta}N-hH1.4, were compared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both histones bind to chromatin, however, {Delta}N-hH1.4 displays lower binding affinity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction of {Delta}N-hH1.4 with chromatin includes a significant unspecific component. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-terminal domain is a determinant of specificity of histone H1 binding to chromatin. -- Abstract: Linker histone H1, one of the most abundant nuclear proteins in multicellular eukaryotes, is a key component of the chromatin structure mainly due to its role in the formation and maintenance of the 30 nm chromatin fiber. It has a three-domain structure; a central globular domain flanked by a short N-terminal domain and a long, highly basic C-terminal domain. Previous studies have shown that the binding abilities of H1 are at large determined by the properties of the C-terminal domain; much less attention has been paid to role of the N-terminal domain. We have previously shown that H1 can be reconstituted via cytoplasmic mRNA injection in Xenopus oocytes, cells that lack somatic H1. The heterologously expressed H1 proteins are incorporated into in vivo assembled chromatin at specific sites and the binding event is monitored as an increase in nucleosomal repeat length (NRL). Using this setup we have here compared the binding properties of wt-H1.4 and hH1.4 devoid of its N-terminal domain ({Delta}N-hH1.4). The {Delta}N-hH1.4 displays a drastically lower affinity for chromatin binding as compared to the wild type hH1.4. Our data also indicates that {Delta}N-hH1.4 is more prone to unspecific chromatin binding than the wild type. We conclude that the N-terminal domain of H1 is an important determinant of affinity and specificity of H1-chromatin interactions.

  13. Structure of the human histone chaperone FACT Spt16 N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Marcianò, G; Huang, D T

    2016-02-01

    The histone chaperone FACT plays an important role in facilitating nucleosome assembly and disassembly during transcription. FACT is a heterodimeric complex consisting of Spt16 and SSRP1. The N-terminal domain of Spt16 resembles an inactive aminopeptidase. How this domain contributes to the histone chaperone activity of FACT remains elusive. Here, the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of human Spt16 is reported at a resolution of 1.84 Å. The structure adopts an aminopeptidase-like fold similar to those of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe Spt16 NTDs. Isothermal titration calorimetry analyses show that human Spt16 NTD binds histones H3/H4 with low-micromolar affinity, suggesting that Spt16 NTD may contribute to histone binding in the FACT complex. Surface-residue conservation and electrostatic analysis reveal a conserved acidic patch that may be involved in histone binding.

  14. Membrane binding and self-association of the epsin N-terminal homology domain.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chun-Liang; Jao, Christine C; Lyman, Edward; Gallop, Jennifer L; Peter, Brian J; McMahon, Harvey T; Langen, Ralf; Voth, Gregory A

    2012-11-09

    Epsin possesses a conserved epsin N-terminal homology (ENTH) domain that acts as a phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-lipid-targeting and membrane-curvature-generating element. Upon binding phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, the N-terminal helix (H(0)) of the ENTH domain becomes structured and aids in the aggregation of ENTH domains, which results in extensive membrane remodeling. In this article, atomistic and coarse-grained (CG) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to investigate the structure and the stability of ENTH domain aggregates on lipid bilayers. EPR experiments are also reported for systems composed of different ENTH-bound membrane morphologies, including membrane vesicles as well as preformed membrane tubules. The EPR data are used to help develop a molecular model of ENTH domain aggregates on preformed lipid tubules that are then studied by CG MD simulation. The combined computational and experimental approach suggests that ENTH domains exist predominantly as monomers on vesiculated structures, while ENTH domains self-associate into dimeric structures and even higher-order oligomers on the membrane tubes. The results emphasize that the arrangement of ENTH domain aggregates depends strongly on whether the local membrane curvature is isotropic or anisotropic. The molecular mechanism of ENTH-domain-induced membrane vesiculation and tubulation and the implications of the epsin's role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis resulting from the interplay between ENTH domain membrane binding and ENTH domain self-association are also discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Structure of the human histone chaperone FACT Spt16 N-terminal domain

    SciTech Connect

    Marcianò, G.; Huang, D. T.

    2016-01-22

    The Spt16–SSRP1 heterodimer is a histone chaperone that plays an important role in regulating chromatin assembly. Here, a crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of human Spt16 is presented and it is shown that this domain may contribute to histone binding. The histone chaperone FACT plays an important role in facilitating nucleosome assembly and disassembly during transcription. FACT is a heterodimeric complex consisting of Spt16 and SSRP1. The N-terminal domain of Spt16 resembles an inactive aminopeptidase. How this domain contributes to the histone chaperone activity of FACT remains elusive. Here, the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of human Spt16 is reported at a resolution of 1.84 Å. The structure adopts an aminopeptidase-like fold similar to those of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe Spt16 NTDs. Isothermal titration calorimetry analyses show that human Spt16 NTD binds histones H3/H4 with low-micromolar affinity, suggesting that Spt16 NTD may contribute to histone binding in the FACT complex. Surface-residue conservation and electrostatic analysis reveal a conserved acidic patch that may be involved in histone binding.

  16. The N-terminal domains of spider silk proteins assemble ultrafast and protected from charge screening.

    PubMed

    Schwarze, Simone; Zwettler, Fabian U; Johnson, Christopher M; Neuweiler, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    Web spiders assemble spidroin monomers into silk fibres of unrivalled tensile strength at remarkably high spinning speeds of up to 1 m s(-1). The spidroin N-terminal domain contains a charge-driven, pH-sensitive relay that controls self-association by an elusive mechanism. The underlying kinetics have not yet been reported. Here we engineer a fluorescence switch into the isolated N-terminal domain from spidroin 1 of the major ampullate gland of the nursery web spider E. australis that monitors dimerization. We observe ultrafast association that is surprisingly insensitive to salt, contrasting the classical screening effects in accelerated, charged protein interfaces. To gain deeper mechanistic insight, we mutate each of the protonatable residue side chains and probe their contributions. Two vicinal aspartic acids are critically involved in an unusual process of accelerated protein association that is protected from screening by electrolytes, potentially facilitating the rapid synthesis of silk fibres by web spiders.

  17. Multicanonical Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the N-terminal Domain of Protein L9

    PubMed Central

    Yaşar, Fatih; Jiang, Ping; Hansmann, Ulrich H. E.

    2014-01-01

    We describe multicanonical molecular dynamic simulations of the N-terminal domain of the protein L9. Analyzing free energy landscapes and thermal ordering, we propose a possible folding mechanism for the protein. By comparing our results with that of molecular dynamics runs of the protein at constant temperature, we find that multicanonical molecular dynamics leads to orders of magnitude higher sampling of folding transitions. PMID:25253918

  18. N-terminal domains of human DNA polymerase lambda promote primer realignment during translesion DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Taggart, David J; Dayeh, Daniel M; Fredrickson, Saul W; Suo, Zucai

    2014-10-01

    The X-family DNA polymerases λ (Polλ) and β (Polβ) possess similar 5'-2-deoxyribose-5-phosphate lyase (dRPase) and polymerase domains. Besides these domains, Polλ also possesses a BRCA1 C-terminal (BRCT) domain and a proline-rich domain at its N terminus. However, it is unclear how these non-enzymatic domains contribute to the unique biological functions of Polλ. Here, we used primer extension assays and a newly developed high-throughput short oligonucleotide sequencing assay (HT-SOSA) to compare the efficiency of lesion bypass and fidelity of human Polβ, Polλ and two N-terminal deletion constructs of Polλ during the bypass of either an abasic site or an 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) lesion. We demonstrate that the BRCT domain of Polλ enhances the efficiency of abasic site bypass by approximately 1.6-fold. In contrast, deletion of the N-terminal domains of Polλ did not affect the efficiency of 8-oxodG bypass relative to nucleotide incorporations opposite undamaged dG. HT-SOSA analysis demonstrated that Polλ and Polβ preferentially generated -1 or -2 frameshift mutations when bypassing an abasic site and the single or double base deletion frequency was highly sequence dependent. Interestingly, the BRCT and proline-rich domains of Polλ cooperatively promoted the generation of -2 frameshift mutations when the abasic site was situated within a sequence context that was susceptible to homology-driven primer realignment. Furthermore, both N-terminal domains of Polλ increased the generation of -1 frameshift mutations during 8-oxodG bypass and influenced the frequency of substitution mutations produced by Polλ opposite the 8-oxodG lesion. Overall, our data support a model wherein the BRCT and proline-rich domains of Polλ act cooperatively to promote primer/template realignment between DNA strands of limited sequence homology. This function of the N-terminal domains may facilitate the role of Polλ as a gap-filling polymerase within the non

  19. Structure-Function Study of the N-terminal Domain of Exocyst Subunit Sec3

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, Kyuwon; Knödler, Andreas; Lee, Sung Haeng; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Orlando, Kelly; Zhang, Jian; Foskett, Trevor J.; Guo, Wei; Dominguez, Roberto

    2010-04-19

    The exocyst is an evolutionarily conserved octameric complex involved in polarized exocytosis from yeast to humans. The Sec3 subunit of the exocyst acts as a spatial landmark for exocytosis through its ability to bind phospholipids and small GTPases. The structure of the N-terminal domain of Sec3 (Sec3N) was determined ab initio and defines a new subclass of pleckstrin homology (PH) domains along with a new family of proteins carrying this domain. Respectively, N- and C-terminal to the PH domain Sec3N presents an additional {alpha}-helix and two {beta}-strands that mediate dimerization through domain swapping. The structure identifies residues responsible for phospholipid binding, which when mutated in cells impair the localization of exocyst components at the plasma membrane and lead to defects in exocytosis. Through its ability to bind the small GTPase Cdc42 and phospholipids, the PH domain of Sec3 functions as a coincidence detector at the plasma membrane.

  20. Miro's N-Terminal GTPase Domain Is Required for Transport of Mitochondria into Axons and Dendrites

    PubMed Central

    Babic, Milos; Russo, Gary J.; Wellington, Andrea J.; Sangston, Ryan M.; Gonzalez, Migdalia

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamically transported in and out of neuronal processes to maintain neuronal excitability and synaptic function. In higher eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GTPase Miro binds Milton/TRAK adaptor proteins linking microtubule motors to mitochondria. Here we show that Drosophila Miro (dMiro), which has previously been shown to be required for kinesin-driven axonal transport, is also critically required for the dynein-driven distribution of mitochondria into dendrites. In addition, we used the loss-of-function mutations dMiroT25N and dMiroT460N to determine the significance of dMiro's N-terminal and C-terminal GTPase domains, respectively. Expression of dMiroT25N in the absence of endogenous dMiro caused premature lethality and arrested development at a pupal stage. dMiroT25N accumulated mitochondria in the soma of larval motor and sensory neurons, and prevented their kinesin-dependent and dynein-dependent distribution into axons and dendrites, respectively. dMiroT25N mutant mitochondria also were severely fragmented and exhibited reduced kinesin and dynein motility in axons. In contrast, dMiroT460N did not impair viability, mitochondrial size, or the distribution of mitochondria. However, dMiroT460N reduced dynein motility during retrograde mitochondrial transport in axons. Finally, we show that substitutions analogous to the constitutively active Ras-G12V mutation in dMiro's N-terminal and C-terminal GTPase domains cause neomorphic phenotypic effects that are likely unrelated to the normal function of each GTPase domain. Overall, our analysis indicates that dMiro's N-terminal GTPase domain is critically required for viability, mitochondrial size, and the distribution of mitochondria out of the neuronal soma regardless of the employed motor, likely by promoting the transition from a stationary to a motile state. PMID:25855186

  1. Miro's N-terminal GTPase domain is required for transport of mitochondria into axons and dendrites.

    PubMed

    Babic, Milos; Russo, Gary J; Wellington, Andrea J; Sangston, Ryan M; Gonzalez, Migdalia; Zinsmaier, Konrad E

    2015-04-08

    Mitochondria are dynamically transported in and out of neuronal processes to maintain neuronal excitability and synaptic function. In higher eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GTPase Miro binds Milton/TRAK adaptor proteins linking microtubule motors to mitochondria. Here we show that Drosophila Miro (dMiro), which has previously been shown to be required for kinesin-driven axonal transport, is also critically required for the dynein-driven distribution of mitochondria into dendrites. In addition, we used the loss-of-function mutations dMiroT25N and dMiroT460N to determine the significance of dMiro's N-terminal and C-terminal GTPase domains, respectively. Expression of dMiroT25N in the absence of endogenous dMiro caused premature lethality and arrested development at a pupal stage. dMiroT25N accumulated mitochondria in the soma of larval motor and sensory neurons, and prevented their kinesin-dependent and dynein-dependent distribution into axons and dendrites, respectively. dMiroT25N mutant mitochondria also were severely fragmented and exhibited reduced kinesin and dynein motility in axons. In contrast, dMiroT460N did not impair viability, mitochondrial size, or the distribution of mitochondria. However, dMiroT460N reduced dynein motility during retrograde mitochondrial transport in axons. Finally, we show that substitutions analogous to the constitutively active Ras-G12V mutation in dMiro's N-terminal and C-terminal GTPase domains cause neomorphic phenotypic effects that are likely unrelated to the normal function of each GTPase domain. Overall, our analysis indicates that dMiro's N-terminal GTPase domain is critically required for viability, mitochondrial size, and the distribution of mitochondria out of the neuronal soma regardless of the employed motor, likely by promoting the transition from a stationary to a motile state.

  2. Proline-directed phosphorylation of the dopamine transporter N-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Gorentla, Balachandra K.; Moritz, Amy E.; Foster, James D.; Vaughan, Roxanne A.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the dopamine transporter (DAT) on N-terminal serines and unidentified threonines occurs concomitantly with PKC- and substrate-induced alterations in transporter activity, subcellular distribution, and dopamine efflux, but the residues phosphorylated and identities of protein kinases and phosphatases involved are not known. As one approach to investigating these issues we recombinantly expressed the N-terminal tail of rat DAT (NDAT) and examined its phosphorylation and dephosphorylation properties in vitro. We found that NDAT could be phosphorylated to significant levels by PKCα, PKA, PKG, and CaMKII, which catalyzed serine phosphorylation, and ERK1, JNK, and p38, which catalyzed threonine phosphorylation. We identified Thr53, present in a membrane proximal proline-directed kinase motif as the NDAT site phosphorylated in vitro by ERK1, JNK and p38, and confirmed by peptide mapping and mutagenesis that Thr53 is phosphorylated in vivo. Dephosphorylation studies showed that protein phosphatase 1 catalyzed near-complete in vitro dephosphorylation of PKCα-phosphorylated NDAT, similar to its in vivo and in vitro effects on native DAT. These findings demonstrate the ability of multiple enzymes to directly recognize the DAT N-terminal domain and for kinases to act at multiple distinct sites. The strong correspondence between NDAT and rDAT phosphorylation characteristics suggests the potential for the enzymes that are active on NDAT in vitro to act on DAT in vivo and indicates the usefulness of NDAT for guiding future DAT phosphorylation analyses. PMID:19146407

  3. The AAA+ ATPase TRIP13 remodels HORMA domains through N-terminal engagement and unfolding.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qiaozhen; Kim, Dong Hyun; Dereli, Ihsan; Rosenberg, Scott C; Hagemann, Goetz; Herzog, Franz; Tóth, Attila; Cleveland, Don W; Corbett, Kevin D

    2017-08-15

    Proteins of the conserved HORMA domain family, including the spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD2 and the meiotic HORMADs, assemble into signaling complexes by binding short peptides termed "closure motifs". The AAA+ ATPase TRIP13 regulates both MAD2 and meiotic HORMADs by disassembling these HORMA domain-closure motif complexes, but its mechanisms of substrate recognition and remodeling are unknown. Here, we combine X-ray crystallography and crosslinking mass spectrometry to outline how TRIP13 recognizes MAD2 with the help of the adapter protein p31(comet) We show that p31(comet) binding to the TRIP13 N-terminal domain positions the disordered MAD2 N-terminus for engagement by the TRIP13 "pore loops", which then unfold MAD2 in the presence of ATP N-terminal truncation of MAD2 renders it refractory to TRIP13 action in vitro, and in cells causes spindle assembly checkpoint defects consistent with loss of TRIP13 function. Similar truncation of HORMAD1 in mouse spermatocytes compromises its TRIP13-mediated removal from meiotic chromosomes, highlighting a conserved mechanism for recognition and disassembly of HORMA domain-closure motif complexes by TRIP13. © 2017 The Authors.

  4. Molecular analysis of laminin N-terminal domains mediating self-interactions.

    PubMed

    Odenthal, Uwe; Haehn, Sebastian; Tunggal, Patrick; Merkl, Barbara; Schomburg, Dietmar; Frie, Christian; Paulsson, Mats; Smyth, Neil

    2004-10-22

    The ability of laminins to self-polymerize is crucial for the formation of basement membranes. Development of this polymerized network has profound effects upon tissue architecture as well as on the intracellular organization and differentiation of neighboring cells. The laminin N-terminal (LN) domains have been shown to mediate this interaction and studies using proteolytic fragments derived from laminin-1 led to the theory that network assembly depends on the formation of a heterotrimeric complex between LN domains derived from alpha, beta, and gamma chains in different laminin molecules with homologous interactions being insignificant. The laminin family consists of 15 known isoforms formed from five alpha, three beta, and three gamma chains, of which some are truncated and lack the N-terminal LN domain. To address whether the model of heterotrimeric complex formation is applicable to laminin isoforms other than laminin-1, eight LN domains found in the laminin protein family were recombinantly expressed and tested in three different assays for homologous and heterologous interactions. The results showed that the lack of homologous interactions is an exception, with such interactions being seen for LN domains derived from all alpha chains and from the beta2 and beta3 subunits. The gamma chain-derived LN domains showed a far more limited binding repertoire, particularly in the case of the gamma3 chain, which is found present in a range of non-basement membrane locations. Further, whereas the interactions depended upon Ca2+ ions, with EDTA reversibly abrogating binding, EDTA-induced conformational changes were not reversible. Together these results demonstrate that the assembly model proposed on the basis of laminin-1 may be a simplification, with the assembly of naturally occurring laminin networks being far more complex and highly dependent upon which laminin isoforms are present.

  5. Supramolecular properties of the proline-rich gamma-Zein N-terminal domain.

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Marcelo J; Dalcol, Ionara; Gorostiza, Pau; Lopez-Iglesias, Carmen; Pons, Ramon; Pons, Miquel; Sanz, Fausto; Giralt, Ernest

    2002-01-01

    Zeins are maize storages proteins that accumulate inside large vesicles called protein bodies. gamma-Zein lines the inner face of the protein body membrane, and its N-terminal proline-rich repetitive domain with the sequence (VHLPPP)(8) appears to be necessary for the accumulation of the protein within the organelle. Synthetic (VHLPPP)(8) adopts an amphipathic polyproline II conformation. In a preliminary recent work we used atomic force microscopy to study the surface organization of the octamer and transmission electron microscopy to visualize aggregates of the peptide from aqueous solution. We previously envisioned two self-assembly models (i.e., the geometric and the micellar) that take into account the observed features. In the present work we studied in detail the self-assembly of the peptide in solution and found that the peptide is able to form cylindrical micelles. Fibrils formed on graphite are generated by assembly of solution micelles. Based on the results of these studies, we focused exclusively on the micellar model. To our knowledge we have characterized for the first time supramolecular aggregates of polyproline structures other than collagen. The spontaneous arrangement of (VHLPPP)(8) suggests a role for the N-terminal domain of gamma-zein in the process of the whole protein deposition in protein bodies. PMID:12124299

  6. Supramolecular properties of the proline-rich gamma-Zein N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Marcelo J; Dalcol, Ionara; Gorostiza, Pau; Lopez-Iglesias, Carmen; Pons, Ramon; Pons, Miquel; Sanz, Fausto; Giralt, Ernest

    2002-08-01

    Zeins are maize storages proteins that accumulate inside large vesicles called protein bodies. gamma-Zein lines the inner face of the protein body membrane, and its N-terminal proline-rich repetitive domain with the sequence (VHLPPP)(8) appears to be necessary for the accumulation of the protein within the organelle. Synthetic (VHLPPP)(8) adopts an amphipathic polyproline II conformation. In a preliminary recent work we used atomic force microscopy to study the surface organization of the octamer and transmission electron microscopy to visualize aggregates of the peptide from aqueous solution. We previously envisioned two self-assembly models (i.e., the geometric and the micellar) that take into account the observed features. In the present work we studied in detail the self-assembly of the peptide in solution and found that the peptide is able to form cylindrical micelles. Fibrils formed on graphite are generated by assembly of solution micelles. Based on the results of these studies, we focused exclusively on the micellar model. To our knowledge we have characterized for the first time supramolecular aggregates of polyproline structures other than collagen. The spontaneous arrangement of (VHLPPP)(8) suggests a role for the N-terminal domain of gamma-zein in the process of the whole protein deposition in protein bodies.

  7. Identification of the WW domain-interaction sites in the unstructured N-terminal domain of EBV LMP 2A.

    PubMed

    Seo, Min-Duk; Park, Sung Jean; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Bong Jin

    2007-01-09

    Epstein-Barr virus latency is maintained by the latent membrane protein (LMP) 2A, which mimics the B-cell receptor (BCR) and perturbs BCR signaling. The cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of LMP2A is composed of 119 amino acids. The N-terminal domain of LMP2A (LMP2A NTD) contains two PY motifs (PPPPY) that interact with the WW domains of Nedd4 family ubiquitin-protein ligases. Based on our analysis of NMR data, we found that the LMP2A NTD adopts an overall random-coil structure in its native state. However, the region between residues 60 and 90 was relatively ordered, and seemed to form the hydrophobic core of the LMP2A NTD. This region resides between two PY motifs and is important for WW domain binding. Mapping of the residues involved in the interaction between the LMP2A NTD and WW domains was achieved by chemical shift perturbation, by the addition of WW2 and WW3 peptides. Interestingly, the binding of the WW domains mainly occurred in the hydrophobic core of the LMP2A NTD. In addition, we detected a difference in the binding modes of the two PY motifs against the two WW peptides. The binding of the WW3 peptide caused the resonances of five residues (Tyr(60), Glu(61), Asp(62), Trp(65), and Gly(66)) just behind the N-terminal PY motif of the LMP2A NTD to disappear. A similar result was obtained with WW2 binding. However, near the C-terminal PY motif, the chemical shift perturbation caused by WW2 binding was different from that due to WW3 binding, indicating that the residues near the PY motifs are involved in selective binding of WW domains. The present work represents the first structural study of the LMP2A NTD and provides fundamental structural information about its interaction with ubiquitin-protein ligase.

  8. SSDP1 gene encodes a protein with a conserved N-terminal FORWARD domain.

    PubMed

    Bayarsaihan, Dashzeveg

    2002-09-23

    I describe the characterization of mouse, human and chicken SSDP1 orthologs that encode a highly conserved protein with over 90% identity at the amino acid level. Structurally, the protein consists of a well-preserved FWD (FORWARD)-domain at the N-terminal end and a proline-, glycine-, methionine- and serine-rich sequence in the central and C-terminal regions. The FORWARD domain, comprised of three alpha-helices, is characterized by the presence of a FWD-box of unknown function conserved not only in vertebrates, but also in nematode, plants, fly and yeast. Human SSDP1 spans about 200 kb on the chromosome 1p31-p32 region and consists of 17 exons. The SSDP1 mRNA transcripts are distributed ubiquitously in adult human and mouse tissues.

  9. Synaptic transmission and plasticity require AMPA receptor anchoring via its N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Watson, Jake F; Ho, Hinze; Greger, Ingo H

    2017-03-14

    AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission and are selectively recruited during activity-dependent plasticity to increase synaptic strength. A prerequisite for faithful signal transmission is the positioning and clustering of AMPARs at postsynaptic sites. The mechanisms underlying this positioning have largely been ascribed to the receptor cytoplasmic C-termini and to AMPAR-associated auxiliary subunits, both interacting with the postsynaptic scaffold. Here, using mouse organotypic hippocampal slices, we show that the extracellular AMPAR N-terminal domain (NTD), which projects midway into the synaptic cleft, plays a fundamental role in this process. This highly sequence-diverse domain mediates synaptic anchoring in a subunit-selective manner. Receptors lacking the NTD exhibit increased mobility in synapses, depress synaptic transmission and are unable to sustain long-term potentiation (LTP). Thus, synaptic transmission and the expression of LTP are dependent upon an AMPAR anchoring mechanism that is driven by the NTD.

  10. Human lysozyme possesses novel antimicrobial peptides within its N-terminal domain that target bacterial respiration.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Hisham R; Imazato, Kenta; Ono, Hajime

    2011-09-28

    Human milk lysozyme is thought to be a key defense factor in protecting the gastrointestinal tract of newborns against bacterial infection. Recently, evidence was found that pepsin, under conditions relevant to the newborn stomach, cleaves chicken lysozyme (cLZ) at specific loops to generate five antimicrobial peptide motifs. This study explores the antimicrobial role of the corresponding peptides of human lysozyme (hLZ), the actual protein in breast milk. Five peptide motifs of hLZ, one helix-loop-helix (HLH), its two helices (H1 and H2), and two helix-sheet motifs, H2-β-strands 1-2 (H2-S12) or H2-β-strands 1-3 (H2-S13), were synthesized and examined for antimicrobial action. The five peptides of hLZ exhibit microbicidal activity to various degrees against several bacterial strains. The HLH peptide and its N-terminal helix (H1) were significantly the most potent bactericidal to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the fungus Candida albicans . Outer and inner membrane permeabilization studies, as well as measurements of transmembrane electrochemical potentials, provided evidence that HLH peptide and its N-terminal helix (H1) kill bacteria by crossing the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria via self-promoted uptake and are able to dissipate the membrane potential-dependent respiration of Gram-positive bacteria. This finding is the first to describe that hLZ possesses multiple antimicrobial peptide motifs within its N-terminal domain, providing insight into new classes of antibiotic peptides with potential use in the treatment of infectious diseases.

  11. Defining Lipid Interacting Domains in the N-terminal Region of Apolipoprotein B

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhenghui Gordon; Gantz, Donald; Bullitt, Esther; McKnight, C. James

    2008-01-01

    Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is a nonexchangeable apolipoprotein that dictates the synthesis of chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins. ApoB is the major protein in low density lipoprotein, also known as the “bad cholesterol” that is directly implicated in atherosclerosis. It has been suggested that the N-terminal domain of apoB plays a critical role in the formation of apoB-containing lipoproteins through the initial recruitment of phospholipids in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, very little is known about the mechanism of lipoprotein nucleation by apoB. Here we demonstrate that a strong phospholipid remodeling function is associated with the predicted α-helical and C-sheet domains in the N-terminal 17% of apoB (B17). Using dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) as a model lipid, these domains can convert multilamellar DMPC vesicles into discoidal-shaped particles. The nascent particles reconstituted from different apoB domains are distinctive and compositionally homogenous. This phospholipid remodeling activity is also observed with egg phosphatidylcholine (egg PC) and is therefore not DMPC dependent. Using kinetic analysis of the DMPC clearance assay, we show that the identified phospholipid binding sequences all map to the surface of the lipid binding pocket in the B17 model based on the homologous protein, lipovitellin. Since both B17 and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), a critical chaperone during lipoprotein assembly, are homologous to lipovitellin, the identification of these phospholipid remodeling sequences in B17 provides important insights into the potential mechanism that initiates the assembly of apoB-containing lipoproteins. PMID:17002280

  12. Abl N-terminal Cap stabilization of SH3 domain dynamics†

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shugui; Dumitrescu, Teodora Pene; Smithgall, Thomas E.; Engen, John R.

    2008-01-01

    Crystal structures and other biochemical data indicate that the N-terminal cap (NCap) region of the Abelson tyrosine kinase (c-Abl) is important for maintaining the downregulated conformation of the kinase domain. The exact contributions that NCap makes in stabilizing the various intramolecular interactions within c-Abl are less clear. While the NCap appears important for locking the SH3/SH2 domains to the back of the kinase domain, there may be other more subtle elements of regulation. Hydrogen exchange (HX) and mass spectrometry (MS) were used to determine if the NCap contributes to intramolecular interactions involving the Abl SH3 domain. Under physiological conditions, the Abl SH3 domain underwent partial unfolding and its unfolding half-life was slowed during binding to the SH2-kinase linker, providing a unique assay to test NCap-induced stabilization of the SH3 domain in various constructs. The results showed that NCap stabilizes the dynamics of the SH3 domain in certain constructs but does not increase the relative affinity of the SH3 domain for the native SH2-kinase linker. The stabilization effect was absent in constructs of just NCap + SH3 but was obvious when the SH2 domain and the SH2-kinase linker were present. These results suggest that interactions between NCap and the SH3 domain can contribute to c-Abl stabilization in constructs that contain at least the SH2 domain, an effect that may partially compensate for the absence of the negative regulatory C-terminal tail found in the related Src family of kinases. PMID:18452309

  13. Concerted regulation of ISWI by an autoinhibitory domain and the H4 N-terminal tail

    PubMed Central

    Ludwigsen, Johanna; Pfennig, Sabrina; Singh, Ashish K; Schindler, Christina; Harrer, Nadine; Forné, Ignasi; Zacharias, Martin; Mueller-Planitz, Felix

    2017-01-01

    ISWI-family nucleosome remodeling enzymes need the histone H4 N-terminal tail to mobilize nucleosomes. Here we mapped the H4-tail binding pocket of ISWI. Surprisingly the binding site was adjacent to but not overlapping with the docking site of an auto-regulatory motif, AutoN, in the N-terminal region (NTR) of ISWI, indicating that AutoN does not act as a simple pseudosubstrate as suggested previously. Rather, AutoN cooperated with a hitherto uncharacterized motif, termed AcidicN, to confer H4-tail sensitivity and discriminate between DNA and nucleosomes. A third motif in the NTR, ppHSA, was functionally required in vivo and provided structural stability by clamping the NTR to Lobe 2 of the ATPase domain. This configuration is reminiscent of Chd1 even though Chd1 contains an unrelated NTR. Our results shed light on the intricate structural and functional regulation of ISWI by the NTR and uncover surprising parallels with Chd1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21477.001 PMID:28109157

  14. Crystal Structure of the N-terminal Domain of the Group B Streptococcus Alpha C Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Auperin,T.; Bolduc, G.; Baron, M.; Heroux, A.; Filman, D.; Madoff, L.; Hogle, J.

    2005-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis among neonates and an important cause of morbidity among pregnant women and immunocompromised adults. Invasive diseases due to GBS are attributed to the ability of the pathogen to translocate across human epithelial surfaces. The alpha C protein (ACP) has been identified as an invasin that plays a role in internalization and translocation of GBS across epithelial cells. The soluble N-terminal domain of ACP (NtACP) blocks the internalization of GBS. We determined the 1.86-{angstrom} resolution crystal structure of NtACP comprising residues Ser{sup 52} through Leu{sup 225} of the full-length ACP. NtACP has two domains, an N-terminal {beta}-sandwich and a C-terminal three-helix bundle. Structural and topological alignments reveal that the {beta}-sandwich shares structural elements with the type III fibronectin fold (FnIII), but includes structural elaborations that make it unique. We have identified a potential integrin-binding motif consisting of Lys-Thr-Asp{sup 146}, Arg{sup 110}, and Asp{sup 118}. A similar arrangement of charged residues has been described in other invasins. ACP shows a heparin binding activity that requires NtACP. We propose a possible heparin-binding site, including one surface of the three-helix bundle, and nearby portions of the sandwich and repeat domains. We have validated this prediction using assays of the heparin binding and cell-adhesion properties of engineered fragments of ACP. This is the first crystal structure of a member of the highly conserved Gram-positive surface alpha-like protein family, and it will enable the internalization mechanism of GBS to be dissected at the atomic level.

  15. Identification and Functional Characterization of an N-terminal Oligomerization Domain for Polycystin-2*

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shuang; Okenka, Genevieve M.; Bai, Chang-Xi; Streets, Andrew J.; Newby, Linda J.; DeChant, Brett T.; Tsiokas, Leonidas; Obara, Tomoko; Ong, Albert C. M.

    2008-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), the most common inherited cause of kidney failure, is caused by mutations in either PKD1 (85%) or PKD2 (15%). The PKD2 protein, polycystin-2 (PC2 or TRPP2), is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily and functions as a non-selective calcium channel. PC2 has been found to form oligomers in native tissues suggesting that it may form functional homo- or heterotetramers with other subunits, similar to other TRP channels. Our experiments unexpectedly revealed that PC2 mutant proteins lacking the known C-terminal dimerization domain were still able to form oligomers and co-immunoprecipitate full-length PC2, implying the possible existence of a proximal dimerization domain. Using yeast two-hybrid and biochemical assays, we have mapped an alternative dimerization domain to the N terminus of PC2 (NT2-1-223, L224X). Functional characterization of this domain demonstrated that it was sufficient to induce cyst formation in zebrafish embryos and inhibit PC2 surface currents in mIMCD3 cells probably by a dominant-negative mechanism. In summary, we propose a model for PC2 assembly as a functional tetramer which depends on both C- and N-terminal dimerization domains. These results have significant implications for our understanding of PC2 function and disease pathogenesis in ADPKD and provide a new strategy for studying PC2 function. PMID:18701462

  16. Structure, Dynamics, and Allosteric Potential of Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor N-Terminal Domains

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, James; Bahar, Ivet; Greger, Ingo H.

    2015-01-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are tetrameric cation channels that mediate synaptic transmission and plasticity. They have a unique modular architecture with four domains: the intracellular C-terminal domain (CTD) that is involved in synaptic targeting, the transmembrane domain (TMD) that forms the ion channel, the membrane-proximal ligand-binding domain (LBD) that binds agonists such as L-glutamate, and the distal N-terminal domain (NTD), whose function is the least clear. The extracellular portion, comprised of the LBD and NTD, is loosely arranged, mediating complex allosteric regulation and providing a rich target for drug development. Here, we briefly review recent work on iGluR NTD structure and dynamics, and further explore the allosteric potential for the NTD in AMPA-type iGluRs using coarse-grained simulations. We also investigate mechanisms underlying the established NTD allostery in NMDA-type iGluRs, as well as the fold-related metabotropic glutamate and GABAB receptors. We show that the clamshell motions intrinsically favored by the NTD bilobate fold are coupled to dimeric and higher-order rearrangements that impact the iGluR LBD and ultimately the TMD. Finally, we explore the dynamics of intact iGluRs and describe how it might affect receptor operation in a synaptic environment. PMID:26255587

  17. Functional regions of the N-terminal domain of the antiterminator RfaH

    PubMed Central

    Belogurov, Georgiy A; Sevostyanova, Anastasia; Svetlov, Vladimir; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2010-01-01

    RfaH is a bacterial elongation factor that increases expression of distal genes in several long, horizontally acquired operons. RfaH is recruited to the transcription complex during RNA chain elongation through specific interactions with a DNA element called ops. Following recruitment, RfaH remains bound to RNA polymerase (RNAP) and acts as an antiterminator by reducing RNAP pausing and termination at some factor-independent and Rho-dependent signals. RfaH consists of two domains connected by a flexible linker. The N-terminal RfaH domain (RfaHN) recognizes the ops element, binds to the RNAP and reduces pausing and termination in vitro. Functional analysis of single substitutions in this domain reported here suggests that three separate RfaHN regions mediate these functions. We propose that a polar patch on one side of RfaHN interacts with the non-template DNA strand during recruitment, whereas a hydrophobic surface on the opposite side of RfaHN remains bound to the β′ subunit clamp helices domain throughout transcription of the entire operon. The third region is apparently dispensable for RfaH binding to the transcription complex but is required for the antitermination modification of RNAP. PMID:20132437

  18. Trehalose induces functionally active conformation in the intrinsically disordered N-terminal domain of glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shagufta H; Jasuja, Ravi; Kumar, Raj

    2016-08-05

    Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a classic member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and plays pivotal roles in human physiology at the level of gene regulation. Various constellations of cellular cofactors are required to associate with GR to activate/repress genes. The effects of specific ligands on the AF2 structure and consequent preferential binding of co-activators or co-repressors have helped our understanding of the mechanisms involved. But the data so far fall short of fully explaining GR actions. We believe that this is because work so far has largely avoided detailed examination of the contributions of AF1 to overall GR actions. It has been shown that the GR containing only the N-terminal domain (NTD) and the DNA-binding domain (GR500) is constitutively quite active in stimulating transcription from simple promoters. However, we are only beginning to understand structure and functions of GR500 in spite of the fact that AF1 located within the NTD serves as major transactivation domain for GR. Lack of this information has hampered our complete understanding of how GR regulates its target gene(s). The major obstacle in determining GR500 structure has been due to its intrinsically disordered NTD conformation, frequently found in transcription factors. In this study, we tested whether a naturally occurring osmolyte, trehalose, can promote functionally ordered conformation in GR500. Our data show that in the presence of trehalose, GR500 is capable of formation of a native-like functionally folded conformation.

  19. Crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of Nup358/RanBP2

    PubMed Central

    Kassube, Susanne A.; Stuwe, Tobias; Lin, Daniel H.; Antonuk, C. Danielle; Napetschnig, Johanna; Blobel, Günter; Hoelz, André

    2014-01-01

    Key steps in mRNA export are the nuclear assembly of messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs), the translocation of mRNPs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC), and the mRNP remodeling events at the cytoplasmic side of the NPC. Nup358/RanBP2 is a constituent of the cytoplasmic filaments of the NPC specific to higher eukaryotes and provides a multitude of binding sites for the nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery. Here, we present the crystal structure of the Nup358 N-terminal domain (NTD) at 0.95-Å resolution. The structure reveals an α-helical domain that harbors three central tetratricopeptide repeats (TPR), flanked on each side by an additional solvating amphipathic α helix. Overall, the NTD adopts an unusual extended conformation that lacks the characteristic peptide-binding groove observed in canonical TPR domains. Strikingly, the vast majority of the NTD surface exhibits an evolutionarily conserved, positive electrostatic potential, and we demonstrate that the NTD possesses the capability to bind single-stranded RNA in solution. Together, these data suggest that the NTD contributes to mRNP remodeling events at the cytoplasmic face of the NPC. PMID:22959972

  20. Structure and Function of the N-Terminal Domain of the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Shihong; Ogino, Minako; Luo, Ming

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses have various mechanisms to duplicate their genomes and produce virus-specific mRNAs. Negative-strand RNA viruses encode their own polymerases to perform each of these processes. For the nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses, the polymerase is comprised of the large polymerase subunit (L) and the phosphoprotein (P). L proteins from members of the Rhabdoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Filoviridae share sequence and predicted secondary structure homology. Here, we present the structure of the N-terminal domain (conserved region I) of the L protein from a rhabdovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, at 1.8-Å resolution. The strictly and strongly conserved residues in this domain cluster in a single area of the protein. Serial mutation of these residues shows that many of the amino acids are essential for viral transcription but not for mRNA capping. Three-dimensional alignments show that this domain shares structural homology with polymerases from other viral families, including segmented negative-strand RNA and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses. IMPORTANCE Negative-strand RNA viruses include a diverse set of viral families that infect animals and plants, causing serious illness and economic impact. The members of this group of viruses share a set of functionally conserved proteins that are essential to their replication cycle. Among this set of proteins is the viral polymerase, which performs a unique set of reactions to produce genome- and subgenome-length RNA transcripts. In this article, we study the polymerase of vesicular stomatitis virus, a member of the rhabdoviruses, which has served in the past as a model to study negative-strand RNA virus replication. We have identified a site in the N-terminal domain of the polymerase that is essential to viral transcription and that shares sequence homology with members of the paramyxoviruses and the filoviruses. Newly identified sites such as that described here could prove to be useful targets in the

  1. A noncanonical PWI domain in the N-terminal helicase-associated region of the spliceosomal Brr2 protein.

    PubMed

    Absmeier, Eva; Rosenberger, Leonie; Apelt, Luise; Becke, Christian; Santos, Karine F; Stelzl, Ulrich; Wahl, Markus C

    2015-04-01

    The spliceosomal RNA helicase Brr2 is required for the assembly of a catalytically active spliceosome on a messenger RNA precursor. Brr2 exhibits an unusual organization with tandem helicase units, each comprising dual RecA-like domains and a Sec63 homology unit, preceded by a more than 400-residue N-terminal helicase-associated region. Whereas recent crystal structures have provided insights into the molecular architecture and regulation of the Brr2 helicase region, little is known about the structural organization and function of its N-terminal part. Here, a near-atomic resolution crystal structure of a PWI-like domain that resides in the N-terminal region of Chaetomium thermophilum Brr2 is presented. CD spectroscopic studies suggested that this domain is conserved in the yeast and human Brr2 orthologues. Although canonical PWI domains act as low-specificity nucleic acid-binding domains, no significant affinity of the unusual PWI domain of Brr2 for a broad spectrum of DNAs and RNAs was detected in band-shift assays. Consistently, the C. thermophilum Brr2 PWI-like domain, in the conformation seen in the present crystal structure, lacks an expanded positively charged surface patch as observed in at least one canonical, nucleic acid-binding PWI domain. Instead, in a comprehensive yeast two-hybrid screen against human spliceosomal proteins, fragments of the N-terminal region of human Brr2 were found to interact with several other spliceosomal proteins. At least one of these interactions, with the Prp19 complex protein SPF27, depended on the presence of the PWI-like domain. The results suggest that the N-terminal region of Brr2 serves as a versatile protein-protein interaction platform in the spliceosome and that some interactions require or are reinforced by the PWI-like domain.

  2. Role of Prion Disease-Linked Mutations in the Intrinsically Disordered N-Terminal Domain of the Prion Protein.

    PubMed

    Cong, Xiaojing; Casiraghi, Nicola; Rossetti, Giulia; Mohanty, Sandipan; Giachin, Gabriele; Legname, Giuseppe; Carloni, Paolo

    2013-11-12

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders in mammals and other animal species. In humans, about 15% of these maladies are caused by pathogenic mutations (PMs) in the gene encoding for the prion protein (PrP(C)). Seven PMs are located in the naturally unfolded PrP(C) N-terminal domain, which constitutes about half of the protein. Intriguingly and in sharp contrast to other PMs clustered in the folded domain, N-terminal PMs barely affect the conversion to the pathogenic (scrapie, or PrP(Sc)) isoform of PrP(C). Here, we hypothesize that the neurotoxicity of these PMs arises from changes in structural determinants of the N-terminal domain, affecting the protein binding with its cellular partners and/or the cotranslational translocation during the PrP(C) biosynthesis. We test this idea by predicting the conformational ensemble of the wild-type (WT) and mutated mouse PrP(C) N-terminal domain, whose sequence is almost identical to that of the human one and for which the largest number of in vivo data is available. The conformational properties of the WT are consistent with those inferred experimentally. Importantly, the PMs turn out to affect in a subtle manner the intramolecular contacts in the putative N-terminal domain binding sites for Cu(2+) ions, sulphated glycosaminoglycans, and other known PrP(C) cellular partners. The PMs also alter the local structural features of the transmembrane domain and adjacent stop transfer effector, which act together to regulate the protein topology. These results corroborate the hypothesis that N-terminal PMs affect the PrP(C) binding to functional interactors and/or the translocation.

  3. Structural and functional relationships of the steroid hormone receptors’ N-terminal transactivation domain

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raj; Litwack, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors are members of a family of ligand inducible transcription factors, and regulate the transcriptional activation of target genes by recruiting coregulatory proteins to the pre-initiation machinery. The binding of these coregulatory proteins to the steroid hormone receptors is often mediated through their two activation functional domains, AF1, which resides in the N-terminal domain, and the ligand-dependent AF2, which is localized in the C-terminal ligand binding domain. Compared to other important functional domains of the steroid hormone receptors, our understanding of the mechanisms of action of the AF1 are incomplete, in part, due to the fact that, in solution, AF1 is intrinsically disordered (ID). However, recent studies have shown that AF1 must adopt a functionally active and folded conformation for its optimal activity under physiological conditions. In this review, we summarize and discuss current knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms of AF1-mediated gene activation, focusing on AF1 conformation and coactivator binding. We further propose models for the binding/folding of the AF1 domains of the steroid hormone receptors and their protein-protein interactions. The population of ID AF1 can be visualized as a collection of many different conformations, some of which may be assuming the proper functional folding for other critical target binding partners that result in ultimate assembly of AF1:coactivator complexes and subsequent gene regulation. Knowledge of the mechanisms involved therein will significantly help in understanding how signals from a steroid to a specific target gene are conveyed. PMID:19666041

  4. Synaptic transmission and plasticity require AMPA receptor anchoring via its N-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Jake F; Ho, Hinze; Greger, Ingo H

    2017-01-01

    AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission and are selectively recruited during activity-dependent plasticity to increase synaptic strength. A prerequisite for faithful signal transmission is the positioning and clustering of AMPARs at postsynaptic sites. The mechanisms underlying this positioning have largely been ascribed to the receptor cytoplasmic C-termini and to AMPAR-associated auxiliary subunits, both interacting with the postsynaptic scaffold. Here, using mouse organotypic hippocampal slices, we show that the extracellular AMPAR N-terminal domain (NTD), which projects midway into the synaptic cleft, plays a fundamental role in this process. This highly sequence-diverse domain mediates synaptic anchoring in a subunit-selective manner. Receptors lacking the NTD exhibit increased mobility in synapses, depress synaptic transmission and are unable to sustain long-term potentiation (LTP). Thus, synaptic transmission and the expression of LTP are dependent upon an AMPAR anchoring mechanism that is driven by the NTD. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23024.001 PMID:28290985

  5. NMR structure of the N-terminal domain of the replication initiator protein DnaA

    SciTech Connect

    Wemmer, David E.; Lowery, Thomas J.; Pelton, Jeffrey G.; Chandonia, John-Marc; Kim, Rosalind; Yokota, Hisao; Wemmer, David E.

    2007-08-07

    DnaA is an essential component in the initiation of bacterial chromosomal replication. DnaA binds to a series of 9 base pair repeats leading to oligomerization, recruitment of the DnaBC helicase, and the assembly of the replication fork machinery. The structure of the N-terminal domain (residues 1-100) of DnaA from Mycoplasma genitalium was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The backbone r.m.s.d. for the first 86 residues was 0.6 +/- 0.2 Angstrom based on 742 NOE, 50 hydrogen bond, 46 backbone angle, and 88 residual dipolar coupling restraints. Ultracentrifugation studies revealed that the domain is monomeric in solution. Features on the protein surface include a hydrophobic cleft flanked by several negative residues on one side, and positive residues on the other. A negatively charged ridge is present on the opposite face of the protein. These surfaces may be important sites of interaction with other proteins involved in the replication process. Together, the structure and NMR assignments should facilitate the design of new experiments to probe the protein-protein interactions essential for the initiation of DNA replication.

  6. Passive immunization targeting the N-terminal projection domain of tau decreases tau pathology and improves cognition in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease and tauopathies.

    PubMed

    Dai, Chun-ling; Chen, Xia; Kazim, Syed Faraz; Liu, Fei; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2015-04-01

    Intraneuronal accumulation of abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau in the brain is a histopathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and a family of related neurodegenerative disorders collectively called tauopathies. At present there is no effective treatment available for these progressive neurodegenerative diseases which are clinically characterized by dementia in mid to old-age. Here we report the treatment of 14-17-months-old 3xTg-AD mice with tau antibodies 43D (tau 6-18) and 77E9 (tau 184-195) to the N-terminal projection domain of tau or mouse IgG as a control by intraperitoneal injection once a week for 4 weeks, and the effects of the passive immunization on reduction of hyperphosphorylated tau, Aβ accumulation and cognitive performance in these animals. We found that treatment with tau antibodies 43D and 77E9 reduced total tau level, decreased tau hyperphosphorylated at Ser199, Ser202/Thr205 (AT8), Thr205, Ser262/356 (12E8), and Ser396/404 (PHF-1) sites, and a trend to reduce Aβ pathology. Most importantly, targeting N-terminal tau especially by 43D (tau 6-18) improved reference memory in the Morris water maze task in 3xTg-AD mice. We did not observe any abnormality in general physical characteristics of the treated animals with either of the two antibodies during the course of this study. Taken together, our studies demonstrate for the first time (1) that passive immunization targeting normal tau can effectively clear the hyperphosphorylated protein and possibly reduce Aβ pathology from the brain and (2) that targeting N-terminal projection domain of tau containing amino acid 6-18 is especially beneficial. Thus, targeting selective epitopes of N-terminal domain of tau may present a novel effective therapeutic opportunity for Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies.

  7. A non-catalytic N-terminal domain negatively influences the nucleotide exchange activity of translation elongation factor 1Bα.

    PubMed

    Trosiuk, Tetiana V; Shalak, Vyacheslav F; Szczepanowski, Roman H; Negrutskii, Boris S; El'skaya, Anna V

    2016-02-01

    Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1Bα (eEF1Bα) is a functional homolog of the bacterial factor EF-Ts, and is a component of the macromolecular eEF1B complex. eEF1Bα functions as a catalyst of guanine nucleotide exchange on translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A). The C-terminal domain of eEF1Bα is necessary and sufficient for its catalytic activity, whereas the N-terminal domain interacts with eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1Bγ (eEF1Bγ) to form a tight complex. However, eEF1Bγ has been shown to enhance the catalytic activity of eEF1Bα attributed to the C-terminal domain of eEF1Bα. This suggests that the N-terminal domain of eEF1Bα may in some way influence the guanine nucleotide exchange process. We have shown that full-length recombinant eEF1Bα and its truncated forms are non-globular proteins with elongated shapes. Truncation of the N-terminal domain of eEF1Bα, which is dispensable for catalytic activity, resulted in acceleration of the rate of guanine nucleotide exchange on eEF1A compared to full-length eEF1Bα. A similar effect on the catalytic activity of eEF1Bα was observed after its interaction with eEF1Bγ. We suggest that the non-catalytic N-terminal domain of eEF1Bα may interfere with eEF1A binding to the C-terminal catalytic domain, resulting in a decrease in the overall rate of the guanine nucleotide exchange reaction. Formation of a tight complex between the eEF1Bγ and eEF1Bα N-terminal domains abolishes this inhibitory effect.

  8. Cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics bind to the N-terminal domain of the prokaryotic Hsp90 to inhibit the chaperone activity.

    PubMed

    Minagawa, Shun; Kondoh, Yasumitsu; Sueoka, Keigo; Osada, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Hitoshi

    2011-04-01

    Chemical arrays were employed to screen ligands for HtpG, the prokaryotic homologue of Hsp (heat-shock protein) 90. We found that colistins and the closely related polymyxin B interact physically with HtpG. They bind to the N-terminal domain of HtpG specifically without affecting its ATPase activity. The interaction caused inhibition of chaperone function of HtpG that suppresses thermal aggregation of substrate proteins. Further studies were performed with one of these cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics, colistin sulfate salt. It inhibited the chaperone function of the N-terminal domain of HtpG. However, it inhibited neither the chaperone function of the middle domain of HtpG nor that of other molecular chaperones such as DnaK, the prokaryotic homologue of Hsp70, and small Hsp. The addition of colistin sulfate salt increased surface hydrophobicity of the N-terminal domain of HtpG and induced oligomerization of HtpG and its N-terminal domain. These structural changes are discussed in relation to the inhibition of the chaperone function.

  9. Dimeric structure of the N-terminal domain of PriB protein from Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis solved ab initio

    SciTech Connect

    Liebschner, Dorothee; Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Dauter, Miroslawa; Dauter, Zbigniew; Nowak, Marta; Kur, Józef; Olszewski, Marcin

    2012-12-01

    The N-terminal domain of the PriB protein from the thermophilic bacterium T. tengcongensis (TtePriB) was expressed and its crystal structure has been solved at the atomic resolution of 1.09 Å by direct methods. PriB is one of the components of the bacterial primosome, which catalyzes the reactivation of stalled replication forks at sites of DNA damage. The N-terminal domain of the PriB protein from the thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis (TtePriB) was expressed and its crystal structure was solved at the atomic resolution of 1.09 Å by direct methods. The protein chain, which encompasses the first 104 residues of the full 220-residue protein, adopts the characteristic oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) structure consisting of a five-stranded β-barrel filled with hydrophobic residues and equipped with four loops extending from the barrel. In the crystal two protomers dimerize, forming a six-stranded antiparallel β-sheet. The structure of the N-terminal OB domain of T. tengcongensis shows significant differences compared with mesophile PriBs. While in all other known structures of PriB a dimer is formed by two identical OB domains in separate chains, TtePriB contains two consecutive OB domains in one chain. However, sequence comparison of both the N-terminal and the C-terminal domains of TtePriB suggests that they have analogous structures and that the natural protein possesses a structure similar to a dimer of two N-terminal domains.

  10. A helical bundle in the N-terminal domain of the BLM helicase mediates dimer and potentially hexamer formation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Chen, Wei-Fei; Zhang, Bo; Fan, San-Hong; Ai, Xia; Liu, Na-Nv; Rety, Stephane; Xi, Xu-Guang

    2017-04-07

    Helicases play a critical role in processes such as replication or recombination by unwinding double-stranded DNA; mutations of these genes can therefore have devastating biological consequences. In humans, mutations in genes of three members of the RecQ family helicases (blm, wrn, and recq4) give rise to three strikingly distinctive clinical phenotypes: Bloom syndrome, Werner syndrome, and Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, respectively. However, the molecular basis for these varying phenotypic outcomes is unclear, in part because a full mechanistic description of helicase activity is lacking. Because the helicase core domains are highly conserved, it has been postulated that functional differences among family members might be explained by significant differences in the N-terminal domains, but these domains are poorly characterized. To help fill this gap, we now describe bioinformatics, biochemical, and structural data for three vertebrate BLM proteins. We pair high resolution crystal structures with SAXS analysis to describe an internal, highly conserved sequence we term the dimerization helical bundle in N-terminal domain (DHBN). We show that, despite the N-terminal domain being loosely structured and potentially lacking a defined three-dimensional structure in general, the DHBN exists as a dimeric structure required for higher order oligomer assembly. Interestingly, the unwinding amplitude and rate decrease as BLM is assembled from dimer into hexamer, and also, the stable DHBN dimer can be dissociated upon ATP hydrolysis. Thus, the structural and biochemical characterizations of N-terminal domains will provide new insights into how the N-terminal domain affects the structural and functional organization of the full BLM molecule.

  11. Functional characterization of a special thermophilic multifunctional amylase OPMA-N and its N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Li, Fan; Zhu, Xuejun; Li, Yanfei; Cao, Hao; Zhang, Yingjiu

    2011-04-01

    A gene encoding a special thermophilic multifunctional amylase OPMA-N was cloned from Bacillus sp. ZW2531-1. OPMA-N has an additional 124-residue N-terminal domain compared with typical amylases and forms a relatively independent domain with a β-pleated sheet and random coil structure. Here we reported an unusual substrate and product specificities of OPMA-N and the impact of the additional N-terminal domain (1-124 aa) on the function and properties of OPMA-N. Both OPMA-N (12.82 U/mg) and its N-terminal domain-truncated ΔOPMA-N (12.55 U/mg) only degraded starch to produce oligosaccharides including maltose, maltotriose, isomaltotriose, and isomaltotetraose, but not to produce glucose. Therefore, the N-terminal domain did not determine its substrate and product specificities that were probably regulated by its C-terminal β-pleated sheet structure. However, the N-terminal domain of OPMA-N seemed to modulate its catalytic feature, leading to the production of more isomaltotriose and less maltose, and it seemed to contribute to OPMA-N's thermostability since OPMA-N showed higher activity than ΔOPMA-N in a temperature range from 40 to 80°C and the half-life (t(1/2)) was 5 h for OPMA-N and 2 h for ΔOPMA-N at 60°C. Both OPMA-N and ΔOPMA-N were Ca(2+)-independent, but their activities could be influenced by Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+), EDTA, SDS (1 mM), or Triton-X100 (1%). Kinetic analysis and starch-adsorption assay indicated that the N-terminal domain of OPMA-N could increase the OPMA-N-starch binding and subsequently increase the catalytic efficiency of OPMA-N for starch. In particular, the N-terminal domain of OPMA-N did not determine its oligomerization, because both OPMA-N and ΔOPMA-N could exist in the forms of monomer, homodimer, and homooligomer at the same time.

  12. NMR assignments of the N-terminal domain of Ogataea polymorpha telomerase reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Polshakov, Vladimir I; Petrova, Olga A; Parfenova, Yulia Yu; Efimov, Sergey V; Klochkov, Vladimir V; Zvereva, Maria I; Dontsova, Olga A

    2016-04-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that adds telomeric DNA fragments to the ends of chromosomes. This enzyme is the focus of substantial attention, both because its structure and mechanism of action are still poorly studied, and because of its pivotal roles in aging and cellular proliferation. The use of telomerase as a potential target for the design of new anticancer drugs is also of great interest. The catalytic protein subunit of telomerase (TERT) contains an N-terminal domain (TEN) that is essential for activity and processivity. Elucidation of the structure and dynamics of TEN in solution is important for understanding the molecular mechanism of telomerase activity and for the design of new telomerase inhibitors. To approach this problem, in this study we report the (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N chemical shift assignments of TEN from Ogataea polymorpha. Analysis of the assigned chemical shifts allowed us to identify secondary structures and protein regions potentially involved in interaction with other participants of the telomerase catalytic cycle.

  13. Structure of the N-terminal domain of the metalloprotease PrtV from Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Edwin, Aaron; Persson, Cecilia; Mayzel, Maxim; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Öhman, Anders; Karlsson, B Göran; Sauer-Eriksson, A Elisabeth

    2015-12-01

    The metalloprotease PrtV from Vibrio cholerae serves an important function for the ability of bacteria to invade the mammalian host cell. The protein belongs to the family of M6 proteases, with a characteristic zinc ion in the catalytic active site. PrtV constitutes a 918 amino acids (102 kDa) multidomain pre-pro-protein that undergoes several N- and C-terminal modifications to form a catalytically active protease. We report here the NMR structure of the PrtV N-terminal domain (residues 23-103) that contains two short α-helices in a coiled coil motif. The helices are held together by a cluster of hydrophobic residues. Approximately 30 residues at the C-terminal end, which were predicted to form a third helical structure, are disordered. These residues are highly conserved within the genus Vibrio, which suggests that they might be functionally important. © 2015 The Authors Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Protein Society.

  14. Solution structure of Atg8 reveals conformational polymorphism of the N-terminal domain

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarten, Melanie; Stoldt, Matthias; Mohrlueder, Jeannine; Willbold, Dieter

    2010-05-07

    During autophagy a crescent shaped like membrane is formed, which engulfs the material that is to be degraded. This membrane grows further until its edges fuse to form the double membrane covered autophagosome. Atg8 is a protein, which is required for this initial step of autophagy. Therefore, a multistage conjugation process of newly synthesized Atg8 to phosphatidylethanolamine is of critical importance. Here we present the high resolution structure of unprocessed Atg8 determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Its C-terminal subdomain shows a well-defined ubiquitin-like fold with slightly elevated mobility in the pico- to nanosecond timescale as determined by heteronuclear NOE data. In comparison to unprocessed Atg8, cleaved Atg8{sup G116} shows a decreased mobility behaviour. The N-terminal domain adopts different conformations within the micro- to millisecond timescale. The possible biological relevance of the differences in dynamic behaviours between both subdomains as well as between the cleaved and uncleaved forms is discussed.

  15. Crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of the human protooncogene Nup214/CAN

    PubMed Central

    Napetschnig, Johanna; Blobel, Günter; Hoelz, André

    2007-01-01

    The mammalian nuclear pore complex (NPC) is an ≈120-MDa proteinaceous assembly consisting of ≈30 proteins and is the sole gate in the nuclear envelope. The human protooncogene Nup214 was first identified as a target for chromosomal translocation involved in leukemogenesis. Nup214 is located on the cytoplasmic face of the NPC and is implicated in anchoring the cytoplasmic filaments of the NPC and recruiting the RNA helicase Ddx19. Here, we present the crystal structure of the human Nup214 N-terminal domain at 1.65-Å resolution. The structure reveals a seven-bladed β-propeller followed by a 30-residue C-terminal extended peptide segment, which folds back onto the β-propeller and binds to its bottom face. The β-propeller repeats lack any recognizable sequence motif and are distinguished by extensive insertions between the canonical β-strands. We propose a mechanism by which the C-terminal peptide extension is involved in NPC assembly. PMID:17264208

  16. Highly heterologous region in the N-terminal extracellular domain of reptilian follitropin receptors.

    PubMed

    Akazome, Y; Ogasawara, O; Park, M K; Mori, T

    1996-12-01

    The primary structure of the N-terminal extracellular region of the follitropin receptor (FSH-R), which is thought to be responsible for hormone binding specificity, was determined in three reptilian species (tortoise, gecko, and lizard). Remarkably low sequence homologies were detected in the C-terminal part of the extracellular domain. This region was estimated to be a part of exon 10, which is the last exon of the FSH-R gene. In this region, not only were low homologies detected among the three reptilian species, but also specific deletions and/or insertions were found. In particular, large deletions were detected in squamate (gecko and lizard) FSH-Rs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these large deletions occurred recently, i.e., after the Triassic period. In another region characterized, sequence homologies were high, with tortoise-rat homology 78.4%, gecko-rat 64.7%, and lizard-rat 69.1%. In this highly conserved region, however, some reptile-specific alterations were detected, such as the loss of a cysteine residue in putative exon 7 and the existence of potential N-linked glycosylation sites in putative exon 9.

  17. Human TRPA1 is intrinsically cold- and chemosensitive with and without its N-terminal ankyrin repeat domain

    PubMed Central

    Moparthi, Lavanya; Survery, Sabeen; Kreir, Mohamed; Simonsen, Charlotte; Kjellbom, Per; Högestätt, Edward D.; Johanson, Urban; Zygmunt, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    We have purified and reconstituted human transient receptor potential (TRP) subtype A1 (hTRPA1) into lipid bilayers and recorded single-channel currents to understand its inherent thermo- and chemosensory properties as well as the role of the ankyrin repeat domain (ARD) of the N terminus in channel behavior. We report that hTRPA1 with and without its N-terminal ARD (Δ1–688 hTRPA1) is intrinsically cold-sensitive, and thus, cold-sensing properties of hTRPA1 reside outside the N-terminal ARD. We show activation of hTRPA1 by the thiol oxidant 2-((biotinoyl)amino)ethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTSEA-biotin) and that electrophilic compounds activate hTRPA1 in the presence and absence of the N-terminal ARD. The nonelectrophilic compounds menthol and the cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabiorcol (C16) directly activate hTRPA1 at different sites independent of the N-terminal ARD. The TRPA1 antagonist HC030031 inhibited cold and chemical activation of hTRPA1 and Δ1–688 hTRPA1, supporting a direct interaction with hTRPA1 outside the N-terminal ARD. These findings show that hTRPA1 is an intrinsically cold- and chemosensitive ion channel. Thus, second messengers, including Ca2+, or accessory proteins are not needed for hTRPA1 responses to cold or chemical activators. We suggest that conformational changes outside the N-terminal ARD by cold, electrophiles, and nonelectrophiles are important in hTRPA1 channel gating and that targeting chemical interaction sites outside the N-terminal ARD provides possibilities to fine tune TRPA1-based drug therapies (e.g., for treatment of pain associated with cold hypersensitivity and cardiovascular disease). PMID:25389312

  18. Structural modeling of the N-terminal signal–receiving domain of IκBα

    PubMed Central

    Yazdi, Samira; Durdagi, Serdar; Naumann, Michael; Stein, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) exerts essential roles in many biological processes including cell growth, apoptosis and innate and adaptive immunity. The NF-κB inhibitor (IκBα) retains NF-κB in the cytoplasm and thus inhibits nuclear localization of NF-κB and its association with DNA. Recent protein crystal structures of the C-terminal part of IκBα in complex with NF-κB provided insights into the protein-protein interactions but could not reveal structural details about the N-terminal signal receiving domain (SRD). The SRD of IκBα contains a degron, formed following phosphorylation by IκB kinases (IKK). In current protein X-ray structures, however, the SRD is not resolved and assumed to be disordered. Here, we combined secondary structure annotation and domain threading followed by long molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and showed that the SRD possesses well-defined secondary structure elements. We show that the SRD contains 3 additional stable α-helices supplementing the six ARDs present in crystallized IκBα. The IκBα/NF-κB protein-protein complex remained intact and stable during the entire simulations. Also in solution, free IκBα retains its structural integrity. Differences in structural topology and dynamics were observed by comparing the structures of NF-κB free and NF-κB bound IκBα-complex. This study paves the way for investigating the signaling properties of the SRD in the IκBα degron. A detailed atomic scale understanding of molecular mechanism of NF-κB activation, regulation and the protein-protein interactions may assist to design and develop novel chronic inflammation modulators. PMID:26157801

  19. Promoter-dependent activity on androgen receptor N-terminal domain mutations in androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tadokoro-Cuccaro, Rieko; Davies, John; Mongan, Nigel P; Bunch, Trevor; Brown, Rosalind S; Audi, Laura; Watt, Kate; McEwan, Iain J; Hughes, Ieuan A

    2014-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) mutations are associated with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). Missense mutations identified in the AR-N-terminal domain (AR-NTD) are rare, and clinical phenotypes are typically mild. We investigated 7 missense mutations and 2 insertion/deletions located in the AR-NTD. This study aimed to elucidate the pathogenic role of AR-NTD mutants in AIS and to use this knowledge to further define AR-NTD function. AR-NTD mutations (Q120E, A159T, G216R, N235K, G248V, L272F, and P380R) were introduced into AR-expression plasmids. Stably expressing cell lines were established for del57L and ins58L. Transactivation was measured using luciferase reporter constructs under the control of GRE and Pem promoters. Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy and partial proteolysis studies were performed for mutations which showed reduced activities by using a purified AR-AF1 protein. Pem-luciferase reporter activation was reduced for A159T, N235K, and G248V but not the GRE-luciferase reporter. Protein structure analysis detected no significant change in the AR-AF1 region for these mutations. Reduced cellular expression and transactivation activity were observed for ins58L. The mutations Q120E, G216R, L272F, P380R, and del57L showed small or no detectable changes in function. Thus, clinical and experimental analyses have identified novel AR-signalling defects associated with mutations in the structurally disordered AR-NTD domain in patients with AIS. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. The Pilin N-terminal Domain Maintains Neisseria gonorrhoeae Transformation Competence during Pilus Phase Variation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The obligate human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the sole aetiologic agent of the sexually transmitted infection, gonorrhea. Required for gonococcal infection, Type IV pili (Tfp) mediate many functions including adherence, twitching motility, defense against neutrophil killing, and natural transformation. Critical for immune escape, the gonococcal Tfp undergoes antigenic variation, a recombination event at the pilE locus that varies the surface exposed residues of the major pilus subunit PilE (pilin) in the pilus fiber. This programmed recombination system has the potential to produce thousands of pilin variants and can produce strains with unproductive pilin molecules that are completely unable to form Tfp. Saturating mutagenesis of the 3’ third of the pilE gene identified 68 unique single nucleotide mutations that each resulted in an underpiliated colony morphology. Notably, all isolates, including those with undetectable levels of pilin protein and no observable surface-exposed pili, retained an intermediate level of transformation competence not exhibited in ΔpilE strains. Site-directed, nonsense mutations revealed that only the first 38 amino acids of the mature pilin N-terminus (the N-terminal domain or Ntd) are required for transformation competence, and microscopy, ELISAs and pilus purification demonstrate that extended Tfp are not required for competence. Transformation in strains producing only the pilin Ntd has the same genetic determinants as wild-type transformation. The Ntd corresponds to the alternative product of S-pilin cleavage, a specific proteolysis unique to pathogenic Neisseria. Mutation of the S-pilin cleavage site demonstrated that S-pilin cleavage mediated release of the Ntd is required for competence when a strain produces unproductive pilin molecules that cannot assemble into a Tfp through mutation or antigenic variation. We conclude that S-pilin cleavage evolved as a mechanism to maintain competence in nonpiliated antigenic

  1. Structure of the N-terminal domain of the adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (CAP) from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Ksiazek, Dorota; Brandstetter, Hans; Israel, Lars; Bourenkov, Gleb P; Katchalova, Galina; Janssen, Klaus-Peter; Bartunik, Hans D; Noegel, Angelika A; Schleicher, Michael; Holak, Tad A

    2003-09-01

    Cyclase-associated proteins (CAPs) are widely distributed and highly conserved proteins that regulate actin remodeling in response to cellular signals. The N termini of CAPs play a role in Ras signaling and bind adenylyl cyclase; the C termini bind to G-actin and thereby alter the dynamic rearrangements of the microfilament system. We report here the X-ray structure of the core of the N-terminal domain of the CAP from Dictyostelium discoideum, which comprises residues 51-226, determined by a combination of single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS). The overall structure of this fragment is an alpha helix bundle composed of six antiparallel helices. Results from gel filtration and crosslinking experiments for CAP(1-226), CAP(255-464), and the full-length protein, together with the CAP N-terminal domain structure and the recently determined CAP C-terminal domain structure, provide evidence that the functional structure of CAP is multimeric.

  2. Solution structure of the N-terminal domain of a replication restart primosome factor, PriC, in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Aramaki, Takahiko; Abe, Yoshito; Katayama, Tsutomu; Ueda, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    In eubacterial organisms, the oriC-independent primosome plays an essential role in replication restart after the dissociation of the replication DNA-protein complex by DNA damage. PriC is a key protein component in the replication restart primosome. Our recent study suggested that PriC is divided into two domains: an N-terminal and a C-terminal domain. In the present study, we determined the solution structure of the N-terminal domain, whose structure and function have remained unknown until now. The revealed structure was composed of three helices and one extended loop. We also observed chemical shift changes in the heteronuclear NMR spectrum and oligomerization in the presence of ssDNA. These abilities may contribute to the PriC-ssDNA complex, which is important for the replication restart primosome. PMID:23868391

  3. The N-Terminal Domain of the Arenavirus L Protein Is an RNA Endonuclease Essential in mRNA Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Benjamin; Coutard, Bruno; Lelke, Michaela; Ferron, François; Kerber, Romy; Jamal, Saïd; Frangeul, Antoine; Baronti, Cécile; Charrel, Rémi; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Vonrhein, Clemens; Lescar, Julien; Bricogne, Gérard; Günther, Stephan; Canard, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Arenaviridae synthesize viral mRNAs using short capped primers presumably acquired from cellular transcripts by a ‘cap-snatching’ mechanism. Here, we report the crystal structure and functional characterization of the N-terminal 196 residues (NL1) of the L protein from the prototypic arenavirus: lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. The NL1 domain is able to bind and cleave RNA. The 2.13 Å resolution crystal structure of NL1 reveals a type II endonuclease α/β architecture similar to the N-terminal end of the influenza virus PA protein. Superimposition of both structures, mutagenesis and reverse genetics studies reveal a unique spatial arrangement of key active site residues related to the PD…(D/E)XK type II endonuclease signature sequence. We show that this endonuclease domain is conserved and active across the virus families Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae and Orthomyxoviridae and propose that the arenavirus NL1 domain is the Arenaviridae cap-snatching endonuclease. PMID:20862324

  4. The Sec7 N-terminal regulatory domains facilitate membrane-proximal activation of the Arf1 GTPase

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Brian C; Halaby, Steve L; Gustafson, Margaret A; Fromme, J Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The Golgi complex is the central sorting compartment of eukaryotic cells. Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Arf-GEFs) regulate virtually all traffic through the Golgi by activating Arf GTPase trafficking pathways. The Golgi Arf-GEFs contain multiple autoregulatory domains, but the precise mechanisms underlying their function remain largely undefined. We report a crystal structure revealing that the N-terminal DCB and HUS regulatory domains of the Arf-GEF Sec7 form a single structural unit. We demonstrate that the established role of the N-terminal region in dimerization is not conserved; instead, a C-terminal autoinhibitory domain is responsible for dimerization of Sec7. We find that the DCB/HUS domain amplifies the ability of Sec7 to activate Arf1 on the membrane surface by facilitating membrane insertion of the Arf1 amphipathic helix. This enhancing function of the Sec7 N-terminal domains is consistent with the high rate of Arf1-dependent trafficking to the plasma membrane necessary for maximal cell growth. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12411.001 PMID:26765562

  5. N-terminal and C-terminal cytosine deaminase domain of APOBEC3G inhibit hepatitis B virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yan-Chang; Tian, Yong-Jun; Ding, Hong-Hui; Wang, Bao-Ju; Yang, Yan; Hao, You-Hua; Zhao, Xi-Ping; Lu, Meng-Ji; Gong, Fei-Li; Yang, Dong-Liang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of human apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic-polypeptide 3G (APOBEC3G) and its N-terminal or C-terminal cytosine deaminase domain-mediated antiviral activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: The mammalian hepatoma cells HepG2 and HuH7 were cotransfected with APOBEC3G and its N-terminal or C-terminal cytosine deaminase domain expression vector and 1.3-fold-overlength HBV DNA as well as the linear monomeric HBV of genotype B and C. For in vivo study, an HBV vector-based mouse model was used in which APOBEC3G and its N-terminal or C-terminal cytosine deaminase domain expression vectors were co-delivered with 1.3-fold-overlength HBV DNA via high-volume tail vein injection. Levels of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) in the media of the transfected cells and in the sera of mice were determined by ELISA. The expression of hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) in the transfected cells was determined by Western blot analysis. Core-associated HBV DNA was examined by Southern blot analysis. Levels of HBV DNA in the sera of mice as well as HBV core-associated RNA in the liver of mice were determined by quantitative PCR and quantitative RT-PCR analysis, respectively. RESULTS: Human APOBEC3G exerted an anti-HBV activity in a dose-dependent manner in HepG2 cells, and comparable suppressive effects were observed on genotype B and C as that of genotype A. Interestingly, the N-terminal or C-terminal cytosine deaminase domain alone could also inhibit HBV replication in HepG2 cells as well as Huh7 cells. Consistent with in vitro results, the levels of HBsAg in the sera of mice were dramatically decreased, with more than 50 times decrease in the levels of serum HBV DNA and core-associated RNA in the liver of mice treated with APOBEC3G and its N-terminal or C-terminal cytosine deaminase domain as compared to the controls. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide probably the

  6. Immunization with the DNA-encoding N-terminal domain of proteophosphoglycan of Leishmania donovani generates Th1-type immunoprotective response against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Samant, Mukesh; Gupta, Reema; Kumari, Shraddha; Misra, Pragya; Khare, Prashant; Kushawaha, Pramod Kumar; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh Anant; Dube, Anuradha

    2009-07-01

    Leishmania produce several types of mucin-like glycoproteins called proteophosphoglycans (PPGs) which exist as secretory as well as surface-bound forms in both promastigotes and amastigotes. The structure and function of PPGs have been reported to be species and stage specific as in the case of Leishmania major and Leishmania mexicana; there has been no such information available for Leishmania donovani. We have recently demonstrated that PPG is differentially expressed in sodium stibogluconate-sensitive and -resistant clinical isolates of L. donovani. To further elucidate the structure and function of the ppg gene of L. donovani, a partial sequence of its N-terminal domain of 1.6 kb containing the majority of antigenic determinants, was successfully cloned and expressed in prokaryotic as well as mammalian cells. We further evaluated the DNA-encoding N-terminal domain of the ppg gene as a vaccine in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) against the L. donovani challenge. The prophylactic efficacy to the tune of approximately 80% was observed in vaccinated hamsters and all of them could survive beyond 6 mo after challenge. The efficacy was supported by a surge in inducible NO synthase, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-12 mRNA levels along with extreme down-regulation of TGF-beta, IL-4, and IL-10. A rise in the level of Leishmania-specific IgG2 was also observed which was indicative of enhanced cellular immune response. The results suggest the N-terminal domain of L. donovani ppg as a potential DNA vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis.

  7. An intact putative mouse telomerase essential N-terminal domain is necessary for proper telomere maintenance.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Philippe; Khondaker, Shanjadia; Zhu, Shusen; Lauzon, Catherine; Mai, Sabine; Autexier, Chantal

    2016-04-01

    Naturally occurring telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) isoforms may regulate telomerase activity, and possibly function independently of telomeres to modulate embryonic stem (ES) cell self-renewal and differentiation. We report the characterisation of two novel mouse TERT (mTERT) splice variants, Ins-i1[1-102] (Insi1 for short) and Del-e12[1-40] (Dele12 for short) that have not been previously described. Insi1 represents an in-frame insertion of nucleotides 1-102 from intron 1, encoding a 34 amino acid insertion at amino acid 73. Based on known functions of this region in human and Tetrahymena TERTs, the insertion interrupts the RNA interaction domain 1 implicated in low-affinity RNA binding and the telomerase essential N-terminal domain implicated in DNA substrate interactions. Dele12 contains a 40 nucleotide deletion of exon 12 which generates a premature stop codon, and possible protein lacking the C-terminus. We found Insi1 expressed in adult mouse brain and kidney and Dele12 expressed in adult mouse ovary. Dele12 was inactive in vitro and in mTERT(-/-) ES cells and Insi1 retained 26-48% of telomerase activity reconstituted by wild-type mTERT in vitro and in mTERT(-/-) ES cells. The Insi1 variant exhibited reduced DNA substrate binding in vitro and both variants exhibited a reduction in binding the telomerase RNA, mTR, when expressed in mTERT(-/-) ES cells. Stable expression of Dele12 in the mouse fibroblast CB17 cell line inhibited telomerase activity and slowed cell growth, suggesting a potential dominant-negative effect. Levels of signal-free ends, representing short telomeres, and end-to-end fusions were higher in mTERT(-/-) ES cells expressing mTERT-Insi1 and mTERT-Dele12, compared with levels observed in mTERT(-/-) ES cells expressing wild-type mTERT. In addition, in mTERT(-/-) cells expressing mTERT-Insi1, we observed chromosomes that were products of repeated breakage-bridge-fusion cycles and other telomere dysfunction-related aberrations. An

  8. The N-Terminal Domain of the Tomato Immune Protein Prf Contains Multiple Homotypic and Pto Kinase Interaction Sites*

    PubMed Central

    Saur, Isabel Marie-Luise; Conlan, Brendon Francis; Rathjen, John Paul

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae bacteria in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is conferred by the Prf recognition complex, composed of the nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeats protein Prf and the protein kinase Pto. The complex is activated by recognition of the P. syringae effectors AvrPto and AvrPtoB. The N-terminal domain is responsible for Prf homodimerization, which brings two Pto kinases into close proximity and holds them in inactive conformation in the absence of either effector. Negative regulation is lost by effector binding to the catalytic cleft of Pto, leading to disruption of its P+1 loop within the activation segment. This change is translated through Prf to a second Pto molecule in the complex. Here we describe a schematic model of the unique Prf N-terminal domain dimer and its interaction with the effector binding determinant Pto. Using heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana, we define multiple sites of N domain homotypic interaction and infer that it forms a parallel dimer folded centrally to enable contact between the N and C termini. Furthermore, we found independent binding sites for Pto at either end of the N-terminal domain. Using the constitutively active mutant ptoL205D, we identify a potential repression site for Pto in the first ∼100 amino acids of Prf. Finally, we find that the Prf leucine-rich repeats domain also binds the N-terminal region, highlighting a possible mechanism for transfer of the effector binding signal to the NB-LRR regulatory unit (consisting of a central nucleotide binding and C-terminal leucine-rich repeats). PMID:25792750

  9. The N-terminal domain of the tomato immune protein Prf contains multiple homotypic and Pto kinase interaction sites.

    PubMed

    Saur, Isabel Marie-Luise; Conlan, Brendon Francis; Rathjen, John Paul

    2015-05-01

    Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae bacteria in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is conferred by the Prf recognition complex, composed of the nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeats protein Prf and the protein kinase Pto. The complex is activated by recognition of the P. syringae effectors AvrPto and AvrPtoB. The N-terminal domain is responsible for Prf homodimerization, which brings two Pto kinases into close proximity and holds them in inactive conformation in the absence of either effector. Negative regulation is lost by effector binding to the catalytic cleft of Pto, leading to disruption of its P+1 loop within the activation segment. This change is translated through Prf to a second Pto molecule in the complex. Here we describe a schematic model of the unique Prf N-terminal domain dimer and its interaction with the effector binding determinant Pto. Using heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana, we define multiple sites of N domain homotypic interaction and infer that it forms a parallel dimer folded centrally to enable contact between the N and C termini. Furthermore, we found independent binding sites for Pto at either end of the N-terminal domain. Using the constitutively active mutant ptoL205D, we identify a potential repression site for Pto in the first ∼100 amino acids of Prf. Finally, we find that the Prf leucine-rich repeats domain also binds the N-terminal region, highlighting a possible mechanism for transfer of the effector binding signal to the NB-LRR regulatory unit (consisting of a central nucleotide binding and C-terminal leucine-rich repeats). © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Human cap methyltransferase (RNMT) N-terminal non-catalytic domain mediates recruitment to transcription initiation sites

    PubMed Central

    Aregger, Michael; Cowling, Victoria H.

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression in eukaryotes is dependent on the mRNA methyl cap which mediates mRNA processing and translation initiation. Synthesis of the methyl cap initiates with the addition of 7-methylguanosine to the initiating nucleotide of RNA pol II (polymerase II) transcripts, which occurs predominantly during transcription and in mammals is catalysed by RNGTT (RNA guanylyltransferase and 5′ phosphatase) and RNMT (RNA guanine-7 methyltransferase). RNMT has a methyltransferase domain and an N-terminal domain whose function is unclear; it is conserved in mammals, but not required for cap methyltransferase activity. In the present study we report that the N-terminal domain is necessary and sufficient for RNMT recruitment to transcription initiation sites and that recruitment occurs in a DRB (5,6-dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole)-dependent manner. The RNMT-activating subunit, RAM (RNMT-activating miniprotein), is also recruited to transcription initiation sites via an interaction with RNMT. The RNMT N-terminal domain is required for transcript expression, translation and cell proliferation. PMID:23863084

  11. Effect of sodium chloride on the structure and stability of spider silk's N-terminal protein domain.

    PubMed

    Gronau, Greta; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J

    2013-03-01

    A spider's ability to store silk protein solutions at high concentration is believed to be related to the protein's terminal domains. It has been suggested that a shift in salt concentration and pH can have a significant influence on the assembly process. Based on experimental data, a model has been proposed in which the N-terminal domain exists as a monomer during storage and assembles into a homodimer upon spinning. Here we perform a systematic computational study using atomistic, coarse-grained and well-tempered metadynamics simulation to understand how the NaCl concentration in the solution affects the N-terminal domain of the silk protein. Our results show that a high salt concentration, as found during storage, weakens key salt bridges between the monomers, inducing a loss in bond energy by 28.6% in a single salt bridge. As a result dimer formation is less likely as 35.5% less energy is required to unfold the dimer by mechanical force. Conversely, homodimer formation appears to be more likely at low salt concentrations as the salt bridge stays at the lower energy state. The link between salt concentration, structure and stability of the N-terminal domain provides a possible mechanism that prevents premature fiber formation during storage.

  12. Functional Characterization of the N-Terminal C2 Domain from Arabidopsis thaliana Phospholipase Dα and Dβ

    PubMed Central

    Noiriel, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Most of plant phospholipases D (PLD) exhibit a C2-lipid binding domain of around 130 amino acid residues at their N-terminal region, involved in their Ca2+-dependent membrane binding. In this study, we expressed and partially purified catalytically active PLDα from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPLDα) in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the recombinant AtPLDα was found to be NVEETIGV and thus to lack the first 35 amino acid belonging to the C2 domain, as found in other recombinant or plant purified PLDs. To investigate the impact of such a cleavage on the functionality of C2 domains, we expressed, in E. coli, purified, and refolded the mature-like form of the C2 domain of the AtPLDα along with its equivalent C2 domain of the AtPLDβ, for the sake of comparison. Using Förster Resonance Energy Transfer and dot-blot assays, both C2 domains were shown to bind phosphatidylglycerol in a Ca2+-independent manner while phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine binding were found to be enhanced in the presence of Ca2+. Amino acid sequence alignment and molecular modeling of both C2 domains with known C2 domain structures revealed the presence of a novel Ca2+-binding site within the C2 domain of AtPLDα. PMID:28101506

  13. Functional Characterization of the N-Terminal C2 Domain from Arabidopsis thaliana Phospholipase Dα and Dβ.

    PubMed

    Rahier, Renaud; Noiriel, Alexandre; Abousalham, Abdelkarim

    2016-01-01

    Most of plant phospholipases D (PLD) exhibit a C2-lipid binding domain of around 130 amino acid residues at their N-terminal region, involved in their Ca(2+)-dependent membrane binding. In this study, we expressed and partially purified catalytically active PLDα from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPLDα) in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the recombinant AtPLDα was found to be NVEETIGV and thus to lack the first 35 amino acid belonging to the C2 domain, as found in other recombinant or plant purified PLDs. To investigate the impact of such a cleavage on the functionality of C2 domains, we expressed, in E. coli, purified, and refolded the mature-like form of the C2 domain of the AtPLDα along with its equivalent C2 domain of the AtPLDβ, for the sake of comparison. Using Förster Resonance Energy Transfer and dot-blot assays, both C2 domains were shown to bind phosphatidylglycerol in a Ca(2+)-independent manner while phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine binding were found to be enhanced in the presence of Ca(2+). Amino acid sequence alignment and molecular modeling of both C2 domains with known C2 domain structures revealed the presence of a novel Ca(2+)-binding site within the C2 domain of AtPLDα.

  14. Structure of a double hexamer of the Pyrococcus furiosus minichromosome maintenance protein N-terminal domain

    SciTech Connect

    Meagher, Martin; Enemark, Eric J.

    2016-06-22

    The crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of thePyrococcus furiosusminichromosome maintenance (MCM) protein as a double hexamer is described. The MCM complex is a ring-shaped helicase that unwinds DNA at the replication fork of eukaryotes and archaea. Prior to replication initiation, the MCM complex assembles as an inactive double hexamer at specific sites of DNA. The presented structure is highly consistent with previous MCM double-hexamer structures and shows two MCM hexamers with a head-to-head interaction mediated by the N-terminal domain. Minor differences include a diminished head-to-head interaction and a slightly reduced inter-hexamer rotation.

  15. Crystals of the hydrogenase maturation factor HypF N-terminal domain grown in microgravity, display improved internal order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponassi, Marco; Felli, Lamberto; Parodi, Stefania; Valbusa, Ugo; Rosano, Camillo

    2011-01-01

    Synthesis of the active [Ni-Fe]-hydrogenase in prokaryotes requires a series of ancillary maturation factors. Among them, the HypF maturation factor is a multidomain 82 kDa protein, whose N-terminal domain displays sequence and structural similarities to acylphosphatases. Acylphosphatases are small enzymes that are able to catalyze carboxyl-phosphate bond hydrolysis in acylphosphates, as well as in nucleoside di- and tri-phosphates and in arylphosphates. Here, we present a crystallographic comparison between microgravity and earth-grown crystals of the HypF N-terminal domain. Both crystals were of excellent quality, thereby allowing us to collect very high resolution datasets. A detailed analysis of data collection and refinement statistics, together with an analysis of the diffraction pattern showed that microgravity would appear to further improve the internal order of crystals.

  16. A novel calmodulin-regulated Ca2+-ATPase (ACA2) from Arabidopsis with an N-terminal autoinhibitory domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, J. F.; Hong, B.; Hwang, I.; Guo, H. Q.; Stoddard, R.; Huang, J. F.; Palmgren, M. G.; Sze, H.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    To study transporters involved in regulating intracellular Ca2+, we isolated a full-length cDNA encoding a Ca2+-ATPase from a model plant, Arabidopsis, and named it ACA2 (Arabidopsis Ca2+-ATPase, isoform 2). ACA2p is most similar to a "plasma membrane-type" Ca2+-ATPase, but is smaller (110 kDa), contains a unique N-terminal domain, and is missing a long C-terminal calmodulin-binding regulatory domain. In addition, ACA2p is localized to an endomembrane system and not the plasma membrane, as shown by aqueous-two phase fractionation of microsomal membranes. ACA2p was expressed in yeast as both a full-length protein (ACA2-1p) and an N-terminal truncation mutant (ACA2-2p; Delta residues 2-80). Only the truncation mutant restored the growth on Ca2+-depleted medium of a yeast mutant defective in both endogenous Ca2+ pumps, PMR1 and PMC1. Although basal Ca2+-ATPase activity of the full-length protein was low, it was stimulated 5-fold by calmodulin (50% activation around 30 nM). In contrast, the truncated pump was fully active and insensitive to calmodulin. A calmodulin-binding sequence was identified within the first 36 residues of the N-terminal domain, as shown by calmodulin gel overlays on fusion proteins. Thus, ACA2 encodes a novel calmodulin-regulated Ca2+-ATPase distinguished by a unique N-terminal regulatory domain and a non-plasma membrane localization.

  17. A novel calmodulin-regulated Ca2+-ATPase (ACA2) from Arabidopsis with an N-terminal autoinhibitory domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, J. F.; Hong, B.; Hwang, I.; Guo, H. Q.; Stoddard, R.; Huang, J. F.; Palmgren, M. G.; Sze, H.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    To study transporters involved in regulating intracellular Ca2+, we isolated a full-length cDNA encoding a Ca2+-ATPase from a model plant, Arabidopsis, and named it ACA2 (Arabidopsis Ca2+-ATPase, isoform 2). ACA2p is most similar to a "plasma membrane-type" Ca2+-ATPase, but is smaller (110 kDa), contains a unique N-terminal domain, and is missing a long C-terminal calmodulin-binding regulatory domain. In addition, ACA2p is localized to an endomembrane system and not the plasma membrane, as shown by aqueous-two phase fractionation of microsomal membranes. ACA2p was expressed in yeast as both a full-length protein (ACA2-1p) and an N-terminal truncation mutant (ACA2-2p; Delta residues 2-80). Only the truncation mutant restored the growth on Ca2+-depleted medium of a yeast mutant defective in both endogenous Ca2+ pumps, PMR1 and PMC1. Although basal Ca2+-ATPase activity of the full-length protein was low, it was stimulated 5-fold by calmodulin (50% activation around 30 nM). In contrast, the truncated pump was fully active and insensitive to calmodulin. A calmodulin-binding sequence was identified within the first 36 residues of the N-terminal domain, as shown by calmodulin gel overlays on fusion proteins. Thus, ACA2 encodes a novel calmodulin-regulated Ca2+-ATPase distinguished by a unique N-terminal regulatory domain and a non-plasma membrane localization.

  18. Crystallized N-terminal domain of influenza virus matrix protein M1 and method of determining and using same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Ming (Inventor); Sha, Bingdong (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The matrix protein, M1, of influenza virus strain A/PR/8/34 has been purified from virions and crystallized. The crystals consist of a stable fragment (18 Kd) of the M1 protein. X-ray diffraction studies indicated that the crystals have a space group of P3.sub.t 21 or P3.sub.2 21. Vm calculations showed that there are two monomers in an asymmetric unit. A crystallized N-terminal domain of M1, wherein the N-terminal domain of M1 is crystallized such that the three dimensional structure of the crystallized N-terminal domain of M1 can be determined to a resolution of about 2.1 .ANG. or better, and wherein the three dimensional structure of the uncrystallized N-terminal domain of M1 cannot be determined to a resolution of about 2.1 .ANG. or better. A method of purifying M1 and a method of crystallizing M1. A method of using the three-dimensional crystal structure of M1 to screen for antiviral, influenza virus treating or preventing compounds. A method of using the three-dimensional crystal structure of M1 to screen for improved binding to or inhibition of influenza virus M1. The use of the three-dimensional crystal structure of the M1 protein of influenza virus in the manufacture of an inhibitor of influenza virus M1. The use of the three-dimensional crystal structure of the M1 protein of influenza virus in the screening of candidates for inhibition of influenza virus M1.

  19. Studies on the structure and function of the N-terminal domain of the pneumococcal murein hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Sanz, J M; Díaz, E; García, J L

    1992-04-01

    The structures of the choline-dependent pneumococcal murein hydrolases, LYTA amidase and CPL1 lysozyme, and the choline-independent CPL7 lysozyme were analysed by controlled proteolytic digestions. The trypsin cleavage of the CPL1 and CPL7 lysozymes produced two resistant polypeptides, F1 and F7 respectively, corresponding to the N-terminal domain of the enzymes, whereas the amidase LYTA was completely hydrolysed by the protease. Interestingly, the F1 and F7 fragments showed a low, but significant, choline-independent lysozyme activity. Choline reduced the rate of proteolytic hydrolysis of choline-dependent enzymes, suggesting that the C-terminal choline-binding domain adopts a more resistant conformation in the presence of the ligand. On the other hand, the regions encoding the N-terminal domains of the three enzymes have been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, showing that these domains adopt an active conformation even in the absence of their C-terminal domains. The lower activity shown by the catalytic domains when compared with that of the complete enzymes suggests that the acquisition of a substrate-binding domain represents a noticeable evolutionary advantage for enzymes that interact with polymeric substrates, allowing them to achieve a higher catalytic efficiency. These results strongly reinforce the hypothesis that the pneumococcal murein hydrolases have been originated by fusion of two structural and functional independent domains, and provide new experimental support to the theory of modular evolution of proteins.

  20. Critical lysine residues within the overlooked N-terminal domain of human APE1 regulate its biological functions.

    PubMed

    Fantini, Damiano; Vascotto, Carlo; Marasco, Daniela; D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Romanello, Milena; Vitagliano, Luigi; Pedone, Carlo; Poletto, Mattia; Cesaratto, Laura; Quadrifoglio, Franco; Scaloni, Andrea; Radicella, J Pablo; Tell, Gianluca

    2010-12-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), an essential protein in mammals, is involved in base excision DNA repair (BER) and in regulation of gene expression, acting as a redox co-activator of several transcription factors. Recent findings highlight a novel role for APE1 in RNA metabolism, which is modulated by nucleophosmin (NPM1). The results reported in this article show that five lysine residues (K24, K25, K27, K31 and K32), located in the APE1 N-terminal unstructured domain, are involved in the interaction of APE1 with both RNA and NPM1, thus supporting a competitive binding mechanism. Data from kinetic experiments demonstrate that the APE1 N-terminal domain also serves as a device for fine regulation of protein catalytic activity on abasic DNA. Interestingly, some of these critical lysine residues undergo acetylation in vivo. These results suggest that protein-protein interactions and/or post-translational modifications involving APE1 N-terminal domain may play important in vivo roles, in better coordinating and fine-tuning protein BER activity and function on RNA metabolism.

  1. The SAS-5 N-terminal domain is a tetramer, with implications for centriole assembly in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Shimanovskaya, Ekaterina; Qiao, Renping; Lesigang, Johannes; Dong, Gang

    2013-07-01

    The centriole is a conserved microtubule-based organelle essential for both centrosome formation and cilium biogenesis. It has a unique 9-fold symmetry and its assembly is governed by at least five component proteins (SPD-2, ZYG-1, SAS-5, SAS-6 and SAS-4), which are recruited in a hierarchical order. Recently published structural studies of the SAS-6 N-terminal domain have greatly advanced our understanding of the mechanisms of centriole assembly. However, it remains unclear how the weak interaction between the SAS-6 N-terminal head groups could drive the assembly of a closed ring-like structure, and what determines the stacking of multiple rings on top one another in centriole duplication. We recently reported that SAS-5 binds specifically to a very narrow region of the SAS-6 central coiled coil through its C-terminal domain (CTD, residues 391-404). Here, we further demonstrate by both static light scattering and small angle X-ray scattering that the SAS-5 N-terminal domain (NTD, residues 1-260) forms a tetramer. Specifically, we found that the tetramer is formed by SAS-5 residues 82-260, whereas residues 1-81 are intrinsically disordered. Taking these results together, we propose a working model for SAS-5-mediated assembly of the multi-layered central tube structure.

  2. Structure and Catalytic Regulatory Function of Ubiquitin Specific Protease 11 N-Terminal and Ubiquitin-like Domains

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitin specific protease 11 (USP11) is implicated in DNA repair, viral RNA replication, and TGFβ signaling. We report the first characterization of the USP11 domain architecture and its role in regulating the enzymatic activity. USP11 consists of an N-terminaldomain present in USPs” (DUSP) and “ubiquitin-like” (UBL) domain, together referred to as DU domains, and the catalytic domain harboring a second UBL domain. Crystal structures of the DU domains show a tandem arrangement with a shortened β-hairpin at the two-domain interface and altered surface characteristics compared to the homologues USP4 and USP15. A conserved VEVY motif is a signature feature at the two-domain interface that shapes a potential protein interaction site. Small angle X-ray scattering and gel filtration experiments are consistent with the USP11DU domains and full-length USP11 being monomeric. Unexpectedly, we reveal, through kinetic assays of a series of deletion mutants, that the catalytic activity of USP11 is not regulated through intramolecular autoinhibition or activation by the N-terminal DU or UBL domains. Moreover, ubiquitin chain cleavage assays with all eight linkages reveal a preference for Lys63-, Lys6-, Lys33-, and Lys11-linked chains over Lys27-, Lys29-, and Lys48-linked and linear chains consistent with USP11’s function in DNA repair pathways that is mediated by the protease domain. Our data support a model whereby USP11 domains outside the catalytic core domain serve as protein interaction or trafficking modules rather than a direct regulatory function of the proteolytic activity. This highlights the diversity of USPs in substrate recognition and regulation of ubiquitin deconjugation. PMID:24724799

  3. Structure and catalytic regulatory function of ubiquitin specific protease 11 N-terminal and ubiquitin-like domains.

    PubMed

    Harper, Stephen; Gratton, Hayley E; Cornaciu, Irina; Oberer, Monika; Scott, David J; Emsley, Jonas; Dreveny, Ingrid

    2014-05-13

    The ubiquitin specific protease 11 (USP11) is implicated in DNA repair, viral RNA replication, and TGFβ signaling. We report the first characterization of the USP11 domain architecture and its role in regulating the enzymatic activity. USP11 consists of an N-terminal "domain present in USPs" (DUSP) and "ubiquitin-like" (UBL) domain, together referred to as DU domains, and the catalytic domain harboring a second UBL domain. Crystal structures of the DU domains show a tandem arrangement with a shortened β-hairpin at the two-domain interface and altered surface characteristics compared to the homologues USP4 and USP15. A conserved VEVY motif is a signature feature at the two-domain interface that shapes a potential protein interaction site. Small angle X-ray scattering and gel filtration experiments are consistent with the USP11DU domains and full-length USP11 being monomeric. Unexpectedly, we reveal, through kinetic assays of a series of deletion mutants, that the catalytic activity of USP11 is not regulated through intramolecular autoinhibition or activation by the N-terminal DU or UBL domains. Moreover, ubiquitin chain cleavage assays with all eight linkages reveal a preference for Lys(63)-, Lys(6)-, Lys(33)-, and Lys(11)-linked chains over Lys(27)-, Lys(29)-, and Lys(48)-linked and linear chains consistent with USP11's function in DNA repair pathways that is mediated by the protease domain. Our data support a model whereby USP11 domains outside the catalytic core domain serve as protein interaction or trafficking modules rather than a direct regulatory function of the proteolytic activity. This highlights the diversity of USPs in substrate recognition and regulation of ubiquitin deconjugation.

  4. NFAT2 Isoforms Differentially Regulate Gene Expression, Cell Death, and Transformation through Alternative N-Terminal Domains.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Pedro I; Faget, Douglas V; Pachulec, Emilia; Robaina, Marcela C; Klumb, Claudete E; Robbs, Bruno K; Viola, João P B

    2016-01-01

    The NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) family of transcription factors is composed of four calcium-responsive proteins (NFAT1 to -4). The NFAT2 (also called NFATc1) gene encodes the isoforms NFAT2α and NFAT2β that result mainly from alternative initiation exons that provide two different N-terminal transactivation domains. However, the specific roles of the NFAT2 isoforms in cell physiology remain unclear. Because previous studies have shown oncogenic potential for NFAT2, this study emphasized the role of the NFAT2 isoforms in cell transformation. Here, we show that a constitutively active form of NFAT2α (CA-NFAT2α) and CA-NFAT2β distinctly control death and transformation in NIH 3T3 cells. While CA-NFAT2α strongly induces cell transformation, CA-NFAT2β leads to reduced cell proliferation and intense cell death through the upregulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). CA-NFAT2β also increases cell death and upregulates Fas ligand (FasL) and TNF-α in CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that differential roles of NFAT2 isoforms in NIH 3T3 cells depend on the N-terminal domain, where the NFAT2β-specific N-terminal acidic motif is necessary to induce cell death. Interestingly, the NFAT2α isoform is upregulated in Burkitt lymphomas, suggesting an isoform-specific involvement of NFAT2 in cancer development. Finally, our data suggest that alternative N-terminal domains of NFAT2 could provide differential mechanisms for the control of cellular functions.

  5. NFAT2 Isoforms Differentially Regulate Gene Expression, Cell Death, and Transformation through Alternative N-Terminal Domains

    PubMed Central

    Lucena, Pedro I.; Faget, Douglas V.; Pachulec, Emilia; Robaina, Marcela C.; Klumb, Claudete E.

    2015-01-01

    The NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) family of transcription factors is composed of four calcium-responsive proteins (NFAT1 to -4). The NFAT2 (also called NFATc1) gene encodes the isoforms NFAT2α and NFAT2β that result mainly from alternative initiation exons that provide two different N-terminal transactivation domains. However, the specific roles of the NFAT2 isoforms in cell physiology remain unclear. Because previous studies have shown oncogenic potential for NFAT2, this study emphasized the role of the NFAT2 isoforms in cell transformation. Here, we show that a constitutively active form of NFAT2α (CA-NFAT2α) and CA-NFAT2β distinctly control death and transformation in NIH 3T3 cells. While CA-NFAT2α strongly induces cell transformation, CA-NFAT2β leads to reduced cell proliferation and intense cell death through the upregulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). CA-NFAT2β also increases cell death and upregulates Fas ligand (FasL) and TNF-α in CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that differential roles of NFAT2 isoforms in NIH 3T3 cells depend on the N-terminal domain, where the NFAT2β-specific N-terminal acidic motif is necessary to induce cell death. Interestingly, the NFAT2α isoform is upregulated in Burkitt lymphomas, suggesting an isoform-specific involvement of NFAT2 in cancer development. Finally, our data suggest that alternative N-terminal domains of NFAT2 could provide differential mechanisms for the control of cellular functions. PMID:26483414

  6. Conformation Changes N-terminal Involvement and cGMP Signal Relay in the Phosphodiesterase-5 GAF Domain

    SciTech Connect

    H Wang; H Robinson; H Ke

    2011-12-31

    The activity of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) is specific for cGMP and is regulated by cGMP binding to GAF-A in its regulatory domain. To better understand the regulatory mechanism, x-ray crystallographic and biochemical studies were performed on constructs of human PDE5A1 containing the N-terminal phosphorylation segment, GAF-A, and GAF-B. Superposition of this unliganded GAF-A with the previously reported NMR structure of cGMP-bound PDE5 revealed dramatic conformational differences and suggested that helix H4 and strand B3 probably serve as two lids to gate the cGMP-binding pocket in GAF-A. The structure also identified an interfacial region among GAF-A, GAF-B, and the N-terminal loop, which may serve as a relay of the cGMP signal from GAF-A to GAF-B. N-terminal loop 98-147 was physically associated with GAF-B domains of the dimer. Biochemical analyses showed an inhibitory effect of this loop on cGMP binding and its involvement in the cGMP-induced conformation changes.

  7. Conformation changes, N-terminal involvement and cGMP signal relay in phosphodiesterase-5 GAF domain

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.; Robinson, H.; Ke, H.

    2010-12-03

    The activity of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) is specific for cGMP and is regulated by cGMP binding to GAF-A in its regulatory domain. To better understand the regulatory mechanism, x-ray crystallographic and biochemical studies were performed on constructs of human PDE5A1 containing the N-terminal phosphorylation segment, GAF-A, and GAF-B. Superposition of this unliganded GAF-A with the previously reported NMR structure of cGMP-bound PDE5 revealed dramatic conformational differences and suggested that helix H4 and strand B3 probably serve as two lids to gate the cGMP-binding pocket in GAF-A. The structure also identified an interfacial region among GAF-A, GAF-B, and the N-terminal loop, which may serve as a relay of the cGMP signal from GAF-A to GAF-B. N-terminal loop 98-147 was physically associated with GAF-B domains of the dimer. Biochemical analyses showed an inhibitory effect of this loop on cGMP binding and its involvement in the cGMP-induced conformation changes.

  8. Noncatalytic, N-terminal Domains of DNA Polymerase Lambda Affect Its Cellular Localization and DNA Damage Response.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Anthony A; Taggart, David J; Suo, Zucai

    2017-04-13

    Specialized DNA polymerases, such as DNA polymerase lambda (Polλ), are important players in DNA damage tolerance and repair pathways. Knowing how DNA polymerases are regulated and recruited to sites of DNA damage is imperative to understanding these pathways. Recent work has suggested that Polλ plays a role in several distinct DNA damage tolerance and repair pathways. In this paper, we report previously unknown roles of the N-terminal domains of human Polλ for modulating its involvement in DNA damage tolerance and repair. By using Western blot analysis, fluorescence microscopy, and cell survival assays, we found that the BRCA1 C-terminal (BRCT) and proline/serine-rich (PSR) domains of Polλ affect its cellular localization and DNA damage responses. The nuclear localization signal (NLS) of Polλ was necessary to overcome the impediment of its nuclear localization caused by its BRCT and PSR domains. Induction of DNA damage resulted in recruitment of Polλ to chromatin, which was controlled by its BRCT and PSR domains. In addition, the presence of both domains was required for Polλ-mediated tolerance of oxidative DNA damage but not DNA methylation damage. These findings suggest that the N-terminal domains of Polλ are important for regulating its responses to DNA damage.

  9. The effects of phosphomimetic lid mutation on the thermostability of the N-terminal domain of MDM2.

    PubMed

    Worrall, Erin G; Worrall, Liam; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Walkinshaw, Malcolm; Hupp, Ted R

    2010-05-07

    The multidomain E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 catalyzes p53 ubiquitination by a "dual-site" docking mechanism whereby MDM2 binding to at least two distinct peptide motifs on p53 promotes ubiquitination. One protein-protein interaction occurs between the N-terminal hydrophobic pocket of MDM2 and the transactivation motif of p53, and the second interaction occurs between the acidic domain of MDM2 and a motif in the DNA-binding domain of p53. A flexible N-terminal pseudo-substrate or "lid" adjacent to the N-terminal hydrophobic pocket of MDM2 has a phosphorylation site, and there are distinct models proposed on how the phosphorylated lid could affect MDM2 function. Biochemical studies have predicted that phosphomimetic mutation will stabilize the lid on the surface of MDM2 and will "open" the hydrophobic pocket and stabilize the MDM2-p53 complex, while NMR studies proposed that phosphomimetic mutation "closes" the lid over the MDM2 pocket and inhibits MDM2-p53 complex formation. To resolve these discrepancies, we utilized a quantitative fluorescence-based dye binding assay to measure the thermal unfolding of wild-type (wt), DeltaLid, and S17D N-terminal domains of MDM2 as a function of increasing ligand concentration. Our data reveal that S17D lid mutation increases, rather than decreases, the thermostability of the N-terminal domain of MDM2 in the absence or in the presence of ligand. DeltaLid mutation, by contrast, increases MDM2 thermoinstability. This is consistent with biochemical data, using full-length MDM2, showing that the S17D mutation stabilizes the MDM2-p53 complex and increases the specific activity of the E3 ubiquitin ligase function of MDM2. These data indicate that phosphomimetic lid mutation results in an "opening," rather than a "closing," of the pocket of MDM2 and highlight the ability of small intrinsically disordered or unstructured peptide motifs to regulate the specific activity of a protein.

  10. Lumazine proteins from photobacteria: localization of the single ligand binding site to the N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Illarionov, Boris; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Wirth, Martina; Yong Lee, Chan; Eun Woo, Young; Bacher, Adelbert; Fischer, Markus

    2007-12-01

    Lumazine protein is believed to serve as an optical transponder in bioluminescence emission by certain marine bacteria. Sequence arguments suggest that the protein comprises two similarly folded riboflavin synthase-type domains, but earlier work also suggested that only one domain binds 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine (DMRL). We show that the replacement of serine-48 or threonine-50 in the N-terminal domain of lumazine protein of Photobacterium leiognathi modulates the absorbance and fluorescence properties of bound DMRL or riboflavin. Moreover, the replacement of these amino acids is accompanied by reduced ligand affinity. Replacement of serine-48 by tryptophan shifts the (13)C NMR signal of the 6-methyl group in bound DMRL upfield by 2.9 ppm as compared to the wild-type protein complex. Replacement of threonine-50 causes a downfield shift of approximately 20 ppm for the (15)N NMR signal of N-5, as well as an upfield shift of 3 ppm for the (13)C NMR signal of C-7 in bound DMRL, respectively. The replacement of the topologically equivalent serine-144 and proline-146 in the C-terminal domain had no significant impact on optical properties, chemical shifts and apparent binding constants of bound DMRL. These data show that the N-terminal domain is the unique site for ligand binding in lumazine protein.

  11. Diverse oligomeric states of CEACAM IgV domains

    PubMed Central

    Bonsor, Daniel A.; Günther, Sebastian; Beadenkopf, Robert; Beckett, Dorothy; Sundberg, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) comprise a large family of cell surface adhesion molecules that bind to themselves and other family members to carry out numerous cellular functions, including proliferation, signaling, differentiation, tumor suppression, and survival. They also play diverse and significant roles in immunity and infection. The formation of CEACAM oligomers is caused predominantly by interactions between their N-terminal IgV domains. Although X-ray crystal structures of CEACAM IgV domain homodimers have been described, how CEACAMs form heterodimers or remain monomers is poorly understood. To address this key aspect of CEACAM function, we determined the crystal structures of IgV domains that form a homodimeric CEACAM6 complex, monomeric CEACAM8, and a heterodimeric CEACAM6–CEACAM8 complex. To confirm and quantify these interactions in solution, we used analytical ultracentrifugation to measure the dimerization constants of CEACAM homodimers and isothermal titration calorimetry to determine the thermodynamic parameters and binding affinities of CEACAM heterodimers. We found the CEACAM6–CEACAM8 heterodimeric state to be substantially favored energetically relative to the CEACAM6 homodimer. Our data provide a molecular basis for the adoption of the diverse oligomeric states known to exist for CEACAMs and suggest ways in which CEACAM6 and CEACAM8 regulate the biological functions of one another, as well as of additional CEACAMs with which they interact, both in cis and in trans. PMID:26483485

  12. Diverse oligomeric states of CEACAM IgV domains

    SciTech Connect

    Bonsor, Daniel A.; Günther, Sebastian; Beadenkopf, Robert; Beckett, Dorothy; Sundberg, Eric J.

    2015-10-19

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) comprise a large family of cell surface adhesion molecules that bind to themselves and other family members to carry out numerous cellular functions, including proliferation, signaling, differentiation, tumor suppression, and survival. They also play diverse and significant roles in immunity and infection. The formation of CEACAM oligomers is caused predominantly by interactions between their N-terminal IgV domains. Although X-ray crystal structures of CEACAM IgV domain homodimers have been described, how CEACAMs form heterodimers or remain monomers is poorly understood. To address this key aspect of CEACAM function, we determined in this paper the crystal structures of IgV domains that form a homodimeric CEACAM6 complex, monomeric CEACAM8, and a heterodimeric CEACAM6–CEACAM8 complex. To confirm and quantify these interactions in solution, we used analytical ultracentrifugation to measure the dimerization constants of CEACAM homodimers and isothermal titration calorimetry to determine the thermodynamic parameters and binding affinities of CEACAM heterodimers. We found the CEACAM6–CEACAM8 heterodimeric state to be substantially favored energetically relative to the CEACAM6 homodimer. Finally, our data provide a molecular basis for the adoption of the diverse oligomeric states known to exist for CEACAMs and suggest ways in which CEACAM6 and CEACAM8 regulate the biological functions of one another, as well as of additional CEACAMs with which they interact, both in cis and in trans.

  13. Diverse oligomeric states of CEACAM IgV domains

    DOE PAGES

    Bonsor, Daniel A.; Günther, Sebastian; Beadenkopf, Robert; ...

    2015-10-19

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) comprise a large family of cell surface adhesion molecules that bind to themselves and other family members to carry out numerous cellular functions, including proliferation, signaling, differentiation, tumor suppression, and survival. They also play diverse and significant roles in immunity and infection. The formation of CEACAM oligomers is caused predominantly by interactions between their N-terminal IgV domains. Although X-ray crystal structures of CEACAM IgV domain homodimers have been described, how CEACAMs form heterodimers or remain monomers is poorly understood. To address this key aspect of CEACAM function, we determined in this paper the crystalmore » structures of IgV domains that form a homodimeric CEACAM6 complex, monomeric CEACAM8, and a heterodimeric CEACAM6–CEACAM8 complex. To confirm and quantify these interactions in solution, we used analytical ultracentrifugation to measure the dimerization constants of CEACAM homodimers and isothermal titration calorimetry to determine the thermodynamic parameters and binding affinities of CEACAM heterodimers. We found the CEACAM6–CEACAM8 heterodimeric state to be substantially favored energetically relative to the CEACAM6 homodimer. Finally, our data provide a molecular basis for the adoption of the diverse oligomeric states known to exist for CEACAMs and suggest ways in which CEACAM6 and CEACAM8 regulate the biological functions of one another, as well as of additional CEACAMs with which they interact, both in cis and in trans.« less

  14. Mouse hepatitis virus receptor activities of an MHVR/mph chimera and MHVR mutants lacking N-linked glycosylation of the N-terminal domain.

    PubMed Central

    Dveksler, G S; Basile, A A; Cardellichio, C B; Holmes, K V

    1995-01-01

    Mouse hepatitis virus binds to the N-terminal domain of its receptor, MHVR, a murine biliary glycoprotein with four immunoglobulin-like domains (G.S. Dveksler, M. N. Pensiero, C. W. Dieffenbach, C. B. Cardellichio, A.A. Basile, P.E. Elia, and K. V. Holmes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:1716-1720, 1993). A recombinant protein with only the anchored N-terminal domain was not a functional receptor, but a recombinant protein with the N-terminal domain of MHVR linked to the second and third immunoglobulin-like domains and anchor from the mouse poliovirus receptor homolog, mph, was a functional receptor for mouse hepatitis virus. The native four-domain MHVR has 16 potential N-linked glycosylation sites, including three on the N-terminal domain. Recombinant proteins lacking each one of these three sites or all three of them were functional receptors. Thus, glycosylation of the N-terminal domain is not required, but a glycoprotein longer than the N-terminal domain is required for virus receptor activity. PMID:7983753

  15. Requirement of the N-terminal activation domain of herpes simplex virus ICP4 for viral gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Lauren M; Bayer, Avraham; Deluca, Neal A

    2013-01-01

    ICP4 is the major activator of herpes simplex virus (HSV) transcription. Previous studies have defined several regions of ICP4 that are important for viral gene expression, including a DNA binding domain and transactivation domains that are contained in the C-terminal and N-terminal 520 and 274 amino acids, respectively. Here we show that the N-terminal 210 amino acids of ICP4 are required for interactions with components of TFIID and mediator and, as a consequence, are necessary for the activation of viral genes. A mutant of ICP4 deleted for amino acids 30 to 210, d3-10, was unable to complement an ICP4 null virus at the level of viral replication. This was the result of a severe deficiency in viral gene and protein expression. The absence of viral gene expression coincided with a defect in the recruitment of RNA polymerase II to a representative early promoter (thymidine kinase [TK]). Affinity purification experiments demonstrated that d3-10 ICP4 was not found in complexes with components of TFIID and mediator, suggesting that the defect in RNA polymerase II (Pol II) recruitment was the result of ablated interactions between d3-10 and TFIID and mediator. Complementation assays suggested that the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of ICP4 cooperate to mediate gene expression. The complementation was the result of the formation of more functional heterodimers, which restored the ability of the d3-10-containing molecules to interact with TFIID. Together, these studies suggest that the N terminus contains a true activation domain, mediating interactions with TFIID, mediator, and perhaps other transcription factors, and that the C terminus of the molecule contains activities that augment the functions of the activation domain.

  16. Structural evidence for variable oligomerization of the N-terminal domain of cyclase-associated protein (CAP).

    PubMed

    Yusof, Adlina Mohd; Hu, Nien-Jen; Wlodawer, Alexander; Hofmann, Andreas

    2005-02-01

    Cyclase-associated protein (CAP) is a highly conserved and widely distributed protein that links the nutritional response signaling to cytoskeleton remodeling. In yeast, CAP is a component of the adenylyl cyclase complex and helps to activate the Ras-mediated catalytic cycle of the cyclase. While the N-terminal domain of CAP (N-CAP) provides a binding site for adenylyl cyclase, the C-terminal domain (C-CAP) possesses actin binding activity. Our attempts to crystallize full-length recombinant CAP from Dictyostelium discoideum resulted in growth of orthorhombic crystals containing only the N-terminal domain (residues 42-227) due to auto-proteolytic cleavage. The structure was solved by molecular replacement with data at 2.2 A resolution. The present crystal structure allows the characterization of a head-to-tail N-CAP dimer in the asymmetric unit and a crystallographic side-to-side dimer. Comparison with previously published structures of N-CAP reveals variable modes of dimerization of this domain, but the presence of a common interface for the side-to-side dimer.

  17. Functional characterization of heat-shock protein 90 from Oryza sativa and crystal structure of its N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Raman, Swetha; Suguna, Kaza

    2015-06-01

    Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone that is essential for the normal functioning of eukaryotic cells. It plays crucial roles in cell signalling, cell-cycle control and in maintaining proteome integrity and protein homeostasis. In plants, Hsp90s are required for normal plant growth and development. Hsp90s are observed to be upregulated in response to various abiotic and biotic stresses and are also involved in immune responses in plants. Although there are several studies elucidating the physiological role of Hsp90s in plants, their molecular mechanism of action is still unclear. In this study, biochemical characterization of an Hsp90 protein from rice (Oryza sativa; OsHsp90) has been performed and the crystal structure of its N-terminal domain (OsHsp90-NTD) was determined. The binding of OsHsp90 to its substrate ATP and the inhibitor 17-AAG was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. The protein also exhibited a weak ATPase activity. The crystal structure of OsHsp90-NTD was solved in complex with the nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue AMPPCP at 3.1 Å resolution. The domain was crystallized by cross-seeding with crystals of the N-terminal domain of Hsp90 from Dictyostelium discoideum, which shares 70% sequence identity with OsHsp90-NTD. This is the second reported structure of a domain of Hsp90 from a plant source.

  18. Crystal Structure of the N-terminal Domain of the Yeast General Corepressor Tup1p and Its Functional Implications*

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Kusaka, Nanoha; Nakamura, Taichi; Tanaka, Naoko; Sagegami, Keita; Uegaki, Koichi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mukai, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    The yeast Cyc8p-Tup1p protein complex is a general transcriptional corepressor of genes involved in many different physiological processes. Herein, we present the crystal structure of the Tup1p N-terminal domain (residues 1–92), essential for Tup1p self-assembly and interaction with Cyc8p. This domain tetramerizes to form a novel antiparallel four-helix bundle. Coiled coil interactions near the helical ends hold each dimer together, whereas interdimeric association involves only two sets of two residues located toward the chain centers. A mutagenesis study confirmed that the nonpolar residues responsible for the association of the protomers as dimers are also required for transcriptional repression. An additional structural study demonstrated that the domain containing an Leu62 → Arg mutation that had been shown not to bind Cyc8p exhibits an altered structure, distinct from the wild type. This altered structure explains why the mutant cannot bind Cyc8p. The data presented herein highlight the importance of the architecture of the Tup1p N-terminal domain for self-association. PMID:22707714

  19. Crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of the yeast general corepressor Tup1p and its functional implications.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Kusaka, Nanoha; Nakamura, Taichi; Tanaka, Naoko; Sagegami, Keita; Uegaki, Koichi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mukai, Yukio

    2012-08-03

    The yeast Cyc8p-Tup1p protein complex is a general transcriptional corepressor of genes involved in many different physiological processes. Herein, we present the crystal structure of the Tup1p N-terminal domain (residues 1-92), essential for Tup1p self-assembly and interaction with Cyc8p. This domain tetramerizes to form a novel antiparallel four-helix bundle. Coiled coil interactions near the helical ends hold each dimer together, whereas interdimeric association involves only two sets of two residues located toward the chain centers. A mutagenesis study confirmed that the nonpolar residues responsible for the association of the protomers as dimers are also required for transcriptional repression. An additional structural study demonstrated that the domain containing an Leu(62) → Arg mutation that had been shown not to bind Cyc8p exhibits an altered structure, distinct from the wild type. This altered structure explains why the mutant cannot bind Cyc8p. The data presented herein highlight the importance of the architecture of the Tup1p N-terminal domain for self-association.

  20. Dissection of Influenza A Virus M1 Protein: pH-Dependent Oligomerization of N-Terminal Domain and Dimerization of C-Terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ke; Wang, Zhao; Liu, Xiaoling; Yin, Changcheng; Basit, Zeshan; Xia, Bin; Liu, Wenjun

    2012-01-01

    Background The matrix 1 (M1) protein of Influenza A virus plays many critical roles throughout the virus life cycle. The oligomerization of M1 is essential for the formation of the viral matrix layer during the assembly and budding process. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we report that M1 can oligomerize in vitro, and that the oligomerization is pH-dependent. The N-terminal domain of M1 alone exists as multiple-order oligomers at pH 7.4, and the C-terminal domain alone forms an exclusively stable dimer. As a result, intact M1 can display different forms of oligomers and dimer is the smallest oligomerization state, at neutral pH. At pH 5.0, oligomers of the N-terminal domain completely dissociate into monomers, while the C-terminal domain remains in dimeric form. As a result, oligomers of intact M1 dissociate into a stable dimer at acidic pH. Conclusions/Significance Oligomerization of M1 involves both the N- and C-terminal domains. The N-terminal domain determines the pH-dependent oligomerization characteristic, and C-terminal domain forms a stable dimer, which contributes to the dimerization of M1. The present study will help to unveil the mechanisms of influenza A virus assembly and uncoating process. PMID:22655068

  1. Dissecting the Functional Role of the N-Terminal Domain of the Human Small Heat Shock Protein HSPB6

    PubMed Central

    Heirbaut, Michelle; Beelen, Steven; Strelkov, Sergei V.; Weeks, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    HSPB6 is a member of the human small heat shock protein (sHSP) family, a conserved group of molecular chaperones that bind partially unfolded proteins and prevent them from aggregating. In vertebrate sHSPs the poorly structured N-terminal domain has been implicated in both chaperone activity and the formation of higher-order oligomers. These two functionally important properties are likely intertwined at the sequence level, complicating attempts to delineate the regions that define them. Differing from the prototypical α-crystallins human HSPB6 has been shown to only form dimers in solution making it more amendable to explore the determinants of chaperoning activity alone. Using a systematic and iterative deletion strategy, we have extensively investigated the role of the N-terminal domain on the chaperone activity of this sHSP. As determined by size-exclusion chromatography and small-angle X-ray scattering, most mutants had a dimeric structure closely resembling that of wild-type HSPB6. The chaperone-like activity was tested using three different substrates, whereby no single truncation, except for complete removal of the N-terminal domain, showed full loss of activity, pointing to the presence of multiple sites for binding unfolding proteins. Intriguingly, we found that the stretch encompassing residues 31 to 35, which is nearly fully conserved across vertebrate sHSPs, acts as a negative regulator of activity, as its deletion greatly enhanced chaperoning capability. Further single point mutational analysis revealed an interplay between the highly conserved residues Q31 and F33 in fine-tuning its function. PMID:25157403

  2. Structure of the N-terminal domain of the protein Expansion: an 'Expansion' to the Smad MH2 fold.

    PubMed

    Beich-Frandsen, Mads; Aragón, Eric; Llimargas, Marta; Benach, Jordi; Riera, Antoni; Pous, Joan; Macias, Maria J

    2015-04-01

    Gene-expression changes observed in Drosophila embryos after inducing the transcription factor Tramtrack led to the identification of the protein Expansion. Expansion contains an N-terminal domain similar in sequence to the MH2 domain characteristic of Smad proteins, which are the central mediators of the effects of the TGF-β signalling pathway. Apart from Smads and Expansion, no other type of protein belonging to the known kingdoms of life contains MH2 domains. To compare the Expansion and Smad MH2 domains, the crystal structure of the Expansion domain was determined at 1.6 Å resolution, the first structure of a non-Smad MH2 domain to be characterized to date. The structure displays the main features of the canonical MH2 fold with two main differences: the addition of an α-helical region and the remodelling of a protein-interaction site that is conserved in the MH2 domain of Smads. Owing to these differences, to the new domain was referred to as Nα-MH2. Despite the presence of the Nα-MH2 domain, Expansion does not participate in TGF-β signalling; instead, it is required for other activities specific to the protostome phyla. Based on the structural similarities to the MH2 fold, it is proposed that the Nα-MH2 domain should be classified as a new member of the Smad/FHA superfamily.

  3. The cyanobacterial cell division factor Ftn6 contains an N-terminal DnaD-like domain

    PubMed Central

    Marbouty, Martial; Saguez, Cyril; Chauvat, Franck

    2009-01-01

    Background DNA replication and cell cycle as well as their relationship have been extensively studied in the two model organisms E. coli and B. subtilis. By contrast, little is known about these processes in cyanobacteria, even though they are crucial to the biosphere, in utilizing solar energy to renew the oxygenic atmosphere and in producing the biomass for the food chain. Recent studies have allowed the identification of several cell division factors that are specifics to cyanobacteria. Among them, Ftn6 has been proposed to function in the recruitment of the crucial FtsZ proteins to the septum or the subsequent Z-ring assembly and possibly in chromosome segregation. Results In this study, we identified an as yet undescribed domain located in the conserved N-terminal region of Ftn6. This 77 amino-acids-long domain, designated here as FND (Ftn6 N-Terminal Domain), exhibits striking sequence and structural similarities with the DNA-interacting module, listed in the PFAM database as the DnaD-like domain (pfam04271). We took advantage of the sequence similarities between FND and the DnaD-like domains to construct a homology 3D-model of the Ftn6 FND domain from the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803. Mapping of the conserved residues exposed onto the FND surface allowed us to identify a highly conserved area that could be engaged in Ftn6-specific interactions. Conclusion Overall, similarities between FND and DnaD-like domains as well as previously reported observations on Ftn6 suggest that FND may function as a DNA-interacting module thereby providing an as yet missing link between DNA replication and cell division in cyanobacteria. Consistently, we also showed that Ftn6 is involved in tolerance to DNA damages generated by UV rays. PMID:19698108

  4. Direct Interaction of the N-Terminal Domain of Ribosomal Protein S1 with Protein S2 in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Byrgazov, Konstantin; Manoharadas, Salim; Kaberdina, Anna C.; Vesper, Oliver; Moll, Isabella

    2012-01-01

    Despite of the high resolution structure available for the E. coli ribosome, hitherto the structure and localization of the essential ribosomal protein S1 on the 30 S subunit still remains to be elucidated. It was previously reported that protein S1 binds to the ribosome via protein-protein interaction at the two N-terminal domains. Moreover, protein S2 was shown to be required for binding of protein S1 to the ribosome. Here, we present evidence that the N-terminal domain of S1 (amino acids 1–106; S1106) is necessary and sufficient for the interaction with protein S2 as well as for ribosome binding. We show that over production of protein S1106 affects E. coli growth by displacing native protein S1 from its binding pocket on the ribosome. In addition, our data reveal that the coiled-coil domain of protein S2 (S2α2) is sufficient to allow protein S1 to bind to the ribosome. Taken together, these data uncover the crucial elements required for the S1/S2 interaction, which is pivotal for translation initiation on canonical mRNAs in Gram-negative bacteria. The results are discussed in terms of a model wherein the S1/S2 interaction surface could represent a possible target to modulate the selectivity of the translational machinery and thereby alter the translational program under distinct conditions. PMID:22412910

  5. An N-terminal Domain of Adenovirus Protein VI Fragments Membranes By Inducing Positive Membrane Curvature

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Oana; Galan, Debra L.; Wodrich, Harald; Wiethoff, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) membrane penetration during cell entry is poorly understood. Here we show that antibodies which neutralize the membrane lytic activity of the Ad capsid protein VI interfere with Ad endosomal membrane penetration. In vitro studies using a peptide corresponding to an N-terminal amphipathic α-helix of protein VI (VI-Φ), as well as other truncated forms of protein VI suggest that VI-Φ is largely responsible for protein VI binding to and lysing of membranes. Additional studies suggest that VI-Φ lies nearly parallel to the membrane surface. Protein VI fragments membranes and induces highly curved structures. Further studies suggest that Protein VI induces positive membrane curvature. These data support a model in which protein VI binds membranes, inducing positive curvature strain which ultimately leads to membrane fragmentation. These results agree with previous observations of Ad membrane permeabilization during cell entry and provide an initial mechanistic description of a nonenveloped virus membrane lytic protein. PMID:20409568

  6. Hexameric ring structure of the N-terminal domain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DnaB helicase

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Tapan; Tsodikov, Oleg V.

    2009-01-15

    Hexameric DnaB helicase unwinds the DNA double helix during replication of genetic material in bacteria. DnaB is an essential bacterial protein; therefore, it is an important potential target for antibacterial drug discovery. We report a crystal structure of the N-terminal region of DnaB from the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtDnaBn), determined at 2.0 {angstrom} resolution. This structure provides atomic resolution details of formation of the hexameric ring of DnaB by two distinct interfaces. An extensive hydrophobic interface stabilizes a dimer of MtDnaBn by forming a four-helix bundle. The other, less extensive, interface is formed between the dimers, connecting three of them into a hexameric ring. On the basis of crystal packing interactions between MtDnaBn rings, we suggest a model of a helicase-primase complex that explains previously observed effects of DnaB mutations on DNA priming.

  7. Phosphorylation Regulates Interaction of 210-kDa Myosin Light Chain Kinase N-terminal Domain with Actin Cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Vilitkevich, E L; Khapchaev, A Y; Kudryashov, D S; Nikashin, A V; Schavocky, J P; Lukas, T J; Watterson, D M; Shirinsky, V P

    2015-10-01

    High molecular weight myosin light chain kinase (MLCK210) is a multifunctional protein involved in myosin II activation and integration of cytoskeletal components in cells. MLCK210 possesses actin-binding regions both in the central part of the molecule and in its N-terminal tail domain. In HeLa cells, mitotic protein kinase Aurora B was suggested to phosphorylate MLCK210 N-terminal tail at serine residues (Dulyaninova, N. G., and Bresnick, A. R. (2004) Exp. Cell Res., 299, 303-314), but the functional significance of the phosphorylation was not established. We report here that in vitro, the N-terminal actin-binding domain of MLCK210 is located within residues 27-157 (N27-157, avian MLCK210 sequence) and is phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and Aurora B at serine residues 140/149 leading to a decrease in N27-157 binding to actin. The same residues are phosphorylated in a PKA-dependent manner in transfected HeLa cells. Further, in transfected cells, phosphomimetic mutants of N27-157 showed reduced association with the detergent-stable cytoskeleton, whereas in vitro, the single S149D mutation reduced N27-157 association with F-actin to a similar extent as that achieved by N27-157 phosphorylation. Altogether, our results indicate that phosphorylation of MLCK210 at distinct serine residues, mainly at S149, attenuates the interaction of MLCK210 N-terminus with the actin cytoskeleton and might serve to regulate MLCK210 microfilament cross-linking activity in cells.

  8. The serine 106 residue within the N-terminal transactivation domain is crucial for Oct4 function in mice.

    PubMed

    Mitani, Atsushi; Fukuda, Atsushi; Miyashita, Toshiyuki; Umezawa, Akihiro; Akutsu, Hidenori

    2017-03-07

    Pou5f1/Oct4 is a key transcription factor for the induction of pluripotency and totipotency in preimplantation mouse embryos. In mice, loss or gain of function experiments have demonstrated an important role for Oct4 in preimplantation and developmental ability. In this study, using mouse preimplantation embryos as a model for the evaluation of Oct4 function, we constructed Oct4 overexpression embryos with various mutations at the N-terminal transactivation domain. Developmental competency and molecular biological phenotypes depended on the type of mutation. The replacement of serine 106 with alanine resulted in more severe phenotypes similar to that of wild type Oct4, indicating that this alteration using alanine is negligible for Oct4 function. In contrast, we found that Oct4-specific antibodies could not recognize Oct4 protein when this residue was replaced by aspartic acid (Oct4-S106D). Oct4-S106D overexpressing embryos did not show developmental arrest and aberrant chromatin structure. Thus, these results demonstrated that the Ser-106 residue within the N-terminal transactivation domain is crucial for Oct4 function and suggested that this mutation might affect Oct4 protein conformation.

  9. Structural basis for substrate selectivity in human maltase-glucoamylase and sucrase-isomaltase N-terminal domains.

    PubMed

    Sim, Lyann; Willemsma, Carly; Mohan, Sankar; Naim, Hassan Y; Pinto, B Mario; Rose, David R

    2010-06-04

    Human maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) and sucrase-isomaltase (SI) are small intestinal enzymes that work concurrently to hydrolyze the mixture of linear alpha-1,4- and branched alpha-1,6-oligosaccharide substrates that typically make up terminal starch digestion products. MGAM and SI are each composed of duplicated catalytic domains, N- and C-terminal, which display overlapping substrate specificities. The N-terminal catalytic domain of human MGAM (ntMGAM) has a preference for short linear alpha-1,4-oligosaccharides, whereas N-terminal SI (ntSI) has a broader specificity for both alpha-1,4- and alpha-1,6-oligosaccharides. Here we present the crystal structure of the human ntSI, in apo form to 3.2 A and in complex with the inhibitor kotalanol to 2.15 A resolution. Structural comparison with the previously solved structure of ntMGAM reveals key active site differences in ntSI, including a narrow hydrophobic +1 subsite, which may account for its additional substrate specificity for alpha-1,6 substrates.

  10. Structural Basis for Substrate Selectivity in Human Maltase-Glucoamylase and Sucrase-Isomaltase N-terminal Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Lyann; Willemsma, Carly; Mohan, Sankar; Naim, Hassan Y.; Pinto, B. Mario; Rose, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Human maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) and sucrase-isomaltase (SI) are small intestinal enzymes that work concurrently to hydrolyze the mixture of linear α-1,4- and branched α-1,6-oligosaccharide substrates that typically make up terminal starch digestion products. MGAM and SI are each composed of duplicated catalytic domains, N- and C-terminal, which display overlapping substrate specificities. The N-terminal catalytic domain of human MGAM (ntMGAM) has a preference for short linear α-1,4-oligosaccharides, whereas N-terminal SI (ntSI) has a broader specificity for both α-1,4- and α-1,6-oligosaccharides. Here we present the crystal structure of the human ntSI, in apo form to 3.2 Å and in complex with the inhibitor kotalanol to 2.15 Å resolution. Structural comparison with the previously solved structure of ntMGAM reveals key active site differences in ntSI, including a narrow hydrophobic +1 subsite, which may account for its additional substrate specificity for α-1,6 substrates. PMID:20356844

  11. Sequential pH-driven dimerization and stabilization of the N-terminal domain enables rapid spider silk formation.

    PubMed

    Kronqvist, Nina; Otikovs, Martins; Chmyrov, Volodymyr; Chen, Gefei; Andersson, Marlene; Nordling, Kerstin; Landreh, Michael; Sarr, Médoune; Jörnvall, Hans; Wennmalm, Stefan; Widengren, Jerker; Meng, Qing; Rising, Anna; Otzen, Daniel; Knight, Stefan D; Jaudzems, Kristaps; Johansson, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms controlling the conversion of spider silk proteins into insoluble fibres, which happens in a fraction of a second and in a defined region of the silk glands, are still unresolved. The N-terminal domain changes conformation and forms a homodimer when pH is lowered from 7 to 6; however, the molecular details still remain to be determined. Here we investigate site-directed mutants of the N-terminal domain from Euprosthenops australis major ampullate spidroin 1 and find that the charged residues D40, R60 and K65 mediate intersubunit electrostatic interactions. Protonation of E79 and E119 is required for structural conversions of the subunits into a dimer conformation, and subsequent protonation of E84 around pH 5.7 leads to the formation of a fully stable dimer. These residues are highly conserved, indicating that the now proposed three-step mechanism prevents premature aggregation of spidroins and enables fast formation of spider silk fibres in general.

  12. The N-Terminal Domain of Human DNA Helicase Rtel1 Contains a Redox Active Iron-Sulfur Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Aaron P.

    2014-01-01

    Human telomere length regulator Rtel1 is a superfamily II DNA helicase and is essential for maintaining proper length of telomeres in chromosomes. Here we report that the N-terminal domain of human Rtel1 (RtelN) expressed in Escherichia coli cells produces a protein that contains a redox active iron-sulfur cluster with the redox midpoint potential of −248 ± 10 mV (pH 8.0). The iron-sulfur cluster in RtelN is sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide, indicating that reactive oxygen/nitrogen species may modulate the DNA helicase activity of Rtel1 via modification of its iron-sulfur cluster. Purified RtelN retains a weak binding affinity for the single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) DNA in vitro. However, modification of the iron-sulfur cluster by hydrogen peroxide or nitric oxide does not significantly affect the DNA binding activity of RtelN, suggesting that the iron-sulfur cluster is not directly involved in the DNA interaction in the N-terminal domain of Rtel1. PMID:25147792

  13. Identification of a Major Dimorphic Region in the Functionally Critical N-Terminal ID1 Domain of VAR2CSA

    PubMed Central

    Doritchamou, Justin; Sabbagh, Audrey; Jespersen, Jakob S.; Renard, Emmanuelle; Salanti, Ali; Nielsen, Morten A.; Deloron, Philippe; Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise

    2015-01-01

    The VAR2CSA protein of Plasmodium falciparum is transported to and expressed on the infected erythrocyte surface where it plays a key role in placental malaria (PM). It is the current leading candidate for a vaccine to prevent PM. However, the antigenic polymorphism integral to VAR2CSA poses a challenge for vaccine development. Based on detailed analysis of polymorphisms in the sequence of its ligand-binding N-terminal region, currently the main focus for vaccine development, we assessed var2csa from parasite isolates infecting pregnant women. The results reveal for the first time the presence of a major dimorphic region in the functionally critical N-terminal ID1 domain. Parasite isolates expressing VAR2CSA with particular motifs present within this domain are associated with gravidity- and parasite density-related effects. These observations are of particular interest in guiding efforts with respect to optimization of the VAR2CSA-based vaccines currently under development. PMID:26393516

  14. ELKS controls the pool of readily releasable vesicles at excitatory synapses through its N-terminal coiled-coil domains

    PubMed Central

    Held, Richard G; Liu, Changliang; Kaeser, Pascal S

    2016-01-01

    In a presynaptic nerve terminal, synaptic strength is determined by the pool of readily releasable vesicles (RRP) and the probability of release (P) of each RRP vesicle. These parameters are controlled at the active zone and vary across synapses, but how such synapse specific control is achieved is not understood. ELKS proteins are enriched at vertebrate active zones and enhance P at inhibitory hippocampal synapses, but ELKS functions at excitatory synapses are not known. Studying conditional knockout mice for ELKS, we find that ELKS enhances the RRP at excitatory synapses without affecting P. Surprisingly, ELKS C-terminal sequences, which interact with RIM, are dispensable for RRP enhancement. Instead, the N-terminal ELKS coiled-coil domains that bind to Liprin-α and Bassoon are necessary to control RRP. Thus, ELKS removal has differential, synapse-specific effects on RRP and P, and our findings establish important roles for ELKS N-terminal domains in synaptic vesicle priming. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14862.001 PMID:27253063

  15. A region of the N-terminal domain of meningococcal factor H-binding protein that elicits bactericidal antibody across antigenic variant groups.

    PubMed

    Beernink, Peter T; LoPasso, Carla; Angiolillo, Antonella; Felici, Franco; Granoff, Dan

    2009-05-01

    Meningococcal factor H-binding protein (fHbp) is a promising vaccine antigen. Previous studies described three fHbp antigenic variant groups and identified amino acid residues between 100 and 255 as important targets of variant-specific bactericidal antibodies. We investigated residues affecting expression of an epitope recognized by a murine IgG2a anti-fHbp mAb, designated JAR 4, which cross-reacted with fHbps in variant group 1 or 2 (95% of strains), and elicited human complement-mediated, cooperative bactericidal activity with other non-bactericidal anti-fHbp mAbs with epitopes involving residues between 121 and 216. From filamentous bacteriophage libraries containing random peptides that were recognized by JAR 4, we identified a consensus tripeptide, DHK that matched residues 25-27 in the N-terminal domain of fHbp. Since DHK was present in both JAR 4-reactive and non-reactive fHbps, the tripeptide was necessary but not sufficient for reactivity. Based on site-directed mutagenesis studies, the JAR 4 epitope could either be knocked out of a reactive variant 1 fHbp, or introduced into a non-reactive variant 3 protein. Collectively, the data indicated that the JAR 4 epitope was discontinuous and involved DHK residues beginning at position 25; YGN residues beginning at position 57; and a KDN tripeptide that was present in variant 3 proteins beginning at position 67 that negatively affected expression of the epitope. Thus, the region of fHbp encompassing residues 25-59 in the N-terminal domain is important for eliciting antibodies that can cooperate with other anti-fHbp antibodies for cross-reactive bactericidal activity against strains expressing fHbp from different antigenic variant groups.

  16. Rad53 kinase activation-independent replication checkpoint function of the N-terminal forkhead-associated (FHA1) domain.

    PubMed

    Pike, Brietta L; Tenis, Nora; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2004-09-17

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad53 has crucial functions in many aspects of the cellular response to DNA damage and replication blocks. To coordinate these diverse roles, Rad53 has two forkhead-associated (FHA) phosphothreonine-binding domains in addition to a kinase domain. Here, we show that the conserved N-terminal FHA1 domain is essential for the function of Rad53 to prevent the firing of late replication origins in response to replication blocks. However, the FHA1 domain is not required for Rad53 activation during S phase, and as a consequence of defective downstream signaling, Rad53 containing an inactive FHA1 domain is hyperphosphorylated in response to replication blocks. The FHA1 mutation dramatically hypersensitizes strains with defects in the cell cycle-wide checkpoint pathways (rad9Delta and rad17Delta) to DNA damage, but it is largely epistatic with defects in the replication checkpoint (mrc1Delta). Altogether, our data indicate that the FHA1 domain links activated Rad53 to downstream effectors in the replication checkpoint. The results reveal an important mechanistic difference to the homologous Schizosaccharomyces pombe FHA domain that is required for Mrc1-dependent activation of the corresponding Cds1 kinase. Surprisingly, despite the severely impaired replication checkpoint and also G(2)/M checkpoint functions, the FHA1 mutation by itself leads to only moderate viability defects in response to DNA damage, highlighting the importance of functionally redundant pathways.

  17. Proteolytic cleavage of ostrich and turkey pancreatic lipases: production of an active N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Ben Bacha, Abir; Fendri, Ahmed; Gargouri, Youssef; Mejdoub, Hafedh; Miled, Nabil

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to check some biochemical and structural properties of ostrich and turkey pancreatic lipases (OPL and TPL, respectively). Limited proteolysis of OPL and TPL was performed in conditions similar to those reported for porcine pancreatic lipase. In the absence of bile salts and colipase, OPL failed to catalyze the hydrolysis of pure tributyrin or efficiently hydrolyze olive oil emulsion. When bile salts and colipase were preincubated with the substrate, the OPL kinetic behavior remained linear for more than 30 minutes. The enzyme presented a penetration power value into an egg phosphatidylcholine monomolecular film that was comparable to that of HPL and lower than that of TPL. Chymotrypsin, trypsin, and thermolysin were able to hydrolyze OPL and TPL in different ways. In both cases, only N-terminal fragments accumulated during the hydrolysis, whereas no C-terminal fragment was obtained in either case. Tryptic cleavage of OPL and TPL completely degraded the enzymes. Nevertheless, chymotryptic attack generated 35-kd and 43-kd forms for TPL and OPL, respectively. Interestingly, the OPL 43-kd form was inactive, whereas the TPL 35-kd protein conserved its lipolytic activity. OPL, TPL, and mammal pancreatic lipases share a high amino acid sequence homology. Further investigations are, however, needed to identify key residues involved in substrate recognition responsible for biochemical differences between the 2 classes of lipases.

  18. NMR structural characterization of the N-terminal domain of the adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (CAP) from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Mavoungou, Chrystelle; Israel, Lars; Rehm, Till; Ksiazek, Dorota; Krajewski, Marcin; Popowicz, Grzegorz; Noegel, Angelika A; Schleicher, Michael; Holak, Tad A

    2004-05-01

    Cyclase-associated proteins (CAPs) are highly conserved, ubiquitous actin binding proteins that are involved in microfilament reorganization. The N-termini of CAPs play a role in Ras signaling and bind adenylyl cyclase; the C-termini bind to G-actin. We report here the NMR characterization of the amino-terminal domain of CAP from Dictyostelium discoideum (CAP(1-226)). NMR data, including the steady state (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear NOE experiments, indicate that the first 50 N-terminal residues are unstructured and that this highly flexible serine-rich fragment is followed by a stable, folded core starting at Ser 51. The NMR structure of the folded core is an alpha-helix bundle composed of six antiparallel helices, in a stark contrast to the recently determined CAP C-terminal domain structure, which is solely built by beta-strands.

  19. Structure of the mouse galectin-4 N-terminal carbohydrate-recognition domain reveals the mechanism of oligosaccharide recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Krejciríková, Veronika; Pachl, Petr; Fábry, Milan; Malý, Petr; Rezácová, Pavlína; Brynda, Jirí

    2011-11-18

    Galectin-4, a member of the tandem-repeat subfamily of galectins, participates in cell-membrane interactions and plays an important role in cell adhesion and modulation of immunity and malignity. The oligosaccharide specificity of the mouse galectin-4 carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) has been reported previously. In this work, the structure and binding properties of the N-terminal domain CRD1 were further investigated and the crystal structure of CRD1 in complex with lactose was determined at 2.1 {angstrom} resolution. The lactose-binding affinity was characterized by fluorescence measurements and two lactose-binding sites were identified: a high-affinity site with a K{sub d} value in the micromolar range (K{sub d1} = 600 {+-} 70 {mu}M) and a low-affinity site with K{sub d2} = 28 {+-} 10 mM.

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of the N-terminal thioredoxin-like domain of protein disulfide isomerase.

    PubMed Central

    Kemmink, J.; Darby, N. J.; Dijkstra, K.; Scheek, R. M.; Creighton, T. E.

    1995-01-01

    A genetically engineered protein consisting of the 120 residues at the N-terminus of human protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) has been characterized by 1H, 13C, and 15N NMR methods. The sequence of this protein is 35% identical to Escherichia coli thioredoxin, and it has been found also to have similar patterns of secondary structure and beta-sheet topology. The results confirm that PDI is a modular, multidomain protein. The last 20 residues of the N-terminal domain of PDI are some of those that are similar to part of the estrogen receptor, yet they appear to be an intrinsic part of the thioredoxin fold. This observation makes it unlikely that any of the segments of PDI with similarities to the estrogen receptor comprise individual domains. PMID:8580850

  1. The N-terminal domain plays a crucial role in the structure of a full-length human mitochondrial Lon protease

    PubMed Central

    Kereïche, Sami; Kováčik, Lubomír; Bednár, Jan; Pevala, Vladimír; Kunová, Nina; Ondrovičová, Gabriela; Bauer, Jacob; Ambro, Ľuboš; Bellová, Jana; Kutejová, Eva; Raška, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Lon is an essential, multitasking AAA+ protease regulating many cellular processes in species across all kingdoms of life. Altered expression levels of the human mitochondrial Lon protease (hLon) are linked to serious diseases including myopathies, paraplegia, and cancer. Here, we present the first 3D structure of full-length hLon using cryo-electron microscopy. hLon has a unique three-dimensional structure, in which the proteolytic and ATP-binding domains (AP-domain) form a hexameric chamber, while the N-terminal domain is arranged as a trimer of dimers. These two domains are linked by a narrow trimeric channel composed likely of coiled-coil helices. In the presence of AMP-PNP, the AP-domain has a closed-ring conformation and its N-terminal entry gate appears closed, but in ADP binding, it switches to a lock-washer conformation and its N-terminal gate opens, which is accompanied by a rearrangement of the N-terminal domain. We have also found that both the enzymatic activities and the 3D structure of a hLon mutant lacking the first 156 amino acids are severely disturbed, showing that hLon’s N-terminal domains are crucial for the overall structure of the hLon, maintaining a conformation allowing its proper functioning. PMID:27632940

  2. Regulation of TRPP3 Channel Function by N-terminal Domain Palmitoylation and Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wang; Yang, JungWoo; Beauchamp, Erwan; Cai, Ruiqi; Hussein, Shaimaa; Hofmann, Laura; Li, Qiang; Flockerzi, Veit; Berthiaume, Luc G; Tang, Jingfeng; Chen, Xing-Zhen

    2016-12-02

    Transient receptor potential polycystin-3 (TRPP3) is a cation channel activated by calcium and proton and is involved in hedgehog signaling, intestinal development, and sour tasting. How TRPP3 channel function is regulated remains poorly understood. By N-terminal truncation mutations, electrophysiology, and Xenopus oocyte expression, we first identified fragment Asp-21-Ser-42 to be functionally important. We then found that deletion mutant Δ1-36 (TRPP3 missing fragment Met-1-Arg-36) has a similar function as wild-type TRPP3, whereas Δ1-38 is functionally dead, suggesting the importance of Val-37 or Cys-38. Further studies found that Cys-38, but not Val-37, is functionally critical. Cys-38 is a predicted site of palmitoylation, and indeed TRPP3 channel activity was inhibited by palmitoylation inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate and rescued by palmitoylation substrate palmitic acid. The TRPP3 N terminus (TRPP3NT, Met-1-Leu-95) localized along the plasma membrane of HEK293 cells but stayed in the cytoplasm with 2-bromopalmitate treatment or C38A mutation, indicating that TRPP3NT anchors to the surface membrane through palmitoylation at Cys-38. By acyl-biotin exchange assays, we showed that TRPP3, but not mutant C38A, is indeed palmitoylated. When putative phosphorylation sites near Cys-38 were mutated to Asp or Glu to mimic phosphorylation, only T39D and T39E reduced TRPP3 function. Furthermore, TRPP3NT displayed double bands in which the upper band was abolished by λ phosphatase treatment or T39A mutation. However, palmitoylation at Cys-38 and phosphorylation at Thr-39 independently regulated TRPP3 channel function, in contrast to previous reports about correlated palmitoylation with a proximate phosphorylation. Palmitoylation at Cys-38 represents a novel mechanism of functional regulation for TRPP3. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. The N-terminal domain of a TonB-dependent transporter undergoes a reversible stepwise denaturation.

    PubMed

    Flores Jiménez, Ricardo H; Cafiso, David S

    2012-05-01

    Gram-negative bacteria contain a family of outer membrane transport proteins that function in the uptake of rare nutrients, such as iron and vitamin B(12). These proteins are termed TonB-dependent because transport requires an interaction with the inner-membrane protein TonB. Using a combination of site-directed spin labeling and chemical denaturation, we examined the site-specific unfolding of regions of the Escherichia coli vitamin B(12) transporter, BtuB. The data indicate that a portion of the N-terminal region of the protein, which occupies the lumen of the BtuB barrel, denatures prior to the unfolding of the barrel and that the free energy of folding for the N-terminus is smaller than that typically seen for globular proteins. Moreover, the data indicate that the N-terminal domain does not unfold in a single event but unfolds in a series of independent steps. The unfolding of the N-terminus is reversible, and removal of denaturant restores the native fold of the protein. These data are consistent with proposed transport mechanisms that involve a transient rearrangement or unfolding of the N-terminus of the protein, and they provide evidence of a specific protein conformation that might be an intermediate accessed during transport.

  4. The N-terminal domain of EBNA1 acts as a suppressor of the HER2/neu oncogene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jah-Yao; Chuang, Tzu-Chao; Way, Tzong-Der; Tsai, Tzung-Chieh; Hu, Chih-Lin; Liu, Guang-Yaw; Wang, Shan-Shue; Chung, Jing-Gung; Kao, Ming-Ching

    2009-01-18

    HER2/neu oncogene-mediated malignancy is clearly associated with various human cancers. Therefore, HER2/neu targeting is an effective approach to cancer therapy. We have previously demonstrated that Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1) can suppress HER2/neu oncogene expression, although EBNA1 itself has oncogenic potential. Here, we found that the N-terminal domain of EBNA1 alone, named EBNA1-NT, which contains the N-terminal region of amino acid residues 1-86 of EBNA1, is required and sufficient to suppress HER2/neu oncogene expression at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, in EBNA1-NT-transfected HER2/neu-overexpressing cells, we found EBNA1-NT could down-regulate the endogenous production of p185(HER2/neu), lower transformation ability, sensitize paclitaxel-induced apoptosis and decrease tumorigenic potential. These data suggest that EBNA1-NT may act as a repressor of the HER2/neu oncogene.

  5. The Scavenger Receptor SSc5D Physically Interacts with Bacteria through the SRCR-Containing N-Terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Bessa Pereira, Catarina; Bocková, Markéta; Santos, Rita F.; Santos, Ana Mafalda; Martins de Araújo, Mafalda; Oliveira, Liliana; Homola, Jiří; Carmo, Alexandre M.

    2016-01-01

    The scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) family comprises a group of membrane-attached or secreted proteins that contain one or more modules/domains structurally similar to the membrane distal domain of type I macrophage scavenger receptor. Although no all-inclusive biological function has been ascribed to the SRCR family, some of these receptors have been shown to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) of bacteria, fungi, or other microbes. SSc5D is a recently described soluble SRCR receptor produced by monocytes/macrophages and T lymphocytes, consisting of an N-terminal portion, which contains five SRCR modules, and a large C-terminal mucin-like domain. Toward establishing a global common role for SRCR domains, we interrogated whether the set of five SRCR domains of SSc5D displayed pattern recognition receptor (PRR) properties. For that purpose, we have expressed in a mammalian expression system the N-terminal SRCR-containing moiety of SSc5D (N-SSc5D), thus excluding the mucin-like domain likely by nature to bind microorganisms, and tested the capacity of the SRCR functional groups to physically interact with bacteria. Using conventional protein–bacteria binding assays, we showed that N-SSc5D had a superior capacity to bind to Escherichia coli strains RS218 and IHE3034 compared with that of the extracellular domains of the SRCR proteins CD5 and CD6 (sCD5 and sCD6, respectively), and similar E. coli-binding properties as Spα, a proven PRR of the SRCR family. We have further designed a more sensitive, real-time, and label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based assay and examined the capacity of N-SSc5D, Spα, sCD5, and sCD6 to bind to different bacteria. We demonstrated that N-SSc5D compares with Spα in the capacity to bind to E. coli and Listeria monocytogenes, and further that it can distinguish between pathogenic E. coli RS218 and IHE3034 strains and the non-pathogenic laboratory E. coli strain BL21(DE3). Our work thus advocates the

  6. The telomerase essential N-terminal domain promotes DNA synthesis by stabilizing short RNA–DNA hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Benjamin M.; Parks, Joseph W.; Stone, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Telomerase is an enzyme that adds repetitive DNA sequences to the ends of chromosomes and consists of two main subunits: the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) protein and an associated telomerase RNA (TER). The telomerase essential N-terminal (TEN) domain is a conserved region of TERT proposed to mediate DNA substrate interactions. Here, we have employed single molecule telomerase binding assays to investigate the function of the TEN domain. Our results reveal telomeric DNA substrates bound to telomerase exhibit a dynamic equilibrium between two states: a docked conformation and an alternative conformation. The relative stabilities of the docked and alternative states correlate with the number of basepairs that can be formed between the DNA substrate and the RNA template, with more basepairing favoring the docked state. The docked state is further buttressed by the TEN domain and mutations within the TEN domain substantially alter the DNA substrate structural equilibrium. We propose a model in which the TEN domain stabilizes short RNA–DNA duplexes in the active site of the enzyme, promoting the docked state to augment telomerase processivity. PMID:25940626

  7. The N-terminal domain of thrombomodulin sequesters high-mobility group-B1 protein, a novel antiinflammatory mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Abeyama, Kazuhiro; Stern, David M.; Ito, Yuji; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Yoshimoto, Yasushi; Tanaka, Motoyuki; Uchimura, Tomonori; Ida, Nobuo; Yamazaki, Yoshiaki; Yamada, Shingo; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Iino, Satoshi; Taniguchi, Noboru; Maruyama, Ikuro

    2005-01-01

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is an endothelial anticoagulant cofactor that promotes thrombin-mediated formation of activated protein C (APC). We have found that the N-terminal lectin-like domain (D1) of TM has unique antiinflammatory properties. TM, via D1, binds high-mobility group-B1 DNA-binding protein (HMGB1), a factor closely associated with necrotic cell damage following its release from the nucleus, thereby preventing in vitro leukocyte activation, in vivo UV irradiation–induced cutaneous inflammation, and in vivo lipopolysaccharide-induced lethality. Our data also demonstrate antiinflammatory properties of a peptide spanning D1 of TM and suggest its therapeutic potential. These findings highlight a novel mechanism, i.e., sequestration of mediators, through which an endothelial cofactor, TM, suppresses inflammation quite distinctly from its anticoagulant cofactor activity, thereby preventing the interaction of these mediators with cell surface receptors on effector cells in the vasculature. PMID:15841214

  8. Recombinant Mitochondrial Transcription Factor A with N-terminal Mitochondrial Transduction Domain Increases Respiration and Mitochondrial Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Shilpa; Thomas, Ravindar R.; Portell, Francisco R.; Dunham, Lisa D.; Quigley, Caitlin K.; Bennett, James P.

    2009-01-01

    We developed a scalable procedure to produce human mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) modified with an N-terminal protein transduction domain (PTD) and mitochondrial localization signal (MLS) that allow it to cross membranes and enter mitochondria through its “mitochondrial transduction domain” (MTD=PTD+MLS). Alexa488-labeled MTD-TFAM rapidly entered the mitochondrial compartment of cybrid cells carrying the G11778A LHON mutation. MTD-TFAM reversibly increased respiration and levels of respiratory proteins. In vivo treatment of mice with MTD-TFAM increased motor endurance and complex I-driven respiration in mitochondria from brain and skeletal muscle. MTD-TFAM increases mitochondrial bioenergetics and holds promise for treatment of mitochondrial diseases involving deficiencies of energy production. PMID:19460293

  9. Alteration of Substrate Specificity: The Variable N-Terminal Domain of Tobacco Ca2+-Dependent Protein Kinase Is Important for Substrate Recognition[W

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Takeshi; Nakata, Masaru; Fukazawa, Jutarou; Ishida, Sarahmi; Takahashi, Yohsuke

    2010-01-01

    Protein kinases are major signaling molecules that are involved in a variety of cellular processes. However, the molecular mechanisms whereby protein kinases discriminate specific substrates are still largely unknown. Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play central roles in Ca2+ signaling in plants. Previously, we found that a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) CDPK1 negatively regulated the transcription factor REPRESSION OF SHOOT GROWTH (RSG), which is involved in gibberellin feedback regulation. Here, we found that the variable N-terminal domain of CDPK1 is necessary for the recognition of RSG. A mutation (R10A) in the variable N-terminal domain of CDPK1 reduced both RSG binding and RSG phosphorylation while leaving kinase activity intact. Furthermore, the R10A mutation suppressed the in vivo function of CDPK1. The substitution of the variable N-terminal domain of an Arabidopsis thaliana CDPK, At CPK9, with that of Nt CDPK1 conferred RSG kinase activities. This chimeric CDPK behaved according to the identity of the variable N-terminal domain in transgenic plants. Our results open the possibility of engineering the substrate specificity of CDPK by manipulation of the variable N-terminal domain, enabling a rational rewiring of cellular signaling pathways. PMID:20442373

  10. Immunological and protective effects of Bordetella bronchiseptica subunit vaccines based on the recombinant N-terminal domain of dermonecrotic toxin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuanwen; Liu, Liping; Zhang, Zhen; Yan, Zhengui; Yu, Cuilian; Shao, Mingxu; Jiang, Xiaodong; Chi, Shanshan; Wei, Kai; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2015-10-01

    Dermonecrotic toxin (DNT) produced by Bordetella bronchiseptica (B. bronchiseptica) can cause clinical turbinate atrophy in swine and induce dermonecrotic lesions in model mice. We know that the N-terminal of DNT molecule contains the receptor-binding domain, which facilitates binding to the target cells. However, we do not know whether this domain has sufficient immunogenicity to resist B. bronchiseptica damage and thereby to develop a subunit vaccine for the swine industry. In this study, we prokaryotically expressed the recombinant N-terminal of DNT from B. bronchiseptica (named DNT-N) and prepared it for the subunit vaccine to evaluate its immunogenicity. Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS), a known immunomodulator, was used as the adjuvant to examine its immune-conditioning effects. At 49 d after inoculation, 10 mice from each group were challenged with B. bronchiseptica, and another 10 mice were intradermally challenged with native DNT, to examine the protection imparted by the vaccines. The immune parameters (T-lymphocyte counts, cytokine secretions, serum antibody titers, and survival rates) and skin lesions were determined. The results showed that pure DNT-N vaccine significantly induced immune responses and had limited ability to resist the B. bronchiseptica and DNT challenge, whereas the mice administered with TPPPS or Freund's incomplete adjuvant vaccine could induce higher levels of the above immune parameters. Remarkably, the DNT-N vaccine combined with TPPPS adjuvant protected the mice effectively to prevent B. bronchiseptica infection. Our findings indicated that DNT-N has potential for development as an effective subunit vaccine to counteract the damage of B. bronchiseptica infection, especially when used conjointly with TPPPS.

  11. Surface Accessibility and Conformational Changes in the N-terminal Domain of Type I Inositol Trisphosphate Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Anyatonwu, Georgia; Joseph, Suresh K.

    2009-01-01

    To identify surface-accessible residues and monitor conformational changes of the type I inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor protein in membranes, we have introduced 10 cysteine substitutions into the N-terminal ligand-binding domain. The reactivity of these mutants with progressively larger maleimide-polyethylene glycol derivatives (MPEG) was measured using a gel shift assay of tryptic fragments. The results indicate that the mutations fall into four categories as follows: sites that are highly accessible based on reactivity with the largest 20-kDa MPEG (S2C); sites that are moderately accessible based on reactivity only with 5-kDa MPEG (S6C, S7C, A189C, and S277C); sites whose accessibility is markedly enhanced by Ca2+ (S171C, S277C, and A575C); and sites that are inaccessible irrespective of incubation conditions (S217C, A245C, and S436C). The stimulation of accessibility induced by Ca2+ at the S277C site occurred with an EC50 of 0.8 μm and was mimicked by Sr2+ but not Ba2+. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate alone did not affect reactivity of any of the mutants in the presence or absence of Ca2+. The data are interpreted using crystal structures and EM reconstructions of the receptor. Our data identify N-terminal regions of the protein that become exposed upon Ca2+ binding and suggest possible orientations of the suppressor and ligand-binding domains that have implications for the mechanism of gating of the channel. PMID:19141613

  12. The C-Terminal SynMuv/DdDUF926 Domain Regulates the Function of the N-Terminal Domain of DdNKAP

    PubMed Central

    Burgute, Bhagyashri D.; Peche, Vivek S.; Müller, Rolf; Matthias, Jan; Gaßen, Berthold; Eichinger, Ludwig; Glöckner, Gernot; Noegel, Angelika A.

    2016-01-01

    NKAP (NF-κB activating protein) is a highly conserved SR (serine/arginine-rich) protein involved in transcriptional control and splicing in mammals. We identified DdNKAP, the Dictyostelium discoideum ortholog of mammalian NKAP, as interacting partner of the nuclear envelope protein SUN-1. DdNKAP harbors a number of basic RDR/RDRS repeats in its N-terminal domain and the SynMuv/DUF926 domain at its C-terminus. We describe a novel and direct interaction between DdNKAP and Prp19 (Pre mRNA processing factor 19) which might be relevant for the observed DdNKAP ubiquitination. Genome wide analysis using cross-linking immunoprecipitation-high-throughput sequencing (CLIP-seq) revealed DdNKAP association with intergenic regions, exons, introns and non-coding RNAs. Ectopic expression of DdNKAP and its domains affects several developmental aspects like stream formation, aggregation, and chemotaxis. We conclude that DdNKAP is a multifunctional protein, which might influence Dictyostelium development through its interaction with RNA and RNA binding proteins. Mutants overexpressing full length DdNKAP and the N-terminal domain alone (DdN-NKAP) showed opposite phenotypes in development and opposite expression profiles of several genes and rRNAs. The observed interaction between DdN-NKAP and the DdDUF926 domain indicates that the DdDUF926 domain acts as negative regulator of the N-terminus. PMID:27997579

  13. Regulation of Telomere Length Requires a Conserved N-Terminal Domain of Rif2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kaizer, Hannah; Connelly, Carla J.; Bettridge, Kelsey; Viggiani, Christopher; Greider, Carol W.

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of telomere length equilibrium is essential for cell growth and survival since critically short telomeres signal DNA damage and cell cycle arrest. While the broad principles of length regulation are well established, the molecular mechanism of how these steps occur is not fully understood. We mutagenized the RIF2 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to understand how this protein blocks excess telomere elongation. We identified an N-terminal domain in Rif2 that is essential for length regulation, which we have termed BAT domain for Blocks Addition of Telomeres. Tethering this BAT domain to Rap1 blocked telomere elongation not only in rif2Δ mutants but also in rif1Δ and rap1C-terminal deletion mutants. Mutation of a single amino acid in the BAT domain, phenylalanine at position 8 to alanine, recapitulated the rif2Δ mutant phenotype. Substitution of F8 with tryptophan mimicked the wild-type phenylalanine, suggesting the aromatic amino acid represents a protein interaction site that is essential for telomere length regulation. PMID:26294668

  14. N-terminal transmembrane domain of the SUR controls trafficking and gating of Kir6 channel subunits

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kim W.; Zhang, Hailin; Logothetis, Diomedes E.

    2003-01-01

    The sulfonylurea receptor (SUR), an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein, assembles with a potassium channel subunit (Kir6) to form the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) complex. Although SUR is an important regulator of Kir6, the specific SUR domain that associates with Kir6 is still unknown. All functional ABC proteins contain two transmembrane domains but some, including SUR and MRP1 (multidrug resistance protein 1), contain an extra N-terminal transmembrane domain called TMD0. The functions of any TMD0s are largely unclear. Using Xenopus oocytes to coexpress truncated SUR constructs with Kir6, we demonstrated by immunoprecipitation, single-oocyte chemiluminescence and electrophysiological measurements that the TMD0 of SUR1 strongly associated with Kir6.2 and modulated its trafficking and gating. Two TMD0 mutations, A116P and V187D, previously correlated with persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy, were found to disrupt the association between TMD0 and Kir6.2. These results underscore the importance of TMD0 in KATP channel function, explaining how specific mutations within this domain result in disease, and suggest how an ABC protein has evolved to regulate a potassium channel. PMID:12881418

  15. A basic domain in the histone H2B N-terminal tail is important for nucleosome assembly by FACT

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Peng; Kyriss, McKenna N. M.; Hodges, Amelia J.; Duan, Mingrui; Morris, Robert T.; Lavine, Mark D.; Topping, Traci B.; Gloss, Lisa M.; Wyrick, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Nucleosome assembly in vivo requires assembly factors, such as histone chaperones, to bind to histones and mediate their deposition onto DNA. In yeast, the essential histone chaperone FACT (FAcilitates Chromatin Transcription) functions in nucleosome assembly and H2A–H2B deposition during transcription elongation and DNA replication. Recent studies have identified candidate histone residues that mediate FACT binding to histones, but it is not known which histone residues are important for FACT to deposit histones onto DNA during nucleosome assembly. In this study, we report that the histone H2B repression (HBR) domain within the H2B N-terminal tail is important for histone deposition by FACT. Deletion of the HBR domain causes significant defects in histone occupancy in the yeast genome, particularly at HBR-repressed genes, and a pronounced increase in H2A–H2B dimers that remain bound to FACT in vivo. Moreover, the HBR domain is required for purified FACT to efficiently assemble recombinant nucleosomes in vitro. We propose that the interaction between the highly basic HBR domain and DNA plays an important role in stabilizing the nascent nucleosome during the process of histone H2A–H2B deposition by FACT. PMID:27369377

  16. The Solution Structure of the N-Terminal Domain of Human Tubulin Binding Cofactor C Reveals a Platform for Tubulin Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Mayoral, Mª Flor; Castaño, Raquel; Fanarraga, Monica L.; Zabala, Juan Carlos; Rico, Manuel; Bruix, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Human Tubulin Binding Cofactor C (TBCC) is a post-chaperonin involved in the folding and assembly of α- and β-tubulin monomers leading to the release of productive tubulin heterodimers ready to polymerize into microtubules. In this process it collaborates with other cofactors (TBC's A, B, D, and E) and forms a supercomplex with TBCD, β-tubulin, TBCE and α-tubulin. Here, we demonstrate that TBCC depletion results in multipolar spindles and mitotic failure. Accordingly, TBCC is found at the centrosome and is implicated in bipolar spindle formation. We also determine by NMR the structure of the N-terminal domain of TBCC. The TBCC N-terminal domain adopts a spectrin-like fold topology composed of a left-handed 3-stranded α-helix bundle. Remarkably, the 30-residue N-terminal segment of the TBCC N-terminal domain is flexible and disordered in solution. This unstructured region is involved in the interaction with tubulin. Our data lead us to propose a testable model for TBCC N-terminal domain/tubulin recognition in which the highly charged N-terminus as well as residues from the three helices and the loops interact with the acidic hypervariable regions of tubulin monomers. PMID:22028797

  17. The N-Terminal DH-PH Domain of Trio Induces Cell Spreading and Migration by Regulating Lamellipodia Dynamics in a Rac1-Dependent Fashion

    PubMed Central

    van Rijssel, Jos; Hoogenboezem, Mark; Wester, Lynn; Hordijk, Peter L.; Van Buul, Jaap D.

    2012-01-01

    The guanine-nucleotide exchange factor Trio encodes two DH-PH domains that catalyze nucleotide exchange on Rac1, RhoG and RhoA. The N-terminal DH-PH domain is known to activate Rac1 and RhoG, whereas the C-terminal DH-PH domain can activate RhoA. The current study shows that the N-terminal DH-PH domain, upon expression in HeLa cells, activates Rac1 and RhoG independently from each other. In addition, we show that the flanking SH3 domain binds to the proline-rich region of the C-terminus of Rac1, but not of RhoG. However, this SH3 domain is not required for Rac1 or RhoG GDP-GTP exchange. Rescue experiments in Trio-shRNA-expressing cells showed that the N-terminal DH-PH domain of Trio, but not the C-terminal DH-PH domain, restored fibronectin-mediated cell spreading and migration defects that are observed in Trio-silenced cells. Kymograph analysis revealed that the N-terminal DH-PH domain, independent of its SH3 domain, controls the dynamics of lamellipodia. Using siRNA against Rac1 or RhoG, we found that Trio-D1-induced lamellipodia formation required Rac1 but not RhoG expression. Together, we conclude that the GEF Trio is responsible for lamellipodia formation through its N-terminal DH-PH domain in a Rac1-dependent manner during fibronectin-mediated spreading and migration. PMID:22238672

  18. Characterization of TonB interactions with the FepA cork domain and FecA N-terminal signaling domain.

    PubMed

    Peacock, R Sean; Andrushchenko, Valery V; Demcoe, A Ross; Gehmlich, Matt; Lu, Lily Sia; Herrero, Alicia Garcia; Vogel, Hans J

    2006-04-01

    The mechanism of TonB dependent siderophore uptake through outer membrane transporters in Gram-negative bacteria is poorly understood. In an effort to expand our knowledge of the interaction between TonB and the outer membrane transporters, we have cloned and expressed the FepA cork domain (11-154) from Salmonella typhimurium and characterized its interaction with the periplasmic C-terminal domain of TonB (103-239) by isotope assisted FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. For comparison we also performed similar experiments using the FecA N-terminal domain (1-96) from Escherichia coli which includes the conserved TonB box. The FepA cork domain was completely unfolded in solution, as observed for the E. coli cork domain previously [Usher et al. (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98, 10676-10681]. The FepA cork domain was found to bind to TonB, eliciting essentially the same chemical shift changes in TonB C-terminal domain as was observed in the presence of TonB box peptides. The FecA construct did not cause this same structural change in TonB. The binding of the FepA cork domain to TonB-CTD was found to decrease the amount of ordered secondary structure in TonB-CTD. It is likely that the FecA N-terminal domain interferes with TonB-CTD binding to the TonB box. Binding of the FepA cork domain induces a loss of secondary structure in TonB, possibly exposing TonB surface area for additional intermolecular interactions such as potential homodimerization or additional interactions with the barrel of the outer membrane transporter.

  19. N-terminal EF-hand-like domain is required for phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C activity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Otterhag, L; Sommarin, M; Pical, C

    2001-05-25

    Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C's (PI-PLCs) are ubiquitous in eukaryotes, from plants to animals, and catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate into the two second messengers inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. In animals, four distinct subfamilies of PI-PLCs have been identified, and the three-dimensional structure of one rat isozyme, PLC-delta1, determined. Plants appear to contain only one gene family encoding PI-PLCs. The catalytic properties of plant PI-PLCs are very similar to those of animal enzymes. However, very little is known about the regulation of plant PI-PLCs. All plant PI-PLCs comprise three domains, X, Y and C2, which are also conserved in isoforms from animals and yeast. We here show that one PI-PLC isozyme from Arabidopsis thaliana, AtPLC2, is predominantly localized in the plasma membrane, and that the conserved N-terminal domain may represent an EF-hand domain that is required for catalytic activity but not for lipid binding.

  20. The N-terminal Domain Allosterically Regulates Cleavage and Activation of the Epithelial Sodium Channel*

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Pradeep; Buchner, Ginka; Chakraborty, Hirak; Dang, Yan L.; He, Hong; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; Kubelka, Jan; Gentzsch, Martina; Stutts, M. Jackson; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.

    2014-01-01

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is activated upon endoproteolytic cleavage of specific segments in the extracellular domains of the α- and γ-subunits. Cleavage is accomplished by intracellular proteases prior to membrane insertion and by surface-expressed or extracellular soluble proteases once ENaC resides at the cell surface. These cleavage events are partially regulated by intracellular signaling through an unknown allosteric mechanism. Here, using a combination of computational and experimental techniques, we show that the intracellular N terminus of γ-ENaC undergoes secondary structural transitions upon interaction with phosphoinositides. From ab initio folding simulations of the N termini in the presence and absence of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), we found that PIP2 increases α-helical propensity in the N terminus of γ-ENaC. Electrophysiology and mutation experiments revealed that a highly conserved cluster of lysines in the γ-ENaC N terminus regulates accessibility of extracellular cleavage sites in γ-ENaC. We also show that conditions that decrease PIP2 or enhance ubiquitination sharply limit access of the γ-ENaC extracellular domain to proteases. Further, the efficiency of allosteric control of ENaC proteolysis is dependent on Tyr370 in γ-ENaC. Our findings provide an allosteric mechanism for ENaC activation regulated by the N termini and sheds light on a potential general mechanism of channel and receptor activation. PMID:24973914

  1. Function of the ATR N-terminal domain revealed by an ATM/ATR chimera

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xinping; Zhao Runxiang; Glick, Gloria G.; Cortez, David . E-mail: david.cortez@vanderbilt.edu

    2007-05-01

    The ATM and ATR kinases function at the apex of checkpoint signaling pathways. These kinases share significant sequence similarity, phosphorylate many of the same substrates, and have overlapping roles in initiating cell cycle checkpoints. However, they sense DNA damage through distinct mechanisms. ATR primarily senses single stranded DNA (ssDNA) through its interaction with ATRIP, and ATM senses double strand breaks through its interaction with Nbs1. We determined that the N-terminus of ATR contains a domain that binds ATRIP. Attaching this domain to ATM allowed the fusion protein (ATM*) to bind ATRIP and associate with RPA-coated ssDNA. ATM* also gained the ability to localize efficiently to stalled replication forks as well as double strand breaks. Despite having normal kinase activity when tested in vitro and being phosphorylated on S1981 in vivo, ATM* is defective in checkpoint signaling and does not complement cellular deficiencies in either ATM or ATR. These data indicate that the N-terminus of ATR is sufficient to bind ATRIP and to promote localization to sites of replication stress.

  2. N-terminal domain of alphaB-crystallin provides a conformational switch for multimerization and structural heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Jehle, Stefan; Vollmar, Breanna S; Bardiaux, Benjamin; Dove, Katja K; Rajagopal, Ponni; Gonen, Tamir; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Klevit, Rachel E

    2011-04-19

    The small heat shock protein (sHSP) αB-crystallin (αB) plays a key role in the cellular protection system against stress. For decades, high-resolution structural studies on heterogeneous sHSPs have been confounded by the polydisperse nature of αB oligomers. We present an atomic-level model of full-length αB as a symmetric 24-subunit multimer based on solid-state NMR, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and EM data. The model builds on our recently reported structure of the homodimeric α-crystallin domain (ACD) and C-terminal IXI motif in the context of the multimer. A hierarchy of interactions contributes to build multimers of varying sizes: Interactions between two ACDs define a dimer, three dimers connected by their C-terminal regions define a hexameric unit, and variable interactions involving the N-terminal region define higher-order multimers. Within a multimer, N-terminal regions exist in multiple environments, contributing to the heterogeneity observed by NMR. Analysis of SAXS data allows determination of a heterogeneity parameter for this type of system. A mechanism of multimerization into higher-order asymmetric oligomers via the addition of up to six dimeric units to a 24-mer is proposed. The proposed asymmetric multimers explain the homogeneous appearance of αB in negative-stain EM images and the known dynamic exchange of αB subunits. The model of αB provides a structural basis for understanding known disease-associated missense mutations and makes predictions concerning substrate binding and the reported fibrilogenesis of αB.

  3. Bean peptides have higher in silico binding affinities than ezetimibe for the N-terminal domain of cholesterol receptor Niemann-Pick C1 Like-1.

    PubMed

    Real Hernandez, Luis M; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2017-04-01

    Niemann-Pick C1 like-1 (NPC1L1) mediates cholesterol absorption at the apical membrane of enterocytes through a yet unknown mechanism. Bean, pea, and lentil proteins are naturally hydrolyzed during digestion to produce peptides. The potential for pulse peptides to have high binding affinities for NPC1L1 has not been determined. In this study , in silico binding affinities and interactions were determined between the N-terminal domain of NPC1L1 and 14 pulse peptides (5≥ amino acids) derived through pepsin-pancreatin digestion. Peptides were docked in triplicate to the N-terminal domain using docking program AutoDock Vina, and results were compared to those of ezetimibe, a prescribed NPC1L1 inhibitor. Three black bean peptides (-7.2 to -7.0kcal/mol) and the cowpea bean dipeptide Lys-Asp (-7.0kcal/mol) had higher binding affinities than ezetimibe (-6.6kcal/mol) for the N-terminal domain of NPC1L1. Lentil and pea peptides studied did not have high binding affinities. The common bean peptide Tyr-Ala-Ala-Ala-Thr (-7.2kcal/mol), which can be produced from black or navy bean proteins, had the highest binding affinity. Ezetimibe and peptides with high binding affinities for the N-terminal domain are expected to interact at different locations of the N-terminal domain. All high affinity black bean peptides are expected to have van der Waals interactions with SER130, PHE136, and LEU236 and a conventional hydrogen bond with GLU238 of NPC1L1. Due to their high affinity for the N-terminal domain of NPC1L1, black and cowpea bean peptides produced in the digestive track have the potential to disrupt interactions between NPC1L1 and membrane proteins that lead to cholesterol absorption.

  4. A Unique Spumavirus Gag N-terminal Domain with Functional Properties of Orthoretroviral Matrix and Capsid

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Neil J.; Sanz-Ramos, Marta; Yap, Melvyn W.; Ogrodowicz, Roksana W.; Stanke, Nicole; Reh, Juliane; Lindemann, Dirk; Stoye, Jonathan P.; Taylor, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    The Spumaretrovirinae, or foamyviruses (FVs) are complex retroviruses that infect many species of monkey and ape. Although FV infection is apparently benign, trans-species zoonosis is commonplace and has resulted in the isolation of the Prototypic Foamy Virus (PFV) from human sources and the potential for germ-line transmission. Despite little sequence homology, FV and orthoretroviral Gag proteins perform equivalent functions, including genome packaging, virion assembly, trafficking and membrane targeting. In addition, PFV Gag interacts with the FV Envelope (Env) protein to facilitate budding of infectious particles. Presently, there is a paucity of structural information with regards FVs and it is unclear how disparate FV and orthoretroviral Gag molecules share the same function. Therefore, in order to probe the functional overlap of FV and orthoretroviral Gag and learn more about FV egress and replication we have undertaken a structural, biophysical and virological study of PFV-Gag. We present the crystal structure of a dimeric amino terminal domain from PFV, Gag-NtD, both free and in complex with the leader peptide of PFV Env. The structure comprises a head domain together with a coiled coil that forms the dimer interface and despite the shared function it is entirely unrelated to either the capsid or matrix of Gag from other retroviruses. Furthermore, we present structural, biochemical and virological data that reveal the molecular details of the essential Gag-Env interaction and in addition we also examine the specificity of Trim5α restriction of PFV. These data provide the first information with regards to FV structural proteins and suggest a model for convergent evolution of gag genes where structurally unrelated molecules have become functionally equivalent. PMID:23675305

  5. The N-terminal zinc finger domain of Tgf2 transposase contributes to DNA binding and to transposition activity

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xia-Yun; Hou, Fei; Shen, Xiao-Dan; Du, Xue-Di; Xu, Hai-Li; Zou, Shu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Active Hobo/Activator/Tam3 (hAT) transposable elements are rarely found in vertebrates. Previously, goldfish Tgf2 was found to be an autonomously active vertebrate transposon that is efficient at gene-transfer in teleost fish. However, little is known about Tgf2 functional domains required for transposition. To explore this, we first predicted in silico a zinc finger domain in the N-terminus of full length Tgf2 transposase (L-Tgf2TPase). Two truncated recombinant Tgf2 transposases with deletions in the N-terminal zinc finger domain, S1- and S2-Tgf2TPase, were expressed in bacteria from goldfish cDNAs. Both truncated Tgf2TPases lost their DNA-binding ability in vitro, specifically at the ends of Tgf2 transposon than native L-Tgf2TPase. Consequently, S1- and S2-Tgf2TPases mediated gene transfer in the zebrafish genome in vivo at a significantly (p < 0.01) lower efficiency (21%–25%), in comparison with L-Tgf2TPase (56% efficiency). Compared to L-Tgf2TPase, truncated Tgf2TPases catalyzed imprecise excisions with partial deletion of TE ends and/or plasmid backbone insertion/deletion. The gene integration into the zebrafish genome mediated by truncated Tgf2TPases was imperfect, creating incomplete 8-bp target site duplications at the insertion sites. These results indicate that the zinc finger domain in Tgf2 transposase is involved in binding to Tgf2 terminal sequences, and loss of those domains has effects on TE transposition. PMID:27251101

  6. The N-Terminal Domain of ERK1 Accounts for the Functional Differences with ERK2

    PubMed Central

    Marchi, Matilde; D'Antoni, Angela; Formentini, Ivan; Parra, Riccardo; Brambilla, Riccardo

    2008-01-01

    The Extracellular Regulated Kinase 1 and 2 transduce a variety of extracellular stimuli regulating processes as diverse as proliferation, differentiation and synaptic plasticity. Once activated in the cytoplasm, ERK1 and ERK2 translocate into the nucleus and interact with nuclear substrates to induce specific programs of gene expression. ERK1/2 share 85% of aminoacid identity and all known functional domains and thence they have been considered functionally equivalent until recent studies found that the ablation of either ERK1 or ERK2 causes dramatically different phenotypes. To search a molecular justification of this dichotomy we investigated whether the different functions of ERK1 and 2 might depend on the properties of their cytoplasmic-nuclear trafficking. Since in the nucleus ERK1/2 is predominantly inactivated, the maintenance of a constant level of nuclear activity requires continuous shuttling of activated protein from the cytoplasm. For this reason, different nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking of ERK1 and 2 would cause a differential signalling capability. We have characterised the trafficking of fluorescently tagged ERK1 and ERK2 by means of time-lapse imaging in living cells. Surprisingly, we found that ERK1 shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm at a much slower rate than ERK2. This difference is caused by a domain of ERK1 located at its N-terminus since the progressive deletion of these residues converted the shuttling features of ERK1 into those of ERK2. Conversely, the fusion of this ERK1 sequence at the N-terminus of ERK2 slowed down its shuttling to a similar value found for ERK1. Finally, computational, biochemical and cellular studies indicated that the reduced nuclear shuttling of ERK1 causes a strong reduction of its nuclear phosphorylation compared to ERK2, leading to a reduced capability of ERK1 to carry proliferative signals to the nucleus. This mechanism significantly contributes to the differential ability of ERK1 and 2 to generate an

  7. The N-terminal domains of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitory proteins block the phosphorylation of cdk2/Cyclin E by the CDK-activating kinase.

    PubMed

    Rank, K B; Evans, D B; Sharma, S K

    2000-05-10

    It has been suggested that binding of p27 and p21 kinase inhibitory proteins (KIPs) to cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) render them inaccessible to cdk-activating kinase (CAK), presumably by steric hindrance by the C-terminal residues. However, this common mechanism of inhibition is inconsistent with the known structural divergence in the p27 and p21 C-terminal domains. Therefore, we studied the direct binding of N-terminal minimal domain of p27 (amino acids 28-81) to cdk2/cyclin E. An unlabeled p27 minimal domain, mutated in the N-terminal LFG motif, was unable to compete with a labeled minimal domain for binding to cdk2/cyclin E. The p27 and its minimal domain inhibited CAK-mediated phosphorylation of cdk2/cyclin E. This inhibitory effect was significantly diminished with p27 minimal domain mutated in the LFG motif. A synthetic peptide, ACRRLFGPVDSE, from the N-terminal residues 17-28 of p21, was also a potent inhibitor of CAK-mediated cdk2/cyclin E phosphorylation. Taken together, these results show that anchoring of p27 or p21 KIPs to cyclin E via the N-terminal LFG-containing motif can block CAK access to its cdk2/cyclin E substrate.

  8. A novel function of the N-terminal domain of PA in assembly of influenza A virus RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tadaki; Ainai, Akira; Nagata, Noriyo; Sata, Tetsutaro; Sawa, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Hideki

    2011-11-04

    Transcription and replication of the negative-sense single-stranded influenza A virus genomic viral RNA are catalyzed by the viral RNA polymerase, which is a trimeric complex encoded by the three largest segments of the influenza virus genome: PB1, PB2, and PA. Numerous studies of the trimeric polymerase complex assembly have substantially contributed to current understanding of influenza virus replication. However, the dynamics of spatial and temporal macromolecular interactions involving virus and host proteins during the formation of the trimeric polymerase complex (PA-PB1-PB2) are still not completely understood. In this study, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and Raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) were applied to monitor the interactions between PB1, PB2, and PA. The BiFC probes of PA-PB1 and PB1-PB2 could monitor the trimeric polymerase complex as well as the binary complex. Furthermore, the C-terminal domain of PA (PAC) promoted interaction between PB1 and PB2 in the cytoplasm and that the N-terminal domain of PA (PAN) inhibited the aberrant trimeric complex formation and assembly of higher-order oligomers induced by PAC in the cytoplasm. Taken together, these results revealed a novel function of PAN in the formation of the trimeric polymerase complexes of influenza A virus.

  9. pH-triggered conformational switching of the diphtheria toxin T-domain: the roles of N-terminal histidines.

    PubMed

    Kurnikov, Igor V; Kyrychenko, Alexander; Flores-Canales, Jose C; Rodnin, Mykola V; Simakov, Nikolay; Vargas-Uribe, Mauricio; Posokhov, Yevgen O; Kurnikova, Maria; Ladokhin, Alexey S

    2013-08-09

    pH-induced conformational switching is essential for functioning of diphtheria toxin, which undergoes a membrane insertion/translocation transition triggered by endosomal acidification as a key step of cellular entry. In order to establish the sequence of molecular rearrangements and side-chain protonation accompanying the formation of the membrane-competent state of the toxin's translocation (T) domain, we have developed and applied an integrated approach that combines multiple techniques of computational chemistry [e.g., long-microsecond-range, all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations; continuum electrostatics calculations; and thermodynamic integration (TI)] with several experimental techniques of fluorescence spectroscopy. TI calculations indicate that protonation of H257 causes the greatest destabilization of the native structure (6.9 kcal/mol), which is consistent with our early mutagenesis results. Extensive equilibrium MD simulations with a combined length of over 8 μs demonstrate that histidine protonation, while not accompanied by the loss of structural compactness of the T-domain, nevertheless results in substantial molecular rearrangements characterized by the partial loss of secondary structure due to unfolding of helices TH1 and TH2 and the loss of close contact between the C- and N-terminal segments. The structural changes accompanying the formation of the membrane-competent state ensure an easier exposure of the internal hydrophobic hairpin formed by helices TH8 and TH9, in preparation for its subsequent transmembrane insertion.

  10. Cross monomer substrate contacts reposition the Hsp90 N-terminal domain and prime the chaperone activity

    PubMed Central

    Street, Timothy O.; Lavery, Laura A.; Verba, Kliment; Lee, Chung-Tien; Mayer, Matthias P.; Agard, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitous molecular chaperone Hsp90 plays a critical role in substrate protein folding and maintenance, but the functional mechanism has been difficult to elucidate. In previous work a model Hsp90 substrate revealed an activation process in which substrate binding accelerates a large open/closed conformational change required for ATP hydrolysis by Hsp90. While this could serve as an elegant mechanism for conserving ATP usage for productive interactions on the substrate, the structural origin of substrate catalyzed Hsp90 conformational changes are unknown. Here we find that substrate binding affects an intrinsically unfavorable rotation of the Hsp90 N-terminal domain (NTD) relative to the middle domain (MD) that is required for closure. We identify an MD substrate binding region on the interior cleft of the Hsp90 dimer and show that a secondary set of substrate contacts drive an NTD orientation change on the opposite monomer. These results suggest an Hsp90 activation mechanism in which cross-monomer contacts mediated by a partially structured substrate prime the chaperone for its functional activity. PMID:22063096

  11. Cross-monomer substrate contacts reposition the Hsp90 N-terminal domain and prime the chaperone activity.

    PubMed

    Street, Timothy O; Lavery, Laura A; Verba, Kliment A; Lee, Chung-Tien; Mayer, Matthias P; Agard, David A

    2012-01-06

    The ubiquitous molecular chaperone Hsp90 plays a critical role in substrate protein folding and maintenance, but the functional mechanism has been difficult to elucidate. In previous work, a model Hsp90 substrate revealed an activation process in which substrate binding accelerates a large open/closed conformational change required for ATP hydrolysis by Hsp90. While this could serve as an elegant mechanism for conserving ATP usage for productive interactions on the substrate, the structural origin of substrate-catalyzed Hsp90 conformational changes is unknown. Here, we find that substrate binding affects an intrinsically unfavorable rotation of the Hsp90 N-terminal domain (NTD) relative to the middle domain (MD) that is required for closure. We identify an MD substrate binding region on the interior cleft of the Hsp90 dimer and show that a secondary set of substrate contacts drives an NTD orientation change on the opposite monomer. These results suggest an Hsp90 activation mechanism in which cross-monomer contacts mediated by a partially structured substrate prime the chaperone for its functional activity.

  12. Spidroin N-terminal Domain Promotes a pH-dependent Association of Silk Proteins during Self-assembly*

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, William A.; Sehorn, Michael G.; Marcotte, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Spider silks are spun from concentrated solutions of spidroin proteins. The appropriate timing of spidroin assembly into organized fibers must be highly regulated to avoid premature fiber formation. Chemical and physical signals presented to the silk proteins as they pass from the ampulle and through the tapered duct include changes in ionic environment and pH as well as the introduction of shear forces. Here, we show that the N-terminal domain of spidroins from the major ampullate gland (MaSp-NTDs) for both Nephila and Latrodectus spiders associate noncovalently as homodimers. The MaSp-NTDs are highly pH-responsive and undergo a structural transition in the physiological pH range of the spider duct. Tryptophan fluorescence of the MaSp-NTDs reveals a change in conformation when pH is decreased, and the pH at which the transition occurs is determined by the amount and type of salt present. Size exclusion chromatography and pulldown assays both indicate that the lower pH conformation is associated with a significantly increased MaSp-NTD homodimer stability. By transducing the duct pH signal into specific protein-protein interactions, this conserved spidroin domain likely contributes significantly to the silk-spinning process. Based on these results, we propose a model of spider silk assembly dynamics as mediated through the MaSp-NTD. PMID:20959449

  13. The N-terminal domain of the androgen receptor drives its nuclear localization in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Javid A.; Masoodi, Khalid Z.; Eisermann, Kurtis; Isharwal, Sudhir; Ai, Junkui; Pascal, Laura E.; Nelson, Joel B.; Wang, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Androgen-independent nuclear localization is required for androgen receptor (AR) transactivation in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and should be a key step leading to castration resistance. However, mechanism(s) leading to androgen-independent AR nuclear localization are poorly understood. Since the N-terminal domain (NTD) of AR plays a role in transactivation under androgen-depleted conditions, we investigated the role of NTD in AR nuclear localization in CRPC. Deletion mutagenesis was used to identify amino acid sequences in the NTD essential for its androgen-independent nuclear localization in C4-2, a widely used CRPC cell line. Deletion mutants of AR tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) at the 5`-end were generated and their signal distribution was investigated in C4-2 cells by fluorescent microscopy. Our results showed that the region of a.a. 294–556 was required for androgen-independent AR nuclear localization whereas a.a. 1–293 mediates Hsp90 regulation of AR nuclear localization in CRPC cells. Although a.a. 294–556 does not contain a nuclear import signal, it was able to enhance DHT-induced import of the ligand binding domain (LBD). Also, transactivation of the NTD could be uncoupled from its modulation of AR nuclear localization in C4-2 cells. These observations suggest an important role of NTD in AR intracellular trafficking and androgen-independent AR nuclear localization in CRPC cells. PMID:24662325

  14. Structures of minute virus of mice replication initiator protein N-terminal domain: Insights into DNA nicking and origin binding

    SciTech Connect

    Tewary, Sunil K.; Liang, Lingfei; Lin, Zihan; Lynn, Annie; Cotmore, Susan F.; Tattersall, Peter; Zhao, Haiyan; Tang, Liang

    2015-02-15

    Members of the Parvoviridae family all encode a non-structural protein 1 (NS1) that directs replication of single-stranded viral DNA, packages viral DNA into capsid, and serves as a potent transcriptional activator. Here we report the X-ray structure of the minute virus of mice (MVM) NS1 N-terminal domain at 1.45 Å resolution, showing that sites for dsDNA binding, ssDNA binding and cleavage, nuclear localization, and other functions are integrated on a canonical fold of the histidine-hydrophobic-histidine superfamily of nucleases, including elements specific for this Protoparvovirus but distinct from its Bocaparvovirus or Dependoparvovirus orthologs. High resolution structural analysis reveals a nickase active site with an architecture that allows highly versatile metal ligand binding. The structures support a unified mechanism of replication origin recognition for homotelomeric and heterotelomeric parvoviruses, mediated by a basic-residue-rich hairpin and an adjacent helix in the initiator proteins and by tandem tetranucleotide motifs in the replication origins. - Highlights: • The structure of a parvovirus replication initiator protein has been determined; • The structure sheds light on mechanisms of ssDNA binding and cleavage; • The nickase active site is preconfigured for versatile metal ligand binding; • The binding site for the double-stranded replication origin DNA is identified; • A single domain integrates multiple functions in virus replication.

  15. Assembly of Weibel–Palade body-like tubules from N-terminal domains of von Willebrand factor

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ren-Huai; Wang, Ying; Roth, Robyn; Yu, Xiong; Purvis, Angie R.; Heuser, John E.; Egelman, Edward H.; Sadler, J. Evan

    2008-01-01

    Endothelial cells assemble von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers into ordered tubules within storage organelles called Weibel–Palade bodies, and tubular packing is necessary for the secretion of VWF filaments that can bind connective tissue and recruit platelets to sites of vascular injury. We now have recreated VWF tubule assembly in vitro, starting with only pure VWF propeptide (domains D1D2) and disulfide-linked dimers of adjacent N-terminal D′D3 domains. Assembly requires low pH and calcium ions and is reversed at neutral pH. Quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of negatively stained images show that tubules contain a repeating unit of one D′D3 dimer and two propeptides arranged in a right-handed helix with 4.2 units per turn. The symmetry and location of interdomain contacts suggest that decreasing pH along the secretory pathway coordinates the disulfide-linked assembly of VWF multimers with their tubular packaging. PMID:18182488

  16. A prime-boost immunization with Tc52 N-terminal domain DNA and the recombinant protein expressed in Pichia pastoris protects against Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Matos, Marina N; Sánchez Alberti, Andrés; Morales, Celina; Cazorla, Silvia I; Malchiodi, Emilio L

    2016-06-14

    We have previously reported that the N-terminal domain of the antigen Tc52 (NTc52) is the section of the protein that confers the strongest protection against Trypanosoma cruzi infection. To improve vaccine efficacy, we conducted here a prime-boost strategy (NTc52PB) by inoculating two doses of pcDNA3.1 encoding the NTc52 DNA carried by attenuated Salmonella (SNTc52), followed by two doses of recombinant NTc52 expressed in Picchia pastoris plus ODN-CpG as adjuvant. This strategy was comparatively analyzed with the following protocols: (1) two doses of NTc52+ODN-CpG by intranasal route followed by two doses of NTc52+ODN-CpG by intradermal route (NTc52CpG); (2) four doses of SNTc52; and (3) a control group with four doses of Salmonella carrying the empty plasmid. All immunized groups developed a predominant Th1 cellular immune response but with important differences in antibody development and protection against infection. Thus, immunization with just SNTc52 induces a strong specific cellular response, a specific systemic antibody response that is weak yet functional (considering lysis of trypomastigotes and inhibition of cell invasion), and IgA mucosal immunity, protecting in both the acute and chronic stages of infection. The group that received only recombinant protein (NTc52CpG) developed a strong antibody immune response but weaker cellular immunity than the other groups, and the protection against infection was clear in the acute phase of infection but not in chronicity. The prime-boost strategy, which combines DNA and protein vaccine and both mucosal and systemic immunizations routes, was the best assayed protocol, inducing strong cellular and humoral responses as well as specific mucosal IgA, thus conferring better protection in the acute and chronic stages of infection.

  17. Binding of G-quadruplexes to the N-terminal Recognition Domain of the RNA Helicase Associated with AU-rich Element (RHAU)*

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Markus; Patel, Trushar R.; Booy, Evan P.; Marushchak, Oksana; Okun, Natalie; Deo, Soumya; Howard, Ryan; McEleney, Kevin; Harding, Stephen E.; Stetefeld, Jörg; McKenna, Sean A.

    2013-01-01

    Polynucleotides containing consecutive tracts of guanines can adopt an intramolecular G-quadruplex structure where multiple planar tetrads of hydrogen-bound guanines stack on top of each other. Remodeling of G-quadruplexes impacts numerous aspects of nucleotide biology including transcriptional and translational control. RNA helicase associated with AU-rich element (RHAU), a member of the ATP-dependent DEX(H/D) family of RNA helicases, has been established as a major cellular quadruplex resolvase. RHAU contains a core helicase domain responsible for ATP binding/hydrolysis/helicase activity and is flanked on either side by N- and C-terminal extensions. The N-terminal extension is required for quadruplex recognition, and we have previously demonstrated complex formation between this domain and a quadruplex from human telomerase RNA. Here we used an integrated approach that includes small angle x-ray scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and dynamic light scattering methods to demonstrate the recognition of G-quadruplexes by the N-terminal domain of RHAU. Based on our results, we conclude that (i) quadruplex from the human telomerase RNA and its DNA analog both adopt a disc shape in solution, (ii) RHAU53–105 adopts a defined and extended conformation in solution, and (iii) the N-terminal domain mediates an interaction with a guanine tetrad face of quadruplexes. Together, these data form the foundation for understanding the recognition of quadruplexes by the N-terminal domain of RHAU. PMID:24151078

  18. The N-terminal pleckstrin, coiled-coil, and IQ domains of the exchange factor Ras-GRF act cooperatively to facilitate activation by calcium.

    PubMed

    Buchsbaum, R; Telliez, J B; Goonesekera, S; Feig, L A

    1996-09-01

    We have recently shown that the neuronal exchange factor p140 Ras-GRF becomes activated in vivo in response to elevated calcium levels [C. L. Farnsworth, N. W. Freshney, L. B. Rosen, A. Ghosh, M. E. Greenberg, and L. A. Feig, Nature (London) 376:524-527, 1995]. Activation is mediated by calcium-induced calmodulin binding to an IQ domain near the N terminus of Ras-GRF. Here we show that the adjacent N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH), coiled-coil, and IQ domains function cooperatively to allow Ras-GRF activation. Deletion of the N-terminal PH domain redistributes a large percentage of Ras-GRF from the particulate to the cytosolic fraction of cells and renders the protein insensitive to calcium stimulation. A similar cellular distribution and biological activity are observed when only the core catalytic domain is expressed. Although the PH domain is necessary for particulate association of Ras-GRF, it is not sufficient for targeting the core catalytic domain to this cellular location. This requires the PH domain and the adjacent coiled-coil and IQ sequences. Remarkably, this form of Ras-GRF is constitutively activated. The PH and coiled-coil domains must also perform an additional function, since targeting to the particulate fraction of cells is not sufficient to allow Ras-GRF activation by calcium. A Ras-GRF mutant containing the PH domain from Ras-GTPase-activating protein in place of its own N-terminal PH domain localizes to the particulate fraction of cells but does not respond to calcium. Similar phenotypes are seen with mutant Ras-GRFs containing point mutations in either the PH or coiled-coil domain. These findings argue that the N-terminal PH, coiled-coil, and IQ domains of Ras-GRF function together to connect Ras-GRF to multiple components in the particulate fractions of cells that are required for responsiveness of the protein to calcium signaling.

  19. Activation of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 1 Involves Interactions between Its N-Terminal Region and Its Kinase Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chih-chin; Orban, Tivadar; Jastrzebska, Beata; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Tesmer, John J.G.

    2012-03-16

    G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) phosphorylate activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to initiate receptor desensitization. In addition to the canonical phosphoacceptor site of the kinase domain, activated receptors bind to a distinct docking site that confers higher affinity and activates GRKs allosterically. Recent mutagenesis and structural studies support a model in which receptor docking activates a GRK by stabilizing the interaction of its 20-amino acid N-terminal region with the kinase domain. This interaction in turn stabilizes a closed, more active conformation of the enzyme. To investigate the importance of this interaction for the process of GRK activation, we first validated the functionality of the N-terminal region in rhodopsin kinase (GRK1) by site-directed mutagenesis and then introduced a disulfide bond to cross-link the N-terminal region of GRK1 with its specific binding site on the kinase domain. Characterization of the kinetic and biophysical properties of the cross-linked protein showed that disulfide bond formation greatly enhances the catalytic efficiency of the peptide phosphorylation, but receptor-dependent phosphorylation, Meta II stabilization, and inhibition of transducin activation were unaffected. These data indicate that the interaction of the N-terminal region with the kinase domain is important for GRK activation but does not dictate the affinity of GRKs for activated receptors.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the GST-fused human Bri3 N-terminal domain

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Qilu; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Blonde, James Daniel; Jia, Zongchao

    2005-01-01

    The crystallization of the polyproline-rich polypeptide from human Bri3 overexpressed as a GST-fusion protein in Escherichia coli is presented. Bri3 is a recently identified proline-rich transmembrane polypeptide up-regulated during TNF-mediated inflammation and immunity. The polyproline-rich N-terminal (residues 1–60) domain of Bri3 was affinity-purified to homogeneity as a glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion protein. Crystals were obtained in ∼3 d by the equilibrium vapour-diffusion method from a solution containing 1.5–2.2 M ammonium sulfate and 0.1 M bis-tris pH 6.0. The crystals belong to space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 91.66, c = 57.53 Å. An X-ray data set was collected to 1.6 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation, with an R{sub sym} of 0.058 and a completeness of 95.3%. There is one molecule of the fusion protein in the asymmetric unit, which corresponds to ∼35% solvent content.

  1. The N-terminal loop of IRAK-4 death domain regulates ordered assembly of the Myddosome signalling scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Dossang, Anthony C. G.; Motshwene, Precious G.; Yang, Yang; Symmons, Martyn F.; Bryant, Clare E.; Borman, Satty; George, Julie; Weber, Alexander N. R.; Gay, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of Toll-like receptors induces dimerization and the recruitment of the death domain (DD) adaptor protein MyD88 into an oligomeric post receptor complex termed the Myddosome. The Myddosome is a hub for inflammatory and oncogenic signaling and has a hierarchical arrangement with 6–8 MyD88 molecules assembling with exactly 4 of IRAK-4 and 4 of IRAK-2. Here we show that a conserved motif in IRAK-4 (Ser8-X-X-X-Arg12) is autophosphorylated and that the phosphorylated DD is unable to form Myddosomes. Furthermore a mutant DD with the phospho-mimetic residue Asp at this position is impaired in both signalling and Myddosome assembly. IRAK-4 Arg12 is also essential for Myddosome assembly and signalling and we propose that phosphorylated Ser8 induces the N-terminal loop to fold into an α-helix. This conformer is stabilised by an electrostatic interaction between phospho-Ser8 and Arg12 and would destabilise a critical interface between IRAK-4 and MyD88. Interestingly IRAK-2 does not conserve this motif and has an alternative interface in the Myddosome that requires Arg67, a residue conserved in paralogues, IRAK-1 and 3(M). PMID:27876844

  2. Regulation of the Structurally Dynamic N-terminal Domain of Progesterone Receptor by Protein-induced Folding*

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raj; Moure, Carmen M.; Khan, Shagufta H.; Callaway, Celetta; Grimm, Sandra L.; Goswami, Devrishi; Griffin, Patrick R.; Edwards, Dean P.

    2013-01-01

    The N-terminal domain (NTD) of steroid receptors harbors a transcriptional activation function (AF1) that is composed of an intrinsically disordered polypeptide. We examined the interaction of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) with the NTD of the progesterone receptor (PR) and its ability to regulate AF1 activity through coupled folding and binding. As assessed by solution phase biophysical methods, the isolated NTD of PR contains a large content of random coil, and it is capable of adopting secondary α-helical structure and more stable tertiary folding either in the presence of the natural osmolyte trimethylamine-N-oxide or through a direct interaction with TBP. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled with mass spectrometry confirmed the highly dynamic intrinsically disordered property of the NTD within the context of full-length PR. Deletion mapping and point mutagenesis defined a region of the NTD (amino acids 350–428) required for structural folding in response to TBP interaction. Overexpression of TBP in cells enhanced transcriptional activity mediated by the PR NTD, and deletion mutations showed that a region (amino acids 327–428), similar to that required for TBP-induced folding, was required for functional response. TBP also increased steroid receptor co-activator 1 (SRC-1) interaction with the PR NTD and cooperated with SRC-1 to stimulate NTD-dependent transcriptional activity. These data suggest that TBP can mediate structural reorganization of the NTD to facilitate the binding of co-activators required for maximal transcriptional activation. PMID:23995840

  3. Functional Insights from the Crystal Structure of the N-Terminal Domain of the Prototypical Toll Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Gangloff, Monique; Arnot, Christopher J.; Lewis, Miranda; Gay, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Drosophila melanogaster Toll is the founding member of an important family of pathogen-recognition receptors in humans, the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family. In contrast, the prototypical receptor is a cytokine-like receptor for Spätzle (Spz) protein and plays a dual role in both development and immunity. Here, we present the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of the receptor that encompasses the first 201 amino acids at 2.4 Å resolution. To our knowledge, the cysteine-rich cap adopts a novel fold unique to Toll-1 orthologs in insects and that is not critical for ligand binding. However, we observed that an antibody directed against the first ten LRRs blocks Spz signaling in a Drosophila cell-based assay. Supplemented by point mutagenesis and deletion analysis, our data suggests that the region up to LRR 14 is involved in Spz binding. Comparison with mammalian TLRs reconciles previous contradictory findings about the mechanism of Toll activation. PMID:23245851

  4. Structure of N-Terminal Domain of NPC1 Reveals Distinct Subdomains for Binding and Transfer of Cholesterol

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Hyock Joo; Abi-Mosleh, Lina; Wang, Michael L.; Deisenhofer, Johann; Goldstein, Joseph L.; Brown, Michael S.; Infante, Rodney E.

    2010-09-21

    LDL delivers cholesterol to lysosomes by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Exit of cholesterol from lysosomes requires two proteins, membrane-bound Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) and soluble NPC2. NPC2 binds cholesterol with its isooctyl side chain buried and its 3{beta}-hydroxyl exposed. Here, we describe high-resolution structures of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of NPC1 and complexes with cholesterol and 25-hydroxycholesterol. NPC1(NTD) binds cholesterol in an orientation opposite to NPC2: 3{beta}-hydroxyl buried and isooctyl side chain exposed. Cholesterol transfer from NPC2 to NPC1(NTD) requires reorientation of a helical subdomain in NPC1(NTD), enlarging the opening for cholesterol entry. NPC1 with point mutations in this subdomain (distinct from the binding subdomain) cannot accept cholesterol from NPC2 and cannot restore cholesterol exit from lysosomes in NPC1-deficient cells. We propose a working model wherein after lysosomal hydrolysis of LDL-cholesteryl esters, cholesterol binds NPC2, which transfers it to NPC1(NTD), reversing its orientation and allowing insertion of its isooctyl side chain into the outer lysosomal membranes.

  5. PrP N-terminal domain triggers PrP{sup Sc}-like aggregation of Dpl

    SciTech Connect

    Erlich, Paul; Cesbron, Jean-Yves; Lemaire-Vieille, Catherine; Curt, Aurelie; Andrieu, Jean-Pierre; Schoehn, Guy; Jamin, Marc; Gagnon, Jean

    2008-01-18

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are fatal neurodegenerative disorders thought to be transmitted by self-perpetuating conformational conversion of a neuronal membrane glycoprotein (PrP{sup C}, for 'cellular prion protein') into an abnormal state (PrP{sup Sc}, for 'scrapie prion protein'). Doppel (Dpl) is a protein that shares significant biochemical and structural homology with PrP{sup C}. In contrast to its homologue PrP{sup C}, Dpl is unable to participate in prion disease progression or to achieve an abnormal PrP{sup Sc}-like state. We have constructed a chimeric mouse protein, composed of the N-terminal domain of PrP{sup C} (residues 23-125) and the C-terminal part of Dpl (residues 58-157). This chimeric protein displays PrP-like biochemical and structural features; when incubated in presence of NaCl, the {alpha}-helical monomer forms soluble {beta}-sheet-rich oligomers which acquire partial resistance to pepsin proteolysis in vitro, as do PrP oligomers. Moreover, the presence of aggregates akin to protofibrils is observed in soluble oligomeric species by electron microscopy.

  6. [Cloning and expression of N-terminal protective domain of spaA gene from Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae C43311].

    PubMed

    Nazierbieke, Wulumuhan; Liu, Zhuxiang; Li, Ke; Chen, Yiguang; Borrathybay, Entomack

    2008-02-01

    The spaA gene was amplified by PCR from the genomic DNA of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae C43311 strain, and inserted into the pMD18-T vector and then sequenced. The N-terminal protective domain of the spaA gene was amplified by PCR from the recombinant plasmid pMD18-spaA, then cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-6p-2 and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) by IPTG induction. The expressed protein was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The sequence analyses showed that the coding region of the spaA gene of C43311 strain was 1881bp in length, and the nucleotide sequence homology of the spaA genes between the C43311 strain and the previously reported different serotype strains of E. rhusiopathiae was 93 to 99%. The SDS-PAGE analyses revealed a single fusion protein band with a molecular weight of 64kDa, and the Western blot results showed that the GST-SpaA-N fusion protein was recognized specifically by an antiserum against the SpaA protein of C43311 strain, suggesting that the fusion protein of GST-SpaA-N possessed high immunoreactivity.

  7. Role of N-terminal domain of HMW 1Dx5 in the functional and structural properties of wheat dough.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing Jing; Liu, Guang; Huang, Yan-Bo; Zeng, Qiao-Hui; Song, Guo-Sheng; Hou, Yi; Li, Lin; Hu, Song-Qing

    2016-12-15

    Effects of N-terminal domain of high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) 1Dx5 (1Dx5-N) on functional and structural properties of wheat dough were determined by farinographic and rheological analysis, size exclusion chromatography, non-reducing/reducing SDS-PAGE, total free sulfhydryl determination, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results showed that 1Dx5-N improved the quality of dough with the increased water absorption, dough stability time, elastic and viscous modulus, and the decreased degree of softening, loss tangent. These improvements could be attributed to the formation of the macro-molecular weight aggregates and massive protein networks, which were favored by 1Dx5-N through disulfide bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Additionally, 1Dx5-N drove the transition of α-helix and random coil conformations to β-sheet and β-turn conformations, further demonstrating the formation of HMW-GS polymers and the enhancement of dough strength. Moreover, all the positive effects of 1Dx5-N were reinforced by edible salt NaCl. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analyses of Compact Trichinella Kinomes Reveal a MOS-Like Protein Kinase with a Unique N-Terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Stroehlein, Andreas J.; Young, Neil D.; Korhonen, Pasi K.; Chang, Bill C. H.; Sternberg, Paul W.; La Rosa, Giuseppe; Pozio, Edoardo; Gasser, Robin B.

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic worms of the genus Trichinella (phylum Nematoda; class Enoplea) represent a complex of at least twelve taxa that infect a range of different host animals, including humans, around the world. They are foodborne, intracellular nematodes, and their life cycles differ substantially from those of other nematodes. The recent characterization of the genomes and transcriptomes of all twelve recognized taxa of Trichinella now allows, for the first time, detailed studies of their molecular biology. In the present study, we defined, curated, and compared the protein kinase complements (kinomes) of Trichinella spiralis and T. pseudospiralis using an integrated bioinformatic workflow employing transcriptomic and genomic data sets. We examined how variation in the kinome might link to unique aspects of Trichinella morphology, biology, and evolution. Furthermore, we utilized in silico structural modeling to discover and characterize a novel, MOS-like kinase with an unusual, previously undescribed N-terminal domain. Taken together, the present findings provide a basis for comparative investigations of nematode kinomes, and might facilitate the identification of Enoplea-specific intervention and diagnostic targets. Importantly, the in silico modeling approach assessed here provides an exciting prospect of being able to identify and classify currently unknown (orphan) kinases, as a foundation for their subsequent structural and functional investigation. PMID:27412987

  9. X-ray vs. NMR structure of N-terminal domain of δ-subunit of RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Demo, Gabriel; Papoušková, Veronika; Komárek, Jan; Kadeřávek, Pavel; Otrusinová, Olga; Srb, Pavel; Rabatinová, Alžbeta; Krásný, Libor; Zídek, Lukáš; Sklenář, Vladimír; Wimmerová, Michaela

    2014-08-01

    The crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase δ subunit (Nδ) from Bacillus subtilis solved at a resolution of 2.0Å is compared with the NMR structure determined previously. The molecule crystallizes in the space group C222(1) with a dimer in the asymmetric unit. Importantly, the X-ray structure exhibits significant differences from the lowest energy NMR structure. In addition to the overall structure differences, structurally important β sheets found in the NMR structure are not present in the crystal structure. We systematically investigated the cause of the discrepancies between the NMR and X-ray structures of Nδ, addressing the pH dependence, presence of metal ions, and crystal packing forces. We convincingly showed that the crystal packing forces, together with the presence of Ni(2+) ions, are the main reason for such a difference. In summary, the study illustrates that the two structural approaches may give unequal results, which need to be interpreted with care to obtain reliable structural information in terms of biological relevance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Peptides from the N-terminal domain of chromogranin A (vasostatins) exert negative inotropic effects in the isolated frog heart.

    PubMed

    Tota, Bruno; Mazza, Rosa; Angelone, Tommaso; Nullans, Gerard; Metz-Boutigue, Marie-Hélène; Aunis, Dominique; Helle, Karen B

    2003-07-15

    The negative inotropic effects of synthetic peptides derived from the N-terminus of chromogranin A (CgA) were studied in an avascular model of the vertebrate myocardium, the isolated working frog heart (Rana esculenta). The peptides were frog and bovine CgA(4-16) and CgA(47-66), and bovine CgA(1-40) with (CgA(1-40SS)) and without an intact disulfide bridge (CgA(1-40SH)). Under basal cardiac conditions, four of the peptides caused a concentration-dependent negative inotropism that was comparable to the negative inotropy reported for human recombinant vasostatin I (CgA(1-78)) and bovine CgA(7-57). By comparison of the structural characteristics of the bovine and frog sequences with their minimally effective concentrations ranging from 68 to 125 nM of peptide, the results were consistent with the natural structure (CgA(17-38SS)) being essential for the negative inotropism. In addition, the partial sequences of the frog and bovine vasostatin I were effective in counteracting the characteristic positive inotropism exerted by isoproterenol (1 nM) at minimally effective concentrations ranging from 45 to 272 nM. Taken together, these results extend the first evidence for a cardiosuppressive role of the N-terminal domain of chromogranin A known for its co-storage with catecholamines in the sympathoadrenal system of vertebrates.

  11. The N-terminal domains determine cellular localization and functions of the Doa4 and Ubp5 deubiquitinating enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Nazia; Amerik, Alexander

    2015-11-20

    Ubiquitination is involved in numerous cellular regulatory mechanisms including the cell cycle, signal transduction and quality control. Ubiquitin modifies proteins by consecutive actions of ubiquitin-activating/conjugating enzymes. Attachment of ubiquitin is reversible. Deubiquitinating enzymes are responsible for removal of ubiquitin from ubiquitin-protein conjugates. Genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes structurally related but functionally distinct enzymes - Doa4 and Ubp5. Doa4 is involved in general ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis and is responsible for deubiquitination of ubiquitin-protein conjugates at the cytoplasmic face of the late endosome. The N-terminal domain targets the enzyme to the endosome membrane after ESCRT-III complex has formed there. By contrast, corresponding region of homologous Ubp5 is critical for its bud neck localization in dividing cells. Conceivably, Ubp5 plays an essential role in cytokinesis. Here we show that Doa4 physically interacts with the ESCRT-III component Snf7 and preferentially cleaves Lys63-linked ubiquitin oligomers involved in membrane protein trafficking. We also demonstrate that the unstable regulator of cytokinesis Hof1 accumulates in proteasomal mutants and is required for cellular localization of Ubp5. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. The N-terminal domain of DDA3 regulates the spindle-association of the microtubule depolymerase Kif2a and controls the mitotic function of DDA3.

    PubMed

    Jang, Chang-Young; Fang, Guowei

    2009-10-01

    DDA3 is a microtubule-associated protein that controls chromosome congression and segregation by regulating the dynamics of the mitotic spindle. Depletion of DDA3 alters spindle structure, generates unaligned chromosomes at metaphase, and delays the mitotic progression. DDA3 interacts with the microtubule depolymerase Kif2a and controls the association of Kif2a to the mitotic spindle and the dynamic turnover of microtubules in the spindle. To understand the function and regulation of DDA3, we analyzed its domain structure and found that the C-terminal domain of DDA3 directly binds to microtubules in vitro and associates with the mitotic spindle in vivo. The N-terminal domain of DDA3 does not interact with microtubules, but acts dominant negatively over the wild-type protein. Ectopic expression of this domain prevents the endogenous DDA3 from association with the spindle and results in a high frequency of unaligned chromosomes in metaphase cells, a phenotype similar to that in metaphase cells depleted of DDA3. Mechanistically, expression of N-terminal DDA3 reduces the amount of spindle-associated Kif2a and increases the spindle microtubule density, pheno-copying those in DDA3-depleted cells. We conclude that DDA3 has a distinct domain structure. The C-terminal domain confers its ability to associate with the mitotic spindle, while the regulatory N-terminal domain controls the microtubule-binding by the C-terminal domain and determines the cellular activity of the DDA3 protein.

  13. Calmodulin activation of an endoplasmic reticulum-located calcium pump involves an interaction with the N-terminal autoinhibitory domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, I.; Harper, J. F.; Liang, F.; Sze, H.

    2000-01-01

    To investigate how calmodulin regulates a unique subfamily of Ca(2+) pumps found in plants, we examined the kinetic properties of isoform ACA2 identified in Arabidopsis. A recombinant ACA2 was expressed in a yeast K616 mutant deficient in two endogenous Ca(2+) pumps. Orthovanadate-sensitive (45)Ca(2+) transport into vesicles isolated from transformants demonstrated that ACA2 is a Ca(2+) pump. Ca(2+) pumping by the full-length protein (ACA2-1) was 4- to 10-fold lower than that of the N-terminal truncated ACA2-2 (Delta2-80), indicating that the N-terminal domain normally acts to inhibit the pump. An inhibitory sequence (IC(50) = 4 microM) was localized to a region within valine-20 to leucine-44, because a peptide corresponding to this sequence lowered the V(max) and increased the K(m) for Ca(2+) of the constitutively active ACA2-2 to values comparable to the full-length pump. The peptide also blocked the activity (IC(50) = 7 microM) of a Ca(2+) pump (AtECA1) belonging to a second family of Ca(2+) pumps. This inhibitory sequence appears to overlap with a calmodulin-binding site in ACA2, previously mapped between aspartate-19 and arginine-36 (J.F. Harper, B. Hong, I. Hwang, H.Q. Guo, R. Stoddard, J.F. Huang, M.G. Palmgren, H. Sze inverted question mark1998 J Biol Chem 273: 1099-1106). These results support a model in which the pump is kept "unactivated" by an intramolecular interaction between an autoinhibitory sequence located between residues 20 and 44 and a site in the Ca(2+) pump core that is highly conserved between different Ca(2+) pump families. Results further support a model in which activation occurs as a result of Ca(2+)-induced binding of calmodulin to a site overlapping or immediately adjacent to the autoinhibitory sequence.

  14. Specificity and versatility of substrate binding sites in four catalytic domains of human N-terminal acetyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Grauffel, Cédric; Abboud, Angèle; Liszczak, Glen; Marmorstein, Ronen; Arnesen, Thomas; Reuter, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Nt-acetylation is among the most common protein modifications in eukaryotes. Although thought for a long time to protect proteins from degradation, the role of Nt-acetylation is still debated. It is catalyzed by enzymes called N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). In eukaryotes, several NATs, composed of at least one catalytic domain, target different substrates based on their N-terminal sequences. In order to better understand the substrate specificity of human NATs, we investigated in silico the enzyme-substrate interactions in four catalytic subunits of human NATs (Naa10p, Naa20p, Naa30p and Naa50p). To date hNaa50p is the only human subunit for which X-ray structures are available. We used the structure of the ternary hNaa50p/AcCoA/MLG complex and a structural model of hNaa10p as a starting point for multiple molecular dynamics simulations of hNaa50p/AcCoA/substrate (substrate=MLG, EEE, MKG), hNaa10p/AcCoA/substrate (substrate=MLG, EEE). Nine alanine point-mutants of the hNaa50p/AcCoA/MLG complex were also simulated. Homology models of hNaa20p and hNaa30p were built and compared to hNaa50p and hNaa10p. The simulations of hNaa50p/AcCoA/MLG reproduce the interactions revealed by the X-ray data. We observed strong hydrogen bonds between MLG and tyrosines 31, 138 and 139. Yet the tyrosines interacting with the substrate's backbone suggest that their role in specificity is limited. This is confirmed by the simulations of hNaa50p/AcCoA/EEE and hNaa10p/AcCoA/MLG, where these hydrogen bonds are still observed. Moreover these tyrosines are all conserved in hNaa20p and hNaa30p. Other amino acids tune the specificity of the S1' sites that is different for hNaa10p (acidic), hNaa20p (hydrophobic/basic), hNaa30p (basic) and hNaa50p (hydrophobic). We also observe dynamic correlation between the ligand binding site and helix [Formula: see text] that tightens under substrate binding. Finally, by comparing the four structures we propose maps of the peptide-enzyme interactions

  15. Calmodulin activation of an endoplasmic reticulum-located calcium pump involves an interaction with the N-terminal autoinhibitory domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, I.; Harper, J. F.; Liang, F.; Sze, H.

    2000-01-01

    To investigate how calmodulin regulates a unique subfamily of Ca(2+) pumps found in plants, we examined the kinetic properties of isoform ACA2 identified in Arabidopsis. A recombinant ACA2 was expressed in a yeast K616 mutant deficient in two endogenous Ca(2+) pumps. Orthovanadate-sensitive (45)Ca(2+) transport into vesicles isolated from transformants demonstrated that ACA2 is a Ca(2+) pump. Ca(2+) pumping by the full-length protein (ACA2-1) was 4- to 10-fold lower than that of the N-terminal truncated ACA2-2 (Delta2-80), indicating that the N-terminal domain normally acts to inhibit the pump. An inhibitory sequence (IC(50) = 4 microM) was localized to a region within valine-20 to leucine-44, because a peptide corresponding to this sequence lowered the V(max) and increased the K(m) for Ca(2+) of the constitutively active ACA2-2 to values comparable to the full-length pump. The peptide also blocked the activity (IC(50) = 7 microM) of a Ca(2+) pump (AtECA1) belonging to a second family of Ca(2+) pumps. This inhibitory sequence appears to overlap with a calmodulin-binding site in ACA2, previously mapped between aspartate-19 and arginine-36 (J.F. Harper, B. Hong, I. Hwang, H.Q. Guo, R. Stoddard, J.F. Huang, M.G. Palmgren, H. Sze inverted question mark1998 J Biol Chem 273: 1099-1106). These results support a model in which the pump is kept "unactivated" by an intramolecular interaction between an autoinhibitory sequence located between residues 20 and 44 and a site in the Ca(2+) pump core that is highly conserved between different Ca(2+) pump families. Results further support a model in which activation occurs as a result of Ca(2+)-induced binding of calmodulin to a site overlapping or immediately adjacent to the autoinhibitory sequence.

  16. The cardiac-specific N-terminal region of troponin I positions the regulatory domain of troponin C

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Peter M.; Cai, Fangze; Pineda-Sanabria, Sandra E.; Corson, David C.; Sykes, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    The cardiac isoform of troponin I (cTnI) has a unique 31-residue N-terminal region that binds cardiac troponin C (cTnC) to increase the calcium sensitivity of the sarcomere. The interaction can be abolished by cTnI phosphorylation at Ser22 and Ser23, an important mechanism for regulating cardiac contractility. cTnC contains two EF–hand domains (the N and C domain of cTnC, cNTnC and cCTnC) connected by a flexible linker. Calcium binding to either domain favors an “open” conformation, exposing a large hydrophobic surface that is stabilized by target binding, cTnI[148–158] for cNTnC and cTnI[39–60] for cCTnC. We used multinuclear multidimensional solution NMR spectroscopy to study cTnI[1–73] in complex with cTnC. cTnI[39–60] binds to the hydrophobic face of cCTnC, stabilizing an alpha helix in cTnI[41–67] and a type VIII turn in cTnI[38–41]. In contrast, cTnI[1–37] remains disordered, although cTnI[19–37] is electrostatically tethered to the negatively charged surface of cNTnC (opposite its hydrophobic surface). The interaction does not directly affect the calcium binding affinity of cNTnC. However, it does fix the positioning of cNTnC relative to the rest of the troponin complex, similar to what was previously observed in an X-ray structure [Takeda S, et al. (2003) Nature 424(6944):35–41]. Domain positioning impacts the effective concentration of cTnI[148–158] presented to cNTnC, and this is how cTnI[19–37] indirectly modulates the calcium affinity of cNTnC within the context of the cardiac thin filament. Phosphorylation of cTnI at Ser22/23 disrupts domain positioning, explaining how it impacts many other cardiac regulatory mechanisms, like the Frank–Starling law of the heart. PMID:25246568

  17. Dissecting functions of the N-terminal domain and GAS-site recognition in STAT3 nuclear trafficking.

    PubMed

    Martincuks, Antons; Fahrenkamp, Dirk; Haan, Serge; Herrmann, Andreas; Küster, Andrea; Müller-Newen, Gerhard

    2016-08-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a ubiquitous transcription factor involved in many biological processes, including hematopoiesis, inflammation and cancer progression. Cytokine-induced gene transcription greatly depends on tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 on a single tyrosine residue with subsequent nuclear accumulation and specific DNA sequence (GAS) recognition. In this study, we analyzed the roles of the conserved STAT3 N-terminal domain (NTD) and GAS-element binding ability of STAT3 in nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. Our results demonstrate the nonessential role of GAS-element recognition for both cytokine-induced and basal nuclear import of STAT3. Substitution of five key amino acids within the DNA-binding domain rendered STAT3 unable to bind to GAS-elements while still maintaining the ability for nuclear localization. In turn, deletion of the NTD markedly decreased nuclear accumulation upon IL-6 treatment resulting in a prolonged accumulation of phosphorylated dimers in the cytoplasm, at the same time preserving specific DNA recognition ability of the truncation mutant. Observed defect in nuclear localization could not be explained by flawed importin-α binding, since both wild-type and NTD deletion mutant of STAT3 could precipitate both full-length and autoinhibitory domain (∆IBB) deletion mutants of importin-α5, as well as ∆IBB-α3 and ∆IBB-α7 isoforms independently of IL-6 stimulation. Despite its inability to translocate to the nucleus upon IL-6 stimulation, the NTD lacking mutant still showed nuclear accumulation in resting cells similar to wild-type upon inhibition of nuclear export by leptomycin B. At the same time, blocking the nuclear export pathway could not rescue cytoplasmic trapping of phosphorylated STAT3 molecules without NTD. Moreover, STAT3 mutant with dysfunctional SH2 domain (R609Q) also localized in the nucleus of unstimulated cells after nuclear export blocking, while upon cytokine treatment the

  18. The cardiac-specific N-terminal region of troponin I positions the regulatory domain of troponin C.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Peter M; Cai, Fangze; Pineda-Sanabria, Sandra E; Corson, David C; Sykes, Brian D

    2014-10-07

    The cardiac isoform of troponin I (cTnI) has a unique 31-residue N-terminal region that binds cardiac troponin C (cTnC) to increase the calcium sensitivity of the sarcomere. The interaction can be abolished by cTnI phosphorylation at Ser22 and Ser23, an important mechanism for regulating cardiac contractility. cTnC contains two EF-hand domains (the N and C domain of cTnC, cNTnC and cCTnC) connected by a flexible linker. Calcium binding to either domain favors an "open" conformation, exposing a large hydrophobic surface that is stabilized by target binding, cTnI[148-158] for cNTnC and cTnI[39-60] for cCTnC. We used multinuclear multidimensional solution NMR spectroscopy to study cTnI[1-73] in complex with cTnC. cTnI[39-60] binds to the hydrophobic face of cCTnC, stabilizing an alpha helix in cTnI[41-67] and a type VIII turn in cTnI[38-41]. In contrast, cTnI[1-37] remains disordered, although cTnI[19-37] is electrostatically tethered to the negatively charged surface of cNTnC (opposite its hydrophobic surface). The interaction does not directly affect the calcium binding affinity of cNTnC. However, it does fix the positioning of cNTnC relative to the rest of the troponin complex, similar to what was previously observed in an X-ray structure [Takeda S, et al. (2003) Nature 424(6944):35-41]. Domain positioning impacts the effective concentration of cTnI[148-158] presented to cNTnC, and this is how cTnI[19-37] indirectly modulates the calcium affinity of cNTnC within the context of the cardiac thin filament. Phosphorylation of cTnI at Ser22/23 disrupts domain positioning, explaining how it impacts many other cardiac regulatory mechanisms, like the Frank-Starling law of the heart.

  19. Neuronal entry and high neurotoxicity of botulinum neurotoxin A require its N-terminal binding sub-domain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiafu; Meng, Jianghui; Nugent, Marc; Tang, Minhong; Dolly, J Oliver

    2017-03-15

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic proteins known, due to inhibiting the neuronal release of acetylcholine and causing flaccid paralysis. Most BoNT serotypes target neurons by binding to synaptic vesicle proteins and gangliosides via a C-terminal binding sub-domain (HCC). However, the role of their conserved N-terminal sub-domain (HCN) has not been established. Herein, we created a mutant form of recombinant BoNT/A lacking HCN (rAΔHCN) and showed that the lethality of this mutant is reduced 3.3 × 10(4)-fold compared to wild-type BoNT/A. Accordingly, low concentrations of rAΔHCN failed to bind either synaptic vesicle protein 2C or neurons, unlike the high-affinity neuronal binding obtained with (125)I-BoNT/A (Kd = 0.46 nM). At a higher concentration, rAΔHCN did bind to cultured sensory neurons and cluster on the surface, even after 24 h exposure. In contrast, BoNT/A became internalised and its light chain appeared associated with the plasmalemma, and partially co-localised with vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 in some vesicular compartments. We further found that a point mutation (W985L) within HCN reduced the toxicity over 10-fold, while this mutant maintained the same level of binding to neurons as wild type BoNT/A, suggesting that HCN makes additional contributions to productive internalization/translocation steps beyond binding to neurons.

  20. Hereditary angioedema in a Jordanian family with a novel missense mutation in the C1-inhibitor N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Jaradat, Saied A; Caccia, Sonia; Rawashdeh, Rifaat; Melhem, Motasem; Al-Hawamdeh, Ali; Carzaniga, Thomas; Haddad, Hazem

    2016-03-01

    Hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the SERPING1 gene. A Jordanian family, including 14 individuals with C1-INH-HAE clinical symptoms, was studied. In the propositus and his parents, SERPING1 had four mutations leading to amino acid substitutions. Two are known polymorphic variants (c.167T>C; p.Val34Ala and c.1438G>A; p.Val458Met), the others are newly described. One (c.203C>T; p.Thr46Ile) is located in the N-terminal domain of the C1-inhibitor protein and segregates with angioedema symptoms in the family. The other (c.800C>T; p.Ala245Val) belongs to the serpin domain, and derives from the unaffected father. DNA from additional 24 family members were screened for c.203C>T mutation in the target gene. All individuals heterozygous for the c.203C>T mutation had antigenic and functional plasma levels of C1-inhibitor below 50% of normal, confirming the diagnosis of type I C1-INH-HAE. Angioedema symptoms were present in 14 of 16 subjects carrier for the c.203T allele. Among these subjects, those carrying the c.800T variation had more severe and frequent symptoms than subjects without this mutation. This family-based study provides the first evidence that multiple amino acid substitutions in SERPING1 could influence C1-INH-HAE phenotype. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of the Interaction Interfaces of the N-Terminal Domain from Pseudomonas aeruginosa MutL

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Virginia; Correa, Elisa M. E.; De Tullio, Luisina; Barra, José L.; Argaraña, Carlos E.; Villarreal, Marcos A.

    2013-01-01

    Mismatch Repair System corrects mutations arising from DNA replication that escape from DNA polymerase proofreading activity. This system consists of three main proteins, MutS-L-H, responsible for lesion recognition and repair. MutL is a member of GHKL ATPase family and its ATPase cycle has been proposed to modulate MutL activity during the repair process. Pseudomonas aeruginosa MutL (PaMutL) contains an N-terminal (NTD) ATPase domain connected by a linker to a C-terminal (CTD) dimerization domain that possesses metal ion-dependent endonuclease activity. With the aim to identify characteristics that allow the PaMutL NTD allosteric control of CTD endonuclease activity, we used an in silico and experimental approach to determine the interaction surfaces of P. aeruginosa NTD (PaNTD), and compared it with the well characterized Escherichia coli MutL NTD (EcNTD). Molecular dynamics simulations of PaNTD and EcNTD bound to or free of adenosine nucleotides showed that a significant difference exists between the behavior of the EcNTD and PaNTD dimerization interface, particularly in the ATP lid. Structure based simulations of MutL homologues with endonuclease activity were performed that allowed an insight of the dimerization interface behavior in this family of proteins. Our experimental results show that, unlike EcNTD, PaNTD is dimeric in presence of ADP. Simulations in mixed solvent allowed us to identify the PaNTD putative DNA binding patch and a putative interaction patch located opposite to the dimerization face. Structure based simulations of PaNTD dimer in presence of ADP or ATP suggest that nucleotide binding could differentially modulate PaNTD protein-protein interactions. Far western assays performed in presence of ADP or ATP are in agreement with our in silico analysis. PMID:23922851

  2. Analysis of the interaction interfaces of the N-terminal domain from Pseudomonas aeruginosa MutL.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Virginia; Correa, Elisa M E; De Tullio, Luisina; Barra, José L; Argaraña, Carlos E; Villarreal, Marcos A

    2013-01-01

    Mismatch Repair System corrects mutations arising from DNA replication that escape from DNA polymerase proofreading activity. This system consists of three main proteins, MutS-L-H, responsible for lesion recognition and repair. MutL is a member of GHKL ATPase family and its ATPase cycle has been proposed to modulate MutL activity during the repair process. Pseudomonas aeruginosa MutL (PaMutL) contains an N-terminal (NTD) ATPase domain connected by a linker to a C-terminal (CTD) dimerization domain that possesses metal ion-dependent endonuclease activity. With the aim to identify characteristics that allow the PaMutL NTD allosteric control of CTD endonuclease activity, we used an in silico and experimental approach to determine the interaction surfaces of P. aeruginosa NTD (PaNTD), and compared it with the well characterized Escherichia coli MutL NTD (EcNTD). Molecular dynamics simulations of PaNTD and EcNTD bound to or free of adenosine nucleotides showed that a significant difference exists between the behavior of the EcNTD and PaNTD dimerization interface, particularly in the ATP lid. Structure based simulations of MutL homologues with endonuclease activity were performed that allowed an insight of the dimerization interface behavior in this family of proteins. Our experimental results show that, unlike EcNTD, PaNTD is dimeric in presence of ADP. Simulations in mixed solvent allowed us to identify the PaNTD putative DNA binding patch and a putative interaction patch located opposite to the dimerization face. Structure based simulations of PaNTD dimer in presence of ADP or ATP suggest that nucleotide binding could differentially modulate PaNTD protein-protein interactions. Far western assays performed in presence of ADP or ATP are in agreement with our in silico analysis.

  3. Neuronal entry and high neurotoxicity of botulinum neurotoxin A require its N-terminal binding sub-domain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiafu; Meng, Jianghui; Nugent, Marc; Tang, Minhong; Dolly, J. Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic proteins known, due to inhibiting the neuronal release of acetylcholine and causing flaccid paralysis. Most BoNT serotypes target neurons by binding to synaptic vesicle proteins and gangliosides via a C-terminal binding sub-domain (HCC). However, the role of their conserved N-terminal sub-domain (HCN) has not been established. Herein, we created a mutant form of recombinant BoNT/A lacking HCN (rAΔHCN) and showed that the lethality of this mutant is reduced 3.3 × 104-fold compared to wild-type BoNT/A. Accordingly, low concentrations of rAΔHCN failed to bind either synaptic vesicle protein 2C or neurons, unlike the high-affinity neuronal binding obtained with 125I-BoNT/A (Kd = 0.46 nM). At a higher concentration, rAΔHCN did bind to cultured sensory neurons and cluster on the surface, even after 24 h exposure. In contrast, BoNT/A became internalised and its light chain appeared associated with the plasmalemma, and partially co-localised with vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 in some vesicular compartments. We further found that a point mutation (W985L) within HCN reduced the toxicity over 10-fold, while this mutant maintained the same level of binding to neurons as wild type BoNT/A, suggesting that HCN makes additional contributions to productive internalization/translocation steps beyond binding to neurons. PMID:28295026

  4. Ribonucleocapsid Formation of SARS-COV Through Molecular Action of the N-Terminal Domain of N Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Saikatendu, K.S.; Joseph, J.S.; Subramanian, V.; Neuman, B.W.; Buchmeier, M.J.; Stevens, R.C.; Kuhn, P.; /Scripps Res. Inst.

    2007-07-12

    Conserved amongst all coronaviruses are four structural proteins, the matrix (M), small envelope (E) and spike (S) that are embedded in the viral membrane and the nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N), which exists in a ribonucleoprotein complex in their lumen. The N terminal domain of coronaviral N proteins (N-NTD) provides a scaffold for RNA binding while the C-terminal domain (N-CTD) mainly acts as oligomerization modules during assembly. The C-terminus of N protein anchors it to the viral membrane by associating with M protein. We characterized the structures of N-NTD from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in two crystal forms, at 1.17A (monoclinic) and 1.85 A (cubic) respectively, solved by molecular replacement using the homologous avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) structure. Flexible loops in the solution structure of SARS-CoV N-NTD are now shown to be well ordered around the beta-sheet core. The functionally important positively charged beta-hairpin protrudes out of the core and is oriented similar to that in the IBV N-NTD and is involved in crystal packing in the monoclinic form. In the cubic form, the monomers form trimeric units that stack in a helical array. Comparison of crystal packing of SARS-CoV and IBV N-NTDs suggest a common mode of RNA recognition, but probably associate differently in vivo during the formation of the ribonucleoprotein complex. Electrostatic potential distribution on the surface of homology models of related coronaviral N-NTDs hints that they employ different modes of both RNA recognition as well as oligomeric assembly, perhaps explaining why their nucleocapsids have different morphologies.

  5. An N-terminal Amphipathic Helix Binds Phosphoinositides and Enhances Kalirin Sec14 Domain-mediated Membrane Interactions.

    PubMed

    Miller, Megan B; Vishwanatha, Kurutihalli S; Mains, Richard E; Eipper, Betty A

    2015-05-22

    Previous studies revealed an essential role for the lipid-binding Sec14 domain of kalirin (KalSec14), but its mechanism of action is not well understood. Because alternative promoter usage appends unique N-terminal peptides to the KalSec14 domain, we used biophysical, biochemical, and cell biological approaches to examine the two major products, bKalSec14 and cKalSec14. Promoter B encodes a charged, unstructured peptide, whereas promoter C encodes an amphipathic helix (Kal-C-helix). Both bKalSec14 and cKalSec14 interacted with lipids in PIP strip and liposome flotation assays, with significantly greater binding by cKalSec14 in both assays. Disruption of the hydrophobic face of the Kal-C-helix in cKalSec14KKED eliminated its increased liposome binding. Although cKalSec14 showed significantly reduced binding to liposomes lacking phosphatidylinositol phosphates or cholesterol, liposome binding by bKalSec14 and cKalSec14KKED was not affected. When expressed in AtT-20 cells, bKalSec14-GFP was diffusely localized, whereas cKalSec14-GFP localized to the trans-Golgi network and secretory granules. The amphipathic C-helix was sufficient for this localization. When AtT-20 cells were treated with a cell-permeant derivative of the Kal-C-helix (Kal-C-helix-Arg9), we observed increased secretion of a product stored in mature secretory granules, with no effect on basal secretion; a cell-permeant control peptide (Kal-C-helixKKED-Arg9) did not have this effect. Through its ability to control expression of a novel, phosphoinositide-binding amphipathic helix, Kalrn promoter usage is expected to affect function. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. An N-terminal Amphipathic Helix Binds Phosphoinositides and Enhances Kalirin Sec14 Domain-mediated Membrane Interactions*

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Megan B.; Vishwanatha, Kurutihalli S.; Mains, Richard E.; Eipper, Betty A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies revealed an essential role for the lipid-binding Sec14 domain of kalirin (KalSec14), but its mechanism of action is not well understood. Because alternative promoter usage appends unique N-terminal peptides to the KalSec14 domain, we used biophysical, biochemical, and cell biological approaches to examine the two major products, bKalSec14 and cKalSec14. Promoter B encodes a charged, unstructured peptide, whereas promoter C encodes an amphipathic helix (Kal-C-helix). Both bKalSec14 and cKalSec14 interacted with lipids in PIP strip and liposome flotation assays, with significantly greater binding by cKalSec14 in both assays. Disruption of the hydrophobic face of the Kal-C-helix in cKalSec14KKED eliminated its increased liposome binding. Although cKalSec14 showed significantly reduced binding to liposomes lacking phosphatidylinositol phosphates or cholesterol, liposome binding by bKalSec14 and cKalSec14KKED was not affected. When expressed in AtT-20 cells, bKalSec14-GFP was diffusely localized, whereas cKalSec14-GFP localized to the trans-Golgi network and secretory granules. The amphipathic C-helix was sufficient for this localization. When AtT-20 cells were treated with a cell-permeant derivative of the Kal-C-helix (Kal-C-helix-Arg9), we observed increased secretion of a product stored in mature secretory granules, with no effect on basal secretion; a cell-permeant control peptide (Kal-C-helixKKED-Arg9) did not have this effect. Through its ability to control expression of a novel, phosphoinositide-binding amphipathic helix, Kalrn promoter usage is expected to affect function. PMID:25861993

  7. The N-terminal domain of the androgen receptor drives its nuclear localization in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dar, Javid A; Masoodi, Khalid Z; Eisermann, Kurtis; Isharwal, Sudhir; Ai, Junkui; Pascal, Laura E; Nelson, Joel B; Wang, Zhou

    2014-09-01

    Androgen-independent nuclear localization is required for androgen receptor (AR) transactivation in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and should be a key step leading to castration resistance. However, mechanism(s) leading to androgen-independent AR nuclear localization are poorly understood. Since the N-terminal domain (NTD) of AR plays a role in transactivation under androgen-depleted conditions, we investigated the role of the NTD in AR nuclear localization in CRPC. Deletion mutagenesis was used to identify amino acid sequences in the NTD essential for its androgen-independent nuclear localization in C4-2, a widely used CRPC cell line. Deletion mutants of AR tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) at the 5'-end were generated and their signal distribution was investigated in C4-2 cells by fluorescent microscopy. Our results showed that the region of a.a. 294-556 was required for androgen-independent AR nuclear localization whereas a.a. 1-293 mediates Hsp90 regulation of AR nuclear localization in CRPC cells. Although the region of a.a. 294-556 does not contain a nuclear import signal, it was able to enhance DHT-induced import of the ligand binding domain (LBD). Also, transactivation of the NTD could be uncoupled from its modulation of AR nuclear localization in C4-2 cells. These observations suggest an important role of the NTD in AR intracellular trafficking and androgen-independent AR nuclear localization in CRPC cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The N-terminal domain of the mammalian nucleoporin p62 interacts with other nucleoporins of the FXFG family during interphase

    SciTech Connect

    Stochaj, Ursula . E-mail: ursula.stochaj@mcgill.ca; Banski, Piotr; Kodiha, Mohamed; Matusiewicz, Neola

    2006-08-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) provide the only sites for macromolecular transport between nucleus and cytoplasm. The nucleoporin p62, a component of higher eukaryotic NPCs, is located at the central gated channel and involved in nuclear trafficking of various cargos. p62 is organized into an N-terminal segment that contains FXFG repeats and binds the soluble transport factor NTF2, whereas the C-terminal portion associates with other nucleoporins and importin-{beta}1. We have now identified new components that interact specifically with the p62 N-terminal domain. Using the p62 N-terminal segment as bait, we affinity-purified nucleoporins Nup358, Nup214 and Nup153 from crude cell extracts. In ligand binding assays, the N-terminal p62 segment associated with Nup358 and p62, suggesting their direct binding to the p62 N-terminal portion. Furthermore, p62 was isolated in complex with Nup358, Nup214 and Nup153 from growing HeLa cells, indicating that the interactions Nup358/p62, Nup214/p62 and p62/Nup153 also occur in vivo. The formation of Nup358/p62 and p62/Nup153 complexes was restricted to interphase cells, whereas Nup214/p62 binding was detected in interphase as well as during mitosis. Our results support a model of complex interactions between FXFG containing nucleoporins, and we propose that some of these interactions may contribute to the movement of cargo across the NPC.

  9. Phosphorylation of the N-terminal domain of p48 Ebp1 by CDK2 is required for tumorigenic function of p48.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hyo Rim; Kim, Chung Kwon; Ahn, Jee-Yin

    2015-11-01

    The long isoform of ErbB3 binding protein 1 (Ebp1), p48, strongly promotes tumorigenesis of glioblastoma, accelerating cell proliferation and transformation, while the short isoform, p42, which lacks the N-terminal 54 amino acids, inhibits tumor growth. However, it is unclear if the N-terminal domain of p48 regulates the oncogenic function of p48. Here, we show that p48, but not p42, interacts with cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) through its N-terminal domain, resulting in the specific phosphorylation of serine 34 of p48. Overexpression of wild-type p48 greatly enhanced tumor cell growth, whereas phospho-ablated mutant S34A of p48, which is mutated at the CDK2 phosphorylation site, antagonizes cell proliferation and transformation. Moreover, phospho-ablated mutant S34A abrogated the ability of p48 to accelerate tumor cell growth in a mouse engraft model. Thus, our findings indicate that p48Ebp1 acts as an oncoprotein through selective interaction and/or modification of the N-terminal domain that does not exist in its short isoform p42.

  10. The Herpes Simplex Virus Protein pUL31 Escorts Nucleocapsids to Sites of Nuclear Egress, a Process Coordinated by Its N-Terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Claus-Henning; Binz, Anne; Sodeik, Beate; Bauerfeind, Rudolf; Bailer, Susanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Progeny capsids of herpesviruses leave the nucleus by budding through the nuclear envelope. Two viral proteins, the membrane protein pUL34 and the nucleo-phosphoprotein pUL31 form the nuclear egress complex that is required for capsid egress out of the nucleus. All pUL31 orthologs are composed of a diverse N-terminal domain with 1 to 3 basic patches and a conserved C-terminal domain. To decipher the functions of the N-terminal domain, we have generated several Herpes simplex virus mutants and show here that the N-terminal domain of pUL31 is essential with basic patches being critical for viral propagation. pUL31 and pUL34 entered the nucleus independently of each other via separate routes and the N-terminal domain of pUL31 was required to prevent their premature interaction in the cytoplasm. Unexpectedly, a classical bipartite nuclear localization signal embedded in this domain was not required for nuclear import of pUL31. In the nucleus, pUL31 associated with the nuclear envelope and newly formed capsids. Viral mutants lacking the N-terminal domain or with its basic patches neutralized still associated with nucleocapsids but were unable to translocate them to the nuclear envelope. Replacing the authentic basic patches with a novel artificial one resulted in HSV1(17+)Lox-UL31-hbpmp1mp2, that was viable but delayed in nuclear egress and compromised in viral production. Thus, while the C-terminal domain of pUL31 is sufficient for the interaction with nucleocapsids, the N-terminal domain was essential for capsid translocation to sites of nuclear egress and a coordinated interaction with pUL34. Our data indicate an orchestrated sequence of events with pUL31 binding to nucleocapsids and escorting them to the inner nuclear envelope. We propose a common mechanism for herpesviral nuclear egress: pUL31 is required for intranuclear translocation of nucleocapsids and subsequent interaction with pUL34 thereby coupling capsid maturation with primary envelopment. PMID:26083367

  11. Role of N-Terminal Domain and Accessory Subunits in Controlling Deactivation-Inactivation Coupling of Kv4.2 Channels

    PubMed Central

    Barghaan, Jan; Tozakidou, Magdalini; Ehmke, Heimo; Bähring, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We examined the relationship between deactivation and inactivation in Kv4.2 channels. In particular, we were interested in the role of a Kv4.2 N-terminal domain and accessory subunits in controlling macroscopic gating kinetics and asked if the effects of N-terminal deletion and accessory subunit coexpression conform to a kinetic coupling of deactivation and inactivation. We expressed Kv4.2 wild-type channels and N-terminal deletion mutants in the absence and presence of Kv channel interacting proteins (KChIPs) and dipeptidyl aminopeptidase-like proteins (DPPs) in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Kv4.2-mediated A-type currents at positive and deactivation tail currents at negative membrane potentials were recorded under whole-cell voltage-clamp and analyzed by multi-exponential fitting. The observed changes in Kv4.2 macroscopic inactivation kinetics caused by N-terminal deletion, accessory subunit coexpression, or a combination of the two maneuvers were compared with respective changes in deactivation kinetics. Extensive correlation analyses indicated that modulatory effects on deactivation closely parallel respective effects on inactivation, including both onset and recovery kinetics. Searching for the structural determinants, which control deactivation and inactivation, we found that in a Kv4.2Δ2–10 N-terminal deletion mutant both the initial rapid phase of macroscopic inactivation and tail current deactivation were slowed. On the other hand, the intermediate and slow phase of A-type current decay, recovery from inactivation, and tail current decay kinetics were accelerated in Kv4.2Δ2–10 by KChIP2 and DPPX. Thus, a Kv4.2 N-terminal domain, which may control both inactivation and deactivation, is not necessary for active modulation of current kinetics by accessory subunits. Our results further suggest distinct mechanisms for Kv4.2 gating modulation by KChIPs and DPPs. PMID:17981906

  12. Structural transitions in full-length human prion protein detected by xenon as probe and spin labeling of the N-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Sunilkumar Puthenpurackal; Nair, Divya Gopalakrishnan; Schaal, Daniel; Barbosa de Aguiar, Marisa; Wenzel, Sabine; Kremer, Werner; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert

    2016-01-01

    Fatal neurodegenerative disorders termed transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are associated with the accumulation of fibrils of misfolded prion protein PrP. The noble gas xenon accommodates into four transiently enlarged hydrophobic cavities located in the well-folded core of human PrP(23–230) as detected by [1H, 15N]-HSQC spectroscopy. In thermal equilibrium a fifth xenon binding site is formed transiently by amino acids A120 to L125 of the presumably disordered N-terminal domain and by amino acids K185 to T193 of the well-folded domain. Xenon bound PrP was modelled by restraint molecular dynamics. The individual microscopic and macroscopic dissociation constants could be derived by fitting the data to a model including a dynamic opening and closing of the cavities. As observed earlier by high pressure NMR spectroscopy xenon binding influences also other amino acids all over the N-terminal domain including residues of the AGAAAAGA motif indicating a structural coupling between the N-terminal domain and the core domain. This is in agreement with spin labelling experiments at positions 93 or 107 that show a transient interaction between the N-terminus and the start of helix 2 and the end of helix 3 of the core domain similar to that observed earlier by Zn2+-binding to the octarepeat motif. PMID:27341298

  13. Structural transitions in full-length human prion protein detected by xenon as probe and spin labeling of the N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sunilkumar Puthenpurackal; Nair, Divya Gopalakrishnan; Schaal, Daniel; Barbosa de Aguiar, Marisa; Wenzel, Sabine; Kremer, Werner; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert

    2016-06-24

    Fatal neurodegenerative disorders termed transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are associated with the accumulation of fibrils of misfolded prion protein PrP. The noble gas xenon accommodates into four transiently enlarged hydrophobic cavities located in the well-folded core of human PrP(23-230) as detected by [(1)H, (15)N]-HSQC spectroscopy. In thermal equilibrium a fifth xenon binding site is formed transiently by amino acids A120 to L125 of the presumably disordered N-terminal domain and by amino acids K185 to T193 of the well-folded domain. Xenon bound PrP was modelled by restraint molecular dynamics. The individual microscopic and macroscopic dissociation constants could be derived by fitting the data to a model including a dynamic opening and closing of the cavities. As observed earlier by high pressure NMR spectroscopy xenon binding influences also other amino acids all over the N-terminal domain including residues of the AGAAAAGA motif indicating a structural coupling between the N-terminal domain and the core domain. This is in agreement with spin labelling experiments at positions 93 or 107 that show a transient interaction between the N-terminus and the start of helix 2 and the end of helix 3 of the core domain similar to that observed earlier by Zn(2+)-binding to the octarepeat motif.

  14. Electrophoretic characterization of species of fibronectin bearing sequences from the N-terminal heparin-binding domain in synovial fluid samples from patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Peters, John H; Carsons, Steven; Yoshida, Mika; Ko, Fred; McDougall, Skye; Loredo, Grace A; Hahn, Theodore J

    2003-01-01

    Fragments of fibronectin (FN) corresponding to the N-terminal heparin-binding domain have been observed to promote catabolic chondrocytic gene expression and chondrolysis. We therefore characterized FN species that include sequences from this domain in samples of arthritic synovial fluid using one-and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) Western blot analysis. We detected similar assortments of species, ranging from ~47 to greater than 200 kDa, in samples obtained from patients with osteoarthritis (n = 9) versus rheumatoid arthritis (n = 10). One of the predominant forms, with an apparent molecular weight of ~170 kDa, typically resolved in 2D electrophoresis into a cluster of subspecies. These exhibited reduced binding to gelatin in comparison with a more prevalent species of ~200+ kDa and were also recognized by a monoclonal antibody to the central cell-binding domain (CBD). When considered together with our previous analyses of synovial fluid FN species containing the alternatively spliced EIIIA segment, these observations indicate that the ~170-kDa species includes sequences from four FN domains that have previously, in isolation, been observed to promote catabolic responses by chondrocytes in vitro: the N-terminal heparin-binding domain, the gelatin-binding domain, the central CBD, and the EIIIA segment. The ~170-kDa N-terminal species of FN may therefore be both a participant in joint destructive processes and a biomarker with which to gauge activity of the arthritic process. PMID:14680507

  15. The N-terminal domain of enterococcal surface protein, Esp, is sufficient for Esp-mediated biofilm enhancement in Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Tendolkar, Preeti M; Baghdayan, Arto S; Shankar, Nathan

    2005-09-01

    Enterococci have emerged as one of the leading causes of nosocomial bloodstream, surgical site, and urinary tract infections. More recently, enterococci have been associated with biofilms, which are bacterial communities attached to a surface and encased in an extracellular polymeric matrix. The enterococcal cell surface-associated protein, Esp, enhances biofilm formation by Enterococcus faecalis in a glucose-dependent manner. Mature Esp consists of a nonrepeat N-terminal domain and a central region made up of two types of tandem repeats followed by a C-terminal membrane-spanning and anchor domain. This study was undertaken to localize the specific domain(s) of Esp that plays a role in Esp-mediated biofilm enhancement. To achieve this objective, we constructed in-frame deletion mutants expressing truncated forms of Esp in an isogenic background. By comparing strains expressing the mutant forms of Esp to those expressing wild-type Esp, we found that the strain expressing Esp lacking the N-terminal domain formed biofilms that were quantitatively less in biovolume than the strain expressing wild-type Esp. Furthermore, an E. faecalis strain expressing only the N-terminal domain of Esp fused to a heterologous protein anchor formed biofilms that were quantitatively similar to those formed by a strain expressing full-length Esp. This suggested that the minimal region contributing to Esp-mediated biofilm enhancement in E. faecalis was confined to the nonrepeat N-terminal domain. Expression of full-length E. faecalis Esp in heterologous host systems of esp-deficient Lactococcus lactis and Enterococcus faecium did not enhance biofilm formation as was observed for E. faecalis. These results suggest that Esp may require interaction with an additional E. faecalis-specific factor(s) to result in biofilm enhancement.

  16. Functional Relevance of the N-Terminal Domain of Pseudorabies Virus Envelope Glycoprotein H and Its Interaction with Glycoprotein L.

    PubMed

    Vallbracht, Melina; Rehwaldt, Sascha; Klupp, Barbara G; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Fuchs, Walter

    2017-05-01

    Several envelope glycoproteins are involved in herpesvirus entry into cells, direct cell-to-cell spread, and induction of cell fusion. The membrane fusion protein glycoprotein B (gB) and the presumably gB-activating heterodimer gH/gL are essential for these processes and conserved throughout the Herpesviridae However, after extended cell culture passage of gL-negative mutants of the alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus (PrV), phenotypic revertants could be isolated which had acquired spontaneous mutations affecting the gL-interacting N-terminal part of the gH ectodomain (gDH and gH(B4.1)) (B. G. Klupp and T. C. Mettenleiter, J Virol 73:3014-3022, 1999; C. Schröter, M. Vallbracht, J. Altenschmidt, S. Kargoll, W. Fuchs, B. G. Klupp, and T. C. Mettenleiter, J Virol 90:2264-2272, 2016). To investigate the functional relevance of this part of gH in more detail, we introduced an in-frame deletion of 66 codons at the 5' end of the plasmid-cloned gH gene (gH(32/98)). The N-terminal signal peptide was retained, and the deletion did not affect expression or processing of gH but abrogated its function in in vitro fusion assays. Insertion of the engineered gH gene into the PrV genome resulted in a defective mutant (pPrV-gH(32/98)K), which was incapable of entry and spread. Interestingly, in vitro activity of mutated gH(32/98) was restored when it was coexpressed with hyperfusogenic gB(B4.1), obtained from a passaged gL deletion mutant of PrV. Moreover, the entry and spread defects of pPrV-gH(32/98)K were compensated by the mutations in gB(B4.1) in cis, as well as in trans, independent of gL. Thus, PrV gL and the gL-interacting domain of gH are not strictly required for function.IMPORTANCE Membrane fusion is crucial for infectious entry and spread of enveloped viruses. While many enveloped viruses require only one or two proteins for receptor binding and membrane fusion, herpesvirus infection depends on several envelope glycoproteins. Besides subfamily-specific receptor binding

  17. The dynamics of interconverting D- and E-forms of the HIV-1 integrase N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Sangeetha, Balasubramanian; Muthukumaran, Rajagopalan; Amutha, Ramaswamy

    2014-11-01

    The N-terminal domain (NTD) of HIV-1 integrase adopts two inter-converting forms (D- and E-) due to their specific coordination of a Zn(2+) ion by an HHCC motif. Mutational studies on NTD have suggested the importance of conformational transition in regulating the functions of tetramers and dimers of HIV-1 integrase. This study explores the stability and dynamics of native NTD forms and the conformational transition between D- and E-forms using molecular dynamics simulations elucidating their role in regulation of viral and host DNA integration. Simulation of native forms of NTD revealed stable dynamics. Transition studies between D- and E-forms using conventional molecular dynamics simulations for 50 ns partially revealed conformational change towards the target during D- to -E simulation (the extension of α1-helix), which failed in the E- to -D simulation. This could be attributed to the existence of the D-form (-1,945.907 kCal/mol) in higher energy than the E-form (-2,002.383 kCal/mol). The conformational transition pathway between these two states was explored using targeted molecular dynamics simulations. Analysis of the targeted molecular dynamics trajectories revealed conformations closer to the experimentally-reported intermediate form of an NTD during the transition phase. The role of Met22 in stabilizing the E-form was studied by simulating the E-form with Met22Ala mutation, revealing a highly dynamic α1-helix as compared to the native form. The present study reveals the significant role of the Zn(2+) ion-coordinated HHCC motif and its interaction with Met22 as the basis for understanding the biological implications of D- and E-forms of the NTD in regulating integration reaction.

  18. Association of N-terminal domain polymorphisms of the porcine glucocorticoid receptor with carcass composition and meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Reyer, Henry; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus; Murani, Eduard

    2014-02-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a ubiquitously acting transcription factor that is responsible for mediating the physiological response to stress and adaptation to environmental conditions. Genetic variation of a GR gene (NR3C1) may therefore contribute to multiple phenotypic alterations and influence relevant traits of animal production. Here, we examined effects of two non-synonymous mutations of the porcine NR3C1, leading to amino acid exchanges p.Glu13Asp (c.39A>C) and p.Val19Leu (c.55G>C) in the N-terminal domain of the GR, on meat quality and carcass composition. In addition, we explored their influence on transcriptional activity of GR in vitro. A commercial crossbreed Pietrain × (German Large White × German Landrace) herd (n = 545) in which genotypes and relevant traits had been collected was used to perform the association analysis. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) c.55G>C was significantly associated with conductivity and meat color scores. These effects were highly consistent considering the physiological relationship between these traits. Association analysis of SNP c.39A>C also revealed significant effects on closely connected meat quality traits. In addition, SNP c.55G>C showed association with carcass traits, mainly those related to muscle deposition. The molecular mechanism of action of both amino acid substitutions remains obscure because neither showed significant influence on transcriptional activity of GR. Our study emphasizes NR3C1 as an important candidate gene for muscle-related traits in pigs, but further work is necessary to clarify the molecular background of the identified associations.

  19. N-Terminal Domain of Feline Calicivirus (FCV) Proteinase-Polymerase Contributes to the Inhibition of Host Cell Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hongxia; Zu, Shaopo; Sun, Xue; Liu, Yongxiang; Tian, Jin; Qu, Liandong

    2016-01-01

    Feline Calicivirus (FCV) infection results in the inhibition of host protein synthesis, known as “shut-off”. However, the precise mechanism of shut-off remains unknown. Here, we found that the FCV strain 2280 proteinase-polymerase (PP) protein can suppress luciferase reporter gene expression driven by endogenous and exogenous promoters. Furthermore, we found that the N-terminal 263 aa of PP (PPN-263) determined its shut-off activity using the expression of truncated proteins. However, the same domain of the FCV strain F9 PP protein failed to inhibit gene expression. A comparison between strains 2280 and F9 indicated that Val27, Ala96 and Ala98 were key sites for the inhibition of host gene expression by strain 2280 PPN-263, and PPN-263 exhibited the ability to shut off host gene expression as long as it contained any two of the three amino acids. Because the N-terminus of the PP protein is required for its proteinase and shut-off activities, we investigated the ability of norovirus 3C-like proteins (3CLP) from the GII.4-1987 and -2012 isolates to interfere with host gene expression. The results showed that 3CLP from both isolates was able to shut off host gene expression, but 3CLP from GII.4-2012 had a stronger inhibitory activity than that from GII.4-1987. Finally, we found that 2280 PP and 3CLP significantly repressed reporter gene transcription but did not affect mRNA translation. Our results provide new insight into the mechanism of the FCV-mediated inhibition of host gene expression. PMID:27447663

  20. Identification of an antigenic domain in the N-terminal region of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) capsid protein that is not common to swine and human HEVs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lizhen; Sun, Yani; Du, Taofeng; Wang, Chengbao; Xiao, Shuqi; Mu, Yang; Zhang, Gaiping; Liu, Lihong; Widén, Frederik; Hsu, Walter H; Zhao, Qin; Zhou, En-Min

    2014-12-01

    The antigenic domains located in the C-terminal 268 amino acid residues of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) capsid protein have been characterized. This region shares common epitopes with swine and human HEVs. However, epitopes in the N-terminal 338 amino acid residues have never been reported. In this study, an antigenic domain located between amino acids 23 and 85 was identified by indirect ELISA using the truncated recombinant capsid proteins as coating antigens and anti-avian HEV chicken sera as primary antibodies. In addition, this domain did not react with anti-swine and human HEV sera. These results indicated that the N-terminal 338 amino acid residues of avian HEV capsid protein do not share common epitopes with swine and human HEVs. This finding is important for our understanding of the antigenicity of the avian HEV capsid protein. Furthermore, it has important implications in the selection of viral antigens for serological diagnosis.

  1. The Aquaporin Splice Variant NbXIP1;1α Is Permeable to Boric Acid and Is Phosphorylated in the N-terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Ampah-Korsah, Henry; Anderberg, Hanna I.; Engfors, Angelica; Kirscht, Andreas; Norden, Kristina; Kjellstrom, Sven; Kjellbom, Per; Johanson, Urban

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane channel proteins that transport water and uncharged solutes across different membranes in organisms in all kingdoms of life. In plants, the AQPs can be divided into seven different subfamilies and five of these are present in higher plants. The most recently characterized of these subfamilies is the XIP subfamily, which is found in most dicots but not in monocots. In this article, we present data on two different splice variants (α and β) of NbXIP1;1 from Nicotiana benthamiana. We describe the heterologous expression of NbXIP1;1α and β in the yeast Pichia pastoris, the subcellular localization of the protein in this system and the purification of the NbXIP1;1α protein. Furthermore, we investigated the functionality and the substrate specificity of the protein by stopped-flow spectrometry in P. pastoris spheroplasts and with the protein reconstituted in proteoliposomes. The phosphorylation status of the protein and localization of the phosphorylated amino acids were verified by mass spectrometry. Our results show that NbXIP1;1α is located in the plasma membrane when expressed in P. pastoris, that it is not permeable to water but to boric acid and that the protein is phosphorylated at several amino acids in the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the protein. A growth assay showed that the yeast cells expressing the N-terminally His-tagged NbXIP1;1α were more sensitive to boric acid as compared to the cells expressing the C-terminally His-tagged isoform. This might suggest that the N-terminal His-tag functionally mimics the phosphorylation of the N-terminal domain and that the N-terminal domain is involved in gating of the channel. PMID:27379142

  2. The Aquaporin Splice Variant NbXIP1;1α Is Permeable to Boric Acid and Is Phosphorylated in the N-terminal Domain.

    PubMed

    Ampah-Korsah, Henry; Anderberg, Hanna I; Engfors, Angelica; Kirscht, Andreas; Norden, Kristina; Kjellstrom, Sven; Kjellbom, Per; Johanson, Urban

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane channel proteins that transport water and uncharged solutes across different membranes in organisms in all kingdoms of life. In plants, the AQPs can be divided into seven different subfamilies and five of these are present in higher plants. The most recently characterized of these subfamilies is the XIP subfamily, which is found in most dicots but not in monocots. In this article, we present data on two different splice variants (α and β) of NbXIP1;1 from Nicotiana benthamiana. We describe the heterologous expression of NbXIP1;1α and β in the yeast Pichia pastoris, the subcellular localization of the protein in this system and the purification of the NbXIP1;1α protein. Furthermore, we investigated the functionality and the substrate specificity of the protein by stopped-flow spectrometry in P. pastoris spheroplasts and with the protein reconstituted in proteoliposomes. The phosphorylation status of the protein and localization of the phosphorylated amino acids were verified by mass spectrometry. Our results show that NbXIP1;1α is located in the plasma membrane when expressed in P. pastoris, that it is not permeable to water but to boric acid and that the protein is phosphorylated at several amino acids in the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the protein. A growth assay showed that the yeast cells expressing the N-terminally His-tagged NbXIP1;1α were more sensitive to boric acid as compared to the cells expressing the C-terminally His-tagged isoform. This might suggest that the N-terminal His-tag functionally mimics the phosphorylation of the N-terminal domain and that the N-terminal domain is involved in gating of the channel.

  3. Solution structure of the silkworm βGRP/GNBP3 N-terminal domain reveals the mechanism for β-1,3-glucan-specific recognition

    PubMed Central

    Takahasi, Kiyohiro; Ochiai, Masanori; Horiuchi, Masataka; Kumeta, Hiroyuki; Ogura, Kenji; Ashida, Masaaki; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko

    2009-01-01

    The β-1,3-glucan recognition protein (βGRP)/Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein 3 (GNBP3) is a crucial pattern-recognition receptor that specifically binds β-1,3-glucan, a component of fungal cell walls. It evokes innate immunity against fungi through activation of the prophenoloxidase (proPO) cascade and Toll pathway in invertebrates. The βGRP consists of an N-terminal β-1,3-glucan-recognition domain and a C-terminal glucanase-like domain, with the former reported to be responsible for the proPO cascade activation. This report shows the solution structure of the N-terminal β-1,3-glucan recognition domain of silkworm βGRP. Although the N-terminal domain of βGRP has a β-sandwich fold, often seen in carbohydrate-binding modules, both NMR titration experiments and mutational analysis showed that βGRP has a binding mechanism which is distinct from those observed in previously reported carbohydarate-binding domains. Our results suggest that βGRP is a β-1,3-glucan-recognition protein that specifically recognizes a triple-helical structure of β-1,3-glucan. PMID:19561300

  4. The N-Terminal Domain of the E. coli PriA Helicase Contains Both the DNA- and the Nucleotide-Binding Sites. Energetics of Domain-DNA Interactions and Allosteric Effect of the Nucleotide Cofactors§

    PubMed Central

    Szymanski, Michal R.; Bujalowski, Paul J.; Jezewska, Maria J.; Gmyrek, Aleksandra M.; Bujalowski, Wlodzimierz

    2011-01-01

    Functional interactions of the E. coli PriA helicase 181N-terminal domain with the DNA and nucleotide cofactors have been quantitatively examined. The isolated 181N-terminal domain forms a stable dimer in solution, most probably reflecting the involvement of the domain in specific cooperative interactions of the intact PriA protein - dsDNA complex. Only one monomer of the domain dimer binds the DNA, i.e., the dimer has one effective DNA-binding site. Although the total site-size of the dimer - ssDNA complex is ~13 nucleotides, the DNA-binding subsite engages in direct interactions ~5 nucleotides. A small number of interacting nucleotides indicates that the DNA-binding subsites of the PriA helicase, i.e., the strong subsite on the helicase domain and the weak subsite on the N-terminal domain, are spatially separated in the intact enzyme. Contrary to current views, the subsite has only a slight preference for the 3′-end OH group of the ssDNA and lacks any significant base specificity, although it has a significant dsDNA affinity. Unlike the intact helicase, the DNA-binding subsite of the isolated domain is in an open conformation, indicating the presence of the direct helicase domain - N-terminal domain interactions. The discovery that the 181N-terminal domain possesses a nucleotide-binding site places the allosteric, weak nucleotide-binding site of the intact PriA on the N-terminal domain. The specific ADP effect on the domain DNA-binding subsite indicates that in the intact helicase, the bound ADP not only opens the DNA-binding subsite but also increases its intrinsic DNA affinity. PMID:21888358

  5. Novel structure of an N-terminal domain that is crucial for the dimeric assembly and DNA-binding of an archaeal DNA polymerase D large subunit from Pyrococcus horikoshii.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Ikuo; Urushibata, Yuji; Shen, Yulong; Matsui, Eriko; Yokoyama, Hideshi

    2011-02-04

    Archaea-specific D-family DNA polymerase forms a heterotetramer consisting of two large polymerase subunits and two small exonuclease subunits. The N-terminal (1-300) domain structure of the large subunit was determined by X-ray crystallography, although ∼50 N-terminal residues were disordered. The determined structure consists of nine alpha helices and three beta strands. We also identified the DNA-binding ability of the domain by SPR measurement. The N-terminal (1-100) region plays crucial roles in the folding of the large subunit dimer by connecting the ∼50 N-terminal residues with their own catalytic region (792-1163).

  6. Differential Inhibition of Macrophage Activation by Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus and Pichinde Virus Is Mediated by the Z Protein N-Terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Junji; Chai, Zheng; Ly, Hinh

    2015-01-01

    Several arenavirus pathogens, such as Lassa and Junin viruses, inhibit macrophage activation, the molecular mechanism of which is unclear. We show that lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) can also inhibit macrophage activation, in contrast to Pichinde and Tacaribe viruses, which are not known to naturally cause human diseases. Using a recombinant Pichinde virus system, we show that the LCMV Z N-terminal domain (NTD) mediates the inhibition of macrophage activation and immune functions. PMID:26423945

  7. A domain in the N-terminal part of Hsp26 is essential for chaperone function and oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Haslbeck, Martin; Ignatiou, Athanasios; Saibil, Helen; Helmich, Sonja; Frenzl, Elke; Stromer, Thusnelda; Buchner, Johannes

    2004-10-15

    Small heat-shock proteins (Hsps) are ubiquitous molecular chaperones which prevent the unspecific aggregation of non-native proteins. For Hsp26, a cytosolic sHsp from of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it has been shown that, at elevated temperatures, the 24 subunit complex dissociates into dimers. This dissociation is required for the efficient interaction with non-native proteins. Deletion analysis of the protein showed that the N-terminal half of Hsp26 (amino acid residues 1-95) is required for the assembly of the oligomer. Limited proteolysis in combination with mass spectrometry suggested that this region can be divided in two parts, an N-terminal segment including amino acid residues 1-30 and a second part ranging from residues 31-95. To analyze the structure and function of the N-terminal part of Hsp26 we created a deletion mutant lacking amino acid residues 1-30. We show that the oligomeric state and the structure, as determined by size exclusion chromatography and electron microscopy, corresponds to that of the Hsp26 wild-type protein. Furthermore, this truncated version of Hsp26 is active as a chaperone. However, in contrast to full length Hsp26, the truncated version dissociates at lower temperatures and complexes with non-native proteins are less stable than those found with wild-type Hsp26. Our results suggest that the N-terminal segment of Hsp26 is involved in both, oligomerization and chaperone function and that the second part of the N-terminal region (amino acid residues 31-95) is essential for both functions.

  8. Three N-terminal domains of beta-1,3-glucanase A1 are involved in binding to insoluble beta-1,3-glucan.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, T; Kasahara, N; Aida, K; Tanaka, H

    1992-01-01

    Limited proteolysis of beta-1,3-glucanase A1 by three different proteases, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and papain, gave three major active fragments. The sizes of the three major fragments generated by each protease treatment were identical to those of beta-1,3-glucanase A2, A3, and A4 detected in both the culture supernatant of Bacillus circulans WL-12 and the periplasmic space of Escherichia coli carrying a cloned glcA gene. These results indicate a four-domain structure for the enzyme. At the N terminus of the glucanase, duplicated segments of approximately 100 amino acids were observed. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis revealed that the active fragments with sizes corresponding to those of A2 and A3 lack the first segment (domain) and both duplicated segments (domains), respectively. The fragment corresponding to A4 lacks both duplicated segments and the following ca. 120-amino-acid region. By losing the first, second, and third (corresponding to the segment of 120 amino acids) domains, beta-1,3-glucanase progressively lost the ability to bind to pachyman, beta-1,3-glucan. An active fragment which did not have the three N-terminal domains did not show significant binding to pachyman. Thus, all three N-terminal domains contribute to binding to beta-1,3-glucan, and the presence of three domains confers the highest binding activity on the glucanase. The loss of these binding domains remarkably decreased pachyman-hydrolyzing activity, indicating that the binding activity is essential for the efficient hydrolysis of insoluble beta-1,3-glucan. Images PMID:1729208

  9. Crystal structures reveal N-terminal Domain of Arabidopsis thaliana ClpD to be highly divergent from that of ClpC1

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Kumar Jagdev, Manas; Vasudevan, Dileep

    2017-01-01

    The caseinolytic protease machinery associated chaperone protein ClpC is known to be present in bacteria, plants and other eukaryotes, whereas ClpD is unique to plants. Plant ClpC and ClpD proteins get localized into chloroplast stroma. Herein, we report high resolution crystal structures of the N-terminal domain of Arabidopsis thaliana ClpC1 and ClpD. Surprisingly, AtClpD, but not AtClpC1, deviates from the typical N-terminal repeat domain organization of known Clp chaperones and have only seven α-helices, instead of eight. In addition, the loop connecting the two halves of AtClpD NTD is longer and covers the region which in case of AtClpC1 is thought to contribute to adaptor protein interaction. Taken together, the N-terminal domain of AtClpD has a divergent structural organization compared to any known Clp chaperones which hints towards its specific role during plant stress conditions, as opposed to that in the maintenance of chloroplastic homeostasis by AtClpC1. Conservation of residues in the NTD that are responsible for the binding of the cyclic peptide activator - Cyclomarin A, as reported for mycobacterial ClpC1 suggests that the peptide could be used as an activator to both AtClpC1 and AtClpD, which could be useful in their detailed in vitro functional characterization. PMID:28287170

  10. Crystal structures reveal N-terminal Domain of Arabidopsis thaliana ClpD to be highly divergent from that of ClpC1.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Kumar Jagdev, Manas; Vasudevan, Dileep

    2017-03-13

    The caseinolytic protease machinery associated chaperone protein ClpC is known to be present in bacteria, plants and other eukaryotes, whereas ClpD is unique to plants. Plant ClpC and ClpD proteins get localized into chloroplast stroma. Herein, we report high resolution crystal structures of the N-terminal domain of Arabidopsis thaliana ClpC1 and ClpD. Surprisingly, AtClpD, but not AtClpC1, deviates from the typical N-terminal repeat domain organization of known Clp chaperones and have only seven α-helices, instead of eight. In addition, the loop connecting the two halves of AtClpD NTD is longer and covers the region which in case of AtClpC1 is thought to contribute to adaptor protein interaction. Taken together, the N-terminal domain of AtClpD has a divergent structural organization compared to any known Clp chaperones which hints towards its specific role during plant stress conditions, as opposed to that in the maintenance of chloroplastic homeostasis by AtClpC1. Conservation of residues in the NTD that are responsible for the binding of the cyclic peptide activator - Cyclomarin A, as reported for mycobacterial ClpC1 suggests that the peptide could be used as an activator to both AtClpC1 and AtClpD, which could be useful in their detailed in vitro functional characterization.

  11. NMR solution structure of the N-terminal domain of hERG and its interaction with the S4-S5 linker

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qingxin; Gayen, Shovanlal; Chen, Angela Shuyi; Huang, Qiwei; Raida, Manfred; Kang, CongBao

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} The N-terminal domain (NTD, eag domain) containing 135 residues of hERG was expressed and purified from E. coli cells. {yields} Solution structure of NTD was determined with NMR spectroscopy. {yields} The alpha-helical region (residues 13-23) was demonstrated to possess the characteristics of an amphipathic helix. {yields} NMR titration confirmed the interaction between NTD and the peptide from the S4-S5 linker. -- Abstract: The human Ether-a-go-go Related Gene (hERG) potassium channel mediates the rapid delayed rectifier current (IKr) in the cardiac action potential. Mutations in the 135 amino acid residue N-terminal domain (NTD) cause channel dysfunction or mis-translocation. To study the structure of NTD, it was overexpressed and purified from Escherichia coli cells using affinity purification and gel filtration chromatography. The purified protein behaved as a monomer under purification conditions. Far- and near-UV, circular dichroism (CD) and solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies showed that the purified protein was well-folded. The solution structure of NTD was obtained and the N-terminal residues 13-23 forming an amphipathic helix which may be important for the protein-protein or protein-membrane interactions. NMR titration experiment also demonstrated that residues from 88 to 94 in NTD are important for the molecular interaction with the peptide derived from the S4-S5 linker.

  12. Mouse Hepatitis Virus Strain A59 and Blocking Antireceptor Monoclonal Antibody Bind to the N-Terminal Domain of Cellular Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dveksler, Gabriela S.; Pensiero, Michael N.; Dieffenbach, Carl W.; Cardellichio, Christine B.; Basile, Alexis A.; Elia, Patrick E.; Holmes, Kathryn V.

    1993-03-01

    Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) strain A59 uses as cellular receptors members of the carcinoembryonic antigen family in the immunoglobulin superfamily. Recombinant receptor proteins with deletions of whole or partial immunoglobulin domains were used to identify the regions of receptor glycoprotein recognized by virus and by antireceptor monoclonal antibody CC1, which blocks infection of murine cells. Monoclonal antibody CC1 and MHV-A59 virions bound only to recombinant proteins containing the entire first domain of MHV receptor. To determine which of the proteins could serve as functional virus receptors, receptor-negative hamster cells were transfected with recombinant deletion clones and then challenged with MHV-A59 virions. Receptor activity required the entire N-terminal domain with either the second or the fourth domain and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. Recombinant proteins lacking the first domain or its C-terminal portion did not serve as viral receptors. Thus, like other virus receptors in the immunoglobulin superfamily, including CD4, poliovirus receptor, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1, the N-terminal domain of MHV receptor is recognized by the virus and the blocking monoclonal antibody.

  13. Mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 and blocking antireceptor monoclonal antibody bind to the N-terminal domain of cellular receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Dveksler, G S; Pensiero, M N; Dieffenbach, C W; Cardellichio, C B; Basile, A A; Elia, P E; Holmes, K V

    1993-01-01

    Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) strain A59 uses as cellular receptors members of the carcinoembryonic antigen family in the immunoglobulin superfamily. Recombinant receptor proteins with deletions of whole or partial immunoglobulin domains were used to identify the regions of receptor glycoprotein recognized by virus and by antireceptor monoclonal antibody CC1, which blocks infection of murine cells. Monoclonal antibody CC1 and MHV-A59 virions bound only to recombinant proteins containing the entire first domain of MHV receptor. To determine which of the proteins could serve as functional virus receptors, receptor-negative hamster cells were transfected with recombinant deletion clones and then challenged with MHV-A59 virions. Receptor activity required the entire N-terminal domain with either the second or the fourth domain and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. Recombinant proteins lacking the first domain or its C-terminal portion did not serve as viral receptors. Thus, like other virus receptors in the immunoglobulin superfamily, including CD4, poliovirus receptor, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1, the N-terminal domain of MHV receptor is recognized by the virus and the blocking monoclonal antibody. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8383324

  14. The N-terminal domains of histones H3 and H4 are not necessary for chromatin assembly factor-1- mediated nucleosome assembly onto replicated DNA in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shibahara, Kei-ichi; Verreault, Alain; Stillman, Bruce

    2000-01-01

    An in vitro reconstitution system for the analysis of replication-coupled nucleosome assembly is described. In this “two-step system,” nucleosome assembly is performed in a separate reaction from DNA replication, wherein purified newly replicated DNA remains noncovalently marked for subsequent chromatin assembly factor-1 (CAF-1)-dependent nucleosome assembly. Because the nucleosome assembly is performed separately from the DNA replication step, this system is more versatile and biochemically tractable when compared with nucleosome assembly during simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication. The N-terminal domains of histones H3 and H4 play an important but redundant function in nucleosome assembly in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It had been proposed that at least one tail of histone H3 or H4 is required for replication-coupled nucleosome assembly. However, we demonstrate that the N-terminal domains of both histone H3 and H4 are dispensable for CAF-1-mediated formation of nucleosome cores onto newly replicated DNA in vitro. CAF-1 and each of its individual subunits stably bound to recombinant (H3.H4)2 tetramers lacking the N-terminal domains of both H3 and H4. Therefore, the N-terminal tails of histone H3 and H4 that contain the specific acetylation sites are not necessary for CAF-1-dependent nucleosome assembly onto replicated DNA. We suggest that the histone acetylation may be required for a CAF-1 independent pathway or function after deposition, by marking of newly replicated chromatin. PMID:10884407

  15. Structural Basis of IgE Binding to α- and γ-Gliadins: Contribution of Disulfide Bonds and Repetitive and Nonrepetitive Domains.

    PubMed

    Mameri, Hamza; Brossard, Chantal; Gaudin, Jean-Charles; Gohon, Yann; Paty, Evelyne; Beaudouin, Etienne; Moneret-Vautrin, Denise-Anne; Drouet, Martine; Solé, Véronique; Wien, Frank; Lupi, Roberta; Larré, Colette; Snégaroff, Jacques; Denery-Papini, Sandra

    2015-07-29

    Wheat products cause IgE-mediated allergies. The present study aimed to decipher the molecular basis of α- and γ-gliadin allergenicity. Gliadins and their domains, the repetitive N-terminal and the nonrepetitive C-terminal domains, were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Their secondary structures and their IgE binding capacity were compared with those of natural proteins before and after reduction/alkylation. Allergenicity was evaluated with sera from patients who had a wheat food allergy or baker's asthma. The secondary structures of natural and recombinant proteins were slightly different. Compared with natural gliadins, recombinant proteins retained IgE binding but with reduced reactivity. Reduction/alkylation decreased IgE binding for both natural and recombinant gliadins. Although more continuous epitopes were identified in the N-terminal domains of α- and γ-gliadins, both the N-terminal and C-terminal domains contributed to IgE binding. As for other members of the prolamin superfamily, disulfide bonds appear to be of high importance for IgE binding.

  16. [Chemical synthesis of lactococcin B and functional evaluation of the N-terminal domain using a truncated synthetic analogue].

    PubMed

    Lasta, S; Fajloun, Z; Mansuelle, P; Sabatier, J M; Boudabous, A; Sampieri, F

    2008-01-01

    The lactococcin B (LnB) is a hydrophobic, positively charged bacteriocin, produced by Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris 9B4. It consists of a peptidic chain made up of 47 amino acid residues, and inhibits Lactococcus exclusively. In order to study its biological activity a synthetic lactococcin B (LnBs) was obtained by solid-phase chemical synthesis using a Fmoc strategy. LnBs was shown to be indistinguishable from the natural peptide. In addition, a synthetic (7-47) LnBst analogue was obtained by withdrawal of peptidyl-resin after the 41 cycle of LnBs peptide chain assembly. The synthetic N-terminal truncated (7-47) LnBst analogue was found to be inactive on indicator strains. Our results strongly suggest that the first six N-terminal amino acid residues are involved in the bactericidal activity of LnB.

  17. Structure of the N-terminal domain of the protein Expansion: an ‘Expansion’ to the Smad MH2 fold

    SciTech Connect

    Beich-Frandsen, Mads; Aragón, Eric; Llimargas, Marta; Benach, Jordi; Riera, Antoni; Pous, Joan; Macias, Maria J.

    2015-04-01

    Expansion is a modular protein that is conserved in protostomes. The first structure of the N-terminal domain of Expansion has been determined at 1.6 Å resolution and the new Nα-MH2 domain was found to belong to the Smad/FHA superfamily of structures. Gene-expression changes observed in Drosophila embryos after inducing the transcription factor Tramtrack led to the identification of the protein Expansion. Expansion contains an N-terminal domain similar in sequence to the MH2 domain characteristic of Smad proteins, which are the central mediators of the effects of the TGF-β signalling pathway. Apart from Smads and Expansion, no other type of protein belonging to the known kingdoms of life contains MH2 domains. To compare the Expansion and Smad MH2 domains, the crystal structure of the Expansion domain was determined at 1.6 Å resolution, the first structure of a non-Smad MH2 domain to be characterized to date. The structure displays the main features of the canonical MH2 fold with two main differences: the addition of an α-helical region and the remodelling of a protein-interaction site that is conserved in the MH2 domain of Smads. Owing to these differences, to the new domain was referred to as Nα-MH2. Despite the presence of the Nα-MH2 domain, Expansion does not participate in TGF-β signalling; instead, it is required for other activities specific to the protostome phyla. Based on the structural similarities to the MH2 fold, it is proposed that the Nα-MH2 domain should be classified as a new member of the Smad/FHA superfamily.

  18. DNA and Protein Footprinting Analysis of the Modulation of DNA Binding by the N-Terminal Domain of the Saccharomyces cervisiae TATA Binding Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta,S.; Cheng, H.; Mollah, A.; Jamison, E.; Morris, S.; Chance, M.; Khrapunov, S.; Brenowitz, M.

    2007-01-01

    Recombinant full-length Saccharomyces cerevisiae TATA binding protein (TBP) and its isolated C-terminal conserved core domain (TBPc) were prepared with measured high specific DNA-binding activities. Direct, quantitative comparison of TATA box binding by TBP and TBPc reveals greater affinity by TBPc for either of two high-affinity sequences at several different experimental conditions. TBPc associates more rapidly than TBP to TATA box bearing DNA and dissociates more slowly. The structural origins of the thermodynamic and kinetic effects of the N-terminal domain on DNA binding by TBP were explored in comparative studies of TBPc and TBP by 'protein footprinting' with hydroxyl radical ({center_dot}OH) side chain oxidation. Some residues within TBPc and the C-terminal domain of TBP are comparably protected by DNA, consistent with solvent accessibility changes calculated from core domain crystal structures. In contrast, the reactivity of some residues located on the top surface and the DNA-binding saddle of the C-terminal domain differs between TBP and TBPc in both the presence and absence of bound DNA; these results are not predicted from the crystal structures. A strikingly different pattern of side chain oxidation is observed for TBP when a nonionic detergent is present. Taken together, these results are consistent with the N-terminal domain actively modulating TATA box binding by TBP and nonionic detergent modulating the interdomain interaction.

  19. Intracellular membrane association of the N-terminal domain of classical swine fever virus NS4B determines viral genome replication and virulence.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Tomokazu; Ruggli, Nicolas; Nagashima, Naofumi; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Igarashi, Manabu; Mine, Junki; Hofmann, Martin A; Liniger, Matthias; Summerfield, Artur; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2015-09-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes a highly contagious disease in pigs that can range from a severe haemorrhagic fever to a nearly unapparent disease, depending on the virulence of the virus strain. Little is known about the viral molecular determinants of CSFV virulence. The nonstructural protein NS4B is essential for viral replication. However, the roles of CSFV NS4B in viral genome replication and pathogenesis have not yet been elucidated. NS4B of the GPE-  vaccine strain and of the highly virulent Eystrup strain differ by a total of seven amino acid residues, two of which are located in the predicted trans-membrane domains of NS4B and were described previously to relate to virulence, and five residues clustering in the N-terminal part. In the present study, we examined the potential role of these five amino acids in modulating genome replication and determining pathogenicity in pigs. A chimeric low virulent GPE- -derived virus carrying the complete Eystrup NS4B showed enhanced pathogenicity in pigs. The in vitro replication efficiency of the NS4B chimeric GPE-  replicon was significantly higher than that of the replicon carrying only the two Eystrup-specific amino acids in NS4B. In silico and in vitro data suggest that the N-terminal part of NS4B forms an amphipathic α-helix structure. The N-terminal NS4B with these five amino acid residues is associated with the intracellular membranes. Taken together, this is the first gain-of-function study showing that the N-terminal domain of NS4B can determine CSFV genome replication in cell culture and viral pathogenicity in pigs.

  20. Peptides derived from human galectin-3 N-terminal tail interact with its carbohydrate recognition domain in a phosphorylation-dependent manner

    SciTech Connect

    Berbís, M. Álvaro; André, Sabine; Cañada, F. Javier; Pipkorn, Rüdiger; Ippel, Hans; Mayo, Kevin H.; Kübler, Dieter; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Galectin-3 is composed of a carbohydrate recognition domain and an N-terminal tail. •Synthetic peptides derived from the tail are shown to interact with the CRD. •This interaction is modulated by Ser- and Tyr-phosphorylation of the peptides. -- Abstract: Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a multi-functional effector protein that functions in the cytoplasm and the nucleus, as well as extracellularly following non-classical secretion. Structurally, Gal-3 is unique among galectins with its carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) attached to a rather long N-terminal tail composed mostly of collagen-like repeats (nine in the human protein) and terminating in a short non-collagenous terminal peptide sequence unique in this lectin family and not yet fully explored. Although several Ser and Tyr sites within the N-terminal tail can be phosphorylated, the physiological significance of this post-translational modification remains unclear. Here, we used a series of synthetic (phospho)peptides derived from the tail to assess phosphorylation-mediated interactions with {sup 15}N-labeled Gal-3 CRD. HSQC-derived chemical shift perturbations revealed selective interactions at the backface of the CRD that were attenuated by phosphorylation of Tyr 107 and Tyr 118, while phosphorylation of Ser 6 and Ser 12 was essential. Controls with sequence scrambling underscored inherent specificity. Our studies shed light on how phosphorylation of the N-terminal tail may impact on Gal-3 function and prompt further studies using phosphorylated full-length protein.

  1. The N-terminal domain of the thermo-regulated surface protein PrpA of Enterococcus faecium binds to fibrinogen, fibronectin and platelets.

    PubMed

    Guzmán Prieto, Ana M; Urbanus, Rolf T; Zhang, Xinglin; Bierschenk, Damien; Koekman, C Arnold; van Luit-Asbroek, Miranda; Ouwerkerk, Janneke P; Pape, Marieke; Paganelli, Fernanda L; Wobser, Dominique; Huebner, Johannes; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; van Schaik, Willem

    2015-12-17

    Enterococcus faecium is a commensal of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, but is also found in non-enteric environments where it can grow between 10 °C and 45 °C. E. faecium has recently emerged as a multi-drug resistant nosocomial pathogen. We hypothesized that genes involved in the colonization and infection of mammals exhibit temperature-regulated expression control and we therefore performed a transcriptome analysis of the clinical isolate E. faecium E1162, during mid-exponential growth at 25 °C and 37 °C. One of the genes that exhibited differential expression between 25 °C and 37 °C, was predicted to encode a peptidoglycan-anchored surface protein. The N-terminal domain of this protein is unique to E. faecium and closely related enterococci, while the C-terminal domain is homologous to the Streptococcus agalactiae surface protein BibA. This region of the protein contains proline-rich repeats, leading us to name the protein PrpA for proline-rich protein A. We found that PrpA is a surface-exposed protein which is most abundant during exponential growth at 37 °C in E. faecium E1162. The heterologously expressed and purified N-terminal domain of PrpA was able to bind to the extracellular matrix proteins fibrinogen and fibronectin. In addition, the N-terminal domain of PrpA interacted with both non-activated and activated platelets.

  2. The N-terminal domain of the thermo-regulated surface protein PrpA of Enterococcus faecium binds to fibrinogen, fibronectin and platelets

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán Prieto, Ana M.; Urbanus, Rolf T.; Zhang, Xinglin; Bierschenk, Damien; Koekman, C. Arnold; van Luit-Asbroek, Miranda; Ouwerkerk, Janneke P.; Pape, Marieke; Paganelli, Fernanda L.; Wobser, Dominique; Huebner, Johannes; Hendrickx, Antoni P. A.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Willems, Rob J. L.; van Schaik, Willem

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium is a commensal of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, but is also found in non-enteric environments where it can grow between 10 °C and 45 °C. E. faecium has recently emerged as a multi-drug resistant nosocomial pathogen. We hypothesized that genes involved in the colonization and infection of mammals exhibit temperature-regulated expression control and we therefore performed a transcriptome analysis of the clinical isolate E. faecium E1162, during mid-exponential growth at 25 °C and 37 °C. One of the genes that exhibited differential expression between 25 °C and 37 °C, was predicted to encode a peptidoglycan-anchored surface protein. The N-terminal domain of this protein is unique to E. faecium and closely related enterococci, while the C-terminal domain is homologous to the Streptococcus agalactiae surface protein BibA. This region of the protein contains proline-rich repeats, leading us to name the protein PrpA for proline-rich protein A. We found that PrpA is a surface-exposed protein which is most abundant during exponential growth at 37 °C in E. faecium E1162. The heterologously expressed and purified N-terminal domain of PrpA was able to bind to the extracellular matrix proteins fibrinogen and fibronectin. In addition, the N-terminal domain of PrpA interacted with both non-activated and activated platelets. PMID:26675410

  3. Crystal structure of the N-terminal anticodon-binding domain of the nondiscriminating aspartyl-tRNA synthetase from Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Songsiriritthigul, Chomphunuch; Suebka, Suwimon; Chen, Chun Jung; Fuengfuloy, Pitchayada; Chuawong, Pitak

    2017-02-01

    The N-terminal anticodon-binding domain of the nondiscriminating aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (ND-AspRS) plays a crucial role in the recognition of both tRNA(Asp) and tRNA(Asn). Here, the first X-ray crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of this enzyme (ND-AspRS1-104) from the human-pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori is reported at 2.0 Å resolution. The apo form of H. pylori ND-AspRS1-104 shares high structural similarity with the N-terminal anticodon-binding domains of the discriminating aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (D-AspRS) from Escherichia coli and ND-AspRS from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, allowing recognition elements to be proposed for tRNA(Asp) and tRNA(Asn). It is proposed that a long loop (Arg77-Lys90) in this H. pylori domain influences its relaxed tRNA specificity, such that it is classified as nondiscriminating. A structural comparison between D-AspRS from E. coli and ND-AspRS from P. aeruginosa suggests that turns E and F (78GAGL81 and 83NPKL86) in H. pylori ND-AspRS play a crucial role in anticodon recognition. Accordingly, the conserved Pro84 in turn F facilitates the recognition of the anticodons of tRNA(Asp) ((34)GUC(36)) and tRNA(Asn) ((34)GUU(36)). The absence of the amide H atom allows both C and U bases to be accommodated in the tRNA-recognition site.

  4. Metal binding to the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the PIB ATPase HMA4 is required for metal transport in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Clémentine; Lekeux, Gilles; Ukuwela, Ashwinie A; Xiao, Zhiguang; Charlier, Jean-Benoit; Bosman, Bernard; Carnol, Monique; Motte, Patrick; Damblon, Christian; Galleni, Moreno; Hanikenne, Marc

    2016-03-01

    PIB ATPases are metal cation pumps that transport metals across membranes. These proteins possess N- and C-terminal cytoplasmic extensions that contain Cys- and His-rich high affinity metal binding domains, which may be involved in metal sensing, metal ion selectivity and/or in regulation of the pump activity. The PIB ATPase HMA4 (Heavy Metal ATPase 4) plays a central role in metal homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana and has a key function in zinc and cadmium hypertolerance and hyperaccumulation in the extremophile plant species Arabidopsis halleri. Here, we examined the function and structure of the N-terminal cytoplasmic metal-binding domain of HMA4. We mutagenized a conserved CCTSE metal-binding motif in the domain and assessed the impact of the mutations on protein function and localization in planta, on metal-binding properties in vitro and on protein structure by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. The two Cys residues of the motif are essential for the function, but not for localization, of HMA4 in planta, whereas the Glu residue is important but not essential. These residues also determine zinc coordination and affinity. Zinc binding to the N-terminal domain is thus crucial for HMA4 protein function, whereas it is not required to maintain the protein structure. Altogether, combining in vivo and in vitro approaches in our study provides insights towards the molecular understanding of metal transport and specificity of metal P-type ATPases.

  5. Structural and Functional Analysis of the Spt16p N-Terminal Domain Reveals Overlapping Roles of yFACT Subunits

    SciTech Connect

    VanDemark,A.; Xin, H.; McCullough, L.; Rawlins, R.; Bentley, S.; Heroux, A.; Stillman, D.; Hill, C.; Formosa, T.

    2008-01-01

    yFACT (heterodimers of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spt16-Pob3 combined with Nhp6) binds to and alters the properties of nucleosomes. The essential function of yFACT is not disrupted by deletion of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of Spt16 or by mutation of the middle domain of Pob3, but either alteration makes yeast cells sensitive to DNA replication stress. We have determined the structure of the Spt16 NTD and find evidence for a conserved potential peptide-binding site. Pob3-M also contains a putative binding site, and we show that these two sites perform an overlapping essential function. We find that yFACT can bind the N-terminal tails of some histones and that this interaction is important for yFACT-nucleosome binding. However, neither the Spt16 NTD nor a key residue in the putative Pob3-M-binding site was required for interactions with histone N termini or for yFACT-mediated nucleosome reorganization in vitro. Instead, both potential binding sites interact functionally with the C-terminal docking domain of the histone H2A. yFACT therefore appears to make multiple contacts with different sites within nucleosomes, and these interactions are partially redundant with one another. The docking domain of H2A is identified as an important participant in maintaining stability during yFACT-mediated nucleosome reorganization, suggesting new models for the mechanism of this activity.

  6. The N-terminal Domain of Escherichia coli Assimilatory NADPH-Sulfite Reductase Hemoprotein Is an Oligomerization Domain That Mediates Holoenzyme Assembly.

    PubMed

    Askenasy, Isabel; Pennington, Joseph M; Tao, Yeqing; Marshall, Alan G; Young, Nicolas L; Shang, Weifeng; Stroupe, M Elizabeth

    2015-07-31

    Assimilatory NADPH-sulfite reductase (SiR) from Escherichia coli is a structurally complex oxidoreductase that catalyzes the six-electron reduction of sulfite to sulfide. Two subunits, one a flavin-binding flavoprotein (SiRFP, the α subunit) and the other an iron-containing hemoprotein (SiRHP, the β subunit), assemble to make a holoenzyme of about 800 kDa. How the two subunits assemble is not known. The iron-rich cofactors in SiRHP are unique because they are a covalent arrangement of a Fe4S4 cluster attached through a cysteine ligand to an iron-containing porphyrinoid called siroheme. The link between cofactor biogenesis and SiR stability is also ill-defined. By use of hydrogen/deuterium exchange and biochemical analysis, we show that the α8β4 SiR holoenzyme assembles through the N terminus of SiRHP and the NADPH binding domain of SiRFP. By use of small angle x-ray scattering, we explore the structure of the SiRHP N-terminal oligomerization domain. We also report a novel form of the hemoprotein that occurs in the absence of its cofactors. Apo-SiRHP forms a homotetramer, also dependent on its N terminus, that is unable to assemble with SiRFP. From these results, we propose that homotetramerization of apo-SiRHP serves as a quality control mechanism to prevent formation of inactive holoenzyme in the case of limiting cellular siroheme.

  7. The N-terminal Domain of Escherichia coli Assimilatory NADPH-Sulfite Reductase Hemoprotein Is an Oligomerization Domain That Mediates Holoenzyme Assembly*

    PubMed Central

    Askenasy, Isabel; Pennington, Joseph M.; Tao, Yeqing; Marshall, Alan G.; Young, Nicolas L.; Shang, Weifeng; Stroupe, M. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Assimilatory NADPH-sulfite reductase (SiR) from Escherichia coli is a structurally complex oxidoreductase that catalyzes the six-electron reduction of sulfite to sulfide. Two subunits, one a flavin-binding flavoprotein (SiRFP, the α subunit) and the other an iron-containing hemoprotein (SiRHP, the β subunit), assemble to make a holoenzyme of about 800 kDa. How the two subunits assemble is not known. The iron-rich cofactors in SiRHP are unique because they are a covalent arrangement of a Fe4S4 cluster attached through a cysteine ligand to an iron-containing porphyrinoid called siroheme. The link between cofactor biogenesis and SiR stability is also ill-defined. By use of hydrogen/deuterium exchange and biochemical analysis, we show that the α8β4 SiR holoenzyme assembles through the N terminus of SiRHP and the NADPH binding domain of SiRFP. By use of small angle x-ray scattering, we explore the structure of the SiRHP N-terminal oligomerization domain. We also report a novel form of the hemoprotein that occurs in the absence of its cofactors. Apo-SiRHP forms a homotetramer, also dependent on its N terminus, that is unable to assemble with SiRFP. From these results, we propose that homotetramerization of apo-SiRHP serves as a quality control mechanism to prevent formation of inactive holoenzyme in the case of limiting cellular siroheme. PMID:26088143

  8. Crystal structure, biochemical and genetic characterization of yeast and E. cuniculi TAF(II)5 N-terminal domain: implications for TFIID assembly.

    PubMed

    Romier, Christophe; James, Nicole; Birck, Catherine; Cavarelli, Jean; Vivarès, Christian; Collart, Martine A; Moras, Dino

    2007-05-18

    General transcription factor TFIID plays an essential role in transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II at numerous promoters. However, understanding of the assembly and a full structural characterization of this large 15 subunit complex is lacking. TFIID subunit TAF(II)5 has been shown to be present twice in this complex and to be critical for the function and assembly of TFIID. Especially, the TAF(II)5 N-terminal domain is required for its incorporation within TFIID and immuno-labelling experiments carried out by electron microscopy at low resolution have suggested that this domain might homodimerize, possibly explaining the three-lobed architecture of TFIID. However, the resolution at which the electron microscopy (EM) analyses were conducted is not sufficient to determine whether homodimerization occurs or whether a more intricate assembly implying other subunits is required. Here we report the X-ray structures of the fully evolutionary conserved C-terminal sub-domain of the TAF(II)5 N terminus, from yeast and the mammalian parasite Encephalitozoon cuniculi. This sub-domain displays a novel fold with specific surfaces having conserved physico-chemical properties that can form protein-protein interactions. Although a crystallographic dimer implying one of these surfaces is present in one of the crystal forms, several biochemical analyses show that this sub-domain is monomeric in solution, even at various salt conditions and in presence of different divalent cations. Consequently, the N-terminal sub-domain of the TAF(II)5 N terminus, which is homologous to a dimerization motif but has not been fully conserved during evolution, was studied by analytical ultracentrifugation and yeast genetics. Our results show that this sub-domain dimerizes at very high concentration but is neither required for yeast viability, nor for incorporation of two TAF(II)5 molecules within TFIID and for the assembly of this complex. Altogether, although our results do not argue in

  9. Solution structure and topology of the N-terminal membrane anchor domain of a microsomal cytochrome P450: prostaglandin I2 synthase.

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Ke-He; So, Shui-Ping; Zheng, Weida; Wu, Jiaxin; Li, Dawei; Kung, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of a synthetic peptide corresponding to the N-terminal membrane anchor domain (residues 1-25) of prostaglandin I(2) synthase (also known as cytochrome P450 8A1), an eicosanoid-synthesizing microsomal cytochrome P450, has been determined by two-dimensional (1)H NMR spectroscopy in trifluoroethanol and dodecylphosphocholine which mimic the hydrophobic membrane environment. A combination of two-dimensional NMR experiments, including NOESY, TOCSY and double-quantum-filtered COSY, was used to obtain complete (1)H NMR assignments for the peptide. Using the NOE data obtained from the assignments and simulated annealing calculations, the N-terminal membrane domain reveals a bent-shaped structure comprised of an initial helix (residues 3-11), followed by a turn (residues 12-16) and a further atypical helix (residues 17-23). The hydrophobic side chains of the helix and turn segments (residues 1-20) are proposed to interact with the hydrocarbon interior of the phospholipid bilayer of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. The hydrophilic side chains of residues 21-25 (Arg-Arg-Arg-Thr-Arg) point away from the hydrophobic residues 1-20 and are expected to be exposed to the aqueous environment on the cytoplasmic side of the ER membrane. The distance between residues 1 and 20 is approx. 20 A (1 A=0.1 nm), less than the thickness of a lipid bilayer. This indicates that the N-terminal membrane anchor domain of prostaglandin I(2) synthase does not penetrate the ER membrane. PMID:12193162

  10. Role of the N-terminal starch-binding domains in the kinetic properties of starch synthase III from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Hugo A; Busi, Maria V; Wayllace, Nahuel Z; Parisi, Gustavo; Ugalde, Rodolfo A; Gomez-Casati, Diego F

    2008-03-04

    Starch synthase III (SSIII), one of the SS isoforms involved in plant starch synthesis, has been reported to play a regulatory role in the synthesis of transient starch. SSIII from Arabidopsis thaliana contains 1025 amino acid residues and has an N-terminal transit peptide for chloroplast localization which is followed by three repeated starch-binding domains (SBDs; SSIII residues 22-591) and a C-terminal catalytic domain (residues 592-1025) similar to bacterial glycogen synthase. In this work, we constructed recombinant full-length and truncated isoforms of SSIII, lacking one, two, or three SBDs, and recombinant proteins, containing three, two, or one SBD, to investigate the role of these domains in enzyme activity. Results revealed that SSIII uses preferentially ADPGlc, although UDPGlc can also be used as a sugar donor substrate. When ADPGlc was used, the presence of the SBDs confers particular properties to each isoform, increasing the apparent affinity and the V max for the oligosaccharide acceptor substrate. However, no substantial changes in the kinetic parameters for glycogen were observed when UDPGlc was the donor substrate. Under glycogen saturating conditions, the presence of SBDs increases progressively the apparent affinity and V max for ADPGlc but not for UDPGlc. Adsorption assays showed that the N-terminal region of SSIII, containing three, two, or one SBD module have increased capacity to bind starch depending on the number of SBD modules, with the D23 protein (containing the second and third SBD module) being the one that makes the greatest contribution to binding. The results presented here suggest that the N-terminal SBDs have a regulatory role, showing a starch binding capacity and modulating the catalytic properties of SSIII.

  11. Dissecting the Disulfide Linkage of the N-Terminal Domain of HMW 1Dx5 and Its Contributions to Dough Functionality.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing Jing; Liu, Guang; Huang, Yan-Bo; Zeng, Qiao-Hui; Hou, Yi; Li, Lin; Ou, Shiyi; Zhang, Min; Hu, Song-Qing

    2017-08-02

    The N-terminal domain of HMW-GS 1Dx5 (1Dx5-N) contains three cysteine residues (Cys10, Cys25, Cys40), which are the basis of gluten network formation through disulfide bonds. Disulfide linkage in 1Dx5-N was dissected by site-directed mutagenesis and LC-MS/MS, and its contributions to structural and conformational stability of 1Dx5-N and dough functionality were investigated by circular dichroism, intrinsic fluorescence, surface hydrophobicity determination, size exclusion chromatography, nonreducing/reducing SDS-PAGE, atomic force microscopy, and farinographic analysis. Results showed that Cys10 and Cys40 of 1Dx5-N were the active sites for intermolecular linkage. Meanwhile, Cys40 also exhibited the ability to form intrachain disulfide linkage with Cys25. Moreover, Cys10 and Cys40 played a functionally important role in maintaining the structural and conformational stability and high surface hydrophobicity of the N-terminal domain of HMW-GS, which in turn facilitated the formation of HMW polymers and massive disulfide linkage of HMW-GS through hydrophobic interaction. Additionally, the 1Dx5-N mutants in which Cys were replaced by serine (Ser) presented different effects on dough functionality, while only the C25S mutant produced positive effects compared with wild type 1Dx5-N. Na2CO3-induced β-elimination of cystine might occur in glutenin without heating, which would make it much easier to reduce the nutritional quality of flour products by the cost of lysine. Therefore, these results give a deep understanding of the disulfide linkage of the N-terminal domain of HMW-GS and its functional importance, which will provide a practical guide to effectively generate a superior HMW-GS allele by artificial mutagenesis.

  12. Investigating Mutations to Reduce Huntingtin Aggregation by Increasing Htt-N-Terminal Stability and Weakening Interactions with PolyQ Domain

    PubMed Central

    Mazza-Anthony, Cody; Waldispühl, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease is a fatal autosomal genetic disorder characterized by an expanded glutamine-coding CAG repeat sequence in the huntingtin (Htt) exon 1 gene. The Htt protein associated with the disease misfolds into toxic oligomers and aggregate fibril structures. Competing models for the misfolding and aggregation phenomena have suggested the role of the Htt-N-terminal region and the CAG trinucleotide repeats (polyQ domain) in affecting aggregation propensities and misfolding. In particular, one model suggests a correlation between structural stability and the emergence of toxic oligomers, whereas a second model proposes that molecular interactions with the extended polyQ domain increase aggregation propensity. In this paper, we computationally explore the potential to reduce Htt aggregation by addressing the aggregation causes outlined in both models. We investigate the mutation landscape of the Htt-N-terminal region and explore amino acid residue mutations that affect its structural stability and hydrophobic interactions with the polyQ domain. Out of the millions of 3-point mutation combinations that we explored, the (L4K E12K K15E) was the most promising mutation combination that addressed aggregation causes in both models. The mutant structure exhibited extreme alpha-helical stability, low amyloidogenicity potential, a hydrophobic residue replacement, and removal of a solvent-inaccessible intermolecular side chain that assists oligomerization. PMID:28096892

  13. Classic phenotype of Coffin-Lowry syndrome in a female with stimulus-induced drop episodes and a genotype with preserved N-terminal kinase domain.

    PubMed

    Rojnueangnit, Kitiwan; Jones, Julie R; Basehore, Monica J; Robin, Nathaniel H

    2014-02-01

    An adolescent female presented with intellectual disability, stimulus-induced drop episodes (SIDEs), facial characteristics that include wide set eyes, short nose with wide columella, full and everted lips with wide mouth and progressive skeletal changes: scoliosis, spondylolisthesis and pectus excavatum. These findings were suggestive of Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS), and this was confirmed by the identification of a novel mutation in RPS6KA3, a heterozygous one basepair duplication at nucleotide 1570 (c.1570dupA). This mutation occurs within the C-terminal kinase domain of the protein, and, therefore contradicts the previous report that SIDEs is only associated with premature truncation of the protein in the N-terminal kinase domain or upstream of this domain. As CLS is X-linked, it is unusual for a female to have such a classic phenotype.

  14. Ultrafast resonance energy transfer from a site-specifically attached fluorescent chromophore reveals the folding of the N-terminal domain of CP29

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oort, Bart; Murali, Sukumaran; Wientjes, Emilie; Koehorst, Rob B. M.; Spruijt, Ruud B.; van Hoek, Arie; Croce, Roberta; van Amerongen, Herbert

    2009-02-01

    The photosynthetic minor antenna complex CP29 of higher plants was singly mutated, overexpressed in Escherichia coli, selectively labeled with the fluorescent dye TAMRA at three positions in the N-terminal domain, and reconstituted with its natural pigments. Picosecond fluorescence experiments revealed rapid excitation energy transfer (˜20 ps) from TAMRA covalently attached to a cysteine at either position 4 or 97 (near the beginning and end of the N-terminal domain) to the chlorophylls in the hydrophobic part of the protein. This indicates that the N-terminus is folded back on the hydrophobic core. In 20% of the complexes, efficient transfer was lacking, indicating that the N-terminus can adopt different conformations. Time-resolved polarized fluorescence measurements demonstrate that the non-transferring conformations only allow restricted rotational motion of the dye molecule. When TAMRA was attached to a cysteine at position 40, the overall transfer efficiency was far lower, reflecting a larger distance to the hydrophobic region.

  15. Large Rotation of the N-terminal Domain of Hsp90 Is Important for Interaction with Some but Not All Client Proteins.

    PubMed

    Daturpalli, Soumya; Knieß, Robert A; Lee, Chung-Tien; Mayer, Matthias P

    2017-05-05

    The 90-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) chaperones the late folding steps of many protein kinases, transcription factors, and a diverse set of other protein clients not related in sequence and structure. Hsp90's interaction with clients appears to be coupled to a series of conformational changes. How these conformational changes contribute to its chaperone activity is currently unclear. Using crosslinking, hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry, and fluorescence experiments, we demonstrate here that the N-terminal domain of Hsp90 rotates by approximately 180° as compared to the crystal structure of yeast Hsp90 in complex with Sba1 and AMPPNP. Surprisingly, Aha1 but not Sba1 suppresses this rotation in the presence of AMPPNP but not in its absence. A minimum length of the largely unstructured linker between N-terminal and middle domain is necessary for this rotation, and interfering with the rotation strongly affects the interaction with Aha1 and the intrinsic and Aha1-stimulated ATPase activity. Surprisingly, suppression of the rotation only affects the activity of some clients and does not compromise yeast viability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The structure of the BIR3 domain of cIAP1 in complex with the N-terminal peptides of SMAC and caspase-9

    SciTech Connect

    Kulathila, Raviraj; Vash, Brian; Sage, David; Cornell-Kennon, Susan; Wright, Kirk; Koehn, James; Stams, Travis; Clark, Kirk; Price, Allen ); )

    2009-06-24

    The inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family of molecules inhibit apoptosis through the suppression of caspase activity. It is known that the XIAP protein regulates both caspase-3 and caspase-9 through direct protein-protein interactions. Specifically, the BIR3 domain of XIAP binds to caspase-9 via a 'hotspot' interaction in which the N-terminal residues of caspase-9 bind in a shallow groove on the surface of XIAP. This interaction is regulated via SMAC, the N-terminus of which binds in the same groove, thus displacing caspase-9. The mechanism of suppression of apoptosis by cIAP1 is less clear. The structure of the BIR3 domain of cIAP1 (cIAP1-BIR3) in complex with N-terminal peptides from both SMAC and caspase-9 has been determined. The binding constants of these peptides to cIAP1-BIR3 have also been determined using the surface plasmon resonance technique. The structures show that the peptides interact with cIAP1 in the same way that they interact with XIAP: both peptides bind in a similar shallow groove in the BIR3 surface, anchored at the N-terminus by a charge-stabilized hydrogen bond. The binding data show that the SMAC and caspase-9 peptides bind with comparable affinities (85 and 48 nM, respectively).

  17. Five out of six tryptophan residues in the N-terminal extracellular domain of the rat GLP-1 receptor are essential for its ability to bind GLP-1.

    PubMed

    Wilmen, A; Van Eyll, B; Göke, B; Göke, R

    1997-01-01

    Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis was utilized to investigate the requirement of tryptophan residues located in the N-terminal domain of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor for the ability to bind its ligand and to induce cAMP generation. W39, W72, W87, W91, W110, and W120 were mutated into alanine. Two of the six tryptophan residues, W72 and W110, are highly conserved within the receptor subfamily. After transfection of mutated cDNAs in COS-7 or CHL cells, it appeared that mutant W87 A bound [125I] GLP-1 with the same affinity as wild-type receptor and induced signal transduction to a comparable extent. In contrast, mutant receptors W39A, W72A, W91A, W110A, and W120A lost the ability to bind [125I] GLP-1. Because all mutated receptor cDNAs were transcribed on RNA level (Northern blot) and the receptor proteins were expressed at the plasma membrane level (Western blot), it is concluded that with the exception of W87 all trytophan residues are essential for receptor ligand interaction. This indicates the significance of hydrophobic interactions within the N-terminal domain of the GLP-1 receptor.

  18. The 133-kDa N-terminal domain enables myosin 15 to maintain mechanotransducing stereocilia and is essential for hearing

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Qing; Indzhykulian, Artur A; Mustapha, Mirna; Riordan, Gavin P; Dolan, David F; Friedman, Thomas B; Belyantseva, Inna A; Frolenkov, Gregory I; Camper, Sally A; Bird, Jonathan E

    2015-01-01

    The precise assembly of inner ear hair cell stereocilia into rows of increasing height is critical for mechanotransduction and the sense of hearing. Yet, how the lengths of actin-based stereocilia are regulated remains poorly understood. Mutations of the molecular motor myosin 15 stunt stereocilia growth and cause deafness. We found that hair cells express two isoforms of myosin 15 that differ by inclusion of an 133-kDa N-terminal domain, and that these isoforms can selectively traffic to different stereocilia rows. Using an isoform-specific knockout mouse, we show that hair cells expressing only the small isoform remarkably develop normal stereocilia bundles. However, a critical subset of stereocilia with active mechanotransducer channels subsequently retracts. The larger isoform with the 133-kDa N-terminal domain traffics to these specialized stereocilia and prevents disassembly of their actin core. Our results show that myosin 15 isoforms can navigate between functionally distinct classes of stereocilia, and are independently required to assemble and then maintain the intricate hair bundle architecture. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08627.001 PMID:26302205

  19. Structural characterization of the N-terminal mineral modification domains from the molluscan crystal-modulating biomineralization proteins, AP7 and AP24.

    PubMed

    Wustman, Brandon A; Morse, Daniel E; Evans, John Spencer

    2004-08-05

    The AP7 and AP24 proteins represent a class of mineral-interaction polypeptides that are found in the aragonite-containing nacre layer of mollusk shell (H. rufescens). These proteins have been shown to preferentially interfere with calcium carbonate mineral growth in vitro. It is believed that both proteins play an important role in aragonite polymorph selection in the mollusk shell. Previously, we demonstrated the 1-30 amino acid (AA) N-terminal sequences of AP7 and AP24 represent mineral interaction/modification domains in both proteins, as evidenced by their ability to frustrate calcium carbonate crystal growth at step edge regions. In this present report, using free N-terminal, C(alpha)-amide "capped" synthetic polypeptides representing the 1-30 AA regions of AP7 (AP7-1 polypeptide) and AP24 (AP24-1 polypeptide) and NMR spectroscopy, we confirm that both N-terminal sequences possess putative Ca (II) interaction polyanionic sequence regions (2 x -DD- in AP7-1, -DDDED- in AP24-1) that are random coil-like in structure. However, with regard to the remaining sequences regions, each polypeptide features unique structural differences. AP7-1 possesses an extended beta-strand or polyproline type II-like structure within the A11-M10, S12-V13, and S28-I27 sequence regions, with the remaining sequence regions adopting a random-coil-like structure, a trait common to other polyelectrolyte mineral-associated polypeptide sequences. Conversely, AP24-1 possesses random coil-like structure within A1-S9 and Q14-N16 sequence regions, and evidence for turn-like, bend, or loop conformation within the G10-N13, Q17-N24, and M29-F30 sequence regions, similar to the structures identified within the putative elastomeric proteins Lustrin A and sea urchin spicule matrix proteins. The similarities and differences in AP7 and AP24 N-terminal domain structure are discussed with regard to joint AP7-AP24 protein modification of calcium carbonate growth.

  20. Dimerisation strategies for shark IgNAR single domain antibody fragments.

    PubMed

    Simmons, David P; Abregu, Fiona A; Krishnan, Usha V; Proll, David F; Streltsov, Victor A; Doughty, Larissa; Hattarki, Meghan K; Nuttall, Stewart D

    2006-08-31

    Immunoglobulin new antigen receptors (IgNARs) are unique single domain antibodies found in the serum of sharks. The individual variable (VNAR) domains bind antigen independently and are candidates for the smallest antibody-based immune recognition units (approximately 13 kDa). Here, we first isolated and sequenced the cDNA of a mature IgNAR antibody from the spotted wobbegong shark (Orectolobus maculatus) and confirmed the independent nature of the VNAR domains by dynamic light scattering. Second, we asked which of the reported antibody fragment dimerisation strategies could be applied to VNAR domains to produce small bivalent proteins with high functional affinity (avidity). In contrast to single chain Fv (scFv) fragments, separate IgNARs could not be linked into a tandem single chain format, with the resulting proteins exhibited only monovalent binding due solely to interaction of the N-terminal domain with antigen. Similarly, incorporation of C-terminal helix-turn-helix (dhlx) motifs, while resulting in efficiently dimerised protein, resulted in only a modest enhancement of affinity, probably due to an insufficiently long hinge region linking the antibody to the dhlx motif. Finally, generation of mutants containing half-cystine residues at the VNAR C-terminus produced dimeric recombinant proteins exhibiting high functional affinity for the target antigens, but at the cost of 50-fold decreased protein expression levels. This study demonstrates the potential for construction of bivalent or bispecific IgNAR-based binding reagents of relatively small size (approximately 26 kDa), equivalent to a monovalent antibody Fv fragment, for formulation into future diagnostic and therapeutic formats.

  1. Modulation of thin filament activation of myosin ATP hydrolysis by N-terminal domains of cardiac myosin binding protein-C.

    PubMed

    Belknap, Betty; Harris, Samantha P; White, Howard D

    2014-10-28

    We have used enzyme kinetics to investigate the molecular mechanism by which the N-terminal domains of human and mouse cardiac MyBP-C (C0C1, C1C2, and C0C2) affect the activation of myosin ATP hydrolysis by F-actin and by native porcine thin filaments. N-Terminal domains of cMyBP-C inhibit the activation of myosin-S1 ATPase by F-actin. However, mouse and human C1C2 and C0C2 produce biphasic activating and inhibitory effects on the activation of myosin ATP hydrolysis by native cardiac thin filaments. Low ratios of MyBP-C N-terminal domains to thin filaments activate myosin-S1 ATP hydrolysis, but higher ratios inhibit ATP hydrolysis, as is observed with F-actin alone. These data suggest that low concentrations of C1C2 and C0C2 activate thin filaments by a mechanism similar to that of rigor myosin-S1, whereas higher concentrations inhibit the ATPase rate by competing with myosin-S1-ADP-Pi for binding to actin and thin filaments. In contrast to C0C2 and C1C2, the activating effects of the C0C1 domain are species-dependent: human C0C1 activates actomyosin-S1 ATPase rates, but mouse C0C1 does not produce significant activation or inhibition. Phosphorylation of serine residues in the m-linker between the C1 and C2 domains by protein kinase-A decreases the activation of thin filaments by huC0C2 at pCa > 8 but has little effect on the activation mechanism at pCa = 4. In sarcomeres, the low ratio of cMyBP-C to actin is expected to favor the activating effects of cMyBP-C while minimizing inhibition produced by competition with myosin heads.

  2. The N-terminal shuttle domain of Erv1 determines the affinity for Mia40 and mediates electron transfer to the catalytic Erv1 core in yeast mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Lionaki, Eirini; Aivaliotis, Michalis; Pozidis, Charalambos; Tokatlidis, Kostas

    2010-11-01

    Erv1 and Mia40 constitute the two important components of the disulfide relay system that mediates oxidative protein folding in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Mia40 is the import receptor that recognizes the substrates introducing disulfide bonds while it is reduced. A key function of Erv1 is to recycle Mia40 to its active oxidative state. Our aims here were to dissect the domain of Erv1 that mediates the protein-protein interaction with Mia40 and to investigate the interactions between the shuttle domain of Erv1 and its catalytic core and their relevance for the interaction with Mia40. We purified these domains separately as well as cysteine mutants in the shuttle and the active core domains. The noncovalent interaction of Mia40 with Erv1 was measured by isothermal titration calorimetry, whereas their covalent mixed disulfide intermediate was analyzed in reconstitution experiments in vitro and in organello. We established that the N-terminal shuttle domain of Erv1 is necessary and sufficient for interaction to occur. Furthermore, we provide direct evidence for the intramolecular electron transfer from the shuttle cysteine pair of Erv1 to the core domain. Finally, we reconstituted the system by adding in trans the N- and C- terminal domains of Erv1 together with its substrate Mia40.

  3. The N-Terminal Domain and Glycosomal Localization of Leishmania Initial Acyltransferase LmDAT Are Important for Lipophosphoglycan Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ani, Gada K.; Patel, Nipul; Pirani, Karim A.; Zhu, Tongtong; Dhalladoo, Subbhalakshmi; Zufferey, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Ether glycerolipids of Leishmania major are important membrane components as well as building blocks of various virulence factors. In L. major, the first enzyme of the ether glycerolipid biosynthetic pathway, LmDAT, is an unusual, glycosomal dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase important for parasite's growth and survival during the stationary phase, synthesis of ether lipids, and virulence. The present work extends our knowledge of this important biosynthetic enzyme in parasite biology. Site-directed mutagenesis of LmDAT demonstrated that an active enzyme was critical for normal growth and survival during the stationary phase. Deletion analyses showed that the large N-terminal extension of this initial acyltransferase may be important for its stability or activity. Further, abrogation of the C-terminal glycosomal targeting signal sequence of LmDAT led to extraglycosomal localization, did not impair its enzymatic activity but affected synthesis of the ether glycerolipid-based virulence factor lipophosphoglycan. In addition, expression of this recombinant form of LmDAT in a null mutant of LmDAT did not restore normal growth and survival during the stationary phase. These results emphasize the importance of this enzyme's compartmentalization in the glycosome for the generation of lipophosphoglycan and parasite's biology. PMID:22114698

  4. Different Roles of N-Terminal and C-Terminal Domains in Calmodulin for Activation of Bacillus anthracis Edema Factor

    PubMed Central

    Lübker, Carolin; Dove, Stefan; Tang, Wei-Jen; Urbauer, Ramona J. Bieber; Moskovitz, Jackob; Urbauer, Jeffrey L.; Seifert, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis adenylyl cyclase toxin edema factor (EF) is one component of the anthrax toxin and is essential for establishing anthrax disease. EF activation by the eukaryotic Ca2+-sensor calmodulin (CaM) leads to massive cAMP production resulting in edema. cAMP also inhibits the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase, thus reducing production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) used for host defense in activated neutrophils and thereby facilitating bacterial growth. Methionine (Met) residues in CaM, important for interactions between CaM and its binding partners, can be oxidized by ROS. We investigated the impact of site-specific oxidation of Met in CaM on EF activation using thirteen CaM-mutants (CaM-mut) with Met to leucine (Leu) substitutions. EF activation shows high resistance to oxidative modifications in CaM. An intact structure in the C-terminal region of oxidized CaM is sufficient for major EF activation despite altered secondary structure in the N-terminal region associated with Met oxidation. The secondary structures of CaM-mut were determined and described in previous studies from our group. Thus, excess cAMP production and the associated impairment of host defence may be afforded even under oxidative conditions in activated neutrophils. PMID:26184312

  5. A new family of growth and differentiation factors derived from the N-terminal domain of proopiomelanocortin (N-POMC).

    PubMed

    Denef, C; Van Bael, A

    1998-06-01

    There is a large body of in vitro evidence that pituitary function is not only dependent on hormonal signals from the brain but also on paracrine signals produced in the tissue itself. These signals appear to be involved in the control of pituitary hormone secretion as well as in pituitary cell differentiation and development (for review see Denef C. Paracrine mechanisms in the pituitary. In: Imura H, editor. The pituitary gland, 2nd ed. Raven Press, 1994: 351-378; Denef C. Autocrine/paracrine intermediates in hormone action and modulation of cellular responses to hormones. In: Conn M, editor. Handbook of Physiology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998 (in press)). The paracrine factors which have been identified in the pituitary belong to diverse biological molecules such as neuropeptides, acetylcholine, growth factors, cytokines and posttranslationally modified derivatives of pituitary hormone such as cleaved prolactin (PRL) and the gonadotropin alpha-subunit. Recently, we have identified several N-terminal fragments of the polypeptide proopiomelanocortin (POMC) as a novel family of growth and differentiation factors in the rat anterior pituitary.

  6. N-terminal domain of PB1-F2 protein of influenza A virus can fold into amyloid-like oligomers and damage cholesterol and cardiolipid containing membranes.

    PubMed

    Ajjaji, Dalila; Richard, Charles-Adrien; Mazerat, Sandra; Chevalier, Christophe; Vidic, Jasmina

    2016-08-12

    PB1-F2 protein is a factor of virulence of influenza A viruses which increases the mortality and morbidity associated with infection. Most seasonal H1N1 Influenza A viruses express nowadays a truncated version of PB1-F2. Here we show that truncation of PB1-F2 modified supramolecular organization of the protein in a membrane-mimicking environment. In addition, full-length PB1-F2(1-90) and C-terminal PB1-F2 domain (53-90), efficiently permeabilized various anionic liposomes while N-terminal domain PB1-F2(1-52) only lysed cholesterol and cardiolipin containing lipid bilayers. These findings suggest that the truncation of PB1-F2 may impact the pathogenicity of a given virus strain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of the Na/HCO{sub 3} cotransporter NBCe1-A

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, Harindarpal S. Boron, Walter F.

    2006-06-01

    The N-terminal, cytoplasmic domain of the Na{sup +}-coupled HCO{sub 3} cotransporter NBCe1-A crystallizes in the trigonal space group P3{sub 1}21 or P3{sub 1} with pseudo P3{sub 1}21 symmetry and diffracts X-rays to 3.0 Å resolution. The crystal packing demonstrates a domain-swap mechanism for dimerization. The N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the Na{sup +}-coupled HCO cotransporter NBCe1-A (NtNBCe1) has been linked with proximal renal tubular acidosis. In a previous purification study of recombinant NtNBCe1, crystal growth at a suboptimal protein concentration (<1 mg ml{sup −1}) yielded small single diamond-shaped crystals that diffracted poorly. In the present study, by increasing the protein concentration 50-fold, the crystal size was doubled and robustness was also improved. Crystal annealing made the crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction. The crystals either belong to space group P3{sub 1}21 or P3{sub 1} with pseudo P3{sub 1}21 symmetry, with unit-cell parameters a = 51.7, b = 51.7, c = 200.6 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°, and diffract X-rays to 3.0 Å resolution. The calculated Matthews number is 1.9 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, with two monomers of molecular weight ∼83 kDa in the asymmetric unit. The molecular- replacement packing solution shows that the molecules form dimers by a domain-swapping mechanism.

  8. The N-terminal portion of domain E of retinoic acid receptors alpha and beta is essential for the recognition of retinoic acid and various analogs.

    PubMed Central

    Ostrowski, J; Hammer, L; Roalsvig, T; Pokornowski, K; Reczek, P R

    1995-01-01

    Utilizing a strategy involving domain exchange between retinoic acid receptors alpha and beta (RAR alpha and RAR beta) and monitoring the transcriptional activity of the resulting chimeric receptors with receptor-selective retinoids, we identified a 70-aa region within the N-terminal portion of the RAR alpha and -beta domain E which is important for an RAR alpha- or RAR beta-specific response. Two amino acid residues within this region, serine-232 (S232) and threonine-239 (T239) in RAR alpha and the corresponding alanine-225 (A225) and isoleucine-232 (I232) in RAR beta, were found to be essential for this effect. In addition, binding studies using the chimeric receptors expressed in Escherichia coli showed that the N-terminal portion of domain E was also important for the characteristic binding profile of t-RA and various retinoids with RAR alpha or RAR beta. Structural predictions of the primary amino acid sequence in this region indicate the presence of an amphipathic helix-turn-helix structure with five hydrophobic amino acids that resemble a leucine zipper motif. The amino acid residues identified by domain swapping, S232 and T239 in RAR alpha and A225 and I232 in RAR beta, were found within the hydrophobic face of an alpha-helix in close proximity to this zipper motif, suggesting that the ligand may interact with the receptor in the region adjacent to a surface involved in protein-protein interactions. This finding may link ligand binding to other processes important for transcriptional activation. PMID:7892182

  9. The N-terminal portion of domain E of retinoic acid receptors alpha and beta is essential for the recognition of retinoic acid and various analogs.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, J; Hammer, L; Roalsvig, T; Pokornowski, K; Reczek, P R

    1995-03-14

    Utilizing a strategy involving domain exchange between retinoic acid receptors alpha and beta (RAR alpha and RAR beta) and monitoring the transcriptional activity of the resulting chimeric receptors with receptor-selective retinoids, we identified a 70-aa region within the N-terminal portion of the RAR alpha and -beta domain E which is important for an RAR alpha- or RAR beta-specific response. Two amino acid residues within this region, serine-232 (S232) and threonine-239 (T239) in RAR alpha and the corresponding alanine-225 (A225) and isoleucine-232 (I232) in RAR beta, were found to be essential for this effect. In addition, binding studies using the chimeric receptors expressed in Escherichia coli showed that the N-terminal portion of domain E was also important for the characteristic binding profile of t-RA and various retinoids with RAR alpha or RAR beta. Structural predictions of the primary amino acid sequence in this region indicate the presence of an amphipathic helix-turn-helix structure with five hydrophobic amino acids that resemble a leucine zipper motif. The amino acid residues identified by domain swapping, S232 and T239 in RAR alpha and A225 and I232 in RAR beta, were found within the hydrophobic face of an alpha-helix in close proximity to this zipper motif, suggesting that the ligand may interact with the receptor in the region adjacent to a surface involved in protein-protein interactions. This finding may link ligand binding to other processes important for transcriptional activation.

  10. Galectin-3 binds to MUC1-N-terminal domain and triggers recruitment of β-catenin in MUC1-expressing mouse 3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Tanida, Shuhei; Mori, Yugo; Ishida, Akiko; Akita, Kaoru; Nakada, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Galectin-3 is expressed in a variety of tumors and its expression level is related with tumor progression. Aberrant expression of MUC1 in various tumors is also associated with a poor prognosis. It has been reported that MUC1 is a natural ligand of galectin-3. A stable MUC1 transfectant was produced by introducing MUC1 cDNA into mouse 3T3 fibroblasts (MUC1/3T3 cells). MUC1 was prepared from MUC1/3T3 cells; MUC1-N-terminal domain (MUC1-ND) and -C-terminal domain (MUC1-CD) were separated by CsCl ultracentrifugation, and then the galectin-3-binding domain was determined by co-immuniprecipitation assay. After ligation of galectin-3 to 3T3/MUC1 cells, MUC1-CD was immunoprecipitated from the cell lysate. The immunoprecipitate was subjected to SDS-PAGE and Western blotting, followed by detection of co-immunoprecipitated β-catenin. Galectin-3 binds to the N-terminal domain of MUC1 but not to the C-terminal one. Galectin-3 present on the cell surface increased with the expression of MUC1 and is colocalized with MUC1. It should be noted that β-catenin was detected in the immunoprecipitate with anti-MUC1-CD Ab from a lysate of galectin-3-treated 3T3/MUC1 cells. Galectin-3 binds to MUC1-ND and triggers MUC1-mediated signaling in 3T3/MUC1 cells, leading to recruitment of β-catenin to MUC1-CD. This signaling may be another MUC1-mediated pathway and function in parallel with a growth factor-dependent MUC1-mediated pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Structural analysis of the predicted coiled-coil rod domain of the cytoplasmic bullous pemphigoid antigen (BPAG1). Empirical localization of the N-terminal globular domain-rod boundary.

    PubMed

    Tang, H Y; Chaffotte, A F; Thacher, S M

    1996-04-19

    The bullous pemphigoid antigen BPAG1 is required for keratin filament linkage to the hemidesmosome, an adhesion complex in epithelial basal cells. BPAG1 structural organization is similar to the intermediate filament-associated proteins desmoplakin I (DPI) and plectin. All three proteins have predicted dumbbell-like structure with central alpha-helical coiled-coil rod and regions of N- and C-terminal homology. To characterize the size of the N-terminal globular domain in BPAG1, two polypeptides spanning possible boundaries with the coiled-coil rod domain of BPAG1 were expressed in Escherichia coli. BP-1 (Mr = 111,000), containing amino acids 663-1581 of BPAG1 (Sawamura, D., Li, K., Chu, M.-L., and Uitto, J. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 17784-17790), and BP-1A, with a 186 amino acid N-terminal deletion, were purified. BP-1 and BP-1A behave as highly asymmetric dimers in aqueous solution according to velocity sedimentation and gel filtration. Both have globular heads with rod-like tails of roughly equal length, 55-60 nm, upon rotary shadowing. BP-1A content of alpha-helix, determined by circular dichroism, is approximately 90%, consistent with alpha-helical coiled-coil formation in the rod-like tails. The estimated rod length, 383 +/- 57 amino acids (0.15 nm/amino acid), implies that globular folding in the BPAG1 N-terminal extends to the end of N-terminal homology with DPI and plectin. These findings support the existence of a common domain structure in the N-terminal regions of the BPAG1/DPI/plectin family.

  12. Activation of c-Jun transcription factor by substitution of a charged residue in its N-terminal domain.

    PubMed Central

    Hoeffler, W K; Levinson, A D; Bauer, E A

    1994-01-01

    C-Jun is a cellular transcription factor that can control gene expression in response to treatment of cells with phorbol esters, growth factors, and expression of some oncogenes. The ability of c-Jun to catalyze the transcription of certain genes is controlled, in part, by changes in the phosphorylation state of specific amino acids in c-Jun. One of the major sites that is phosphorylated during signal response is Ser73. Here we show that substitution of a negatively charged aspartic acid residue at 73 constitutively increased transcriptional activity of c-Jun. The Asp73 substitution also enhanced its availability to bind to DNA in a whole cell extract without altering its intrinsic DNA binding activity since the intrinsic activity was unaltered for the c-Jun mutant proteins expressed in a bacterial system. The negatively charged Asp substitution may mimic the negative charge of a phosphorylated serine at 73. The substitution of an uncharged alanine at 73 resulted in lowered activities. The N-terminal end of c-Jun containing these substitutions was fused to the DNA-binding region of the bovine papilloma virus E2 protein, and was able to confer the same activation properties to the fusion protein at the heterologous E2 DNA-binding site. Ser73 lies in a region of c-Jun previously proposed to bind an uncharacterized inhibitor, perhaps related to a protein of approximately 17.5 kD that coprecipitates along with our c-Jun or the JunE2 fusion products. Images PMID:8165146

  13. Structural studies of the N-terminal fragments of the WW domain: Insights into co-translational folding of a beta-sheet protein

    PubMed Central

    Hanazono, Yuya; Takeda, Kazuki; Miki, Kunio

    2016-01-01

    Nascent proteins fold co-translationally because the folding speed and folding pathways are limited by the rate of ribosome biosynthesis in the living cell. In addition, though full-length proteins can fold all their residues during the folding process, nascent proteins initially fold only with the N-terminal residues. However, the transient structure and the co-translational folding pathway are not well understood. Here we report the atomic structures of a series of N-terminal fragments of the WW domain with increasing amino acid length. Unexpectedly, the structures indicate that the intermediate-length fragments take helical conformations even though the full-length protein has no helical regions. The circular dichroism spectra and theoretical calculations also support the crystallographic results. This suggests that the short-range interactions are more decisive in the structure formation than the long-range interactions for short nascent proteins. In the course of the peptide extension, the helical structure change to the structure mediated by the long-range interactions at a particular polypeptide length. Our results will provide unique information for elucidating the nature of co-translational folding. PMID:27698466

  14. Bacterial Genome Partitioning: N-Terminal Domain of IncC Protein Encoded by Broad-Host-Range Plasmid RK2 Modulates Oligomerisation and DNA Binding

    PubMed Central

    Batt, Sarah M.; Bingle, Lewis E.H.; Dafforn, Tim R.; Thomas, Christopher M.

    2009-01-01

    ParA Walker ATPases form part of the machinery that promotes better-than-random segregation of bacterial genomes. ParA proteins normally occur in one of two forms, differing by their N-terminal domain (NTD) of approximately 100 aa, which is generally associated with site-specific DNA binding. Unusually, and for as yet unknown reasons, parA (incC) of IncP-1 plasmids is translated from alternative start codons producing two forms, IncC1 (364 aa) and IncC2 (259 aa), whose ratio varies between hosts. IncC2 could be detected as an oligomeric form containing dimers, tetramers and octamers, but the N-terminal extension present in IncC1 favours nucleotide-stimulated dimerisation as well as high-affinity and ATP-dependent non-specific DNA binding. The IncC1 NTD does not dimerise or bind DNA alone, but it does bind IncC2 in the presence of nucleotides. Mixing IncC1 and IncC2 improved polymerisation and DNA binding. Thus, the NTD may modulate the polymerisation interface, facilitating polymerisation/depolymerisation and DNA binding, to promote the cycle that drives partitioning. PMID:19109978

  15. BtcA, A class IA type III chaperone, interacts with the BteA N-terminal domain through a globular/non-globular mechanism.

    PubMed

    Guttman, Chen; Davidov, Geula; Yahalom, Adi; Shaked, Hadassa; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Bitton, Ronit; Barber-Zucker, Shiran; Chill, Jordan H; Zarivach, Raz

    2013-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the etiological agent of "whooping cough" disease, utilizes the type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver a 69 kDa cytotoxic effector protein, BteA, directly into the host cells. As with other T3SS effectors, prior to its secretion BteA binds BtcA, a 13.9 kDa protein predicted to act as a T3SS class IA chaperone. While this interaction had been characterized for such effector-chaperone pairs in other pathogens, it has yet to be fully investigated in Bordetella. Here we provide the first biochemical proof that BtcA is indeed a class IA chaperone, responsible for the binding of BteA's N-terminal domain. We bring forth extensive evidence that BtcA binds its substrate effector through a dual-interface binding mechanism comprising of non-globular and bi-globular interactions at a moderate micromolar level binding affinity. We demonstrate that the non-globular interactions involve the first 31 N-terminal residues of BteA287 and their removal leads to destabilization of the effector-chaperone complex and lower binding affinities to BtcA. These findings represent an important first step towards a molecular understanding of BteA secretion and cell entry.

  16. NMR solution structure of the N-terminal domain of hERG and its interaction with the S4-S5 linker.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingxin; Gayen, Shovanlal; Chen, Angela Shuyi; Huang, Qiwei; Raida, Manfred; Kang, Congbao

    2010-12-03

    The human Ether-à-go-go Related Gene (hERG) potassium channel mediates the rapid delayed rectifier current (IKr) in the cardiac action potential. Mutations in the 135 amino acid residue N-terminal domain (NTD) cause channel dysfunction or mis-translocation. To study the structure of NTD, it was overexpressed and purified from Escherichia coli cells using affinity purification and gel filtration chromatography. The purified protein behaved as a monomer under purification conditions. Far- and near-UV, circular dichroism (CD) and solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies showed that the purified protein was well-folded. The solution structure of NTD was obtained and the N-terminal residues 13-23 forming an amphipathic helix which may be important for the protein-protein or protein-membrane interactions. NMR titration experiment also demonstrated that residues from 88 to 94 in NTD are important for the molecular interaction with the peptide derived from the S4-S5 linker.

  17. The N-terminal domain of Npro of classical swine fever virus determines its stability and regulates type I IFN production.

    PubMed

    Mine, Junki; Tamura, Tomokazu; Mitsuhashi, Kazuya; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Parchariyanon, Sujira; Pinyochon, Wasana; Ruggli, Nicolas; Tratschin, Jon-Duri; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2015-07-01

    The viral protein Npro is unique to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. After autocatalytic cleavage from the nascent polyprotein, Npro suppresses type I IFN (IFN-α/β) induction by mediating proteasomal degradation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3). Previous studies found that the Npro-mediated IRF-3 degradation was dependent of a TRASH domain in the C-terminal half of Npro coordinating zinc by means of the amino acid residues C112, C134, D136 and C138. Interestingly, four classical swine fever virus (CSFV) isolates obtained from diseased pigs in Thailand in 1993 and 1998 did not suppress IFN-α/β induction despite the presence of an intact TRASH domain. Through systematic analyses, it was found that an amino acid mutation at position 40 or mutations at positions 17 and 61 in the N-terminal half of Npro of these four isolates were related to the lack of IRF-3-degrading activity. Restoring a histidine at position 40 or both a proline at position 17 and a lysine at position 61 based on the sequence of a functional Npro contributed to higher stability of the reconstructed Npro compared with the Npro from the Thai isolate. This led to enhanced interaction of Npro with IRF-3 along with its degradation by the proteasome. The results of the present study revealed that amino acid residues in the N-terminal domain of Npro are involved in the stability of Npro, in interaction of Npro with IRF-3 and subsequent degradation of IRF-3, leading to downregulation of IFN-α/β production.

  18. The N-terminal hybrid binding domain of RNase HI from Thermotoga maritima is important for substrate binding and Mg2+-dependent activity.

    PubMed

    Jongruja, Nujarin; You, Dong-Ju; Kanaya, Eiko; Koga, Yuichi; Takano, Kazufumi; Kanaya, Shigenori

    2010-11-01

    Thermotoga maritima ribonuclease H (RNase H) I (Tma-RNase HI) contains a hybrid binding domain (HBD) at the N-terminal region. To analyze the role of this HBD, Tma-RNase HI, Tma-W22A with the single mutation at the HBD, the C-terminal RNase H domain (Tma-CD) and the N-terminal domain containing the HBD (Tma-ND) were overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and biochemically characterized. Tma-RNase HI prefers Mg(2+) to Mn(2+) for activity, and specifically loses most of the Mg(2+)-dependent activity on removal of the HBD and 87% of it by the mutation at the HBD. Tma-CD lost the ability to suppress the RNase H deficiency of an E. coli rnhA mutant, indicating that the HBD is responsible for in vivo RNase H activity. The cleavage-site specificities of Tma-RNase HI are not significantly changed on removal of the HBD, regardless of the metal cofactor. Binding analyses of the proteins to the substrate using surface plasmon resonance indicate that the binding affinity of Tma-RNase HI is greatly reduced on removal of the HBD or the mutation. These results indicate that there is a correlation between Mg(2+)-dependent activity and substrate binding affinity. Tma-CD was as stable as Tma-RNase HI, indicating that the HBD is not important for stability. The HBD of Tma-RNase HI is important not only for substrate binding, but also for Mg(2+)-dependent activity, probably because the HBD affects the interaction between the substrate and enzyme at the active site, such that the scissile phosphate group of the substrate and the Mg(2+) ion are arranged ideally.

  19. High-resolution structure of the N-terminal endonuclease domain of the Lassa virus L polymerase in complex with magnesium ions.

    PubMed

    Wallat, Gregor D; Huang, Qinfeng; Wang, Wenjian; Dong, Haohao; Ly, Hinh; Liang, Yuying; Dong, Changjiang

    2014-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) causes deadly hemorrhagic fever disease for which there are no vaccines and limited treatments. LASV-encoded L polymerase is required for viral RNA replication and transcription. The functional domains of L-a large protein of 2218 amino acid residues-are largely undefined, except for the centrally located RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) motif. Recent structural and functional analyses of the N-terminal region of the L protein from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), which is in the same Arenaviridae family as LASV, have identified an endonuclease domain that presumably cleaves the cap structures of host mRNAs in order to initiate viral transcription. Here we present a high-resolution crystal structure of the N-terminal 173-aa region of the LASV L protein (LASV L173) in complex with magnesium ions at 1.72 Å. The structure is highly homologous to other known viral endonucleases of arena- (LCMV NL1), orthomyxo- (influenza virus PA), and bunyaviruses (La Crosse virus NL1). Although the catalytic residues (D89, E102 and K122) are highly conserved among the known viral endonucleases, LASV L endonuclease structure shows some notable differences. Our data collected from in vitro endonuclease assays and a reporter-based LASV minigenome transcriptional assay in mammalian cells confirm structural prediction of LASV L173 as an active endonuclease. The high-resolution structure of the LASV L endonuclease domain in complex with magnesium ions should aid the development of antivirals against lethal Lassa hemorrhagic fever.

  20. Oxidative Unfolding of the Rubredoxin Domain and the Natively Disordered N-terminal Region Regulate the Catalytic Activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protein Kinase G.

    PubMed

    Wittwer, Matthias; Luo, Qi; Kaila, Ville R I; Dames, Sonja A

    2016-12-30

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis escapes killing in human macrophages by secreting protein kinase G (PknG). PknG intercepts host signaling to prevent fusion of the phagosome engulfing the mycobacteria with the lysosome and, thus, their degradation. The N-terminal NORS (no regulatory secondary structure) region of PknG (approximately residues 1-75) has been shown to play a role in PknG regulation by (auto)phosphorylation, whereas the following rubredoxin-like metal-binding motif (RD, residues ∼74-147) has been shown to interact tightly with the subsequent catalytic domain (approximately residues 148-420) to mediate its redox regulation. Deletions or mutations in NORS or the redox-sensitive RD significantly decrease PknG survival function. Based on combined NMR spectroscopy, in vitro kinase assay, and molecular dynamics simulation data, we provide novel insights into the regulatory roles of the N-terminal regions. The NORS region is indeed natively disordered and rather dynamic. Consistent with most earlier data, autophosphorylation occurs in our assays only when the NORS region is present and, thus, in the NORS region. Phosphorylation of it results only in local conformational changes and does not induce interactions with the subsequent RD. Although the reduced, metal-bound RD makes tight interactions with the following catalytic domain in the published crystal structures, it can also fold in its absence. Our data further suggest that oxidation-induced unfolding of the RD regulates substrate access to the catalytic domain and, thereby, PknG function under different redox conditions, e.g. when exposed to increased levels of reactive oxidative species in host macrophages.

  1. A major transactivator of varicella-zoster virus, the immediate-early protein IE62, contains a potent N-terminal activation domain.

    PubMed Central

    Perera, L P; Mosca, J D; Ruyechan, W T; Hayward, G S; Straus, S E; Hay, J

    1993-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the product of the putative immediate-early gene ORF62 (IE62) activates varicella-zoster virus (VZV) genes thought to represent all three kinetic classes, namely, immediate-early (alpha), early (beta), and late (gamma) classes, of VZV genes as well as a variety heterologous gene promoters. However, the mechanism(s) by which IE62 protein mediates transactivation of these diverse VZV and heterologous gene promoters remains to be elucidated. In this study, by using yeast GAL4 protein chimeras, the coding regions of VZV ORF62 possessing activation domains have been assessed. We demonstrate that the VZV IE62 protein contains a potent activation domain in the N-terminal portion of the molecule, encoded within the first 86 codons of ORF62. The predicted secondary structure profile and the acid-base composition of this IE62 domain resemble those of other transregulatory proteins whose activation is mediated through acidic, hydrophobic elements. In addition, we show that deletion of this activation domain from the 1,310-residue native IE62 protein results in ablation of the transactivator function of IE62. We also present evidence that the mutant IE62 protein lacking the activation domain, though devoid of transactivation ability, was still capable of interfering with the activation of target promoters by the native, full-length IE62. Images PMID:8392592

  2. PRP16, a DEAH-box RNA helicase, is recruited to the spliceosome primarily via its nonconserved N-terminal domain.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y; Guthrie, C

    1998-01-01

    Dynamic rearrangement of RNA structure is crucial for intron recognition and formation of the catalytic core during pre-mRNA splicing. Three of the splicing factors that contain sequence motifs characteristic of the DExD/DExH-box family of RNA-dependent ATPases (Prp16, Prp22, and the human homologue of Brr2) recently have been shown to unwind RNA duplexes in vitro, providing biochemical evidence that they may direct structural rearrangements on the spliceosome. Notably, however, the unwinding activity of these proteins is sequence nonspecific, raising the question of how their functional specificity is determined. Because the highly conserved DExD/DExH-box domain in these proteins is typically flanked by one or more nonconserved domains, we have tested the hypothesis that the nonconserved regions of Prp16 determine the functional specificity of the protein. We found that the nonconserved N-terminal domain of Prp16 is (1) essential for viability, (2) required for the nuclear localization of Prp16, and (3) capable of binding to the spliceosome specifically at the step of Prp16 function. Moreover, this domain can interact with the rest of the protein to allow trans-complementation. Based on these results, we propose that the spliceosomal target of the unwinding activity of Prp16, and possibly other DExD/DExH-box splicing factors as well, is defined by factors that specifically interact with the nonconserved domains of the protein. PMID:9769096

  3. Crystal Structure of the Cytoplasmic N-Terminal Domain of Subunit I, a Homolog of Subunit a, of V-ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, Sankaranarayanan; Vyas, Nand K.; Baker, Matthew L.; Quiocho, Florante A.

    2012-02-27

    Subunit 'a' is associated with the membrane-bound (VO) complex of eukaryotic vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPase acidification machinery. It has also been shown recently to be involved in diverse membrane fusion/secretory functions independent of acidification. Here, we report the crystal structure of the N-terminal cytosolic domain from the Meiothermus ruber subunit 'I' homolog of subunit a. The structure is composed of a curved long central {alpha}-helix bundle capped on both ends by two lobes with similar {alpha}/{beta} architecture. Based on the structure, a reasonable model of its eukaryotic subunit a counterpart was obtained. The crystal structure and model fit well into reconstructions from electron microscopy of prokaryotic and eukaryotic vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPases, respectively, clarifying their orientations and interactions and revealing features that could enable subunit a to play a role in membrane fusion/secretion.

  4. The Anti-Candida Vaccine Based on the Recombinant N-Terminal Domain of Als1p Is Broadly Active against Disseminated Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ashraf S.; Spellberg, Brad J.; Avanesian, Valentina; Fu, Yue; Edwards, John E.

    2006-01-01

    We have previously shown that vaccination with a vaccine based on the recombinant N-terminal domain of Als1p (rAls1p-N) protected BALB/c mice against disseminated infection caused by a single strain of Candida albicans (A. S. Ibrahim, B. J. Spellberg, V. Avenissian, Y. Fu, S. G. Filler, and J. E. Edwards, Jr., Infect. Immun. 73:999-1005, 2005, and B. J. Spellberg, A. S. Ibrahim, V. Avenissian, S. G. Filler, C. Myers, Y. Fu, and J. E. Edwards, Jr., Infect. Immun. 73:6191-6193, 2005). Here we show that the rAls1p-N vaccine also improves survival of outbred mice from disseminated candidiasis and that it is active against multiple virulent strains of C. albicans and non-C. albicans spp. PMID:16622247

  5. The preferential heterodimerization of human small heat shock proteins HSPB1 and HSPB6 is dictated by the N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Heirbaut, Michelle; Lermyte, Frederik; Martin, Esther M; Beelen, Steven; Verschueren, Tim; Sobott, Frank; Strelkov, Sergei V; Weeks, Stephen D

    2016-11-15

    Small heat shock proteins are ATP-independent molecular chaperones. Their function is to bind partially unfolded proteins under stress conditions. In vivo, members of this chaperone family are known to preferentially assemble together forming large, polydisperse heterooligomers. The exact molecular mechanisms that drive specific heteroassociation are currently unknown. Here we study the oligomers formed between human HSPB1 and HSPB6. Using small-angle X-ray scattering we could characterize two distinct heterooligomeric species present in solution. By employing native mass spectrometry we show that such assemblies are formed purely from heterodimeric building blocks, in line with earlier cross-linking studies. Crucially, a detailed analysis of truncation variants reveals that the preferential association between these two sHSPs is solely mediated by their disordered N-terminal domains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. NMR-restrained docking of a peptidic inhibitor to the N-terminal domain of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase enzyme I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rognan, Didier; Mukhija, Seema; Folkers, Gerd; Zerbe, Oliver

    2001-02-01

    Starting from the NMR structure of the binary complex between the N-terminal domain of the unphosphorylated enzyme I (EIN) of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase (PTS) and the histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein (HPr), a molecular model of the phosphorylated transition state of the related complex was established using constrained simulated annealing. The coordinates of the phosphorylated EIN enzyme were then used in a second step for flexible docking of a decapeptide inhibitor of EIN whose enzyme-bound conformation itself was determined by NMR using transferred nuclear Overhauser effects. Two phosphorylation models of the peptide inhibitor were investigated and shown to be both functional. Interestingly, one model is very similar to that of the complex between EIN and its natural substrate HPr. The present study demonstrates that NMR-guided flexible docking constitutes an interesting tool for docking highly flexible peptide ligands and facilitates the upcoming protein-based design of nonpeptide EIN inhibitors for discovering new antibiotics.

  7. Pushing the limits of sulfur SAD phasing: de novo structure solution of the N-terminal domain of the ectodomain of HCV E1.

    PubMed

    El Omari, Kamel; Iourin, Oleg; Kadlec, Jan; Fearn, Richard; Hall, David R; Harlos, Karl; Grimes, Jonathan M; Stuart, David I

    2014-08-01

    Single-wavelength anomalous dispersion of S atoms (S-SAD) is an elegant phasing method to determine crystal structures that does not require heavy-atom incorporation or selenomethionine derivatization. Nevertheless, this technique has been limited by the paucity of the signal at the usual X-ray wavelengths, requiring very accurate measurement of the anomalous differences. Here, the data collection and structure solution of the N-terminal domain of the ectodomain of HCV E1 from crystals that diffracted very weakly is reported. By combining the data from 32 crystals, it was possible to solve the sulfur substructure and calculate initial maps at 7 Å resolution, and after density modication and phase extension using a higher resolution native data set to 3.5 Å resolution model building was achievable.

  8. Pushing the limits of sulfur SAD phasing: de novo structure solution of the N-terminal domain of the ectodomain of HCV E1

    PubMed Central

    El Omari, Kamel; Iourin, Oleg; Kadlec, Jan; Fearn, Richard; Hall, David R.; Harlos, Karl; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Stuart, David I.

    2014-01-01

    Single-wavelength anomalous dispersion of S atoms (S-SAD) is an elegant phasing method to determine crystal structures that does not require heavy-atom incorporation or selenomethionine derivatization. Nevertheless, this technique has been limited by the paucity of the signal at the usual X-ray wavelengths, requiring very accurate measurement of the anomalous differences. Here, the data collection and structure solution of the N-terminal domain of the ectodomain of HCV E1 from crystals that diffracted very weakly is reported. By combining the data from 32 crystals, it was possible to solve the sulfur substructure and calculate initial maps at 7 Å resolution, and after density modication and phase extension using a higher resolution native data set to 3.5 Å resolution model building was achievable. PMID:25084338

  9. Catalytic roles of lysines (K9, K27, K31) in the N-terminal domain in human adenylate kinase by random site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Ayabe, T; Park, S K; Takenaka, H; Sumida, M; Uesugi, S; Takenaka, O; Hamada, M

    1996-11-01

    To elucidate lysine residues in the N-terminal domain of human cytosolic adenylate kinase (hAK1, EC 2.7.4.3), random site-directed mutagenesis of K9, K27, and K31 residues was performed, and six mutants were analyzed by steady-state kinetics. K9 residue may play an important role in catalysis by interacting with AMP2-. K27 and K31 residues appear to play a functional role in catalysis by interacting with MgATP2-. In human AK, the epsilon-amino group in the side chain of these lysine residues would be essential for phosphoryl transfer between MgATP2- and AMP2- during transition state.

  10. Expression and Purification of the Cytoplasmic N-Terminal Domain of the Na/HCO3 Cotransporter NBCe1-A: Structural Insights from the a Generalized Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Gill,H.; Boron, W.

    2006-01-01

    The cytoplasmic, N-terminal domain (Nt) of the electrogenic sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter -- NBCe1 -- over-expresses in Escherichia coli and yields a large amount of soluble protein. A novel purification strategy, which involves a streptomycin precipitation, overcomes obstacles of instability and copurifying proteins, and leads to the first seen Nt-NBCe1 crystals. The purification procedure generally lends itself to the purification of Nts from other classes of the SLC4 family. Size-exclusion chromatography suggests that the Nt of NBCe1 as well as the Nt of other SLC4 members form dimers. A comparison of Nt-NBCe1 to SLC4 member Nt-AE1, based on purification properties and predicted secondary-structure sequence alignments, suggests a similar mechanism for dimer stabilization.

  11. Bidirectional modulation of thermal and chemical sensitivity of TRPM8 channels by the initial region of the N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Pertusa, María; González, Alejandro; Hardy, Paulina; Madrid, Rodolfo; Viana, Félix

    2014-08-08

    TRPM8, a nonselective cation channel activated by cold, voltage, and cooling compounds such as menthol, is the principal molecular detector of cold temperatures in primary sensory neurons of the somatosensory system. The N-terminal domain of TRPM8 consists of 693 amino acids, but little is known about its contribution to channel function. Here, we identified two distinct regions within the initial N terminus of TRPM8 that contribute differentially to channel activity and proper folding and assembly. Deletion or substitution of the first 40 residues yielded channels with augmented responses to cold and menthol. The thermal threshold of activation of these mutants was shifted 2 °C to higher temperatures, and the menthol dose-response curve was displaced to lower concentrations. Site-directed mutagenesis screening revealed that single point mutations at positions Ser-26 or Ser-27 by proline caused a comparable increase in the responses to cold and menthol. Electrophysiological analysis of the S27P mutant revealed that the enhanced sensitivity to agonists is related to a leftward shift in the voltage dependence of activation, increasing the probability of channel openings at physiological membrane potentials. In addition, we found that the region encompassing positions 40-60 is a key element in the proper folding and assembly of TRPM8. Different deletions and mutations within this region rendered channels with an impaired function that are retained within the endoplasmic reticulum. Our results suggest a critical contribution of the initial region of the N-terminal domain of TRPM8 to thermal and chemical sensitivity and the proper biogenesis of this polymodal ion channel.

  12. Bidirectional Modulation of Thermal and Chemical Sensitivity of TRPM8 Channels by the Initial Region of the N-terminal Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Pertusa, María; González, Alejandro; Hardy, Paulina; Madrid, Rodolfo; Viana, Félix

    2014-01-01

    TRPM8, a nonselective cation channel activated by cold, voltage, and cooling compounds such as menthol, is the principal molecular detector of cold temperatures in primary sensory neurons of the somatosensory system. The N-terminal domain of TRPM8 consists of 693 amino acids, but little is known about its contribution to channel function. Here, we identified two distinct regions within the initial N terminus of TRPM8 that contribute differentially to channel activity and proper folding and assembly. Deletion or substitution of the first 40 residues yielded channels with augmented responses to cold and menthol. The thermal threshold of activation of these mutants was shifted 2 °C to higher temperatures, and the menthol dose-response curve was displaced to lower concentrations. Site-directed mutagenesis screening revealed that single point mutations at positions Ser-26 or Ser-27 by proline caused a comparable increase in the responses to cold and menthol. Electrophysiological analysis of the S27P mutant revealed that the enhanced sensitivity to agonists is related to a leftward shift in the voltage dependence of activation, increasing the probability of channel openings at physiological membrane potentials. In addition, we found that the region encompassing positions 40–60 is a key element in the proper folding and assembly of TRPM8. Different deletions and mutations within this region rendered channels with an impaired function that are retained within the endoplasmic reticulum. Our results suggest a critical contribution of the initial region of the N-terminal domain of TRPM8 to thermal and chemical sensitivity and the proper biogenesis of this polymodal ion channel. PMID:24917670

  13. The structure of S . lividans acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase shows a novel interaction between the C-terminal extension and the N-terminal domain

    DOE PAGES

    Mitchell, Carter A.; Tucker, Alex C.; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.; ...

    2014-12-09

    The adenosine monoposphate-forming acyl-CoA synthetase enzymes catalyze a two-step reaction that involves the initial formation of an acyl adenylate that reacts in a second partial reaction to form a thioester between the acyl substrate and CoA. These enzymes utilize a Domain Alternation catalytic mechanism, whereby a ~110 residue C-terminal domain rotates by 140° to form distinct catalytic conformations for the two partial reactions. In this paper, the structure of an acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase (AacS) is presented that illustrates a novel aspect of this C-terminal domain. Specifically, several acetyl- and acetoacetyl-CoA synthetases contain a 30-residue extension on the C-terminus compared to othermore » members of this family. Finally, whereas residues from this extension are disordered in prior structures, the AacS structure shows that residues from this extension may interact with key catalytic residues from the N-terminal domain.« less

  14. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of an engineered variant of human chimera-type galectin-3 with a shortened N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Flores-Ibarra, Andrea; Ruiz, Federico M; Vértesy, Sabine; André, Sabine; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Romero, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    How lectins translate sugar-encoded information into cellular effects not only depends on glycan recognition. Other domains of the protein can contribute to the functional profile of a lectin. Human galectin-3 (Gal-3), an adhesion/growth-regulatory galectin, is composed of three different domains and is thus called a chimera-type protein. In addition to the carbohydrate-recognition domain, this lectin encompasses an N-terminal domain consisting of a peptide harbouring two phosphorylation sites and nine non-triple-helical collagen-like repeats. This region plays an as yet structurally undefined role in Gal-3 aggregation and ligand recognition. To date, crystallization of full-length Gal-3 has not been achieved. With the aim of providing structural insights into this modular organization, a Gal-3 variant was crystallized maintaining the terminal peptide and three of the nine collagen-like repeats. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 94.04, b = 97.96, c = 236.20 Å, and diffracted to a resolution of 3.3 Å.

  15. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of an engineered variant of human chimera-type galectin-3 with a shortened N-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Ibarra, Andrea; Ruiz, Federico M.; Vértesy, Sabine; André, Sabine; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Romero, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    How lectins translate sugar-encoded information into cellular effects not only depends on glycan recognition. Other domains of the protein can contribute to the functional profile of a lectin. Human galectin-3 (Gal-3), an adhesion/growth-regulatory galectin, is composed of three different domains and is thus called a chimera-type protein. In addition to the carbohydrate-recognition domain, this lectin encompasses an N-terminal domain consisting of a peptide harbouring two phosphorylation sites and nine non-triple-helical collagen-like repeats. This region plays an as yet structurally undefined role in Gal-3 aggregation and ligand recognition. To date, crystallization of full-length Gal-3 has not been achieved. With the aim of providing structural insights into this modular organization, a Gal-3 variant was crystallized maintaining the terminal peptide and three of the nine collagen-like repeats. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 94.04, b = 97.96, c = 236.20 Å, and diffracted to a resolution of 3.3 Å. PMID:25664793

  16. Identification and Analysis of a Novel Dimerization Domain Shared by Various Members of c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) Scaffold Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Katsenelson, Ksenya; Wasserman, Tanya; Darlyuk-Saadon, Ilona; Rabner, Alona; Glaser, Fabian; Aronheim, Ami

    2013-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) form a kinase tier module in which MAPK, MAP2K, and MAP3K are held by scaffold proteins. The scaffold proteins serve as a protein platform for selective and spatial kinase activation. The precise mechanism by which the scaffold proteins function has not yet been fully explained. WDR62 is a novel scaffold protein of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. Recessive mutations within WDR62 result in severe cerebral cortical malformations. One of the WDR62 mutant proteins found in a patient with microcephaly encodes a C-terminal truncated protein that fails to associate efficiently with JNK and MKK7β1. The present article shows that the WDR62 C-terminal region harbors a novel dimerization domain composed of a putative loop-helix domain that is necessary and sufficient for WDR62 dimerization and is critical for its scaffolding function. The loop-helix domain is highly conserved between orthologues and is also shared by the JNK scaffold protein, JNKBP1/MAPKBP1. Based on the high sequence conservation of the loop-helix domain, our article shows that MAPKBP1 homodimerizes and heterodimerizes with WDR62. Endogenous WDR62 and MAPKBP1 co-localize to stress granules following arsenite treatment, but not during mitosis. This study proposes another layer of complexity, in which coordinated activation of signaling pathways is mediated by the association between the different JNK scaffold proteins depending on their biological function. PMID:23341463

  17. A sting in the tail: the N-terminal domain of the androgen receptor as a drug target

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Amy E; McEwan, Iain J

    2016-01-01

    The role of androgen receptor (AR) in the initiation and progression of prostate cancer (PCa) is well established. Competitive inhibition of the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD) has been the staple of antiandrogen therapies employed to combat the disease in recent years. However, their efficacy has often been limited by the emergence of resistance, mediated through point mutations, and receptor truncations. As a result, the prognosis for patients with malignant castrate resistant disease remains poor. The amino-terminal domain (NTD) of the AR has been shown to be critical for AR function. Its modular activation function (AF-1) is important for both gene regulation and participation in protein-protein interactions. However, due to the intrinsically disordered structure of the domain, its potential as a candidate for therapeutic intervention has been dismissed in the past. The recent emergence of the small molecule EPI-001 has provided evidence that AR-NTD can be targeted therapeutically, independent of the LBD. Targeting of AR-NTD has the potential to disrupt multiple intermolecular interactions between AR and its coregulatory binding partners, in addition to intramolecular cross-talk between the domains of the AR. Therapeutics targeting these protein-protein interactions or NTD directly should also have efficacy against emerging AR splice variants which may play a role in PCa progression. This review will discuss the role of intrinsic disorder in AR function and illustrate how emerging therapies might target NTD in PCa. PMID:27212126

  18. N-terminal domain of soluble epoxide hydrolase negatively regulates the VEGF-mediated activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Hsin-Han; Hammock, Bruce D.; Su, Kou-Hui; Morisseau, Christophe; Kou, Yu Ru; Imaoka, Susumu; Oguro, Ami; Shyue, Song-Kun; Zhao, Jin-Feng; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan

    2012-01-01

    Aims The mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has both an epoxide hydrolase and a phosphatase domain. The role of sEH hydrolase activity in the metabolism of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in endothelial cells (ECs) has been well defined. However, far less is known about the role of sEH phosphatase activity in eNOS activation. In the present study, we investigated whether the phosphatase domain of sEH was involved in the eNOS activation in ECs. Methods and results The level of eNOS phosphorylation in aortas is higher in the sEH knockout (sEH−/−) mice than in wild-type mice. In ECs, pharmacological inhibition of sEH phosphatase or overexpressing sEH with an inactive phosphatase domain enhanced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced NO production and eNOS phosphorylation. In contrast, overexpressing the phosphatase domain of sEH prevented the VEGF-mediated NO production and eNOS phosphorylation at Ser617, Ser635, and Ser1179. Additionally, treatment with VEGF induced a c-Src kinase-dependent increase in transient tyrosine phosphorylation of sEH and the formation of a sEH–eNOS complex, which was abolished by treatment with a c-Src kinase inhibitor, PP1, or the c-Src dominant-negative mutant K298M. We also demonstrated that the phosphatase domain of sEH played a key role in VEGF-induced angiogenesis by detecting the tube formation in ECs and neovascularization in Matrigel plugs in mice. Conclusion In addition to epoxide hydrolase activity, phosphatase activity of sEH plays a pivotal role in the regulation of eNOS activity and NO-mediated EC functions. PMID:22072631

  19. A Crucial Sequence for Transglutaminase Type 2 Extracellular Trafficking in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells Lies in Its N-terminal β-Sandwich Domain

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Che-Yi; Streets, Andrew J.; Watson, Philip F.; Huang, Linghong; Verderio, Elisabetta A. M.; Johnson, Timothy S.

    2011-01-01

    Transglutaminase type 2 (TG2) catalyzes the formation of an ϵ-(γ-glutamyl)-lysine isopeptide bond between adjacent peptides or proteins including those of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Elevated extracellular TG2 leads to accelerated ECM deposition and reduced clearance that underlie tissue scarring and fibrosis. The extracellular trafficking of TG2 is crucial to its role in ECM homeostasis; however, the mechanism by which TG2 escapes the cell is unknown as it has no signal leader peptide and therefore cannot be transported classically. Understanding TG2 transport may highlight novel mechanisms to interfere with the extracellular function of TG2 as isoform-specific TG2 inhibitors remain elusive. Mammalian expression vectors were constructed containing domain deletions of TG2. These were transfected into three kidney tubular epithelial cell lines, and TG2 export was assessed to identify critical domains. Point mutation was then used to highlight specific sequences within the domain required for TG2 export. The removal of β-sandwich domain prevented all TG2 export. Mutations of Asp94 and Asp97 within the N-terminal β-sandwich domain were identified as crucial for TG2 externalization. These form part of a previously identified fibronectin binding domain (88WTATVVDQQDCTLSLQLTT106). However, siRNA knockdown of fibronectin failed to affect TG2 export. The sequence 88WTATVVDQQDCTLSLQLTT106 within the β-sandwich domain of TG2 is critical to its export in tubular epithelial cell lines. The extracellular trafficking of TG2 is independent of fibronectin. PMID:21652693

  20. A human transmembrane protein-tyrosine-phosphatase, PTP zeta, is expressed in brain and has an N-terminal receptor domain homologous to carbonic anhydrases.

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, N X; Saito, H

    1992-01-01

    Protein-tyrosine-phosphatases (PTPases, EC 3.1.3.48) play a crucial role in the regulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Recently, it was found that the PTPase gene family exhibits a large variety of different functional domains associated with the PTPase catalytic domains. In this paper, we report the complete cDNA sequence of a human transmembrane PTPase, PTP zeta, isolated from fetal brain cDNA libraries. The deduced amino acid sequence of human PTP zeta is composed of a putative signal peptide of 19 amino acids, a very large extracellular domain of 1616 amino acids, a transmembrane peptide of 26 amino acids, and a cytoplasmic domain of 653 amino acids. The extracellular portion of human PTP zeta contains two striking structural features: the N-terminal 280-amino acid sequence that is homologous to carbonic anhydrases (carbonate hydro-lyase, EC 4.2.1.1), and a sequence of 1048 amino acids without a cysteine residue. While it is unlikely that the carbonic anhydrase-like domain of PTP zeta has any carbonic anhydrase activity, its three-dimensional structure may be quite similar to that of carbonic anhydrases, a structure that appears ideal for binding a small soluble ligand. The cytoplasmic portion of human PTP zeta contains two repeated PTPase-like domains, which, when expressed in Escherichia coli, had PTPase activity in vitro. Mutational analyses indicate that only the membrane-proximal PTPase domain is catalytically active. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses indicate that human PTP zeta is highly expressed in a glioblastoma cell line. Images PMID:1323835

  1. Phosphopeptide binding to the N-terminal SH2 domain of the p85 alpha subunit of PI 3'-kinase: a heteronuclear NMR study.

    PubMed Central

    Hensmann, M.; Booker, G. W.; Panayotou, G.; Boyd, J.; Linacre, J.; Waterfield, M.; Campbell, I. D.

    1994-01-01

    The N-terminal src-homology 2 domain of the p85 alpha subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase (SH2-N) binds specifically to phosphotyrosine-containing sequences. Notably, it recognizes phosphorylated Tyr 751 within the kinase insert of the cytoplasmic domain of the activated beta PDGF receptor. A titration of a synthetic 12-residue phosphopeptide (ESVDY*VPMLDMK) into a solution of the SH2-N domain was monitored using heteronuclear 2D and 3D NMR spectroscopy. 2D-(15N-1H) heteronuclear single-quantum correlation (HSQC) experiments were performed at each point of the titration to follow changes in both 15N and 1H chemical shifts in NH groups. When mapped onto the solution structure of the SH2-N domain, these changes indicate a peptide-binding surface on the protein. Line shape analysis of 1D profiles of individual (15N-1H)-HSQC peaks at each point of the titration suggests a kinetic exchange model involving at least 2 steps. To characterize changes in the internal dynamics of the domain, the magnitude of the (15N-1H) heteronuclear NOE for the backbone amide of each residue was determined for the SH2-N domain with and without bound peptide. These data indicate that, on a nanosecond timescale, there is no significant change in the mobility of either loops or regions of secondary structure. A mode of peptide binding that involves little conformational change except in the residues directly involved in the 2 binding pockets of the p85 alpha SH2-N domain is suggested by this study. PMID:7522724

  2. Functional dissection of the N-terminal sequence of Clostridium sp. G0005 glucoamylase: identification of components critical for folding the catalytic domain and for constructing the active site structure.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Matsushima, Yudai; Nagamine, Yusuke; Matsuhashi, Tomoki; Honda, Shotaro; Okuda, Shoi; Ohno, Misa; Sugahara, Yasusato; Shin, Yongchol; Oyama, Fumitaka; Kawakita, Masao

    2017-03-01

    Clostridium sp. G0005 glucoamylase (CGA) is composed of a β-sandwich domain (BD), a linker, and a catalytic domain (CD). In the present study, CGA was expressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies when the N-terminal region (39 amino acid residues) of the BD was truncated. To further elucidate the role of the N-terminal region of the BD, we constructed N-terminally truncated proteins (Δ19, Δ24, Δ29, and Δ34) and assessed their solubility and activity. Although all evaluated proteins were soluble, their hydrolytic activities toward maltotriose as a substrate varied: Δ19 and Δ24 were almost as active as CGA, but the activity of Δ29 was substantially lower, and Δ34 exhibited little hydrolytic activity. Subsequent truncation analysis of the N-terminal region sequence between residues 25 and 28 revealed that truncation of less than 26 residues did not affect CGA activity, whereas truncation of 26 or more residues resulted in a substantial loss of activity. Based on further site-directed mutagenesis and N-terminal sequence analysis, we concluded that the 26XaaXaaTrp28 sequence of CGA is important in exhibiting CGA activity. These results suggest that the N-terminal region of the BD in bacterial GAs may function not only in folding the protein into the correct structure but also in constructing a competent active site for catalyzing the hydrolytic reaction.

  3. The N-terminal domain of Schmallenberg virus envelope protein Gc is highly immunogenic and can provide protection from infection

    PubMed Central

    Wernike, Kerstin; Aebischer, Andrea; Roman-Sosa, Gleyder; Beer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is transmitted by insect vectors, and therefore vaccination is one of the most important tools of disease control. In our study, novel subunit vaccines on the basis of an amino-terminal domain of SBV Gc of 234 amino acids (“Gc Amino”) first were tested and selected using a lethal small animal challenge model and then the best performing formulations also were tested in cattle. We could show that neither E. coli expressed nor the reduced form of “Gc Amino” protected from SBV infection. In contrast, both, immunization with “Gc Amino”-encoding DNA plasmids and “Gc-amino” expressed in a mammalian system, conferred protection in up to 66% of the animals. Interestingly, the best performance was achieved with a multivalent antigen containing the covalently linked Gc domains of both, SBV and the related Akabane virus. All vaccinated cattle and mice were fully protected against SBV challenge infection. Furthermore, in the absence of antibodies against the viral N-protein, differentiation between vaccinated and field-infected animals allows an SBV marker vaccination concept. Moreover, the presented vaccine design also could be tested for other members of the Simbu serogroup and might allow the inclusion of additional immunogenic domains. PMID:28211908

  4. Structure of the active N-terminal domain of Ezrin. Conformational and mobility changes identify keystone interactions.

    PubMed

    Smith, William James; Nassar, Nicolas; Bretscher, Anthony; Cerione, Richard A; Karplus, P Andrew

    2003-02-14

    Ezrin is a member of the ERM (ezrin, radixin, moesin) family of proteins that cross-link the actin cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane and also may function in signaling cascades that regulate the assembly of actin stress fibers. Here, we report a crystal structure for the free (activated) FERM domain (residues 2-297) of recombinant human ezrin at 2.3 A resolution. Structural comparison among the dormant moesin FERM domain structure and the three known active FERM domain structures (radixin, moesin, and now ezrin) allows the clear definition of regions that undergo structural changes during activation. The key regions affected are residues 135-150 and 155-180 in lobe F2 and residues 210-214 and 235-267 in lobe F3. Furthermore, we show that a large increase in the mobilities of lobes F2 and F3 accompanies activation, suggesting that their integrity is compromised. This leads us to propose a new concept that we refer to as keystone interactions. Keystone interactions occur when one protein (or protein part) contributes residues that allow another protein to complete folding, meaning that it becomes an integral part of the structure and would rarely dissociate. Such interactions are well suited for long-lived cytoskeletal protein interactions. The keystone interactions concept leads us to predict two specific docking sites within lobes F2 and F3 that are likely to bind target proteins.

  5. The N-terminal domain of Schmallenberg virus envelope protein Gc is highly immunogenic and can provide protection from infection.

    PubMed

    Wernike, Kerstin; Aebischer, Andrea; Roman-Sosa, Gleyder; Beer, Martin

    2017-02-13

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is transmitted by insect vectors, and therefore vaccination is one of the most important tools of disease control. In our study, novel subunit vaccines on the basis of an amino-terminal domain of SBV Gc of 234 amino acids ("Gc Amino") first were tested and selected using a lethal small animal challenge model and then the best performing formulations also were tested in cattle. We could show that neither E. coli expressed nor the reduced form of "Gc Amino" protected from SBV infection. In contrast, both, immunization with "Gc Amino"-encoding DNA plasmids and "Gc-amino" expressed in a mammalian system, conferred protection in up to 66% of the animals. Interestingly, the best performance was achieved with a multivalent antigen containing the covalently linked Gc domains of both, SBV and the related Akabane virus. All vaccinated cattle and mice were fully protected against SBV challenge infection. Furthermore, in the absence of antibodies against the viral N-protein, differentiation between vaccinated and field-infected animals allows an SBV marker vaccination concept. Moreover, the presented vaccine design also could be tested for other members of the Simbu serogroup and might allow the inclusion of additional immunogenic domains.

  6. Importance of the N-terminal domain of the Qb-SNARE Vti1p for different membrane transport steps in the yeast endosomal system.

    PubMed

    Gossing, Michael; Chidambaram, Subbulakshmi; Fischer von Mollard, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) on transport vesicles and target membranes are crucial for vesicle targeting and fusion. They form SNARE complexes, which contain four α-helical SNARE motifs contributed by three or four different SNAREs. Most SNAREs function only in a single transport step. The yeast SNARE Vti1p participates in four distinct SNARE complexes in transport from the trans Golgi network to late endosomes, in transport to the vacuole, in retrograde transport from endosomes to the trans Golgi network and in retrograde transport within the Golgi. So far, all vti1 mutants investigated had mutations within the SNARE motif. Little is known about the function of the N-terminal domain of Vti1p, which forms a three helix bundle called H(abc) domain. Here we generated a temperature-sensitive mutant of this domain to study the effects on different transport steps. The secondary structure of wild type and vti1-3 H(abc) domain was analyzed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The amino acid exchanges identified in the temperature-sensitive vti1-3 mutant caused unfolding of the H(abc) domain. Transport pathways were investigated by immunoprecipitation of newly synthesized proteins after pulse-chase labeling and by fluorescence microscopy of a GFP-tagged protein cycling between plasma membrane, early endosomes and Golgi. In vti1-3 cells transport to the late endosome and assembly of the late endosomal SNARE complex was blocked at 37°C. Retrograde transport to the trans Golgi network was affected while fusion with the vacuole was possible but slower. Steady state levels of SNARE complexes mediating these steps were less affected than that of the late endosomal SNARE complex. As different transport steps were affected our data demonstrate the importance of a folded Vti1p H(abc) domain for transport.

  7. Crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of the secretin GspD from ETEC determined with the assistance of a nanobody

    PubMed Central

    Korotkov, Konstantin V.; Pardon, Els

    2009-01-01

    Summary Secretins are among the largest bacterial outer membrane proteins known. Here we report the crystal structure of the periplasmic N-terminal domain of GspD (peri-GspD) from the type 2 secretion system (T2SS) secretin in complex with a “nanobody”, the VHH domain of a “heavy-chain” camelid antibody. Two different crystal forms contained the same compact peri-GspD:nanobody heterotetramer. The nanobody contacts peri-GspD mainly via CDR3 and framework residues. The peri-GspD structure reveals three subdomains with the second and third subdomains exhibiting the KH-fold which also occurs in ring-forming proteins of the type 3 secretion system. The first subdomain of GspD is related to domains in phage tail proteins and outer membrane TonB-dependent receptors. A dodecameric peri-GspD model is proposed in which a solvent-accessible β-strand of the first subdomain interacts with secreted proteins and/or T2SS partner proteins by β-strand complementation. PMID:19217396

  8. A multilayered regulatory mechanism for the autoinhibition and activation of a plant CC-NB-LRR resistance protein with an extra N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojiao; Zhu, Min; Jiang, Lei; Zhao, Wenyang; Li, Jia; Wu, Jianyan; Li, Chun; Bai, Baohui; Lu, Gang; Chen, Hongyu; Moffett, Peter; Tao, Xiaorong

    2016-10-01

    The tomato resistance protein Sw-5b differs from the classical coiled-coil nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (CC-NB-LRR) resistance proteins by having an extra N-terminal domain (NTD). To understand how NTD, CC and NB-LRR regulate autoinhibition and activation of Sw-5b, we dissected the function(s) of each domain. When viral elicitor was absent, Sw-5b LRR suppressed the central NB-ARC to maintain autoinhibition of the NB-LRR segment. The CC and NTD domains independently and additively enhanced the autoinhibition of NB-LRR. When viral elicitor was present, the NB-LRR segment of Sw-5b was specifically activated to trigger a hypersensitive response. Surprisingly, Sw-5b CC suppressed the activation of NB-LRR, whereas the extra NTD of Sw-5b became a positive regulator and fully activated the resistance protein, probably by relieving the inhibitory effects of the CC. In infection assays of transgenic plants, the NB-LRR segment alone was insufficient to confer resistance against Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus; the layers of NTD and CC regulation on NB-LRR were required for Sw-5b to confer resistance. Based on these findings, we propose that, to counter the negative regulation of the CC on NB-LRR, Sw-5b evolved an extra NTD to coordinate with the CC, thus developing a multilayered regulatory mechanism to control autoinhibition and activation.

  9. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of the N-terminal domain of the Toll-like receptor signalling adaptor protein TRIF/TICAM-1.

    PubMed

    Ullah, M Obayed; Ve, Thomas; Dkhar, Jameris; Alaidarous, Mohammed; Ericsson, Daniel J; Sweet, Matthew J; Mansell, Ashley; Kobe, Bostjan

    2013-07-01

    As part of the mammalian innate immune response, Toll-like receptors 3 and 4 can signal via the adaptor protein TRIF/TICAM-1 to elicit the production of type-I interferons and cytokines. Recent studies have suggested an auto-inhibitory role for the N-terminal domain (NTD) of TRIF. This domain has no significant sequence similarity to proteins of known structure. In this paper, the crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of TRIF-NTD and its selenomethionine-labelled mutant TRIF-NTD(A66M/L113M) are reported. Thin plate-like crystals of native TRIF-NTD obtained using polyethylene glycol 3350 as precipitant diffracted X-rays to 1.9 Å resolution. To facilitate phase determination, two additional methionines were incorporated into the protein at positions chosen based on the occurrence of methionines in TRIF homologues in different species. Crystals of the selenomethionine-labelled protein were obtained under conditions similar to the wild-type protein; these crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.5 Å resolution. The TRIF-NTD and TRIF-NTD(A66M/L113M) crystals have the symmetry of space groups P212121 and P1, and most likely contain two and four molecules in the asymmetric unit, respectively. These results provide a sound foundation for the future structure determination of this novel domain.

  10. Different Functions of the Paralogs to the N-Terminal Domain of the Orange Carotenoid Protein in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 71201[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    López-Igual, Rocío; Wilson, Adjélé; Bourcier de Carbon, Céline; Sutter, Markus; Turmo, Aiko

    2016-01-01

    The photoactive Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP) is involved in cyanobacterial photoprotection. Its N-terminal domain (NTD) is responsible for interaction with the antenna and induction of excitation energy quenching, while the C-terminal domain is the regulatory domain that senses light and induces photoactivation. In most nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterial strains, there are one to four paralogous genes coding for homologs to the NTD of the OCP. The functions of these proteins are unknown. Here, we study the expression, localization, and function of these genes in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. We show that the four genes present in the genome are expressed in both vegetative cells and heterocysts but do not seem to have an essential role in heterocyst formation. This study establishes that all four Anabaena NTD-like proteins can bind a carotenoid and the different paralogs have distinct functions. Surprisingly, only one paralog (All4941) was able to interact with the antenna and to induce permanent thermal energy dissipation. Two of the other Anabaena paralogs (All3221 and Alr4783) were shown to be very good singlet oxygen quenchers. The fourth paralog (All1123) does not seem to be involved in photoprotection. Structural homology modeling allowed us to propose specific features responsible for the different functions of these soluble carotenoid-binding proteins. PMID:27208286

  11. Truncation of the unique N-terminal domain improved the thermos-stability and specific activity of alkaline α-amylase Amy703.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhenghui; Wang, Qinhong; Jiang, Sijing; Zhang, Guimin; Ma, Yanhe

    2016-03-01

    High pH condition is of special interest for the potential applications of alkaline α-amylase in textile and detergent industries. Thus, there is a continuous demand to improve the amylase's properties to meet the requirements set by specific applications. Here we reported the systematic study of modular domain engineering to improve the specific activity and stability of the alkaline α-amylase from Bacillus pseudofirmus 703. The specific activity of the N-terminal domain truncated mutant (N-Amy) increased by ~35-fold with a significantly improved thermo-stability. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that the Kcat and Kcat/Kmof N-Amy were enhanced by 1300-fold and 425.7-fold, respectively, representing the largest catalytic activity improvement of the engineered α-amylases through the methods of domain deletion, fusion or swapping. In addition, different from the wild-type Amy703, no exogenous Ca(2+) were required for N-Amy to maintain its full catalytic activity, implying its superior potential for many industrial processes. Circular dichroism analysis and structure modeling revealed that the increased compactness and α-helical content were the main contributors for the improved thermo-stability of N-Amy, while the improved catalytic efficiency was mainly attributed by the increased conformational flexibility around the active center.

  12. Truncation of the unique N-terminal domain improved the thermos-stability and specific activity of alkaline α-amylase Amy703

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhenghui; Wang, Qinhong; Jiang, Sijing; Zhang, Guimin; Ma, Yanhe

    2016-01-01

    High pH condition is of special interest for the potential applications of alkaline α-amylase in textile and detergent industries. Thus, there is a continuous demand to improve the amylase’s properties to meet the requirements set by specific applications. Here we reported the systematic study of modular domain engineering to improve the specific activity and stability of the alkaline α-amylase from Bacillus pseudofirmus 703. The specific activity of the N-terminal domain truncated mutant (N-Amy) increased by ~35-fold with a significantly improved thermo-stability. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that the Kcat and Kcat/Kmof N-Amy were enhanced by 1300-fold and 425.7-fold, respectively, representing the largest catalytic activity improvement of the engineered α-amylases through the methods of domain deletion, fusion or swapping. In addition, different from the wild-type Amy703, no exogenous Ca2+ were required for N-Amy to maintain its full catalytic activity, implying its superior potential for many industrial processes. Circular dichroism analysis and structure modeling revealed that the increased compactness and α-helical content were the main contributors for the improved thermo-stability of N-Amy, while the improved catalytic efficiency was mainly attributed by the increased conformational flexibility around the active center. PMID:26926401

  13. The trappin gene family: proteins defined by an N-terminal transglutaminase substrate domain and a C-terminal four-disulphide core.

    PubMed Central

    Schalkwijk, J; Wiedow, O; Hirose, S

    1999-01-01

    Recently, several new genes have been discovered in various species which are homologous to the well-characterized human epithelial proteinase inhibitor elafin/SKALP (skin-derived anti-leukoproteinase). Because of the high degree of conservation and the similarities in genomic organization, we propose that these genes belong to a novel gene family. At the protein level, the family members are defined by: (1) an N-terminal domain consisting of a variable number of repeats with the consensus sequence Gly-Gln-Asp-Pro-Val-Lys that can act as an anchoring motif by transglutaminase cross-linking, and (2) a C-terminal four-disulphide core or whey acidic protein (WAP) domain, which harbours a functional motif involved in binding of proteinases and possibly other proteins. We have proposed the name trappin gene family as a unifying nomenclature for this group of proteins (trappin is an acronym for TRansglutaminase substrate and wAP domain containing ProteIN, and refers to its functional property of 'getting trapped' in tissues by covalent cross-linking). Analysis of the trappin family members shows extensive diversification in bovidae and suidae, whereas the number of primate trappins is probably limited. Recent biochemical and cell biological data on the human trappin family member elafin/SKALP suggest that this molecule is induced in epidermis by cellular stress. We hypothesize that trappins play an important role in the regulation of inflammation and in protection against tissue damage in stratified epithelia. PMID:10359639

  14. Role of the N-terminal transmembrane domain in the endo-lysosomal targeting and function of the human ABCB6 protein

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Katalin; Kucsma, Nora; Brozik, Anna; Tusnady, Gabor E.; Bergam, Ptissam; vanNiel, Guillaume; Szakacs, Gergely

    2015-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette, subfamily B (ABCB) 6 is a homodimeric ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter present in the plasma membrane and in the intracellular organelles. The intracellular localization of ABCB6 has been a matter of debate, as it has been suggested to reside in the mitochondria and the endo-lysosomal system. Using a variety of imaging modalities, including confocal microscopy and EM, we confirm the endo-lysosomal localization of ABCB6 and show that the protein is internalized from the plasma membrane through endocytosis, to be distributed to multivesicular bodies and lysosomes. In addition to the canonical nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) and transmembrane domain (TMD), ABCB6 contains a unique N-terminal TMD (TMD0), which does not show sequence homology to known proteins. We investigated the functional role of these domains through the molecular dissection of ABCB6. We find that the folding, dimerization, membrane insertion and ATP binding/hydrolysis of the core–ABCB6 complex devoid of TMD0 are preserved. However, in contrast with the full-length transporter, the core–ABCB6 construct is retained at the plasma membrane and does not appear in Rab5-positive endosomes. TMD0 is directly targeted to the lysosomes, without passage to the plasma membrane. Collectively, our results reveal that TMD0 represents an independently folding unit, which is dispensable for catalysis, but has a crucial role in the lysosomal targeting of ABCB6. PMID:25627919

  15. Acidic Residues Control the Dimerization of the N-terminal Domain of Black Widow Spiders’ Major Ampullate Spidroin 1

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Joschka; Schaal, Daniel; Eisoldt, Lukas; Schweimer, Kristian; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Scheibel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Dragline silk is the most prominent amongst spider silks and comprises two types of major ampullate spidroins (MaSp) differing in their proline content. In the natural spinning process, the conversion of soluble MaSp into a tough fiber is, amongst other factors, triggered by dimerization and conformational switching of their helical amino-terminal domains (NRN). Both processes are induced by protonation of acidic residues upon acidification along the spinning duct. Here, the structure and monomer-dimer-equilibrium of the domain NRN1 of Latrodectus hesperus MaSp1 and variants thereof have been investigated, and the key residues for both could be identified. Changes in ionic composition and strength within the spinning duct enable electrostatic interactions between the acidic and basic pole of two monomers which prearrange into an antiparallel dimer. Upon naturally occurring acidification this dimer is stabilized by protonation of residue E114. A conformational change is independently triggered by protonation of clustered acidic residues (D39, E76, E81). Such step-by-step mechanism allows a controlled spidroin assembly in a pH- and salt sensitive manner, preventing premature aggregation of spider silk proteins in the gland and at the same time ensuring fast and efficient dimer formation and stabilization on demand in the spinning duct. PMID:27681031

  16. Acidic Residues Control the Dimerization of the N-terminal Domain of Black Widow Spiders’ Major Ampullate Spidroin 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Joschka; Schaal, Daniel; Eisoldt, Lukas; Schweimer, Kristian; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Scheibel, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Dragline silk is the most prominent amongst spider silks and comprises two types of major ampullate spidroins (MaSp) differing in their proline content. In the natural spinning process, the conversion of soluble MaSp into a tough fiber is, amongst other factors, triggered by dimerization and conformational switching of their helical amino-terminal domains (NRN). Both processes are induced by protonation of acidic residues upon acidification along the spinning duct. Here, the structure and monomer-dimer-equilibrium of the domain NRN1 of Latrodectus hesperus MaSp1 and variants thereof have been investigated, and the key residues for both could be identified. Changes in ionic composition and strength within the spinning duct enable electrostatic interactions between the acidic and basic pole of two monomers which prearrange into an antiparallel dimer. Upon naturally occurring acidification this dimer is stabilized by protonation of residue E114. A conformational change is independently triggered by protonation of clustered acidic residues (D39, E76, E81). Such step-by-step mechanism allows a controlled spidroin assembly in a pH- and salt sensitive manner, preventing premature aggregation of spider silk proteins in the gland and at the same time ensuring fast and efficient dimer formation and stabilization on demand in the spinning duct.

  17. Human 60-kDa lysophospholipase contains an N-terminal L-asparaginase domain that is allosterically regulated by L-asparagine.

    PubMed

    Karamitros, Christos S; Konrad, Manfred

    2014-05-09

    The structural and functional characterization of human enzymes that are of potential medical and therapeutic interest is of prime significance for translational research. One of the most notable examples of a therapeutic enzyme is L-asparaginase, which has been established as an antileukemic protein drug for more than four decades. Up until now, only bacterial enzymes have been used in therapy despite a plethora of undesired side effects mainly attributed to the bacterial origins of these enzymes. Therefore, the replacement of the currently approved bacterial drugs by human homologs aiming at the elimination of adverse effects is of great importance. Recently, we structurally and biochemically characterized the enzyme human L-asparaginase 3 (hASNase3), which possesses L-asparaginase activity and belongs to the N-terminal nucleophile superfamily of enzymes. Inspired by the necessity for the development of a protein drug of human origin, in the present study, we focused on the characterization of another human L-asparaginase, termed hASNase1. This bacterial-type cytoplasmic L-asparaginase resides in the N-terminal subdomain of an overall 573-residue protein previously reported to function as a lysophospholipase. Our kinetic, mutagenesis, structural modeling, and fluorescence labeling data highlight allosteric features of hASNase1 that are similar to those of its Escherichia coli homolog, EcASNase1. Differential scanning fluorometry and urea denaturation experiments demonstrate the impact of particular mutations on the structural and functional integrity of the L-asparaginase domain and provide a direct comparison of sites critical for the conformational stability of the human and E. coli enzymes.

  18. The ataxia3 mutation in the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of sodium channel Nav1.6 disrupts intracellular trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Lisa M.; Cheng, X-Y; Drews, Valerie; Buchner, David A.; Jones, Julie M.; Justice, Monica J.; Waxman, Stephen G.; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D.; Meisler, Miriam H.

    2009-01-01

    The ENU-induced neurological mutant ataxia3 was mapped to distal mouse chromosome 15. Sequencing of the positional candidate gene Scn8a encoding the sodium channel Nav1.6 identified a T>C transition in exon 1 resulting in the amino acid substitution p.S21P near the N-terminus of the channel. The cytoplasmic N-terminal region is evolutionarily conserved but its function has not been well characterized. ataxia3 homozygotes exhibit a severe disorder that includes ataxia, tremor, and juvenile lethality. Unlike Scn8a null mice, they retain partial hind limb function. The mutant transcript is stable but protein abundance is reduced and the mutant channel is not detected in its usual site of concentration at nodes of Ranvier. In whole cell patch-clamp studies of transfected ND7/23 cells which were maintained at 37°C, the mutant channel did not produce sodium current, and function was not restored by co-expression of β1 and β2 subunits. However, when tranfected cells were maintained at 30°C, the mutant channel generated voltage-dependent inward sodium currents with an average peak current density comparable to wildtype, demonstrating recovery of channel activity. Immunohistochemistry of primary cerebellar granule cells from ataxia3 mice demonstrated that the mutant protein is retained in the cis-Golgi. This trafficking defect can account for the low level of Nav1.6-S21P at nodes of Ranvier in vivo and at the surface of transfected cells. The data demonstrate that the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of the sodium channel is required for anterograde transport from the Golgi complex to the plasma membrane. PMID:19261867

  19. Human/bovine chimeric MxA-like GTPases reveal a contribution of N-terminal domains to the magnitude of anti-influenza A activity.

    PubMed

    Garigliany, Mutien-Marie; Cornet, Anne; Desmecht, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Type I interferons (IFN-α/β) provide powerful and universal innate intracellular defense mechanisms against viruses. Among the antiviral effectors induced by IFN-α/β, Mx proteins of some species appear as key components of defense against influenza A viruses. The body of work published to date suggests that to exert anti-influenza activity, an Mx protein should possess a GTP-binding site, structural bases allowing multimerisation, and a specific C-terminal GTPase effector domain (GED). Both the human MxA and bovine Mx1 proteins meet these minimal requirements, but the bovine protein is more active against influenza viruses. Here, we measured the anti-influenza activity exerted by 2 human/bovine chimeric Mx proteins. We show that substituting the bovine GED for the human one in human MxA does not affect the magnitude of anti-influenza activity. Strikingly, however, substituting the human GED for the bovine one in bovine Mx1 yields a chimeric protein with a much higher anti-influenza activity than the human protein. We conclude, in contradiction to the hypothesis currently in vogue in the literature, that the GED is not the sole determinant controlling the magnitude of the anti-influenza activity exercised by an Mx protein that can bind GTP and multimerise. Our results suggest that 1 or several motifs that remain to be discovered, located N-terminally with regard to the GED, may interact with a viral component or a cellular factor so as to alter the viral cycle. Identifying, in the N-terminal portion of bovine Mx1, the motif(s) responsible for its higher anti-influenza activity could contribute to the development of new anti-influenza molecules.

  20. γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A (GABAA) Receptor Subunits Play a Direct Structural Role in Synaptic Contact Formation via Their N-terminal Extracellular Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Laura E.; Nicholson, Martin W.; Arama, Jessica E.; Thomson, Alex M.

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of cell-cell contacts between presynaptic GABAergic neurons and their postsynaptic targets initiates the process of GABAergic synapse formation. GABAA receptors (GABAARs), the main postsynaptic receptors for GABA, have been recently demonstrated to act as synaptogenic proteins that can single-handedly induce the formation and functional maturation of inhibitory synapses. To establish how the subunit composition of GABAARs influences their ability to induce synaptogenesis, a co-culture model system incorporating GABAergic medium spiny neurons and the HEK293 cells, stably expressing different combinations of receptor subunits, was developed. Analyses of HEK293 cell innervation by medium spiny neuron axons using immunocytochemistry, activity-dependent labeling, and electrophysiology have indicated that the γ2 subunit is required for the formation of active synapses and that its effects are influenced by the type of α/β subunits incorporated into the functional receptor. To further characterize this process, the large N-terminal extracellular domains (ECDs) of α1, α2, β2, and γ2 subunits were purified using the baculovirus/Sf9 cell system. When these proteins were applied to the co-cultures of MSNs and α1/β2/γ2-expressing HEK293 cells, the α1, β2, or γ2 ECD each caused a significant reduction in contact formation, in contrast to the α2 ECD, which had no effect. Together, our experiments indicate that the structural role of GABAARs in synaptic contact formation is determined by their subunit composition, with the N-terminal ECDs of each of the subunits directly participating in interactions between the presynaptic and postsynaptic elements, suggesting the these interactions are multivalent and specific. PMID:27129275

  1. Human 60-kDa Lysophospholipase Contains an N-terminal l-Asparaginase Domain That Is Allosterically Regulated by l-Asparagine*

    PubMed Central

    Karamitros, Christos S.; Konrad, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    The structural and functional characterization of human enzymes that are of potential medical and therapeutic interest is of prime significance for translational research. One of the most notable examples of a therapeutic enzyme is l-asparaginase, which has been established as an antileukemic protein drug for more than four decades. Up until now, only bacterial enzymes have been used in therapy despite a plethora of undesired side effects mainly attributed to the bacterial origins of these enzymes. Therefore, the replacement of the currently approved bacterial drugs by human homologs aiming at the elimination of adverse effects is of great importance. Recently, we structurally and biochemically characterized the enzyme human l-asparaginase 3 (hASNase3), which possesses l-asparaginase activity and belongs to the N-terminal nucleophile superfamily of enzymes. Inspired by the necessity for the development of a protein drug of human origin, in the present study, we focused on the characterization of another human l-asparaginase, termed hASNase1. This bacterial-type cytoplasmic l-asparaginase resides in the N-terminal subdomain of an overall 573-residue protein previously reported to function as a lysophospholipase. Our kinetic, mutagenesis, structural modeling, and fluorescence labeling data highlight allosteric features of hASNase1 that are similar to those of its Escherichia coli homolog, EcASNase1. Differential scanning fluorometry and urea denaturation experiments demonstrate the impact of particular mutations on the structural and functional integrity of the l-asparaginase domain and provide a direct comparison of sites critical for the conformational stability of the human and E. coli enzymes. PMID:24657844

  2. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor N-terminal domain controls isotype-selective gene expression and adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hummasti, Sarah; Tontonoz, Peter

    2006-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARgamma, PPARalpha, and PPARdelta) are important regulators of lipid metabolism. Although they share significant structural similarity, the biological effects associated with each PPAR isotype are distinct. For example, PPARalpha and PPARdelta regulate fatty acid catabolism, whereas PPARgamma controls lipid storage and adipogenesis. The different functions of PPARs in vivo can be explained at least in part by the different tissue distributions of the three receptors. The question of whether the receptors have different intrinsic activities and regulate distinct target genes, however, has not been adequately explored. We have engineered cell lines that express comparable amounts of each receptor. Transcriptional profiling of these cells in the presence of selective agonists reveals partially overlapping but distinct patterns of gene regulation by the three PPARs. Moreover, analysis of chimeric receptors points to the N terminus of each receptor as the key determinant of isotype-selective gene expression. For example, the N terminus of PPARgamma confers the ability to promote adipocyte differentiation when fused to the PPARdelta DNA binding domain and ligand binding domain, whereas the N terminus of PPARdelta leads to the inappropriate expression of fatty acid oxidation genes in differentiated adipocytes when fused to PPARgamma. Finally, we demonstrate that the N terminus of each receptor functions in part to limit receptor activity because deletion of the N terminus leads to nonselective activation of target genes. A more detailed understanding of the mechanisms by which the individual PPARs differentially regulate gene expression should aid in the design of more effective drugs, including tissue- and target gene-selective PPAR modulators.

  3. Synthesis of LJP 993, a multivalent conjugate of the N-terminal domain of beta2GPI and suppression of an anti-beta2GPI immune response.

    PubMed

    Jones, D S; Cockerill, K A; Gamino, C A; Hammaker, J R; Hayag, M S; Iverson, G M; Linnik, M D; McNeeley, P A; Tedder, M E; Ton-Nu, H T; Victoria, E J

    2001-01-01

    LJP 993, a tetravalent conjugate of the amino-terminal domain (domain 1) of beta2GPI, was synthesized, and studies were carried out to explore the ability of LJP 993 to bind anti-beta2GPI antibodies and to function as a B cell toleragen. Domain 1 was expressed in Pichia pastoris, and the N-terminus was site-specifically modified by a transamination reaction converting the N-terminal glycine to a glyoxyl group. A tetravalent platform was synthesized with linkers that terminate in aminooxy groups. This was accomplished by preparing an ethylene glycol-based heterobifunctional linker that contains both a Boc-protected aminooxy group and a free primary amine. The linker was used to modify a tetravalent platform molecule by reacting the amino groups on the linker with 4-nitrophenyl carbonate esters on the platform to provide a linker-modified platform, and the Boc protecting groups were removed to provide a tetravalent aminooxy platform. Glyoxylated domain 1 was attached to the platform to provide LJP 993 by formation of oxime bonds. The protein domains of LJP 993 retain activity as evidenced by the ability of LJP 993 to bind to anti-beta2GPI antibodies. Dissociation constants (Kd) for domain 1 and LJP 993 bound to immobilized affinity-purified anti-beta2GPI antibodies from autoimmune thrombosis patients were determined using surface plasmon resonance. An immunized mouse model was developed to test the ability of LJP 993 to act as a toleragen. A thiol containing domain 1 analogue was expressed in insect cells using the baculovirus expression system, and it was used to prepare an immunogenic conjugate of domain 1 and maleimide-derivatized keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Mice were immunized with the KLH conjugate, and spleen cells were harvested from the immunized mice. The cells were incubated with various concentrations of LJP 993 and transferred to mice whose immune systems had been compromised by irradiation. The hosts were then boosted with the KLH-domain 1 conjugate

  4. Mutations Define Cross-talk between the N-terminal Nucleotide-binding Domain and Transmembrane Helix-2 of the Yeast Multidrug Transporter Pdr5

    PubMed Central

    Sauna, Zuben E.; Bohn, Sherry Supernavage; Rutledge, Robert; Dougherty, Michael P.; Cronin, Susan; May, Leopold; Xia, Di; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Golin, John

    2008-01-01

    The yeast Pdr5 multidrug transporter is an important member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of proteins. We describe a novel mutation (S558Y) in transmembrane helix 2 of Pdr5 identified in a screen for suppressors that eliminated Pdr5-mediated cycloheximide hyper-resistance. Nucleotides as well as transport substrates bind to the mutant Pdr5 with an affinity comparable with that for wild-type Pdr5. Wild-type and mutant Pdr5s show ATPase activity with comparable Km(ATP) values. Nonetheless, drug sensitivity is equivalent in the mutant pdr5 and the pdr5 deletion. Finally, the transport substrate clotrimazole, which is a noncompetitive inhibitor of Pdr5 ATPase activity, has a minimal effect on ATP hydrolysis by the S558Y mutant. These results suggest that the drug sensitivity of the mutant Pdr5 is attributable to the uncoupling of NTPase activity and transport. We screened for amino acid alterations in the nucleotide-binding domains that would reverse the phenotypic effect of the S558Y mutation. A second-site mutation, N242K, located between the Walker A and signature motifs of the N-terminal nucleotide-binding domain, restores significant function. This region of the nucleotide-binding domain interacts with the transmembrane domains via the intracellular loop-1 (which connects transmembrane helices 2 and 3) in the crystal structure of Sav1866, a bacterial ATP-binding cassette drug transporter. These structural studies are supported by biochemical and genetic evidence presented here that interactions between transmembrane helix 2 and the nucleotide-binding domain, via the intracellular loop-1, may define at least part of the translocation pathway for coupling ATP hydrolysis to drug transport. PMID:18842589

  5. A 1.3Å Structure of Zinc-bound N-terminal Domain of Calmodulin Elucidates Potential Early Ion-binding Step

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Julia T.; Guo, Qing; Tang, Wei-Jen

    2007-01-01

    Summary Calmodulin (CaM) is a 16.8 kDa calcium binding protein involved in calcium-signal transduction. It is the canonical member of the EF-hand family of proteins, which are characterized by a helix-loop-helix calcium-binding motif. CaM is comprised of N- and C-terminal globular domains (N-CaM and C-CaM), and within each domain there are two EF-hand motifs. Upon binding calcium, CaM undergoes a significant, global conformational change involving reorientation of the four helix bundles in each of its two domains. This conformational change upon ion binding is a key component of the signal transduction and regulatory roles of CaM, yet the precise nature of this transition is still unclear. Here, we present a 1.3Å structure of zinc-bound N-terminal calmodulin (N-CaM) solved by single wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) phasing of a selenomethionyl-N-CaM. Our zinc-bound N-CaM structure differs from previously reported CaM structures and resembles calcium-free apo-CaM despite the zinc binding to both EF-hand motifs. Structural comparison with calcium-free apo-CaM, calcium-loaded CaM, and a crosslinked calcium-loaded CaM suggests that our zinc-bound N-CaM reveals an intermediate step in the initiation of metal ion binding at the first EF-hand motif. Our data also suggests that metal ion coordination by two key residues in the first metal-binding site represents an initial step in the conformational transition induced by metal binding. This is followed by reordering of the N-terminal region of the helix exiting from this first binding loop. This conformational switch should be incorporated into models of either step-wise conformational transition or flexible, dynamic energetic state-sampling based transition. PMID:17942116

  6. The adenovirus E1A N-terminal repression domain represses transcription from a chromatin template in vitro.

    PubMed

    Loewenstein, Paul M; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; Green, Maurice

    2012-06-20

    The adenovirus repression domain of E1A 243R at the E1A N-terminus (E1A 1-80) transcriptionally represses genes involved in differentiation and cell cycle progression. E1A 1-80 represses transcription in vitro from naked DNA templates through its interaction with p300 and TFIID. E1A 1-80 can also interact with several chromatin remodeling factors and associates with chromatin in vivo. We show here that E1A 243R and E1A 1-80 can repress transcription from a reconstituted chromatin template in vitro. Temporal analysis reveals strong repression by E1A 1-80 when added at pre-activation, activation and early transcription stages. Interestingly, E1A 1-80 can greatly enhance transcription from chromatin templates, but not from naked DNA, when added at pre-initiation complex (PIC) formation and transcription-initiation stages. These data reveal a new dimension for E1A 1-80's interface with chromatin and may reflect its interaction with key players in PIC formation, p300 and TFIID, and/or possibly a role in chromatin remodeling.

  7. A Linear Epitope in the N-Terminal Domain of CCR5 and Its Interaction with Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Chain, Benny; Arnold, Jack; Akthar, Samia; Brandt, Michael; Davis, David; Noursadeghi, Mahdad; Lapp, Thabo; Ji, Changhua; Sankuratri, Surya; Zhang, Yanjing; Govada, Lata; Saridakis, Emmanuel; Chayen, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    The CCR5 receptor plays a role in several key physiological and pathological processes and is an important therapeutic target. Inhibition of the CCR5 axis by passive or active immunisation offers one very selective strategy for intervention. In this study we define a new linear epitope within the extracellular domain of CCR5 recognised by two independently produced monoclonal antibodies. A short peptide encoding the linear epitope can induce antibodies which recognise the intact receptor when administered colinear with a tetanus toxoid helper T cell epitope. The monoclonal antibody RoAb 13 is shown to bind to both cells and peptide with moderate to high affinity (6x10^8 and 1.2x107 M-1 respectively), and binding to the peptide is enhanced by sulfation of tyrosines at positions 10 and 14. RoAb13, which has previously been shown to block HIV infection, also blocks migration of monocytes in response to CCR5 binding chemokines and to inflammatory macrophage conditioned medium. A Fab fragment of RoAb13 has been crystallised and a structure of the antibody is reported to 2.1 angstrom resolution. PMID:26030924

  8. The adenovirus E1A N-terminal repression domain represses transcription from a chromatin template in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Loewenstein, Paul M.; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Chiang, Cheng-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The adenovirus repression domain of E1A 243R at the E1A N-terminus (E1A 1–80) transcriptionally represses genes involved in differentiation and cell cycle progression. E1A 1–80 represses transcription in vitro from naked DNA templates through its interaction with p300 and TFIID. E1A 1–80 can also interact with several chromatin remodeling factors and associates with chromatin in vivo. We show here that E1A 243R and E1A 1–80 can repress transcription from a reconstituted chromatin template in vitro. Temporal analysis reveals strong repression by E1A 1–80 when added at pre-activation, activation and early transcription stages. Interestingly, E1A 1–80 can greatly enhance transcription from chromatin templates, but not from naked DNA, when added at pre-initiation complex (PIC) formation and transcription-initiation stages. These data reveal a new dimension for E1A 1–80's interface with chromatin and may reflect its interaction with key players in PIC formation, p300 and TFIID, and/or possibly a role in chromatin remodeling. PMID:22521914

  9. Thermodynamics of the protonation equilibria of two fragments of N-terminal β-hairpin of FPB28 WW domain.

    PubMed

    Makowska, Joanna; Uber, Dorota; Chmurzyński, Lech

    2012-01-12

    The pK(a) values of two peptides derived from the formin-binding protein 28 WW domain [Ac-Lys-Thr-Ala-Asp-Gly-Lys-Thr-NH(2) (D7), Ac-Tyr-Lys-Thr-Ala-Asp-Gly-Lys-Thr-Tyr-NH(2) (D9)] were determined by potentiometric titration in the temperature range from 25 to 60 °C, and their heat capacities were determined, by differential scanning calorimetry, in the temperature range from 10 to 90 °C. For both peptides, heat capacity has a maximum at t ≈ 50 °C, with height about 0.1 kcal/(mol × deg), suggesting that a modest unfolding transition occurs. The first two pK(a)'s are low at temperatures below 50 °C, suggesting that the two lysine residues are close to each other and the peptides have bent shapes at lower temperatures; this effect is greater for D7 compared with D9. With increasing temperature beyond 50 °C (i.e., that of the thermodynamic unfolding transition), pK(a1) and pK(a2) increase rapidly for D9, whereas their temperature variation is less significant for D7. This observation, and the fact that the enthalpies and entropies of the dissociation of the two first protons (determined from the temperature dependence of the respective pK(a)'s) decrease significantly near the transition temperature, suggest that the peptide undergoes a transition from a bent to an amorphous shape and that the presence of charged lysine residues stabilizes the folded state.

  10. The N-terminal domain of the V-ATPase subunit 'a' is regulated by pH in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Dechant, Reinhard; Peter, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Regulation of the activity of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) is a well known, yet poorly understood phenomenon, which might underlie the contribution of V-ATPases in various cellular signaling processes.(1) In yeast, V-ATPase is regulated by glucose and contributes to activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). We have recently shown that, in vivo, glucose regulates V-ATPase through cytosolic pH, suggesting that V-ATPase contains a pH sensitive subunit, which regulates assembly of the holo-complex.(2) Here, we present the purification and biochemical characterization of the N-terminal domain of subunit 'a', Vph1N, which has been suggested to act as a pH sensor in mammalian cells.(3) Interestingly, our studies demonstrate pH-dependent oligomerization of this domain in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, we identify a membrane proximal region that is required for the pH-dependent oligomerization, and suggest a speculative model for the regulation of the V-ATPase holo-complex by pH.

  11. Preliminary X-ray Diffraction Analysis of the Cytoplasmic N-terminal Domain of the Na/HCO3 Cotransporter NBCe1-A

    SciTech Connect

    Gill,H.; Boron, W.

    2006-01-01

    The N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the Na{sup +}-coupled HCO{sub 3}{sup -} cotransporter NBCe1-A (NtNBCe1) has been linked with proximal renal tubular acidosis. In a previous purification study of recombinant NtNBCe1, crystal growth at a suboptimal protein concentration (<1 mg ml{sup -1}) yielded small single diamond-shaped crystals that diffracted poorly. In the present study, by increasing the protein concentration 50-fold, the crystal size was doubled and robustness was also improved. Crystal annealing made the crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction. The crystals either belong to space group P3121 or P31 with pseudo P3121 symmetry, with unit-cell parameters a = 51.7, b = 51.7, c = 200.6 Angstroms, {alpha} = {beta} = 90, {gamma} = 120 deg, and diffract X-rays to 3.0 Angstroms resolution. The calculated Matthews number is 1.9 Angstroms{sup 3} Da{sup -1}, with two monomers of molecular weight {approx}83 kDa in the asymmetric unit. The molecular- replacement packing solution shows that the molecules form dimers by a domain-swapping mechanism.

  12. Structural and biochemical characterization of an RNA/DNA binding motif in the N-terminal domain of RecQ4 helicases

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Francesca; Mojumdar, Aditya; Zucchelli, Chiara; Bhardwaj, Amit; Buratti, Emanuele; Vindigni, Alessandro; Musco, Giovanna; Onesti, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The RecQ4 helicase belongs to the ubiquitous RecQ family but its exact role in the cell is not completely understood. In addition to the helicase domain, RecQ4 has a unique N-terminal part that is essential for viability and is constituted by a region homologous to the yeast Sld2 replication initiation factor, followed by a cysteine-rich region, predicted to fold as a Zn knuckle. We carried out a structural and biochemical analysis of both the human and Xenopus laevis RecQ4 cysteine-rich regions, and showed by NMR spectroscopy that the Xenopus fragment indeed assumes the canonical Zn knuckle fold, whereas the human sequence remains unstructured, consistent with the mutation of one of the Zn ligands. Both the human and Xenopus Zn knuckles bind to a variety of nucleic acid substrates, with a mild preference for RNA. We also investigated the effect of a segment located upstream the Zn knuckle that is highly conserved and rich in positively charged and aromatic residues, partially overlapping with the C-terminus of the Sld2-like domain. In both the human and Xenopus proteins, the presence of this region strongly enhances binding to nucleic acids. These results reveal novel possible roles of RecQ4 in DNA replication and genome stability. PMID:26888063

  13. The N-terminal domain of the Drosophila retinoblastoma protein Rbf1 interacts with ORC and associates with chromatin in an E2F independent manner.

    PubMed

    Ahlander, Joseph; Chen, Xiao-Bo; Bosco, Giovanni

    2008-07-30

    The retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor protein can function as a DNA replication inhibitor as well as a transcription factor. Regulation of DNA replication may occur through interaction of Rb with the origin recognition complex (ORC). We characterized the interaction of Drosophila Rb, Rbf1, with ORC. Using expression of proteins in Drosophila S2 cells, we found that an N-terminal Rbf1 fragment (amino acids 1-345) is sufficient for Rbf1 association with ORC but does not bind to dE2F1. We also found that the C-terminal half of Rbf1 (amino acids 345-845) interacts with ORC. We observed that the amino-terminal domain of Rbf1 localizes to chromatin in vivo and associates with chromosomal regions implicated in replication initiation, including colocalization with Orc2 and acetylated histone H4. Our results suggest that Rbf1 can associate with ORC and chromatin through domains independent of the E2F binding site. We infer that Rbf1 may play a role in regulating replication directly through its association with ORC and/or chromatin factors other than E2F. Our data suggest an important role for retinoblastoma family proteins in cell proliferation and tumor suppression through interaction with the replication initiation machinery.

  14. Crystal structure of the human CD4 N-terminal two-domain fragment complexed to a class II MHC molecule.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.-H.; Meijers, R.; Xiong, Y.; Liu, J.-H.; Sakihama, T.; Zhang, R.-G.; Joachimiak, A.; Reinherz, E. L.; Biosciences Division; Dana-Farber Cancer Inst.; Harvard Medical School

    2001-09-11

    The structural basis of the interaction between the CD4 coreceptor and a class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is described. The crystal structure of a complex containing the human CD4 N-terminal two-domain fragment and the murine I-A{sup k }class II MHC molecule with associated peptide (pMHCII) shows that only the 'top corner' of the CD4 molecule directly contacts pMHCII. The CD4 Phe-43 side chain extends into a hydrophobic concavity formed by MHC residues from both {alpha}2 and {beta}2 domains. A ternary model of the CD4-pMHCII-T-cell receptor (TCR) reveals that the complex appears V-shaped with the membrane-proximal pMHCII at the apex. This configuration excludes a direct TCR-CD4 interaction and suggests how TCR and CD4 signaling is coordinated around the antigenic pMHCII complex. Human CD4 binds to HIV gp120 in a manner strikingly similar to the way in which CD4 interacts with pMHCII. Additional contacts between gp120 and CD4 give the CD4-gp120 complex a greater affinity. Thus, ligation of the viral envelope glycoprotein to CD4 occludes the pMHCII-binding site on CD4, contributing to immunodeficiency.

  15. Contribution of the tyrosines to the structure and function of the human U1A N-terminal RNA binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, J. K.; Lu, J.; Hall, K. B.

    1996-01-01

    RNA binding domains (RBDs) are members of a large family of proteins that share minimal sequence conservation but adopt an alpha beta sandwich global fold. Defining the contributions of specific amino acids to RBD structure and RNA binding is critical to understanding the functions of these proteins. In these experiments with the human U1A N-terminal RNA binding domain (RBD1), the contributions from each of its four tyrosines to protein structure, stability, and RNA binding were measured. Each tyrosine was substituted with phenylalanine and one other selected residue, and the resulting proteins were characterized by chemical denaturation to measure their unfolding free energy, by binding free energies to the wild-type RNA hairpin, and by 19F NMR to probe for structural changes. Features of the protein identified in these experiments include a possible tyrosine/lysine contact in an alpha-helix, which may be an example of an energetically favorable aromatic/amino side chain interaction. One long loop of the protein, which shows unusual 15N backbone and tyrosine side-chain dynamics, is implicated in protein:protein association. The diverse interactions of the four tyrosine residues in the organization of RBD1 illustrate how each member of this family of proteins will have unique molecular details that contribute to function. PMID:8844847

  16. Cdc37 (cell division cycle 37) restricts Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90) motility by interaction with N-terminal and middle domain binding sites.

    PubMed

    Eckl, Julia M; Rutz, Daniel A; Haslbeck, Veronika; Zierer, Bettina K; Reinstein, Jochen; Richter, Klaus

    2013-05-31

    The ATPase-driven dimeric molecular Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90) and its cofactor Cdc37 (cell division cycle 37 protein) are crucial to prevent the cellular depletion of many protein kinases. In complex with Hsp90, Cdc37 is thought to bind an important lid structure in the ATPase domain of Hsp90 and inhibit ATP turnover by Hsp90. As different interaction modes have been reported, we were interested in the interaction mechanism of Hsp90 and Cdc37. We find that Cdc37 can bind to one subunit of the Hsp90 dimer. The inhibition of the ATPase activity is caused by a reduction in the closing rate of Hsp90 without obviously bridging the two subunits or affecting nucleotide accessibility to the binding site. Although human Cdc37 binds to the N-terminal domain of Hsp90, nematodal Cdc37 preferentially interacts with the middle domain of CeHsp90 and hHsp90, exposing two Cdc37 interaction sites. A previously unreported site in CeCdc37 is utilized for the middle domain interaction. Dephosphorylation of CeCdc37 by the Hsp90-associated phosphatase PPH-5, a step required during the kinase activation process, proceeds normally, even if only the new interaction site is used. This shows that the second interaction site is also functionally relevant and highlights that Cdc37, similar to the Hsp90 cofactors Sti1 and Aha1, may utilize two different attachment sites to restrict the conformational freedom and the ATP turnover of Hsp90.

  17. Cdc37 (Cell Division Cycle 37) Restricts Hsp90 (Heat Shock Protein 90) Motility by Interaction with N-terminal and Middle Domain Binding Sites*

    PubMed Central

    Eckl, Julia M.; Rutz, Daniel A.; Haslbeck, Veronika; Zierer, Bettina K.; Reinstein, Jochen; Richter, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The ATPase-driven dimeric molecular Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90) and its cofactor Cdc37 (cell division cycle 37 protein) are crucial to prevent the cellular depletion of many protein kinases. In complex with Hsp90, Cdc37 is thought to bind an important lid structure in the ATPase domain of Hsp90 and inhibit ATP turnover by Hsp90. As different interaction modes have been reported, we were interested in the interaction mechanism of Hsp90 and Cdc37. We find that Cdc37 can bind to one subunit of the Hsp90 dimer. The inhibition of the ATPase activity is caused by a reduction in the closing rate of Hsp90 without obviously bridging the two subunits or affecting nucleotide accessibility to the binding site. Although human Cdc37 binds to the N-terminal domain of Hsp90, nematodal Cdc37 preferentially interacts with the middle domain of CeHsp90 and hHsp90, exposing two Cdc37 interaction sites. A previously unreported site in CeCdc37 is utilized for the middle domain interaction. Dephosphorylation of CeCdc37 by the Hsp90-associated phosphatase PPH-5, a step required during the kinase activation process, proceeds normally, even if only the new interaction site is used. This shows that the second interaction site is also functionally relevant and highlights that Cdc37, similar to the Hsp90 cofactors Sti1 and Aha1, may utilize two different attachment sites to restrict the conformational freedom and the ATP turnover of Hsp90. PMID:23569206

  18. The Roles of the RIIβ Linker and N-terminal Cyclic Nucleotide-binding Domain in Determining the Unique Structures of the Type IIβ Protein Kinase A

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Donald K.; Copps, Jeffrey; Smith-Nguyen, Eric V.; Zhang, Ping; Heller, William T.; Taylor, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) is ubiquitously expressed and is responsible for regulating many important cellular functions in response to changes in intracellular cAMP concentrations. The PKA holoenzyme is a tetramer (R2:C2), with a regulatory subunit homodimer (R2) that binds and inhibits two catalytic (C) subunits; binding of cAMP to the regulatory subunit homodimer causes activation of the catalytic subunits. Four different R subunit isoforms exist in mammalian cells, and these confer different structural features, subcellular localization, and biochemical properties upon the PKA holoenzymes they form. The holoenzyme containing RIIβ is structurally unique in that the type IIβ holoenzyme is much more compact than the free RIIβ homodimer. We have used small angle x-ray scattering and small angle neutron scattering to study the solution structure and subunit organization of a holoenzyme containing an RIIβ C-terminal deletion mutant (RIIβ(1–280)), which is missing the C-terminal cAMP-binding domain to better understand the structural organization of the type IIβ holoenzyme and the RIIβ domains that contribute to stabilizing the holoenzyme conformation. Our results demonstrate that compaction of the type IIβ holoenzyme does not require the C-terminal cAMP-binding domain but rather involves large structural rearrangements within the linker and N-terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding domain of the RIIβ homodimer. The structural rearrangements are significantly greater than seen previously with RIIα and are likely to be important in mediating short range and long range interdomain and intersubunit interactions that uniquely regulate the activity of the type IIβ isoform of PKA. PMID:25112875

  19. The N-terminal Zinc Finger and Flanking Basic Domains Represent the Minimal Region of HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein for Targeting Chaperone Function

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Mithun; Wang, Wei; Vo, My-Nuong; Rouzina, Ioulia; Barany, George; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) nucleocapsid (NC) protein is a chaperone that facilitates nucleic acid conformational changes to form the most thermodynamically stable arrangement. The critical role of NC in many steps of the viral life cycle makes it an attractive therapeutic target. The chaperone activity of NC depends on its nucleic acid aggregating ability, duplex destabilizing activity and rapid on/off binding kinetics. During the minus-strand transfer step of reverse transcription, NC chaperones the annealing of highly structured transactivation response region (TAR) RNA to the complementary TAR DNA. In this work, the role of different functional domains of NC in facilitating 59-nucleotide TAR RNA/DNA annealing was probed by using chemically-synthesized peptides derived from full-length (55 amino acids) HIV-1 NC: NC(1-14), NC(15-35), NC(1-28), NC(1-35), NC(29-55), NC(36-55) and NC(11-55). Most of these peptides displayed significantly reduced annealing kinetics, even when present at much higher concentrations than wild-type (WT) NC. In addition, these truncated NC constructs generally bind more weakly to single-stranded DNA and are less effective nucleic acid aggregating agents than full-length NC, consistent with the loss of both electrostatic and hydrophobic contacts. However, NC(1-35) displayed annealing kinetics, nucleic acid binding, and aggregation activity that were very similar to that of WT NC. Thus, we conclude that the N-terminal zinc finger, flanked by the N-terminus and linker domains, represents the minimal sequence that is necessary and sufficient for chaperone function in vitro. In addition, covalent continuity of the N-terminal 35 amino acids of NC is critical for full activity. Thus, although the hydrophobic pocket formed by residues proximal to the C-terminal zinc finger has been a major focus of recent anti-NC therapeutic strategies, NC(1-35) represents an alternative target for therapeutics aimed at disrupting NC

  20. Influenza A virus virulence depends on two amino acids in the N-terminal domain of its NS1 protein facilitating inhibition of PKR.

    PubMed

    Schierhorn, Kristina L; Jolmes, Fabian; Bespalowa, Julia; Saenger, Sandra; Peteranderl, Christin; Dzieciolowski, Julia; Budt, Matthias; Pleschka, Stephan; Herrmann, Andreas; Herold, Susanne; Wolff, Thorsten

    2017-03-01

    The RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) has broad antiviral activity inducing translational shut-down of viral and cellular genes and is therefore targeted by various viral proteins to facilitate pathogen propagation. The pleiotropic NS1 protein of influenza A virus acts as silencer of PKR activation and ascertains high level viral replication and virulence. However, the exact way of this inhibition remains controversial. To elucidate the structural requirements within the NS1 protein for PKR inhibition, we generated a set of mutant viruses identifying highly conserved arginine residues 35 and 46 within the NS1 N-terminus as being most critical not only for binding to and blocking activation of PKR, but also for efficient virus propagation. Biochemical and FRET-based interaction studies showed that mutation of each of R35 or R46 allowed formation of NS1 dimers, but eliminated any detectable binding to PKR as well as to dsRNA. Using in vitro and in vivo approaches of phenotypic restoration we demonstrate the essential role of the NS1 N-terminus for blocking PKR. The strong attenuation conferred by NS1 mutations R35A or R46A was substantially alleviated by stable knock-down of PKR in human cells. Intriguingly, both NS1 mutant viruses did not trigger any signs of disease in PKR(+/+) mice, but replicated to high titers in lungs of PKR(-/-) mice and caused lethal infections. These data not only establish the NS1 N-terminus as highly critical for neutralization of PKR's antiviral activity, but also identify this blockade as an indispensable contribution of NS1 to the viral life cycle.IMPORTANCE Influenza A virus inhibits activation of the RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR by means of its non-structural NS1 protein, but the underlying mode of inhibition is debated. Using mutational analysis, we identify arginine residues 35 and 46 within the N-terminal NS1 domain as highly critical for binding to and functional silencing of PKR. In addition, our data show that this is a

  1. Bunyaviridae RNA Polymerases (L-Protein) Have an N-Terminal, Influenza-Like Endonuclease Domain, Essential for Viral Cap-Dependent Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Reguera, Juan; Weber, Friedemann; Cusack, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Bunyaviruses are a large family of segmented RNA viruses which, like influenza virus, use a cap-snatching mechanism for transcription whereby short capped primers derived by endonucleolytic cleavage of host mRNAs are used by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L-protein) to transcribe viral mRNAs. It was recently shown that the cap-snatching endonuclease of influenza virus resides in a discrete N-terminal domain of the PA polymerase subunit. Here we structurally and functionally characterize a similar endonuclease in La Crosse orthobunyavirus (LACV) L-protein. We expressed N-terminal fragments of the LACV L-protein and found that residues 1-180 have metal binding and divalent cation dependent nuclease activity analogous to that of influenza virus endonuclease. The 2.2 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of the domain confirms that LACV and influenza endonucleases have similar overall folds and identical two metal binding active sites. The in vitro activity of the LACV endonuclease could be abolished by point mutations in the active site or by binding 2,4-dioxo-4-phenylbutanoic acid (DPBA), a known influenza virus endonuclease inhibitor. A crystal structure with bound DPBA shows the inhibitor chelating two active site manganese ions. The essential role of this endonuclease in cap-dependent transcription was demonstrated by the loss of transcriptional activity in a RNP reconstitution system in cells upon making the same point mutations in the context of the full-length LACV L-protein. Using structure based sequence alignments we show that a similar endonuclease almost certainly exists at the N-terminus of L-proteins or PA polymerase subunits of essentially all known negative strand and cap-snatching segmented RNA viruses including arenaviruses (2 segments), bunyaviruses (3 segments), tenuiviruses (4–6 segments), and orthomyxoviruses (6–8 segments). This correspondence, together with the well-known mapping of the conserved polymerase motifs to the central

  2. Bunyaviridae RNA polymerases (L-protein) have an N-terminal, influenza-like endonuclease domain, essential for viral cap-dependent transcription.

    PubMed

    Reguera, Juan; Weber, Friedemann; Cusack, Stephen

    2010-09-16

    Bunyaviruses are a large family of segmented RNA viruses which, like influenza virus, use a cap-snatching mechanism for transcription whereby short capped primers derived by endonucleolytic cleavage of host mRNAs are used by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L-protein) to transcribe viral mRNAs. It was recently shown that the cap-snatching endonuclease of influenza virus resides in a discrete N-terminal domain of the PA polymerase subunit. Here we structurally and functionally characterize a similar endonuclease in La Crosse orthobunyavirus (LACV) L-protein. We expressed N-terminal fragments of the LACV L-protein and found that residues 1-180 have metal binding and divalent cation dependent nuclease activity analogous to that of influenza virus endonuclease. The 2.2 A resolution X-ray crystal structure of the domain confirms that LACV and influenza endonucleases have similar overall folds and identical two metal binding active sites. The in vitro activity of the LACV endonuclease could be abolished by point mutations in the active site or by binding 2,4-dioxo-4-phenylbutanoic acid (DPBA), a known influenza virus endonuclease inhibitor. A crystal structure with bound DPBA shows the inhibitor chelating two active site manganese ions. The essential role of this endonuclease in cap-dependent transcription was demonstrated by the loss of transcriptional activity in a RNP reconstitution system in cells upon making the same point mutations in the context of the full-length LACV L-protein. Using structure based sequence alignments we show that a similar endonuclease almost certainly exists at the N-terminus of L-proteins or PA polymerase subunits of essentially all known negative strand and cap-snatching segmented RNA viruses including arenaviruses (2 segments), bunyaviruses (3 segments), tenuiviruses (4-6 segments), and orthomyxoviruses (6-8 segments). This correspondence, together with the well-known mapping of the conserved polymerase motifs to the central regions

  3. Nuclear Import of Adenovirus DNA Involves Direct Interaction of Hexon with an N-Terminal Domain of the Nucleoporin Nup214

    PubMed Central

    Ragues, Jessica; Guan, Tinglu; Bégu, Dominique; Wodrich, Harald; Kann, Michael; Nemerow, Glen R.; Gerace, Larry

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, we characterized the molecular basis for binding of adenovirus (AdV) to the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), a key step during delivery of the viral genome into the nucleus. We used RNA interference (RNAi) to deplete cells of either Nup214 or Nup358, the two major Phe-Gly (FG) repeat nucleoporins localized on the cytoplasmic side of the NPC, and evaluated the impact on hexon binding and AdV infection. The accumulation of purified hexon trimers or partially disassembled AdV at the nuclear envelope (NE) was observed in digitonin-permeabilized cells in the absence of cytosolic factors. Both in vitro hexon binding and in vivo nuclear import of the AdV genome were strongly reduced in Nup214-depleted cells but still occurred in Nup358-depleted cells, suggesting that Nup214 is a major binding site of AdV during infection. The expression of an NPC-targeted N-terminal domain of Nup214 in Nup214-depleted cells restored the binding of hexon at the NE and the nuclear import of protein VII (pVII), indicating that this region is sufficient to allow AdV binding. We further narrowed the binding site to a 137-amino-acid segment in the N-terminal domain of Nup214. Together, our results have identified a specific region within the N terminus of Nup214 that acts as a direct NPC binding site for AdV. IMPORTANCE AdVs, which have the largest genome of nonenveloped DNA viruses, are being extensively explored for use in gene therapy, especially in alternative treatments for cancers that are refractory to traditional therapies. In this study, we characterized the molecular basis for binding of AdV to the cytoplasmic face of the NPC, a key step for delivery of the viral genome into the nucleus. Our data indicate that a 137-amino-acid region of the nucleoporin Nup214 is a binding site for the major AdV capsid protein, hexon, and that this interaction is required for viral DNA import. These findings provide additional insight on how AdV exploits the

  4. Structurally Conserved Nop56/58 N-terminal Domain Facilitates Archaeal Box C/D Ribonucleoprotein-guided Methyltransferase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Keith T.; Biswas, Shyamasri; Zhang, Xinxin; Brown, Bernard A.; Wollenzien, Paul; Mattos, Carla; Maxwell, E. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Box C/D RNA-protein complexes (RNPs) guide the 2′-O-methylation of nucleotides in both archaeal and eukaryotic ribosomal RNAs. The archaeal box C/D and C′/D′ RNP subcomplexes are each assembled with three sRNP core proteins. The archaeal Nop56/58 core protein mediates crucial protein-protein interactions required for both sRNP assembly and the methyltransferase reaction by bridging the L7Ae and fibrillarin core proteins. The interaction of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (Mj) Nop56/58 with the methyltransferase fibrillarin has been investigated using site-directed mutagenesis of specific amino acids in the N-terminal domain of Nop56/58 that interacts with fibrillarin. Extensive mutagenesis revealed an unusually strong Nop56/58-fibrillarin interaction. Only deletion of the NTD itself prevented dimerization with fibrillarin. The extreme stability of the Nop56/58-fibrillarin heterodimer was confirmed in both chemical and thermal denaturation analyses. However, mutations that did not affect Nop56/58 binding to fibrillarin or sRNP assembly nevertheless disrupted sRNP-guided nucleotide modification, revealing a role for Nop56/58 in methyltransferase activity. This conclusion was supported with the cross-linking of Nop56/58 to the target RNA substrate. The Mj Nop56/58 NTD was further characterized by solving its three-dimensional crystal structure to a resolution of 1.7 Å. Despite low primary sequence conservation among the archaeal Nop56/58 homologs, the overall structure of the archaeal NTD domain is very well conserved. In conclusion, the archaeal Nop56/58 NTD exhibits a conserved domain structure whose exceptionally stable interaction with fibrillarin plays a role in both RNP assembly and methyltransferase activity. PMID:22496443

  5. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of the N-terminal calmodulin-like domain of the human mitochondrial ATP-Mg/P{sub i} carrier SCaMC1

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qin Brüschweiler, Sven; Chou, James J.

    2013-12-24

    The N-terminal calmodulin-like domain of the human mitochondrial ATP-Mg/P{sub i} carrier SCaMC1 was crystallized in the presence of Ca{sup 2+}. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.9 Å resolution from crystals which belonged to space group P6{sub 2}22.

  6. Electrostatics analysis of the mutational and pH effects of the N-terminal domain self-association of the major ampullate spidroin.

    PubMed

    Barroso da Silva, Fernando Luís; Pasquali, Samuela; Derreumaux, Philippe; Dias, Luis Gustavo

    2016-07-07

    Spider silk is a fascinating material combining mechanical properties such as maximum strength and high toughness comparable or better than man-made materials, with biocompatible degradability characteristics. Experimental measurements have shown that pH triggers the dimer formation of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp 1). A coarse-grained model accounting for electrostatics, van der Waals and pH-dependent charge-fluctuation interactions, by means of Monte Carlo simulations, gave us a more comprehensive view of the NTD dimerization process. A detailed analysis of the electrostatic properties and free energy derivatives for the NTD homoassociation was carried out at different pH values and salt concentrations for the protein wild type and for several mutants. We observed an enhancement of dipole-dipole interactions at pH 6 due to the ionization of key amino acids, a process identified as the main driving force for dimerization. Analytical estimates based on the DVLO theory framework corroborate our findings. Molecular dynamics simulations using the OPEP coarse-grained force field for proteins show that the mutant E17Q is subject to larger structural fluctuations when compared to the wild type. Estimates of the association rate constants for this mutant were evaluated by the Debye-Smoluchowski theory and are in agreement with the experimental data when thermally relaxed structures are used instead of the crystallographic data. Our results can contribute to the design of new mutants with specific association properties.

  7. Structure-based rationale for differential recognition of lacto- and neolacto- series glycosphingolipids by the N-terminal domain of human galectin-8

    PubMed Central

    Bohari, Mohammad H.; Yu, Xing; Zick, Yehiel; Blanchard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Glycosphingolipids are ubiquitous cell surface molecules undertaking fundamental cellular processes. Lacto-N-tetraose (LNT) and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) are the representative core structures for lacto- and neolacto-series glycosphingolipids. These glycolipids are the carriers to the blood group antigen and human natural killer antigens mainly found on blood cells, and are also principal components in human milk, contributing to infant health. The β-galactoside recognising galectins mediate various cellular functions of these glycosphingolipids. We report crystallographic structures of the galectin-8 N-terminal domain (galectin-8N) in complex with LNT and LNnT. We reveal the first example in which the non-reducing end of LNT binds to the primary binding site of a galectin, and provide a structure-based rationale for the significant ten-fold difference in binding affinities of galectin-8N toward LNT compared to LNnT, such a magnitude of difference not being observed for any other galectin. In addition, the LNnT complex showed that the unique Arg59 has ability to adopt a new orientation, and comparison of glycerol- and lactose-bound galectin-8N structures reveals a minimum atomic framework for ligand recognition. Overall, these results enhance our understanding of glycosphingolipids interactions with galectin-8N, and highlight a structure-based rationale for its significantly different affinity for components of biologically relevant glycosphingolipids. PMID:28000747

  8. An efficient Escherichia coli expression system for the production of a functional N-terminal domain of the T1R3 taste receptor.

    PubMed

    Maîtrepierre, Elodie; Sigoillot, Maud; Le Pessot, Laurence; Briand, Loïc

    2013-01-01

    Sweet taste is mediated by a dimeric receptor composed of two distinct subunits, T1R2 and T1R3, whereas the T1R1/T1R3 receptor is involved in umami taste perception. The T1R1, T1R2, and T1R3 subunits are members of the small family of class C G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The members of this family are characterized by a large N-terminal domain (NTD), which is structurally similar to bacterial periplasmic-binding proteins and contains the primary ligand-binding site. In a recent study, we described a strategy to produce a functional dimeric human T1R3-NTD. Although the protein was expressed as inclusion bodies (IBs) using the Escherichia coli system, the conditions for the refolding of functional hT1R3-NTD were determined using a fractional factorial screen coupled to a binding assay. Here, we report that this refolding strategy can be used to produce T1R1- and T1R2-NTDs in large quantities. We also discuss that our findings could be more generally applicable to other class C GPCR-NTDs, including the γ-aminobutyric acid type B receptor (GABABR), the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and the large family of pheromone (V2R) orphan receptors.

  9. NMR resonance assignments for the N-terminal domain of the δ subunit of the E. coli γ clamp loader complex.

    PubMed

    Alyami, Esmael M; Rizzo, Alessandro A; Beuning, Penny J; Korzhnev, Dmitry M

    2017-03-06

    The β-clamp protein and the γ clamp loader complex are essential components of bacterial DNA replication machinery. The β-clamp is a ring-shaped homodimer that encircles DNA and increases the efficiency of replication by providing a binding platform for DNA polymerases and other replication-related proteins. The β-clamp is loaded onto DNA by the five-subunit γ clamp loader complex in a multi-step ATP-dependent process. The initial steps of this process involve the cooperative binding of the β-clamp by the five subunits of ATP-bound clamp loader, which induces or traps an open conformation of the clamp. Remarkably, the δ subunit of the E. coli clamp loader, or even its 140 residue N-terminal domain (called mini-δ), alone can shift conformational equilibrium of the β-clamp towards the open state. Here we report nearly complete backbone and side-chain (1)H, (13)C and (15)N NMR resonance assignments of mini-δ that will facilitate NMR studies of the mechanisms of β-clamp opening and its loading on DNA by the clamp loader.

  10. MED14 tethers mediator to the N-terminal domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and is required for full transcriptional activity and adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Grøntved, Lars; Madsen, Maria S; Boergesen, Michael; Roeder, Robert G; Mandrup, Susanne

    2010-05-01

    The Mediator subunit MED1/TRAP220/DRIP205/PBP interacts directly with many nuclear receptors and was long thought to be responsible for tethering Mediator to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-responsive promoters. However, it was demonstrated recently that PPARgamma can recruit Mediator by MED1-independent mechanisms. Here, we show that target gene activation by ectopically expressed PPARgamma and PPARalpha is independent of MED1. Consistent with this finding, recruitment of PPARgamma, MED6, MED8, TATA box-binding protein (TBP), and RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) to the enhancer and proximal promoter of the PPARgamma target gene Fabp4 is also independent of MED1. Using a small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based approach, we identify MED14 as a novel critical Mediator component for PPARgamma-dependent transactivation, and we demonstrate that MED14 interacts directly with the N terminus of PPARgamma in a ligand-independent manner. Interestingly, MED14 knockdown does not affect the recruitment of PPARgamma, MED6, and MED8 to the Fabp4 enhancer but does reduce their occupancy of the Fabp4 proximal promoter. In agreement with the necessity of MED14 for PPARgamma transcriptional activity, we show that knockdown of MED14 impairs adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. Thus, MED14 constitutes a novel anchoring point between Mediator and the N-terminal domain of PPARgamma that is necessary for functional PPARgamma-mediated recruitment of Mediator and transactivation of PPARgamma subtype-specific target genes.

  11. Identification of a human ABCC10 orthologue in Catharanthus roseus reveals a U12-type intron determinant for the N-terminal domain feature.

    PubMed

    El-Guizani, Taissir; Guibert, Clotilde; Triki, Saida; St-Pierre, Benoit; Ducos, Eric

    2014-04-01

    ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters are members of a large superfamily of proteins that utilize ATP hydrolysis to translocate a wide range of substrates across biological membranes. In general, members of C subfamily (ABCC) are structurally characterized by an additional (N-terminal) transmembrane domain (TMD0). Phylogenetic analysis of plant ABCCs separates their protein sequences into three distinct clusters: I and II are plant specific whereas cluster III contains both human and plant ABCCs. Screening of the Plant Medicinal Genomics Resource database allowed us to identify 16 ABCCs partial sequences in Catharanthus roseus; two of which belong to the unique CrABCC1 transcript that we identified in cluster III. Genomic organization of CrABCC1 TMD0 coding sequence displays an AT-AC U12-type intron that is conserved in higher plant orthologues. We showed that CrABCC1, like its human orthologue ABCC10, produces alternative transcripts that encode protein sequences with a truncated form of TMD0 without the first transmembrane span (TM1). Subcellular localization of CrABCC1 TMD0 variants using yellow fluorescent protein fusions reveals that the TM1 is required for a correct routing of the TMD0 to the tonoplast. Finally, the specific repartition of CrABCC1 orthologues in some species suggests that this gene was lost several times during evolution and that its physiological function may, rely on a common feature of multicellular eukaryotes.

  12. Fatty Acids Bind Tightly to the N-terminal Domain of Angiopoietin-like Protein 4 and Modulate Its Interaction with Lipoprotein Lipase*

    PubMed Central

    Robal, Terje; Larsson, Mikael; Martin, Miina; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Lookene, Aivar

    2012-01-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl4), a potent regulator of plasma triglyceride metabolism, binds to lipoprotein lipase (LPL) through its N-terminal coiled-coil domain (ccd-Angptl4) inducing dissociation of the dimeric enzyme to inactive monomers. In this study, we demonstrate that fatty acids reduce the inactivation of LPL by Angptl4. This was the case both with ccd-Angptl4 and full-length Angptl4, and the effect was seen in human plasma or in the presence of albumin. The effect decreased in the sequence oleic acid > palmitic acid > myristic acid > linoleic acid > linolenic acid. Surface plasmon resonance, isothermal titration calorimetry, fluorescence, and chromatography measurements revealed that fatty acids bind with high affinity to ccd-Angptl4. The interactions were characterized by fast association and slow dissociation rates, indicating formation of stable complexes. The highest affinity for ccd-Angptl4 was detected for oleic acid with a subnanomolar equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd). The Kd values for palmitic and myristic acid were in the nanomolar range. Linoleic and linolenic acid bound with much lower affinity. On binding of fatty acids, ccd-Angptl4 underwent conformational changes resulting in a decreased helical content, weakened structural stability, dissociation of oligomers, and altered fluorescence properties of the Trp-38 residue that is located close to the putative LPL-binding region. Based on these results, we propose that fatty acids play an important role in modulating the effects of Angptl4. PMID:22773878

  13. Development and Identification of a Novel Anti-HIV-1 Peptide Derived by Modification of the N-Terminal Domain of HIV-1 Integrase

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Marina; Spensiero, Antonia; Esposito, Francesca; Scala, Maria C.; Vernieri, Ermelinda; Bertamino, Alessia; Manfra, Michele; Carotenuto, Alfonso; Grieco, Paolo; Novellino, Ettore; Cadeddu, Marta; Tramontano, Enzo; Schols, Dominique; Campiglia, Pietro; Gomez-Monterrey, Isabel M.

    2016-01-01

    The viral enzyme integrase (IN) is essential for the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and represents an important target for the development of new antiretroviral drugs. In this study, we focused on the N-terminal domain (NTD), which is mainly involved into protein oligomerization process, for the development and synthesis of a library of overlapping peptide sequences, with specific length and specific offset covering the entire native protein sequence NTD IN 1–50. The most potent fragment, VVAKEIVAH (peptide 18), which includes a His residue instead of the natural Ser at position 39, inhibits the HIV-1 IN activity with an IC50 value of 4.5 μM. Amino acid substitution analysis on this peptide revealed essential residues for activity and allowed us to identify two nonapeptides (peptides 24 and 25), that show a potency of inhibition similar to the one of peptide 18. Interestingly, peptide 18 does not interfere with the dynamic interplay between IN subunits, while peptides 24 and 25 modulated these interactions in different manners. In fact, peptide 24 inhibited the IN-IN dimerization, while peptide 25 promoted IN multimerization, with IC50 values of 32 and 4.8 μM, respectively. In addition, peptide 25 has shown to have selective anti-infective cell activity for HIV-1. These results confirmed peptide 25 as a hit for further development of new chemotherapeutic agents against HIV-1. PMID:27375570

  14. A Loop Region in the N-Terminal Domain of Ebola Virus VP40 Is Important in Viral Assembly, Budding, and Egress

    PubMed Central

    Adu-Gyamfi, Emmanuel; Soni, Smita P.; Jee, Clara S.; Digman, Michelle A.; Gratton, Enrico; Stahelin, Robert V.

    2014-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) causes viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and can have clinical fatality rates of ~60%. The EBOV genome consists of negative sense RNA that encodes seven proteins including viral protein 40 (VP40). VP40 is the major Ebola virus matrix protein and regulates assembly and egress of infectious Ebola virus particles. It is well established that VP40 assembles on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane of human cells to regulate viral budding where VP40 can produce virus like particles (VLPs) without other Ebola virus proteins present. The mechanistic details, however, of VP40 lipid-interactions and protein-protein interactions that are important for viral release remain to be elucidated. Here, we mutated a loop region in the N-terminal domain of VP40 (Lys127, Thr129, and Asn130) and find that mutations (K127A, T129A, and N130A) in this loop region reduce plasma membrane localization of VP40. Additionally, using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and number and brightness analysis we demonstrate these mutations greatly reduce VP40 oligomerization. Lastly, VLP assays demonstrate these mutations significantly reduce VLP release from cells. Taken together, these studies identify an important loop region in VP40 that may be essential to viral egress. PMID:25330123

  15. Crystal structures of Hsp104 N-terminal domains from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans suggest the mechanism for the function of Hsp104 in dissolving prions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Li, Jingzhi; Weaver, Clarissa; Lucius, Aaron; Sha, Bingdong

    2017-04-01

    Hsp104 is a yeast member of the Hsp100 family which functions as a molecular chaperone to disaggregate misfolded polypeptides. To understand the mechanism by which the Hsp104 N-terminal domain (NTD) interacts with its peptide substrates, crystal structures of the Hsp104 NTDs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScHsp104NTD) and Candida albicans (CaHsp104NTD) have been determined at high resolution. The structures of ScHsp104NTD and CaHsp104NTD reveal that the yeast Hsp104 NTD may utilize a conserved putative peptide-binding groove to interact with misfolded polypeptides. In the crystal structures ScHsp104NTD forms a homodimer, while CaHsp104NTD exists as a monomer. The consecutive residues Gln105, Gln106 and Lys107, and Lys141 around the putative peptide-binding groove mediate the monomer-monomer interactions within the ScHsp104NTD homodimer. Dimer formation by ScHsp104NTD suggests that the Hsp104 NTD may specifically interact with polyQ regions of prion-prone proteins. The data may reveal the mechanism by which Hsp104 NTD functions to suppress and/or dissolve prions.

  16. Structure-based rationale for differential recognition of lacto- and neolacto- series glycosphingolipids by the N-terminal domain of human galectin-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohari, Mohammad H.; Yu, Xing; Zick, Yehiel; Blanchard, Helen

    2016-12-01

    Glycosphingolipids are ubiquitous cell surface molecules undertaking fundamental cellular processes. Lacto-N-tetraose (LNT) and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) are the representative core structures for lacto- and neolacto-series glycosphingolipids. These glycolipids are the carriers to the blood group antigen and human natural killer antigens mainly found on blood cells, and are also principal components in human milk, contributing to infant health. The β-galactoside recognising galectins mediate various cellular functions of these glycosphingolipids. We report crystallographic structures of the galectin-8 N-terminal domain (galectin-8N) in complex with LNT and LNnT. We reveal the first example in which the non-reducing end of LNT binds to the primary binding site of a galectin, and provide a structure-based rationale for the significant ten-fold difference in binding affinities of galectin-8N toward LNT compared to LNnT, such a magnitude of difference not being observed for any other galectin. In addition, the LNnT complex showed that the unique Arg59 has ability to adopt a new orientation, and comparison of glycerol- and lactose-bound galectin-8N structures reveals a minimum atomic framework for ligand recognition. Overall, these results enhance our understanding of glycosphingolipids interactions with galectin-8N, and highlight a structure-based rationale for its significantly different affinity for components of biologically relevant glycosphingolipids.

  17. Crystal Structure of the Nephila clavipes Major Ampullate Spidroin 1A N-terminal Domain Reveals Plasticity at the Dimer Interface.

    PubMed

    Atkison, James H; Parnham, Stuart; Marcotte, William R; Olsen, Shaun K

    2016-09-02

    Spider dragline silk is a natural polymer harboring unique physical and biochemical properties that make it an ideal biomaterial. Artificial silk production requires an understanding of the in vivo mechanisms spiders use to convert soluble proteins, called spidroins, into insoluble fibers. Controlled dimerization of the spidroin N-terminal domain (NTD) is crucial to this process. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Nephila clavipes major ampullate spidroin NTD dimer. Comparison of our N. clavipes NTD structure with previously determined Euprosthenops australis NTD structures reveals subtle conformational alterations that lead to differences in how the subunits are arranged at the dimer interface. We observe a subset of contacts that are specific to each ortholog, as well as a substantial increase in asymmetry in the interactions observed at the N. clavipes NTD dimer interface. These asymmetric interactions include novel intermolecular salt bridges that provide new insights into the mechanism of NTD dimerization. We also observe a unique intramolecular "handshake" interaction between two conserved acidic residues that our data suggest adds an additional layer of complexity to the pH-sensitive relay mechanism for NTD dimerization. The results of a panel of tryptophan fluorescence dimerization assays probing the importance of these interactions support our structural observations. Based on our findings, we propose that conformational selectivity and plasticity at the NTD dimer interface play a role in the pH-dependent transition of the NTD from monomer to stably associated dimer as the spidroin progresses through the silk extrusion duct.

  18. Structure and function of the yeast listerin (Ltn1) conserved N-terminal domain in binding to stalled 60S ribosomal subunits.

    PubMed

    Doamekpor, Selom K; Lee, Joong-Won; Hepowit, Nathaniel L; Wu, Cheng; Charenton, Clement; Leonard, Marilyn; Bengtson, Mario H; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; Sachs, Matthew S; Lima, Christopher D; Joazeiro, Claudio A P

    2016-07-19

    The Ltn1 E3 ligase (listerin in mammals) has emerged as a paradigm for understanding ribosome-associated ubiquitylation. Ltn1 binds to 60S ribosomal subunits to ubiquitylate nascent polypeptides that become stalled during synthesis; among Ltn1's substrates are aberrant products of mRNA lacking stop codons [nonstop translation products (NSPs)]. Here, we report the reconstitution of NSP ubiquitylation in Neurospora crassa cell extracts. Upon translation in vitro, ribosome-stalled NSPs were ubiquitylated in an Ltn1-dependent manner, while still ribosome-associated. Furthermore, we provide biochemical evidence that the conserved N-terminal domain (NTD) plays a significant role in the binding of Ltn1 to 60S ribosomal subunits and that NTD mutations causing defective 60S binding also lead to defective NSP ubiquitylation, without affecting Ltn1's intrinsic E3 ligase activity. Finally, we report the crystal structure of the Ltn1 NTD at 2.4-Å resolution. The structure, combined with additional mutational studies, provides insight to NTD's role in binding stalled 60S subunits. Our findings show that Neurospora extracts can be used as a tool to dissect mechanisms underlying ribosome-associated protein quality control and are consistent with a model in which Ltn1 uses 60S subunits as adapters, at least in part via its NTD, to target stalled NSPs for ubiquitylation.

  19. Structure and function of the yeast listerin (Ltn1) conserved N-terminal domain in binding to stalled 60S ribosomal subunits

    PubMed Central

    Doamekpor, Selom K.; Lee, Joong-Won; Hepowit, Nathaniel L.; Wu, Cheng; Charenton, Clement; Leonard, Marilyn; Bengtson, Mario H.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Sachs, Matthew S.; Lima, Christopher D.; Joazeiro, Claudio A. P.

    2016-01-01

    The Ltn1 E3 ligase (listerin in mammals) has emerged as a paradigm for understanding ribosome-associated ubiquitylation. Ltn1 binds to 60S ribosomal subunits to ubiquitylate nascent polypeptides that become stalled during synthesis; among Ltn1’s substrates are aberrant products of mRNA lacking stop codons [nonstop translation products (NSPs)]. Here, we report the reconstitution of NSP ubiquitylation in Neurospora crassa cell extracts. Upon translation in vitro, ribosome-stalled NSPs were ubiquitylated in an Ltn1-dependent manner, while still ribosome-associated. Furthermore, we provide biochemical evidence that the conserved N-terminal domain (NTD) plays a significant role in the binding of Ltn1 to 60S ribosomal subunits and that NTD mutations causing defective 60S binding also lead to defective NSP ubiquitylation, without affecting Ltn1’s intrinsic E3 ligase activity. Finally, we report the crystal structure of the Ltn1 NTD at 2.4-Å resolution. The structure, combined with additional mutational studies, provides insight to NTD’s role in binding stalled 60S subunits. Our findings show that Neurospora extracts can be used as a tool to dissect mechanisms underlying ribosome-associated protein quality control and are consistent with a model in which Ltn1 uses 60S subunits as adapters, at least in part via its NTD, to target stalled NSPs for ubiquitylation. PMID:27385828

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of mouse galectin-4 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain in complex with lactose

    PubMed Central

    Krejčiříková, Veronika; Fábry, Milan; Marková, Vladimíra; Malý, Petr; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Brynda, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Galectin-4 is thought to play a role in the process of tumour conversion of cells of the alimentary tract and the breast tissue; however, its exact function remains unknown. With the aim of elucidating the structural basis of mouse galectin-4 (mGal-4) binding specificity, we have undertaken X-ray analysis of the N-terminal domain, CRD1, of mGal-4 in complex with lactose (the basic building block of known galectin-4 carbohydrate ligands). Crystals of CRD1 in complex with lactose were obtained using vapour-diffusion techniques. The crystals belong to tetragonal space group P4212 with unit-cell parameters a = 91.1, b = 91.16, c = 57.10 Å and preliminary X-ray diffraction data were collected to 3.2 Å resolution. An optimized crystallization procedure and cryocooling protocol allowed us to extend resolution to 2.1 Å. Structure refinement is currently under way; the initial electron-density maps clearly show non-protein electron density in the vicinity of the carbohydrate binding site, indicating the presence of one lactose molecule. The structure will help to improve understanding of the binding specificity and function of the potential colon cancer marker galectin-4. PMID:18607104

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of mouse galectin-4 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain in complex with lactose.

    PubMed

    Krejciríková, Veronika; Fábry, Milan; Marková, Vladimíra; Malý, Petr; Rezácová, Pavlína; Brynda, Jirí

    2008-07-01

    Galectin-4 is thought to play a role in the process of tumour conversion of cells of the alimentary tract and the breast tissue; however, its exact function remains unknown. With the aim of elucidating the structural basis of mouse galectin-4 (mGal-4) binding specificity, we have undertaken X-ray analysis of the N-terminal domain, CRD1, of mGal-4 in complex with lactose (the basic building block of known galectin-4 carbohydrate ligands). Crystals of CRD1 in complex with lactose were obtained using vapour-diffusion techniques. The crystals belong to tetragonal space group P42(1)2 with unit-cell parameters a = 91.1, b = 91.16, c = 57.10 A and preliminary X-ray diffraction data were collected to 3.2 A resolution. An optimized crystallization procedure and cryocooling protocol allowed us to extend resolution to 2.1 A. Structure refinement is currently under way; the initial electron-density maps clearly show non-protein electron density in the vicinity of the carbohydrate binding site, indicating the presence of one lactose molecule. The structure will help to improve understanding of the binding specificity and function of the potential colon cancer marker galectin-4.

  2. Recombinant hnRNP protein A1 and its N-terminal domain show preferential affinity for oligodeoxynucleotides homologous to intron/exon acceptor sites.

    PubMed Central

    Buvoli, M; Cobianchi, F; Biamonti, G; Riva, S

    1990-01-01

    The reported binding preference of human hnRNP protein A1 for the 3'-splice site of some introns (Swanson and Dreyfuss (1988) EMBO J. 7, 3519-3529; Mayrand and Pederson (1990) Nucleic Acids Res. 18, 3307-3318) was tested by assaying in vitro the binding of purified recombinant A1 protein (expressed in bacteria) to synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (21-mers) of suitable sequence. In such a minimal system we find preferential binding of protein A1 to oligodeoxynucleotide sequences corresponding to the 3'-splice site of IVS1 of human beta-globin pre-mRNA and of IVS1 of Adenovirus type 2 major late transcript. Mutation studies demonstrate that the binding specificity is dependent on the known critical domains of this intron region, the AG splice site dinucleotide and polypyrimidine tract, and resides entirely in the short oligonucleotide sequence. Moreover specific binding does not require the presence of other hnRNP proteins or of snRNP particles. Studies with a truncated recombinant protein demonstrated that the minimal protein sequence determinants for A1 recognition of 3'-splice acceptor site reside entirely in the N-terminal 195 aa of the unmodified protein. Images PMID:2251120

  3. Expression, purification, crystallization and structure determination of the N terminal domain of Fhb, a factor H binding protein from Streptococcus suis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chunmao; Yu, You; Yang, Maojun; Jiang, Yongqiang

    2015-10-23

    Fhb is a surface virulence protein from Streptococcus suis, which could aid bacterial evasion of host innate immune defense by recruiting complement regulator factor H to inactivate C3b deposited on bacterial surface in blood. Here we successfully expressed and purified the N terminal domain of Fhb (N-Fhb) and obtained crystals of the N-Fhb by sitting-drop vapor diffusion method with a resolution of 1.50 Å. The crystals belong to space group C2 with unit cell parameters a = 127.1 Å, b = 77.3 Å, c = 131.6 Å, α = 90°, β = 115.9°, γ = 90°. The structure of N-Fhb was determined by SAD method and the core structure of N-Fhb is a β sandwich. We speculated that binding of Fhb to human factor H may be mainly mediated by surface amino acids with negative charges. - Highlights: • We expressed N-Fhb as the soluble protein in Escherichia coli. • Crystals of N-Fhb were grown by sitting drop vapor diffusion method. • Crystals of N-Fhb could diffracted to 1.5 Å. • The core structure of N-Fhb was a β sandwich. • A part of the surface of N-Fhb was rich with negative charges.

  4. Diversified Structural Basis of a Conserved Molecular Mechanism for pH-Dependent Dimerization in Spider Silk N-Terminal Domains.

    PubMed

    Otikovs, Martins; Chen, Gefei; Nordling, Kerstin; Landreh, Michael; Meng, Qing; Jörnvall, Hans; Kronqvist, Nina; Rising, Anna; Johansson, Jan; Jaudzems, Kristaps

    2015-08-17

    Conversion of spider silk proteins from soluble dope to insoluble fibers involves pH-dependent dimerization of the N-terminal domain (NT). This conversion is tightly regulated to prevent premature precipitation and enable rapid silk formation at the end of the duct. Three glutamic acid residues that mediate this process in the NT from Euprosthenops australis major ampullate spidroin 1 are well conserved among spidroins. However, NTs of minor ampullate spidroins from several species, including Araneus ventricosus ((Av)MiSp NT), lack one of the glutamic acids. Here we investigate the pH-dependent structural changes of (Av)MiSp NT, revealing that it uses the same mechanism but involves a non-conserved glutamic acid residue instead. Homology modeling of the structures of other MiSp NTs suggests that these harbor different compensatory residues. This indicates that, despite sequence variations, the molecular mechanism underlying pH-dependent dimerization of NT is conserved among different silk types.

  5. Chemical synthesis and characterization of wild-type and biotinylated N-terminal domain 1–64 of β2-glycoprotein I

    PubMed Central

    Pozzi, Nicola; Banzato, Alessandra; Bettin, Samuele; Bison, Elisa; Pengo, Vittorio; De Filippis, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a severe autoimmune disease associated with recurrent thrombosis and fetal loss and characterized by the presence of circulating autoantibodies (aAbs) mainly recognizing the N-terminal domain (DmI) of β2-glycoprotein I (β2GpI). To possibly block anti-β2GpI Abs activity, we synthesized the entire DmI comprising residues 1–64 of β2GpI by chemical methods. Oxidative disulfide renaturation of DmI was achieved in the presence of reduced and oxidized glutathione. The folded DmI (N-DmI) was purified by RP-HPLC, and its chemical identity and correct disulfide pairing (Cys4-Cys47 and Cys32-Cys60) were established by enzymatic peptide mass fingerprint analysis. The results of the conformational characterization, conducted by far- and near-UV CD and fluorescence spectroscopy, provided strong evidence for the native-like structure of DmI, which is also quite resistant to both Gdn-HCl and thermal denaturation. However, the thermodynamic stability of N-DmI at 37°C was remarkably low, in agreement with the unfolding energetics of small proteins. Of note, aAbs failed to bind to plates coated with N-DmI in direct binding experiments. From ELISA competition experiments with plate-immobilized β2GpI, a mean IC50 value of 8.8 μM could be estimated for N-DmI, similar to that of the full-length protein, IC50(β2GpI) = 6.4 μM, whereas the cysteine-reduced and carboxamidomethylated DmI, RC-DmI, failed to bind to anti-β2GpI Abs. The versatility of chemical synthesis was also exploited to produce an N-terminally biotin-(PEG)2-derivative of N-DmI (Biotin-N-DmI) to be possibly used as a new tool in APS diagnosis. Strikingly, Biotin-N-DmI loaded onto a streptavidin-coated plate selectively recognized aAbs from APS patients. PMID:20440842

  6. Recombinant expression, in vitro refolding, and biophysical characterization of the N-terminal domain of T1R3 taste receptor.

    PubMed

    Maîtrepierre, Elodie; Sigoillot, Maud; Le Pessot, Laurence; Briand, Loïc

    2012-05-01

    The sweet taste receptor is a heterodimeric receptor composed of the T1R2 and T1R3 subunits, while T1R1 and T1R3 assemble to form the umami taste receptor. T1R receptors belong to the family of class C G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). In addition to a transmembrane heptahelical domain, class C GPCRs have a large extracellular N-terminal domain (NTD), which is the primary ligand-binding site. The T1R2 and T1R1 subunits have been shown to be responsible for ligand binding, via their NTDs. However, little is known about the contribution of T1R3-NTD to receptor functions. To enable biophysical characterization, we overexpressed the human NTD of T1R3 (hT1R3-NTD) using Escherichia coli in the form of inclusion bodies. Using a fractional factorial screen coupled to a functional assay, conditions were determined for the refolding of hT1R3-NTD. Far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopic studies revealed that hT1R3-NTD was well refolded. Using size-exclusion chromatography, we found that the refolded protein behaves as a dimer. Ligand binding quantified by tryptophan fluorescence quenching and microcalorimetry showed that hT1R3-NTD is functional and capable of binding sucralose with an affinity in the millimolar range. This study also provides a strategy to produce functional hT1R3-NTD by heterologous expression in E. coli; this is a prerequisite for structural determination and functional analysis of ligand-binding regions of other class C GPCRs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A motif within the N-terminal domain of TSP-1 specifically promotes the proangiogenic activity of endothelial colony-forming cells.

    PubMed

    Dias, Juliana Vieira; Benslimane-Ahmim, Zahia; Egot, Marion; Lokajczyk, Anna; Grelac, Françoise; Galy-Fauroux, Isabelle; Juliano, Luiz; Le-Bonniec, Bernard; Takiya, Cristina Maeda; Fischer, Anne-Marie; Blanc-Brude, Olivier; Morandi, Verônica; Boisson-Vidal, Catherine

    2012-10-15

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) gives rise to fragments that have both pro- and anti-angiogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. The TSP-HepI peptide (2.3 kDa), located in the N-terminal domain of TSP-1, has proangiogenic effects on endothelial cells. We have previously shown that TSP-1 itself exhibits a dual effect on endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFC) by enhancing their adhesion through its TSP-HepI fragment while reducing their proliferation and differentiation into vascular tubes (tubulogenesis) in vitro. This effect is likely mediated through CD47 binding to the TSP-1 C-terminal domain. Here we investigated the effect of TSP-HepI peptide on the angiogenic properties of ECFC in vitro and in vivo. TSP-HepI peptide potentiated FGF-2-induced neovascularisation by enhancing ECFC chemotaxis and tubulogenesis in a Matrigel plug assay. ECFC exposure to 20 μg/mL of TSP-HepI peptide for 18 h enhanced cell migration (p < 0.001 versus VEGF exposure), upregulated alpha 6-integrin expression, and enhanced their cell adhesion to activated endothelium under physiological shear stress conditions at levels comparable to those of SDF-1α. The adhesion enhancement appeared to be mediated by the heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) syndecan-4, as ECFC adhesion was significantly reduced by a syndecan-4-neutralising antibody. ECFC migration and tubulogenesis were stimulated neither by a TSP-HepI peptide with a modified heparin-binding site (S/TSP-HepI) nor when the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) moieties were removed from the ECFC surface by enzymatic treatment. Ex vivo TSP-HepI priming could potentially serve to enhance the effectiveness of therapeutic neovascularisation with ECFC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chaperone-like activities of different molecular forms of beta-casein. Importance of polarity of N-terminal hydrophilic domain.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Reza; Shchutskaya, Yulia Y; Zimny, Jaroslaw; Gaudin, Jean-Charles; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali A; Muronetz, Vladimir I; Zuev, Yuriy F; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Haertlé, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    As a member of intrinsically unstructured protein family, beta-casein (beta-CN) contains relatively high amount of prolyl residues, adopts noncompact and flexible structure and exhibits chaperone-like activity in vitro. Like many chaperones, native beta-CN does not contain cysteinyl residues and exhibits strong tendencies for self-association. The chaperone-like activities of three recombinant beta-CNs wild type (WT) beta-CN, C4 beta-CN (with cysteinyl residue in position 4) and C208 beta-CN (with cysteinyl residue in position 208), expressed and purified from E. coli, which, consequently, lack the phosphorylated residues, were examined and compared with that of native beta-CN using insulin and alcohol dehydrogenase as target/substrate proteins. The dimers (beta-CND) of C4-beta-CN and C208 beta-CN were also studied and their chaperone-like activities were compared with those of their monomeric forms. Lacking phosphorylation, WT beta-CN, C208 beta-CN, C4 beta-CN and C4 beta-CND exhibited significantly lower chaperone-like activities than native beta-CN. Dimerization of C208 beta-CN with two distal hydrophilic domains considerably improved its chaperone-like activity in comparison with its monomeric form. The obtained results demonstrate the significant role played by the polar contributions of phosphorylated residues and N-terminal hydrophilic domain as important functional elements in enhancing the chaperone-like activity of native beta-CN. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 91: 623-632, 2009.This article was originally published online as an accepted preprint. The "Published Online" date corresponds to the preprint version. You can request a copy of the preprint by emailing the Biopolymers editorial office at biopolymers@wiley.com.

  9. The N-terminal domain of DnaT, a primosomal DNA replication protein, is crucial for PriB binding and self-trimerization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yen-Hua; Huang, Cheng-Yang

    2013-12-13

    DnaT and PriB are replication restart primosomal proteins required for re-initiating chromosomal DNA replication in bacteria. Although the interaction of DnaT with PriB has been proposed, which region of DnaT is involved in PriB binding and self-trimerization remains unknown. In this study, we identified the N-terminal domain in DnaT (aa 1-83) that is important in PriB binding and self-trimerization but not in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding. DnaT and the deletion mutant DnaT42-179 protein can bind to PriB according to native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blot analysis, and pull-down assay, whereas DnaT84-179 cannot bind to PriB. In contrast to DnaT, DnaT26-179, and DnaT42-179 proteins, which form distinct complexes with ssDNA of different lengths, DnaT84-179 forms only a single complex with ssDNA. Analysis of DnaT84-179 protein by gel filtration chromatography showed a stable monomer in solution rather than a trimer, such as DnaT, DnaT26-179, and DnaT42-179 proteins. These results constitute a pioneering study of the domain definition of DnaT. Further research can directly focus on determining how DnaT binds to the PriA-PriB-DNA tricomplex in replication restart by the hand-off mechanism.

  10. Engineering, cloning, and functional characterization of recombinant LIM mineralization protein-1 containing an N-terminal HIV-derived membrane transduction domain.

    PubMed

    Sangadala, Sreedhara; Okada, Motohiro; Liu, Yunshan; Viggeswarapu, Manjula; Titus, Louisa; Boden, Scott D

    2009-06-01

    Short peptide sequences known as protein transduction domains have become increasingly prevalent as tools to internalize molecules that would otherwise remain extracellular. Here, we determine whether a purified recombinant mammalian intracellular osteogenic factor delivered by a HIV-derived TAT-peptide tag is indeed capable of intracellular localization in a form accessible to interaction with other proteins. We engineered and bacterially expressed a TAT-fusion-cDNA construct of a known osteogenic factor, LIM mineralization protein-1 (LMP-1) involved in the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway that has the potential to serve as an enhancer of BMP-2 efficacy. The expressed recombinant protein contains an N-terminal (His)(6)-tag, a hemagglutinin(HA)-tag, and an 11-amino acid HIV-derived TAT-membrane transduction domain and was purified to homogeneity by Sephacryl S-100 molecular exclusion and Ni(2+)-affinity chromatography. The purified TAT-LMP-1 protein was chemically labeled with fluorescein, and its time and concentration dependent entry into rabbit blood cells was monitored by flow cytometry. We demonstrate the accumulation of TAT-tagged LMP-1 both in cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. By performing affinity pull-down assays, we confirm our earlier findings that the recombinant TAT-LMP-1, when used as molecular bait to identify the intracellular binding proteins, interacts with Smurf1, a known binding partner of LMP-1. We also show potentiation of BMP-2 activity using the purified TAT-LMP-1 in mouse muscle C2C12 cells by assaying a heterologous luciferase-reporter construct containing multiple copies of a BMP-responsive sequence motif. Finally, we also confirm the biological activity of the purified TAT-LMP-1 by showing enhancement of BMP-2 induced increase of alkaline phosphatase mRNA and protein by RT-PCR and enzyme activity, respectively.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of mouse galectin-4 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain in complex with lactose

    SciTech Connect

    Krejčiříková, Veronika; Fábry, Milan; Marková, Vladimíra; Malý, Petr; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Brynda, Jiří

    2008-07-01

    Mouse galectin-4 carbohydrate binding domain was overexpressed in E. coli and crystallized in the presence of lactose. The crystals belong to tetragonal space group P42{sub 1}2 and diffraction data were collected to 2.1 Å resolution. Galectin-4 is thought to play a role in the process of tumour conversion of cells of the alimentary tract and the breast tissue; however, its exact function remains unknown. With the aim of elucidating the structural basis of mouse galectin-4 (mGal-4) binding specificity, we have undertaken X-ray analysis of the N-terminal domain, CRD1, of mGal-4 in complex with lactose (the basic building block of known galectin-4 carbohydrate ligands). Crystals of CRD1 in complex with lactose were obtained using vapour-diffusion techniques. The crystals belong to tetragonal space group P42{sub 1}2 with unit-cell parameters a = 91.1, b = 91.16, c = 57.10 Å and preliminary X-ray diffraction data were collected to 3.2 Å resolution. An optimized crystallization procedure and cryocooling protocol allowed us to extend resolution to 2.1 Å. Structure refinement is currently under way; the initial electron-density maps clearly show non-protein electron density in the vicinity of the carbohydrate binding site, indicating the presence of one lactose molecule. The structure will help to improve understanding of the binding specificity and function of the potential colon cancer marker galectin-4.

  12. The N-terminal domain of the enzyme I is a monomeric well-folded protein with a low conformational stability and residual structure in the unfolded state.

    PubMed

    Romero-Beviar, Manuel; Martínez-Rodríguez, Sergio; Prieto, Jesús; Goormaghtigh, Erik; Ariz, Usue; Martínez-Chantar, María de la Luz; Gómez, Javier; Neira, José L

    2010-09-01

    The bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system is a multiprotein complex that phosphorylates and, concomitantly, transports carbohydrates across the membrane into the cell. The first protein of the cascade is a multidomain protein so-called enzyme I (EI). The N-terminal domain of EI from Streptomyces coelicolor, EIN(sc), responsible for the binding to the second protein in the cascade (the histidine phosphocarrier, HPr), was cloned and successfully expressed and purified. We have previously shown that EI(sc) binds to HPr(sc) with smaller affinity than other members of the EI and HPr families [Hurtado-Gómez et al. (2008) Biophys. J., 95, 1336-1348]. We think that the study of the isolated binding HPr(sc) domain, that is EIN(sc), could shed light on the small affinity value measured. Therefore, in this work we present a detailed description of the structural features of the EIN domain, as a first step towards a complete characterization of the molecular recognition process between the two proteins. We show that EIN(sc) is a folded protein, with alpha-helix and beta-sheet structures and also random-coil conformations, as shown by circular dichroism (CD), FTIR and NMR spectroscopies. The acquisition of secondary and tertiary structures, and the burial of hydrophobic regions, occurred concomitantly at acidic pHs, but at very low pH, the domain acquired a molten-globule conformation. The EIN(sc) protein was not very stable, with an apparent conformational free energy change upon unfolding, DeltaG, of 4.1 +/- 0.4 kcal mol(-1), which was pH independent in the range explored (from pH 6.0 to 8.5). The thermal denaturation midpoint, which was also pH invariant, was similar to that measured in the isolated intact EI(sc). Although EIN(sc) shows thermal- and chemical denaturations that seems to follow a two-state mechanism, there is evidence of residual structure in the chemical and thermally unfolded states, as indicated by differential scanning

  13. The Host-Pathogen interaction of human cyclophilin A and HIV-1 Vpr requires specific N-terminal and novel C-terminal domains

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cyclophilin A (CypA) represents a potential key molecule in future antiretroviral therapy since inhibition of CypA suppresses human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. CypA interacts with the virus proteins Capsid (CA) and Vpr, however, the mechanism through which CypA influences HIV-1 infectivity still remains unclear. Results Here the interaction of full-length HIV-1 Vpr with the host cellular factor CypA has been characterized and quantified by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. A C-terminal region of Vpr, comprising the 16 residues 75GCRHSRIGVTRQRRAR90, with high binding affinity for CypA has been identified. This region of Vpr does not contain any proline residues but binds much more strongly to CypA than the previously characterized N-terminal binding domain of Vpr, and is thus the first protein binding domain to CypA described involving no proline residues. The fact that the mutant peptide Vpr75-90 R80A binds more weakly to CypA than the wild-type peptide confirms that Arg-80 is a key residue in the C-terminal binding domain. The N- and C-terminal binding regions of full-length Vpr bind cooperatively to CypA and have allowed a model of the complex to be created. The dissociation constant of full-length Vpr to CypA was determined to be approximately 320 nM, indicating that the binding may be stronger than that of the well characterized interaction of HIV-1 CA with CypA. Conclusions For the first time the interaction of full-length Vpr and CypA has been characterized and quantified. A non-proline-containing 16-residue region of C-terminal Vpr which binds specifically to CypA with similar high affinity as full-length Vpr has been identified. The fact that this is the first non-proline containing binding motif of any protein found to bind to CypA, changes the view on how CypA is able to interact with other proteins. It is interesting to note that several previously reported key functions of HIV-1 Vpr are associated with the

  14. A Temperature-Sensitive Lesion in the N-Terminal Domain of the Rotavirus Polymerase Affects Its Intracellular Localization and Enzymatic Activity.

    PubMed

    McKell, Allison O; LaConte, Leslie E W; McDonald, Sarah M

    2017-04-01

    Temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of simian rotavirus (RV) strain SA11 have been previously created to investigate the functions of viral proteins during replication. One mutant, SA11-tsC, has a mutation that maps to the gene encoding the VP1 polymerase and shows diminished growth and RNA synthesis at 39°C compared to that at 31°C. In the present study, we sequenced all 11 genes of SA11-tsC, confirming the presence of an L138P mutation in the VP1 N-terminal domain and identifying 52 additional mutations in four other viral proteins (VP4, VP7, NSP1, and NSP2). To investigate whether the L138P mutation induces a ts phenotype in VP1 outside the SA11-tsC genetic context, we employed ectopic expression systems. Specifically, we tested whether the L138P mutation affects the ability of VP1 to localize to viroplasms, which are the sites of RV RNA synthesis, by expressing the mutant form as a green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein (VP1L138P-GFP) (i) in wild-type SA11-infected cells or (ii) in uninfected cells along with viroplasm-forming proteins NSP2 and NSP5. We found that VP1L138P-GFP localized to viroplasms and interacted with NSP2 and/or NSP5 at 31°C but not at 39°C. Next, we tested the enzymatic activity of a recombinant mutant polymerase (rVP1L138P) in vitro and found that it synthesized less RNA at 39°C than at 31°C, as well as less RNA than the control at all temperatures. Together, these results provide a mechanistic basis for the ts phenotype of SA11-tsC and raise important questions about the role of leucine 138 in supporting key protein interactions and the catalytic function of the VP1 polymerase.IMPORTANCE RVs cause diarrhea in the young of many animal species, including humans. Despite their medical and economic importance, gaps in knowledge exist about how these viruses replicate inside host cells. Previously, a mutant simian RV (SA11-tsC) that replicates worse at higher temperatures was identified. This virus has an amino acid mutation in VP

  15. A Temperature-Sensitive Lesion in the N-Terminal Domain of the Rotavirus Polymerase Affects Its Intracellular Localization and Enzymatic Activity

    PubMed Central

    McKell, Allison O.; LaConte, Leslie E. W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of simian rotavirus (RV) strain SA11 have been previously created to investigate the functions of viral proteins during replication. One mutant, SA11-tsC, has a mutation that maps to the gene encoding the VP1 polymerase and shows diminished growth and RNA synthesis at 39°C compared to that at 31°C. In the present study, we sequenced all 11 genes of SA11-tsC, confirming the presence of an L138P mutation in the VP1 N-terminal domain and identifying 52 additional mutations in four other viral proteins (VP4, VP7, NSP1, and NSP2). To investigate whether the L138P mutation induces a ts phenotype in VP1 outside the SA11-tsC genetic context, we employed ectopic expression systems. Specifically, we tested whether the L138P mutation affects the ability of VP1 to localize to viroplasms, which are the sites of RV RNA synthesis, by expressing the mutant form as a green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein (VP1L138P-GFP) (i) in wild-type SA11-infected cells or (ii) in uninfected cells along with viroplasm-forming proteins NSP2 and NSP5. We found that VP1L138P-GFP localized to viroplasms and interacted with NSP2 and/or NSP5 at 31°C but not at 39°C. Next, we tested the enzymatic activity of a recombinant mutant polymerase (rVP1L138P) in vitro and found that it synthesized less RNA at 39°C than at 31°C, as well as less RNA than the control at all temperatures. Together, these results provide a mechanistic basis for the ts phenotype of SA11-tsC and raise important questions about the role of leucine 138 in supporting key protein interactions and the catalytic function of the VP1 polymerase. IMPORTANCE RVs cause diarrhea in the young of many animal species, including humans. Despite their medical and economic importance, gaps in knowledge exist about how these viruses replicate inside host cells. Previously, a mutant simian RV (SA11-tsC) that replicates worse at higher temperatures was identified. This virus has an amino acid

  16. The N-Terminal GH10 Domain of a Multimodular Protein from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii Is a Versatile Xylanase/β-Glucanase That Can Degrade Crystalline Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xianli; Wang, Rong; Tu, Tao; Shi, Pengjun; Ma, Rui; Luo, Huiying

    2015-01-01

    The genome of the thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii encodes three multimodular enzymes with identical C-terminal domain organizations containing two consecutive CBM3b modules and one glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 48 (GH48) catalytic module. However, the three proteins differ much in their N termini. Among these proteins, CelA (or C. bescii Cel9A [CbCel9A]/Cel48A) with a GH9/CBM3c binary partner in the N terminus has been shown to use a novel strategy to degrade crystalline cellulose, which leads to its outstanding cellulose-cleaving activity. Here we show that C. bescii Xyn10C (CbXyn10C), the N-terminal GH10 domain from CbXyn10C/Cel48B, can also degrade crystalline cellulose, in addition to heterogeneous xylans and barley β-glucan. The data from substrate competition assays, mutational studies, molecular modeling, and docking point analyses point to the existence of only one catalytic center in the bifunctional xylanase/β-glucanase. The specific activities of the recombinant CbXyn10C on Avicel and filter paper were comparable to those of GH9/CBM3c of the robust CelA expressed in Escherichia coli. Appending one or two cellulose-binding CBM3bs enhanced the activities of CbXyn10C in degrading crystalline celluloses, which were again comparable to those of the GH9/CBM3c-CBM3b-CBM3b truncation mutant of CelA. Since CbXyn10C/Cel48B and CelA have similar domain organizations and high sequence homology, the endocellulase activity observed in CbXyn10C leads us to speculate that CbXyn10C/Cel48B may use the same strategy that CelA uses to hydrolyze crystalline cellulose, thus helping the excellent crystalline cellulose degrader C. bescii acquire energy from the environment. In addition, we also demonstrate that CbXyn10C may be an interesting candidate enzyme for biotechnology due to its versatility in hydrolyzing multiple substrates with different glycosidic linkages. PMID:25819971

  17. The N-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD0) and a cytosolic linker (L0) of sulphonylurea receptor define the unique intrinsic gating of KATP channels

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Kun; Csanády, László; Chan, Kim W

    2006-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels comprise four pore-forming Kir6 and four regulatory sulphonylurea receptor (SUR) subunits. SUR, an ATP-binding cassette protein, associates with Kir6 through its N-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD0). TMD0 connects to the core domain of SUR through a cytosolic linker (L0). The intrinsic gating of Kir6.2 is greatly altered by SUR. It has been hypothesized that these changes are conferred by TMD0. Exploiting the fact that the pancreatic (SUR1/Kir6.2) and the cardiac (SUR2A/Kir6.2) KATP channels show different gating behaviours, we have tested this hypothesis by comparing the intrinsic gating of Kir6.2 with the last 26 residues deleted (Kir6.2Δ26) co-expressed with SUR1, S1-TMD0, SUR2A and S2-TMD0 at −40 and −100 mV (S is an abbreviation for SUR; TMD0/Kir6.2Δ26, but not TMD0/Kir6.2, can exit the endoplastic reticulum and reach the cell membrane). Single-channel kinetic analyses revealed that the mean burst and interburst durations are shorter for TMD0/Kir6.2Δ26 than for the corresponding SUR channels. No differences were found between the two TMD0 channels. We further demonstrated that in isolation even TMD0-L0 (SUR truncated after L0) cannot confer the wild-type intrinsic gating to Kir6.2Δ26 and that swapping L0 (SUR truncated after L0)between SUR1 and SUR2A only partially exchanges their different intrinsic gating. Therefore, in addition to TMD0, L0 and the core domain also participate in determining the intrinsic gating of Kir6.2. However, TMD0 and L0 are responsible for the different gating patterns of full-length SUR1 and SUR2A channels. A kinetic model with one open and four closed states is presented to explain our results in a mechanistic context. PMID:16887879

  18. Loss of the Gata1 gene IE exon leads to variant transcript expression and the production of a GATA1 protein lacking the N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Eri; Shimizu, Ritsuko; Kikuchi, Yuko; Takahashi, Satoru; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    GATA1 is essential for the differentiation of erythroid cells and megakaryocytes. The Gata1 gene is composed of multiple untranslated first exons and five common coding exons. The erythroid first exon (IE exon) is important for Gata1 gene expression in hematopoietic lineages. Because previous IE exon knockdown analyses resulted in embryonic lethality, less is understood about the contribution of the IE exon to adult hematopoiesis. Here, we achieved specific deletion of the floxed IE exon in adulthood using an inducible Cre expression system. In this conditional knock-out mouse line, the Gata1 mRNA level was significantly down-regulated in the megakaryocyte lineage, resulting in thrombocytopenia with a marked proliferation of megakaryocytes. By contrast, in the erythroid lineage, Gata1 mRNA was expressed abundantly utilizing alternative first exons. Especially, the IEb/c and newly identified IEd exons were transcribed at a level comparable with that of the IE exon in control mice. Surprisingly, in the IE-null mouse, these transcripts failed to produce full-length GATA1 protein, but instead yielded GATA1 lacking the N-terminal domain inefficiently. With low level expression of the short form of GATA1, IE-null mice showed severe anemia with skewed erythroid maturation. Notably, the hematological phenotypes of adult IE-null mice substantially differ from those observed in mice harboring conditional ablation of the entire Gata1 gene. The present study demonstrates that the IE exon is instrumental to adult erythropoiesis by regulating the proper level of transcription and selecting the correct transcription start site of the Gata1 gene.

  19. Point mutations in the N-terminal domain of transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) compromise its stability, dimerization, and functions.

    PubMed

    Mompeán, Miguel; Romano, Valentina; Pantoja-Uceda, David; Stuani, Cristiana; Baralle, Francisco E; Buratti, Emanuele; Laurents, Douglas V

    2017-07-14

    Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) performs multiple tasks in mRNA processing, transport, and translational regulation, but it also forms aggregates implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. TDP-43's N-terminal domain (NTD) is important for these activities and dysfunctions; however, there is an open debate about whether or not it adopts a specifically folded, stable structure. Here, we studied NTD mutations designed to destabilize its structure utilizing NMR and fluorescence spectroscopies, analytical ultracentrifugation, splicing assays, and cell microscopy. The substitutions V31R and T32R abolished TDP-43 activity in splicing and aggregation processes, and even the rather mild L28A mutation severely destabilized the NTD, drastically reducing TDP-43's in vitro splicing activity and inducing aberrant localization and aggregation in cells. These findings strongly support the idea that a stably folded NTD is essential for correct TDP-43 function. The stably folded NTD also promotes dimerization, which is pertinent to the protein's activities and pathological aggregation, and we present an atomic-level structural model for the TDP-43 dimer based on NMR data. Leu-27 is evolutionarily well conserved even though it is exposed in the monomeric NTD. We found here that Leu-27 is buried in the dimer and that the L27A mutation promotes monomerization. In conclusion, our study sheds light on the structural and biological properties of the TDP-43 NTD, indicating that the NTD must be stably folded for TDP-43's physiological functions, and has implications for understanding the mechanisms promoting the pathological aggregation of this protein. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. N-terminal domain of the cholesterol transporter Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) is essential for α-tocopherol transport.

    PubMed

    Kamishikiryo, Jun; Haraguchi, Misaki; Nakashima, Shunsuke; Tasaka, Yuka; Narahara, Hiroe; Sugihara, Narumi; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Morita, Tetsuo

    2017-04-29

    Both cholesterol and α-tocopherol are essential lipophilic nutrients for humans and animals. Although cholesterol in excess causes severe problems such as coronary heart disease, it is a necessary component of cell membranes and is the precursor for the biosynthesis of steroid hormones and bile acids. Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) is a cholesterol transporter that is highly expressed in the small intestine and liver in humans and plays an important role in cholesterol homeostasis. Cholesterol promotes NPC1L1 endocytosis, which is an early step in cholesterol uptake. Furthermore, α-tocopherol is the most active form of vitamin E, and sufficient amounts of vitamin E are critical for health. It has been reported that NPC1L1 mediates α-tocopherol absorption; however, the mechanisms underlying this process are unknown. In this study, we found that treatment of cells that stably express NPC1L1-GFP with α-tocopherol promotes NPC1L1 endocytosis, and the NPC1L1 inhibitor, ezetimibe, efficiently prevents the α-tocopherol-induced endocytosis of NPC1L1. Cholesterol binding to the N-terminal domain (NTD) of NPC1L1 (NPC1L1-NTD) is essential for NPC1L1-mediated cholesterol absorption. We found that α-tocopherol competitively binds NPC1L1-NTD with cholesterol. Furthermore, when cells stably expressed NPC1L1ΔNTD-GFP, α-tocopherol could not induce the endocytosis of NPC1L1ΔNTD. Taken together, these results demonstrate that NPC1L1 recognizes α-tocopherol via its NTD and mediates α-tocopherol uptake through the same mechanism as cholesterol absorption.

  1. The adenovirus E1A oncoprotein N-terminal transcriptional repression domain enhances p300 autoacetylation and inhibits histone H3 Lys18 acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ling-Jun; Loewenstein, Paul M.; Green, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Expression of the adenovirus E1A N-terminal transcription repression domain alone (E1A 1-80) represses transcription from specific promoters such as HER2 [1] and from reconstituted chromatin [2]. Significantly, E1A 1-80 can induce the death of human breast cancer cells over-expressing the HER2 oncogene [1] as well as other cancer cells. Here, we report that E1A 1-80 alone is sufficient to inhibit H3K18 acetylation in vivo and p300-mediated H3K18 acetylation in reconstituted chromatin. Of interest, hypoacetylation of H3K18 has been correlated with the survival of tumor cells and the poor prognosis of many cancers [3, 4]. E1A 1-80 enhances p300 autoacetylation and concurrently inhibits H3K18 acetylation in chromatin in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-acetylation of p300 by incubation with acetyl-CoA alone reduces p300's ability to acetylate H3K18 in chromatin. Additional acetylation of p300 in the presence of E1A 1-80 produces stronger inhibition of H3K18 acetylation. These findings indicate that autoacetylation of p300 greatly reduces its ability to acetylate H3K18. The results reported here combined with our previous findings suggest that E1A can repress transcription by multiple strategies, including altering the chromatin modifying activity of p300 and dissociating TFIID from the TATA box thus disrupting formation of the transcription pre-initiation complex [5, 6] PMID:25821559

  2. The solution structure of the methylated form of the N-terminal 16-kDa domain of Escherichia coli Ada protein

    PubMed Central

    Takinowaki, Hiroto; Matsuda, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Takuya; Kobayashi, Yuji; Ohkubo, Tadayasu

    2006-01-01

    The N-terminal 16-kDa domain of Escherichia coli Ada protein (N-Ada16k) repairs DNA methyl phosphotriester lesions by an irreversible methyl transfer to its cysteine residue. Upon the methylation, the sequence-specific DNA binding affinity for the promoter region of the alkylation resistance genes is enhanced by 103-fold. Then, it acts as a transcriptional regulator for the methylation damage. In this paper, we identified the methyl acceptor residue of N-Ada16k and determined the solution structure of the methylated form of N-Ada16k by using NMR and mass spectrometry. The results of a 13C-filtered 1H-13C HMBC experiment and MALDI-TOF MS and MS/MS experiments clearly showed that the methyl acceptor residue is Cys38. The solution structure revealed that it has two distinct subdomains connected by a flexible linker loop: the methyltransferase (MTase) subdomain with the zinc–thiolate center, and the helical subdomain with a helix-turn-helix motif. Interestingly, there is no potential hydrogen bond donor around Cys38, whereas the other three cysteine residues coordinated to a zinc ion have potential donors. Hence, Cys38 could retain its inherent nucleophilicity and react with a methyl phosphotriester. Furthermore, the structure comparison shows that there is no indication of a remarkable conformational change occurring upon the methylation. This implies that the electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged DNA and the zinc–thiolate center may avoid the contact between the MTase subdomain and the DNA in the nonmethylated form. Thus, after the Cys38 methylation, the MTase subdomain can bind the cognate DNA because the negative charge of the zinc–thiolate center is reduced. PMID:16452614

  3. pH-sensitive Self-associations of the N-terminal Domain of NBCe1-A Suggest a Compact Conformation under Acidic Intracellular Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Harindarpal S

    2012-01-01

    NBCe1-A is an integral membrane protein that cotransports Na+ and HCO3- ions across the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule. It is essential for maintaining a homeostatic balance of cellular and blood pH. In X-ray diffraction studies, we reported that the cytoplasmic, N-terminal domain of NBCe1-A (NtNBCe1-A) is a dimer. Here, biophysical measurements show that the dimer is in a concentration-dependent dynamic equilibrium among three additional states in solution that are characterized by its hydrodynamic properties, molar masses, emission spectra, binding properties, and stabilities as a function of pH. Under physiological conditions, dimers are in equilibrium with monomers that are pronounced at low concentration and clusters of molecular masses up to 3-5 times that of a dimer that are pronounced at high concentration. The equilibrium can be influenced so that individual dimers predominate in a taut conformation by lowering the pH. Conversely, dimers begin to relax and disassociate into an increasing population of monomers by elevating the pH. A mechanistic diagram for the inter-conversion of these states is given. The self-associations are further supported by surface plasmon resonance (SPR-Biacore) techniques that illustrate NtNBCe1-A molecules transiently bind with one another. Bicarbonate and bicarbonate-analog bisulfite appear to enhance dimerization and induce a small amount of tetramers. A model is proposed, where the Nt responds to pH or bicarbonate fluctuations inside the cell and plays a role in self-association of entire NBCe1-A molecules in the membrane. PMID:22316307

  4. Specific sequences in the N-terminal domain of human small heat-shock protein HSPB6 dictate preferential hetero-oligomerization with the orthologue HSPB1.

    PubMed

    Heirbaut, Michelle; Lermyte, Frederik; Martin, Esther M; Beelen, Steven; Sobott, Frank; Strelkov, Sergei V; Weeks, Stephen D

    2017-06-16

    Small heat-shock proteins (sHSPs) are a conserved group of molecular chaperones with important roles in cellular proteostasis. Although sHSPs are characterized by their small monomeric weight, they typically assemble into large polydisperse oligomers that vary in both size and shape but are principally composed of dimeric building blocks. These assemblies can include different sHSP orthologues, creating additional complexity that may affect chaperone activity. However, the structural and functional properties of such hetero-oligomers are poorly understood. We became interested in hetero-oligomer formation between human heat-shock protein family B (small) member 1 (HSPB1) and HSPB6, which are both highly expressed in skeletal muscle. When mixed in vitro, these two sHSPs form a polydisperse oligomer array composed solely of heterodimers, suggesting preferential association that is determined at the monomer level. Previously, we have shown that the sHSP N-terminal domains (NTDs), which have a high degree of intrinsic disorder, are essential for the biased formation. Here we employed iterative deletion mapping to elucidate how the NTD of HSPB6 influences its preferential association with HSPB1 and show that this region has multiple roles in this process. First, the highly conserved motif RLFDQXFG is necessary for subunit exchange among oligomers. Second, a site ∼20 residues downstream of this motif determines the size of the resultant hetero-oligomers. Third, a region unique to HSPB6 dictates the preferential formation of heterodimers. In conclusion, the disordered NTD of HSPB6 helps regulate the size and stability of hetero-oligomeric complexes, indicating that terminal sHSP regions define the assembly properties of these proteins. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Structural Mapping Reveals Promiscuous Interactions between Clathrin-Box Motif Sequences and the N-Terminal Domain of the Clathrin Heavy Chain

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The recruitment and organization of clathrin at endocytic sites first to form coated pits and then clathrin-coated vesicles depend on interactions between the clathrin N-terminal domain (TD) and multiple clathrin binding sequences on the cargo adaptor and accessory proteins that are concentrated at such sites. Up to four distinct protein binding sites have been proposed to be present on the clathrin TD, with each site proposed to interact with a distinct clathrin binding motif. However, an understanding of how such interactions contribute to clathrin coat assembly must take into account observations that any three of these four sites on clathrin TD can be mutationally ablated without causing loss of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. To take an unbiased approach to mapping binding sites for clathrin-box motifs on clathrin TD, we used isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Our ITC experiments revealed that a canonical clathrin-box motif peptide from the AP-2 adaptor binds to clathrin TD with a stoichiometry of 3:1. Assignment of 90% of the total visible amide resonances in the TROSY-HSQC spectrum of 13C-, 2H-, and 15N-labeled TD40 allowed us to map these three binding sites by analyzing the chemical shift changes as clathrin-box motif peptides were titrated into clathrin TD. We found that three different clathrin-box motif peptides can each simultaneously bind not only to the previously characterized clathrin-box site but also to the W-box site and the β-arrestin splice loop site on a single TD. The promiscuity of these binding sites can help explain why their mutation does not lead to larger effects on clathrin function and suggests a mechanism by which clathrin may be transferred between different proteins during the course of an endocytic event. PMID:25844500

  6. Solution Structure of the N-Terminal Domain of Mediator Subunit MED26 and Molecular Characterization of Its Interaction with EAF1 and TAF7.

    PubMed

    Lens, Zoé; Cantrelle, François-Xavier; Peruzzini, Riccardo; Hanoulle, Xavier; Dewitte, Frédérique; Ferreira, Elisabeth; Baert, Jean-Luc; Monté, Didier; Aumercier, Marc; Villeret, Vincent; Verger, Alexis; Landrieu, Isabelle

    2017-09-09

    MED26 is a subunit of Mediator, a large complex central to the regulation of gene transcription by RNA Polymerase II. MED26 plays a role in the switch between the initiation and elongation phases of RNA Polymerase II-mediated transcription process. Regulation of these steps requires successive binding of MED26 N-terminal domain (NTD) to TATA-binding protein-associated factor 7 (TAF7) and Eleven-nineteen lysine-rich in leukemia-Associated Factor 1 (EAF1). In order to investigate the mechanism of regulation by MED26, MED26-NTD structure was solved by NMR, revealing a 4-helix bundle. EAF1 (239-268) and TAF7 (205-235) peptide interactions were both mapped to the same groove formed by H3 and H4 helices of MED26-NTD. Both interactions are characterized by dissociation constants in the 10-μM range. Further experiments revealed a folding-upon-binding mechanism that leads to the formation of EAF1 (N247-S260) and TAF7 (L214-S227) helices. Chemical shift perturbations and nuclear Overhauser enhancement contacts support the involvement of residues I222/F223 in anchoring TAF7 helix to a hydrophobic pocket of MED26-NTD, including residues L48, W80 and I84. In addition, Ala mutations of charged residues located in the C-terminal disordered part of TAF7 and EAF1 peptides affected the binding, with a loss of affinity characterized by a 10-time increase of dissociation constants. A structural model of MED26-NTD/TAF7 complex shows bi-partite components, combining ordered and disordered segments, as well as hydrophobic and electrostatic contributions to the binding. This study provides molecular detail that will help to decipher the mechanistic basis for the initiation to elongation switch-function mediated by MED26-NTD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The N-terminal half-domain of the long form of tRNase Z is required for the RNase 65 activity

    PubMed Central

    Takaku, Hiroaki; Minagawa, Asako; Takagi, Masamichi; Nashimoto, Masayuki

    2004-01-01

    Transfer RNA (tRNA) 3′ processing endoribonuclease (tRNase Z) is an enzyme responsible for the removal of a 3′ trailer from pre-tRNA. There exists two types of tRNase Z: one is a short form (tRNase ZS) that consists of 300–400 amino acids, and the other is a long form (tRNase ZL) that contains 800–900 amino acids. Here we investigated whether the short and long forms have different preferences for various RNA substrates. We examined three recombinant tRNase ZSs from human, Escherichia coli and Thermotoga maritima, two recombinant tRNase ZLs from human and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one tRNase ZL from pig liver, and the N- and C-terminal half regions of human tRNase ZL for cleavage of human micro-pre-tRNAArg and the RNase 65 activity. All tRNase ZLs cleaved the micro-pre-tRNA and showed the RNase 65 activity, while all tRNase ZSs and both half regions of human tRNase ZL failed to do so with the exception of the C-terminal half, which barely cleaved the micro-pre-tRNA. We also show that only the long forms of tRNase Z can specifically cleave a target RNA under the direction of a new type of small guide RNA, hook RNA. These results indicate that indeed tRNase ZL and tRNase ZS have different substrate specificities and that the differences are attributed to the N-terminal half-domain of tRNase ZL. Furthermore, the optimal concentrations of NaCl, MgCl2 and MnCl2 differed between tRNase ZSs and tRNase ZLs, and the Km values implied that tRNase ZLs interact with pre-tRNA substrates more strongly than tRNase ZSs. PMID:15317868

  8. Structural characterisation of human galectin-4 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain in complex with glycerol, lactose, 3′-sulfo-lactose, and 2′-fucosyllactose

    PubMed Central

    Bum-Erdene, Khuchtumur; Leffler, Hakon; Nilsson, Ulf J.; Blanchard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Galectin-4 is a tandem-repeat galectin with two distinct carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD). Galectin-4 is expressed mainly in the alimentary tract and is proposed to function as a lipid raft and adherens junction stabilizer by its glycan cross-linking capacity. Galectin-4 plays divergent roles in cancer and inflammatory conditions, either promoting or inhibiting each disease progression, depending on the specific pathological condition. The study of galectin-4’s ligand-binding profile may help decipher its roles under specific conditions. Here we present the X-ray structures of human galectin-4 N-terminal CRD (galectin-4N) bound to different saccharide ligands. Galectin-4’s overall fold and its core interactions to lactose are similar to other galectin CRDs. Galectin-4N recognises the sulfate cap of 3′-sulfated glycans by a weak interaction through Arg45 and two water-mediated hydrogen bonds via Trp84 and Asn49. When galectin-4N interacts with the H-antigen mimic, 2′-fucosyllactose, an interaction is formed between the ring oxygen of fucose and Arg45. The extended binding site of galectin-4N may not be well suited to the A/B-antigen determinants, α-GalNAc/α-Gal, specifically due to clashes with residue Phe47. Overall, galectin-4N favours sulfated glycans whilst galectin-4C prefers blood group determinants. However, the two CRDs of galectin-4 can, to a less extent, recognise each other’s ligands. PMID:26828567

  9. Identification of Two Binding Domains, One for Peptidoglycan and Another for a Secondary Cell Wall Polymer, on the N-Terminal Part of the S-Layer Protein SbsB from Bacillus stearothermophilus PV72/p2

    PubMed Central

    Sára, Margit; Egelseer, Eva M.; Dekitsch, Christine; Sleytr, Uwe B.

    1998-01-01

    First studies on the structure-function relationship of the S-layer protein from B. stearothermophilus PV72/p2 revealed the coexistence of two binding domains on its N-terminal part, one for peptidoglycan and another for a secondary cell wall polymer (SCWP). The peptidoglycan binding domain is located between amino acids 1 to 138 of the mature S-layer protein comprising a typical S-layer homologous domain. The SCWP binding domain lies between amino acids 240 to 331 and possesses a high serine plus glycine content. PMID:9852032

  10. Vaccinia virus A6 is a two-domain protein requiring a cognate N-terminal domain for full viral membrane assembly activity.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangzhi; Rose, Lloyd; Han, Yue; Deng, Junpeng; Xiang, Yan

    2017-03-08

    Poxvirus virion biogenesis is a complex, multistep process, starting with the formation of crescent-shaped viral membranes, followed by their enclosure of viral core to form the spherical immature virions. Crescent formation requires a group of proteins that are highly conserved among poxviruses, including A6 and A11 of vaccinia virus (VACV). To gain a better understanding of the molecular function of A6, we established a HeLa cell line that inducibly expressed VACV-A6, which allowed us to construct VACV mutants with A6 deletion or mutation. As expected, A6 deletion VACV mutant failed to replicate in non-complementing cell lines with defects in crescent formation and A11 localization. Surprisingly, a VACV mutant that had A6 substituted with a close ortholog from Yaba-like disease virus, YLDV-97, also failed to replicate. This mutant, however, developed crescents and had normal A11 localization despite failing to form immature virions. A limited proteolysis of the recombinant A6 protein identified an N- and a C-domain of approximately 121 and 251 residues, respectively. Various chimeras of VACV-A6 and YLDV-97 were constructed, but only one that precisely combined the N-domain of VACV-A6 and the C-domain of YLDV-97 supported VACV replication, albeit at reduced efficiency. Our results show that VACV A6 has a two-domain architecture and functions in both crescent formation and its enclosure to form immature virions. While a cognate N-domain is not required for crescent formation, it is required for virion formation, suggesting that interactions of N-domain with cognate viral proteins may be critical for virion assembly.IMPORTANCE Poxviruses are unique among enveloped viruses in that they acquire their primary envelope not through budding from cellular membranes but by forming and extending crescent membranes. The crescents are highly unusual, open-ended membranes, and their origin and biogenesis have perplexed virologists for decades. A group of five viral proteins

  11. Regulation of StAR by the N-terminal Domain and Coinduction of SIK1 and TIS11b/Znf36l1 in Single Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinwoo; Tong, Tiegang; Duan, Haichuan; Foong, Yee Hoon; Musaitif, Ibrahim; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Jefcoate, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The cholesterol transfer function of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is uniquely integrated into adrenal cells, with mRNA translation and protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation occurring at the mitochondrial outer membrane (OMM). The StAR C-terminal cholesterol-binding domain (CBD) initiates mitochondrial intermembrane contacts to rapidly direct cholesterol to Cyp11a1 in the inner membrane (IMM). The conserved StAR N-terminal regulatory domain (NTD) includes a leader sequence targeting the CBD to OMM complexes that initiate cholesterol transfer. Here, we show how the NTD functions to enhance CBD activity delivers more efficiently from StAR mRNA in adrenal cells, and then how two factors hormonally restrain this process. NTD processing at two conserved sequence sites is selectively affected by StAR PKA phosphorylation. The CBD functions as a receptor to stimulate the OMM/IMM contacts that mediate transfer. The NTD controls the transit time that integrates extramitochondrial StAR effects on cholesterol homeostasis with other mitochondrial functions, including ATP generation, inter-organelle fusion, and the major permeability transition pore in partnership with other OMM proteins. PKA also rapidly induces two additional StAR modulators: salt-inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) and Znf36l1/Tis11b. Induced SIK1 attenuates the activity of CRTC2, a key mediator of StAR transcription and splicing, but only as cAMP levels decline. TIS11b inhibits translation and directs the endonuclease-mediated removal of the 3.5-kb StAR mRNA. Removal of either of these functions individually enhances cAMP-mediated induction of StAR. High-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (HR-FISH) of StAR RNA reveals asymmetric transcription at the gene locus and slow RNA splicing that delays mRNA formation, potentially to synchronize with cholesterol import. Adrenal cells may retain slow transcription to integrate with intermembrane NTD activation. HR-FISH resolves individual 3.5-kb St

  12. The N-terminal domain of the GluN3A subunit determines the efficacy of glycine-activated NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Mesic, Ivana; Madry, Christian; Geider, Kirsten; Bernhard, Max; Betz, Heinrich; Laube, Bodo

    2016-06-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors composed of glycine-binding GluN1 and GluN3 subunits function as excitatory glycine receptors that respond to agonist application only with a very low efficacy. Binding of glycine to the high-affinity GluN3 subunits triggers channel opening, whereas glycine binding to the low-affinity GluN1 subunits causes an auto-inhibition of the maximal glycine-inducible receptor current (Imax). Hence, competitive antagonists of the GluN1 subunit strongly potentiate glycine responses of wild type (wt) GluN1/GluN3 receptors. Here, we show that co-expression of N-terminal domain (NTD) deleted GluN1 (GluN1(ΔNTD)) and GluN3 (GluN3(ΔNTD)) subunits in Xenopus oocytes generates GluN1/GluN3 receptors with a large increase in the glycine-inducible Imax accompanied by a strongly impaired GluN1 antagonist-mediated potentiation. Affinity purification after metabolic or surface labeling revealed no differences in subunit stoichiometry and surface expression between wt GluN1/GluN3A and mutant GluN1(ΔNTD)/GluN3A(ΔNTD) receptors, indicating a specific effect of NTD deletions on the efficacy of receptor opening. Notably, GluN1/GluN3A(ΔNTD) receptors showed a similar increase in Imax and a greatly reduced GluN1 antagonist-mediated current potentiation as GluN1(ΔNTD)/GluN3A(ΔNTD) receptors, whereas the glycine-induced currents of GluN1(ΔNTD)/GluN3A receptors resembled those of wt GluN1/GluN3A receptors. Furthermore, oxidative crosslinking of the homophilic GluN3A NTD intersubunit interface in mutant GluN1/GluN3A(R319C) receptors caused both a decrease in the glycine-induced Imax concomitantly with a marked increase in GluN1 antagonist-mediated current potentiation, whilst mutations within the intrasubunit region linking the GluN3A NTD to the ligand binding domain had opposite effects. Together these results show that the GluN3A NTD constitutes a crucial regulatory determinant of GluN1/GluN3A receptor function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  13. Regulation of StAR by the N-terminal Domain and Coinduction of SIK1 and TIS11b/Znf36l1 in Single Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinwoo; Tong, Tiegang; Duan, Haichuan; Foong, Yee Hoon; Musaitif, Ibrahim; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Jefcoate, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The cholesterol transfer function of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is uniquely integrated into adrenal cells, with mRNA translation and protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation occurring at the mitochondrial outer membrane (OMM). The StAR C-terminal cholesterol-binding domain (CBD) initiates mitochondrial intermembrane contacts to rapidly direct cholesterol to Cyp11a1 in the inner membrane (IMM). The conserved StAR N-terminal regulatory domain (NTD) includes a leader sequence targeting the CBD to OMM complexes that initiate cholesterol transfer. Here, we show how the NTD functions to enhance CBD activity delivers more efficiently from StAR mRNA in adrenal cells, and then how two factors hormonally restrain this process. NTD processing at two conserved sequence sites is selectively affected by StAR PKA phosphorylation. The CBD functions as a receptor to stimulate the OMM/IMM contacts that mediate transfer. The NTD controls the transit time that integrates extramitochondrial StAR effects on cholesterol homeostasis with other mitochondrial functions, including ATP generation, inter-organelle fusion, and the major permeability transition pore in partnership with other OMM proteins. PKA also rapidly induces two additional StAR modulators: salt-inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) and Znf36l1/Tis11b. Induced SIK1 attenuates the activity of CRTC2, a key mediator of StAR transcription and splicing, but only as cAMP levels decline. TIS11b inhibits translation and directs the endonuclease-mediated removal of the 3.5-kb StAR mRNA. Removal of either of these functions individually enhances cAMP-mediated induction of StAR. High-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (HR-FISH) of StAR RNA reveals asymmetric transcription at the gene locus and slow RNA splicing that delays mRNA formation, potentially to synchronize with cholesterol import. Adrenal cells may retain slow transcription to integrate with intermembrane NTD activation. HR-FISH resolves individual 3.5-kb St

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the N-terminal domain of Paenibacillus barcinonensis xylanase 10C containing the CBM22-1–CBM22-2 tandem

    PubMed Central

    Sainz-Polo, María Ángela; González, Beatriz; Pastor, F. I. Javier; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia

    2015-01-01

    A construct containing the CBM22-1–CBM22-2 tandem forming the N-terminal domain of Paenibacillus barcinonensis xylanase 10C (Xyn10C) has been purified and crystallized. A xylan-binding function and an affinity for mixed β-1,3/β-1,4 glucans have previously been demonstrated for some members of the CBM22 family. The sequence of the tandem is homologous to the N-terminal domains found in several thermophilic enzymes. Crystals of this tandem were grown by the streak-seeding method after a long optimization strategy. The structure has been determined by molecular replacement to a resolution of 2.43 Å and refinement is under way. This study represents the first structure containing two contiguous CBM22 modules, which will contribute to a better understanding of the role that this multiplicity plays in fine-tuning substrate affinity. PMID:25664784

  15. Mutagenic definition of a papain-like catalytic triad, sufficiency of the N-terminal domain for single-site core catalytic enzyme acylation, and C-terminal domain for augmentative metal activation of a eukaryotic phytochelatin synthase.

    PubMed

    Romanyuk, Nataliya D; Rigden, Daniel J; Vatamaniuk, Olena K; Lang, Albert; Cahoon, Rebecca E; Jez, Joseph M; Rea, Philip A

    2006-07-01

    in the case of AtPCS1, for formation of the biosynthetically competent gamma-Glu-Cys enzyme acyl intermediate, the primary data from experiments directed at determining whether the other two residues, His-162 and Asp-180 of the putative papain-like catalytic triad of AtPCS1, are essential for catalysis have yet to be presented. This shortfall in our basic understanding of AtPCS1 is addressed here by the results of systematic site-directed mutagenesis studies that demonstrate that not only Cys-56 but also His-162 and Asp-180 are indeed required for net PC synthesis. It is therefore established experimentally that AtPCS1 and, by implication, other eukaryotic PC synthases are papain Cys protease superfamily members but ones, unlike their prokaryotic counterparts, which, in addition to having a papain-like N-terminal catalytic domain that undergoes primary gamma-Glu-Cys acylation, contain an auxiliary metal-sensing C-terminal domain that undergoes secondary gamma-Glu-Cys acylation.

  16. Crystal Structure of the Vaccinia Virus DNA Polymerase Holoenzyme Subunit D4 in Complex with the A20 N-Terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Contesto-Richefeu, Céline; Tarbouriech, Nicolas; Brazzolotto, Xavier; Betzi, Stéphane; Morelli, Xavier; Burmeister, Wim P.; Iseni, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Vaccinia virus polymerase holoenzyme is composed of the DNA polymerase E9, the uracil-DNA glycosylase D4 and A20, a protein with no known enzymatic activity. The D4/A20 heterodimer is the DNA polymerase co-factor whose function is essential for processive DNA synthesis. Genetic and biochemical data have established that residues located in the N-terminus of A20 are critical for binding to D4. However, no information regarding the residues of D4 involved in A20 binding is yet available. We expressed and purified the complex formed by D4 and the first 50 amino acids of A20 (D4/A201–50). We showed that whereas D4 forms homodimers in solution when expressed alone, D4/A201–50 clearly behaves as a heterodimer. The crystal structure of D4/A201–50 solved at 1.85 Å resolution reveals that the D4/A20 interface (including residues 167 to 180 and 191 to 206 of D4) partially overlaps the previously described D4/D4 dimer interface. A201–50 binding to D4 is mediated by an α-helical domain with important leucine residues located at the very N-terminal end of A20 and a second stretch of residues containing Trp43 involved in stacking interactions with Arg167 and Pro173 of D4. Point mutations of the latter residues disturb D4/A201–50 formation and reduce significantly thermal stability of the complex. Interestingly, small molecule docking with anti-poxvirus inhibitors selected to interfere with D4/A20 binding could reproduce several key features of the D4/A201–50 interaction. Finally, we propose a model of D4/A201–50 in complex with DNA and discuss a number of mutants described in the literature, which affect DNA synthesis. Overall, our data give new insights into the assembly of the poxvirus DNA polymerase cofactor and may be useful for the design and rational improvement of antivirals targeting the D4/A20 interface. PMID:24603707

  17. Major immunoreactive domains of human ribosomal P proteins lie N-terminal to a homologous C-22 sequence: application to a novel ELISA for systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Lin, J L J; Dubljevic, V; Fritzler, M J; Toh, Ban-Hock

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify immunoreactive domains on human ribosomal P0, P1 and P2 proteins, other than the C-22 peptide, to develop a novel ELISA using a combination of these proteins and to compare this ELISA with one using the C-22 peptide. Human recombinant P0, P1, P2 and mutant P0 lacking the homologous C-22 peptide (N-P0) were produced in bacteria and tested by ELISA and immunoblotting using sera from 48 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 48 with an unrelated inflammatory disorder (Crohn's disease) and 47 healthy controls. ELISA with P0, P1 and P2, premixed at equimolar concentrations, gave higher OD readings than each protein tested individually. Eighteen SLE sera tested positive by ELISA with premixed P0, P1, P2 but only 3 tested positive with the C-22 peptide. Twenty-two SLE sera reacted positively, as determined by immunoblotting, with 5 different P protein combinations: P1P2, P0P1P2, P1, P0P1, P0 and P1. Only sera reactive with all three P proteins reacted with the C-22 peptide, with absent or minimal reactivity with N-P0. Native antigens yielded sensitivity (6/48, 13%) similar to the C-22 peptide assay. An ELISA with premixed P1 and P2 gave higher OD values than the arithmetic means with P1 or P2. Fifteen SLE patients had antibodies to double stranded (ds)-DNA, of which 6 also had antibodies to P0P1P2 by ELISA but 12 reactive with P0P1P2 did not have discernable ds-DNA antibodies. Ribosomal P autoantibodies react mainly with epitopes N-terminal to a homologous C-22 peptide. An ELISA with premixed P0, P1 and P2 has 5-fold greater sensitivity (38%) for SLE than an assay with the conventional C-22 peptide (7%). The combined sensitivity for SLE for antibodies to P0P1P2 and ds-DNA is 56%, higher than C-22 and ds-DNA, 38%. Only one of the SLE patients had neuropsychiatric lupus. PMID:15958082

  18. N-terminal transmembrane domain of SUR1 controls gating of Kir6.2 by modulating channel sensitivity to PIP2.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Emily B; Tewson, Paul; Bruederle, Cathrin E; Skach, William R; Shyng, Show-Ling

    2011-03-01

    Functional integrity of pancreatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels depends on the interactions between the pore-forming potassium channel subunit Kir6.2 and the regulatory subunit sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1). Previous studies have shown that the N-terminal transmembrane domain of SUR1 (TMD0) interacts with Kir6.2 and is sufficient to confer high intrinsic open probability (P(o)) and bursting patterns of activity observed in full-length K(ATP) channels. However, the nature of TMD0-Kir6.2 interactions that underlie gating modulation is not well understood. Using two previously described disease-causing mutations in TMD0 (R74W and E128K), we performed amino acid substitutions to study the structural roles of these residues in K(ATP) channel function in the context of full-length SUR1 as well as TMD0. Our results revealed that although R74W and E128K in full-length SUR1 both decrease surface channel expression and reduce channel sensitivity to ATP inhibition, they arrive there via distinct mechanisms. Mutation of R74 uniformly reduced TMD0 protein levels, suggesting that R74 is necessary for stability of TMD0. In contrast, E128 mutations retained TMD0 protein levels but reduced functional coupling between TMD0 and Kir6.2 in mini-K(ATP) channels formed by TMD0 and Kir6.2. Importantly, E128K full-length channels, despite having a greatly reduced P(o), exhibit little response to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) stimulation. This is reminiscent of Kir6.2 channel behavior in the absence of SUR1 and suggests that TMD0 controls Kir6.2 gating by modulating Kir6.2 interactions with PIP(2). Further supporting this notion, the E128W mutation in full-length channels resulted in channel inactivation that was prevented or reversed by exogenous PIP(2). These results identify a critical determinant in TMD0 that controls Kir6.2 gating by controlling channel sensitivity to PIP(2). Moreover, they uncover a novel mechanism of K

  19. N-terminal transmembrane domain of SUR1 controls gating of Kir6.2 by modulating channel sensitivity to PIP2

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Emily B.; Tewson, Paul; Bruederle, Cathrin E.; Skach, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Functional integrity of pancreatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels depends on the interactions between the pore-forming potassium channel subunit Kir6.2 and the regulatory subunit sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1). Previous studies have shown that the N-terminal transmembrane domain of SUR1 (TMD0) interacts with Kir6.2 and is sufficient to confer high intrinsic open probability (Po) and bursting patterns of activity observed in full-length KATP channels. However, the nature of TMD0–Kir6.2 interactions that underlie gating modulation is not well understood. Using two previously described disease-causing mutations in TMD0 (R74W and E128K), we performed amino acid substitutions to study the structural roles of these residues in KATP channel function in the context of full-length SUR1 as well as TMD0. Our results revealed that although R74W and E128K in full-length SUR1 both decrease surface channel expression and reduce channel sensitivity to ATP inhibition, they arrive there via distinct mechanisms. Mutation of R74 uniformly reduced TMD0 protein levels, suggesting that R74 is necessary for stability of TMD0. In contrast, E128 mutations retained TMD0 protein levels but reduced functional coupling between TMD0 and Kir6.2 in mini-KATP channels formed by TMD0 and Kir6.2. Importantly, E128K full-length channels, despite having a greatly reduced Po, exhibit little response to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) stimulation. This is reminiscent of Kir6.2 channel behavior in the absence of SUR1 and suggests that TMD0 controls Kir6.2 gating by modulating Kir6.2 interactions with PIP2. Further supporting this notion, the E128W mutation in full-length channels resulted in channel inactivation that was prevented or reversed by exogenous PIP2. These results identify a critical determinant in TMD0 that controls Kir6.2 gating by controlling channel sensitivity to PIP2. Moreover, they uncover a novel mechanism of KATP channel inactivation

  20. UmuDAb: An Error-Prone Polymerase Accessory Homolog Whose N-Terminal Domain Is Required for Repression of DNA Damage Inducible Gene Expression in Acinetobacter baylyi

    PubMed Central

    Stinnett, DeAnna B.; Wells, Whitney K.; Peterson, Megan A.; Hare, Janelle M.

    2016-01-01

    In many bacteria, the DNA damage response induces genes (SOS genes) that were repressed by LexA. LexA represses transcription by binding to SOS promoters via a helix-turn-helix motif in its N-terminal domain (NTD). Upon DNA damage, LexA cleaves itself and allows induction of transcription. In Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter baylyi, multiple genes are induced by DNA damage, and although the Acinetobacter genus lacks LexA, a homolog of the error-prone polymerase subunit UmuD, called UmuDAb, regulates some DNA damage-induced genes. The mechanism of UmuDAb regulation has not been determined. We constructed UmuDAb mutant strains of A. baylyi to test whether UmuDAb mediates gene regulation through LexA-like repressor actions consisting of relief of repression through self-cleavage after DNA damage. Real-time quantitative PCR experiments in both a null umuDAb mutant and an NTD mutant showed that the DNA damage-inducible, UmuDAb-regulated gene ddrR was highly expressed even in the absence of DNA damage. Protein modeling identified a potential LexA-like helix-turn-helix structure in the UmuDAb NTD, which when disrupted, also relieved ddrR and umuDAb repression under non-inducing conditions. Mutations in a putative SOS box in the shared umuDAb-ddrR promoter region similarly relieved these genes’ repression under non-inducing conditions. Conversely, cells possessing a cleavage-deficient UmuDAb were unable to induce gene expression after MMC-mediated DNA damage. This evidence of a UmuDAb repressor mechanism was contrasted with the failure of umuDAb to complement an Escherichia coli umuD mutant for UmuD error-prone DNA replication activity. Similarly, A. baumannii null umuDAb mutant cells did not have a reduced UmuDˊ2UmuC-mediated mutation rate after DNA damage, suggesting that although this UmuDAb protein may have evolved from a umuDC operon in this genus, it now performs a LexA-like repressor function for a sub-set of DNA damage-induced genes. PMID:27010837

  1. UmuDAb: An Error-Prone Polymerase Accessory Homolog Whose N-Terminal Domain Is Required for Repression of DNA Damage Inducible Gene Expression in Acinetobacter baylyi.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Travis A; Grice, Alison N; Stinnett, DeAnna B; Wells, Whitney K; Peterson, Megan A; Hare, Janelle M

    2016-01-01

    In many bacteria, the DNA damage response induces genes (SOS genes) that were repressed by LexA. LexA represses transcription by binding to SOS promoters via a helix-turn-helix motif in its N-terminal domain (NTD). Upon DNA damage, LexA cleaves itself and allows induction of transcription. In Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter baylyi, multiple genes are induced by DNA damage, and although the Acinetobacter genus lacks LexA, a homolog of the error-prone polymerase subunit UmuD, called UmuDAb, regulates some DNA damage-induced genes. The mechanism of UmuDAb regulation has not been determined. We constructed UmuDAb mutant strains of A. baylyi to test whether UmuDAb mediates gene regulation through LexA-like repressor actions consisting of relief of repression through self-cleavage after DNA damage. Real-time quantitative PCR experiments in both a null umuDAb mutant and an NTD mutant showed that the DNA damage-inducible, UmuDAb-regulated gene ddrR was highly expressed even in the absence of DNA damage. Protein modeling identified a potential LexA-like helix-turn-helix structure in the UmuDAb NTD, which when disrupted, also relieved ddrR and umuDAb repression under non-inducing conditions. Mutations in a putative SOS box in the shared umuDAb-ddrR promoter region similarly relieved these genes' repression under non-inducing conditions. Conversely, cells possessing a cleavage-deficient UmuDAb were unable to induce gene expression after MMC-mediated DNA damage. This evidence of a UmuDAb repressor mechanism was contrasted with the failure of umuDAb to complement an Escherichia coli umuD mutant for UmuD error-prone DNA replication activity. Similarly, A. baumannii null umuDAb mutant cells did not have a reduced UmuD'2UmuC-mediated mutation rate after DNA damage, suggesting that although this UmuDAb protein may have evolved from a umuDC operon in this genus, it now performs a LexA-like repressor function for a sub-set of DNA damage-induced genes.

  2. Mimicking lipid-binding-induced conformational changes in the human apolipoprotein E N-terminal receptor binding domain effects of low pH and propanol.

    PubMed

    Clément-Collin, V; Leroy, A; Monteilhet, C; Aggerbeck, L P

    1999-09-01

    We studied the effects of n-propanol and pH on the structure of the apolipoprotein E3 N-terminal receptor binding domain, apo E3(1-191), to determine whether conditions similar to those occurring near lipid surfaces (decreased dielectric constant and pH) can mimic lipid-induced conformational changes in apo E3. The addition of 30% n-propanol, at pH 7, induces a conformational change in apo E3(1-191) as shown by changes in the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and by an increase in the Stokes radius of the majority of the protein from 3.0 to 4.1 nm, although the protein remains monomeric as shown by chemical cross-linking. These changes are accompanied by increased resistance to limited proteolysis with trypsin, chymotrypsin, subtilisin and endoproteinase glu-C, as is the case for apo E3(1-191) reconstituted into phospholipid/cholesterol lipid bicelles. Far and near UV circular dichroism showed that n-propanol increases the amount of calculated alpha-helical structure (42-65%) and alters the tertiary structure of the protein although not as much as when apo E3(1-191) is incorporated into lipid bicelles. In the absence of n-propanol, lowering the pH to 4.5 decreases the Stokes radius of the majority of the protein somewhat, with little effect upon the secondary and the tertiary structures. The addition of 30% n-propanol at pH 4.5 increases the Stokes radius of apo E3(1-191) from 2.2 to 5.0 nm, even more than at pH 7 (3.0-4.1 nm) although the protein still remains predominantly monomeric. There is increased resistance to limited proteolysis with endoproteinase glu-C. As assessed by far and near UV circular dichroism, the addition of 30% n-propanol at pH 4.5, in contrast to pH 7, markedly increases the alpha-helical structure and changes the tertiary structure of the protein similarly to that resulting from the incorporation of apo E3(1-191) into lipid bicelles. The results suggest that a combination of n-propanol and low pH in aqueous solutions may be useful as a

  3. Role of the Simian Virus 5 Fusion Protein N-Terminal Coiled-Coil Domain in Folding and Promotion of Membrane Fusion

    PubMed Central

    West, Dava S.; Sheehan, Michael S.; Segeleon, Patrick K.; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2005-01-01

    Formation of a six-helix bundle comprised of three C-terminal heptad repeat regions in antiparallel orientation in the grooves of an N-terminal coiled-coil is critical for promotion of membrane fusion by paramyxovirus fusion (F) proteins. We have examined the effect of mutations in four residues of the N-terminal heptad repeat in the simian virus 5 (SV5) F protein on protein folding, transport, and fusogenic activity. The residues chosen have previously been shown from study of isolated peptides to have differing effects on stability of the N-terminal coiled-coil and six-helix bundle (R. E. Dutch, G. P. Leser, and R. A. Lamb, Virology 254:147-159, 1999). The mutant V154M showed reduced proteolytic cleavage and surface expression, indicating a defect in intracellular transport, though this mutation had no effect when studied in isolated peptides. The mutation I137M, previously shown to lower thermostability of the six-helix bundle, resulted in an F protein which was properly processed and transported to the cell surface but which had reduced fusogenic activity. Finally, mutations at L140M and L161M, previously shown to disrupt α-helix formation of isolated N-1 peptides but not to affect six-helix bundle formation, resulted in F proteins that were properly processed. Interestingly, the L161M mutant showed increased syncytium formation and promoted fusion at lower temperatures than the wild-type F protein. These results indicate that interactions separate from formation of an N-terminal coiled-coil or six-helix bundle are important in the initial folding and transport of the SV5 F protein and that mutations that destabilize the N-terminal coiled-coil can result in stimulation of membrane fusion. PMID:15650180

  4. The N-terminal Region of Chromodomain Helicase DNA-binding Protein 4 (CHD4) Is Essential for Activity and Contains a High Mobility Group (HMG) Box-like-domain That Can Bind Poly(ADP-ribose)*

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ana P. G.; Ryan, Daniel P.; Galanty, Yaron; Low, Jason K. K.; Vandevenne, Marylene; Jackson, Stephen P.; Mackay, Joel P.

    2016-01-01

    Chromodomain Helicase DNA-binding protein 4 (CHD4) is a chromatin-remodeling enzyme that has been reported to regulate DNA-damage responses through its N-terminal region in a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-dependent manner. We have identified and determined the structure of a stable domain (CHD4-N) in this N-terminal region. The-fold consists of a four-α-helix bundle with structural similarity to the high mobility group box, a domain that is well known as a DNA binding module. We show that the CHD4-N domain binds with higher affinity to poly(ADP-ribose) than to DNA. We also show that the N-terminal region of CHD4, although not CHD4-N alone, is essential for full nucleosome remodeling activity and is important for localizing CHD4 to sites of DNA damage. Overall, these data build on our understanding of how CHD4-NuRD acts to regulate gene expression and participates in the DNA-damage response. PMID:26565020

  5. Archaeal flagellin combines a bacterial type IV pilin domain with an Ig-like domain.

    PubMed

    Braun, Tatjana; Vos, Matthijn R; Kalisman, Nir; Sherman, Nicholas E; Rachel, Reinhard; Wirth, Reinhard; Schröder, Gunnar F; Egelman, Edward H

    2016-09-13

    The bacterial flagellar apparatus, which involves ∼40 different proteins, has been a model system for understanding motility and chemotaxis. The bacterial flagellar filament, largely composed of a single protein, flagellin, has been a model for understanding protein assembly. This system has no homology to the eukaryotic flagellum, in which the filament alone, composed of a microtubule-based axoneme, contains more than 400 different proteins. The archaeal flagellar system is simpler still, in some cases having ∼13 different proteins with a single flagellar filament protein. The archaeal flagellar system has no homology to the bacterial one and must have arisen by convergent evolution. However, it has been understood that the N-terminal domain of the archaeal flagellin is a homolog of the N-terminal domain of bacterial type IV pilin, showing once again how proteins can be repurposed in evolution for different functions. Using cryo-EM, we have been able to generate a nearly complete atomic model for a flagellar-like filament of the archaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis from a reconstruction at ∼4-Å resolution. We can now show that the archaeal flagellar filament contains a β-sandwich, previously seen in the FlaF protein that forms the anchor for the archaeal flagellar filament. In contrast to the bacterial flagellar filament, where the outer globular domains make no contact with each other and are not necessary for either assembly or motility, the archaeal flagellin outer domains make extensive contacts with each other that largely determine the interesting mechanical properties of these filaments, allowing these filaments to flex.

  6. Archaeal flagellin combines a bacterial type IV pilin domain with an Ig-like domain

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Tatjana; Vos, Matthijn R.; Kalisman, Nir; Sherman, Nicholas E.; Rachel, Reinhard; Wirth, Reinhard; Schröder, Gunnar F.; Egelman, Edward H.

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial flagellar apparatus, which involves ∼40 different proteins, has been a model system for understanding motility and chemotaxis. The bacterial flagellar filament, largely composed of a single protein, flagellin, has been a model for understanding protein assembly. This system has no homology to the eukaryotic flagellum, in which the filament alone, composed of a microtubule-based axoneme, contains more than 400 different proteins. The archaeal flagellar system is simpler still, in some cases having ∼13 different proteins with a single flagellar filament protein. The archaeal flagellar system has no homology to the bacterial one and must have arisen by convergent evolution. However, it has been understood that the N-terminal domain of the archaeal flagellin is a homolog of the N-terminal domain of bacterial type IV pilin, showing once again how proteins can be repurposed in evolution for different functions. Using cryo-EM, we have been able to generate a nearly complete atomic model for a flagellar-like filament of the archaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis from a reconstruction at ∼4-Å resolution. We can now show that the archaeal flagellar filament contains a β-sandwich, previously seen in the FlaF protein that forms the anchor for the archaeal flagellar filament. In contrast to the bacterial flagellar filament, where the outer globular domains make no contact with each other and are not necessary for either assembly or motility, the archaeal flagellin outer domains make extensive contacts with each other that largely determine the interesting mechanical properties of these filaments, allowing these filaments to flex. PMID:27578865

  7. The N-terminal cleavable pre-sequence encoded in the first exon of cystathionine γ-synthase contains two different functional domains for chloroplast targeting and regulation of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara-Komoda, Yuka; Sugiyama, Tomoya; Yamashita, Yui; Onouchi, Hitoshi; Naito, Satoshi

    2014-10-01

    Chloroplast transit peptide sequences (cTPs) located in the N-terminal region of nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins are essential for their sorting, and are generally cleaved from the proteins after their import into the chloroplasts. The Arabidopsis thaliana cystathionine γ-synthase (CGS), the first committed enzyme of methionine biosynthesis, is a nuclear-encoded chloroplast protein. Arabidopsis CGS possesses an N-terminal extension region that is dispensable for enzymatic activity. This N-terminal extension contains the cTP and several functional domains including an MTO1 region, the cis-element for post-transcriptional feedback regulation of CGS1 that codes for CGS. A previous report suggested that the cTP cleavage site of CGS is located upstream of the MTO1 region. However, the region required for protein sorting has not been analyzed. In this study, we carried out functional analyses to elucidate the region required for chloroplast targeting by using a chimeric protein, Ex1:GFP, in which the CGS1 exon 1 coding region containing the N-terminal extension was tagged with green fluorescent protein. The sequence upstream of the MTO1 region was responsible for efficient chloroplast targeting and for avoidance of missorting to the mitochondria. Our data also showed that the major N-terminus of Ex1:GFP is Ala91, which is located immediately downstream of the MTO1 region, and the MTO1 region is not retained in the mature Ex1:GFP accumulated in the chloroplast. These findings suggest that the N-terminal cleavable pre-sequence harbors dual functions in protein sorting and in regulating gene expression. Our study highlights the unique properties of Arabidopsis CGS cTP among chloroplast-targeted proteins. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. C terminal retroviral-type zinc finger domain from the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein is structurally similar to the N-terminal zinc finger domain

    SciTech Connect

    South, T.L.; Blake, P.R. ); Hare, D.R.; Summers, M.F. )

    1991-06-25

    Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic and computational methods were employed for the structure determination of an 18-residue peptide with the amino acid sequence of the C-terminal retriviral-type (r.t.) zinc finger domain from the nucleocapsid protein (NCP) of HIV-1 (Zn(HIV1-F2)). Unlike results obtained for the first retroviral-type zinc finger peptide, Zn (HIV1-F1) broad signals indicative of confomational lability were observed in the {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of An(HIV1-F2) at 25 C. The NMR signals narrowed upon cooling to {minus}2 C, enabling complete {sup 1}H NMR signal assignment via standard two-dimensional (2D) NMR methods. Distance restraints obtained from qualitative analysis of 2D nuclear Overhauser effect (NOESY) data were sued to generate 30 distance geometry (DG) structures with penalties in the range 0.02-0.03 {angstrom}{sup 2}. All structures were qualitatively consistent with the experimental NOESY spectrum based on comparisons with 2D NOESY back-calculated spectra. These results indicate that the r.t. zinc finger sequences observed in retroviral NCPs, simple plant virus coat proteins, and in a human single-stranded nucleic acid binding protein share a common structural motif.

  9. The N-terminal repeat and the ligand binding domain A of SdrI protein is involved in hydrophobicity of S. saprophyticus.

    PubMed

    Kleine, Britta; Ali, Liaqat; Wobser, Dominique; Sakιnç, Türkân

    2015-03-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is an important cause of urinary tract infection, and its cell surface hydrophobicity may contribute to virulence by facilitating adherence of the organism to uroepithelia. S. saprophyticus expresses the surface protein SdrI, a member of the serine-aspartate repeat (SD) protein family, which has multifunctional properties. The SdrI knock out mutant has a reduced hydrophobicity index (HPI) of 25%, and expressed in the non-hydrophobic Staphylococcus carnosus strain TM300 causes hydrophobicity. Using hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC), we confined the hydrophobic site of SdrI to the N-terminal repeat region. S. saprophyticus strains carrying different plasmid constructs lacking either the N-terminal repeats, both B or SD-repeats were less hydrophobic than wild type and fully complemented SdrI mutant (HPI: 51%). The surface hydrophobicity and HPI of both wild type and the complemented strain were also influenced by calcium (Ca(2+)) and were reduced from 81.3% and 82.4% to 10.9% and 12.3%, respectively. This study confirms that the SdrI protein of S. saprophyticus is a crucial factor for surface hydrophobicity and also gives a first significant functional description of the N-terminal repeats, which in conjunction with the B-repeats form an optimal hydrophobic conformation.

  10. Cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the first two Ig domains from human roundabout 1 (Robo1).

    PubMed

    Morlot, Cecile; Hemrika, Wieger; Romijn, Roland A; Gros, Piet; Cusack, Stephen; McCarthy, Andrew A

    2007-08-01

    Activation of Roundabout 1 (Robo1) by Slit proteins results in axon repulsion from the midline. Robo1 is a large transmembrane receptor expressed on the axon growth cone and the minimal Robo1-binding region required for Slit activation has been mapped to the N-terminal Ig1-2 domains. The cDNA encoding the first two Ig domains of Robo1 has been cloned and the protein has been expressed in HEK293 EBNA-1 mammalian cells. Here, the purification and crystallization conditions of this Robo1 construct are reported. The crystals are orthorhombic, space group P2(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.8, b = 69.4, c = 103.3 A and one molecule in the asymmetric unit. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 2.8 A resolution on beamline ID29 at the ESRF.

  11. A single immunoglobulin-domain IgSF protein from Sciaenops ocellatus regulates pathogen-induced immune response in a negative manner.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shun-feng; Hu, Yong-hua; Sun, Bo-guang; Zhang, Min; Chi, Heng; Sun, Li

    2012-09-01

    The immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) is a large group of cell surface proteins that include various immunoregulatory receptors such as novel immune type receptors (NITRs), which are a family of diversified proteins found exclusively in bony fish. In this study, we identified and analyzed an IgSF protein, SoIgSF1, from red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). SoIgSF1 is composed of 225 amino acid residues and moderately related to teleost NITRs. In silico analysis indicated that SoIgSF1 is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein and contains an N-terminal signal peptide sequence, a single extracellular immunoglobulin V domain, a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic region. However, unlike most NITRs, the cytoplasmic region of SoIgSF1 exhibits no consensus inhibitory or stimulatory signaling sequences but has two tyrosine-containing motifs that conform to the right-half sequence of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM). Quantitative real time RT-PCR analysis showed that SoIgSF1 expression occurred mainly in immune organs and was drastically induced by viral and bacterial infection. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that viral infection of head kidney (HK) leukocytes induced surface expression of SoIgSF1, which was able to interact with antibodies against recombinant SoIgSF1. Antibody cross-linking of SoIgSF1 on HK leukocytes inhibited the expression of immune relevant genes and promoted viral and bacterial infection. Taken together, these results indicate that SoIgSF1, though lacking canonical intracellular signaling motifs, is involved in regulation of host immune response during pathogen infection possibly by functioning as a negative signaling receptor through a novel mechanism.

  12. Domain one of the high affinity IgE receptor, FcepsilonRI, regulates binding to IgE through its interface with domain two.

    PubMed

    Rigby, L J; Epa, V C; Mackay, G A; Hulett, M D; Sutton, B J; Gould, H J; Hogarth, P M

    2000-03-31

    The high affinity receptor for IgE, FcepsilonRI, binds IgE through the second Ig-like domain of the alpha subunit. The role of the first Ig-like domain is not well understood, but it is required for optimal binding of IgE to FcepsilonRI, either through a minor contact interaction or in a supporting structural capacity. The results reported here demonstrate that domain one of FcepsilonRI plays a major structural role supporting the presentation of the ligand-binding site, by interactions generated within the interdomain interface. Analysis of a series of chimeric receptors and point mutants indicated that specific residues within the A' strand of domain one are crucial to the maintenance of the interdomain interface, and IgE binding. Mutation of the Arg(15) and Phe(17) residues caused loss in ligand binding, and utilizing a homology model of FcepsilonRI-alpha based on the solved structure of FcgammaRIIa, it appears likely that this decrease is brought about by collapse of the interface and consequently the IgE-binding site. In addition discrepancies in results of previous studies using chimeric IgE receptors comprising FcepsilonRIalpha with either FcgammaRIIa or FcgammaRIIIA can be explained by the presence or absence of Arg(15) and its influence on the IgE-binding site. The data presented here suggest that the second domain of FcepsilonRI-alpha is the only domain involved in direct contact with the IgE ligand and that domain one has a structural function of great importance in maintaining the integrity of the interdomain interface and, through it, the ligand-binding site.

  13. Functional Roles of the Non-Catalytic Calcium-Binding Sites in the N-Terminal Domain of Human Peptidylarginine Deiminase 4

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi-Liang; Tsai, I-Chen; Chang, Chia-Wei; Liao, Ya-Fan; Liu, Guang-Yaw; Hung, Hui-Chih

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the functional roles of the N-terminal Ca2+ ion-binding sites, in terms of enzyme catalysis and stability, of peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4). Amino acid residues located in the N-terminal Ca2+-binding site of PAD4 were mutated to disrupt the binding of Ca2+ ions. Kinetic data suggest that Asp155, Asp157 and Asp179, which directly coordinate Ca3 and Ca4, are essential for catalysis in PAD4. For D155A, D157A and D179A, the kcat/Km,BAEE values were 0.02, 0.63 and 0.01 s−1mM−1 (20.8 s−1mM−1 for WT), respectively. Asn153 and Asp176 are directly coordinated with Ca3 and indirectly coordinated with Ca5 via a water molecule. However, N153A displayed low enzymatic activity with a kcat value of 0.3 s−1 (13.3 s−1 for wild-type), whereas D176A retained some catalytic power with a kcat of 9.7 s−1. Asp168 is the direct ligand for Ca5, and Ca5 coordination by Glu252 is mediated by two water molecules. However, mutation of these two residues to Ala did not cause a reduction in the kcat/Km,BAEE values, which indicates that the binding of Ca5 may not be required for PAD4 enzymatic activity. The possible conformational changes of these PAD4 mutants were examined. Thermal stability analysis of the PAD4 mutants in the absence or presence of Ca2+ indicated that the conformational stability of the enzyme is highly dependent on Ca2+ ions. In addition, the results of urea-induced denaturation for the N153, D155, D157 and D179 series mutants further suggest that the binding of Ca2+ ions in the N-terminal Ca2+-binding site stabilizes the overall conformational stability of PAD4. Therefore, our data strongly suggest that the N-terminal Ca2+ ions play critical roles in the full activation of the PAD4 enzyme. PMID:23382808

  14. Functional roles of the non-catalytic calcium-binding sites in the N-terminal domain of human peptidylarginine deiminase 4.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Liang; Tsai, I-Chen; Chang, Chia-Wei; Liao, Ya-Fan; Liu, Guang-Yaw; Hung, Hui-Chih

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the functional roles of the N-terminal Ca(2+) ion-binding sites, in terms of enzyme catalysis and stability, of peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4). Amino acid residues located in the N-terminal Ca(2+)-binding site of PAD4 were mutated to disrupt the binding of Ca(2+) ions. Kinetic data suggest that Asp155, Asp157 and Asp179, which directly coordinate Ca3 and Ca4, are essential for catalysis in PAD4. For D155A, D157A and D179A, the k(cat)/K(m,BAEE) values were 0.02, 0.63 and 0.01 s(-1)mM(-1) (20.8 s(-1)mM(-1) for WT), respectively. Asn153 and Asp176 are directly coordinated with Ca3 and indirectly coordinated with Ca5 via a water molecule. However, N153A displayed low enzymatic activity with a k(cat) value of 0.3 s(-1) (13.3 s(-1) for wild-type), whereas D176A retained some catalytic power with a k(cat) of 9.7 s(-1). Asp168 is the direct ligand for Ca5, and Ca5 coordination by Glu252 is mediated by two water molecules. However, mutation of these two residues to Ala did not cause a reduction in the k(cat)/K(m,BAEE) values, which indicates that the binding of Ca5 may not be required for PAD4 enzymatic activity. The possible conformational changes of these PAD4 mutants were examined. Thermal stability analysis of the PAD4 mutants in the absence or presence of Ca(2+) indicated that the conformational stability of the enzyme is highly dependent on Ca(2+) ions. In addition, the results of urea-induced denaturation for the N153, D155, D157 and D179 series mutants further suggest that the binding of Ca(2+) ions in the N-terminal Ca(2+)-binding site stabilizes the overall conformational stability of PAD4. Therefore, our data strongly suggest that the N-terminal Ca(2+) ions play critical roles in the full activation of the PAD4 enzyme.

  15. A conserved motif N-terminal to the DNA-binding domains of myogenic bHLH transcription factors mediates cooperative DNA binding with pbx-Meis1/Prep1.

    PubMed

    Knoepfler, P S; Bergstrom, D A; Uetsuki, T; Dac-Korytko, I; Sun, Y H; Wright, W E; Tapscott, S J; Kamps, M P

    1999-09-15

    The t(1;19) chromosomal translocation of pediatric pre-B cell leukemia produces chimeric oncoprotein E2a-Pbx1, which contains the N-terminal transactivation domain of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, E2a, joined to the majority of the homeodomain protein, Pbx1. There are three Pbx family members, which bind DNA as heterodimers with both broadly expressed Meis/Prep1 homeo-domain proteins and specifically expressed Hox homeodomain proteins. These Pbx heterodimers can augment the function of transcriptional activators bound to adjacent elements. In heterodimers, a conserved tryptophan motif in Hox proteins binds a pocket on the surface of the Pbx homeodomain, while Meis/Prep1 proteins bind an N-terminal Pbx domain, raising the possibility that the tryptophan-interaction pocket of the Pbx component of a Pbx-Meis/Prep1 complex is still available to bind trypto-phan motifs of other transcription factors bound to flanking elements. Here, we report that Pbx-Meis1/Prep1 binds DNA cooperatively with heterodimers of E2a and MyoD, myogenin, Mrf-4 or Myf-5. As with Hox proteins, a highly conserved tryptophan motif N-terminal to the DNA-binding domains of each myogenic bHLH family protein is required for cooperative DNA binding with Pbx-Meis1/Prep1. In vivo, MyoD requires this tryptophan motif to evoke chromatin remodeling in the Myogenin promoter and to activate Myogenin transcription. Pbx-Meis/Prep1 complexes, therefore, have the potential to cooperate with the myogenic bHLH proteins in regulating gene transcription.

  16. Mitotic lifecycle of chromosomal 3xHMG-box proteins and the role of their N-terminal domain in the association with rDNA loci and proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Antosch, Martin; Schubert, Veit; Holzinger, Philipp; Houben, Andreas; Grasser, Klaus D

    2015-12-01

    The high mobility group (HMG)-box is a DNA-binding domain characteristic of various eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. 3xHMG-box proteins (containing three copies of the HMG-box domain and a unique basic N-terminal domain) are specific for plants and the Arabidopsis genome encodes two versions termed 3xHMG-box1 and 3xHMG-box2, whose expression is cell cycle-dependent, peaking during mitosis. Here, we analysed in detail the spatiotemporal expression, subcellular localisation and chromosome association of the Arabidopsis thaliana 3xHMG-box proteins. Live cell imaging and structured illumination microscopy revealed that the expression of the 3xHMG-box proteins is induced in late G2 phase of the cell cycle and upon nuclear envelope breakdown in prophase they rapidly associate with the chromosomes. 3xHMG-box1 associates preferentially with 45S rDNA loci and the basic N-terminal domain is involved in the targeting of rDNA loci. Shortly after mitosis the 3xHMG-box proteins are degraded and an N-terminal destruction-box mediates the proteolysis. Ectopic expression/localisation of 3xHMG-box1 in interphase nuclei results in reduced plant growth and various developmental defects including early bolting and abnormal flower morphology. The remarkable conservation of 3xHMG-box proteins within the plant kingdom, their characteristic expression during mitosis, and their striking association with chromosomes, suggest that they play a role in the organisation of plant mitotic chromosomes.

  17. Purification and characterization of recombinant sugarcane sucrose phosphate synthase expressed in E. coli and insect Sf9 cells: an importance of the N-terminal domain for an allosteric regulatory property.

    PubMed

    Sawitri, Widhi Dyah; Narita, Hirotaka; Ishizaka-Ikeda, Etsuko; Sugiharto, Bambang; Hase, Toshiharu; Nakagawa, Atsushi

    2016-06-01

    Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) catalyses the transfer of glycosyl group of uridine diphosphate glucose to fructose-6-phosphate to form sucrose-6-phosphate. Plant SPS plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon metabolisms, which activity is modulated by an allosteric activator glucose-6-phosphate (G6P). We produced recombinant sugarcane SPS using Escherichia coli and Sf9 insect cells to investigate its structure-function relationship. When expressed in E. coli, two forms of SPS with different sizes appeared; the larger was comparable in size with the authentic plant enzyme and the shorter was trimmed the N-terminal 20 kDa region off. In the insect cells, only enzyme with the authentic size was produced. We purified the trimmed SPS and the full size enzyme from insect cells and found their enzymatic properties differed significantly; the full size enzyme was activated allosterically by G6P, while the trimmed one showed a high activity even without G6P. We further introduced a series of N-terminal truncations up to 171 residue and found G6P-independent activity was enhanced by the truncation. These combined results indicated that the N-terminal region of sugarcane SPS is crucial for the allosteric regulation by G6P and may function like a suppressor domain for the enzyme activity. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  18. The retinal specific CD147 Ig0 domain: from molecular structure to biological activity

    SciTech Connect

    Redzic, Jasmina S.; Armstrong, Geoffrey S.; Isern, Nancy G.; Jones, David N.M.; Kieft, Jeffrey S.; Eisenmesser, Elan Z.

    2011-06-18

    CD147 is a type I transmembrane protein that is involved in inflammatory diseases, cancer progression, and multiple human pathogens utilize CD147 for efficient infection. In several cancers, CD147 expression is so high that it is now used as a prognostic marker. The two primary isoforms of CD147 that are related to cancer progression have been identified, differing in their number of immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains. These include CD147 Ig1-Ig2 that is ubiquitously expressed in most tissues and CD147 Ig0-Ig1-Ig2 that is retinal specific and implicated in retinoblastoma. However, little is known in regard to the retinal specific CD147 Ig0 domain despite its potential role in retinoblastoma. Thus, here we have extensively characterized the CD147 Ig0 domain by elucidating its three-dimensional structure through crystallography and its solution behavior through several biophysical methods that include nuclear magnetic resonance. Furthermore, we have utilized this data together with mutagenesis to probe the biological activity of CD147-containing proteins both with and without the CD147 Ig0 domain within several model cell lines. Our findings reveal that the CD147 Ig0 domain is a potent stimulator of interleukin-6, which is a well-known contributor to retinoblastoma and suggest that the CD147 Ig0 domain has its own receptor distinct from that of the other CD147 Ig-like domains, CD147 Ig1-Ig2. Furthermore, we show that the CD147 Ig0 dimer is the functional unit required for activity and can be disrupted by a single point mutation.

  19. The structure of S . lividans acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase shows a novel interaction between the C-terminal extension and the N-terminal domain

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Carter A.; Tucker, Alex C.; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.; Gulick, Andrew M.

    2014-12-09

    The adenosine monoposphate-forming acyl-CoA synthetase enzymes catalyze a two-step reaction that involves the initial formation of an acyl adenylate that reacts in a second partial reaction to form a thioester between the acyl substrate and CoA. These enzymes utilize a Domain Alternation catalytic mechanism, whereby a ~110 residue C-terminal domain rotates by 140° to form distinct catalytic conformations for the two partial reactions. In this paper, the structure of an acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase (AacS) is presented that illustrates a novel aspect of this C-terminal domain. Specifically, several acetyl- and acetoacetyl-CoA synthetases contain a 30-residue extension on the C-terminus compared to other members of this family. Finally, whereas residues from this extension are disordered in prior structures, the AacS structure shows that residues from this extension may interact with key catalytic residues from the N-terminal domain.

  20. Negative regulation of the Nrf1 transcription factor by its N-terminal domain is independent of Keap1: Nrf1, but not Nrf2, is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiguo; Crouch, Dorothy H.; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Hayes, John D.

    2006-01-01

    Nrf1 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 subunit-related factor 1) and Nrf2 regulate ARE (antioxidant response element)-driven genes. At its N-terminal end, Nrf1 contains 155 additional amino acids that are absent from Nrf2. This 155-amino-acid polypeptide includes the N-terminal domain (NTD, amino acids 1–124) and a region (amino acids 125–155) that is part of acidic domain 1 (amino acids 125–295). Within acidic domain 1, residues 156–242 share 43% identity with the Neh2 (Nrf2-ECH homology 2) degron of Nrf2 that serves to destabilize this latter transcription factor through an interaction with Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1). We have examined the function of the 155-amino-acid N-terminal polypeptide in Nrf1, along with its adjacent Neh2-like subdomain. Activation of ARE-driven genes by Nrf1 was negatively controlled by the NTD (N-terminal domain) through its ability to direct Nrf1 to the endoplasmic reticulum. Ectopic expression of wild-type Nrf1 and mutants lacking either the NTD or portions of its Neh2-like subdomain into wild-type and mutant mouse embryonic fibroblasts indicated that Keap1 controls neither the activity of Nrf1 nor its subcellular distribution. Immunocytochemistry showed that whereas Nrf1 gave primarily cytoplasmic staining that was co-incident with that of an endoplasmic-reticulum marker, Nrf2 gave primarily nuclear staining. Attachment of the NTD from Nrf1 to the N-terminus of Nrf2 produced a fusion protein that was redirected from the nucleus to the endoplasmic reticulum. Although this NTD–Nrf2 fusion protein exhibited less transactivation activity than wild-type Nrf2, it was nevertheless still negatively regulated by Keap1. Thus Nrf1 and Nrf2 are targeted to different subcellular compartments and are negatively regulated by distinct mechanisms. PMID:16872277

  1. The crystal structure of a bacterial Sufu-like protein defines a novel group of bacterial proteins that are similar to the N-terminal domain of human Sufu

    PubMed Central

    Das, Debanu; Finn, Robert D; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Cai, Xiaohui; Carlton, Dennis; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Chiu, Michelle; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Farr, Carol L; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C; Grzechnik, Anna; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K; Klock, Heath E; Knuth, Mark W; Kozbial, Piotr; Sri Krishna, S; Kumar, Abhinav; Lam, Winnie W; Marciano, David; Miller, Mitchell D; Morse, Andrew T; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Tien, Henry J; Trame, Christine B; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Wooten, Tiffany; Xu, Qingping; Yeh, Andrew; Zhou, Jiadong; Hodgson, Keith O; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A; Wilson, Ian A

    2010-01-01

    Sufu (Suppressor of Fused), a two-domain protein, plays a critical role in regulating Hedgehog signaling and is conserved from flies to humans. A few bacterial Sufu-like proteins have previously been identified based on sequence similarity to the N-terminal domain of eukaryotic Sufu proteins, but none have been structurally or biochemically characterized and their function in bacteria is unknown. We have determined the crystal structure of a more distantly related Sufu-like homolog, NGO1391 from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, at 1.4 Å resolution, which provides the first biophysical characterization of a bacterial Sufu-like protein. The structure revealed a striking similarity to the N-terminal domain of human Sufu (r.m.s.d. of 2.6 Å over 93% of the NGO1391 protein), despite an extremely low sequence identity of ∼15%. Subsequent sequence analysis revealed that NGO1391 defines a new subset of smaller, Sufu-like proteins that are present in ∼200 bacterial species and has resulted in expansion of the SUFU (PF05076) family in Pfam. PMID:20836087

  2. Prion protein complexed to N2a cellular RNAs through its N-terminal domain forms aggregates and is toxic to murine neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Mariana P B; Millen, Thiago A; Ferreira, Priscila S; e Silva, Narcisa L Cunha; Vieira, Tuane C R G; Almeida, Marcius S; Silva, Jerson L; Cordeiro, Yraima

    2008-07-11

    Conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into its altered conformation, PrP(Sc), is believed to be the major cause of prion diseases. Although PrP is the only identified agent for these diseases, there is increasing evidence that other molecules can modulate the conversion. We have found that interaction of PrP with double-stranded DNA leads to a protein with higher beta-sheet content and characteristics similar to those of PrP(Sc). RNA molecules can also interact with PrP and potentially modulate PrP(C) to PrP(Sc) conversion or even bind differentially to both PrP isoforms. Here, we investigated the interaction of recombinant murine PrP with synthetic RNA sequences and with total RNA extracted from cultured neuroblastoma cells (N2aRNA). We found that PrP interacts with N2aRNA with nanomolar affinity, aggregates upon this interaction, and forms species partially resistant to proteolysis. RNA does not bind to N-terminal deletion mutants of PrP, indicating that the N-terminal region is important for this process. Cell viability assays showed that only the N2aRNA extract induces PrP-RNA aggregates that can alter the homeostasis of cultured cells. Small RNAs bound to PrP give rise to nontoxic small oligomers. Nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of the PrP-RNA complex revealed structural changes in PrP, but most of its native fold is maintained. These results indicate that there is selectivity in the species generated by interaction with different molecules of RNA. The catalytic effect of RNA on the PrP(C)-->PrP(Sc) conversion depends on the RNA sequence, and small RNA molecules may exert a protective effect.

  3. Studies of the structure of the N-terminal domain from the Y4 receptor - a G protein-coupled receptor - and its interaction with hormones from the NPY family.

    PubMed

    Zou, Chao; Kumaran, Sowmini; Markovic, Stefan; Walser, Reto; Zerbe, Oliver

    2008-09-22

    Binding of peptide hormones to G protein-coupled receptors is believed to be mediated through formation of contacts of the ligands with residues of the extracellular loops of family 1 GPCRs. Here we have investigated whether additional binding sites exist within the N-terminal domain, as studied in the form of binding of peptides from the neuropeptide Y (NPY) family to the N terminus of the Y4 receptor (N-Y4). The N-terminal domain of the Y4 receptor has been expressed in isotopically enriched form and studied by solution NMR spectroscopy. The peptide is unstructured in solution, whereas a micelle-associated helical segment is formed in the presence of dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) or sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). As measured by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, N-Y4 binds with approximately 50 microM affinity to the pancreatic polypeptide (PP), a high-affinity ligand to the Y4 receptor, whereas binding to neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peptide YY (PYY) is much weaker. Residues critical for binding in PP and in N-Y4 have been identified by site-directed mutagenesis. The data indicate that electrostatic interactions dominate and that this interaction is mediated by acidic ligand and basic receptor residues. Residues of N-Y4 are likely to contribute to the binding of PP, and in addition might possibly also help to transfer the hormone from the membrane-bound state into the receptor binding pocket.

  4. Dissecting the multifunctional role of the N-terminal domain of the Melon necrotic spot virus coat protein in RNA packaging, viral movement and interference with antiviral plant defence.

    PubMed

    Serra-Soriano, Marta; Antonio Navarro, José; Pallás, Vicente

    2017-08-01

    The coat protein (CP) of Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) is structurally composed of three major domains. The middle S-domain builds a robust protein shell around the viral genome, whereas the C-terminal protruding domain, or P-domain, is involved in the attachment of virions to the transmission vector. Here, we have shown that the N-terminal domain, or R-domain, and the arm region, which connects the R-domain and S-domain, are involved in different key steps of the viral cycle, such as cell-to-cell movement and the suppression of RNA silencing and pathogenesis through their RNA-binding capabilities. Deletion mutants revealed that the CP RNA-binding ability was abolished only after complete, but not partial, deletion of the R-domain and the arm region. However, a comparison of the apparent dissociation constants for the CP RNA-binding reaction of several partial deletion mutants showed that the arm region played a more relevant role than the R-domain in in vitro RNA binding. Similar results were obtained in in vivo assays, although, in this case, full-length CPs were required to encapsidate full-length genomes. We also found that the R-domain carboxyl portion and the arm region were essential for efficient cell-to-cell movement, for enhancement of Potato virus X pathogenicity, for suppression of systemic RNA silencing and for binding of small RNAs. Therefore, unlike other carmovirus CPs, the R-domain and the arm region of MNSV CP have acquired, in addition to other essential functions such as genome binding and encapsidation functions, the ability to suppress RNA silencing by preventing systemic small RNA transport. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  5. The N-Terminal Non-Kinase-Domain-Mediated Binding of Haspin to Pds5B Protects Centromeric Cohesion in Mitosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Linli; Liang, Cai; Chen, Qinfu; Zhang, Zhenlei; Zhang, Bo; Yan, Haiyan; Qi, Feifei; Zhang, Miao; Yi, Qi; Guan, Youchen; Xiang, Xingfeng; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Ye, Sheng; Wang, Fangwei

    2017-04-03

    Sister-chromatid cohesion, mediated by the multi-subunit cohesin complex, must be precisely regulated to prevent chromosome mis-segregation. In prophase and prometaphase, whereas the bulk of cohesin on chromosome arms is removed by its antagonist Wapl, cohesin at centromeres is retained to ensure chromosome biorientation until anaphase onset. It remains incompletely understood how centromeric cohesin is protected against Wapl in mitosis. Here we show that the mitotic histone kinase Haspin binds to the cohesin regulatory subunit Pds5B through a conserved YGA/R motif in its non-catalytic N terminus, which is similar to the recently reported YSR-motif-dependent binding of Wapl to Pds5B. Knockout of Haspin or disruption of Haspin-Pds5B interaction causes weakened centromeric cohesion and premature chromatid separation, which can be reverted by centromeric targeting of a N-terminal short fragment of Haspin containing the Pds5B-binding motif or by prevention of Wapl-dependent cohesin removal. Conversely, excessive Haspin capable of binding Pds5B displaces Wapl from Pds5B and suppresses Wapl activity, and it largely bypasses the Wapl antagonist Sgo1 for cohesion protection. Taken together, these data indicate that the Haspin-Pds5B interaction is required to ensure proper sister-chromatid cohesion, most likely through antagonizing Wapl-mediated cohesin release from mitotic centromeres.

  6. Functional role of the N-terminal domain of ΔFosB in response to stress and drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Y N; Ohnishi, Y H; Vialou, V; Mouzon, E; LaPlant, Q; Nishi, A; Nestler, E J

    2015-01-22

    Previous work has implicated the transcription factor, ΔFosB, acting in the nucleus accumbens, in mediating the pro-rewarding effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine as well as in mediating resilience to chronic social stress. However, the transgenic and viral gene transfer models used to establish these ΔFosB phenotypes express, in addition to ΔFosB, an alternative translation product of ΔFosB mRNA, termed Δ2ΔFosB, which lacks the N-terminal 78 aa present in ΔFosB. To study the possible contribution of Δ2ΔFosB to these drug and stress phenotypes, we prepared a viral vector that overexpresses a point mutant form of ΔFosB mRNA which cannot undergo alternative translation as well as a vector that overexpresses Δ2ΔFosB alone. Our results show that the mutant form of ΔFosB, when overexpressed in the nucleus accumbens, reproduces the enhancement of reward and of resilience seen with our earlier models, with no effects seen for Δ2ΔFosB. Overexpression of full length FosB, the other major product of the FosB gene, also has no effect. These findings confirm the unique role of ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens in controlling responses to drugs of abuse and stress.

  7. Interaction of the N-Terminal Tandem Domains of hnRNP LL with the BCL2 Promoter i-Motif DNA Sequence.

    PubMed

    Lannes, Laurie; Young, Phoebe; Richter, Christian; Morgner, Nina; Schwalbe, Harald

    2017-08-14

    The human genome contains GC-rich sequences able to form tetraplex secondary structures known as the G-quadruplex and i-motif. Such sequences are notably present in the promoter region of oncogenes and are proposed to function as regulatory elements of gene expression. The P1 promoter of BCL2 contains a 39-mer C-rich sequence (Py39wt) that can fold into a hairpin or an i-motif in a pH-dependent manner in vitro. The protein hnRNP LL was identified to recognise the i-motif over the hairpin conformation and act as an activating transcription factor. Thus, the Py39wt sequence would act as an ON/OFF switch, according to the secondary structure adopted. Herein, a structural study of the interaction between hnRNP LL and Py39wt is reported. Both N-terminal RNA recognition motifs (RRM12) cooperatively recognise one Py39wt DNA sequence and engage their β-sheet to form a large binding platform. In contrast, the C-terminal RRMs show no binding capacity. It is observed that RRM12 binds to Py39wt regardless of the DNA conformation. We propose that RRM12 recognises a single-stranded CTCCC element present in loop 1 of the i-motif and in the apical loop of the hairpin conformation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of the N-terminal calmodulin-like domain of the human mitochondrial ATP-Mg/Pi carrier SCaMC1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qin; Brüschweiler, Sven; Chou, James J

    2014-01-01

    SCaMC is an ATP-Mg/Pi carrier protein located at the mitochondrial inner membrane. SCaMC has an unusual N-terminal Ca(2+)-binding domain (NTD) in addition to its characteristic six-helix transmembrane bundle. The NTD of human SCaMC1 (residues 1-193) was expressed and purified in order to study its role in Ca(2+)-regulated ATP-Mg/Pi transport mediated by its transmembrane domain. While Ca(2+)-bound NTD could be crystallized, the apo state resisted extensive crystallization trials. Selenomethionine-labeled Ca(2+)-bound NTD crystals, which belonged to space group P6(2)22 with one molecule per asymmetric unit, diffracted X-rays to 2.9 Å resolution.

  9. N-Terminal Domain of Nuclear IL-1α Shows Structural Similarity to the C-Terminal Domain of Snf1 and Binds to the HAT/Core Module of the SAGA Complex

    PubMed Central

    Zamostna, Blanka; Novak, Josef; Vopalensky, Vaclav; Masek, Tomas; Burysek, Ladislav; Pospisek, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin-1α (IL-1α) is a proinflammatory cytokine and a key player in host immune responses in higher eukaryotes. IL-1α has pleiotropic effects on a wide range of cell types, and it has been extensively studied for its ability to contribute to various autoimmune and inflammation-linked disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease, systemic sclerosis and cardiovascular disorders. Interestingly, a significant proportion of IL-1α is translocated to the cell nucleus, in which it interacts with histone acetyltransferase complexes. Despite the importance of IL-1α, little is known regarding its binding targets and functions in the nucleus. We took advantage of the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes being evolutionarily conserved from yeast to humans and the yeast SAGA complex serving as an epitome of the eukaryotic HAT complexes. Using gene knock-out technique and co-immunoprecipitation of the IL-1α precursor with TAP-tagged subunits of the yeast HAT complexes, we mapped the IL-1α-binding site to the HAT/Core module of the SAGA complex. We also predicted the 3-D structure of the IL-1α N-terminal domain, and by employing structure similarity searches, we found a similar structure in the C-terminal regulatory region of the catalytic subunit of the AMP-activated/Snf1 protein kinases, which interact with HAT complexes both in mammals and yeast, respectively. This finding is further supported with the ability of the IL-1α precursor to partially rescue growth defects of snf1Δ yeast strains on media containing 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT), a competitive inhibitor of His3. Finally, the careful evaluation of our data together with other published data in the field allows us to hypothesize a new function for the ADA complex in SAGA complex assembly. PMID:22879895

  10. Ig-like domains on bacteriophages: a tale of promiscuity and deceit.

    PubMed

    Fraser, James S; Yu, Zhou; Maxwell, Karen L; Davidson, Alan R

    2006-06-02

    The immunoglobulin (Ig) fold is one of the most important structures in biology, playing essential roles in the vertebrate immune response, cell adhesion, and many other processes. Through bioinformatic analysis, we have discovered that Ig-like domains are often found in the constituent proteins of tailed double-stranded (ds) DNA bacteriophage particles, and are likely displayed on the surface of these viruses. These phage Ig-like domains fall into three distinct sequence families, which are similar to the classic immunoglobulin domain (I-Set), the fibronectin type 3 repeat (FN3), and the bacterial Ig-like domain (Big2). The phage Ig-like domains are very promiscuous. They are attached to more than ten different functional classes of proteins, and found in all three morphogenetic classes of tailed dsDNA phages. In addition, they reside in phages that infect a diverse set of gram negative and gram positive bacteria. These domains are deceptive because many are added to larger proteins through programmed ribosomal frameshifting, so that they are not always detected by standard protein sequence searching procedures. In addition, the presence of unrecognized Ig-like domains in a variety of phage proteins with different functions has led to gene misannotation. Our results demonstrate that horizontal gene transfer involving Ig-like domain encoding DNA has occurred commonly between diverse classes of both lytic and temperate phages, which otherwise display very limited sequence similarities to one another. We suggest that phage may have been an important vector in the spread of Ig-like domains through diverse species of bacteria. While the function of the phage Ig-like domains is unknown, several lines of evidence suggest that they may play an accessory role in phage infection by weakly interacting with carbohydrates on the bacterial cell surface.

  11. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein 3C binds to the N-terminal (NTD) and beta trefoil domains (BTD) of RBP/CSL; Only the NTD interaction is essential for lymphoblastoid cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Calderwood, Michael A.; Lee, Sungwook; Holthaus, Amy M.; Blacklow, Stephen C.; Kieff, Elliott; Johannsen, Eric

    2011-05-25

    Association of EBV nuclear proteins EBNA2, EBNA3A and EBNA3C with RBP/CSL, is essential for lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) proliferation. Conserved residues in the EBNA3 homology domain, required for RBP/CSL interaction, lack the W{Phi}P motif that mediates EBNA2 and Notch binding to the RBP/CSL beta-trefoil domain (BTD). We map RBP/CSL interacting residues within EBNA3A(aa128-204) and EBNA3C(aa211-233). The EBNA3A results are consistent with an earlier report (aa125-222), but the EBNA3C domain is unexpectedly small and includes a 'WTP' sequence. This EBNA3C WTP motif confers RBP/CSL binding in vitro, in yeast, and in mammalian cells. Further, an EBNA3C WTP {yields} STP(W227S) mutation impaired BTD binding whereas EBNA3 homology domain mutations disrupted RBP/CSL N-terminal domain (NTD) binding. WTP was not essential for EBNA3C repression of EBNA2 in reporter assays or for maintenance of LCL growth. Our results indicate that EBNA3 proteins interact with multiple RBP/CSL domains, but only NTD interactions are required for LCL growth.

  12. Conformational studies of the N-terminal lipid-associating domain of human apolipoprotein C-I by CD and 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Rozek, A.; Buchko, G. W.; Kanda, P.; Cushley, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    A peptide comprising the N-terminal 38 residues of human apolipoprotein C-I (apoC-I(1-38)) was synthesized using solid-phase methods and its solution conformation studied by CD and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The CD data indicate that apoC-I(1-38) has a similar helical content (55%) in the presence of saturating amounts of SDS or egg yolk lysophosphatidylcholine. A structural ensemble of SDS-bound apoC-I(1-38) was calculated from 464 NOE-based distance restraints using distance geometry methods. ApoC-I(1-38) adopts a helical structure between residues V4 and K30 and an extended C-terminus from Q31 when associated with SDS. The region K12-G15 undergoes slow conformational exchange as indicated by above-average amide resonance linewidths, large temperature coefficients, and fast exchange (< 2 h) of backbone amide protons with deuterium. The mobility of K12-G15 is reflected in the poorly defined dihedral angles of K12 and E13 in the calculated ensemble of structures. The average structure of apoC-I(1-38) is curved toward its hydrophobic face with bends of 125 degrees, centered at K12/E13, and 150 degrees, centered at K21. This curvature appears to be driven by the interaction of two hydrophobic clusters, one formed by residues L8, L11, F14, and L18, and the other by L25, I26, and I29, with the amphiphile SDS. Based on our present structural definition of apoC-I(1-38) and the previously obtained structure of the fragment apoC-I(35-53), we propose the secondary structure of intact apolipoprotein C-I. PMID:9300485

  13. Protein production, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of two isoforms of the Dscam1 Ig7 domain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu-Ang; Cheng, Linna; Yu, Yamei; Chen, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 (Dscam1) plays a critical role in neural development. It can potentially form 38 016 isoforms through alternative RNA splicing, and exhibits isoform-specific homophilic interaction through three variable Ig domains (Ig2, Ig3 and Ig7). The diversity and homophilic interaction are essential for its functions. Ig7 has 33 isoforms and is the most variable among the three variable Ig domains. However, only one isoform of Ig7 (isoform 30) has been structurally determined to date. Here, two isoforms of Dscam1 Ig7 (isoforms 5 and 9; Ig75 and Ig79) were produced and crystallized. Diffraction data from Ig75 and Ig79 crystals were processed to resolutions of 1.95 and 2.37 Å, respectively. Comparison of different Dscam1 Ig7 isoforms will provide insight into the mechanism of its binding specificity. PMID:25760710

  14. The catalytic subunit of Dictyostelium cAMP-dependent protein kinase -- role of the N-terminal domain and of the C-terminal residues in catalytic activity and stability.

    PubMed

    Etchebehere, L C; Van Bemmelen, M X; Anjard, C; Traincard, F; Assemat, K; Reymond, C; Véron, M

    1997-09-15

    The C subunit of Dictyostelium cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is unusually large (73 kDa) due to the presence of 330 amino acids N-terminal to the conserved catalytic core. The sequence following the core, including a C-terminal -Phe-Xaa-Xaa-Phe-COOH motif, is highly conserved. We have characterized the catalytic activity and stability of C subunits mutated in sequences outside the catalytic core and we have analyzed their ability to interact with the R subunit and with the heat-stable protein-kinase inhibitor PKI. Mutants carrying deletions in the N-terminal domain displayed little difference in their kinetic properties and retained their capacity to be inhibited by R subunit and by PKI. In contrast, the mutation of one or both of the phenylalanine residues in the C-terminal motif resulted in a decrease of catalytic activity and stability of the proteins. Inhibition by the R subunit or by PKI were however unaffected. Sequence-comparison analysis of other protein kinases revealed that a -Phe-Xaa-Xaa-Phe- motif is present in many Ser/Thr protein kinases, although its location at the very end of the polypeptide is a particular feature of the PKA family. We propose that the presence of this motif may serve to identify isoforms of protein kinases.

  15. Ligand-controlled interaction of histone acetyltransferase binding to ORC-1 (HBO1) with the N-terminal transactivating domain of progesterone receptor induces steroid receptor coactivator 1-dependent coactivation of transcription.

    PubMed

    Georgiakaki, Maria; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Dasen, Boris; Meduri, Geri; Wenk, Sandra; Rajhi, Leila; Amazit, Larbi; Chauchereau, Anne; Burger, Curt W; Blok, Leen J; Milgrom, Edwin; Lombès, Marc; Guiochon-Mantel, Anne; Loosfelt, Hugues

    2006-09-01

    Modulators of cofactor recruitment by nuclear receptors are expected to play an important role in the coordination of hormone-induced transactivation processes. To identify such factors interacting with the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the progesterone receptor (PR), we used this domain as bait in the yeast Sos-Ras two-hybrid system. cDNAs encoding the C-terminal MYST (MOZ-Ybf2/Sas3-Sas2-Tip60 acetyltransferases) domain of HBO1 [histone acetyltransferase binding to the origin recognition complex (ORC) 1 subunit], a member of the MYST acetylase family, were thus selected from a human testis cDNA library. In transiently transfected CV1 cells, the wild-type HBO1 [611 amino acids (aa)] enhanced transcription mediated by steroid receptors, notably PR, mineralocorticoid receptor, and glucocorticoid receptor, and strongly induced PR and estrogen receptor coactivation by steroid receptor coactivator 1a (SRC-1a). As assessed by two-hybrid and glutathione-S-transferase pull-down assays, the HBO1 MYST acetylase domain (aa 340-611) interacts mainly with the NTD, and also contacts the DNA-binding domain and the hinge domains of hormone-bound PR. The HBO1 N-terminal region (aa 1-340) associates additionally with PR ligand-binding domain (LBD). HBO1 was found also to interact through its NTD with SRC-1a in the absence of steroid receptor. The latter coassociation enhanced specifically activation function 2 activation function encompassed in the LBD. Conversely, the MYST acetylase domain specifically enhanced SRC-1 coupling with PR NTD, through a hormone-dependent mechanism. In human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing human PRA or PRB, HBO1 raised selectively an SRC-1-dependent response of PRB but failed to regulate PRA activity. We show that HBO1 acts through modification of an LBD-controlled structure present in the N terminus of PRB leading to the modulation of SRC-1 functional coupling with activation function 3-mediated transcription. Importantly, real-time RT-PCR analysis

  16. Localization of Daucus carota NMCP1 to the nuclear periphery: the role of the N-terminal region and an NLS-linked sequence motif, RYNLRR, in the tail domain

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yuta; Fujino, Kaien; Ogawa, Kana; Masuda, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Recent ultrastructural studies revealed that a structure similar to the vertebrate nuclear lamina exists in the nuclei of higher plants. However, plant genomes lack genes for lamins and intermediate-type filament proteins, and this suggests that plant-specific nuclear coiled-coil proteins make up the lamina-like structure in plants. NMCP1 is a protein, first identified in Daucus carota cells, that localizes exclusively to the nuclear periphery in interphase cells. It has a tripartite structure comprised of head, rod, and tail domains, and includes putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) motifs. We identified the functional NLS of DcNMCP1 (carrot NMCP1) and determined the protein regions required for localizing to the nuclear periphery using EGFP-fused constructs transiently expressed in Apium graveolens epidermal cells. Transcription was driven under a CaMV35S promoter, and the genes were introduced into the epidermal cells by a DNA-coated microprojectile delivery system. Of the NLS motifs, KRRRK and RRHK in the tail domain were highly functional for nuclear localization. Addition of the N-terminal 141 amino acids from DcNMCP1 shifted the localization of a region including these NLSs from the entire nucleus to the nuclear periphery. Using this same construct, the replacement of amino acids in RRHK or its preceding sequence, YNL, with alanine residues abolished localization to the nuclear periphery, while replacement of KRRRK did not affect localization. The sequence R/Q/HYNLRR/H, including YNL and the first part of the sequence of RRHK, is evolutionarily conserved in a subclass of NMCP1 sequences from many plant species. These results show that NMCP1 localizes to the nuclear periphery by a combined action of a sequence composed of R/Q/HYNLRR/H, NLS, and the N-terminal region including the head and a portion of the rod domain, suggesting that more than one binding site is implicated in localization of NMCP1. PMID:24616728

  17. Yeast eIF4B binds to the head of the 40S ribosomal subunit and promotes mRNA recruitment through its N-terminal and internal repeat domains

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Sarah E.; Zhou, Fujun; Mitchell, Sarah F.; Larson, Victoria S.; Valasek, Leos; Hinnebusch, Alan G.; Lorsch, Jon R.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF)4B stimulates recruitment of mRNA to the 43S ribosomal pre-initiation complex (PIC). Yeast eIF4B (yeIF4B), shown previously to bind single-stranded (ss) RNA, consists of an N-terminal domain (NTD), predicted to be unstructured in solution; an RNA-recognition motif (RRM); an unusual domain comprised of seven imperfect repeats of 26 amino acids; and a C-terminal domain. Although the mechanism of yeIF4B action has remained obscure, most models have suggested central roles for its RRM and ssRNA-binding activity. We have dissected the functions of yeIF4B’s domains and show that the RRM and its ssRNA-binding activity are dispensable in vitro and in vivo. Instead, our data indicate that the 7-repeats and NTD are the most critical domains, which mediate binding of yeIF4B to the head of the 40S ribosomal subunit via interaction with Rps20. This interaction induces structural changes in the ribosome’s mRNA entry channel that could facilitate mRNA loading. We also show that yeIF4B strongly promotes productive interaction of eIF4A with the 43S•mRNA PIC in a manner required for efficient mRNA recruitment. PMID:23236192

  18. Crystal structure of the N-terminal SH3 domain of mouse {beta}PIX, p21-activated kinase-interacting exchange factor

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xiaofeng; Liu Xueqi; Sun Fei; Gao Jia; Zhou Hongwei; Gao, George F.; Bartlam, Mark; Rao Zihe . E-mail: raozh@xtal.tsinghua.edu.cn

    2006-01-06

    The mouse {beta}PIX-SH3 domain, residues 8-63 of P21-activated kinase interacting exchange factor, has been characterized by X-ray diffraction. Crystals belonging to space group P3{sub 2}21 diffracted to 2.0 A and the structure was phased by the single-wavelength anomalous diffraction method. The domain is a compact {beta}-barrel with an overall conformation similar to the general SH3 structure. The X-ray structure shows mouse {beta}PIX-SH3 domain binding the way in which the {beta}PIX characteristic amino acids do so for an unconventional ligand binding surface. This arrangement provides a rationale for the unusual ligand recognition motif exhibited by mouse {beta}PIX-SH3 domain. Comparison with another SH3/peptide complex shows that the recognition mode of the mouse {beta}PIX-SH3 domain should be very similar to the RXXK ligand binding mode. The unique large and planar hydrophobic pocket may contribute to the promiscuity of {beta}PIX-SH3 domain resulting in its multiple biological functions.

  19. Structural analysis of a 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase with an N-terminal chorismate mutase-like regulatory domain

    SciTech Connect

    Light, Samuel H.; Halavaty, Andrei S.; Minasov, George; Shuvalova, Ludmilla; Anderson, Wayne F.

    2012-06-27

    3-Deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS) catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of a number of aromatic metabolites. Likely because this reaction is situated at a pivotal biosynthetic gateway, several DAHPS classes distinguished by distinct mechanisms of allosteric regulation have independently evolved. One class of DAHPSs contains a regulatory domain with sequence homology to chorismate mutase - an enzyme further downstream of DAHPS that catalyzes the first committed step in tyrosine/phenylalanine biosynthesis - and is inhibited by chorismate mutase substrate (chorismate) and product (prephenate). Described in this work, structures of the Listeria monocytogenes chorismate/prephenate regulated DAHPS in complex with Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} + phosphoenolpyruvate reveal an unusual quaternary architecture: DAHPS domains assemble as a tetramer, from either side of which chorismate mutase-like (CML) regulatory domains asymmetrically emerge to form a pair of dimers. This domain organization suggests that chorismate/prephenate binding promotes a stable interaction between the discrete regulatory and catalytic domains and supports a mechanism of allosteric inhibition similar to tyrosine/phenylalanine control of a related DAHPS class. We argue that the structural similarity of chorismate mutase enzyme and CML regulatory domain provides a unique opportunity for the design of a multitarget antibacterial.

  20. Structural analysis of a 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase with an N-terminal chorismate mutase-like regulatory domain.

    PubMed

    Light, Samuel H; Halavaty, Andrei S; Minasov, George; Shuvalova, Ludmilla; Anderson, Wayne F

    2012-06-01

    3-Deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS) catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of a number of aromatic metabolites. Likely because this reaction is situated at a pivotal biosynthetic gateway, several DAHPS classes distinguished by distinct mechanisms of allosteric regulation have independently evolved. One class of DAHPSs contains a regulatory domain with sequence homology to chorismate mutase-an enzyme further downstream of DAHPS that catalyzes the first committed step in tyrosine/phenylalanine biosynthesis-and is inhibited by chorismate mutase substrate (chorismate) and product (prephenate). Described in this work, structures of the Listeria monocytogenes chorismate/prephenate regulated DAHPS in complex with Mn(2+) and Mn(2+) + phosphoenolpyruvate reveal an unusual quaternary architecture: DAHPS domains assemble as a tetramer, from either side of which chorismate mutase-like (CML) regulatory domains asymmetrically emerge to form a pair of dimers. This domain organization suggests that chorismate/prephenate binding promotes a stable interaction between the discrete regulatory and catalytic domains and supports a mechanism of allosteric inhibition similar to tyrosine/phenylalanine control of a related DAHPS class. We argue that the structural similarity of chorismate mutase enzyme and CML regulatory domain provides a unique opportunity for the design of a multitarget antibacterial.

  1. Archaeal DnaG contains a conserved N-terminal RNA-binding domain and enables tailing of rRNA by the exosome.

    PubMed

    Hou, Linlin; Klug, Gabriele; Evguenieva-Hackenberg, Elena

    2014-11-10

    The archaeal exosome is a phosphorolytic 3'-5' exoribonuclease complex. In a reverse reaction it synthesizes A-rich RNA tails. Its RNA-binding cap comprises the eukaryotic orthologs Rrp4 and Csl4, and an archaea-specific subunit annotated as DnaG. In Sulfolobus solfataricus DnaG and Rrp4 but not Csl4 show preference for poly(rA). Archaeal DnaG contains N- and C-terminal domains (NTD and CTD) of unknown function flanking a TOPRIM domain. We found that the NT and TOPRIM domains have comparable, high conservation in all archaea, while the CTD conservation correlates with the presence of exosome. We show that the NTD is a novel RNA-binding domain with poly(rA)-preference cooperating with the TOPRIM domain in binding of RNA. Consistently, a fusion protein containing full-length Csl4 and NTD of DnaG led to enhanced degradation of A-rich RNA by the exosome. We also found that DnaG strongly binds native and in vitro transcribed rRNA and enables its polynucleotidylation by the exosome. Furthermore, rRNA-derived transcripts with heteropolymeric tails were degraded faster by the exosome than their non-tailed variants. Based on our data, we propose that archaeal DnaG is an RNA-binding protein, which, in the context of the exosome, is involved in targeting of stable RNA for degradation.

  2. A second gene for the African green monkey poliovirus receptor that has no putative N-glycosylation site in the functional N-terminal immunoglobulin-like domain.

    PubMed Central

    Koike, S; Ise, I; Sato, Y; Yonekawa, H; Gotoh, O; Nomoto, A

    1992-01-01

    Using cDNA of the human poliovirus receptor (PVR) as a probe, two types of cDNA clones of the monkey homologs were isolated from a cDNA library prepared from an African green monkey kidney cell line. Either type of cDNA clone rendered mouse L cells permissive for poliovirus infection. Homologies of the amino acid sequences deduced from these cDNA sequences with that of human PVR were 90.2 and 86.4%, respectively. These two monkey PVRs were found to be encoded in two different loci of the genome. Evolutionary analysis suggested that duplication of the PVR gene in the monkey genome had occurred after the species differentiation between humans and monkeys. The NH2-terminal immunoglobulin-like domain, domain 1, of the second monkey PVR, which lacks a putative N-glycosylation site, mediated poliovirus infection. In addition, a human PVR mutant without N-glycosylation sites in domain 1 also promoted viral infection. These results suggest that domain 1 of the monkey receptor also harbors the binding site for poliovirus and that sugar moieties possibly attached to this domain of human PVR are dispensable for the virus-receptor interaction. Images PMID:1331508

  3. Archaeal DnaG contains a conserved N-terminal RNA-binding domain and enables tailing of rRNA by the exosome

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Linlin; Klug, Gabriele; Evguenieva-Hackenberg, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The archaeal exosome is a phosphorolytic 3′–5′ exoribonuclease complex. In a reverse reaction it synthesizes A-rich RNA tails. Its RNA-binding cap comprises the eukaryotic orthologs Rrp4 and Csl4, and an archaea-specific subunit annotated as DnaG. In Sulfolobus solfataricus DnaG and Rrp4 but not Csl4 show preference for poly(rA). Archaeal DnaG contains N- and C-terminal domains (NTD and CTD) of unknown function flanking a TOPRIM domain. We found that the NT and TOPRIM domains have comparable, high conservation in all archaea, while the CTD conservation correlates with the presence of exosome. We show that the NTD is a novel RNA-binding domain with poly(rA)-preference cooperating with the TOPRIM domain in binding of RNA. Consistently, a fusion protein containing full-length Csl4 and NTD of DnaG led to enhanced degradation of A-rich RNA by the exosome. We also found that DnaG strongly binds native and in vitro transcribed rRNA and enables its polynucleotidylation by the exosome. Furthermore, rRNA-derived transcripts with heteropolymeric tails were degraded faster by the exosome than their non-tailed variants. Based on our data, we propose that archaeal DnaG is an RNA-binding protein, which, in the context of the exosome, is involved in targeting of stable RNA for degradation. PMID:25326320

  4. Staphylococcus aureus protein A activates TNFR1 signaling through conserved IgG binding domains.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Marisa I; O'Seaghdha, Maghnus; Magargee, Mariah; Foster, Timothy J; Prince, Alice S

    2006-07-21

    Staphylococcus aureus continues to be a major cause of infection in normal as well as immunocompromised hosts, and the increasing prevalence of highly virulent community-acquired methicillin-resistant strains is a public health concern. A highly expressed surface component of S. aureus, protein A (SpA), contributes to its success as a pathogen by both activating inflammation and by interfering with immune clearance. SpA is known to bind to IgG Fc, which impedes phagocytosis. SpA is also a potent activator of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) receptor 1 (TNFR1) signaling, inducing both chemokine expression and TNF-converting enzyme-dependent soluble TNFR1 (sTNFR1) shedding, which has anti-inflammatory consequences, particularly in the lung. Using a collection of glutathione S-transferase fusions to the intact IgG binding region of SpA and to each of the individual binding domains, we found that the SpA IgG binding domains also mediate binding to human airway cells. TNFR1-dependent CXCL8 production could be elicited by any one of the individual SpA IgG binding domains as efficiently as by either the entire SpA or the intact IgG binding region. SpA induction of sTNFR1 shedding required the entire IgG binding region and tolerated fewer substitutions in residues known to interact with IgG. Each of the repeated domains of the IgG binding domain can affect multiple immune responses independently, activating inflammation through TNFR1 and thwarting opsonization by trapping IgG Fc domains, while the intact IgG binding region can limit further signaling through sTNFR1 shedding.

  5. Structure of the Three N-Terminal Immunoglobulin Domains of the Highly Immunogenic Outer Capsid Protein from a T4-Like Bacteriophage

    SciTech Connect

    Fokine, Andrei; Islam, Mohammad Z.; Zhang, Zhihong; Bowman, Valorie D.; Rao, Venigalla B.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2011-09-16

    The head of bacteriophage T4 is decorated with 155 copies of the highly antigenic outer capsid protein (Hoc). One Hoc molecule binds near the center of each hexameric capsomer. Hoc is dispensable for capsid assembly and has been used to display pathogenic antigens on the surface of T4. Here we report the crystal structure of a protein containing the first three of four domains of Hoc from bacteriophage RB49, a close relative of T4. The structure shows an approximately linear arrangement of the protein domains. Each of these domains has an immunoglobulin-like fold, frequently found in cell attachment molecules. In addition, we report biochemical data suggesting that Hoc can bind to Escherichia coli, supporting the hypothesis that Hoc could attach the phage capsids to bacterial surfaces and perhaps also to other organisms. The capacity for such reversible adhesion probably provides survival advantages to the bacteriophage.

  6. Crystallization of the two-domain N-terminal fragment of the archaeal ribosomal protein L10(P0) in complex with a specific fragment of 23S rRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Kravchenko, O. V.; Mitroshin, I. V.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Nikonov, S. V.; Garber, M. B.

    2011-07-15

    Lateral L12-stalk (P1-stalk in Archaea, P1/P2-stalk in eukaryotes) is an obligatory morphological element of large ribosomal subunits in all organisms studied. This stalk is composed of the complex of ribosomal proteins L10(P0) and L12(P1) and interacts with 23S rRNA through the protein L10(P0). L12(P1)-stalk is involved in the formation of GTPase center of the ribosome and plays an important role in the ribosome interaction with translation factors. High mobility of this stalk puts obstacles in determination of its structure within the intact ribosome. Crystals of a two-domain N-terminal fragment of ribosomal protein L10(P0) from the archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii in complex with a specific fragment of rRNA from the same organism have been obtained. The crystals diffract X-rays at 3.2 Angstrom-Sign resolution.

  7. Identification of quercitrin as an inhibitor of the p90 S6 ribosomal kinase (RSK): structure of its complex with the N-terminal domain of RSK2 at 1.8 Å resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Derewenda, Urszula; Artamonov, Mykhaylo; Szukalska, Gabriela; Utepbergenov, Darkhan; Olekhnovich, Natalya; Parikh, Hardik I.; Kellogg, Glen E.; Somlyo, Avril V.; Derewenda, Zygmunt S.

    2013-02-01

    The crystal structure of quercitrin, a naturally occurring flavonol glycoside, has been determined in a complex with the N-terminal kinase domain of murine RSK2. The structure revealed that quercitrin inhibits the RSK2 kinase in the same fashion as another known inhibitor, SL0101. Members of the RSK family of kinases constitute attractive targets for drug design, but a lack of structural information regarding the mechanism of selective inhibitors impedes progress in this field. The crystal structure of the N-terminal kinase domain (residues 45–346) of mouse RSK2, or RSK2{sup NTKD}, has recently been described in complex with one of only two known selective inhibitors, a rare naturally occurring flavonol glycoside, kaempferol 3-O-(3′′,4′′-di-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnopyranoside), known as SL0101. Based on this structure, it was hypothesized that quercitrin (quercetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside), a related but ubiquitous and inexpensive compound, might also act as an RSK inhibitor. Here, it is demonstrated that quercitrin binds to RSK2{sup NTKD} with a dissociation constant (K{sub d}) of 5.8 µM as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, and a crystal structure of the binary complex at 1.8 Å resolution is reported. The crystal structure reveals a very similar mode of binding to that recently reported for SL0101. Closer inspection shows a number of small but significant differences that explain the slightly higher K{sub d} for quercitrin compared with SL0101. It is also shown that quercitrin can effectively substitute for SL0101 in a biological assay, in which it significantly suppresses the contractile force in rabbit pulmonary artery smooth muscle in response to Ca{sup 2+}.

  8. Structure-function dissection of Myxococcus xanthus CarD N-terminal domain, a defining member of the CarD_CdnL_TRCF family of RNA polymerase interacting proteins.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Bernal, Diego; Gallego-García, Aránzazu; García-Martínez, Gema; García-Heras, Francisco; Jiménez, María Angeles; Padmanabhan, S; Elías-Arnanz, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    Two prototypes of the large CarD_CdnL_TRCF family of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP)-binding proteins, Myxococcus xanthus CarD and CdnL, have distinct functions whose molecular basis remain elusive. CarD, a global regulator linked to the action of several extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ-factors, binds to the RNAP β subunit (RNAP-β) and to protein CarG via an N-terminal domain, CarDNt, and to DNA via an intrinsically unfolded C-terminal domain resembling eukaryotic high-mobility-group A (HMGA) proteins. CdnL, a CarDNt-like protein that is essential for cell viability, is implicated in σA-dependent rRNA promoter activation and interacts with RNAP-β but not with CarG. While the HMGA-like domain of CarD by itself is inactive, we find that CarDNt has low but observable ability to activate ECF σ-dependent promoters in vivo, indicating that the C-terminal DNA-binding domain is required to maximize activity. Our structure-function dissection of CarDNt reveals an N-terminal, five-stranded β -sheet Tudor-like domain, CarD1-72, whose structure and contacts with RNAP-β mimic those of CdnL. Intriguingly, and in marked contrast to CdnL, CarD mutations that disrupt its interaction with RNAP-β did not annul activity. Our data suggest that the CarDNt C-terminal segment, CarD61-179, may be structurally distinct from its CdnL counterpart, and that it houses at least two distinct and crucial function determinants: (a) Ca